WorldWideScience

Sample records for terrestrial life cosmic

  1. Cosmic rays and terrestrial life: A brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atri, Dimitra; Melott, Adrian L.

    2014-01-01

    “The investigation into the possible effects of cosmic rays on living organisms will also offer great interest.” - Victor F. Hess, Nobel Lecture, December 12, 1936 High-energy radiation bursts are commonplace in our Universe. From nearby solar flares to distant gamma ray bursts, a variety of physical processes accelerate charged particles to a wide range of energies, which subsequently reach the Earth. Such particles contribute to a number of physical processes occurring in the Earth system. A large fraction of the energy of charged particles gets deposited in the atmosphere, ionizing it, causing changes in its chemistry and affecting the global electric circuit. Remaining secondary particles contribute to the background dose of cosmic rays on the surface and parts of the subsurface region. Life has evolved over the past ∼3 billion years in presence of this background radiation, which itself has varied considerably during the period [1-3]. As demonstrated by the Miller-Urey experiment, lightning plays a very important role in the formation of complex organic molecules, which are the building blocks of more complex structures forming life. There is growing evidence of increase in the lightning rate with increasing flux of charged particles. Is there a connection between enhanced rate of cosmic rays and the origin of life? Cosmic ray secondaries are also known to damage DNA and cause mutations, leading to cancer and other diseases. It is now possible to compute radiation doses from secondary particles, in particular muons and neutrons. Have the variations in cosmic ray flux affected the evolution of life on earth? We describe the mechanisms of cosmic rays affecting terrestrial life and review the potential implications of the variation of high-energy astrophysical radiation on the history of life on earth.

  2. Cause of Cambrian Explosion - Terrestrial or Cosmic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Edward J; Al-Mufti, Shirwan; Augustyn, Kenneth A; Chandrajith, Rohana; Coghlan, John P; Coulson, S G; Ghosh, Sudipto; Gillman, Mark; Gorczynski, Reginald M; Klyce, Brig; Louis, Godfrey; Mahanama, Kithsiri; Oliver, Keith R; Padron, Julio; Qu, Jiangwen; Schuster, John A; Smith, W E; Snyder, Duane P; Steele, Julian A; Stewart, Brent J; Temple, Robert; Tokoro, Gensuke; Tout, Christopher A; Unzicker, Alexander; Wainwright, Milton; Wallis, Jamie; Wallis, Daryl H; Wallis, Max K; Wetherall, John; Wickramasinghe, D T; Wickramasinghe, J T; Wickramasinghe, N Chandra; Liu, Yongsheng

    2018-08-01

    We review the salient evidence consistent with or predicted by the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe (H-W) thesis of Cometary (Cosmic) Biology. Much of this physical and biological evidence is multifactorial. One particular focus are the recent studies which date the emergence of the complex retroviruses of vertebrate lines at or just before the Cambrian Explosion of ∼500 Ma. Such viruses are known to be plausibly associated with major evolutionary genomic processes. We believe this coincidence is not fortuitous but is consistent with a key prediction of H-W theory whereby major extinction-diversification evolutionary boundaries coincide with virus-bearing cometary-bolide bombardment events. A second focus is the remarkable evolution of intelligent complexity (Cephalopods) culminating in the emergence of the Octopus. A third focus concerns the micro-organism fossil evidence contained within meteorites as well as the detection in the upper atmosphere of apparent incoming life-bearing particles from space. In our view the totality of the multifactorial data and critical analyses assembled by Fred Hoyle, Chandra Wickramasinghe and their many colleagues since the 1960s leads to a very plausible conclusion - life may have been seeded here on Earth by life-bearing comets as soon as conditions on Earth allowed it to flourish (about or just before 4.1 Billion years ago); and living organisms such as space-resistant and space-hardy bacteria, viruses, more complex eukaryotic cells, fertilised ova and seeds have been continuously delivered ever since to Earth so being one important driver of further terrestrial evolution which has resulted in considerable genetic diversity and which has led to the emergence of mankind. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Ageing effects on image sensors due to terrestrial cosmic radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nampoothiri, G.G.; Horemans, M.L.R.; Theuwissen, A.J.P.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the “ageing” effect on image sensors introduced by neutrons present in natural (terrestrial) cosmic environment. The results obtained at sea level are corroborated for the first time with accelerated neutron beam tests and for various image sensor operation conditions. The results reveal

  4. Busting dust: from cosmic grains to terrestrial microbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendis, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Electrostatic charging can have important consequences for both the growth and disruption of microparticulates immersed in a plasma. In this topical review, my emphasis is on the latter process, while I extend the term microparticulates not only to include ordinary inanimate cosmic or terrestrial dust but also to include terrestrial microbes whose sizes range from tens of nanometers (viruses) to tens of micrometers (bacteria). Following a description of the basic mechanism of electrostatic disruption of a solid body, I will discuss the role of size, shape and surface irregularity on the process. I will also consider the mitigating role of electric field emission of electrons on the disruption process of a negatively charged grain as its size falls below a critical size. I will conclude by reviewing some early evidence for the electrostatic disruption of cosmic grains, and the very recent evidence for the electrostatic disruption of the bacterial cell membranes in terrestrial sterilization experiments. (orig.)

  5. Cosmic evolution, life and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oro, J.

    1995-01-01

    Among the most basic problems confronting science are those regarding the origin of the universe, the origin of life and the origin of man. This general overview starts (1) with a brief introduction addressed primarily to the Cyril Ponnamperuma Memorial. Then, the thesis is presented that the appearance of life and intelligence on our planet can be understood as the result of a number of cosmic and biological evolutionary processes, including (2) the stellar thermonuclear synthesis of the biogenic elements other than hydrogen (C, N, O, P and S), their dispersal into space, and their combination into circumstellar and interstellar molecules. (3) The formation of the Solar System and the Earth-Moon System. (4) The role of comets and carbonaceous chondrites in contributing organic matter to the primitive Earth. (5) The prebiotics synthesis of amino acids, purines, pyrimidines, fatty acids, and other biochemical monomers. (6) The prebiotic condensation reactions leading to the synthesis of oligomers such as oligonucleotides and oligopeptides, with replicative and catalytic activities. (7) The synthesis of amphiphilic lipids, and their self-assembly into liposomes with bi-layered membranes. (8) The formation of protocellular structures. (9) The activation of protocells into a functioning Darwin's ancestral cell. (10) Early evolution of life. (11) The K-T boundary event and the disappearance of dinosaurs. (12) Evolution of hominids leading to Homo sapiens. (13) The rapid development of civilization. (14) The exploration of the Solar System. (15) Life beyond our planetary system. (16) Epilogue. Peace from cosmic evolution? (Abstract only)

  6. Cosmic evolution, life and man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oro, J [Houston Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Biochemical and Biophysical Sciences

    1995-08-01

    Among the most basic problems confronting science are those regarding the origin of the universe, the origin of life and the origin of man. This general overview starts (1) with a brief introduction addressed primarily to the Cyril Ponnamperuma Memorial. Then, the thesis is presented that the appearance of life and intelligence on our planet can be understood as the result of a number of cosmic and biological evolutionary processes, including (2) the stellar thermonuclear synthesis of the biogenic elements other than hydrogen (C, N, O, P and S), their dispersal into space, and their combination into circumstellar and interstellar molecules. (3) The formation of the Solar System and the Earth-Moon System. (4) The role of comets and carbonaceous chondrites in contributing organic matter to the primitive Earth. (5) The prebiotics synthesis of amino acids, purines, pyrimidines, fatty acids, and other biochemical monomers. (6) The prebiotic condensation reactions leading to the synthesis of oligomers such as oligonucleotides and oligopeptides, with replicative and catalytic activities. (7) The synthesis of amphiphilic lipids, and their self-assembly into liposomes with bi-layered membranes. (8) The formation of protocellular structures. (9) The activation of protocells into a functioning Darwin`s ancestral cell. (10) Early evolution of life. (11) The K-T boundary event and the disappearance of dinosaurs. (12) Evolution of hominids leading to Homo sapiens. (13) The rapid development of civilization. (14) The exploration of the Solar System. (15) Life beyond our planetary system. (16) Epilogue. Peace from cosmic evolution? (Abstract only).

  7. Intermittent Astrophysical Radiation Sources and Terrestrial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melott, Adrian

    2013-04-01

    Terrestrial life is exposed to a variety of radiation sources. Astrophysical observations suggest that strong excursions in cosmic ray flux and spectral hardness are expected. Gamma-ray bursts and supernovae are expected to irradiate the atmosphere with keV to GeV photons at irregular intervals. Supernovae will produce large cosmic ray excursions, with time development varying with distance from the event. Large fluxes of keV to MeV protons from the Sun pose a strong threat to electromagnetic technology. The terrestrial record shows cosmogenic isotope excursions which are consistent with major solar proton events, and there are observations of G-stars suggesting that the rate of such events may be much higher than previously assumed. In addition there are unknown and unexplained astronomical transients which may indicate new classes of events. The Sun, supernovae, and gamma-ray bursts are all capable of producing lethal fluences, and some are expected on intervals of 10^8 years or so. The history of life on Earth is filled with mass extinctions at a variety of levels of intensity. Most are not understood. Astrophysical radiation may play a role, particularly from large increases in muon irradiation on the ground, and changes in atmospheric chemistry which deplete ozone, admitting increased solar UVB. UVB is strongly absorbed by DNA and proteins, and breaks the chemical bonds---it is a known carcinogen. High muon fluxes will also be damaging to such molecules, but experiments are needed to pin down the rate. Solar proton events which are not directly dangerous for the biota may nevertheless pose a major threat to modern electromagnetic technology through direct impact on satellites and magnetic induction of large currents in power grids, disabling transformers. We will look at the kind of events that are expected on timescales from human to geological, and their likely consequences.

  8. Solar cosmic rays in the system of solar terrestrial relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnichenko, Leonty I.

    2008-02-01

    In this brief review, we discuss a number of geophysical effects of solar energetic particles (SEPs) or solar cosmic rays (SCR). We concentrate mainly on the observational evidence and proposed mechanisms of some expected effects and/or poor-studied phenomena discovered within the last three decades, in particular, depletion of the ozone layer, perturbations in the global electric current, effects on the winter storm vorticity, change of the atmospheric transparency and production of nitrates. Some "archaeological" data on SCR fluxes in the past and upper limit of total energy induced by SEPs are also discussed. Due attention is paid to the periodicities in the solar particle fluxes. Actually, many solar, heliospheric and terrestrial parameters changing generally in phase with the solar activity are subjected to a temporary depression close to the solar maximum ("Gnevyshev Gap"). A similar gap has been found recently in the yearly numbers of the >10 MeV proton events. All the above-mentioned findings are evidently of great importance in the studies of general proton emissivity of the Sun and long-term trends in the behaviour of solar magnetic fields. In addition, these data can be very helpful for elaborating the methods for prediction of the radiation conditions in space and for estimation of the SEPs' contribution to solar effects on the geosphere, their relative role in the formation of terrestrial weather and climate and in the problem of solar-terrestrial relations (STR) on the whole.

  9. Terrestrial Zone Exoplanets and Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Brenda

    2018-01-01

    One of the most exciting results from ALMA has been the detection of significant substructure within protoplanetary disks that can be linked to planet formation processes. For the first time, we are able to observe the process of assembly of material into larger bodies within such disks. It is not possible, however, for ALMA to probe the growth of planets in protoplanetary disks at small radii, i.e., in the terrestrial zone, where we expect rocky terrestrial planets to form. In this regime, the optical depths prohibit observation at the high frequencies observed by ALMA. To probe the effects of planet building processes and detect telltale gaps and signatures of planetary mass bodies at such small separations from the parent star, we require a facility of superior resolution and sensitivity at lower frequencies. The ngVLA is just such a facility. We will present the fundamental science that will be enabled by the ngVLA in protoplanetary disk structure and the formation of planets. In addition, we will discuss the potential for an ngVLA facility to detect the molecules that are the building blocks of life, reaching limits well beyond those reachable with the current generation of telescopes, and also to determine whether such planets will be habitable based on studies of the impact of stars on their nearest planetary neighbours.

  10. Astronomers Unveiling Life's Cosmic Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Processes that laid the foundation for life on Earth -- star and planet formation and the production of complex organic molecules in interstellar space -- are yielding their secrets to astronomers armed with powerful new research tools, and even better tools soon will be available. Astronomers described three important developments at a symposium on the "Cosmic Cradle of Life" at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Chicago, IL. Chemistry Cycle The Cosmic Chemistry Cycle CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Full Size Image Files Chemical Cycle Graphic (above image, JPEG, 129K) Graphic With Text Blocks (JPEG, 165K) High-Res TIFF (44.2M) High-Res TIFF With Text Blocks (44.2M) In one development, a team of astrochemists released a major new resource for seeking complex interstellar molecules that are the precursors to life. The chemical data released by Anthony Remijan of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and his university colleagues is part of the Prebiotic Interstellar Molecule Survey, or PRIMOS, a project studying a star-forming region near the center of our Milky Way Galaxy. PRIMOS is an effort of the National Science Foundation's Center for Chemistry of the Universe, started at the University of Virginia (UVa) in October 2008, and led by UVa Professor Brooks H. Pate. The data, produced by the NSF's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia, came from more than 45 individual observations totalling more than nine GigaBytes of data and over 1.4 million individual frequency channels. Scientists can search the GBT data for specific radio frequencies, called spectral lines -- telltale "fingerprints" -- naturally emitted by molecules in interstellar space. "We've identified more than 720 spectral lines in this collection, and about 240 of those are from unknown molecules," Remijan said. He added, "We're making available to all scientists the best collection of data below 50 GHz ever produced for

  11. Galactic cosmic ray-induced radiation dose on terrestrial exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atri, Dimitra; Hariharan, B; Grießmeier, Jean-Mathias

    2013-10-01

    This past decade has seen tremendous advancements in the study of extrasolar planets. Observations are now made with increasing sophistication from both ground- and space-based instruments, and exoplanets are characterized with increasing precision. There is a class of particularly interesting exoplanets that reside in the habitable zone, which is defined as the area around a star where the planet is capable of supporting liquid water on its surface. Planetary systems around M dwarfs are considered to be prime candidates to search for life beyond the Solar System. Such planets are likely to be tidally locked and have close-in habitable zones. Theoretical calculations also suggest that close-in exoplanets are more likely to have weaker planetary magnetic fields, especially in the case of super-Earths. Such exoplanets are subjected to a high flux of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) due to their weak magnetic moments. GCRs are energetic particles of astrophysical origin that strike the planetary atmosphere and produce secondary particles, including muons, which are highly penetrating. Some of these particles reach the planetary surface and contribute to the radiation dose. Along with the magnetic field, another factor governing the radiation dose is the depth of the planetary atmosphere. The higher the depth of the planetary atmosphere, the lower the flux of secondary particles will be on the surface. If the secondary particles are energetic enough, and their flux is sufficiently high, the radiation from muons can also impact the subsurface regions, such as in the case of Mars. If the radiation dose is too high, the chances of sustaining a long-term biosphere on the planet are very low. We have examined the dependence of the GCR-induced radiation dose on the strength of the planetary magnetic field and its atmospheric depth, and found that the latter is the decisive factor for the protection of a planetary biosphere.

  12. High efficiency, long life terrestrial solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.; Khemthong, S.; Ling, R.; Olah, S.

    1977-01-01

    The design of a high efficiency, long life terrestrial module was completed. It utilized 256 rectangular, high efficiency solar cells to achieve high packing density and electrical output. Tooling for the fabrication of solar cells was in house and evaluation of the cell performance was begun. Based on the power output analysis, the goal of a 13% efficiency module was achievable.

  13. The Cosmic Habitat for Earth-Life and the Issue of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piątek, Zdzisława

    2017-12-01

    The subjects under consideration here are the philosophical consequences arising as the cosmic dimension to ecology is taken into account. If the habitat for Earthlife is a part of the cosmic environment, then cosmology and astrophysics become a part of ecology. The human species is furthermore a participant in a vast process of cosmic evolution, with sustainable-development strategy thus defi ning the conditions for - and time needed to achieve - a technological civilisation allowing Earth-life to be evacuated to another part of the galaxy as and when the further existence of life on this planet becomes (or threatens to become) an impossibility. In the context of such a cosmic perspective, the value ascribable to our scientifi c and technological civilisation (and future versions thereof) changes, given that only this kind of civilisation offers a chance for Earth-life to persist in an extra-terrestrial environment.

  14. A study of the terrestrial and cosmic gamma-rays in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansi, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Natural terrestrial gamma and cosmic radiations dose rates in Jordan were measured during a period of three years in thirty four stations distributed over all Jordanian territories using the thermoluminescence dosimeter(TLD) Coso 4 :Tm. The average absorbed dose rates in air from terrestrial gamma and cosmic radiations were found to vary from(57 ±3;9) n Gy/hr in Assafi to (350 ± 14; 42) n Gy/hr in Manjam Alhisa. The mean dose rate due to terrestrial gamma radiations was found to be equal to (55 ± 2; 13) nGy/hr, and that due to cosmic radiations was calculated to be(35 ± 1;4) n Gy/hr. The annual effective dose equivalent from terrestrial and cosmic gamma radiations was found to be equal to(0.65±0.02; 0.12)mSv/year. It was found that the absorbed dose rate due to cosmic radiations in Jordan can be fitted by the formula, D c osmic=27+5.2 h+1.86 h 2 where h is the altitude reference to the Dead Sea measured in km. 19 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.(Author)

  15. Bryophyte in the Beginning of Terrestrial Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan ŞİMŞEK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of life has been wondered by human beings since ancient ages. The widely accepted opinion is that life began in water and after that landed. In this process, the landing of plants and adapting to terrestrial life of plants are important stages. The last 20 years it’s been done many researches to find out the relationship of bryophytes and tracheophytes. The results of these researches revealed that in evolutionary development process bryophytes and tracheophytes are sister groups. Thesis about earliest land plants are bryophytes is widely accepted recent years. To understand evolutionary process and plants of today’s better, researches about bryophytes must increase.

  16. Natural radiation doses for cosmic and terrestrial components in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Patricia; Picado, Esteban; Minato, Susumu

    2007-01-01

    A study of external natural radiation, cosmic and terrestrial components, was carried out with in situ measurements using NaI scintillation counters while driving along the roads in Costa Rica for the period July 2003-July 2005. The geographical distribution of the terrestrial air-absorbed dose rates and the total effective dose rates (including cosmic) are represented on contour maps. Information on the population density of the country permitted the calculation of the per capita doses. The average effective dose for the total cosmic component was 46.88±18.06 nSv h -1 and the average air-absorbed dose for the terrestrial component was 29.52±14.46 nGy h -1 . The average total effective dose rate (cosmic plus terrestrial components) was 0.60±0.18 mSv per year. The effective dose rate per capita was found to be 83.97 nSv h -1 which gives an annual dose of 0.74 mSv. Assuming the world average for the internal radiation component, the natural radiation dose for Costa Rica will be 2.29 mSv annually

  17. The cosmic gorilla effect or the problem of undetected non terrestrial intelligent signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. De la Torre, Gabriel; Garcia, Manuel A.

    2018-05-01

    This article points to a long lasting problem in space research and cosmology, the problem of undetected signs of non terrestrial life and civilizations. We intentionally avoid the term extraterrestrial as we consider other possibilities that may arise but not fall strictly within the extraterrestrial scope. We discuss the role of new physics including dark matter and string theory in the search for life and other non terrestrial intelligence. A new classification for non terrestrial civilizations with three types and five dimensions is also provided. We also explain how our own neurophysiology, psychology and consciousness can play a major role in this search of non terrestrial civilizations task and how they have been neglected up to this date. To test this, 137 adults were evaluated using the cognitive reflection test, an attention/awareness questionnaire and a visuospatial searching task with aerial view images to determine the presence of inattentional blindness.

  18. Relative likelihood for life as a function of cosmic time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeb, Abraham [Astronomy department, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Batista, Rafael A.; Sloan, David, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: rafael.alvesbatista@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: david.sloan@physics.ox.ac.uk [Department of Physics - Astrophysics, University of Oxford, DWB, Keble Road, OX1 3RH, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-01

    Is life most likely to emerge at the present cosmic time near a star like the Sun? We address this question by calculating the relative formation probability per unit time of habitable Earth-like planets within a fixed comoving volume of the Universe, dP ( t )/ dt , starting from the first stars and continuing to the distant cosmic future. We conservatively restrict our attention to the context of ''life as we know it'' and the standard cosmological model, ΛCDM . We find that unless habitability around low mass stars is suppressed, life is most likely to exist near ∼ 0.1 M {sub ⊙} stars ten trillion years from now. Spectroscopic searches for biosignatures in the atmospheres of transiting Earth-mass planets around low mass stars will determine whether present-day life is indeed premature or typical from a cosmic perspective.

  19. Relative likelihood for life as a function of cosmic time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeb, Abraham; Batista, Rafael A.; Sloan, David

    2016-01-01

    Is life most likely to emerge at the present cosmic time near a star like the Sun? We address this question by calculating the relative formation probability per unit time of habitable Earth-like planets within a fixed comoving volume of the Universe, dP ( t )/ dt , starting from the first stars and continuing to the distant cosmic future. We conservatively restrict our attention to the context of ''life as we know it'' and the standard cosmological model, ΛCDM . We find that unless habitability around low mass stars is suppressed, life is most likely to exist near ∼ 0.1 M ⊙ stars ten trillion years from now. Spectroscopic searches for biosignatures in the atmospheres of transiting Earth-mass planets around low mass stars will determine whether present-day life is indeed premature or typical from a cosmic perspective.

  20. Potential impacts of radon, terrestrial gamma and cosmic rays on childhood leukemia in France: a quantitative risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, Olivier [French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Radiobiology and Epidemiology Department, IRSN, PRP-HOM, SRBE, LEPID, Fontenay aux Roses (France); University of California, Irvine, Department of Population Health and Disease Prevention, Irvine, CA (United States); Ancelet, Sophie; Laurier, Dominique [French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Radiobiology and Epidemiology Department, IRSN, PRP-HOM, SRBE, LEPID, Fontenay aux Roses (France); Richardson, David B. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Hemon, Denis; Demoury, Claire; Clavel, Jacqueline [Inserm, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, U1018, Environmental Epidemiology of Cancer Team, Villejuif (France); Paris-Sud University, UMRS 1018, Villejuif (France); Ielsch, Geraldine [French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Assessment Unit for Risks Related to Natural Radioactivity, IRSN, PRP-DGE, SEDRAN, BRN, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2013-05-15

    Previous epidemiological studies and quantitative risk assessments (QRA) have suggested that natural background radiation may be a cause of childhood leukemia. The present work uses a QRA approach to predict the excess risk of childhood leukemia in France related to three components of natural radiation: radon, cosmic rays and terrestrial gamma rays, using excess relative and absolute risk models proposed by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Both models were developed from the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese A-bomb survivors. Previous risk assessments were extended by considering uncertainties in radiation-related leukemia risk model parameters as part of this process, within a Bayesian framework. Estimated red bone marrow doses cumulated during childhood by the average French child due to radon, terrestrial gamma and cosmic rays are 4.4, 7.5 and 4.3 mSv, respectively. The excess fractions of cases (expressed as percentages) associated with these sources of natural radiation are 20 % [95 % credible interval (CI) 0-68 %] and 4 % (95 % CI 0-11 %) under the excess relative and excess absolute risk models, respectively. The large CIs, as well as the different point estimates obtained under these two models, highlight the uncertainties in predictions of radiation-related childhood leukemia risks. These results are only valid provided that models developed from the LSS can be transferred to the population of French children and to chronic natural radiation exposures, and must be considered in view of the currently limited knowledge concerning other potential risk factors for childhood leukemia. Last, they emphasize the need for further epidemiological investigations of the effects of natural radiation on childhood leukemia to reduce uncertainties and help refine radiation protection standards. (orig.)

  1. Potential impacts of radon, terrestrial gamma and cosmic rays on childhood leukemia in France: a quantitative risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Olivier; Ancelet, Sophie; Laurier, Dominique; Richardson, David B.; Hemon, Denis; Demoury, Claire; Clavel, Jacqueline; Ielsch, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    Previous epidemiological studies and quantitative risk assessments (QRA) have suggested that natural background radiation may be a cause of childhood leukemia. The present work uses a QRA approach to predict the excess risk of childhood leukemia in France related to three components of natural radiation: radon, cosmic rays and terrestrial gamma rays, using excess relative and absolute risk models proposed by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Both models were developed from the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese A-bomb survivors. Previous risk assessments were extended by considering uncertainties in radiation-related leukemia risk model parameters as part of this process, within a Bayesian framework. Estimated red bone marrow doses cumulated during childhood by the average French child due to radon, terrestrial gamma and cosmic rays are 4.4, 7.5 and 4.3 mSv, respectively. The excess fractions of cases (expressed as percentages) associated with these sources of natural radiation are 20 % [95 % credible interval (CI) 0-68 %] and 4 % (95 % CI 0-11 %) under the excess relative and excess absolute risk models, respectively. The large CIs, as well as the different point estimates obtained under these two models, highlight the uncertainties in predictions of radiation-related childhood leukemia risks. These results are only valid provided that models developed from the LSS can be transferred to the population of French children and to chronic natural radiation exposures, and must be considered in view of the currently limited knowledge concerning other potential risk factors for childhood leukemia. Last, they emphasize the need for further epidemiological investigations of the effects of natural radiation on childhood leukemia to reduce uncertainties and help refine radiation protection standards. (orig.)

  2. Cosmic Explosions, Life in the Universe, and the Cosmological Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piran, Tsvi; Jimenez, Raul; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Simpson, Fergus; Verde, Licia

    2016-02-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are copious sources of gamma rays whose interaction with a planetary atmosphere can pose a threat to complex life. Using recent determinations of their rate and probability of causing massive extinction, we explore what types of universes are most likely to harbor advanced forms of life. We use cosmological N -body simulations to determine at what time and for what value of the cosmological constant (Λ ) the chances of life being unaffected by cosmic explosions are maximized. Life survival to GRBs favors Lambda-dominated universes. Within a cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant, the likelihood of life survival to GRBs is governed by the value of Λ and the age of the Universe. We find that we seem to live in a favorable point in this parameter space that minimizes the exposure to cosmic explosions, yet maximizes the number of main sequence (hydrogen-burning) stars around which advanced life forms can exist.

  3. Cosmic Explosions, Life in the Universe, and the Cosmological Constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piran, Tsvi; Jimenez, Raul; Cuesta, Antonio J; Simpson, Fergus; Verde, Licia

    2016-02-26

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are copious sources of gamma rays whose interaction with a planetary atmosphere can pose a threat to complex life. Using recent determinations of their rate and probability of causing massive extinction, we explore what types of universes are most likely to harbor advanced forms of life. We use cosmological N-body simulations to determine at what time and for what value of the cosmological constant (Λ) the chances of life being unaffected by cosmic explosions are maximized. Life survival to GRBs favors Lambda-dominated universes. Within a cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant, the likelihood of life survival to GRBs is governed by the value of Λ and the age of the Universe. We find that we seem to live in a favorable point in this parameter space that minimizes the exposure to cosmic explosions, yet maximizes the number of main sequence (hydrogen-burning) stars around which advanced life forms can exist.

  4. The beginnings of life as a cosmic phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    2015-09-01

    The emerging consensus that comets carry the biochemical seeds of life coincides with the first step that was reached as early as 1977 in the historical development of the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe theory of cosmic life. To mark the centenary of the birth of Sir Fred Hoyle on 24 June 2015 this brief article retraces early developments that essentially heralded the new science of astrobiology.

  5. Origin and evolution of life on terrestrial planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, A; Horneck, G; Cockell, C S; Bérces, A; Belisheva, N K; Eiroa, Carlos; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Léger, Alain; Liseau, Réne; Lammer, Helmut; Selsis, Franck; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Fridlund, Malcolm; Lunine, Jonathan; Paresce, Francesco; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Röttgering, Huub; Schneider, Jean; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna; White, Glenn J

    2010-01-01

    The ultimate goal of terrestrial planet-finding missions is not only to discover terrestrial exoplanets inside the habitable zone (HZ) of their host stars but also to address the major question as to whether life may have evolved on a habitable Earth-like exoplanet outside our Solar System. We note that the chemical evolution that finally led to the origin of life on Earth must be studied if we hope to understand the principles of how life might evolve on other terrestrial planets in the Universe. This is not just an anthropocentric point of view: the basic ingredients of terrestrial life, that is, reduced carbon-based molecules and liquid H(2)O, have very specific properties. We discuss the origin of life from the chemical evolution of its precursors to the earliest life-forms and the biological implications of the stellar radiation and energetic particle environments. Likewise, the study of the biological evolution that has generated the various life-forms on Earth provides clues toward the understanding of the interconnectedness of life with its environment.

  6. Equatorial secondary cosmic ray observatory to study space weather and terrestrial events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichare, Geeta; Bhaskar, Ankush; Datar, Gauri; Raghav, Anil; Nair, K. U.; Selvaraj, C.; Ananthi, M.; Sinha, A. K.; Paranjape, M.; Gawade, T.; Anil Kumar, C. P.; Panneerselvam, C.; Sathishkumar, S.; Gurubaran, S.

    2018-05-01

    Recently, equatorial secondary cosmic ray observatory has been established at Equatorial Geophysical Research Laboratory (EGRL), Tirunelveli, (Geographic Coordinates: 8.71°N, 77.76°E), to study secondary cosmic rays (SCR) produced due to the interaction of primary cosmic rays with the Earth's atmosphere. EGRL is a regional center of Indian Institute of Geomagnetism (IIG), located near the equator in the Southern part of India. Two NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors are installed inside the temperature controlled environment. One detector is cylindrical in shape of size 7.62 cm × 7.62 cm and another one is rectangular cuboid of 10.16 cm × 10.16 cm × 40.64 cm size. Besides NaI(Tl) detectors, various other research facilities such as the Geomagnetic observatory, Medium Frequency Radar System, Digital Ionosonde, All-sky airglow imager, Atmospheric electricity laboratory to measure the near-Earth atmospheric electric fields are also available at EGRL. With the accessibility of multi- instrument facilities, the objective is set to understand the relationship between SCR and various atmospheric and ionospheric processes, during space weather and terrestrial events. For gamma-ray spectroscopy, it is important to test the performance of the NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors and to calibrate the gamma-ray spectrum in terms of energy. The present article describes the details of the experimental setup installed near the equator to study cosmic rays, along with the performance testing and calibration of the detectors under various conditions. A systematic shift in the gain is observed with varying temperature of the detector system. It is found that the detector's response to the variations in the temperature is not just linear or non-linear type, but it depends on the history of the variation, indicating temperature hysteresis effects on NaI detector and PMT system. This signifies the importance of isothermal environment while studying SCR flux using NaI(Tl) detectors

  7. Stardust the cosmic seeds of life

    CERN Document Server

    Kwok, Sun

    2013-01-01

    How did life originate on Earth? For over 50 years, scientists believed that life was the result of a chemical reaction involving simple molecules such as methane and ammonia cooking in a primordial soup. Recent space observations have revealed that old stars are capable of making very complex organic compounds. At some point in their evolution, stars eject those organics and spread them all over the Milky Way galaxy. There is evidence that these organic dust particles actually reached the early Solar System. Through bombardments by comets and asteroids, the young Earth inherited significant amounts of stardust. Was the development of life assisted by the arrival of these extraterrestrial materials?   In this book, the author describes stunning discoveries in astronomy and solar system science made over the last 10 years that have yielded a new perspective on the origin of life.   Other interesting topics discussed in this book   The discovery of diamonds and other gemstones in space The origin of oil Neon...

  8. DNA Sequencing and Predictions of the Cosmic Theory of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    The theory of cometary panspermia, developed by the late Sir Fred Hoyle and the present author argues that life originated cosmically as a unique event in one of a great multitude of comets or planetary bodies in the Universe. Life on Earth did not originate here but was introduced by impacting comets, and its further evolution was driven by the subsequent acquisition of cosmically derived genes. Explicit predictions of this theory published in 1979-1981, stating how the acquisition of new genes drives evolution, are compared with recent developments in relation to horizontal gene transfer, and the role of retroviruses in evolution. Precisely-stated predictions of the theory of cometary panspermia are shown to have been verified.

  9. Cosmic Biology How Life Could Evolve on Other Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, Louis Neil

    2011-01-01

    It is very unlikely that little green humanoids are living on Mars. But what are the possible life forms that might exist in our Solar System and how might they have evolved? This uniquely authoritative and imaginative book on the possibilties for alien life addresses the intrinsic interest that we have about life on other worlds - reinforcing some of our assumptions and reshaping others. It introduces new possibilties that will enlarge our understanding of the issue overall, in particular the enormous range of environments and planetary conditions within which life might evolve. Cosmic Biology -discusses a broad range of possible environments where alien life might have evolved; -explains why carbon-based, water-borne life is more likely that its alternatives, but is not the only possiblity; -applies the principles of planetary science and modern biology to evolutionary scenarios on other worlds; -looks at the future fates of living systems, including those on Earth.

  10. Simulating Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes due to cosmic ray shower electrons and positrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Paul

    2017-04-01

    The University of Valencia has developed a software simulator LEPTRACK to simulate the relativistic runaway electron avalanches, RREA, that are presumed to be the cause of Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes and their powerful accompanying Ionization/Excitation Flashes. We show here results of LEPTRACK simulations of RREA by the interaction of MeV energy electrons/positrons and photons in cosmic ray showers traversing plausible electric field geometries expected in storm clouds. The input beams of MeV shower products were created using the CORSIKA software package from the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. We present images, videos and plots showing the different Ionization, Excitation and gamma-ray photon density fields produced, along with their time and spatial profile evolution, which depend critically on where the line of shower particles intercept the electric field geometry. We also show a new effect of incoming positrons in the shower, which make up a significant fraction of shower products, in particular their apparent "orbiting" within a high altitude negative induced shielding charge layer, which has been conjectured to produce a signature microwave emission, as well as a short range 511 keV annihilation line. The interesting question posed is if this conjectured positron emission can be observed and correlated with TGF orbital observations to show if a TGF originates in the macro E-fields of storm clouds or the micro E-fields of lightning leaders where this positron "orbiting" is not likely to occur.

  11. Analytical Model for Estimating Terrestrial Cosmic Ray Fluxes Nearly Anytime and Anywhere in the World: Extension of PARMA/EXPACS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhiko Sato

    Full Text Available By extending our previously established model, here we present a new model called "PHITS-based Analytical Radiation Model in the Atmosphere (PARMA version 3.0," which can instantaneously estimate terrestrial cosmic ray fluxes of neutrons, protons, ions with charge up to 28 (Ni, muons, electrons, positrons, and photons nearly anytime and anywhere in the Earth's atmosphere. The model comprises numerous analytical functions with parameters whose numerical values were fitted to reproduce the results of the extensive air shower (EAS simulation performed by Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS. The accuracy of the EAS simulation was well verified using various experimental data, while that of PARMA3.0 was confirmed by the high R2 values of the fit. The models to be used for estimating radiation doses due to cosmic ray exposure, cosmic ray induced ionization rates, and count rates of neutron monitors were validated by investigating their capability to reproduce those quantities measured under various conditions. PARMA3.0 is available freely and is easy to use, as implemented in an open-access software program EXcel-based Program for Calculating Atmospheric Cosmic ray Spectrum (EXPACS. Because of these features, the new version of PARMA/EXPACS can be an important tool in various research fields such as geosciences, cosmic ray physics, and radiation research.

  12. Study of cosmic rays reveals secrets of solar-terrestrial science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokipii, J. R.

    For many years cosmic rays provided the most important source of energetic particles for studies of subatomic physics. Today, cosmic rays are being studied as a natural phenomenon that can tell us much about both the Earth's environment in space and distant astrophysical processes. Cosmic rays are naturally occurring energetic particles—mainly ions—with kinetic energies extending from just above thermal energies to more than 1020 electron volts (eV). They constantly bombard the Earth from all directions, with more than 1018 particles having energies >1 MeV striking the top of the Earth's atmosphere each second. Figure 1 illustrates the continuous cosmic ray energy spectrum.

  13. [Extrasolar terrestrial planets and possibility of extraterrestrial life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Shigeru

    2003-12-01

    Recent development of research on extrasolar planets are reviewed. About 120 extrasolar Jupiter-mass planets have been discovered through the observation of Doppler shift in the light of their host stars that is caused by acceleration due to planet orbital motions. Although the extrasolar planets so far observed may be limited to gas giant planets and their orbits differ from those of giant planets in our Solar system (Jupiter and Saturn), the theoretically predicted probability of existence of extrasolar terrestrial planets that can have liquid water ocean on their surface is comparable to that of detectable gas giant planets. Based on the number of extrasolar gas giants detected so far, about 100 life-sustainable planets may exist within a range of 200 light years. Indirect observation of extrasolar terrestrial planets would be done with space telescopes within several years and direct one may be done within 20 years. The latter can detect biomarkers on these planets as well.

  14. A journey with Fred Hoyle. The search for cosmic life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Chandra; Wickramasinghe, Kamala

    2005-01-01

    This is the story of the author's unique scientific journey with one of the most remarkable men of 20th century science. The journey begins in Sri Lanka, the author's native country, with his childhood acquaintance with Fred Hoyle's writings. The action then moves to Cambridge, where the famous Hoyle-Wickramasinghe collaborations begin. A research programme which was started in 1962 on the carbonaceous nature of interstellar dust leads, over the next two decades, to developments that are continued in both Cambridge and Cardiff. These developments prompt Hoyle and the author to postulate the organic theory of cosmic dust (which is now generally accepted), and then to challenge one of the most cherished paradigms of contemporary science - the theory that life originated on Earth in a warm primordial soup.

  15. The origin of life in a cosmic context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, C.

    1974-01-01

    It is shown that there is at present no aspect of contemporary biology where the contingent can be distinguished from the necessary, or the evolutionary accident from the biological sine qua non; and no amount of terrestrial experimentation alone is likely to make such distinctions possible. Hence, biology suffers from a deadening parochialism, much like the physics of falling bodies before Newton showed that the same laws applied to the motion of apples in England and to the planets about the sun. The deparochialization of biology can only come in the same way and must therefore await the search for extraterrestrial life. It is in this sense that the significance of explorations of the planets and their satellites, asteroids, comets, and the interplanetary medium for the origin of life is assessed.

  16. Biogeochemical signals from deep microbial life in terrestrial crust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohey Suzuki

    Full Text Available In contrast to the deep subseafloor biosphere, a volumetrically vast and stable habitat for microbial life in the terrestrial crust remains poorly explored. For the long-term sustainability of a crustal biome, high-energy fluxes derived from hydrothermal circulation and water radiolysis in uranium-enriched rocks are seemingly essential. However, the crustal habitability depending on a low supply of energy is unknown. We present multi-isotopic evidence of microbially mediated sulfate reduction in a granitic aquifer, a representative of the terrestrial crust habitat. Deep meteoric groundwater was collected from underground boreholes drilled into Cretaceous Toki granite (central Japan. A large sulfur isotopic fractionation of 20-60‰ diagnostic to microbial sulfate reduction is associated with the investigated groundwater containing sulfate below 0.2 mM. In contrast, a small carbon isotopic fractionation (<30‰ is not indicative of methanogenesis. Except for 2011, the concentrations of H2 ranged mostly from 1 to 5 nM, which is also consistent with an aquifer where a terminal electron accepting process is dominantly controlled by ongoing sulfate reduction. High isotopic ratios of mantle-derived 3He relative to radiogenic 4He in groundwater and the flux of H2 along adjacent faults suggest that, in addition to low concentrations of organic matter (<70 µM, H2 from deeper sources might partly fuel metabolic activities. Our results demonstrate that the deep biosphere in the terrestrial crust is metabolically active and playing a crucial role in the formation of reducing groundwater even under low-energy fluxes.

  17. Analytical Model for Estimating the Zenith Angle Dependence of Terrestrial Cosmic Ray Fluxes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhiko Sato

    Full Text Available A new model called "PHITS-based Analytical Radiation Model in the Atmosphere (PARMA version 4.0" was developed to facilitate instantaneous estimation of not only omnidirectional but also angular differential energy spectra of cosmic ray fluxes anywhere in Earth's atmosphere at nearly any given time. It consists of its previous version, PARMA3.0, for calculating the omnidirectional fluxes and several mathematical functions proposed in this study for expressing their zenith-angle dependences. The numerical values of the parameters used in these functions were fitted to reproduce the results of the extensive air shower simulation performed by Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS. The angular distributions of ground-level muons at large zenith angles were specially determined by introducing an optional function developed on the basis of experimental data. The accuracy of PARMA4.0 was closely verified using multiple sets of experimental data obtained under various global conditions. This extension enlarges the model's applicability to more areas of research, including design of cosmic-ray detectors, muon radiography, soil moisture monitoring, and cosmic-ray shielding calculation. PARMA4.0 is available freely and is easy to use, as implemented in the open-access EXcel-based Program for Calculating Atmospheric Cosmic-ray Spectrum (EXPACS.

  18. Life as a Cosmic Phenomenon: 2. the Panspermic Trajectory of Homo Sapiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokoro, Gensuke; Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    We discuss the origin and evolution of Homo sapiens in a cosmic context, and in relation to the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe theory of panspermia for which there is now overwhelming evidence. It is argued that the first bacteria (archea) incident on the Earth via the agency of comets 3.8-4 billion years ago continued at later times to be augmented by viral genes (DNA, RNA) from space that eventually led to the evolutionary patterns we see in present-day biology. We argue that the current evolutionary status of Homo sapiens as well as its future trajectory is circumscribed by evolutionary processes that were pre-determined on a cosmic scale -- over vast distances and enormous spans of cosmic time. Based on this teleological hypothesis we postulate that two distinct classes of cosmic viruses (cosmic viral genes) are involved in accounting for the facts relating to the evolution of life.

  19. Observation of terrestrial orbital motion using the cosmic-ray Compton-Getting effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutler, D.J.; Groom, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    Using underground observations, the authors have found a small diurnal amplitude modulation of the cosmic-ray muon intensity which agrees in amplitude and phase with a first-order relativistic effect due to the Earth's motion, as discussed by Compton and Getting :1935, Phys. Rev., 47, 817:. Analysis of the arrival times of 5x10 8 muons during a period of 5.4 yr yields a fractional amplitude variation of 2.5sub(-0.6) sup(+0.7) x 10 -4 , with a maximum near dawn, at 08:18+-1.0 h local mean solar time (LT). The expected amplitude is 3.40 x 10 -4 , with the maximum at 06:00LT. (author)

  20. On the possibility of galactic cosmic ray-induced radiolysis-powered life in subsurface environments in the Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atri, Dimitra

    2016-10-01

    Photosynthesis is a mechanism developed by terrestrial life to utilize the energy from photons of solar origin for biological use. Subsurface regions are isolated from the photosphere, and consequently are incapable of utilizing this energy. This opens up the opportunity for life to evolve alternative mechanisms for harvesting available energy. Bacterium Candidatus Desulforudis audaxviator, found 2.8 km deep in a South African mine, harvests energy from radiolysis, induced by particles emitted from radioactive U, Th and K present in surrounding rock. Another radiation source in the subsurface environments is secondary particles generated by galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). Using Monte Carlo simulations, it is shown that it is a steady source of energy comparable to that produced by radioactive substances, and the possibility of a slow metabolizing life flourishing on it cannot be ruled out. Two mechanisms are proposed through which GCR-induced secondary particles can be utilized for biological use in subsurface environments: (i) GCRs injecting energy in the environment through particle-induced radiolysis and (ii) organic synthesis from GCR secondaries interacting with the medium. Laboratory experiments to test these hypotheses are also proposed. Implications of these mechanisms on finding life in the Solar System and elsewhere in the Universe are discussed. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. RESPONSE OF THE GREEK EARLY WARNING SYSTEM REUTER-STOKES IONIZATION CHAMBERS TO TERRESTRIAL AND COSMIC RADIATION EVALUATED IN COMPARISON WITH SPECTROSCOPIC DATA AND TIME SERIES ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontaris, F; Clouvas, A; Xanthos, S; Maltezos, A; Potiriadis, C; Kiriakopoulos, E; Guilhot, J

    2018-02-01

    The Telemetric Early Warning System Network of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission consists mainly of a network of 24 Reuter-Stokes high-pressure ionization chambers (HPIC) for gamma dose rate measurements and covers all Greece. In the present work, the response of the Reuter-Stokes HPIC to terrestrial and cosmic radiation was evaluated in comparison with spectroscopic data obtained by in situ gamma spectrometry measurements with portable hyper pure Germanium detectors (HPGe), near the Reuter-Stokes detectors and time series analysis. For the HPIC detectors, a conversion factor for the measured absorbed dose rate in air (in nGy h-1) to the total ambient dose equivalent rate Ḣ*(10), due to terrestrial and cosmic component, was deduced by the field measurements. Time series analysis of the mean monthly dose rate (measured by the Reuter-Stokes detector in Thessaloniki, northern Greece, from 2001 to 2016) was performed with advanced statistical methods (Fast Fourier Analysis and Zhao Atlas Marks Transform). Fourier analysis reveals several periodicities (periodogram). The periodogram of the absorbed dose rate in air values was compared with the periodogram of the values measured for the same period (2001-16) and in the same location with a NaI (Tl) detector which in principle is not sensitive to cosmic radiation. The obtained results are presented and discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The beta(+) decay and cosmic-ray half-life of Mn-54

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacruz, M. T. F.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Garcia, A.; Larimer, R. M.; Lesko, K. T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Wietfeldt, F. E.

    1993-03-01

    We performed a search for the beta(+) branch of Mn-54 decay. As a cosmic ray, Mn-54, deprived of its atomic electrons, can decay only via beta(+) and beta(-) decay, with a half-life of the order of 106 yr. This turns Mn-54 into a suitable cosmic chronometer for the study of cosmic-ray confinement times. We searched for coincident back-to-back 511-keV gamma-rays using two germanium detectors inside a Nal(Tl) annulus. An upper limit of 2 x 10-8 was found for the beta(+) decay branch, corresponding to a lower limit of 13.7 for the log ft value.

  3. Risk assessment considerations for plant protection products and terrestrial life-stages of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltje, Lennart; Ufer, Andreas; Hamer, Mick; Sowig, Peter; Demmig, Sandra; Dechet, Friedrich

    2018-04-28

    Some amphibians occur in agricultural landscapes during certain periods of their life cycle and consequently might be exposed to plant protection products (PPPs). While the sensitivity of aquatic life-stages is considered to be covered by the standard assessment for aquatic organisms (especially fish), the situation is less clear for terrestrial amphibian life-stages. In this paper, considerations are presented on how a risk assessment for PPPs and terrestrial life-stages of amphibians could be conducted. It discusses available information concerning the toxicity of PPPs to terrestrial amphibians, and their potential exposure to PPPs in consideration of aspects of amphibian biology. The emphasis is on avoiding additional vertebrate testing as much as possible by using exposure-driven approaches and by making use of existing vertebrate toxicity data, where appropriate. Options for toxicity testing and risk assessment are presented in a flowchart as a tiered approach, progressing from a non-testing approach, to simple worst-case laboratory testing, to extended laboratory testing, to semi-field enclosure tests and ultimately to full-scale field testing and monitoring. Suggestions are made for triggers to progress to higher tiers. Also, mitigation options to reduce the potential for exposure of terrestrial life-stages of amphibians to PPPs, if a risk were identified, are discussed. Finally, remaining uncertainties and research needs are considered by proposing a way forward (road map) for generating additional information to inform terrestrial amphibian risk assessment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute oral toxicity of chemicals in terrestrial life stages of amphibians: Comparisons to birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Mark; Finnegan, Meaghean; Weltje, Lennart; Kosmala-Grzechnik, Sylwia; Gross, Melanie; Wheeler, James R

    2016-10-01

    Amphibians are currently the most threatened and rapidly declining group of vertebrates and this has raised concerns about their potential sensitivity and exposure to plant protection products and other chemicals. Current environmental risk assessment procedures rely on surrogate species (e.g. fish and birds) to cover the risk to aquatic and terrestrial life stages of amphibians, respectively. Whilst a recent meta-analysis has shown that in most cases amphibian aquatic life stages are less sensitive to chemicals than fish, little research has been conducted on the comparative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages. Therefore, in this paper we address the questions "What is the relative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages to acute chemical oral exposure when compared with mammals and birds?" and "Are there correlations between oral toxicity data for amphibians and data for mammals or birds?" Identifying a relationship between these data may help to avoid additional vertebrate testing. Acute oral amphibian toxicity data collected from the scientific literature and ecotoxicological databases were compared with toxicity data for mammals and birds. Toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages are generally sparse, as noted in previous reviews. Single-dose oral toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages were available for 26 chemicals and these were positively correlated with LD50 values for mammals, while no correlation was found for birds. Further, the data suggest that oral toxicity to terrestrial amphibian life stages is similar to or lower than that for mammals and birds, with a few exceptions. Thus, mammals or birds are considered adequate toxicity surrogates for use in the assessment of the oral exposure route in amphibians. However, there is a need for further data on a wider range of chemicals to explore the wider applicability of the current analyses and recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The cosmic zoo complex life on many worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Are humans a galactic oddity, or will complex life with human abilities develop on planets with environments that remain habitable for long enough? In a clear, jargon-free style, two leading researchers in the burgeoning field of astrobiology critically examine the major evolutionary steps that led us from the distant origins of life to the technologically advanced species we are today. Are the key events that took life from simple cells to astronauts unique occurrences that would be unlikely to occur on other planets? By focusing on what life does - it's functional abilities - rather than specific biochemistry or anatomy, the authors provide plausible answers to this question. Systematically exploring the various pathways that led to the complex biosphere we experience on planet Earth, they show that most of the steps along that path are likely to occur on any world hosting life, with only two exceptions: One is the origin of life itself – if this is a highly improbable event, then we live in a rather “e...

  6. Cosmic Heritage Evolution from the Big Bang to Conscious Life

    CERN Document Server

    Shaver, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This book follows the evolutionary trail all the way from the Big Bang 13.7 billion years ago to conscious life today. It is an accessible introductory book written for the interested layperson – anyone interested in the ‘big picture’ coming from modern science. It covers a wide range of topics including the origin and evolution of our universe, the nature and origin of life, the evolution of life including questions of birth and death, the evolution of cognition, the nature of consciousness, the possibility of extraterrestrial life and the future of the universe. The book is written in a narrative style, as these topics are all parts of a single story. It concludes with a discussion on the nature and future of science.  “Peter Shaver has written engagingly for anyone curious about the world we inhabit.  If you'd like to know how the Universe began, where the chemical elements originated, how life may have started on Earth, how man, ants and bacteria are related to each other, or why we humans think...

  7. The terrestrial evolution of metabolism and life - by the numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kelly, Gregory C

    2009-08-27

    Allometric scaling relating body mass to metabolic rate by an exponent of the former (Kleiber's Law), commonly known as quarter-power scaling (QPS), is controversial for claims made on its behalf, especially that of its universality for all life. As originally formulated, Kleiber was based upon the study of heat; metabolic rate is quantified in watts (or calories per unit time). Techniques and technology for metabolic energy measurement have been refined but the math has not. QPS is susceptible to increasing deviations from theoretical predictions to data, suggesting that there is no single, universal exponent relevant to all of life. QPS's major proponents continue to fail to make good on hints of the power of the equation for understanding aging. ESSENTIALIST-DEDUCTIVIST VIEW: If the equation includes a term for efficiency in the exponent, thereby ruling out thermogenesis as part of metabolism, its heuristic power is greatly amplified, and testable deductive inferences are generated. If metabolic rate is measured in watts and metabolic efficiency is a redox-coupling ratio, then the equation is essentially about the energy storage capacity of organic molecules. The equation is entirely about the essentials of all life: water, salt, organic molecules, and energy. The water and salt provide an electrochemical salt bridge for the transmission of energy into and through the organic components. The equation, when graphed, treats the organic structure as battery-like, and relates its recharge rate and electrical properties to its longevity. The equation models the longevity-extending effects of caloric restriction, and shows where those effects wane. It models the immortality of some types of cells, and supports the argument for the origin of life being at submarine volcanic vents and black smokers. It clarifies how early life had to change to survive drifting to the surface, and what drove mutations in its ascent. It does not deal with cause and effect; it deals with

  8. Mupasi as cosmic s(Spirit: The universe as a community of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzipa M.B. Nalwamba

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mupasi recalls the belief that humans form part of the community of life within the realm of the cosmic spirit. The assertion seems like a truism that requires no further enunciation. However, belief in the Creator-Spirit, a pneuma-theological understanding of creation, is relatively young in the Christian tradition. In Colossians 1:15-20, Christ is presented as instrumental to creation. Christian tradition therefore tends to present creation in Christological terms. The foundational belief in Spirit-Creator-God has not historically undergirded Christian belief about creation. The Christian faith could therefore benefit from ‘companion’ views of creation in terms of the cosmic spirit. Mupasi is understood as cosmic spirit, the axis of the universe apprehended as an organic whole. The web of life was brought into being, is sustained by, and inhabited by Mupasi. This retrieval has continuities and discontinuities with Christian belief as Spirit-Creator-God. It is presented here as a notion that calls the Christian faith back to its originating intuitions about creation. Mupasi is appropriated within a pneuma-theological framework that addressed a pressing issue of our time, the global ecological crisis. Mupasi presents an ecological critique that is meaningful for a renewed appreciation of community beyond an anthropocentric focus. The cosmic relatedness brings a renewed vision of the universe as a cosmic community of the s(Spirit. The cultural and intellectual milieu of Mupasi is undergirded by a relational conception of reality. It provides a critical lens with implications for ecclesiology that challenges the church’s self-understanding and ways of being.

  9. The Cosmic Zoo: The (Near) Inevitability of the Evolution of Complex, Macroscopic Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, William; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Life on Earth provides a unique biological record from single-cell microbes to technologically intelligent life forms. Our evolution is marked by several major steps or innovations along a path of increasing complexity from microbes to space-faring humans. Here we identify various major key innovations, and use an analytical toolset consisting of a set of models to analyse how likely each key innovation is to occur. Our conclusion is that once the origin of life is accomplished, most of the key innovations can occur rather readily. The conclusion for other worlds is that if the origin of life can occur rather easily, we should live in a cosmic zoo, as the innovations necessary to lead to complex life will occur with high probability given sufficient time and habitat. On the other hand, if the origin of life is rare, then we might live in a rather empty universe. PMID:27376334

  10. The Cosmic Zoo: The (Near Inevitability of the Evolution of Complex, Macroscopic Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Bains

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Life on Earth provides a unique biological record from single-cell microbes to technologically intelligent life forms. Our evolution is marked by several major steps or innovations along a path of increasing complexity from microbes to space-faring humans. Here we identify various major key innovations, and use an analytical toolset consisting of a set of models to analyse how likely each key innovation is to occur. Our conclusion is that once the origin of life is accomplished, most of the key innovations can occur rather readily. The conclusion for other worlds is that if the origin of life can occur rather easily, we should live in a cosmic zoo, as the innovations necessary to lead to complex life will occur with high probability given sufficient time and habitat. On the other hand, if the origin of life is rare, then we might live in a rather empty universe.

  11. From hadron therapy to cosmic rays: a life in biophysics

    CERN Multimedia

    Christine Sutton

    2014-01-01

    In 1954 – the year CERN was founded – another scientific journey began at what is now the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Beams of protons from a particle accelerator were used for the first time by John Lawrence – a doctor and the brother of Ernest Lawrence, the physicist after whom the Berkeley lab is named – to treat patients with cancer. For many years, Eleanor Blakely has been one of the leaders of that journey. She visited CERN last week and spoke with the Bulletin about her life in biophysics.   Use of the cylcotron beam to mimic "shooting stars" seen by astronauts. Black hood on subject Cornelius Tobias keeps out light during neutron irradiation experiment at the 184-inch accelerator. Helping to position Tobias in the beam line are (left to right) John Lyman of Biomedical Division, and Ralph Thomas of Health Physics. (Photo courtesy of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.) Interested in biophysics, which was still a new...

  12. Amphibians at risk? Susceptibility of terrestrial amphibian life stages to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühl, Carsten A; Pieper, Silvia; Weber, Brigitte

    2011-11-01

    Current pesticide risk assessment does not specifically consider amphibians. Amphibians in the aquatic environment (aquatic life stages or postmetamorphic aquatic amphibians) and terrestrial living juvenile or adult amphibians are assumed to be covered by the risk assessment for aquatic invertebrates and fish, or mammals and birds, respectively. This procedure has been evaluated as being sufficiently protective regarding the acute risk posed by a number of pesticides to aquatic amphibian life stages (eggs, larvae). However, it is unknown whether the exposure and sensitivity of terrestrial living amphibians are comparable to mammalian and avian exposure and sensitivity. We reviewed the literature on dermal pesticide absorption and toxicity studies for terrestrial life stages of amphibians, focusing on the dermal exposure pathway, that is, through treated soil or direct overspray. In vitro studies demonstrated that cutaneous absorption of chemicals is significant and that chemical percutaneous passage, P (cm/h), is higher in amphibians than in mammals. In vivo, the rapid and substantial uptake of the herbicide atrazine from treated soil by toads (Bufo americanus) has been described. Severe toxic effects on various amphibian species have been reported for field-relevant application rates of different pesticides. In general, exposure and toxicity studies for terrestrial amphibian life stages are scarce, and the reported data indicate the need for further research, especially in light of the global amphibian decline. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  13. Inconstant sun: how solar evolution has affected cosmic and ultraviolet radiation exposure over the history of life on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, P Andrew

    2003-03-01

    Four billion years ago, sea-level UV exposure was more than 400 times as intense as today, the dose from solar cosmic rays was five times present levels, and galactic cosmic rays accounted for only about 10% their current contribution to sea-level radiation doses. Exposure to cosmic radiation accounts for about 10% of natural background radiation exposure today and includes dose from galactic cosmic rays and solar charged particles. There is little exposure to ionizing wavelengths of UV due to absorption by ozone. The sun has evolved significantly over its life; in the past there were higher levels of particulate radiation and lower UV emissions from the sun, and a stronger solar wind reduced radiation dose in the inner solar system from galactic cosmic rays. Finally, since the early atmosphere contained little to no oxygen, surface levels of UV radiation were far higher in the past.

  14. Radionuclide biological half-life values for terrestrial and aquatic wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.; Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Burgos, J.; Cujic, M.; Fesenko, S.; Kryshev, A.; Pachal, N.; Real, A.; Su, B.S.; Tagami, K.; Vives i Batlle, J.; Vives-Lynch, S.; Wells, C.; Wood, M.D.

    2015-01-01

    The equilibrium concentration ratio is typically the parameter used to estimate organism activity concentrations within wildlife dose assessment tools. Whilst this is assumed to be fit for purpose, there are scenarios such as accidental or irregular, fluctuating, releases from licensed facilities when this might not be the case. In such circumstances, the concentration ratio approach may under- or over-estimate radiation exposure depending upon the time since the release. To carrying out assessments for such releases, a dynamic approach is needed. The simplest and most practical option is representing the uptake and turnover processes by first-order kinetics, for which organism- and element-specific biological half-life data are required. In this paper we describe the development of a freely available international database of radionuclide biological half-life values. The database includes 1907 entries for terrestrial, freshwater, riparian and marine organisms. Biological half-life values are reported for 52 elements across a range of wildlife groups (marine = 9, freshwater = 10, terrestrial = 7 and riparian = 3 groups). Potential applications and limitations of the database are discussed. - Highlights: • 1907 biological half-life values have been collated for wildlife species. • Data cover 52 elements. • 27 marine, freshwater, riparian and terrestrial organisms are included.

  15. Do pioneers have r-selected traits? Life history patterns among colonizing terrestrial gastropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, J; Baur, B

    1993-05-01

    We examine whether pioneer species of terrestrial gastropods (snails and slugs) possess particular life history traits commonly associated with r-selection, using data on gastropod colonization in four areas in north-west Europe (the Kvarken and Tvärminne archipelagos in the Baltic, polder woods in IJsselmeer, and a rehabilitated quarry near Maastricht). Data on age at first reproduction, longevity, clutch size, egg size and lifetime fecundity were gathered from the literature. In order to control for potentially confounding effects of body size on life history traits, we compared the residuals from the allometric relations between life history traits and body size for pioneers and non-pioneers. In snails, all life history traits examined were related to body size. In slugs, all traits except age at first reproduction scaled with body size. Body sizes did not differ between pioneers and non-pioneers in any area. In all four areas, there were no significant differences between pioneers and non-pioneers in any of the life history traits examined, after body size had been taken into account. This indicates that pioneer terrestrial gastropods generally cannot be regarded as r-selected. Pioneer species may possess any of several life history strategies, and the combinations of traits shown by them may have little in common with the r-K selection concept.

  16. Spatial and temporal variability across life's hierarchies in the terrestrial Antarctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chown, Steven L; Convey, Peter

    2007-12-29

    Antarctica and its surrounding islands lie at one extreme of global variation in diversity. Typically, these regions are characterized as being species poor and having simple food webs. Here, we show that terrestrial systems in the region are nonetheless characterized by substantial spatial and temporal variations at virtually all of the levels of the genealogical and ecological hierarchies which have been thoroughly investigated. Spatial variation at the individual and population levels has been documented in a variety of genetic studies, and in mosses it appears that UV-B radiation might be responsible for within-clump mutagenesis. At the species level, modern molecular methods have revealed considerable endemism of the Antarctic biota, questioning ideas that small organisms are likely to be ubiquitous and the taxa to which they belong species poor. At the biogeographic level, much of the relatively small ice-free area of Antarctica remains unsurveyed making analyses difficult. Nonetheless, it is clear that a major biogeographic discontinuity separates the Antarctic Peninsula and continental Antarctica, here named the 'Gressitt Line'. Across the Southern Ocean islands, patterns are clearer, and energy availability is an important correlate of indigenous and exotic species richness, while human visitor numbers explain much of the variation in the latter too. Temporal variation at the individual level has much to do with phenotypic plasticity, and considerable life-history and physiological plasticity seems to be a characteristic of Antarctic terrestrial species. Environmental unpredictability is an important driver of this trait and has significantly influenced life histories across the region and probably throughout much of the temperate Southern Hemisphere. Rapid climate change-related alterations in the range and abundance of several Antarctic and sub-Antarctic populations have taken place over the past several decades. In many sub-Antarctic locations, these

  17. The Astrobiological Case for Our Cosmic Ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Chandra

    With steadily mounting evidence that points to a cosmic origin of terrestrial life, a cultural barrier prevails against admitting that such a connection exists. Astronomy continues to reveal the presence of organic molecules and organic dust on a huge cosmic scale, amounting to a third of interstellar carbon tied up in this form. Just as the overwhelming bulk of organics on Earth stored over geological timescales are derived from the degradation of living cells, so it seems most likely that interstellar organics in large measure also derive from biology. As we enter a new decade -- the year 2010 -- a clear pronouncement of our likely alien ancestry and of the existence of extraterrestrial life on a cosmic scale would seem to be overdue.

  18. Uptake and transformation of arsenic during the vegetative life stage of terrestrial fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearing, Michelle M.; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Many species of terrestrial fungi produce fruiting bodies that contain high proportions of arsenobetaine (AB), an arsenic compound of no known toxicity. It is unknown whether fungi produce or accumulate AB from the surrounding environment. The present study targets the vegetative life stage (mycelium) of fungi, to examine the role of this stage in arsenic transformations and potential formation of AB. The mycelia of three different fungi species were cultured axenically and exposed to AB, arsenate (As(V)) and dimethylarsinoyl acetic acid for 60 days. Agaricus bisporus was additionally exposed to hypothesized precursors for AB and the exposure time to As(V) and dimethlyarsinic acid was also extended to 120 days. The mycelia of all fungi species accumulated all arsenic compounds with two species accumulating significantly more AB than other compounds. Few biotransformations were observed in these experiments indicating that it is unlikely that the mycelium of the fungus is responsible for biosynthesizing AB. - Highlights: • Mycelia of terrestrial fungi were exposed to arsenobetaine (AB) and potential precursors. • Mycelium may be selectively accumulating AB and transporting it to fruiting bodies. • Mycelium did not biosynthesize AB. - Mycelia of edible mushrooms preferentially accumulate arsenobetaine but do not biosynthesize this non-toxic arsenical

  19. 2013 - Life is a Cosmic Phenomenon : The "Search for Water" evolves into the "Search for Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William E.

    2013-03-01

    We propose that the 2013 data from the Kepler Mission (giving a current estimate of the number of earth-like planets in the habitable zone of sun-like stars as 144 billion), has caused a consciousness change in human belief in the probability of life off earth. This seems to have affected NASA's public statements which are now leaning to the more visionary mission goal of the "Search for Life" rather than the 1975-2012 focus of the "Search for Water". We propose that the first confirmed earth-like planet, expected to be announced later this year, be called "BORUCKI" in honour of the visionary USA scientist Bill Borucki, the father of the Kepler Mission. We explore the 2013 status of the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe Model of Panspermia, its hypothesis, propositions, experiments and evidence. We use the Karl Popper model for scientific hypotheses (1). Finally we explore Sir Fred Hoyle's vision of a planetary microbe defense system we call the Hoyle Shield. We explore the subsystem components of the shield and assess some options for these components using break-though technologies already available.

  20. 2013; life is a cosmic phenomenon: the search for water evolves into the search for life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William E.

    2013-09-01

    The 2013 data from the Kepler Mission gives a current estimate of the number of Earth-like planets in the habitable zone of sun-like stars in the Milky Way Galaxy, as 144 billion. We propose that this estimate has caused a consciousness change in human belief in the probability of life off Earth. This seems to have affected NASA's public statements which are now leaning to the more visionary mission goal of the "Search for Life" rather than the 1975-2012 focus of the "Search for Water". We propose that the first confirmed Earth-like planet, expected to be announced later this year, be called "BORUCKI" in honour of the visionary USA scientist Bill Borucki, the father of the Kepler Mission. We explore the 2013 status of the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe Model of Panspermia, its hypothesis, propositions, experiments and evidence. We use the Karl Popper model for scientific hypotheses (1). Finally we explore Sir Fred Hoyle's vision of a planetary microbe defense system we call the Hoyle Shield. We explore the subsystem components of the shield and assess some options for these components using break-though technologies already available.

  1. Extrapolating cosmic ray variations and impacts on life: Morlet wavelet analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk, N.; Bennaceur, R.

    2009-07-01

    Exposure to cosmic rays may have both a direct and indirect effect on Earth's organisms. The radiation may lead to higher rates of genetic mutations in organisms, or interfere with their ability to repair DNA damage, potentially leading to diseases such as cancer. Increased cloud cover, which may cool the planet by blocking out more of the Sun's rays, is also associated with cosmic rays. They also interact with molecules in the atmosphere to create nitrogen oxide, a gas that eats away at our planet's ozone layer, which protects us from the Sun's harmful ultraviolet rays. On the ground, humans are protected from cosmic particles by the planet's atmosphere. In this paper we give estimated results of wavelet analysis from solar modulation and cosmic ray data incorporated in time-dependent cosmic ray variation. Since solar activity can be described as a non-linear chaotic dynamic system, methods such as neural networks and wavelet methods should be very suitable analytical tools. Thus we have computed our results using Morlet wavelets. Many have used wavelet techniques for studying solar activity. Here we have analysed and reconstructed cosmic ray variation, and we have better depicted periods or harmonics other than the 11-year solar modulation cycles.

  2. Stochastic population dynamics in populations of western terrestrial garter snakes with divergent life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David A; Clark, William R; Arnold, Stevan J; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2011-08-01

    Comparative evaluations of population dynamics in species with temporal and spatial variation in life-history traits are rare because they require long-term demographic time series from multiple populations. We present such an analysis using demographic data collected during the interval 1978-1996 for six populations of western terrestrial garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) from two evolutionarily divergent ecotypes. Three replicate populations from a slow-living ecotype, found in mountain meadows of northeastern California, were characterized by individuals that develop slowly, mature late, reproduce infrequently with small reproductive effort, and live longer than individuals of three populations of a fast-living ecotype found at lakeshore locales. We constructed matrix population models for each of the populations based on 8-13 years of data per population and analyzed both deterministic dynamics based on mean annual vital rates and stochastic dynamics incorporating annual variation in vital rates. (1) Contributions of highly variable vital rates to fitness (lambda(s)) were buffered against the negative effects of stochastic variation, and this relationship was consistent with differences between the meadow (M-slow) and lakeshore (L-fast) ecotypes. (2) Annual variation in the proportion of gravid females had the greatest negative effect among all vital rates on lambda(s). The magnitude of variation in the proportion of gravid females and its effect on lambda(s) was greater in M-slow than L-fast populations. (3) Variation in the proportion of gravid females, in turn, depended on annual variation in prey availability, and its effect on lambda(s) was 4 23 times greater in M-slow than L-fast populations. In addition to differences in stochastic dynamics between ecotypes, we also found higher mean mortality rates across all age classes in the L-fast populations. Our results suggest that both deterministic and stochastic selective forces have affected the evolution of

  3. Iberian Pyrite Belt Subsurface Life (IPBSL), a drilling project in a geochemical Mars terrestrial analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amils, R.; Fernández-Remolar, D. C.; Parro, V.; Manfredi, J. A.; Timmis, K.; Oggerin, M.; Sánchez-Román, M.; López, F. J.; Fernández, J. P.; Omoregie, E.; Gómez-Ortiz, D.; Briones, C.; Gómez, F.; García, M.; Rodríguez, N.; Sanz, J. L.

    2012-09-01

    Iberian Pyrite Belt Subsurface Life (IPBSL) is a drilling project specifically designed to characterize the subsurface ecosystems operating in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB), in the area of Peña de Hierro, and responsible of the extreme acidic conditions existing in the Rio Tinto basin [1]. Rio Tinto is considered a good geochemical terrestrial analogue of Mars [2, 3]. A dedicated geophysical characterization of the area selected two drilling sites (4) due to the possible existence of water with high ionic content (low resistivity). Two wells have been drilled in the selected area, BH11 and BH10, of depths of 340 and 620 meters respectively, with recovery of cores and generation of samples in anaerobic and sterile conditions. Preliminary results showed an important alteration of mineral structures associated with the presence of water, with production of expected products from the bacterial oxidation of pyrite (sulfates and ferric iron). Ion chromatography of water soluble compounds from uncontaminated samples showed the existence of putative electron donors (ferrous iron, nitrite in addition of the metal sulfides), electron acceptors (sulfate, nitrate, ferric iron) as well as variable concentration of metabolic organic acids (mainly acetate, formate, propionate and oxalate), which are strong signals of the presence of active subsurface ecosystem associated to the high sulfidic mineral content of the IPB. The system is driven by oxidants that appear to be provided by the rock matrix, only groundwater is needed to launch microbial metabolism. The geological, geomicrobiological and molecular biology analysis which are under way, should allow the characterization of this ecosystem of paramount interest in the design of an astrobiological underground Mars exploration mission in the near future.

  4. An effective hierarchical model for the biomolecular covalent bond: an approach integrating artificial chemistry and an actual terrestrial life system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oohashi, Tsutomu; Ueno, Osamu; Maekawa, Tadao; Kawai, Norie; Nishina, Emi; Honda, Manabu

    2009-01-01

    Under the AChem paradigm and the programmed self-decomposition (PSD) model, we propose a hierarchical model for the biomolecular covalent bond (HBCB model). This model assumes that terrestrial organisms arrange their biomolecules in a hierarchical structure according to the energy strength of their covalent bonds. It also assumes that they have evolutionarily selected the PSD mechanism of turning biological polymers (BPs) into biological monomers (BMs) as an efficient biomolecular recycling strategy We have examined the validity and effectiveness of the HBCB model by coordinating two complementary approaches: biological experiments using existent terrestrial life, and simulation experiments using an AChem system. Biological experiments have shown that terrestrial life possesses a PSD mechanism as an endergonic, genetically regulated process and that hydrolysis, which decomposes a BP into BMs, is one of the main processes of such a mechanism. In simulation experiments, we compared different virtual self-decomposition processes. The virtual species in which the self-decomposition process mainly involved covalent bond cleavage from a BP to BMs showed evolutionary superiority over other species in which the self-decomposition process involved cleavage from BP to classes lower than BM. These converging findings strongly support the existence of PSD and the validity and effectiveness of the HBCB model.

  5. Impact of an asteroid or comet in the ocean and extinction of terrestrial life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, T. J.; Okeefe, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    Finite difference calculations describing the impact mechanics associated with a 10 to 30 km diameter silicate or water object impacting a 5 km deep ocean overlying a silicate solid planet demonstrate that from 12 to 15% of the bolide energy resides in the water. It is speculated that minimal global tsunami run-up heights on the continents would be 300-400 meters, and that such waves would inundate all low altitude continental areas, and strip and silt-over virtually all vegetation. As a result the terrestrial animal food chain would be seriously perturbed. This could in turn cause extinction of large terrestrial animals.

  6. Lincos: An interplanetary language. [mathematical method for cosmic radio contact with extraterrestrial life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenthal, H.

    1974-01-01

    A language for cosmic contacts is envisioned that utilizes radio signals of different wavelengths as sounds to form words. These words are in most cases abbreviations of Latin words understood from their English and French cognates. The logistic syntax uses pauses for punctuation in a binary system; pairs of algebraic formulas are transmitted where in a such pair the second element is always derived from the first; between them is transmitted a word that is understood as -follows- by the listener. The concepts of difference in position, of motion, of space, and of mass can be mathematically described by this language.

  7. SOME CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING THE ROLE OF COSMIC ENVIRONMENT IN SOIL GENESIS AND EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Munteanu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present day concept of soil is strongly connected to the terrestrial environment. Among the cosmic factors of soil genesis the energy (as light and heat provided by the Sun is by far the most important. The other outer space possible agents e.g. meteorites, comets, cosmic radiation and cosmic dust, are usually neglected or scarcely mentioned. The advancing of cosmic exploration spurred soil scientists to extend their interest upon the extraterrestrial regoliths of Earth-like planets (Mars, Venus and Moon. The concept of “Universal soil” in whose genesis the biotic factor and water are not mandatory, has been recently advanced. The first papers about “lunar soils” are already quoted in soil science literature; some also speak about “Martian soil” or “Venusian soil”. Although these seem to be mere regoliths quite different from the “terrestrial soil” (by absence of life and water one believes that they may give information about impact upon lithological material of severe environment of these planets. This paper tries to outline the cosmic destiny of the soil, to enlarge its meaning and to reveal the hidden connections that the soil has with some planetary and cosmic parameters. In cosmic vision the “soil” – either “lunar”, “martian”, or “terrestrial” – can be viewed as the interface of energy and matter exchange between the land masses of these celestial body and their cosmic environment. The role of the solar activity, extragalactic events, distance from the Sun, obliquity (tilt of Earth’s rotation axis and Earth’s orbit circularity are analyzed in connection with Quaternary glaciations and their influences upon the development of terrestrial soils. The influence of Moon is emphasized as being very important in shaping the zonal geography of the terrestrial soils.

  8. Determination of the spallogenic radionuclides 26Al and 53Mn in Antartic meteorites with respect to cosmic ray exposure and terrestrial ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herpers, U.; Sarafin, R.

    1987-01-01

    The spallogenic radionuclides 26 Al (T=7.18x10 5 a) and 53 Mn (T=3.8x10 6 a) were determined in 11 ordinary chondrites and 7 achondrites from Antarctica by nondestructive coincidence counting techniques and radiochemical neutron activation analysis. The results are discussed with respect to exposure ages, terrestrial residence times and possible genetic relationships of the meteorites investigated. The high terrestrial ages of some specimens (up to 800 000 years) are of importance for the study of the ice flow in Antarctica. (author)

  9. Spatial and temporal variability across life's hierarchies in the terrestrial Antarctic

    OpenAIRE

    Chown, Steven L; Convey, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Antarctica and its surrounding islands lie at one extreme of global variation in diversity. Typically, these regions are characterized as being species poor and having simple food webs. Here, we show that terrestrial systems in the region are nonetheless characterized by substantial spatial and temporal variations at virtually all of the levels of the genealogical and ecological hierarchies which have been thoroughly investigated. Spatial variation at the individual and population levels has ...

  10. Extraordinary Biomass-Burning Episode and Impact Winter Triggered by the Younger Dryas Cosmic Impact approximate to 12,800 Years Ago. 2. Lake, Marine, and Terrestrial Sediments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wolbach, W. S.; Ballard, J. P.; Mayewski, P. A.; Parnell, A. C.; Cahill, N.; Adedeji, V.; Bunch, T. E.; Dominguez-Vazquez, G.; Erlandson, J. M.; Firestone, R. B.; French, T. A.; Howard, G.; Israde-Alcántara, I.; Johnson, J. R.; Kimbel, D.; Kinzie, Ch. R.; Kurbatov, A.; Kletetschka, Günther; LeCompte, M. A.; Mahaney, W. C.; Mellot, A. L.; Mitra, S.; Maiorana-Boutilier, A.; Moore, Ch. R.; Napier, W. M.; Parlier, J.; Tankersley, K. B.; Thomas, B. C.; Wittke, J. H.; West, A.; Kennett, J. P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 126, č. 2 (2018), s. 185-205 ISSN 0022-1376 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : biomass burning * climate feedback * climate variation * ice core * lacustrine deposit * marine sediment * paleoclimate * quantitative analysis * terrestrial deposit * winter * Younger Dryas Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 1.952, year: 2016

  11. Characterizing Terrestrial Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, V. S.; Lustig-Yaeger, J.; Lincowski, A.; Arney, G. N.; Robinson, T. D.; Schwieterman, E. W.; Deming, L. D.; Tovar, G.

    2017-11-01

    We will provide an overview of the measurements, techniques, and upcoming missions required to characterize terrestrial planet environments and evolution, and search for signs of habitability and life.

  12. Our Cosmic Origins: From the Big Bang to the Emergence of Life and Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsemme, Armand H.; de Duve, Foreword by Christian

    2001-01-01

    Preface Christian de Duve; Foreword; 1. Locating man in the universe; 2. The race towards complexity; 3. The stellar alchemy of metals; 4. The formation of the planets; 5. Emergence of life; 6. History of life; 7. Awakening of intelligence; 8. The other worlds; 9. Perspectives; Appendices; Glossary; References; Name index; Subject index.

  13. Impact of an asteroid or comet in the ocean and extinction of terrestrial life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, T.J.; O'Keefe, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Finite difference calculations describing the impact mechanics associated with a 10 to 30 km diameter silicate or water object impacting a 5 km deep ocean overlying a silicate solid planet at 30 km/sec demonstrate that from 12 to 15% of the bolide energy resides in the water. In the gravity field of the earth some 10 to 30 times the impactor mass of water is launched on trajectories which would take it to altitudes of 10 km or higher. This ejecta launched on trajectories which can achieve stratospheric heights is 10 1 to 10 2 projectile masses, similar to that resulting from impact of objects on an ocean-free silicate half-space (continent). Ejecta composed of impactor material, launched on trajectories which would carry it to stratospheric heights, matches the fraction (10 -2 to 10 -1 ) of bolide (extraterrestrial) material found in the platinum-metal-rich Cretaceous-Tertiary and Eocene-Oligocene boundary layers. Oceanic impact results in giant tsunamis initially having amplitudes of approx. 4 km, representing the solitary waterwave stability limit in the deep ocean, and containing 10 -2 to 10 -1 of the energy of the impact. Using the constraint of no observed turbidities in marine sediments in the Cretaceous-Tertiary and Eocene-Oligocene boundary materials (calculated maximum water-sediment interface particle velocity approx. 10 0 m/sec) implies a maximum impactor energy of approx. 10 28 to approx. 10 29 erg corresponding to a maximum diameter for a silicate impactor of approx. 2 km (at 11 km/sec). Minimal global tsunami run-up heights on the continents corresponding to impacts of this energy are 300-400 m. We speculate that such waves would inundate all low altitude continental areas. As a result, the terrestrial animal food chain would be seriously perturbed, which could have caused extinction of large terrestrial animals

  14. The conceptual design of a hybrid life support system based on the evaluation and comparison of terrestrial testbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czupalla, M.; Horneck, G.; Blome, H. J.

    This report summarizes a trade study of different options of a bioregenerative Life Support System (LSS) and a subsequent conceptual design of a hybrid LSS. The evaluation was based mainly on the terrestrial testbed projects MELISSA (ESA) and BIOS (Russia). In addition, some methods suggested by the Advanced Life Support Project (NASA) were considered. Computer models, including mass flows were established for each of the systems with the goal of closing system loops to the extent possible. In order to cope with the differences in the supported crew size and provided nutrition, all systems were scaled for supporting a crew of six for a 780 day Mars mission (180 days transport to Mars; 600 days surface period) as given in the NASA Design Reference Mission Scenario [Hoffman, S.J., Kaplan, D.L. Human exploration of Mars: the Reference Mission of the NASA Mars Exploratory Study, 1997]. All models were scaled to provide the same daily allowances, as of calories, to the crew. Equivalent System Mass (ESM) analysis was used to compare the investigated system models against each other. Following the comparison of the terrestrial systems, the system specific subsystem options for Food Supply, Solid Waste Processing, Water Management and Atmosphere Revitalization were evaluated in a separate trade study. The best subsystem technologies from the trade study were integrated into an overall design solution based on mass flow relationships. The optimized LSS is mainly a bioregenerative system, complemented by a few physico-chemical elements, with a total ESM of 18,088 kg, which is about 4 times higher than that of a pure physico-chemical LSS, as designed in an earlier study.

  15. The evolving universe and the origin of life the search for our cosmic roots

    CERN Document Server

    Teerikorpi, Pekka; Lehto, Harry; Chernin, Arthur; Byrd, Gene; Lehto, K

    2008-01-01

    Sir Isaac Newton famously said, regarding his discoveries, "If I have seen further it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants." The Evolving Universe and the Origin of Life describes, complete with fascinating biographical details of the thinkers involved, the ascent to the metaphorical shoulders accomplished by the greatest minds in history. For the first time, a single book can take the reader on a journey through the history of the universe as interpreted by the expanding body of knowledge of humankind. From subatomic particles to the protein chains that form life, and expanding in scale to the entire universe, this book covers the science that explains how we came to be. The Evolving Universe and the Origin of Life contains a great breadth of knowledge, from astronomy to physics, from chemistry to biology. It includes over 350 figures that enhance the comprehension of concepts both basic and advanced, and is a non-technical, easy-to-read text at an introductory college level that is ideal for anyone i...

  16. The terrestrial evolution of metabolism and life – by the numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Kelly Gregory C

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allometric scaling relating body mass to metabolic rate by an exponent of the former (Kleiber's Law, commonly known as quarter-power scaling (QPS, is controversial for claims made on its behalf, especially that of its universality for all life. As originally formulated, Kleiber was based upon the study of heat; metabolic rate is quantified in watts (or calories per unit time. Techniques and technology for metabolic energy measurement have been refined but the math has not. QPS is susceptible to increasing deviations from theoretical predictions to data, suggesting that there is no single, universal exponent relevant to all of life. QPS's major proponents continue to fail to make good on hints of the power of the equation for understanding aging. Essentialist-deductivist view If the equation includes a term for efficiency in the exponent, thereby ruling out thermogenesis as part of metabolism, its heuristic power is greatly amplified, and testable deductive inferences are generated. If metabolic rate is measured in watts and metabolic efficiency is a redox-coupling ratio, then the equation is essentially about the energy storage capacity of organic molecules. The equation is entirely about the essentials of all life: water, salt, organic molecules, and energy. The water and salt provide an electrochemical salt bridge for the transmission of energy into and through the organic components. The equation, when graphed, treats the organic structure as battery-like, and relates its recharge rate and electrical properties to its longevity. Conclusion The equation models the longevity-extending effects of caloric restriction, and shows where those effects wane. It models the immortality of some types of cells, and supports the argument for the origin of life being at submarine volcanic vents and black smokers. It clarifies how early life had to change to survive drifting to the surface, and what drove mutations in its ascent. It does

  17. The terrestrial evolution of metabolism and life – by the numbers

    OpenAIRE

    O'Kelly Gregory C

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Allometric scaling relating body mass to metabolic rate by an exponent of the former (Kleiber's Law), commonly known as quarter-power scaling (QPS), is controversial for claims made on its behalf, especially that of its universality for all life. As originally formulated, Kleiber was based upon the study of heat; metabolic rate is quantified in watts (or calories per unit time). Techniques and technology for metabolic energy measurement have been refined but the math has n...

  18. Life history comparison of two terrestrial isopods in relation to habitat specialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadros, Aline Ferreira; Caubet, Yves; Araujo, Paula Beatriz

    2009-03-01

    For many animal species, there is a relationship between life history strategies, as predicted by the r- K-selection theory, degree of habitat specialization and response to habitat alteration and loss. Here we compare two sympatric woodlice species with contrasting patterns of habitat use and geographical distribution. We predict that Atlantoscia floridana (Philosciidae), considered a habitat generalist, would exhibit the r-selected traits, whereas Balloniscus glaber (Balloniscidae), considered a habitat specialist, should have the K-selected traits. We analyzed several life history traits as well as life and fecundity tables using 715 and 842 females of A. floridana and B. glaber, respectively, from populations living in syntopy in southern Brazil. As predicted, most evaluated traits allow A. floridana to be considered an r-strategist and B. glaber a K-strategist: A. floridana showed a shorter lifetime, faster development, earlier reproduction, a smaller parental investment, higher net reproductive rate ( R0), a higher growth rate ( r) and a shorter generation time ( T) in comparison to B. glaber. A. floridana seems to be a successful colonizer with a high reproductive output. These characteristics explain its local abundance, commonness and wide geographical distribution. On the contrary, B. glaber has a restricted geographical distribution that is mainly associated with Atlantic forest fragments, a biome threatened by deforestation and replacement by monocultures. Its narrow distribution combined with the K-selected traits may confer to this species an increased extinction risk.

  19. Evolution of matter and energy on a cosmic and planetary scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taube, M.

    1985-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: matter and energy; the interplay of elementary particles and elementary forces; the universe; how is it observed here and now; its past and possible future; the origin and nuclear evolution of matter; chemical evolution and the evolution of life; the cosmic phenomena; the eternal cycle of matter on the earth; the flow of energy on the earth; the biosphere; the coupling of matter and the flow of free energy; is the future development of mankind on this planet possible, and the distant future of mankind: terrestrial or cosmic

  20. Cosmic strings and cosmic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, A.; Brandenberger, R.; Turok, N.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the application of the theory of cosmic strings to explain the structure of the Universe. The formation of cosmic strings in the early Universe is outlined, along with the Big Bang theory, Grand Unified theories, and the first three minutes after the Big Bang. A description is given of the shaping of the Universe by cosmic strings, including the evolution of the string. The possibility for direct observation of cosmic strings is discussed. (U.K.)

  1. Evolution of the terrestrial atmosphere and its relationship to sediments and life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junge, C

    1981-05-01

    The formation of the atmosphere - together with that of the oceans and sediments - was determined by three important processes: the loss of noble gases and volatiles in the solar nebula, the enrichment of these substances at the Earth's surface by exhalation from the Earth's mantle, and finally the formation of the hydrosphere, enabled by - in contrast to our neighboring planets - a suitable distance from the sun. In this way the development of the atmospheric gases N/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O and CO/sub 2/ was largely fixed. Oxygen, on the other hand, appeared late in the atmosphere. It originated from biological photosynthesis which apparently developed rather early in the Earth's history but lead at first only to oxidation of iron and sulfur. The subsequently occurring accumulation of free oxygen in the atmosphere resulted in interesting interrelations with the development of life.

  2. The search for our cosmic ancestry

    CERN Document Server

    Wickramasinghe, Chandra

    2015-01-01

    The idea that life is a cosmic, rather than a purely terrestrial phenomenon, has progressed from scientific heresy to mainstream science within the short timespan of a few decades. The theory of cometary panspermia developed by Fred Hoyle and the present author in the 1970's has been vindicated by a spate of new discoveries in astronomy and biology, and also with startling new evidence of microbial fossils in meteorites and micrometeorites. The recent Kepler Telescope searches for exoplanets have indicated the presence of over 100 billion habitable planets separated by only a few light years, thus making panspermia and the transfer of microbial life between such planets an inevitable fact. The book presents a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe theory of cometary panspermia in a manner accessible to a wide general readership.

  3. Sulfate- and Sulfur-Reducing Bacteria as Terrestrial Analogs for Microbial Life on Jupiter's Satellite Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Observations from the Voyager and Galileo spacecraft have revealed Jupiter's moon Io to be the most volcanically active body of our Solar System. The Galileo Near Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (NIMS) detected extensive deposits of sulfur compounds, elemental sulfur and SO2 frost on the surface of Io. There are extreme temperature variations on Io's surface, ranging from -130 C to over 2000 C at the Pillan Patera volcanic vent. The active volcanoes, fumaroles, calderas, and lava lakes and vast sulfur deposits on this frozen moon indicate that analogs of sulfur- and sulfate-reducing bacteria might inhabit Io. Hence Io may have great significance to Astrobiology. Earth's life forms that depend on sulfur respiration are members of two domains: Bacteria and Archaea. Two basic links of the biogeochemical sulfur cycle of Earth have been studied: 1) the sulfur oxidizing process (occurring at aerobic conditions) and 2) the process of sulfur-reduction to hydrogen sulfide (anaerobic conditions). Sulfate-reducing bacteria (StRB) and sulfur-reducing bacteria (SrRB) are responsible for anaerobic reducing processes. At the present time the systematics of StRB include over 112 species distributed into 35 genera of Bacteria and Archaea. Moderately thermophilic and mesophilic SrRB belong to the Bacteria. The hyperthermophilic SrRB predominately belong to the domain Archaea and are included in the genera: Pyrodictium, Thermoproteus, Pyrobaculum, Thermophilum, Desulfurococcus, and Thermodiscus. The StRB and SrRB use a wide spectrum of substrates as electron donors for lithotrophic and heterotrophic type nutrition. The electron acceptors for the StRB include: sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfite, sulfur, arsenate, dithionite, tetrathionate, sulfur monoxide, iron, nitrite, selenite, fumarate, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and chlorine-containing phenol compounds. The Sulfate- and Sulfur-reducing bacteria are widely distributed in anaerobic ecosystems, including extreme environments like hot springs

  4. Cosmic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capdevielle, J N

    1984-01-01

    First, the different instruments and techniques of cosmic particle detection are presented. Then the passage of the cosmic particles through the atmosphere is studied: electrons, photons, muons. The collective behavior of the different categories is also studied, the electromagnetic cascade is distinguished from the hadron cascade. Through the principal physical properties of the radiation and the medium, the ''mean'' aspects of the radiation are then successively dealt with out of the atmosphere, at different altitudes until the sea level, then at great depths. A chapter is devoted to cosmic radiation of more than 10,000 GeV, studied separately. Then solar radiation in universe is studied through their propagation in solar system and their origin. At last, the cosmic radiation effects are studied in environment (cosmic biophysics) and some applications of cosmic radiation are presented.

  5. Cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachev, I.I.

    2014-01-01

    In this talk I will review results of cosmic ray observations at the highest energies. This year the new results on energy spectra, composition and the study of arrival directions of cosmic ray primaries came from the Telescope Array collaboration. I present these results in comparison with measurements done by other recent experiments and discuss their implications for the search of cosmic ray sources. Some related results in gamma-ray astronomy and selected recent advances in theory are also covered. (author)

  6. A cosmic microwave background feature consistent with a cosmic texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, M; Turok, N; Vielva, P; Martínez-González, E; Hobson, M

    2007-12-07

    The Cosmic Microwave Background provides our most ancient image of the universe and our best tool for studying its early evolution. Theories of high-energy physics predict the formation of various types of topological defects in the very early universe, including cosmic texture, which would generate hot and cold spots in the Cosmic Microwave Background. We show through a Bayesian statistical analysis that the most prominent 5 degrees -radius cold spot observed in all-sky images, which is otherwise hard to explain, is compatible with having being caused by a texture. From this model, we constrain the fundamental symmetry-breaking energy scale to be (0) approximately 8.7 x 10(15) gigaelectron volts. If confirmed, this detection of a cosmic defect will probe physics at energies exceeding any conceivable terrestrial experiment.

  7. A half-century of terrestrial analog studies: From craters on the Moon to searching for life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léveillé, Richard

    2010-03-01

    Terrestrial analogs to the Moon and Mars have been used to advance knowledge in planetary science for over a half-century. They are useful in studies of comparative geology of the terrestrial planets and rocky moons, in astronaut training and testing of exploration technologies, and in developing hypotheses and exploration strategies in astrobiology. In fact, the use of terrestrial analogs can be traced back to the origins of comparative geology and astrobiology, and to the early phases of the Apollo astronaut program. Terrestrial analog studies feature prominently throughout the history of both NASA and the USGS' Astrogeology Research Program. In light of current international plans for a return missions to the Moon, and eventually to send sample return and manned missions to Mars, as well as the recent creation of various analog research and development programs, this historical perspective is timely.

  8. Cosmic rays in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujitaka, Kazunobu

    2005-01-01

    Cosmos is a mysterious space by which many researchers are fascinated for many years. But, going into space means that we will receive extra exposure due to existence of cosmic rays. Cosmic rays are mainly composed of highly energetic protons. It was born in the last stage of stellar life. Understanding of cosmos will certainly bring right understanding of radiation energy, or energy itself. As no one could see the very early stage of cosmic rays, there is only a speculation. But it is better to speculate something based on certain side evidences, than to give up the whole. Such attitude shall be welcomed in the space researches. Anyway, cosmic rays were born in the last explosion of a star, which is called as Super Nova. After cosmic rays are emitted from the Super Nova, it will reach to the human surroundings. To indicate its intensity, special unit of ''dose rate'' is used. When a man climbs a mountain, cosmic ray intensity surely increases. It doubles as he goes up every 1500m elevation. It was ascertained by our own measurements. Then what happens when the goes up more? At aviation altitude, where airplanes fly, the dose rate will be increased up to 100times the high mountain cases. And what is expected when he goes up further more, up to space orbit altitude? In this case, the dose rate increases up to 10times the airplane cases. Geomagnetism affects the dose rate very much. As primary cosmic ray particles are charged particles, they cannot do well with existence of the magnetic field. In effect, cosmic rays can penetrate into the polar atmosphere along geomagnetic lines of forces which stand almost vertical, but penetration of low energy cosmic rays will be banned when they intend to penetrate crossing the geomagnetic lines of forces in equatorial region. Therefore, exposure due to cosmic rays will become large in polar region, while it remains small in equatorial region. In effect, airplanes which fly over the equator. Only, we have to know that the cosmos

  9. Super-long Anabiosis of Ancient Microorganisms in Ice and Terrestrial Models for Development of Methods to Search for Life on Mars, Europa and other Planetary Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abyzov, S. S.; Duxbury, N. S.; Bobin, N. E.; Fukuchi, M.; Hoover, R. B.; Kanda, H.; Mitskevich, I. N.; Mulyukin, A. L.; Naganuma, T.; Poglazova, M. N.; hide

    2007-01-01

    Successful missions to Mars, Europe and other bodies of the Solar system have created a prerequisite to search for extraterrestrial life. The first attempts of microbial life detection on the Martian surface by the Viking landed missions gave no biological results. Microbiological investigations of the Martian subsurface ground ice layers seem to be more promising. It is well substantiated to consider the Antarctic ice sheet and the Antarctic and Arctic permafrost as terrestrial analogues of Martian habitats. The results of our long-standing microbiological studies of the Antarctic ice would provide the basis for detection of viable microbial cells on Mars. Our microbiological investigations of the deepest and thus most ancient strata of the Antarctic ice sheet for the first time gave evidence for the natural phenomenon of long-term anabiosis (preservation of viability and vitality for millennia years). A combination of classical microbiological methods, epifluorescence microscopy, SEM, TEM, molecular diagnostics, radioisotope labeling and other techniques made it possible for us to obtain convincing proof of the presence of pro- and eukaryotes in the Antarctic ice sheet. In this communication, we will review and discuss some critical issues related to the detection of viable microorganisms in cold terrestrial environments with regard to future searches for microbial life and/or its biological signatures on extraterrestrial objects.

  10. Proceedings of the 21. European Cosmic Ray Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiraly, P.; Kudela, K.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    2008-09-01

    Scientific symposium deals with problems of cosmic ray. The Symposium included the following sessions: (1): Relationship of cosmic rays to the environment; (2) Energetic particles and the magnetosphere of the Earth; (3) Energetic particles in the heliosphere; (4) Solar-terrestrial effects on different time scales; (5) Cosmic rays below the knee; (6) Cosmic rays above the knee (7) High energy interactions; (8) GeV and TeV gamma ray astronomy; (9) European projects related to cosmic rays; Future perspectives. Proceedings contains 122 papers dealing with the scope of INIS.

  11. Dosimetry of environmental radiations (cosmic ray)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Keizo

    1978-01-01

    Cosmic ray is dominant as environmental radiation, though the experimental determination made on cosmic ray doses is few in Japan. The free air ionization intensity at sea level due to cosmic ray has been estimated in the Bay of Wakasa, Japan, at middle geomagnetic latitude (25 deg. N), in October 1977. The ionization chambers used were two air and one argon types. Where the responses to cosmic and terrestrial gamma rays were equal, the ionization intensity due to cosmic ray was obtained by subtracting the ionization intensity due to terrestrial gamma ray from the total ionization intensity. As the terrestrial gamma ray, (1) U-238 series, Th-232 series, and K-40 in seawater, (2) K-40 in the material of a wooden ship, and (3) Rn-222 and its daughter products in the atmosphere were considered. The result of free air ionization due to cosmic ray with the argon chamber was slightly smaller than those with the other two air chambers; however, both were in good agreement within standard errors. (JPN.)

  12. Cosmic vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernin, Artur D

    2001-01-01

    Recent observational studies of distant supernovae have suggested the existence of cosmic vacuum whose energy density exceeds the total density of all the other energy components in the Universe. The vacuum produces the field of antigravity that causes the cosmological expansion to accelerate. It is this accelerated expansion that has been discovered in the observations. The discovery of cosmic vacuum radically changes our current understanding of the present state of the Universe. It also poses new challenges to both cosmology and fundamental physics. Why is the density of vacuum what it is? Why do the densities of the cosmic energy components differ in exact value but agree in order of magnitude? On the other hand, the discovery made at large cosmological distances of hundreds and thousands Mpc provides new insights into the dynamics of the nearby Universe, the motions of galaxies in the local volume of 10 - 20 Mpc where the cosmological expansion was originally discovered. (reviews of topical problems)

  13. Cosmic vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernin, Artur D [P.K. Shternberg State Astronomical Institute at the M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-11-30

    Recent observational studies of distant supernovae have suggested the existence of cosmic vacuum whose energy density exceeds the total density of all the other energy components in the Universe. The vacuum produces the field of antigravity that causes the cosmological expansion to accelerate. It is this accelerated expansion that has been discovered in the observations. The discovery of cosmic vacuum radically changes our current understanding of the present state of the Universe. It also poses new challenges to both cosmology and fundamental physics. Why is the density of vacuum what it is? Why do the densities of the cosmic energy components differ in exact value but agree in order of magnitude? On the other hand, the discovery made at large cosmological distances of hundreds and thousands Mpc provides new insights into the dynamics of the nearby Universe, the motions of galaxies in the local volume of 10 - 20 Mpc where the cosmological expansion was originally discovered. (reviews of topical problems)

  14. Cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.P.

    1988-07-01

    Cosmic strings are linear topological defects that are predicted by some grand unified theories to form during a spontaneous symmetry breaking phase transition in the early universe. They are the basis for the only theories of galaxy formation aside from quantum fluctuations from inflation that are based on fundamental physics. In contrast to inflation, they can also be observed directly through gravitational lensing and their characteristic microwave background anistropy. It has recently been discovered by F. Bouchet and myself that details of cosmic string evolution are very different from the so-called ''standard model'' that has been assumed in most of the string induced galaxy formation calculations. Therefore, the details of galaxy formation in the cosmic string models are currently very uncertain. 29 refs., 9 figs

  15. Generation of terrestrial radiation database in the Larsemann Hills, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Rupali; Dhabekar, Bhushan; Jose, Jis Romal; Chinnaesakki, S.; Bakshi, A.K.; Datta, D.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2018-01-01

    Natural background radiation in the environment includes terrestrial radiation, cosmic radiation from space and air activity due to radon/thoron. It is known that cosmic contribution increases near the poles. The terrestrial component is largely due to 232 Th and 238 U series and 40 K. BARC under the cosmic ray dosimetry project with National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research (NCAOR) has taken up measurement of natural background radiation at Larsemann Hills, Antarctica. The project includes generation of baseline data on terrestrial radioactivity in water, soil and rock and estimation of cosmic ray doses. Extensive radiation surveys were carried out by the BARC team in the 35 th and 36 th expedition in and around Larsemann hills in East Antarctica where the third Indian station 'Bharati' is situated. This paper presents mapping of terrestrial radiation levels in Antarctica which will help in strengthening the background radiation database and develop a Radiation Informatics System (RIS)

  16. A combination of tryptophan, Satureja montana, Tribulus terrestris, Phyllanthus emblica extracts is able to improve sexual quality of life in patient with premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansalone, Salvatore; Russo, Giorgio Ivan; Mondaini, Nicola; Cantiello, Francesco; Antonini, Gabriele; Cai, Tommaso

    2016-10-05

    The management of patient affected by premature ejaculation (PE) is nowadays not highly satisfactory. Here, we aimed to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of a combination of tryptophan, Satureja montana, Tribulus terrestris, Phyllanthus emblica extracts in order to improve sexual quality of life in patients with premature ejaculation. All patients attending to 5 urological centers from January 2015 to March 2015, due to premature ejaculation were enrolled in this study. At the enrolment visit, all subjects underwent self-administered IIEF-5, Male Sexual Health Questionnaire-Ejaculation Disorder (MSHQEjD), PEDT and IELTS (calculated as mean from that perceived by partner and that perceived by patient) and underwent urological visit and laboratory examinations. All patients received one tablet per day of a combination of tryptophan, Satureja montana, Tribulus terrestris, Phyllanthus emblica extracts for 3 months (Group A). After 3 months all patients underwent follow-up visit with the same investigations that have been carried out in the enrolment visit. The results were compared with a cohort of patients enrolled in the same period in another urological center and considered as a control group (Group B). All patients in the control group underwent counseling and sexual behavioral treatment without any pharmacological compound. At the follow-up analysis, significant changes in terms of IELT in the Group A (mean difference: 31.90; p < 0.05) at 3 months and versus Group B at the intergroup analysis (mean difference: 30.30; p < 0.05) were reported. In the group A, significant differences from baseline to last follow- up were observed relative to IIEF-5 (mean difference: 1.04; p < 0.05), PEDT (mean difference: -2.57; p < 0.05) and FSH (mean difference: -16.46; p < 0.05). In conclusion, patients affected by PE may significantly benefit from oral therapy with a combination of tryptophan, Satureja montana, Tribulus terrestris, Phyllanthus emblica extracts in terms of

  17. Polyphenism in social insects: insights from a transcriptome-wide analysis of gene expression in the life stages of the key pollinator, Bombus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colgan Thomas J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding polyphenism, the ability of a single genome to express multiple morphologically and behaviourally distinct phenotypes, is an important goal for evolutionary and developmental biology. Polyphenism has been key to the evolution of the Hymenoptera, and particularly the social Hymenoptera where the genome of a single species regulates distinct larval stages, sexual dimorphism and physical castes within the female sex. Transcriptomic analyses of social Hymenoptera will therefore provide unique insights into how changes in gene expression underlie such complexity. Here we describe gene expression in individual specimens of the pre-adult stages, sexes and castes of the key pollinator, the buff-tailed bumblebee Bombus terrestris. Results cDNA was prepared from mRNA from five life cycle stages (one larva, one pupa, one male, one gyne and two workers and a total of 1,610,742 expressed sequence tags (ESTs were generated using Roche 454 technology, substantially increasing the sequence data available for this important species. Overlapping ESTs were assembled into 36,354 B. terrestris putative transcripts, and functionally annotated. A preliminary assessment of differences in gene expression across non-replicated specimens from the pre-adult stages, castes and sexes was performed using R-STAT analysis. Individual samples from the life cycle stages of the bumblebee differed in the expression of a wide array of genes, including genes involved in amino acid storage, metabolism, immunity and olfaction. Conclusions Detailed analyses of immune and olfaction gene expression across phenotypes demonstrated how transcriptomic analyses can inform our understanding of processes central to the biology of B. terrestris and the social Hymenoptera in general. For example, examination of immunity-related genes identified high conservation of important immunity pathway components across individual specimens from the life cycle stages while

  18. Polyphenism in social insects: Insights from a transcriptome-wide analysis of gene expression in the life stages of the key pollinator, Bombus terrestris

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Colgan, Thomas J

    2011-12-20

    Abstract Background Understanding polyphenism, the ability of a single genome to express multiple morphologically and behaviourally distinct phenotypes, is an important goal for evolutionary and developmental biology. Polyphenism has been key to the evolution of the Hymenoptera, and particularly the social Hymenoptera where the genome of a single species regulates distinct larval stages, sexual dimorphism and physical castes within the female sex. Transcriptomic analyses of social Hymenoptera will therefore provide unique insights into how changes in gene expression underlie such complexity. Here we describe gene expression in individual specimens of the pre-adult stages, sexes and castes of the key pollinator, the buff-tailed bumblebee Bombus terrestris. Results cDNA was prepared from mRNA from five life cycle stages (one larva, one pupa, one male, one gyne and two workers) and a total of 1,610,742 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated using Roche 454 technology, substantially increasing the sequence data available for this important species. Overlapping ESTs were assembled into 36,354 B. terrestris putative transcripts, and functionally annotated. A preliminary assessment of differences in gene expression across non-replicated specimens from the pre-adult stages, castes and sexes was performed using R-STAT analysis. Individual samples from the life cycle stages of the bumblebee differed in the expression of a wide array of genes, including genes involved in amino acid storage, metabolism, immunity and olfaction. Conclusions Detailed analyses of immune and olfaction gene expression across phenotypes demonstrated how transcriptomic analyses can inform our understanding of processes central to the biology of B. terrestris and the social Hymenoptera in general. For example, examination of immunity-related genes identified high conservation of important immunity pathway components across individual specimens from the life cycle stages while olfactory

  19. Cosmic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    neutrons, liberating a little energy and creating complexity. Then, the expanding universe cooled some more, and neutrons and protons, no longer kept apart by immense temperatures, found themselves unstable and formed helium nuclei. Then, a little more cooling, and atomic nuclei and electrons were no longer kept apart, and the universe became transparent. Then a little more cooling, and the next instability began: gravitation pulled matter together across cosmic distances to form stars and galaxies. This instability is described as a "negative heat capadty" in which extracting energy from a gravitating system makes it hotter -- clearly the 2nd law of thermodynamics does not apply here! (This is the physicist's part of the answer to e e cummings' question: what is the wonder that's keeping the stars apart?) Then, the next instability is that hydrogen and helium nuclei can fuse together to release energy and make stars burn for billions of years. And then at the end of the fuel source, stars become unstable and explode and liberate the chemical elements back into space. And because of that, on planets like Earth, sustained energy flows support the development of additional instabilities and all kinds of complex patterns. Gravitational instability pulls the densest materials into the core of the Earth, leaving a thin skin of water and air, and makes the interior churn incessantly as heat flows outwards. And the heat from the sun, received mostly near the equator and flowing towards the poles, supports the complex atmospheric and oceanic circulations. And because or that, the physical Earth is full of natural chemical laboratories, concentrating elements here, mixing them there, raising and lowering temperatures, ceaselessly experimenting with uncountable events where new instabilities can arise. At least one of them was the new experiment called life. Now that we know that there are at least as many planets as there are stars, it is hard to imagine that nature's ceasess

  20. Cosmic Ether

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    1998-01-01

    A prerelativistic approach to particle dynamics is explored in an expanding Robertson-Walker cosmology. The receding galactic background provides a distinguished frame of reference and a unique cosmic time. In this context the relativistic, purely geometric space-time concept is criticized. Physical space is regarded as a permeable medium, the cosmic ether, which effects the world-lines of particles and rays. We study in detail a Robertson-Walker universe with linear expansion factor and negatively curved, open three-space; we choose the permeability tensor of the ether in such a way that the semiclassical approximation is exact. Galactic red-shifts depend on the refractive index of the ether. In the local Minkowskian limit the ether causes a time variation of mass, which scales inversely proportional to cosmic time. In the globally geodesic rest frames of galactic observers the ether manifests itself in an unbounded speed of signal transfer, in bifurcations of world-lines, and in time inversion effects.

  1. Cosmic Topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    2015-08-01

    Cosmic Topology is the name given to the study of the overall shape of the universe, which involves both global topological features and more local geometrical properties such as curvature. Whether space is finite or infinite, simply-connected or multi-connected like a torus, smaller or greater than the portion of the universe that we can directly observe, are questions that refer to topology rather than curvature. A striking feature of some relativistic, multi-connected "small" universe models is to create multiples images of faraway cosmic sources. While the most recent cosmological data fit the simplest model of a zero-curvature, infinite space model, they are also consistent with compact topologies of the three homogeneous and isotropic geometries of constant curvature, such as, for instance, the spherical Poincaré Dodecahedral Space, the flat hypertorus or the hyperbolic Picard horn. After a "dark age" period, the field of Cosmic Topology has recently become one of the major concerns in cosmology, not only for theorists but also for observational astronomers, leaving open a number of unsolved issues.

  2. Cosmic antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarle, G.; Swordy, S.

    1998-01-01

    In 1928 Paul Dirac forecasted the existence of antimatter and 4 years later Carl Anderson detected the first antiparticle: the positron in a cloud chamber while studying cosmic radiation. Antiprotons were more difficult to find but in 1955 physicists from Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory got some in a particle accelerator. In 1995 a team from the CERN synthesized atoms of anti-hydrogen by binding positrons to antiprotons in a particle accelerator. Astrophysicists have built more and more complex detectors to study cosmic rays. The detector HEAT (high energy antimatter telescope) has been designed to study positrons above the atmosphere. This detector has been launched for the first time in 1994 and has measured cosmic radiation for 32 hours at an altitude of 37000 meters. The results were challenging: whereas the number of low energy positrons detected agrees with the theory, the number of high energy positrons is too important. It suggests the existence of unknown sources of positrons somewhere in the universe. The massive particles that interact weakly (WIMP) could be such sources. This article draws the history of the quest for antimatter and its implications in cosmology, the detector HEAT is described. (A.C.)

  3. Testing Cosmic Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, David

    2010-01-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has provided a wealth of information about the history and physics of the early Universe. Much progress has been made on uncovering the emerging Standard Model of Cosmology by such experiments as COBE and WMAP, and ESA's Planck Surveyor will likely increase our knowledge even more. Despite the success of this model, mysteries remain. Currently understood physics does not offer a compelling explanation for the homogeneity, flatness, and the origin of structure in the Universe. Cosmic Inflation, a brief epoch of exponential expansion, has been posted to explain these observations. If inflation is a reality, it is expected to produce a background spectrum of gravitational waves that will leave a small polarized imprint on the CMB. Discovery of this signal would give the first direct evidence for inflation and provide a window into physics at scales beyond those accessible to terrestrial particle accelerators. I will briefly review aspects of the Standard Model of Cosmology and discuss our current efforts to design and deploy experiments to measure the polarization of the CMB with the precision required to test inflation.

  4. Hazards of cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J.M.; Dzitko, H.

    2000-06-01

    The main limitations on long-distance space transport is neither the energy source nor the propulsion system but appears to be the protection of cosmonauts from radiation. Cosmic radiation is made up of protons (87%), alpha particles (12%) and heavy nuclei (1%), all these particles travel through interstellar space and come from the explosion of stars at the end of their life. The earth is protected from cosmic radiation by 3 natural shields: i) the magnetic field generated by the solar wind, ii) the earth magnetic field (magnetosphere), and iii) the earth atmosphere, this elusive layer of air is equivalent to a 10 meter-high volume of water. Magnetosphere and atmosphere reduce the radiation dose by a factor 4000. According to a European directive (1996) air crews must be considered as radiation workers. (A.C.)

  5. Terrestrial Analogs to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.; Arcone, S.; Arvidson, R. W.; Baker, V.; Barlow, N. G.; Beaty, D.; Bell, M. S.; Blankenship, D. D.; Bridges, N.; Briggs, G.; Bulmer, M.; Carsey, F.; Clifford, S. M.; Craddock, R. A.; Dickerson, P. W.; Duxbury, N.; Galford, G. L.; Garvin, J.; Grant, J.; Green, J. R.; Gregg, T. K. P.; Guinness, E.; Hansen, V. L.; Hecht, M. H.; Holt, J.; Howard, A.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Lee, P.; Lanagan, P. D.; Lentz, R. C. F.; Leverington, D. W.; Marinangeli, L.; Moersch, J. E.; Morris-Smith, P. A.; Mouginis-Mark, P.; Olhoeft, G. R.; Ori, G. G.; Paillou, P.; Reilly, J. F., II; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Robinson, C. A.; Sheridan, M.; Snook, K.; Thomson, B. J.; Watson, K.; Williams, K.; Yoshikawa, K.

    2002-08-01

    It is well recognized that interpretations of Mars must begin with the Earth as a reference. The most successful comparisons have focused on understanding geologic processes on the Earth well enough to extrapolate to Mars' environment. Several facets of terrestrial analog studies have been pursued and are continuing. These studies include field workshops, characterization of terrestrial analog sites, instrument tests, laboratory measurements (including analysis of Martian meteorites), and computer and laboratory modeling. The combination of all these activities allows scientists to constrain the processes operating in specific terrestrial environments and extrapolate how similar processes could affect Mars. The Terrestrial Analogs for Mars Community Panel has considered the following two key questions: (1) How do terrestrial analog studies tie in to the Mars Exploration Payload Assessment Group science questions about life, past climate, and geologic evolution of Mars, and (2) How can future instrumentation be used to address these questions. The panel has considered the issues of data collection, value of field workshops, data archiving, laboratory measurements and modeling, human exploration issues, association with other areas of solar system exploration, and education and public outreach activities.

  6. Cosmic Connections

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard

    2003-01-01

    A National Research Council study on connecting quarks with the cosmos has recently posed a number of the more important open questions at the interface between particle physics and cosmology. These questions include the nature of dark matter and dark energy, how the Universe began, modifications to gravity, the effects of neutrinos on the Universe, how cosmic accelerators work, and whether there are new states of matter at high density and pressure. These questions are discussed in the context of the talks presented at this Summer Institute.

  7. Gene Expression Dynamics in Major Endocrine Regulatory Pathways along the Transition from Solitary to Social Life in a Bumblebee, Bombus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Jedlička

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the social evolution leading to insect eusociality requires, among other, a detailed insight into endocrine regulatory mechanisms that have been co-opted from solitary ancestors to play new roles in the complex life histories of eusocial species. Bumblebees represent well-suited models of a relatively primitive social organization standing on the mid-way to highly advanced eusociality and their queens undergo both, a solitary and a social phase, separated by winter diapause.In the present paper, we characterize the gene expression levels of major endocrine regulatory pathways across tissues, sexes, and life-stages of the buff-tailed bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, with special emphasis on critical stages of the queen’s transition from solitary to social life. We focused on fundamental genes of three pathways: (1 Forkhead box protein O and insulin/insulin-like signaling, (2 Juvenile hormone signaling, and (3 Adipokinetic hormone signaling. Virgin queens were distinguished by higher expression of forkhead box protein O and downregulated insulin-like peptides and juvenile hormone (JH signaling, indicated by low expression of methyl farnesoate epoxidase (MFE and transcription factor Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1. Diapausing queens showed the expected downregulation of JH signaling in terms of low MFE and vitellogenin (Vg expressions, but an unexpectedly high expression of Kr-h1. By contrast, reproducing queens revealed an upregulation of MFE and Vg together with insulin signaling. Surprisingly, the insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1 turned out to be a queen-specific hormone. Workers exhibited an expression pattern of MFE and Vg similar to that of reproducing queens. Males were characterized by high Kr-h1 expression and low Vg level. The tissue comparison unveiled an unexpected resemblance between the fat body and hypopharyngeal glands across all investigated genes, sexes, and life stages.

  8. A combination of tryptophan, Satureja montana, Tribulus terrestris, Phyllanthus emblica extracts is able to improve sexual quality of life in patient with premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Sansalone

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The management of patient affected by premature ejaculation (PE is nowadays not highly satisfactory. Here, we aimed to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of a combination of tryptophan, Satureja montana, Tribulus terrestris, Phyllanthus emblica extracts in order to improve sexual quality of life in patients with premature ejaculation. Materials and methods: All patients attending to 5 urological centers from January 2015 to March 2015, due to premature ejaculation were enrolled in this study. At the enrolment visit, all subjects underwent self-administered IIEF-5, Male Sexual Health Questionnaire-Ejaculation Disorder (MSHQEjD, PEDT and IELTS (calculated as mean from that perceived by partner and that perceived by patient and underwent urological visit and laboratory examinations. All patients received one tablet per day of a combination of tryptophan, Satureja montana, Tribulus terrestris, Phyllanthus emblica extracts for 3 months (Group A. After 3 months all patients underwent follow-up visit with the same investigations that have been carried out in the enrolment visit. The results were compared with a cohort of patients enrolled in the same period in another urological center and considered as a control group (Group B. All patients in the control group underwent counseling and sexual behavioral treatment without any pharmacological compound. Results: At the follow-up analysis, significant changes in terms of IELT in the Group A (mean difference: 31.90; p < 0.05 at 3 months and versus Group B at the intergroup analysis (mean difference: 30.30; p < 0.05 were reported. In the group A, significant differences from baseline to last follow- up were observed relative to IIEF-5 (mean difference: 1.04; p < 0.05, PEDT (mean difference: -2.57; p < 0.05 and FSH (mean difference: -16.46; p < 0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, patients affected by PE may significantly benefit from oral therapy with a combination of tryptophan, Satureja montana

  9. Carl Sagan's Cosmic Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Carl; Agel, Jerome

    2000-08-01

    Foreword Freeman Dyson; Personal reflections Ann Druyan; Preface; Part I. Cosmic Perspective: 1. A transitional animal; 2. The Unicorn of Cetus; 3. A message from earth; 4. A message to earth; 5. Experiments in utopias; 6. Chauvinism; 7. Space exploration as a human enterprise I. The scientific interest; 8. Space exploration as a human enterprise II. The public interest; 9. Space exploration as a human enterprise III. The historical interest; Part II. The Solar System: 10. On teaching the first grade; 11. 'The ancient and legendary Gods of old'; 12. The Venus detective story; 13. Venus is hell; 14. Science and 'intelligence'; 15. The moons of Barsoom; 16. The mountains of Mars I. Observations from earth; 17. The mountains of Mars II. Observations from space; 18. The canals of Mars; 19. The lost pictures of Mars; 20. The Ice Age and the cauldron; 21. Beginnings and ends of the Earth; 22. Terraforming the plants; 23. The exploration and utlization of the solar system; Part III. Beyond the Solar System: 24. Some of my best friends are dolphins; 25. 'Hello, central casting? Send me twenty extraterrestrials'; 26. The cosmic connection; 27. Extraterrestrial life: an idea whose time has come; 28. Has the Earth been visited?; 29. A search strategy for detecting extraterrestrial intelligence; 30. If we succeed 31. Cables, drums, and seashells; 32. The night freight to the stars; 33. Astroengineering; 34. Twenty questions: a classification of cosmic civilisations; 35. Galactic cultural exchanges; 36. A passage to elsewhere; 37. Starfolk I. A Fable; 38. Starfolk II. A future; 39. Starfolk III. The cosmic Cheshire cats; Epilog David Morrison; Index.

  10. Life cycle stage and water depth affect flooding-induced adventitious root formation in the terrestrial species Solanum dulcamara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Visser, Eric J W; de Kroon, Hans; Huber, Heidrun

    2015-08-01

    Flooding can occur at any stage of the life cycle of a plant, but often adaptive responses of plants are only studied at a single developmental stage. It may be anticipated that juvenile plants may respond differently from mature plants, as the amount of stored resources may differ and morphological changes can be constrained. Moreover, different water depths may require different strategies to cope with the flooding stress, the expression of which may also depend on developmental stage. This study investigated whether flooding-induced adventitious root formation and plant growth were affected by flooding depth in Solanum dulcamara plants at different developmental stages. Juvenile plants without pre-formed adventitious root primordia and mature plants with primordia were subjected to shallow flooding or deep flooding for 5 weeks. Plant growth and the timing of adventitious root formation were monitored during the flooding treatments. Adventitious root formation in response to shallow flooding was significantly constrained in juvenile S. dulcamara plants compared with mature plants, and was delayed by deep flooding compared with shallow flooding. Complete submergence suppressed adventitious root formation until up to 2 weeks after shoots restored contact with the atmosphere. Independent of developmental stage, a strong positive correlation was found between adventitious root formation and total biomass accumulation during shallow flooding. The potential to deploy an escape strategy (i.e. adventitious root formation) may change throughout a plant's life cycle, and is largely dependent on flooding depth. Adaptive responses at a given stage of the life cycle thus do not necessarily predict how the plant responds to flooding in another growth stage. As variation in adventitious root formation also correlates with finally attained biomass, this variation may form the basis for variation in resistance to shallow flooding among plants. © The Author 2015. Published by

  11. Garden of cosmic speculation

    CERN Document Server

    Jencks, Charles

    2005-01-01

    This book tells the story of one of the most important gardens in Europe, created by the architectural critic and designer Charles Jencks and his late wife, the landscape architect and author Maggie Keswick. The Garden of Cosmic Speculation is a landscape that celebrates the new sciences of complexity and chaos theory and consists of a series of metaphors exploring the origins, the destiny and the substance of the Universe. The book is illustrated with year-round photography, bringing the garden's many dimensions vividly to life.

  12. Terrestrial magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, D.C.; Agarwal, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a review about terrestrial magnetosphere. During the last few years considerable investigation have been carried out about the properties of Solar Wind and its interaction with planetary magnetic fields. It is therefore of high importance to accumulate all the investigations in a comprehensive form. The paper reviews the property of earth's magnetosphere, magnetosheath, magneto pause, polar cusps, bow shook and plasma sheath. (author)

  13. Hindlimb musculature of the largest living rodent Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Caviomorpha): Adaptations to semiaquatic and terrestrial styles of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Esponda, César M; Candela, Adriana M

    2016-03-01

    The caviomorph species Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Cavioidea), or capybara, is the largest living rodent. This species is widely distributed, from northern South America to Uruguay and eastern Argentina, inhabiting in a wide variety of densely vegetated lowlands habitats in the proximity of water. Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris not only runs with agility, like other members of the Cavioidea, but it can also swim and dive easily. For these reasons, it has been classified as a cursorial as well as semiaquatic species. However, comprehensive anatomical descriptions of the osteology and myology of the capybara are not available in the literature and analyses on its swimming abilities are still required. We hypothesize that some of the characters of the hindlimb of H. hydrochaeris could reveal a unique morphological arrangement associated with swimming abilities. In this study, an anatomical description of the hindlimb musculature of H. hydrochaeris, and a discussion of the possible functional significance of the main muscles is provided. In addition, we explore the evolution of some myological and osteological characters of the capybara in the context of the cavioids. We concluded that most of the muscular and osteological features of the hindlimb of H. hydrochaeris are neither adaptations to a specialized cursoriality, nor major modifications for an aquatic mode of life. Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris share several features with other cavioids, being a generalized cursorial species in the context of this clade. However, it shows some adaptations of the hindlimb for enhancing propulsion through water, of which the most notable seems to be the shortening of the leg, short tendons of most muscles of the leg, and a well-developed soleus muscle. These adaptations to a semiaquatic mode of life could have been acquired during the most recent evolutionary history of the hydrochoerids. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Alteration of Organic Compounds in Small Bodies and Cosmic Dusts by Cosmic Rays and Solar Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kensei; Kaneko, Takeo; Mita, Hajime; Obayashi, Yumiko; Takahashi, Jun-ichi; Sarker, Palash K.; Kawamoto, Yukinori; Okabe, Takuto; Eto, Midori; Kanda, Kazuhiro

    2012-07-01

    A wide variety of complex organic compounds have been detected in extraterrestrial bodies like carbonaceous chondrites and comets, and their roles in the generation of terrestrial life are discussed. It was suggested that organics in small bodies were originally formed in ice mantles of interstellar dusts in dense cloud. Irradiation of frozen mixture of possible interstellar molecules including CO (or CH _{3}OH), NH _{3} and H _{2}O with high-energy particles gave complex amino acid precursors with high molecular weights [1]. Such complex organic molecules were taken in planetesimals or comets in the early solar system. In prior to the generation of the terrestrial life, extraterrestrial organics were delivered to the primitive Earth by such small bodies as meteorites, comets and space dusts. These organics would have been altered by cosmic rays and solar radiation (UV, X-rays) before the delivery to the Earth. We examined possible alteration of amino acids, their precursors and nucleic acid bases in interplanetary space by irradiation with high energy photons and heavy ions. A mixture of CO, NH _{3} and H _{2}O was irradiated with high-energy protons from a van de Graaff accelerator (TIT, Japan). The resulting products (hereafter referred to as CAW) are complex precursors of amino acids. CAW, amino acids (dl-Isovaline, glycine), hydantoins (amino acid precursors) and nucleic acid bases were irradiated with continuous emission (soft X-rays to IR; hereafter referred to as soft X-rays irradiation) from BL-6 of NewSUBARU synchrotron radiation facility (Univ. Hyogo). They were also irradiated with heavy ions (eg., 290 MeV/u C ^{6+}) from HIMAC accelerator (NIRS, Japan). After soft X-rays irradiation, water insoluble materials were formed. After irradiation with soft X-rays or heavy ions, amino acid precursors (CAW and hydantoins) gave higher ratio of amino acids were recovered after hydrolysis than free amino acids. Nucleic acid bases showed higher stability than free

  15. Hydrothermal simulation experiments as a tool for studies of the origin of life on Earth and other terrestrial planets: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Nils G; Andersson, Eva

    2005-08-01

    life on Earth and probably also to the other terrestrial planets.

  16. Our cosmic habitat

    CERN Document Server

    Rees, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Our universe seems strangely 'biophilic,' or hospitable to life. Is this providence or coincidence? According to Martin Rees, the answer depends on the answer to another question, the one posed by Einstein's famous remark: 'What interests me most is whether God could have made the world differently.' This highly engaging book centres on the fascinating consequences of the answer being 'yes'. Rees explores the notion that our universe is just part of a vast 'multiverse,' or ensemble of universes, in which most of the other universes are lifeless. What we call the laws of nature would then be local by laws, imposed in the aftermath of our own Big Bang. In this scenario, our cosmic habitat would be a special, possibly unique universe where the prevailing laws of physics allowed life to emerge.

  17. Multi-spectra Cosmic Ray Flux Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaochun; Dayananda, Mathes

    2010-02-01

    The Earth's upper atmosphere is constantly bombarded by rain of charged particles known as primary cosmic rays. These primary cosmic rays will collide with the atmospheric molecules and create extensive secondary particles which shower downward to the surface of the Earth. In recent years, a few studies have been done regarding to the applications of the cosmic ray measurements and the correlations between the Earth's climate conditions and the cosmic ray fluxes [1,2,3]. Most of the particles, which reach to the surface of the Earth, are muons together with a small percentage of electrons, gammas, neutrons, etc. At Georgia State University, multiple cosmic ray particle detectors have been constructed to measure the fluxes and energy distributions of the secondary cosmic ray particles. In this presentation, we will briefly describe these prototype detectors and show the preliminary test results. Reference: [1] K.Borozdin, G.Hogan, C.Morris, W.Priedhorsky, A.Saunders, L.Shultz, M.Teasdale, Nature, Vol.422, 277 (2003). [2] L.V. Egorova, V. Ya Vovk, O.A. Troshichev, Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics 62, 955-966 (2000). [3] Henrik Svensmark, Phy. Rev. Lett. 81, 5027 (1998). )

  18. Cosmic odyssey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidmann, J.

    1989-01-01

    The immensity of the cosmos, the richness of the universe, the limits of space and time: these are the themes of Cosmic Odyssey, which takes the reader on imaginary journeys through the past, present and future of our universe. After a first look at the starry night sky, the enigmas posed since ancient times by the universe are reviewed. There then follows a broadbrush view of the universe as we understand it today. Following this, a trio of chapters take us to ultimate questions about its nature. The author explores in turn the relativistic universe, the quantum universe and the inflationary universe. Finally the journey returns to questions that touch on our own presence in the universe. Cosmology, the science of understanding the nature of the universe as a whole, has gone through an extraordinary revolution in its approach. This book explains in detail the link between particle physics and cosmology, the very early universe, the significance of Grand Unified Theory and superstrings, the magical qualities of the inflationary universe, and the seemingly bleak scenarios for the farthest future. (author)

  19. Toward a List of Molecules as Potential Biosignature Gases for the Search for Life on Exoplanets and Applications to Terrestrial Biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, S; Bains, W; Petkowski, J J

    2016-06-01

    Thousands of exoplanets are known to orbit nearby stars. Plans for the next generation of space-based and ground-based telescopes are fueling the anticipation that a precious few habitable planets can be identified in the coming decade. Even more highly anticipated is the chance to find signs of life on these habitable planets by way of biosignature gases. But which gases should we search for? Although a few biosignature gases are prominent in Earth's atmospheric spectrum (O2, CH4, N2O), others have been considered as being produced at or able to accumulate to higher levels on exo-Earths (e.g., dimethyl sulfide and CH3Cl). Life on Earth produces thousands of different gases (although most in very small quantities). Some might be produced and/or accumulate in an exo-Earth atmosphere to high levels, depending on the exo-Earth ecology and surface and atmospheric chemistry. To maximize our chances of recognizing biosignature gases, we promote the concept that all stable and potentially volatile molecules should initially be considered as viable biosignature gases. We present a new approach to the subject of biosignature gases by systematically constructing lists of volatile molecules in different categories. An exhaustive list up to six non-H atoms is presented, totaling about 14,000 molecules. About 2500 of these are CNOPSH compounds. An approach for extending the list to larger molecules is described. We further show that about one-fourth of CNOPSH molecules (again, up to N = 6 non-H atoms) are known to be produced by life on Earth. The list can be used to study classes of chemicals that might be potential biosignature gases, considering their accumulation and possible false positives on exoplanets with atmospheres and surface environments different from Earth's. The list can also be used for terrestrial biochemistry applications, some examples of which are provided. We provide an online community usage database to serve as a registry for volatile molecules

  20. Terrestrial and exposure histories of Antarctic meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiizumi, K.

    1986-01-01

    Records of cosmogenic effects were studied in a large suite of Antarctic meteorites. The cosmogenic nuclide measurements together with cosmic ray track measurements on Antartic meteorites provide information such as exposure age, terrestrial age, size and depth in meteoroid or parent body, influx rate in the past, and pairing. The terrestrail age is the time period between the fall of the meteorite on the Earth and the present. To define terrestrial age, two or more nuclides with different half-lives and possibly noble gases are required. The cosmogenic radionuclides used are C-14, Kr-81, Cl-36, Al-26, Be-10, Mn-53, and K-40

  1. Terrestrial and exposure histories of Antarctic meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiizumi, K.

    1986-01-01

    Records of cosmogenic effects were studied in a large suite of Antarctic meteorites. The cosmogenic nuclide measurements together with cosmic ray track measurements on Antartic meteorites provide information such as exposure age, terrestrial age, size and depth in meteoroid or parent body, influx rate in the past, and pairing. The terrestrail age is the time period between the fall of the meteorite on the Earth and the present. To define terrestrial age, two or more nuclides with different half-lives and possibly noble gases are required. The cosmogenic radionuclides used are C-14, Kr-81, Cl-36, Al-26, Be-10, Mn-53, and K-40.

  2. George's cosmic treasure hunt

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Lucy; Parsons, Gary

    2009-01-01

    George and Annie explore the galaxy in this cosmic adventure from Stephen Hawking and Lucy Hawking, complete with essays from Professor Hawking about the latest in space travel. George is heartbroken when he learns that his friend Annie and her father are moving to the US. Eric has a new job working for the space program, looking for signs of life in the Universe. Eric leaves George with a gift—a book called The User’s Guide to the Universe. But Annie and Eric haven’t been gone for very long when Annie believes that she is being contacted by aliens, who have a terrible warning for her. George joins her in the US to help her with her quest—and before he knows it, he, Annie, Cosmos, and Annie’s annoying cousin Emmett have been swept up in a cosmic treasure hunt, spanning the whole galaxy and beyond. Lucy Hawking's own experiences in zero-gravity flight and interviews with astronauts at Cape Kennedy and the Johnson Space Center lend the book a sense of realism and excitement that is sure to fire up ima...

  3. A theory of ionospheric dynamo for complete model of terrestrial space at high and medium latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardanyan, Yu.S.

    1992-01-01

    A multi-layer model of terrestrial cosmic space at high and medium latitudes is considered in the approximation of infinite conductivity of the Earth taking into account the ambipolar diffusion processes in upper layers of ionosphere. 14 refs

  4. Atmospheric ions and pollution. Ions of the cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachon, A.

    1977-01-01

    The principal historical steps before the so-called 'cosmic radiation' was known as an extra-terrestrial radiation are described. The origin, nature and energy of the radiation are discussed together with its evolution all along its path through atmosphere, in view of the interaction that occurs between the radiation and the atmosphere. The mechanism of the ionization induced by cosmic radiation is analyzed, the corresponding energy balance is established and the possible singularities in air ionization induced by cosmic rays are discussed [fr

  5. Signatures of cosmic-ray interactions on the solar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckel, D.; Stanev, Todor; Gaisser, T. K.

    1991-01-01

    The fluxes of neutrinos, gamma rays, antiprotons, neutrons, and antineutrons that result from collisions of high-energy Galactic cosmic rays with the solar atmosphere are estimated. The results are sensitive to assumptions about cosmic-ray transport in the magnetic fields of the inner solar system. The high-energy photon flux should be observable by the Gamma Ray Observatory. The neutrino flux should produce less than one event per year in the next generation of neutrino telescopes. The antiproton flux is unobservable against the Galactic background. The neutron and antineutron fluxes are detectable only if neutrons produced in terrestrial cosmic-ray events may be discriminated against.

  6. ALICE Cosmic Ray Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Fernandez Tellez, A; Martinez Hernandez, M; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE underground cavern provides an ideal place for the detection of high energy atmospheric muons coming from cosmic ray showers. ACORDE detects cosmic ray showers by triggering the arrival of muons to the top of the ALICE magnet.

  7. Radio Astronomy Explorer /RAE/. I - Observations of terrestrial radio noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J. R.; Caruso, J. A.; Stone, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) I data are analyzed to establish characteristics of HF terrestrial radio noise at an altitude of about 6000 km. Time and frequency variations in amplitude of the observed noise well above cosmic noise background are explained on the basis of temporal and spatial variations in ionospheric critical frequency coupled with those in noise source distributions. It is shown that terrestrial radio noise regularly breaks through the ionosphere and reaches RAE with magnitudes 15 dB and more above cosmic noise background, on frequencies above the F-layer critical frequency.

  8. Cosmic Pessimism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Thacker

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The author of After Life (University of Chicago Press presents a series of aphorisms exploring pessimism's motility and its sessility. "A long, low funereal sigh" opens the reader onto an abrupt anatomical study of pessimism, its moral and metaphysical considerations and music. Songs of spite, of futility, of sleep, of doom and further mournful voices resound.

  9. Cosmic void clumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lares, M.; Luparello, H. E.; Garcia Lambas, D.; Ruiz, A. N.; Ceccarelli, L.; Paz, D.

    2017-10-01

    Cosmic voids are of great interest given their relation to the large scale distribution of mass and the way they trace cosmic flows shaping the cosmic web. Here we show that the distribution of voids has, in consonance with the distribution of mass, a characteristic scale at which void pairs are preferentially located. We identify clumps of voids with similar environments and use them to define second order underdensities. Also, we characterize its properties and analyze its impact on the cosmic microwave background.

  10. Cosmic Microwave Background Timeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmic Microwave Background Timeline 1934 : Richard Tolman shows that blackbody radiation in an will have a blackbody cosmic microwave background with temperature about 5 K 1955: Tigran Shmaonov anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background, this strongly supports the big bang model with gravitational

  11. Terrestrial ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The main effort of the Terrestrial Ecology Division has been redirected to a comprehensive study of the Espiritu Santo Drainage Basin located in northeastern Puerto Rico. The general objective are to provide baseline ecological data for future environmental assessment studies at the local and regional levels, and to provide through an ecosystem approach data for the development of management alternatives for the wise utilization of energy, water, and land resources. The interrelationships among climate, vegetation, soils, and man, and their combined influence upon the hydrologic cycle will be described and evaluated. Environmental management involves planning and decision making, and both require an adequate data base. At present, little is known about the interworkings of a complete, integrated system such as a drainage basin. A literature survey of the main research areas confirmed that, although many individual ecologically oriented studies have been carried out in a tropical environment, few if any provide the data base required for environmental management. In view of rapidly changing socio-economic conditions and natural resources limitations, management urgently requires data from these systems: physical (climatological), biological, and cultural. This integrated drainage basin study has been designed to provide such data. The scope of this program covers the hydrologic cycle as it is affected by the interactions of the physical, biological, and cultural systems

  12. Life in the fluvial hinterland of the late Sarmatian Sea (middle Miocene): a rare terrestrial fossil site in the Styrian Basin (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubrawa, Monika; Gross, Martin; Harzhauser, Mathias

    2018-02-01

    This paper describes the section and fossil content of a former gravel pit in the Eastern Styrian Basin (SE Austria), which exposes sediments of a fluvial system, ranging from within channel to overbank environments. A predominately terrestrial gastropod fauna of 15 species so far, was recovered from a palaeosol formed in a moist and vegetated, floodplain or abandoned channel. Up-section, a shallow freshwater pond/lake developed within the floodplain, settled by fishes, molluscs and ostracods. By integrating regional geological and biostratigraphical data derived from the terrestrial gastropod fauna as well as from the other recovered biota, these strata are of late middle Miocene (late Sarmatian s.str.) age. Hence, this fossil site provides a rare insight into the terrestrial habitats in the hinterland of the Sarmatian Sea and their biota, which are otherwise barely known in Central Europe.

  13. Cosmic Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, S. K.; Mallik, D. C. V.; Vishveshwara, C. V.

    2008-07-01

    1. Astronomy in ancient and medieval China Joseph Needham; 2. Indian astronomy: an historical perspective B. V. Subbarayappa; 3. Making of astronomy in ancient India Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya; 4. The impact of astronomy on the development of western science Jean-Claude Pecker; 5. Man and the Universe Hubert Reeves; 6. Understanding the Universe - challenges and directions in modern observational astronomy Harlan Smith, Jr: 7. Frontiers in cosmology Fred Hoyle; 8. Did the Universe originate in a big bang? Jayant Narlikar; 9. The dark matter problem Bernard Carr; 10. Geometry and the Universe C. V. Vishveshwara; 11. The origin and evolution of life Cyril Ponnamperuma; 12. The anthropic principle: self selection as an adjunct to natural selection Brandon Carter; 13. Astrology and science: an examination of the evidence Ivan Kelly, Roger Culver and Peter Loptson; 14. Astronomy and science fiction Allen Janis.

  14. Changes in the morphology and ultrastructure in the Dufour's gland during the life cycle of the Bumble bee queen, Bombus terrestris L.(Hymenoptera: Bombini)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdalla, Fábio Camargo; Velthuis, Hayo; Cruz-Landim, Carminda da; Duchateau, Marie José

    1999-01-01

    The Dufour's gland is found closely associated with the sting apparatus of all female hymenopterans, playing multiple roles among bees. In some species of Bombus the gland may be involved in production of nestmate recognition pheromones, but in B. terrestris its function is not certain yet. The

  15. An estimate of cosmic dose component around Kudankulam site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, B.; Thomas, G.; Rajan, P.S.; Selvi, B.S.; Balamurugan, M.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Natural ionizing radiation pervades the whole environment and enters human lives in a wide variety of ways. It arises from natural processes such as the decay of terrestrially deposited radionuclides in the earth, and artificial processes like the use of X-rays in medicine. Thus, radiation can be classified as natural and artificial depending on its origin. Natural sources include cosmic rays, terrestrial gamma radiation, radon and its decay products in air and various radio nuclides found naturally in food and drink. Cosmic rays reach the earth from outer space. Artificial sources include medical X-rays, therapeutic use of radioisotopes, fallout from past weapon tests, discharges from nuclear industry, industrial gamma rays and use of radioisotopes in consumer products. This paper attempts to estimate the natural cosmic dose component around Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant site in the south eastern coast of India. (author)

  16. Cosmic disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Y; Morisawa, S [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1975-03-01

    The technical and economical possibility and safety of the disposal of highly radioactive waste into cosmos are reviewed. The disposal of highly radioactive waste is serious problem to be solved in the near future, because it is produced in large amounts by the reprocessing of spent fuel. The promising methods proposed are (i) underground disposal, (ii) ocean disposal, (iii) cosmic disposal and (iv) extinguishing disposal. The final disposal method is not yet decided internationally. The radioactive waste contains very long life nuclides, for example transuranic elements and actinide elements. The author thinks the most perfect and safe disposal method for these very long life nuclides is the disposal into cosmos. The space vehicle carrying radioactive waste will be launched safely into outer space with recent space technology. The selection of orbit for vehicles (earth satellite or orbit around planets) or escape from solar system, selection of launching rocket type pretreatment of waste, launching weight, and the cost of cosmic disposal were investigated roughly and quantitatively. Safety problem of cosmic disposal should be examined from the reliable safety study data in the future.

  17. Cosmic Accelerators: An Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanbach, Gottfried

    2005-01-01

    High energy, relativistic, particles are an essential component of the Universe and play a major role in astrophysics. In a few years we will reach the centennial of the discovery of cosmic rays; all through this century the properties, origin, and effects of this radiation have intrigued researchers in astrophysics and elementary particles alike. We briefly review the history, current status, and future perspectives of cosmic ray research. Emphasis will be placed on the multitude of cosmic accelerators, direct observations of these objects, and the effects of cosmic rays in the Galaxy and beyond

  18. High energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Stanev, Todor

    2010-01-01

    Offers an accessible text and reference (a cosmic-ray manual) for graduate students entering the field and high-energy astrophysicists will find this an accessible cosmic-ray manual Easy to read for the general astronomer, the first part describes the standard model of cosmic rays based on our understanding of modern particle physics. Presents the acceleration scenario in some detail in supernovae explosions as well as in the passage of cosmic rays through the Galaxy. Compares experimental data in the atmosphere as well as underground are compared with theoretical models

  19. Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) 1 observations of terrestrial radio noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J. R.; Caruso, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    Radio Astonomy Explorer (RAE) 1 data are analyzed to establish characteristics of HF terrestrial radio noise at an altitude of about 6000 km. Time and frequency variations in amplitude of the observed noise well above cosmic noise background are explained on the basis of temporal and spatial variations in ionospheric critical frequency coupled with those in noise source distributions. It is shown that terrestrial noise regularly breaks through the ionosphere and reaches RAE with magnitudes 15 or more db higher than cosmic noise background. Maximum terrestrial noise is observed when RAE is over the dark side of the Earth in the neighborhood of equatorial continental land masses where thunderstorms occur most frequently. The observed noise level is 30-40 db lower with RAE over oceans.

  20. Deepening Cosmic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    This article is a special blend of research, theory, and practice, with clear insight into the origins of Cosmic Education and cosmic task, while recalling memories of student explorations in botany, in particular, episodes from Mr. Leonard's teaching. Mr. Leonard speaks of a storytelling curriculum that eloquently puts perspective into dimensions…

  1. Primary cosmic ray flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor

    2001-05-01

    We discuss the primary cosmic ray flux from the point of view of particle interactions and production of atmospheric neutrinos. The overall normalization of the cosmic ray flux and its time variations and site dependence are major ingredients of the atmospheric neutrino predictions and the basis for the derivation of the neutrino oscillation parameters.

  2. Cosmic rays on earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allkofer, O.C.; Grieder, P.K.F.

    1984-01-01

    A data collection is presented that covers cosmic rays on earth. Included are all relevant data on flux and intensity measurements, energy spectra, and related data of all primary and secondary components of the cosmic radiation at all levels in the atmosphere, at sea level and underground. In those cases where no useful experimental data have been available, theoretical predictions were substituted. (GSCH)

  3. Natural and man-made terrestrial electromagnetic noise: an outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Meloni

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial environment is continuously exposed to electromagnetic radiations which set up a «background» electromagnetic noise. Within the Non Ionizing Radiation band (NIR, i.e. for frequencies lower than 300 GHz, this background can have a natural or an artificial origin. Natural origins of electromagnetic radiations are generally atmospheric or cosmic while artificial origins are technological applications, power transmission, communications, etc. This paper briefly describes the natural and man-made electromagnetic noise in the NIR band. Natural noise comes from a large variety of sources involving different physical phenomena and covering a wide range of frequencies and showing various propagation characteristics with an extremely broad range of power levels. Due to technological growth man-made electromagnetic noise is nowadays superimposed on natural noise almost everywhere on Earth. In the last decades man-made noise has increased dramatically over and above the natural noise in residential and business areas. This increase has led some scientists to consider possible negative effects of electromagnetic waves on human life and living systems in general. Accurate measurements of natural and man-made electromagnetic noise are necessary to understand the relative power levels in the different bands and their influence on life.

  4. Our Cosmic Insignificance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2014-01-01

    The universe that surrounds us is vast, and we are so very small. When we reflect on the vastness of the universe, our humdrum cosmic location, and the inevitable future demise of humanity, our lives can seem utterly insignificant. Many philosophers assume that such worries about our significance reflect a banal metaethical confusion. They dismiss the very idea of cosmic significance. This, I argue, is a mistake. Worries about cosmic insignificance do not express metaethical worries about objectivity or nihilism, and we can make good sense of the idea of cosmic significance and its absence. It is also possible to explain why the vastness of the universe can make us feel insignificant. This impression does turn out to be mistaken, but not for the reasons typically assumed. In fact, we might be of immense cosmic significance—though we cannot, at this point, tell whether this is the case. PMID:25729095

  5. Multitaper spectral analysis of cosmic rays Sao Martinho da Serra's muon telescope and Newark's neutron monitor data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marlos Rockenbach da; Alarcon, Walter Demetrio Gonzalez; Echer, Ezequiel; Lago, Alisson dal; Lucas, Aline de [National Institute for Space Research - INPE-MCT, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Vieira, Luis Eduardo Antunes; Guarnieri, Fernando Luis [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba - UNIVAP, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Schuch, Nelson Jorge [Southern Regional Space Research Center - CRSPE/INPE-MCT, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Munakata, Kazuoki, E-mail: marlos@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: gonzalez@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: eecher@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: dallago@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: delucas@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: levieira@univap.br, E-mail: guarnieri@univap.br, E-mail: njschuch@lacesm.ufsm.br, E-mail: kmuna00@gipac.shinshu-u.ac.jp [Physics Department, Shinshu University, Matsumoto (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    In this work we present an analysis on the correction efficiency of atmospheric effects on cosmic ray Sao Martinho da Serra's muon telescope and Newark's neutron monitor data. We use a Multitaper spectral analysis of cosmic rays time series to show the main periodicities present in the corrected and uncorrected data for the atmospheric effects. This kind of correction is very important when intends to study cosmic rays variations of extra-terrestrial origin. (author)

  6. Cosmic transcendence, loneliness and exchange of emotional support with adult children: A study among older parents in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadler, E.; Braam, A.J.; Broese Van Groenou, M.I.; Deeg, D.J.H.; van der Geest, S.

    2006-01-01

    Gerotranscendence defines a shift in meta-perspective from earlier materialistic and pragmatic concerns, toward more cosmic and transcendent ones in later life. Population-based studies that have empirically examined this concept using Tornstam's gerotranscendence scale, highlight cosmic

  7. Light scattering by cosmic particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovenier, J.W.; Min, M.

    2008-01-01

    We define cosmic particles as particles outside the Earth. Two types of cosmic particles can be distinguished, namely liquid and solid particles. The solid particles are often called grains or cosmic dust particles. Cosmic particles occur in a great variety of astronomical objects and environments.

  8. 11. European cosmic ray symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The biannual Symposium includes all aspects of cosmic ray research. The scientific programme was organized under three main headings: Cosmic rays in the heliosphere, Cosmic rays in the interstellar and extragalactic space, Properties of high-energy interactions as studied by cosmic rays. Seven invited talks were indexed seprately for the INIS database. (R.P.)

  9. Cosmic gamma bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehstulin, I.V.

    1980-01-01

    A brief consideration is being given to the history of cosmic gamma burst discovery and modern knowledge of their properties. The time dependence of gamma bursts is described and their possible sources are discussed

  10. Cosmic microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The 20-ft horn-reflector antenna at Bell Laboratories is discussed in detail with emphasis on the 7.35 cm radiometer. The circumstances leading to the detection of the cosmic microwave background radiation are explored

  11. Cosmic ray acceleration mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.J.

    1982-09-01

    We present a brief summary of some of the most popular theories of cosmic ray acceleration: Fermi acceleration, its application to acceleration by shocks in a scattering medium, and impulsive acceleration by relativistic shocks

  12. A COSMIC VARIANCE COOKBOOK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moster, Benjamin P.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Somerville, Rachel S.; Newman, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Deep pencil beam surveys ( 2 ) are of fundamental importance for studying the high-redshift universe. However, inferences about galaxy population properties (e.g., the abundance of objects) are in practice limited by 'cosmic variance'. This is the uncertainty in observational estimates of the number density of galaxies arising from the underlying large-scale density fluctuations. This source of uncertainty can be significant, especially for surveys which cover only small areas and for massive high-redshift galaxies. Cosmic variance for a given galaxy population can be determined using predictions from cold dark matter theory and the galaxy bias. In this paper, we provide tools for experiment design and interpretation. For a given survey geometry, we present the cosmic variance of dark matter as a function of mean redshift z-bar and redshift bin size Δz. Using a halo occupation model to predict galaxy clustering, we derive the galaxy bias as a function of mean redshift for galaxy samples of a given stellar mass range. In the linear regime, the cosmic variance of these galaxy samples is the product of the galaxy bias and the dark matter cosmic variance. We present a simple recipe using a fitting function to compute cosmic variance as a function of the angular dimensions of the field, z-bar , Δz, and stellar mass m * . We also provide tabulated values and a software tool. The accuracy of the resulting cosmic variance estimates (δσ v /σ v ) is shown to be better than 20%. We find that for GOODS at z-bar =2 and with Δz = 0.5, the relative cosmic variance of galaxies with m * >10 11 M sun is ∼38%, while it is ∼27% for GEMS and ∼12% for COSMOS. For galaxies of m * ∼ 10 10 M sun , the relative cosmic variance is ∼19% for GOODS, ∼13% for GEMS, and ∼6% for COSMOS. This implies that cosmic variance is a significant source of uncertainty at z-bar =2 for small fields and massive galaxies, while for larger fields and intermediate mass galaxies, cosmic

  13. Direct cosmic ray muons and atmospheric neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryazhskaya, O.G.; Volkova, L.V.; Zatsepin, G.T.

    2005-01-01

    A possible contribution of very short living particles (particles with life-time much shorter than that of charmed particles), for example, resonances, into cosmic ray muon and atmospheric neutrino fluxes (direct muons and neutrinos) is estimated. This contribution could become of the same order of magnitude as that from pions and kaons (conventional) already at energies of hundreds TeV and tens TeV for muons and muon neutrinos coming to the sea level in the vertical direction correspondingly. Of course, the estimation has quite a qualitative character and even it is quite arbitrary but it is necessary to keep this contribution in mind when studying EAS, cosmic ray muon component or trying to interpret data of experiments on cosmic neutrino searching at high energies

  14. Jupiter: Cosmic Jekyll and Hyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazier, Kevin R

    2016-01-01

    It has been widely reported that Jupiter has a profound role in shielding the terrestrial planets from comet impacts in the Solar System, and that a jovian planet is a requirement for the evolution of life on Earth. To evaluate whether jovians, in fact, shield habitable planets from impacts (a phenomenon often referred to as the "Jupiter as shield" concept), this study simulated the evolution of 10,000 particles in each of the jovian inter-planet gaps for the cases of full-mass and embryo planets for up to 100 My. The results of these simulations predict a number of phenomena that not only discount the "Jupiter as shield" concept, they also predict that in a Solar System like ours, large gas giants like Saturn and Jupiter had a different, and potentially even more important, role in the evolution of life on our planet by delivering the volatile-laden material required for the formation of life. The simulations illustrate that, although all particles occupied "non-life threatening" orbits at their onset of the simulations, a significant fraction of the 30,000 particles evolved into Earth-crossing orbits. A comparison of multiple runs with different planetary configurations revealed that Jupiter was responsible for the vast majority of the encounters that "kicked" outer planet material into the terrestrial planet region, and that Saturn assisted in the process far more than has previously been acknowledged. Jupiter also tends to "fix" the aphelion of planetesimals at its orbit irrespective of their initial starting zones, which has the effect of slowing their passages through the inner Solar System, and thus potentially improving the odds of accretion of cometary material by terrestrial planets. As expected, the simulations indicate that the full-mass planets perturb many objects into the deep outer Solar System, or eject them entirely; however, planetary embryos also did this with surprising efficiency. Finally, the simulations predict that Jupiter's capacity to

  15. The role of cosmic rays in the atmospheric processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stozhkov, Y I [Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991, Leninsky Prospect, 53, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2003-05-01

    The energy flux of galactic cosmic rays falling on the earth's atmosphere is small in comparison with solar electromagnetic irradiation (by 10{sup 8} times). But at altitudes of h {approx} 3 to 35 km in the atmosphere, cosmic rays are the only ionization source (from the ground level up to h {approx} 3 km, natural radioactivity is an additional source of ionization). Solar activity modulates cosmic ray flux. The cosmic rays produce atmospheric ions that define the electrical properties of the atmosphere. The electric charges play a very important role in the processes of cloud and thundercloud formation in the operation of the global electric circuit. The changes in electric properties of the atmosphere influence weather and climate. Thus, we have the following chain of the solar terrestrial relationship: solar activity - cosmic ray modulation - changes in the global electric properties of the atmosphere - changes in weather and climate. The following questions are discussed in this paper: light ion production in the atmosphere, role of electric charges in the formation of clouds and thunderclouds, experimental evidences of the relationships between cosmic ray flux and atmospheric current and lightning.

  16. The role of cosmic rays in the atmospheric processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stozhkov, Y I

    2003-01-01

    The energy flux of galactic cosmic rays falling on the earth's atmosphere is small in comparison with solar electromagnetic irradiation (by 10 8 times). But at altitudes of h ∼ 3 to 35 km in the atmosphere, cosmic rays are the only ionization source (from the ground level up to h ∼ 3 km, natural radioactivity is an additional source of ionization). Solar activity modulates cosmic ray flux. The cosmic rays produce atmospheric ions that define the electrical properties of the atmosphere. The electric charges play a very important role in the processes of cloud and thundercloud formation in the operation of the global electric circuit. The changes in electric properties of the atmosphere influence weather and climate. Thus, we have the following chain of the solar terrestrial relationship: solar activity - cosmic ray modulation - changes in the global electric properties of the atmosphere - changes in weather and climate. The following questions are discussed in this paper: light ion production in the atmosphere, role of electric charges in the formation of clouds and thunderclouds, experimental evidences of the relationships between cosmic ray flux and atmospheric current and lightning

  17. Nearest Cosmic Mirage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Discovery of quadruply lensed quasar with Einstein ring Summary Using the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla (Chile), an international team of astronomers [1] has discovered a complex cosmic mirage in the southern constellation Crater (The Cup). This "gravitational lens" system consists of (at least) four images of the same quasar as well as a ring-shaped image of the galaxy in which the quasar resides - known as an "Einstein ring". The more nearby lensing galaxy that causes this intriguing optical illusion is also well visible. The team obtained spectra of these objects with the new EMMI camera mounted on the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT), also at the La Silla observatory. They find that the lensed quasar [2] is located at a distance of 6,300 million light-years (its "redshift" is z = 0.66 [3]) while the lensing elliptical galaxy is rougly halfway between the quasar and us, at a distance of 3,500 million light-years (z = 0.3). The system has been designated RXS J1131-1231 - it is the closest gravitationally lensed quasar discovered so far . PR Photo 20a/03 : Image of the gravitational lens system RXS J1131-1231 (ESO 3.6m Telescope). PR Photo 20b/03 : Spectra of two lensed images of the source quasar and the lensing galaxy. Cosmic mirages The physical principle behind a "gravitational lens" (also known as a "cosmic mirage") has been known since 1916 as a consequence of Albert Einstein's Theory of General Relativity . The gravitational field of a massive object curves the local geometry of the Universe, so light rays passing close to the object are bent (like a "straight line" on the surface of the Earth is necessarily curved because of the curvature of the Earth's surface). This effect was first observed by astronomers in 1919 during a total solar eclipse. Accurate positional measurements of stars seen in the dark sky near the eclipsed Sun indicated an apparent displacement in the direction opposite to the Sun, about as much as predicted by Einstein

  18. Does terrestrial epidemiology apply to marine systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Hamish I.; Kuris, Armand M.; Harvell, C. Drew; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Smith, Garriet W.; Porter, James

    2004-01-01

    Most of epidemiological theory has been developed for terrestrial systems, but the significance of disease in the ocean is now being recognized. However, the extent to which terrestrial epidemiology can be directly transferred to marine systems is uncertain. Many broad types of disease-causing organism occur both on land and in the sea, and it is clear that some emergent disease problems in marine environments are caused by pathogens moving from terrestrial to marine systems. However, marine systems are qualitatively different from terrestrial environments, and these differences affect the application of modelling and management approaches that have been developed for terrestrial systems. Phyla and body plans are more diverse in marine environments and marine organisms have different life histories and probably different disease transmission modes than many of their terrestrial counterparts. Marine populations are typically more open than terrestrial ones, with the potential for long-distance dispersal of larvae. Potentially, this might enable unusually rapid propagation of epidemics in marine systems, and there are several examples of this. Taken together, these differences will require the development of new approaches to modelling and control of infectious disease in the ocean.

  19. Radiative hazard of solar flares in the nearterrestrial cosmic space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomenskij, A.V.; Petrov, V.M.; Zil', M.V.; Eremkina, T.M.

    1978-01-01

    Simulation of radiation enviroment due to solar cosmic rays was carried out in the near-terrestrial space. Systematized are the data on cosmic ray flux and spectra detected during 19-th and 20-th cycles of solar activity. 127 flares are considered with proton fluxes of more than 10 proton/cm 2 at energies higher than 30 MeV. Obtained are distribution functions of intervals between flares, flux distribution of flares and characteristic rigidity, and also distribution of magnetic disturbances over Dsub(st)-variation amplitude. The totality of these distributions presents the statistic model of radiation enviroment caused by solar flare protons for the period of maximum solar .activity. This model is intended for estimation of radiation hazard at manned cosmic flights

  20. Correlation between ionospheric potential and the intensity of cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerott, R.E.; Reagan, J.B.; Evans, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Ionospheric potential variations with a period of about 10 yr have been observed in the data that have been acquired to date. Previous studies have shown that these variations appear to be correlated inversely with sunspot number and with solar wind velocity, and directly with cosmic ray intensity. Since the cosmic ray intensity is inversely correlated with sunspot number and solar wind velocity, these correlations all suggest that the long period variations are of solar origin. In this report it is shown that, over the limited period for which ionospheric potential measurements exist, the long period variations are better correlated with the aerosol burden injected into the stratosphere by large volcanic eruptions than with the intensity of cosmic rays. This result indicates that the long period variations in ionospheric potential are of terrestrial rather than solar origin. 20 references

  1. Cosmic-ray interactions and dating of meteorite stranding surfaces with cosmogenic nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    A wide variety of products from cosmic-ray interactions have been measured in terrestrial or extraterrestrial samples. These ''cosmogenic'' products include radiation damage tracks and rare nuclides that are made by nuclear reactions. They often have been used to determine the fluxes and composition of cosmic-ray particles in the past, but they are usually used to study the history of the ''target'' (such as the time period that it was exposed to cosmic-ray particles). Products made by both the high-energy galactic cosmic rays and energetic particles emitted irregularly from the Sun have been extensively studied. Some of these cosmogenic products, especially nuclides, have been or can be applied to studies of Antarctic meteorite stranding surfaces, the ice surfaces in Antarctica where meteorites have been found. Cosmogenic nuclides studied in samples from Antarctica and reported by others elsewhere in this volume include those in meteorites, especially radionuclides used to determine terrestrial ages, and those made in situ in terrestrial rocks. Cosmogenic nuclides made in the Earth's atmosphere or brought in with cosmic dust have also been studied in polar ice, and it should also be possible to measure nuclides made in situ in ice. As an introduction to cosmogenic nuclides and their applications, cosmic rays and their interactions will be presented below and production systematics of cosmogenic nuclides in these various media will be discussed later. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Cosmic-ray interactions and dating of meteorite stranding surfaces with cosmogenic nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    A wide variety of products from cosmic-ray interactions have been measured in terrestrial or extraterrestrial samples. These ''cosmogenic'' products include radiation damage tracks and rare nuclides that are made by nuclear reactions. They often have been used to determine the fluxes and composition of cosmic-ray particles in the past, but they are usually used to study the history of the ''target'' (such as the time period that it was exposed to cosmic-ray particles). Products made by both the high-energy galactic cosmic rays and energetic particles emitted irregularly from the Sun have been extensively studied. Some of these cosmogenic products, especially nuclides, have been or can be applied to studies of Antarctic meteorite stranding surfaces, the ice surfaces in Antarctica where meteorites have been found. Cosmogenic nuclides studied in samples from Antarctica and reported by others elsewhere in this volume include those in meteorites, especially radionuclides used to determine terrestrial ages, and those made in situ in terrestrial rocks. Cosmogenic nuclides made in the Earth's atmosphere or brought in with cosmic dust have also been studied in polar ice, and it should also be possible to measure nuclides made in situ in ice. As an introduction to cosmogenic nuclides and their applications, cosmic rays and their interactions will be presented below and production systematics of cosmogenic nuclides in these various media will be discussed later. 20 refs., 2 tabs

  3. In situ measurements of dose rates from terrestrial gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horng, M.C.; Jiang, S.H.

    2002-01-01

    A portable, high purity germanium (HPGe) detector was employed for the performance of in situ measurements of radionuclide activity concentrations in the ground in Taiwan, at altitudes ranging from sea level to 3900 m. The absolute peak efficiency of the HPGe detector for a gamma-ray source uniformly distributed in the semi-infinite ground was determined using a semi-empirical method. The gamma-ray dose rates from terrestrial radionuclides were calculated from the measured activity levels using recently published dose rate conversion factors. The absorbed dose rate in air due to cosmic rays was derived by subtracting the terrestrial gamma-ray dose rate from the overall absorbed dose rate in air measured using a high-pressure ionization chamber. The cosmic-ray dose rate calculated as a function of altitude, was found to be in good agreement with the data reported by UNSCEAR. (orig.)

  4. Cosmic ray modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Hirosachi

    1974-01-01

    It is important to know the physical state of solar plasma region by the observation of intensity variation of cosmic ray which passed through the solar plasma region, because earth magnetosphere is formed by the interaction between geomagnetic field and solar plasma flow. The observation of cosmic ray intensity is useful to know the average condition of the space of 0.1--3 A.U., and gives the structure of the magnetic field in solar wind affecting the earth magnetosphere. The observation of neutron component in cosmic ray has been carried out at Norikura, Tokyo, Fukushima and Morioka. The lower limit of the energy of incident cosmic ray which can be observed at each station is different, and the fine structure of the variation can be known by comparison. The intensity of meson component in cosmic ray has been measured in underground, and the state of solar plasma region 2--3 A.U. from the earth can be known. The underground measurement has been made at Takeyama and Matsumoto, and a new station at Sakashita is proposed. The measurement at Sakashita will be made by proportional counters at the depth of 100m (water equivalent). Arrangement of detectors is shown. (Kato, T.)

  5. V. Terrestrial vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Pearson; Deborah Finch

    2011-01-01

    Within the Interior West, terrestrial vertebrates do not represent a large number of invasive species relative to invasive weeds, aquatic vertebrates, and invertebrates. However, several invasive terrestrial vertebrate species do cause substantial economic and ecological damage in the U.S. and in this region (Pimental 2000, 2007; Bergman and others 2002; Finch and...

  6. Measurement of cosmic-ray muons with the Distributed Electronic Cosmic-ray Observatory, a network of smartphones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenbroucke, J.; Bravo, S.; Karn, P.; Meehan, M.; Plewa, M.; Schultz, D.; Tosi, D.; BenZvi, S.; Jensen, K.; Peacock, J.; Ruggles, T.; Santander, M.; Simons, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    Solid-state camera image sensors can be used to detect ionizing radiation in addition to optical photons. We describe the Distributed Electronic Cosmic-ray Observatory (DECO), an app and associated public database that enables a network of consumer devices to detect cosmic rays and other ionizing radiation. In addition to terrestrial background radiation, cosmic-ray muon candidate events are detected as long, straight tracks passing through multiple pixels. The distribution of track lengths can be related to the thickness of the active (depleted) region of the camera image sensor through the known angular distribution of muons at sea level. We use a sample of candidate muon events detected by DECO to measure the thickness of the depletion region of the camera image sensor in a particular consumer smartphone model, the HTC Wildfire S. The track length distribution is fit better by a cosmic-ray muon angular distribution than an isotropic distribution, demonstrating that DECO can detect and identify cosmic-ray muons despite a background of other particle detections. Using the cosmic-ray distribution, we measure the depletion thickness to be 26.3 ± 1.4 μm. With additional data, the same method can be applied to additional models of image sensor. Once measured, the thickness can be used to convert track length to incident polar angle on a per-event basis. Combined with a determination of the incident azimuthal angle directly from the track orientation in the sensor plane, this enables direction reconstruction of individual cosmic-ray events using a single consumer device. The results simultaneously validate the use of cell phone camera image sensors as cosmic-ray muon detectors and provide a measurement of a parameter of camera image sensor performance which is not otherwise publicly available

  7. Cosmic Rays and Climate

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper

    2007-01-01

    Among the most puzzling questions in climate change is that of solar-climate variability, which has attracted the attention of scientists for more than two centuries. Until recently, even the existence of solar-climate variability has been controversial—perhaps because the observations had largely involved correlations between climate and the sunspot cycle that had persisted for only a few decades. Over the last few years, however, diverse reconstructions of past climate change have revealed clear associations with cosmic ray variations recorded in cosmogenic isotope archives, providing persuasive evidence for solar or cosmic ray forcing of the climate. However, despite the increasing evidence of its importance, solar-climate variability is likely to remain controversial until a physical mechanism is established. Although this remains a mystery, observations suggest that cloud cover may be influenced by cosmic rays, which are modulated by the solar wind and, on longer time scales, by the geomagnetic fiel...

  8. Cosmic strings and galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertschinger, E.

    1989-01-01

    Cosmic strings have become increasingly popular candidates as seeds for the formation of structure in the universe. This scenario, remains a serious cosmogonical model despite close scrutiny. In constrast, magnetic monopoles and domain walls - relic topological defects as are cosmic strings - are disastrous for cosmology if they are left over from the early universe. The production of heavy cosmic strings is speculative, as it depends on the details of ultrahigh energy physics. Fortunately, speculation about cosmic strings is not entirely idle because, if they exist and are heavy enough to seed galaxy formation, cosmic strings can be detected astronomically. Failure to detect cosmic strings would impose some constraints on grand unified theories (GUTs); their discovery would have exciting consequences for high energy physics and cosmology. This article reviews the basic physics of nonsuperconducting cosmic strings, highlighting the field theory aspects, and provides a progress report on calculations of structure formation with cosmic strings

  9. Cosmic Sum Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Frandsen, Mads; Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models.......We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models....

  10. Educational Cosmic Ray Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soluk, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    In the last decade a great deal of interest has arisen in using sparse arrays of cosmic ray detectors located at schools as a means of doing both outreach and physics research. This approach has the unique advantage of involving grade school students in an actual ongoing experiment, rather then a simple teaching exercise, while at the same time providing researchers with the basic infrastructure for installation of cosmic ray detectors. A survey is made of projects in North America and Europe and in particular the ALTA experiment at the University of Alberta which was the first experiment operating under this paradigm

  11. A disintegrating cosmic string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, J B; Docherty, P

    2002-01-01

    We present a simple sandwich gravitational wave of the Robinson-Trautman family. This is interpreted as representing a shock wave with a spherical wavefront which propagates into a Minkowski background minus a wedge (i.e. the background contains a cosmic string). The deficit angle (the tension) of the string decreases through the gravitational wave, which then ceases. This leaves an expanding spherical region of Minkowski space behind it. The decay of the cosmic string over a finite interval of retarded time may be considered to generate the gravitational wave. (letter to the editor)

  12. Cosmic ray investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zatsepin, Georgii T; Roganova, Tat'yana M

    2009-01-01

    The history of cosmic ray research at the Lebedev Institute beginning with the first work and continuing up to now is reviewed. The milestones and main avenues of research are outlined. Pioneering studies on the nuclear cascade process in extensive air showers, investigations of the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation, and some work on the origin of cosmic rays are discussed. Recent data on ultrahigh-energy particle detection at the Pierre Auger Observatory and the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiments are presented. (conferences and symposia)

  13. Heterotic cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Krause, Axel

    2006-01-01

    We show that all three conditions for the cosmological relevance of heterotic cosmic strings, the right tension, stability and a production mechanism at the end of inflation, can be met in the strongly coupled M-theory regime. Whereas cosmic strings generated from weakly coupled heterotic strings have the well-known problems posed by Witten in 1985, we show that strings arising from M5-branes wrapped around 4-cycles (divisors) of a Calabi-Yau in heterotic M-theory compactifications solve these problems in an elegant fashion

  14. Cosmic Humanity: Utopia, Realities, Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Krichevsky

    2017-01-01

    The philosophical foundations of the theory and practice of the creation of cosmic humanity as a process of the evolution of human civilization, the emergence into space, with the prospect of resettlement outside the Earth are considered. There is a connection between myths, fantasies, ideas, concepts and projects aimed at the exploration of outer space, the creation of cosmic humanity. A new and voluminous definition of cosmic humanity in the evolutionary paradigm is given. Cosmic humanity i...

  15. Cosmic ray: Studying the origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    1997-01-01

    Investigations of the origin of cosmic rays are presented. Different methods are discussed: studies of cosmic gamma rays of energy from 30 MeV to about 10 15 eV (since photons point to their places of origin), studies of the mass composition of cosmic rays (because it reflects source morphology), and studies of cosmic rays with energy above 1O 19 eV (for these are the highest energies observed in nature). (author)

  16. Hydrology and Cosmic radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mie

    and calibration. Yet, soil moisture measurements are traditionally provided on either point or kilometer scale from electromagnetic based sensors and satellite retrievals, respectively. Above the ground surface, the cosmic-ray neutron intensity (eV range) is inversely correlated to all hydrogen present...

  17. On the cosmical constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, R.

    1977-01-01

    On the grounds of the two correspondence limits, the Newtonian limit and the special theory limit of Einstein field equations, a modification of the cosmical constant has been proposed which gives realistic results in the case of a homogeneous universe. Also, according to this modification an explanation for the negative pressure in the steady-state model of the universe has been given. (author)

  18. Simulating Cosmic Reionisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawlik, Andreas Heinz

    2009-01-01

    The first stars formed a few hundred million years after the Big Bang, when the Universe was only a small fraction of its present age. Their radiation transformed the previously cold and neutral hydrogen that filled intergalactic space into the hot and ionised cosmic plasma that is observed today.

  19. Cosmic rays and climate

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Inside the new chamber the CLOUD team will be able to recreate the conditions of any part of the atmosphere, from the polar stratosphere to the low level tropics (top). The new chamber safely in position in the East hall. Once carefully cleaned the chamber will be turned sideways onto its legs ready for the beam of 'cosmic rays' (bottom).

  20. Note on cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    For initial data sets which represent charged black holes we prove some inequalities which relate the total energy, the total charge, and the size of the black hole. One of them is a necessary condition for the validity of cosmic censorship

  1. Heliospheric Modulation of Galactic Cosmic Rays; Diurnal Variability Abstract Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalu, D. F.; Okpala, K. C.

    2017-12-01

    We have studied the variability of Cosmic rays flux during solar quiet days at mid and high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. By using the five (5) quietest days for each month and the five disturbed days for each month, the monthly mean diurnal variation of cosmic ray anisotropy have been derived for the period 1999-2015, which covers part of cycles 23, and cycle 24. This study seeks to understand the heliospheric contribution to the variation of these Cosmic rays on quietest days, three stations (Inuvik, Moscow, Rome) Neutron Monitors were employed. This study seeks to understand the important features of the high latitude and mid latitude diurnal wave, and how solar and geomagnetic activity may be influencing the wave characteristics. Cosmic ray wave characteristics were obtained by discrete Fourier transform (DFT). The mean, diurnal amplitude, phase and dispersion for each month's diurnal wave were calculated and profiled. There was clear indication that the terrestrial effect on the variability of the monthly mean was more associated with geomagnetic activity rather than rigidity of the cosmic rays. Correlation of the time series of these wave characteristic with solar and geomagnetic activity index showed better association with solar activity.

  2. Tracing the cosmic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libeskind, Noam I.; van de Weygaert, Rien; Cautun, Marius; Falck, Bridget; Tempel, Elmo; Abel, Tom; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Aragón-Calvo, Miguel A.; Forero-Romero, Jaime E.; Gonzalez, Roberto; Gottlöber, Stefan; Hahn, Oliver; Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Hoffman, Yehuda; Jones, Bernard J. T.; Kitaura, Francisco; Knebe, Alexander; Manti, Serena; Neyrinck, Mark; Nuza, Sebastián E.; Padilla, Nelson; Platen, Erwin; Ramachandra, Nesar; Robotham, Aaron; Saar, Enn; Shandarin, Sergei; Steinmetz, Matthias; Stoica, Radu S.; Sousbie, Thierry; Yepes, Gustavo

    2018-01-01

    The cosmic web is one of the most striking features of the distribution of galaxies and dark matter on the largest scales in the Universe. It is composed of dense regions packed full of galaxies, long filamentary bridges, flattened sheets and vast low-density voids. The study of the cosmic web has focused primarily on the identification of such features, and on understanding the environmental effects on galaxy formation and halo assembly. As such, a variety of different methods have been devised to classify the cosmic web - depending on the data at hand, be it numerical simulations, large sky surveys or other. In this paper, we bring 12 of these methods together and apply them to the same data set in order to understand how they compare. In general, these cosmic-web classifiers have been designed with different cosmological goals in mind, and to study different questions. Therefore, one would not a priori expect agreement between different techniques; however, many of these methods do converge on the identification of specific features. In this paper, we study the agreements and disparities of the different methods. For example, each method finds that knots inhabit higher density regions than filaments, etc. and that voids have the lowest densities. For a given web environment, we find a substantial overlap in the density range assigned by each web classification scheme. We also compare classifications on a halo-by-halo basis; for example, we find that 9 of 12 methods classify around a third of group-mass haloes (i.e. Mhalo ∼ 1013.5 h-1 M⊙) as being in filaments. Lastly, so that any future cosmic-web classification scheme can be compared to the 12 methods used here, we have made all the data used in this paper public.

  3. Linking animals aloft with the terrestrial landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buler, Jeffrey J.; Barrow, Wylie; Boone, Matthew; Dawson, Deanna K.; Diehl, Robert H.; Moore, Frank R.; Randall, Lori A.; Schreckengost, Timothy; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.

    2018-01-01

    Despite using the aerosphere for many facets of their life, most flying animals (i.e., birds, bats, some insects) are still bound to terrestrial habitats for resting, feeding, and reproduction. Comprehensive broad-scale observations by weather surveillance radars of animals as they leave terrestrial habitats for migration or feeding flights can be used to map their terrestrial distributions either as point locations (e.g., communal roosts) or as continuous surface layers (e.g., animal densities in habitats across a landscape). We discuss some of the technical challenges to reducing measurement biases related to how radars sample the aerosphere and the flight behavior of animals. We highlight a recently developed methodological approach that precisely and quantitatively links the horizontal spatial structure of birds aloft to their terrestrial distributions and provides novel insights into avian ecology and conservation across broad landscapes. Specifically, we present case studies that (1) elucidate how migrating birds contend with crossing ecological barriers and extreme weather events, (2) identify important stopover areas and habitat use patterns of birds along their migration routes, and (3) assess waterfowl response to wetland habitat management and restoration. These studies aid our understanding of how anthropogenic modification of the terrestrial landscape (e.g., urbanization, habitat management), natural geographic features, and weather (e.g., hurricanes) can affect the terrestrial distributions of flying animals.

  4. Introduced Terrestrial Species (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted future potential distributions of terrestrial plants, animals, and pathogens non-native to the Middle-Atlantic region. These data are...

  5. Terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davis-Reddy, Claire

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecoregions Terrestrial Biomes Protected Areas Climate Risk and Vulnerability: A Handbook for Southern Africa | 75 7.2. Non-climatic drivers of ecosystem change 7.2.1. Land-use change, habitat loss and fragmentation Land-use change and landscape... concentrations of endemic plant and animal species, but these mainly occur in areas that are most threatened by human activity. Diverse terrestrial ecosystems in the region include tropical and sub-tropical forests, deserts, savannas, grasslands, mangroves...

  6. Terrestrial atmosphere, water and astrobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coradini M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Primitive life, defined as a chemical system capable to transfer its molecular information via self-replication and also capable to evolve, originated about 4 billion years ago from the processing of organic molecules by liquid water. Terrestrial atmosphere played a key role in the process by allowing the permanent presence of liquid water and by participating in the production of carbon-based molecules. Water molecules exhibit specific properties mainly due to a dense network of hydrogen bonds. The carbon-based molecules were either home made in the atmosphere and/or in submarine hydrothermal systems or delivered by meteorites and micrometeorites. The search for possible places beyond the earth where the trilogy atmosphere/water/life could exist is the main objective of astrobiology. Within the Solar System, exploration missions are dedicated to Mars, Europa, Titan and the icy bodies. The discovery of several hundreds of extrasolar planets opens the quest to the whole Milky Way.

  7. Life sciences on the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, G.

    Despite of the fact that the lunar environment lacks essential prerequisites for supporting life, lunar missions offer new and promising opportunities to the life sciences community. Among the disciplines of interest are exobiology, radiation biology, ecology and human physiology. In exobiology, the Moon offers an ideal platform for studies related to the understanding of the principles, leading to the origin, evolution and distribution of life. These include the analysis of lunar samples and meteorites in relatively pristine conditions, radioastronomical search for other planetary systems or Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI), and studies on the role of radiation in evolutionary processes and on the environmental limits for life. For radiation biology, the Moon provides an unique laboratory with built-in sources for optical as well as ionising radiation to investigate the biological importance of the various components of cosmic and solar radiation. Before establishing a lunar base, precursor missions will provide a characterisation of the radiation field, determination of depth dose distributions in different absorbers, the installation of a solar flare alert system, and a qualification of the biological efficiency of the mixed radiation environment. One of the most challenging projects falls into the domain of ecology with the establishment for the first time of an artificial ecosystem on a celestial body beyond the Earth. From this venture, a better understanding of the dynamics regulating our terrestrial biosphere is expected. It will also serve as a precursor of bioregenerative life support systems for a lunar base. The establishment of a lunar base with eventually long-term human presence will raise various problems in the fields of human physiology and health care, psychology and sociology. Protection guidelines for living in this hostile environment have to be established.

  8. Kant's wager. Kant's strong belief in extra-terrestrial life, the history of this question and its challenge for theology today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losch, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    Kant was not the first in whom the 'starry heavens' above us inspired awe and wonder. For Kant, who was firmly convinced of the existence of inhabitants of other worlds, these heavens were inhabited. He is certain that 'If it were possible to settle by any sort of experience whether there are inhabitants of at least some of the planets that we see, I might well bet everything that I have on it. Hence I say that it is not merely an opinion but a strong belief (on the correctness of which I would wager many advantages in life) that there are also inhabitants of other worlds.' In this statement by Kant in no less a work than the Critique of Pure Reason one can, on the one hand, recognize a reflection of Kant's earlier convictions and expositions, on the other hand, the context of the citation and the contemporary background are, of course, relevant. Following the example of Kant, this paper investigates the meaning of such reflections about inhabitants of alien worlds, which due to advances in planetary astronomy are today again on the agenda. Consideration of this subject also represents a challenge for theology.

  9. Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Dova, M.T.

    2015-05-22

    The origin of the ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) with energies above E > 10 17 eV, is still unknown. The discovery of their sources will reveal the engines of the most energetic astrophysical accelerators in the universe. This is a written version of a series of lectures devoted to UHECR at the 2013 CERN-Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics. We present anintroduction to acceleration mechanisms of charged particles to the highest energies in astrophysical objects, their propagation from the sources to Earth, and the experimental techniques for their detection. We also discuss some of the relevant observational results from Telescope Array and Pierre Auger Observatory. These experiments deal with particle interactions at energies orders of magnitude higher than achieved in terrestrial accelerators.

  10. The Universe: a Cryogenic Habitat for Microbial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Chandra

    Panspermia, an ancient idea, posits that microbial life is ubiquitous in the Universe. After several decades of almost irrational rejection, panspermia is at last coming to be regarded as a serious contender for the beginnings of life on our planet. Astronomical data is shown to be consistent with the widespread distribution of complex organic molecules and dust particles that may have a biological provenance. A minuscule (10-21) survival rate of freeze-dried bacteria in space is all that is needed to ensure the continual recycling of cosmic microbial life in the galaxy. Evidence that terrestrial life may have come from elsewhere in the solar system has accumulated over the past decade. Mars is seen by some as a possible source of terrestrial life, but some hundreds of billions of comets that enveloped the entire solar system, are a far more likely primordial reservoir of life. Comets would then have seeded Earth, Mars, and indeed all other habitable planetary bodies in the inner regions of the solar system. The implications of this point of view, which was developed in conjunction with the late Sir Fred Hoyle since the 1970's, are now becoming amenable to direct empirical test by studies of pristine organic material in the stratosphere. The ancient theory of panspermia may be on the verge of vindication, in which case the entire universe would be a grand crucible of cryomicrobiology.

  11. Note on cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipler, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    A number of recent theorems by Krolak and Newman purport to prove cosmic censorship by showing that ''strong curvature'' singularities must be hidden behind horizons. It is proved that Newman's ''null, strong curvature'' condition, which is imposed on certain classes of null geodesics to restrict curvature growth in the space-time, does not hold in many physically realistic space-times: it is not satisfied by any null geodesic in the relevant class in any open Friedmann cosmological model, nor does it hold for any null geodesic in the relevant class in maximal Schwarzschild space. More generally, it is argued that the singularity predicted by the Penrose singularity theorem is unlikely to be of the type eliminated by Newman. Thus the Newman theorems are probably without physical significance. The Krolak theorems, although based on a physically significant definition of strong curvature singularity, are mathematically invalid, and this approach cannot be used to obtain a cosmic censorship theorem. (author)

  12. Cosmic rays and climate

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    The current understanding of climate change in the industrial age is that it is predominantly caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gases, with relatively small natural contributions due to solar irradiance and volcanoes. However, palaeoclimatic reconstructions show that the climate has frequently varied on 100-year time scales during the Holocene (last 10 kyr) by amounts comparable to the present warming - and yet the mechanism or mechanisms are not understood. Some of these reconstructions show clear associations with solar variability, which is recorded in the light radio-isotope archives that measure past variations of cosmic ray intensity. However, despite the increasing evidence of its importance, solar-climate variability is likely to remain controversial until a physical mechanism is established. Estimated changes of solar irradiance on these time scales appear to be too small to account for the climate observations. This raises the question of whether cosmic rays may directly affect the climate, provi...

  13. Cosmic Rays in Thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitink, Stijn; Scholten, Olaf; van den Berg, Ad; Ebert, Ute

    2013-04-01

    Cosmic Rays in Thunderstorms Cosmic rays are protons and heavier nuclei that constantly bombard the Earth's atmosphere with energies spanning a vast range from 109 to 1021 eV. At typical altitudes up to 10-20 km they initiate large particle cascades, called extensive air showers, that contain millions to billions of secondary particles depending on their initial energy. These particles include electrons, positrons, hadrons and muons, and are concentrated in a compact particle front that propagates at relativistic speed. In addition, the shower leaves behind a trail of lower energy electrons from ionization of air molecules. Under thunderstorm conditions these electrons contribute to the electrical and ionization processes in the cloud. When the local electric field is strong enough the secondary electrons can create relativistic electron run-away avalanches [1] or even non-relativistic avalanches. Cosmic rays could even trigger lightning inception. Conversely, strong electric fields also influence the development of the air shower [2]. Extensive air showers emit a short (tens of nanoseconds) radio pulse due to deflection of the shower particles in the Earth's magnetic field [3]. Antenna arrays, such as AERA, LOFAR and LOPES detect these pulses in a frequency window of roughly 10-100 MHz. These systems are also sensitive to the radiation from discharges associated to thunderstorms, and provide a means to study the interaction of cosmic ray air showers and the electrical processes in thunderstorms [4]. In this presentation we discuss the involved radiation mechanisms and present analyses of thunderstorm data from air shower arrays [1] A. Gurevich et al., Phys. Lett. A 165, 463 (1992) [2] S. Buitink et al., Astropart. Phys. 33, 1 (2010) [3] H. Falcke et al., Nature 435, 313 (2005) [4] S. Buitink et al., Astron. & Astrophys. 467, 385 (2007)

  14. Cosmic ray modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal Mishra, Rekha; Mishra, Rajesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Propagation of cosmic rays to and inside the heliosphere, encounter an outward moving solar wind with cyclic magnetic field fluctuation and turbulence, causing convection and diffusion in the heliosphere. Cosmic ray counts from the ground ground-based neutron monitors at different cut of rigidity show intensity changes, which are anti-correlated with sunspot numbers. They also lose energy as they propagate towards the Earth and experience various types of modulations due to different solar activity indices. In this work, we study the first three harmonics of cosmic ray intensity on geo-magnetically quiet days over the period 1965-2014 for Beijing, Moscow and Tokyo neutron monitoring stations located at different cut off rigidity. The amplitude of first harmonic remains high for low cutoff rigidity as compared to high cutoff rigidity on quiet days. The diurnal amplitude significantly decreases during solar activity minimum years. The diurnal time of maximum significantly shifts to an earlier time as compared to the corotational direction having different cutoff rigidities. The time of maximum for first harmonic significantly shifts towards later hours and for second harmonic it shifts towards earlier hours at low cutoff rigidity station as compared to the high cut off rigidity station on quiet days. The amplitude of second/third harmonics shows a good positive correlation with solar wind velocity, while the others (i.e. amplitude and phase) have no significant correlation on quiet days. The amplitude and direction of the anisotropy on quiet days does not show any significant dependence on high-speed solar wind streams for these neutron monitoring stations of different cutoff rigidity threshold. Keywords: cosmic ray, cut off rigidity, quiet days, harmonics, amplitude, phase.

  15. Alga Ecklonia bicyclis, Tribulus terrestris, and Glucosamine Oligosaccharide Improve Erectile Function, Sexual Quality of Life, and Ejaculation Function in Patients with Moderate Mild-Moderate Erectile Dysfunction: A Prospective, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Single-Blinded Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansalone, Salvatore; Leonardi, Rosario; Antonini, Gabriele; Vitarelli, Antonio; Vespasiani, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of oral therapy with alga Ecklonia bicyclis, Tribulus terrestris, and glucosamine oligosaccharide (Tradamix TX1000) in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) at 3 months of follow-up. From January 2013 to September 2013, 177 patients diagnosed with mild-moderate ED (IIEF-EF < 26) were enrolled in this multicenter, single-blinded, placebo-controlled study and randomized in Group A (Tradamix, n = 87) and Group B (placebo, n = 90). Penile color Doppler ultrasound measures, IIEF-15 questionnaire, male sexual health questionnaire-ejaculation disorder (MSHQ-EjD), and sexual quality of life (SQoL-M) were collected. We observed significant changes of the IIEF-15 in Group A (mean difference: 11.54; P < 0.05) at 3 months versus Group B (P < 0.05). PSV (P < 0.05), IIEF-intercourse satisfaction (P < 0.05), IIEF-orgasmic function (mean P < 0.05), IIEF-sexual desire (P < 0.05), IIEF-overall satisfaction (P < 0.05), MSHQ-EjD (mean difference: 1.21; P < 0.05), and SQoL-M (mean difference: 10.2; P < 0.05) were significantly changed in Group A versus baseline and Group B. Patients with moderate arterial dysfunction showed significant increase of PSV (P < 0.05), IIEF-EF (P < 0.05), MSHQ-EjD (P < 0.05), and SQoL-M (P < 0.05) in Group A. Therapy with Tradamix improves erectile and ejaculation function and sexual quality of life in patients with mild-moderate ED and in particular for those with moderate arterial dysfunction. PMID:25136552

  16. Alga Ecklonia bicyclis, Tribulus terrestris, and Glucosamine Oligosaccharide Improve Erectile Function, Sexual Quality of Life, and Ejaculation Function in Patients with Moderate Mild-Moderate Erectile Dysfunction: A Prospective, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Single-Blinded Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Sansalone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of oral therapy with alga Ecklonia bicyclis, Tribulus terrestris, and glucosamine oligosaccharide (Tradamix TX1000 in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED at 3 months of follow-up. From January 2013 to September 2013, 177 patients diagnosed with mild-moderate ED (IIEF-EF < 26 were enrolled in this multicenter, single-blinded, placebo-controlled study and randomized in Group A (Tradamix, n=87 and Group B (placebo, n=90. Penile color Doppler ultrasound measures, IIEF-15 questionnaire, male sexual health questionnaire-ejaculation disorder (MSHQ-EjD, and sexual quality of life (SQoL-M were collected. We observed significant changes of the IIEF-15 in Group A (mean difference: 11.54; P<0.05 at 3 months versus Group B (P<0.05. PSV (P<0.05, IIEF-intercourse satisfaction (P<0.05, IIEF-orgasmic function (mean P<0.05, IIEF-sexual desire (P<0.05, IIEF-overall satisfaction (P<0.05, MSHQ-EjD (mean difference: 1.21; P<0.05, and SQoL-M (mean difference: 10.2; P<0.05 were significantly changed in Group A versus baseline and Group B. Patients with moderate arterial dysfunction showed significant increase of PSV (P<0.05, IIEF-EF (P<0.05, MSHQ-EjD (P<0.05, and SQoL-M (P<0.05 in Group A. Therapy with Tradamix improves erectile and ejaculation function and sexual quality of life in patients with mild-moderate ED and in particular for those with moderate arterial dysfunction.

  17. Alga Ecklonia bicyclis, Tribulus terrestris, and glucosamine oligosaccharide improve erectile function, sexual quality of life, and ejaculation function in patients with moderate mild-moderate erectile dysfunction: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansalone, Salvatore; Leonardi, Rosario; Antonini, Gabriele; Vitarelli, Antonio; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Basic, Dragoslav; Morgia, Giuseppe; Cimino, Sebastiano; Russo, Giorgio Ivan

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of oral therapy with alga Ecklonia bicyclis, Tribulus terrestris, and glucosamine oligosaccharide (Tradamix TX1000) in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) at 3 months of follow-up. From January 2013 to September 2013, 177 patients diagnosed with mild-moderate ED (IIEF-EF < 26) were enrolled in this multicenter, single-blinded, placebo-controlled study and randomized in Group A (Tradamix, n = 87) and Group B (placebo, n = 90). Penile color Doppler ultrasound measures, IIEF-15 questionnaire, male sexual health questionnaire-ejaculation disorder (MSHQ-EjD), and sexual quality of life (SQoL-M) were collected. We observed significant changes of the IIEF-15 in Group A (mean difference: 11.54; P < 0.05) at 3 months versus Group B (P < 0.05). PSV (P < 0.05), IIEF-intercourse satisfaction (P < 0.05), IIEF-orgasmic function (mean P < 0.05), IIEF-sexual desire (P < 0.05), IIEF-overall satisfaction (P < 0.05), MSHQ-EjD (mean difference: 1.21; P < 0.05), and SQoL-M (mean difference: 10.2; P < 0.05) were significantly changed in Group A versus baseline and Group B. Patients with moderate arterial dysfunction showed significant increase of PSV (P < 0.05), IIEF-EF (P < 0.05), MSHQ-EjD (P < 0.05), and SQoL-M (P < 0.05) in Group A. Therapy with Tradamix improves erectile and ejaculation function and sexual quality of life in patients with mild-moderate ED and in particular for those with moderate arterial dysfunction.

  18. Cosmic Origins Program Annual Technology Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Bruce Thai; Neff, Susan Gale

    2015-01-01

    What is the Cosmic Origins (COR) Program? From ancient times, humans have looked up at the night sky and wondered: Are we alone? How did the universe come to be? How does the universe work? COR focuses on the second question. Scientists investigating this broad theme seek to understand the origin and evolution of the universe from the Big Bang to the present day, determining how the expanding universe grew into a grand cosmic web of dark matter enmeshed with galaxies and pristine gas, forming, merging, and evolving over time. COR also seeks to understand how stars and planets form from clouds in these galaxies to create the heavy elements that are essential to life starting with the first generation of stars to seed the universe, and continuing through the birth and eventual death of all subsequent generations of stars. The COR Programs purview includes the majority of the field known as astronomy, from antiquity to the present.

  19. Caustic Skeleton & Cosmic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbrugge, Job; van de Weygaert, Rien; Hidding, Johan; Feldbrugge, Joost

    2018-05-01

    We present a general formalism for identifying the caustic structure of a dynamically evolving mass distribution, in an arbitrary dimensional space. The identification of caustics in fluids with Hamiltonian dynamics, viewed in Lagrangian space, corresponds to the classification of singularities in Lagrangian catastrophe theory. On the basis of this formalism we develop a theoretical framework for the dynamics of the formation of the cosmic web, and specifically those aspects that characterize its unique nature: its complex topological connectivity and multiscale spinal structure of sheetlike membranes, elongated filaments and compact cluster nodes. Given the collisionless nature of the gravitationally dominant dark matter component in the universe, the presented formalism entails an accurate description of the spatial organization of matter resulting from the gravitationally driven formation of cosmic structure. The present work represents a significant extension of the work by Arnol'd et al. [1], who classified the caustics that develop in one- and two-dimensional systems that evolve according to the Zel'dovich approximation. His seminal work established the defining role of emerging singularities in the formation of nonlinear structures in the universe. At the transition from the linear to nonlinear structure evolution, the first complex features emerge at locations where different fluid elements cross to establish multistream regions. Involving a complex folding of the 6-D sheetlike phase-space distribution, it manifests itself in the appearance of infinite density caustic features. The classification and characterization of these mass element foldings can be encapsulated in caustic conditions on the eigenvalue and eigenvector fields of the deformation tensor field. In this study we introduce an alternative and transparent proof for Lagrangian catastrophe theory. This facilitates the derivation of the caustic conditions for general Lagrangian fluids, with

  20. Key scientific problems from Cosmic Ray History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Dorman

    2016-07-01

    young scientist from the Graz University, started to investigate how γ-radiations change their intensity with the distance from their sources, i.e. from the ground. When he performed his historical experiments on balloons in 1911-1912, it was found that at the beginning (up to approximately one km) ionization did not change, but with increase of the altitude for up to 4 - 5 km, the ionization rate escalates several times. Victor Hess drew a conclusion that some new unknown source of ionization of extra terrestrial origin exists. He named it 'high altitude radiation'. 5. Many scientists did not agree with this conclusion and tried to prove that the discovered new radiation has terrestrial origin (e.g., radium and other emanations from radioactive substances in the ground, particle acceleration up to high energies during thunderstorms, and so on). However, a lot of experiments showed that Victor Hess's findings are right: the discovered new radiation has extra terrestrial origin. 6. In 1926 the great American scientist Robert Millikan named them 'cosmic rays': cosmic as coming from space, and rays because it was generally wrongly accepted at those time that the new radiation mostly consisted of γ-rays. Robert Millikan believed that God exists and continues to work: in space God has creates He atoms from four atoms of H with the generation high energy gamma rays (in contradiction with physical laws, as this reaction can occur only at very high temperature and great density, e.g., as inside stars). 7. On this problem, interesting to many people, there was a famous public discussion between two Nobel laureates Arthur Compton and Robert Millikan, widely reported in newspapers. Only after a lot of latitude surveys in the 1930s, organized mostly by Compton and Millikan, it became clear that 'cosmic rays' are mostly not γ-rays, but rather charged particles (based on Störmer's theory about behavior of charged energetic particles in the geomagnetic field, developed in 1910

  1. Cosmic ray riddle solved?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: Physicists from Japan and the United States have discovered a possible answer to the puzzle of the origin of high energy cosmic rays that bombard Earth from all directions in space. Using data from the Japanese/US X-ray astronomical satellite ASCA, physicists have found strong evidence for the production of cosmic particles in the shock wave of a supernova remnant, the expanding fireball produced by the explosion of a star. Primary cosmic rays, mostly electrons and protons, travel near the speed of light. Each second, approximately 4 such particles cross one square centimetre of space just outside the Earth's atmosphere. Subsequently, collisions of these primary particles with atoms in the upper atmosphere produce slower secondary particles. Ever since the discovery of cosmic rays early this century, scientists have debated the origin of these particles and how they can be accelerated to such high speeds. Supernova remnants have long been thought to provide the high energy component, but the evidence has been lacking until now. The international team of investigators used the satellite to determine that cosmic rays are generated profusely in the remains of the supernova of 1006 AD - which appeared to medieval viewers to be as bright as the Moon - and that they are accelerated to high velocities by an iterative process first suggested by Enrico Fermi in 1949. Using solid-state X-ray cameras, the ASCA satellite records simultaneous images and spectra of X-rays from celestial sources, allowing astronomers to distinguish different types of X-ray emission. The tell-tale clue to the discovery was the detection of two diametrically opposite regions in the rapidly expanding supernova remnant, the debris from the stellar explosion. The two regions glow intensely from the synchrotron radiation produced when fast-moving electrons are bent by a magnetic field. The remainder of the supernova remnant, in contrast, emits ordinary ''thermal'' X

  2. Cosmic strings and galaxy formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertschinger, Edmund

    1989-01-01

    The cosmogonical model proposed by Zel'dovich and Vilenkin (1981), in which superconducting cosmic strings act as seeds for the origin of structure in the universe, is discussed, summarizing the results of recent theoretical investigations. Consideration is given to the formation of cosmic strings, the microscopic structure of strings, gravitational effects, cosmic string evolution, and the formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Simulation results are presented in graphs, and several outstanding issues are listed and briefly characterized.

  3. From the solar system fo hidden cosmic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benes, K

    1987-01-01

    The development of experimental astrophysics showed that in the evolution of planets, natural processes of a common nature take place. They include, e.g., radiogenic heat, the production of magmas, volcanic activity, degassing, etc. The solar system is a cosmic formation in an advanced stage of development and it is a realistic assumption that in the Galaxy other hidden planetary systems in various stages of development exist. The views on the possibility of the origination of life in other systems differ; life, however, is seen as a hidden property of cosmic matter. (M.D.).

  4. Terrestrial and extraterrestrial fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heymann, D.; Jenneskens, L.W.; Jehlicka, J; Koper, C.; Vlietstra, E. [Rice Univ, Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Earth Science

    2003-07-01

    This paper reviews reports of occurrences of fullerenes in circumstellar media, interstellar media, meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), lunar rocks, hard terrestrial rocks from Shunga (Russia), Sudbury (Canada) and Mitov (Czech Republic), coal, terrestrial sediments from the Cretaceous-Tertiary-Boundary and Pennian-Triassic-Boundary, fulgurite, ink sticks, dinosaur eggs, and a tree char. The occurrences are discussed in the context of known and postulated processes of fullerene formation, including the suggestion that some natural fullerenes might have formed from biological (algal) remains.

  5. Cosmic Education: Formation of a Planetary and Cosmic Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazaluk Oleg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The major stages of development of cosmic pedagogy have been researched. Based on the achievements of the modern neurosciences as well as of psychology, cosmology, and philosophy, the authors provide their reasoning for the cosmic education and its outlooks for the educational systems of the world. Through the studies of how important human mind is for the Earth and the cosmos and by researching the evolution of human mind within the structure of the Universe, the authors create a more advanced scientific and philosophic basis for the cosmic education where the subject is a comprehensive process of formation and directed progress of both an individual mind and a conglomerate of minds called the "psychospace". The cosmic education researches the permanent progress of the intelligent matter of the Earth. The purpose of the cosmic education has been determined as formation of a planetary and cosmic personality. According to the authors, a planetary and cosmic personality is a harmony of mind, soul, and body, and such harmony is directed to use the internal creative potential of mind to the benefit of the intelligent matter of the entire Earth and the cosmos. The properties of such a planetary and cosmic personality are being improved continuously; they are a sample (the ideal of the cosmic pedagogy and the image of a human being of the future. Through the usage of the entire potential and art of upbringing and educating, the cosmic pedagogy is called to embody the major properties of the image of a human being of the future in the new generations of minds and to form a planetary and cosmic personality capable of self-actualization to the benefit of the permanent progress of the intelligent matter.

  6. Cosmic ray: Studying the origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabelski, J. [Cosmic Ray Laboratory, Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Lodz (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Investigations of the origin of cosmic rays are presented. Different methods are discussed: studies of cosmic gamma rays of energy from 30 MeV to about 10{sup 15} eV (since photons point to their places of origin), studies of the mass composition of cosmic rays (because it reflects source morphology), and studies of cosmic rays with energy above 1O{sup 19} eV (for these are the highest energies observed in nature). (author) 101 refs, 19 figs, 7 tabs

  7. Origins fourteen billion years of cosmic evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, Neil deGrasse

    2004-01-01

    Origins explores cosmic science's stunning new insights into the formation and evolution of our universe--of the cosmos, of galaxies and galaxy clusters, of stars within galaxies, of planets that orbit those stars, and of different forms of life that take us back to the first three seconds and forward through three billion years of life on Earth to today's search for life on other planets. Drawing on the current cross-pollination of geology, biology and astrophysics, Origins explains the thrilling daily breakthroughs in our knowledge of the universe from dark energy to life on Mars to the mysteries of space and time. Distilling complex science in clear and lively prose, co-authors Neil deGrasse Tyson and Donald Goldsmith conduct a galvanising tour of the cosmos revealing what the universe has been up to while turning part of itself into us.

  8. Data processing in cosmic rays at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Masami

    1980-01-01

    Data processing performed by the World Data Center for Cosmic Rays, installed at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (IPCR) is reported. The Center was set up as a member of the World Data Center for Solar and Terrestrial Physics and performs assigned services. There are several C-level World Data Centers in Japan, and the DC for Cosmic Rays, IPCR, is described in detail, in the context of cosmic ray research itself. As to the future of the Center, IPCR, personal opinions and expectations are made. Thus a glimpse on a century of International Cooperative Observation and a quarter century of world data center operations are made from cosmic ray research side. (author)

  9. Cosmic Dawn with WFIRST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, James

    Central objectives: WFIRST-AFTA has tremendous potential for studying the epoch of "Cosmic Dawn" the period encompassing the formation of the first galaxies and quasars, and their impact on the surrounding universe through cosmological reionization. Our goal is to ensure that this potential is realized through the middle stages of mission planning, culminating in designs for both WFIRST and its core surveys that meet the core objectives in dark energy and exoplanet science, while maximizing the complementary Cosmic Dawn science. Methods: We will consider a combined approach to studying Cosmic Dawn using a judicious mixture of guest investigator data analysis of the primary WFIRST surveys, and a specifically designed Guest Observer program to complement those surveys. The Guest Observer program will serve primarily to obtain deep field observations, with particular attention to the capabilities of WFIRST for spectroscopic deep fields using the WFI grism. We will bring to bear our years of experience with slitless spectroscopy on the Hubble Space Telescope, along with an expectation of JWST slitless grism spectroscopy. We will use this experience to examine the implications of WFIRST’s grism resolution and wavelength coverage for deep field observations, and if appropriate, to suggest potential modifications of these parameters to optimize the science return on WFIRST. We have assembled a team of experts specializing in (1) Lyman Break Galaxies at redshifts higher than 7 (2) Quasars at high redshifts (3) Lyman-alpha galaxies as probes of reionization (4) Theoretical simulations of high-redshift galaxies (5) Simulations of grism observations (6) post-processing analysis to find emission line galaxies and high redshift galaxies (7) JWST observations and calibrations. With this team we intend to do end-to-end simulations starting with halo populations and expected spectra of high redshift galaxies and finally extracting what we can learn about (a) reionization

  10. Histories of terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, K.

    1981-01-01

    The uneven historical development of terrestrial planets - Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon and Mars - is probably due to the differences in their size, weight and rotational dynamics in association with the internal planet structure, their distance from the Sun, etc. A systematic study of extraterrestrial planets showed that the time span of internal activity was not the same for all bodies. It is assumed that the initial history of all terrestrial planets was marked with catastrophic events connected with the overall dynamic development of the solar system. In view of the fact that the cores of small terrestrial bodies cooled quicker, their geological development almost stagnated after two or three thousand million years. This is what probably happened to the Mercury and the Moon as well as the Mars. Therefore, traces of previous catastrophic events were preserved on the surface of the planets. On the other hand, the Earth is the most metamorphosed terrestrial planet and compared to the other planets appears to be atypical. Its biosphere is significantly developed as well as the other shell components, its hydrosphere and atmosphere, and its crust is considerably differentiated. (J.P.)

  11. Terrestrial planet formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K; O'Brien, D P

    2011-11-29

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (~10(6) y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few 10(6) y), and finally embryos to planets (10(7)-10(8) y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids.

  12. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocock, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the distribution and movement of radionuclides in semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems in north-west England with particular emphasis on inputs to, and outputs from ecosystems; on plant and soil aspects; and on radionuclides in fallout and in discharges by the nuclear industry. (author)

  13. Studies in cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bemalkhedkar, M.M.

    1974-03-01

    The investigation of the diurnal variation in the cosmic ray intensity on individual days has revealed a new class of diurnal variation showing a maximum around 09 hour direction in the interplanetary space. It is shown to occur during the recovery phase of Forbush decreases as well as during quiet periods. The rigidity spectrum of the anomalous diurnal variation has an exponent around zero, the same as that for the average diurnal variation exhibiting maximum around 18 hours in the interplanetary space. It is shown that the Forbush decreases associated with the diurnal variation exhibiting morning maximum, are 27 day recurrent in nature and are preceded by east limb solar flares on most of the occasions. A qualitative model of the transient modulation by solar corotating corpuscular streams of enhanced solar wind velocity, emanating from the active regions on the solar disc, is proposed to explain the anomalous diurnal anisotropy in the recovery phase of 27 day recurrent Forbush decreases. From this model, the cosmic ray diffusion coefficients, parallel and perpendicular to the interplanetary magnetic field inside the corotating stream, are derived and compared with the average values. To investigate the possibility of determining the energy spectra of cosmic ray intensity variations from a single station, a continuous record of neutron multiplicity spectrum has been obtained for the period October, 1967 - October, 1971, using the Gulmarg neutron monitor. The average multiplicity spectrum in the Gulmarg neutron monitor shows a mean multiplicity approximately equal to 1.4 for 12 Boron-tri-fluoride counters and is an increasing function of the number of counters used. The mean multiplicity measured in various other neutron monitors, when normalized to the cutoff rigidity of Gulmurg (11.91 GV), shows a systematic increase with the altitude of the station. (author)

  14. Is there a link between cancer and cosmic rays?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astbury, A.

    2000-06-01

    Conventional wisdom on the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation predicts that only a very small percentage of human deaths from cancer can be attributed to cosmic rays. The intensity of the hadronic component of terrestrial cosmic rays, in particular neutrons, is well measured as a function of vertical threshold rigidity (M, in GeV/c). The crude death rates from malignant neoplasms for countries of the world and states of the US reveal a correlation with M. A close examination of eight US states with M ≤ 1.5 GeV/c over the period 1947-1997 shows systematic time variations with periodicities reminiscent of sunspot cycles (∼11 years). A very simple model linking the death rate from cancer to the count rate in a cosmic ray neutron monitor reproduces the gross features of the data. The evidence suggests that conventional wisdom could well be challenged. The situation may only be resolved by a series of detailed measurements of the genetic impact of hadronic cosmic rays on cells. (author)

  15. Muon Production in Relativistic Cosmic-Ray Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Spencer

    2009-01-01

    Cosmic-rays with energies up to 3 x 10 20 eV have been observed. The nuclear composition of these cosmic rays is unknown but if the incident nuclei are protons then the corresponding center of mass energy is √s nn = 700 TeV. High energy muons can be used to probe the composition of these incident nuclei. The energy spectra of high-energy (> 1 TeV) cosmic ray induced muons have been measured with deep underground or under-ice detectors. These muons come from pion and kaon decays and from charm production in the atmosphere. Terrestrial experiments are most sensitive to far-forward muons so the production rates aresensitive to high-x partons in the incident nucleus and low-x partons in the nitrogen/oxygen targets. Muon measurements can complement the central-particle data collected at colliders. This paper will review muon production data and discuss some non-perturbative (soft) models that have been used to interpret the data. I will show measurements of TeV muon transverse momentum (p T ) spectra in cosmic-ray air showers from MACRO, and describe how the IceCube neutrino observatory and the proposed Km3Net detector will extend these measurements to a higher p T region where perturbative QCD should apply. With a 1 km 2 surface area, the full IceCube detector should observe hundreds of muons/year with p T in the pQCD regime.

  16. Cosmic baldness and stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panchapakesan, N.; Lohiya, D.

    1985-04-01

    The stability of the de Sitter metric and the relevance of the initial state of a domain which approaches a de Sitter universe asymptotically are investigated analytically, adapting the one-dimensional wave equation with effective potential derived by Khanal and Panchapakesan (1981), for the perturbations of the de Sitter-Schwarzschild metric, to the de Sitter case. It is demonstrated that initial nonspherical perturbations do not increase exponentially with time but rather decay, the frozen modes exponentially and the backscattered perturbations of finite angular momentum l as t to the -(2l - l). It is concluded that the cosmic horizon is stable and has no hair. 14 references.

  17. Cosmic strings and inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishniac, E.T.

    1987-01-01

    We examine the compatibility of inflation with the cosmic string theory for galaxy formation. There is a general conflict between having sufficient string tension to effect galaxy formation, and reheating after inflation to a high enough temperature that strings may form in a thermal phase transition. To escape this conflict, we propose a class of models where the inflation is coupled to the string-producing field. The strings are formed late in inflation as the inflaton rolls towards its zero-temperature value. A large subset of these models have a novel large-scale distribution of galaxies that is fractal, displays biasing without dynamics or feedback mechanisms, and contains voids. (orig.)

  18. The cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent limits on spectral distortions and angular anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background are reviewed. The various backgrounds are described, and the theoretical implications are assessed. Constraints on inflationary cosmology dominated by cold dark matter (CDM) and on open cosmological models dominated by baryonic dark matter (BDM), with, respectively, primordial random phase scale-invariant curvature fluctuations or non-gaussian isocurvature fluctuations are described. More exotic theories are addressed, and I conclude with the 'bottom line': what theories expect experimentalists to be measuring within the next two to three years without having to abandon their most cherished theorists. (orig.)

  19. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  20. Spectrum of cosmic fireballs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallo, G [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Bologna (Italy). Lab. TESRE; Horstman, H M [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia

    1981-03-01

    A progress report on cosmic fireballs is presented. The main new results are: (a) the phenomenon should be almost universal, and most explosive ..gamma..-ray sources should show the characteristic fireball spectrum; (b) even if the radiation density is insufficient, pair production in electron-proton or electron-electron scattering might start the fireball; (c) some computed fireball spectra are shown. They all have in common a 1/E low-energy behaviour, a 100 keV flattening, and a approx.0.5 MeV cut-off.

  1. Tracing Cosmic Dawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, Anastasia

    2018-05-01

    Observational effort is on the way to probe the 21-cm of neutral hydrogen from the epochs of Reionization and Cosmic Dawn. Our current poor knowledge of high redshift astrophysics results in a large uncertainty in the theoretically predicted 21-cm signal. A recent parameter study that is highlighted here explores the variety of 21-cm signals resulting from viable astrophysical scenarios. Model-independent relations between the shape of the signal and the underlying astrophysics are discussed. Finally, I briefly note on possible alternative probes of the high redshift Universe, specifically Fast Radio Bursts.

  2. Comments on cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawking, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    The cosmic censorship hypothesis and the closely related positive energy conjecture are the most important unsolved problems in classical general relativity. Roughly speaking the hypothesis is that nonsingular asymptotically flat initial data on a spacelike surface give rise to a solution in which any singularities that occur are not visible from infinity. Thus the solution near infinity would be unaffected by the breakdown of predictability associated with the singularities. A more precise formulation is given. The evidence for the censorship is mainly negative and this is discussed. The relationship of the hypothesis to quantum gravity and the quantum evaporation of black holes is also mentioned. (UK)

  3. Discovery of cosmic fractals

    CERN Document Server

    Baryshev, Yuri

    2002-01-01

    This is the first book to present the fascinating new results on the largest fractal structures in the universe. It guides the reader, in a simple way, to the frontiers of astronomy, explaining how fractals appear in cosmic physics, from our solar system to the megafractals in deep space. It also offers a personal view of the history of the idea of self-similarity and of cosmological principles, from Plato's ideal architecture of the heavens to Mandelbrot's fractals in the modern physical cosmos. In addition, this invaluable book presents the great fractal debate in astronomy (after Luciano Pi

  4. Phenomenology of cosmic phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaempfer, B.; Lukacs, B.; Paal, G.

    1989-11-01

    The evolution of the cosmic matter from Planck temperature to the atomic combination temperature is considered from a phenomenological point of view. Particular emphasis is devoted to the sequence of cosmic phase transitions. The inflationary era at the temperature of the order of the grand unification energy scale and the quantum chromodynamic confinement transition are dealt with in detail. (author) 131 refs.; 26 figs

  5. Does a cosmic censor exist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israel, W.

    1984-01-01

    A distinction is drawn between the event horizon conjecture (EHC), the conjecture that an event horizon forms in a gravitational collapse, and cosmic censorship, the idea that every singularity which develops in the course of collapse must be enclosed within a horizon. It is argued that a body of circumstantial evidence seems to favor EHC, but cosmic censorship seems contraindicated

  6. Cosmic Evolution: The History of an Idea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, S. J.

    2004-12-01

    Cosmic evolution has become the conceptual framework within which modern astronomy is undertaken, and is the guiding principle of major NASA programs such as Origins and Astrobiology. While there are 19th- and early 20th century antecedents, as in the work of Robert Chambers, Herbert Spencer and Lawrence Henderson, it was only at mid-20th century that full-blown cosmic evolution began to be articulated and accepted as a research paradigm extending from the Big Bang to life, intelligence and the evolution of culture. Harlow Shapley was particularly important in spreading the idea to the public in the 1950s, and NASA embraced the idea in the 1970s as part of its SETI program and later its exobiology and astrobiology programs. Eric Chaisson, Carl Sagan and others were early proponents of cosmic evolution, and it continues to be elaborated in ever more subtle form as a research program and a philosophy. It has even been termed "Genesis for the 21st century." This paper documents the origin and development of the idea and offers a glimpse of where it could lead if cultural evolution is taken seriously, possibly leading to the concept of a postbiological universe.

  7. L3 + Cosmics Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    %RE4 %title\\\\ \\\\The L3+C experiment takes advantage of the unique properties of the L3 muon spectrometer to get an accurate measurement of cosmic ray muons 30 m underground. A new muon trigger, readout and DAQ system have been installed, as well as a scintillator array covering the upper surfaces of the L3 magnet for timing purposes. The acceptance amounts to 200 $m^2 sr$. The data are collected independently in parallel with L3 running. In spring 2000 a scintillator array will be installed on the roof of the SX hall in order to estimate the primary energy of air showers associated with events observed in L3+C.\\\\ \\\\The cosmic ray muon momentum spectrum, the zenith angular dependence and the charge ratio are measured with high accuracy between 20 and 2000 GeV/c. The results will provide new information about the primary composition, the shower development in the atmosphere, and the inclusive pion and kaon (production-) cross sections (specifically the "$\\pi$/K ratio") at high energies. These data will also hel...

  8. Cosmic rays and global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlykin, A.D. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sloan, T. [Lancaster University (United Kingdom); Wolfendale, A.W. [Durham University (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    The possible effects of cosmic rays on clouds could contribute to global warming. The argument is that the observed increased solar activity during the last century caused a decrease in the ionization due to cosmic rays since the lower energy cosmic particles are deflected by the magnetic field created by the increasing solar wind. This would lead to a decrease in cloud cover allowing more heating of the earth by the sun. Meteorological data combined to solar activity observations and simulations show that any effect of solar activity on clouds and the climate is likely to be through irradiance rather than cosmic rays. Since solar irradiance transfers 8 orders of magnitude more energy to the atmosphere than cosmic rays it is more plausible that this can produce a real effect. The total contribution of variable solar activity to global warming is shown to be less than 14% of the total temperature rise. (A.C.)

  9. Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (2/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The origin of the highest energy cosmic rays (UHECR) with energies above 1000 TeV, is still unknown. The discovery of their sources will reveal the engines of the most energetic astrophysical accelerators in the universe. In these lectures we present the recent observational results from HiRes, Telescope Array and Pierre Auger Observatory as well as (some of) the possible astrophysical origins of UHECR. These experiments deal with particle interactions at energies orders of magnitude higher than achieved in terrestrial accelerators.

  10. Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The origin of the highest energy cosmic rays (UHECR) with energies above 1000 TeV, is still unknown. The discovery of their sources will reveal the engines of the most energetic astrophysical accelerators in the universe. In these lectures we present the recent observational results from HiRes, Telescope Array and Pierre Auger Observatory as well as (some of) the possible astrophysical origins of UHECR. These experiments deal with particle interactions at energies orders of magnitude higher than achieved in terrestrial accelerators.

  11. Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (3/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The origin of the highest energy cosmic rays (UHECR) with energies above 1000 TeV, is still unknown. The discovery of their sources will reveal the engines of the most energetic astrophysical accelerators in the universe. In these lectures we present the recent observational results from HiRes, Telescope Array and Pierre Auger Observatory as well as (some of) the possible astrophysical origins of UHECR. These experiments deal with particle interactions at energies orders of magnitude higher than achieved in terrestrial accelerators.

  12. Working group 4: Terrestrial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A working group at a Canada/USA symposium on climate change and the Arctic identified major concerns and issues related to terrestrial resources. The group examined the need for, and the means of, involving resource managers and users at local and territorial levels in the process of identifying and examining the impacts and consequences of climatic change. Climatic change will be important to the Arctic because of the magnitude of the change projected for northern latitudes; the apparent sensitivity of its terrestrial ecosystems, natural resources, and human support systems; and the dependence of the social, cultural, and economic welfare of Arctic communities, businesses, and industries on the health and quality of their environment. Impacts of climatic change on the physical, biological, and associated socio-economic environment are outlined. Gaps in knowledge needed to quantify these impacts are listed along with their relationships with resource management. Finally, potential actions for response and adaptation are presented

  13. Phytopharmacology of Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, M; Riaz, M; Talpur, M M A; Pirzada, T

    2016-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris is an annual herb which belongs to the Zygophyllaceae family. This plant has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases for hundreds of decades. The main active phytoconstituents of this plant include flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, lignin, amides, and glycosides. The plant parts have different pharmacological activities including aphrodisiac, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential. T. terrestris is most often used for infertility and loss of libido. It has potential application as immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, anthelmintic and anticarcinogenic activities. The aim of the present article is to create a database for further investigation of the phytopharmacological properties of this plant to promote research. This study will definitely help to confirm its traditional use along with its value-added utility, eventually leading to higher revenues from the plant.

  14. Terrestrial plant methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature...... the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  15. Cosmic magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kronberg, Philipp P

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields are important in the Universe and their effects contain the key to many astrophysical phenomena that are otherwise impossible to understand. This book presents an up-to-date overview of this fast-growing topic and its interconnections to plasma processes, astroparticle physics, high energy astrophysics, and cosmic evolution. The phenomenology and impact of magnetic fields are described in diverse astrophysical contexts within the Universe, from galaxies to the filaments and voids of the intergalactic medium, and out to the largest redshifts. The presentation of mathematical formulae is accessible and is designed to add insight into the broad range of topics discussed. Written for graduate students and researchers in astrophysics and related disciplines, this volume will inspire readers to devise new ways of thinking about magnetic fields in space on galaxy scales and beyond.

  16. Cosmic ray synergies

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    In laboratories, cosmic rays have been the subject of scientific research for many years. A more recent development is their appearance in schools, as educational tools. A recent workshop at CERN, organised by ASPERA in collaboration with EPPOG and EPPCN, had the goal of bringing together ideas and initiatives with a view to setting up a future common project.   Presentation at the workshop on 15 October. In research, as in education, you can sometimes get things done more rapidly and easily by joining forces. For roughly the past decade, physicists have been taking their particle detectors to secondary schools. “The challenge now is to bring all of these existing projects together in a network,” says Arnaud Marsollier, in charge of communication for the ASPERA network and organiser of the workshop. The workshop held on Friday, 15 October was attended by representatives of major European educational projects and members of the European Particle Physics Communication Network...

  17. Highest energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolskij, S.

    1984-01-01

    Primary particles of cosmic radiation with highest energies cannot in view of their low intensity be recorded directly but for this purpose the phenomenon is used that these particles interact with nuclei in the atmosphere and give rise to what are known as extensive air showers. It was found that 40% of primary particles with an energy of 10 15 to 10 16 eV consist of protons, 12 to 15% of helium nuclei, 15% of iron nuclei, the rest of nuclei of other elements. Radiation intensity with an energy of 10 18 to 10 19 eV depends on the direction of incoming particles. Maximum intensity is in the direction of the centre of the nearest clustre of galaxies, minimal in the direction of the central area of our galaxy. (Ha)

  18. Overproduction of cosmic superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnaby, Neil; Berndsen, Aaron; Cline, James M.; Stoica, Horace

    2005-01-01

    We show that the naive application of the Kibble mechanism seriously underestimates the initial density of cosmic superstrings that can be formed during the annihilation of D-branes in the early universe, as in models of brane-antibrane inflation. We study the formation of defects in effective field theories of the string theory tachyon both analytically, by solving the equation of motion of the tachyon field near the core of the defect, and numerically, by evolving the tachyon field on a lattice. We find that defects generically form with correlation lengths of order M s -1 rather than H -1 . Hence, defects localized in extra dimensions may be formed at the end of inflation. This implies that brane-antibrane inflation models where inflation is driven by branes which wrap the compact manifold may have problems with overclosure by cosmological relics, such as domain walls and monopoles

  19. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Aled

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a brief review of current theory and observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB. New predictions for cosmological defect theories and an overview of the inflationary theory are discussed. Recent results from various observations of the anisotropies of the microwave background are described and a summary of the proposed experiments is presented. A new analysis technique based on Bayesian statistics that can be used to reconstruct the underlying sky fluctuations is summarised. Current CMB data is used to set some preliminary constraints on the values of fundamental cosmological parameters $Omega$ and $H_circ$ using the maximum likelihood technique. In addition, secondary anisotropies due to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect are described.

  20. Cosmic Ray Antimatter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, space-born experiments have delivered new measurements of high energy cosmic-ray (CR) antiprotons and positrons, opening new frontiers in energy reach and precision. While being a promising discovery tool for new physics or exotic astrophysical phenomena, an irreducible background of antimatter comes from CR collisions with interstellar matter in the Galaxy. Understanding this irreducible source or constraining it from first principles is an interesting challenge: a game of hide-and-seek where the objective is to identify the laws of basic particle physics among the forest of astrophysical uncertainties. I describe an attempt to obtain such understanding, combining information from a zoo of CR species including massive nuclei and relativistic radioisotopes. I show that: (i) CR antiprotons most likely come from CR-gas collisions; (ii) positron data is consistent with, and suggestive of the same astrophysical production mechanism responsible for antiprotons and dominated by proton-proton c...

  1. Cosmic Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Martínez González, M. J.

    2018-05-01

    Magnetic fields play an important role in many astrophysical processes. They are difficult to detect and characterize since often their properties have to be inferred through interpreting the polarization of the light. Magnetic fields are also challenging to model and understand. Magnetized plasmas behave following highly non-linear differential equations having no general solution, so that every astrophysical problem represents a special case to be studied independently. Hence, magnetic fields are often an inconvenient subject which is overlooked or simply neglected (the elephant in the room, as they are dubbed in poster of the school). Such difficulty burdens the research on magnetic fields, which has evolved to become a very technical subject, with many small disconnected communities studying specific aspects and details. The school tried to amend the situation by providing a unifying view of the subject. The students had a chance to understand the behavior of magnetic fields in all astrophysical contexts, from cosmology to the Sun, and from starbursts to AGNs. The school was planed to present a balanced yet complete review of our knowledge, with excursions into the unknown to point out present and future lines of research. The subject of Cosmic Magnetic Fields was split into seven different topics: cosmic magnetic field essentials, solar magnetic fields, stellar magnetic fields, the role of magnetic fields on AGN feedback, magnetic fields in galaxies, magnetic fields in galaxy clusters and at larger scales, and primordial magnetic fields and magnetic fields in the early Universe. The corresponding lectures were delivered by seven well known and experienced scientists that have played key roles in the major advances of the field during the last years: F. Cattaneo, P. Judge, O. Kochukhov, R. Keppens, R. Beck, K. Dolag, and F. Finelli. Their lectures were recorded and are freely available at the IAC website: http://iactalks.iac.es/talks/serie/19.

  2. Primary cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, H.R.

    1972-01-01

    The term cosmic radiation means the charged particle flux that reaches the earth from outside its magnetosphere with energies above the solar wind energy of a few keV. There are two sources of flux. Sporadically the sun produces such particles, generally within the energy range 1--200 MeV, and these solar cosmic rays arrive at the earth for a period ranging from hours to days. There may be a small, rather constant flux from the sun also, but the bulk of the steady flux originates outside the earth's orbit. Although some have conjectured that part of this latter flux may be accelerated in the outer portions of the solar system where the outward flowing interplanetary medium meets the interstellar medium, it is generally thought that most or all of it arises in unique systems such as supernovae, and is distributed throughout the galaxy. These galactic particles range in energy from a few MeV to at least 10 13 MeV and consist primarily of protons with significant numbers of heavier nuclei, positrons and electrons. They are supposed to fill our galaxy, or at least the disc, more or less uniformly. However, the flux with energies below a few GeV that reaches earth's orbit is modulated by the interplanetary medium so that the number at earth varies inversely with solar activity and is always somewhat below the interstellar flux. A discussion is presented of primary galactic radiation at earth, its modulation by solar activity, and its interaction with the geomagnetic field. (U.S.)

  3. What is cosmic radiation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The earth was indeed receiving ionizing radiations from the heavens. This cosmic radiation consists of particles travelling near the speed of light. It consists of two components, the first of which is permanent and of galactic origin, while the other is more sporadic, depending on the sun's activities. Natural land-based sources expose each of us to an average total dose of 2.4 mSv per year (source UNSCEAR). In addition, the human activities using ionizing radiation contribute to an average annual exposure of 1.4 mSv, originating primarily with medical activities ( radiodiagnostic and radiation therapy). Members of flights crew are subject to exposure. The total dose of cosmic radiation received is is directly proportional with the duration of exposure, and thus with the duration of the flight. Measurement taken on board aircraft during the 1990's showed that flight personnel (on long haul flights) receive an average dose of approximately the same magnitude as the one due to exposure to natural radioactivity in France. The damage caused by ionizing radiation depends on the quantity of energy released by radiation into the cells of each organ or tissue of the human body(exposure dose). For a given quantity of absorbed energy (dose expressed in Gray), the damage will vary according to the nature of the radiation and the affected organ. These effects are of two types: acute effects and deferred effects. Two measurements are essential for radiation protection: the measurements of the dose of radiation absorbed by the body and the assessment of the risk associated with the absorbed dose. Two units were thus created: the gray and the sievert. (N.C.)

  4. Comparative Climatology of Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackwell, Stephen J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Harder, Jerald W.; Bullock, Mark A.

    Public awareness of climate change on Earth is currently very high, promoting significant interest in atmospheric processes. We are fortunate to live in an era where it is possible to study the climates of many planets, including our own, using spacecraft and groundbased observations as well as advanced computational power that allows detailed modeling. Planetary atmospheric dynamics and structure are all governed by the same basic physics. Thus differences in the input variables (such as composition, internal structure, and solar radiation) among the known planets provide a broad suite of natural laboratory settings for gaining new understanding of these physical processes and their outcomes. Diverse planetary settings provide insightful comparisons to atmospheric processes and feedbacks on Earth, allowing a greater understanding of the driving forces and external influences on our own planetary climate. They also inform us in our search for habitable environments on planets orbiting distant stars, a topic that was a focus of Exoplanets, the preceding book in the University of Arizona Press Space Sciences Series. Quite naturally, and perhaps inevitably, our fascination with climate is largely driven toward investigating the interplay between the early development of life and the presence of a suitable planetary climate. Our understanding of how habitable planets come to be begins with the worlds closest to home. Venus, Earth, and Mars differ only modestly in their mass and distance from the Sun, yet their current climates could scarcely be more divergent. Our purpose for this book is to set forth the foundations for this emerging science and to bring to the forefront our current understanding of atmospheric formation and climate evolution. Although there is significant comparison to be made to atmospheric processes on nonterrestrial planets in our solar system — the gas and ice giants — here we focus on the terrestrial planets, leaving even broader comparisons

  5. Test particle trajectories near cosmic strings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present a detailed analysis of the motion of test particle in the gravitational field of cosmic strings in different situations using the Hamilton–Jacobi (H–J) formalism. We have discussed the trajectories near static cosmic string, cosmic string in Brans–Dicke theory and cosmic string in dilaton gravity.

  6. Cosmic rays, clouds and climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensmark, Henrik [Danish Space Research Institute, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2007-07-01

    Changes in the intensity of galactic cosmic rays seems alter the Earth's cloudiness. A recent experiment has shown how electrons liberated by cosmic rays assist in making aerosols, the building blocks of cloud condensation nuclei, while anomalous climatic trends in Antarctica confirm the role of clouds in helping to drive climate change. Variations in the cosmic-ray influx due to solar magnetic activity account well for climatic fluctuations on decadal, centennial and millennial timescales. Over longer intervals, the changing galactic environment of the Solar System has had dramatic consequences, including Snowball Earth episodes.

  7. Effects of climate change on terrestrial animals [Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megan M. Friggens; Mary I. Williams; Karen E. Bagne; Tosha T. Wixom; Samuel A. Cushman

    2018-01-01

    The Intermountain Adaptation Partnership (IAP) region encompasses a high diversity of grassland, shrubland, and forest habitats across a broad range of elevational gradients, supporting high biodiversity in the interior western United States. Terrestrial species comprise a wide range of life forms, each expressing varying levels of habitat specialization and life...

  8. The Importance of Water for Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westall, Frances; Brack, André

    2018-03-01

    Liquid water is essential for life as we know it, i.e. carbon-based life. Although other compound-solvent pairs that could exist in very specific physical environments could be envisaged, the elements essential to carbon and water-based life are among the most common in the universe. Carbon molecules and liquid water have physical and chemical properties that make them optimised compound-solvent pairs. Liquid water is essential for important prebiotic reactions. But equally important for the emergence of life is the contact of carbon molecules in liquid water with hot rocks and minerals. We here review the environmental conditions of the early Earth, as soon as it had liquid water at its surface and was habitable. Basing our approach to life as a "cosmic phenomenon" (de Duve 1995), i.e. a chemical continuum, we briefly address the various hypotheses for the origin of life, noting their relevance with respect to early environmental conditions. It appears that hydrothermal environments were important in this respect. We continue with the record of early life noting that, by 3.5 Ga, when the sedimentary environment started being well-preserved, anaerobic life forms had colonised all habitable microenvironments from the sea floor to exposed beach environments and, possibly, in the photic planktonic zone of the sea. Life on Earth had also evolved to the relatively sophisticated stage of anoxygenic photosynthesis. We conclude with an evaluation of the potential for habitability and colonisation of other planets and satellites in the Solar System, noting that the most common life forms in the Solar System and probably in the Universe would be similar to terrestrial chemotrophs whose carbon source is either reduced carbon or CO2 dissolved in water and whose energy would be sourced from oxidized carbon, H2, or other transition elements.

  9. Interplanetary cosmic-ray scintillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toptygin, I N; Vasiliev, V N [Kalininskij Sel' skokhozyajstvennyj Inst. (USSR)

    1977-05-01

    The equation for the two-particles cosmic-ray distribution function is derived by means of the Boltzmann kinetic equation averaging. This equation is valid for arbitrary ratio of regular and random parts of the magnetic field. For small energy particles the guiding-center approximation is used. On the basis of the derived equation the dependence between power spectra of cosmic-ray intensity and random magnetic field is obtained. If power spectra are degree functions for high energy particles (approximately 10 GeV nucleon/sup -1/), then the spectral exponent ..gamma.. of magnetic field lies between rho and rho-2, where rho is the spectral exponent of cosmic-ray power spectra. The experimental data concerning moderate energy particles are in accordance with ..gamma..=rho, which demonstrates that the magnetic fluctuations are isotropic or cosmic-ray space gradient is small near the Earth orbit.

  10. Cosmic string induced CMB maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landriau, M.; Shellard, E. P. S.

    2011-01-01

    We compute maps of CMB temperature fluctuations seeded by cosmic strings using high resolution simulations of cosmic strings in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. We create full-sky, 18 deg. and 3 deg. CMB maps, including the relevant string contribution at each resolution from before recombination to today. We extract the angular power spectrum from these maps, demonstrating the importance of recombination effects. We briefly discuss the probability density function of the pixel temperatures, their skewness, and kurtosis.

  11. Cosmic rays and Earth's climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    During the last solar cycle the Earth's cloud cover underwent a modulation in phase with the cosmic ray flux. Assuming that there is a causal relationship between the two, it is expected and found that the Earth's temperature follows more closely decade variations in cosmic ray flux than other...... solar activity parameters. If the relationship is real the state of the Heliosphere affects the Earth's climate....

  12. Cosmic microwave background, where next?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Ground-based, balloon-borne and space-based experiments will observe the Cosmic Microwave Background in greater details to address open questions about the origin and the evolution of the Universe. In particular, detailed observations the polarization pattern of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation have the potential to directly probe physics at the GUT scale and illuminate aspects of the physics of the very early Universe.

  13. The puzzle of the ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Tkachev, I I

    2003-01-01

    In early years the cosmic ray studies were ahead of accelerator research, starting from the discovery of positrons, through muons, to that of pions and strange particles. Today we are facing the situation that the puzzling saga of cosmic rays of the highest energies may again unfold in the discovery of new physics, now beyond the Standard Model; or it may bring to life an "extreme" astrophysics. After a short review of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin puzzle, I discuss different models which were suggested for its resolution. Are there any hints pointing to the correct model? I argue that the small-scale clustering of arrival directions of cosmic rays gives a clue, and BL Lacs are the probable sources of the observed events. (58 refs).

  14. Acceleration of galactic cosmic rays in shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagage, P.O.

    1981-06-01

    The old problem of the origin of cosmic rays has triggered off fresh interest owing to the discovery of a new model which enables a lot of energy to be transferred to a small number of particles on the one hand and the discovery of the coronal environment in which this transfer occurs, on the other. In this paper, interest is taken in the galactic cosmic rays and an endeavour is made to find out if the model can reveal the existence of cosmic rays over a wide energy range. The existence of an energy break, predicted by the model, was recognized fairly early but, in the literature, it varies from 30 GeV ro 10 6 GeV according to the authors. A study has been made of the two main causes of an energy break: the sphericity of the shock and the life time of the shock wave [fr

  15. Calculation of cosmic ray induced single event upsets: Program CRUP (Cosmic Ray Upset Program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, P.

    1983-09-01

    This report documents PROGRAM CRUP, COSMIC RAY UPSET PROGRAM. The computer program calculates cosmic ray induced single-event error rates in microelectronic circuits exposed to several representative cosmic-ray environments.

  16. Planetary Habitability over Cosmic-Time Based on Cosmic-Ray Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Paul A.; Biermann, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Extreme cosmic-ray (CR) fluxes have a negative effect on life when flux densities are high enough to cause excessive biological, especially DNA, damage. The CR history of a planet plays an important role in its potential surface habitation. Both global and local CR conditions determine the ability of life to survive for astrobiologically relevant time periods. We highlight two CR life-limiting factors: 1) General galactic activity, starburst and AGN, was up by about a factor of 30 at redshift 1 - 2, per comoving frame, averaged over all galaxies. And 2) AGN activity is highly intermittent, so extreme brief but powerful bursts (Her A for example) can be detrimental at great distances. This means that during such brief bursts of AGN activity the extragalactic CRs might even overpower the local galactic CRs. But as shown by the starburst galaxy M82, the local CRs in a starburst can also be quite high. Moreover, in our cosmic neighborhood we have several super-massive black holes. These are in M31, M32, M81, NGC5128 (Cen A), and in our own Galaxy, all within about 4 Mpc today. Within about 20 Mpc today there are many more super-massive black holes. Cen A is of course the most famous one now, since it may be a major source of the ultra-high-energy CRs (UHECRs). Folding in what redshift means in terms of cosmic time, this implies that there may have been little chance for life to survive much earlier than Earth's starting epoch. We speculate, on whether the very slow start oflife on Earth is connected to the decay of disturbing CR activity.

  17. Cosmic transcendence, loneliness, and exchange of emotional support with adult children: a study among older parents in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, E A; Braam, A W; Broese van Groenou, M I; Deeg, D J H; van der Geest, S

    2006-09-01

    Gerotranscendence defines a shift in meta-perspective from earlier materialistic and pragmatic concerns, toward more cosmic and transcendent ones in later life. Population-based studies that have empirically examined this concept using Tornstam's gerotranscendence scale, highlight cosmic transcendence as a core component, which includes a sense of belongingness with past and future generations. Such generative concerns may increase expectations regarding the quality of the bond with one's children in later life. This study examined whether the association between emotional support exchanged with children and feelings of loneliness later in life varied by the degree of cosmic transcendence of the older parent. Data from 1,845 older parents participating in a population-based study living in The Netherlands were analyzed from the 1995/1996 cycle of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Interviews included self-report measures of cosmic transcendence, loneliness, emotional support exchanged with children, health indicators, and marital status. Results indicated that a negative association between loneliness and level of emotional support exchanged with children was more pronounced among older parents with higher cosmic transcendence scores, in particular among the married. It is argued that cosmic transcendence reflects a sense of generativity and an increased emotional dependency on children in later life. Under favorable social conditions (supportive relationships with children and being married) cosmic transcendent views had a positive impact on social well-being in later life. When children no longer met emotional needs of older parents, cosmic transcendence increased feelings of loneliness.

  18. MARS A Cosmic Stepping Stone Uncovering Humanity’s Cosmic Context

    CERN Document Server

    Nolan, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    The questions of our origin and cosmic abundance of life are among the most compelling facing humanity. We have determined much about the nature and origin of the Universe and our place in it, but with virtually all evidence of our origin long since gone from our world and an unimaginably vast Universe still to explore, defining answers are difficult to obtain. For all of the difficulties facing us however, the planet Mars may act as a ‘cosmic stepping stone’ in uncovering some of the answers. Although different today, the origin and early history of both Earth and Mars may have been similar enough to consider an origin to life on both. But because Mars’ planetary processes collapsed over three billion years ago – just as life was beginning to flourish on Earth – a significant and unique record of activity from that era perhaps relevant to the origin of life still resides there today. In recognition of this, both the US and Europe are currently engaged in one of the most ambitious programs of explor...

  19. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council, established the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) to address the need for coordinated and standardized monitoring of Arctic environments. The CBMP includes an international...... on developing and implementing long-term plans for monitoring the integrity of Arctic biomes: terrestrial, marine, freshwater, and coastal (under development) environments. The CBMP Terrestrial Expert Monitoring Group (CBMP-TEMG) has developed the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan (CBMP......-Terrestrial Plan/the Plan) as the framework for coordinated, long-term Arctic terrestrial biodiversity monitoring. The goal of the CBMP-Terrestrial Plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders, northern communities, and scientists to detect, understand and report on long...

  20. DNDO Report: Predicting Solar Modulation Potentials for Modeling Cosmic Background Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behne, Patrick Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-08

    The modeling of the detectability of special nuclear material (SNM) at ports and border crossings requires accurate knowledge of the background radiation at those locations. Background radiation originates from two main sources, cosmic and terrestrial. Cosmic background is produced by high-energy galactic cosmic rays (GCR) entering the atmosphere and inducing a cascade of particles that eventually impact the earth’s surface. The solar modulation potential represents one of the primary inputs to modeling cosmic background radiation. Usosokin et al. formally define solar modulation potential as “the mean energy loss [per unit charge] of a cosmic ray particle inside the heliosphere…” Modulation potential, a function of elevation, location, and time, shares an inverse relationship with cosmic background radiation. As a result, radiation detector thresholds require adjustment to account for differing background levels, caused partly by differing solar modulations. Failure to do so can result in higher rates of false positives and failed detection of SNM for low and high levels of solar modulation potential, respectively. This study focuses on solar modulation’s time dependence, and seeks the best method to predict modulation for future dates using Python. To address the task of predicting future solar modulation, we utilize both non-linear least squares sinusoidal curve fitting and cubic spline interpolation. This material will be published in transactions of the ANS winter meeting of November, 2016.

  1. Illustrated cosmic monopole

    CERN Document Server

    Seagrave, Wyken

    2015-01-01

    Truly bizarre, utterly unique I've never read a novel quite like this before. The author takes you on an exciting adventure full of unforgettable and vivid imagery. Solidly written with each character's personality shining through. If you find physics fascinating you will not be disappointed by the author's keen intellect and clear understanding of this most challenging (for me anyway) scientific subject. This is not a novel I will forget anytime soon, I would highly recommend it. Andrewly Very imaginative tale Anybody interested in a very imaginative and engrossing sci fi story needs to check this one out. I have been reading sci fi for decades and this story has elements that surprise me which is very unusual considering the number of novels and stories I have over the years. ric freeman Summary of the story The cosmic monopole has been wandering the Universe since it was created in the Big Bang. Its existence is fundamental to the way the Universe works. It is finally trapped by the powerful magnetic f...

  2. Contaminant exposure in terrestrial vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Philip N.; Cobb, George P.; Godard-Codding, Celine; Hoff, Dale; McMurry, Scott T.; Rainwater, Thomas R.; Reynolds, Kevin D.

    2007-01-01

    Here we review mechanisms and factors influencing contaminant exposure among terrestrial vertebrate wildlife. There exists a complex mixture of biotic and abiotic factors that dictate potential for contaminant exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial vertebrates. Chemical fate and transport in the environment determine contaminant bioaccessibility. Species-specific natural history characteristics and behavioral traits then play significant roles in the likelihood that exposure pathways, from source to receptor, are complete. Detailed knowledge of natural history traits of receptors considered in conjunction with the knowledge of contaminant behavior and distribution on a site are critical when assessing and quantifying exposure. We review limitations in our understanding of elements of exposure and the unique aspects of exposure associated with terrestrial and semi-terrestrial taxa. We provide insight on taxa-specific traits that contribute, or limit exposure to, transport phenomenon that influence exposure throughout terrestrial systems, novel contaminants, bioavailability, exposure data analysis, and uncertainty associated with exposure in wildlife risk assessments. Lastly, we identify areas related to exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial organisms that warrant additional research. - Both biotic and abiotic factors determine chemical exposure for terrestrial vertebrates

  3. Rapid degradation of the complex organic molecules in Martian surface rocks due to exposure to cosmic rays. Implications to the search of 'extinct' life on Mars by MSL and ExoMars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Glavin, D. P.; Floyd, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    Until recently, long-term exposure to cosmic rays has not been recognized as a major environmental factor, which can alter and destroy organic molecules in the Martian surface rocks. Recent modeling studies (e.g. Pavlov et al., 2012) suggested that organic molecules with masses >100 amu would be degraded in less than 1 billion years in the top 5 cm of the Martian rocks. That poses a serious challenge to the search of ancient molecules in the shallow subsurface of Mars. However, Pavlov et al. calculated the fraction of the survived organic molecules using conservative radiolysis constants derived from the gamma irradiation experiments on pure dry amino acid mixtures (Kminek and Bada, 2006). In this study we conducted a series of gamma irradiations of amino acids and carboxylic acids mixed with silica powder. We report that the addition of silicates dramatically increased the rate of organic degradation under gamma radiation. Using the newly derived radiolysis constants for amino acids and carboxylic acids in mineral mixtures, we recalculated the rate of organic degradation in the Martian rocks as a function of rocks' depth, chemical composition and weathering rates. Our results suggest that isolated organic molecules (acids) are likely to be altered or fully degraded in the surface rocks on Mars by cosmic rays in less than 10 million years unless some additional protective mechanisms are in place. We will discuss possible strategies for the MSL's search of the elusive ancient organic molecules to overcome the adverse effects of cosmic rays in the surface Martian rocks. References. Pavlov et al., 2012 GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, doi:10.1029/2012GL052166 Kminek, G., and J. Bada (2006), Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 245, 1-5, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.03.008.

  4. Looking for Cosmic Neutrino Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki eYanagisawa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of neutrino oscillation in atmospheric neutrinos by the Super-Kamiokande experiment in 1998, study of neutrinos has been one of exciting fields in high-energy physics. All the mixing angles were measured. Quests for 1 measurements of the remaining parameters, the lightest neutrino mass, the CP violating phase(s, and the sign of mass splitting between the mass eigenstates m3 and m1, and 2 better measurements to determine whether the mixing angle theta23 is less than pi/4, are in progress in a well-controlled manner. Determining the nature of neutrinos, whether they are Dirac or Majorana particles is also in progress with continuous improvement. On the other hand, although the ideas of detecting cosmic neutrino background have been discussed since 1960s, there has not been a serious concerted effort to achieve this goal. One of the reasons is that it is extremely difficult to detect such low energy neutrinos from the Big Bang. While there has been tremendous accumulation of information on Cosmic Microwave Background since its discovery in 1965, there is no direct evidence for Cosmic Neutrino Background. The importance of detecting Cosmic Neutrino Background is that, although detailed studies of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and Cosmic Microwave Background give information of the early Universe at ~a few minutes old and ~300 k years old, respectively, observation of Cosmic Neutrino Background allows us to study the early Universe at $sim$ 1 sec old. This article reviews progress made in the past 50 years on detection methods of Cosmic Neutrino Background.

  5. Comets and the origin of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delsemme, A H

    1981-01-01

    Current understandings of the nature and evolution of the universe and of the earth are summarized as a background to the discussion of the origin of life on earth as the result of the transport of the necessary materials to earth by comets. Evidence for the origin of the universe in the Big Bang supplied by observations of the expansion of the universe and the cosmic microwave background is discussed, and the condensation of primordial matter into galaxies and stars and the chemical processes in stars converting primordial hydrogen and helium into heavy elements as the stars evolve giving rise to an interstellar medium are considered. Attention is then given to the birth of the solar system from the contraction of a dark interstellar cloud containing gas, dust and interstellar molecules, and in particular to the origin of the terrestrial planets and the cometary contributions to the terrestrial crust, oceans and atmosphere. Finally, the chronology of the universe from the Big Bang to the present and that of the earth from its formation to the present are reviewed.

  6. Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, M.; Chambers, D. P.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    During 2014 dryness continued in the Northern Hemisphere and relative wetness continued in the Southern Hemisphere (Fig. 2.21; Plate 2.1g). These largely canceled out such that the global land surface began and ended the year with a terrestrial water storage (TWS) anomaly slightly below 0 cm (equivalent height of water; Fig. 2.22). TWS is the sum of groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow, and ice. Groundwater responds more slowly to meteorological phenomena than the other components because the overlying soil acts as a low pass filter, but often it has a larger range of variability on multiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti 2001; Alley et al. 2002).In situ groundwater data are only archived and made and Tanzania. The rest of the continent experienced mixed to dry conditions. Significant reductions in TWS in Greenland, Antarctica, and southern coastal Alaska reflect ongoing ice sheet and glacier ablation, not groundwater depletion.

  7. The cosmic spiderweb: equivalence of cosmic, architectural and origami tessellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyrinck, Mark C.; Hidding, Johan; Konstantatou, Marina; van de Weygaert, Rien

    2018-04-01

    For over 20 years, the term `cosmic web' has guided our understanding of the large-scale arrangement of matter in the cosmos, accurately evoking the concept of a network of galaxies linked by filaments. But the physical correspondence between the cosmic web and structural engineering or textile `spiderwebs' is even deeper than previously known, and also extends to origami tessellations. Here, we explain that in a good structure-formation approximation known as the adhesion model, threads of the cosmic web form a spiderweb, i.e. can be strung up to be entirely in tension. The correspondence is exact if nodes sampling voids are included, and if structure is excluded within collapsed regions (walls, filaments and haloes), where dark-matter multistreaming and baryonic physics affect the structure. We also suggest how concepts arising from this link might be used to test cosmological models: for example, to test for large-scale anisotropy and rotational flows in the cosmos.

  8. The cosmic spiderweb: equivalence of cosmic, architectural and origami tessellations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyrinck, Mark C; Hidding, Johan; Konstantatou, Marina; van de Weygaert, Rien

    2018-04-01

    For over 20 years, the term 'cosmic web' has guided our understanding of the large-scale arrangement of matter in the cosmos, accurately evoking the concept of a network of galaxies linked by filaments. But the physical correspondence between the cosmic web and structural engineering or textile 'spiderwebs' is even deeper than previously known, and also extends to origami tessellations. Here, we explain that in a good structure-formation approximation known as the adhesion model, threads of the cosmic web form a spiderweb, i.e. can be strung up to be entirely in tension. The correspondence is exact if nodes sampling voids are included, and if structure is excluded within collapsed regions (walls, filaments and haloes), where dark-matter multistreaming and baryonic physics affect the structure. We also suggest how concepts arising from this link might be used to test cosmological models: for example, to test for large-scale anisotropy and rotational flows in the cosmos.

  9. Fitting cosmic microwave background data with cosmic strings and inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevis, Neil; Hindmarsh, Mark; Kunz, Martin; Urrestilla, Jon

    2008-01-18

    We perform a multiparameter likelihood analysis to compare measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectra with predictions from models involving cosmic strings. Adding strings to the standard case of a primordial spectrum with power-law tilt ns, we find a 2sigma detection of strings: f10=0.11+/-0.05, where f10 is the fractional contribution made by strings in the temperature power spectrum (at l=10). CMB data give moderate preference to the model ns=1 with cosmic strings over the standard zero-strings model with variable tilt. When additional non-CMB data are incorporated, the two models become on a par. With variable ns and these extra data, we find that f10<0.11, which corresponds to Gmicro<0.7x10(-6) (where micro is the string tension and G is the gravitational constant).

  10. Robust constraint on cosmic textures from the cosmic microwave background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Stephen M; Johnson, Matthew C; Mortlock, Daniel J; Peiris, Hiranya V

    2012-06-15

    Fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) contain information which has been pivotal in establishing the current cosmological model. These data can also be used to test well-motivated additions to this model, such as cosmic textures. Textures are a type of topological defect that can be produced during a cosmological phase transition in the early Universe, and which leave characteristic hot and cold spots in the CMB. We apply bayesian methods to carry out a rigorous test of the texture hypothesis, using full-sky data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. We conclude that current data do not warrant augmenting the standard cosmological model with textures. We rule out at 95% confidence models that predict more than 6 detectable cosmic textures on the full sky.

  11. Impact of cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the Earth’s ionosphere and atmosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Velinov, P. I. Y.; Asenovski, S.; Kudela, K.; Laštovička, Jan; Mateev, L.; Mishev, A.; Tonev, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, 26 March (2013), A14/1-A14/17 ISSN 2115-7251 Grant - others:European COST Action(XE) ES0803 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : cosmic rays * solar energetic particles * ionization * ionosphere * atmosphere * solar activity * solar-terrestrial relationships Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.519, year: 2013 http://www.swsc-journal.org/articles/swsc/abs/2013/01/swsc120040/swsc120040.html

  12. Towards a Unified Source-Propagation Model of Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M.; Molla, M.

    2010-07-01

    report that the entire spectrum, spanning cosmic rays of local solar origin and those eminating from galactic and extra-galactic sources can be explained using a new diagnostic — the gradient of the log-log plot. This diagnostic reveals the known Boltmann statistics in the solar-terrestrial neighbourhood but at the highest energies — presumably at the cosmic ray source, with clearly separated fractal scales in between. We interpret this as modulation at the source followed by Fermi acceleration facilitated by galactic and extra-galactic magnetic fields with a final modulation in the solar-terrestrial neighbourhood. We conclude that the gradient of multifractal curves appears to be an excellent detector of fractality.

  13. Cosmic logic: a computational model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanchurin, Vitaly

    2016-01-01

    We initiate a formal study of logical inferences in context of the measure problem in cosmology or what we call cosmic logic. We describe a simple computational model of cosmic logic suitable for analysis of, for example, discretized cosmological systems. The construction is based on a particular model of computation, developed by Alan Turing, with cosmic observers (CO), cosmic measures (CM) and cosmic symmetries (CS) described by Turing machines. CO machines always start with a blank tape and CM machines take CO's Turing number (also known as description number or Gödel number) as input and output the corresponding probability. Similarly, CS machines take CO's Turing number as input, but output either one if the CO machines are in the same equivalence class or zero otherwise. We argue that CS machines are more fundamental than CM machines and, thus, should be used as building blocks in constructing CM machines. We prove the non-computability of a CS machine which discriminates between two classes of CO machines: mortal that halts in finite time and immortal that runs forever. In context of eternal inflation this result implies that it is impossible to construct CM machines to compute probabilities on the set of all CO machines using cut-off prescriptions. The cut-off measures can still be used if the set is reduced to include only machines which halt after a finite and predetermined number of steps

  14. Muon Production in Relativistic Cosmic-Ray Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Spencer R.

    2009-01-01

    Cosmic-rays with energies up to 3x10 20 eV have been observed. The nuclear composition of these cosmic rays is unknown but if the incident nuclei are protons then the corresponding center of mass energy is √(s nn )=700TeV. High energy muons can be used to probe the composition of these incident nuclei. The energy spectra of high-energy (>1TeV) cosmic ray induced muons have been measured with deep underground or under-ice detectors. These muons come from pion and kaon decays and from charm production in the atmosphere. Terrestrial experiments are most sensitive to far-forward muons so the production rates are sensitive to high-x partons in the incident nucleus and low-x partons in the nitrogen/oxygen targets. Muon measurements can complement the central-particle data collected at colliders. This paper will review muon production data and discuss some non-perturbative (soft) models that have been used to interpret the data. I will show measurements of TeV muon transverse momentum (p T ) spectra in cosmic-ray air showers from MACRO, and describe how the IceCube neutrino observatory and the proposed Km3Net detector will extend these measurements to a higher p T region where perturbative QCD should apply. With a 1 km 2 surface area, the full IceCube detector should observe hundreds of muons/year with p T in the pQCD regime.

  15. Geology and Habitability of Terrestrial Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Fishbaugh, Kathryn E; Raulin, François; Marais, David J; Korablev, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    Given the fundamental importance of and universal interest in whether extraterrestrial life has developed or could eventually develop in our solar system and beyond, it is vital that an examination of planetary habitability goes beyond simple assumptions such as, "Where there is water, there is life." This book has resulted from a workshop at the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern, Switzerland (5-9 September 2005) that brought together planetary geologists, geophysicists, atmospheric scientists, and biologists to discuss the multi-faceted problem of how the habitability of a planet co-evolves with the geology of the surface and interior, the atmosphere, and the magnetosphere. Each of the six chapters has been written by authors with a range of expertise so that each chapter is itself multi-disciplinary, comprehensive, and accessible to scientists in all disciplines. These chapters delve into what life needs to exist and ultimately to thrive, the early environments of the young terrestrial pl...

  16. Galactic cosmic rays and tropical ozone asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilifarska, Natalya; Bakhmutov, Volodymyr; Melnyk, Galyna

    2017-01-01

    Lower stratospheric ozone O_3 is of special interest to climatic studies due to its direct influence on the tropopause temperature, and correspondingly on Earth’s radiation balance. By reason of the suppressed dissociation of molecular oxygen by solar UV radiation and the long life span of the lower stratospheric O_3 , its temporal variability is usually attributed to atmospheric circulation. Here we report about latitudinal-longitudinal differences in a centennial evolution of the tropical O_3 at 70 hPa. These asymmetries are hardly explicable within the concept of the ozone’s dynamical control alone. Analysis of ozone, energetic particles and the geomagnetic records from the last 111 years has revealed that they all evolve synchronously with time. This coherence motivates us to propose a mechanism explaining the geomagnetic and galactic cosmic ray influence on the near tropopause O_3 , allowing for an understanding of its spatial-temporal variability during the past century. Key words: galactic cosmic rays, asymmetries of tropical ozone distribution, geomagnetic filed

  17. Aerosols Produced by Cosmic Rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker

    an experiment in order to investigate the underlying microphysical processes. The results of this experiment will help to understand whether ionization from cosmic rays, and by implication the related processes in the universe, has a direct influence on Earth’s atmosphere and climate. Since any physical...... mechanism linking cosmic rays to clouds and climate is currently speculative, there have been various suggestions of the role atmospheric ions may play; these involve any one of a number of processes from the nucleation of aerosols up to the collection processes of cloud droplets. We have chosen to start......Satellite observations have shown that the Earth’s cloud cover is strongly correlated with the galactic cosmic ray flux. While this correlation is indicative of a possible physical connection, there is currently no confirmation that a physical mechanism exists. We are therefore setting up...

  18. Cosmic rays, clouds, and climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, N.; Svensmark, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    cloud radiative properties. Thus, a moderate influence on atmospheric aerosol distributions from cosmic ray ionisation would have a strong influence on the Earth's radiation budget. Historical evidence over the past 1000 years indicates that changes in climate have occurred in accord with variability......A correlation between a global average of low cloud cover and the flux of cosmic rays incident in the atmosphere has been observed during the last solar cycle. The ionising potential of Earth bound cosmic rays are modulated by the state of the heliosphere, while clouds play an important role...... in the Earth's radiation budget through trapping outgoing radiation and reflecting incoming radiation. If a physical link between these two features can be established, it would provide a mechanism linking solar activity and Earth's climate. Recent satellite observations have further revealed a correlation...

  19. Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass

    CERN Multimedia

    Baylon cardiel, J L; Wallace, K C; Anderson, T B; Copley, M

    The cosmic-ray energetics and mass (CREAM) investigation is designed to measure cosmic-ray composition to the supernova energy scale of 10$^{15}$ eV in a series of ultra long duration balloon (ULDB) flights. The first flight is planned to be launched from Antarctica in December 2004. The goal is to observe cosmic-ray spectral features and/or abundance changes that might signify a limit to supernova acceleration. The particle ($\\{Z}$) measurements will be made with a timing-based charge detector and a pixelated silicon charge detector to minimize the effect of backscatter from the calorimeter. The particle energy measurements will be made with a transition radiation detector (TRD) for $\\{Z}$ > 3 and a sampling tungsten/scintillator calorimeter for $\\{Z}$ $\\geq$1 particles, allowing inflight cross calibration of the two detectors. The status of the payload construction and flight preparation are reported in this paper.

  20. Interpreting the cosmic ray composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'C Drury, L.; Ellisson, D.C; Meyer, J.-P.

    2000-01-01

    The detailed pattern of elemental abundances in the Galactic Cosmic Rays is well determined at energies of a few GeV per nucleon. After correction for propagation effects the inferred source composition shows significant deviations from the standard pattern of Galactic elemental abundances. These deviations, surprisingly overabundances of the heavy elements relative to Hydrogen, are clearly a significant clue to the origin of the cosmic rays, but one which has proven very difficult to interpret. We have recently shown that the 'standard' model for the origin of the bulk of the Galactic cosmic rays, namely acceleration by the diffusive shock acceleration process at the strong shocks associated with supernova remnants, can quantitatively explain all features of the source composition if the acceleration occurs from a dusty interstellar medium. This success must be regarded as one of the stronger pieces of evidence in favour of the standard model

  1. Interpreting the cosmic ray composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' C Drury, L.; Ellisson, D.C; Meyer, J.-P

    2000-01-31

    The detailed pattern of elemental abundances in the Galactic Cosmic Rays is well determined at energies of a few GeV per nucleon. After correction for propagation effects the inferred source composition shows significant deviations from the standard pattern of Galactic elemental abundances. These deviations, surprisingly overabundances of the heavy elements relative to Hydrogen, are clearly a significant clue to the origin of the cosmic rays, but one which has proven very difficult to interpret. We have recently shown that the 'standard' model for the origin of the bulk of the Galactic cosmic rays, namely acceleration by the diffusive shock acceleration process at the strong shocks associated with supernova remnants, can quantitatively explain all features of the source composition if the acceleration occurs from a dusty interstellar medium. This success must be regarded as one of the stronger pieces of evidence in favour of the standard model.

  2. High-energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Cronin, James Watson

    1996-01-01

    Recently two cosmic rays with energy in excess of 2 1020 eV have been recorded. These are some 108 times more energetic than the protons produced by accelerators on earth. There is no credible understanding of the mechanism of acceleration by known a Because of the short mean free path in the cosmic background radiation they must come from nearby distances on a cosmological scale (< 50 Mpc). Their magnetic rigidity suggests that they should point to their source. Lectures will cover the present available data on the highest energy cosmic rays, their detection, possible acceleration mechanisms, their propagation in the galaxy and in extra galactic space and design of new detectors where simulations of air show ers play an important role.

  3. Cosmic Deuterium and Social Networking Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, J. M.; Suer, T.-A.; Lubowich, D. A.; Glaisyer, T.

    2006-08-01

    For the education of newcomers to a scientific field and for the convenience of students and workers in the field, it is helpful to have all the basic scientific papers gathered. For the study of deuterium in the Universe, in 2004-5 we set up http://www.cosmicdeuterium.info with clickable links to all the historic and basic papers in the field and to many of the current papers. Cosmic deuterium is especially important because all deuterium in the Universe was formed in the epoch of nucleosynthesis in the first 1000 seconds after the Big Bang, so study of its relative abundance (D:H~1:100,000) gives us information about those first minutes of the Universe's life. Thus the understanding of cosmic deuterium is one of the pillars of modern cosmology, joining the cosmic expansion, the 3 degree cosmic background radiation, and the ripples in that background radiation. Studies of deuterium are also important for understanding Galactic chemical evolution, astrochemistry, interstellar processes, and planetary formation. Some papers had to be scanned while others are available at the Astrophysical Data System, adswww.harvard.edu, or to publishers' Websites. By 2006, social networking software (http:tinyurl.com/ zx5hk) had advanced with popular sites like facebook.com and MySpace.com; the Astrophysical Data System had even set up MyADS. Social tagging software sites like http://del.icio.us have made it easy to share sets of links to papers already available online. We have set up http://del.icio.us/deuterium to provide links to many of the papers on cosmicdeuterium.info, furthering previous del.icio.us work on /eclipses and /plutocharon. It is easy for the site owner to add links to a del.icio.us site; it takes merely clicking on a button on the browser screen once the site is opened and the desired link is viewed in a browser. Categorizing different topics by keywords allows subsets to be easily displayed. The opportunity to expose knowledge and build an ecosystem of web

  4. Tidally Heated Terrestrial Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Wade Garrett

    This work models the surface and internal temperatures for hypothetical terrestrial planets in situations involving extreme tidal heating. The feasibility of such planets is evaluated in terms of the orbital perturbations that may give rise to them, their required proximity to a hoststar, and the potential for the input tidal heating to cause significant partial melting of the mantle. Trapping terrestrial planets into 2:1 resonances with migrating Hot Jupiters is considered as a reasonable way for Earth-like worlds to both maintain high eccentricities and to move to short enough orbital periods (1-20 days) for extreme tidal heating to occur. Secular resonance and secular orbital perturbations may support moderate tidal heating at a low equilibrium eccentricity. At orbital periods below 10-30 days, with eccentricities from 0.01 to 0.1, tidal heat may greatly exceed radiogenic heat production. It is unlikely to exceed insolation, except when orbiting very low luminosity hosts, and thus will have limited surface temperature expression. Observations of such bodies many not be able to detect tidal surface enhancements given a few percent uncertainty in albedo, except on the nightside of spin synchronous airless objects. Otherwise detection may occur via spectral detection of hotspots or high volcanic gas concentrations including sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. The most extreme cases may be able to produce magma oceans, or magma slush mantles with up to 40-60% melt fractions. Tides may alter the habitable zones for smaller red dwarf stars, but are generally detrimental. Multiple viscoelastic models, including the Maxwell, Voigt-Kelvin, Standard Anelastic Solid, and Burgers rheologies are explored and applied to objects such as Io and the super-Earth planet GJ 876d. The complex valued Love number for the Burgers rheology is derived and found to be a useful improvement when modeling the low temperature behavior of tidal bodies, particularly during low eccentricity

  5. Cosmic Humanity: Utopia, Realities, Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Krichevsky

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The philosophical foundations of the theory and practice of the creation of cosmic humanity as a process of the evolution of human civilization, the emergence into space, with the prospect of resettlement outside the Earth are considered. There is a connection between myths, fantasies, ideas, concepts and projects aimed at the exploration of outer space, the creation of cosmic humanity. A new and voluminous definition of cosmic humanity in the evolutionary paradigm is given. Cosmic humanity is (essence and 4 stages of evolution: 1. Humanity living on Earth, sensing, knowing, understanding its cosmic origin, relationship with the cosmos and cosmic destiny. 2. Humanity living on Earth, leading aerospace activity for the purposes of exploration and use of aerospace space (Heaven, Space for survival and development. 3. Humanity living on Earth and outside the Earth — in the solar system, preserving the Earth and mastering the Cosmos for survival and development. 4. Humanity, settled and living in the Cosmos. Now humanity is in the process of transition from the second to the third stage. In the process of this evolution, a complex transformation of man and society takes place. The problem-semantic field of cosmic humanity is described and its general model is presented. The meta-goal-setting is the justification of cosmic humanity with the application of the anthropic principle and its “active” super (post anthropic supplement: “Cosmic humanity has an evolutionary purpose to actively manage evolution: change man, humanity and the universe.” The evolution of the “cosmic dream”, goals and technologies of space activities is formalized in the form of a conceptual model. Challenges and negative trends are considered in connection with the crisis of space activity, criticism and attempts to limit the flights of people into space. The prototype of cosmic humanity, its basis and acting model is the cosmonauts’ community. The main

  6. High-energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaisser, Thomas K. [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)]. E-mail: gaisser@bartol.udel.edu; Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2006-10-17

    After a brief review of galactic cosmic rays in the GeV to TeV energy range, we describe some current problems of interest for particles of very high energy. Particularly interesting are two features of the spectrum, the knee above 10{sup 15} eV and the ankle above 10{sup 18} eV. An important question is whether the highest-energy particles are of extra-galactic origin and, if so, at what energy the transition occurs. A theme common to all energy ranges is use of nuclear abundances as a tool for understanding the origin of the cosmic radiation.

  7. Dust in cosmic plasma environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendis, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    Cosmic dust is invariably immersed in a plasma and a radiative environment. Consequently, it is charged to some electrostatic potential which depends on the properties of the environment as well as the nature of the dust. This charging affects the physical and dynamical properties of the dust. In this paper the basic aspects of this dust-plasma interaction in several cosmic environments - including planetary magnetospheres, the heliosphere and the interstellar medium - are discussed. The physical and dynamical consequences of the interaction, as well as the pertinent observational evidence, are reviewed. Finally, the importance of the surface charge during the condensation process in plasma environments is stressed. (Auth.)

  8. Ultra high energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Cosmic radiation was discovered 70 years ago but its origin remains an open question. The background to this problem is outlined and attempts to discover the origin of the most energetic and rarest group above 10 15 eV are described. Measurements of the energy spectrum and arrival direction pattern of the very highest energy particles, mean energy about 6 x 10 19 eV, are used to argue that these particles originate outside our galaxy. Recent evidence from the new field of ultra high energy γ-ray astronomy are discussed in the context of a galactic origin hypothesis for lower energy cosmic rays. (author)

  9. Closing CMS to hunt cosmic rays

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2006-01-01

    Every second the Earth is bombarded by billions of cosmic rays and occasionally one of these cosmic particles will collide with the Earth's atmosphere generating a shower of particles known as an 'air shower'. This is similiar to the collisions and subsequent particle showers observed in accelerators such as the LHC. Here the CMS detector is closed so that systems can be tested using muon cosmic rays in the 'Cosmic Challenge'.

  10. Voids and the Cosmic Web: cosmic depression & spatial complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weygaert, Rien; Shandarin, S.; Saar, E.; Einasto, J.

    2016-01-01

    Voids form a prominent aspect of the Megaparsec distribution of galaxies and matter. Not only do theyrepresent a key constituent of the Cosmic Web, they also are one of the cleanest probesand measures of global cosmological parameters. The shape and evolution of voids are highly sensitive tothe

  11. Chandra Discovers Cosmic Cannonball

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    One of the fastest moving stars ever seen has been discovered with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This cosmic cannonball is challenging theories to explain its blistering speed. Astronomers used Chandra to observe a neutron star, known as RX J0822-4300, over a period of about five years. During that span, three Chandra observations clearly show the neutron star moving away from the center of the Puppis A supernova remnant. This remnant is the stellar debris field created during the same explosion in which the neutron star was created about 3700 years ago. Chandra X-ray Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A Chandra X-ray Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A By combining how far it has moved across the sky with its distance from Earth, astronomers determined the neutron star is moving at over 3 million miles per hour. At this rate, RX J0822-4300 is destined to escape from the Milky Way after millions of years, even though it has only traveled about 20 light years so far. "This star is moving at 3 million miles an hour, but it's so far away that the apparent motion we see in five years is less than the height of the numerals in the date on a penny, seen from the length of a football field," said Frank Winkler of Middlebury College in Vermont. "It's remarkable, and a real testament to the power of Chandra, that such a tiny motion can be measured." Labeled Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A Labeled Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A "Just after it was born, this neutron star got a one-way ticket out of the Galaxy," said co-author Robert Petre of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. "Astronomers have seen other stars being flung out of the Milky Way, but few as fast as this." So-called hypervelocity stars have been previously discovered shooting out of the Milky Way with speeds around one million miles per hour. One key difference between RX J0822-4300 and these other reported galactic escapees is the source of their speed. The hypervelocity stars are

  12. Ecological transfer mechanisms - Terrestrial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.E.; Raines, Gilbert E.; Bloom, S.G.; Levin, A.A.

    1969-01-01

    Radionuclides produced by nuclear excavation detonations and released to the environment may enter a variety of biogeochemical cycles and follow essentially the same transfer pathways as their stable-element counterparts. Estimation of potential internal radiation doses to individuals and/or populations living in or near fallout-contaminated areas requires analysis of the food-chain and other ecological pathways by which radionuclides released to the environment may be returned to man. A generalized materials transfer diagram, applicable to the forest, agricultural, freshwater and marine ecosystems providing food and water to the indigenous population of Panama and Colombia in regions that could be affected by nuclear excavation of a sea-level canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, is presented. Transfer mechanisms effecting the movement of stable elements and radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems are discussed, and methods used to simulate these processes by means of mathematical models are described to show how intake values are calculated for different radionuclides in the major ecological pathways leading to man. These data provide a basis for estimating potential internal radiation doses for comparison with the radiation protection criteria established by recognized authorities; and this, in turn, provides a basis for recommending measures to insure the radiological safety of the nuclear operation plan. (author)

  13. Solar-terrestrial physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, V.L.

    1977-01-01

    The Glossary is designed to be a technical dictionary that will provide solar workers of various specialties, students, other astronomers and theoreticians with concise information on the nature and the properties of phenomena of solar and solar-terrestrial physics. Each term, or group of related terms, is given a concise phenomenological and quantitative description, including the relationship to other phenomena and an interpretation in terms of physical processes. The references are intended to lead the non-specialist reader into the literature. This section deals with: geomagnetic field; coordinate systems; geomagnetic indices; Dst index; auroral electrojet index AE; daily, 27-day and semi-annual variations of geomagnetic field; micropulsation; geomagnetic storms; storm sudden commencement (SSC) or sudden commencement (SC); initial phase; ring current; sudden impulses; ionosphere; D region; polar cap absorption; sudden ionospheric disturbance; E region; sporadic E; equatorial electrojet; solar flare effect; F 1 and F 2 regions; spread F; travelling ionospheric disturbances; magnetosphere; magnetospheric coordinate systems; plasmasphere; magnetosheath; magnetospheric tail; substorm; radiation belts or Van Allen belts; whistlers; VLF emissions; aurora; auroral forms; auroral oval and auroral zones; auroral intensity; stable auroral red arcs; pulsing aurora; polar glow aurora; and airglow. (B.R.H.)

  14. Ecological transfer mechanisms - Terrestrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, W E; Raines, Gilbert E; Bloom, S G; Levin, A A [Battelle Memorial Institute, CoIumbus, OH (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Radionuclides produced by nuclear excavation detonations and released to the environment may enter a variety of biogeochemical cycles and follow essentially the same transfer pathways as their stable-element counterparts. Estimation of potential internal radiation doses to individuals and/or populations living in or near fallout-contaminated areas requires analysis of the food-chain and other ecological pathways by which radionuclides released to the environment may be returned to man. A generalized materials transfer diagram, applicable to the forest, agricultural, freshwater and marine ecosystems providing food and water to the indigenous population of Panama and Colombia in regions that could be affected by nuclear excavation of a sea-level canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, is presented. Transfer mechanisms effecting the movement of stable elements and radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems are discussed, and methods used to simulate these processes by means of mathematical models are described to show how intake values are calculated for different radionuclides in the major ecological pathways leading to man. These data provide a basis for estimating potential internal radiation doses for comparison with the radiation protection criteria established by recognized authorities; and this, in turn, provides a basis for recommending measures to insure the radiological safety of the nuclear operation plan. (author)

  15. Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. M.; Boutrup, S.; Bijl, L. van der

    This report presents the 2004 results of the Danish National Monitoring and Assess-ment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments (NOVANA). 2004 was the first year in which terrestrial nature was included in the monitoring pro-gramme. The report reviews the state of the groundwater......, watercourses, lakes and marine waters and the pressures upon them and reviews the monitoring of terrestrial natural habitats and selected plants and animals. The report is based on the annual reports prepared for each subprogramme by the Topic Centres. The latter reports are mainly based on data collected...

  16. Cosmic chirality both true and false.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Laurence D

    2012-12-01

    The discrete symmetries of parity P, time reversal T, and charge conjugation C may be used to characterize the properties of chiral systems. It is well known that parity violation infiltrates into ordinary matter via an interaction between the nucleons and electrons, mediated by the Z(0) particle, that lifts the degeneracy of the mirror-image enantiomers of a chiral molecule. Being odd under P but even under T, this P-violating interaction exhibits true chirality and so may induce absolute enantioselection under all circumstances. It has been suggested that CP violation may also infiltrate into ordinary matter via a P-odd, T-odd interaction mediated by the (as yet undetected) axion. This CP-violating interaction exhibits false chirality and so may induce absolute enantioselection in processes far from equilibrium. Both true and false cosmic chirality should be considered together as possible sources of homochirality in the molecules of life. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Qigong meets quantum physics experiencing cosmic oneness

    CERN Document Server

    Bock-Möbius, Imke

    2012-01-01

    Quantum physicists have reached a point commonly only attained by mystics: they understand something with amazing clarity yet can only talk about it in parables and metaphors. In this context, qigong with its Daoist background is a powerful way to integrate these apparently opposing ways of apperception and understanding. It allows us to realise cosmic oneness in the activities of daily life. This book succeeds in presenting both an easily accessible outline of quantum physics and also an appreciation of mysticism beyond vagueness and obscurity. From here it describes the physical and mental movements of qigong as a way of integrating body and mind, head and heart, detailing specific exercises and outlining their rationale and effects.

  18. TERRESTRIAL EFFECTS OF NEARBY SUPERNOVAE IN THE EARLY PLEISTOCENE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, B. C.; Engler, E. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washburn University, Topeka, KS 66621 (United States); Kachelrieß, M. [Institutt for fysikk, NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Melott, A. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Overholt, A. C. [Department of Science and Mathematics, MidAmerica Nazarene University, Olathe, KS 66062 (United States); Semikoz, D. V., E-mail: brian.thomas@washburn.edu [APC, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, F-119 75205 Paris (France)

    2016-07-20

    Recent results have strongly confirmed that multiple supernovae happened at distances of ∼100 pc, consisting of two main events: one at 1.7–3.2 million years ago, and the other at 6.5–8.7 million years ago. These events are said to be responsible for excavating the Local Bubble in the interstellar medium and depositing {sup 60}Fe on Earth and the Moon. Other events are indicated by effects in the local cosmic ray (CR) spectrum. Given this updated and refined picture, we ask whether such supernovae are expected to have had substantial effects on the terrestrial atmosphere and biota. In a first look at the most probable cases, combining photon and CR effects, we find that a supernova at 100 pc can have only a small effect on terrestrial organisms from visible light and that chemical changes such as ozone depletion are weak. However, tropospheric ionization right down to the ground, due to the penetration of ≥TeV CRs, will increase by nearly an order of magnitude for thousands of years, and irradiation by muons on the ground and in the upper ocean will increase twentyfold, which will approximately triple the overall radiation load on terrestrial organisms. Such irradiation has been linked to possible changes in climate and increased cancer and mutation rates. This may be related to a minor mass extinction around the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary, and further research on the effects is needed.

  19. Art and the Cosmic Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Whitney H.; Aiello, Monica Petty; Macdonald, Reeves; Asplund, Shari

    2014-01-01

    The interdisciplinary unit described in this article utilizes "Art and the Cosmic Connection," a free program conceived of by artists Monica and Tyler Aiello and developed by the artists, scientists, and educators through NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Programs, to inspire learners to explore mysterious worlds in our solar…

  20. Cosmic-ray sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frandsen, Mads T.; Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays; we show how they can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments, and to constrain specific models.

  1. Davis Meeting on Cosmic Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Kaloper, N; Knox, L; Cosmic Inflation

    2003-01-01

    The Davis Meeting on Cosmic Inflation marked an exciting milestone on the road to precision cosmology. This is the index page for the proceedings of the conference. Individual proceedings contributions, when they appear on this archive, are linked from this page.

  2. Meteors, meteorites and cosmic dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedinets, V.N.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of meteorite origin and meteorite composition is discussed. Nowadays, most scientists suppose that the giant Oort cloud consisting of ice comet nuclei is the sourse of the meteor matter. A principle unity of the matter of meteorites falling to the Earth and cosmic dust is noted as well as that of meteorite bodies evaporating in the atmosphere and bearing meteors and bodies

  3. Solar-cosmic-ray variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    The maximum flux of particles from solar events that should be considered in designing the shielding for a space habitation is discussed. The activities of various radionuclides measured in the top few centimeters of lunar rocks are used to examine the variability of solar cosmic ray fluxes over the last five million years. 10 references

  4. Delayed recombination and cosmic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, Silvia; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Bean, Rachel; Silk, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Current cosmological constraints from cosmic microwave background anisotropies are typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme, however additional resonance and ionizing radiation sources can delay recombination, altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from the cosmic microwave background data. We show that for recent observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe satellite mission (WMAP) 5-year survey and from the arcminute cosmology bolometer array receiver experiment, additional resonance radiation is nearly degenerate with variations in the spectral index, n s , and has a marked effect on uncertainties in constraints on the Hubble constant, age of the universe, curvature and the upper bound on the neutrino mass. When a modified recombination scheme is considered, the redshift of recombination is constrained to z * =1078±11, with uncertainties in the measurement weaker by 1 order of magnitude than those obtained under the assumption of standard recombination while constraints on the shift parameter are shifted by 1σ to R=1.734±0.028. From the WMAP5 data we obtain the following constraints on the resonance and ionization sources parameters: ε α i <0.058 at 95% c.l.. Although delayed recombination limits the precision of parameter estimation from the WMAP satellite, we demonstrate that this should not be the case for future, smaller angular scales measurements, such as those by the Planck satellite mission.

  5. Cosmic Censorship for Gowdy Spacetimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringström, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Due to the complexity of Einstein's equations, it is often natural to study a question of interest in the framework of a restricted class of solutions. One way to impose a restriction is to consider solutions satisfying a given symmetry condition. There are many possible choices, but the present article is concerned with one particular choice, which we shall refer to as Gowdy symmetry. We begin by explaining the origin and meaning of this symmetry type, which has been used as a simplifying assumption in various contexts, some of which we shall mention. Nevertheless, the subject of interest here is strong cosmic censorship. Consequently, after having described what the Gowdy class of spacetimes is, we describe, as seen from the perspective of a mathematician, what is meant by strong cosmic censorship. The existing results on cosmic censorship are based on a detailed analysis of the asymptotic behavior of solutions. This analysis is in part motivated by conjectures, such as the BKL conjecture, which we shall therefore briefly describe. However, the emphasis of the article is on the mathematical analysis of the asymptotics, due to its central importance in the proof and in the hope that it might be of relevance more generally. The article ends with a description of the results that have been obtained concerning strong cosmic censorship in the class of Gowdy spacetimes.

  6. Cosmic censorship and the dilaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, J.H.; Horowitz, G.T.

    1993-01-01

    We investigate extremal electrically charged black holes in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with a cosmological constant inspired by string theory. These solutions are not static, and a timelike singularity eventually appears which is not surrounded by an event horizon. This suggests that cosmic censorship may be violated in this theory

  7. Cosmic censorship and test particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needham, T.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper one unambiguous prediction of cosmic censorship is put to the test, namely that it should be impossible to destroy a black hole (i.e. eliminate its horizon) by injecting test particles into it. Several authors have treated this problem and have not found their conclusions in contradiction with the prediction. Here we prove that if a general charged spinning particle (with parameters very much smaller than the respective hole parameters) is injected in an arbitrary manner into an extreme Kerr-Newman black hole, then cosmic censorship is upheld. As a by-product of the analysis a natural proof is given of the Christodoulou-Ruffini conditions on the injection of a spinless particle which yield a reversible black-hole transformation. Finally we consider the injection of particles with parameters that are not small compared with those of the hole, for which cosmic censorship is apparently violated. By assuming the validity of cosmic censorship we are led to a few conjectures concerning the extent of the particle's interaction with the hole while approaching it

  8. Cosmology with the cosmic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero-Romero, J. E.

    2017-07-01

    This talk summarizes different algorithms that can be used to trace the cosmic web both in simulations and observations. We present different applications in galaxy formation and cosmology. To finalize, we show how the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) could be a good place to apply these techniques.

  9. Clusters and the Cosmic Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weygaert, R. van de

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: We discuss the intimate relationship between the filamentary features and the rare dense compact cluster nodes in this network, via the large scale tidal field going along with them, following the cosmic web theory developed Bond et al. The Megaparsec scale tidal shear pattern is

  10. Radio-wave detection of ultra-high-energy neutrinos and cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huege, Tim; Besson, Dave

    2017-12-01

    Radio waves, perhaps because our terrestrial atmosphere and the cosmos beyond are uniquely transparent to them, or perhaps because they are macroscopic, so the basic instruments of detection (antennas) are easily constructible, arguably occupy a privileged position within the electromagnetic spectrum, and, correspondingly, receive disproportionate attention experimentally. Detection of radio-frequency radiation, at macroscopic wavelengths, has blossomed within the last decade as a competitive method for the measurement of cosmic particles, particularly charged cosmic rays and neutrinos. Cosmic-ray detection via radio emission from extensive air showers has been demonstrated to be a reliable technique that has reached a reconstruction quality of the cosmic-ray parameters competitive with more traditional approaches. Radio detection of neutrinos in dense media seems to be the most promising technique to achieve the gigantic detection volumes required to measure neutrinos at energies beyond the PeV-scale flux established by IceCube. In this article, we review radio detection both of cosmic rays in the atmosphere, as well as neutrinos in dense media.

  11. Terrestrial ecological responses of climate change in the Northern hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forchhammer, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    Focusing on the single most important atmospheric phenomenon in the Northern hemisphere, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the author reviews the recent studies coupling the NAO with the ecology of a wide range of terrestrial organisms. In particular, the author focuses on low variations in the NAO affect phenotypic variation in life history Traits and, ultimately, dynamics of populations and of interacting species. (LN)

  12. Microalgal and terrestrial transport biofuels to displace fossil fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2009-01-01

    Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn,

  13. An effective method for terrestrial arthropod euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennie, Neil A C; Loaring, Christopher D; Bennie, Mikaella M G; Trim, Steven A

    2012-12-15

    As scientific understanding of invertebrate life increases, so does the concern for how to end that life in an effective way that minimises (potential) suffering and is also safe for those carrying out the procedure. There is increasing debate on the most appropriate euthanasia methods for invertebrates as their use in experimental research and zoological institutions grows. Their popularity as pet species has also led to an increase in the need for greater veterinary understanding. Through the use of a local injection of potassium chloride (KCl) initially developed for use in American lobsters, this paper describes a safe and effective method for euthanasia in terrestrial invertebrates. Initial work focused on empirically determining the dose for cockroaches, which was then extrapolated to other arthropod species. For this method of euthanasia, we propose the term 'targeted hyperkalosis' to describe death through terminal depolarisation of the thoracic ganglia as a result of high potassium concentration.

  14. The cosmic spiderweb: equivalence of cosmic, architectural and origami tessellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidding, Johan; Konstantatou, Marina; van de Weygaert, Rien

    2018-01-01

    For over 20 years, the term ‘cosmic web’ has guided our understanding of the large-scale arrangement of matter in the cosmos, accurately evoking the concept of a network of galaxies linked by filaments. But the physical correspondence between the cosmic web and structural engineering or textile ‘spiderwebs’ is even deeper than previously known, and also extends to origami tessellations. Here, we explain that in a good structure-formation approximation known as the adhesion model, threads of the cosmic web form a spiderweb, i.e. can be strung up to be entirely in tension. The correspondence is exact if nodes sampling voids are included, and if structure is excluded within collapsed regions (walls, filaments and haloes), where dark-matter multistreaming and baryonic physics affect the structure. We also suggest how concepts arising from this link might be used to test cosmological models: for example, to test for large-scale anisotropy and rotational flows in the cosmos. PMID:29765637

  15. COSMIC-RAY POSITRONS FROM MILLISECOND PULSARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venter, C.; Kopp, A.; Büsching, I. [Centre for Space Research, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Harding, A. K. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gonthier, P. L. [Hope College, Department of Physics, Holland, MI (United States)

    2015-07-10

    Observations by the Fermi Large Area Telescope of γ-ray millisecond pulsar (MSP) light curves imply copious pair production in their magnetospheres, and not exclusively in those of younger pulsars. Such pair cascades may be a primary source of Galactic electrons and positrons, contributing to the observed enhancement in positron flux above ∼10 GeV. Fermi has also uncovered many new MSPs, impacting Galactic stellar population models. We investigate the contribution of Galactic MSPs to the flux of terrestrial cosmic-ray electrons and positrons. Our population synthesis code predicts the source properties of present-day MSPs. We simulate their pair spectra invoking an offset-dipole magnetic field. We also consider positrons and electrons that have been further accelerated to energies of several TeV by strong intrabinary shocks in black widow (BW) and redback (RB) systems. Since MSPs are not surrounded by pulsar wind nebulae or supernova shells, we assume that the pairs freely escape and undergo losses only in the intergalactic medium. We compute the transported pair spectra at Earth, following their diffusion and energy loss through the Galaxy. The predicted particle flux increases for non-zero offsets of the magnetic polar caps. Pair cascades from the magnetospheres of MSPs are only modest contributors around a few tens of GeV to the lepton fluxes measured by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, PAMELA, and Fermi, after which this component cuts off. The contribution by BWs and RBs may, however, reach levels of a few tens of percent at tens of TeV, depending on model parameters.

  16. Contribution to the study of the accretion of cosmic dust on earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grjebine, Tovy

    1971-01-01

    The study of the accretion of cosmic dust has been carried out by different ways and techniques. The measurements of the presently falling cosmic dust must be limited to that stratospheric contribution which has spent only a short time in the stratosphere, otherwise it can be mixed with a possible terrestrial dust of very small size. The discrimination between those different components can be made by studying the geographical and time distribution, correlated or anti-correlated with other phenomena such as radio-meteor statistics, meteorological phenomena statistics (rain or nuclear bomb debris fallout). It is impossible to measure directly the weight of the falling dust but the weight must be deduced from the measurements of some other characteristics such as magnetism, which are not characteristic of terrestrial dust. The 'magnetism ratio/weight' or 'chemical iron/weight' has therefore been established for stratospheric collection, and then used for soil level collection. The collection of spherules is another approach to measure the accretion in the size range of some micron particles. Spherules are considered as cosmic for their non-terrestrial type average chemical composition, non terrestrial association of elements and presence of cosmogenic nuclei. The knowledge of their average chemical composition enables their utilisation as a geochemical model to calculate the total weight of matter which should be associated with the content of nickel and cobalt found in the deep sea bottoms. Depending on the collection method, the total mass accreted yearly by the earth is estimated around 10 4 if only microscopic spherules are considered, around 10 8 if all size collection is performed or if deep sea sediments nickel and cobalt are used with spherules as a geochemical model. (author) [fr

  17. Department of Cosmic Radiation Physics: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawin, J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the area of high energy physics and cosmic ray physics related to: - Studies of asymptotic properties of hadronic interactions based on the analysis of cosmic ray propagation in the atmosphere. - Experimental and phenomenological studies of Extensive Air Showers induced by cosmic ray particles. - Search for point sources of high energy cosmic rays. - Studies of cosmic ray propagation in the Galaxy and mechanisms of particle acceleration. - Studies of mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy range 10 15 - 10 17 eV. Theoretical and experimental studies of Extensive Air Shower properties are performed mostly based on the results obtained by the Lodz Extensive Air Shower Array. We analysed nearly 100,000 events of energies above 10 15 eV registered by the Lodz hodoscope. We have developed the method of data analysis which allows us to verify different models of cosmic ray mass composition. In our research in high energy cosmic rays we also used experimental data from other collaborating experiments in Karlsruhe, Baksan and THEMISTOCLE. The Lodz group collaborates with many foreign institutes and laboratories in construction and data interpretation of cosmic ray experiments. Our most important partners are: Forschungszentrum in Karlsruhe (Germany), College de France, Institute for Nuclear Studies of the Russian Academy of Science, University of Perpignan and Uppsala University (Sweden). (author)

  18. Department of Cosmic Radiation Physics - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawin, J.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the area of high energy physics and cosmic ray physics related to: -Studies of the asymptotic properties of hadronic interactions from the analysis of cosmic ray propagation in the atmosphere. -Studies of structure and properties of Extensive Air Showers induced by cosmic ray particles. -Search for point sources of high energy cosmic rays. -Studies of cosmic ray propagation in the Galaxy and mechanisms of particle acceleration. -Studies of the mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy range 10 15 -10 17 eV. Theoretical and experimental studies of nuclear interactions for energies exceeding those obtained by modern particle accelerators are performed employing results obtained by the Lodz Extensive Air Shower Array. The Lodz hodoscope can register electromagnetic components of cosmic ray showers in the atmosphere as well as muons at two energy thresholds. Data collected by the Lodz array are also used to study mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy range 10 15 - 10 17 eV. The Lodz group collaborates with foreign institutes and laboratories on construction and data interpretation of cosmic ray experiments. Our most important partners are: Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany), College de France, the Institute for Nuclear Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the University of Durham, and the University of Perpignan. (author)

  19. Department of Cosmic Radiation Physics: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawin, J.

    1998-01-01

    (full text) The Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the area of high energy physics and cosmic ray physics related to: -Studies of asymptotic properties of hadronic interactions based on the analysis of cosmic ray propagation in the atmosphere. -Studies of the structure and properties of Extensive Air Showers induced by cosmic ray particles. - Search for point sources of high energy cosmic rays. - Studies of cosmic ray propagation in the Galaxy and mechanisms of particle acceleration. - Studies of mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy range l0 15 -10 17 eV. Theoretical and experimental studies of nuclear interactions for energies exceeding those obtained by modern particle accelerators are performed based on the results obtained by the Lodz Extensive Air Shower Array. The Lodz hodoscope can register the electromagnetic component of cosmic ray showers developing in the atmosphere as well as muons of two energy thresholds. Data collected by the Lodz array are also used to study the mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy range 10 15 -10 17 eV. The Lodz group collaborates with many foreign institutes and laboratories in construction and data interpretation of cosmic ray experiments. Our most important partners are: Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany), College de' France, the Institute for Nuclear Studies of the Russian Academy of Science, the University of Perpignan (France) and Uppsala University (Sweden). (author)

  20. Cosmic strings and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aryal, M.; Ford, L.H.; Vilenkin, A.

    1986-01-01

    The metric for a Schwarzschild black hole with a cosmic string passing through it is discussed. The thermodynamics of such an object is considered, and it is shown that S = (1/4)A, where S is the entropy and A is the horizon area. It is noted that the Schwarzschild mass parameter M, which is the gravitational mass of the system, is no longer identical to its energy. A solution representing a pair of black holes held apart by strings is discussed. It is nearly identical to a static, axially symmetric solution given long ago by Bach and Weyl. It is shown how these solutions, which were formerly a mathematical curiosity, may be given a more physical interpretation in terms of cosmic strings

  1. Characterising CCDs with cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher-Levine, M.; Nomerotski, A.

    2015-01-01

    The properties of cosmic ray muons make them a useful probe for measuring the properties of thick, fully depleted CCD sensors. The known energy deposition per unit length allows measurement of the gain of the sensor's amplifiers, whilst the straightness of the tracks allows for a crude assessment of the static lateral electric fields at the sensor's edges. The small volume in which the muons deposit their energy allows measurement of the contribution to the PSF from the diffusion of charge as it drifts across the sensor. In this work we present a validation of the cosmic ray gain measurement technique by comparing with radioisotope gain measurments, and calculate the charge diffusion coefficient for prototype LSST sensors

  2. Vector superconductivity in cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, G.R.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1992-03-01

    We argue that in most realistic cases, the usual Witten-type bosonic superconductivity of the cosmic string is automatically (independent of the existence of superconducting currents) accompanied by the condensation of charged gauge vector bosons in the core giving rise to a new vector type superconductivity. The value of the charged vector condensate is related with the charged scalar expectation value, and vanishes only if the latter goes to zero. The mechanism for the proposed vector superconductivity, differing fundamentally from those in the literature, is delineated using the simplest realistic example of the two Higgs doublet standard model interacting with the extra cosmic string. It is shown that for a wide range of parameters, for which the string becomes scalarly superconducting, W boson condensates (the sources of vector superconductivity) are necessarily excited. (author). 14 refs

  3. Evolution of the Cosmic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einasto, J.

    2017-07-01

    In the evolution of the cosmic web dark energy plays an important role. To understand the role of dark energy we investigate the evolution of superclusters in four cosmological models: standard model SCDM, conventional model LCDM, open model OCDM, and a hyper-dark-energy model HCDM. Numerical simulations of the evolution are performed in a box of size 1024 Mpc/h. Model superclusters are compared with superclusters found for Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Superclusters are searched using density fields. LCDM superclusters have properties, very close to properties of observed SDSS superclusters. Standard model SCDM has about 2 times more superclusters than other models, but SCDM superclusters are smaller and have lower luminosities. Superclusters as principal structural elements of the cosmic web are present at all cosmological epochs.

  4. Galactic cosmic ray iron composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherzer, R.; Enge, W.; Beaujean, R.

    1980-11-01

    We have studied the isotopic compostition of galactic cosmic ray iron in the energy interval 500-750 MeV/nucleon with a visual track detector system consisting of nuclear emulsion and cellulose-nitrate platic. Stopping iron nuclei were identified from ionization - range measurements in the two detector parts. Cone lengths were measured in the plastic sheets and the residual ranges of the particles were measured in plastic and in emulsion. We have determined the mass of 17 iron nuclei with an uncertainty of about 0.3 amu. The isotopic composition at the detector level was found to be 52 Fe: 53 Fe: 54 Fe: 55 Fe: 56 Fe: 57 Fe: 58 Fe = 0:1: 4:3:8:1:0. These numbers are not in conflict with the assumption that the isotopic composition of cosmic ray iron at the source is similar to the solar system composition. (author)

  5. Racetrack inflation and cosmic strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brax, P. [CEA-Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France). CEA/DSM/SPhT, Unite de Recherche Associee au CNRS, Service de Physique Theorique; Bruck, C. van de [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Davis, A.C.; Davis, S.C. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences; Jeannerot, R. [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Leiden (Netherlands); Postma, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-05-15

    We consider the coupling of racetrack inflation to matter fields as realised in the D3/D7 brane system. In particular, we investigate the possibility of cosmic string formation in this system. We find that string formation before or at the onset of racetrack inflation is possible, but they are then inflated away. Furthermore, string formation at the end of inflation is prevented by the presence of the moduli sector. As a consequence, no strings survive racetrack inflation. (orig.)

  6. Cosmic Visions Dark Energy: Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, Scott [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Heitmann, Katrin [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Hirata, Chris [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Honscheid, Klaus [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Roodman, Aaron [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Seljak, Uroš [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Slosar, Anže [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Trodden, Mark [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-04-26

    A strong instrumentation and detector R&D program has enabled the current generation of cosmic frontier surveys. A small investment in R&D will continue to pay dividends and enable new probes to investigate the accelerated expansion of the universe. Instrumentation and detector R&D provide critical training opportunities for future generations of experimentalists, skills that are important across the entire Department of Energy High Energy Physics program.

  7. Cosmic microwave background theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, J. Richard

    1998-01-01

    A long-standing goal of theorists has been to constrain cosmological parameters that define the structure formation theory from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments and large-scale structure (LSS) observations. The status and future promise of this enterprise is described. Current band-powers in ℓ-space are consistent with a ΔT flat in frequency and broadly follow inflation-based expectations. That the levels are ∼(10−5)2 provides strong support for the gravitational instability theory, while the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) constraints on energy injection rule out cosmic explosions as a dominant source of LSS. Band-powers at ℓ ≳ 100 suggest that the universe could not have re-ionized too early. To get the LSS of Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized fluctuations right provides encouraging support that the initial fluctuation spectrum was not far off the scale invariant form that inflation models prefer: e.g., for tilted Λ cold dark matter sequences of fixed 13-Gyr age (with the Hubble constant H0 marginalized), ns = 1.17 ± 0.3 for Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) only; 1.15 ± 0.08 for DMR plus the SK95 experiment; 1.00 ± 0.04 for DMR plus all smaller angle experiments; 1.00 ± 0.05 when LSS constraints are included as well. The CMB alone currently gives weak constraints on Λ and moderate constraints on Ωtot, but theoretical forecasts of future long duration balloon and satellite experiments are shown which predict percent-level accuracy among a large fraction of the 10+ parameters characterizing the cosmic structure formation theory, at least if it is an inflation variant. PMID:9419321

  8. Racetrack inflation and cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brax, P.; Postma, M.

    2008-05-01

    We consider the coupling of racetrack inflation to matter fields as realised in the D3/D7 brane system. In particular, we investigate the possibility of cosmic string formation in this system. We find that string formation before or at the onset of racetrack inflation is possible, but they are then inflated away. Furthermore, string formation at the end of inflation is prevented by the presence of the moduli sector. As a consequence, no strings survive racetrack inflation. (orig.)

  9. Cosmic Visions Dark Energy: Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Slosar, Anze [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Heitmann, Katrin [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hirata, Chris [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Honscheid, Klaus [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roodman, Aaron [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Seljak, Uros [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-05-02

    A strong instrumentation and detector R&D program has enabled the current generation of cosmic frontier surveys. A small investment in R&D will continue to pay dividends and enable new probes to investigate the accelerated expansion of the universe. Instrumentation and detector R&D provide critical training opportunities for future generations of experimentalists, skills that are important across the entire DOE HEP program.

  10. Cosmic censorship in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, Rituparno; Joshi, Pankaj S.

    2004-01-01

    We show that the naked singularities arising in dust collapse from smooth initial data (which include those discovered by Eardley and Smarr, Christodoulou, and Newman) are removed when we make a transition to higher dimensional spacetimes. Cosmic censorship is then restored for dust collapse, which will always produce a black hole as the collapse end state for dimensions D≥6, under conditions to be motivated physically such as the smoothness of initial data from which the collapse develops

  11. Diffuse Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli

    2002-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) consists of the cumulative radiant energy released in the processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the Big Bang. In this lecture I will review the observational data that provided the first detections and limits on the CIB, and the theoretical studies explaining the origin of this background. Finally, I will also discuss the relevance of this background to the universe as seen in high energy gamma-rays.

  12. Cosmic objects and elementary particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozental, I L [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Kosmicheskikh Issledovanij

    1977-02-01

    Considered are the connections between the parameters of elementary particles (mass ''size'') and the characteristics of stars (the main sequence stars, white dwarf stars and pulsars). Presented is the elementary theory of black hole radiation in the framework of which all the regularities of the process are derived. The emphiric numerical sequence connecting nucleon mass and universe constants (G, h, c) with the masses of some cosmic objects is given.

  13. Early reheating and cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbins, A.J. III.

    1987-01-01

    In the first chapter, possible thermal histories of the universe during the epoch z = 10 - 100 are studied. Expression for the fractional ionization and electron temperature are given in the case of homogeneous heating as a function of the parameters of arbitrary ionizing sources. It is shown that present and future limits on spectral distortions to the microwave background radiation do not provide very restrictive constraints on possible thermal histories of the universe. Heating by cosmic rays and very massive stars is discussed. In the second chapter, accretion of matter onto the wakes left behind by horizon-size pieces of cosmic string is studied. It was found that in a universe containing cold dissipationless matter (CDM), accretion onto wakes produce a network of sheet-like regions with a nonlinear density enhancement. In the third chapter, a formalism is developed for calculating the microwave ansisotropy produced by cosmic string loops in Minkowski space. The final formalism involves doing a one-dimensional integral along the string for each point on the sky. Exact solutions have only been found for a circular loop seen face-on. The equations are integrated for one particular loop configuration at nine points in its evolution

  14. Elemental composition of cosmic ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Shohei

    1987-01-01

    The report first summarizes some data that have been obtained so far from observation of isotopes and elements in cosmic rays in the low energy region. Then, objectives of studies planned to be carried out with Astromag are outlined and the number of incident particles expected to be measured by baloon observation is estimated. Heavy elements with atomic numbers of greater than 30 are considered to be formed through neutron absorption reactions by the s- or r-process. Observations show that products of the r-process is abundant in cosmic ray sources. The escape length depends on energy. In relation to this, it has been reported that the ratios Ar-Fe and Ca-Fe increase above 200 GeV-n while such a tendency is not observed for K, Sc, Ti or V. Thus, no satisfactory models are available at present which can fully explain the changes in the escape length. The ratio 3 He- 4 He in the range of 5 - 10 GeV-n is inconsistent with the general theory that interprets the escape length of heavy elements. Some models, including the supermetallicity model and Wolf Rayet theory, have been proposed to explain unusual ratios of isotopes in cosmic rays, but more measurements are required to verify them. It is expected that Astromag can serve to make observations that can clarify these points. (Nogami, K.)

  15. The Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C. L.

    1994-12-01

    The properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation provide unique constraints on the history and evolution of the universe. The first detection of anisotropy of the microwave radiation was reported by the COBE Team in 1992, based on the first year of flight data. The latest analyses of the first two years of COBE data are reviewed in this talk, including the amplitude of the microwave anisotropy as a function of angular scale and the statistical nature of the fluctuations. The two-year results are generally consistent with the earlier first year results, but the additional data allow for a better determination of the key cosmological parameters. In this talk the COBE results are compared with other observational anisotropy results and directions for future cosmic microwave anisotropy observations will be discussed. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC) is responsible for the design, development, and operation of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE). Scientific guidance is provided by the COBE Science Working Group.

  16. Technologies for Low Frequency Radio Observations of the Cosmic Dawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dayton L.

    2014-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is developing concepts and technologies for low frequency radio astronomy space missions aimed at observing highly redshifted neutral Hydrogen from the Dark Ages. This is the period of cosmic history between the recombination epoch when the microwave background radiation was produced and the re-ionization of the intergalactic medium by the first generation of stars (Cosmic Dawn). This period, at redshifts greater than about 20, is a critical epoch for the formation and evolution of large-scale structure in the universe. The 21-cm spectral line of Hydrogen provides the most promising method for directly studying the Dark Ages, but the corresponding frequencies at such large redshifts are only tens of MHz and thus require space-based observations to avoid terrestrial RFI and ionospheric absorption and refraction. This paper reports on the status of several low frequency technology development activities at JPL, including deployable bi-conical dipoles for a planned lunar-orbiting mission, and both rover-deployed and inflation-deployed long dipole antennas for use on the lunar surface.

  17. Utilization of the terrestrial cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Furukawa, Jun; Kimura, Shunta; Yokoshima, Mika; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    The terrestrial, N _{2}-fixing cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune has expected to utilize for agriculture, food and terraforming cause of its extracellular polysaccharide, desiccation tolerance and nitrogen fixation. Previously, the first author indicated that desiccation related genes were analyzed and the suggested that the genes were related to nitrogen fixation and metabolisms. In this report, we suggest possibility of agriculture, using the cyanobacterium. Further, we also found radioactive compounds accumulated N. commune (cyanobacterium) in Fukushima, Japan after nuclear accident. Thus, it is investigated to decontaminate radioactive compounds from the surface soil by the cyanobacterium and showed to accumulate radioactive compounds using the cyanobacterium. We will discuss utilization of terrestrial cyanobacteria under closed environment. Keyword: Desiccation, terrestrial cyanobacteria, bioremediation, agriculture

  18. A method of detector correction for cosmic ray muon radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuanyuan; Zhao Ziran; Chen Zhiqiang; Zhang Li; Wang Zhentian

    2008-01-01

    Cosmic ray muon radiography which has good penetrability and sensitivity to high-Z materials is an effective way for detecting shielded nuclear materials. The problem of data correction is one of the key points of muon radiography technique. Because of the influence of environmental background, environmental yawp and error of detectors, the raw data can not be used directly. If we used the raw data as the usable data to reconstruct without any corrections, it would turn up terrible artifacts. Based on the characteristics of the muon radiography system, aimed at the error of detectors, this paper proposes a method of detector correction. The simulation experiments demonstrate that this method can effectively correct the error produced by detectors. Therefore, we can say that it does a further step to let the technique of cosmic muon radiography into out real life. (authors)

  19. Program Annual Technology Report: Cosmic Origins Program Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thai; Neff, Susan

    2017-01-01

    What is the Cosmic Origins (COR) Program? From ancient times, humans have looked up at the night sky and wondered: Are we alone? How did the universe come to be? How does the universe work? COR focuses on the second question. Scientists investigating this broad theme seek to understand the origin and evolution of the universe from the Big Bang to the present day, determining how the expanding universe grew into a grand cosmic web of dark matter enmeshed with galaxies and pristine gas, forming, merging, and evolving over time. COR also seeks to understand how stars and planets form from clouds in these galaxies to create the heavy elements that are essential to life, starting with the first generation of stars to seed the universe, and continuing through the birth and eventual death of all subsequent generations of stars. The COR Programs purview includes the majority of the field known as astronomy.

  20. Cosmic ray physics goes to school

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    With the help of a CERN physicist, German Schools bring the Largest Cosmic Ray Detector in Europe one step closer to reality   Eric Berthier and Robert Porret (CERN, ST/HM), Frej Torp and Christian Antfolk from the Polytechnics Arcada in Finland, and Karsten Eggert, physicist at CERN who initiated this project, during the installation of cosmic ray detectors in the Pays de Gex, at point 4. Niina Patrikainen and Frej Torp, Finnish students from Rovaniemi and Arcada Polytechnics, installing cosmic ray counters at the Fachhochschule in Duesseldorf. The science of cosmic ray detection is growing, literally. Cosmic rays, energetic particles from space, strike our planet all the time. They collide with the air molecules in our upper atmosphere and initiate large showers of elementary particles (mainly electrons, photons, hadrons and muons) which rain down upon the earth. The shower size and the particle density in the showers reflect the initial energy of the cosmic ray particle, a detail which makes d...

  1. Microalgal and Terrestrial Transport Biofuels to Displace Fossil Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Reijnders

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn, sugar beet or wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed. When terrestrial biofuels are to replace mineral oil-derived transport fuels, large areas of good agricultural land are needed: about 5x108 ha in the case of biofuels from sugarcane or oil palm, and at least 1.8-3.6x109 ha in the case of ethanol from wheat, corn or sugar beet, as produced in industrialized countries. Biofuels from microalgae which are commercially produced with current technologies do not appear to outperform terrestrial plants such as sugarcane in their ability to displace fossil fuels. Whether they will able to do so on a commercial scale in the future, is uncertain.

  2. Cosmic Connections:. from Cosmic Rays to Gamma Rays, Cosmic Backgrounds and Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusenko, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    Combined data from gamma-ray telescopes and cosmic-ray detectors have produced some new surprising insights regarding intergalactic and galactic magnetic fields, as well as extragalactic background light. We review some recent advances, including a theory explaining the hard spectra of distant blazars and the measurements of intergalactic magnetic fields based on the spectra of distant sources. Furthermore, we discuss the possible contribution of transient galactic sources, such as past gamma-ray bursts and hypernova explosions in the Milky Way, to the observed ux of ultrahigh-energy cosmicrays nuclei. The need for a holistic treatment of gamma rays, cosmic rays, and magnetic fields serves as a unifying theme for these seemingly unrelated phenomena.

  3. Observation of superheavy primary cosmic ray nuclei with solid state track detectors and x-ray films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doke, Tadayoshi; Hayashi, Takayoshi; Ito, Kensai; Yanagimachi, Tomoki; Kobayashi, Shigeru.

    1977-01-01

    The measurements of energy spectra and the nuclear charge distribution of superheavy nuclei heavier than iron in primary cosmic ray can provide information on the origin, propagation and life time of the cosmic ray. Since incident particles are in the region of relativistic velocity (the low energy cosmic ray below the cutoff energy is forbidden from entering), the charges of cosmic ray nuclei can be determined without knowing the energy of particles. The balloon-borne solid state track detector and plastic and X-ray films were employed for the detection of superheavy cosmic ray, and the five events were detected with the cellulose nitrate film. The flux of superheavy nuclei is predicted from the present analysis. (Yoshimori, M.)

  4. Soil and terrestrial biology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Soil and terrestrial biology studies focused on developing an understanding of the uptake of gaseous substances from the atmosphere by plants, biodegradation of oil, and the movement of Pu in the terrestrial ecosystems of the southeastern United States. Mathematical models were developed for SO 2 and tritium uptake from the atmosphere by plants; the uptake of tritium by soil microorganisms was measured; and the relationships among the Pu content of soil, plants, and animals of the Savannah River Plant area were studied. Preliminary results are reported for studies on the biodegradation of waste oil on soil surfaces

  5. Structure of the terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyttleton, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Recent reviews (cf. Runcorn, 1968; or Cook, 1972, 1975) on the structure of the planets omit reference to the phase-change hypothesis for the nature of the terrestrial core, despite that numerous prior predictions of the theory based on this hypothesis have subsequently been borne out as correct. These reviews also ignore the existence of theoretical calculations of the internal structure of Venus which can be computed with high accuracy by use of the terrestrial seismic data. Several examples of numerous mistakes committed in these reviews are pointed out. (Auth.)

  6. Priapism caused by 'Tribulus terrestris'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, M; De Thomasis, R; Tenaglia, R L

    2016-01-01

    A 36-year-old Caucasian man was diagnosed with a 72-h-lasting priapism that occurred after the assumption of a Herbal supplement based on Tribulus terrestris, which is becoming increasingly popular for the treatment of sexual dysfunction. The patient underwent a cavernoglandular shunt (Ebbehoj shunt) in order to obtain complete detumescence, from which derived negative post-episode outcomes on sexual function. All patients consuming non-FDA-approved alternative supplements such as Tribulus terrestris should be warned about the possible serious side effects.

  7. Solar flares and the cosmic ray intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between the cosmic ray intensity and solar activity during solar cycle 20 is discussed. A model is developed whereby it is possible to simulate the observed cosmic ray intensity from the observed number of solar flares of importance >= 1. This model leads to a radius for the modulation region of 60-70 AU. It is suggested that high speed solar streams also made a small contribution to the modulation of cosmic rays during solar cycle 20. (orig.)

  8. Constraints on a potential aerial biosphere on Venus: I. Cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Lewis R.; Nordheim, Tom Andre; Patel, Manish R.; Mason, Jonathon P.; Coates, Andrew J.; Jones, Geraint H.

    2015-09-01

    While the present-day surface of Venus is certainly incompatible with terrestrial biology, the planet may have possessed oceans in the past and provided conditions suitable for the origin of life. Venusian life may persist today high in the atmosphere where the temperature and pH regime is tolerable to terrestrial extremophile microbes: an aerial habitable zone. Here we argue that on the basis of the combined biological hazard of high temperature and high acidity this habitable zone lies between 51 km (65 °C) and 62 km (-20 °C) altitude. Compared to Earth, this potential venusian biosphere may be exposed to substantially more comic ionising radiation: Venus has no protective magnetic field, orbits closer to the Sun, and the entire habitable region lies high in the atmosphere - if this narrow band is sterilised there is no reservoir of deeper life that can recolonise afterwards. Here we model the propagation of particle radiation through the venusian atmosphere, considering both the background flux of high-energy galactic cosmic rays and the transient but exceptionally high-fluence bursts of extreme solar particle events (SPE), such as the Carrington Event of 1859 and that inferred for AD 775. We calculate the altitude profiles of both energy deposition into the atmosphere and the absorbed radiation dose to assess this astrophysical threat to the potential high-altitude venusian biosphere. We find that at the top of the habitable zone (62 km altitude; 190 g/cm2 shielding depth) the radiation dose from the modelled Carrington Event with a hard spectrum (matched to the February 1956 SPE) is over 18,000 times higher than the background from GCR, and 50,000 times higher for the modelled 775 AD event. However, even though the flux of ionising radiation can be sterilizing high in the atmosphere, the total dose delivered at the top of the habitable zone by a worst-case SPE like the 775 AD event is 0.09 Gy, which is not likely to present a significant survival challenge

  9. Cosmic-ray-veto detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.; Menlove, H.O.

    1992-12-01

    To reduce the cosmic-ray-induced neutron background, we are testing a cosmic-ray veto option with a neutron detector system that uses plastic scintillator slabs mounted on the outside of a 3 He-tube detector. The scintillator slabs eliminate unwanted cosmic-ray events, enabling the detector to assay low-level plutonium samples, for which a low-background coincident signature is critical. This report describes the design and testing of the prototype cosmic-ray-veto detector system

  10. Department of Cosmic Radiation Physics: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the area of high-energy physics and cosmic ray physics related to: -Studies of asymptotic properties of hadronic interactions based on the analysis of cosmic ray propagation through the atmosphere. -Experimental and phenomenological studies of Extensive Air Showers induced by cosmic ray particles. - Search for high-energy cosmic ray point sources. - Studies of cosmic ray propagation in the Galaxy and particle acceleration mechanisms. -Studies of mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy range 10 15 -10 17 eV. Theoretical and experimental studies of Extensive Air Shower properties are performed mainly on the basis of the results obtained by the Lodz Extensive Air Shower Array. We have analysed nearly 100,000 events of energies above 10 15 eV registered in the Lodz hodoscope. We have developed a method to verify different models of cosmic ray mass composition. The Lodz group collaborates with many foreign institutes and laboratories in construction and data interpretation of cosmic ray experiments. Our most important partners are: Forschungszentrum in Karlsruhe (Germany), College de France, Institute for Nuclear Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Uppsala University (Sweden). (author)

  11. Cosmic radiation exposure to airline flight passenger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, Mitsuhiro

    2000-01-01

    At the high altitudes, airline flight passengers can be exposed to some levels of cosmic radiation. The purpose of this study was to quantify this radiation exposure. Cosmic radiation was measured during 5 flights using a personal dosimeter (PDM-102, Aloka). Cosmic radiation equivalent dose rates ranged from 0.7 to 1.43 microsieverts per hour, the average rate was 1.08. For the passenger who travels only occasionally, the cosmic radiation levels are well below occupational limits, and the risks are extremely small. (author)

  12. Cosmic radiation exposure to airline flight passenger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Mitsuhiro [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-08-01

    At the high altitudes, airline flight passengers can be exposed to some levels of cosmic radiation. The purpose of this study was to quantify this radiation exposure. Cosmic radiation was measured during 5 flights using a personal dosimeter (PDM-102, Aloka). Cosmic radiation equivalent dose rates ranged from 0.7 to 1.43 microsieverts per hour, the average rate was 1.08. For the passenger who travels only occasionally, the cosmic radiation levels are well below occupational limits, and the risks are extremely small. (author)

  13. Community Decadal Panel for Terrestrial Analogs to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, N. G.; Farr, T.; Baker, V. R.; Bridges, N.; Carsey, F.; Duxbury, N.; Gilmore, M. S.; Green, J. R.; Grin, E.; Hansen, V.; Keszthelyi, L.; Lanagan, P.; Lentz, R.; Marinangeli, L.; Morris, P. A.; Ori, G. G.; Paillou, P.; Robinson, C.; Thomson, B.

    2001-11-01

    It is well recognized that interpretations of Mars must begin with the Earth as a reference. The most successful comparisons have focused on understanding geologic processes on the Earth well enough to extrapolate to Mars' environment. Several facets of terrestrial analog studies have been pursued and are continuing. These studies include field workshops, characterization of terrestrial analog sites for Mars, instrument tests, laboratory measurements (including analysis of martian meteorites), and computer and laboratory modeling. The combination of all these activities allows scientists to constrain the processes operating in specific terrestrial environments and extrapolate how similar processes could affect Mars. The Terrestrial Analogs for Mars Community Panel is considering the following two key questions: (1) How do terrestrial analog studies tie in to the MEPAG science questions about life, past climate, and geologic evolution of Mars, and (2) How can future instrumentation be used to address these questions. The panel is considering the issues of data collection, value of field workshops, data archiving, laboratory measurements and modeling, human exploration issues, association with other areas of solar system exploration, and education and public outreach activities.

  14. Terrestrial invertebrates in the Rhynie chert ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Jason A; Garwood, Russell J

    2018-02-05

    The Early Devonian Rhynie and Windyfield cherts remain a key locality for understanding early life and ecology on land. They host the oldest unequivocal nematode worm (Nematoda), which may also offer the earliest evidence for herbivory via plant parasitism. The trigonotarbids (Arachnida: Trigonotarbida) preserve the oldest book lungs and were probably predators that practiced liquid feeding. The oldest mites (Arachnida: Acariformes) are represented by taxa which include mycophages and predators on nematodes today. The earliest harvestman (Arachnida: Opiliones) includes the first preserved tracheae, and male and female genitalia. Myriapods are represented by a scutigeromorph centipede (Chilopoda: Scutigeromorpha), probably a cursorial predator on the substrate, and a putative millipede (Diplopoda). The oldest springtails (Hexapoda: Collembola) were probably mycophages, and another hexapod of uncertain affinities preserves a gut infill of phytodebris. The first true insects (Hexapoda: Insecta) are represented by a species known from chewing (non-carnivorous?) mandibles. Coprolites also provide insights into diet, and we challenge previous assumptions that several taxa were spore-feeders. Rhynie appears to preserve a largely intact community of terrestrial animals, although some expected groups are absent. The known fossils are (ecologically) consistent with at least part of the fauna found around modern Icelandic hot springs.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The Rhynie cherts: our earliest terrestrial ecosystem revisited'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Cosmic ray diffusion: report of the workshop in cosmic ray diffusion theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birmingham, T.J.; Jones, F.C.

    1975-02-01

    A workshop in cosmic ray diffusion theory was held at Goddard Space Flight Center on May 16-17, 1974. Topics discussed and summarized are: (1) cosmic ray measurements as related to diffusion theory; (2) quasi-linear theory, nonlinear theory, and computer simulation of cosmic ray pitch-angle diffusion; and (3) magnetic field fluctuation measurements as related to diffusion theory. (auth)

  16. High Energy Cosmic Electrons: Messengers from Nearby Cosmic Ray Sources or Dark Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the recent discoveries by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope in reference to high energy cosmic electrons, and whether their source is cosmic rays or dark matter. Specific interest is devoted to Cosmic Ray electrons anisotropy,

  17. The Global Survey Method Applied to Ground-level Cosmic Ray Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, A.; Eroshenko, E.; Yanke, V.; Oleneva, V.; Abunin, A.; Abunina, M.; Papaioannou, A.; Mavromichalaki, H.

    2018-04-01

    The global survey method (GSM) technique unites simultaneous ground-level observations of cosmic rays in different locations and allows us to obtain the main characteristics of cosmic-ray variations outside of the atmosphere and magnetosphere of Earth. This technique has been developed and applied in numerous studies over many years by the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowave Propagation (IZMIRAN). We here describe the IZMIRAN version of the GSM in detail. With this technique, the hourly data of the world-wide neutron-monitor network from July 1957 until December 2016 were processed, and further processing is enabled upon the receipt of new data. The result is a database of homogeneous and continuous hourly characteristics of the density variations (an isotropic part of the intensity) and the 3D vector of the cosmic-ray anisotropy. It includes all of the effects that could be identified in galactic cosmic-ray variations that were caused by large-scale disturbances of the interplanetary medium in more than 50 years. These results in turn became the basis for a database on Forbush effects and interplanetary disturbances. This database allows correlating various space-environment parameters (the characteristics of the Sun, the solar wind, et cetera) with cosmic-ray parameters and studying their interrelations. We also present features of the coupling coefficients for different neutron monitors that enable us to make a connection from ground-level measurements to primary cosmic-ray variations outside the atmosphere and the magnetosphere. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the current version of the GSM as well as further possible developments and improvements. The method developed allows us to minimize the problems of the neutron-monitor network, which are typical for experimental physics, and to considerably enhance its advantages.

  18. Harlow Shapley's Biological Universe: Cosmic Evolution and its Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeri, J.

    2002-12-01

    Harlow Shapley was an astronomer with a lifelong interest in biological questions. An early fascination with ants acquired at Mount Wilson became a continuing avocation. During his years in California, Shapley made frequent trips to La Jolla biological station and interacted with prominent biologists. At Harvard in the 1920s Shapley initiated a series of interdisciplinary seminars, one of which was on "The Origin of Life." At this time he also displayed an interest in the question of life in the universe. In response to an inquiry from Charles Abbot of the Smithsonian, Shapley identified "life in the universe" as one of the most important scientific questions of the day. Shapley's continuing interest in these questions found expression in his many popularizations - articles, books, lectures, and other media. (A decade before Sagan's memorable appearances on the Johnny Carson show, Shapley was engaging in his own dialogue with the American public on life in the universe, through Tonight Show host Jack Paar). Evolution was the idea that underlay Shapley's discussions of these biological themes and the vehicle through which he popularized science as well as his own vision of the wider significance of science for humanity. As an astronomer with a profound interest in biological subjects, Shapley was uniquely positioned to popularize cosmic evolution, and to use this theme to promote his belief that science could serve as a kind of "stellar theology." Shapley's case illustrates how cosmic evolution, like biological evolution, has served as more than a scientific account of nature; it has become an idea invested with moral and cultural significance. Shapley's promotion of cosmic evolution throughout the 1950s and 1960s can be understood against the backdrop of developments in the sciences as well as the historical and personal factors that shaped his career as a spokesman for science. This research was supported by grants from the American Institute of Physics and the

  19. Oscillations in the open solar magnetic flux with a period of 1.68 years: imprint on galactic cosmic rays and implications for heliospheric shielding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rouillard

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of how the heliosphere modulates galactic cosmic ray (GCR fluxes and spectra is important, not only for studies of their origin, acceleration and propagation in our galaxy, but also for predicting their effects (on technology and on the Earth's environment and organisms and for interpreting abundances of cosmogenic isotopes in meteorites and terrestrial reservoirs. In contrast to the early interplanetary measurements, there is growing evidence for a dominant role in GCR shielding of the total open magnetic flux, which emerges from the solar atmosphere and enters the heliosphere. In this paper, we relate a strong 1.68-year oscillation in GCR fluxes to a corresponding oscillation in the open solar magnetic flux and infer cosmic-ray propagation paths confirming the predictions of theories in which drift is important in modulating the cosmic ray flux. Key words. Interplanetary physics (Cosmic rays, Interplanetary magnetic fields

  20. Observational probes of cosmic acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, David H.; Mortonson, Michael J.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Hirata, Christopher; Riess, Adam G.; Rozo, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The accelerating expansion of the universe is the most surprising cosmological discovery in many decades, implying that the universe is dominated by some form of “dark energy” with exotic physical properties, or that Einstein’s theory of gravity breaks down on cosmological scales. The profound implications of cosmic acceleration have inspired ambitious efforts to understand its origin, with experiments that aim to measure the history of expansion and growth of structure with percent-level precision or higher. We review in detail the four most well established methods for making such measurements: Type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), weak gravitational lensing, and the abundance of galaxy clusters. We pay particular attention to the systematic uncertainties in these techniques and to strategies for controlling them at the level needed to exploit “Stage IV” dark energy facilities such as BigBOSS, LSST, Euclid, and WFIRST. We briefly review a number of other approaches including redshift-space distortions, the Alcock–Paczynski effect, and direct measurements of the Hubble constant H 0 . We present extensive forecasts for constraints on the dark energy equation of state and parameterized deviations from General Relativity, achievable with Stage III and Stage IV experimental programs that incorporate supernovae, BAO, weak lensing, and cosmic microwave background data. We also show the level of precision required for clusters or other methods to provide constraints competitive with those of these fiducial programs. We emphasize the value of a balanced program that employs several of the most powerful methods in combination, both to cross-check systematic uncertainties and to take advantage of complementary information. Surveys to probe cosmic acceleration produce data sets that support a wide range of scientific investigations, and they continue the longstanding astronomical tradition of mapping the universe in ever greater detail over ever

  1. Observational probes of cosmic acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, David H., E-mail: dhw@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Mortonson, Michael J. [Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Harvard College Observatory, Cambridge, MA (United States); Hirata, Christopher [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Riess, Adam G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Rozo, Eduardo [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-09-10

    The accelerating expansion of the universe is the most surprising cosmological discovery in many decades, implying that the universe is dominated by some form of “dark energy” with exotic physical properties, or that Einstein’s theory of gravity breaks down on cosmological scales. The profound implications of cosmic acceleration have inspired ambitious efforts to understand its origin, with experiments that aim to measure the history of expansion and growth of structure with percent-level precision or higher. We review in detail the four most well established methods for making such measurements: Type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), weak gravitational lensing, and the abundance of galaxy clusters. We pay particular attention to the systematic uncertainties in these techniques and to strategies for controlling them at the level needed to exploit “Stage IV” dark energy facilities such as BigBOSS, LSST, Euclid, and WFIRST. We briefly review a number of other approaches including redshift-space distortions, the Alcock–Paczynski effect, and direct measurements of the Hubble constant H{sub 0}. We present extensive forecasts for constraints on the dark energy equation of state and parameterized deviations from General Relativity, achievable with Stage III and Stage IV experimental programs that incorporate supernovae, BAO, weak lensing, and cosmic microwave background data. We also show the level of precision required for clusters or other methods to provide constraints competitive with those of these fiducial programs. We emphasize the value of a balanced program that employs several of the most powerful methods in combination, both to cross-check systematic uncertainties and to take advantage of complementary information. Surveys to probe cosmic acceleration produce data sets that support a wide range of scientific investigations, and they continue the longstanding astronomical tradition of mapping the universe in ever greater detail over

  2. About cosmic gamma ray lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Roland

    2017-06-01

    Gamma ray lines from cosmic sources convey the action of nuclear reactions in cosmic sites and their impacts on astrophysical objects. Gamma rays at characteristic energies result from nuclear transitions following radioactive decays or high-energy collisions with excitation of nuclei. The gamma-ray line from the annihilation of positrons at 511 keV falls into the same energy window, although of different origin. We present here the concepts of cosmic gamma ray spectrometry and the corresponding instruments and missions, followed by a discussion of recent results and the challenges and open issues for the future. Among the lessons learned are the diffuse radioactive afterglow of massive-star nucleosynthesis in 26Al and 60Fe gamma rays, which is now being exploited towards the cycle of matter driven by massive stars and their supernovae; large interstellar cavities and superbubbles have been recognised to be of key importance here. Also, constraints on the complex processes making stars explode as either thermonuclear or core-collapse supernovae are being illuminated by gamma-ray lines, in this case from shortlived radioactivities from 56Ni and 44Ti decays. In particular, the three-dimensionality and asphericities that have recently been recognised as important are enlightened in different ways through such gamma-ray line spectroscopy. Finally, the distribution of positron annihilation gamma ray emission with its puzzling bulge-dominated intensity disctribution is measured through spatially-resolved spectra, which indicate that annihilation conditions may differ in different parts of our Galaxy. But it is now understood that a variety of sources may feed positrons into the interstellar medium, and their characteristics largely get lost during slowing down and propagation of positrons before annihilation; a recent microquasar flare was caught as an opportunity to see positrons annihilate at a source.

  3. A cosmic hall of mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luminet, J.-P. [Departement Univers et Theories, Observatoire de Paris, Meudon (France)]. E-mail: jean-pierre.luminet@obspm.fr

    2005-09-01

    Most astronomers think that the universe is infinite, but recent measurements suggest that it could be finite and relatively small. Indeed, as Jean-Pierre Luminet describes, we could be living in an exotic universe shaped rather like a football. Surprisingly, the latest astronomical data suggest that the universe is finite and expanding but it does not have an edge or boundary. In particular, accurate maps of the cosmic microwave background - the radiation left over from the Big Bang - suggest that we live in a finite universe that is shaped like a football or dodecahedron, and which resembles a video game in certain respects. (U.K.)

  4. Cosmic polarimetry in magnetoactive plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    Polarimetry of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) represents one of the possible diagnostics aimed at testing large-scale magnetism at the epoch of the photon decoupling. The propagation of electromagnetic disturbances in a magnetized plasma leads naturally to a B-mode polarization whose angular power spectrum is hereby computed both analytically and numerically. Combined analyses of all the publicly available data on the B-mode polarization are presented, for the first time, in the light of the magnetized $\\Lambda$CDM scenario. Novel constraints on pre-equality magnetism are also derived in view of the current and expected sensitivities to the B-mode polarization.

  5. International Conference on Cosmic Rays

    CERN Multimedia

    W.O. LOCK

    1964-01-01

    Towards the end of last year the 8th International conference on cosmic rays, held under the auspices of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (I.U.P.A.P.) and the Department of Atomic Energy of the Government of India, was held at Jaipur, India. Among the participants was W.O. Lock, head of CERN's Emulsion Group, who gave an invited talk on recent work in the field of what is normally known as high-energy physics — though in the context of this conference such energies seem quite low. In this article, Dr. Lock gives a general review of the conference and of the subjects discussed.

  6. Ground level cosmic ray observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements); Grimani, C.; Brunetti, M.T.; Codino, A. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Papini, P.; Massimo Brancaccio, F.; Piccardi, S. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Basini, G.; Bongiorno, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Hof, M. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik

    1995-09-01

    Cosmic rays at ground level have been collected using the NMSU/Wizard - MASS2 instrument. The 17-hr observation run was made on September 9. 1991 in Fort Sumner, New Mexico, Usa. Fort Sumner is located at 1270 meters a.s.l., corresponding to an atmospheric depth of about 887 g/cm{sup 2}. The geomagnetic cutoff is 4.5 GV/c. The charge ratio of positive and negative muons and the proton to muon ratio have been determined. These observations will also be compared with data collected at a higher latitude using the same basic apparatus.

  7. Traces of a cosmic catastrophe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuianov, V. A.

    1982-03-01

    It is suggested that the ecological crisis which led to the extinction of many animal species approximately 65-million years ago may have been caused by a cosmic phenomenon, the fall of a giant meteorite (approximately 10 km in diameter). The fall of such a meteorite would have released a vast amount of dust into the atmosphere, leading to radical climatic changes and the extinction of the aforementioned species. The so-called iridium anomaly is cited as possible evidence of such an event.

  8. High energy cosmic ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, V.

    1996-01-01

    A brief introduction to High Energy Cosmic Ray Astronomy is presented. This field covers a 17 decade energy range (2.10 4 -10 20 ) eV. Recent discoveries done with gamma-ray detectors on-board satellites and ground-based Cherenkov devices are pushing for a fast development of new and innovative techniques, specially in the low energy region which includes the overlapping of satellite and ground-based measurements in the yet unexplored energy range 20 keV-250 GeV. Detection of unexpected extremely high energy events have triggered the interest of the international scientific community. (orig.)

  9. Hydrodynamic constants from cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Shin

    2008-01-01

    We study a gravity dual of Bjorken flow of N=4 SYM-theory plasma. We point out that the cosmic censorship hypothesis may explain why the regularity of the dual geometry constrains the hydrodynamic constants. We also investigate the apparent horizon of the dual geometry. We find that the dual geometry constructed on Fefferman-Graham (FG) coordinates is not appropriate for examination of the apparent horizon since the coordinates do not cover the trapped region. However, the preliminary analysis on FG coordinates suggests that the location of the apparent horizon is very sensitive to the hydrodynamic parameters. (author)

  10. Snowpack snow water equivalent measurement using the attenuation of cosmic gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterhuber, R.; Condreva, K.

    1998-01-01

    Incoming, background cosmic radiation constantly fluxes through the earth's atmosphere. The high energy gamma portion of this radiation penetrates many terrestrial objects, including the winter snowpack. The attenuation of this radiation is exponentially related to the mass of the medium through which it penetrates. For the past three winters, a device measuring cosmic gamma radiation--and its attenuation through snow--has been installed at the Central Sierra Snow Laboratory, near Donner Pass, California. This gamma sensor, measuring energy levels between 5 and 15 MeV, has proved to be an accurate, reliable, non-invasive, non-mechanical instrument with which to measure the total snow water equivalent of a snowpack. This paper analyzes three winters' worth of data and discusses the physics and practical application of the sensor for the collection of snow water equivalent data from a remote location

  11. The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library (PTAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, S. C.; Dypvik, H.; Poulet, F.; Rull Perez, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Bultel, B.; Casanova Roque, C.; Carter, J.; Cousin, A.; Guzman, A.; Hamm, V.; Hellevang, H.; Lantz, C.; Lopez-Reyes, G.; Manrique, J. A.; Maurice, S.; Medina Garcia, J.; Navarro, R.; Negro, J. I.; Neumann, E. R.; Pilorget, C.; Riu, L.; Sætre, C.; Sansano Caramazana, A.; Sanz Arranz, A.; Sobron Grañón, F.; Veneranda, M.; Viennet, J.-C.; PTAL Team

    2018-04-01

    The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library project aims to build and exploit a spectral data base for the characterisation of the mineralogical and geological evolution of terrestrial planets and small solar system bodies.

  12. Terrestrial Steering Group. 2014. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Peter; Aronsson, Mora; Barry, Tom

    capacity and information may be currently available and (b) to outline near-term required steps to begin implementing the plan and reporting on an initial set of Arctic terrestrial biodiversity focal ecosystem component attributes. The specific objectives of the workshop were to: Identify key products...... for TSG for the next two years. Identify key components of a pan-Arctic status report for priority focal ecosystem components (FEC) attributes for policy and decision makers. Develop a prioritized set of activities to meet reporting objectives. Identify key milestones and timelines for the successful...... implementation of the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan for the next two years. Identify expert networks required for successful implementation of the plan. Identify key gaps and opportunities for the TSG related to plan implementation and identify near-term next steps to address gaps....

  13. Interstellar propagation of low energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.J.

    1975-01-01

    Wave particles interactions prevent low energy cosmic rays from propagating at velocities much faster than the Alfven velocity, reducing their range by a factor of order 50. Therefore, supernovae remnants cannot fill the neutral portions of the interstellar medium with 2 MeV cosmic rays [fr

  14. Maximum entropy analysis of cosmic ray composition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nosek, D.; Ebr, Jan; Vícha, Jakub; Trávníček, Petr; Nosková, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 76, Mar (2016), s. 9-18 ISSN 0927-6505 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ultra-high energy cosmic rays * extensive air showers * cosmic ray composition Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.257, year: 2016

  15. The Spine of the Cosmic Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aragón-Calvo, Miguel A.; Platen, Erwin; van de Weijgaert, Rien; Szalay, Alexander S.

    We present the SpineWeb framework for the topological analysis of the Cosmic Web and the identification of its walls, filaments, and cluster nodes. Based on the watershed segmentation of the cosmic density field, the SpineWeb method invokes the local adjacency properties of the boundaries between

  16. Ultra high-energy cosmic ray composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longley, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    The Soudan 2 surface-underground cosmic ray experiment can simultaneously measure surface shower size, underground muon multiplicity, and underground muon separation for ultra high energy cosmic ray showers. These measurements are sensitive to the primary composition. Analysis for energies from 10 1 to 10 4 TeV favors a light flux consisting of predominantly H and He nuclei

  17. The Spine of the Cosmic Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aragón-Calvo, Miguel A.; Platen, Erwin; van de Weijgaert, Rien; Szalay, Alexander S.

    2010-01-01

    We present the SpineWeb framework for the topological analysis of the Cosmic Web and the identification of its walls, filaments, and cluster nodes. Based on the watershed segmentation of the cosmic density field, the SpineWeb method invokes the local adjacency properties of the boundaries between

  18. Sealed drift tube cosmic ray veto counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, R.; Tatar, E.; Bacon, J.D.; Bowles, T.J.; Hill, R.; Green, J.A.; Hogan, G.E.; Ito, T.M.; Makela, M.; Morris, C.L.; Mortenson, R.; Pasukanics, F.E.; Ramsey, J.; Saunders, A.; Seestrom, S.J.; Sondheim, W.E.; Teasdale, W.; Saltus, M.; Back, H.O.; Cottrell, C.R.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a simple drift tube counter that has been used as a cosmic ray veto for the UCNA experiment, a first-ever measurement of the neutron beta-asymmetry using ultra-cold neutrons. These detectors provide an inexpensive alternative to more conventional scintillation detectors for large area cosmic ray anticoincidence detectors.

  19. Cosmic Rays and Extensive Air Showers

    CERN Document Server

    Stanev, Todor

    2010-01-01

    We begin with a brief introduction of the cosmic ray energy spectrum and its main features. At energies higher than 105 GeV cosmic rays are detected by the showers they initiate in the atmosphere. We continues with a brief description of the energy spectrum and composition derived from air shower data.

  20. Early history of cosmic rays at Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodh, Gaurang B.

    2013-02-01

    Cosmic ray studies at the University of Chicago were started by Arthur Compton during the late 1920s. The high points of cosmic ray studies at Chicago under Compton and Marcel Schein are the focus of this report, which summarizes the research done at Chicago up to the end of World War II.

  1. NEXUS: tracing the cosmic web connection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cautun, Marius; van de Weygaert, Rien; Jones, Bernard J. T.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the NEXUS algorithm for the identification of cosmic web environments: clusters, filaments, walls and voids. This is a multiscale and automatic morphological analysis tool that identifies all the cosmic structures in a scale free way, without preference for a certain size or shape. We

  2. Cosmic Feast of the Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisset, C.; Delgado-Inglada, G.; García-Rojas, J.

    2017-11-01

    In the past few decades most of our understanding of the history and chemical evolution of galaxies has been guided by the study of their stars and gaseous nebulae. Nebulae, thanks to their bright emission lines, are especially useful tracers of chemical elements from the very center to the outskirts of galaxies. In order to pin down the chemical abundances in nebulae, we must rely on careful analysis of emission lines combined with detailed models of the microscopic physical processes inside nebulae and state-of-the-art atomic data. Another important piece of the puzzle is the interplay between galaxy evolution and the activity of their central engines either as optical AGNs or radio jets. Last but not least, let us not forget the huge population of lineless, retired galaxies ionized by hot low-mass evolved stars: after nuclear and star formation activity quiets down, retired galaxies are the natural consequence of galaxy evolution. Grażyna Stasińska has made important contributions to each and every one of those aspects. This conference is to honor her work. We invite you to take part and share the latest news on this cosmic feast that transmutes chemical species, the onward journey of elements inside and outside galaxies either as lonely atoms or gregarious molecules and crystals, and their recycling in stars, which starts the cosmic feast all over again.

  3. Nexus of the Cosmic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cautun, Marius; van de Weygaert, Rien; Jones, Bernard J. T.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Hellwing, Wojciech A.

    2015-01-01

    One of the important unknowns of current cosmology concerns the effects of the large scale distribution of matter on the formation and evolution of dark matter haloes and galaxies. One main difficulty in answering this question lies in the absence of a robust and natural way of identifying the large scale environments and their characteristics. This work summarizes the NEXUS+ formalism which extends and improves our multiscale scale-space MMF method. The new algorithm is very successful in tracing the Cosmic Web components, mainly due to its novel filtering of the density in logarithmic space. The method, due to its multiscale and hierarchical character, has the advantage of detecting all the cosmic structures, either prominent or tenuous, without preference for a certain size or shape. The resulting filamentary and wall networks can easily be characterized by their direction, thickness, mass density and density profile. These additional environmental properties allows to us to investigate not only the effect of environment on haloes, but also how it correlates with the environment characteristics.

  4. [Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    One of the main areas of research is the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and analysis of CMB data. Using the four year COBE data we were able to improve existing constraints on global shear and vorticity. We found that, in the flat case (which allows for greatest anisotropy), (omega/H)0 less than 10(exp -7), where omega is the vorticity and H is the Hubble constant. This is two orders of magnitude lower than the tightest, previous constraint. We have defined a new set of statistics which quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity in small field cosmic microwave background maps. By looking at the distribution of power around rings in Fourier space, and at the correlations between adjacent rings, one can identify non-Gaussian features which are masked by large scale Gaussian fluctuations. This may be particularly useful for identifying unresolved localized sources and line-like discontinuities. Levin and collaborators devised a method to determine the global geometry of the universe through observations of patterns in the hot and cold spots of the CMB. We have derived properties of the peaks (maxima) of the CMB anisotropies expected in flat and open CDM models. We represent results for angular resolutions ranging from 5 arcmin to 20 arcmin (antenna FWHM), scales that are relevant for the MAP and COBRA/SAMBA space missions and the ground-based interferometer. Results related to galaxy formation and evolution are also discussed.

  5. Cosmic perspectives in space physics

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Sukumar

    2000-01-01

    In the early years of the twentieth century, Victor Hess of Germany flew instruments in balloons and so discovered in 1912 that an extra-~errestial radiation of unknown origin is incident on the earth with an almost constant intensity at all times. These penetrating non­ solar radiations which were called Cosmic Rays by Millikan, USA, opened the new frontier of space physics and many leading scientists were attracted to it. At the end of World War II a number of space vehicles, e.g. stratospheric balloons, rockets and satellites were developed. In 1950 and onwards, these vehicles enabled spectacular advances in space physics and space astrophysics. New horizons were opened in the explorations of cosmic rays, the earth's magnetosphere, the Sun and the heliosphere, the moon and the planets. Using space-borne instruments, exciting discoveries were made of stars, and galaxies in the infra-red, ultra violet, x-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths. In this text book these fascinating new findings are presented in depth a...

  6. Electric currents in cosmic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1977-05-01

    Since the beginning of the century physics has been dualistic in the sense that some phenomena are described by a field concept, others by a particle concept. This dualism is essential also in the physics of cosmical plasmas: some phenomena should be described by a magnetic field formalism, others by an electric current formalism. During the first period of evolution of cosmic plasma physics the magnetic field aspect has dominated, and a fairly exhaustive description has been given of those phenomena--like the propagation of waves--which can be described in this way. We have now entered a second period which is dominated by a systematic exploration of the particle (or current) aspect. A survey is given of a number of phenomena which can be understood only from the particle aspect. These include the formation of electric double layers, the origin of explosive events like magnetic substorms and solar flares, and further, the transfer of energy from one region to another. A useful method of exploring many of these phenomena is to draw the electric circuit in which the current flows and study its properties. A number of simple circuits are analyzed in this way. (author)

  7. Cosmic ray production curves below reworking zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanford, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating cosmic ray production profiles below reworking zones. The method uses an input reworking depth determined from data such as signatures in the depth profile of ferromagnetic resonance intensity and input cosmic ray production profiles for an undisturbed surface. Reworking histories are simulated using Monte Carlo techniques, and depth profiles are used to determine cosmic ray exposure age limits with a specified probability. It is shown that the track density profiles predict cosmic ray exposure ages in lunar cores that are consistent with values determined by other methods. Results applied to neutron fluence and spallation rare gases eliminate the use of reworking depth as an adjustable parameter and give cosmic ray exposure ages that are compatible with each other

  8. Cosmic rays and the interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfendale, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    It is inevitable that there is a close connection between cosmic rays and the ISM insofar as the propagation of cosmic rays is conditioned by the magnetic field in the ISM and the cosmic rays interact with the gas (and photon fluxes) in this medium. This paper deals with both topics. Propagation effects manifest themselves as an anisotropy in arrival directions and a review is given of anisotropy measurements and their interpretation. The status of studies of cosmic ray interactions is examined whit particular reference to the information about the ISM itself which comes from observations of the flux of secondary γ-rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with gas, the situation regarding molecular as in the Inner Galaxy being of particular concern

  9. High energy physics in cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Lawrence W. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-02-07

    In the first half-century of cosmic ray physics, the primary research focus was on elementary particles; the positron, pi-mesons, mu-mesons, and hyperons were discovered in cosmic rays. Much of this research was carried out at mountain elevations; Pic du Midi in the Pyrenees, Mt. Chacaltaya in Bolivia, and Mt. Evans/Echo Lake in Colorado, among other sites. In the 1960s, claims of the observation of free quarks, and satellite measurements of a significant rise in p-p cross sections, plus the delay in initiating accelerator construction programs for energies above 100 GeV, motivated the Michigan-Wisconsin group to undertake a serious cosmic ray program at Echo Lake. Subsequently, with the succession of higher energy accelerators and colliders at CERN and Fermilab, cosmic ray research has increasingly focused on cosmology and astrophysics, although some groups continue to study cosmic ray particle interactions in emulsion chambers.

  10. To the problem of superfluous cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savenko, I.A.; Saraeva, M.A.; Shavrin, P.I.

    1979-01-01

    From consideration of a number of basic works on the excessive cosmic radiation given is the most probable composition (electron, proton, and nuclear components) of this radiation in equatorial regions at altitudes corresponding to minimum altitudes of the drift trajectories hsub(min) <= 0, in case of detecting by detector on the artificial satellite of the Earth (ASE) with the mass up to 1t and of the heavier ASE. The disagreement in spectra of solar cosmic rays obtained along the latitude effect on the ASE. ''Molniya-1'' and in the experiments out of the magnetosphere on the ASE ''Explorer-41'' is explained by excessive radiation production of solar cosmic rays. The comparison of readings of the neutron channel with those of the charged particle channels of the apparatus on the ASE ''Molniya-1'' during the proton event on 25.01.1971 does not contradict to the supposition on the similarity of excessive cosmic radiation production of galactic and solar cosmic rays

  11. Cosmic Ray Physics with ACORDE at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Pagliarone, C.

    2008-01-01

    The use of large underground high-energy physics experiments, for comic ray studies, have been used, in the past, at CERN, in order to measure, precisely, the inclusive cosmic ray flux in the energy range from 2x10^10 - 2x10^12 eV. ACORDE, ALICE Cosmic Rays DEtector, will act as Level 0 cosmic ray trigger and, together with other ALICE apparatus, will provide precise information on cosmic rays with primary energies around 10^15 - 10^17 eV. This paper reviews the main detector features, the present status, commissioning and integration with other apparatus. Finally, we discuss the ACORDE-ALICE cosmic ray physics program.

  12. Cosmic ray physics with ACORDE at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagliarone, C; Fernandez-Tellez, A

    2008-01-01

    The use of large underground high-energy physics experiments, for comic ray studies, have been used, in the past, at CERN, in order to measure, precisely, the inclusive cosmic ray flux in the energy range from 2·10 10 to 2· 10 12 eV. ACORDE, ALICE Cosmic Rays DEtector, will act as Level 0 cosmic ray trigger and, together with other ALICE apparatus, will provide precise information on cosmic rays with primary energies around 10 15 to 10 17 eV. This paper reviews the main detector features, the present status, commissioning and integration with other apparatus. Finally, we discuss the ACORDE-ALICE cosmic ray physics program

  13. Cosmic ray physics with ACORDE at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagliarone, C [Universita degli Studi di Cassino and INFN Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3 - Pisa (Italy); Fernandez-Tellez, A [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (BUAP), Puebla (Mexico)], E-mail: pagliarone@fnal.gov

    2008-05-15

    The use of large underground high-energy physics experiments, for comic ray studies, have been used, in the past, at CERN, in order to measure, precisely, the inclusive cosmic ray flux in the energy range from 2{center_dot}10{sup 10} to 2{center_dot} 10{sup 12} eV. ACORDE, ALICE Cosmic Rays DEtector, will act as Level 0 cosmic ray trigger and, together with other ALICE apparatus, will provide precise information on cosmic rays with primary energies around 10{sup 15} to 10{sup 17} eV. This paper reviews the main detector features, the present status, commissioning and integration with other apparatus. Finally, we discuss the ACORDE-ALICE cosmic ray physics program.

  14. Cosmic physics: the high energy frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecker, F W

    2003-01-01

    Cosmic rays have been observed up to energies 10 8 times larger than those of the best particle accelerators. Studies of astrophysical particles (hadrons, neutrinos and photons) at their highest observed energies have implications for fundamental physics as well as astrophysics. Thus, the cosmic high energy frontier is the nexus to new particle physics. This overview discusses recent advances being made in the physics and astrophysics of cosmic rays and cosmic γ-rays at the highest observed energies as well as the related physics and astrophysics of very high energy cosmic neutrinos. These topics touch on questions of grand unification, violations of Lorentz invariance as well as Planck scale physics and quantum gravity. (topical review)

  15. On scaling cosmogenic nuclide production rates for altitude and latitude using cosmic-ray measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desilets, Darin; Zreda, Marek

    2001-11-01

    The wide use of cosmogenic nuclides for dating terrestrial landforms has prompted a renewed interest in characterizing the spatial distribution of terrestrial cosmic rays. Cosmic-ray measurements from neutron monitors, nuclear emulsions and cloud chambers have played an important role in developing new models for scaling cosmic-ray neutron intensities and, indirectly, cosmogenic production rates. Unfortunately, current scaling models overlook or misinterpret many of these data. In this paper, we describe factors that must be considered when using neutron measurements to determine scaling formulations for production rates of cosmogenic nuclides. Over the past 50 years, the overwhelming majority of nucleon flux measurements have been taken with neutron monitors. However, in order to use these data for scaling spallation reactions, the following factors must be considered: (1) sensitivity of instruments to muons and to background, (2) instrumental biases in energy sensitivity, (3) solar activity, and (4) the way of ordering cosmic-ray data in the geomagnetic field. Failure to account for these factors can result in discrepancies of as much as 7% in neutron attenuation lengths measured at the same location. This magnitude of deviation can result in an error on the order of 20% in cosmogenic production rates scaled from 4300 m to sea level. The shapes of latitude curves of nucleon flux also depend on these factors to a measurable extent, thereby causing additional uncertainties in cosmogenic production rates. The corrections proposed herein significantly improve our ability to transfer scaling formulations based on neutron measurements to scaling formulations applicable to spallation reactions, and, therefore, constitute an important advance in cosmogenic dating methodology.

  16. Imprints to the terrestrial environment at galactic arm crossings of the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahr, H. J.; Fichtner, H.; Scherer, K.; Stawicki, O.

    At its itinerary through our milky way galaxy the solar system moves through highly variable interstellar environments. Due to its orbital revolution around the galactic center, the solar system also crosses periodically the spiral arms of our galactic plane and thereby expe riences pronounced enviromental changes. Gas densities, magnetic fields and galactic cosmic ray intensities are substantially higher there compared to interarm conditions. Here we present theoretical calculations describing the SN-averaged galactic cosmic ray spectrum for regions inside and outside of galactic arms which then allow to predict how periodic passages of the solar system through galactic arms should be reflected by enhanced particle irradiations of the earth`s atmosphere and by correlated terrestrial Be-10 production rates.

  17. Department of Cosmic Ray Physics: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the area of high-energy physics and cosmic ray physics related to: Experimental and phenomenological studies of Extensive Air Showers induced by cosmic ray particles. Studies of ultra-high energy (above 10 19 eV) cosmic rays: determination of energy and primary particle mass composition. Studies of asymptotic properties of hadronic interactions based on the analysis of cosmic ray propagation through the atmosphere. Studies of mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy range 10 15 -10 17 eV. Registration of cosmic ray intensity variation correlated with solar activity. Theoretical and experimental studies of Extensive Air Shower properties are performed mostly based on the results obtained by the Lodz Extensive Air Shower Array. We have noticed unexplainable delayed signals registered about 500-900 microseconds after the main EAS pulse. We prepared hardware for further experimental study of this effect. In September we have started registration of 5 GeV muon flux with the underground muon telescope. We registered 3 decreases of muon intensity correlated with Forbush decreases registered at lower energies. Variations of primary cosmic ray of energies up to about 100 GeV were responsible for our registrations. These set the upper limits for geometrical size of geomagnetic disturbances in interplanetary space. In construction and data interpretation of cosmic ray experiments, the Lodz group collaborates with many foreign institutes and laboratories: Forschungszentrum in Karlsruhe (Germany), College de France, Institute for Nuclear Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Uppsala University (Sweden). We have organised (together with the Physics Department of the University of Lodz) the 17 th European Cosmic Ray Symposium (24-?8 July 2000) in which about 150 physicists participated (about 100 from abroad). (author)

  18. Terrestrial Analogs to Mars: NRC Community Panel Decadal Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.

    2002-12-01

    A report was completed recently by a Community Panel for the NRC Decadal Study of Solar System Exploration. The desire was for a review of the current state of knowledge and for recommendations for action over the next decade. The topic of this panel, Terrestrial Analogs to Mars, was chosen to bring attention to the need for an increase in analog studies in support of the increased pace of Mars exploration. It is well recognized that interpretations of Mars must begin with the Earth as a reference. The most successful comparisons have focused on understanding geologic processes on the Earth well enough to extrapolate to Mars' environment. Several facets of terrestrial analog studies have been pursued and are continuing. These studies include field workshops, characterization of terrestrial analog sites, instrument tests, laboratory measurements (including analysis of martian meteorites), and computer and laboratory modeling. The combination of all of these activities allows scientists to constrain the processes operating in specific terrestrial environments and extrapolate how similar processes could affect Mars. The Terrestrial Analogs for Mars Community Panel has considered the following two key questions: (1) How do terrestrial analog studies tie in to the overarching science questions about life, past climate, and geologic evolution of Mars, and (2) How can future instrumentation be used to address these questions. The panel considered the issues of data collection and archiving, value of field workshops, laboratory measurements and modeling, human exploration issues, association with other areas of solar system exploration, and education and public outreach activities. Parts of this work were performed under contract to NASA.

  19. The Concept of Cosmic Tree in Armenian and Iranian Cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Cosmic Tree or Tree of Life is a common motif in various world theologies, mythologies, and philosophies. In the present study we focus on Armenian and Iranian Cosmic Tree. In ancient Armenia, the Tree of Life (Կենաց Ծառ) is a religious symbol and is drawn on walls of fortresses and carved on the armour of warriors. According to ancient Armenians the center of the Universe is located at the crown of the tree or the column, which is the closest to the sky. We explore the idea of cosmic tree in the riddles, prayers, medieval rituals and miniatures. In the riddles, the tree mostly symbolizes the celestial phenomena (Sun, Stars, and Heavens), different units of time (years, months, weeks, days, and seasons), the people, Jerusalem, the apostles and Jesus Christ. The branches of the tree were equally divided on the right and left sides of the stem, with each branch having one leaf, and one leaf on the apex of the tree. Servants stood on each side of the tree with one of their hands up as if they are taking care of the tree. In pre-Islamic Persian mythology, the Gaokerena world tree is a large, sacred Haoma tree which bears all seeds. Ahriman created a frog to invade the tree and destroy it, aiming at preventing all trees from growing on the Earth. As a reaction, God (Ahura Mazda) created two kar fish staring at the frog to guard the tree. The concept of world tree in Persian Mythology is very closely related to the concept of the Tree of Life. Another related issue in ancient mythology of Iran is the myth of Mashya and Mashyane, two trees who were the ancestors of all living beings. This myth can be considered as a prototype for the creation myth where living beings are created by Gods (who have human forms). We come to the conclusion that in both cultures, no matter of the present different religions, the perception of Cosmic Tree is interconnected to the life on our planet and served as a metaphor for common descent in the evolutionary sense.

  20. Spatial vision in Bombus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravin eChakravarthi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bombus terrestris is one of the most commonly used insect models to investigate visually guided behavior and spatial vision in particular. Two fundamental measures of spatial vision are spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity. In this study, we report the threshold of spatial resolution in B. terrestris and characterize the contrast sensitivity function of the bumblebee visual system for a dual choice discrimination task. We trained bumblebees in a Y-maze experimental set-up to associate a vertical sinusoidal grating with a sucrose reward, and a horizontal grating with absence of a reward. Using a logistic psychometric function, we estimated a resolution threshold of 0.21 cycles deg-1 of visual angle. This resolution is in the same range but slightly lower than that found in honeybees (Apis mellifera and A. cerana and another bumblebee species (B. impatiens. We also found that the contrast sensitivity of B. terrestris was 1.57 for the spatial frequency 0.09 cycles deg-1 and 1.26. for 0.18 cycles deg-1.

  1. Influence of the terrestrial magnetic field geometry on the cutoff rigidity of cosmic ray particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, K.; Kopp, A.; Heber, B.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the propagation of charged energetic particles in the Earth's magnetic field go back to Carl Stoermer. In the end, his investigations finally lead to the definition of the so-called cutoff rigidity RC; that is, the minimum momentum per charge a particle must have in order to reach a certain geographical location. Employing Monte Carlo simulations with the PLANETOCOSMICS code we investigate the correlation between the geomagnetic field structure and the cutoff rigidity. We show that the geometry of the magnetic field has a considerable influence on the resulting cutoff rigidity distribution. Furthermore, we will present a simple geometry-based parameter, δB, which is able to reflect the location-dependent cutoff rigidity. We show that this correlation is also visible in the temporal evolution of the Earth's magnetic field, at least over the last 100 yr. Using latitude scans with neutron monitors, changes of the relative counting rates at different positions are calculated, showing small variations for, e.g., Kiel and Moscow, while large ones occur at Mexico City as well as on the British Virgin Islands.

  2. Cosmic and terrestrial single-event radiation effects in dynamic random access memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massengill, L.W.

    1996-01-01

    A review of the literature on single-event radiation effects (SEE) on MOS integrated-circuit dynamic random access memories (DRAM's) is presented. The sources of single-event (SE) radiation particles, causes of circuit information loss, experimental observations of SE information upset, technological developments for error mitigation, and relationships of developmental trends to SE vulnerability are discussed

  3. Cosmic rays at ultra high energies (Neutrinos.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlers, M.; Ringwald, A.; Tu, H.

    2005-06-01

    Resonant photopion production with the cosmic microwave background predicts a suppression of extragalactic protons above the famous Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cutoff at about E GZK ∼ 5 x 10 10 GeV. Current cosmic ray data measured by the AGASA and HiRes Collaborations do not unambiguously confirm the GZK cutoff and leave a window for speculations about the origin and chemical composition of the highest energy cosmic rays. In this work we analyze the possibility of strongly interacting neutrino primaries and derive model-independent quantitative requirements on the neutrino-nucleon inelastic cross section for a viable explanation of the cosmic ray data. Search results on weakly interacting cosmic particles from the AGASA and RICE experiments are taken into account simultaneously. Using a flexible parameterization of the inelastic neutrino-nucleon cross section we find that a combined fit of the data does not favor the Standard Model neutrino-nucleon inelastic cross section, but requires, at 90% confidence level, a steep increase within one energy decade around E GZK by four orders of magnitude. We illustrate such an enhancement within some extensions of the Standard Model. The impact of new cosmic ray data or cosmic neutrino search results on this scenario, notably from the Pierre Auger Observatory soon, can be immediately evaluated within our approach. (orig.)

  4. Terrestrial invasion of pomatiopsid gastropods in the heavy-snow region of the Japanese Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kato Makoto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastropod mollusks are one of the most successful animals that have diversified in the fully terrestrial habitat. They have evolved terrestrial taxa in more than nine lineages, most of which originated during the Paleozoic or Mesozoic. The rissooidean gastropod family Pomatiopsidae is one of the few groups that have evolved fully terrestrial taxa during the late Cenozoic. The pomatiopsine diversity is particularly high in the Japanese Archipelago and the terrestrial taxa occur only in this region. In this study, we conducted thorough samplings of Japanese pomatiopsid species and performed molecular phylogenetic analyses to explore the patterns of diversification and terrestrial invasion. Results Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that Japanese Pomatiopsinae derived from multiple colonization of the Eurasian Continent and that subsequent habitat shifts from aquatic to terrestrial life occurred at least twice within two Japanese endemic lineages. Each lineage comprises amphibious and terrestrial species, both of which are confined to the mountains in heavy-snow regions facing the Japan Sea. The estimated divergence time suggested that diversification of these terrestrial lineages started in the Late Miocene, when active orogenesis of the Japanese landmass and establishment of snowy conditions began. Conclusions The terrestrial invasion of Japanese Pomatiopsinae occurred at least twice beside the mountain streamlets of heavy-snow regions, which is considered the first case of this event in the area. Because snow coverage maintains stable temperatures and high humidity on the ground surface, heavy-snow conditions may have paved the way for these organisms from freshwater to land via mountain streamlets by preventing winter desiccation in mountain valleys. The fact that the terrestrialization of Pomatiopsidae occurred only in year-round wet environments, but not in seasonally dried regions, provides new insight into ancient

  5. New results from cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonwar, S. C.

    1980-07-01

    Behavior of elementary particles at very high energies and new phenomena observed are discussed in the light of results obtained by cosmic ray studies. Methods of determining hadron-nucleus inelastic cross-sections are described. Proton energy spectra are studied at 2000-50,000 GeV and the hadron-proton total cross section is deduced. Measurement of the cross-section by measurement of the intensity of transition radiation is described. The instrumental effects and the corrections effected are mentioned. The results obtained by different groups of investigators are compared. Observations on the scaling violation at high energies are reported. New particles or phenomena observed include: (i) the long flying component (ii) centauro events, (iii) delayed particles (iv) high energy cascades in underground experiments and (v) charm hadron production in hadron collisions. New experiments being planned for further research are mentioned.

  6. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The history is described of the discovery of microwave radiation of the cosmic background using the 20-foot horn antenna at the Bell Laboratories back in 1965. Ruby masers with travelling wave were used, featuring the lowest noise in the world. The measurement proceeded on 7 cm. In measuring microwave radiation from the regions outside the Milky Way continuous noise was discovered whose temperature exceeded the calculated contributions of the individual detection system elements by 3 K. A comparison with the theory showed that relict radiation from the Big Bang period was the source of the noise. The discovery was verified by measurements on the 20.1 cm wavelength and by other authors' measurements on 0.5 mm to 74 cm, and by optical measurements of the interstellar molecule spectrum. (Ha)

  7. Polarization of Cosmic Microwave Background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzzelli, A; Cabella, P; De Gasperis, G; Vittorio, N

    2016-01-01

    In this work we present an extension of the ROMA map-making code for data analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background polarization, with particular attention given to the inflationary polarization B-modes. The new algorithm takes into account a possible cross- correlated noise component among the different detectors of a CMB experiment. We tested the code on the observational data of the BOOMERanG (2003) experiment and we show that we are provided with a better estimate of the power spectra, in particular the error bars of the BB spectrum are smaller up to 20% for low multipoles. We point out the general validity of the new method. A possible future application is the LSPE balloon experiment, devoted to the observation of polarization at large angular scales. (paper)

  8. Cerenkov radiation from cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turver, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    It is almost 40 years since it was suggested that Cerenkov radiations may be produced in the atmosphere by the passage of the cosmic radiation and account for a small part of the night sky brightness. The first detection of this visible Cerenkov radiation followed within a few years and by the 1960s the atmospheric Cerenkov radiation technique was established as a tool in high energy astrophysics. An exciting new field of astronomy, high energy gamma ray astronomy, has developed which relies on the atmospheric Cerenkov light. We here review the mechanism for the production of Cerenkov light in the atmosphere and summarize the contributions to high energy astrophysics made using the technique. (author)

  9. RELICS of the Cosmic Dawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradac, Marusa; Coe, Dan; Strait, Victoria; Salmon, Brett; Hoag, Austin; Bradley, Larry; Ryan, Russell; Dawson, Will; Zitrin, Adi; Jones, Christine; Sharon, Keren; Trenti, Michele; Stark, Daniel; Oesch, Pascal; Lam, Danel; Carrasco Nunez, Daniela Patricia; Paterno-Mahler, Rachel; Frye, Brenda

    2018-05-01

    When did galaxies start forming stars? What is the role of distant galaxies in galaxy formation models and epoch of reionization? Recent observations indicate at least two critical puzzles in these studies. (1) First galaxies might have started forming stars earlier than previously thought (knowledge of stellar masses, ages, and star formation rates at this epoch requires measuring both rest-frame UV and optical light, which only Spitzer and HST can probe at z 6-11 for a large enough sample of typical galaxies. To address this cosmic puzzle, we propose to complete deep Spitzer imaging of the fields behind the 10 most powerful cosmic telescopes selected using HST, Spitzer, and Planck data from the RELICS and SRELICS programs (Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey; 41 clusters, 190 HST orbits, 440 Spitzer hours). 6 clusters out of 10 are still lacking deep data. This proposal will be a valuable Legacy complement to the existing IRAC deep surveys, and it will open up a new parameter space by probing the ordinary yet magnified population with much improved sample variance. The program will allow us to study stellar properties of a large number, 60 galaxies at z 6-11. Deep Spitzer data will be crucial to unambiguously measure their stellar properties (age, SFR, M*). Finally this proposal will establish the presence (or absence) of an unusually early established stellar population, as was recently observed in MACS1149JD at z 9. If confirmed in a larger sample, this result will require a paradigm shift in our understanding of the earliest star formation.

  10. Symbols of a cosmic order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjid, F. Hadi; Myers, John M.

    2016-10-01

    The world runs on networks over which signals communicate sequences of symbols, e.g. numerals. Examining both engineered and natural communications networks reveals an unsuspected order that depends on contact with an unpredictable entity. This order has three roots. The first is a proof within quantum theory that no evidence can ever determine its explanation, so that an agent choosing an explanation must do so unpredictably. The second root is the showing that clocks that step computers do not "tell time" but serve as self-adjusting symbol-handling agents that regulate "logically synchronized" motion in response to unpredictable disturbances. Such a clock-agent has a certain independence as well as the capacity to communicate via unpredictable symbols with other clock-agents and to adjust its own tick rate in response to that communication. The third root is the noticing of unpredictable symbol exchange in natural systems, including the transmission of symbols found in molecular biology. We introduce a symbol-handling agent as a role played in some cases by a person, for example a physicist who chooses an explanation of given experimental outcomes, and in other cases by some other biological entity, and in still other cases by an inanimate device, such as a computer-based detector used in physical measurements. While we forbear to try to explain the propensity of agents at all levels from cells to civilizations to form and operate networks of logically synchronized symbol-handling agents, we point to this propensity as an overlooked cosmic order, an order structured by the unpredictability ensuing from the proof. Appreciating the cosmic order leads to a conception of agency that replaces volition by unpredictability and reconceives the notion of objectivity in a way that makes a place for agency in the world as described by physics. Some specific implications for physics are outlined.

  11. Black holes and cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiscock, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the complete gravitational collapse of a body always yields a black hole, and that naked singularities are never produced (the cosmic censorship hypothesis). The local (or strong) cosmic censorship hypothesis states that singularities which are even locally naked (e.g., to an observer inside a black hole) are never produced. This dissertation studies the validity of these two conjectures. The Kerr-Newman metrics describes the black holes only when M 2 greater than or equal to Q 2 + P 2 , where M is the mass of the black hole, a = J/M its specific angular momentum, Q its electric charge, and P its magnetic charge. In the first part of this dissertation, the possibility of converting an extreme Kerr-Newman black hole (M 2 = a 2 + Q 2 + P 2 ) into a naked singularity by the accretion of test particles is considered. The motion of test particles is studied with a large angular momentum to energy ratio, and also test particles with a large charge to energy ratio. The final state is always found to be a black hole if the angular momentum, electric charge, and magnetic charge of the black hole are all much greater than the corresponding angular momentum, electric charge, and magnetic charge of the test particle. In Part II of this dissertation possible black hole interior solutions are studied. The Cauchy horizons and locally naked timelike singularities of the charged (and/or rotating) solutions are contrasted with the spacelike all-encompassing singularity of the Schwarzschild solution. It is determined which portions of the analytic extension of the Reissner-Nordstroem solution are relevant to realistic gravitational collapse

  12. RELICS of the Cosmic Dawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradac, Marusa; Coe, Dan; Huang, Kuang-Han; Salmon, Brett; Hoag, Austin; Bradley, Larry; Ryan, Russell; Dawson, Will; Zitrin, Adi; Jones, Christine; Sharon, Keren; Trentu, Michele; Stark, Daniel; Bouwens, Rychard; Oesch, Pascal; Lam, Daniel; Patricia Carasco Nunez, Daniela; Paterno-Mahler, Rachel; Strait, Victoria

    2017-10-01

    When did galaxies start forming stars? What is the role of distant galaxies in galaxy formation models and epoch of reionization? Recent observations indicate at least two critical puzzles in these studies. (1) First galaxies might have started forming stars earlier than previously thought (Big Bang). (2) It is still unclear what is their star formation history and whether these galaxies can reionize the Universe. Accurate knowledge of stellar masses, ages, and star formation rates at this epoch requires measuring both rest-frame UV and optical light, which only Spitzer and HST can probe at z 6-11 for a large enough sample of typical galaxies. To address this cosmic puzzle, we propose Spitzer imaging of the fields behind the most powerful cosmic telescopes selected using HST, Spitzer, and Planck data from the RELICS and SRELICS programs (Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey; 41 clusters, 190 HST orbits, 550 Spitzer hours). This proposal will be a valuable Legacy complement to the existing IRAC deep surveys, and it will open up a new parameter space by probing the ordinary yet magnified population with much improved sample variance. The program will allow us to study stellar properties of a large number, 20 galaxies at z 6-11. Deep Spitzer data will be crucial to unambiguously measure their stellar properties (age, SFR, M*). Finally this proposal is a unique opportunity to establish the presence (or absence) of an unusually early established stellar population, as was recently observed in MACS1149JD at z 9. If confirmed, this result will require a paradigm shift in our understanding of the earliest star formation.

  13. Solar activity and terrestrial climate: an analysis of some purported correlations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laut, Peter

    2003-01-01

    claimed to support solar hypotheses. My analyses show that the apparent strong correlations displayed on these graphs have been obtained by an incorrect handling of the physical data. Since the graphs are still widely referred to in the literature and their misleading character has not yet been generally......The last decade has seen a revival of various hypotheses claiming a strong correlation between solar activity and a number of terrestrial climate parameters: Links between cosmic rays and cloud cover, first total cloud cover and then only low clouds, and between solar cycle lengths and Northern...... the existence of important links between solar activity and terrestrial climate. Such links have over the years been demonstrated by many authors. The sole objective of the present analysis is to draw attention to the fact that some of the widely publicized, apparent correlations do not properly reflect...

  14. The terrestrial record of Late Heavy Bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Donald R.; Byerly, Gary R.

    2018-04-01

    Until recently, the known impact record of the early Solar System lay exclusively on the surfaces of the Moon, Mars, and other bodies where it has not been erased by later weathering, erosion, impact gardening, and/or tectonism. Study of the cratered surfaces of these bodies led to the concept of the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), an interval from about 4.1 to 3.8 billion years ago (Ga) during which the surfaces of the planets and moons in the inner Solar System were subject to unusually high rates of bombardment followed by a decline to present low impact rates by about 3.5 Ga. Over the past 30 years, however, it has become apparent that there is a terrestrial record of large impacts from at least 3.47 to 3.22 Ga and from 2.63 to 2.49 Ga. The present paper explores the earlier of these impact records, providing details about the nature of the 8 known ejecta layers that constitute the evidence for large terrestrial impacts during the earlier of these intervals, the inferred size of the impactors, and the potential effects of these impacts on crustal development and life. The existence of this record implies that LHB did not end abruptly at 3.8-3.7 Ga but rather that high impact rates, either continuous or as impact clusters, persisted until at least the close of the Archean at 2.5 Ga. It implies that the shift from external, impact-related controls on the long-term development of the surface system on the Earth to more internal, geodynamic controls may have occurred much later in geologic history than has been supposed previously.

  15. Cosmic growth history and expansion history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, Eric V.

    2005-01-01

    The cosmic expansion history tests the dynamics of the global evolution of the universe and its energy density contents, while the cosmic growth history tests the evolution of the inhomogeneous part of the energy density. Precision comparison of the two histories can distinguish the nature of the physics responsible for the accelerating cosmic expansion: an additional smooth component--dark energy--or a modification of the gravitational field equations. With the aid of a new fitting formula for linear perturbation growth accurate to 0.05%-0.2%, we separate out the growth dependence on the expansion history and introduce a new growth index parameter γ that quantifies the gravitational modification

  16. Propagation of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)], E-mail: stanev@bartol.udel.edu

    2009-06-15

    We briefly describe the energy loss processes of ultrahigh-energy protons, heavier nuclei and {gamma}-rays in interactions with the universal photon fields of the Universe. We then discuss the modification of the accelerated cosmic-ray energy spectrum in propagation by the energy loss processes and the charged cosmic-ray scattering in the extragalactic magnetic fields. The energy lost by the ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays goes into {gamma}-rays and neutrinos that carry additional information about the sources of highest energy particles. The new experimental results of the HiRes and the Auger collaborations are discussed in view of the predictions from propagation calculations.

  17. High energy cosmic rays: sources and fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor; Gaisser, Thomas K.; Tilav, Serap

    2014-04-01

    We discuss the production of a unique energy spectrum of the high energy cosmic rays detected with air showers by shifting the energy estimates of different detectors. After such a spectrum is generated we fit the spectrum with three or four populations of cosmic rays that might be accelerated at different cosmic ray sources. We also present the chemical composition that the fits of the spectrum generates and discuss some new data sets presented this summer at the ICRC in Rio de Janeiro that may require new global fits.

  18. Cosmic censorship, black holes, and particle orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiscock, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    One of the main reasons for believing in the cosmic censorship hypothesis is the disquieting nature of the alternative: the existence of naked singularities, and hence loss of predictability, the possibility of closed timelike lines and so forth. The consequences of assuming the cosmic hypothesis can also be somewhat strange and unexpected. In particular, Hawking's black hole area theorem is applied to the study of particle orbits near a Schwarzschild black hole. If the cosmic censorship hypothesis (and hence the area theorem) is true, then there exist stable near-circular orbits arbitrarily close to the horizon at r = 2M. (author)

  19. High-energy cosmic-ray acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Bustamante, M; de Paula, W; Duarte Chavez, J A; Gago, A M; Hakobyan, H; Jez, P; Monroy Montañez, J A; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Padilla Cabal, F; Pino Rozas, M; Rodriguez Patarroyo, D J; Romeo, G L; Saldaña-Salazar , U J; Velasquez, M; von Steinkirch, M

    2010-01-01

    We briefly review the basics of ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray acceleration. The Hillas criterion is introduced as a geometrical criterion that must be fulfilled by potential acceleration sites, and energy losses are taken into account in order to obtain a more realistic scenario. The different available acceleration mechanisms are presented, with special emphasis on Fermi shock acceleration and its prediction of a power-law cosmic-ray energy spectrum. We conclude that first-order Fermi acceleration, though not entirely satisfactory, is the most promising mechanism for explaining the ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray flux.

  20. Production and localization of cellulases and. beta. -glucosidase from the thermophilic fungus Thielavia terrestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuil, C; Wojtczak, G; Saddler, J N

    1986-01-01

    The enzyme production and localization of Thielavia terrestris strains C464 and NRRL 8126 were compared to determine their optimum temperature and pH for cellulase activity. High levels of intracellular ..beta..-glucosidase activity were detected in the former strain. The intracellular ..beta..-glucosidase of both strains were more thermostable than the extra-cellular enzyme; the half life of T. terrestris (C464) endoglucanase activity at 60 degrees C was greater than 96 hours. 12 references.

  1. D-term inflation, cosmic strings, and consistency with cosmic microwave background measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocher, Jonathan; Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2005-01-14

    Standard D-term inflation is studied in the framework of supergravity. D-term inflation produces cosmic strings; however, it can still be compatible with cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements without invoking any new physics. The cosmic strings contribution to the CMB data is not constant, nor dominant, contrary to some previous results. Using current CMB measurements, the free parameters (gauge and superpotential couplings, as well as the Fayet-Iliopoulos term) of D-term inflation are constrained.

  2. Technologies for low radio frequency observations of the Cosmic Dawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D. L.

    2014-03-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is developing concepts and technologies for low frequency radio astronomy space missions aimed at observing highly redshifted neutral Hydrogen from the Dark Ages. This is the period of cosmic history between the recombination epoch when the microwave background radiation was produced and the re-ionization of the intergalactic medium by the first generation of stars (Cosmic Dawn). This period, at redshifts z > ~20, is a critical epoch for the formation and evolution of large-scale structure in the universe. The 21-cm spectral line of Hydrogen provides the most promising method for directly studying the Dark Ages, but the corresponding frequencies at such large redshifts are only tens of MHz and thus require space-based observations to avoid terrestrial RFI and ionospheric absorption and refraction. This paper reports on the status of several low frequency technology development activities at JPL, including deployable bi-conical dipoles for a planned lunar-orbiting mission, and both rover-deployed and inflation-deployed long dipole antennas for use on the lunar surface. In addition, recent results from laboratory testing of low frequency receiver designs are presented. Finally, several concepts for space-based imaging interferometers utilizing deployable low frequency antennas are described. Some of these concepts involve large numbers of antennas and consequently a large digital cross-correlator will be needed. JPL has studied correlator architectures that greatly reduce the DC power required for this step, which can dominate the power consumption of real-time signal processing. Strengths and weaknesses of each mission concept are discussed in the context of the additional technology development required.

  3. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) comprises groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow,and ice. Groundwater typically varies more slowly than the other TWS components because itis not in direct contact with the atmosphere, but often it has a larger range of variability onmultiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti, 2001; Alley et al., 2002). In situ groundwaterdata are only archived and made available by a few countries. However, monthly TWSvariations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE; Tapley et al.,2004) satellite mission, which launched in 2002, are a reasonable proxy for unconfinedgroundwater at climatic scales.

  4. Comparing cosmic web classifiers using information theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclercq, Florent; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin; Jasche, Jens

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a decision scheme for optimally choosing a classifier, which segments the cosmic web into different structure types (voids, sheets, filaments, and clusters). Our framework, based on information theory, accounts for the design aims of different classes of possible applications: (i) parameter inference, (ii) model selection, and (iii) prediction of new observations. As an illustration, we use cosmographic maps of web-types in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to assess the relative performance of the classifiers T-WEB, DIVA and ORIGAMI for: (i) analyzing the morphology of the cosmic web, (ii) discriminating dark energy models, and (iii) predicting galaxy colors. Our study substantiates a data-supported connection between cosmic web analysis and information theory, and paves the path towards principled design of analysis procedures for the next generation of galaxy surveys. We have made the cosmic web maps, galaxy catalog, and analysis scripts used in this work publicly available.

  5. Cosmic Radiation - An Aircraft Manufacturer's View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hume, C.

    1999-01-01

    The relevance and context of cosmic radiation to an aircraft maker Airbus Industrie are outlined. Some future developments in aircraft and air traffic are described, along with their possible consequences for exposure. (author)

  6. Lightning Discharges, Cosmic Rays and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Siingh, Devendraa; Singh, R. P.; Singh, A. K.; Kamra, A. K.

    2018-03-01

    The entirety of the Earth's climate system is continuously bombarded by cosmic rays and exhibits about 2000 thunderstorms active at any time of the day all over the globe. Any linkage among these vast systems should have global consequences. Numerous studies done in the past deal with partial links between some selected aspects of this grand linkage. Results of these studies vary from weakly to strongly significant and are not yet complete enough to justify the physical mechanism proposed to explain such links. This review is aimed at presenting the current understanding, based on the past studies on the link between cosmic ray, lightning and climate. The deficiencies in some proposed links are pointed out. Impacts of cosmic rays on engineering systems and the possible effects of cosmic rays on human health are also briefly discussed. Also enumerated are some problems for future work which may help in developing the grand linkage among these three vast systems.

  7. Comparing cosmic web classifiers using information theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclercq, Florent [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation (ICG), University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris (IAP), UMR 7095, CNRS – UPMC Université Paris 6, Sorbonne Universités, 98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Jasche, Jens, E-mail: florent.leclercq@polytechnique.org, E-mail: lavaux@iap.fr, E-mail: j.jasche@tum.de, E-mail: wandelt@iap.fr [Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a decision scheme for optimally choosing a classifier, which segments the cosmic web into different structure types (voids, sheets, filaments, and clusters). Our framework, based on information theory, accounts for the design aims of different classes of possible applications: (i) parameter inference, (ii) model selection, and (iii) prediction of new observations. As an illustration, we use cosmographic maps of web-types in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to assess the relative performance of the classifiers T-WEB, DIVA and ORIGAMI for: (i) analyzing the morphology of the cosmic web, (ii) discriminating dark energy models, and (iii) predicting galaxy colors. Our study substantiates a data-supported connection between cosmic web analysis and information theory, and paves the path towards principled design of analysis procedures for the next generation of galaxy surveys. We have made the cosmic web maps, galaxy catalog, and analysis scripts used in this work publicly available.

  8. Relativistic transport theory for cosmic-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    Various aspects of the transport of cosmic-rays in a relativistically moving magnetized plasma supporting a spectrum of hydromagnetic waves that scatter the cosmic-rays are presented. A local Lorentz frame moving with the waves or turbulence scattering the cosmic-rays is used to specify the individual particle momentum. The comoving frame is in general a noninertial frame in which the observer's volume element is expanding and shearing, geometric energy change terms appear in the cosmic-ray transport equation which consist of the relativistic generalization of the adiabatic deceleration term and a further term involving the acceleration vector of the scatterers. A relativistic version of the pitch angle evolution equation, including the effects of adiabatic focussing, pitch angle scattering, and energy changes is presented

  9. Atmospheric and biospheric effects of cosmic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, Rolando

    2007-01-01

    We briefly review and classify the action that different sources of cosmic radiations might have had on Earth climate and biosphere in the geological past and at present times. We present the action of both sparse explosive phenomena, like gamma-ray bursts and supernovae, and permanent ones like cosmic rays and ultraviolet radiation backgrounds. Very energetic cosmic radiation coming from explosions can deplete the ozone lawyer due to initial ionization reactions, while soft backgrounds might trigger low altitude cloud formation through certain microphysical amplification processes. We examine a hypothesis concerning the potential role of cosmic rays on present Global Climatic Change. We also present the potential of UV astronomy to probe some of above scenarios, and speak on the possibilities for the Cuban participation in the international mega-project World Space Observatory, a UV telescope to be launched in the period 2007-2009. (Author)

  10. How to detect the cosmic neutrino background?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwald, A.

    2003-01-01

    A measurement of the big bang relic neutrinos would open a new window to the early universe. We review various possibilities to detect this cosmic neutrino background and substantiate the assertion that - apart from the rather indirect evidence to be gained from cosmology and large-scale structure formation - the annihilation of ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrinos with relic anti-neutrinos (or vice versa) on the Z-resonance is a unique process having sensitivity to the relic neutrinos, if a sufficient flux at E ν i res =M Z 2 /(2m ν i )=4.10 22 eV (0.1 eV/m ν i ) exists. The associated absorption dips in the ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrino spectrum may be searched for at forthcoming neutrino and air shower detectors. The associated protons and photons may have been seen already in form of the cosmic ray events above the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cutoff. (orig.)

  11. COSMIC-RAY TRANSPORT AND ANISOTROPIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, Peter L. [MPI for Radioastronomy, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Becker Tjus, Julia; Mandelartz, Matthias [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Fakultaet fuer Physik and Astronomie, Theoretische Physik I, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Seo, Eun-Suk [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    We show that the large-scale cosmic-ray anisotropy at {approx}10 TeV can be explained by a modified Compton-Getting effect in the magnetized flow field of old supernova remnants. Cosmic rays arrive isotropically to the flow field and are then carried along with the flow to produce a large-scale anisotropy in the arrival direction. This approach suggests an optimum energy scale for detecting the anisotropy. Two key assumptions are that propagation is based on turbulence following a Kolmogorov law and that cosmic-ray interactions are dominated by transport via cosmic-ray-excited magnetic irregularities through the stellar wind of an exploding star and its shock shell. A prediction is that the amplitude is smaller at lower energies due to incomplete sampling of the velocity field and also smaller at larger energies due to smearing.

  12. The ALTA cosmic ray experiment electronics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, W.; Burris, W.J.; Caron, B.; Hewlett, J.; Holm, L.; Hamilton, A.; McDonald, W.J.; Pinfold, J.L.; Price, P.; Schaapman, J.R.; Sibley, L.; Soluk, R.A.; Wampler, L.J.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the origin and propagation of high-energy cosmic rays is a fundamental area of astroparticle physics with major unanswered questions. The study of cosmic rays with energy more than 10 14 eV, probed only by ground-based experiments, has been restricted by the low particle flux. The Alberta Large-area Time-coincidence Array (ALTA) uses a sparse array of cosmic ray detection stations located in high schools across a large geographical area to search for non-random high-energy cosmic ray phenomena. Custom-built ALTA electronics is based on a modular board design. Its function is to control the detectors at each ALTA site allowing precise measurements of event timing and energy in the local detectors as well as time synchronization of all of the sites in the array using the global positioning system

  13. Cosmic Rays in Intermittent Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukurov, Anvar; Seta, Amit; Bushby, Paul J.; Wood, Toby S.; Snodin, Andrew P.

    2017-01-01

    The propagation of cosmic rays in turbulent magnetic fields is a diffusive process driven by the scattering of the charged particles by random magnetic fluctuations. Such fields are usually highly intermittent, consisting of intense magnetic filaments and ribbons surrounded by weaker, unstructured fluctuations. Studies of cosmic-ray propagation have largely overlooked intermittency, instead adopting Gaussian random magnetic fields. Using test particle simulations, we calculate cosmic-ray diffusivity in intermittent, dynamo-generated magnetic fields. The results are compared with those obtained from non-intermittent magnetic fields having identical power spectra. The presence of magnetic intermittency significantly enhances cosmic-ray diffusion over a wide range of particle energies. We demonstrate that the results can be interpreted in terms of a correlated random walk.

  14. Topics on Cosmic Rays. v.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellandi Filho, J.; Pemmaraju, A.

    1984-01-01

    Some theoretical and experimental results concerning with cosmic radiation works or with related ones, mainly of the Brazil-Japan Collaboration, are presented in honor of the 60th aniversary of C.M.G. Lattes. (L.C.) [pt

  15. Spinning charged test particles and Cosmic Censorship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caderni, N [Cambridge Univ. Inst. of Astronomy (UK); Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia

    1979-04-16

    The authors consider spinning charged test particles in the gravitational field of a rotating charged black hole, and it is shown that the hole cannot be destroyed, according to the Cosmic Censorship hypothesis.

  16. Cosmic Rays in Intermittent Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukurov, Anvar; Seta, Amit; Bushby, Paul J.; Wood, Toby S. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Snodin, Andrew P., E-mail: a.seta1@ncl.ac.uk, E-mail: amitseta90@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Applied Science, King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand)

    2017-04-10

    The propagation of cosmic rays in turbulent magnetic fields is a diffusive process driven by the scattering of the charged particles by random magnetic fluctuations. Such fields are usually highly intermittent, consisting of intense magnetic filaments and ribbons surrounded by weaker, unstructured fluctuations. Studies of cosmic-ray propagation have largely overlooked intermittency, instead adopting Gaussian random magnetic fields. Using test particle simulations, we calculate cosmic-ray diffusivity in intermittent, dynamo-generated magnetic fields. The results are compared with those obtained from non-intermittent magnetic fields having identical power spectra. The presence of magnetic intermittency significantly enhances cosmic-ray diffusion over a wide range of particle energies. We demonstrate that the results can be interpreted in terms of a correlated random walk.

  17. Spinning charged test particles and Cosmic Censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caderni, N.; Calvani, M.

    1979-01-01

    The authors consider spinning charged test particles in the gravitational field of a rotating charged black hole, and it is shown that the hole cannot be destroyed, according to the Cosmic Censorship hypothesis. (Auth.)

  18. Cosmic ray antimatter and baryon symmetric cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.; Protheroe, R. J.; Kazanas, D.

    1982-01-01

    The relative merits and difficulties of the primary and secondary origin hypotheses for the observed cosmic-ray antiprotons, including the new low-energy measurement of Buffington, et al. We conclude that the cosmic-ray antiproton data may be evidence for antimatter galaxies and baryon symmetric cosmology. The present bar P data are consistent with a primary extragalactic component having /p=/equiv 1+/- 3.2/0.7x10 = to the -4 independent of energy. We propose that the primary extragalactic cosmic ray antiprotons are most likely from active galaxies and that expected disintegration of bar alpha/alpha ban alpha/alpha. We further predict a value for ban alpha/alpha =/equiv 10 to the -5, within range of future cosmic ray detectors.

  19. Broken symmetries at the origin of matter, at the origin of life and at the origin of culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinken, J. van

    1998-01-01

    In earliest cosmic history the universe started with matter and not with antimatter. Shortly after the beginning the electroweak interaction - prominent in nuclear β decay - acted as a left-hander. Much later, in pre biotic evolution, optically left-handed amino acids determined the unique signature of following terrestrial organic life. Again ae- ons later, homo sapiens appears as predominantly right handed and creates cultures with many broken symmetries. Along these pathways of history it was essential that choices were made - left or right, matter or antimatter - but on several instances it seemed less relevant which choice were made. We think that biochirality occurred by global chance; perhaps by local necessity, but without causal links to the PCT theorem. In other cases - e.g. the standardization to right-handed screws - the choice will have been made by causal necessity. (author)

  20. Broken symmetries at the origin of matter, at the origin of life and at the origin of culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinken, J. van [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    1998-01-01

    In earliest cosmic history the universe started with matter and not with antimatter. Shortly after the beginning the electroweak interaction - prominent in nuclear {beta} decay - acted as a left-hander. Much later, in pre biotic evolution, optically left-handed amino acids determined the unique signature of following terrestrial organic life. Again ae- ons later, homo sapiens appears as predominantly right handed and creates cultures with many broken symmetries. Along these pathways of history it was essential that choices were made - left or right, matter or antimatter - but on several instances it seemed less relevant which choice were made. We think that biochirality occurred by global chance; perhaps by local necessity, but without causal links to the PCT theorem. In other cases - e.g. the standardization to right-handed screws - the choice will have been made by causal necessity. (author) 14 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  1. Low cloud properties influenced by cosmic rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Nigel; Svensmark, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    The influence of solar variability on climate is currently uncertain. Recent observations have indicated a possible mechanism via the influence of solar modulated cosmic rays on global cloud cover. Surprisingly the influence of solar variability is strongest in low clouds (less than or equal to3 km......), which points to a microphysical mechanism involving aerosol formation that is enhanced by ionization due to cosmic rays. If confirmed it suggests that the average state of the heliosphere is important for climate on Earth....

  2. Anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.

    1988-01-01

    The characteristics of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CBR) are reviewed, focusing on intrinsic anisotropies caused by primordial matter fluctuations. The basic elements of the CBR are outlined and the contributions to anisotropy at different angular scales are discussed. Possible fluctuation spectra that can generate the observed large-scale structure of the universe through gravitational instability and nonlinear evolution are examined and compared with observational searches for cosmic microwave anisotropies. 21 refs

  3. Isotherms clustering in cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bershadskii, A.

    2006-01-01

    Isotherms clustering in cosmic microwave background (CMB) has been studied using the 3-year WMAP data on cosmic microwave background radiation. It is shown that the isotherms clustering could be produced by the baryon-photon fluid turbulence in the last scattering surface. The Taylor-microscale Reynolds number of the turbulence is estimated directly from the CMB data as Re λ ∼10 2

  4. ACORDE a cosmic ray detector for ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.; Gamez, E.; Herrera, G.; Lopez, R.; Leon-Monzon, I.; Martinez, M.I.; Pagliarone, C.; Paic, G.; Roman, S.; Tejeda, G.; Vargas, M.A.; Vergara, S.; Villasenor, L.; Zepeda, A.

    2007-01-01

    ACORDE is one of the ALICE detectors, presently under construction at CERN. It consists of an array of plastic scintillator counters placed on the three upper faces of the ALICE magnet. It will act as a cosmic ray trigger, and, together with other ALICE sub-detectors, will provide precise information on cosmic rays with primary energies around 10 15 -10 17 eV. Here we describe the design of ACORDE along with the present status and integration into ALICE

  5. Sulphur mountain: Cosmic ray intensity records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, D.; Mathews, T.

    1985-01-01

    This book deals with the comic ray intensity registrations at the Sulphur Mountain Cosmic Ray Laboratory. The time series of intensity form a valuable data-set, for studying cosmic ray intensity variations and their dependence on solar activity. The IGY neutron monitor started operating from July 1, 1957 and continued through 1963. Daily mean values are tabulated for the period and these are also represented in plots. This monitor was set up by the National Research Council of Canada

  6. High-energy cosmic-ray acceleration

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante, M; Carrillo Montoya, G; de Paula, W; Duarte Chavez, J A; Gago, A M; Hakobyan, H; Jez, P; Monroy Montañez, J A; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Padilla Cabal, F; Pino Rozas, M; Rodriguez Patarroyo, D J; Romeo, G L; Saldaña-Salazar , U J; Velasquez, M

    2010-01-01

    We briefly review the basics of ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray acceleration. The Hillas criterion is introduced as a geometrical criterion that must be fulfilled by potential acceleration sites, and energy losses are taken into account in order to obtain a more realistic scenario. The different available acceleration mechanisms are presented, with special emphasis on Fermi shock acceleration and its prediction of a power-law cosmic-ray energy spectrum. We conclude that first-order Fermi accelera...

  7. A grey incidence algorithm to detect high-Z material using cosmic ray muons

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, W.; Xiao, S.; Shuai, M.; Chen, Y.; Lan, M.; Wei, M.; An, Q.; Lai, X.

    2017-10-01

    Muon scattering tomography (MST) is a method for using cosmic muons to scan cargo containers and vehicles for special nuclear materials. However, the flux of cosmic ray muons is low, in the real life application, the detection has to be done a short timescale with small numbers of muons. In this paper, we present a novel approach to detection of special nuclear material by using cosmic ray muons. We use the degree of grey incidence to distinguish typical waste fuel material, uranium, from low-Z material, medium-Z material and other high-Z materials of tungsten and lead. The result shows that using this algorithm, it is possible to detect high-Z materials with an acceptable timescale.

  8. Cosmology with cosmic shear observations: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbinger, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Cosmic shear is the distortion of images of distant galaxies due to weak gravitational lensing by the large-scale structure in the Universe. Such images are coherently deformed by the tidal field of matter inhomogeneities along the line of sight. By measuring galaxy shape correlations, we can study the properties and evolution of structure on large scales as well as the geometry of the Universe. Thus, cosmic shear has become a powerful probe into the nature of dark matter and the origin of the current accelerated expansion of the Universe. Over the last years, cosmic shear has evolved into a reliable and robust cosmological probe, providing measurements of the expansion history of the Universe and the growth of its structure. We review here the principles of weak gravitational lensing and show how cosmic shear is interpreted in a cosmological context. Then we give an overview of weak-lensing measurements, and present the main observational cosmic-shear results since it was discovered 15 years ago, as well as the implications for cosmology. We then conclude with an outlook on the various future surveys and missions, for which cosmic shear is one of the main science drivers, and discuss promising new weak cosmological lensing techniques for future observations.

  9. Dietary characterization of terrestrial mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Munoz, Silvia; Alroy, John

    2014-08-22

    Understanding the feeding behaviour of the species that make up any ecosystem is essential for designing further research. Mammals have been studied intensively, but the criteria used for classifying their diets are far from being standardized. We built a database summarizing the dietary preferences of terrestrial mammals using published data regarding their stomach contents. We performed multivariate analyses in order to set up a standardized classification scheme. Ideally, food consumption percentages should be used instead of qualitative classifications. However, when highly detailed information is not available we propose classifying animals based on their main feeding resources. They should be classified as generalists when none of the feeding resources constitute over 50% of the diet. The term 'omnivore' should be avoided because it does not communicate all the complexity inherent to food choice. Moreover, the so-called omnivore diets actually involve several distinctive adaptations. Our dataset shows that terrestrial mammals are generally highly specialized and that some degree of food mixing may even be required for most species.

  10. Cosmic ray investigation for the Voyager missions; energetic particle studies in the outer heliosphere - and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E C; Vogt, R E [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (USA); McDonald, F B; Teegarden, B J; Trainor, J H [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Md. (USA). Goddard Space Flight Center; Jokipii, J R [Arizona Univ., Tucson (USA); Webber, W R [New Hampshire Univ., Durham (USA)

    1977-12-01

    A cosmic-ray detector system (CRS) has been developed for the Voyager mission which will measure the energy spectrum of electrons from approximately 3-110 MeV and the energy spectra and elemental comparison of all cosmic-ray nuclei from hydrogen through iron over an energy range from approximately 1-500 MeV.nuc. Isotopes of hydrogen through sulfur will be resolved from approximately 2-75 MeV/nuc. Studies with CRS data will provide information on the energy content, origin and acceleration process, life history, and dynamics of cosmic rays in the galaxy, and contribute to an understanding of the nucleosynthesis of elements in the cosmic-ray sources. Particular emphasis will be placed on low-energy phenomena that are expected to exist in interstellar space and are known to be present in the outer Solar System. This investigation will also add to our understanding of the transport of cosmic rays, Jovian electrons, and low-energy interplanetary particles over an extended region of interplanetary space. A major contribution to these areas of study will be the measurement of three-dimensional streaming patterns of nuclei from H through Fe and electrons over an extended energy range, with a precision that will allow determination of anisotropies down to 1%. The required combination of charge resolution, reliability and redundance has been achieved with systems consisting entirely of solid-state charged-particle detectors.

  11. Riparian vegetation in the alpine connectome: Terrestrial-aquatic and terrestrial-terrestrial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharescu, Dragos G; Palanca-Soler, Antonio; Hooda, Peter S; Tanase, Catalin; Burghelea, Carmen I; Lester, Richard N

    2017-12-01

    Alpine regions are under increased attention worldwide for their critical role in early biogeochemical cycles, their high sensitivity to environmental change, and as repositories of natural resources of high quality. Their riparian ecosystems, at the interface between aquatic and terrestrial environments, play important geochemical functions in the watershed and are biodiversity hotspots, despite a harsh climate and topographic setting. With climate change rapidly affecting the alpine biome, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of the extent of interactions between riparian surface, lake and catchment environments. A total of 189 glacial - origin lakes were surveyed in the Central Pyrenees to test how key elements of the lake and terrestrial environments interact at different scales to shape riparian plant composition. Secondly, we evaluated how underlying ecotope features drive the formation of natural communities potentially sensitive to environmental change and assessed their habitat distribution. At the macroscale, vegetation composition responded to pan-climatic gradients altitude and latitude, which captured in a narrow geographic area the transition between large European climatic zones. Hydrodynamics was the main catchment-scale factor connecting riparian vegetation with major water fluxes, followed by topography and geomorphology. Lake sediment Mg and Pb, and water Mn and Fe contents reflected local influences from mafic bedrock and soil water saturation. Community analysis identified four keystone ecosystems: (i) damp ecotone, (ii) snow bed-silicate bedrock, (iii) wet heath, and (iv) calcareous substrate. These communities and their connections with ecotope elements could be at risk from a number of environmental change factors including warmer seasons, snow line and lowland species advancement, increased nutrient/metal input and water level fluctuations. The results imply important natural terrestrial-aquatic linkages in the riparian environment

  12. Prospects for Detecting Thermal Emission from Terrestrial Exoplanets with JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreidberg, Laura

    2018-01-01

    A plethora of nearby, terrestrial exoplanets has been discovered recently by ground-based surveys. Excitingly, some of these are in the habitable zones of their host stars, and may be hospitable for life. However, all the planets orbit small, cool stars and have considerably different irradiation environments from the Earth, making them vulnerable to atmospheric escape, erosion and collapse. Atmosphere characterization is therefore critical to assessing the planets' habitability. I will discuss possible JWST thermal emission measurements to determine the atmospheric properties of nearby terrestrial planets. I will focus on prospects for detecting physically motivated atmospheres for planets orbiting LHS 1140, GJ 1132, and TRAPPIST-1. I will also discuss the potential for using phase curve observations to determine whether an atmosphere has survived on the non-transiting planet Proxima b.

  13. Cosmic Visions Dark Energy. Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, Scott [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Heitmann, Katrin [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Hirata, Chris [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Honscheid, Klaus [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Roodman, Aaron [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Seljak, Uroš [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Slosar, Anže [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Trodden, Mark [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-04-26

    Cosmic surveys provide crucial information about high energy physics including strong evidence for dark energy, dark matter, and inflation. Ongoing and upcoming surveys will start to identify the underlying physics of these new phenomena, including tight constraints on the equation of state of dark energy, the viability of modified gravity, the existence of extra light species, the masses of the neutrinos, and the potential of the field that drove inflation. Even after the Stage IV experiments, DESI and LSST, complete their surveys, there will still be much information left in the sky. This additional information will enable us to understand the physics underlying the dark universe at an even deeper level and, in case Stage IV surveys find hints for physics beyond the current Standard Model of Cosmology, to revolutionize our current view of the universe. There are many ideas for how best to supplement and aid DESI and LSST in order to access some of this remaining information and how surveys beyond Stage IV can fully exploit this regime. These ideas flow to potential projects that could start construction in the 2020's.

  14. Cosmic Visions Dark Energy: Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Slosar, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Heitmann, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hirata, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Honscheid, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roodman, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Seljak, U. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trodden, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-04-26

    Cosmic surveys provide crucial information about high energy physics including strong evidence for dark energy, dark matter, and inflation. Ongoing and upcoming surveys will start to identify the underlying physics of these new phenomena, including tight constraints on the equation of state of dark energy, the viability of modified gravity, the existence of extra light species, the masses of the neutrinos, and the potential of the field that drove inflation. Even after the Stage IV experiments, DESI and LSST, complete their surveys, there will still be much information left in the sky. This additional information will enable us to understand the physics underlying the dark universe at an even deeper level and, in case Stage IV surveys find hints for physics beyond the current Standard Model of Cosmology, to revolutionize our current view of the universe. There are many ideas for how best to supplement and aid DESI and LSST in order to access some of this remaining information and how surveys beyond Stage IV can fully exploit this regime. These ideas flow to potential projects that could start construction in the 2020's.

  15. A theory of Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Dar, Arnon; Dar, Arnon; Rújula, Alvaro De

    2008-01-01

    We present a theory of non-solar cosmic rays (CRs) based on a single type of CR source at all energies. The total luminosity of the Galaxy, the broken power-law spectra with their observed slopes, the position of the `knee(s)' and `ankle', and the CR composition and its variation with energy are all predicted in terms of very simple and completely `standard' physics. The source of CRs is extremely `economical': it has only one parameter to be fitted to the ensemble of all of the mentioned data. All other inputs are `priors', that is, theoretical or observational items of information independent of the properties of the source of CRs, and chosen to lie in their pre-established ranges. The theory is part of a `unified view of high-energy astrophysics' --based on the `Cannonball' model of the relativistic ejecta of accreting black holes and neutron stars. If correct, this model is only lacking a satisfactory theoretical understanding of the `cannon' that emits the cannonballs in catastrophic processes of accreti...

  16. Cosmic Dark Radiation and Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Archidiacono

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available New measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB by the Planck mission have greatly increased our knowledge about the universe. Dark radiation, a weakly interacting component of radiation, is one of the important ingredients in our cosmological model which is testable by Planck and other observational probes. At the moment, the possible existence of dark radiation is an unsolved question. For instance, the discrepancy between the value of the Hubble constant, H0, inferred from the Planck data and local measurements of H0 can to some extent be alleviated by enlarging the minimal ΛCDM model to include additional relativistic degrees of freedom. From a fundamental physics point of view, dark radiation is no less interesting. Indeed, it could well be one of the most accessible windows to physics beyond the standard model, for example, sterile neutrinos. Here, we review the most recent cosmological results including a complete investigation of the dark radiation sector in order to provide an overview of models that are still compatible with new cosmological observations. Furthermore, we update the cosmological constraints on neutrino physics and dark radiation properties focusing on tensions between data sets and degeneracies among parameters that can degrade our information or mimic the existence of extra species.

  17. Department of Cosmic Ray Physics; Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the area of high-energy physics and cosmic ray physics related to: - Experimental and phenomenological studies of Extensive Air Showers induced by cosmic ray particles. - Studies of ultra-high energy (above 10 19 eV) cosmic rays: determination of energy spectrum and mass composition of primary particles - Studies of asymptotic properties of hadronic interactions based on the analysis of cosmic ray propagation through the atmosphere. - Studies of mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy range 10 15 - 10 17 eV. - Registration of cosmic ray intensity variation correlated with solar activity. Theoretical and experimental studies of Extensive Air Shower properties are performed mostly basing on the results obtained by the Lodz Extensive Air Shower Array. We have noticed unexplainable delayed signals registered about 500-900 microseconds after the main EAS pulse. Neutron transport simulations were performed in collaboration with JINR in Dubna. We prepared hardware for further experimental study of this effect. Continuous registrations of 5 GeV muon flux with the underground muon telescope have been carried on over the year 2001. We have detected several changes of muon intensity correlated with Forbush decreases registered at lower energies. We have also started registrations of muon counting rate in the on-surface scintillation detectors. These measurements will be included to the analysis of the disturbed energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays and its dependence on interplanetary disturbances related to the solar activity. In construction and data interpretation of cosmic ray experiments the Lodz group collaborates with many foreign institutes and laboratories: Forschungszentrum in Karlsruhe (Germany), College de France, Institute for Nuclear Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, JINR in Dubna (Russia), Uppsala University (Sweden) and DESY (Germany). We have prepared a

  18. Department of Cosmic Ray Physics: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text:The Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the area of high-energy physics and cosmic ray physics related to: * Experimental and phenomenological studies of Extensive Air Showers induced by cosmic ray particles. * Studies of ultra-high energy (above 10 19 eV) cosmic rays: determination of energy spectrum and mass composition of primary particles * Studies of asymptotic properties of hadronic interactions based on the analysis of cosmic ray propagation through the atmosphere. * Studies of mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy range 10 15 -10 17 eV. * Registration of cosmic ray intensity variation correlated with solar activity. Theoretical and experimental studies of Extensive Air Shower properties are performed mostly based on the results obtained by the Lodz Extensive Air Shower Array. We have noticed unexplainable delayed signals registered about 500-900 microseconds after the main EAS pulse. We prepared hardware for further experimental study of this effect. Continuous registrations of 5 GeV muon flux with the underground muon telescope have been carried on during 2001. We detected several changes of muon intensity correlated with Forbush decreases registered at lower energies. We have also started registration of the muon counting rate in on-surface scintillation detectors. These measurements will be included to the analysis of the disturbed energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays and its dependence on interplanetary disturbances related to solar activity. In construction and data interpretation of cosmic ray experiments the Lodz group collaborates with many foreign institutes and laboratories: Forschungszentrum in Karlsruhe (Germany), College de France, Institute for Nuclear Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Uppsala University (Sweden) and DESY (Germany). We have prepared a project of large air shower array for studies of cosmic rays up to 10 20 eV. Detectors would be placed on the roofs of high

  19. Application of the idea of morphism in solar-terrestrial physics and space weather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateev, Lachezar; Tassev, Yordan; Velinov, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The actual problems of solar-terrestrial physics, in particular of space weather are related to the prediction of the space environment state and are solved by means of different analyses and models. In the present work we introduce a new mathematical approach to the study of physical processes in the system Sun-Earth. For example, in the ionization of the ionosphere and atmosphere under the influence of cosmic rays a model is used that applies the principle of homomorphism. When calculating the parameters of space weather such as solar wind, interplanetary magnetic fields, Earth’s magnetosphere, geomagnetic storms and others, the introduction and application of mathematical objects is appropriate: morphisms, groups, categories, monads, functors, natural transformations and others. Such an approach takes into account the general laws of physical processes in the system Sun – Earth and helps in their testing and calculation. It is useful for such complex systems and processes as these in the solar-terrestrial physics and space weather. Some methods for algebraic structures can be introduced. These methods give the possibility for axiomatization of the physical data reality and the application of algebraic methods for their processing. Here we give the base for the transformation from the algebraic theory of categories and morphisms to the physical structure of concepts and data. Such problems are principally considered in the proposed work. Key words: pace weather, space radiation environment, solar effects, forecasting, energetic solar particles, cosmic rays

  20. Department of Cosmic Ray Physics; Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Cosmic Rays are energetic particles from outside the Solar System. The energy spectrum (power law energy dependence) suggests a non-thermal origin of these particles. Most of the studies of Cosmic Rays address fundamental problems such as: - the nature of the physical and astrophysical processes responsible for the high energies of particles (up to about 10 20 eV/particle), - estimation of the astrophysical conditions at the acceleration sites and/or a search for sources of Cosmic Rays, - properties of high energy particle interactions at very high energies (nuclear interactions at energies exceeding energies available in the laboratories). Some Cosmic Ray studies might have practical (commercial) implications, e.g. - ''cosmic weather'' forecast - predictions of geomagnetic disturbances related to Solar activity changes (due to large Solar Flares / events of Coronal Mass Ejections); these are important for large electricity networks, gas pipes, radio-wave connections, space missions and satellite experiments. The Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the high energy Cosmic Ray field. Energetic Cosmic Ray particles produce cascades of particles in the atmosphere, called Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Registering EAS and their properties is the main theme of experimental studies of very high energy Cosmic Rays. In the Lodz Department we run an Extensive Air Shower array where EAS are registered. We concentrate our experimental research on the explanation of particle detection delayed by hundreds of microseconds with respect to the main EAS signals. In the underground (I5 meters) laboratory we continuously register muon (5 GeV energy threshold) flux with the multidirectional telescope. We have observed several disturbances (Forbush Decreases) in muon counting rates. The interpretation of these events for ''cosmic weather'' and for Cosmic Ray transport models in the interplanetary plasma are on going in collaboration with

  1. Department of Cosmic Ray Physics - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The 31 st International Cosmic Ray Conference (31.ICRC) was held in Lodz on 7-15 July 2009. The Conference was organized by the University of Lodz (Department of High Energy Astrophysics and Department of Astrophysics) and IPJ (Department of Cosmic Ray Physics). ICRCs are held every two years and are the largest forums to present and discuss the current status of Cosmic Ray studies. The Conference we co-organized gathered about 750 scientists (including about 50 from Poland). This was a remarkable event. The Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the field of high energy Cosmic Rays. Cosmic Rays are energetic panicles from outside the Solar System. Most studies of Cosmic Rays address fundamental problems: - the nature of the physical and astrophysical processes responsible for the high energies of the particles. - experimental search for sources of Cosmic Rays, - studies of the astrophysical conditions at the acceleration sites, - properties of particle interactions at very high energies. Presentation of Cosmic Ray registration to high school students has become a popular way to introduce panicle physics detectors and elementary particle detection techniques to young people, in Lodz and Poznan we organize workshops on particle physics for high school students. This is part of the European activity: EPPOG Masterclass - Hands on CERN. Energetic Cosmic Ray particles produce cascades of panicles in the atmosphere, called Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Registering EASs and their properties is the main means of studying experimentally high energy Cosmic Rays: · The satellite experiment JEM-EUSO will observe EASs from the International Space Station. The main target is to find Cosmic Ray Sources for the highest energy Cosmic Rays. JEM-EUSO will collect a large number of events since it will observe a large area of the atmosphere. We are participating in the preparation of this mission. · The KASCADE-Grande addresses

  2. Constraints on cosmic strings due to black holes formed from collapsed cosmic string loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, R.R.; Gates, E.

    1993-05-01

    The cosmological features of primordial black holes formed from collapsed cosmic string loops are studied. Observational restrictions on a population of primordial black holes are used to restrict f, the fraction of cosmic string loops which collapse to form black holes, and μ, the cosmic string mass-per-unit-length. Using a realistic model of cosmic strings, we find the strongest restriction on the parameters f and μ is due to the energy density in 100MeV photons radiated by the black holes. We also find that inert black hole remnants cannot serve as the dark matter. If earlier, crude estimates of f are reliable, our results severely restrict μ, and therefore limit the viability of the cosmic string large-scale structure scenario

  3. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2013-08-01

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models.

  4. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models

  5. The Solar-Terrestrial Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, John Keith

    1995-05-01

    The book begins with three introductory chapters that provide some basic physics and explain the principles of physical investigation. The principal material contained in the main part of the book covers the neutral and ionized upper atmosphere, the magnetosphere, and structures, dynamics, disturbances, and irregularities. The concluding chapter deals with technological applications. The account is introductory, at a level suitable for readers with a basic background in engineering or physics. The intent is to present basic concepts, and for that reason, the mathematical treatment is not complex. SI units are given throughout, with helpful notes on cgs units where these are likely to be encountered in the research literature. This book is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students who are taking introductory courses on upper atmospheric, ionospheric, or magnetospheric physics. This is a successor to The Upper Atmosphere and Solar-Terrestrial Relations, published in 1979.

  6. Radionuclide transfer in terrestrial animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGregorio, D.; Kitchings, T.; Van Voris, P.

    1978-01-01

    The analysis of dispersion of radionuclides in terrestrial food chains, generally, is a series of equations identifying the fractional input and outflow rates from trophic level to trophic level. Data that are prerequisite inputs for these food chain transport models include: (1) identification of specific transport pathway, (2) assimilation at each pathway link, and (3) the turnover rate or retention function by successive receptor species in the appropriate food chain. In this report, assimilation coefficients, biological half-lives, and excretion rates for a wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species and radionuclides have been compiled from an extensive search of the available literature. Using the information accumulated from the literature, correlations of nuclide metabolism and body weight are also discussed. (author)

  7. Methyl mercury in terrestrial compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeppler, M.; Burow, M.; Padberg, S.; May, K.

    1993-09-01

    On the basis of the analytical methodology available at present the state of the art for the determination of total mercury and of various organometallic compounds of mercury in air, precipitation, limnic systems, soils, plants and biota is reviewed. This is followed by the presentation and discussion of examples for the data obtained hitherto for trace and ultratrace levels of total mercury and mainly methyl mercury in terrestrial and limnic environments as well as in biota. The data discussed stem predominantly from the past decade in which, due to significant methodological progress, many new aspects were elucidated. They include the most important results in this area achieved by the Research Centre (KFA) Juelich within the project 'Origin and Fate of Methyl Mercury' (contracts EV4V-0138-D and STEP-CT90-0057) supported by the Commission of the European Communities, Brussels. (orig.) [de

  8. Traumatic insemination in terrestrial arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarnic, Nikolai J; Cassis, Gerasimos; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic insemination is a bizarre form of mating practiced by some invertebrates in which males use hypodermic genitalia to penetrate their partner's body wall during copulation, frequently bypassing the female genital tract and ejaculating into their blood system. The requirements for traumatic insemination to evolve are stringent, yet surprisingly it has arisen multiple times within invertebrates. In terrestrial arthropods traumatic insemination is most prevalent in the true bug infraorder Cimicomorpha, where it has evolved independently at least three times. Traumatic insemination is thought to occur in the Strepsiptera and has recently been recorded in fruit fly and spider lineages. We review the putative selective pressures that may have led to the evolution of traumatic insemination across these lineages, as well as the pressures that continue to drive divergence in male and female reproductive morphology and behavior. Traumatic insemination mechanisms and attributes are compared across independent lineages.

  9. Phytopharmacological overview of Tribulus terrestris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Saurabh; Nesari, Tanuja; Somani, Gauresh; Kanchan, Divya; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris (family Zygophyllaceae), commonly known as Gokshur or Gokharu or puncture vine, has been used for a long time in both the Indian and Chinese systems of medicine for treatment of various kinds of diseases. Its various parts contain a variety of chemical constituents which are medicinally important, such as flavonoids, flavonol glycosides, steroidal saponins, and alkaloids. It has diuretic, aphrodisiac, antiurolithic, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, absorption enhancing, hypolipidemic, cardiotonic, central nervous system, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, anticancer, antibacterial, anthelmintic, larvicidal, and anticariogenic activities. For the last few decades or so, extensive research work has been done to prove its biological activities and the pharmacology of its extracts. The aim of this review is to create a database for further investigations of the discovered phytochemical and pharmacological properties of this plant to promote research. This will help in confirmation of its traditional use along with its value-added utility, eventually leading to higher revenues from the plant. PMID:24600195

  10. Terrestrial pathways of radionuclide particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boone, F.W.; Ng, Y.C.

    1981-01-01

    Formulations are developed for computing potential human intake of 13 radionuclides via the terrestrial food chains. The formulations are an extension of the NRC methodology. Specific regional crop and livestock transfer and fractional distribution data from the southern part of the U.S.A. are provided and used in the computation of comparative values with those computed by means of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109 formulations. In the development of the model, emphasis was also placed on identifying the various time-delay compartments of the food chains and accounting for all of the activity initially deposited. For all radionuclides considered, except 137 Cs, the new formulations predict lower potential intakes from the total of all food chains combined than do the comparable Regulatory Guide formulations by as much as a factor of 40. For 137 Cs the new formulations predict 10% higher potential intakes. (author)

  11. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  12. One century of cosmic rays – A particle physicist's view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Christine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments on cosmic rays and the elementary particles share a common history that dates back to the 19th century. Following the discovery of radioactivity in the 1890s, the paths of the two fields intertwined, especially during the decades after the discovery of cosmic rays. Experiments demonstrated that the primary cosmic rays are positively charged particles, while other studies of cosmic rays revealed various new sub-atomic particles, including the first antiparticle. Techniques developed in common led to the birth of neutrino astronomy in 1987 and the first observation of a cosmic γ-ray source by a ground-based cosmic-ray telescope in 1989.

  13. Our cosmic future : humanity's fate in the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prantzos, Nikos

    2000-04-01

    What is humankind's ultimate fate and destiny in the Universe? Can human life and intelligence go on forever? This captivating and unparalleled book explores the future of the human race in the Universe, for centuries, millennia, and eons to come. Nikos Prantzos, distinguished astrophysicist and popular science writer, focuses not on what will be done, but on what could be done in light of our current knowledge and the speculations of eminent scientists. While he employs many concepts from physics, Prantzos also provides historical accounts of such ideas as terraforming, asteroid mining, interstellar travel, astroengineering, and eschatology, discussing their philosophical and social implications. Moreover, he uses the work of well known science and science-fiction writers--including Verne, Wells, Clarke, Tsiolkovsky, and Dyson--to illustrate many possibilities and concepts. Our Cosmic Future offers compelling answers to such intriguing questions as: Should we return to the Moon and eventually colonize Mars and other planets in our solar system? Why haven't we encountered an extraterrestrial civilization up to this time in our history? How can we avoid various cosmic threats, such as asteroid collisions and supernova explosions? Could we escape the remote, yet certain, death of the Sun? What will eventually happen to stars, our Galaxy, distant galaxies, and the Universe itself? With its artful blend of historical, scientific accounts and themes from classic works of science fiction, Our Cosmic Future is a spellbinding work that will enchant all readers interested in space travel and colonization, cosmology, and humankind's future prospects in the Cosmos.

  14. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, James; Battle, J.; Cooray, A.; Hristov, V.; Kawada, M.; Keating, B.; Lee, D.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Nam, U.; Renbarger, T.; Sullivan, I.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T.; Zemcov, M.

    2009-01-01

    We are developing the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment (CIBER) to search for signatures of first-light galaxy emission in the extragalactic background. The first generation of stars produce characteristic signatures in the near-infrared extragalactic background, including a redshifted Ly-cutoff feature and a characteristic fluctuation power spectrum, that may be detectable with a specialized instrument. CIBER consists of two wide-field cameras to measure the fluctuation power spectrum, and a low-resolution and a narrow-band spectrometer to measure the absolute background. The cameras will search for fluctuations on angular scales from 7 arcseconds to 2 degrees, where the first-light galaxy spatial power spectrum peaks. The cameras have the necessary combination of sensitivity, wide field of view, spatial resolution, and multiple bands to make a definitive measurement. CIBER will determine if the fluctuations reported by Spitzer arise from first-light galaxies. The cameras observe in a single wide field of view, eliminating systematic errors associated with mosaicing. Two bands are chosen to maximize the first-light signal contrast, at 1.6 um near the expected spectral maximum, and at 1.0 um; the combination is a powerful discriminant against fluctuations arising from local sources. We will observe regions of the sky surveyed by Spitzer and Akari. The low-resolution spectrometer will search for the redshifted Lyman cutoff feature in the 0.7 - 1.8 um spectral region. The narrow-band spectrometer will measure the absolute Zodiacal brightness using the scattered 854.2 nm Ca II Fraunhofer line. The spectrometers will test if reports of a diffuse extragalactic background in the 1 - 2 um band continues into the optical, or is caused by an under estimation of the Zodiacal foreground. We report performance of the assembled and tested instrument as we prepare for a first sounding rocket flight in early 2009. CIBER is funded by the NASA/APRA sub-orbital program.

  15. Cosmic string induced peculiar velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Dalen, A.; Schramm, D.N.

    1987-02-01

    We calculate analytically the probability distribution for peculiar velocities on scales from 10h -1 to 60h -1 Mpc with cosmic string loops as the dominant source of primordial gravitational perturbations. We consider a range of parameters βGμ appropriate for both hot (HDM) and cold (CDM) dark matter scenarios. An Ω = 1 CDM Universe is assumed with the loops randomly placed on a smooth background. It is shown how the effects can be estimated of loops breaking up and being born with a spectrum of sizes. It is found that to obtain large scale streaming velocities of at least 400 km/s it is necessary that either a large value for βGμ or the effect of loop fissioning and production details be considerable. Specifically, for optimal CDM string parameters Gμ = 10 -6 , β = 9, h = .5, and scales of 60h -1 Mpc, the parent size spectrum must be 36 times larger than the evolved daughter spectrum to achieve peculiar velocities of at least 400 km/s with a probability of 63%. With this scenario the microwave background dipole will be less than 800 km/s with only a 10% probability. The string induced velocity spectrum is relatively flat out to scales of about 2t/sub eq//a/sub eq/ and then drops off rather quickly. The flatness is a signature of string models of galaxy formation. With HDM a larger value of βGμ is necessary for galaxy formation since accretion on small scales starts later. Hence, with HDM, the peculiar velocity spectrum will be larger on large scales and the flat region will extend to larger scales. If large scale peculiar velocities greater than 400 km/s are real then it is concluded that strings plus CDM have difficulties. The advantages of strings plus HDM in this regard will be explored in greater detail in a later paper. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. Cosmographic Constraints and Cosmic Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Capozziello

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of reproducing dark energy effects is reviewed here with particular interest devoted to cosmography. We summarize some of the most relevant cosmological models, based on the assumption that the corresponding barotropic equations of state evolve as the universe expands, giving rise to the accelerated expansion. We describe in detail the ΛCDM (Λ-Cold Dark Matter and ωCDM models, considering also some specific examples, e.g., Chevallier–Polarsky–Linder, the Chaplygin gas and the Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati cosmological model. Finally, we consider the cosmological consequences of f(R and f(T gravities and their impact on the framework of cosmography. Keeping these considerations in mind, we point out the model-independent procedure related to cosmography, showing how to match the series of cosmological observables to the free parameters of each model. We critically discuss the role played by cosmography, as a selection criterion to check whether a particular model passes or does not present cosmological constraints. In so doing, we find out cosmological bounds by fitting the luminosity distance expansion of the redshift, z, adopting the recent Union 2.1 dataset of supernovae, combined with the baryonic acoustic oscillation and the cosmic microwave background measurements. We perform cosmographic analyses, imposing different priors on the Hubble rate present value. In addition, we compare our results with recent PLANCK limits, showing that the ΛCDM and ωCDM models seem to be the favorite with respect to other dark energy models. However, we show that cosmographic constraints on f(R and f(T cannot discriminate between extensions of General Relativity and dark energy models, leading to a disadvantageous degeneracy problem.

  17. Dynamical evolution of cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchet, F.R.

    1988-01-01

    The author have studied by means of numerical simulations the dynamical evolution of a network of cosmic strings, both in the radiation and matter era. Our basic conclusion is that a scaling solution exists, i.e., the string energy density evolves as t -2 . This means that the process by which long strings dump their energy into closed loops (which can gravitationally radiate away) is efficient enough to prevent the string domination over other forms of energy. This conclusion does not depend on the initial string energy density, nor on the various numerical parameters. On the other hand, the generated spectrum of loop sizes does depend on the value of our numerical lower cutoff (i.e., the minimum length of loop we allow to be chopped off the network). Furthermore, the network evolution is very different from what was assumed before), namely the creation of a few horizon sized loops per horizon volume and per hubble time, which subsequently fragment into about 10 smaller daughter loops. Rather, many tiny loops are directly cut from the network of infinite strings, and it appears that the only fundamental scale (the horizon) has been lost. This is probably because a fundamental ingredient had been overlooked, namely the kinks. These kinks are created in pairs at each intercommutation, and very rapidly, the long strings appear to be very kinky. Thus the number of long strings per horizon is still of the order of a few, but their total length is fairly large. Furthermore, a large number of kinks favors the formation of small loops, and their sizes might well be governed by the kink density along the long strings. Finally, we computed the two-point correlation function of the loops and found significant differences from the work of Turok

  18. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activities of Tribulus Terrestris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harraz, Fathalla M; Ghazy, Nabila M; Hammoda, Hala M; Nafeaa, Abeer A.; Abdallah, Ingy I.

    2015-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris L. has been used in folk medicine throughout history. The present study examined the acute toxicity of the total ethanolic extract of T. Terrestris followed by investigation of the hepatoprotective activity of the total ethanolic extract and different fractions of the aerial

  19. Department of Cosmic Ray Physics - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the high energy Cosmic Ray field. Cosmic Rays are energetic particles from outside the Solar System. The energy spectrum (power law energy dependence) suggests non-thermal origin of these particles. Most of the studies of Cosmic Rays address fundamental problems: · the nature of the physical and astrophysical processes responsible for high energies of particles (up to about 1020 eV/particle), · an estimation of the astrophysical conditions at the acceleration sites and/or search for sources of Cosmic Rays, · properties of high energy particle interactions at very high energies (nuclear interactions at energies exceeding energy available in the laboratories). Some Cosmic Ray studies might have practical (commercial) implications, e.g.: · '' cosmic weather '' forecast - predictions of geomagnetic disturbances related to Solar activity changes (due to large Solar Flares / events of Coronal Mass Ejection); these are important for large electricity networks, gas pipes, radio-wave connections, space missions and satellite experiments. Presentation of Cosmic Ray registration to high school students becomes a popular way to introduce particle physics detectors and elementary particle detection techniques to young people. We organize in Lodz several workshops on particle physics for high school students. This is a part of European activity: Masterclass - Hands on CERN. Energetic Cosmic Ray particles produce cascades of particles in the atmosphere, called Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Registering EAS and their properties is the main way of experimental studies of very high energy Cosmic Rays. In Lodz Department we run Extensive Air Shower array where EAS are continuously being registered. We concentrate on the studies of detection of neutrons correlated with EAS and interpretation of this phenomenon. Back in 2004 we started realisation of the Roland Maze Project, the network of EAS detectors

  20. Department of Cosmic Ray Physics - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Department of Cosmic Ray Physics in Lodz is involved in basic research in the high energy Cosmic Ray field. Cosmic Rays are energetic particles from outside the Solar System. Most of the studies of Cosmic Rays address fundamental problems: · the nature of the physical and astrophysical processes responsible for high energies of particles · an estimation of the astrophysical conditions at the acceleration sites and/or search for sources of Cosmic Rays, · properties of high energy particle interactions at very high energies. Some Cosmic Ray studies might have practical (commercial) implications, e.g. · '' cosmic weather '' forecast - predictions of geomagnetic disturbances related to Solar activity changes (due to large Solar Flares / events of Coronal Mass Ejection); these are important for large electricity networks, gas pipes, radio-wave connections, space missions and satellite experiments. Presentation of Cosmic Ray registration to high school students becomes a popular way to introduce particle physics detectors and elementary particle detection techniques to young people. We organize in Lodz several workshops on particle physics for high school students. This is a part of European activity: EPPOG's Masterclass - Hands on CERN. Energetic Cosmic Ray particles produce cascades of particles in the atmosphere, called Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Registering EAS and their properties is the main way of experimental studies of very high energy Cosmic Rays. In Lodz Department we run Extensive Air Shower array where EAS are continuously being registered. We concentrate on the studies of detection of neutrons correlated with EAS and interpretation of this phenomenon. In 2004 we started realisation of the Roland Maze Project, the network of EAS detectors placed on the roofs of high schools in Lodz. We received funds from the City of Lodz budget to make a pilot project and equip 10 high schools, each with four 1m 2 detectors and GPS. The network is

  1. Current constraints on the cosmic growth history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean, Rachel; Tangmatitham, Matipon

    2010-01-01

    We present constraints on the cosmic growth history with recent cosmological data, allowing for deviations from ΛCDM as might arise if cosmic acceleration is due to modifications to general relativity or inhomogeneous dark energy. We combine measures of the cosmic expansion history, from Type 1a supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, and the cosmic microwave background (CMB), with constraints on the growth of structure from recent galaxy, CMB, and weak lensing surveys along with integated Sachs Wolfe-galaxy cross correlations. Deviations from ΛCDM are parameterized by phenomenological modifications to the Poisson equation and the relationship between the two Newtonian potentials. We find modifications that are present at the time the CMB is formed are tightly constrained through their impact on the well-measured CMB acoustic peaks. By contrast, constraints on late-time modifications to the growth history, as might arise if modifications are related to the onset of cosmic acceleration, are far weaker, but remain consistent with ΛCDM at the 95% confidence level. For these late-time modifications we find that differences in the evolution on large and small scales could provide an interesting signature by which to search for modified growth histories with future wide angular coverage, large scale structure surveys.

  2. Cosmic Ray Interactions in Shielding Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Ankney, Austin S.; Orrell, John L.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Troy, Meredith D.

    2011-01-01

    This document provides a detailed study of materials used to shield against the hadronic particles from cosmic ray showers at Earth's surface. This work was motivated by the need for a shield that minimizes activation of the enriched germanium during transport for the MAJORANA collaboration. The materials suitable for cosmic-ray shield design are materials such as lead and iron that will stop the primary protons, and materials like polyethylene, borated polyethylene, concrete and water that will stop the induced neutrons. The interaction of the different cosmic-ray components at ground level (protons, neutrons, muons) with their wide energy range (from kilo-electron volts to giga-electron volts) is a complex calculation. Monte Carlo calculations have proven to be a suitable tool for the simulation of nucleon transport, including hadron interactions and radioactive isotope production. The industry standard Monte Carlo simulation tool, Geant4, was used for this study. The result of this study is the assertion that activation at Earth's surface is a result of the neutronic and protonic components of the cosmic-ray shower. The best material to shield against these cosmic-ray components is iron, which has the best combination of primary shielding and minimal secondary neutron production.

  3. The Cosmic Ray Tracking (CRT) detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernloehr, K.; Gamp, S.; Hermann, G.; Hofmann, W.; Kihm, T.; Knoeppler, J.; Leffers, G.; Matheis, V.; Panter, M.; Trunk, U.; Ulrich, M.; Wolf, T.; Zink, R.; Heintze, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Tracking (CRT) project represents a study on the use of tracking detectors of the time projection chamber type to detect secondary cosmic ray particles in extensive air showers. In reconstructing the arrival direction of the primary cosmic ray particles, the CRT detectors take advantage of the angular correlation of secondary particles with the cosmic rays leading to these air showers. In this paper, the detector hardware including the custom-designed electronics system is described in detail. A CRT detector module provides an active area of 2.5 m 2 and allows to measure track directions with a precision of 0.4 circle . It consists of two circular drift chambers of 1.8 m diameter with six sense wires each, and a 10 cm thick iron plate between the two chambers. Each detector has a local electronics box with a readout, trigger, and monitoring system. The detectors can distinguish penetrating muons from other types of charged secondaries. A large detector array could be used to search for γ-ray point sources at energies above several TeV and for studies of the cosmic-ray composition. Ten detectors are in operation at the site of the HEGRA air shower array. (orig.)

  4. Xenia: A Probe of Cosmic Chemical Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Piro, L.; Xenia Collaboration

    2008-03-01

    Xenia is a concept study for a medium-size astrophysical cosmology mission addressing the Cosmic Origins key objective of NASA's Science Plan. The fundamental goal of this objective is to understand the formation and evolution of structures on various scales from the early Universe to the present time (stars, galaxies and the cosmic web). Xenia will use X-and γ-ray monitoring and wide field X-ray imaging and high-resolution spectroscopy to collect essential information from three major tracers of these cosmic structures: the Warm Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM), Galaxy Clusters and Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). Our goal is to trace the chemo-dynamical history of the ubiquitous warm hot diffuse baryon component in the Universe residing in cosmic filaments and clusters of galaxies up to its formation epoch (at z =0-2) and to map star formation and galaxy metal enrichment into the re-ionization era beyond z 6. The concept of Xenia (Greek for "hospitality") evolved in parallel with the Explorer of Diffuse Emission and GRB Explosions (EDGE), a mission proposed by a multinational collaboration to the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015. Xenia incorporates the European and Japanese collaborators into a U.S. led mission that builds on the scientific objectives and technological readiness of EDGE.

  5. Xenia: A Probe of Cosmic Chemical Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Piro, L.

    2008-01-01

    Xenia is a concept study for a medium-size astrophysical cosmology mission addressing the Cosmic Origins key objective of NASA's Science Plan. The fundamental goal of this objective is to understand the formation and evolution of structures on various scales from the early Universe to the present time (stars, galaxies and the cosmic web). Xenia will use X-and y-ray monitoring and wide field X-ray imaging and high-resolution spectroscopy to collect essential information from three major tracers of these cosmic structures: the Warm Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM), Galaxy Clusters and Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). Our goal is to trace the chemo-dynamical history of the ubiquitous warm hot diffuse baryon component in the Universe residing in cosmic filaments and clusters of galaxies up to its formation epoch (at z =0-2) and to map star formation and galaxy metal enrichment into the re-ionization era beyond z 6. The concept of Xenia (Greek for "hospitality") evolved in parallel with the Explorer of Diffuse Emission and GRB Explosions (EDGE), a mission proposed by a multinational collaboration to the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015. Xenia incorporates the European and Japanese collaborators into a U.S. led mission that builds on the scientific objectives and technological readiness of EDGE.

  6. LHCf sheds new light on cosmic rays

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    The energy spectrum of the single photon obtained using data from the LHCf experiment has turned out to be very different from that predicted by the theoretical models used until now to describe the interactions between very high-energy cosmic rays and the earth's atmosphere. The consequences of this discrepancy for cosmic ray studies could be significant.   Artistic impression of cosmic rays entering Earth's atmosphere. (Credit: Asimmetrie/Infn). It took physicists by surprise when analysis of the data collected by the two LHCf calorimeters in 2010 showed that high-energy cosmic rays don't interact with the atmosphere in the manner predicted by theory. The LHCf detectors, set up 140 metres either side of the ATLAS interaction point, are dedicated to the study of the secondary particles emitted at very small angles during proton-proton collisions in the LHC, with energies comparable to cosmic rays entering the earth's atmosphere at 2.5x1016 eV. The aim of the experiment is to r...

  7. Cosmic rays and tests of fundamental principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

    2011-03-01

    It is now widely acknowledged that cosmic rays experiments can test possible new physics directly generated at the Planck scale or at some other fundamental scale. By studying particle properties at energies far beyond the reach of any man-made accelerator, they can yield unique checks of basic principles. A well-known example is provided by possible tests of special relativity at the highest cosmic-ray energies. But other essential ingredients of standard theories can in principle be tested: quantum mechanics, uncertainty principle, energy and momentum conservation, effective space-time dimensions, hamiltonian and lagrangian formalisms, postulates of cosmology, vacuum dynamics and particle propagation, quark and gluon confinement, elementariness of particles…Standard particle physics or string-like patterns may have a composite origin able to manifest itself through specific cosmic-ray signatures. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays, but also cosmic rays at lower energies, are probes of both "conventional" and new Physics. Status, prospects, new ideas, and open questions in the field are discussed.

  8. Cosmic rays and tests of fundamental principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

    2011-01-01

    It is now widely acknowledged that cosmic rays experiments can test possible new physics directly generated at the Planck scale or at some other fundamental scale. By studying particle properties at energies far beyond the reach of any man-made accelerator, they can yield unique checks of basic principles. A well-known example is provided by possible tests of special relativity at the highest cosmic-ray energies. But other essential ingredients of standard theories can in principle be tested: quantum mechanics, uncertainty principle, energy and momentum conservation, effective space-time dimensions, hamiltonian and lagrangian formalisms, postulates of cosmology, vacuum dynamics and particle propagation, quark and gluon confinement, elementariness of particles... Standard particle physics or string-like patterns may have a composite origin able to manifest itself through specific cosmic-ray signatures. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays, but also cosmic rays at lower energies, are probes of both 'conventional' and new Physics. Status, prospects, new ideas, and open questions in the field are discussed.

  9. Terrestrial Permafrost Models of Martian Habitats and Inhabitants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilichinsky, D.

    2011-12-01

    The terrestrial permafrost is the only rich depository of viable ancient microorganisms on Earth, and can be used as a bridge to possible Martian life forms and shallow subsurface habitats where the probability of finding life is highest. Since there is a place for water, the requisite condition for life, the analogous models are more or less realistic. If life ever existed on Mars, traces might have been preserved and could be found at depth within permafrost. The age of the terrestrial isolates corresponds to the longevity of the frozen state of the embedding strata, with the oldest known dating back to the late Pliocene in Arctic and late Miocene in Antarctica. Permafrost on Earth and Mars vary in age, from a few million years on Earth to a few billion years on Mars. Such a difference in time scale would have a significant impact on the possibility of preserving life on Mars, which is why the longevity of life forms preserved within terrestrial permafrost can only be an approximate model for Mars. 1. A number of studies indicate that the Antarctic cryosphere began to develop on the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, after the isolation of the continent. Permafrost degradation is only possible if mean annual ground temperature, -28°C now, rise above freezing, i.e., a significant warming to above 25°C is required. There is no evidence of such sharp temperature increase, which indicates that the climate and geological history was favorable to persistence of pre-Pliocene permafrost. These oldest relics (~30Myr) are possibly to be found at high hypsometric levels of ice-free areas (Dry Valleys and nearby mountains). It is desirable to test the layers for the presence of viable cells. The limiting age, if one exists, within this ancient permafrost, where the viable organisms were no longer present, could be established as the limit for life preservation below 0oC. Positive results will extend the known temporal limits of life in permafrost. 2. Even in this case, the age of

  10. Comparative analyses of olfactory systems in terrestrial crabs (Brachyura: evidence for aerial olfaction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Krieger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptations to a terrestrial lifestyle occurred convergently multiple times during the evolution of the arthropods. This holds also true for the “true crabs” (Brachyura, a taxon that includes several lineages that invaded land independently. During an evolutionary transition from sea to land, animals have to develop a variety of physiological and anatomical adaptations to a terrestrial life style related to respiration, reproduction, development, circulation, ion and water balance. In addition, sensory systems that function in air instead of in water are essential for an animal’s life on land. Besides vision and mechanosensory systems, on land, the chemical senses have to be modified substantially in comparison to their function in water. Among arthropods, insects are the most successful ones to evolve aerial olfaction. Various aspects of terrestrial adaptation have also been analyzed in those crustacean lineages that evolved terrestrial representatives including the taxa Anomala, Brachyura, Amphipoda, and Isopoda. We are interested in how the chemical senses of terrestrial crustaceans are modified to function in air. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the brains and more specifically the structure of the olfactory system of representatives of brachyuran crabs that display different degrees of terrestriality, from exclusively marine to mainly terrestrial. The methods we used included immunohistochemistry, detection of autofluorescence- and confocal microscopy, as well as three-dimensional reconstruction and morphometry. Our comparative approach shows that both the peripheral and central olfactory pathways are reduced in terrestrial members in comparison to their marine relatives, suggesting a limited function of their olfactory system on land. We conclude that for arthropod lineages that invaded land, evolving aerial olfaction is no trivial task.

  11. Solar-terrestrial disturbances in June-September 1982, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondoh, Tadanori

    1985-01-01

    The x-ray detector on the SMS-GOES satellite observed 77 solar x-ray flares (1 - 8A) with flux above 10 -5 W/m 2 in June, 1982, and 33 SIDs with importance above 2 were observed in Hiraiso, Japan. However, the geomagnetic storm with Dst above 100 nT did not occur at that time since most solar flares occurred near the east rim of the sun. These solar active regions lasted for 5 solar rotations, then, the great geomagnetic storms with Dst above 100 nT occurred on July 13 - 15, September 5 - 7 and September 21 - 23, 1982. These geomagnetic storms were preceded by the solar flares of importance above 2B occurred in the central part of the solar disc. From September 26 to 27, 1982, a great geomagnetic storm which was not accompanied by solar flare occurred. This paper summarized the studies on solar-terrestrial events from June to September, 1982, made by the space physics and aeronomy groups of the Radio Research Laboratories, Japan. The solar flares occurred on July 12, September 4 and 19, 1982, the geomagnetic storms corresponding to them, the cosmic ray storms observed on July 13 - 19, September 6 - 9 and 21 - 26, 1982, global equivalent current system and others are reported. (Kako, I.)

  12. Exploring the cosmic evolution of habitability with galaxy merger trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanway, E. R.; Hoskin, M. J.; Lane, M. A.; Brown, G. C.; Childs, H. J. T.; Greis, S. M. L.; Levan, A. J.

    2018-04-01

    We combine inferred galaxy properties from a semi-analytic galaxy evolution model incorporating dark matter halo merger trees with new estimates of supernova and gamma-ray burst rates as a function of metallicity from stellar population synthesis models incorporating binary interactions. We use these to explore the stellar-mass fraction of galaxies irradiated by energetic astrophysical transients and its evolution over cosmic time, and thus the fraction which is potentially habitable by life like our own. We find that 18 per cent of the stellar mass in the Universe is likely to have been irradiated within the last 260 Myr, with GRBs dominating that fraction. We do not see a strong dependence of irradiated stellar-mass fraction on stellar mass or richness of the galaxy environment. We consider a representative merger tree as a Local Group analogue, and find that there are galaxies at all masses which have retained a high habitable fraction (>40 per cent) over the last 6 Gyr, but also that there are galaxies at all masses where the merger history and associated star formation have rendered galaxies effectively uninhabitable. This illustrates the need to consider detailed merger trees when evaluating the cosmic evolution of habitability.

  13. PROTECTION FROM COSMIC RADIATION IN LONG-TERM MANNED SPACEFLIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Durante

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Current space programs are shifting toward planetary exploration, and in particular towards human missions to the moon and Mars. Space radiation, comprised of energetic protons and heavy nuclei, has been shown to produce distinct biological damage compared to radiation on Earth, leading to large uncertainties in the projection of health risks. Even if uncertainties in risk assessment will be reduced in the next few years, there is little doubt that appropriate countermeasures have to be taken to reduce the exposure or the biological damage produced by cosmic radiation. In addition, it is necessary to provide effective countermeasures against solar particle events, which can produce acute effects, even life threatening, for inadequately protected crews. Unfortunately, passive (bulk shielding is currently unable to provide adequate protection, because cosmic rays have very high energy and nuclear fragmentation in the absorbers produce light fragments. Material science could provide new materials with better shielding properties for space radiation. Active (magnetic shielding could be an interesting alternative, pending technical improvements.

  14. Does electromagnetic radiation accelerate galactic cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, D.

    1977-01-01

    The 'reactor' theories of Tsytovich and collaborators (1973) of cosmic-ray acceleration by electromagnetic radiation are examined in the context of galactic cosmic rays. It is shown that any isotropic synchrotron or Compton reactors with reasonable astrophysical parameters can yield particles with a maximum relativistic factor of only about 10,000. If they are to produce particles with higher relativistic factors, the losses due to inverse Compton scattering of the electromagnetic radiation in them outweigh the acceleration, and this violates the assumptions of the theory. This is a critical restriction in the context of galactic cosmic rays, which have a power-law spectrum extending up to a relativistic factor of 1 million.

  15. The Probe of Inflation and Cosmic Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanany, Shaul; Inflation Probe Mission Study Team

    2018-01-01

    The Probe of Inflation and Cosmic Origins will map the polarization of the cosmic microwave background over the entire sky with unprecedented sensitivity. It will search for gravity wave signals from the inflationary epoch, thus probing quantum gravity and constraining the energy scale of inflation; it will test the standard model of particle physics by measuring the number of light particles in the Universe and the mass of the neutrino; it will elucidate the nature of dark matter and search for new forms of matter in the early Universe; it will constrain star formation history over cosmic time; and it will determine the mechanisms of structure formation from galaxy cluster to stellar scales. I will review the status of design of this probe-scale mission.

  16. Cosmic ray modulation and merged interaction regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlaga, L.F.; Goldstein, M.L.; Mcdonald, F.B.

    1985-01-01

    Beyond several AU, interactions among shocks and streams give rise to merged interaction regions in which the magnetic field is turbulent. The integral intensity of . 75 MeV/Nuc cosmic rays at Voyager is generally observed to decrease when a merged interaction region moves past the spacecraft and to increase during the passage of a rarefaction region. When the separation between interaction regions is relatively large, the cosmic ray intensity tends to increase on a scale of a few months. This was the case at Voyager 1 from July 1, 1983 to May 1, 1984, when the spacecraft moved from 16.7 to 19.6 AU. Changes in cosmic ray intensity were related to the magnetic field strength in a simple way. It is estimated that the diffusion coefficient in merged interaction regions at this distance is similar to 0.6 x 10 to the 22nd power sq cm/s

  17. Anomalous isotopic composition of cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    Recent measurements of nonsolar isotopic patterns for the elements neon and (perhaps) magnesium in cosmic rays are interpreted within current models of stellar nucleosynthesis. One possible explanation is that the stars currently responsible for cosmic-ray synthesis in the Galaxy are typically super-metal-rich by a factor of two to three. Other possibilities include the selective acceleration of certain zones or masses of supernovas or the enhancement of 22 Ne in the interstellar medium by mass loss from red giant stars and planetary nebulas. Measurements of critical isotopic ratios are suggested to aid in distinguishing among the various possibilities. Some of these explanations place significant constraints on the fraction of cosmic ray nuclei that must be fresh supernova debris and the masses of the supernovas involved. 1 figure, 3 tables

  18. Handbook of cosmic hazards and planetary defense

    CERN Document Server

    Allahdadi, Firooz

    2015-01-01

    Covers in a comprehensive fashion all aspects of cosmic hazards and possible strategies for contending with these threats through a comprehensive planetary defense strategy. This handbook brings together in a single reference work a rich blend of information about the various types of cosmic threats that are posed to human civilization by asteroids, comets, bolides, meteors, solar flares and coronal mass ejections, cosmic radiation and other types of threats that are only recently beginning to be understood and studied, such as investigation of the “cracks” in the protective shield provided by the Van Allen belts and the geomagnetosphere, of matter-antimatter collisions, orbital debris and radiological or biological contamination. Some areas that are addressed involve areas about which there is a good deal of information that has been collected for many decades by multiple space missions run by many different space agencies, observatories and scientific researchers. Other areas involving research and ...

  19. Consistency relation for cosmic magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, R. K.; Sloth, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    If cosmic magnetic fields are indeed produced during inflation, they are likely to be correlated with the scalar metric perturbations that are responsible for the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and large scale structure. Within an archetypical model of inflationary magnetogenesis, we show...... that there exists a new simple consistency relation for the non-Gaussian cross correlation function of the scalar metric perturbation with two powers of the magnetic field in the squeezed limit where the momentum of the metric perturbation vanishes. We emphasize that such a consistency relation turns out...... to be extremely useful to test some recent calculations in the literature. Apart from primordial non-Gaussianity induced by the curvature perturbations, such a cross correlation might provide a new observational probe of inflation and can in principle reveal the primordial nature of cosmic magnetic fields. DOI...

  20. PRECISE COSMIC RAYS MEASUREMENTS WITH PAMELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bruno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The PAMELA experiment was launched on board the Resurs-DK1 satellite on June 15th 2006. The apparatus was designed to conduct precision studies of charged cosmic radiation over a wide energy range, from tens of MeV up to several hundred GeV, with unprecedented statistics. In five years of continuous data taking in space, PAMELA accurately measured the energy spectra of cosmic ray antiprotons and positrons, as well as protons, electrons and light nuclei, sometimes providing data in unexplored energetic regions. These important results have shed new light in several astrophysical fields like: an indirect search for Dark Matter, a search for cosmological antimatter (anti-Helium, and the validation of acceleration, transport and secondary production models of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. Some of the most important items of Solar and Magnetospheric physics were also investigated. Here we present the most recent results obtained by the PAMELA experiment.