WorldWideScience

Sample records for terrestrial hot springs

  1. Diversity of Crenarchaeota in terrestrial hot springs in Tengchong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhao-Qi; Chen, Jing-Quan; Jiang, Hong-Chen; Zhou, En-Min; Tang, Shu-Kun; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Li-Xin; Zhang, Chuan-Lun L; Li, Wen-Jun

    2010-05-01

    Diversity of Crenarchaeota was investigated in eight terrestrial hot springs (pH 2.8-7.7; temperature 44-96 degrees C) located in Tengchong, China, using 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis. A total of 826 crenarchaeotal clones were sequenced and a total of 47 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified. Most (93%) of the identified OTUs were closely related (89-99%) to those retrieved from hot springs and other thermal environments. Our data showed that temperature may predominate over pH in affecting crenarchaeotal diversity in Tengchong hot springs. Crenarchaeotal diversity in moderate-temperature (59-77 degrees C) hot springs was the highest, indicating that the moderately hot-temperature springs may provide optimal conditions for speciation of Crenarchaeota.

  2. [Diversity of crenarchaeota in terrestrial hot springs and their surrounding environments in Kamchatka, Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhaoqi; Wang, Li; Chen, Jinquan; Zhou, Enmin; Zhang, Chuanlun; Li, Wenjun

    2013-06-04

    Crenarchaeota is a major archaeal lineage in terrestrial hot springs and important in biogeochemical cycles of life-essential elements. In this study, we investigated the diversity of Crenarchaeota in hot springs and the surrounding environments in Kamchatka, Russia. In addition, we compared crenarchaeotal community structures in Kamchatka, Russia and Yunnan province, China. Crenarchaeal 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed and the sequences and abundances of representational clone were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis was then performed and the community structures in different samples were compared. The high temperature spring Burlyashi Liza (BSL, 89 degrees C) comprised Thermoprotei. The moderate temperature spring TF Vent 2 (TFV, 49 degrees C) harbored unidentified Thermoprotei group, unidentified crenarchaeal group, HWCG-II (hot water crenarchaeotal group II), and Group1. 1b (one thaumarchaeotal subgroup). Most of sequences that obtained from surrounding environments ( Crenarchaeota in Kamchatka hot springs are somewhat different from those in Yunnan province. Terrestrial hot springs obviously affect the crenarchaeotal communities in surrounding environments. Temperature is the major factor controlling the community structure in terrestrial hot springs.

  3. Diversity and Ecological Functions of Crenarchaeota in Terrestrial Hot Springs of Tengchong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Song, Z.; Chen, J.; Jiang, H.; Zhou, E.; Wang, F.; Xiao, X.; Zhang, C.

    2010-12-01

    The diversity and potential ecological functions of Crenarchaeota were investigated in eight terrestrial hot springs (pH: 2.8-7.7; temperature: 43.6-96 C) located in Tengchong, China, using 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis. A total of 826 crenarchaeotal clones were analyzed and a total of 47 Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified. Most (93%) of the identified OTUs were closely related (89-99%) to those retrieved from hot springs and other thermal environments. Our data showed that temperature may predominate over pH in affecting crenarchaeotal diversity in Tengchong hot springs. Crenarchaeotal diversity in moderate-temperature (59 to 77 C) hot springs was the highest, indicating that the moderate-temperature hot springs are more inclusive for Crenarchaeota. To understand what ecological functions these Crenarchaeota may play in Tengchong hot springs, we isolated the environmental RNA and constructed four cDNA clone libraries of the archaeal accA gene that encodes Acetyl CoA carboxylase. The accA gene represents one of the key enzymes responsible for the CO2 fixation in the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate pathway. The results of phylogenetic analysis showed all the transcribed accA gene sequences can be classified into three large clusters, with the first one being affiliated with marine crenarchaeota, the second one with cultured crenarchaeota, and the third one with Chlorobi (Green sulfur bacteria), which have been proved to employ the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate pathway. The long-branch distances of the phylogenetic tree suggest that these sequences represent novel accA-like gene. Our results also showed that sequences of the accA-like gene from the same hot spring belonged to one cluster, which suggests that a single crenarchaeotal group may fix CO2 via 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate pathway in the investigated hot springs.

  4. Distribution of Crenarchaeota Representatives in Terrestrial Hot Springs of Russia and Iceland ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perevalova, Anna A.; Kolganova, Tatiana V.; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre; Schleper, Christa; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A.; Lebedinsky, Alexander V.

    2008-01-01

    Culture-independent (PCR with Crenarchaeota-specific primers and subsequent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and culture-dependent approaches were used to study the diversity of Crenarchaeota in terrestrial hot springs of the Kamchatka Peninsula and the Lake Baikal region (Russia) and of Iceland. Among the phylotypes detected there were relatives of both cultured (mainly hyperthermophilic) and uncultured Crenarchaeota. It was found that there is a large and diverse group of uncultured Crenarchaeota that inhabit terrestrial hot springs with moderate temperatures (55 to 70°C). Two of the lineages of this group were given phenotypic characterization, one as a result of cultivation in an enrichment culture and another one after isolation of a pure culture, “Fervidococcus fontis,” which proved to be a moderately thermophilic, neutrophilic (optimum pH of 6.0 to 7.5), anaerobic organotroph. PMID:18849450

  5. Distribution of Crenarchaeota representatives in terrestrial hot springs of Russia and Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perevalova, Anna A; Kolganova, Tatiana V; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre; Schleper, Christa; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A; Lebedinsky, Alexander V

    2008-12-01

    Culture-independent (PCR with Crenarchaeota-specific primers and subsequent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and culture-dependent approaches were used to study the diversity of Crenarchaeota in terrestrial hot springs of the Kamchatka Peninsula and the Lake Baikal region (Russia) and of Iceland. Among the phylotypes detected there were relatives of both cultured (mainly hyperthermophilic) and uncultured Crenarchaeota. It was found that there is a large and diverse group of uncultured Crenarchaeota that inhabit terrestrial hot springs with moderate temperatures (55 to 70 degrees C). Two of the lineages of this group were given phenotypic characterization, one as a result of cultivation in an enrichment culture and another one after isolation of a pure culture, "Fervidococcus fontis," which proved to be a moderately thermophilic, neutrophilic (optimum pH of 6.0 to 7.5), anaerobic organotroph.

  6. Distribution of Crenarchaeota Representatives in Terrestrial Hot Springs of Russia and Iceland ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Perevalova, Anna A.; Kolganova, Tatiana V.; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre; Schleper, Christa; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A.; Lebedinsky, Alexander V.

    2008-01-01

    Culture-independent (PCR with Crenarchaeota-specific primers and subsequent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and culture-dependent approaches were used to study the diversity of Crenarchaeota in terrestrial hot springs of the Kamchatka Peninsula and the Lake Baikal region (Russia) and of Iceland. Among the phylotypes detected there were relatives of both cultured (mainly hyperthermophilic) and uncultured Crenarchaeota. It was found that there is a large and diverse group of uncultured...

  7. Fervidicoccus fontis gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic, thermophilic crenarchaeote from terrestrial hot springs, and proposal of Fervidicoccaceae fam. nov. and Fervidicoccales ord. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perevalova, Anna A; Bidzhieva, Salima Kh; Kublanov, Ilya V; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Liu, Xiaolei L; Mardanov, Andrey V; Lebedinsky, Alexander V; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A

    2010-09-01

    Two novel thermophilic and slightly acidophilic strains, Kam940(T) and Kam1507b, which shared 99 % 16S rRNA gene sequence identity, were isolated from terrestrial hot springs of the Uzon caldera on the Kamchatka peninsula. Cells of both strains were non-motile, regular cocci. Growth was observed between 55 and 85 degrees C, with an optimum at 65-70 degrees C (doubling time, 6.1 h), and at pH 4.5-7.5, with optimum growth at pH 5.5-6.0. The isolates were strictly anaerobic organotrophs and grew on a narrow spectrum of energy-rich substrates, such as beef extract, gelatin, peptone, pyruvate, sucrose and yeast extract, with yields above 10(7) cells ml(-1). Sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate and nitrate added as potential electron acceptors did not stimulate growth when tested with peptone. H(2) at 100 % in the gas phase inhibited growth on peptone. Glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) with zero to four cyclopentyl rings were present in the lipid fraction of isolate Kam940(T). The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain Kam940(T) was 37 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolates were archaea of the phylum Crenarchaeota, only distantly related to the cultured members of the class Thermoprotei (no more than 89 % identity), and formed an independent lineage adjacent to the orders Desulfurococcales and Acidilobales and clustering only with uncultured clones from hot springs of Yellowstone National Park and Iceland as the closest relatives. On the basis of their phylogenetic position and novel phenotypic features, isolates Kam940(T) and Kam1507b are proposed to be assigned to a new genus and species, Fervidicoccus fontis gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Fervidicoccus fontis is strain Kam940(T) (=DSM 19380(T) =VKM B-2539(T)). The phylogenetic data as well as phenotypic properties suggest that the novel crenarchaeotes form the basis of a new family, Fervidicoccaceae fam. nov., and order, Fervidicoccales ord. nov

  8. Novel viral genomes identified from six metagenomes reveal wide distribution of archaeal viruses and high viral diversity in terrestrial hot springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islin, Sóley Ruth; Menzel, Peter; Krogh, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Limited by culture-dependent methods the number of viruses identified from thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria is still very small. In this study we retrieved viral sequences from six hot spring metagenomes isolated worldwide, revealing a wide distribution of four archaeal viral families, Ampullavi......Limited by culture-dependent methods the number of viruses identified from thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria is still very small. In this study we retrieved viral sequences from six hot spring metagenomes isolated worldwide, revealing a wide distribution of four archaeal viral families......, Ampullaviridae, Bicaudaviridae, Lipothrixviridae and Rudiviridae. Importantly, we identified ten complete or near complete viral genomes allowing, for the first time, an assessment of genome conservation and evolution of the Ampullaviridae family as well as Sulfolobus Monocaudavirus 1 (SMV1) related viruses....... Among the novel genomes, one belongs to a putative thermophilic virus infecting the bacterium Hydrogenobaculum, for which no virus has been reported in the literature. Moreover, a high viral diversity was observed in the metagenomes, especially among the Lipothrixviridae, as indicated by the large...

  9. Anti-infective potential of hot-spring bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Pednekar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Background: Antibiotic resistance currently spans most of the known classes of natural and synthetic antibiotics; limiting our options for treatment of infections and demanding discovery of new classes of antibiotics. Much effort is being directed towards developing new antibiotics to overcome this problem. Success in getting novel chemical entities from microbial sources depends essentially on novelty of its habitat. The diversity of geographical location decides the type of micro-flora. In the past various terrestrial and aqueous microorganisms have provided several novel bioactive secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical importance. Hot-springs have not been as extensively exploited as other terrestrial resources. However, perseverance with such microbes augment the probability of getting novel bioactive compounds. Materials and Methods: Hot-springs soil samples were collected from Hot-springs in Maharashtra. Actinomycetes and other eubacteria were isolated from these soil samples by selective methods and purified. They were classified based on gram′s nature and morphology. Six representative morphological strains were screened for their anti-infective potential by agar well diffusion method as reported by Nathan P. et al (1974. The bioactivity of the active microbes was confirmed. Results: Seventy three strains of bacteria encompassing eight actinomycetes, and 65 eubacteria were isolated and purified. Among the actives eubacteria PPVWK106001 showed broad spectrum antibacterial activity encompassing both gram positive and gram negative bacterial test models. The extract was active against resistant bacteria such as MRSA and VREs. Activity was very specific as there was no activity against fungi even at 100 fold concentration. The active principle was extractable in butanol. Conclusions: The study showed that Hot-springs exhibit diverse bacteria and it serves as potential reservoirs for bacteria of antimicrobial importance with

  10. Earliest signs of life on land preserved in ca. 3.5 Ga hot spring deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djokic, Tara; van Kranendonk, Martin J.; Campbell, Kathleen A.; Walter, Malcolm R.; Ward, Colin R.

    2017-05-01

    The ca. 3.48 Ga Dresser Formation, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, is well known for hosting some of Earth's earliest convincing evidence of life (stromatolites, fractionated sulfur/carbon isotopes, microfossils) within a dynamic, low-eruptive volcanic caldera affected by voluminous hydrothermal fluid circulation. However, missing from the caldera model were surface manifestations of the volcanic-hydrothermal system (hot springs, geysers) and their unequivocal link with life. Here we present new discoveries of hot spring deposits including geyserite, sinter terracettes and mineralized remnants of hot spring pools/vents, all of which preserve a suite of microbial biosignatures indicative of the earliest life on land. These include stromatolites, newly observed microbial palisade fabric and gas bubbles preserved in inferred mineralized, exopolymeric substance. These findings extend the known geological record of inhabited terrestrial hot springs on Earth by ~3 billion years and offer an analogue in the search for potential fossil life in ancient Martian hot springs.

  11. Archaeal diversity in Icelandic hot springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Thomas; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Westermann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    of Archaea by analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes. In addition to the three solfataras and the neutral hot spring, 10 soil samples in transects of the soil adjacent to the solfataras were analysed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP). The sequence data from the clone libraries...... in combination with 14 t-RFLP profiles revealed a high abundance of clones clustering together with sequences from the nonthermophilic I.1b group of Crenarchaeota. The archaeal diversity in one solfatara was high; 26 different RFLP patterns were found using double digestion of the PCR products with restriction......Whole-cell density gradient extractions from three solfataras (pH 2.5) ranging in temperature from 81 to 90 degrees C and one neutral hot spring (81 degrees C, pH 7) from the thermal active area of Hveragerethi (Iceland) were analysed for genetic diversity and local geographical variation...

  12. Geothermal Exploration in Hot Springs, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toby McIntosh, Jackola Engineering

    2012-09-26

    The project involves drilling deeper in the Camp Aqua well dri lled in June 1982 as part of an effort to develop an ethanol plant. The purpose of the current drill ing effort is to determine if water at or above 165°F exists for the use in low temperature resource power generation. Previous geothermal resource study efforts in and around Hot Springs , MT and the Camp Aqua area (NE of Hot Springs) have been conducted through the years. A confined gravel aquifer exists in deep alluvium overlain by approximately 250 of si lt and c lay deposits from Glacial Lake Missoula. This gravel aquifer overlies a deeper bedrock aquifer. In the Camp Aqua area several wel l s exist in the gravel aquifer which receives hot water f rom bedrock fractures beneath the area. Prior to this exploration, one known well in the Camp Aqua area penetrated into the bedrock without success in intersecting fractures transporting hot geothermal water. The exploration associated with this project adds to the physical knowledge database of the Camp Aqua area. The dri l l ing effort provides additional subsurface information that can be used to gain a better understanding of the bedrock formation that i s leaking hot geothermal water into an otherwise cold water aquifer. The exi s t ing well used for the explorat ion is located within the center of the hottest water within the gravel aquifer. This lent i t sel f as a logical and economical location to continue the exploration within the existing well. Faced with budget constraints due to unanticipated costs, changing dril l ing techniques stretched the limited project resources to maximize the overa l l well depth which f e l l short of original project goals. The project goal of finding 165°F or hotter water was not achieved; however the project provides additional information and understanding of the Camp Aqua area that could prove valuable in future exploration efforts

  13. Decadal radon cycles in a hot spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rui; Woith, Heiko; Wang, Rongjiang; Wang, Guangcai

    2017-09-21

    A high-fidelity record covering nearly 40 years of water-dissolved radon from the hot spring site of BangLazhang (BLZ), Southwestern China is presented to study multi-year periodicities of radon. Ancillary observational data, i.e., water temperature, spring discharge rate, barometric pressure, combined with regional rainfall, galactic cosmic rays (GCR flux is modulated by solar wind and thus a proxy for solar activity) and regional seismicity from the same period are considered to identify potentially influencing factors controlling the changes in radon. Variations in radon concentration and ancillary observational data are studied using continuous Wavelet Power Spectrum (WPS), Wavelet Coherence (WTC), and Partial Wavelet Coherence (PWC). The results show that the long-period radon concentration is characterized by a quasi-decadal (8-11 years) cycle, matching well with the concurrent periodicity in water temperature, spring discharge rates and GCR. PWCs of radon, discharge rate and water temperature suggest that water temperature variations explain most of the coherent variability of radon and the discharge rate. We tentatively conclude that radon variations are mainly explained by variations in water temperature and spring discharge, which are modified and modulated by earthquakes and quasi-decadal variations of an unidentified process. The influence of solar activity on the decadal periodicity is discussed.

  14. Portrait of a Geothermal Spring, Hunter's Hot Springs, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castenholz, Richard W

    2015-01-27

    Although alkaline Hunter's Hot Springs in southeastern Oregon has been studied extensively for over 40 years, most of these studies and the subsequent publications were before the advent of molecular methods. However, there are many field observations and laboratory experiments that reveal the major aspects of the phototrophic species composition within various physical and chemical gradients of these springs. Relatively constant temperature boundaries demark the upper boundary of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus at 73-74 °C (the world-wide upper limit for photosynthesis), and 68-70 °C the upper limit for Chloroflexus. The upper limit for the cover of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Geitlerinema (Oscillatoria) is at 54-55 °C, and the in situ lower limit at 47-48 °C for all three of these phototrophs due to the upper temperature limit for the grazing ostracod, Thermopsis. The in situ upper limit for the cyanobacteria Pleurocapsa and Calothrix is at ~47-48 °C, which are more grazer-resistant and grazer dependent. All of these demarcations are easily visible in the field. In addition, there is a biosulfide production in some sections of the springs that have a large impact on the microbiology. Most of the temperature and chemical limits have been explained by field and laboratory experiments.

  15. Phototrophy in Mildly Acidic Hot Spring Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecteau, K.; Boyd, E. S.; Shock, E.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial light-driven reduction of carbon in continental hydrothermal ecosystems is restricted to environments at temperatures less than 73 °C. In circumneutral and alkaline systems bacterial phototrophs (cyanobacteria and anoxygenic phototrophs) are suggested to be principally responsible for this activity whereas algal (i.e., eukaryotic) phototrophs are thought to be responsible for this activity in acidic systems. In Yellowstone National Park numerous examples of phototrophic microbial communities exist at high and low pH, while hot springs with intermediate pH (values 3-5) are rare and commonly dilute. It is thought that the transition from algal photosynthesis to bacterial photosynthesis occurs within this pH range. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced bacterial and eukaryal small subunit ribosomal RNA genes, analyzed pigments, and performed comprehensive geochemical measurements from 12 hot springs within this pH realm. At all sites, the largest phototrophic population was either comprised of Cyanobacteria or affiliated with the algal order Cyanidiales, which are ubiquitous in acidic springs, yet abundant sequences of both lineages were present in 8 of the 12 sites. Nevertheless, some of these samples exceeded the known temperature limit of the algae (56 °C), suggesting that these populations are dead or inactive. Indeed, one site yielded evidence for a large Cyanidiales population as the only phototrophs present, yet an experiment at the time of sampling failed to demonstrate light-driven carbon fixation, and analysis of extracted pigments showed a large amount of the chlorophyll degradation product pheophorbide a and very little intact chlorophyll, indicating photosynthesis occurred at this site when conditions were different. Our observations illustrate the dynamic nature of these systems that may be transiently conducive to photosynthesis, which may open niches for phototrophs of both domains and likely played a role in the evolution of photosynthesis.

  16. Hot Springs-Garrison Fiber Optic Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to upgrade its operational telecommunications system between the Hot Springs Substation and the Garrison Substation using a fiber optic system. The project would primarily involve installing 190 kilometers (120 miles) of fiber optic cable on existing transmission structures and installing new fiber optic equipment in BPA`s substation yards and control houses. BPA prepared an environmental assessment (EA) evaluating the proposed action. This EA was published in October 1994. The EA identifies a number of minor impacts that might occur as a result of the proposed action, as well as some recommended mitigation measures. This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) identifies specific measures to avoid, minimize, or compensate for impacts identified in the EA.

  17. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7.18 Section 7.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a) Commercial...

  18. Kelley Hot Spring Geothermal Project: Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longyear, A.B. (ed.)

    1980-06-01

    The proposed core activity in the Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center is a nominal 1200 sow swine raising complex. The swine raising is to be a totally confined operation for producing premium pork in controlled environment facilities that utilize geothermal energy. The complex will include a feedmill for producing the various feed formulae required for the animals from breeding through gestation, farrowing, nursery, growing and finishing. The market animals are shipped live by truck to slaughter in Modesto, California. A complete waste management facility will include manure collection from all raising areas, transport via a water flush sysem to methane (biogas) generators, manure separation, settling ponds and disposition of the surplus agricultural quality water. The design is based upon the best commercial practices in confined swine raising in the US today. The most unique feature of the facility is the utilization of geothermal hot water for space heating and process energy throughout the complex.

  19. Biogeographic Congruency among Bacterial Communities from Terrestrial Sulfidic Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan eHeadd

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial sulfidic springs support diverse microbial communities by serving as stable conduits for geochemically diverse and nutrient-rich subsurface waters. Microorganisms that colonize terrestrial springs likely originate from groundwater, but may also be sourced from the surface. As such, the biogeographic distribution of microbial communities inhabiting sulfidic springs should be controlled by a combination of spring geochemistry and surface and subsurface transport mechanisms, and not necessarily geographic proximity to other springs. We examined the bacterial diversity of seven springs to test the hypothesis that occurrence of taxonomically similar microbes, important to the sulfur cycle, at each spring is controlled by geochemistry. Complementary Sanger sequencing and 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes retrieved five proteobacterial classes, and Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, and Firmicutes phyla from all springs, which suggested the potential for a core sulfidic spring microbiome. Among the putative sulfide-oxidizing groups (Epsilonproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, up to 83% of the sequences from geochemically similar springs clustered together. Abundant populations of Hydrogenimonas-like or Sulfurovum-like spp. (Epsilonproteobacteria occurred with abundant Thiothrix and Thiofaba spp. (Gammaproteobacteria, but Arcobacter-like and Sulfurimonas spp. (Epsilonproteobacteria occurred with less abundant gammaproteobacterial populations. These distribution patterns confirmed that geochemistry rather than biogeography regulates bacterial dominance at each spring. Potential biogeographic controls were related to paleogeologic sedimentation patterns that could control long-term microbial transport mechanisms that link surface and subsurface environments. Knowing the composition of a core sulfidic spring microbial community could provide a way to monitor diversity changes if a system is threatened by anthropogenic processes or

  20. Kelly Hot Spring Geothermal Project: Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center preliminary design. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longyear, A.B. (ed.)

    1980-08-01

    A Phase 1 Preliminary Design, Construction Planning and Economic Analysis has been conducted for the Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center in Modoc County, California. The core activity is a 1360 breeding sow, swine raising complex that utilizes direct heat energy from the Kelly Hot Spring geothermal resource. The swine is to be a totally confined operation for producing premium pork in controlled-environment facilities. The complex contains a feed mill, swine raising buildings and a complete waste management facility that produces methane gas to be delivered to a utility company for the production of electricity. The complex produces 6.7 million pounds of live pork (29,353 animals) shipped to slaughter per year; 105,000 cu. ft. of scrubbed methane per day; and fertilizer. Total effluent is less than 200 gpm of agricultural quality-water with full odor control. The methane production rate made possible with geothermal direct heat is equivalent to at least 400 kw continuous. Sale of the methane on a co-generation basis is being discussed with the utility company. The use of geothermal direct heat energy in the complex displaces nearly 350,000 gallons of fuel oil per year. Generation of the biogas displaces an additional 300,000 gallons of fuel oil per year.

  1. The Redox Potential of Hot Springs in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Fu Chen Menghau Sung

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientists began acquiring the basic of geology, occurrence, water temperature and chemistry of hot springs in Tai wan over a century ago. However, data regarding redox potential and important redox couples still remains limited. This study explores the redox status of hot springs in Taiwan by measuring Eh in the field and by determining the concentrations of commonly found redox couples, i.e., O2/H2O, NO3 -/NH4 +, and HS-/SO4 -2. Water samples were collected at hot spring discharge pools or the heads of water wells using a pump. A total of 11 hot springs located at 9 different locations across Taiwan were surveyed.

  2. Bacterial tetraethers from Tibetan hot springs: Implications for nitrogen metabolism and biological sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Zhang, C.; Wang, S.; Klotz, M. G.; Dong, H.; Li, W.

    2013-12-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs) are considered to be produced by bacteria that are predominantly found in soils and peat bogs. Recently, however, in situ production of bGDGTs is reported from a terrestrial hot spring in the Great Basin. In this study, we analyzed water chemistry, bacterial lipids, and pyrosequencing data from 37 Tibetan hot springs in order to evaluate the linkage between biological sources, metabolic processes and the distribution of bGDGTs. Analyses of absolute and relative concentrations of intact polar- and core bGDGTs (IP-bGDGTs and C-bGDGTs) suggest that the bGDGTs are predominantly produced in situ in Tibetan hot springs. Cluster analysis separated the hot spring samples into three major groups, which showed significant relationships between bGDGTs and concentrations of ammonia, nitrite or nitrate. The nirS gene abundance also correlated significantly with bGDGTs. These results indicate that the bGDGT-producing organisms may be involved in nitrogen metabolism in the Tibetan hot springs. Pyrosequencing analysis identified eight phyla of Bacteria (Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi, Firmicutes, Nitrospirae, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Spirochetes) that may be potential sources of bGDGTs based on significant correlations of these organisms with the distribution of different bGDGTs. Representatives of these phyla have been implicated in nitrogen oxide transformations in many diverse environments including hot springs. Overall, our results suggest that bacteria producing bGDGTs may play an important role in nitrogen cycle in the Tibetan hot springs.

  3. Site-based data curation based on hot spring geobiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole L Palmer

    Full Text Available Site-Based Data Curation (SBDC is an approach to managing research data that prioritizes sharing and reuse of data collected at scientifically significant sites. The SBDC framework is based on geobiology research at natural hot spring sites in Yellowstone National Park as an exemplar case of high value field data in contemporary, cross-disciplinary earth systems science. Through stakeholder analysis and investigation of data artifacts, we determined that meaningful and valid reuse of digital hot spring data requires systematic documentation of sampling processes and particular contextual information about the site of data collection. We propose a Minimum Information Framework for recording the necessary metadata on sampling locations, with anchor measurements and description of the hot spring vent distinct from the outflow system, and multi-scale field photography to capture vital information about hot spring structures. The SBDC framework can serve as a global model for the collection and description of hot spring systems field data that can be readily adapted for application to the curation of data from other kinds scientifically significant sites.

  4. Geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voegtly, Nickolas E.

    1981-01-01

    A geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas, during June-December 1975, resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by U.S. Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie ' basement ' rocks of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present. (USGS)

  5. Mining Hot Springs for Biodiversity and Novel Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islin, Sóley Ruth

    The existence of microbial life at extreme environments, such as hot springs, has been known for a few decades. The remarkable ability of microorganisms to withstand the extreme conditions of their habitats, has astounded scientist and pushed the limits of what was considered possible. Thermophilic...... the biodiversity within the environment. By comparing several metagenomic data sets from hot spring from around the world, we could analyze community structures of cellular microorganisms as well as the biodiversity of viral sequences. We found that crenarchaeal viruses are dominant in these environments...

  6. Biodiversity of the microbial mat of the Garga hot spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanov, Alexey Sergeevich; Bryanskaya, Alla Victorovna; Ivanisenko, Timofey Vladimirovich; Malup, Tatyana Konstantinovna; Peltek, Sergey Evgenievich

    2017-12-28

    Microbial mats are a good model system for ecological and evolutionary analysis of microbial communities. There are more than 20 alkaline hot springs on the banks of the Barguzin river inflows. Water temperature reaches 75 °C and pH is usually 8.0-9.0. The formation of microbial mats is observed in all hot springs. Microbial communities of hot springs of the Baikal rift zone are poorly studied. Garga is the biggest hot spring in this area. In this study, we investigated bacterial and archaeal diversity of the Garga hot spring (Baikal rift zone, Russia) using 16S rRNA metagenomic sequencing. We studied two types of microbial communities: (i) small white biofilms on rocks in the points with the highest temperature (75 °C) and (ii) continuous thick phototrophic microbial mats observed at temperatures below 70 °C. Archaea (mainly Crenarchaeota; 19.8% of the total sequences) were detected only in the small biofilms. The high abundance of Archaea in the sample from hot springs of the Baikal rift zone supplemented our knowledge of the distribution of Archaea. Most archaeal sequences had low similarity to known Archaea. In the microbial mats, primary products were formed by cyanobacteria of the genus Leptolyngbya. Heterotrophic microorganisms were mostly represented by Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria in all studied samples of the microbial mats. Planctomycetes, Chloroflexi, and Chlorobi were abundant in the middle layer of the microbial mats, while heterotrophic microorganisms represented mostly by Firmicutes (Clostridia, strict anaerobes) dominated in the bottom part. Besides prokaryotes, we detect some species of Algae with help of detection their chloroplasts 16 s rRNA. High abundance of Archaea in samples from hot springs of the Baikal rift zone supplemented our knowledge of the distribution of Archaea. Most archaeal sequences had low similarity to known Archaea. Metagenomic analysis of microbial communities of the microbial mat of Garga hot spring showed that

  7. Hot-spring cure of atomic-bomb survivors, 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, Tamon (Beppu Genbaku Senta (Japan))

    1984-03-01

    Though a cold winter with snowfalls, in the fiscal year 1983, the number of the atomic-bomb sufferers using the Beppu Atomic-bomb Center (a medical hot spring) was large in January and February, 1984; throughout the fiscal year, the total number was about 3,800 persons. The diseases of the sufferers, mostly in locomotion organs, are such as osteoarthritis of spine, lame hip and knee arthropathy. Being the typical diseases for which hot spring treatment is good, the effect is clear, and those desiring to enter the Center twice in a year are increasing. The situation of usage of the Center from April, 1983, to March, 1984, is described.

  8. Environmental assessment for Kelley Hot Spring geothermal project: Kelley Hot Spring Agricultural Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilson, J.A.

    1981-04-01

    The environmental impacts of an integrated swine production unit are analyzed together with necessary ancillary operations deriving its primary energy from a known geothermal reservoir in accordance with policies established by the National Energy Conservation Act. This environmental assessment covers 6 areas designated as potentially feasible project sites, using as the basic criteria for selection ground, surface and geothermal water supplies. The six areas, comprising +- 150 acres each, are within a 2 mile radius of Kelley Hot Springs, a known geothermal resource of many centuries standing, located 16 miles west of Alturas, the county seat of Modoc County, California. The project consists of the construction and operation of a 1360 sow confined pork production complex expandable to 5440 sows. The farrow to finish system for 1360 sows consists of 2 breeding barns, 2 gestation barns, 1 farrowing and 1 nursery barn, 3 growing and 3 finishing barns, a feed mill, a methane generator for waste disposal and water storage ponds. Supporting this are one geothermal well and 1 or 2 cold water wells, all occupying approximately 12 acres. Environmental reconnaissance involving geology, hydrology, soils, vegetation, fauna, air and water quality, socioeconomic, archaelogical and historical, and land use aspects were carefully carried out, impacts assessed and mitigations evaluated.

  9. Investigation of bacterial diversity of hot springs of Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar Sahoo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available 16S rRNA deep sequencing analysis, targeting V3 region was performed using Illumina bar coded sequencing. Sediment samples from two hot springs (Atri and Taptapani were collected. Atri and Taptapani metagenomes were classified into 50 and 51 bacterial phyla. Proteobacteria (45.17% dominated the Taptapani sample metagenome followed by Bacteriodetes (23.43% and Cyanobacteria (10.48% while in the Atri sample, Chloroflexi (52.39%, Nitrospirae (10.93% and Proteobacteria (9.98% dominated. A large number of sequences remained taxonomically unresolved in both hot springs, indicating the presence of potentially novel microbes in these two unique habitats thus unraveling the importance of the current study. Metagenome sequence information is now available at NCBI, SRA database accession no. SRP057428.

  10. Enhanced Fe oxidation by mixed culture originated from hot spring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... optimal conditions for the desired objects were 1.3, 7 g/l, 141 rpm and 35°C for the media initial pH, Fe2+ ion concentration, agitation ... It was also concluded that, the mixed culture isolated from the hot spring had the potential to oxidize ferrous to ...... Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Chem. Eng. J. 145: 267-275.

  11. Vulcan Hot Springs known geothermal resource area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Vulcan Hot Springs known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is one of the more remote KGRAs in Idaho. The chemistry of Vulcan Hot Springs indicates a subsurface resource temperature of 147/sup 0/C, which may be high enough for power generation. An analysis of the limited data available on climate, meteorology, and air quality indicates few geothermal development concerns in these areas. The KGRA is located on the edge of the Idaho Batholith on a north-trending lineament which may be a factor in the presence of the hot springs. An occasional earthquake of magnitude 7 or greater may be expected in the region. Subsidence or elevation as a result of geothermal development in the KGRA do not appear to be of concern. Fragile granitic soils on steep slopes in the KGRA are unstable and may restrict development. The South fork of the Salmon River, the primary stream in the region, is an important salmon spawning grounds. Stolle Meadows, on the edge of the KGRA, is used as a wintering and calving area for elk, and access to the area is limited during this period. Socioeconomic and demographic surveys indicate that facilities and services will probably not be significantly impacted by development. Known heritage resources in the KGRA include two sites and the potential for additional cultural sites is significant.

  12. Nitrogen cycling in Hot Spring Sediments and Biofilms (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Burton, M. S.; Havig, J. R.; Shock, E.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past several decades, gene-targeted analyses have revealed that microbial communities in hydrothermal environments can be surprisingly diverse. However, we know shockingly little about basic ecological functions such as carbon and nitrogen cycling or community shifts over time, or environmental parameters such as growth criteria. Previous work has shown that carbon cycling in one hot spring in Yellowstone National Park [“Bison Pool”] and its associated runoff channel functions as a complex system. Analysis of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in biofilms across a temperature and chemical gradient at this location revealed that multiple autotrophic carbon fixation pathways are functioning in this system, and nitrogen fixation varies across the chemosynthetic/photosynthetic ecotone [1]. Further, sequencing of metagenomes from multiple locations at “Bison Pool” has indicated the presence of genes involved in carbon fixation [both phototrophic and autotrophic], and heterotrophy, as well as nitrogen fixation [2]. Studies from other Yellowstone locations have also found genetic evidence for carbon and nitrogen fixation [3-5]. The role of individual microbes in nitrogen cycling as environmental conditions vary over space and time is the focus of this study. Here, we explore the diversity of nifH [nitrogen fixation], nirK [nitrite reduction] and amoA [ammonia oxidation] genes across a variety of Yellowstone environments. Environmental nucleic acids were extracted, and the presence/absence of Bacteria and Archaea determined by PCR. In addition, PCR-directed screens reveal the presence or absence of the aforementioned functional genes, indicating genetic capacity for nitrogen cycling. We have examined the transition of genetic diversity and genetic capacity within sediments and biofilms at the chemosynthetic/photosynthetic ecotone in several hot springs spanning ranges of pH and geochemical conditions. By sampling across this ecotone, changes in the genetic

  13. Effect of light wavelength on hot spring microbial mat biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Akifumi; Thiel, Vera; Nakagawa, Mayuko; Ayukawa, Shotaro; Yamamura, Masayuki

    2018-01-01

    Hot spring associated phototrophic microbial mats are purely microbial communities, in which phototrophic bacteria function as primary producers and thus shape the community. The microbial mats at Nakabusa hot springs in Japan harbor diverse photosynthetic bacteria, mainly Thermosynechococcus, Chloroflexus, and Roseiflexus, which use light of different wavelength for energy conversion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the phototrophs on biodiversity and community composition in hot spring microbial mats. For this, we specifically activated the different phototrophs by irradiating the mats with different wavelengths in situ. We used 625, 730, and 890 nm wavelength LEDs alone or in combination and confirmed the hypothesized increase in relative abundance of different phototrophs by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In addition to the increase of the targeted phototrophs, we studied the effect of the different treatments on chemotrophic members. The specific activation of Thermosynechococcus led to increased abundance of several other bacteria, whereas wavelengths specific to Chloroflexus and Roseiflexus induced a decrease in >50% of the community members as compared to the dark conditions. This suggests that the growth of Thermosynechococcus at the surface layer benefits many community members, whereas less benefit is obtained from an increase in filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs Chloroflexus and Roseiflexus. The increases in relative abundance of chemotrophs under different light conditions suggest a relationship between the two groups. Aerobic chemoheterotrophs such as Thermus sp. and Meiothermus sp. are thought to benefit from aerobic conditions and organic carbon in the form of photosynthates by Thermosynechococcus, while the oxidation of sulfide and production of elemental sulfur by filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs benefit the sulfur-disproportionating Caldimicrobium thiodismutans. In this study, we used an experimental approach under controlled

  14. Diverse Thermus species inhabit a single hot spring microbial mat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nold, S. C.; Ward, D. M.

    1995-01-01

    Through an effort to characterize aerobic chemoorganotrophic bacteria in the Octopus Spring cyano-bacterial mat community, we cultivated four Thermus isolates with unique 16S rRNA sequences. Isolates clustered within existing Thermus clades, including those containing Thermus ruber, Thermus aquaticus, and a subgroup closely related to T. aquaticus. One Octopus Spring isolate is nearly identical (99.9% similar) to isolates from Iceland, and two others are closely related to a T. ruber isolated from Russia. Octopus Spring isolates similar to T. aquaticus and T. ruber exhibited optimal growth rates at high (65-70 degrees C) and low (50 degrees C) temperatures, respectively, with the most abundant species best adapted to the temperature of the habitat (50-55 degrees C). Our results display a diversity of Thermus genotypes defined by 16S rRNA within one hot spring microbial community. We suggest that specialization to temperature and perhaps other local environmental features controls the abundance of Thermus populations.

  15. Evaluation of prokaryotic diversity of five hot springs in Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilamicael, Amanuel M; Budambula, Nancy L M; Anami, Sylvester E; Mehari, Tadesse; Boga, Hamadi I

    2017-09-22

    Total community rDNA was used to determine the diversity of bacteria and archaea from water, wet sediment and microbial mats samples of hot springs in the Eastern lowlands of Eritrea. The temperatures of the springs range from 49.5 °C to 100 °C while pH levels varied from 6.97 to 7.54. Akwar and Maiwooi have high carbonate levels. The springs near the seashore, Garbanabra and Gelti, are more saline with higher levels of sodium and chlorides. Elegedi, situated in the Alid volcanic area, has the highest temperature, iron and sulfate concentrations. The five hot springs shared 901 of 4371 OTUs recovered while the three sample types (water, wet sediment and microbial mats) also shared 1429 OTUs. The Chao1 OTU estimate in water sample was significantly higher than the wet sediment and microbial mat samples. As indicated by NMDS, the community samples at genus level showed location specific clustering. Certain genera correlated with temperature, sodium, carbonate, iron, sulfate and ammonium levels in water. The abundant phyla included Proteobacteria (6.2-82.3%), Firmicutes (1.6-63.5%), Deinococcus-Thermus (0.0-19.2%), Planctomycetes (0.0-11.8%), Aquificae (0.0-9.9%), Chlorobi (0.0-22.3%) and Bacteroidetes (2.7-8.4%). There were significant differences in microbial community structure within the five locations and sample types at OTU level. The occurence of Aquificae, Deinococcus-Thermus, some Cyanobacteria and Crenarchaeota were highly dependent on temperature. The Halobacterium, unclassified Thaumarchaeota, Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria showed significant correlation with salinity occurring abundantly in Garbanabra and Gelti. Firmicutes and unclassified Rhodocylaceae were higher in the microbial mat samples, while Archaea were prominent in the wet sediment samples.

  16. Hydrosalinity studies of the Virgin River, Dixie Hot Springs, and Littlefield Springs, Utah, Arizona, and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Steven J.; Thiros, Susan A.; Gerner, Steven J.; Thiros, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    The Virgin River contributes a substantial amount of dissolved solids (salt) to the Colorado River at Lake Mead in the lower Colorado River Basin. Degradation of Colorado River water by the addition of dissolved solids from the Virgin River affects the suitability of the water for municipal, industrial, and agricultural use within the basin. Dixie Hot Springs in Utah are a major localized source of dissolved solids discharging to the Virgin River. The average measured discharge from Dixie Hot Springs during 2009–10 was 11.0 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), and the average dissolved-solids concentration was 9,220 milligrams per liter (mg/L). The average dissolved-solids load—a measurement that describes the mass of salt that is transported per unit of time—from Dixie Hot Springs during this period was 96,200 tons per year (ton/yr). Annual dissolved-solids loads were estimated at 13 monitoring sites in the Virgin River Basin from streamflow data and discrete measurements of dissolved-solids concentrations and (or) specific conductance. Eight of the sites had the data needed to estimate annual dissolved-solids loads for water years (WYs) 1999 through 2010. During 1999–2010, the smallest dissolved-solids loads in the Virgin River were upstream of Dixie Hot Springs (59,900 ton/yr, on average) and the largest loads were downstream of Littlefield Springs (298,200 ton/yr, on average). Annual dissolved-solids loads were smallest during 2002–03, which was a period of below normal precipitation. Annual dissolved-solids loads were largest during 2005—a year that included a winter rain storm that resulted in flooding throughout much of the Virgin River Basin. An average seepage loss of 26.7 ft3/s was calculated from analysis of monthly average streamflow from July 1998 to September 2010 in the Virgin River for the reach that extends from just upstream of the Utah/Arizona State line to just above the Virgin River Gorge Narrows. Seepage losses from three river reaches

  17. Hot dry rock geothermal potential of Roosevelt Hot Springs area: review of data and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    East, J.

    1981-05-01

    The Roosevelt Hot Springs area in west-central Utah possesses several features indicating potential for hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal development. The area is characterized by extensional tectonics and a high regional heat flow of greater than 105 mW/m/sup 2/. The presence of silicic volcanic rocks as young as 0.5 to 0.8 Myr and totaling 14 km/sup 3/ in volume indicates underlying magma reservoirs may be the heat source for the thermal anomaly. Several hot dry wells have been drilled on the periphery of the geothermal field. Information obtained on three of these deep wells shows that they have thermal gradients of 55 to 60/sup 0/C/km and bottom in impermeable Tertiary granitic and Precambrian gneissic units. The Tertiary granite is the preferred HDR reservoir rock because Precambrian gneissic rocks possess a well-developed banded foliation, making fracture control over the reservoir more difficult. Based on a fairly conservative estimate of 160 km/sup 2/ for the thermal anomaly present at Roosevelt Hot Springs, the area designated favorable for HDR geothermal exploration may be on the order of seven times or more than the hydrogeothermal area currently under development.

  18. Hot spring drainage impact on fish communities around temperate estuaries in southwestern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Yamada

    2017-06-01

    New hydrological insights: Factor analysis results obtained using water quality data show that the scale of the hot spring drainage influence on rivers differs among rivers. The inflow of hot spring drainage into the rivers affects phytoplankton more than the inflow of domestic drainage, which increases the amount of phytoplankton. Furthermore, hot spring drainage creates a better habitat for Nile tilapia, a foreign species, by increasing food availability and water temperature.

  19. An environmental survey of Serpentine Hot Springs: Geology, hydrology, geochemistry, and microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Hasselbach, Linda; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Skorupa, Dana; McCleskey, R. Blaine; McDermott, Timothy R.

    2015-01-01

    Serpentine Hot Springs is the most visited site in the Bering Land Bridge National Preserve. The hot springs have traditionally been used by the Native people of the Seward Peninsula for religious, medicinal and spiritual purposes and continue to be used in many of the same ways by Native people today. The hot springs are also popular with non-Native users from Nome and other communities, recreational users and pilots from out of the area, and hunters and hikers.

  20. Carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water promotes skin wound healing in nude rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyan Liang

    Full Text Available Hot spring or hot spa bathing (Onsen is a traditional therapy for the treatment of certain ailments. There is a common belief that hot spring bathing has therapeutic effects for wound healing, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To examine this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of Nagano hot spring water (rich in carbonate ion, 42°C on the healing process of the skin using a nude rat skin wound model. We found that hot spring bathing led to an enhanced healing speed compared to both the unbathed and hot-water (42°C control groups. Histologically, the hot spring water group showed increased vessel density and reduced inflammatory cells in the granulation tissue of the wound area. Real-time RT-PCR analysis along with zymography revealed that the wound area of the hot spring water group exhibited a higher expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 compared to the two other control groups. Furthermore, we found that the enhanced wound healing process induced by the carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water was mediated by thermal insulation and moisture maintenance. Our results provide the evidence that carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water is beneficial for the treatment of skin wounds.

  1. Microbiology and geochemistry of Little Hot Creek, a hot spring environment in the Long Valley Caldera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, T J; Dodsworth, J A; Costa, K C; Shock, E L; Hedlund, B P

    2010-03-01

    A culture-independent community census was combined with chemical and thermodynamic analyses of three springs located within the Long Valley Caldera, Little Hot Creek (LHC) 1, 3, and 4. All three springs were approximately 80 degrees C, circumneutral, apparently anaerobic and had similar water chemistries. 16S rRNA gene libraries constructed from DNA isolated from spring sediment revealed moderately diverse but highly novel microbial communities. Over half of the phylotypes could not be grouped into known taxonomic classes. Bacterial libraries from LHC1 and LHC3 were predominantly species within the phyla Aquificae and Thermodesulfobacteria, while those from LHC4 were dominated by candidate phyla, including OP1 and OP9. Archaeal libraries from LHC3 contained large numbers of Archaeoglobales and Desulfurococcales, while LHC1 and LHC4 were dominated by Crenarchaeota unaffiliated with known orders. The heterogeneity in microbial populations could not easily be attributed to measurable differences in water chemistry, but may be determined by availability of trace amounts of oxygen to the spring sediments. Thermodynamic modeling predicted the most favorable reactions to be sulfur and nitrate respirations, yielding 40-70 kJ mol(-1) e(-) transferred; however, levels of oxygen at or below our detection limit could result in aerobic respirations yielding up to 100 kJ mol(-1) e(-) transferred. Important electron donors are predicted to be H(2), H(2)S, S(0), Fe(2+) and CH(4), all of which yield similar energies when coupled to a given electron acceptor. The results indicate that springs associated with the Long Valley Caldera contain microbial populations that show some similarities both to springs in Yellowstone and springs in the Great Basin.

  2. Biodiversity of thermophilic prokaryotes with hydrolytic activities in hot springs of Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka (Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kublanov, Ilya V; Perevalova, Anna A; Slobodkina, Galina B; Lebedinsky, Aleksander V; Bidzhieva, Salima K; Kolganova, Tatyana V; Kaliberda, Elena N; Rumsh, Lev D; Haertlé, Thomas; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A

    2009-01-01

    Samples of water from the hot springs of Uzon Caldera with temperatures from 68 to 87 degrees C and pHs of 4.1 to 7.0, supplemented with proteinaceous (albumin, casein, or alpha- or beta-keratin) or carbohydrate (cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose, chitin, or agarose) biological polymers, were filled with thermal water and incubated at the same sites, with the contents of the tubes freely accessible to the hydrothermal fluid. As a result, several enrichment cultures growing in situ on different polymeric substrates were obtained. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments obtained after PCR with Bacteria-specific primers showed that the bacterial communities developing on carbohydrates included the genera Caldicellulosiruptor and Dictyoglomus and that those developing on proteins contained members of the Thermotogales order. DGGE analysis performed after PCR with Archaea- and Crenarchaeota-specific primers showed that archaea related to uncultured environmental clones, particularly those of the Crenarchaeota phylum, were present in both carbohydrate- and protein-degrading communities. Five isolates obtained from in situ enrichments or corresponding natural samples of water and sediments represented the bacterial genera Dictyoglomus and Caldanaerobacter as well as new archaea of the Crenarchaeota phylum. Thus, in situ enrichment and consequent isolation showed the diversity of thermophilic prokaryotes competing for biopolymers in microbial communities of terrestrial hot springs.

  3. Novel thermostable amine transferases from hot spring metagenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrandi, Erica Elisa; Previdi, Alessandra; Bassanini, Ivan; Riva, Sergio; Peng, Xu; Monti, Daniela

    2017-06-01

    Hot spring metagenomes, prepared from samples collected at temperatures ranging from 55 to 95 °C, were submitted to an in silico screening aimed at the identification of novel amine transaminases (ATAs), valuable biocatalysts for the preparation of optically pure amines. Three novel (S)-selective ATAs, namely Is3-TA, It6-TA, and B3-TA, were discovered in the metagenome of samples collected from hot springs in Iceland and in Italy, cloned from the corresponding metagenomic DNAs and overexpressed in recombinant form in E. coli. Functional characterization of the novel ATAs demonstrated that they all possess a thermophilic character and are capable of performing amine transfer reactions using a broad range of donor and acceptor substrates, thus suggesting a good potential for practical synthetic applications. In particular, the enzyme B3-TA revealed to be exceptionally thermostable, retaining 85% of activity after 5 days of incubation at 80 °C and more than 40% after 2 weeks under the same condition. These results, which were in agreement with the estimation of an apparent melting temperature around 88 °C, make B3-TA, to the best of our knowledge, the most thermostable natural ATA described to date. This biocatalyst showed also a good tolerance toward different water-miscible and water-immiscible organic solvents. A detailed inspection of the homology-based structural model of B3-TA showed that the overall active site architecture of mesophilic (S)-selective ATAs was mainly conserved in this hyperthermophilic homolog. Additionally, a subfamily of B3-TA-like transaminases, mostly uncharacterized and all from thermophilic microorganisms, was identified and analyzed in terms of phylogenetic relationships and sequence conservation.

  4. Comparative metagenomics of eight geographically remote terrestrial hot springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menzel, Peter; Islin, Sóley Ruth; Rike, Anne Gunn

    2015-01-01

    . A comparison of the biodiversity and community composition generally showed a decrease in biodiversity with increasing temperature and decreasing pH. Another important factor shaping microbial diversity of the studied sites was the abundance of organic substrates. Several species of the Crenarchaeal order...

  5. Iron Homeostasis in Yellowstone National Park Hot Spring Microbial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I.; Tringe, S. G.; Franklin, H.; Bryant, D. A.; Klatt, C. G.; Sarkisova, S. A.; Guevara, M.

    2010-01-01

    It has been postulated that life may have originated on Earth, and possibly on Mars, in association with hydrothermal activity and high concentrations of ferrous iron. However, it is not clear how an iron-rich thermal hydrosphere could be hospitable to microbes, since reduced iron appears to stimulate oxidative stress in all domains of life and particularly in oxygenic phototrophs. Therefore, the study of microbial diversity in iron-depositing hot springs (IDHS) and the mechanisms of iron homeostasis and suppression of oxidative stress may help elucidate how Precambrian organisms could withstand the extremely high concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by interaction between environmental Fe(2+) and O2. Proteins and clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) involved in the maintenance of Fe homeostasis found in cyanobacteria (CB) inhabiting environments with high and low [Fe] were main target of this analysis. Preliminary results of the analysis suggest that the Chocolate Pots (CP) microbial community is heavily dominated by phototrophs from the cyanobacteria (CB), Chloroflexi and Chlorobi phyla, while the Mushroom Spring (MS) effluent channel harbors a more diverse community in which Chloroflexi are the dominant phototrophs. It is speculated that CB inhabiting IDHS have an increased tolerance to both high concentrations of Fe(2+) and ROS produced in the Fenton reaction. This hypothesis was explored via a comparative analysis of the diversity of proteins and COGs involved in Fe and redox homeostasis in the CP and MS microbiomes.

  6. Magnetotelluric models of the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wannamaker, P.E.; Ward, S.H.; Hohmann, G.W.; Sill, W.R.

    1980-09-01

    The Roosevelt Hot Springs (RHS) thermal area, which includes a hotwater-dominated fracture zone prospect, near the eastern margin of the Basin-Range tectonic province, conceivably possesses a whole family of resistivity structures that includes the following: deep hot brine reservoirs, deep-seated partially molten heat sources in the crust or upper mantle that drive the convective system, near-surface hydrothermal alteration zones, wet sedimentary fill in valleys, and a regional, apparently one-dimensional resistivity profile of the crust and upper mantle. This complex resistivity makeup, particular to RHS but probably similar to that at other geothermal areas in the Great Basin, must be treated as being fully three-dimensional (3-D). In an attempt to understand these structures, broadband (10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -2/ Hz) tensor magnetotelluric (MT) data were obtained including apparent resistivities (rho/sub a/), impedance phases (phi) and vertical magnetic field transfer functions for 93 sites in the vicinity of this resource area.

  7. Portrait of a Geothermal Spring, Hunter’s Hot Springs, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castenholz, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Although alkaline Hunter’s Hot Springs in southeastern Oregon has been studied extensively for over 40 years, most of these studies and the subsequent publications were before the advent of molecular methods. However, there are many field observations and laboratory experiments that reveal the major aspects of the phototrophic species composition within various physical and chemical gradients of these springs. Relatively constant temperature boundaries demark the upper boundary of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus at 73–74 °C (the world-wide upper limit for photosynthesis), and 68–70 °C the upper limit for Chloroflexus. The upper limit for the cover of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Geitlerinema (Oscillatoria) is at 54–55 °C, and the in situ lower limit at 47–48 °C for all three of these phototrophs due to the upper temperature limit for the grazing ostracod, Thermopsis. The in situ upper limit for the cyanobacteria Pleurocapsa and Calothrix is at ~47–48 °C, which are more grazer-resistant and grazer dependent. All of these demarcations are easily visible in the field. In addition, there is a biosulfide production in some sections of the springs that have a large impact on the microbiology. Most of the temperature and chemical limits have been explained by field and laboratory experiments. PMID:25633225

  8. Portrait of a Geothermal Spring, Hunter’s Hot Springs, Oregon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W. Castenholz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although alkaline Hunter’s Hot Springs in southeastern Oregon has been studied extensively for over 40 years, most of these studies and the subsequent publications were before the advent of molecular methods. However, there are many field observations and laboratory experiments that reveal the major aspects of the phototrophic species composition within various physical and chemical gradients of these springs. Relatively constant temperature boundaries demark the upper boundary of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus at 73–74 °C (the world-wide upper limit for photosynthesis, and 68–70 °C the upper limit for Chloroflexus. The upper limit for the cover of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Geitlerinema (Oscillatoria is at 54–55 °C, and the in situ lower limit at 47–48 °C for all three of these phototrophs due to the upper temperature limit for the grazing ostracod, Thermopsis. The in situ upper limit for the cyanobacteria Pleurocapsa and Calothrix is at ~47–48 °C, which are more grazer-resistant and grazer dependent. All of these demarcations are easily visible in the field. In addition, there is a biosulfide production in some sections of the springs that have a large impact on the microbiology. Most of the temperature and chemical limits have been explained by field and laboratory experiments.

  9. Field observations and management strategy for hot spring wastewater in Wulai area, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J Y; Chen, C F; Lei, F R; Hsieh, C D

    2010-01-01

    Hot springs are important centers for recreation and tourism. However, the pollution that may potentially be caused by hot spring wastewater has rarely been discussed. More than half of Taiwan's hot springs are located in areas where the water quality of water bodies is to be protected, and untreated wastewater could pollute the receiving water bodies. In this study, we investigate hot spring wastewater in the Wulai area, one of Taiwan's famous hot spring resorts. Used water from five hot spring hotels was sampled and ten sampling events were carried out to evaluate the changes in the quality of used water in different seasons, at different periods of the week, and from different types of hotels. The concentrations of different pollutants in hot spring wastewater were found to exhibit wide variations, as follows: COD, 10-250 mg/L; SS, N.D.-93 mg/L; NH(3)-N, 0.01-1.93 mg/L; TP, 0.01-0.45 mg/L; and E. coli, 10-27,500 CFU/100 mL. The quality of hot spring wastewater depends on the operation of public pools, because this affects the frequency of supplementary fresh water and the outflow volume. Two management strategies, namely, onsite treatment systems and individually packaged treatment equipment, are considered, and a multi-objective optimization model is used to determine the optimal strategy.

  10. Korarchaeota diversity, biogeography, and abundance in Yellowstone and Great Basin hot springs and ecological niche modeling based on machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Coleman, Robin L; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Ross, Christian A; Shock, Everett L; Williams, Amanda J; Hartnett, Hilairy E; McDonald, Austin I; Havig, Jeff R; Hedlund, Brian P

    2012-01-01

    Over 100 hot spring sediment samples were collected from 28 sites in 12 areas/regions, while recording as many coincident geochemical properties as feasible (>60 analytes). PCR was used to screen samples for Korarchaeota 16S rRNA genes. Over 500 Korarchaeota 16S rRNA genes were screened by RFLP analysis and 90 were sequenced, resulting in identification of novel Korarchaeota phylotypes and exclusive geographical variants. Korarchaeota diversity was low, as in other terrestrial geothermal systems, suggesting a marine origin for Korarchaeota with subsequent niche-invasion into terrestrial systems. Korarchaeota endemism is consistent with endemism of other terrestrial thermophiles and supports the existence of dispersal barriers. Korarchaeota were found predominantly in >55°C springs at pH 4.7-8.5 at concentrations up to 6.6×10(6) 16S rRNA gene copies g(-1) wet sediment. In Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Korarchaeota were most abundant in springs with a pH range of 5.7 to 7.0. High sulfate concentrations suggest these fluids are influenced by contributions from hydrothermal vapors that may be neutralized to some extent by mixing with water from deep geothermal sources or meteoric water. In the Great Basin (GB), Korarchaeota were most abundant at spring sources of pHgeochemical habitat of any high-level microbial taxon and the first application of a C-SVM to microbial ecology.

  11. Microbial Diversity, Distribution and Insight into Their Role in S, Fe and N Biogeochemical Cycling in the Hot Springs at Tengchong Geothermal Fields, Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Peng, X.; Zhang, L.

    2014-12-01

    Ten sediment samples collected from one acidic and three alkaline high temperature hot springs at Tengchong terrestrial geothermal field, Southwest China, were examined by the mineralogical, geochemical, and molecular biological techniques. The mineralogical and geochemical analyses suggested that these hot springs contain relative high concentrations of S, Fe and N chemical species. Specifically, the acidic hot spring was rich in Fe2+, SO42- and NH4+, while the alkaline hot springs were high in NO3-, H2S and S2O3-. Analyses of 16S rRNA sequences showed their bacterial communities were dominated by Aquificae, Cyanobacteria, Deinococci-Thermus, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Thermodesulfobacteria, while the archeal clone libraries were dominated by Desulfurococcales, Sulfolobales, and Thermoproteales. Among them, the potential S-, N- and Fe-related oxidizing and reducing prokaryote were presenting as a relative high proportion but with a great difference in diversity and metabolic approaches of each sample. These findings provide some significant implications for the microbial function in element biogeochemical cycles within the Tengchong geothermal environments: i). the distinct differences in abundance and diversity of microbial communities of geothermal sediments were related to in situ different physicochemical conditions; ii). the S-, N- and Fe-related prokaryote would take advantage of the strong chemical disequilibria in the hot springs; iii). in return, their metabolic activities can promote the transformation of S, Fe and N chemical species, thus founded the bases of biogeochemical cycles in the terrestrial geothermal environments.

  12. Bioprospecting hot spring metagenome: lipase for the production of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Rajesh Kumar; Kumar, Mohit; Sukla, Lala Behari; Subudhi, Enketeswara

    2017-02-01

    Screening of metagenomic library from Taptapani Hot Spring (Odisha) yielded a positive lipase clone (pUC-lip479). Sequence analysis showed an ORF (RK-lip479) of 416 amino acid residues which was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Optimum pH and temperature of purified lipase RK-lip479 were 8.0 and 65 °C, respectively, and found to be stable over a pH range of 7.0-9.0 and temperatures 55-75 °C. RK-lip479 could hydrolyse a wide range of 4-nitrophenyl esters (4-nitrophenyoctanoate, 4-nitrophenyldodecanoate, 4-nitrophenylpalmitate, 4-nitrophenylmyristate and 4-nitrophenylstearate), and maximum activity was observed with 4-nitrophenyldodecanoate. RK-lip479 was resistant to many organic solvents, especially isopropanol, DMSO, methanol, DMF, ethanol, dichloromethane, acetone, glycerol and ethyl acetate. RK-lip479 also showed activity in the presence of monovalent (Na+ and K+), divalent (Mg2+, Mn2+, Ca2+, Hg2+, Cu2+, Co2+, Zn2+ and Ag2+ ) and trivalent cations (Fe3+ and Al3+). Yield of biodiesel production was in the range of 40-76% using various waste oils with RK-Lip479 under optimized conditions.

  13. Applying spatial analysis techniques to assess the suitability of multipurpose uses of spring water in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2016-04-01

    The Jiaosi Hot Spring Region is located in northeastern Taiwan and is rich in geothermal springs. The geothermal development of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region dates back to the 18th century and currently, the spring water is processed for various uses, including irrigation, aquaculture, swimming, bathing, foot spas, and recreational tourism. Because of the proximity of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to the metropolitan area of Taipei City, the hot spring resources in this region attract millions of tourists annually. Recently, the Taiwan government is paying more attention to surveying the spring water temperatures in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region because of the severe spring water overexploitation, causing a significant decline in spring water temperatures. Furthermore, the temperature of spring water is a reliable indicator for exploring the occurrence and evolution of springs and strongly affects hydrochemical reactions, components, and magnitudes. The multipurpose uses of spring water can be dictated by the temperature of the water. Therefore, accurately estimating the temperature distribution of the spring water is critical in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to facilitate the sustainable development and management of the multipurpose uses of the hot spring resources. To evaluate the suitability of spring water for these various uses, this study spatially characterized the spring water temperatures of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region by using ordinary kriging (OK), sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS), and geographical information system (GIS). First, variogram analyses were used to determine the spatial variability of spring water temperatures. Next, OK and SGS were adopted to model the spatial distributions and uncertainty of the spring water temperatures. Finally, the land use (i.e., agriculture, dwelling, public land, and recreation) was determined and combined with the estimated distributions of the spring water temperatures using GIS. A suitable development strategy

  14. Boiling Water at Hot Creek - The Dangerous and Dynamic Thermal Springs in California's Long Valley Caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Christopher D.; Evans, William C.; Venezky, Dina Y.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Oliver, Lynn K.

    2007-01-01

    The beautiful blue pools and impressive boiling fountains along Hot Creek in east-central California have provided enjoyment to generations of visitors, but they have also been the cause of injury or death to some who disregarded warnings and fences. The springs and geysers in the stream bed and along its banks change location, temperature, and flow rates frequently and unpredictably. The hot springs and geysers of Hot Creek are visible signs of dynamic geologic processes in this volcanic region, where underground heat drives thermal spring activity.

  15. Thermal and chemical characteristics of hot water springs in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-15

    Feb 15, 2011 ... Keywords: thermal springs, South Africa, macro and micro-elements, geological controls. Introduction. A spring is .... features of the study areas in view of their impact on the physi- cal location of the springs and on .... rating the resultant solutions over open fires in clay pots' (Kent,. 1942: 35). According to ...

  16. Thermal and chemical characteristics of hot water springs in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The temperatures at source vary from 30°C to 67.5°C. The springs are associated with faults and impermeable dykes and are assumed to be of meteoric origin. The mineral composition of the ... the ultimate use of the thermal springs. Keywords: thermal springs, South Africa, macro and micro-elements, geological controls ...

  17. CRISPR Spacer Arrays for Detection of Viral Signatures from Acidic Hot Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, J. C.; Bateson, M. M.; Suciu, D.; Young, M. J.

    2010-04-01

    Viruses are the most abundant life-like entities on the planet Earth. Using CRISPR spacer sequences, we have developed a microarray-based approach to detecting viral signatures in the acidic hot springs of Yellowstone.

  18. Silica deposits on Mars with features resembling hot spring biosignatures at El Tatio in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Ruff, Steven W.; Farmer, Jack D.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars rover Spirit encountered outcrops and regolith composed of opaline silica (amorphous SiO2?nH2O) in an ancient volcanic hydrothermal setting in Gusev crater. An origin via either fumarole-related acid-sulfate leaching or precipitation from hot spring fluids was suggested previously. However, the potential significance of the characteristic nodular and mm-scale digitate opaline silica structures was not recognized. Here we report remarkably similar features within active hot spring/gey...

  19. Genome Sequence of a Novel Archaeal Rudivirus Recovered from a Mexican Hot Spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Servín-Garcidueñas, L; Peng, X; Garrett, R

    2013-01-01

    We report the consensus genome sequence of a novel GC-rich rudivirus, designated SMR1 (Sulfolobales Mexican rudivirus 1), assembled from a high-throughput sequenced environmental sample from a hot spring in Los Azufres National Park in western Mexico.......We report the consensus genome sequence of a novel GC-rich rudivirus, designated SMR1 (Sulfolobales Mexican rudivirus 1), assembled from a high-throughput sequenced environmental sample from a hot spring in Los Azufres National Park in western Mexico....

  20. Siliceous algal and bacterial stromatolites in hot spring and geyser effluents of yellowstone national park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, M R; Bauld, J; Brock, T D

    1972-10-27

    Growing algal and bacterial stromatolites composed of nearly amorphous silica occur around hot springs and geysers in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Some Precambrian stromatolites may be bacterial rather than algal, which has important implications in atmospheric evolution, since bacterial photo-synthesis does not release oxygen. Conophyton stromatolites were thought to have become extinct at the end of the Precambrian, but are still growing in hot spring effluents.

  1. Some considerations on flow, heat and chemical composition of Italian hot springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. YUHARA

    1963-06-01

    Full Text Available Tlie flow, the temperature and the chemical composition
    of Italian hot springs are eonsidered from the geopliysical and geochemical
    points of view. At Guardia Piemontese, the spring temperature deereases in
    the rainy season while the flow increases, the phase lag of this variation from
    tlie rain being about two months. This may suggest that the precipitation
    aliments the source of the hot spring itself or it causes an increase of groundwater
    mixing to tlie hot spring.
    In Italy, the hot water output of each hot spring is generally less
    than the quantity of corresponding recharged water from the precipitation
    in the basili, and tliis relation is also kept in the geothermal steam fleld
    of Larderello. The annual tliermal outputs of Italian hot springs are
    of order of IO14 cai at maximum. We can extraet geochemically some
    groups of water from the Italian minerai waters: thev are a high saline water
    being regarded as fossil or oil-field water, a water being similar to the sea
    water, a water of which main soluble component is CaS04, and a middle
    type between last two waters.

  2. Monitoring spring phenology with high temporal resolution terrestrial LiDAR measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calders, K.; Schenkels, T.; Bartholomeus, H.M.; Armston, J.; Verbesselt, J.; Herold, M.

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation phenology studies the timing of recurring seasonal dynamics and can be monitored through estimates of plant area index (PAI). Shifts in spring phenology are a key indicator for the effect of climate change, in particular the start of the growing season of forests. Terrestrial laser

  3. Microscopic physical biomarkers in carbonate hot springs: implications in the search for life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C. C.; Albert, F. G.; Chafetz, H. S.; Combie, J.; Graham, C. R.; Kieft, T. L.; Kivett, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Steele, A.; Taunton, A. E.; hide

    2000-01-01

    Physical evidence of life (physical biomarkers) from the deposits of carbonate hot springs were documented at the scale of microorganisms--submillimeter to submicrometer. The four moderate-temperature (57 to 72 degrees C), neutral pH springs reported on in this study, support diverse communities of bacteria adapted to specific physical and chemical conditions. Some of the microbes coexist with travertine deposits in endolithic communities. In other cases, the microbes are rapidly coated and destroyed by precipitates but leave distinctive mineral fabrics. Some microbes adapted to carbonate hot springs produce an extracellular polymeric substance which forms a three-dimensional matrix with living cells and cell remains, known as a biofilm. Silicon and iron oxides often coat the biofilm, leading to long-term preservation. Submicrometer mineralized spheres composed of calcium fluoride or silica are common in carbonate hot spring deposits. Sphere formation is biologically mediated, but the spheres themselves are apparently not fossils or microbes. Additionally, some microbes selectively weather mineral surfaces in distinctive patterns. Hot spring deposits have been cited as prime locations for exobiological exploration of Mars. The presence of preserved microscopic physical biomarkers at all four sites supports a strategy of searching for evidence of life in hot spring deposits on Mars.

  4. Quantification of Dynamic Water-Rock-Microbe Interactions in a Travertine-Depositing Hot Spring, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMott, L. M.; Sivaguru, M.; Fried, G.; Sanford, R. A.; Fouke, B. W.

    2014-12-01

    Filamentous microbial mats in a travertine-depositing hot spring at Mammoth Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park exert primary controls on the growth rate, mineralogy, and crystal fabric of calcium carbonate minerals (travertine) that precipitate in the spring. Filaments directly affect porosity and permeability of travertine by providing a structural framework consisting of "ropes" of microbial cells around which carbonate minerals precipitate, creating a uniquely biogenetic mineral fabric characterized by horizontal layers of large tubular pores. Nanometer scale microscopy reveals that these mineral fabrics may be directly tied to microbial activities, as aragonite crystals precipitating directly on filaments are smaller and more densely packed than crystals precipitating on extra-polymeric substances (EPS) between filaments. In order to more closely examine the processes which control calcium carbonate crystallization dynamics in this system, a high-resolution transect of water and travertine was sampled for geochemistry, microscopy, and microbial biomass along the primary flow path from upstream to downstream of Narrow Gauge spring at Mammoth Hot Springs. Travertine samples were analyzed for petrography using transmitted light, cathodoluminescence, and laser confocal microscopy to examine crystal morphology and associations with microbial filaments and provide insight on pore network distributions. Additionally, travertine and spring water geochemistry was also analyzed for major and trace ions, δ34S, δ13C, and δ18O, to identify any trends that may relate to crystallization rates, microbial biomass, or crystal habit. Total biomass was determined using dried weight. Water-rock-microbe interactions result in upstream-to-downstream variations in travertine crystal morphology and water chemistry that are directly related to systematic changes in microbial biomass and community respiration. Geochemical modeling lends insight into the biogeochemical reactions

  5. Microbial Distributions Across pH, Temperature, and Temporal Conditions in Hot Springs of Tengchong, Yunnan Providence, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, B. R.; Brodie, E. L.; Tom, L. M.; Dong, H.; Jiang, H.; Huang, Q.; Wang, S.; Hou, W.; Wu, G.; Peacock, J. P.; Huang, L.; Zhi, X.; Li, W.; Dodsworth, J. A.; Hedlund, B. P.; Zhang, C.

    2012-12-01

    Terrestrial geothermal springs contain a rich microbial diversity that has gained attention because of their potential analogue to early Earth habitats and biotechnological applications. Despite this attention, the distribution of thermophiles and the mechanisms that underlie those distributions have not been fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to identify microorganisms in hot springs in Tengchong, China, and to compare microbial composition across temperature, pH, and temporal gradients. The PhyloChip microarray detected 79 bacterial and 20 archaeal phyla. Canonical correspondence analysis was used to link the detected taxa to their distributions across temperature and pH conditions. The distributions of phyla (e.g. Aquificae, Crenarchaeota) identified by this analysis were consistent with previous culture-dependent and independent methods and provides new knowledge on the distributions of phyla that do not contain cultured representatives (e.g. candidate phyla OP11, GoM161, etc.). For example, low pH (85o C). Furthermore, temporal changes in the community composition were detected, with the rainy season containing higher diversity but lower relative abundance of archaea. These results expand our understanding of the distributions of hot spring microorganisms seasonally, and across environmental gradients such as temperature and pH.

  6. Effects of Physiochemical Factors on Prokaryotic Biodiversity in Malaysian Circumneutral Hot Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia S. Chan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia has a great number of hot springs, especially along the flank of the Banjaran Titiwangsa mountain range. Biological studies of the Malaysian hot springs are rare because of the lack of comprehensive information on their microbial communities. In this study, we report a cultivation-independent census to describe microbial communities in six hot springs. The Ulu Slim (US, Sungai Klah (SK, Dusun Tua (DT, Sungai Serai (SS, Semenyih (SE, and Ayer Hangat (AH hot springs exhibit circumneutral pH with temperatures ranging from 43°C to 90°C. Genomic DNA was extracted from environmental samples and the V3–V4 hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA genes were amplified, sequenced, and analyzed. High-throughput sequencing analysis showed that microbial richness was high in all samples as indicated by the detection of 6,334–26,244 operational taxonomy units. In total, 59, 61, 72, 73, 65, and 52 bacterial phyla were identified in the US, SK, DT, SS, SE, and AH hot springs, respectively. Generally, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria dominated the bacterial communities in all hot springs. Archaeal communities mainly consisted of Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota, and Parvarchaeota. In beta diversity analysis, the hot spring microbial memberships were clustered primarily on the basis of temperature and salinity. Canonical correlation analysis to assess the relationship between the microbial communities and physicochemical variables revealed that diversity patterns were best explained by a combination of physicochemical variables, rather than by individual abiotic variables such as temperature and salinity.

  7. Effects of Physiochemical Factors on Prokaryotic Biodiversity in Malaysian Circumneutral Hot Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chia S.; Chan, Kok-Gan; Ee, Robson; Hong, Kar-Wai; Urbieta, María S.; Donati, Edgardo R.; Shamsir, Mohd S.; Goh, Kian M.

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia has a great number of hot springs, especially along the flank of the Banjaran Titiwangsa mountain range. Biological studies of the Malaysian hot springs are rare because of the lack of comprehensive information on their microbial communities. In this study, we report a cultivation-independent census to describe microbial communities in six hot springs. The Ulu Slim (US), Sungai Klah (SK), Dusun Tua (DT), Sungai Serai (SS), Semenyih (SE), and Ayer Hangat (AH) hot springs exhibit circumneutral pH with temperatures ranging from 43°C to 90°C. Genomic DNA was extracted from environmental samples and the V3–V4 hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA genes were amplified, sequenced, and analyzed. High-throughput sequencing analysis showed that microbial richness was high in all samples as indicated by the detection of 6,334–26,244 operational taxonomy units. In total, 59, 61, 72, 73, 65, and 52 bacterial phyla were identified in the US, SK, DT, SS, SE, and AH hot springs, respectively. Generally, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria dominated the bacterial communities in all hot springs. Archaeal communities mainly consisted of Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota, and Parvarchaeota. In beta diversity analysis, the hot spring microbial memberships were clustered primarily on the basis of temperature and salinity. Canonical correlation analysis to assess the relationship between the microbial communities and physicochemical variables revealed that diversity patterns were best explained by a combination of physicochemical variables, rather than by individual abiotic variables such as temperature and salinity. PMID:28729863

  8. Metagenomic Study of Iron Homeostasis in Iron Depositing Hot Spring Cyanobacterial Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I.; Franklin H.; Tringe, S. G.; Klatt, C. G.; Bryant, D. A.; Sarkisova, S. A.; Guevara, M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: It is not clear how an iron-rich thermal hydrosphere could be hospitable to cyanobacteria, since reduced iron appears to stimulate oxidative stress in all domains of life and particularly in oxygenic phototrophs. Therefore, metagenomic study of cyanobacterial community in iron-depositing hot springs may help elucidate how oxygenic prokaryotes can withstand the extremely high concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by interaction between environmental Fe2+ and O2. Method: Anchor proteins from various species of cyanobacteria and some anoxygenic phototrophs were selected on the basis of their hypothetical role in Fe homeostasis and the suppression of oxidative stress and were BLASTed against the metagenomes of iron-depositing Chocolate Pots and freshwater Mushroom hot springs. Results: BLASTing proteins hypothesized to be involved in Fe homeostasis against the microbiomes from the two springs revealed that iron-depositing hot spring has a greater abundance of defensive proteins such as bacterioferritin comigratory protein (Bcp) and DNA-binding Ferritin like protein (Dps) than a fresh-water hot spring. One may speculate that the abundance of Bcp and Dps in an iron-depositing hot spring is connected to the need to suppress oxidative stress in bacteria inhabiting environments with high Fe2+ concnetration. In both springs, Bcp and Dps are concentrated within the cyanobacterial fractions of the microbial community (regardless of abundance). Fe3+ siderophore transport (from the transport system permease protein query) may be less essential to the microbial community of CP because of the high [Fe]. Conclusion: Further research is needed to confirm that these proteins are unique to photoautotrophs such as those living in iron-depositing hot spring.

  9. Applying spatial analysis techniques to assess the suitability of multipurpose uses of spring water in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin; Huang, Han-Chen

    2017-07-01

    The Jiaosi Hot Spring Region is one of the most famous tourism destinations in Taiwan. The spring water is processed for various uses, including irrigation, aquaculture, swimming, bathing, foot spas, and recreational tourism. Moreover, the multipurpose uses of spring water can be dictated by the temperature of the water. To evaluate the suitability of spring water for these various uses, this study spatially characterized the spring water temperatures of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region by integrating ordinary kriging (OK), sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS), and Geographic information system (GIS). First, variogram analyses were used to determine the spatial variability of spring water temperatures. Next, OK and SGS were adopted to model the spatial uncertainty and distributions of the spring water temperatures. Finally, the land use (i.e., agriculture, dwelling, public land, and recreation) was determined using GIS and combined with the estimated distributions of the spring water temperatures. A suitable development strategy for the multipurpose uses of spring water is proposed according to the integration of the land use and spring water temperatures. The study results indicate that the integration of OK, SGS, and GIS is capable of characterizing spring water temperatures and the suitability of multipurpose uses of spring water. SGS realizations are more robust than OK estimates for characterizing spring water temperatures compared to observed data. Furthermore, current land use is almost ideal in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region according to the estimated spatial pattern of spring water temperatures.

  10. Nanoarchaeota, Their Sulfolobales Host, and Nanoarchaeota Virus Distribution across Yellowstone National Park Hot Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson-McGee, Jacob H; Field, Erin K; Bateson, Mary; Rooney, Colleen; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Young, Mark J

    2015-11-01

    Nanoarchaeota are obligate symbionts with reduced genomes first described from marine thermal vent environments. Here, both community metagenomics and single-cell analysis revealed the presence of Nanoarchaeota in high-temperature (∼90°C), acidic (pH ≈ 2.5 to 3.0) hot springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) (United States). Single-cell genome analysis of two cells resulted in two nearly identical genomes, with an estimated full length of 650 kbp. Genome comparison showed that these two cells are more closely related to the recently proposed Nanobsidianus stetteri from a more neutral YNP hot spring than to the marine Nanoarchaeum equitans. Single-cell and catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) analysis of environmental hot spring samples identified the host of the YNP Nanoarchaeota as a Sulfolobales species known to inhabit the hot springs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Nanoarchaeota are widespread in acidic to near neutral hot springs in YNP. An integrated viral sequence was also found within one Nanoarchaeota single-cell genome and further analysis of the purified viral fraction from environmental samples indicates that this is likely a virus replicating within the YNP Nanoarchaeota. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Sulfolobus islandicus meta-populations in Yellowstone National Park hot springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kate M; Kouris, Angela; England, Whitney; Anderson, Rika E; McCleskey, R Blaine; Nordstrom, D Kirk; Whitaker, Rachel J

    2017-06-01

    Abiotic and biotic forces shape the structure and evolution of microbial populations. We investigated forces that shape the spatial and temporal population structure of Sulfolobus islandicus by comparing geochemical and molecular analysis from seven hot springs in five regions sampled over 3 years in Yellowstone National Park. Through deep amplicon sequencing, we uncovered 148 unique alleles at two loci whose relative frequency provides clear evidence for independent populations in different hot springs. Although geography controls regional geochemical composition and population differentiation, temporal changes in population were not explained by corresponding variation in geochemistry. The data suggest that the influence of extinction, bottleneck events and/or selective sweeps within a spring and low migration between springs shape these populations. We suggest that hydrologic events such as storm events and surface snowmelt runoff destabilize smaller hot spring environments with smaller populations and result in high variation in the S. islandicus population over time. Therefore, physical abiotic features such as hot spring size and position in the landscape are important factors shaping the stability and diversity of the S. islandicus meta-population within Yellowstone National Park. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Sulfolobus islandicus meta-populations in Yellowstone National Park hot springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kate M.; Kouris, Angela; England, Whitney; Anderson, Rika; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Whitaker, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Abiotic and biotic forces shape the structure and evolution of microbial populations. We investigated forces that shape the spatial and temporal population structure of Sulfolobus islandicus by comparing geochemical and molecular analysis from seven hot springs in five regions sampled over 3 years in Yellowstone National Park. Through deep amplicon sequencing, we uncovered 148 unique alleles at two loci whose relative frequency provides clear evidence for independent populations in different hot springs. Although geography controls regional geochemical composition and population differentiation, temporal changes in population were not explained by corresponding variation in geochemistry. The data suggest that the influence of extinction, bottleneck events and/or selective sweeps within a spring and low migration between springs shape these populations. We suggest that hydrologic events such as storm events and surface snowmelt runoff destabilize smaller hot spring environments with smaller populations and result in high variation in the S. islandicus population over time. Therefore, physical abiotic features such as hot spring size and position in the landscape are important factors shaping the stability and diversity of the S. islandicus meta-population within Yellowstone National Park.

  13. Thermal and chemical characteristics of hot water springs in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-15

    Feb 15, 2011 ... features of the study areas in view of their impact on the physi- cal location of ... use, ownership and name and some of the springs could only be identified by ..... Area Sustainable Livelihoods (GUN: 2054058) in 2004, as well.

  14. TOURISM PUBLIC POLICY AND TERRITORY IN THE THERMAL REGION OF URUGUAY – CASE STUDY: GUAVIYU HOT SPRINGS (1957-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Quintana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the transformation of space in touristic territory (touristification and the stages of tourism through which Guaviyú Hot Springs (Paysandu, Uruguay went. The role of governmental tourism administration strongly conditioned the dynamics and evolution of Guaviyu Hot Springs. The intervention of Public Administration has been a key historical and spatial factor for the development of tourism in the hot springs center.

  15. Korarchaeota diversity, biogeography, and abundance in Yellowstone and Great Basin hot springs and ecological niche modeling based on machine learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin L Miller-Coleman

    Full Text Available Over 100 hot spring sediment samples were collected from 28 sites in 12 areas/regions, while recording as many coincident geochemical properties as feasible (>60 analytes. PCR was used to screen samples for Korarchaeota 16S rRNA genes. Over 500 Korarchaeota 16S rRNA genes were screened by RFLP analysis and 90 were sequenced, resulting in identification of novel Korarchaeota phylotypes and exclusive geographical variants. Korarchaeota diversity was low, as in other terrestrial geothermal systems, suggesting a marine origin for Korarchaeota with subsequent niche-invasion into terrestrial systems. Korarchaeota endemism is consistent with endemism of other terrestrial thermophiles and supports the existence of dispersal barriers. Korarchaeota were found predominantly in >55°C springs at pH 4.7-8.5 at concentrations up to 6.6×10(6 16S rRNA gene copies g(-1 wet sediment. In Yellowstone National Park (YNP, Korarchaeota were most abundant in springs with a pH range of 5.7 to 7.0. High sulfate concentrations suggest these fluids are influenced by contributions from hydrothermal vapors that may be neutralized to some extent by mixing with water from deep geothermal sources or meteoric water. In the Great Basin (GB, Korarchaeota were most abundant at spring sources of pH<7.2 with high particulate C content and high alkalinity, which are likely to be buffered by the carbonic acid system. It is therefore likely that at least two different geological mechanisms in YNP and GB springs create the neutral to mildly acidic pH that is optimal for Korarchaeota. A classification support vector machine (C-SVM trained on single analytes, two analyte combinations, or vectors from non-metric multidimensional scaling models was able to predict springs as Korarchaeota-optimal or sub-optimal habitats with accuracies up to 95%. To our knowledge, this is the most extensive analysis of the geochemical habitat of any high-level microbial taxon and the first application of a C

  16. Control of temperature on microbial community structure in hot springs of the Tibetan Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Wang

    Full Text Available The Tibetan Plateau in Northwest China hosts a number of hot springs that represent a biodiversity hotspot for thermophiles, yet their diversity and relationship to environmental conditions are poorly explored in these habitats. In this study we investigated microbial diversity and community composition in 13 Tibetan hot springs with a wide range of temperatures (22.1-75°C and other geochemical conditions by using the 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing approach. Bacteria (10(8-10(11 copy/g; 42 bacterial phyla in Tibetan hot springs were more abundant and far more diverse than Archaea (10(7-10(10 copy/g; 5 archaeal phyla. The dominant bacterial phyla systematically varied with temperature. Moderate temperatures (75-66°C favored Aquificae, GAL35, and novel Bacteria, whereas low temperatures (60-22.1°C selected for Deinococcus-Thermus, Cyanobacteria, and Chloroflexi. The relative abundance of Aquificae was correlated positively with temperature, but the abundances of Deinococcus-Thermus, Cyanobacteria, and Chloroflexi were negatively correlated with temperature. Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi were abundant in Tibetan hot springs and their abundances were positively correlated at low temperatures (55-43°C but negatively correlated at moderate temperatures (75-55°C. These correlation patterns suggest a complex physiological relationship between these two phyla. Most archaeal sequences were related to Crenarchaeota with only a few related to Euryarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota. Despite the fact that microbial composition in Tibetan hot springs was strongly shaped by temperature, microbial diversity (richness, evenness and Shannon diversity was not significantly correlated with temperature change. The results of this study expand our current understanding of microbial ecology in Tibetan hot springs and provide a basis for a global comparison.

  17. Catalog of known hot springs and thermal place names for Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, R.C.

    1986-08-01

    Thermal place names were compiled from all 1:50,000 topographic quadrangle maps for the Republic of Honduras as of July 1986, from other published maps, and from several sources of unpublished data. Known hot spring sites include those visited by Empresa Nacional de Energia Electrica (Honduras) geologists, sites visited by Los Alamos geologists in 1985, and other sites known to R.C. Finch. The number of known hot spring sites in Honduras with temperatures >30/sup 0/C is 125. In addition, 56 thermal sites are suspected on the basis of thermal place names. The total number of geothermal sites, known and suspected, is 181.

  18. Thermopolis hydrothermal system with an analysis of Hot Springs State Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinckley, B.S.; Heasler, H.P.; King, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    Thermopolis is the site of Hot Springs State Park, where numerous hot springs produce nearly 3000 gallons per minute (gpm) of 130/sup 0/F (54/sup 0/C) water. The University of Wyoming Geothermal Resource Assessment Group has studied a 1700-square-mile area centered roughly on the State Park. Available literature, bottom-hole temperatures from over 400 oil well logs, 62 oil field drill stem tests, the Wyoming State Engineer's water well files, 60 formation water analyses, thermal logs of 19 holes, and field investigations of geology and hydrology form the basis of this report.

  19. Submarine hot springs and the origin of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stanley L.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    1988-01-01

    The popular hypothesis that life originally arose in hydrothermal vents at oceanic ridge crests is examined. It is shown that the high temperatures in the vents would not allow synthesis of organic compounds, but would decompose them, unless the exposure time at vent temperature was short. Even if the essential organic molecules were available in the hot hydrothermal waters, the subsequent steps of polymerization and the conversion of these polymers into the first organisms would not occur as the vent waters were quenched to the colder temperatures of the primitive oceans.

  20. [From the history of the Split hot springs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlak, T

    2000-01-01

    The sulphurous waters of Split have been in traditional medicinal use for a full 17 centuries, ever since the construction of the Palace of the Roman Emperor Diocletian. The "Sulphur Baths" of Split (Croatia) reached their greatest recognition and popularity at the beginning of the 20th century, when the sulphurous spring was declared to be the source of some of the highest quality medicinal mineral water in Europe. However, interest in balneology and climatotherapy, hitherto so popular in the area, subsequently declined. The "Sulphur Baths" gradually lost their importance and medical use of the sulphurous water gave way to modern forms of physical therapy. The beginning of the 1990s marked the end of commercial and every other use of the mineral water in Split.

  1. Linking geochemistry to microbial ecology in hot springs: examples from southeastern Asia (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, H.; Jiang, H.; Hou, W.; Wang, S.; Huang, Q.; Briggs, B. R.; Huang, L.; Hust, W.; Hedlund, B. P.; Zhang, C.; Hartnett, H. E.; Dijkstra, P.; Hungate, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Despite recent advances in our understanding of microbial ecology in high temperature environments, important questions remain as to how geochemical conditions shape microbial ecology in hot springs. In the past three years, we have surveyed a large number of hot springs in three regions of southeastern Asia: Tengchong of Yunnan Province, China; Tibet in China; and the Philippines. These springs possess large gradients in pH (2.5-9.4), temperature (22.1-93.6oC), and water and sediment geochemistry. Within each region, these geochemical conditions are important in shaping microbial community structure and diversity. For example, in the Rehai geothermal field of Tengchong, dominant taxa within the dominant bacterial phylum Aquificae and archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota depended on pH (2.5-9.4), temperature (55.1-93.6), Na-Cl-HCO3 water type and silicate rock lithology. In the Ruidian geothermal region, springs with circum-neutral pH (6.71-7.29), moderate temperature (50-82oC), Na-HCO3 water type, and carbonate-dominated lithology, Hydrogenobacter of Aquificae dominated spring water, but the microbial community in sediments was diverse with abundant novel groups. In Tibet springs with low-moderate temperature (22-75oC) and circum-neutral pH (7.2-8.1), temperature appeared to be the most important factor in determining diversity and community structure. In acidic hot springs of the Philippines (Temperature: 60-92°C, pH 3.72-6.58), microbial communities were predominated by those related to sulfur metabolism, which are different from those in acidic springs of Tengchong. When these three regions are considered together, environmental conditions play a major role in controlling microbial community structure, but geographical location appears to be an important factor as well.

  2. MICROBIAL POPULATION OF HOT SPRING WATERS IN ESKİŞEHİR/TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalan YILMAZ SARIÖZLÜ

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate and find out the bacterial community of hot spring waters in Eskişehir, Turkey, 7 hot spring water samples were collected from 7 different hot springs. All samples were inoculated using four different media (nutrient agar, water yeast extract agar, trypticase soy agar, starch casein agar. After incubation at 50 ºC for 14 days, all bacterial colonies were counted and purified. Gram reaction, catalase and oxidase properties of all isolates were determined and investigated by BIOLOG, VITEK and automated ribotyping system (RiboPrinter. The resistance of these bacteriawas examined against ampiciline, gentamisine, trimethoprime-sulphamethoxazole and tetracycline. As a result, heat resistant pathogenic microorganisms in addition to human normal flora were determined in hot spring waters (43-50 ºC in investigated area. Ten different species belong to 6 genera were identified as Alysiella filiformis, Bordetella bronchiseptica, B. pertussis, Molexalla caprae, M. caviae, M. cuniculi, M. phenylpyruvica, Roseomonas fauriae, Delftia acidovorans and Pseudomonas taetrolens.

  3. Igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Serpentine Hot Springs area, Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, T.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes the geology of the Serpentine Hot Springs area of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, emphasizing the petrology, petrography, and mapped relations of lithologic units within a composite, epizonal biotite granite stock and the regionally metamorphosed metasedimentary rocks that surround it. Geologic relations are combined with reconnaissance geochemical data to define mineralized zones and their spatial relations to the granite stock.

  4. Isolation of Free-Living Amoebae from Sarein Hot Springs in Ardebil Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Badirzadeh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free-living amoebae (FLA are a group of ubiquitous protozoan, which are distrib­uted in the natural and artificial environment sources. The main aim of the current study was to identify the presence of FLA in the recreational hot springs of Sarein in Ardebil Province of Iran.Methods: Seven recreational hot springs were selected in Sarein City and 28 water samples (four from each hot spring were collected using 500 ml sterile plastic bottles during three month. Filtra­tion of water samples was performed, and culture was done in non-nutrient agar medium enriched with Escherichia coli. Identification of the FLA was based on morphological criteria of cysts and trophozoites. Genotype identification of Acanthamoeba positive samples were also per­formed using sequencing based method.Results: Overall, 12 out of 28 (42.9% samples were positive for FLA which Acanthamoeba and Vahlkampfiid amoebae were found in one (3.6% and 11 (39.3% samples, respectively. Se­quence analysis of the single isolate of Acanthamoeba revealed potentially pathogenic T4 geno­type corresponding to A. castellanii.Conclusion: Contamination of hot springs to FLA, such as Acanthamoeba T4 genotype (A. castel­lanii and Vahlkampfiid amoebae, could present a sanitary risk for high risk people, and health authorities must be aware of FLA presence.

  5. Formation and Fate of Fermentation Products in Hot Spring Cyanobacterial Mats

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Karen L.; Tayne, Timothy A.; Ward, David M.

    1987-01-01

    The fate of representative fermentation products (acetate, propionate, butyrate, lactate, and ethanol) in hot spring cyanobacterial mats was investigated. The major fate during incubations in the light was photoassimilation by filamentous bacteria resembling Chloroflexus aurantiacus. Some metabolism of all compounds occurred under dark aerobic conditions. Under dark anaerobic conditions, only lactate was oxidized extensively to carbon dioxide. Extended preincubation under dark anaerobic condi...

  6. Use of Chloroflexus-Specific Antiserum To Evaluate Filamentous Bacteria of a Hot Spring Microbial Mat

    OpenAIRE

    Tayne, Timothy A.; Cutler, Jim E.; Ward, David M.

    1987-01-01

    Polyclonal antiserum prepared against Chloroflexus aurantiacus reacted with all Chloroflexus strains examined but not with other morphologically or physiologically similar bacteria. Only one of three filament types in a natural hot spring cyanobacterial mat reacted with this antiserum. Reacting filaments remained antigenically positive deep within the mat in material estimated to be several years old.

  7. Microbial Ecology and Resultant Biomarkers Preserved in a Terrestrial Analog of a Martian Spring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giska, J. R.; Moreau, J.; Rowland, J.; Cervini-Silva, J.; Manga, M.; Banfield, J.

    2005-12-01

    On Mars, groundwater discharge, heated by geological processes at depth, represents a likely late-stage reservoir of liquid water available for biological activity. Photo-geological observations of the Martian surface support geologically, relatively young groundwater discharge via sapping and/or fault-controlled springs. Our approach to the investigation of the possible biological potential of such reservoirs has been to characterize analogous, terrestrial spring systems. Our study site is a fault-driven, mesophilic, sulfur spring system between the Hayward and Calaveras faults in California. We have examined hydro-geological variables, nutrient availability for microbial metabolism, differences in extant community structure, and the seasonal changes associated with these variables. The springs under study also precipitate calcite and form large mounds, offering the potential to evaluate the preservation of biosignatures. The geochemistry and isotopic composition (2H/18O) of spring waters indicate that the various springs discharge waters represent differing amounts of mixing between deeper, connate water with shallow meteoric inputs. Clone libraries of 16S rDNA and fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments suggest that oxidation of sulfur compounds by Epsilon- and Gammaproteobacteria is a significant process occurring in the springs, and lipid analyses support these observations. While the studied springs undergo seasonal shifts in their respective geochemistries, only the microbial community at one of the springs elicits a commensurate seasonal variation. During the dry season, the community at this spring shifts to a red, plaque-like biofilm and iron-cycling organisms from the Alphaproteobacteria class increase significantly in their relative abundance within the community. Preliminary chemical analysis of the calcite accretions indicates abundant organic carbon, and thus, suggests a possible record of prior microbial ecosystems. On-going investigations of

  8. Chemical analyses of waters from geysers, hot springs, and pools in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming from 1974 to 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J.M.; Yadav, S.

    1979-01-01

    Waters from geysers, hot springs, and pools of Yellowstone National Park have been analyzed. We report 422 complete major ion analyses from 330 different locations of geysers, hot springs, and pools, collected from 1974 to 1978. Many of the analyses from Upper, Midway, Lower, and Norris Geyser Basin are recollections of features previously reported.

  9. Caldimonas meghalayensis sp. nov., a novel thermophilic betaproteobacterium isolated from a hot spring of Meghalaya in northeast India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rakshak, K.; Ravinder, K.; Nupur, T.N.R.; Srinivas, P.; Kumar, A.

    While studying the microbial diversity of hot springs of North-east India we isolated a strain AK31T from the Jakrem hot spring of Meghalaya. The strain formed light yellow colonies on nutrient agar and was Gram negative, non spore...

  10. Hot Spring Microbial Community Composition, Morphology, and Carbon Fixation: Implications for Interpreting the Ancient Rock Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb G. Schuler

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Microbial communities in hydrothermal systems exist in a range of macroscopic morphologies including stromatolites, mats, and filaments. The architects of these structures are typically autotrophic, serving as primary producers. Structures attributed to microbial life have been documented in the rock record dating back to the Archean including recent reports of microbially-related structures in terrestrial hot springs that date back as far as 3.5 Ga. Microbial structures exhibit a range of complexity from filaments to more complex mats and stromatolites and the complexity impacts preservation potential. As a result, interpretation of these structures in the rock record relies on isotopic signatures in combination with overall morphology and paleoenvironmental setting. However, the relationships between morphology, microbial community composition, and primary productivity remain poorly constrained. To begin to address this gap, we examined community composition and carbon fixation in filaments, mats, and stromatolites from the Greater Obsidian Pool Area (GOPA of the Mud Volcano Area, Yellowstone National Park, WY. We targeted morphologies dominated by bacterial phototrophs located in close proximity within the same pool which are exposed to similar geochemistry as well as bacterial mat, algal filament and chemotrophic filaments from nearby springs. Our results indicate (i natural abundance δ13C values of biomass from these features (−11.0 to −24.3‰ are similar to those found in the rock record; (ii carbon uptake rates of photoautotrophic communities is greater than chemoautotrophic; (iii oxygenic photosynthesis, anoxygenic photosynthesis, and chemoautotrophy often contribute to carbon fixation within the same morphology; and (iv increasing phototrophic biofilm complexity corresponds to a significant decrease in rates of carbon fixation—filaments had the highest uptake rates whereas carbon fixation by stromatolites was significantly lower

  11. [Abundances of ammonia-oxidizing archaeal accA and amoA genes in response to NO2 - and NO3 - of hot springs in Yunnan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhaoqi; Wang, Li; Zhou, Enmin; Wang, Fengping; Xiao, Xiang; Zhang, Chuanlun; Li, Wenjun

    2014-12-04

    Yunnan hot springs have highly diverseammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), which are autotrophic and can fix CO2 using the 3-hydroxypropionate/ 4-hydroxybutyrate (HP/HD) pathway. In this study, we investigated the abundances of prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene and archaeal accA and amoA genes in the sediments of hot springs of Yunnan Province, and analysed the correlations between the above gene abundances and environmental factors. We selected the sediments of twenty representative hot springs, and detected the gene abundances by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The principal component analysis (PCA) and the Mantel test in the R software package were performed for the correlations of gene abundance and environmental variables. The bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene abundances were from 6.6 x 10(7) to 4.19 x 10(11) and from 1.27 x 10(6) to 1.51 x 10(11) copies/g sediment, respectively; Archaeal accA and amoA genes were from 8.89 x 10(3) to 6.49 x 10(5) and from 7.64 x 10(3) to 4.36 x 10(5) copies/g sediment, respectively. The results of mantel test showed that accA gene was significantly (R = 0.98, P abundances of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes and the ratio between them varied significantly among Yunnan hot springs. The archaealaccA and amoA genes showed significant correlation with each other, validating our previous finding that AOA in terrestrial hot springs might acquire energy from ammonia oxidation coupled with CO2 fixation using the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate pathway.

  12. Utah State Prison Space Heating with Geothermal Heat - Resource Assessment Report Crystal Hot Springs Geothermal Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-12-01

    Reported herein is a summary of work conducted under the Resource Assessment Program-Task 2, for the Utah State Prison Geothermal Space Heating Project at Crystal Hot Springs, Draper, Utah. Assessment of the geothermal resource in and around the Utah State Prison property began in october of 1979 with an aeromagnetic and gravity survey. These tasks were designed to provide detailed subsurface structural information in the vicinity of the thermal springs so that an informed decision as to the locations of test and production holes could be made. The geophysical reconnaissance program provided the structural details needed to focus the test drilling program on the most promising production targets available to the State Prison. The subsequent drilling and well testing program was conducted to provide information to aid fin the siting and design of a production well and preliminary design activities. As part of the resource assessment portion of the Utah State Prison Geothermal Project, a program for periodic geophysical monitoring of the Crystal Hot Springs resource was developed. The program was designed to enable determination of baseline thermal, hydraulic, and chemical characteristics in the vicinity of Crystal Hot Springs prior to production and to provide a history of these characteristics during resource development.

  13. Characteristics and Origins of Hot Springs in the Tatun Volcano Group in Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Mei Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper systematically surveyed distribution and field occurrences of 13 hot springs as well as geochemical investigation on the geothermal area of the Tatun Volcano Group (TVG. According to Piper diagrams, pH values, field occurrences and water-rock interactions, these hot springs can be classified into three types: (1 Type I, SO42- acidic water where the reservoir is located in the Wuchishan Formation; (2 Type II, HCO3- a near neutral spring where waters originate from the volcanic terrane (andesite; and (3 Type III, Cl- -rich acidic water where waters emanate from shallower Wuchishan Formation. In terms of isotopic ratio, δD and δ18O values, two groups of hot spring can be recognized. One is far away from the meteoric water line of the Tatun area with values ranging between -26.2‰ and -3.5‰, and from -3.2‰ to 1.6‰, respectively. However, another close to the meteoric water line of the Tatun area is between -28.4‰ and -13.6‰, and from -5.5‰ to -4.2‰, respectively. In addition, the δ34S value of thermal waters can also be distinguished into two groups, one ranging from 26.1‰ to 28.5‰, and the other between 0.8‰ and 7.8‰. Based on field occurrences and geochemical characteristics, a model has been proposed to illustrate the origin of these hot springs.

  14. Microbial mercury methylation in the Ngawha hot springs and the abandoned Puhipuhi mine, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gionfriddo, C. M.; Ogorek, J. M.; Thompson, C. D.; Power, J.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Stott, M. B.; Moreau, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Hot springs and fumaroles release significant quantities of aqueous and gaseous mercury into the environment. Yet few studies have focused on the biogeochemical cycling of mercury in geothermal settings. In this study, we investigated the abundance, speciation, and partitioning of mercury in geothermal waters and sediments in the Ngawha geothermal field and Puhipuhi region of New Zealand. The Ngawha geothermal field contains over 20 hot springs with variable chemistry (pH 2.9 - 7.1, ORP 15.7 to 249.1 mV, 22-40.5°C), from which approximately 530 kg of mercury is released annually from deep geological sources, most of which remains in the local surficial waters and sediments. Puhipuhi is the site of an historic mercury mining operation located about 22 miles southeast of Ngawha. The mercury-bearing geological deposits at Ngawha and Puhipuhi were formed over the same period and are connected to the young basalt flows of the region. Puhipuhi no longer hosts active hot springs, but is transected by a stream that varies in chemistry (pH 5.1-7.2, ORP -3.8-115.3 mV, ~22°C). Total- and methylmercury concentrations were measured using ICP-MS and CVAFS. Preliminary analyses of dissolved total- and methylmercury levels across the hot springs ranged from 5-10,000 ng/L and 0.6-23.5 ng/L, respectively, indicating a wide range of environmental conditions exist and may support a diverse array of microbial communities. Due to their high mercury content, geothermal settings may hold clues about the evolution of microbial mercury resistance (detoxification response to environmental Hg), as the ancestral mer operon evolved in thermophilic bacteria such as Thermus thermophilus and Methylacidophilum infernorum. Thus, the Ngawha hot springs provide an opportunity to investigate the evolution of microbial responses to mercury. Adjacent sites often display radically different chemical traits, with implications for changes in microbial community structure and genetic responses to mercury

  15. Aerobic and Anaerobic Oxidation of Organic Acids in Yellowstone Hot Spring Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windman, T. O.; Zolotova, N.; Shock, E.

    2007-12-01

    Thermodynamic analysis of energy supply based on samples collected from continental hot spring ecosystems at Yellowstone show that aerobic reactions yield the greatest energy. In terms of energy per mole of electrons transferred, aerobic oxidation of organic acids rivals or exceeds the energy supply from aerobic oxidation of hydrogen, CO, hydrogen sulfide, pyrite, sulfur or ammonia. This analysis is derived from samples collected where hot spring fluid are in contact with the atmosphere. It is likely that oxygen will be present at lower concentrations deeper in the system, which will place hard constraints on aerobic lifestyles. If so, which metabolisms could be supported deeper in the system? How will other oxidants be used to release energy? What characterizes the transition from aerobic to anaerobic oxidation? To answer these questions, pH, temperature, and alkalinity were measured in the field while measurements of dissolved oxygen and other redox-sensitive species (nitrate, ammonia, ferrous iron, and sulfide) were made with field-portable spectrophotometers and samples were taken for analysis of organic and inorganic ions by ion chromatography. Conditions in the subsurface can be predicted by starting from measured oxygen concentrations and calculating the effect of decreasing the concentration on the overall energetics of the system. Depending on hot spring composition, the amount of energy from aerobic oxidation of organic acid anions like succinate matches that from anaerobic oxidation (by nitrate or sulfate) once the log of the activity of dissolved oxygen drops to -6 to -8. These activities are 1 to 4 orders of magnitude lower that values determined for surface water in the hot springs. At lower oxygen activities aerobic oxidation gives way to anaerobic oxidation, and organic oxidation is more likely to involve nitrate and sulfate. Preliminary estimates indicate that these changes may occur at shallow depths in hot spring sediments (perhaps within the

  16. Filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria from cyanobacterial mats of Alla hot springs (Barguzin Valley, Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaisin, Vasil A; Kalashnikov, Alexander M; Sukhacheva, Marina V; Namsaraev, Zorigto B; Barhutova, Darima D; Gorlenko, Vladimir M; Kuznetsov, Boris B

    2015-11-01

    Alkaline hydrotherms of the Baikal rift zone are unique systems to study the diversity of thermophilic bacteria. In this study, we present data on the phototrophic bacterial community of cyanobacterial mats from the alkaline Alla hot spring. Using a clonal analysis approach, this study evaluated the species diversity, the proportion of oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs and their distribution between various areas of the spring. Novel group-specific PCR primers were designed and applied to detect representatives of the Chloroflexus and Roseiflexus genera in mat samples. For the first time, the presence of Roseiflexus-like bacteria was detected in the Baikal rift zone.

  17. Distribution of cultivated and uncultivated cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus-like bacteria in hot spring microbial mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff-Roberts, A. L.; Kuenen, J. G.; Ward, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    Oligodeoxynucleotide hybridization probes were developed to complement specific regions of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA sequences of cultivated and uncultivated cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus-like bacteria, which inhabit hot spring microbial mats. The probes were used to investigate the natural distribution of SSU rRNAs from these species in mats of Yellowstone hot springs of different temperatures and pHs as well as changes in SSU rRNA distribution resulting from 1-week in situ shifts in temperature, pH, and light intensity. Synechococcus lividus Y-7c-s SSU rRNA was detected only in the mat of a slightly acid spring, from which it may have been initially isolated, or when samples from a more alkaline spring were incubated in the more acid spring. Chloroflexus aurantiacus Y-400-fl SSU rRNA was detected only in a high-temperature mat sample from the alkaline Octopus Spring or when lower-temperature samples from this mat were incubated at the high-temperature site. SSU rRNAs of uncultivated species were more widely distributed. Temperature distributions and responses to in situ temperature shifts suggested that some of the uncultivated cyanobacteria might be adapted to high-, moderate-, and low-temperature ranges whereas an uncultivated Chloroflexus-like bacterium appears to have broad temperature tolerance. SSU rRNAs of all uncultivated species inhabiting a 48 to 51 degrees C Octopus Spring mat site were most abundant in the upper 1 mm and were not detected below a 2.5-to 3.5-mm depth, a finding consistent with their possible phototrophic nature. However, the effects of light intensity reduction on these SSU rRNAs were variable, indicating the difficulty of demonstrating a phototrophic phenotype in light reduction experiments.

  18. Silica deposits on Mars with features resembling hot spring biosignatures at El Tatio in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Steven W.; Farmer, Jack D.

    2016-11-01

    The Mars rover Spirit encountered outcrops and regolith composed of opaline silica (amorphous SiO2.nH2O) in an ancient volcanic hydrothermal setting in Gusev crater. An origin via either fumarole-related acid-sulfate leaching or precipitation from hot spring fluids was suggested previously. However, the potential significance of the characteristic nodular and mm-scale digitate opaline silica structures was not recognized. Here we report remarkably similar features within active hot spring/geyser discharge channels at El Tatio in northern Chile, where halite-encrusted silica yields infrared spectra that are the best match yet to spectra from Spirit. Furthermore, we show that the nodular and digitate silica structures at El Tatio that most closely resemble those on Mars include complex sedimentary structures produced by a combination of biotic and abiotic processes. Although fully abiotic processes are not ruled out for the Martian silica structures, they satisfy an a priori definition of potential biosignatures.

  19. Thermopolis hydrothermal system, with an analysis of Hot Springs State Park. Preliminary report No. 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinckley, B.S.; Heasler, H.P.; King, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    Thermopolis is the site of Hot Springs State Park, where numerous hot springs produce nearly 3000 gallons per minute (gpm) of 130/sup 0/F (54/sup 0/C) water. The University of Wyoming Geothermal Resource Assessment Group has studied a 1700-square-mile area centered roughly on the State Park. Available literature, bottom-hole temperatures from over 400 oil well logs, 62 oil field drill stem tests, the Wyoming State Engineer's water well files, 60 formation water analyses, thermal logs of 19 holes, and field investigations of geology and hydrology form the basis of this report. Analysis of thermal data reveals that temperatures of up to 161/sup 0/F (72/sup 0/C) occur along the crest of the Thermopolis Anticline within 500 feet of the surface. The hydrology and heat flow of these geothermal anomalies was studied.

  20. Pediatric deep burns caused by hot incense ashes during 2014 Spring Festival in Fuyang city, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Zhou, Bo; Tao, Ren Qin; Chen, Xu Lin

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese people in Fuyang city, a northwest city of Anhui Province, are accustomed to burning incense at home for blessing during the Spring Festival. Their children, especially toddlers, like playing around the burning incense and are at risk of burning by hot incense ashes. The purpose of this study was to describe the unique cause and clinical characteristics of pediatric deep burns caused by hot incense ashes during 2014 Spring Festival. Twelve consecutive children admitted to our Burn Center and Fuyang People's Hospital during 2014 Spring Festival, with burn injuries caused by hot incense ashes which were epidemiologically studied retrospectively. Data on age, gender, size, depth and site of burn, incidence by day, number of operation, hospital stay, and causes of burns were collected. All patients came from Fuyang city. Of the 12 patients, the average age was 2.17 years, with a range of 1-6. The boy-to-girl ratio was 2: 1. The mean total burn surface area (TBSA) was 5.83%, and 91.67% of the children sustained full-thickness burn. Hands were the most common parts of the body to be injured. Dry necrosis developed in 14 fingers of 3 patients. January 31, 2014, the first day of the Chinese New Year, was the time of highest incidence. Six patients (50%) required surgical intervention while the number of operations including escharectomy, excision, skin grafting, or amputation of necrotic fingers, per patient was 2. A total of 14 fingers were amputated of the necrotic parts. All children survived and mean length of hospital stay of the patients was 20 days. Hot incense ashes cause serious injuries to children in Fuyang city during the Spring Festival. Preventive programs should be directed towards high risk groups to reduce the incidence of this burn.

  1. Recovery Act Validation of Innovative Exploration Techniques Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdmann, Gwen [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Drilling and temperature logging campaigns between the late 1970's and early 1980’s measured temperatures at Pilgrim Hot Springs in excess of 90°C. Between 2010 and 2014 the University of Alaska used a variety of methods including geophysical surveys, remote sensing techniques, heat budget modeling, and additional drilling to better understand the resource and estimate the available geothermal energy.

  2. Cyanobacterial construction of hot spring siliceous stromatolites in Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe-Ranney, Charles; Berelson, William M; Corsetti, Frank A; Treants, Merika; Spear, John R

    2012-05-01

    Living stromatolites growing in a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park are composed of silica-encrusted cyanobacterial mats. Two cyanobacterial mat types grow on the stromatolite surfaces and are preserved as two distinct lithofacies. One mat is present when the stromatolites are submerged or at the water-atmosphere interface and the other when stromatolites protrude from the hot spring. The lithofacies created by the encrustation of submerged mats constitutes the bulk of the stromatolites, is comprised of silica-encrusted filaments, and is distinctly laminated. To better understand the cyanobacterial membership and community structure differences between the mats, we collected mat samples from each type. Molecular methods revealed that submerged mat cyanobacteria were predominantly one novel phylotype while the exposed mats were predominantly heterocystous phylotypes (Chlorogloeopsis HTF and Fischerella). The cyanobacterium dominating the submerged mat type does not belong in any of the subphylum groups of cyanobacteria recognized by the Ribosomal Database Project and has also been found in association with travertine stromatolites in a Southwest Japan hot spring. Cyanobacterial membership profiles indicate that the heterocystous phylotypes are 'rare biosphere' members of the submerged mats. The heterocystous phylotypes likely emerge when the water level of the hot spring drops. Environmental pressures tied to water level such as sulfide exposure and possibly oxygen tension may inhibit the heterocystous types in submerged mats. These living stromatolites are finely laminated and therefore, in texture, may better represent similarly laminated ancient forms compared with more coarsely laminated living marine examples. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Temporal and Seasonal Variations of the Hot Spring Basin Hydrothermal System, Yellowstone National Park, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Jaworowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring Yellowstone National Park’s hydrothermal systems and establishing hydrothermal baselines are the main goals of an ongoing collaborative effort between Yellowstone National Park’s Geology program and Utah State University’s Remote Sensing Services Laboratory. During the first years of this research effort, improvements were made in image acquisition, processing and calibration. In 2007, a broad-band, forward looking infrared (FLIR camera (8–12 microns provided reliable airborne images for a hydrothermal baseline of the Hot Spring Basin hydrothermal system. From 2008 to 2011, night-time, airborne thermal infrared image acquisitions during September yielded temperature maps that established the temporal variability of the hydrothermal system. A March 2012 airborne image acquisition provided an initial assessment of seasonal variability. The consistent, high-spatial resolution imagery (~1 m demonstrates that the technique is robust and repeatable for generating corrected (atmosphere and emissivity and calibrated temperature maps of the Hot Spring Basin hydrothermal system. Atmospheric conditions before and at flight-time determine the usefulness of the thermal infrared imagery for geohydrologic applications, such as hydrothermal monitoring. Although these ground-surface temperature maps are easily understood, quantification of radiative heat from the Hot Spring Basin hydrothermal system is an estimate of the system’s total energy output. Area is a key parameter for calculating the hydrothermal system’s heat output. Preliminary heat calculations suggest a radiative heat output of ~56 MW to 62 MW for the central Hot Spring Basin hydrothermal system. Challenges still remain in removing the latent solar component within the calibrated, atmospherically adjusted, and emissivity corrected night-time imagery.

  4. [Isolation and characterization of a Thermus bacteriophage lytic from Tengchong Rehai Hot Spring lytic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Han, Jian; Dai, Xin; Ji, Xiuling; Wei, Yunlin; Lin, Lianbing

    2010-03-01

    Genus Thermus represents an ancient descendant within the domain of Bacteria. This research was focused on the isolation and characterization of Thermus bacteriophages from Tengchong Reihai hot spring. Bacteriophage was isolated from Tengchong Rehai hot springs by double-layer plate method, and further characterized by morphology, temperature, pH and organic solvent effect on phage production, DNA restriction endonuclease digestion and protein composition analysis. One lytic bacteriophage was isolated from Tengchong hot spring. It's host strain Thermus sp. TC10 belonged to genus Thermus (16S rRNA gene accession number GU119889). This phage has a hexagonal head (67 nm in diameter) and an extremely long tail (837 nm in length and 10 nm in width). The optimum temperature and pH value for production of virons were about 65 degrees C and 7.6, respectively. The phage was not sensitive to chloroform. The differences between this phage and the other two Thermus Siphoviridae phages P23-45 and P74-26, which were isolated form Russia's Kamchatka peninsula, demostrated it was a novel bacteriaphage and was denoted as TTSP10 (Tengchong Thermus Siphoviridae phage).

  5. Horizontal sliding of kilometre-scale hot spring area during the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Takeshi; Ishibashi, Jun'Ichiro; Ishitsuka, Kazuya; Kamata, Ryuichi

    2017-02-01

    We report horizontal sliding of the kilometre-scale geologic block under the Aso hot springs (Uchinomaki area) caused by vibrations from the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake (Mw 7.0). Direct borehole observations demonstrate the sliding along the horizontal geological formation at ~50 m depth, which is where the shallowest hydrothermal reservoir developed. Owing to >1 m northwest movement of the geologic block, as shown by differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR), extensional open fissures were generated at the southeastern edge of the horizontal sliding block, and compressional deformation and spontaneous fluid emission from wells were observed at the northwestern edge of the block. The temporal and spatial variation of the hot spring supply during the earthquake can be explained by the horizontal sliding and borehole failures. Because there was no strain accumulation around the hot spring area prior to the earthquake and gravitational instability could be ignored, the horizontal sliding along the low-frictional formation was likely caused by seismic forces from the remote earthquake. The insights derived from our field-scale observations may assist further research into geologic block sliding in horizontal geological formations.

  6. Biogeography of bacterial communities in hot springs: a focus on the actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Angel; Tuffin, Marla; Cowan, Don A

    2012-07-01

    Actinobacteria are ubiquitous in soil, freshwater and marine ecosystems. Although various studies have focused on the microbial ecology of this phylum, data are scant on the ecology of actinobacteria endemic to hot springs. Here, we have investigated the molecular diversity of eubacteria, with specific focus on the actinobacteria in hot springs in Zambia, China, New Zealand and Kenya. Temperature and pH values at sampling sites ranged between 44.5 and 86.5 °C and 5-10, respectively. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis of 16S rRNA gene T-RFLP patterns showed that samples could be separated by geographical location. Multivariate analysis showed that actinobacterial community composition was best predicted by changes in pH and temperature, whereas temperature alone was the most important variable explaining differences in bacterial community structure. Using 16S rRNA gene libraries, 28 major actinobacterial OTUs were found. Both molecular techniques indicated that many of the actinobacterial phylotypes were unique and exclusive to the respective sample. Collectively, these results support the view that both actinobacterial diversity and endemism are high in hot spring ecosystems.

  7. Ground Penetrating Radar Successful In Imaging Hot Spring Deposits: A New Geothermal Exploration Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynne, B.; Dougherty, A.

    2010-12-01

    Discharging alkali chloride hot springs are surface expressions of a deeper geothermal reservoir. As the discharging hot spring fluid cools, silica carried in solution precipitates and entombs all components (e.g., microbes) within a hot spring channel. This silica accumulates to form rocks referred to as siliceous sinters. Geothermal reservoirs and sinter deposits remain long after hot spring discharge ceases. Therefore ancient sinters provide a direct link with a deeper potentially exploitable geothermal resource in areas where there are no present-day actively discharging hot springs. High, mid and low-temperature microbes create distinctive environmentally-significant textures resulting in a heterogeneous sinter. The recognition of preserved active sinter textures enables mapping of former high temperature vent to low temperature distal-apron flow pathways. Sinter dates enable tracking of fluid flow to the surface, providing a regional context of fluid movement. Sinters undergo diagenesis that involves a five step opal-A to quartz silica phase modification that is accompanied by a density increase and porosity decrease. However, even quartzose sinters retain porosity values of 5-20 %. Textural variation is preserved over time, with a range in density and porosity values, which in addition to the low conductive/highly resistive silica material make GPR a suitable tool for imaging buried sinters. Previously, geologists have been constrained to only examining sinters in locations where they are partially exposed. Our preliminary results from both New Zealand and the United States of America show Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) was successful in extending this sinter research into the shallow subsurface by: (1) imaging through opal-A to quartzose sinter deposits; (2) mapping high to low temperature environments such as vents and distal-apron terracettes; (3) locating the true spatial extent of partially buried sinters; (4) imaging completely buried sinters. The

  8. Jurassic hot spring deposits of the Deseado Massif (Patagonia, Argentina): Characteristics and controls on regional distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Diego M.; Campbell, Kathleen A.

    2011-06-01

    The Deseado Massif, Santa Cruz Province, Argentinean Patagonia, hosts numerous Middle to Late Jurassic age geothermal and epithermal features represented by siliceous and calcareous chemical precipitates from hot springs (sinters and travertines, respectively), hydrothermal breccias, quartz veins, and widespread hydrothermal silicification. They indicate pauses in explosive volcanic activity, marking the final stages in the evolution of an extensive Jurassic (ca. 178-151 Ma) volcanic complex set in a diffuse extensional back-arc setting heralding the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. Published paleo-hot spring sites for the Deseado Massif, plus additional sites identified during our recent field studies, reveal a total of 23 locations, five of which were studied in detail to determine their geologic and facies associations. They show structural, lithologic, textural and biotic similarities with Miocene to Recent hot spring systems from the Taupo and Coromandel volcanic zones, New Zealand, as well as with modern examples from Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A. These comparisons aid in the definition of facies assemblages for Deseado Massif deposits - proximal, middle apron and distal siliceous sinter and travertine terraces and mounds, with preservation of many types of stromatolitic fabrics - that likely were controlled by formation temperature, pH, hydrodynamics and fluid compositions. Locally the mapped hot spring deposits largely occur in association with reworked volcaniclastic lacustrine and/or fluvial sediments, silicic to intermediate lava domes, and hydrothermal mineralization, all of which are related to local and regional structural lineaments. Moreover, the numerous geothermal and significant epithermal (those with published minable resources) deposits of the Deseado Massif geological province mostly occur in four regional NNW and WNW hydrothermal-structural belts (Northwestern, Northern, Central, and Southern), defined here by alignment of five or more hot

  9. High prevalence, genetic diversity and intracellular growth ability of Legionella in hot spring environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Legionella is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, and hot springs are a major source of outbreaks of this disease. It is important from a public health perspective to survey hot spring environments for the presence of Legionella. METHODS: Prospective surveillance of the extent of Legionella pollution was conducted at three hot spring recreational areas in Beijing, China in 2011. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and sequence-based typing (SBT were used to describe the genetic polymorphism of isolates. The intracellular growth ability of the isolates was determined by interacting with J774 cells and plating the dilutions onto BCYE agar plates. RESULTS: Overall, 51.9% of spring water samples showed Legionella-positive, and their concentrations ranged from 1 CFU/liter to 2,218 CFU/liter. The positive rates of Legionella were significantly associated with a free chlorine concentration of ≥0.2 mg/L, urea concentration of ≥0.05 mg/L, total microbial counts of ≥400 CFU/ml and total coliform of ≥3 MPN/L (p<0.01. The Legionella concentrations were significantly associated with sample temperature, pH, total microbial counts and total coliform (p<0.01. Legionella pneumophila was the most frequently isolated species (98.9%, and the isolated serogroups included serogroups 3 (25.3%, 6 (23.4%, 5 (19.2%, 1 (18.5%, 2 (10.2%, 8 (0.4%, 10 (0.8%, 9 (1.9% and 12 (0.4%. Two hundred and twenty-eight isolates were analyzed by PFGE and 62 different patterns were obtained. Fifty-seven L. pneumophila isolates were selected for SBT analysis and divided into 35 different sequence types with 5 main clonal groups. All the 57 isolates had high intracellular growth ability. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated high prevalence and genetic polymorphism of Legionella in springs in Beijing, China, and the SBT and intracellular growth assay results suggested that the Legionella isolates of hot spring environments were pathogenic. Improved control

  10. High Prevalence, Genetic Diversity and Intracellular Growth Ability of Legionella in Hot Spring Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haijian; Wang, Huanxin; Xu, Ying; Zhao, Mingqiang; Guan, Hong; Li, Machao; Shao, Zhujun

    2013-01-01

    Background Legionella is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, and hot springs are a major source of outbreaks of this disease. It is important from a public health perspective to survey hot spring environments for the presence of Legionella. Methods Prospective surveillance of the extent of Legionella pollution was conducted at three hot spring recreational areas in Beijing, China in 2011. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and sequence-based typing (SBT) were used to describe the genetic polymorphism of isolates. The intracellular growth ability of the isolates was determined by interacting with J774 cells and plating the dilutions onto BCYE agar plates. Results Overall, 51.9% of spring water samples showed Legionella-positive, and their concentrations ranged from 1 CFU/liter to 2,218 CFU/liter. The positive rates of Legionella were significantly associated with a free chlorine concentration of ≥0.2 mg/L, urea concentration of ≥0.05 mg/L, total microbial counts of ≥400 CFU/ml and total coliform of ≥3 MPN/L (pLegionella concentrations were significantly associated with sample temperature, pH, total microbial counts and total coliform (pLegionella pneumophila was the most frequently isolated species (98.9%), and the isolated serogroups included serogroups 3 (25.3%), 6 (23.4%), 5 (19.2%), 1 (18.5%), 2 (10.2%), 8 (0.4%), 10 (0.8%), 9 (1.9%) and 12 (0.4%). Two hundred and twenty-eight isolates were analyzed by PFGE and 62 different patterns were obtained. Fifty-seven L. pneumophila isolates were selected for SBT analysis and divided into 35 different sequence types with 5 main clonal groups. All the 57 isolates had high intracellular growth ability. Conclusions Our results demonstrated high prevalence and genetic polymorphism of Legionella in springs in Beijing, China, and the SBT and intracellular growth assay results suggested that the Legionella isolates of hot spring environments were pathogenic. Improved control and prevention strategies are

  11. Compound specific isotopic fractionation patterns suggest different carbon metabolisms among Chloroflexus-like bacteria in hot spring microbial mats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Meer, M.T.J. van der; Schouten, S.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Ward, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope fractionations between dissolved inorganic carbon and lipid biomarkers suggest photoautotrophy by Chloroflexus-like organisms in sulfidic and nonsulfidic Yellowstone hot springs. Where co-occurring, cyanobacteria appear to cross-feed Chloroflexus-like organisms supporting

  12. The Role of Sulfur Oxidation in Carbonate Precipitation and Dissolution Within Sulfidic Hot Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, S. E.; Kapitulčinová, D.; Kotrc, B.; Langerhuus, A. T.; Berelson, W.; Dawson, S.; Corsetti, F.; Hanselmann, K.; Johnson, H.; Spear, J.; Stevenson, B. S.; de La Torre, J.; 2008, G.

    2008-12-01

    Geothermal waters that have interacted with subsurface limestones often precipitate aragonite and calcite (travertine) upon cooling and degassing of CO2, forming terraced travertine deposits like those at Mammoth Hot Springs (MHS) in Yellowstone National Park. It has been shown that surfaces of filamentous microbial "Aquificales-dominated streamer communities" comprising the Apron and Channel Facies in these systems can act as nucleation sites for carbonate precipitation leading to the fine-scale tubular micro-structures consistently observed in travertine terraces, modern and ancient. The expected carbonate precipitates were found on streamer communities on the proximal Slope facies, however, ESEM imaging and EDX analysis revealed sulfur crystals, rather than carbonate precipitates, in association with Aquificales-dominated communities collected near the mouth of Narrow Gauge (pH 6.43, T 73.5°C), a sulfidic bicarbonate spring within the MHS system. Thermodynamic analysis of geochemical spring water datasets (data from Angel Terrace Spring applied to the Narrow Gauge site) demonstrates that lowering of the acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) of spring waters can be achieved by sulfur oxidation. Although the first step of oxidation from H2S to S° cannot account for the lack of aragonite on the streamer biofilms, oxidation of even small amounts of S° to S2O32- and further to SO42- markedly decreases ANC. This microbially mediated reaction may lead to a shift in the local pH and a shift in the ion activity product (IAP) for Ca2+ x CO32- to below the solubility product (Ksp) of CaCO3. Our calculations suggest that this reaction, sulfur oxidation with oxygen to sulfate, can liberate sufficient protons to drive aragonite to undersaturation, if the initial sulfur concentration is 5 mM, and the [Ca] and [CO3] concentrations are initially 0.01 M and 1-10 uM, respectively. The potential importance of sulfur oxidation in hot springs, the molecular signatures of this process

  13. Lake Bogoria, Kenya: Hot and warm springs, geysers and Holocene stromatolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Joseph

    2010-11-01

    I carried out the first regional geological survey of the central Gregory Rift Valley in Kenya in 1958-60, and review here the numerous subsequent specialised studies focused on the unique endoreic Lake Bogoria (formerly Hannington), studies which embraced the sedimentology of the Holocene sediments around the lake shores, the hot-spring and geyser activities and the coring of the sediments beneath the lake. I focus on the occurrences of stromatolites in a hydrothermal environment, both in two closely spaced late Holocene (~ 4500 yr BP) generations at the lake margin, associated with algae and cyanobacteria, which represent a final more humid climatic phase after the several interglacial more humid phases (also represented by stromatolite occurrences in other rift valley lakes); and also at present being formed, at the edge of the now highly saline lake, in the very hot springs in association with thermophilic bacteria and with silica. I briefly mention the older occurrences in Lake Magadi to the south, which are quite different; and form three generations; and also present-day occurrences of stromatolites in a flood-plain environment, unlike the present-day environment at Lake Bogoria. Other stromatolite occurrences are mentioned, around Lake Turkana and the former lake in the Suguta River valley to the north. I suggest that the hot waterfall at Kapedo, at the head of the Suguta River, and the central island of Ol Kokwe (with hot springs, amidst the fresh water Lake Baringo) could well be investigated for stromatolite occurrences. Lake Bogoria, an empty wilderness occupied only by flamingos when I mapped it, is now more accessible and provides a unique open-air laboratory for such researches, but like all the Rift Valley lakes, is unique, sui generis. Results of detailed investigations of the type reviewed here, can only be applied to other occurrences of stromatolites elsewhere in the rift system or beyond the rift system with reservation.

  14. Diel Vertical Movements of the Cyanobacterium Oscillatoria terebriformis in a Sulfide-Rich Hot Spring Microbial Mat †

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Laurie L.; Castenholz, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    Oscillatoria terebriformis, a thermophilic cyanobacterium, carried out a diel vertical movement pattern in Hunter's Hot Springs, Oreg. Throughout most daylight hours, populations of O. terebriformis covered the surface of microbial mats in the hot spring outflows below an upper temperature limit of 54°C. Upon darkness trichomes moved downward by gliding motility into the substrate to a depth of 0.5 to 1.0 mm, where the population remained until dawn. At dawn the population rapidly returned to...

  15. Hydrothermal alteration at the Roosevelt Hot Springs Thermal Area, Utah. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, W.T.; Bryant, N.L.; Dedolph, R.E.; Ballantyne, J.M.; Ballantyne, G.H.; Rohrs, D.T.; Mason, J.L.

    1978-11-01

    Hot spring deposits in the Roosevelt thermal area consist of opaline sinter, and siliceous-sinter-cemented alluvium. Alluvium, granite to granodiorite plutonic rocks, and amphibolite facies gneiss have been altered by acid-sulfate water to alunite and opal at the surface, and to kaolinite, alunite, montmorillonite, and muscovite to a depth of 60 m. Marcasite and pyrite occur below the water table at about 30m. Deeper alteration sampled to a depth of 2.26 km consists of muscovite, chlorite, calcite, K-feldspar, albite, and epidote with pyrite and sparse chalcopyrite. Thermal water is dilute (ionic strength 0.1 to 0.2) sodium chloride brine. Surface water contains 10 times as much calcium and 100 times as much magnesium as the deep water. Sulfate varies from 48 to 200 mg/l. Present-day spring temperature is 25/sup 0/C but in 1950 the spring temperature was 85/sup 0/C. Computed Na-K-Ca temperature is 241/sup 0/C for the present-day spring, 274/sup 0/C for a well and 283/sup 0/C for the 1957 spring. Quartz saturation temperatures are 170/sup 0/C for the present-day spring, 283/sup 0/C for the well, and 213/sup 0/C for the 1957 spring. A plausible model for development of the near-surface alteration consists of hydrothermal fluid which convectively rises along major fractures. Water cools by conduction and steam separation, and hydrogen ion is produced by oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. The low pH water percolates from the surface downward and reacts with rocks to produce alunite, kaolinite, montmorillonite, and muscovite as hydrogen is consumed.

  16. Stable isotope labeling confirms mixotrophic nature of streamer biofilm communities at alkaline hot springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence eSchubotz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Streamer biofilm communities (SBC are often observed within chemosynthetic zones of Yellowstone hot spring outflow channels, where temperatures exceed those conducive to photosynthesis. Nearest the hydrothermal source (75-88°C SBC comprise thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria, often mixed communities including Desulfurococcales and uncultured Crenarchaeota, as well as Aquificae, Thermus, each carrying diagnostic membrane lipid biomarkers. We tested the hypothesis that SBC can alternate their metabolism between autotrophy and heterotrophy depending on substrate availability. Feeding experiments were performed at two alkaline hot springs in Yellowstone National Park: Octopus Spring and ‘Bison Pool’, using various 13C-labeled substrates (bicarbonate, formate, acetate and glucose to determine the relative uptake of these different carbon sources. Highest 13C uptake, at both sites, was from acetate into almost all bacterial fatty acids, particularly into methyl-branched C15, C17 and C19 fatty acids that are diagnostic for Thermus/Meiothermus and some Firmicutes as well as into universally common C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acids. 13C-glucose showed a similar, but a 10 to 30 times lower uptake across most fatty acids. 13C bicarbonate uptake, signifying the presence of autotrophic communities was only significant at ‘Bison Pool’ and was observed predominantly in non-specific saturated C16, C18, C20 and C22 fatty acids. Incorporation of 13C-formate occurred only at very low rates at ‘Bison Pool’ and was almost undetectable at Octopus Spring, suggesting that formate is not an important carbon source for SBC. 13C uptake into archaeal lipids occurred predominantly with 13C acetate, suggesting also that archaeal communities at both springs have primarily heterotrophic carbon assimilation pathways. We hypothesize that these communities are energy-limited and predominantly nurtured by input of exogenous organic material, with only a small fraction being

  17. Hydrogeochemical Characteristics and Evolution of Hot Springs in Eastern Tibetan Plateau Geothermal Belt, Western China: Insight from Multivariate Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheming Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The eastern Tibetan Plateau geothermal belt is one of the important medium-high temperature geothermal belts in China. However, less work has been done on the hydrochemical characteristic and its geological origin. Understanding the chemical characteristics and the hydrochemical evolution processes is important in evaluating the geothermal energy potential in this area. In the present study, we discussed the hydrochemical properties and their origins of 39 hot springs located in the eastern Tibetan Plateau geothermal belt (Kangding-Litang-Batang geothermal belt. Cluster analysis and factor analysis are employed to character the hydrochemical properties of hot springs in different fault zones and the possible hydrochemical evolution processes of these hot springs. Our study shows that the hot springs can be divided into three groups based on their locations. The hot springs in the first group mainly originate from the volcanic rock and the springs in the second group originate from the metamorphic rock while the springs in the third group originate from the result of mixture of shallow water. Water-rock interaction, cation exchange, and the water environment are the three dominant factors that control the hydrochemical evolution process in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. These results are also in well agreement with the isotopic and chemical analysis.

  18. A natural view of microbial biodiversity within hot spring cyanobacterial mat communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D. M.; Ferris, M. J.; Nold, S. C.; Bateson, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    This review summarizes a decade of research in which we have used molecular methods, in conjunction with more traditional approaches, to study hot spring cyanobacterial mats as models for understanding principles of microbial community ecology. Molecular methods reveal that the composition of these communities is grossly oversimplified by microscopic and cultivation methods. For example, none of 31 unique 16S rRNA sequences detected in the Octopus Spring mat, Yellowstone National Park, matches that of any prokaryote previously cultivated from geothermal systems; 11 are contributed by genetically diverse cyanobacteria, even though a single cyanobacterial species was suspected based on morphologic and culture analysis. By studying the basis for the incongruity between culture and molecular samplings of community composition, we are beginning to cultivate isolates whose 16S rRNA sequences are readily detected. By placing the genetic diversity detected in context with the well-defined natural environmental gradients typical of hot spring mat systems, the relationship between gene and species diversity is clarified and ecological patterns of species occurrence emerge. By combining these ecological patterns with the evolutionary patterns inherently revealed by phylogenetic analysis of gene sequence data, we find that it may be possible to understand microbial biodiversity within these systems by using principles similar to those developed by evolutionary ecologists to understand biodiversity of larger species. We hope that such an approach guides microbial ecologists to a more realistic and predictive understanding of microbial species occurrence and responsiveness in both natural and disturbed habitats.

  19. Silicon isotope fractionation during silica precipitation from hot-spring waters: Evidence from the Geysir geothermal field, Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geilert, S.; Vroon, P.Z.; Keller, N.S.; Gudbrandsson, S.; Stefánsson, A.; van Bergen, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore the extent and controls of silicon isotope fractionation in hot spring systems of the Geysir geothermal area (Iceland), a setting where sinter deposits are actively formed. The δ30Si values of dissolved silica measured in the spring water and sampling sites along

  20. Silicon isotope fractionation during silica precipitation from hot-spring waters : Evidence from the Geysir geothermal field, Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geilert, Sonja; Vroon, Pieter Z.; Keller, Nicole S.; Gudbrandsson, Snorri; Stefánsson, Andri; van Bergen, Manfred J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore the extent and controls of silicon isotope fractionation in hot spring systems of the Geysir geothermal area (Iceland), a setting where sinter deposits are actively formed. The δ30Si values of dissolved silica measured in the spring water and sampling sites along

  1. Quantifying Rates of Complete Microbial Iron Redox Cycling in Acidic Hot Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair, B.; Pottenger, J. W.; Shock, E.

    2013-12-01

    Large accumulations of iron oxide commonly occur in shallow outflows of acidic hot springs, and culturing, molecular techniques, and microscopy by others indicate that this iron oxide (often ferrihydrite) is largely biogenic in Yellowstone National Park. The hot springs that support iron mats have several consistent geochemical features including combinations of pH, temperature, sulfide, dissolved oxygen, depth and ferrous iron concentration appropriate to support iron oxidation. These springs nearly always have a point source leading to a large shallow outflow apron. Microbial zones often, but not always, include a small clear zone near the source, followed by a sulfide oxidation zone, iron mat, and finally photosynthesis. The yellow sulfide oxidation zone is separated from the red iron mat by a sharp transition resulting from increasing dissolved oxygen from atmospheric contact and microbial depletion of sulfide. The iron mat is typically the largest microbial zone in the feature by area. Further down the outflow, iron oxidation appears to be outcompeted by phototrophs as the temperature cools. Occasionally there is overlap in these zones, but one metabolism always appears dominant. Our experiments at diverse hot springs indicate that microbial reduction is less geochemically restricted than oxidation, requiring only organic carbon, ferric minerals and an anoxic environment. With iron oxidizers fixing carbon and producing layers of ferric minerals that become rapidly anoxic with depth, iron reduction is invariably proximal to where biogenic iron oxides are forming. To characterize the interplay of oxidation and reduction rates that permit oxide accumulation, we conducted rate experiments at geochemically diverse Yellowstone hot springs featuring visible iron oxides in thermal areas throughout the park. These experiments were performed during two summer field seasons to determine in situ and maximum rates of iron oxidation and reduction by measuring changing

  2. In Situ Production of Branched Glycerol Dialkyl Glycerol Tetraethers in a Great Basin Hot Spring (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanlun eZhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs are predominantly found in soils and peat bogs. In this study, we analyzed core-bGDGTs and polar (P- bGDGTs after hydrolysis of polar fractions using liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry and analyzed intact P-bGDGTs using total lipid extract (TLE without hydrolysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-multiple stage mass spectrometry. Our results show multiple lines of evidence for the production of bGDGTs in sediments and cellulolytic enrichments in a hot spring (62-86°C in the Great Basin (USA. First, in situ cellulolytic enrichment led to an increase in the relative abundance of hydrolysis-derived P-bGDGTs over their Core (C-bGDGT counterparts. Second, the hydrolysis-derived P- and C-bGDGT profiles in the hot spring were different from those of the surrounding soil samples; in particular, a monoglycosidic bGDGT Ib containing 13,16-dimethyloctacosane and one cyclopentane moiety was detected in the TLE but it was undetectable in surrounding soil samples even after sample enrichments. Third, previously published 16S rRNA gene pyrotag analysis from the same lignocellulose samples demonstrated the enrichment of thermophiles, rather than mesophiles, and total bGDGT abundance in cellulolytic enrichments correlated with the relative abundance of 16S rRNA gene pyrotags from thermophilic bacteria in the phyla Bacteroidetes, Dictyoglomi, EM3, and OP9 (Atribacteria. These observations conclusively demonstrate the production of bGDGTs in this hot spring; however, the identity of organisms that produce bGDGTs in the geothermal environment remains unclear.

  3. Coordinating environmental genomics and geochemistry reveals metabolic transitions in a hot spring ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley D Swingley

    Full Text Available We have constructed a conceptual model of biogeochemical cycles and metabolic and microbial community shifts within a hot spring ecosystem via coordinated analysis of the "Bison Pool" (BP Environmental Genome and a complementary contextual geochemical dataset of ~75 geochemical parameters. 2,321 16S rRNA clones and 470 megabases of environmental sequence data were produced from biofilms at five sites along the outflow of BP, an alkaline hot spring in Sentinel Meadow (Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park. This channel acts as a >22 m gradient of decreasing temperature, increasing dissolved oxygen, and changing availability of biologically important chemical species, such as those containing nitrogen and sulfur. Microbial life at BP transitions from a 92 °C chemotrophic streamer biofilm community in the BP source pool to a 56 °C phototrophic mat community. We improved automated annotation of the BP environmental genomes using BLAST-based Markov clustering. We have also assigned environmental genome sequences to individual microbial community members by complementing traditional homology-based assignment with nucleotide word-usage algorithms, allowing more than 70% of all reads to be assigned to source organisms. This assignment yields high genome coverage in dominant community members, facilitating reconstruction of nearly complete metabolic profiles and in-depth analysis of the relation between geochemical and metabolic changes along the outflow. We show that changes in environmental conditions and energy availability are associated with dramatic shifts in microbial communities and metabolic function. We have also identified an organism constituting a novel phylum in a metabolic "transition" community, located physically between the chemotroph- and phototroph-dominated sites. The complementary analysis of biogeochemical and environmental genomic data from BP has allowed us to build ecosystem-based conceptual models for this hot

  4. The distribution and abundance of archaeal tetraether lipids in U.S. Great Basin hot springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julienne J. eParaiso

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Isoprenoidal glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (iGDGTs are core membrane lipids of many archaea that enhance the integrity of cytoplasmic membranes in extreme environments. We examined the iGDGT profiles and corresponding aqueous geochemistry in 40 hot spring sediment and microbial mat samples from the U.S. Great Basin with temperatures ranging from 31 to 95°C and pH ranging from 6.8 to 10.7. The absolute abundance of iGDGTs correlated negatively with pH and positively with temperature. High lipid concentrations, distinct lipid profiles, and a strong relationship between polar and core lipids in hot spring samples suggested in situ production of most iGDGTs rather than contamination from local soils. Two-way cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS of polar iGDGTs indicated that the relative abundance of individual lipids was most strongly related to temperature (r2 = 0.546, with moderate correlations with pH (r2 = 0.359, nitrite (r2 = 0.286, oxygen (r2 = 0.259, and nitrate (r2 = 0.215. Relative abundance profiles of individual polar iGDGTs indicated potential temperature optima for iGDGT-0 (≤70°C, iGDGT-3 (≥55°C, and iGDGT -4 (≥60°C. These relationships likely reflect both physiological adaptations and community-level population shifts in response to temperature differences, such as a shift from cooler samples with more abundant methanogens to higher-temperature samples with more abundant Crenarchaeota. Crenarchaeol was widely distributed across the temperature gradient, which is consistent with other reports of abundant crenarchaeol in Great Basin hot springs and suggests a wide distribution for thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA.

  5. Discovery and characterizaton of a novel lipase with transesterification activity from hot spring metagenomic library

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Wei; Li, Furong; Wang, Li; Zhu, Yaxin; Dong, Zhiyang; Bai, Linhan

    2016-01-01

    A new gene encoding a lipase (designated as Lip-1) was identified from a metagenomic bacterial artificial chromosome(BAC) library prepared from a concentrated water sample collected from a hot spring field in Niujie, Eryuan of Yunnan province in China. The open reading frame of this gene encoded 622 amino acid residues. It was cloned, fused with the oleosin gene and over expressed in Escherichia coli to prepare immobilized lipase artificial oil body AOB-sole-lip-1. The monomeric Sole-lip-1 fu...

  6. Long-term radon variations at a hot spring in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rui; Woith, Heiko; Wang, Rongjiang; Wang, Guangcai

    2017-04-01

    Radon concentration is monitored continuously in mainland China by China Earthquake Administration (CEA) for the purpose of earthquake prediction. An almost gap-free radon record of nearly 40 years (from April 1976 to December 2015) of monitoring of water-dissolved radon at the hot spring site of BangLazhang (BLZ), Southwestern China is analysed. The length of the time series allows the investigation of long-term periodicities of radon. Ancillary observation data, i.e. water temperature, spring discharge rate, barometric pressure, combined with regional rainfall, galactic cosmic ray (as a proxy for solar activity) and regional seismicity are complemented for the same period to identify potentially influencing factors controlling the changes of radon. The long-term variations in radon concentration and ancillary observation data are studied by using the continuous Wavelet Power Spectrum (WPS), Wavelet Coherence (WTC), and Partial Wavelet Coherence (PWC) methods. The results of WPSs and WTCs show that the long-periodic radon concentration is characterized by a significant decadal cycle, matching well with the concurrent periodicity in water temperature, spring discharge rate, and galactic cosmic ray. The analysis of PWCs among radon, discharge rate, water temperature, and galactic cosmic ray reveals that the 11-year solar cycle might influence radon, water temperature, and spring discharge, though a direct physical link between the solar activity and the monitored parameters seems unlikely. Moreover, PWCs of radon, discharge rate and water temperature suggests that water temperature variations explain most of the coherent variability of radon and the discharge rate. Possible mechanisms are discussed. We tentatively propose that the multi-year periodic variations in radon concentration are mainly explained by variations of water temperature and/or spring discharge, which are modified and inter-modulated by earthquakes and decadal variations of unknown origin.

  7. Isolation and characterization of an extremely long tail Thermus bacteriophage from Tengchong hot springs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lianbing; Hong, Wei; Ji, Xiuling; Han, Jian; Huang, Li; Wei, Yunlin

    2010-10-01

    Thermus strains are regarded as models to investigate the mechanism of thermostability of thermophiles, and phages from Thermus are particularly interesting because of their way to regulate gene expression. In this research, a Thermus bacteriophage named TSP4 (Thermus Siphoviridae phage) was isolated from Tengchong hot springs in China, and characteristics of morphology, temperature for phage production, pH and organic solvent sensitivity, DNA restriction endonuclease digestion and protein composition of TSP4 were further studied. TSP4 belonged to the Siphoviridae family and had a hexagonal head of 73 nm in diameter, an extremely long and flexible tail of 785 nm in length and 10 nm in width. TSP4 was very stable at 65 °C and pH 7.6. The capsid was apparently devoid of lipid. By SDS-PAGE, six protein bands were found in purified virions. Despite their exceptional habitats separated by thousands of kilometers, the characteristics of this thermophilic phage showed high similarity to Thermus siphoviruses P23-45 and P74-26 isolated from Kamchatka peninsula hot springs in the Far East, Russia.

  8. Viral assemblage composition in Yellowstone acidic hot springs assessed by network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, Benjamin; Wirth, Jennifer F; Mazurie, Aurélien; Young, Mark J

    2015-10-01

    Understanding of viral assemblage structure in natural environments remains a daunting task. Total viral assemblage sequencing (for example, viral metagenomics) provides a tractable approach. However, even with the availability of next-generation sequencing technology it is usually only possible to obtain a fragmented view of viral assemblages in natural ecosystems. In this study, we applied a network-based approach in combination with viral metagenomics to investigate viral assemblage structure in the high temperature, acidic hot springs of Yellowstone National Park, USA. Our results show that this approach can identify distinct viral groups and provide insights into the viral assemblage structure. We identified 110 viral groups in the hot springs environment, with each viral group likely representing a viral family at the sub-family taxonomic level. Most of these viral groups are previously unknown DNA viruses likely infecting archaeal hosts. Overall, this study demonstrates the utility of combining viral assemblage sequencing approaches with network analysis to gain insights into viral assemblage structure in natural ecosystems.

  9. Evolution of thermotolerance in hot spring cyanobacteria of the genus Synechococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. R.; Castenholz, R. W.

    2000-01-01

    The extension of ecological tolerance limits may be an important mechanism by which microorganisms adapt to novel environments, but it may come at the evolutionary cost of reduced performance under ancestral conditions. We combined a comparative physiological approach with phylogenetic analyses to study the evolution of thermotolerance in hot spring cyanobacteria of the genus Synechococcus. Among the 20 laboratory clones of Synechococcus isolated from collections made along an Oregon hot spring thermal gradient, four different 16S rRNA gene sequences were identified. Phylogenies constructed by using the sequence data indicated that the clones were polyphyletic but that three of the four sequence groups formed a clade. Differences in thermotolerance were observed for clones with different 16S rRNA gene sequences, and comparison of these physiological differences within a phylogenetic framework provided evidence that more thermotolerant lineages of Synechococcus evolved from less thermotolerant ancestors. The extension of the thermal limit in these bacteria was correlated with a reduction in the breadth of the temperature range for growth, which provides evidence that enhanced thermotolerance has come at the evolutionary cost of increased thermal specialization. This study illustrates the utility of using phylogenetic comparative methods to investigate how evolutionary processes have shaped historical patterns of ecological diversification in microorganisms.

  10. Diversity of putative archaeal RNA viruses in metagenomic datasets of a yellowstone acidic hot spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongming; Yu, Yongxin; Liu, Taigang; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

    2015-01-01

    Two genomic fragments (5,662 and 1,269 nt in size, GenBank accession no. JQ756122 and JQ756123, respectively) of novel, positive-strand RNA viruses that infect archaea were first discovered in an acidic hot spring in Yellowstone National Park (Bolduc et al., 2012). To investigate the diversity of these newly identified putative archaeal RNA viruses, global metagenomic datasets were searched for sequences that were significantly similar to those of the viruses. A total of 3,757 associated reads were retrieved solely from the Yellowstone datasets and were used to assemble the genomes of the putative archaeal RNA viruses. Nine contigs with lengths ranging from 417 to 5,866 nt were obtained, 4 of which were longer than 2,200 nt; one contig was 204 nt longer than JQ756122, representing the longest genomic sequence of the putative archaeal RNA viruses. These contigs revealed more than 50% sequence similarity to JQ756122 or JQ756123 and may be partial or nearly complete genomes of novel genogroups or genotypes of the putative archaeal RNA viruses. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the archaeal RNA viruses are genetically diverse, with at least 3 related viral lineages in the Yellowstone acidic hot spring environment.

  11. Remarkable archaeal diversity detected in a Yellowstone National Park hot spring environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barns, S.M.; Fundyga, R.E.; Jeffries, M.W.; Pace, N.R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Of the three primary phylogenetic domains - Archaea (archaebacteria), Bacteria (eubacteria), and Eucarya (eukaryotes) - Archaea is the least understood in terms of its diversity, physiologies, and ecological panorama. Although many species of Crenarchaeota have been isolated, they constitute a relatively tight-knit cluster of lineages in phylogenetic analyses of rRNA sequences. It seemed possible that this limited diversity is merely apparent and reflects only a failure to culture organisms, not their absence. The authors reported here phylogenetic characterization of many archaeal small subunit rRNA gene sequences obtained by polymerase chain reaction amplification of mixed population DNA extracted directly from sediment of a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park. This approach obviates the need for cultivation to identify organisms. The analyses document the existence not only of species belonging to well-characterized crenarchaeal genera or families but also of crenarchaeal species for which no close relatives have so far been found. The large number of distinct archaeal sequence types retrieved from this single hot spring was unexpected and demonstrates that Crenarchaeota is a much more diverse group than was previously suspected. The results have impact on concepts of the phylogenetic organization of Archaea.

  12. [Biogeochemical processes in the algal-bacterial mats of the Urinskii alkaline hot spring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brianskaia, A V; Namsaraev, Z B; Kalashnikova, O M; Barkhutova, D D; Namsaraev, B B; Gorlenko, V M

    2006-01-01

    The structure and production characteristics of microbial communities from the Urinskii alkaline hot spring (Buryat Republic, Russia) have been investigated. A distinctive characteristic of this hot spring is the lack of sulfide in the issuing water. The water temperature near the spring vents ranged from 69 to 38.5 degrees C and pH values ranged from 8.8 to 9.2. The total mineralization of water was less than 0.1 g/liter. Temperature has a profound effect on the species composition and biogeochemical processes occurring in the algal-bacterial mats of the Urinskii hot spring. The maximum diversity of the phototrophic community was observed at the temperatures 40 and 46 degrees C. A total of 12 species of cyanobacteria, 4 species of diatoms, and one species of thermophilic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, Chloroflexus aurantiacus, have been isolated from mat samples. At temperatures above 40 degrees C, the filamentous cyanobacterium Phormidium laminosum was predominant; its cell number and biomass concentration were 95.1 and 63.9%, respectively. At lower temperatures, the biomass concentrations of the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limosa and diatoms increased (50.2 and 36.4%, respectively). The cyanobacterium Mastigocladus laminosus, which is normally found in neutral or slightly acidic hydrothermal systems, was detected in microbial communities. As the diatom concentration increases, so does the dry matter concentration in mats, while the content of organic matter decreases. The concentrations of proteins and carbohydrates reached their maximum levels at 45-50 degrees C. The maximum average rate of oxygenic photosynthesis (2.1 g C/m2 day), chlorophyll a content (343.4 mg/m2), and cell number of phototrophic microorganisms were observed at temperatures from 45 to 50 degrees C. The peak mass of bacterial mats (56.75 g/m2) occurred at a temperature of 65-60 degrees C. The maximum biomass concentration of phototrophs (414.63 x 10(-6) g/ml) and the peak rate of

  13. Biogeochemical characteristics of Kuan-Tzu-Ling, Chung-Lun and Bao-Lai hot springs in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Liu, Chia-Chuan; Nath, Bibhash; Bundschuh, Jochen; Kar, Sandeep; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Liu, Jiann-Hong; Atla, Shashi B; Chen, Chien-Yen

    2011-01-01

    Hot springs are the important natural sources of geothermally heated groundwater from the Earth's crust. Kuan-Tzu-Ling (KTL), Chung-Lun (CL) and Bao-Lai (BL) are well-known hot springs in southern Taiwan. Fluid and mud (sediments) samples were collected from the eruption points of three hot springs for detailed biogeochemical characterization. The fluid sample displays relatively high concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) compared with K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), NO(2) (-), and SO(4) (2-), suggesting a possible marine origin. The concentrations of Fe, Cr, Mn, Ni, V and Zn were significantly higher in the mud sediments compared with fluids, whereas high concentrations of As, Ba, Cu, Se, Sr and Rb were observed in the fluids. This suggests that electronegative elements were released during sediment-water interactions. High As concentration in the fluids was observed to be associated with low redox (Eh) conditions. The FTIR spectra of the humic acid fractions of the sediments showed the presence of possible functional groups of secondary amines, ureas, urethanesm (amide), and silicon. The sulfate-reducing deltaproteobacterium 99% similar to Desulfovibrio psychrotolerans (GU329907) were rich in the CL hot spring while mesophilic, proteolytic, thiosulfate- and sulfur-reducing bacterium that 99% similar to Clostridium sulfidigenes (GU329908) were rich in the BL hot spring.

  14. Preferential soft-tissue preservation in the Hot Creek carbonate spring deposit, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Dustin K.; Jones, Brian

    2010-05-01

    The relict Holocene Hot Creek carbonate spring deposit in southeast British Columbia is characterized by excellent preservation of soft-tissue organisms (e.g. cyanobacteria), but poor preservation of organisms with hard-tissue (e.g. wood, diatoms). The deposit is formed mainly of calcified cyanobacteria, with fewer mineralized macrophytes (plants), bryophytes (mosses), wood, and diatoms. Cyanobacteria grew as solitary filaments ( Lyngbya) and as radiating hemispherical colonies ( Rivularia). Both were preserved by encrustation and encapsulation while alive, and as casts after filament death and decay. Sheath impregnation was rare to absent. Filament encrustation, whereby calcite crystals nucleated on, and grew away from the sheath exterior, produced moulds that replicated external filament morphology, but hastened filament decay. Filament encapsulation, whereby calcite nucleated in the vicinity of, and grew towards the encapsulated filament, promoted sheath preservation even after trichome decay. Subsequent calcite precipitation inside the hollow sheath generated sheath casts. The inability of mineralizing spring water to penetrate durable cell walls meant that bryophytes, macrophytes, and most wood was preserved by encrustation. Some wood resisted complete decay for several thousand years, and its lignified cell walls allowed rare permineralizations. Diatoms were not preserved in the relict deposit because the frustules were dissolved by the basic spring water. Amorphous calcium carbonate produced by photosynthetic CO 2 removal may have acted as nucleation sites for physicochemically precipitated calcite. Thus, metabolic activities of floral organisms probably initiated biotic mineralization, but continuous inorganic calcite precipitation on and in flora ensured that soft tissues were preserved.

  15. Geothermal heating from Pinkerton Hot Springs at Colorado Timberline Academy, Durango, Colorado. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, C.C.; Allen, R.W.; Beldock, J.

    1981-11-08

    The efforts to establish a greater pool of knowledge in the field of low temperature heat transfer for the application of geothermal spring waters to space heating are described. A comprehensive set of heat loss experiments involving passive radiant heating panels is conducted and the results presented in an easily interpretable form. Among the conclusions are the facts that heating a 65 to 70 F/sup 0/ space with 90 to 100 F/sup 0/ liquids is a practical aim. The results are compared with the much lower rates published in the American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers SYSTEMS, 1976. A heat exchange chamber consisting of a 1000 gallon three compartment, insulated and buried tank is constructed and a control and pumping building erected over the tank. The tank is intended to handle the flow of geothermal waters from Pinkerton Hot Springs at 50 GPM prior to the wasting of the spring water at a disposal location. Approximately 375,000 Btu per hour should be available for heating assuming a 15 F/sup 0/ drop in water temperature. A combination of the panel heat loss experiments, construction of the heat exchange devices and ongoing collection of heat loss numbers adds to the knowledge available to engineers in sizing low temperature heat systems, useful in both solar and geothermal applications where source temperature may be often below 110 F/sup 0/.

  16. Disturbance, A Mechanism for Increased Microbial Diversity in a Yellowstone National Park Hot Spring Mixing Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, A. E.; Oiler, J.; Fecteau, K.; Boyd, E. S.; Shock, E.

    2014-12-01

    The parameters influencing species diversity in natural ecosystems are difficult to assess due to the long and experimentally prohibitive timescales needed to develop causative relationships among measurements. Ecological diversity-disturbance models suggest that disturbance is a mechanism for increased species diversity, allowing for coexistence of species at an intermediate level of disturbance. Observing this mechanism often requires long timescales, such as the succession of a forest after a fire. In this study we evaluated the effect of mixing of two end member hydrothermal fluids on the diversity and structure of a microbial community where disturbance occurs on small temporal and spatial scales. Outflow channels from two hot springs of differing geochemical composition in Yellowstone National Park, one pH 3.3 and 36 °C and the other pH 7.6 and 61 °C flow together to create a mixing zone on the order of a few meters. Geochemical measurements were made at both in-coming streams and at a site of complete mixing downstream of the mixing zone, at pH 6.5 and 46 °C. Compositions were estimated across the mixing zone at 1 cm intervals using microsensor temperature and conductivity measurements and a mixing model. Qualitatively, there are four distinct ecotones existing over ranges in temperature and pH across the mixing zone. Community analysis of the 16S rRNA genes of these ecotones show a peak in diversity at maximal mixing. Principle component analysis of community 16S rRNA genes reflects coexistence of species with communities at maximal mixing plotting intermediate to communities at distal ends of the mixing zone. These spatial biological and geochemical observations suggest that the mixing zone is a dynamic ecosystem where geochemistry and biological diversity are governed by changes in the flow rate and geochemical composition of the two hot spring sources. In ecology, understanding how environmental disruption increases species diversity is a foundation

  17. Clumped isotopologue constraints on the origin of methane at seafloor hot springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, David T.; Reeves, Eoghan P.; McDermott, Jill M.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.; Ono, Shuhei

    2018-02-01

    Hot-spring fluids emanating from deep-sea vents hosted in unsedimented ultramafic and mafic rock commonly contain high concentrations of methane. Multiple hypotheses have been proposed for the origin(s) of this methane, ranging from synthesis via reduction of aqueous inorganic carbon (∑CO2) during active fluid circulation to leaching of methane-rich fluid inclusions from plutonic rocks of the oceanic crust. To further resolve the process(es) responsible for methane generation in these systems, we determined the relative abundances of several methane isotopologues (including 13CH3D, a "clumped" isotopologue containing two rare isotope substitutions) in hot-spring source fluids sampled from four geochemically-distinct hydrothermal vent fields (Rainbow, Von Damm, Lost City, and Lucky Strike). Apparent equilibrium temperatures retrieved from methane clumped isotopologue analyses average 310-42+53 °C, with no apparent relation to the wide range of fluid temperatures (96-370 °C) and chemical compositions (pH, [H2], [∑CO2], [CH4]) represented. Combined with very similar bulk stable isotope ratios (13C/12C and D/H) of methane across the suite of hydrothermal fluids, all available geochemical and isotopic data suggest a common mechanism of methane generation at depth that is disconnected from active fluid circulation. Attainment of equilibrium amongst methane isotopologues at temperatures of ca. 270-360 °C is compatible with the thermodynamically-favorable reduction of CO2 to CH4 at temperatures at or below ca. 400 °C under redox conditions characterizing intrusive rocks derived from sub-ridge melts. Collectively, the observations support a model where methane-rich aqueous fluids, known to be trapped in rocks of the oceanic lithosphere, are liberated from host rocks during hydrothermal circulation and perhaps represent the major source of methane venting with thermal waters at unsedimented hydrothermal fields. The results also provide further evidence that water

  18. Radioprotective Effects of Sulfurcontaining Mineral Water of Ramsar Hot Spring with High Natural Background Radiation on Mouse Bone Marrow Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidari A. H.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We intend to study the inhibitory effect of sulfur compound in Ramsar hot spring mineral on tumor-genesis ability of high natural background radiation. Objective: The radioprotective effect of sulfur compounds was previously shown on radiation-induced chromosomal aberration, micronuclei in mouse bone marrow cells and human peripheral lymphocyte. Ramsar is known for having the highest level of natural background radiation on Earth. This study was performed to show the radioprotective effect of sulfur-containing Ramsar mineral water on mouse bone marrow cells. Method: Mice were fed three types of water (drinking water, Ramsar radioactive water containing sulfur and Ramsar radioactive water whose sulfur was removed. Ten days after feeding, mice were irradiated by gamma rays (0, 2 and 4 Gy. 48 and 72 hours after irradiating, mice were killed and femurs were removed. Frequency of micronuclei was determined in bone marrow erythrocytes. Results: A significant reduction was shown in the rate of micronuclei polychromatic erythrocyte in sulfur-containing hot spring water compared to sulfur-free water in hot spring mineral water. Gamma irradiation induced significant increases in micronuclei polychromatic erythrocyte (MNPCE and decreases in polychromatic erythrocyte/polychromatic erythrocyte + normochromatic erythrocyte ratio (PCEs/ PCEs+NCEs (P < 0.001 in sulfur-containing hot spring water compared to sulfur-free hot spring mineral water. Also, apparently there was a significant difference between drinking water and sulfur-containing hot spring water in micronuclei polychromatic erythrocyte and polychromatic erythrocyte/polychromatic erythrocyte+ normochromatic erythrocyte ratio. Conclusion: The results indicate that sulfur-containing mineral water could result in a significant reduction in radiation-induced micronuclei representing the radioprotective effect of sulfur compounds.

  19. Comparative study of the silica and cation geothermometry of the Malawi hot springs: Potential alternative energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulanya, Zuze; Morales-Simfors, Nury; Sivertun, Åke

    2010-06-01

    Malawi is one of the poorest countries in the world and one of the most densely populated in south-eastern Africa. Its major power source is hydro-electricity. During the past few years, the power generation capacity has been reduced, which has impacted negatively on the socio-economic development of the country. The country holds an enormous potential to generate geothermal energy due to the country's position within the Great African Rift valley. This could contribute to economic growth, poverty reduction and technological development in Malawi. The paper presents findings of research on comparisons between silica (quartz and chalcedony) and cation geothermometers (Na-K, Na-K-Ca and K-Mg) of hot springs in the Malawi Rift, in order to deduce the temperature at depth of selected hot springs. The saturation indices of most springs have a bearing on the geology of the areas where these hot springs are found. The Na-K geothermometers are, in general, higher than the Na-K-Ca geothermometer and the K-Mg geothermometer shows temperatures that are too low to be considered. The difference in the results between the different geothermometers may indicate shallow conditions of mixing with groundwater. Results also indicate that some hot springs have sufficient heat-generating capabilities and warrant further exploration work to assess their suitability for energy generation.

  20. Biological Characterization of Rhodomicrobium vannielii Isolated from a Hot Spring at Gadek, Malacca, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainon, H.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A purple nonsulfur anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium, identified as Rhodomicrobium vannielii, was isolated from water sample of a hot spring using glutamate-malate medium (GMM and Pfennig’s M2 medium. The cells were motile, Gram negative, ovoid to spherical in shape and did not form intracellular sulfur globules. The isolate viewed under transmission electron microscope showed budding filament formation, which is a characteristic of Rm. vannielii. The isolate produced red pigment in both media. The dominant photosynthetic pigment is bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids of lycopene and rhodopin. The growth of Rm. vannielii was better in anaerobic-light condition compared to growth in aerobic-dark. Optimum carotenoid production was achieved in 24 hours culture in GMM (pH 7.0 without yeast-extract and incubated in anaerobic-light condition at light intensity of 2000 lux.

  1. Arsenic(III) fuels anoxygenic photosynthesis in hot spring biofilms from Mono Lake, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, T R; Hoeft, S E; Asao, M; Madigan, M T; Hollibaugh, J T; Fisher, J C; Stolz, J F; Culbertson, C W; Miller, L G; Oremland, R S

    2008-08-15

    Phylogenetic analysis indicates that microbial arsenic metabolism is ancient and probably extends back to the primordial Earth. In microbial biofilms growing on the rock surfaces of anoxic brine pools fed by hot springs containing arsenite and sulfide at high concentrations, we discovered light-dependent oxidation of arsenite [As(III)] to arsenate [As(V)] occurring under anoxic conditions. The communities were composed primarily of Ectothiorhodospira-like purple bacteria or Oscillatoria-like cyanobacteria. A pure culture of a photosynthetic bacterium grew as a photoautotroph when As(III) was used as the sole photosynthetic electron donor. The strain contained genes encoding a putative As(V) reductase but no detectable homologs of the As(III) oxidase genes of aerobic chemolithotrophs, suggesting a reverse functionality for the reductase. Production of As(V) by anoxygenic photosynthesis probably opened niches for primordial Earth's first As(V)-respiring prokaryotes.

  2. Legionella thermalis sp. nov., isolated from hot spring water in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Naoto; Sogawa, Kazuyuki; Inoue, Hiroaki; Agata, Kunio; Edagawa, Akiko; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Fukuyama, Masafumi; Furuhata, Katsunori

    2016-03-01

    Strain L-47(T) of a novel bacterial species belonging to the genus Legionella was isolated from a sample of hot spring water from Tokyo, Japan. The 16S rRNA gene sequences (1477 bp) of this strain (accession number AB899895) had less than 95.0% identity with other Legionella species. The dominant fatty acids of strain L-47(T) were a15:0 (29.6%) and the major ubiquinone was Q-12 (71.1%). It had a guanine-plus-cytosine content of 41.5 mol%. The taxonomic description of Legionella thermalis sp. nov. is proposed to be type strain L-47(T) (JCM 30970(T)  = KCTC 42799(T)). © 2016 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Arsenic(III) fuels anoxygenic photosynthesis in hot spring biofilms from Mono Lake, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, T.R.; Hoeft, S.E.; Asao, M.; Madigan, M.T.; Hollibaugh, J.T.; Fisher, J.C.; Stolz, J.F.; Culbertson, C.W.; Miller, L.G.; Oremland, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis indicates that microbial arsenic metabolism is ancient and probably extends back to the primordial Earth. In microbial biofilms growing on the rock surfaces of anoxic brine pools fed by hot springs containing arsenite and sulfide at high concentrations, we discovered light-dependent oxidation of arsenite [As(III)] to arsenate [As(V)] occurring under anoxic conditions. The communities were composed primarily of Ectothiorhodospira-like purple bacteria or Oscillatoria-like cyanobacteria. A pure culture of a photosynthetic bacterium grew as a photoautotroph when As(III) was used as the sole photosynthetic electron donor. The strain contained genes encoding a putative As(V) reductase but no detectable homologs of the As(III) oxidase genes of aerobic chemolithotrophs, suggesting a reverse functionality for the reductase. Production of As(V) by anoxygenic photosynthesis probably opened niches for primordial Earth's first As(V)-respiring prokaryotes.

  4. Novel Anoxybacillus flavithermus AK1: A Thermophile Isolated from a Hot Spring in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Amjad

    2017-06-14

    Anoxybacillus flavithermus AK1 is a thermophilic bacterium that is able to survive at temperatures ranging from 55 to 60∘C. The AK1 strain was isolated from the hot spring “Al-Ain Alhara” located at a distance of 50 km southeast of the city of Gazan, Saudi Arabia. This study presents the morphological characterization of A. flavithermus AK1, including a detailed description of its complete genome sequence. A total of 50 contigs were used to produce a genome sequence of 2,630,664 bp that includes 2724 protein-coding genes and 75 RNA genes, 18 of which are rRNA genes. A comparison of this genome sequence with those of Anoxybacillus flavithermus strains that were previously submitted to NCBI revealed that the AK1 strain has the smallest genome size with the highest GC content. The strain can therefore be exploited for several biotechnological applications based on its high thermophilic potential.

  5. Direct Cloning of a Xylanase Gene from Pawan-Riau Hot Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IS HELIANTI

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A functional gene containing an Open Reading Frame (ORF encoding a β-1, 4-endoxylanase glycosyl hydrolase family 11 was cloned directly using metagenomic PCR-cloning method from Pawan Hot Spring sample in Riau. The gene consisted of 642 nucleotides, encoded for 213 amino acids. The amino acid sequence analysis using BLAST showed that the gene has high homology (93% with xylanase gene from Bacillus subtilis. The gene showed its function when it was subcloned into an expression vector and overexpressed in E. coli. The crude extract of the recombinant enzyme had activity for 170 U/ml at 50 °C. The result of this work showed that metagenomic approach was a powerful short cut method to obtain recombinant biocatalyst that was useful for industrial application.

  6. Metagenomic analysis of carbon cycling and biogenic methane formation in terrestrial serpentinizing fluid springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woycheese, K. M.; Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Cardace, D.; Arcilla, C. A.; Ono, S.

    2016-12-01

    The products of serpentinization are proposed to support a hydrogen-driven microbial biosphere in ultrabasic, highly reducing fluids. Shotgun metagenomic analysis of microbial communities collected from terrestrial serpentinizing springs in the Philippines and Turkey suggest that mutualistic relationships may help microbial communities thrive in highly oligotrophic environments. Understanding how these relationships affect production of methane in the deep subsurface is critical to applications such as carbon sequestration and natural gas production. There is conflicting evidence regarding whether methane and C2-C6 alkanes in serpentinizing ecosystems are produced abiogenically or through biotic reactions such as methanogenesis1, 2. While geochemical analysis of methane from serpentinizing ecosystems has previously indicated abiogenic and/or mixed formation3, 4, methanogens have been detected in an increasing number of investigations2. Here, putative metabolisms were identified via assembly and annotation of metagenomic sequence data from the Philippines and Turkey. At both sites, hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and homoacetogenesis were identified as the principal autotrophic carbon fixation pathways. Heterotrophic acetogenesis and acetoclastic methanogenesis were also detected in sequence data. Other heterotrophic metabolic pathways identified included sulfate reduction, methanotrophy, and biodegradation of aromatic carbon compounds. Many of these metabolic pathways have been shown to be favorable under conditions typical of serpentinizing habitats5. Metagenomic analysis strongly suggests that at least some of the methane originating from these serpentinizing ecosystems may be biologically derived. Ongoing work will further clarify the mechanisms of methane formation by examining the clumped isotopologue ratios of dissolved methane in serpentinizing fluids. 1. Wang et al. (2015). Science. 348. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa4326 2. Kohl et al. (2016). JGR. Biogeosci

  7. Light stable isotope study of the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area, Southwestern Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrs D.T.; Bowman, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    The isotopic composition of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon has been determined for regional cold springs, thermal fluids, and rocks and minerals from the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area. The geothermal system has developed within plutonic granitic rocks and amphibolite facies gneiss, relying upon fracture-controlled permeability for the migration of the thermal fluids. Probably originating as meteoric waters in the upper elevations of the Mineral Mountains, the thermal waters sampled in the production wells display an oxygen isotopic shift of at least +1.2. Depletions of delta /sup 18/O in wole rock, K-feldspar, and biotite have a positive correlation with alteration intensity. W/R mass ratios, calculated from the isotopic shifts of rock and water, range up to 3.0 in a producing horizon of one well, although the K-feldspar has experienced only 30% exchange with the thermal waters. While veinlet quartz has equilibrated with the thermal waters, the /sup 18/O values of K-mica clay, an alteration product of plagioclase, mimic the isotopic composition of K-feldspar and whole rock. This suggests that locally small W/R ratios enable plagioclase to influence its alteration products by isotopic exchange.

  8. Microelectrode studies of interstitial water chemistry and photosynthetic activity in a hot spring microbial mat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revsbech, N.P.; Ward, D.M.

    1984-08-01

    Microelectrodes were used to measure oxygen, pH, and oxygenic photosynthetic activity in a hot spring microbial mat (Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park), where the cyanobacterium Synechoccus lividus and the filamentous bacteria Chloroflexus aurantiacus are the only known phototrophs. The data showed very high biological activities in the topmost layers of the microbial mat, resulting in extreme values for oxygen and pH. At a 1-mm depth at a 55 C site, oxygen and pH reached 900 micro M and 9.4, respectively, just after solar noon, whereas anoxic conditions with pH of 7.2 were measured before sunrise. Although diurnal changes between these extremes occurred over hours during a diurnal cycle microbial activity was great enough to give the same response in 1 to 2 mm after artificial shading. Oxygenic photosynthesis was confined to a 0.5- to 1.1-mm layer at sites with temperatures at or above about 50 C, with maximum activities in the 55 to 60 C region. The data suggest that S. lividus is the dominant primary producer of the mat. 30 references, 5 figures.

  9. Structure, growth, and decomposition of laminated algal-bacterial mats in alkaline hot springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doemel, W.N.; Brock, T.D.

    1977-10-01

    Laminated mats of unique character in siliceous alkaline hot springs of Yellowstone Park are formed predominantly by two organisms, a unicellular blue-green alga, Synechococcus lividus, and a filamentous, gliding, photosynthetic bacterium, Chloroflexus aurantiacus. The mats can be divided approximately into two major zones: an upper, aerobic zone in which sufficient light penetrates for net photosynthesis, and a lower, anaerobic zone, where photosynthesis does not occur and decomposition is the dominant process. Growth of the mat was followed by marking the mat surface with silicon carbide particles. The motile Chloroflexus migrates vertically at night, due to positive aerotaxis, responding to reduced O/sub 2/ levels induced by dark respiration. The growth rates of mats were estimated at about 50 ..mu..m/day. Observations of a single mat at Octopus Spring showed that despite the rapid growth rate, the thickness of the mat remained essentially constant, and silicon carbide layers placed on the surface gradually moved to the bottom of the mat, showing that decomposition was taking place. There was a rapid initial rate of decomposition, with an apparent half-time of about 1 month, followed by a slower period of decomposition with a half-time of about 12 months. Within a year, complete decomposition of a mat of about 2-cm thickness can occur. Also, the region in which decomposition occurs is strictly anaerobic, showing that complete decomposition of organic matter from these organisms can occur in the absence of O/sub 2/.

  10. Complex polar lipids of a hot spring cyanobacterial mat and its cultivated inhabitants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D. M.; Panke, S.; Kloppel, K. D.; Christ, R.; Fredrickson, H.

    1994-01-01

    The complex polar lipids of the hot spring cyanobacterial mat in the 50 to 55 degrees C region of Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park, and of thermophilic bacteria cultivated from this or similar habitats, were compared in an attempt to understand the microbial sources of the major lipid biomarkers in this community. Intact complex lipids were analyzed directly by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS), two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and combined TLC-FAB-MS. FAB-MS and TLC gave qualitatively similar results, suggesting that the mat contains major lipids most like those of the cyanobacterial isolate we studied, Synechococcus sp. strain Y-7c-s. These include monoglycosyl, diglycosyl, and sulfoquinosovyl diglycerides (MG, DG, and SQ, respectively) and phosphatidyl glycerol (PG). Though Chloroflexus aurantiacus also contains MG, DG, and PG, the fatty acid chain lengths of mat MGs, DGs, and PGs resemble more those of cyanobacterial than green nonsulfur bacterial lipids. FAB-MS spectra of the lipids of nonphototrophic bacterial isolates were distinctively different from those of the mat and phototrophic isolates. The lipids of these nonphototrophic isolates were not detected in the mat, but most could be detected when added to mat samples. The mat also contains major glycolipids and aminophospholipids of unknown structure and origin. FAB-MS and TLC did not always give quantitatively similar results. In particular, PG and SQ may give disproportionately high FAB-MS responses.

  11. Diversity of thermophiles in a Malaysian hot spring determined using 16S rRNA and shotgun metagenome sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia Sing eChan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sungai Klah (SK hot spring is the second hottest geothermal spring in Malaysia. This hot spring is a shallow, 150-meter-long, fast-flowing stream, with temperatures varying from 50 to 110°C and a pH range of 7.0 to 9.0. Hidden within a wooded area, the SK hot spring is continually fed by plant litter, resulting in a relatively high degree of total organic content (TOC. In this study, a sample taken from the middle of the stream was analyzed at the 16S rRNA V3−V4 region by amplicon metagenome sequencing. Over 35 phyla were detected by analyzing the 16S rRNA data. Firmicutes and Proteobacteria represented approximately 57% of the microbiome. Approximately 70% of the detected thermophiles were strict anaerobes; however, Hydrogenobacter spp., obligate chemolithotrophic thermophiles, represented one of the major taxa. Several thermophilic photosynthetic microorganisms and acidothermophiles were also detected. Most of the phyla identified by 16S rRNA were also found using the shotgun metagenome approaches. The carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen metabolism within the SK hot spring community were evaluated by shotgun metagenome sequencing, and the data revealed diversity in terms of metabolic activity and dynamics. This hot spring has a rich diversified phylogenetic community partly due to its natural environment (plant litter, high TOC, and a shallow stream and geochemical parameters (broad temperature and pH range. It is speculated that symbiotic relationships occur between the members of the community.

  12. Chlorine isotope fractionation associated with volcanic activity at the Kusatsu-Bandaiko hot spring in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musashi, Masaaki; Oi, Takao; Eggenkamp, Hans G M; Matsuo, Motoyuki

    2008-09-01

    Stable chlorine isotope compositions (delta(37)Cl, per-mil: per thousand, vs. a standard sample of sea water) of Kusatsu-bandaiko hot water samples, taken regularly in the years between 1974 and 1995 in the Kusatsu-Shirane volcanic region, Japan, were measured mass-spectrometrically. The results show that the delta(37)Cl values of the waters taken before 1984 were at around-0.12 per thousand, whereas those after 1984 were at around+0.18 per thousand. The delta(37)Cl values are thus distinct across 1984, which is consistent with the classification by the Cl to S molar ratio (Cl/S): the higher the Cl/S ratio, the larger the delta(37)Cl value. The delta(37)Cl value increased as much as 0.30 per thousand during 5 years between 1980 and 1984. This isotopic enrichment is likely correlated with increasing Cl/S ratios, suggesting that the heavier isotope ((37)Cl) may have preferentially increased in the original Cl source of the hot spring across 1984 when volcanic activity likely increased at Mt Kusatsu-Shirane.

  13. Biodiversity within hot spring microbial mat communities: molecular monitoring of enrichment cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D. M.; Santegoeds, C. M.; Nold, S. C.; Ramsing, N. B.; Ferris, M. J.; Bateson, M. M.

    1997-01-01

    We have begun to examine the basis for incongruence between hot spring microbial mat populations detected by cultivation or by 16S rRNA methods. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to monitor enrichments and isolates plated therefrom. At near extincting inoculum dilutions we observed Chloroflexus-like and cyanobacterial populations whose 16S rRNA sequences have been detected in the 'New Pit' Spring Chloroflexus mat and the Octopus Spring cyanobacterial mat. Cyanobacterial populations enriched from 44 to 54 degrees C and 56 to 63 degrees C samples at near habitat temperatures were similar to those previously detected in mat samples of comparable temperatures. However, a lower temperature enrichment from the higher temperature sample selected for the populations found in the lower temperature sample. Three Thermus populations detected by both DGGE and isolation exemplify even more how enrichment may bias our view of community structure. The most abundant population was adapted to the habitat temperature (50 degrees C), while populations adapted to 65 degrees C and 70 degrees C were 10(2)- and 10(4)-fold less abundant, respectively. However, enrichment at 70 degrees C favored the least abundant strain. Inoculum dilution and incubation at the habitat temperature favored the more numerically relevant populations. We enriched many other aerobic chemoorganotrophic populations at various inoculum dilutions and substrate concentrations, most of whose 16S rRNA sequences have not been detected in mats. A common feature of numerically relevant cyanobacterial, Chloroflexus-like and aerobic chemorganotrophic populations, is that they grow poorly and resist cultivation on solidified medium, suggesting plating bias, and that the medium composition and incubation conditions may not reflect the natural microenvironments these populations inhabit.

  14. SMA spring-based artificial muscle actuated by hot and cool water using faucet-like valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol Hoon; Son, Young Su

    2017-04-01

    An artificial muscle for a human arm-like manipulator with high strain and high power density are under development, and an SMA(Shape memory alloy) spring is a good actuator for this application. In this study, an artificial muscle composed of a silicon tube and a bundle of SMA(Shape memory alloy) springs is evaluated. A bundle of SMA springs consists of five SMA springs which are fabricated by using SMA wires with a diameter of 0.5 mm, and hot and cool water actuates it by heating and cooling SMA springs. A faucet-like valve was also developed to mix hot water and cool water and control the water temperature. The mass of silicon tube and a bundle of SMA springs is only 3.3 g and 2.25 g, respectively, and the total mass of artificial muscle is 5.55 g. It showed good actuating performance for a load with a mass of 2.3 kg and the power density was more than 800 W/kg for continuous valve switching with a cycle of 0.6 s. The faucet-like valve can switch a water output from hot water to cold water within 0.3s, and the artificial muscle is actuated well in response to the valve position and speed. It is also presented that the temperature of the mixed water can be controlled depending on the valve position, and the displacement of the artificial muscle can be controlled well by the mixed water. Based on these results, SMA spring-based artificial muscle actuated by hot and cool water could be applicable to the human arm-like robot manipulators.

  15. Airborne CO2 and H2S Measurements at Hot Spring Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, K. A.; Doukas, M. P.; Werner, C. A.

    2007-12-01

    Gas emission-rate measurements at thermal areas located in remote regions with difficult ground access and little topographic relief pose a special challenge to those attempting to assess volcanic hazards in those areas. Several attempts have been made to measure gas emission rates from geyser basins, thermal areas and discrete large fumaroles at Yellowstone National Park through the use of fixed-wing aircraft with an on-board measurement system similar to that employed elsewhere at large stratovolcanoes. Despite minimum flight elevation restrictions and relatively flat terrain that often make access to the lowest margins of the plume difficult in these areas, we have successfully measured plumes of CO2 and H2S at several such areas and features at Yellowstone. We report here the results of a series of airborne measurements on 7 Jun 2006 at Hot Spring Basin (HSB), a remote vapor-dominated hydrothermal system just outside the northeast margin of Yellowstone caldera containing multiple gas vents. Using a LI-COR infrared spectrometer and Interscan electrochemical detector system, we detected a 3-km-wide plume approximately 2 km downwind from HSB. Several airborne traverses through a vertical slice of the plume allowed us to construct a cross-section of the plume and yielded emission rates of 170 metric tonnes per day (t/d) for CO2 and 2 t/d for H2S, similar to rates measured at Mt. Baker, WA (USA) in September 2000. However, an August 2006 ground-based study of emissions from HSB yielded higher emission rates for both CO2 and H2S (Werner et al., this session), suggesting that not all of the diffuse emissions are reflected in the airborne measurement. Although a complete inventory of plume emission rates from the majority of degassing sources in Yellowstone National Park is not yet complete, HSB appears to be a smaller gas emitter than some of the other sources in the Park (e.g., Norris Geyser Basin, Brimstone Basin, Mud Volcano, Grand Prismatic Spring and Mammoth Hot

  16. Structural and Functional Insights from the Metagenome of an Acidic Hot Spring Microbial Planktonic Community in the Colombian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiménez Avella, Diego; Dini Andreote, Fernando; Chaves, Diego; Montaña, José Salvador; Osorio-Forero, Cesar; Junca, Howard; Zambrano, María Mercedes; Baena, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    A taxonomic and annotated functional description of microbial life was deduced from 53 Mb of metagenomic sequence retrieved from a planktonic fraction of the Neotropical high Andean (3,973 meters above sea level) acidic hot spring El Coquito (EC). A classification of unassembled metagenomic reads

  17. Genome Sequence of Anoxybacillus flavithermus Strain AK1, a Thermophile Isolated from a Hot Spring in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Amjad

    2015-06-04

    Anoxybacillus flavithermus strain AK1 was isolated from Al-Ain Alhara, a thermal hot spring located 50 km southeast of the city of Gazan, Saudi Arabia (16°56ʹN, 43°15ʹE). The sequenced and annotated genome is 2,630,664 bp and encodes 2,799 genes.

  18. Geological, geochemical, and geophysical survey of the geothermal resources at Hot Springs Bay Valley, Akutan Island, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motyka, R.J.; Wescott, E.M.; Turner, D.L.; Swanson, S.E.; Romick, J.D.; Moorman, M.A.; Poreda, R.J.; Witte, W.; Petzinger, B.; Allely, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    An extensive survey was conducted of the geothermal resource potential of Hot Springs Bay Valley on Akutan Island. A topographic base map was constructed, geologic mapping, geophysical and geochemical surveys were conducted, and the thermal waters and fumarolic gases were analyzed for major and minor element species and stable isotope composition. (ACR)

  19. Complete metagenome sequencing based bacterial diversity and functional insights from basaltic hot spring of Unkeshwar, Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehetre, Gajanan T; Paranjpe, Aditi S; Dastager, Syed G; Dharne, Mahesh S

    2016-03-01

    Unkeshwar hot springs are located at geographical South East Deccan Continental basalt of India. Here, we report the microbial community analysis of this hot spring using whole metagenome shotgun sequencing approach. The analysis revealed a total of 848,096 reads with 212.87 Mbps with 50.87% G + C content. Metagenomic sequences were deposited in SRA database with accession number (SUB1242219). Community analysis revealed 99.98% sequences belonging to bacteria and 0.01% to archaea and 0.01% to Viruses. The data obtained revealed 41 phyla including bacteria and Archaea and including 719 different species. In taxonomic analysis, the dominant phyla were found as, Actinobacteria (56%), Verrucomicrobia (24%), Bacteriodes (13%), Deinococcus-Thermus (3%) and firmicutes (2%) and Viruses (2%). Furthermore, functional annotation using pathway information revealed dynamic potential of hot spring community in terms of metabolism, environmental information processing, cellular processes and other important aspects. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of each contig sequence by assigning KEGG Orthology (KO) numbers revealed contig sequences that were assigned to metabolism, organismal system, Environmental Information Processing, cellular processes and human diseases with some unclassified sequences. The Unkeshwar hot springs offer rich phylogenetic diversity and metabolic potential for biotechnological applications.

  20. Difference in the action mechanism of radon inhalation and radon hot spring water drinking in suppression of hyperuricemia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etani, Reo; Kataoka, Takahiro; Kanzaki, Norie; Sakoda, Akihiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ishimori, Yuu; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2016-06-01

    Although radon therapy is indicated for hyperuricemia, the underlying mechanisms of action have not yet been elucidated in detail. Therefore, we herein examined the inhibitory effects of radon inhalation and hot spring water drinking on potassium oxonate (PO)-induced hyperuricemia in mice. Mice inhaled radon at a concentration of 2000 Bq/m(3) for 24 h or were given hot spring water for 2 weeks. Mice were then administrated PO at a dose of 500 mg/kg. The results obtained showed that serum uric acid levels were significantly increased by the administration of PO. Radon inhalation or hot spring water drinking significantly inhibited elevations in serum uric acid levels through the suppression of xanthine oxidase activity in the liver. Radon inhalation activated anti-oxidative functions in the liver and kidney. These results suggest that radon inhalation inhibits PO-induced hyperuricemia by activating anti-oxidative functions, while hot spring water drinking may suppress PO-induced elevations in serum uric acid levels through the pharmacological effects of the chemical compositions dissolved in it. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  1. Complete metagenome sequencing based bacterial diversity and functional insights from basaltic hot spring of Unkeshwar, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajanan T. Mehetre

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Unkeshwar hot springs are located at geographical South East Deccan Continental basalt of India. Here, we report the microbial community analysis of this hot spring using whole metagenome shotgun sequencing approach. The analysis revealed a total of 848,096 reads with 212.87 Mbps with 50.87% G + C content. Metagenomic sequences were deposited in SRA database with accession number (SUB1242219. Community analysis revealed 99.98% sequences belonging to bacteria and 0.01% to archaea and 0.01% to Viruses. The data obtained revealed 41 phyla including bacteria and Archaea and including 719 different species. In taxonomic analysis, the dominant phyla were found as, Actinobacteria (56%, Verrucomicrobia (24%, Bacteriodes (13%, Deinococcus-Thermus (3% and firmicutes (2% and Viruses (2%. Furthermore, functional annotation using pathway information revealed dynamic potential of hot spring community in terms of metabolism, environmental information processing, cellular processes and other important aspects. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analysis of each contig sequence by assigning KEGG Orthology (KO numbers revealed contig sequences that were assigned to metabolism, organismal system, Environmental Information Processing, cellular processes and human diseases with some unclassified sequences. The Unkeshwar hot springs offer rich phylogenetic diversity and metabolic potential for biotechnological applications.

  2. Imaging Near-Surface Controls on Hot Spring Expression Using Shallow Seismic Refraction in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A. N.; Lindsey, C.; Fairley, J. P., Jr.; Larson, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    We used shallow seismic refraction to image near-surface materials in the vicinity of a small group of hot springs, located in the Morning Mist Springs area of Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Seismic velocities in the area surveyed range from a low of 0.3 km/s to a high of approximately 2.5 km/s. The survey results indicate an irregular surface topography overlain by silty sediments. The observed seismic velocities are consistent with a subsurface model in which sorted sands and gravels, probably outwash materials from the Pinedale glaciation, are overlain by silts and fine sands deposited in the flat-lying areas of the Morning Springs area. These findings are supported by published geologic maps of the area and well logs from a nearby borehole. The near-surface materials appear to be saturated with discharging hydrothermal fluids of varying temperature, and interbedded with semi-lithified geothermal deposits (sinter). We hypothesize that the relatively low-conductivity deposits of fines at the surface may serve to confine a shallow, relatively low-temperature (sub-boiling) hydrothermal aquifer, and that the distribution of sinter in the shallow subsurface plays an important role in determining the geometry of hydrothermal discharge (hot springs) at the land surface. Few studies of the shallow controls on hot spring expression exist for the Yellowstone caldera, and the present study therefore offers a unique glimpse into near-subsurface fluid flow controls.

  3. Multielement geochemistry of solid materials in geothermal systems and its applications. Part 1. Hot-water system at the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamford, R.W.; Christensen, O.D.; Capuano, R.M.

    1980-02-01

    Geochemical studies of the geothermal system at Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah, have led to development of chemical criteria for recognition of major features of the system and to a three-dimensional model for chemical zoning in the system. Based on this improved level of understanding several new or modified geochemical exploration and assessment techniques have been defined and are probably broadly applicable to evaluation of hot-water geothermal systems. The main purpose of this work was the development or adaptation of solids geochemical exploration techniques for use in the geothermal environment. (MHR)

  4. Protective effects of hot spring water drinking and radon inhalation on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etani, Reo; Kataoka, Takahiro; Kanzaki, Norie; Sakoda, Akihiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ishimori, Yuu; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2017-09-01

    Radon therapy using radon (222Rn) gas is classified into two types of treatment: inhalation of radon gas and drinking water containing radon. Although short- or long-term intake of spa water is effective in increasing gastric mucosal blood flow, and spa water therapy is useful for treating chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer, the underlying mechanisms for and precise effects of radon protection against mucosal injury are unclear. In the present study, we examined the protective effects of hot spring water drinking and radon inhalation on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in mice. Mice inhaled radon at a concentration of 2000 Bq/m3 for 24 h or were provided with hot spring water for 2 weeks. The activity density of 222Rn ranged from 663 Bq/l (start point of supplying) to 100 Bq/l (end point of supplying). Mice were then orally administered ethanol at three concentrations. The ulcer index (UI), an indicator of mucosal injury, increased in response to the administration of ethanol; however, treatment with either radon inhalation or hot spring water inhibited the elevation in the UI due to ethanol. Although no significant differences in antioxidative enzymes were observed between the radon-treated groups and the non-treated control groups, lipid peroxide levels were significantly lower in the stomachs of mice pre-treated with radon or hot spring water. These results suggest that hot spring water drinking and radon inhalation inhibit ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  5. Microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction potential in Chocolate Pots hot spring, Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, N W; He, S; Converse, B J; Beard, B L; Johnson, C M; Boyd, E S; Roden, E E

    2016-05-01

    Chocolate Pots hot springs (CP) is a unique, circumneutral pH, iron-rich, geothermal feature in Yellowstone National Park. Prior research at CP has focused on photosynthetically driven Fe(II) oxidation as a model for mineralization of microbial mats and deposition of Archean banded iron formations. However, geochemical and stable Fe isotopic data have suggested that dissimilatory microbial iron reduction (DIR) may be active within CP deposits. In this study, the potential for microbial reduction of native CP Fe(III) oxides was investigated, using a combination of cultivation dependent and independent approaches, to assess the potential involvement of DIR in Fe redox cycling and associated stable Fe isotope fractionation in the CP hot springs. Endogenous microbial communities were able to reduce native CP Fe(III) oxides, as documented by most probable number enumerations and enrichment culture studies. Enrichment cultures demonstrated sustained DIR driven by oxidation of acetate, lactate, and H2 . Inhibitor studies and molecular analyses indicate that sulfate reduction did not contribute to observed rates of DIR in the enrichment cultures through abiotic reaction pathways. Enrichment cultures produced isotopically light Fe(II) during DIR relative to the bulk solid-phase Fe(III) oxides. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes from enrichment cultures showed dominant sequences closely affiliated with Geobacter metallireducens, a mesophilic Fe(III) oxide reducer. Shotgun metagenomic analysis of enrichment cultures confirmed the presence of a dominant G. metallireducens-like population and other less dominant populations from the phylum Ignavibacteriae, which appear to be capable of DIR. Gene (protein) searches revealed the presence of heat-shock proteins that may be involved in increased thermotolerance in the organisms present in the enrichments as well as porin-cytochrome complexes previously shown to be involved in extracellular electron transport. This analysis offers

  6. Consideration of Thermoelectric Power Generation by Using Hot Spring Thermal Energy or Industrial Waste Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Keiichi; Horikawa, Daisuke; Goto, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Today, we face some significant environmental and energy problems such as global warming, urban heat island, and the precarious balance of world oil supply and demand. However, we have not yet found a satisfactory solution to these problems. Waste heat recovery is considered to be one of the best solutions because it can improve energy efficiency by converting heat exhausted from plants and machinery to electric power. This technology would also prevent atmospheric temperature increases caused by waste heat, and decrease fossil fuel consumption by recovering heat energy, thus also reducing CO2 emissions. The system proposed in this research generates electric power by providing waste heat or unharnessed thermal energy to built-in thermoelectric modules that can convert heat into electric power. Waste heat can be recovered from many places, including machinery in industrial plants, piping in electric power plants, waste incineration plants, and so on. Some natural heat sources such as hot springs and solar heat can also be used for this thermoelectric generation system. The generated power is expected to be supplied to auxiliary machinery around the heat source, stored as an emergency power supply, and so on. The attributes of this system are (1) direct power generation using hot springs or waste heat; (2) 24-h stable power generation; (3) stand-alone power system with no noise and no vibration; and (4) easy maintenance attributed to its simple structure with no moving parts. In order to maximize energy use efficiency, the temperature difference between both sides of the thermoelectric (TE) modules built into the system need to be kept as large as possible. This means it is important to reduce thermal resistance between TE modules and heat source. Moreover, the system's efficiency greatly depends on the base temperature of the heat sources and the material of the system's TE modules. Therefore, in order to make this system practical and efficient, it is necessary to

  7. Hot spring siliceous stromatolites from Yellowstone National Park: assessing growth rate and laminae formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berelson, W M; Corsetti, F A; Pepe-Ranney, C; Hammond, D E; Beaumont, W; Spear, J R

    2011-09-01

    Stromatolites are commonly interpreted as evidence of ancient microbial life, yet stromatolite morphogenesis is poorly understood. We apply radiometric tracer and dating techniques, molecular analyses and growth experiments to investigate siliceous stromatolite morphogenesis in Obsidian Pool Prime (OPP), a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park. We examine rates of stromatolite growth and the environmental and/or biologic conditions that affect lamination formation and preservation, both difficult features to constrain in ancient examples. The "main body" of the stromatolite is composed of finely laminated, porous, light-dark couplets of erect (surface normal) and reclining (surface parallel) silicified filamentous bacteria, interrupted by a less-distinct, well-cemented "drape" lamination. Results from dating studies indicate a growth rate of 1-5 cm year(-1) ; however, growth is punctuated. (14)C as a tracer demonstrates that stromatolite cyanobacterial communities fix CO(2) derived from two sources, vent water (radiocarbon dead) and the atmosphere (modern (14)C). The drape facies contained a greater proportion of atmospheric CO(2) and more robust silica cementation (vs. the main body facies), which we interpret as formation when spring level was lower. Systematic changes in lamination style are likely related to environmental forcing and larger scale features (tectonic, climatic). Although the OPP stromatolites are composed of silica and most ancient forms are carbonate, their fine lamination texture requires early lithification. Without early lithification, whether silica or carbonate, it is unlikely that a finely laminated structure representing an ancient microbial mat would be preserved. In OPP, lithification on the nearly diurnal time scale is likely related to temperature control on silica solubility. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. [Legionella contamination risk factors in non-circulating hot spring water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasudani, Tatsuya; Kuroki, Toshiro; Otani, Katsumi; Yamaguchi, Seiichi; Sasaki, Mie; Saito, Shioko; Fujita, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Kanji; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Murakami, Koichi; Taguri, Toshitsugu; Kuramoto, Tsuyoshi; Kura, Fumiaki; Yagita, Kenji; Izumiyama, Shinji; Amemura-Maekawa, Junko; Yamazaki, Toshio; Agata, Kunio; Inouye, Hiroo

    2009-01-01

    We examined water from 182 non-circulating hot spring bathing facilities in Japan for possible Legionella occurrence from June 2005 to December 2006, finding Legionella-positive cultures in 119 (29.5%) of 403 samples. Legionellae occurrence was most prevalent in bathtub water (39.4%), followed by storage tank water (23.8%), water from faucets at the bathtub edge (22.3%), and source-spring water (8.3%), indicating no statistically significant difference, in the number of legionellae, having an overall mean of 66 CFU/100mL. The maximum number of legionellae in water increased as water was sampled downstream:180 CFU/100 mL from source spring, 670 from storage tanks, 4,000 from inlet faucets, and 6,800 from bathtubs. The majority--85.7%--of isolated species were identified as L. pneumophila : L. pneumophila serogroup (SG) 1 in 22%, SG 5 in 21%, and SG 6 in 22% of positive samples. Multivariate logistic regression models used to determine the characteristics of facilities and sanitary management associated with Legionella contamination indicated that legionellae was prevalent in bathtub water under conditions where it was isolated from inlet faucet/pouring gate water (odds ratio [OR] = 6.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.14 to 22.8). Risk of occurrence was also high when the bathtub volume exceeded 5 m3 (OR = 2.74, 95% CI = 1.28 to 5.89). Legionellae occurrence was significantly reduced when the bathing water pH was lower than 6.0 (OR = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.02 to 0.63). Similarly, occurrence was rare in inlet faucet water or the upper part of the plumbing system for which pH was lower than 6.0 (OR = 0.06, 95% CI = 0.01 to 0.48), and when the water temperature was maintained at 55 degrees C or more (OR = 0.10, 95% CI = 0.01 to 0.77). We also examined the occurrence of amoeba, Mycobacterium spp., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus in water samples.

  9. The hot spring and geyser sinters of El Tatio, Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Turiel, J. L.; Garcia-Valles, M.; Gimeno-Torrente, D.; Saavedra-Alonso, J.; Martinez-Manent, S.

    2005-10-01

    The siliceous sinter deposits of El Tatio geothermal field in northern Chile have been examined petrographically and mineralogically. These sinters consist of amorphous silica (opal-A) deposited around hot springs and geysers from nearly neutral, silica-saturated, sodium chloride waters. Water cooling and evaporation to dryness are the main processes that control the opal-A deposition in both subaqueous and subaerial settings, in close spatial relation to microbial communities. All fingerprints of organisms observed in the studied sinter samples represent microbes and suggest that the microbial community is moderately diverse (cyanobacteria, green bacteria, and diatoms). The most important ecological parameter is the temperature gradient, which is closely related to the observed depositional settings: 1) Geyser setting: water temperature = 70-86 °C (boiling point at El Tatio: 4200 m a.s.l.); coarse laminated sinter macrostructure with rapid local variations; biota comprises non-photosynthetic hyperthermophilic bacteria. 2) Splash areas around geysers: water temperature = 60-75 °C; laminated spicule and column macrostructure, locally forming cupolas (El Tatio is a natural laboratory of great interest because the sedimentary macrostructures and microtextures reflect the geological and biological processes involved in the primary deposition and early diagenesis of siliceous sinters.

  10. Discovery and characterizaton of a novel lipase with transesterification activity from hot spring metagenomic library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Li, Furong; Wang, Li; Zhu, Yaxin; Dong, Zhiyang; Bai, Linhan

    2017-03-01

    A new gene encoding a lipase (designated as Lip-1 ) was identified from a metagenomic bacterial artificial chromosome(BAC) library prepared from a concentrated water sample collected from a hot spring field in Niujie, Eryuan of Yunnan province in China. The open reading frame of this gene encoded 622 amino acid residues. It was cloned, fused with the oleosin gene and over expressed in Escherichia coli to prepare immobilized lipase artificial oil body AOB-sole-lip-1. The monomeric Sole-lip-1 fusion protein presented a molecular mass of 102.4 kDa. Enzyme assays using olive oil and methanol as the substrates in petroleum ether confirmed its transesterification activity. Hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, 8,11-Octadecadienoic acid methyl ester, 8-Octadecenoic acid methyl ester, and Octadecanoic acid methyl ester were detected. It showed favorable transesterification activity with optimal temperature 45 °C. Besides, the maximal biodiesel yield was obtained when the petroleum ether system as the organic solvent and the substrate methanol in 350 mmol/L (at a molar ratio of methanol of 10.5:1) and the water content was 1%. In light of these advantages, this lipase presents a promising resource for biodiesel production.

  11. Discovery and characterizaton of a novel lipase with transesterification activity from hot spring metagenomic library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A new gene encoding a lipase (designated as Lip-1 was identified from a metagenomic bacterial artificial chromosome(BAC library prepared from a concentrated water sample collected from a hot spring field in Niujie, Eryuan of Yunnan province in China. The open reading frame of this gene encoded 622 amino acid residues. It was cloned, fused with the oleosin gene and over expressed in Escherichia coli to prepare immobilized lipase artificial oil body AOB-sole-lip-1. The monomeric Sole-lip-1 fusion protein presented a molecular mass of 102.4 kDa. Enzyme assays using olive oil and methanol as the substrates in petroleum ether confirmed its transesterification activity. Hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, 8,11-Octadecadienoic acid methyl ester, 8-Octadecenoic acid methyl ester, and Octadecanoic acid methyl ester were detected. It showed favorable transesterification activity with optimal temperature 45 °C. Besides, the maximal biodiesel yield was obtained when the petroleum ether system as the organic solvent and the substrate methanol in 350 mmol/L (at a molar ratio of methanol of 10.5:1 and the water content was 1%. In light of these advantages, this lipase presents a promising resource for biodiesel production.

  12. Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis subsp. asaccharedens subsp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium isolated from a hot spring in Batman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul-Guven, Reyhan; Guven, Kemal; Poli, Annarita; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2008-12-01

    A new thermophilic spore-forming strain KG8(T) was isolated from the mud of Taslidere hot spring in Batman. Strain KG8(T) was aerobe, Gram-positive, rod-shaped, motile, occurring in pairs or filamentous. Growth was observed from 35-65 degrees C (optimum 55 degrees C) and at pH 5.5-9.5 (optimum pH 7.5). It was capable of utilizing starch, growth was observed until 3% NaCl (w/v) and it was positive for nitrate reduction. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain KG8(T) was shown to be related most closely to Anoxybacillus species. Chemotaxonomic data (major isoprenoid quinone-menaquinone-7; major fatty acid-iso-C15:0 and iso-C17:0) supported the affiliation of strain KG8(T) to the genus Anoxybacillus. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain KG8(T). Based on these results we propose assigning a novel subspecies of Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis, to be named Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis subsp. asaccharedens subsp. nov. with the type strain KG8(T) (DSM 18475(T)=CIP 109280(T)).

  13. Iron isotope characteristics of Hot Springs at Chocolate Pots, Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingling; Brucker, Rebecca Poulson; Beard, Brian L; Roden, Eric E; Johnson, Clark M

    2013-11-01

    Chocolate Pots Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park is a hydrothermal system that contains high aqueous ferrous iron [∼0.1 mM Fe(II)] at circumneutral pH conditions. This site provides an ideal field environment in which to test our understanding of Fe isotope fractionations derived from laboratory experiments. The Fe(III) oxides, mainly produced through Fe(II) oxidation by oxygen in the atmosphere, have high ⁵⁶Fe/⁵⁴Fe ratios compared with the aqueous Fe(II). However, the degree of fractionation is less than that expected in a closed system at isotopic equilibrium. We suggest two explanations for the observed Fe isotope compositions. One is that light Fe isotopes partition into a sorbed component and precipitate out on the Fe(III) oxide surfaces in the presence of silica. The other explanation is internal regeneration of isotopically heavy Fe(II) via dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction farther down the flow path as well as deeper within the mat materials. These findings provide evidence that silica plays an important role in governing Fe isotope fractionation factors between reduced and oxidized Fe. Under conditions of low ambient oxygen, such as may be found on early Earth or Mars, significantly larger Fe isotope variations are predicted, reflecting the more likely attainment of Fe isotope equilibrium associated with slower oxidation rates under low-O₂ conditions.

  14. Formation and fate of fermentation products in hot spring cyanobacterial mats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, K.L.; Tayne, T.A.; Ward, D.M.

    1987-10-01

    The fate of representative fermentation products (acetate, propionate, butyrate, lactate, and ethanol) in hot spring cyanobacterial mats was investigated. The major fate during incubations in the light was photoassimilation by filamentous bacteria resembling Chloroflexus aurantiacus. Some metabolism of all compounds occurred under dark aerobic conditions. Under dark anaerobic conditions, only lactate was oxidized extensively to carbon dioxide. Extended preincubation under dark anaerobic conditions did not enhance anaerobic catabolism of acetate, propionate, or ethanol. Acetogenesis of butyrate was suggested by the hydrogen sensitivity of butyrate conversion to acetate and by the enrichment of butyrate-degrading acetogenic bacteria. Accumulation of fermentation products which were not catabolized under dark anaerobic conditions revealed their importance. Acetate and propionate were the major fermentation products which accumulated in samples collected at temperatures ranging from 50 to 70/sup 0/C. Other organic acids and alcohols accumulated to a much lesser extent. Fermentation occurred mainly in the top 4 mm of the mat. Exposure to light decreased the accumulation of acetate and presumably of other fermentation products. The importance of interspecies hydrogen transfer was investigated by comparing fermentation product accumulation at a 65/sup 0/C site, with naturally high hydrogen levels, and a 55/sup 0/C site, where active methanogenesis prevented significant hydrogen accumulation. There was a greater relative accumulation of reduced products, notably ethanol, in the 65/sup 2/C mat.

  15. Evaluation of radon in hot spring waters in Zacatecas State, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favila R, E.; Lopez del Rio, H.; Davila R, I.; Mireles G, F., E-mail: hlopezdelrio@hotmail.co [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    It is well know that radon is a potent human carcinogen. Because of the health concern of radon exposure, concentrations of {sup 222}Rn were determined in ten hot spring water samples from the Mexican state of Zacatecas. The thermal water is collected in pools and used mainly for recreational purposes. In addition to radon level, the water samples were characterized for temperature, conductivity, and ph. Liquid scintillation spectrometry was used to measure {sup 222}Rn and its decay products by mixing directly an aliquot of water with a commercial liquid scintillation. All measurements were carried out using a liquid scintillation counter (Wallac 1411). The water temperature ranged from 28 to 59 C, while the ph varied from 7.2 to 9.0, and the water conductivity was between 202.4 and 1072 {mu}S/cm. The {sup 222}Rn concentration varied in the range 3.9-32.6 Bq/L. In addition, the risk to radon exposure was assessed by considering three -real and possible- radon exposure scenarios: 1) ingestion of bottled thermal water, 2) direct ingestion of thermal water; and 3) vapor inhalation. The annual effective dose calculated for ingestion of bottled thermal water was 0.010-0.083 mSv/yr; for ingestion of water was 0.65-5.47 mSv/yr; and for inhalation was 0.28-2.81 mSv/yr. (Author)

  16. Analysis of temperature-time data from 3 m drillholes at Crystal Hot Springs, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, J.; Chapman, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    A method for determining the background geothermal gradient values through the analysis of temperature measurements at multiple depths to 3 m and recorded over a time span of several days is presented. The analysis is based on the amplitude decay and phase shift of temperature waves with depth. Diurnal and other high frequency temperature variations are used to compute thermal diffusivities which in turn are used to model and remove the effect of the annual temperature wave. The analysis considers both a homogeneous half space and a two layer medium consisting of an overburden of finite thickness overlying a semi-infinite substratum. The method was tested in three holes in the Crystal Hot Springs geothermal field. Temperatures in each hole were recorded once a minute over a period of three days with a probe containing thermistors at eight different depths. Five of the thermistors were positioned at shallow depths (less than or equal to 0.5 m) to monitor diurnal and other high frequency waves and three at greater depths (greater than or equal to 1 m) to measure lower frequency variations. Since measurements were recorded at only three sites, the accuracy and reliability of the method is not fully evaluated. Potential problems to the method resulting from inaccurate model parameters and convective heat transport are investigated.

  17. Comprehensive study of LASL Well C/T-2 Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA, Utah, and applications to geothermal well logging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, W.E.; Hulen, J.B.; Nielson, D.L.

    1981-02-01

    Utah State Geothermal Well 9-1 in the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA, Beaver County, Utah, has been donated by Phillips Petroleum Company for calibration and testing of well-logging equipment in the hot, corrosive, geothermal environment. It is the second Calibration/Test Well (C/T-2) in the Geothermal Log Interpretation Program. A study of cuttings and well logs from Well C/T-2 was completed. This synthesis and data presentation contains most of the subsurface geologic information needed to effect the total evaluation of geophysical logs acquired in this geothermal calibration/test well, C/T-2.

  18. Direct determination of Ge in hot spring waters and coal fly ash samples by hydride generation-ETAAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moscoso-Perez, Carmen; Moreda-Pineiro, Jorge; Lopez-Mahia, Purificacion; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Fernandez-Fernandez, Esther; Prada-Rodriguez, Dario [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira, s/n. E-15071, A Coruna (Spain)

    2004-10-08

    A method for Ge determination in hot spring water and acid extracts from coal fly ash samples involving hydride generation, trapping and atomisation of the hydride generated from Ir-treated graphite tubes (GTs) has been developed. Hydride was generated from hydrochloric acid medium using sodium tetrahydroborate. Several factors affecting the hydride generation, transport, trapping and atomisation efficiency were studied by using a Plackett-Burman design. Results obtained from Plackett-Burman designs suggest that trapping and atomisation temperatures are the significant factors involved on the procedure. The accuracy was studied using NIST-1633a (coal fly ash) reference material. The detection limit of the proposed method was 2.4{mu}gl{sup -1} and the characteristic mass of 233pg was achieved. The Ge concentrations in fly ash and hot spring samples were between 6.25-132{mu}gg{sup -1} and 12.84-36.2{mu}gl{sup -1}.

  19. Characterization of culturable bacteria isolated from hot springs for plant growth promoting traits and effect on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) seedling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kinjal Samir; Naik, Jinal Hardik; Chaudhari, Sejal; Amaresan, Natarajan

    2017-04-01

    To elucidate the functional diversity of hot spring bacteria, 123 bacteria were isolated and screened for evaluating their multifunctional plant growth promoting (PGP) properties. The antagonistic activity against different phytopathogens showed the presence of a high amount of biocontrol bacteria in the hot springs. During screening for PGP properties, 61.0% isolates showed production of indole acetic acid and 23.6% showed inorganic phosphate solubilization qualitatively. For production of extracellular enzymes, it was found that 61.0% isolates produced lipase, 56.9% produced protease, and 43.9% produced cellulase. In extreme properties, half of the isolates showed tolerance to 5% NaCl (w/v) and 48.8% isolates survived heat shock at 70°C. The identification of 12 multipotential bacteria based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the bacteria belonged to Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus and Bacillus spp. Bacterization of tomato seeds showed that the hot spring bacteria promoted shoot height, fresh shoot weight, root length, and fresh root weight of tomato seedlings, with values ranging from 3.12% to 74.37%, 33.33% to 350.0%, 16.06% to 130.41%, and 36.36% to 318.18%, respectively, over the control. This research shows that multifunctional bacteria could be isolated from the hot springs. The outcome of this research may have a potential effect on crop production methodologies used in saline and arid environments. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Geofluids Assessment of the Ayub and Shafa Hot Springs in Kopet-Dagh Zone (NE Iran: An Isotopic Geochemistry Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mohammadzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy has a wide range of uses in our life. It is very important to characterize the temperature and the depth of geothermal reservoirs. The aim of this paper is the determination of type, origin source of water temperature, and depth of water circulation in the Ayub-Peighambar and Shafa (AP and SH hot springs, located in NE Iran, using hydrogeochemistry and environmental isotopes (2H and 18O. AP hot spring has elevated temperature (36–40°C and as such is very important for balneotherapy and geotourism industry purposes. The average values of δ18O and δ2H for this hot spring (−10‰ and −73‰, resp. are analogous to that of geothermal and meteoric waters. This indicates that the heat source cannot be related to volcanic activities (with average δ18O value of about 5‰ and it is most probably associated with geothermal gradient with deep circulation of groundwater through faults. Based on Na-K geothermometers coupled with isotopic (18O and 2H geochemistry the temperature of the AP geothermal reservoir was estimated to be in the range of 100–150°C with 3–5 and 4.2 kilometres’ depth, respectively. Chemically, the AP samples are CaSO4 facies with a chemically homogeneous source and steam heated waters type.

  1. Physico-chemical evolution of groundwater in tectonically active areas. Application to the Leana hot spring (Murcia Region, SE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M.; Hornero, J.; Trujillo, C.

    2017-03-01

    Seismic events can affect the physico-chemical characteristics of groundwater. These anomalies are of a pre-seismic, co-seismic and post-seismic nature and correspond to pulse variations, sudden increases and decreases without return to initial values and upward or downward changes in trend. Continuous and in situ conductivity and temperature monitoring and periodic water sampling at a hot spring associated with neotectonic activity are of great interest for establishing predictive methods. This method is limited to the seismic activity affecting the fracturing system with which the hot spring is associated. The Region of Murcia and surroundings (southeast Spain) was selected as the study area for exploring the nature of these influences on groundwater. A hot spring in the Leana spa (Murcia) was equipped and monitored during the period 2006-2008, allowing for the in situ determination of conductivity and temperature as well as of major and minor constituents at the laboratory. Due to its proximity and related with fault network, we suggest that 86 % of earthquakes located between 0 and 10 km may affect in situ parameters of groundwater, and 75 % may affect laboratory determinations. This percentage drops in more distant zones. Of all earthquakes that seem to influence groundwater, 55 % of the in situ parameter anomalies and 53 % of laboratory were of a pre-seismic nature.

  2. The origin of life in geothermal hot springs: Darwin's warm little pond revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deamer, D.

    2016-12-01

    The origin of life in geothermal hot springs: Darwin's warm little pond revisited David Deamer and Bruce Damer, Department of Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Santa Cruz CA 95064 We are exploring ways in which mononucleotides can undergo polymerization and encapsulation in the presence of an organizing matrix (1, 2, 3). When mixtures of amphiphilic lipids and mononucleotides are exposed to cycles of dehydration and rehydration, the lipids concentrate and organize the monomers within multilamellar liquid-crystalline matrices that self-assemble in the dry state. The chemical potential driving the polymerization reaction is supplied by the anhydrous conditions in which water becomes a leaving group, with heat providing activation energy. Upon rehydration, the polymeric products are encapsulated in trillions of microscopic compartments. Each compartment is unique in its composition and contents, and can be considered to be an experiment in a natural version of combinatorial chemistry that would be ubiquitous in the prebiotic environment. There are specific thermodynamic and kinetic considerations required for this process to work which are related to cycles of evaporation and rehydration, ionic composition, salt concentration, pH and temperature. These conditions are present in hydrothermal fields associated with volcanic activity on today's Earth and can be compared with the range of possible conditions on Enceladus to estimate the probability that life can emerge on an icy world with a subsurface salty liquid ocean. 1. De Guzman V, Shenasa H, Vercoutere W, Deamer D (2014) Generation of oligonucleotides under hydrothermal conditions by non-enzymatic polymerization. J Mol Evol 78:251-262 2. Deamer D. 2012. Liquid crystalline nanostructures: organizing matrices for non-enzymatic nucleic acid polymerization. Chem Soc Rev. 41:5375-9. 3. Damer B, Deamer D. 2015. Coupled phases and combinatorial selection in fluctuating hydrothermal pools: a scenario to

  3. Thermus amyloliquefaciens sp. nov., isolated from a hot spring sediment sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tian-Tian; Ming, Hong; Yao, Ji-Cheng; Zhou, En-Min; Park, Dong-Jin; Hozzein, Wael N; Kim, Chang-Jin; Wadaan, Mohammed A M; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic bacterium, designated strain YIM 77409T, was isolated from the Niujie hot spring in the Eryuan county of Dali, Yunnan province, south-west China. Cells of the strain were rod-shaped and colonies were yellow and circular. The strain grew at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and 50-70°C (optimum, 60-65°C). The predominant menaquinone was MK-8 and the DNA G+C content was 66.4 mol%. Major fatty acids (>10 %) were iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0.The polar lipids consisted of one aminophospholipid, one phospholipid and two glycolipids. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain YIM 77409T formed a cluster with Thermus scotoductus DSM 8553T, Thermus antranikianii DSM 12462T, Thermus caliditerrae YIM 77925T and Thermus tengchongensis YIM 77924T, with highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to T. scotoductus DSM 8553T (97.57%). However, DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that strain YIM 77409T should be viewed as a representative of a novel species, as there was only 30.6 ± 1.6% reassociation with T. scotoductus DSM 8553T. On the basis of the morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, as well as the genotypic data, it is proposed that strain YIM 77409T represents a novel species of the genus Thermus, with the name Thermus amyloliquefaciens sp. nov. The type strain is YIM 77409T ( = DSM 25898T = KCTC 32024T).

  4. A metastable equilibrium model for the relative abundances of microbial phyla in a hot spring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Dick

    Full Text Available Many studies link the compositions of microbial communities to their environments, but the energetics of organism-specific biomass synthesis as a function of geochemical variables have rarely been assessed. We describe a thermodynamic model that integrates geochemical and metagenomic data for biofilms sampled at five sites along a thermal and chemical gradient in the outflow channel of the hot spring known as "Bison Pool" in Yellowstone National Park. The relative abundances of major phyla in individual communities sampled along the outflow channel are modeled by computing metastable equilibrium among model proteins with amino acid compositions derived from metagenomic sequences. Geochemical conditions are represented by temperature and activities of basis species, including pH and oxidation-reduction potential quantified as the activity of dissolved hydrogen. By adjusting the activity of hydrogen, the model can be tuned to closely approximate the relative abundances of the phyla observed in the community profiles generated from BLAST assignments. The findings reveal an inverse relationship between the energy demand to form the proteins at equal thermodynamic activities and the abundance of phyla in the community. The distance from metastable equilibrium of the communities, assessed using an equation derived from energetic considerations that is also consistent with the information-theoretic entropy change, decreases along the outflow channel. Specific divergences from metastable equilibrium, such as an underprediction of the relative abundances of phototrophic organisms at lower temperatures, can be explained by considering additional sources of energy and/or differences in growth efficiency. Although the metabolisms used by many members of these communities are driven by chemical disequilibria, the results support the possibility that higher-level patterns of chemotrophic microbial ecosystems are shaped by metastable equilibrium states that

  5. Streptomyces caldifontis sp. nov., isolated from a hot water spring of Tatta Pani, Kotli, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Arshia; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Khalid, Nauman; Osman, Ghenijan; Khan, Inam Ullah; Xiao, Min; Li, Wen-Jun

    2017-01-01

    A Gram-staining positive, non-motile, rod-shaped, catalase positive and oxidase negative bacterium, designated NCCP-1331T, was isolated from a hot water spring soil collected from Tatta Pani, Kotli, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. The isolate grew at a temperature range of 18-40 °C (optimum 30 °C), pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum 7.0) and with 0-6 % NaCl (optimum 2 % NaCl (w/v)). The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain NCCP-1331T belonged to the genus Streptomyces and is closely related to Streptomyces brevispora BK160T with 97.9 % nucleotide similarity, followed by Streptomyces drosdowiczii NRRL B-24297T with 97.8 % nucleotide similarity. The DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain NCCP-1331T with S. brevispora KACC 21093T and S. drosdowiczii CBMAI 0498T were 42.7 and 34.7 %, respectively. LL-DAP was detected as diagnostic amino acid along with alanine, glycine, leucine and glutamic acid. The isolate contained MK-9(H8) as the predominant menaquinone. Major polar lipids detected in NCCP-1331T were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and unidentified phospholipids. Major fatty acids were iso-C16: 0, summed feature 8 (18:1 ω7c/18:1 ω6c), anteiso-C15:0 and C16:0. The genomic DNA G + C content was 69.8 mol %. On the basis of phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analysis, it is concluded that strain NCCP-1331T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces caldifontis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NCCP-1331T (=KCTC 39537T = CPCC 204147T).

  6. Production and Early Preservation of Lipid Biomarkers in Iron Hot Springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parenteau, Mary N.; Jahnke, Linda L.; Farmer, Jack D.; Cady, Sherry L.

    2014-06-01

    The bicarbonate-buffered anoxic vent waters at Chocolate Pots hot springs in Yellowstone National Park are 51–54°C, pH 5.5–6.0, and are very high in dissolved Fe(II) at 5.8–5.9 mg/L. The aqueous Fe(II) is oxidized by a combination of biotic and abiotic mechanisms and precipitated as primary siliceous nanophase iron oxyhydroxides (ferrihydrite). Four distinct prokaryotic photosynthetic microbial mat types grow on top of these iron deposits. Lipids were used to characterize the community composition of the microbial mats, link source organisms to geologically significant biomarkers, and investigate how iron mineralization degrades the lipid signature of the community. The phospholipid and glycolipid fatty acid profiles of the highest-temperature mats indicate that they are dominated by cyanobacteria and green nonsulfur filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs (FAPs). Diagnostic lipid biomarkers of the cyanobacteria include midchain branched mono- and dimethylalkanes and, most notably, 2-methylbacteriohopanepolyol. Diagnostic lipid biomarkers of the FAPs (Chloroflexus and Roseiflexus spp.) include wax esters and a long-chain tri-unsaturated alkene. Surprisingly, the lipid biomarkers resisted the earliest stages of microbial degradation and diagenesis to survive in the iron oxides beneath the mats. Understanding the potential of particular sedimentary environments to capture and preserve fossil biosignatures is of vital importance in the selection of the best landing sites for future astrobiological missions to Mars. Finally, this study explores the nature of organic degradation processes in moderately thermal Fe(II)-rich groundwater springs—environmental conditions that have been previously identified as highly relevant for Mars exploration.

  7. High-efficiency hydrogen production by an anaerobic, thermophilic enrichment culture from an Icelandic hot spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Perttu E P; Lay, Chyi-How; Puhakka, Jaakko A; Lin, Ping-Jei; Wu, Shu-Yii; Orlygsson, Jóhann; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2008-11-01

    Dark fermentative hydrogen production from glucose by a thermophilic culture (33HL), enriched from an Icelandic hot spring sediment sample, was studied in two continuous-flow, completely stirred tank reactors (CSTR1, CSTR2) and in one semi-continuous, anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) at 58 degrees C. The 33HL produced H2 yield (HY) of up to 3.2 mol-H2/mol-glucose along with acetate in batch assay. In the CSTR1 with 33HL inoculum, H2 production was unstable. In the ASBR, maintained with 33HL, the H2 production enhanced after the addition of 6 mg/L of FeSO4 x H2O resulting in HY up to 2.51 mol-H2/mol-glucose (H2 production rate (HPR) of 7.85 mmol/h/L). The H2 production increase was associated with an increase in butyrate production. In the CSTR2, with ASBR inoculum and FeSO4 supplementation, stable, high-rate H2 production was obtained with HPR up to 45.8 mmol/h/L (1.1 L/h/L) and HY of 1.54 mol-H2/mol-glucose. The 33HL batch enrichment was dominated by bacterial strains closely affiliated with Thermobrachium celere (99.8-100%). T. celere affiliated strains, however, did not thrive in the three open system bioreactors. Instead, Thermoanaerobacterium aotearoense (98.5-99.6%) affiliated strains, producing H2 along with butyrate and acetate, dominated the reactor cultures. This culture had higher H2 production efficiency (HY and specific HPR) than reported for mesophilic mixed cultures. Further, the thermophilic culture readily formed granules in CSTR and ASBR systems. In summary, the thermophilic culture as characterized by high H2 production efficiency and ready granulation is considered very promising for H2 fermentation from carbohydrates.

  8. A Metastable Equilibrium Model for the Relative Abundances of Microbial Phyla in a Hot Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Jeffrey M.; Shock, Everett L.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies link the compositions of microbial communities to their environments, but the energetics of organism-specific biomass synthesis as a function of geochemical variables have rarely been assessed. We describe a thermodynamic model that integrates geochemical and metagenomic data for biofilms sampled at five sites along a thermal and chemical gradient in the outflow channel of the hot spring known as “Bison Pool” in Yellowstone National Park. The relative abundances of major phyla in individual communities sampled along the outflow channel are modeled by computing metastable equilibrium among model proteins with amino acid compositions derived from metagenomic sequences. Geochemical conditions are represented by temperature and activities of basis species, including pH and oxidation-reduction potential quantified as the activity of dissolved hydrogen. By adjusting the activity of hydrogen, the model can be tuned to closely approximate the relative abundances of the phyla observed in the community profiles generated from BLAST assignments. The findings reveal an inverse relationship between the energy demand to form the proteins at equal thermodynamic activities and the abundance of phyla in the community. The distance from metastable equilibrium of the communities, assessed using an equation derived from energetic considerations that is also consistent with the information-theoretic entropy change, decreases along the outflow channel. Specific divergences from metastable equilibrium, such as an underprediction of the relative abundances of phototrophic organisms at lower temperatures, can be explained by considering additional sources of energy and/or differences in growth efficiency. Although the metabolisms used by many members of these communities are driven by chemical disequilibria, the results support the possibility that higher-level patterns of chemotrophic microbial ecosystems are shaped by metastable equilibrium states that depend on both the

  9. Hot and Saline Spring Behaviour in the Taupo Volcanic Zone and the North-East German Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacace, M.; Kissling, W.

    2012-04-01

    Hot springs occur in geothermal regions worldwide, and often have important economic or cultural values which can be threatened by geothermal developments. In this paper we describe models of hot springs in the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) in New Zealand, and of saline springs in the Northeast German Basin (NEGB). In New Zealand, the operation of the Wairakei geothermal power station in the 1950's and early 1960's lead to the collapse of the thermal area known as 'Geyser Valley', and more recently, the spring and Geyser activity in Rotorua was threatened by the widespread and uncontrolled drawoff of geothermal water for domestic use. Similarly, in the NEGB, discharge of saline springs poses serious challenges for groundwater management for agricultural and domestic use, having additional implications for future geothermal energy projects. Despite their obviously very different nature the springs in NEGB and TVZ do have some common characteristics: they both feed fluid to the surface from deeper (geothermal) aquifers through embedded hydrogeological heterogeneities (e.g. fracture systems, erosional gaps and unconformities in the internal stratigraphic sequence), and data shows that they both exhibit irregular flowrates, temperatures and chemistries. Currently used models of hot/saline springs do not show these types of behaviour and offer no understanding of the mechanisms of variability in either setting, or indeed the nature of the connections to deeper aquifers. In this paper we present early results from a study aimed at identifying the most important physical mechanisms governing the dynamics of these systems. We use the simulation code NaCl-Tough2 (Kissling, 2005a,b) to accurately represent the thermodynamics of fluids in both systems. Though relatively simplistic in terms of the modelled geometry these models provide new important insights into the variability of the observed flow dynamics as well as in their causative processes at depths. The results obtained

  10. Effect of stone Spa bathing and hot-spring bathing on pulse wave velocity in healthy, late middle-aged females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Ikuharu; Izumi, Yurina; Inoue, Miyabi; Okada, Kanako; Sakaguchi, Kaho; Miyai, Natsuki

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of stone spa bathing (Ganban-yoku) and hot-spring bathing on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in healthy, late middle-aged females. The subjects were 13 females (mean age, 47.3 years). The skin and tympanic temperatures, blood pressure, and baPWV were measured before and after stone spa bathing and hot-spring bathing. For the stone spa bathing, the subjects lay down three times for approximately 10 min each time over warm stone beds. Although body weight showed no change after the hot-spring bathing, it significantly increased after the stone spa bathing. The increase was significantly related to the amount of water intake. The skin and tympanic temperatures increased to a smaller degree after the stone spa bathing than after the hot-spring bathing. The diastolic blood pressure decreased to a smaller degree after the stone spa bathing. BaPWV showed no significant change after bathing both in the stone spa and in the hot-spring. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that the factors significantly related to the change in baPWV after the stone spa bathing were the changes in skin and tympanic temperatures and habit of smoking, and that after the hot-spring bathing was the change in skin temperature. The results suggest that, compared with the hot-spring bathing, stone spa bathing causes less strain on the body. The stone spa bathing and hot-spring bathing showed no marked effect on baPWV. However, there is a possibility that the stone spa bathing may be used as a load for investigating arterial stiffness.

  11. Microbial and Metabolic Diversity of the Alkaline Hot Springs of Paoha Island: A Late Archean and Proterozoic Ocean Analogue Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, I. S.; Demirel, C.; Hyde, A.; Motamedi, S.; Frantz, C. M.; Stamps, B. W.; Nunn, H. S.; Oremland, R. S.; Rosen, M.; Miller, L. G.; Corsetti, F. A.; Spear, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Paoha Island formed 450 years ago within Mono Lake, California, as a result of magmatic activity in the underlying Long Valley Caldera. Previous studies of Paoha Island hot springs focused on the presence of novel organisms adapted to high levels of arsenic (114-138 µM). However, the microbial community structure, relationship with Mono Lake, and preservation potential of these communities remains largely unexplored. Here, we present water chemistry, 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequences, and metagenomic data for spring water and biofilms sampled on a recently exposed mudflat along the shoreline of Paoha Island. Spring waters were hypoxic, alkaline, and saline, had variable temperature (39-70 °C near spring sources) and high concentrations of arsenic, sulfide and reduced organic compounds. Thermodynamic modeling based on spring water chemistry indicated that sulfide and methane oxidation were the most energetically favorable respiratory metabolisms. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed distinct communities in different biofilms: red biofilms were dominated by arsenite-oxidizing phototrophs within the Ectothiorhodospiraceae, while OTUs most closely related to the cyanobacterial genus Arthrospira were present in green biofilms, as well as a large proportion of sequences assigned to sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Metagenomic analysis identified genes related to arsenic resistance, arsenic oxidation/reduction, sulfur oxidation and photosynthesis. Eukaryotic rRNA gene sequencing analyses revealed few detectable taxa in spring biofilms and waters compared to Mono Lake; springs receiving splash from the lake were dominated by the alga Picocystis. The co-occurrence of hypoxia, high pH, and close proximity of anoxygenic and oxygenic phototrophic mats makes this site a potential Archean/Proterozoic analogue environment, but suggests that similar environments if preserved in the rock record, may not preserve evidence for community dynamics or the existence of photosynthetic metabolisms.

  12. Identification And Survival Of Bacteriohopanepolyol In A Hot Spring Microbial Mat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Linda L.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The polar lipids of a hot spring microbial mat located in Yellowstone National Park were examined for the presence of bacteriohopanepolvols (BHP). BHP are a group of molecules consisting of a hopanoid (peotacyclic triterpene) linked via a n-alkyl polyhydroxylated chain to a variety of polar end groups. BHP have been isolated in varying amounts from phylogenetically diverse eubacterial groups including cyanobacteria, methanotrophs and the Rhodospirillaceae. The hopanoids are excellent biomarkers and have been detected in sedimentary rocks as old as 1.7 bya. In order to interpret the ancient organic record, it is important to understand the abundance, source and fate of such biomarker compounds in microbial mats. A 40 sq cm mat section was taken from a 52 to 55 C site in the effluent channel of Octopus Spring and was sampled vertically over approximately 16 mm. The first 5-6 mm was sectioned into a top green layer (310 mg dry weight) and several subjacent, deep orange layers (240 and 250 mg, respectively). The lower 10 mm of the mat was sectioned into two gelatinous orange layers containing a siliceous gritty material (260 and 440 mg) which increased with depth, and a bottom layer composed almost exclusively of siliceous sinter (4.1 g). The progressive decrease in total organic carbon from 45% in the top green layer to only 4% in the bottom layer reflects the observed increase in siliceous deposition. GC-MS analysis of the phospholipid and glycolipid fatty acids yielded predominantly saturated normal chain acids, n-15 to n-18, and iso-branched acids, i-15 to i-17. Small amounts of unsaturated fatty acids (16:1, two positional isomers of 18:1, and two cyclopropyl acids, C(sub 17) and C(sub 19)) were present mainly in the top layer. Esterified fatty acid which is a good index for intact cellular membrane, i.e. viable organisms, was highest in the top two layers (203 and 231 micro g/mg total lipid, respectively) and gradually decreased to 66 micro g/mg total lipid in

  13. Thermus caldifontis sp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium isolated from a hot spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Inam Ullah; Habib, Neeli; Hussain, Firasat; Xian, Wen-Dong; Amin, Arshia; Zhou, En-Min; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Li, Wen-Jun

    2017-08-01

    A thermophilic bacterial strain, designated YIM 73026T was isolated from a sediment sample collected from a hot spring in Tibet, PR China. The taxonomic position of the novel isolate was investigated by a polyphasic approach. The novel isolate was Gram-stain-negative, aerobic and rod-shaped. Colonies were circular, convex, opaque and yellow. The strain grew at 50-70 °C (optimum, 60 °C), pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and in the presence of up to 1.0 % NaCl (w/v). Comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of YIM 73026T and those of other members of the genus Thermus showed sequence similarities ranging from 91.2 to 97.5 %, with YIM 73026T showing closest sequence similarity to Thermus scotoductus SE-1T (97.5 %). DNA-DNA hybridization results, however, revealed that DNA-DNA reassociation values between YIM 73026T and T. scotoductus DSM 8553T (37.6 %), Thermusamyloliquefaciens YIM 77409T (34.5 %), Thermusantranikianii DSM 12462T (30.3 %), Thermuscaliditerrae YIM 77925T (28.6 %) and Thermustengchongensis YIM 77924T (27.3 %) were well below the 70 % limit for species identification. YIM 73026T contained MK-8 as the respiratory quinone, and iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0 as the major cellular fatty acids (>10 %). The polar lipids consisted of one aminophospholipid, one phospholipid and two glycolipids. The genomic DNA G+C content of YIM 73026T was 65.4 mol%. On the basis of morphological, chemotaxonomic and genotypic characteristics, it is proposed that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Thermus, for which the name Thermus caldifontis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 73026T (=NBRC 112415T=CCTCC AB 2016305T).

  14. Nocardioides pakistanensis sp. nov., isolated from a hot water spring of Tatta Pani in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Arshia; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Habib, Neeli; Abbas, Saira; Xiao, Min; Hozzein, Wael N; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-08-01

    A Gram-staining positive, non-spore forming, non-pigmented and non-motile bacterium, designated as NCCP-1340(T), was isolated from a hot water spring, Tatta Pani, Pakistan. Cells of strain NCCP-1340(T) were observed to be aerobic, rod shaped, catalase and urease positive but H2S production and oxidase negative. Growth was observed at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and at 20-40 °C (optimum 37 °C). The strain could tolerate 0-8 % NaCl (optimum 2 %, w/v). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that strain NCCP-1340(T) belongs to the genus Nocardioides and is closely related to Nocardioides iriomotensis JCM 17985(T) (96.8 %), Nocardioides daedukensis KCTC 19601(T) (96.6 %), Nocardioides jensenii KCTC 9134(T) (96.1 %) and Nocardioides daejeonensis KCTC 19772(T) (96.1 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain NCCP-1340(T) with N. iriomotensis JCM 17985(T), N. daedukensis KCTC 19601(T) and N. jensenii KCTC 9134(T) were found to be less than 53 %. The DNA G+C content of strain NCCP-1340(T) was determined to be 71.8 mol  %. The affiliation of strain NCCP-1340(T) to the genus Nocardioides was further supported by chemotaxonomic data which showed the presence of MK-8(H4) as major menaquinone system; iso-C16:0, C17:0, C16:0 10-methyl, iso-C15:0 and C 15:0 as major cellular fatty acids; and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and unidentified glycolipids and polar lipids in the polar lipids profile. The cell wall peptidoglycan contained LL-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic amino acid. On the basis of physiological and biochemical characteristics and the phylogenetic analyses, strain NCCP-1340(T) can be distinguished from the closely related taxa and thus represents a novel species of the genus Nocardioides, for which the name Nocardioides pakistanensis sp. nov. is proposed with the type strain NCCP-1340(T) (= DSM 29942(T) = JCM 30630(T)).

  15. Microbial Fe(III) Oxide Reduction in Chocolate Pots Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, N. W.; Roden, E. E.; Boyd, E. S.; Converse, B. J.

    2014-12-01

    Previous work on dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) has focused on high temperature, low pH environments where soluble Fe(III) is utilized as an electron acceptor for respiration. Much less attention has been paid to DIR in lower temperature, circumneutral pH environments, where solid phase Fe(III) oxides are the dominant forms of Fe(III). This study explored the potential for DIR in the warm (ca. 40-50°C), circumneutral pH Chocolate Pots hot springs (CP) in YNP. Most probable number (MPN) enumerations and enrichment culture studies confirmed the presence of endogenous microbial communities that reduced native CP Fe(III) oxides. Enrichment cultures demonstrated sustained DIR coupled to acetate and lactate oxidation through repeated transfers over ca. 450 days. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes indicated that the dominant organisms in the enrichments were closely affiliated with the well known Fe(III) reducer Geobacter metallireducens. Additional taxa included relatives of sulfate reducing bacterial genera Desulfohalobium and Thermodesulfovibrio; however, amendment of enrichments with molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, suggested that sulfate reduction was not a primary metabolic pathway involved in DIR in the cultures. A metagenomic analysis of enrichment cultures is underway in anticipation of identifying genes involved in DIR in the less well-characterized dominant organisms. Current studies are aimed at interrogating the in situ microbial community at CP. Core samples were collected along the flow path (Fig. 1) and subdivided into 1 cm depth intervals for geochemical and microbiological analysis. The presence of significant quantities of Fe(II) in the solids indicated that DIR is active in situ. A parallel study investigated in vitro microbial DIR in sediments collected from three of the coring sites. DNA was extracted from samples from both studies for 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic sequencing in order to obtain a

  16. Volatile emissions and gas geochemistry of Hot Spring Basin, Yellowstone National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, C.; Hurwitz, S.; Evans, William C.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Bergfeld, D.; Heasler, H.; Jaworowski, C.; Hunt, A.

    2008-01-01

    We characterize and quantify volatile emissions at Hot Spring Basin (HSB), a large acid-sulfate region that lies just outside the northeastern edge of the 640??ka Yellowstone Caldera. Relative to other thermal areas in Yellowstone, HSB gases are rich in He and H2, and mildly enriched in CH4 and H2S. Gas compositions are consistent with boiling directly off a deep geothermal liquid at depth as it migrates toward the surface. This fluid, and the gases evolved from it, carries geochemical signatures of magmatic volatiles and water-rock reactions with multiple crustal sources, including limestones or quartz-rich sediments with low K/U (or 40*Ar/4*He). Variations in gas chemistry across the region reflect reservoir heterogeneity and variable degrees of boiling. Gas-geothermometer temperatures approach 300????C and suggest that the reservoir feeding HSB is one of the hottest at Yellowstone. Diffuse CO2 flux in the western basin of HSB, as measured by accumulation-chamber methods, is similar in magnitude to other acid-sulfate areas of Yellowstone and is well correlated to shallow soil temperatures. The extrapolation of diffuse CO2 fluxes across all the thermal/altered area suggests that 410 ?? 140??t d- 1 CO2 are emitted at HSB (vent emissions not included). Diffuse fluxes of H2S were measured in Yellowstone for the first time and likely exceed 2.4??t d- 1 at HSB. Comparing estimates of the total estimated diffuse H2S emission to the amount of sulfur as SO42- in streams indicates ~ 50% of the original H2S in the gas emission is lost into shallow groundwater, precipitated as native sulfur, or vented through fumaroles. We estimate the heat output of HSB as ~ 140-370??MW using CO2 as a tracer for steam condensate, but not including the contribution from fumaroles and hydrothermal vents. Overall, the diffuse heat and volatile fluxes of HSB are as great as some active volcanoes, but they are a small fraction (1-3% for CO2, 2-8% for heat) of that estimated for the entire

  17. Modeling fluid flow and heat transfer at Basin and Range faults: preliminary results for Leach hot springs, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Dina L.; Smith, Leslie; Storey, Michael L.; Nielson, Dennis L.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrothermal systems of the Basin and Range Province are often located at or near major range bounding normal faults. The flow of fluid and energy at these faults is affected by the advective transfer of heat and fluid from an to the adjacent mountain ranges and valleys, This paper addresses the effect of the exchange of fluid and energy between the country rock, the valley fill sediments, and the fault zone, on the fluid and heat flow regimes at the fault plane. For comparative purposes, the conditions simulated are patterned on Leach Hot Springs in southern Grass Valley, Nevada. Our simulations indicated that convection can exist at the fault plane even when the fault is exchanging significant heat and fluid with the surrounding country rock and valley fill sediments. The temperature at the base of the fault decreased with increasing permeability of the country rock. Higher groundwater discharge from the fault and lower temperatures at the base of the fault are favored by high country rock permabilities and fault transmissivities. Preliminary results suggest that basal temperatures and flow rates for Leach Hot Springs can not be simulated with a fault 3 km deep and an average regional heat flow of 150 mW/m2 because the basal temperature and mass discharge rates are too low. A fault permeable to greater depths or a higher regional heat flow may be indicated for these springs.

  18. Hydrochemistry of the Hot Springs in Western Sichuan Province Related to the Wenchuan M S 8.0 Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Zhou, Xiaocheng; Yi, Li; Liu, Lei; Xie, Chao; Cui, Yueju; Li, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of 32 hot springs in the western Sichuan Province after the Wenchuan M S 8.0 earthquake was investigated by analyzing the concentrations of cation and anion and the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen. The water samples of the hot springs were collected four times from June 2008 to April 2010. Hydrogeochemical data indicated the water samples can be classified into 9 chemical types. Values of δD and δ 18O indicated that the spring waters were mainly derived from meteoric precipitation and affected by water-rock interaction and mixture of deep fluids. Concentrations of K+and SO4 − of the samples from the Kangding district exhibited evident increases before the Wenchuan earthquake, indicating more supplement of deep fluids under the increase of tectonic stress. The chemical and isotopic variations of the water samples from the area closer to the epicenter area can be attributed to variation of regional stress field when the aftershock activities became weak. PMID:24892106

  19. In situ expression of genes involved in carbon concentrating expression of genes involved in carbon concentratingmechanisms in hot spring cyanobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sheila Ingemann; Steunou, Anne-Soisig; Bhaya, Devaki

    The photosynthetic microbial mat in the effluent channel of an alkaline hot spring (Mushroom Spring) in Yellowstone National Park experiences extreme diel fluctuations in physicochemical parameters. During the day, photosynthesis causes the oxygen concentration within the mat to rise to highly...

  20. Calculation of the relative chemical stabilities of proteins as a function of temperature and redox chemistry in a hot spring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Dick

    Full Text Available Uncovering the chemical and physical links between natural environments and microbial communities is becoming increasingly amenable owing to geochemical observations and metagenomic sequencing. At the hot spring known as Bison Pool in Yellowstone National Park, the cooling of the water in the outflow channel is associated with an increase in oxidation potential estimated from multiple field-based measurements. Representative groups of proteins whose sequences were derived from metagenomic data also exhibit an increase in average oxidation state of carbon in the protein molecules with distance from the hot-spring source. The energetic requirements of reactions to form selected proteins used in the model were computed using amino-acid group additivity for the standard molal thermodynamic properties of the proteins, and the relative chemical stabilities of the proteins were investigated by varying temperature, pH and oxidation state, expressed as activity of dissolved hydrogen. The relative stabilities of the proteins were found to track the locations of the sampling sites when the calculations included a function for hydrogen activity that increases with temperature and is higher, or more reducing, than values consistent with measurements of dissolved oxygen, sulfide and oxidation-reduction potential in the field. These findings imply that spatial patterns in the amino acid compositions of proteins can be linked, through energetics of overall chemical reactions representing the formation of the proteins, to the environmental conditions at this hot spring, even if microbial cells maintain considerably different internal conditions. Further applications of the thermodynamic calculations are possible for other natural microbial ecosystems.

  1. Calculation of the relative chemical stabilities of proteins as a function of temperature and redox chemistry in a hot spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Jeffrey M; Shock, Everett L

    2011-01-01

    Uncovering the chemical and physical links between natural environments and microbial communities is becoming increasingly amenable owing to geochemical observations and metagenomic sequencing. At the hot spring known as Bison Pool in Yellowstone National Park, the cooling of the water in the outflow channel is associated with an increase in oxidation potential estimated from multiple field-based measurements. Representative groups of proteins whose sequences were derived from metagenomic data also exhibit an increase in average oxidation state of carbon in the protein molecules with distance from the hot-spring source. The energetic requirements of reactions to form selected proteins used in the model were computed using amino-acid group additivity for the standard molal thermodynamic properties of the proteins, and the relative chemical stabilities of the proteins were investigated by varying temperature, pH and oxidation state, expressed as activity of dissolved hydrogen. The relative stabilities of the proteins were found to track the locations of the sampling sites when the calculations included a function for hydrogen activity that increases with temperature and is higher, or more reducing, than values consistent with measurements of dissolved oxygen, sulfide and oxidation-reduction potential in the field. These findings imply that spatial patterns in the amino acid compositions of proteins can be linked, through energetics of overall chemical reactions representing the formation of the proteins, to the environmental conditions at this hot spring, even if microbial cells maintain considerably different internal conditions. Further applications of the thermodynamic calculations are possible for other natural microbial ecosystems.

  2. On the stunted Mocambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1852 (PIsces: Cichlidae of the Matiovila hot spring, Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Hecht

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available A stunted population of Oreochromis mossambicus occurs in the Matiovila Hot Sulphur Spring in the Kruger National Park. The growth of the fishes can best be described by the Von Bertalanffy equation L, = ^^(l-e0154^028^ mm SL. Breeding occurs throughout the year and the smallest sexually mature female was 35 mm SL. The fish from this locality were morphometrically compared to another stunted population and to a population of 0. mossambicus from a large impoundment. Speculative reasons for and advantages of stunting are presented.

  3. Phototrophs in High-Iron-Concentration Microbial Mats: Physiological Ecology of Phototrophs in an Iron-Depositing Hot Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Pierson, B K; Parenteau, M. N.; B. M. Griffin

    1999-01-01

    At Chocolate Pots Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park the source waters have a pH near neutral, contain high concentrations of reduced iron, and lack sulfide. An iron formation that is associated with cyanobacterial mats is actively deposited. The uptake of [14C]bicarbonate was used to assess the impact of ferrous iron on photosynthesis in this environment. Photoautotrophy in some of the mats was stimulated by ferrous iron (1.0 mM). Microelectrodes were used to determine the impact of ph...

  4. Site-specific analysis of hybrid geothermal/fossil power plants. Volume One. Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    The economics of a particular hybrid plant must be evaluated with respect to a specific site. This volume focuses on the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA. The temperature, pressure, and flow rate data given suggests the site deserves serious consideration for a hybrid plant. Key siting considerations which must be addressed before an economic judgment can be attempted are presented as follows: the availability, quality, and cost of coal; the availability of water; and the availability of transmission. Seismological and climate factors are presented. (MHR)

  5. Identification of 18S ribosomal DNA genotype of Acanthamoeba from hot spring recreation areas in the central range, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Bing-Mu; Ma, Po-Hua; Liou, Tai-Sheng; Chen, Jung-Sheng; Shih, Feng-Cheng

    2009-04-01

    SummaryAcanthamoeba is a free-living amoebae ubiquitous to aquatic environments. Within the genus a few species are recognized as opportunistic potential human pathogens, which cause granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) and keratitis. Infections of keratitis are frequently reported through wearing lens while swimming in the non-disinfected aquatic environment. Contaminations in hot tubs, spas and public baths are also possible. As a result, in this study, we identified Acanthamoeba based on the PCR amplification with a genus-specific primer pair and investigated the distribution of Acanthamoeba at five hot spring recreation areas in central range, Taiwan. We gathered data on factors potentially associated with the pathogen's distribution, including various sampling sites, aquatic environment, physical and microbiological water quality parameters. Spring water was collected from 55 sites and Acanthamoeba was detected in 9 (16.4%). The most frequently detected was Acanthamoeba griffini, followed by Acanthamoeba jacobsi. Legionella were detected in 18 (32.7%) of the sites sampled in this study. The species of Legionella identified included Legionella pneumophila serotype 6, serotype 1, and Legionella erythra. Overall, 9.1% of the samples contained both Acanthamoeba and Legionella. The prevalence of Acanthamoeba was contrary to the levels of microbiological indicators recommended by Taiwan CDC, and no significant differences (Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.05) were observed between the presence/absence of Acanthamoeba and water quality parameters. Results of this survey confirm the existence of Acanthamoeba in Taiwan spring recreation areas. Acanthamoeba, the organism responsible for the majority of Acanthamoeba keratitis and can serve as vehicles for facultative pathogens, should be considered a potential threat for health associated with human activities in spring recreation areas of Taiwan.

  6. Diverse subaerial and sublacustrine hot spring settings of the Cerro Negro epithermal system (Jurassic, Deseado Massif), Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Diego M.; Campbell, Kathleen A.

    2012-06-01

    The Late Jurassic (~ 150 Ma) Cerro Negro volcanic-epithermal-geothermal system (~ 15 km2 area), Deseado Massif, Patagonia, Argentina, includes two inferred volcanic emission centers characterized by rhyolitic domes linked along NW-SE regional faults that are associated with deeper level Au/Ag mineralization to the NW, and with shallow epithermal quartz veins and mainly travertine surface hot spring manifestations to the SE. Some travertines are silica-replaced, and siliceous and mixed silica-carbonate geothermal deposits also are found. Five hot spring-related facies associations were mapped in detail, which show morphological and textural similarities to Pleistocene-Recent geothermal deposits at Yellowstone National Park (U.S.A.), the Kenya Rift Valley, and elsewhere. They are interpreted to represent subaerial travertine fissure ridge/mound deposits (low-flow spring discharge) and apron terraces (high-flow spring discharge), as well as mixed silica-carbonate lake margin and shallow lake terrace vent-conduit tubes, stromatolitic mounds, and volcano-shaped cones. The nearly 200 mapped fossil vent-associated deposits at Cerro Negro are on a geographical and numerical scale comparable with subaerial and sublacustrine hydrothermal vents at Mammoth Hot Springs, and affiliated with Yellowstone Lake, respectively. Overall, the Cerro Negro geothermal system yields paleoenvironmentally significant textural details of variable quality, owing to both the differential preservation potential of particular subaerial versus subaqueous facies, as well as to the timing and extent of carbonate diagenesis and silica replacement of some deposits. For example, the western fault associated with the Eureka epithermal quartz vein facilitated early silicification of the travertine deposits in the SE volcanic emission center, thereby preserving high-quality, microbial macro- and micro-textures of this silica-replaced "pseudosinter." Cerro Negro provides an opportunity to reconstruct

  7. Subaqueous hot springs in Köyceğiz Lake, Dalyan Channel and Fethiye-Göcek Bay (SW Turkey): Locations, chemistry and origins

    KAUST Repository

    Avşar, Özgür

    2017-08-07

    In this study, horizontal temperature measurements along organized grids have been used to detect subaqueous hot springs. The study area, located in the southwest of Turkey and comprised of Köyceğiz Lake, Dalyan Channel and Fethiye-Göcek Bay, was scanned by measuring temperatures horizontally, 2–3m above the bottom of the lake or sea. After analyzing the temperature data along the grids, the locations with anomalous temperature values were detected, and divers headed here for further verification. Accordingly, among these anomalies, the divers confirmed seven of them as subaqueous hot springs. Three of these hot springs are located in the Köyceğiz Lake, three of them are located in the Dalyan Channel and one hot spring is located in the Fethiye-Göcek Bay. At the locations where temperature anomalies were detected, the divers collected samples directly from the subaqueous hot spring using a syringe-type sampler. We evaluated these water samples together with samples collected from hot and cold springs on land and from local rivers, lakes and the sea, with an aim to generate a conceptual hydrogeochemical model of the geothermal system in the study area. This model predicts that rainwater precipitating in the highlands percolates through fractures and faults into the deeper parts of the Earth\\'s crust, here it is heated and ascends through the sea bottom via buried faults. Pervious carbonate nappes that are underlain and overlain by impervious rocks create a confined aquifer. The southern boundary of the Carbonate-Marmaris nappes is buried under alluvium and/or sea/lake water bodies and this phenomenon determines whether hot springs occur on land or subaqueous. The chemical and isotopic properties of the hot springs point to seawater mixing at deep levels. Thus, the mixing most probably occurs while the water is ascending through the faults and fractures. The gas geochemistry results reveal that the lowest mantle He contributions occur in the samples from K

  8. Immersion in Hot Spring Improves Cardiovascular Functions in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yoshihiro KUDO; Jun-ichi OYAMA; Yosuhiro NISHIYAMA; Toyoki MAEDA; Nobunao IKEWAKI; Naoki MAKINO

    2008-01-01

    .... However, it is not clear whether balneotherapy improves the status of CHF. We hypothesized that hyperthermia using hot water would improve cardiac and peripheral endothelial function and clinical symptoms. Methods...

  9. Cultivation of Acidophilic Algae Galdieria sulphuraria and Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 in Media Derived from Acidic Hot Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirooka, Shunsuke; Miyagishima, Shin-Ya

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae possess a high potential for producing pigments, antioxidants, and lipophilic compounds for industrial applications. However, the cultivation of microalgae comes at a high cost. To reduce the cost, changes from a closed bioreactor to open pond system and from a synthetic medium to environmental or wastewater-based medium are being sought. However, the use of open pond systems is currently limited because of contamination by undesirable organisms. To overcome this issue, one strategy is to combine acidophilic algae and acidic drainage in which other organisms are unable to thrive. Here, we tested waters from sulfuric acidic hot springs (Tamagawa, pH 1.15 and Tsukahara, pH 1.14) in Japan for the cultivation of the red alga Galdieria sulphuraria 074G and the green alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1. Both of these spring waters are rich in phosphate (0.043 and 0.145 mM, respectively) compared to other environmental freshwater sources. Neither alga grew in the spring water but they grew very well when the waters were supplemented with an inorganic nitrogen source. The algal yields were ∼2.73 g dry weight/L for G. sulphuraria and ∼2.49 g dry weight/L for P. sp. YKT1, which were comparable to those in an autotrophic synthetic medium. P. sp. YKT1 grew in the spring waters supplemented either of NH4(+), NO3(-) or urea, while G. sulphuraria grew only when NH4(+) was supplemented. For P. sp. YKT1, the spring water was adjusted to pH 2.0, while for G. sulphuraria, no pH adjustment was required. In both cases, no additional pH-buffering compound was required. The phycocyanin of the thermophilic G. sulphuraria is known to be more thermostable than that from the Spirulina platensis currently used in phycocyanin production for commercial use. The phycocyanin content in G. sulphuraria in the Tsukahara water supplemented with NH4(+) was 107.42 ± 1.81 μg/mg dry weight, which is comparable to the level in S. platensis (148.3 μg/mg dry weight). P. sp. YKT1 cells in the

  10. Cultivation of acidophilic algae Galdieria sulphuraria and Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 in media derived from acidic hot springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Hirooka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae possess a high potential for producing pigments, antioxidants, and lipophilic compounds for industrial applications. However, the cultivation of microalgae comes at a high cost. To reduce the cost, changes from a closed bioreactor to open pond system and from a synthetic medium to environmental or wastewater-based medium are being sought. However, the use of open pond systems is currently limited because of contamination by undesirable organisms. To overcome this issue, one strategy is to combine acidophilic algae and acidic drainage in which other organisms are unable to thrive. Here, we tested waters from sulfuric acidic hot springs (Tamagawa, pH 1.15 and Tsukahara, pH 1.14 in Japan for the cultivation of the red alga Galdieria sulphuraria 074G and the green alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1. Both of these spring waters are rich in phosphate (0.043 and 0.145 mM, respectively compared to other environmental freshwater sources. Neither alga grew in the spring water but they grew very well when the waters were supplemented with an inorganic nitrogen source. The algal yields were ~2.73 g dry weight/L for G. sulphuraria and ~2.49 g dry weight/L for P. sp. YKT1, which were comparable to those in an autotrophic synthetic medium. P. sp. YKT1 grew in the spring waters supplemented either of NH4+, NO3- or urea, while G. sulphuraria grew only when NH4+ was supplemented. For P. sp. YKT1, the spring water was adjusted to pH 2.0, while for G. sulphuraria, no pH adjustment was required. In both cases, no additional pH-buffering compound was required. The phycocyanin of the thermophilic G. sulphuraria is known to be more thermostable than that from the Spirulina platensis currently used in phycocyanin production for commercial use. The phycocyanin content in G. sulphuraria in the Tsukahara water supplemented with NH4+ was 107.42±1.81 μg/mg dry weight, which is comparable to the level in S. platensis (148.3 μg/mg dry weight. P. sp. YKT1 cells in the

  11. Cultivation of Acidophilic Algae Galdieria sulphuraria and Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 in Media Derived from Acidic Hot Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirooka, Shunsuke; Miyagishima, Shin-ya

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae possess a high potential for producing pigments, antioxidants, and lipophilic compounds for industrial applications. However, the cultivation of microalgae comes at a high cost. To reduce the cost, changes from a closed bioreactor to open pond system and from a synthetic medium to environmental or wastewater-based medium are being sought. However, the use of open pond systems is currently limited because of contamination by undesirable organisms. To overcome this issue, one strategy is to combine acidophilic algae and acidic drainage in which other organisms are unable to thrive. Here, we tested waters from sulfuric acidic hot springs (Tamagawa, pH 1.15 and Tsukahara, pH 1.14) in Japan for the cultivation of the red alga Galdieria sulphuraria 074G and the green alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1. Both of these spring waters are rich in phosphate (0.043 and 0.145 mM, respectively) compared to other environmental freshwater sources. Neither alga grew in the spring water but they grew very well when the waters were supplemented with an inorganic nitrogen source. The algal yields were ∼2.73 g dry weight/L for G. sulphuraria and ∼2.49 g dry weight/L for P. sp. YKT1, which were comparable to those in an autotrophic synthetic medium. P. sp. YKT1 grew in the spring waters supplemented either of NH4+, NO3- or urea, while G. sulphuraria grew only when NH4+ was supplemented. For P. sp. YKT1, the spring water was adjusted to pH 2.0, while for G. sulphuraria, no pH adjustment was required. In both cases, no additional pH-buffering compound was required. The phycocyanin of the thermophilic G. sulphuraria is known to be more thermostable than that from the Spirulina platensis currently used in phycocyanin production for commercial use. The phycocyanin content in G. sulphuraria in the Tsukahara water supplemented with NH4+ was 107.42 ± 1.81 μg/mg dry weight, which is comparable to the level in S. platensis (148.3 μg/mg dry weight). P. sp. YKT1 cells in the Tamagawa

  12. Geochemistry, Comparative Analysis, and Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Thermal Waters East of Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas, 2006-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Hays, Phillip D.

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted by the U.S Geological Survey in cooperation with the Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department to characterize the source and hydrogeologic conditions responsible for thermal water in a domestic well 5.5 miles east of Hot Springs National Park, Hot Springs, Arkansas, and to determine the degree of hydraulic connectivity between the thermal water in the well and the hot springs in Hot Springs National Park. The water temperature in the well, which was completed in the Stanley Shale, measured 33.9 degrees Celsius, March 1, 2006, and dropped to 21.7 degrees Celsius after 2 hours of pumping - still more than 4 degrees above typical local groundwater temperature. A second domestic well located 3 miles from the hot springs in Hot Springs National Park was discovered to have a thermal water component during a reconnaissance of the area. This second well was completed in the Bigfork Chert and field measurement of well water revealed a maximum temperature of 26.6 degrees Celsius. Mean temperature for shallow groundwater in the area is approximately 17 degrees Celsius. The occurrence of thermal water in these wells raised questions and concerns with regard to the timing for the appearance of the thermal water, which appeared to coincide with construction (including blasting activities) of the Highway 270 bypass-Highway 70 interchange. These concerns were heightened by the planned extension of the Highway 270 bypass to the north - a corridor that takes the highway across a section of the eroded anticlinal complex responsible for recharge to the hot springs of Hot Springs National Park. Concerns regarding the possible effects of blasting associated with highway construction near the first thermal well necessitated a technical review on the effects of blasting on shallow groundwater systems. Results from available studies suggested that propagation of new fractures near blasting sites is of limited extent. Vibrations from blasting can result in

  13. Archaeal and bacterial communities in three alkaline hot springs in Heart Lake Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen De León, Kara; Gerlach, Robin; Peyton, Brent M; Fields, Matthew W

    2013-01-01

    The Heart Lake Geyser Basin (HLGB) is remotely located at the base of Mount Sheridan in southern Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming, USA and is situated along Witch Creek and the northwestern shore of Heart Lake. Likely because of its location, little is known about the microbial community structure of springs in the HLGB. Bacterial and archaeal populations were monitored via small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene pyrosequencing over 3 years in 3 alkaline (pH 8.5) hot springs with varying temperatures (44°C, 63°C, 75°C). The bacterial populations were generally stable over time, but varied by temperature. The dominant bacterial community changed from moderately thermophilic and photosynthetic members (Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi) at 44°C to a mixed photosynthetic and thermophilic community (Deinococcus-Thermus) at 63°C and a non-photosynthetic thermophilic community at 75°C. The archaeal community was more variable across time and was predominantly a methanogenic community in the 44 and 63°C springs and a thermophilic community in the 75°C spring. The 75°C spring demonstrated large shifts in the archaeal populations and was predominantly Candidatus Nitrosocaldus, an ammonia-oxidizing crenarchaeote, in the 2007 sample, and almost exclusively Thermofilum or Candidatus Caldiarchaeum in the 2009 sample, depending on SSU rRNA gene region examined. The majority of sequences were dissimilar (≥10% different) to any known organisms suggesting that HLGB possesses numerous new phylogenetic groups that warrant cultivation efforts.

  14. Archaeal and bacterial communities in three alkaline hot springs in Heart Lake Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara Bowen De León

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Heart Lake Geyser Basin (HLGB is remotely located at the base of Mount Sheridan in southern Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA and is situated along Witch Creek and the northwestern shore of Heart Lake. Likely because of its location, little is known about the microbial community structure of springs in the HLGB. Bacterial and archaeal populations were monitored via small subunit (SSU rRNA gene pyrosequencing over 3 years in 3 alkaline (pH 8.5 hot springs with varying temperatures (44°C, 63°C, 75°C. The bacterial populations were generally stable over time, but varied by temperature. The dominant bacterial community changed from moderately thermophilic and photosynthetic members (Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi at 44°C to a mixed photosynthetic and thermophilic community (Deinococcus-Thermus at 63°C and a non-photosynthetic thermophilic community at 75°C. The archaeal community was more variable across time and was predominantly a methanogenic community in the 44°C and 63°C springs and a hyperthermophilic community in the 75°C spring. The 75°C spring demonstrated large shifts in the archaeal populations and was predominantly Candidatus Nitrosocaldus, an ammonia-oxidizing crenarchaeote, in the 2007 sample, and almost exclusively Thermofilum or Candidatus Caldiarchaeum in the 2009 sample, depending on SSU rRNA gene region examined. The majority of sequences were dissimilar (≥10% different to any known organisms suggesting that HLGB possesses numerous new phylogenetic groups that warrant cultivation efforts.

  15. Identifying the hot spots of denitrification and nitrogen transformation across different land uses in the Silver Spring springshed, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, X.; Inglett, P.; Dobberfuhl, D. R.; Canion, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    Silver Springs is the largest of Florida's first magnitude springs and also likely the largest limestone spring in the United States. Land use in the springshed has changed from predominantly natural to urban/agricultural over the past 50 years, leading to more pollution for ground and surface water, and excess nitrate is considered as the major concern in restoring the Silver Springs. In this study, we investigated the effects of land uses on the nitrogen transformation by measuring the dissolved gases (e.g., dissolved N2, Ar, N2O, CH4) in the east and west vent of Silver Spring and ground water from 61 wells around the springshed. The dissolved CH4 and N2O in the ground water ranged from 0 to 106 µM, and 0 to 2.0 µM, respectively. Significantly higher dissolved N2O and CH4 were observed in the dry and wet season, respectively. In our study, significant positive correlation between N2O with dissolved oxygen and nitrate (P NO3-N concentration typically observed in the East vent. However, more denitrification (excess N2) seemed to present in the West vent with higher dissolve N2: Ar ratio. In general, higher dissolved N2O occurred in the land uses of agriculture and urban, whereas higher dissolved N2 and N2:Ar were measured in the land uses of forest and wetlands. Moreover, the principal component analysis based on the geochemical properties of the water showed that the West and East vent reflected the land use of forests and wetlands, and of agriculture and urban, respectively, further suggesting the hot spots for nitrification and denitrification.

  16. Structural and functional insights from the metagenome of an acidic hot spring microbial planktonic community in the Colombian Andes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Javier Jiménez

    Full Text Available A taxonomic and annotated functional description of microbial life was deduced from 53 Mb of metagenomic sequence retrieved from a planktonic fraction of the Neotropical high Andean (3,973 meters above sea level acidic hot spring El Coquito (EC. A classification of unassembled metagenomic reads using different databases showed a high proportion of Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria (in total read affiliation, and through taxonomic affiliation of 16S rRNA gene fragments we observed the presence of Proteobacteria, micro-algae chloroplast and Firmicutes. Reads mapped against the genomes Acidiphilium cryptum JF-5, Legionella pneumophila str. Corby and Acidithiobacillus caldus revealed the presence of transposase-like sequences, potentially involved in horizontal gene transfer. Functional annotation and hierarchical comparison with different datasets obtained by pyrosequencing in different ecosystems showed that the microbial community also contained extensive DNA repair systems, possibly to cope with ultraviolet radiation at such high altitudes. Analysis of genes involved in the nitrogen cycle indicated the presence of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to N2 (narGHI, nirS, norBCDQ and nosZ, associated with Proteobacteria-like sequences. Genes involved in the sulfur cycle (cysDN, cysNC and aprA indicated adenylsulfate and sulfite production that were affiliated to several bacterial species. In summary, metagenomic sequence data provided insight regarding the structure and possible functions of this hot spring microbial community, describing some groups potentially involved in the nitrogen and sulfur cycling in this environment.

  17. Diel Vertical Movements of the Cyanobacterium Oscillatoria terebriformis in a Sulfide-Rich Hot Spring Microbial Mat †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Laurie L.; Castenholz, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    Oscillatoria terebriformis, a thermophilic cyanobacterium, carried out a diel vertical movement pattern in Hunter's Hot Springs, Oreg. Throughout most daylight hours, populations of O. terebriformis covered the surface of microbial mats in the hot spring outflows below an upper temperature limit of 54°C. Upon darkness trichomes moved downward by gliding motility into the substrate to a depth of 0.5 to 1.0 mm, where the population remained until dawn. At dawn the population rapidly returned to the top of the mats. Field studies with microelectrodes showed that the dense population of O. terebriformis moved each night across an oxygen-sulfide interface, entering a microenvironment which was anaerobic and reducing, a dramatic contrast to the daytime environment at the mat surface where oxygenic photosynthesis resulted in supersaturated O2. Laboratory experiments on motility with the use of sulfide gradients produced in agar revealed a negative response to sulfide at concentrations similar to those found in the natural mats. The motility response may help explain the presence of O. terebriformis below the mat surface at night. The movement back to the surface at dawn appears to be due to a combination of phototaxis, photokinesis, and the onset of oxygenic photosynthesis which consumes sulfide. Images PMID:16347435

  18. Diel Vertical Movements of the Cyanobacterium Oscillatoria terebriformis in a Sulfide-Rich Hot Spring Microbial Mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, L L; Castenholz, R W

    1987-09-01

    Oscillatoria terebriformis, a thermophilic cyanobacterium, carried out a diel vertical movement pattern in Hunter's Hot Springs, Oreg. Throughout most daylight hours, populations of O. terebriformis covered the surface of microbial mats in the hot spring outflows below an upper temperature limit of 54 degrees C. Upon darkness trichomes moved downward by gliding motility into the substrate to a depth of 0.5 to 1.0 mm, where the population remained until dawn. At dawn the population rapidly returned to the top of the mats. Field studies with microelectrodes showed that the dense population of O. terebriformis moved each night across an oxygen-sulfide interface, entering a microenvironment which was anaerobic and reducing, a dramatic contrast to the daytime environment at the mat surface where oxygenic photosynthesis resulted in supersaturated O(2). Laboratory experiments on motility with the use of sulfide gradients produced in agar revealed a negative response to sulfide at concentrations similar to those found in the natural mats. The motility response may help explain the presence of O. terebriformis below the mat surface at night. The movement back to the surface at dawn appears to be due to a combination of phototaxis, photokinesis, and the onset of oxygenic photosynthesis which consumes sulfide.

  19. Community ecology of hot spring cyanobacterial mats: predominant populations and their functional potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klatt, C. G.; Wood, J. M.; Rusch, D. B.

    2011-01-01

    Phototrophic microbial mat communities from 60¿°C and 65¿°C regions in the effluent channels of Mushroom and Octopus Springs (Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA) were investigated by shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Analyses of assembled metagenomic sequences resolved six dominant chlorophototrophic...

  20. Geochemistry and hydrothermal alteration at selected Utah hot springs. Final report: Volume 3 (revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, W.T.; Benson, N.L.; Miller, C.D.

    1976-07-01

    Application of Na-K-Ca geothermometry to warm springs in Utah indicates several areas with sufficiently high apparent temperatures to be of interest as geothermal exploration targets. A zone of warm springs in the Bonneville Basin show Na-K-Ca temperatures from 150/sup 0/C to 233/sup 0/C. Examination of Great Salt Lake, Bonneville sediment pore water, and Jordan Valley well-water chemistry indicates that mixing a small percent of these fluids with warm spring water can cause substantial errors in Na-K-Ca temperature estimates. Other saline deposits which may influence Na-K-Ca temperature estimates are the Paradox formation in southeastern Utah, the Muddy Creek formation in southwestern Utah, the Arapien shale in central Utah, the Preuss formation in northeastern Utah, and Playa salts in much of western Utah. The Roosevelt KGRA is the most attractive target identified by Na-K-Ca geothermometry. Hydrothermal alteration, heavy metal distribution, and water chemistry provide additional characterization of the Roosevelt system. Chemistry of a cool water seep (25/sup 0/C) shows Na-K-Ca temperature of 241/sup 0/C and SiO/sub 2/ temperature of 125/sup 0/C. A Phillips well flowing from below 1500' (457m) shows Na-K-Ca temperature of 262/sup 0/C, SiO/sub 2/ temperature of 262/sup 0/C, and K of 1.5 times the surface spring value. The near surface alteration assemblage is best explained in terms of a decrease in pH of near surface fluids as sulfide oxidizes. Increasing potassium and pH with depth indicates that a K-feldspar stable zone may be intersected with deeper drilling. Geology and alteration were mapped in the Monroe KGRA. (JGB)

  1. Wide distribution of autochthonous branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs in U.S. Great Basin hot springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P. Hedlund

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs are membrane-spanning lipids that likely stabilize membranes of some bacteria. Although bGDGTs have been reported previously in certain geothermal environments, it has been suggested that they may derive from surrounding soils since bGDGTs are known to be produced by soil bacteria. To test the hypothesis that bGDGTs can be produced by thermophiles in geothermal environments, we examined the distribution and abundance of bGDGTs, along with extensive geochemical data, in 40 sediment and mat samples collected from geothermal systems in the U.S. Great Basin (temperature: 31-95°C; pH: 6.8-10.7. bGDGTs were found in 38 out of 40 samples at concentrations up to 824 ng/g sample dry mass and comprised up to 99.5% of total GDGTs (branched plus isoprenoidal. The wide distribution of bGDGTs in hot springs, strong correlation between core and polar lipid abundances, distinctness of bGDGT profiles compared to nearby soils, and higher concentration of bGDGTs in hot springs compared to nearby soils provided evidence of in situ production, particularly for the minimally methylated bGDGTs I, Ib, and Ic. Polar bGDGTs were found almost exclusively in samples ≤ 70°C and the absolute abundance of polar bGDGTs correlated negatively with properties of chemically reduced, high temperature spring sources (temperature, H2S/HS- and positively with properties of oxygenated, low temperature sites (O2, NO3-. Two-way cluster analysis and nonmetric multidimensional scaling based on relative abundance of polar bGDGTs supported these relationships and showed a negative relationship between the degree of methylation and temperature, suggesting a higher abundance for minimally methylated bGDGTs at high temperature. This study presents evidence of the widespread production of bGDGTs in mats and sediments of natural geothermal springs in the U.S. Great Basin, especially in oxygenated, low-temperature sites (≤ 70°C.

  2. Cyanobacterial ecotypes in different optical microenvironments of a 68 C hot spring mat community revealed by 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferris, Mike J.; Kühl, Michael; Wieland, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    We examined the population of unicellular cyanobacteria (Synechococcus) in the upper 3-mm vertical interval of a 68°C region of a microbial mat in a hot spring effluent channel (Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming). Fluorescence microscopy and microsensor measurements of O2 and oxygenic photosynth......We examined the population of unicellular cyanobacteria (Synechococcus) in the upper 3-mm vertical interval of a 68°C region of a microbial mat in a hot spring effluent channel (Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming). Fluorescence microscopy and microsensor measurements of O2 and oxygenic...

  3. Discovery and Characterization of a Thermostable and Highly Halotolerant GH5 Cellulase from an Icelandic Hot Spring Isolate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Zarafeta

    Full Text Available With the ultimate goal of identifying robust cellulases for industrial biocatalytic conversions, we have isolated and characterized a new thermostable and very halotolerant GH5 cellulase. This new enzyme, termed CelDZ1, was identified by bioinformatic analysis from the genome of a polysaccharide-enrichment culture isolate, initiated from material collected from an Icelandic hot spring. Biochemical characterization of CelDZ1 revealed that it is a glycoside hydrolase with optimal activity at 70°C and pH 5.0 that exhibits good thermostability, high halotolerance at near-saturating salt concentrations, and resistance towards metal ions and other denaturing agents. X-ray crystallography of the new enzyme showed that CelDZ1 is the first reported cellulase structure that lacks the defined sugar-binding 2 subsite and revealed structural features which provide potential explanations of its biochemical characteristics.

  4. Description, field test and data analysis of a controlled-source EM system (EM-60). [Leach Hot Springs, Grass Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, H.F.; Goldstein, N.E.; Hoversten, M.; Oppliger, G.; Riveros, C.

    1978-10-01

    The three sections describe the transmitter, the receiver, and data interpretations and indicate the advances made toward the development of a large moment electromagnetic (EM) system employing a magnetic dipole source. A brief description is given of the EM-60 transmitter, its general design, and the consideration involved in the selection of a practical coil size and weight for routine field operations. A programmable, multichannel, multi-frequency, phase-sensitive receiver is described. A field test of the EM-60, the data analysis and interpretation procedures, and a comparison between the survey results and the results obtained using other electrical techniques are presented. The Leach Hot Springs area in Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada, was chosen for the first field site at which the entire system would be tested. The field tests showed the system capable of obtaining well-defined sounding curves (amplitude and phase of magnetic fields) from 1 kHz down to 0.1 Hz. (MHR)

  5. In situ hydrogen dynamics in a hot spring microbial mat during a diel cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Niels Peter; Trampe, Erik Christian Løvbjerg; Lichtenberg, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Microbes can produce molecular hydrogen (H2) via fermentation, dinitrogen fixation, or direct photolysis, yet the H2 dynamics in cyanobacterial communities has only been explored in a few natural systems and mostly in the laboratory. In this study, we investigated the diel in situ H2 dynamics...... in a hot spring microbial mat, where various ecotypes of unicellular cyanobacteria (Synechococcus sp.) are the only oxygenic phototrophs. In the evening, H2 accumulated rapidly after the onset of darkness, reaching peak values of up to 30 mol H2 liter1 at about 1-mm depth below the mat surface, slowly...... that nitrogenase activity was an important source of H2 during the morning. This is in accordance with earlier findings of a distinct early morning peak in N2 fixation and expression of Synechococcus nitrogenase genes in mat samples from the same location. Fermentation might have contributed to the formation of H2...

  6. Discovery and Characterization of a Thermostable and Highly Halotolerant GH5 Cellulase from an Icelandic Hot Spring Isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarafeta, Dimitra; Kissas, Dimitrios; Sayer, Christopher; Gudbergsdottir, Sóley R; Ladoukakis, Efthymios; Isupov, Michail N; Chatziioannou, Aristotelis; Peng, Xu; Littlechild, Jennifer A; Skretas, Georgios; Kolisis, Fragiskos N

    2016-01-01

    With the ultimate goal of identifying robust cellulases for industrial biocatalytic conversions, we have isolated and characterized a new thermostable and very halotolerant GH5 cellulase. This new enzyme, termed CelDZ1, was identified by bioinformatic analysis from the genome of a polysaccharide-enrichment culture isolate, initiated from material collected from an Icelandic hot spring. Biochemical characterization of CelDZ1 revealed that it is a glycoside hydrolase with optimal activity at 70°C and pH 5.0 that exhibits good thermostability, high halotolerance at near-saturating salt concentrations, and resistance towards metal ions and other denaturing agents. X-ray crystallography of the new enzyme showed that CelDZ1 is the first reported cellulase structure that lacks the defined sugar-binding 2 subsite and revealed structural features which provide potential explanations of its biochemical characteristics.

  7. Regulatory, Land Ownership, and Water Availability Factors for a Magma Well: Long Valley Caldera and Coso Hot Springs, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackett, Robert

    1985-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is currently engaged in a program to demonstrate the engineering feasibility of extracting thermal energy from high-level molten magma bodies. The program is being carried out under the direction of Sandia National Laboratories where a number of individual projects support the overall program. The existing program elements include (1) high-temperature materials compatibility testing; (2) studies of properties of melts of various compositions; and (3) the investigation of the economics of a magma energy extraction system. Another element of the program is being conducted with the cooperation of the U.S. Geological Survey, and involves locating and outlining magma bodies at selected sites using various geophysical techniques. The ultimate goal here will be to define the limits of a magma body as a drilling target. During an earlier phase of the program, more than twenty candidate study sites considered were evaluated based upon: (1) the likelihood of the presence of a shallow magma chamber, (2) the accessibility of the site, and (3) physical and institutional constraints associated with each site with respect to performing long-term experiments. From these early phase activities, the number of candidate sites were eventually narrowed to just 2. The sites currently under consideration are Coso Hot Springs and the Long Valley caldera (Figure 1). This report describes certain attributes of these sites in order to help identify potential problems related to: (1) state and federal regulations pertaining to geothermal development; (2) land ownership; and (3) water resource availability. The information sources used in this study were mainly maps, publications, and informative documents gathered from the California Division of Oil and Gas and the U.S. Department of the Interior. Environmental studies completed for the entire Long Valley caldera study area, and for portions of the Coso Hot Springs study area were also used for reference.

  8. Phototrophs in high-iron-concentration microbial mats: physiological ecology of phototrophs in an iron-depositing hot spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, B. K.; Parenteau, M. N.; Griffin, B. M.

    1999-01-01

    At Chocolate Pots Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park the source waters have a pH near neutral, contain high concentrations of reduced iron, and lack sulfide. An iron formation that is associated with cyanobacterial mats is actively deposited. The uptake of [(14)C]bicarbonate was used to assess the impact of ferrous iron on photosynthesis in this environment. Photoautotrophy in some of the mats was stimulated by ferrous iron (1.0 mM). Microelectrodes were used to determine the impact of photosynthetic activity on the oxygen content and the pH in the mat and sediment microenvironments. Photosynthesis increased the oxygen concentration to 200% of air saturation levels in the top millimeter of the mats. The oxygen concentration decreased with depth and in the dark. Light-dependent increases in pH were observed. The penetration of light in the mats and in the sediments was determined. Visible radiation was rapidly attenuated in the top 2 mm of the iron-rich mats. Near-infrared radiation penetrated deeper. Iron was totally oxidized in the top few millimeters, but reduced iron was detected at greater depths. By increasing the pH and the oxygen concentration in the surface sediments, the cyanobacteria could potentially increase the rate of iron oxidation in situ. This high-iron-content hot spring provides a suitable model for studying the interactions of microbial photosynthesis and iron deposition and the role of photosynthesis in microbial iron cycling. This model may help clarify the potential role of photosynthesis in the deposition of Precambrian banded iron formations.

  9. Microbial contributions to coupled arsenic and sulfur cycling in the acid-sulfide hot spring Champagne Pool, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eHug

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Acid-sulfide hot springs are analogs of early Earth geothermal systems where microbial metal(loid resistance likely first evolved. Arsenic is a metalloid enriched in the acid-sulfide hot spring Champagne Pool (Waiotapu, New Zealand. Arsenic speciation in Champagne Pool follows reaction paths not yet fully understood with respect to biotic contributions and coupling to biogeochemical sulfur cycling. Here we present quantitative arsenic speciation from Champagne Pool, finding arsenite dominant in the pool, rim and outflow channel (55-75% total arsenic, and dithio- and trithioarsenates ubiquitously present as 18-25% total arsenic. In the outflow channel, dimethylmonothioarsenate comprised ≤9% total arsenic, while on the outflow terrace thioarsenates were present at 55% total arsenic. We also quantified sulfide, thiosulfate, sulfate and elemental sulfur, finding sulfide and sulfate as major species in the pool and outflow terrace, respectively. Elemental sulfur reached a maximum at the terrace. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes from metagenomic sequencing revealed the dominance of Sulfurihydrogenibium at all sites and an increased archaeal population at the rim and outflow channel. Several phylotypes were found closely related to known sulfur- and sulfide-oxidizers, as well as sulfur- and sulfate-reducers. Bioinformatic analysis revealed genes underpinning sulfur redox transformations, consistent with sulfur speciation data, and illustrating a microbial role in sulfur-dependent transformation of arsenite to thioarsenate. Metagenomic analysis also revealed genes encoding for arsenate reductase at all sites, reflecting the ubiquity of thioarsenate and a need for microbial arsenate resistance despite anoxic conditions. Absence of the arsenite oxidase gene, aio, at all sites suggests prioritization of arsenite detoxification over coupling to energy conservation. Finally, detection of methyl arsenic in the outflow channel, in conjunction with

  10. Raman and SEM analysis of a biocolonised hot spring travertine terrace in Svalbard, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge-Villar Susana E

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A profile across 8 layers from a fossil travertine terrace from a low temperature geothermal spring located in Svalbard, Norway has been studied using both Raman spectroscopy and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy techniques to identify minerals and organic life signals. Results Calcite, anatase, quartz, haematite, magnetite and graphite as well as scytonemin, three different carotenoids, chlorophyll and a chlorophyll-like compound were identified as geo- and biosignatures respectively, using 785 and/or 514 nm Raman laser excitation wavelengths. No morphological biosignatures representing remnant microbial signals were detected by high-resolution imaging, although spectral analyses indicated the presence of organics. In contrast, in all layers, Raman spectra identified a series of different organic pigments indicating little to no degradation or change of the organic signatures and thus indicating the preservation of fossil biomarker compounds throughout the life time of the springs despite the lack of remnant morphological indicators. Conclusion With a view towards planetary exploration we discuss the implications of the differences in Raman band intensities observed when spectra were collected with the different laser excitations. We show that these differences, as well as the different detection capability of the 785 and 514 nm laser, could lead to ambiguous compound identification. We show that the identification of bio and geosignatures, as well as fossil organic pigments, using Raman spectroscopy is possible. These results are relevant since both lasers have been considered for miniaturized Raman spectrometers for planetary exploration.

  11. Phototrophic phylotypes dominate mesothermal microbial mats associated with hot springs in Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kimberly A; Feazel, Leah M; Robertson, Charles E; Fathepure, Babu Z; Wright, Katherine E; Turk-Macleod, Rebecca M; Chan, Mallory M; Held, Nicole L; Spear, John R; Pace, Norman R

    2012-07-01

    The mesothermal outflow zones (50-65°C) of geothermal springs often support an extensive zone of green and orange laminated microbial mats. In order to identify and compare the microbial inhabitants of morphologically similar green-orange mats from chemically and geographically distinct springs, we generated and analyzed small-subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene amplicons from six mesothermal mats (four previously unexamined) in Yellowstone National Park. Between three and six bacterial phyla dominated each mat. While many sequences bear the highest identity to previously isolated phototrophic genera belonging to the Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Chlorobi phyla, there is also frequent representation of uncultured, unclassified members of these groups. Some genus-level representatives of these dominant phyla were found in all mats, while others were unique to a single mat. Other groups detected at high frequencies include candidate divisions (such as the OP candidate clades) with no cultured representatives or complete genomes available. In addition, rRNA genes related to the recently isolated and characterized photosynthetic acidobacterium "Candidatus Chloracidobacterium thermophilum" were detected in most mats. In contrast to microbial mats from well-studied hypersaline environments, the mesothermal mats in this study accrue less biomass and are substantially less diverse, but have a higher proportion of known phototrophic organisms. This study provides sequences appropriate for accurate phylogenetic classification and expands the molecular phylogenetic survey of Yellowstone microbial mats.

  12. Biogenicity of silica precipitation around geysers and hot-spring vents, North Island, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, B. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences; Renaut, R.W. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Rosen, M.R. [Wairakei Research Centre, Taupo (New Zealand). Inst. of Geological and Nuclear Sciences

    1997-01-01

    Before anthropogenic modifications, Ohaaki Pool (Broadlands-Ohaaki) and Dragon`s Mouth Geyser (Wairakei) emitted waters at temperatures of 93--98 C. The siliceous sinter that precipitated around their vents has the characteristics of geyserite, a dense laminated deposit of presumed abiogenic origin, that was precipitated from waters too hot (>73C) to support microbes other than thermophilic bacteria. Petrographic and SEM examinations of the sinters show that they incorporate columnar stromatolites and silicified, laminated stromatolitic mats that contain well-preserved filamentous microbes. At both localities the microbes lack evidence of desiccation or shrinkage, which implies that they were silicified rapidly at or shortly after their death. Although boiling and very hot (>90 C) waters were discharged, temperatures at many sites surrounding the vents remained sufficiently low and moist to support a microbial community that included thermophilic bacteria and cyanobacteria. In these cooler niches, the microbes and their biofilms served as highly favorable templates for the nucleation and growth of amorphous silica, and collectively provided a microbial framework for the laminated accretionary sinter. Some columnar, spicular, and stratiform geyserites are probably not abiotic precipitates, but are true silica stromatolites.

  13. Enrichment of Thermophilic Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea from an Alkaline Hot Spring in the Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Huang, Z.; Jiang, H.; Wiegel, J.; Li, W.; Dong, H.

    2010-12-01

    One of the major advances in the nitrogen cycle is the recent discovery of ammonia oxidation by archaea. While culture-independent studies have revealed occurrence of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in nearly every surface niche on earth, most of these microorganisms have resisted isolation and so far only a few species have been identified. The Great Basin contains numerous hot springs, which are characterized by moderately high temperature (40-65 degree C) and circumneutral or alkaline pH. Unique thermophilic archaea have been identified based on molecular DNA and lipid biomarkers; some of which may be ammonia oxidizers. This study aims to isolate some of these archaea from a California hot spring that has pH around 9.0 and temperature around 42 degree C. Mat material was collected from the spring and transported on ice to the laboratory. A synthetic medium (SCM-5) was inoculated with the mat material and the culture was incubated under varying temperature (35-65 degree C) and pH (7.0-10.0) conditions using antibiotics to suppress bacterial growth. Growth of the culture was monitored by microscopy, decrease in ammonium and increase in nitrite, and increases in Crenarchaeota and AOA abundances over time. Clone libraries were constructed to compare archaeal community structures before and after the enrichment experiment. Temperature and pH profiles indicated that the culture grew optimally at pH 9.0 and temperature 45 degree C, which are consistent with the geochemical conditions of the natural environment. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the final OTU was distantly related to all known hyperthermophilic archaea. Analysis of the amoA genes showed two OTUs in the final culture; one of them was closely related to Candidatus Nitrososphaera gargensis. However, the enrichment culture always contained bacteria and attempts to separate them from archaea have failed. This highlights the difficulty in bringing AOA into pure culture and suggests that some of the AOA may

  14. Cultivation and Genomic Analysis of “Candidatus Nitrosocaldus islandicus,” an Obligately Thermophilic, Ammonia-Oxidizing Thaumarchaeon from a Hot Spring Biofilm in Graendalur Valley, Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Daebeler

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA within the phylum Thaumarchaeota are the only known aerobic ammonia oxidizers in geothermal environments. Although molecular data indicate the presence of phylogenetically diverse AOA from the Nitrosocaldus clade, group 1.1b and group 1.1a Thaumarchaeota in terrestrial high-temperature habitats, only one§ enrichment culture of an AOA thriving above 50°C has been reported and functionally analyzed. In this study, we physiologically and genomically characterized a newly discovered thaumarchaeon from the deep-branching Nitrosocaldaceae family of which we have obtained a high (∼85% enrichment from biofilm of an Icelandic hot spring (73°C. This AOA, which we provisionally refer to as “Candidatus Nitrosocaldus islandicus,” is an obligately thermophilic, aerobic chemolithoautotrophic ammonia oxidizer, which stoichiometrically converts ammonia to nitrite at temperatures between 50 and 70°C. “Ca. N. islandicus” encodes the expected repertoire of enzymes proposed to be required for archaeal ammonia oxidation, but unexpectedly lacks a nirK gene and also possesses no identifiable other enzyme for nitric oxide (NO generation§. Nevertheless, ammonia oxidation by this AOA appears to be NO-dependent as “Ca. N. islandicus” is, like all other tested AOA, inhibited by the addition of an NO scavenger. Furthermore, comparative genomics revealed that “Ca. N. islandicus” has the potential for aromatic amino acid fermentation as its genome encodes an indolepyruvate oxidoreductase (iorAB as well as a type 3b hydrogenase, which are not present in any other sequenced AOA. A further surprising genomic feature of this thermophilic ammonia oxidizer is the absence of DNA polymerase D genes§ – one of the predominant replicative DNA polymerases in all other ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota. Collectively, our findings suggest that metabolic versatility and DNA replication might differ substantially between obligately

  15. Cultivation and Genomic Analysis of "CandidatusNitrosocaldus islandicus," an Obligately Thermophilic, Ammonia-Oxidizing Thaumarchaeon from a Hot Spring Biofilm in Graendalur Valley, Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daebeler, Anne; Herbold, Craig W; Vierheilig, Julia; Sedlacek, Christopher J; Pjevac, Petra; Albertsen, Mads; Kirkegaard, Rasmus H; de la Torre, José R; Daims, Holger; Wagner, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) within the phylum Thaumarchaeota are the only known aerobic ammonia oxidizers in geothermal environments. Although molecular data indicate the presence of phylogenetically diverse AOA from the Nitrosocaldus clade, group 1.1b and group 1.1a Thaumarchaeota in terrestrial high-temperature habitats, only one enrichment culture of an AOA thriving above 50°C has been reported and functionally analyzed. In this study, we physiologically and genomically characterized a newly discovered thaumarchaeon from the deep-branching Nitrosocaldaceae family of which we have obtained a high (∼85%) enrichment from biofilm of an Icelandic hot spring (73°C). This AOA, which we provisionally refer to as " Candidatus Nitrosocaldus islandicus," is an obligately thermophilic, aerobic chemolithoautotrophic ammonia oxidizer, which stoichiometrically converts ammonia to nitrite at temperatures between 50 and 70°C. " Ca. N. islandicus" encodes the expected repertoire of enzymes proposed to be required for archaeal ammonia oxidation, but unexpectedly lacks a nirK gene and also possesses no identifiable other enzyme for nitric oxide (NO) generation. Nevertheless, ammonia oxidation by this AOA appears to be NO-dependent as " Ca. N. islandicus" is, like all other tested AOA, inhibited by the addition of an NO scavenger. Furthermore, comparative genomics revealed that " Ca. N. islandicus" has the potential for aromatic amino acid fermentation as its genome encodes an indolepyruvate oxidoreductase ( iorAB ) as well as a type 3b hydrogenase, which are not present in any other sequenced AOA. A further surprising genomic feature of this thermophilic ammonia oxidizer is the absence of DNA polymerase D genes - one of the predominant replicative DNA polymerases in all other ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota. Collectively, our findings suggest that metabolic versatility and DNA replication might differ substantially between obligately thermophilic and other AOA.

  16. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Hot Springs Mobile Home Park in Willard, Utah - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents activities performed for and results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Hot Springs Mobile Home Park (HSMHP) in Willard, UT. The objectives of the project were to evaluate the effectiveness of Adsorbsia™ GTO™...

  17. Compound-specific isotopic fractionation patterns suggest different carbon metabolisms among Chloroflexus-like bacteria in hot-spring microbial mats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Marcel T J; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; de Leeuw, Jan W; Ward, David M

    2003-10-01

    Stable carbon isotope fractionations between dissolved inorganic carbon and lipid biomarkers suggest photoautotrophy by Chloroflexus-like organisms in sulfidic and nonsulfidic Yellowstone hot springs. Where co-occurring, cyanobacteria appear to cross-feed Chloroflexus-like organisms supporting photoheterotrophy as well, although the relatively small 13C fractionation associated with cyanobacterial sugar biosynthesis may sometimes obscure this process.

  18. Compound-Specific Isotopic Fractionation Patterns Suggest Different Carbon Metabolisms among Chloroflexus-Like Bacteria in Hot-Spring Microbial Mats†

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Marcel T. J.; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; de Leeuw, Jan W.; Ward, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope fractionations between dissolved inorganic carbon and lipid biomarkers suggest photoautotrophy by Chloroflexus-like organisms in sulfidic and nonsulfidic Yellowstone hot springs. Where co-occurring, cyanobacteria appear to cross-feed Chloroflexus-like organisms supporting photoheterotrophy as well, although the relatively small 13C fractionation associated with cyanobacterial sugar biosynthesis may sometimes obscure this process. PMID:14532055

  19. Numerical simulation of hot-pressed veneer products: Forming - Spring back – Distortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Sandberg, Dick

    2007-01-01

    Customers demand very high quality of veneered furniture products with regard to surface appearance, shape stability and stiffness. To meet these requirements, it is important to improve the manufacturing process by a better understanding of the thermo-hygro-mechanical behaviour of the individual...... veneers. During the manufacture of strongly curved products, the veneers are exposed to large membrane and bending deformations and to high pressure in the radial fibre direction. When hot-press forming is used, the veneers are also exposed to a high surface temperature during the pressing time (curing...... time). These severe conditions can result in plastic deformation perpendicular to the veneer surface as well as mechano-sorptive strains in the curved regions, since the heating can have a significant influence on the moisture distribution. How strong an influence these factors have on the distortion...

  20. Hydrothermal alteration at Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA - DDH 1976-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, N.L.; Parry, W.T.

    1977-09-01

    Hot waters of the Roosevelt Thermal Area, Utah, have altered granitic rocks and detritus of the Mineral Range pluton, Utah. Petrographic, x-ray, and chemical methods were used to characterize systematic changes in chemistry and mineralogy. Major alteration zones include: 1) an advanced argillic zone in the upper 30 feet of altered detritus containing alunite, opal, vermiculite, and relic quartz; 2) an argillic zone from 30 feet to 105 feet containing kaolinite, muscovite, and minor alunite; and 3) a propylitic zone from 105 to 200 feet containing muscovite, pyrite, marcasite, montmorillonite, and chlorite in weakly altered quartz monzonite. Comparison of the alternation mineral assemblages with known water chemistry and equilibrium activity diagrams suggests that a simple solution equilibrium model cannot account for the alteration. A model is proposed in which upward moving thermal water supersaturated with respect to quartz and a downward moving cool water undersaturated with respect to quartz produces the observed alteration. An estimate of the heat flow contributions from hydrothermal alteration was made by calculating reaction enthalpies for alteration reactions at each depth.

  1. Hydrothermal alteration at Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA: DDH 1976-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, N.L.; Parry, W.T.

    1977-09-01

    Hot waters of the Roosevelt Thermal Area, Utah, have altered granitic rocks and detritus of the Mineral Range pluton, Utah. Alteration and mineral deposition recognized in a 200' drill core from DDH 1-76 is most intense in the upper 100 feet which consists of altered alluvium and opal deposits; the lower 100 feet is weakly altered quartz monzonite. Petrographic, x-ray, and chemical methods were used to characterize systematic changes in chemistry and mineralogy. Comparison of the alteration mineral assemblages with known water chemistry and equilibrium activity diagrams suggests that a simple solution equilibrium model cannot account for the alteration. A model is proposed in which upward moving thermal water supersaturated with respect to quartz and a downward moving cool water undersaturated with respect to quartz produces the observed alteration. An estimate of the heat flow contributions from hydrothermal alteration was made by calculating reaction enthalpies for alteration reactions at each depth. The estimated heat flow varied from .02 HFU (for 200' depth, 400,000 yr duration, and no sulfur oxidation) to 67 HFU (for 5,000' depth, 1,000 yr duration, and all sulfur oxidized from sulfide). Heat flow contributions from hydrothermal alteration are comparable with those from a cooling granitic magma.

  2. Geologic map of the Gila Hot Springs 7.5' quadrangle and the Cliff Dwellings National Monument, Catron and Grant Counties, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratté, James C.; Gaskill, David L.; Chappell, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The Gila Hot Springs quadrangle is of geologic interest with respect to four major features, which are: 1)\tThe caves of the Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument 2)\tThe hot springs associated with the faults of the Gila Hot Springs graben 3)\tThe Alum Mountain rhyolite dome and eruptive center 4)\tA proposed segment of the southeastern wall of the Gila Cliff Dwellings caldera The Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument consists of two tracts. The caves that were inhabited by the Mogollon people in the 14th century are in the main tract near the mouth of Cliff Dweller Canyon in the Little Turkey Park 7.5' quadrangle adjoining the northwest corner of the Gila Hot Springs quadrangle. The second tract includes the Cliff Dwellings National Monument Visitor Center at the confluence of the West and Middle Forks of the Gila River in the northwest corner of the Gila Hot Springs quadrangle. Both quadrangles are within the Gila National Forest and the Gila Wilderness except for a narrow corridor that provides access to the National Monument and the small ranching and residential community at Gila Center in the Gila River valley. The caves in Cliff Dweller Canyon were developed in the Gila Conglomerate of probable Miocene? and Pleistocene? age in this area by processes of lateral corrosion and spring sapping along the creek in Cliff Dweller Canyon. The hot springs in the Gila River valley are localized along faults in the deepest part of the Gila Hot Springs graben, which cuts diagonally northwest-southeast across the central part of the quadrangle. Some of the springs provide domestic hot water for space heating and agriculture in the Gila River valley and represent a possible thermal resource for development at the Cliff Dwellings National Monument. The Alum Mountain rhyolite dome and eruptive center in the southwestern part of the quadrangle is a colorful area of altered and mineralized rocks that is satellitic to the larger Copperas Canyon eruptive center, both being

  3. Targeted Metagenomic Survey of the Fe-Cycling Microbial Community at Chocolate Pots Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, N. W.; He, S.; Kulkarni, A.; Friedrich, M. W.; Boyd, E. S.; Roden, E. E.

    2016-12-01

    Chocolate Pots hot springs (CP) is a circumneutral pH, Fe-rich geothermal feature located in Yellowstone National Park. Fe-based metabolic processes are deeply rooted in the tree of life and studying environments like CP are important for us to study to gain insight into ancient Earth ecosystems. Recently identified features on Mars are indicative of near-surface hydrothermal environments and studies of modern Earth systems like CP allow us a glimpse into how life may have potentially arisen on other rocky worlds. Previous enrichment culture studies of the microbial community present at CP identified close relatives of dissimilatory Fe-reducing bacteria (DIRB), including Geobacter metallireducens and Melioribacter roseus. However, the question still remains as to the composition and activity of the microbial community in situ. Here we used 13C stable isotope probing to gain an understanding of the Fe cycling microbial community at CP. Fe-Si oxide sediments collected from near the hot spring vent were incubated under in situ conditions and amended with 13C-acetate or -bicarbonate to target DIRB and Fe-oxidizing bacteria, respectively. 16S rRNA gene amplicon libraries along with shotgun metagenomic libraries were obtained from both sets of incubations. Differential read coverage mapping of metagenomic reads identified a set of taxonomic bins that showed a response to the incubation treatments. We searched the Fe-reducing incubation bins for homologues of genes involved in known extracellular electron transfer (EET) systems such as Pcc and MtrAB, as well as putative porins proximal to multiheme cytochrome c genes. We also searched bins from the Fe-oxidizing incubations for these EET systems in addition to homologues of the outer membrane cytochrome c Cyc2. The Fe-oxidizing bins were also examined for genes encoding RuBisCo to identify potential chemolithoautotrophs. Our targeted metagenomic analysis will identify which organisms are likely to be part of an active Fe

  4. Dual stable isotopes of CH4 from Yellowstone hot-springs suggest hydrothermal processes involving magmatic CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, James J.; Whitmore, Laura M.; Jay, Zackary J.; Jennings, Ryan deM.; Beam, Jacob P.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Inskeep, William P.

    2017-07-01

    Volcanism and post-magmatism contribute significant annual methane (CH4) fluxes to the atmosphere (on par with other natural sources such as forest fire and wild animal emissions) and have been implicated in past climate-change events. The Yellowstone hot spot is one of the largest volcanic systems on Earth and is known to emit CH4 (as well as carbon dioxide (CO2) and other gases), but the ultimate sources of this CH4 flux have not been elucidated. Here we use dual stable isotope analysis (δ2H and δ13C) of CH4 sampled from ten high-temperature geothermal pools in Yellowstone National Park along with other isotopic and gas analyses to evaluate potential sources of methane. The average δ13C and δ2H values of CH4 emitted from hot springs (26.7 (± 2.4) and - 236.9 (± 12.0) ‰, respectively) are inconsistent with microbial methanogenesis but do not allow distinction between thermogenic and abiotic sources. Correlation between δ13CCH4 and δ13C of dissolved inorganic C (DIC) is consistent with DIC as the parent C source for the observed CH4, or with equilibration of CH4 and DIC. Methane formation temperatures estimated by isotopic geothermometry based on δ13CCH4 and δ13CCO2 ranged from 250-350 °C, which is just below previous temperature estimates for the hydrothermal reservoir. Further, the δ2HH2O of the thermal springs and the measured δ2HCH4 values are consistent with equilibration between the source water and the CH4 at the formation temperatures. Though the ultimate origin of the CH4 could be attributed to either abiotic of themorgenic processes with subsequent isotopic equilibration, the C1/C2 + composition of the gases is more consistent with abiotic origins for most of the samples. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that subsurface rock-water interactions are responsible for at least a significant fraction of the CH4 flux from the Yellowstone National Park volcanic system.

  5. Noachian-Age Silica Deposits on Mars with Features Resembling Modern Hot Spring Biosignatures at El Tatio, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, S. W.; Farmer, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrothermal spring deposits of silica (sinter) have long been targets in the search for fossil life on Mars and early Earth because of their ability to capture and preserve biosignatures. In 2007, the Spirit rover observed exposures of opaline silica (amorphous SiO2-*nH2O) adjacent to "Home Plate" in the inner basin of the Columbia Hills of Gusev crater. The presence of opaline silica in the context of a succession of volcanic rocks is interpreted as evidence of past volcanic hydrothermal activity. The silica occurs most commonly in nodular masses that have a rubbly appearance but are considered outcrops because of their stratiform expression and resistance to deformation by the rover wheels. An origin via either fumarole-related acid-sulfate leaching or precipitation from hot spring fluids was suggested previously. However, the potential significance of the characteristic nodular and mm-scale digitate opaline silica structures was not recognized. Our new observations of silica sinter deposits from the active volcanic hydrothermal system at El Tatio in northern Chile provide a basis for scale-integrated comparisons to the silica features at Home Plate, including geologic context, mesoscale structures in outcrops, mm-scale textures, and spectral signatures. The physical environment of El Tatio presents a rare combination of high elevation ( 4300 m), low precipitation rate (Home Plate silica outcrops. Halite (NaCl) encrusts the silica at El Tatio yielding thermal infrared spectra that are the best match yet to spectra from Spirit. Furthermore, the nodular and digitate silica structures at El Tatio that most closely resemble those on Mars include complex sedimentary structures produced by a combination of biotic and abiotic processes. Although fully abiotic processes are not ruled out for the Martian silica structures, they satisfy an a priori definition of potential biosignatures.

  6. A preliminary study of older hot spring alteration in Sevenmile Hole, Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Peter B.; Phillips, Allison; John, David; Cosca, Michael; Pritchard, Chad; Andersen, Allen; Manion, Jennifer

    2009-11-01

    Erosion in the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, Yellowstone Caldera (640 ka), Wyoming, has exposed a cross section of older hydrothermal alteration in the canyon walls. The altered outcrops of the post-collapse tuff of Sulphur Creek (480 ka) extend from the canyon rim to more than 300 m beneath it. The hydrothermal minerals are zoned, with an advanced argillic alteration consisting of an association of quartz (opal) + kaolinite ± alunite ± dickite, and an argillic or potassic alteration association with quartz + illite ± adularia. Disseminated fine-grained pyrite or marcasite is ubiquitous in both alteration types. These alteration associations are characteristic products of shallow volcanic epithermal environments. The contact between the two alteration types is about 100 m beneath the rim. By analogy to other active geothermal systems including active hydrothermal springs in the Yellowstone Caldera, the transition from kaolinite to illite occurred at temperatures in the range 150 to 170 °C. An 40Ar/ 39Ar age on alunite of 154,000 ± 16,000 years suggests that hydrothermal activity has been ongoing since at least that time. A northwest-trending linear array of extinct and active hot spring centers in the Sevenmile Hole area implies a deeper structural control for the upflowing hydrothermal fluids. We interpret this deeper structure to be the Yellowstone Caldera ring fault that is covered by the younger tuff of Sulphur Creek. The Sevenmile Hole altered area lies at the eastern end of a band of hydrothermal centers that may mark the buried extension of the Yellowstone Caldera ring fault across the northern part of the Caldera.

  7. Oxygen isotope systematics in an evolving geothermal system: Coso Hot Springs, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzel, Thomas M.; Bowman, John R.; Moore, Joseph N.; Valley, John W.; Spicuzza, Michael J.; McCulloch, Jesse M.

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen isotope and clay mineralogy studies have been made on whole rock samples and feldspar separates from three wells along the high temperature West Flank of the Coso geothermal system, California. The reservoir rocks have experienced variable 18O/16O depletion, with δ18O values ranging from primary values of + 7.5‰ down to - 4.6‰. Spatial patterns of clay mineral distributions in the three wells are not closely correlated with the distributions expected from measured, pre-production temperature profiles, but do correlate with spatial patterns of 18O/16O depletion, indicating that the stability of clay minerals in the three wells is a function of fluid-rock interaction in addition to temperature. Detailed δ18O measurements in the three wells identify a limited number of localized intervals of extensive 18O/16O depletion. These intervals document localized zones of higher permeability in the geothermal system that have experienced significant fluid infiltration, water-rock interaction and oxygen isotopic exchange with the geothermal fluids. The local zones of maximum 18O/16O depletion in each well correspond closely with current hot water production zones. Most feldspar separates have measured δ18O values too high to have completely attained oxygen isotope exchange equilibrium with the reservoir fluid at pre-production temperatures. In general, the lower the δ18O value of the feldspar, the closer the feldspar approaches exchange equilibrium with the geothermal fluid. This correlation suggests that fracture-induced increases in permeability increase both fluid infiltration and the surface area of the host rock exposed to geothermal fluid, promoting fluid-rock interaction and oxygen isotope exchange. The two most 18O/16O-depleted feldspar samples have δ18O values too low to be in exchange equilibrium with the pre-production reservoir fluid at pre-production temperatures. These discrepancies suggest that the reservoir fluid in the West Flank of the Coso

  8. In-depth characterization via complementing culture-independent approaches of the microbial community in an acidic hot spring of the Colombian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohorquez, Laura C; Delgado-Serrano, Luisa; López, Gina; Osorio-Forero, César; Klepac-Ceraj, Vanja; Kolter, Roberto; Junca, Howard; Baena, Sandra; Zambrano, María Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    The microbial community of a Colombian high mountain hot spring, El Coquito, was analyzed using three different culture-independent assessments of 16S ribosomal RNA genes: clone libraries, pyrosequencing of the V5-V6 hypervariable region, and microarray. This acidic spring had a diverse community composed mainly of Bacteria that shared characteristics with those from other hot springs and extreme acidic environments. The microbial community was dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Planctomycetes and contained chemotrophic bacteria potentially involved in cycling of ferrous and sulfur-containing minerals and phototrophic organisms, most of which were eukaryotic micro-algae. Despite the presence of a large proportion of novel, unclassified sequences, the taxonomic profiles obtained with each strategy showed similarities at higher taxonomic levels. However, some groups, such as Spirochaetes and Aquificae, were identified using only one methodology, and more taxa were detected with the gene array, which also shared more groups with the pyrosequencing data. Overall, the combined use of different approaches provided a broader view of the microbial community in this acidic hot spring.

  9. Time-series analysis of surface deformation at Brady Hot Springs geothermal field (Nevada) using interferometric synthetic aperture radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, S. T. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Akerley, J. [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Baluyut, E. C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Cardiff, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Davatzes, N. C. [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Science; Feigl, K. L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Foxall, W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fratta, D. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Mellors, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Spielman, P. [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Wang, H. F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Zemach, E. [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

    2016-05-01

    We analyze interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data acquired between 2004 and 2014, by the ERS-2, Envisat, ALOS and TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X satellite missions to measure and characterize time-dependent deformation at the Brady Hot Springs geothermal field in western Nevada due to extraction of fluids. The long axis of the ~4 km by ~1.5 km elliptical subsiding area coincides with the strike of the dominant normal fault system at Brady. Within this bowl of subsidence, the interference pattern shows several smaller features with length scales of the order of ~1 km. This signature occurs consistently in all of the well-correlated interferometric pairs spanning several months. Results from inverse modeling suggest that the deformation is a result of volumetric contraction in shallow units, no deeper than 600 m, likely associated with damaged regions where fault segments mechanically interact. Such damaged zones are expected to extend downward along steeply dipping fault planes, providing a high permeability conduit to the production wells. Using time series analysis, we test the hypothesis that geothermal production drives the observed deformation. We find a good correlation between the observed deformation rate and the rate of production in the shallow wells. We also explore mechanisms that could potentially cause the observed deformation, including thermal contraction of rock, decline in pore pressure and dissolution of minerals over time.

  10. Microbial biofacies in hot-spring sinters: A model based on Ohaaki Pool, North Island, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, B. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences; Renaut, R.W. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Rosen, M.R. [Wairakei Research Centre, Taupo (New Zealand). Inst. of Geological and Nuclear Sciences

    1998-05-01

    Ohaaki Pool was the main hot spring in the Broadlands-Ohaaki geothermal area before recent anthropogenic modification. The alkaline Na-HCO{sub 3}-Cl water, which discharged at 95 C with a flow rate of 10 l/s, flowed down a broad discharge apron into the Waikato River. The discharge apron was inhabited by thriving microbial communities that included Calothrix, Phormidium, and numerous Synechococcus. These microbes mediated the construction of columnar stromatolites around the edge of Ohaaki Pool, oncoids in the discharge channel, and intercalated stratiform stromatolites, Conophyton, and coccoid microbial mats on the distal part of the discharge apron. All the microbes were variably replaced and encrusted by amorphous silica while alive or shortly after death. Consequently, fabrics in the siliceous sinters around Ohaaki Pool are controlled by the growth patterns and composition of the microbial community. For example, the Calothrix-dominated community gave rise to stratiform stromatolites that are characterized by alternating erect and prostrate laminae. Conversely, the Synechococcus-dominated communities formed mats that produced dense, while siliceous laminae. The Phormidium-Synechococcus community constructed the Conophyton. Platy, skeletal, and blocky calcite crystals are found in, around, and between the siliceous stromatolites that formed around Ohaaki Pool, the proximal part of the discharge apron, and in the oncoids. Although minor calcite is found locally in the stratiform stromatolites on the discharge apron, there is no evidence that microbes played any role in calcite precipitation.

  11. Division-specific differences in bacterial community assembly of two alkaline hot spring ecosystems from Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzer, Michael L; Miller, Scott R

    2013-04-01

    A fundamental issue in ecology is whether communities are random assemblages or, alternatively, whether there are rules that determine which combinations of taxa can co-occur. For microbial systems, in particular, the question of whether taxonomic groups exhibit differences in community organization remains unresolved but is critical for our understanding of community structure and function. Here, we used presence-absence matrices derived from bar-coded pyrosequencing data to evaluate the assembly patterns of eight bacterial divisions distributed along two Yellowstone National Park hot spring outflow channels. Four divisions (Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, and Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides) exhibited less co-occurrence than expected by chance, with phototrophic taxa showing the strongest evidence for nonrandom community structure. We propose that both differences in environmental tolerance and competitive interactions within divisions contribute to these nonrandom assembly patterns. The higher degree of nonrandom structure observed for phototrophic taxa compared with the other divisions may be due in part to greater overlap in resource usage, as has been previously proposed for plant communities.

  12. Big George to Carter Mountain 115-kV transmission line project, Park and Hot Springs Counties, Wyoming. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) is proposing to rebuild, operate, and maintain a 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line between the Big George and Carter Mountain Substations in northwest Wyoming (Park and Hot Springs Counties). This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The existing Big George to Carter Mountain 69-kV transmission line was constructed in 1941 by the US Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, with 1/0 copper conductor on wood-pole H-frame structures without an overhead ground wire. The line should be replaced because of the deteriorated condition of the wood-pole H-frame structures. Because the line lacks an overhead ground wire, it is subject to numerous outages caused by lightning. The line will be 54 years old in 1995, which is the target date for line replacement. The normal service life of a wood-pole line is 45 years. Under the No Action Alternative, no new transmission lines would be built in the project area. The existing 69-kV transmission line would continue to operate with routine maintenance, with no provisions made for replacement.

  13. Impact of Hot Spring Resort Development on the Groundwater Discharge in the Southeast Part of Laguna De Bay, Luzon, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siringan, F. P.; Lloren, R. B.; Mancenido, D. L. O.; Jago-on, K. A. B.; Pena, M. A. Z.; Balangue-Tarriela, M. I. R.; Taniguchi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Direct groundwater seepage in a lake (DGSL) can be a major component to its water and nutrient budget. Groundwater extraction around a lake may affect the DGSL, thus it can be expected that it would also impact the lake. In the Philippines, Laguna de Bay which is the second largest freshwater lake in South-east Asia and used primarily for fisheries, is under significant water development pressure. Along the southern coast of the lake, in the Calamba-Los Banos area, rapid urbanization and development of the water resort industry, including hot spring spas, are expected to have led to a rapid increase in groundwater extraction. This study aims to establish the effect of this development to the DGSL in this part of the lake. As a first step, we utilized towed electrical resistivity (ER) profiling to identify and map the potential and type of groundwater seepage off the southern coast of the lake. SRTM digital elevation models and synthetic aperture radar images were used to delineate lineaments which are potential fractures that cut across the study area. ER profiles indicate widespread occurrence of GDL across the shallower parts of the lake. In the more offshore, deeper parts of the lake, DGSL appears to be more limited possibly due to more muddy sediments there. However, in this area, narrow, vertical high resistivity columns cut through the lake floor suggesting more discrete GDLs possibly controlled by faults.

  14. Complete genome sequence of the thermophilic Thermus sp. CCB_US3_UF1 from a hot spring in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Beng Soon; Lau, Nyok-Sean; Ng, Fui Ling; Abdul Rahman, Ahmad Yamin; Wan, Xuehua; Saito, Jennifer A; Hou, Shaobin; Teh, Aik-Hong; Najimudin, Nazalan; Alam, Maqsudul

    2015-01-01

    Thermus sp. strain CCB_US3_UF1 is a thermophilic bacterium of the genus Thermus, a member of the family Thermaceae. Members of the genus Thermus have been widely used as a biological model for structural biology studies and to understand the mechanism of microbial adaptation under thermal environments. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Thermus sp. CCB_US3_UF1 isolated from a hot spring in Malaysia, which is the fifth member of the genus Thermus with a completely sequenced and publicly available genome (Genbank date of release: December 2, 2011). Thermus sp. CCB_US3_UF1 has the third largest genome within the genus. The complete genome comprises of a chromosome of 2.26 Mb and a plasmid of 19.7 kb. The genome contains 2279 protein-coding and 54 RNA genes. In addition, its genome revealed potential pathways for the synthesis of secondary metabolites (isoprenoid) and pigments (carotenoid).

  15. A novel acidophilic, thermophilic iron and sulfur-oxidizing archaeon isolated from a hot spring of tengchong, yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiannan Ding

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel thermoacidophilic iron and sulfur-oxidizing archaeon, strain YN25, was isolated from an in situ enriched acid hot spring sample collected in Yunnan, China. Cells were irregular cocci, about 0.9-1.02 µm×1.0-1.31 µm in the medium containing elemental sulfur and 1.5-2.22 µm×1.8-2.54 µm in ferrous sulfate medium. The ranges of growth and pH were 50-85 (optimum 65 and pH 1.0-6.0 (optimum 1.5-2.5. The acidophile was able to grow heterotrophically on several organic substrates, including various monosaccharides, alcohols and amino acids, though the growth on single substrate required yeast extract as growth factor. Growth occurred under aerobic conditions or via anaerobic respiration using elemental sulfur as terminal electron acceptor. Results of morphology, physiology, fatty acid analysis and analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain YN25 should be grouped in the species Acidianus manzaensis. Bioleaching experiments indicated that this strain had excellent leaching capacity, with a copper yielding ratio up to 79.16% in 24 d. The type strain YN25 was deposited in China Center for Type Culture Collection (=CCTCCZNDX0050.

  16. Delignification of disposable wooden chopsticks waste for fermentative hydrogen production by an enriched culture from a hot spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phummala, Kanthima; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Reungsang, Alissara; Chairattanamanokorn, Prapaipid; Sekine, Masahiko; Higuchi, Takaya; Yamamoto, Koichi; Kanno, Ariyo

    2014-06-01

    Hydrogen (H2) production from lignocellulosic materials may be enhanced by removing lignin and increasing the porosity of the material prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. Alkaline pretreatment conditions, used to delignify disposable wooden chopsticks (DWC) waste, were investigated. The effects of NaOH concentration, temperature and retention time were examined and it was found that retention time had no effect on lignin removal or carbohydrate released in enzymatic hydrolysate. The highest percentage of lignin removal (41%) was obtained with 2% NaOH at 100°C, correlated with the highest carbohydrate released (67 mg/g pretreated DWC) in the hydrolysate. An enriched culture from a hot spring was used as inoculum for fermentative H2 production, and its optimum initial pH and temperature were determined to be 7.0 and 50°C, respectively. Furthermore, enzymatic hydrolysate from pretreated DWC was successfully demonstrated as a substrate for fermentative H2 production by the enriched culture. The maximum H2 yield and production rate were achieved at 195 mL H2/g total sugars consumed and 116 mL H2/(L·day), respectively. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hydrothermal alteration at the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area, Utah: Petrographic characterization of the alteration to 2 kilometers depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballantyne, J.M.; Parry, W.T.

    1978-04-01

    Hydrothermal alteration in drill cuttings from Thermal Power drillhole 14-2, Roosevelt Hot Springs Thermal area, has been studied petrographically. The hole is sited in alluvium approximately 1.6 km southeast of the old Resort and was rotary drilled to a depth of 1866.0 m. The exact hole location is 2310 FNL, 350 FWL, Sec. 2, Twp 27S, Rge 9W, elevation 1908.5 m. Core was extracted from 792.5 to 795.5 m. Thin sections were made from samples at 15.2 m intervals of drill cuttings collected at 1.5 or 3.0 m intervals during drilling. Thin sections were made of 1.5 or 3.0 m intervals from 274.3 to 304.8 m, 487.9 to 581.2 m, and 868.7 to 899.2 m. These intervals were chosen for close spaced sampling on the basis of increases in temperature, porosity, conductivity and acoustic velocity shown in geophysical logs. A total of 153 thin sections of cuttings were made, and an additional 9 sections were made from the core. Depths of thin section samples are listed in the appendix. A visual estimate of the percentage of each rock type was made for each thin section.

  18. The Rhynie hot-spring system: implications for the Devonian timescale, development of Devonian biota, gold mineralization, evolution of the atmosphere and Earth outgassing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, D.; Rice, C.; Stuart, F.; Trewin, N.

    2011-12-01

    The Rhynie cherts are hot spring sinters that contain world-renowned plant and animal remains and anomalously high quantities of heavy metals, including gold. The biota in several beds is preserved undeformed with plants in life positions thus establishing that they and the indurating hydrothermal fluids were coeval. Despite the international importance of the Rhynie cherts their age has been poorly constrained for three reasons: (1) lack of a precise radio-isotopic age, (2) low resolution of spore biostratigraphic schemes for Devonian terrestrial deposits, with only one to a few zones per stage, and (3) poor resolution of the early Devonian timescale. Wellman (2004) assigned a Pragian-?earliest Emsian age to the Rhynie cherts on the basis of the spore assemblage. An 40Ar/39Ar dating study targeting Rhynie chert yielded an age of 395 ± 12 Ma (1σ) (Rice et al., 1995). This contribution discusses a new high-precision 40Ar/39Ar age (407.1 ± 2.2 Ma, 2σ) for the Devonian hot-spring system at Rhynie (Mark et al., 2011) and demonstrates that a proposed U-Pb age (411.5 ± 1.1 Ma, 2σ) for the Rhynie cherts (Parry et al., 2011) is inconsistent with both field evidence and our interpretation of the U-Pb data. The 40Ar/39Ar age provides a robust marker for the polygonalis-emsiensis Spore Assemblage Biozone within the Pragian-?earliest Emsian. It also constrains the age of a wealth of flora and fauna preserved in life positions as well as dating gold mineralization. Furthermore, we have now determined the Ar isotope composition of pristine samples of the Rhynie chert using an ARGUS multi-collector mass spectrometer and a low blank laser extraction technique. 40Ar/36Ar are systematically lower than the modern air value (Lee et al., 2006), and are not accompanied by non-atmospheric 38Ar/36Ar ratios. We conclude that the Rhynie chert captured and has preserved Devonian atmosphere-derived Ar. The data indicate that the 40Ar/36Ar of Devonian atmosphere was at least 3 % lower

  19. The Origin of Carbon-bearing Volatiles in Surprise Valley Hot Springs in the Great Basin: Carbon Isotope and Water Chemistry Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.; Romanek, Christopher; Datta, Saugata; Darnell, Mike; Bissada, Adry K.

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous hydrothermal fields within the Great Basin of North America, some of which have been exploited for geothermal resources. With methane and other carbon-bearing compounds being observed, in some cases with high concentrations, however, their origins and formation conditions remain unknown. Thus, studying hydrothermal springs in this area provides us an opportunity to expand our knowledge of subsurface (bio)chemical processes that generate organic compounds in hydrothermal systems, and aid in future development and exploration of potential energy resources as well. While isotope measurement has long been used for recognition of their origins, there are several secondary processes that may generate variations in isotopic compositions: oxidation, re-equilibration of methane and other alkanes with CO2, mixing with compounds of other sources, etc. Therefore, in addition to isotopic analysis, other evidence, including water chemistry and rock compositions, are necessary to identify volatile compounds of different sources. Surprise Valley Hot Springs (SVHS, 41 deg 32'N, 120 deg 5'W), located in a typical basin and range province valley in northeastern California, is a terrestrial hydrothermal spring system of the Great Basin. Previous geophysical studies indicated the presence of clay-rich volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age beneath the lava flows in late Tertiary and Quaternary. Water and gas samples were collected for a variety of chemical and isotope composition analyses, including in-situ pH, alkalinity, conductivity, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), major and trace elements, and C and H isotope measurements. Fluids issuing from SVHS can be classified as Na-(Cl)-SO4 type, with the major cation and anion being Na+ and SO4(2-), respectively. Thermodynamic calculation using ORP and major element data indicated that sulfate is the most dominant sulfur species, which is consistent with anion analysis results. Aquifer temperatures at depth

  20. The Origin of Carbon-bearing Volatiles in Surprise Valley Hot Springs in the Great Basin: Carbon Isotope aud Water Chemistry Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.; Romanek, Christopher; Datta, Saugata; Darnell, Mike; Bissada, Adry K.

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous hydrothermal fields within the Great Basin of North America, some of which have been exploited for geothermal resources. With methane and other carbon-bearing compounds being observed, in some cases with high concentrations, however, their origins and formation conditions remain unknown. Thus, studying hydrothermal springs in this area provides us an opportunity to expand our knowledge of subsurface (bio)chemical processes that generate organic compounds in hydrothermal systems, and aid in future development and exploration of potential energy resources as well. While isotope measurement has long been used for recognition of their origins, there are several secondary processes that may generate variations in isotopic compositions: oxidation, re-equilibration of methane and other alkanes with CO2, mixing with compounds of other sources, etc. Therefore, in addition to isotopic analysis, other evidence, including water chemistry and rock compositions, are necessary to identify volatile compounds of different sources. Surprise Valley Hot Springs (SVHS, 41º32'N, 120º5'W), located in a typical basin and range province valley in northeastern California, is a terrestrial hydrothermal spring system of the Great Basin. Previous geophysical studies indicated the presence of clay-rich volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age beneath the lava flows in late Tertiary and Quaternary. Water and gas samples were collected for a variety of chemical and isotope composition analyses, including in-situ pH, alkalinity, conductivity, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), major and trace elements, and C and H isotope measurements. Fluids issuing from SVHS can be classified as Na-(Cl)-SO4 type, with the major cation and anion being Na+ and SO4 2-, respectively. Thermodynamic calculation using ORP and major element data indicated that sulfate is the most dominant sulfur species, which is consistent with anion analysis results. Aquifer temperatures at depth estimated

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Thermophilic Bacteria from Jordanian Hot Springs: Bacillus licheniformis and Thermomonas hydrothermalis Isolates as Potential Producers of Thermostable Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Daghistani, Hala I.; Jaouani, Atef; Abdel-Latif, Saleh; Kennes, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of thermophilic bacteria from hot springs in Jordan. Ten isolates were characterized by morphological, microscopic, biochemical, molecular, and physiological characteristics. Sequencing of the 16S rDNA of the isolates followed by BLAST search revealed that nine strains could be identified as Bacillus licheniformis and one isolate as Thermomonas hydrothermalis. This is the first report on the isolation of Thermomonas species from Jordanian hot springs. The isolates showed an ability to produce some thermostable enzymes such as amylase, protease, cellulose, gelatins, and lecithin. Moreover, the UPGMA dendrogram of the enzymatic characteristics of the ten isolates was constructed; results indicated a high phenotypic diversity, which encourages future studies to explore further industrial and environmental applications. PMID:29163641

  2. Digital data for Quick Response (QR codes of thermophiles to identify and compare the bacterial species isolated from Unkeshwar hot springs (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagwan N. Rekadwad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available 16S rRNA sequences of morphologically and biochemically identified 21 thermophilic bacteria isolated from Unkeshwar hot springs (19°85′N and 78°25′E, Dist. Nanded (India has been deposited in NCBI repository. The 16S rRNA gene sequences were used to generate QR codes for sequences (FASTA format and full Gene Bank information. Diversity among the isolates is compared with known isolates and evaluated using CGR, FCGR and PCA i.e. visual comparison and evaluation respectively. Considerable biodiversity was observed among the identified bacteria isolated from Unkeshwar hot springs. The hyperlinked QR codes, CGR, FCGR and PCA of all the isolates are made available to the users on a portal https://sites.google.com/site/bhagwanrekadwad/.

  3. Digital data for Quick Response (QR) codes of thermophiles to identify and compare the bacterial species isolated from Unkeshwar hot springs (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekadwad, Bhagwan N; Khobragade, Chandrahasya N

    2016-03-01

    16S rRNA sequences of morphologically and biochemically identified 21 thermophilic bacteria isolated from Unkeshwar hot springs (19°85'N and 78°25'E), Dist. Nanded (India) has been deposited in NCBI repository. The 16S rRNA gene sequences were used to generate QR codes for sequences (FASTA format and full Gene Bank information). Diversity among the isolates is compared with known isolates and evaluated using CGR, FCGR and PCA i.e. visual comparison and evaluation respectively. Considerable biodiversity was observed among the identified bacteria isolated from Unkeshwar hot springs. The hyperlinked QR codes, CGR, FCGR and PCA of all the isolates are made available to the users on a portal https://sites.google.com/site/bhagwanrekadwad/.

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Thermophilic Bacteria from Jordanian Hot Springs: Bacillus licheniformis and Thermomonas hydrothermalis Isolates as Potential Producers of Thermostable Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balsam T. Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of thermophilic bacteria from hot springs in Jordan. Ten isolates were characterized by morphological, microscopic, biochemical, molecular, and physiological characteristics. Sequencing of the 16S rDNA of the isolates followed by BLAST search revealed that nine strains could be identified as Bacillus licheniformis and one isolate as Thermomonas hydrothermalis. This is the first report on the isolation of Thermomonas species from Jordanian hot springs. The isolates showed an ability to produce some thermostable enzymes such as amylase, protease, cellulose, gelatins, and lecithin. Moreover, the UPGMA dendrogram of the enzymatic characteristics of the ten isolates was constructed; results indicated a high phenotypic diversity, which encourages future studies to explore further industrial and environmental applications.

  5. Draft genome sequence of Thermus sp. strain RL, isolated from a hot water spring located atop the Himalayan ranges at Manikaran, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Vatsala; Sangwan, Naseer; Nigam, Aeshna; Garg, Nidhi; Niharika, Neha; Khurana, Paramjit; Khurana, Jitendra P; Lal, Rup

    2012-07-01

    Thermus sp. strain RL was isolated from a hot water spring (90°C to 98°C) at Manikaran, Himachal Pradesh, India. Here we report the draft genome sequence (20,36,600 bp) of this strain. The draft genome sequence consists of 17 contigs and 1,986 protein-coding sequences and has an average G+C content of 68.77%.

  6. Dual stable isotopes of CH 4 from Yellowstone hot-springs suggest hydrothermal processes involving magmatic CO 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, James J.; Whitmore, Laura M.; Jay, Zackary J.; Jennings, Ryan deM.; Beam, Jacob P.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Inskeep, William P.

    2017-07-01

    Volcanism and post-magmatism contribute both significant annual CH4 fluxes to the atmosphere (on par with other natural sources such as forest fire and wild animal emissions) and have been implicated in past climate-change events. The Yellowstone hot spot is one of the largest volcanic systems on Earth and is known to emit methane in addition to other greenhouse gases (e.g. carbon dioxide) but the ultimate source of this methane flux has not been elucidated. Here we use dual stable isotope analysis (δ2H and δ13C) of CH4(g) sampled from ten high-temperature geothermal pools in Yellowstone National Park to show that the predominant flux of CH4(g) is abiotic. The average δ13C and δ2H values of CH4(g) emitted from hot springs (-26.7 (±2.4) and -236.9 (±12.0) ‰, respectively) are not consistent with biotic (microbial or thermogenic) methane sources, but are within previously reported ranges for abiotic methane production. Correlation between δ13CCH4 and δ13C-dissolved inorganic C (DIC) also suggests that CO2 is a parent C source for the observed CH4(g). Moreover, CH4-CO2 isotopic geothermometry was used to estimate CH4(g) formation temperatures ranging from ~ 250 - 350°C, which is just below the temperature estimated for the hydrothermal reservoir and consistent with the hypothesis that subsurface, rock-water interactions are responsible for large methane fluxes from this volcanic system. An understanding of conditions leading to the abiotic production of methane and associated isotopic signatures are central to understanding the evolutionary history of deep carbon sources on Earth.

  7. Microbial diversity and iron oxidation at Okuoku-hachikurou Onsen, a Japanese hot spring analog of Precambrian iron formations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, L M; Idei, A; Terajima, S; Kakegawa, T; Fischer, W W; McGlynn, S E

    2017-11-01

    Banded iron formations (BIFs) are rock deposits common in the Archean and Paleoproterozoic (and regionally Neoproterozoic) sedimentary successions. Multiple hypotheses for their deposition exist, principally invoking the precipitation of iron via the metabolic activities of oxygenic, photoferrotrophic, and/or aerobic iron-oxidizing bacteria. Some isolated environments support chemistry and mineralogy analogous to processes involved in BIF deposition, and their study can aid in untangling the factors that lead to iron precipitation. One such process analog system occurs at Okuoku-hachikurou (OHK) Onsen in Akita Prefecture, Japan. OHK is an iron- and CO2 -rich, circumneutral hot spring that produces a range of precipitated mineral textures containing fine laminae of aragonite and iron oxides that resemble BIF fabrics. Here, we have performed 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of microbial communities across the range of microenvironments in OHK to describe the microbial diversity present and to gain insight into the cycling of iron, oxygen, and carbon in this ecosystem. These analyses suggest that productivity at OHK is based on aerobic iron-oxidizing Gallionellaceae. In contrast to other BIF analog sites, Cyanobacteria, anoxygenic phototrophs, and iron-reducing micro-organisms are present at only low abundances. These observations support a hypothesis where low growth yields and the high stoichiometry of iron oxidized per carbon fixed by aerobic iron-oxidizing chemoautotrophs like Gallionellaceae result in accumulation of iron oxide phases without stoichiometric buildup of organic matter. This system supports little dissimilatory iron reduction, further setting OHK apart from other process analog sites where iron oxidation is primarily driven by phototrophic organisms. This positions OHK as a study area where the controls on primary productivity in iron-rich environments can be further elucidated. When compared with geological data, the metabolisms and mineralogy at

  8. Recombination does not hinder formation or detection of ecological species of Synechococcus inhabiting a hot spring cyanobacterial mat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Crystal Melendrez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of bacterial speciation have claimed to support the biological species concept—that reduced recombination is required for bacterial populations to diverge into species. This conclusion has been reached from the discovery that ecologically distinct clades show lower rates of recombination than that which occurs among closest relatives. However, these previous studies did not attempt to determine whether the more-rapidly recombining close relatives within the clades studied may also have diversified ecologically, without benefit of sexual isolation. Here we have measured the impact of recombination on ecological diversification within and between two ecologically distinct clades (A and B´ of Synechococcus in a hot spring microbial mat in Yellowstone National Park, using a cultivation-free, multi-locus approach. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries were constructed from mat samples collected at 60°C and 65°C. Analysis of multiple linked loci near Synechococcus 16S rRNA genes showed little evidence of recombination between the A and B´ lineages, but a record of recombination was apparent within each lineage. Recombination and mutation rates within each lineage were of similar magnitude, but recombination had a somewhat greater impact on sequence diversity than mutation, as also seen in many other bacteria and archaea. Despite recombination within the A and B´ lineages, there was evidence of ecological diversification within each lineage. The algorithm Ecotype Simulation identified sequence clusters consistent with ecologically distinct populations (ecotypes, and several hypothesized ecotypes were distinct in their habitat associations and in their adaptations to different microenvironments. We conclude that sexual isolation is more likely to follow ecological divergence than to precede it. Thus, an ecology-based model of speciation appears more appropriate than the biological species concept for bacterial and archaeal

  9. Metagenomics of an alkaline hot spring in Galicia (Spain: microbial diversity analysis and screening for novel lipolytic enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalla eLópez-López

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A fosmid library was constructed with the metagenomic DNA from the water of the Lobios hot spring (76°C, pH=8.2 located in Ourense (Spain. Metagenomic sequencing of the fosmid library allowed the assembly of 9,722 contigs ranging in size from 500 to 56,677 bp and spanning approximately 18 Mbp. 23,207 ORFs (Open Reading Frames were predicted from the assembly. Biodiversity was explored by taxonomic classification and it revealed that bacteria were predominant, while the archaea were less abundant. The 6 most abundant bacterial phyla were Deinococcus-Thermus, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Aquificae and Chloroflexi. Within the archaeal superkingdom, the phylum Thaumarchaeota was predominant with the dominant species Candidatus Caldiarchaeum subterraneum. Functional classification revealed the genes associated to one-carbon metabolism as the most abundant. Both taxonomic and functional classifications showed a mixture of different microbial metabolic patterns: aerobic and anaerobic, chemoorganotrophic and chemolithotrophic, autotrophic and heterotrophic. Remarkably, the presence of genes encoding enzymes with potential biotechnological interest, such as xylanases, galactosidases, proteases and lipases, was also revealed in the metagenomic library.Functional screening of this library was subsequently done looking for genes encoding lipolytic enzymes. Six genes conferring lipolytic activity were identified and one was cloned and characterized. This gene was named LOB4Est and it was expressed in a yeast mesophilic host. LOB4Est codes for a novel esterase of family VIII, with sequence similarity to β-lactamases, but with unusual wide substrate specificity. When the enzyme was purified from the mesophilic host it showed half-life of 1 h and 43 minutes at 50°C, and maximal activity at 40°C and pH 7.5 with p-nitrophenyl-laurate as substrate. Interestingly, the enzyme retained more than 80% of maximal activity in a broad range of pH from 6.5-8.

  10. Production and Consumption of Hydrogen in Hot Spring Microbial Mats Dominated by a Filamentous Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaki, Hiroyo; Everroad, R. Craig; Matsuura, Katsumi; Haruta, Shin

    2012-01-01

    Microbial mats containing the filamentous anoxygenic photosynthetic bacterium Chloroflexus aggregans develop at Nakabusa hot spring in Japan. Under anaerobic conditions in these mats, interspecies interaction between sulfate-reducing bacteria as sulfide producers and C. aggregans as a sulfide consumer has been proposed to constitute a sulfur cycle; however, the electron donor utilized for microbial sulfide production at Nakabusa remains to be identified. In order to determine this electron donor and its source, ex situ experimental incubation of mats was explored. In the presence of molybdate, which inhibits biological sulfate reduction, hydrogen gas was released from mat samples, indicating that this hydrogen is normally consumed as an electron donor by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Hydrogen production decreased under illumination, indicating that C. aggregans also functions as a hydrogen consumer. Small amounts of hydrogen may have also been consumed for sulfur reduction. Clone library analysis of 16S rRNA genes amplified from the mats indicated the existence of several species of hydrogen-producing fermentative bacteria. Among them, the most dominant fermenter, Fervidobacterium sp., was successfully isolated. This isolate produced hydrogen through the fermentation of organic carbon. Dispersion of microbial cells in the mats resulted in hydrogen production without the addition of molybdate, suggesting that simultaneous production and consumption of hydrogen in the mats requires dense packing of cells. We propose a cyclic electron flow within the microbial mats, i.e., electron flow occurs through three elements: S (elemental sulfur, sulfide, sulfate), C (carbon dioxide, organic carbon) and H (di-hydrogen, protons). PMID:22446313

  11. Identification and significance of Naegleria fowleri isolated from the hot spring which related to the first primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) patient in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Min-Che; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Tao, Chi-Wei; Lin, Wei-Chen; Tsai, Hsiu-Feng; Ji, Dar-Der; Shen, Shu-Min; Chen, Jung-Sheng; Shih, Feng-Cheng; Huang, Yu-Li

    2013-08-01

    Naegleria fowleri can cause primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, a rapidly developing and highly lethal infectious disease. The first confirmed case of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in Taiwan was reported in November 2011, in which the patient visited a thermal spring recreational area 1 week prior to hospitalisation. Water sampling was performed to verify the presence of Naegleria at the facility. According to our results, 32% and 20% of recreational water samples were contaminated with Naegleria spp. and Acanthamoeba spp., respectively. The genotypes of Naegleria identified at the hot spring included N. fowleri, Naegleria australiensis and Naegleria lovaniensis. Using PCR, it was determined that the strain of N. fowleri in one sample possessed the same genotype 2 as the clinical isolate. Thus, the thermal spring was suggested to be the likely source of infection. This is the first known instance of simultaneously isolating N. fowleri from both a patient as well as from a hot spring in Taiwan. Following this initial study, the pools at the thermal spring recreational area were drained, scrubbed and disinfected, and a follow-up study was performed 1 month later. Naegleria fowleri was not detected in follow-up testing; however, other Naegleria spp. were identified. We postulate that the biofilm in the waterlines may have provided a reservoir for free-living amoebae. The presence/absence of Acanthamoeba and Naegleria spp. did not differ significantly with any measured parameters related to water quality; however, a high percentage of the thermal water pool samples were contaminated with Naegleria or Acanthamoeba. Thus, amoebic contamination may present a serious threat to the health of humans who engage in leisure activities at thermal springs. Copyright © 2013 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Unpublished Interim Digital Geologic Map of Hot Springs National Park and Vicinity, Arkansas (NPS, GRD, GRI, HOSP, HOSP digital map) adapted from the interim Arkansas Geological Survey DGM-HSR-003 by Johnson and Hanson (2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Unpublished Interim Digital Geologic Map of Hot Springs National Park and Vicinity, Arkansas is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.3 layer (.LYR)...

  13. Vertical distribution of potentially toxic elements in sediments impacted by intertidal geothermal hot springs (Bahia Concepcion, Gulf of California)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Acosta, M. L.; Shumilin, E.

    2016-12-01

    The intertidal geothermal hot springs (GHS) in Bahia Concepcion, Gulf of California are the source of potentially toxic elements to the adjacent marine environment surrounded by mangroves trees. The anoxic sediments enriched in organic carbon accumulate As, Hg and other heavy metals that can be bioavailable for the biota. To know the vertical distribution of these elements the geochemistry of a short sediment core was carried out. It was collected in June, 2010 in the mangrove area near to GHS (1 m) during a low tide, pushing manually a polypropylene tube into the sediments. The extracted sediment core was cut with plastic knife on 1 cm thick sub-samples, stored in plastic bags and transported on ice to the laboratory. The major and trace elements contents were determinate by ICP-MS after total digestion with stronger acids (HClO4-HNO3-HCl-HF). Certificate reference materials were used for the quality control of the method obtaining good recoveries for most of the elements (80-105%). The sediment core had high maximum contents of CaCO3 (70%) and total organic carbon (12%). The concentration of Hg along the core ranges from 650 to 74300 mg kg-1 and had more than three orders of magnitude above the reference values of 40 mg kg-1 for the Upper Continental Crust (UCC)1. In contrast, As ranges from 12 to 258 mg kg-1 resulting in more than one order of magnitude respect to UCC1 (1.7 mg kg-1). Similar pattern result for Mn, Cu, Pb, and Zn with the maximum values of 3200 mg kg-1, 42 mg kg-1, 12.4 mg kg-1, 71 mg kg-1 respectively that coincide with the maximum for As at the same core depth (4 cm). The Ca, Li, Co, Sb, U, and Mg also show high contents in comparison with the UCC1reference values. The maximum contents of Mo and Cd coincide with maximum concentration of sulfur (2%) at 6 to 8 cm. The enrichment factor calculated using Al as normalizing element showed Cd (7-280), As (26-329) and Hg (23-1196) as highly enriched mainly in the first centimeters of the sediment core

  14. Correlation of gold in siliceous sinters with {3He}/{4He} in hot spring waters of Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Robert O.; Kennedy, B. Mack; Aoki, Masahiro; Thompson, J. Michael

    1994-12-01

    Opaline sinter samples collected at Yellowstone National Park (YNP) were analyzed for gold by neutron activation and for other trace elements by the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) method. No correlation was found between Au and As, Sb, or total Fe in the sinters, although the sample containing the highest Au also contains the highest Sb. There also was no correlation of Au in the sinter with the H2S concentration in the discharged hot spring water or with the estimated temperature of last equilibration of the water with the surrounding rock. The Au in rhyolitic tuffs and lavas at YNP found within the Yellowstone caldera show the same range in Au as do those outside the caldera, while thermal waters from within this caldera all have been found to contain relatively low dissolved Au and to deposit sinters that contain relatively little Au. Therefore, it is not likely that variations in Au concentrations among these sinters simply reflect differences in leachable Au in the rocks through which the hydrothermal fluids have passed. Rather, variations in [H2S], the concentration of total dissolved sulfide, that result from different physical and chemical processes that occur in different parts of the hydrothermal system appear to exert the main control on the abundance of Au in these sinters. Hydrothermal fluids at YNP convect upward through a series of successively shallower and cooler reservoirs where water-rock chemical and isotopic reactions occur in response to changing temperature and pressure. In some parts of the system the fluids undergo decompressional boiling, and in other parts they cool conductively without boiling. Mixing of ascending water from deep in the system with shallow groundwaters is common. All three processes generally result in a decrease in [H2S] and destabilize dissolved gold bisulfide complexes in reservoir waters in the YNP system. Thus, different reservoirs in rocks of similar composition and at similar

  15. Correlation of gold in siliceous sinters with 3He 4He in hot spring waters of Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, R.O.; Kennedy, B.M.; Aoki, M.; Thompson, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Opaline sinter samples collected at Yellowstone National Park (YNP) were analyzed for gold by neutron activation and for other trace elements by the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) method. No correlation was found between Au and As, Sb, or total Fe in the sinters, although the sample containing the highest Au also contains the highest Sb. There also was no correlation of Au in the sinter with the H2S concentration in the discharged hot spring water or with the estimated temperature of last equilibration of the water with the surrounding rock. The Au in rhyolitic tuffs and lavas at YNP found within the Yellowstone caldera show the same range in Au as do those outside the caldera, while thermal waters from within this caldera all have been found to contain relatively low dissolved Au and to deposit sinters that contain relatively little Au. Therefore, it is not likely that variations in Au concentrations among these sinters simply reflect differences in leachable Au in the rocks through which the hydrothermal fluids have passed. Rather, variations in [H2S], the concentration of total dissolved sulfide, that result from different physical and chemical processes that occur in different parts of the hydrothermal system appear to exert the main control on the abundance of Au in these sinters. Hydrothermal fluids at YNP convect upward through a series of successively shallower and cooler reservoirs where water-rock chemical and isotopic reactions occur in response to changing temperature and pressure. In some parts of the system the fluids undergo decompressional boiling, and in other parts they cool conductively without boiling. Mixing of ascending water from deep in the system with shallow groundwaters is common. All three processes generally result in a decrease in [H2S] and destabilize dissolved gold bisulfide complexes in reservoir waters in the YNP system. Thus, different reservoirs in rocks of similar composition and at similar

  16. Feasibility study for a 10-MM-GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume 1. Process and plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    An investigation was performed to determine the technical and economic viability of constructing and operating a geothermally heated, biomass, motor fuel alcohol plant at Brady's Hot Springs. The results of the study are positive, showing that a plant of innovative, yet proven design can be built to adapt current commerical fermentation-distillation technology to the application of geothermal heat energy. The specific method of heat production from the Brady's Hot Spring wells has been successful for some time at an onion drying plant. Further development of the geothermal resource to add the capacity needed for an ethanol plant is found to be feasible for a plant sized to produce 10 million gallons of motor fuel grade ethanol per year. A very adequate supply of feedgrains is found to be available for use in the plant without impact on the local or regional feedgrain market. The effect of diverting supplies from the animal feedlots in Northern Nevada and California will be mitigated by the by-product output of high-protein feed supplements that the plant will produce. The plant will have a favorable impact on the local farming economies of Fallon, Lovelock, Winnemucca and Elko, Nevada. It will make a positive and significant socioeconomic contribution to Churchill County, providing direct employment for an additional 61 persons. Environmental impact will be negligible, involving mostly a moderate increase in local truck traffic and railroad siding activity. The report is presented in two volumes. Volume 1 deals with the technical design aspects of the plant. The second volume addresses the issue of expanded geothermal heat production at Brady's Hot Springs, goes into the details of feedstock supply economics, and looks at the markets for the plant's primary ethanol product, and the markets for its feed supplement by-products. The report concludes with an analysis of the economic viability of the proposed project.

  17. Regulation of nif gene expression and the energetics of N2 fixation over the diel cycle in a hot spring microbial mat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steunou, Anne-Soisig; Jensen, Sheila I; Brecht, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation, a prokaryotic, O(2)-inhibited process that reduces N(2) gas to biomass, is of paramount importance in biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen. We analyzed the levels of nif transcripts of Synechococcus ecotypes, NifH subunit and nitrogenase activity over the diel cycle...... in the microbial mat of an alkaline hot spring in Yellowstone National Park. The results showed a rise in nif transcripts in the evening, with a subsequent decline over the course of the night. In contrast, immunological data demonstrated that the level of the NifH polypeptide remained stable during the night...

  18. Direct use applications of geothermal resources at Desert Hot Springs, California. Final report, May 23, 1977--July 31, 1978. Volume II: appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, C.C.

    1978-07-01

    The following appendixes are included: Desert Hot Springs (DHS) Geothermal Project Advisory Board, Geothermal Citizens Advisory Committee, community needs assessment, geothermal resource characterization, a detailed discussion of the geothermal applications considered for DHS, space/water heating, agricultural operations, detailed analysis of a geothermal aquaculture facility, detailed discussion of proposed energy cascading systems for DHS, regulatory requirements, environmental impact assessment, resource management plan, and geothermal resources property rights and powers of cities to regulate indigenous geothermal resources and to finance construction of facilities for utilization of such resources. (MHR)

  19. Regulation of nif gene expression and the energetics of N2 fixation over the diel cycle in a hot spring microbial mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steunou, Anne-Soisig; Jensen, Sheila I; Brecht, Eric; Becraft, Eric D; Bateson, Mary M; Kilian, Oliver; Bhaya, Devaki; Ward, David M; Peters, John W; Grossman, Arthur R; Kühl, Michael

    2008-04-01

    Nitrogen fixation, a prokaryotic, O2-inhibited process that reduces N2 gas to biomass, is of paramount importance in biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen. We analyzed the levels of nif transcripts of Synechococcus ecotypes, NifH subunit and nitrogenase activity over the diel cycle in the microbial mat of an alkaline hot spring in Yellowstone National Park. The results showed a rise in nif transcripts in the evening, with a subsequent decline over the course of the night. In contrast, immunological data demonstrated that the level of the NifH polypeptide remained stable during the night, and only declined when the mat became oxic in the morning. Nitrogenase activity was low throughout the night; however, it exhibited two peaks, a small one in the evening and a large one in the early morning, when light began to stimulate cyanobacterial photosynthetic activity, but O2 consumption by respiration still exceeded the rate of O2 evolution. Once the irradiance increased to the point at which the mat became oxic, the nitrogenase activity was strongly inhibited. Transcripts for proteins associated with energy-producing metabolisms in the cell also followed diel patterns, with fermentation-related transcripts accumulating at night, photosynthesis- and respiration-related transcripts accumulating during the day and late afternoon, respectively. These results are discussed with respect to the energetics and regulation of N2 fixation in hot spring mats and factors that can markedly influence the extent of N2 fixation over the diel cycle.

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus strain Y4.12MC10, a Novel Paenibacillus lautus strain Isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring in Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, David A; Lucas, Susan; Copeland, Alex; Lapidus, Alla; Cheng, Jan-Feng; Bruce, David C; Goodwin, Lynne A; Pitluck, Sam; Chertkov, Olga; Zhang, Xiaojing; Detter, John C; Han, Cliff S; Tapia, Roxanne; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren J; Chang, Yun-Juan; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Ivanova, Natalia N; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Woyke, Tanja; Brumm, Catherine; Hochstein, Rebecca; Schoenfeld, Thomas; Brumm, Phillip

    2012-07-30

    Paenibacillus sp.Y412MC10 was one of a number of organisms isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA under permit from the National Park Service. The isolate was initially classified as a Geobacillus sp. Y412MC10 based on its isolation conditions and similarity to other organisms isolated from hot springs at Yellowstone National Park. Comparison of 16 S rRNA sequences within the Bacillales indicated that Geobacillus sp.Y412MC10 clustered with Paenibacillus species, and the organism was most closely related to Paenibacillus lautus. Lucigen Corp. prepared genomic DNA and the genome was sequenced, assembled, and annotated by the DOE Joint Genome Institute. The genome sequence was deposited at the NCBI in October 2009 (NC_013406). The genome of Paenibacillus sp. Y412MC10 consists of one circular chromosome of 7,121,665 bp with an average G+C content of 51.2%. Comparison to other Paenibacillus species shows the organism lacks nitrogen fixation, antibiotic production and social interaction genes reported in other paenibacilli. The Y412MC10 genome shows a high level of synteny and homology to the draft sequence of Paenibacillus sp. HGF5, an organism from the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) Reference Genomes. This, combined with genomic CAZyme analysis, suggests an intestinal, rather than environmental origin for Y412MC10.

  1. How important is hydrotherapy? Effects of dynamic action of hot spring water as a rehabilitative treatment for burn patients in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moufarrij, S; Deghayli, L; Raffoul, W; Hirt-Burri, N; Michetti, M; de Buys Roessingh, A; Norberg, M; Applegate, L A

    2014-12-31

    Burn rehabilitation using hydrotherapy can have multiple benefits for the burn patient. The therapy uses specific mineral enriched hot spring water and water jets with varied hydro-pressure to combat hypertrophy, inflammatory reaction signs, abnormal pigmentation, and, more specifically, redness and scarring. Standard operating procedures for burn rehabilitation have been developed and integrated into the Standard of Care at the CHUV hospital using localized hydro-mechanical stimulation of burn sites (20 minutes of alternating anatomical sites) followed by constant pressure large-bore and filiform showers targeting specific scarred areas. These therapeutic regimens are repeated daily for 2 to 3 weeks. Patients showed lasting effects from this regimen (up to 3-6 months), the results becoming permanent with more uniform skin structure, color and visco-elasticity in addition to a decrease in pruritus. The specifications of clinical protocols are described herein along with the virtues of hot spring hydro-pressure therapy for burn rehabilitation. The use of hydrotherapy, which has been a controversial topic among burn units across the world, is also discussed. In North America, hydrotherapy is defined only within the scope of in-patient wound cleansing and is thought to lead to microbial auto-contamination and bacterial resistance. In Switzerland and France the emphasis of hydrotherapy is on rehabilitation after the wound has closed.

  2. Combined application of vertical electrical sounding and 2D electrical resistivity imaging for geothermal groundwater characterization: Hammam Sayala hot spring case study (NW Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabaane, Achref; Redhaounia, Belgacem; Gabtni, Hakim

    2017-10-01

    The following work is an attempt to enhance and optimize the potential exploitation of the Hammam Sayala thermal spring (NW Tunisia). This hot spring is located at 10 km of South-western Béja city, with higher temperature values around 42 °C and a low discharge value of about 1 l s-1. The geological and structural settings of the study area are complex and associated with faults and Triassic intruded salt and evaporate. An integrated geophysical approach using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Induced Polarization (IP) and Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) techniques can provide a high-resolution subsurface image of the principal geothermal plume and associated pathways. These data were used to determine and understand the mechanisms responsible of the rise of hot water flowing out onto the surface. Our results add new information of the hydrothermal system's context in Hammam Sayala area, which can help to create a therapeutic center opening new perspectives in the Béja region and to encourage regional thermal tourism development.

  3. Draft Supplement to the Environmental Statement Fiscal Year 1977 Proposed Program : Facility Location Evaluation for Hot Springs-Bell 500-KV Line Study Area 76-6.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1975-09-16

    Proposed construction of between 146 and 165 miles of 500-kV transmission line between Hot Springs, Montana, and Bell Substation, immediately north of Spokane, Washington. Depending upon the final route location chosen, between approximately 146 and 165 miles of 500-kV transmission line between Hot Spring Substation and Bell Substation over parallel and new right-of-way would be required. Between 15 and 70 miles of new access road would also be required. Land use affected would include clearing from 2153 to 2503 acres of timber. Depending upon the route location chosen, between 3 and 4 acres of farmland would be removed from production and between 110 and 165 acres temporarily disrupted. Other impacts would include the removal of wildlife habitat associated with the above mentioned right-of-way requirements. Distrubance would occur. Visual impacts would result from clearing right-of-way through heavily forested areas. Noise and other disturbances to residents will occur, primarily during construction. 15 figs. 2 tabs.

  4. A comprehensive census of microbial diversity in hot springs of Tengchong, Yunnan Province China using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Hou

    Full Text Available The Rehai and Ruidian geothermal fields, located in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China, host a variety of geochemically distinct hot springs. In this study, we report a comprehensive, cultivation-independent census of microbial communities in 37 samples collected from these geothermal fields, encompassing sites ranging in temperature from 55.1 to 93.6°C, in pH from 2.5 to 9.4, and in mineralogy from silicates in Rehai to carbonates in Ruidian. Richness was low in all samples, with 21-123 species-level OTUs detected. The bacterial phylum Aquificae or archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota were dominant in Rehai samples, yet the dominant taxa within those phyla depended on temperature, pH, and geochemistry. Rehai springs with low pH (2.5-2.6, high temperature (85.1-89.1°C, and high sulfur contents favored the crenarchaeal order Sulfolobales, whereas those with low pH (2.6-4.8 and cooler temperature (55.1-64.5°C favored the Aquificae genus Hydrogenobaculum. Rehai springs with neutral-alkaline pH (7.2-9.4 and high temperature (>80°C with high concentrations of silica and salt ions (Na, K, and Cl favored the Aquificae genus Hydrogenobacter and crenarchaeal orders Desulfurococcales and Thermoproteales. Desulfurococcales and Thermoproteales became predominant in springs with pH much higher than the optimum and even the maximum pH known for these orders. Ruidian water samples harbored a single Aquificae genus Hydrogenobacter, whereas microbial communities in Ruidian sediment samples were more diverse at the phylum level and distinctly different from those in Rehai and Ruidian water samples, with a higher abundance of uncultivated lineages, close relatives of the ammonia-oxidizing archaeon "Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii", and candidate division O1aA90 and OP1. These differences between Ruidian sediments and Rehai samples were likely caused by temperature, pH, and sediment mineralogy. The results of this study significantly expand the current

  5. From the Lab Bench: It’s Spring time and the fescue is productive and hot with alkaloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    An article was written that discussed options in alleviating or mitigating fescue toxicosis in the spring and summer. Seedheads of tall fescue are highly concentrated with toxic ergot alkaloids and the cattle selectively graze immature seedheads of tall fescue. Removal of the seedheads is an appro...

  6. Influence of pH on bioactivity of cinnamon oil against Legionella pneumophila and its disinfection efficacy in hot springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Wen; Chang, Wei-Lung; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2008-12-01

    Cinnamon oil extracted from leaves of Cinnamomum osmophloeum has recently been proved as a promising antibacterial agent against Legionella pneumophila, an etiological agent of human pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease. However, the pH effects on the efficacy of cinnamon oil against L. pneumophila and its applicability to recreational spring water remain unknown. We therefore determined the bactericidal activity of cinnamon oil at pH 3-10 in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and in four kinds of springs with various conductivity (259-5595 micros cm(-1)) and pH (2.1-7.7) levels. Results show L. pneumophila cells were more susceptible to cinnamon oil at pH 8-10 than at pH 4-6 in PBS, which became more evident as increasing contact time from 10 to 60 min. An increase in concentration of cinnamon oil and contact time significantly increased the anti-L. pneumophila activity (Pcinnamon oil at 300-750 microg ml(-1), with the highest inactivation in alkaline hydrogen carbonate spring. The great bioactivity of cinnamon oil demonstrates its potential to be used to control Legionella growth in recreational spring water and possibly other niches generally at basic pH, e.g., cooling towers.

  7. Evidence for high-temperature in situ nifH transcription in an alkaline hot spring of Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiacono, Sara T; Meyer-Dombard, D'Arcy R; Havig, Jeff R; Poret-Peterson, Amisha T; Hartnett, Hilairy E; Shock, Everett L

    2012-05-01

    Genes encoding nitrogenase (nifH) were amplified from sediment and photosynthetic mat samples collected in the outflow channel of Mound Spring, an alkaline thermal feature in Yellowstone National Park. Results indicate the genetic capacity for nitrogen fixation over the entire range of temperatures sampled (57.2°C to 80.2°C). Amplification of environmental nifH transcripts revealed in situ expression of nifH genes at temperatures up to 72.7°C. However, we were unable to amplify transcripts of nifH at the higher-temperature locations (> 72.7°C). These results indicate that microbes at the highest temperature sites contain the genetic capacity to fix nitrogen, yet either do not express nifH or do so only transiently. Field measurements of nitrate and ammonium show fixed nitrogen limitation as temperature decreases along the outflow channel, suggesting nifH expression in response to the downstream decrease in bioavailable nitrogen. Nitrogen stable isotope values of Mound Spring sediment communities further support geochemical and genetic data. DNA and cDNA nifH amplicons form several unique phylogenetic clades, some of which appear to represent novel nifH sequences in both photosynthetic and chemosynthetic microbial communities. This is the first report of in situ nifH expression in strictly chemosynthetic zones of terrestrial (non-marine) hydrothermal systems, and sets a new upper temperature limit (72.7°C) for nitrogen fixation in alkaline, terrestrial hydrothermal environments. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Flowing Hot or Cold: User-Friendly Computational Models of Terrestrial and Planetary Lava Channels and Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakimoto, S. E. H.

    2016-12-01

    Planetary volcanism has redefined what is considered volcanism. "Magma" now may be considered to be anything from the molten rock familiar at terrestrial volcanoes to cryovolcanic ammonia-water mixes erupted on an outer solar system moon. However, even with unfamiliar compositions and source mechanisms, we find familiar landforms such as volcanic channels, lakes, flows, and domes and thus a multitude of possibilities for modeling. As on Earth, these landforms lend themselves to analysis for estimating storage, eruption and/or flow rates. This has potential pitfalls, as extension of the simplified analytic models we often use for terrestrial features into unfamiliar parameter space might yield misleading results. Our most commonly used tools for estimating flow and cooling have tended to lag significantly behind state-of-the-art; the easiest methods to use are neither realistic or accurate, but the more realistic and accurate computational methods are not simple to use. Since the latter computational tools tend to be both expensive and require a significant learning curve, there is a need for a user-friendly approach that still takes advantage of their accuracy. One method is use of the computational package for generation of a server-based tool that allows less computationally inclined users to get accurate results over their range of input parameters for a given problem geometry. A second method is to use the computational package for the generation of a polynomial empirical solution for each class of flow geometry that can be fairly easily solved by anyone with a spreadsheet. In this study, we demonstrate both approaches for several channel flow and lava lake geometries with terrestrial and extraterrestrial examples and compare their results. Specifically, we model cooling rectangular channel flow with a yield strength material, with applications to Mauna Loa, Kilauea, Venus, and Mars. This approach also shows promise with model applications to lava lakes, magma

  9. Optimization of fermentation conditions for cellulases production by Bacillus licheniformis MVS1 and Bacillus sp. MVS3 isolated from Indian hot spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somen Acharya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of some nutritional and environmental factors on the production of cellulases, in particular endoglucanase (CMCase and exoglucanases (FPase from Bacillus licheniformis MVS1 and Bacillus sp. MVS3 isolated from an Indian hot spring. The characterization study indicated that the optimum pH and temperature value was 6.5 to 7.0 and 50-55°C, respectively. Maximum cellulases production by both the isolates was detected after 60 h incubation period using wheat and rice straw. The combination of inorganic and organic nitrogen source was suitable for cellulases production. Overall, FPase production was much higher than CMCase production by both of the strains. Between the two thermophiles, the cellulolytic activity was more in B.licheniformis MVS1 than Bacillus sp. MVS3 in varying environmental and nutritional conditions.

  10. Geology of the Desert Hot Springs-Upper Coachella Valley Area, California (with a selected bibliography of the Coachella Valley, Salton Sea, and vicinity)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proctor, Richard J.

    1968-01-01

    The Desert Hot Springs area is in the upper Coachella Valley at the junction of three natural geomorphic provinces of California--the Transverse Ranges, the Peninsular Ranges, and the Colorado Desert. The mapped area is about 100 miles east of Los Angeles and lies principally in north central Riverside County. The oldest rocks in the area are Precambrian(?) amphibolitic and migmatized paragneisses of the San Gorgonio igneous-metamorphic (Chuckwalla) complex. They are intruded by Cretaceous diorite porphyry, Cactus Granite, quartz monzonite, intrusive breccia, and basic plutonic rocks. Of probable late Paleozoic age are the metamorphic rocks of the San Jacinto Mountains which form spurs projecting into San Gorgonio Pass and Coachella Valley.

  11. Biomarkers and taphonomic processes in fresh and fossil biosignatures from Hot Spring silica deposits in El Tatio Chile, as a Mars Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo, D.; Sánchez-García, L.; Parro, V.; Cady, S. L.; Cabrol, N. A.

    2017-09-01

    Biomarkers characterization and taphonomic process of recent and fossil biosignatures in extreme environments with analogies to Mars is essential to understanding how life could develop and survive in this conditions. Siliceous sinter deposits on Mars where similar to those found in the hydrothermal hot springs and geysers from El Tatio, Chile. Organic preservation have been shown in this study. Many different labile functional groups (i.e., carboxylic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, etc.) were found in both "age" samples. A shift in congener pattern for the different lipids families were found and discuss. This results give insight in taphonomic processes actin in this extreme environment, which could be used as a baseline in Mars exploration.

  12. Bar-coded pyrosequencing reveals shared bacterial community properties along the temperature gradients of two alkaline hot springs in Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Scott R; Strong, Aaron L; Jones, Kenneth L; Ungerer, Mark C

    2009-07-01

    An understanding of how communities are organized is a fundamental goal of ecology but one which has historically been elusive for microbial systems. We used a bar-coded pyrosequencing approach targeting the V3 region of the bacterial small-subunit rRNA gene to address the factors that structure communities along the thermal gradients of two alkaline hot springs in the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park. The filtered data set included a total of nearly 34,000 sequences from 39 environmental samples. Each was assigned to one of 391 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified by their unique V3 sequence signatures. Although the two hot springs differed in their OTU compositions, community resemblance and diversity changed with strikingly similar dynamics along the two outflow channels. Two lines of evidence suggest that these community properties are controlled primarily by environmental temperature. First, community resemblance decayed exponentially with increasing differences in temperature between samples but was only weakly correlated with physical distance. Second, diversity decreased with increasing temperature at the same rate along both gradients but was uncorrelated with other measured environmental variables. This study also provides novel insights into the nature of the ecological interactions among important taxa in these communities. A strong negative association was observed between cyanobacteria and the Chloroflexi, which together accounted for approximately 70% of the sequences sampled. This pattern contradicts the longstanding hypothesis that coadapted lineages of these bacteria maintain tightly cooccurring distributions along these gradients as a result of a producer-consumer relationship. We propose that they instead compete for some limiting resource(s).

  13. Uncultivated cyanobacteria, Chloroflexus-like inhabitants, and spirochete-like inhabitants of a hot spring microbial mat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.; Bateson, M.M.; Heimbuch, B.K.; Kopczynski, E.D.; Ward, D.M. (Montana State Univ., Bozeman (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Several species in the thermal Octopus Spring cyanobacterial mat have been identified as probable community members by classical culture-dependent approach. A more recent approach, using 16S rRNA sequences as biomarkers, has indicated that the community harbors many more bacterial species than previously identified. This study analyses several long 16S rcDNA fragments, retrieved by preparing a cDNA library by selective priming of RNA obtained from purified small ribosomal subunits and selecting long rcDNA products. In addition 16S rRNA sequence of Chloroflexus aurantiacus, a green nonsulfur bacterium, and a partial 16S rRNA sequence for Heliothrix oregonensis, a novel filamentous photosynthetic bacterium, were analysed.

  14. Initial Characterization of Carbon Metabolism in Iron Oxidizing Microbial Communities of Acidic Hot Springs in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, H. W.; Jennings, R. D.; Whitmore, L.; Inskeep, W. P.; Moran, J.

    2012-12-01

    Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park is home to several acidic, sulfidic hot springs. Visual inspection of the springs reveals distinct geochemical regions starting with a sulfur deposition zone followed by a transition to iron oxide deposition downstream. The microbial communities in the iron oxidation zones are dominated by Archaea, including several members that appear to define previously unrecognized taxa. Abiotic iron oxidation rates are very slow at these temperatures (typically ~ 65-70 oC) and pH's (typically ~3). Therefore, the relatively rapid iron oxide deposition rate strongly suggests the process is microbially mediated, and an organism previously isolated from these springs, Metallosphaera yellowstonensis, has been shown to oxide iron in culture. M. yellowstonensis has been observed in the all microbial communities analyzed in the iron oxidizing zones of these springs, though metagenomic profiling suggests it constitutes only ~20% of the community membership. When we began our studies of C flow in the iron-oxidizing community, no C source had been demonstrated. Observed potential carbon sources in the springs include dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and methane, as well as random inputs of heterotrophic carbon in the forms of insect carcasses, pine needles, and animal scat. The temperatures in the iron oxidation zones are above the photosynthetic upper temperature limit, thus precluding photosynthetic-based autotrophy within the community itself. We are employing geochemical and stable isotope techniques to assess carbon inventories in the system. We have demonstrated that M. yellowstonensis as well as excised samples of iron oxide mat communities can fix CO2, and our estimated isotopic fractionation factor is consistent with the 3-hydroxypropionate 4-hydroxybutyrate pathway. Genes of this pathway have been identified in the M. yellowstonensis genome. We have tentatively identified small amounts of organic compounds

  15. Saberes e práticas termais: uma perspectiva comparada em Portugal (Termas de S. Pedro do Sul e no Brasil (Caldas da Imperatriz Thermal knowledge and therapies: a comparative view of Portugal (São Pedro do Sul hot springs and Brazil (Caldas da Imperatriz hot springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Manuel Quintela

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretende-se neste artigo discutir como o termalismo, como prática terapêutica, se constituiu como um saber dito 'científico' legitimado pela medicina, que criou estabelecimentos terapêuticos e estâncias termais. Tomaremos como fontes textos dos séculos XIX e XX. A pesquisa foi iniciada em Portugal, em 1996, sendo efetuada uma etnografia das experiências termais nas Termas de S. Pedro do Sul. No Brasil, a pesquisa nas Caldas da Imperatriz foi iniciada em agosto de 2001 e encontra-se ainda em curso.Based on nineteenth- and twentieth-century texts, the article discusses how medicine legitimized the therapeutic practice of thermalism as so-called 'scientific' knowledge, with the creation of therapeutic establishments and hot-springs resorts. My research began in Portugal in 1996, where I produced an ethnography of experiences at the São Pedro do Sul hot springs. My research at Brazil's Caldas da Imperatriz, initiated in August 2001, is still underway.

  16. Diel metabolomics analysis of a hot spring chlorophototrophic microbial mat leads to new hypotheses of community member metabolisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Mo eKim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic environmental factors such as light, nutrients, salt, and temperature continuously affect chlorophototrophic microbial mats, requiring adaptive and acclimative responses to stabilize composition and function. Quantitative metabolomics analysis can provide insights into metabolite dynamics for understanding community response to such changing environmental conditions. In this study, we quantified volatile organic acids, polar metabolites (amino acids, glycolytic and citric acid cycle intermediates, nucleobases, nucleosides, and sugars, wax esters, and polyhydroxyalkanoates, resulting in the identification of 104 metabolites and related molecules in thermal chlorophototrophic microbial mat cores collected over a diel cycle in Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park. A limited number of predominant taxa inhabit this community and their functional potentials have been previously identified through metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses and in situ metabolisms, and metabolic interactions among these taxa have been hypothesized. Our metabolomics results confirmed the diel cycling of photorespiration (e.g. glycolate and fermentation (e.g. acetate, propionate, and lactate products, the carbon storage polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates, and dissolved gases (e.g. H2 and CO2 in the waters overlying the mat, which were hypothesized to occur in major mat chlorophototrophic community members. In addition, we have formulated the following new hypotheses: 1 the morning hours are a time of biosynthesis of amino acids, DNA, and RNA; 2 photo-inhibited cells may also produce lactate via fermentation as an alternate metabolism; 3 glycolate and lactate are exchanged among Synechococcus and Roseiflexus spp.; and 4 fluctuations in many metabolite pools (e.g. wax esters at different times of day result from species found at different depths within the mat responding to temporal differences in their niches

  17. Hot Spring for Cure of Diseases”: On the Practice of Hydropathy in the Golden Horde.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abzalov L.F.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Based on the achievements of hydrotherapy and balneology, the author of this article examines the practice of hydrotherapy in the Golden Horde. Research materials and results: The materials presented below largely complement our understanding of the Golden Horde’s society and shed light on such a poorly studied historical aspect of it as the history of medicine – this determines the novelty of the study. An analysis of the brief reports of the Arab authors al-‘Umari and Ibn Battuta allows us to conclude that hydrotherapy was practiced in the Golden Horde along with the active use of mineral waters for their curative properties. Hydrotherapeutic procedures were carried out in accordance with certain norms, which could be empirical or theoretical – that is, based on the works of famous doctors. Archaeological research points to the widespread use of baths that could be used for the treatment of diseases. Thus, water procedures for the treatment of various diseases were not only known in the Golden Horde, but also actively practiced there. It is possible that they were more common than was earlier considered to be the case. At the same time, it should be pointed out that healing and mineral water springs could be found in virtually every region of the Golden Horde, and each constituent people had their own concepts regarding the “element” of water, health, and what constituted a healthy lifestyle. This determined the specific methods of hydrotherapy, based on the features of a particular ethno-cultural community’s worldview.

  18. Therapeutic properties in Tunisian hot springs: first evidence of phenolic compounds in the cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya sp. biomass, capsular polysaccharides and releasing polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Lamia; Mnari, Amira; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Abid-Essafi, Salwa; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-12-13

    In Tunisia, the use of hot spring waters for both health and recreation is a tradition dating back to Roman times. In fact, thermal baths, usually called "Hammam" are recommended as a therapeutic and prophylactic measure against many types of illness and toxicity. While the chemical concentration of thermal water is admittedly associated with its therapeutic effects, the inclusion in spa waters of efficient bioproduct additives produced by photosynthetic microorganisms and that act against oxidative stress may comprise a significant supplementary value for thermal centers. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant potential of the Tunisian thermophilic cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya sp. and to determine its phytochemical constituents and phenolic profile. BME (Biomass Methanolic Extract), CME (Capsular polysaccharides Methanolic Extract) and RME (Releasing polysaccharides Methanolic Extract) of Leptolyngbya sp. were examined for their antioxidant activities by means of DPPH, hydroxyl radical scavenging and ferrous ion chelating assays. Their total phenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) and vitamin C contents, as well as their phenolic profiles were also determined. BME has the highest content of phenols (139 ± 1.2 mg/g), flavonoids (34.9 ± 0.32 mg CEQ/g), carotenoids (2.03 ± 0.56 mg/g) and vitamin C (15.7 ± 1.55 mg/g), while the highest MAAs content (0.42 ± 0.03 mg/g) was observed in CME. BME presented both the highest DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability with an IC50 of 0.07 and 0.38 mg/ml, respectively. The highest ferrous chelating capacity was detected in CME with an IC50 = 0.59 mg/ml. Phenolic profiles revealed the presence of 25 phenolic compounds with the existence of hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, resveratrol and pinoresinol. The study demonstrated that the cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya sp. possesses abundant natural antioxidant products which may have prophylactic and

  19. Direct Use Applications of Geothermal Resources at Desert Hot Springs, California. Final Report, May 23, 1977--July 31, 1978. Volume I. Summary of Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-07-01

    The geothermal resources underlying the City of Desert Hot Springs were described in terms of anticipated geophysical, geochemical, and hydrological characteristics, based upon existing well log data, geologic surveys, and limited wellflow tests. The needs of the City were determined on the basis of its general plan, the City's 1976 census, load survey and a public acceptance survey. Then a broad range of potential nonelectric applications was surveyed in individual as well as energy cascading systems to identify the matchup of the resource and needs of the city. Applications investigated included space conditioning, space/water heating, car wash, agriculture/horticulture, and aquaculture operations. The list of applications so derived was assessed in light of technological, socio-economic, environmental, institutional, and market considerations to determine target opportunities for DHS as well as on a broad regional basis. Those systems which survived the initial screening were subjected to detailed parametric studies focused on determining tradeoffs among performance, cost, size, compatibility with off-the-shelf hardware, etc. A detailed analysis of the engineering and economic aspects of the most promising systems was then performed. Factors considered included technological problems and risks, status of supporting technologies, net energy ratios, costs, market, displacement of fossil fuels, and economic benefit to the community.

  20. Complete genome sequence of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93, a novel biomass degrader isolated from obsidian hot spring in Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumm, Phillip J; Land, Miriam L; Mead, David A

    2015-01-01

    Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93 was one of several thermophilic organisms isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA under permit from the National Park Service. Comparison of 16 S rRNA sequences confirmed the classification of the strain as a G. thermoglucosidasius species. The genome was sequenced, assembled, and annotated by the DOE Joint Genome Institute and deposited at the NCBI in December 2011 (CP002835). The genome of G. thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93 consists of one circular chromosome of 3,893,306 bp and two circular plasmids of 80,849 and 19,638 bp and an average G + C content of 43.93 %. G. thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93 possesses a xylan degradation cluster not found in the other G. thermoglucosidasius sequenced strains. This cluster appears to be related to the xylan degradation cluster found in G. stearothermophilus. G. thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93 possesses two plasmids not found in the other two strains. One plasmid contains a novel gene cluster coding for proteins involved in proline degradation and metabolism, the other contains a collection of mostly hypothetical proteins.

  1. Complete genome sequences of Geobacillus sp. Y412MC52, a xylan-degrading strain isolated from obsidian hot spring in Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumm, Phillip; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren J; Jeffries, Cynthia D; Chang, Yun-Juan; Mead, David A

    2015-01-01

    Geobacillus sp. Y412MC52 was isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA under permit from the National Park Service. The genome was sequenced, assembled, and annotated by the DOE Joint Genome Institute and deposited at the NCBI in December 2011 (CP002835). Based on 16S rRNA genes and average nucleotide identity, Geobacillus sp. Y412MC52 and the related Geobacillus sp. Y412MC61 appear to be members of a new species of Geobacillus. The genome of Geobacillus sp. Y412MC52 consists of one circular chromosome of 3,628,883 bp, an average G + C content of 52 % and one circular plasmid of 45,057 bp and an average G + C content of 45 %. Y412MC52 possesses arabinan, arabinoglucuronoxylan, and aromatic acid degradation clusters for degradation of hemicellulose from biomass. Transport and utilization clusters are also present for other carbohydrates including starch, cellobiose, and α- and β-galactooligosaccharides.

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Sichuan hot-spring keel-back (Thermophis zhaoermii; Serpentes: Colubridae) and a mitogenomic phylogeny of the snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Miao; Feng, Jinchao; Zhao, Ermi

    2010-02-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Sichuan hot-spring keel-back (Thermophis zhaoermii) was determined in the present study. The genome is 17,322 bp in size, containing 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and 2 control regions, similar to other alethinophidian snakes. A special 40 bp non-coding region, which was highly homologous to the start of control regions I (CR I) and II (CR II), containing a 16 bp C-rich segment, was identified upstream of the pseudo-tRNA(Pro) gene that had been observed across Colubridae and Homalopsidae. Twelve concatenated heavy-strand encoded protein-coding genes were used for phylogenetic reconstruction employing Bayesian and maximum likelihood inference. Both analyses yielded identical topologies, demonstrating that T. zhaoermii can solidly be placed within Colubridae as a sister group to Colubrinae. The paraphyly of Scolecophidia and monophyly of Henophidia and Caenophidia were also supported. A relaxed clock molecular divergence time analysis was carried out to estimate the temporal origin of each clade. Our results indicate that the Alethinophidia began to diverge from the paraphyletic Scolecophidia approximately 130 million years ago in the early Cretaceous; the divergence of living alethinophidian snakes, the radiation of the Caenophidia, and the separation between Acrochordus and the Colubroidea might have been caused by the K/T event.

  3. Thermoanaerobacter uzonensis sp. nov., an anaerobic thermophilic bacterium isolated from a hot spring within the Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka, Far East Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Isaac D; Zhao, Weidong; Zhang, Chuanlun L; Romanek, Christopher S; Rohde, Manfred; Wiegel, Juergen

    2008-11-01

    Several strains of heterotrophic, anaerobic thermophilic bacteria were isolated from hot springs of the Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka, Far East Russia. Strain JW/IW010(T) was isolated from a hot spring within the West sector of the Eastern Thermal field, near Pulsating Spring in the Winding Creek area. Cells of strain JW/IW010(T) were straight to slightly curved rods, 0.5 mum in width and variable in length from 2 to 5 mum and occasionally up to 15 mum, and formed oval subterminal spores. Cells stained Gram-negative, but were Gram-type positive. Growth was observed between 32.5 and 69 degrees C with an optimum around 61 degrees C (no growth occurred at or below 30 degrees C, or at or above 72 degrees C). The pH(60 degrees C) range for growth was 4.2-8.9 with an optimum at 7.1 (no growth occurred at or below pH(60 degrees C) 3.9, or at 9.2 or above). The shortest observed doubling-time at pH(60 degrees C) 6.9 and 61 degrees C was 30 min. Strain JW/IW010(T) was chemo-organotrophic; yeast extract, peptone, Casamino acids and tryptone supported growth. Yeast extract was necessary for the utilization of non-proteinaceous substrates, and growth was observed with inulin, cellobiose, maltose, sucrose, glucose, fructose, galactose, mannose, xylose, trehalose, mannitol, pyruvate and crotonate. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain JW/IW010(T) was 33.6 mol% (HPLC method). The major phospholipid fatty acids were iso-15 : 0 (53.5 %), 15 : 0 (11.8 %), 16 : 0 (7.3 %), 10-methyl 16 : 0 (7.3 %) and anteiso-15 : 0 (5.3 %). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed strain JW/IW010(T) in the genus Thermoanaerobacter of the family 'Thermoanaerobacteriaceae' (Firmicutes), with Thermoanaerobacter sulfurigignens JW/SL-NZ826(T) (97 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Thermoanaerobacter kivui DSM 2030(T) (94.5 %) as the closest phylogenetic relatives with validly published names. The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain JW/IW010(T) and Thermoanaerobacter sulfurigignens JW/SL-NZ826

  4. A comparative ToF-SIMS and GC–MS analysis of phototrophic communities collected from an alkaline silica-depositing hot spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siljeström, S.; Parenteau, M. N.; Jahnke, L. L.; Cady, S. L.

    2017-07-01

    One of few techniques that is able to spatially resolve chemical data, including organic molecules, to morphological features in modern and ancient geological samples, is time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The ability to connect chemical data to morphology is key for interpreting the biogenicity of preserved remains in ancient samples. However, due to the lack of reference data for geologically relevant samples and the ease with which samples can be contaminated, ToF-SIMS data may be difficult to interpret. In this project, we aimed to build a ToF-SIMS spectral database by performing parallel ToF-SIMS and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analyses of extant photosynthetic microbial communities collected from an alkaline silica-depositing hot spring in Yellowstone National Park, USA. We built the library by analyzing samples of increasing complexity: pure lipid standards commonly found in thermophilic phototrophs, solvent extracts of specific lipid fractions, total lipid extracts, pure cultures of dominant phototrophic community members, and unsilicified phototrophic streamer communities. The results showed that important lipids and pigments originating from phototrophs were detected by ToF-SIMS (e.g., wax esters, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, digalactosyldiacylglycerol, sufloquinovosyldiaglycerol, alkanes, etc.) in the streamer lipid extracts. Many of the lipids were also detected in situ in the unsilicified streamer, and could even be spatially resolved to individual cells within the streamer community. Together with the ToF-SIMS database, this mapping ability will be used to further explore other microbial mats and their fossilized counterparts in the geological record. This is likely to expand the geochemical understanding of these types of samples.

  5. Biosorption of cadmium by Brevundimonas sp. ZF12 strain, a novel biosorbent isolated from hot-spring waters in high background radiation areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masoudzadeh, Nasrin [Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zakeri, Fardideh [Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); National Radiation Protection Department - Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lotfabad, Tayebe bagheri [Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sharafi, Hakimeh [Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Masoomi, Fatemeh; Zahiri, Hoseein Shahbani; Ahmadian, Gholamreza [Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari, E-mail: Akbari@nigeb.ac.ir [Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isolation and characterization of a novel cadmium-biosorbent (Brevundimonas sp. ZF12) from high background radiation areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Brevundimonas sp. ZF12 caused 50% removal of cadmium at the concentration level of 250 ppm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solution pH values used for the reusability study have powerful desorptive features to recover Cd ions sorbed onto the biomass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is the first study carried out so far for the cadmium removal from aqueous solutions by a novel biosorbent Brevundimonas sp. ZF12. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In our opinion, the isolate can be an attractive alternative to remove the cadmium-containing wastewaters. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to screen cadmium biosorbing bacterial strains isolated from soils and hot-springs containing high concentrations of radium ({sup 226}Ra) in Ramsar using a batch system. Brevundimonas sp. ZF12 strain isolated from the water with high {sup 226}Ra content caused 50% removal of cadmium at a concentration level of 250 ppm. The biosorption equilibrium data are fitted well by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and kinetic studies indicated that the biosorption follows pseudo second-order model. The effect of different physico-chemical parameters like biomass concentration, pH, cadmium concentration, temperature and contact time on cadmium sorption was also investigated using FTIR, SEM and XRD analytical techniques. A high desorption efficiency (above 90%) was obtained using a pH range of 2.0-4.0. Reusability of the biomass was examined under consecutive biosorption-desorption cycles repeated thrice. In conclusion, Brevundimonas sp. ZF12 is proposed as an excellent cadmium biosorbent that may have important applications in Cd removal from wastewaters.

  6. Thermus parvatiensis RL(T) sp. nov., Isolated from a Hot Water Spring, Located Atop the Himalayan Ranges at Manikaran, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Vatsala; Kumari, Kirti; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Kumari, Rekha; Tripathi, Charu; Lata, Pushp; Niharika, Neha; Singh, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Roshan; Nigam, Aeshna; Garg, Nidhi; Lal, Rup

    2015-12-01

    A Gram negative, yellow pigmented, rod shaped bacterium designated as RL(T) was isolated from a hot water spring (90-98 °C) located at Manikaran in Northern India. The isolate grows at 60-80 °C (optimum, 70 °C) and at pH 7.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.2). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences and levels of DNA-DNA relatedness together indicate that the new isolate represents a novel species of the genus Thermus with closest affinity to Thermus thermophilus HB8(T) (99.5 %) followed by Thermus arciformis (96.4 %). A comparative analysis of partial sequences of housekeeping genes (HKG) further revealed that strain RL(T) is a novel species belonging to the genus Thermus. The melting G+C content of strain RL(T) was calculated as 68.7 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness value of strain RL(T) with its nearest neighbours (>97 %) was found to be less than 70 % indicating that strain RL(T) represents a novel species of the genus Thermus. MK-8 was the predominant respiratory quinone. The presence of characteristic phospholipid and glycolipid further confirmed that strain RL(T) belongs to the genus Thermus. The predominant fatty acids of strain RL(T) were iso-C17:0 (23.67 %) and iso-C15:0 (24.50 %). The results obtained after DNA-DNA hybridization, biochemical and physiological tests clearly distinguished strain RL(T) from its closely related species. Thus, strain RL(T) represents a novel species of the genus Thermus for which the name Thermus parvatiensis is proposed (=DSM 21745(T)= MTCC 8932(T)).

  7. Isolation of phosphatase-producing phosphate solubilizing bacteria from Loriya hot spring: Investigation of phosphate solubilizing in the presence of different parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Parhamfar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biofertilizers are the microorganisms that can convert useless nutrient to usable compounds. Unlike fertilizer, cost of biofertilizer production is low and doesn’t produce ecosystem pollution. Phosphate fertilizers can be replaced by phosphate biofertilizer to produce improvement. So, it is necessary to screen the climate-compatible phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Materials and methods: In this project samples were picked up from Loriya hot spring, which are located in Jiroft. Samples were incubated in PKV medium for 3 days. Screening of phosphate solubilizing bacteria was performed on the specific media, based on clear area diameter. The best bacterium was identified based on 16s rDNA gene. Phosphate solubilizing activity of this strain was considered in different carbon, nitrogen, phosphate and pH sources. Results: Sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree results show that B. sp. LOR033 is closely related to Bacillus licheniformis, with 97% homology. In addition, results show that maximum enzyme production was performed after 2 days that incubation pH was decreased simultaneously when the time was increased. Carbon sources investigation show that glucose is the most appropriate in enzyme production and phosphate releasing. Furthermore, results show that the optimum initial pH for phytase production was pH5.0. Different phosphate sources show that tricalcium phosphate has the suitable effect on enzyme activity in three days of incubation. Discussion and conclusion: Phosphatase enzyme production capacity, growth in acidic pH and phosphate solubilizing potential in different salt and phosphate sources show that this strain has considerable importance as biofertilizers.

  8. Impacts of diurnal variation of ultraviolet-B and photosynthetically active radiation on phycobiliproteins of the hot-spring cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. strain HKAR-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannaujiya, Vinod K; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

    2017-01-01

    The effects of diurnal variation of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm) and ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-315 nm) radiation on phycobiliproteins (PBPs) and photosynthetic pigments (PP) have been studied in the hot-spring cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. strain HKAR-2. The variations in PBPs and PP were monitored by alternating light and dark under PAR, UV-B, and PAR + UV-B radiations over a period of 25 h. There was a decline in the amount of Chl a and PBPs during light periods of UV-B and PAR + UV-B and an increase during dark periods showing a circadian rhythm by destruction and resynthesis of pigment-protein complex. However, a marked induction in carotenoids was recorded during light periods of the same radiations. Moreover, the ratio of Chl a/PE and Chl a/PC was increased in dark periods showing the resynthesis of bleached Chl a. The wavelength shift in emission fluorescence of PBPs toward shorter wavelengths further indicated the bleaching and destruction of PBPs during light periods. Oxidative damage upon exposure to PAR, UV-B, and PAR + UV-B was alleviated by induction of antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). The studied cyanobacterium exhibits a significant increase in the activities of SOD, CAT, and APX upon exposure to UV-B and PAR + UV-B radiations. The results indicate that pigment-protein composition of Nostoc sp. stain HKAR-2 was significantly altered during diurnal variation of light/radiation, which might play an important role in optimization for their productivity in a particular cyanobacterium.

  9. PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ALKALOTHERMOSTABLE, ORGANIC SOLVENT TOLERANT AND SURFACTANT TOLERANT ESTERASE PRODUCED BY A THERMOPHILIC BACTERIUM GEOBACILLUS SP. AGP-04, ISOLATED FROM BAKRESHWAR HOT SPRING, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Ghati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A thermophilic bacteria, Geobacillus sp. AGP-04, isolated from Surya Kund hot spring, Bakreshwar, West Bengal, India was studied in terms of capability of tributyrin hydrolysis and characterization of its thermostable esterase activity using p-nitrophenyl butyrate (PNPB as substrate. The extracellular crude preparation was characterized in terms of pH and temperature optima and stability, organic solvent tolerance capacity and stability, substrate specificity, surfactant tolerance capacity, kinetic parameters and activation/inhibition behavior towards some metal ions and chemicals. Tributyrin agar assay exhibited that Geobacillus sp. AGP-04 secretes an extracellular esterase. The Vmax and Km values of the esterase were found to be 5099 U/Land 103.5µM, respectively in the presence of PNPB as substrate. The optimum temperature and pH, for Geobacillus sp. AGP-04 esterase was 60oC and 8.0, respectively. Although the enzyme activity was not significantly altered by incubating crude extract solution at 20-70oC for 1 hour, the enzyme activity was fully lost at 90oC for same incubation period. The pH stability profile showed that original crude esterase activity is stable at a broad range (pH 5.0-10.0. Moreover, the enzyme was highly organic solvent and surfactant tolerant. The effect of some chemical on crude esterase activity indicated that Geobacillus sp. AGP-04 produce an esterase which contains a serine residue in active site and for its activity -SH groups are essential. Besides, enzyme production was highly induced if fermentation medium contain polysaccharides and oil as carbon source.

  10. Thermalkalibacillus uzonensis gen. nov. sp. nov, a novel aerobic alkali-tolerant thermophilic bacterium isolated from a hot spring in Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weidong; Weber, Carolyn; Zhang, Chuanlun L; Romanek, Christopher S; King, Gary M; Mills, Gary; Sokolova, Tatyana; Wiegel, Juergen

    2006-08-01

    A novel thermophilic, alkali-tolerant, and CO-tolerant strain JW/WZ-YB58(T) was isolated from green mat samples obtained from the Zarvarzin II hot spring in the Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka (Far East Russia). Cells were Gram-type and Gram stain-positive, strictly aerobic, 0.7-0.8 mum in width and 5.5-12 mum in length and produced terminal spherical spores of 1.2-1.6 mum in diameter with the mother cell swelling around 2 mum in diameter (drumstick-type morphology). Cells grew optimally at pH(25 degrees C) 8.2-8.4 and temperature 50-52 degrees C and tolerated maximally 6% (w/v) NaCl. They were strict heterotrophs and could not use either CO or CO(2 )(both with or without H(2)) as sole carbon source, but tolerated up to 90% (v/v) CO in the headspace. The isolate grew on various complex substrates such as yeast extract, on carbohydrates, and organic acids, which included starch, D: -galactose, D: -mannose, glutamate, fumarate and acetate. Catalase reaction was negative. The membrane polar lipids were dominated by branched saturated fatty acids, which included iso-15:0 (24.5%), anteiso-15:0 (18.3%), iso-16:0 (9.9%), iso-17:0 (17.5%) and anteiso-17:0 (9.7%) as major constituents. The DNA G+C content of the strain is 45 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain JW/WZ-YB58(T) is distantly (<93% similarity) related to members of Bacillaceae. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence, physiological and phenotypic characteristics, the isolate JW/WZ-YB58(T) (ATCC BAA-1258; DSM 17740) is proposed to be the type strain for the type species of the new taxa within the family Bacillaceae, Thermalkalibacillus uzoniensis gen. nov. sp. nov. The Genbank accession number for the 16S rRNA gene sequence is DQ221694.

  11. Geochemical survey for hot and mineral springs, related to the 1997 May 11 Sumikawa landslide, Akita prefecture; 1997 nen 5 gatsu 11 nichi ni hasseishita Akitaken Sumikawa onsen jisuberi ni kanrenshita kinkyu onsen kosen suishitsu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, M.; Endo, H. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    Landslide and hydrothermal explosions have occurred near the Sumikawa spa in Akita Prefecture in May 1997. Investigations were performed on correlation of fountains, hot and mineral springs and open cracks seen on aerial photographs taken immediately after the events with the present landslide and hydrothermal explosions. Going toward the Sumikawa spa on the mountaineering path along the Sumikawa river from Onuma can find a flow of valley water, which has not appeared suddenly due to the present landslide (the flow has been existing from long time ago, on which bridges have been installed). The sample water quality has low chloride ion concentration and high sulfuric acid and bicarbonate ion concentrations, and is of high-temperature volcanic gas containing a great amount of hydrogen chloride gas. The water quality was determined non-relative to the present hydrothermal explosions. On the other hand, hot springs and well waters distributed around the Akita Yaeyama and Hachimantai areas have low chloride ion concentration and high sulfuric acid ion concentration. The majority is characterized in that their Ca/Na concentration ratio is relatively low. This suggests that the areas have been formed under common geological conditions. However, the water quality is thought to show different properties due to complex influences of transformation zones and exhalation gas (hydrogen sulfide). 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. High rates of sulfate reduction in a low-sulfate hot spring microbial mat are driven by a low level of diversity of sulfate-respiring microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillon, Jesse G; Fishbain, Susan; Miller, Scott R

    2007-01-01

    The importance of sulfate respiration in the microbial mat found in the low-sulfate thermal outflow of Mushroom Spring in Yellowstone National Park was evaluated using a combination of molecular, microelectrode, and radiotracer studies. Despite very low sulfate concentrations, this mat community...

  13. On the presence of enriched amounts of 235U in hot particles from the terrestrial area affected by the Palomares accident (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ramos, M C; Barros, H; García-Tenorio, R; García-León, M; Vioque, I; Manjón, G

    2007-01-01

    The characterisation by ICP-MS of an isolated Pu-U hot particle originating from the nuclear weapons accident in Palomares (Spain) shows, for the first time, that its uranium content is highly enriched in (235)U. The enrichment has been confirmed by independent analyses of two surface soil samples collected in a heavily contaminated area close to the impact point of one of the bombs. This finding clarifies better the composition of the weapons involved in the accident and is of importance when the inventory of U and Pu in the contaminated area are to be calculated.

  14. Genomic Comparison of Two Family-Level Groups of the Uncultivated NAG1 Archaeal Lineage from Chemically and Geographically Disparate Hot Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D. Becraft

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress based on single-cell genomics and metagenomic investigations of archaea in a variety of extreme environments has led to significant advances in our understanding of the diversity, evolution, and metabolic potential of archaea, yet the vast majority of archaeal diversity remains undersampled. In this work, we coordinated single-cell genomics with metagenomics in order to construct a near-complete genome from a deeply branching uncultivated archaeal lineage sampled from Great Boiling Spring (GBS in the U.S. Great Basin, Nevada. This taxon is distantly related (distinct families to an archaeal genome, designated “Novel Archaeal Group 1” (NAG1, which was extracted from a metagenome recovered from an acidic iron spring in Yellowstone National Park (YNP. We compared the metabolic predictions of the NAG1 lineage to better understand how these archaea could inhabit such chemically distinct environments. Similar to the NAG1 population previously studied in YNP, the NAG1 population from GBS is predicted to utilize proteins as a primary carbon source, ferment simple carbon sources, and use oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor under oxic conditions. However, GBS NAG1 populations contained distinct genes involved in central carbon metabolism and electron transfer, including nitrite reductase, which could confer the ability to reduce nitrite under anaerobic conditions. Despite inhabiting chemically distinct environments with large variations in pH, GBS NAG1 populations shared many core genomic and metabolic features with the archaeon identified from YNP, yet were able to carve out a distinct niche at GBS.

  15. Spring in the Arab Spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, G.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Column Gert Borg | Spring in the Arab Spring door dr. Gert Borg, onderzoeker bij Islam en Arabisch aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en voormalig directeur van het Nederlands-Vlaams Instituut Caïro Spring If, in Google, you type "Arab Spring" and hit the button, you get more than

  16. Microbial Diversity and Biochemical Potential Encoded by Thermal Spring Metagenomes Derived from the Kamchatka Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Wemheuer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic regions contain a variety of environments suitable for extremophiles. This study was focused on assessing and exploiting the prokaryotic diversity of two microbial communities derived from different Kamchatkian thermal springs by metagenomic approaches. Samples were taken from a thermoacidophilic spring near the Mutnovsky Volcano and from a thermophilic spring in the Uzon Caldera. Environmental DNA for metagenomic analysis was isolated from collected sediment samples by direct cell lysis. The prokaryotic community composition was examined by analysis of archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA genes. A total number of 1235 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained and used for taxonomic classification. Most abundant in the samples were members of Thaumarchaeota, Thermotogae, and Proteobacteria. The Mutnovsky hot spring was dominated by the Terrestrial Hot Spring Group, Kosmotoga, and Acidithiobacillus. The Uzon Caldera was dominated by uncultured members of the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group and Enterobacteriaceae. The remaining 16S rRNA gene sequences belonged to the Aquificae, Dictyoglomi, Euryarchaeota, Korarchaeota, Thermodesulfobacteria, Firmicutes, and some potential new phyla. In addition, the recovered DNA was used for generation of metagenomic libraries, which were subsequently mined for genes encoding lipolytic and proteolytic enzymes. Three novel genes conferring lipolytic and one gene conferring proteolytic activity were identified.

  17. Formation and Stability of Prebiotically Relevant Vesicular Systems in Terrestrial Geothermal Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Manesh Prakash; Samanta, Anupam; Tripathy, Gyana Ranjan; Rajamani, Sudha

    2017-11-30

    Terrestrial geothermal fields and oceanic hydrothermal vents are considered as candidate environments for the emergence of life on Earth. Nevertheless, the ionic strength and salinity of oceans present serious limitations for the self-assembly of amphiphiles, a process that is fundamental for the formation of first protocells. Consequently, we systematically characterized the efficiency of amphiphile assembly, and vesicular stability, in terrestrial geothermal environments, both, under simulated laboratory conditions and in hot spring water samples (collected from Ladakh, India, an Astrobiologically relevant site). Combinations of prebiotically pertinent fatty acids and their derivatives were evaluated for the formation of vesicles in aforesaid scenarios. Additionally, the stability of these vesicles was characterized over multiple dehydration-rehydration cycles, at elevated temperatures. Among the combinations that were tested, mixtures of fatty acid and its glycerol derivatives were found to be the most robust, also resulting in vesicles in all of the hot spring waters that were tested. Importantly, these vesicles were stable at high temperatures, and this fatty acid system retained its vesicle forming propensity, even after multiple cycles of dehydration-rehydration. The remaining systems, however, formed vesicles only in bicine buffer. Our results suggest that certain prebiotic compartments would have had a selective advantage in terrestrial geothermal niches. Significantly, our study highlights the importance of validating results that are obtained under 'buffered' laboratory conditions, by verifying their plausibility in prebiotically analogous environments.

  18. Final Scientific/Technical Report – DE-EE0002960 Recovery Act. Detachment faulting and Geothermal Resources - An Innovative Integrated Geological and Geophysical Investigation of Pearl Hot Spring, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockli, Daniel F. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2015-11-30

    The Pearl Host Spring Geothermal Project funded by the DoE Geothermal Program was a joint academic (KU/UT & OU) and industry collaboration (Sierra and Ram Power) to investigate structural controls and the importance of low-angle normal faults on geothermal fluid flow through a multifaceted geological, geophysical, and geochemical investigation in west-central Nevada. The study clearly showed that the geothermal resources in Clayton Valley are controlled by the interplay between low-angle normal faults and active deformation related to the Walker Lane. The study not only identified potentially feasible blind geothermal resource plays in eastern Clayton Valley, but also provide a transportable template for exploration in the area of west-central Nevada and other regional and actively-deforming releasing fault bends. The study showed that deep-seated low-angle normal faults likely act as crustal scale permeability boundaries and could play an important role in geothermal circulation and funneling geothermal fluid into active fault zones. Not unique to this study, active deformation is viewed as an important gradient to rejuvenated fracture permeability aiding the long-term viability of blind geothermal resources. The technical approach for Phase I included the following components, (1) Structural and geological analysis of Pearl Hot Spring Resource, (2) (U-Th)/He thermochronometry and geothermometry, (3) detailed gravity data and modeling (plus some magnetic and resistivity), (4) Reflection and Refraction Seismic (Active Source), (5) Integration with existing and new geological/geophysical data, and (6) 3-D Earth Model, combining all data in an innovative approach combining classic work with new geochemical and geophysical methodology to detect blind geothermal resources in a cost-effective fashion.

  19. Role of Iron in the Preservation of Phototrophic Cells: An Example from a Modern Thermophilic Community at Chocolate Pots Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parenteau, M. N.; Cady, S. L.; Jahnke, L. L.; Pierson, B. K.

    2006-12-01

    Banded Iron Formations (BIFs) are widespread Precambrian sedimentary deposits, the least metamorphosed of which often contain hematite and magnetite among the major oxide mineral species. Hypotheses developed to explain the origin of BIFs differ with regard to the mechanisms by which Fe2+ would have been oxidized to mixed ferric (Fe3+) mineral assemblages. The classical scenario is that oxidation occurred biotically, albeit indirectly, as a result of the photosynthetic production of oxygen by cyanobacteria. It has also been suggested that Fe2+ oxidation could have occurred by abiotic photochemical oxidation or by direct oxidation via the metabolism of anoxygenic phototrophs and chemolithotrophs. Our prior investigation of a modern iron-depositing thermal spring using microelectrodes indicates that cyanobacterial microbial mats have a significant physiological impact on Fe2+ oxidation via photosynthetic oxygen production and CO2 fixation. Recent compound-specific stable carbon isotope analyses of lipid biomarkers by our group reveals that anoxygenic phototrophs (e.g., Chloroflexus) do not oxidize Fe2+, but that they grow photoheterotrophically utilizing the cyanobacterial photosynthate. Evidence for a microbial role in the deposition of BIFs has been sought in the occurrence of microfossils in these structures. Microfossils are typically found preserved in the chert layers of BIFs. Though it has been argued that iron does not preserve cells well, our conventional TEM examination of iron-mineralized cyanobacterial cells has led us to hypothesize that iron can preserve the cellular fidelity of at least one phototroph and generate carbonaceous microfossils via permineralization. We have also used high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to characterize the microfossils and iron oxides located within and on the outside of such cells. Our extensive set of investigations with regard to deciphering the role of

  20. Framework Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Bobkov, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to introduce reader to the Spring framework and describe it as a convenient tool for rapid application development and launching projects. It is necessary to grab the Spring issue in a broader context. That's why thesis is trying to note all the relevant technologies that are closely related to Spring, or which is Spring based on. The first step to understanding Spring is a basic knowledge of Java EE. Thesis presents the architecture of Java EE while arguing its flaws...

  1. Ectomycorrhizal fungal associates of Pinus contorta in soils associated with a hot spring in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullings, K.; Makhija, S.

    2001-01-01

    community structure. In addition, we identified at least one new species with potential for use in remediation of hot acidic soil.

  2. Beginning Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Caliskan, Mert

    2015-01-01

    Get up to speed quickly with this comprehensive guide toSpring Beginning Spring is the complete beginner's guide toJava's most popular framework. Written with an eye towardreal-world enterprises, the book covers all aspects of applicationdevelopment within the Spring Framework. Extensive samples withineach chapter allow developers to get up to speed quickly byproviding concrete references for experimentation, building askillset that drives successful application development byexploiting the full capabilities of Java's latest advances. Spring provides the exact toolset required to build anent

  3. Just Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Konda, Madhusudhan

    2011-01-01

    Get a concise introduction to Spring, the increasingly popular open source framework for building lightweight enterprise applications on the Java platform. This example-driven book for Java developers delves into the framework's basic features, as well as advanced concepts such as containers. You'll learn how Spring makes Java Messaging Service easier to work with, and how its support for Hibernate helps you work with data persistence and retrieval. Throughout Just Spring, you'll get your hands deep into sample code, beginning with a problem that illustrates dependency injection, Spring's co

  4. Conditions in the deeper parts of the hot spring systems of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. [Proposed aquifer at depth of 2 to 4 km. , at 340 to 370/sup 0/C, and containing about 1,000 ppM NaCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Fournier, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    It is suggested that beneath Yellowstone thermal systems there is a large aquifer at a depth of 2 to 4 kilometers which contains a relatively homogeneous body of water at 340 to 370/sup 0/C containing about 1,000 ppM NaCl. This aquifer may be controlled entirely or in part by solution or fracture permeability that transects rock types. Water flows upwards from the deep aquifer along available fractures, losing steam in the process, and into more shallow aquifers that in turn feed the geyser and hot spring systems. In these shallow systems, it is diluted, reacts with rocks and fluids, and loses more steam to produce the varied hot spring waters of the Park. The deposition of silica at the bottom of the system and increased convection at near-critical temperatures will limit the maximum temperatures and depth of circulation of dilute high temperature thermal waters such as those of Yellowstone.

  5. 35 70 deg. hot water springs at the origin of a 'thermo-recreational' facility; 35 sources d'eau chaude a 70 deg a l'origine d'un complexe ''thermoludique''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-10-01

    Thirty five hot water springs of the Andorre region (Southern France) are used to supply the energy needs of a recreational facility located in the village of Escaldes Engordany in the heart of the French Pyrenees (1050 m of altitude). Because these geothermal waters reach the surface at 70 deg. C, their cooling allows to recover the heat necessary for the space heating of the building and for the thermal regulation of the water temperature of the pools. (J.S.)

  6. Fatigue behaviour of technical springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, B.; Berger, C. [Institut fuer Werkstoffkunde und Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt Darmstadt, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Grafenstrasse 2, 64283 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-11-01

    Technical Springs belong to the components with the highest cyclic and superposed static load. Nevertheless they have to fulfill the requirements of lightweight constructions. This is only possible, if high strength materials with special properties are carefully manufactured to well designed springs and special additional treatments are carried out, which impose an advantageous residual stress profile in the surface layers of the springs. After a short historical view on the spring research activities in Professor Thums area, some aspects of the fatigue behaviour of hot formed parabolic leaf springs are presented. Then the fatigue properties of cold formed helical compression springs made of different steel spring wires are discussed. Finally some results on the fatigue behaviour of helical springs at a very high number of load cycles are reported. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Technische Federn gehoeren zu den am hoechsten zyklisch beanspruchten Bauteilen mit gleichzeitig hoher Vorspannung bzw. Mittelspannung. Trotzdem sollen sie den Forderungen des Leichtbaus genuegen. Realisierbar ist dies nur durch hochfeste Federwerkstoffe mit speziellen Eigenschaften, die sorgfaeltig zu ueberlegt konstruierten Federn verarbeitet werden, und wenn zusaetzliche Behandlungen durchgefuehrt werden, die einen guenstigen Eigenspannungszustand in der Federrandschicht erzeugen. Nach einem kurzen historischen Rueckblick auf die Forschungsaktivitaeten zur Zeit von August Thum wird zunaechst das Ermuedungsverhalten warm geformter Parabelfedern behandelt. Der folgende Abschnitt befasst sich mit den Schwingfestigkeitseigenschaften kalt geformter Schraubendruckfedern aus verschiedenen Federstahldraehten. Abschliessend wird ueber das Ermuedungsverhalten von Schraubenfedern bei sehr hohen Schwingspielzahlen berichtet. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Spring performance tester for miniature extension springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzbrenner, Bradley; Boyce, Brad

    2017-05-16

    A spring performance tester and method of testing a spring are disclosed that has improved accuracy and precision over prior art spring testers. The tester can perform static and cyclic testing. The spring tester can provide validation for product acceptance as well as test for cyclic degradation of springs, such as the change in the spring rate and fatigue failure.

  8. Naturally occurring arsenic in terrestrial geothermal systems of western Anatolia, Turkey: potential role in contamination of freshwater resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Jochen; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Nath, Bibhash; Baba, Alper; Gunduz, Orhan; Kulp, Thomas R; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Kar, Sandeep; Yang, Huai-Jen; Tseng, Yu-Jung; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Chen, Chien-Yen

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic (As) contamination in terrestrial geothermal systems has been identified in many countries worldwide. Concentrations higher than 0.01 mg/L are detrimental to human health. We examined potential consequences for As contamination of freshwater resources based on hydrogeochemical investigations of geothermal waters in deep wells and hot springs collected from western Anatolia, Turkey. We analyzed samples for major ions and trace element concentrations. Temperature of geothermal waters in deep wells showed extreme ranges (40 and 230 °C), while, temperature of hot spring fluids was up to 90 °C. The Piper plot illustrated two dominant water types: Na-HCO3(-) type for geothermal waters in deep wells and Ca-HCO3(-) type for hot spring fluids. Arsenic concentration ranged from 0.03 to 1.5mg/L. Dominance of reduced As species, i.e., As(III), was observed in our samples. The Eh value ranged between -250 and 119 mV, which suggests diverse geochemical conditions. Some of the measured trace elements were found above the World Health Organization guidelines and Turkish national safe drinking water limits. The variation in pH (range: 6.4-9.3) and As in geothermal waters suggest mixing with groundwater. Mixing of geothermal waters is primarily responsible for contamination of freshwater resources and making them unsuitable for drinking or irrigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of thermal springs for geochemical exploration in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence, hot spring water anomalous in Au, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cu, Co and Ag could be a proxy for precious metal searching in epithermal systems associated with thermal springs. Keywords: Epithermal system, Ethiopian Rift Valley, geochemical exploration, thermal springs. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and ...

  10. Coupled Iron and Sulfur Transformations in Hydrothermal Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, E. S.; Amenabar, M.; Roden, E. E.

    2014-12-01

    Iron (Fe) and sulfur (S) compounds are common constituents of terrestrial hydrothermal systems. The transformation of Fe and S compounds is inferred to be an ancient mechanism of energy conservation that is still represented in extant life inhabiting contemporary hydrothermal environments. While substantial research has been conducted to uncover the ability of microorganisms to couple Fe and S transformations with other biogeochemical cycles (e.g., H, O, C cycles) in hydrothermal environments, few studies have focused on the interplay between the Fe and S cycles. In particular, a paucity of studies has been conducted on this phenomenon in acidic high temperature ecosystems despite the common co-occurrence of Fe and S in these environments. Here, we report the isolation and physiological characterization of a metabolically diverse thermoacidiphilic and autotrophic archaeon from an acidic hot spring environment in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) that is capable of both direct and indirect coupling of the Fe and S cycles. Growth experiments indicate differential attachment requirements depending on the mode of growth and imply the importance of intermediate sulfur species in supporting its metabolism. Genomic analyses confirm the metabolic plasticity of this strain and suggest numerous other mechanisms by which this organism may exploit other geochemical cycles during Fe or S dependent growth. Cultivation and cultivation independent approaches suggest that the distribution of this archaeon is widespread in Fe and S rich hot spring environments in YNP and is likely a keystone population in these environments, responsible for a large proportion of primary productivity. These results underscore the utility of integrating geochemical, cultivation, physiological, and genomic approaches in understanding biogeochemical cycling in volcanic environments.

  11. Hot Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk factors Not all women who go through menopause have hot flashes, and it's not clear why some women do have them. Factors that may increase your risk include: Smoking. Women who smoke are more likely to get hot flashes. Obesity. A high body mass index (BMI) is associated ...

  12. Hot flushes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    without thermoregulatory homeostatic mechanisms, such as sweating, being triggered. Small fluctuations in core body. Abstract. Vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweats, are considered to be the cardinal symptoms of menopause, and are experienced by most women. The physiology of hot flushes is not ...

  13. Hot Soak

    OpenAIRE

    Goldwater, H.

    2005-01-01

    The DVD is documentation of Hot Soak, as performed at the Queen’s Hotel, Penzance, Cornwall in an en suite bathroom, for Tract: Live Art Festival, 2006, curated by Art Surgery/ Newlyn Art Gallery. Hot Soak was originally made for home, London, 2005. This piece marries an everyday environment (bathroom) with extraordinary materials (ice cubes/ dress bleeding red into water) creating the surreal. Sontag’s understanding of camp as a love of the unnatural, artifice and exaggeration, can be ci...

  14. Regional warming of hot extremes accelerated by surface energy fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donat, M. G.; Pitman, A. J.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2017-07-01

    Strong regional differences exist in how hot temperature extremes increase under global warming. Using an ensemble of coupled climate models, we examine the regional warming rates of hot extremes relative to annual average warming rates in the same regions. We identify hot spots of accelerated warming of model-simulated hot extremes in Europe, North America, South America, and Southeast China. These hot spots indicate where the warm tail of a distribution of temperatures increases faster than the average and are robust across most Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models. Exploring the conditions on the specific day when the hot extreme occurs demonstrates that the hot spots are explained by changes in the surface energy fluxes consistent with drying soils. However, the model-simulated accelerated warming of hot extremes appears inconsistent with observations, except over Europe. The simulated acceleration of hot extremes may therefore be unreliable, a result that necessitates a reevaluation of how climate models resolve the relevant terrestrial processes.

  15. Phosphatase acitivity as biosignatures in terrestrial extreme environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Jun; Nakamoto, Saki; Hara, Masashi; Obayashi, Yumiko; Kaneko, Takeo; Mita, Hajime; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Takano, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Kensei

    Since phosphate esters are essential for the terrestrial life, phosphatase activity can be a can-didate for biosignatures of biological activity. It has been recognized that terrestrial biosphere expands to such extreme environments as deep subsurface lithosphere, high temperature hot springs and stratosphere. We analyzed phosphatase activities in the samples obtained in ex-treme environments such as submarine hydrothermal systems and Antarctica , and discussed whether they can be used as biosignatures for extant life. Core samples and chimney samples were collected at Tarama Knoll in Okinawa Trough in 2009, both in a part of the Archaean Park Project. Surface soil samples are obtained at the Sites 1-8 near Showa Base in Antarctica during the 47th Japan Antarctic exploration mission in 2005-6. Alkaline Phosphatase activ-ity in sea water and in soil was measured spectrometrically by using 25 mM p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pH 8.0) as a substrate. Phosphatase activities in extracts were measured fluoro-metrically by using 4-methylumberyferryl phosphate as a substrate. Concentration of amino acids and their enantiomeric ratios were also determined by HPLC . Significant enzymatic ac-tivities were revealed in both some of the hydrothermal sub-vent systems and Antarctica soils, which is crucial evidence of vigorous microbial oasis. It is consistent with the fact that large enantiomeric excess of L-form amino acids were found in the same core sequences. Optimum temperatures of ALP in the chimney, Antarctica soil and YNU campus soil were 353 K, 313 K, and 333 K, respectively. The present results suggested that phosphatase activities,, together with amino acids, can be used as possible biosignatures for extant life.

  16. Hot spots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nia, Amir M; Gassanov, Natig; Er, Fikret

    2014-01-01

    ..., several reddened skin lesions were observed. The obvious ''hot spots'' were located on both sides in the groin and above the bladder, with extension to the genital region, compli- cating the ability to catheterize the patient (Figure 1). The rest of the body surface was not affected, and no infectious source for the skin lesions was evident. After suc...

  17. The source, discharge, and chemical characteristics of water from Agua Caliente Spring, Palm Springs, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contributors: Brandt, Justin; Catchings, Rufus D.; Christensen, Allen H.; Flint, Alan L.; Gandhok, Gini; Goldman, Mark R.; Halford, Keith J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Martin, Peter; Rymer, Michael J.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Smith, Gregory A.; Sneed, Michelle; Martin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Agua Caliente Spring, in downtown Palm Springs, California, has been used for recreation and medicinal therapy for hundreds of years and currently (2008) is the source of hot water for the Spa Resort owned by the Agua Caliente Band of the Cahuilla Indians. The Agua Caliente Spring is located about 1,500 feet east of the eastern front of the San Jacinto Mountains on the southeast-sloping alluvial plain of the Coachella Valley. The objectives of this study were to (1) define the geologic structure associated with the Agua Caliente Spring; (2) define the source(s), and possibly the age(s), of water discharged by the spring; (3) ascertain the seasonal and longer-term variability of the natural discharge, water temperature, and chemical characteristics of the spring water; (4) evaluate whether water-level declines in the regional aquifer will influence the temperature of the spring discharge; and, (5) estimate the quantity of spring water that leaks out of the water-collector tank at the spring orifice.

  18. Potential role of Thermus thermophilus and T. oshimai in high rates of nitrous oxide (N2O) production in ∼80 °C hot springs in the US Great Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, B P; McDonald, A I; Lam, J; Dodsworth, J A; Brown, J R; Hungate, B A

    2011-11-01

    Ambient nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions from Great Boiling Spring (GBS) in the US Great Basin depended on temperature, with the highest flux, 67.8 ± 2.6 μmol N(2)O-N m(-2) day(-1) , occurring in the large source pool at 82 °C. This rate of N(2)O production contrasted with negligible production from nearby soils and was similar to rates from soils and sediments impacted with agricultural fertilizers. To investigate the source of N(2)O, a variety of approaches were used to enrich and isolate heterotrophic micro-organisms, and isolates were screened for nitrate reduction ability. Nitrate-respiring isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Thermus thermophilus (31 isolates) and T. oshimai (three isolates). All isolates reduced nitrate to N(2)O but not to dinitrogen and were unable to grow with N(2)O as a terminal electron acceptor. Representative T. thermophilus and T. oshimai strains contained genes with 96-98% and 93% DNA identity, respectively, to the nitrate reductase catalytic subunit gene (narG) of T. thermophilus HB8. These data implicate T. thermophilus and T. oshimai in high flux of N(2)O in GBS and raise questions about the genetic basis of the incomplete denitrification pathway in these organisms and on the fate of biogenic N(2)O in geothermal environments. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Thermal springs of Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckenridge, R.M.; Hinckley, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    This bulletin attempts, first, to provide a comprehensive inventory of the thermal springs of Wyoming; second, to explore the geologic and hydrologic factors producing these springs; and, third, to analyze the springs collectively as an indicator of the geothermal resources of the state. A general discussion of the state's geology and the mechanisms of thermal spring production, along with a brief comparison of Wyoming's springs with worldwide thermal features are included. A discussion of geothermal energy resources, a guide for visitors, and an analysis of the flora of Wyoming's springs follow the spring inventory. The listing and analysis of Wyoming's thermal springs are arranged alphabetically by county. Tabulated data are given on elevation, ownership, access, water temperature, and flow rate. Each spring system is described and its history, general characteristics and uses, geology, hydrology, and chemistry are discussed. (MHR)

  20. HOT 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Sara Stefansen

    HOT er en kvalitativ undersøgelse, der hvert år diskuterer og undersøger en lille udvalgt skare af danskkyndige fagpersoners bud på, hvad de er optagede af på literacyområdet her og nu – altså hvilke emner, de vil vurdere som aktuelle at forholde sig til i deres nuværende praksis....

  1. Instant Spring Tool Suite

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A tutorial guide that walks you through how to use the features of Spring Tool Suite using well defined sections for the different parts of Spring.Instant Spring Tool Suite is for novice to intermediate Java developers looking to get a head-start in enterprise application development using Spring Tool Suite and the Spring framework. If you are looking for a guide for effective application development using Spring Tool Suite, then this book is for you.

  2. Water Treatment Technology - Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…

  3. Chemical and isotopic data for water from thermal springs and wells of Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, R.H.; Swanson, J.R.; Orris, G.J.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal springs of Oregon range in composition from dilute NaHCO/sub 3/ waters to moderately saline CO/sub 2/-charged NaCl-NaHCO/sub 3/ waters. Most of the thermal springs are located in southeastern or southcentral Oregon, with a few in northeastern Oregon and near the contact of the Western Cascades with the High Cascades. Thermal springs in the central and northern parts of the Cascades generally issue moderately saline NaCl waters. Farther south in the Cascades, the thermal waters are high in CO/sub 2/ as well as chloride. Most thermal springs in northeastern Oregon issue dilute NaHCO/sub 3/ waters of high pH (>8.5). These waters are similar to the thermal waters which issue from the Idaho batholith, farther east. Most of the remaining thermal waters are Na mixed-anion waters. Based on the chemical geothermometers, Mickey Srpings, Hot Borax Lake, Alvord Hot Springs, Neal Hot Springs, Vale Hot Springs, Crump Well, Hunters (Lakeview) Hot Springs, and perhaps some of the springs in the Cascades are associated with the highest temperature systems (>150/sup 0/C).

  4. Scoping assessment of radiological doses to aquatic organisms and wildlife -- N Springs. [N Springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.; Soldat, J.K.

    1992-10-01

    Estimated does rates were determined for endemic biota inhabiting the N Springs area based primarily on spring water data collected from the first 6 months of 1991. Radiological dose estimates were computed from measured values of specific radionuclides and modeled levels of radionuclides using established computer codes. The highest doses were predicted in hypothetical populations of clams, fish-eating ducks, and rabbits. The calculated dose estimates did not exceed 1 rad/d, an administrative dose rate established by the US Department of Energy for the protection of native aquatic biota. An administrative dose rate has not been established for terrestrial wildlife.

  5. Pro Spring Batch

    CERN Document Server

    Minella, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  6. Springs as Ecosystems: Clarifying Groundwater Dependence and Wetland Status (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, L.; Springer, A. E.; Ledbetter, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    natural variation in flow, and many of the 12 springs types do not develop hydric soils or wetland vegetation. These factors and their normally small size preclude springs as jurisdictional wetlands by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Army Corps of Engineers criteria. Helocrenes (springfed wet meadows, cienegas, and some fens) are considered as wetlands, but the other 11 types of terrestrial springs often are not. The use of the phrase 'GDE' applies to any aquatic ecosystem supported by groundwater, and the utility of this phrase as a descriptor of springs is diluted by its application to all subterranean and surface aquatic habitats. The failure to recognize the importance of springs ecosystems has become a quiet but global crisis, in part due to inappropriate conceptual understanding and poor jurisdictional terminology. We clarify relationships between these concepts and terms to establish effective, consistent monitoring, assessment, restoration, management, and monitoring goals and protocols for improving springs stewardship.

  7. The early evolution of the atmospheres of terrestrial planets

    CERN Document Server

    Raulin, François; Muller, Christian; Nixon, Conor; Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings : Volume 35

    2013-01-01

    “The Early Evolution of the Atmospheres of Terrestrial Planets” presents the main processes participating in the atmospheric evolution of terrestrial planets. A group of experts in the different fields provide an update of our current knowledge on this topic. Several papers in this book discuss the key role of nitrogen in the atmospheric evolution of terrestrial planets. The earliest setting and evolution of planetary atmospheres of terrestrial planets is directly associated with accretion, chemical differentiation, outgassing, stochastic impacts, and extremely high energy fluxes from their host stars. This book provides an overview of the present knowledge of the initial atmospheric composition of the terrestrial planets. Additionally it includes some papers about the current exoplanet discoveries and provides additional clues to our understanding of Earth’s transition from a hot accretionary phase into a habitable world. All papers included were reviewed by experts in their respective fields. We are ...

  8. Post irradiation examination of tight fit garter springs from Indian PHWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, J.S., E-mail: jsdubey@barc.gov.in; Shriwastaw, R.S.; Kumar, Ashwini; Shah, Priti Kotak; Rath, B.N.; Kumar, Sunil; Mishra, Prerna; Alur, V.D.; Mallik, G.K.; Anantharaman, S.

    2015-07-15

    Garter springs play an important role in maintaining the annulus gap between hot pressure tubes and cold calandria tubes of PHWRs. Post irradiation examination (PIE) was carried out on the garter springs removed from Indian PHWR after around 8 and 15 Hot Operating Years (HOY). PIE studies included visual examination, dimensional measurements, metallographic examination and relevant mechanical tests. The girdle wires of these garter springs were also examined and subjected to the tension and bend tests. This paper gives the results of the PIE investigations and discusses its relevance for continued performance of garter springs in PHWRs.

  9. Spring 5 & reactive streams

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Clozel, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Spring is a framework widely used by the world-wide Java community, and it is also extensively used at CERN. The accelerator control system is constituted of 10 million lines of Java code, spread across more than 1000 projects (jars) developed by 160 software engineers. Around half of this (all server-side Java code) is based on the Spring framework. Warning: the speakers will assume that people attending the seminar are familiar with Java and Spring’s basic concepts. Spring 5.0 and Spring Boot 2.0 updates (45 min) This talk will cover the big ticket items in the 5.0 release of Spring (including Kotlin support, @Nullable and JDK9) and provide an update on Spring Boot 2.0, which is scheduled for the end of the year. Reactive Spring (1h) Spring Framework 5.0 has been released - and it now supports reactive applications in the Spring ecosystem. During this presentation, we'll talk about the reactive foundations of Spring Framework with the Reactor project and the reactive streams specification. We'll al...

  10. Fabrication of Nd-Fe-B exchange-spring magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Mau Lam [Department of Physics, Pedagogic University of Hanoi No 2, Xuan Hoa, Phuc Yen, Vinh Phuc (Viet Nam); Nguyen Thi Thanh Huyen [University of Industry, Dong Trieu, Quang Ninh (Viet Nam); Do Hung Manh; Vu Hong Ky; Do Khanh Tung; Nguyen Huy Dan [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam)], E-mail: dannh@ims.vast.ac.vn

    2009-09-01

    In this report we present our recent results on fabrication of Nd-Fe-B exchange-spring magnets using melt-spinning method. Additive elements were used to improve useful parameters of this kind of hard magnetic materials. Hot pressing technique was applied to increase mass density of the magnets. The compositions and technology routes for fabricating the Nd-Fe-B exchange-spring magnets with maximum energy product (BH){sub max} above 10 MGOe were shown.

  11. Framework Spring MVC

    OpenAIRE

    Jindráček, Petr

    2011-01-01

    The topic of this bachelor thesis is the web application framework Spring MVC which is an integral part of the Spring platform. That means it offers many options of adjustment and support of other significant technologies. The aim is to introduce basic principles of this framework on a theoretical level and subsequently examine them on a real example of application. The thesis is divided into three main parts. The first part is focused on Spring framework in general to introduce basic princip...

  12. Spring integration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Chandan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for developers who are either already involved with enterprise integration or planning to venture into the domain. Basic knowledge of Java and Spring is expected. For newer users, this book can be used to understand an integration scenario, what the challenges are, and how Spring Integration can be used to solve it. Prior experience of Spring Integration is not expected as this book will walk you through all the code examples.

  13. Pro Spring Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lui, M; Chan, Andy; Long, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Pro Spring Integration is an authoritative book from the experts that guides you through the vast world of enterprise application integration (EAI) and application of the Spring Integration framework towards solving integration problems. The book is:. * An introduction to the concepts of enterprise application integration * A reference on building event-driven applications using Spring Integration * A guide to solving common integration problems using Spring Integration What makes this book unique is its coverage of contemporary technologies and real-world information, with a focus on common p

  14. GÖNEN (BALIKESİR HOT SPRINGS IN TERMS OF THEIR EFFECTS ON TOURISM AND SPATIAL CHANGE TURİZM ve MEKÂNSAL DEĞİŞİME ETKİLERİ YÖNÜYLE GÖNEN (BALIKESİR TERMAL KAYNAKLARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram ÇETİN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of Gönen hot springs on tourism activities and economic and spatial change. For that reason, firstly physical properties of these hot springs are evaluated and even compared with their vicinity. In modern sense, Gönen is one of first thermal tourism center of our country. Thermal tourism which especially made progress thanks to the investments started following 1950s has become one of the main sectors of the local economy. This sector provides service to 120.000 or 130.000 visitors – mostly domestic tourists – on average every year. Today, the sector has become integrated with Gönen not only in economic sense but in socio-cultural and even image and symbolic sense, as well. Besides their effects on economic and social structure, tourism activities also gave shape to the space. Their effects on the spatial expansion of the county and urban land use are especially noticeable. Therefore, it can be suggested that a new and multi-dimensional planning is needed Bu çalışmada Gönen’deki termal kaynakların turizm faaliyetleri ile ekonomik ve mekânsal değişim üzerindeki etkileri incelenmiştir. Bu nedenle öncelikle kaynakların fiziki özellikleri değerlendirilmiş ve yakın çevresiyle karşılaştırılmıştır. Gönen modern anlamda ülkemizin ilk termal turizm merkezlerindendir. Özellikle 1950’lerden sonra başlayan yatırımlarla gelişme gösteren termal turizm yerel ekonominin temel sektörlerinden biri olmuştur. Sektör büyük bölümü yerli olmak üzere yıllık ortalama 120-130 bin arasında değişen turiste hizmet vermektedir. Günümüzde sektör Gönen’le sadece ekonomik boyutuyla değil, aynı zamanda sosyo-kültürel ve hatta imaj ve simgesel boyutlarıyla da bütünleşmiştir. Turizm aktiviteleri ekonomik ve sosyal yapının yanında, mekânı da şekillendirmiştir. Bilhassa kentin yatay gelişimi ve kentsel arazi kullanımındaki etkisi gözle görülür boyutadır. Bu

  15. Spring A Developer's Notebook

    CERN Document Server

    Tate, Bruce A

    2009-01-01

    This no-nonsense book quickly gets you up to speed on the new Spring open source framework. Favoring examples and practical application over theory, Spring: A Developer's Notebook features 10 code-intensive labs that'll reveal the many assets of this revolutionary, lightweight architecture. In the end, you'll understand how to produce simple, clean, and effective applications.

  16. Mockito for Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Sujoy

    2015-01-01

    If you are an application developer with some experience in software testing and want to learn more about testing frameworks, then this technology and book is for you. Mockito for Spring will be perfect as your next step towards becoming a competent software tester with Spring and Mockito.

  17. Masters of the springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    flanked by villages that relied on these water recourses for agricultural production. The springs emerged in the zone separating the cemeteries from the settlements. The freshwater springs were actively incorporated into the religious landscape of the dead, by consistently erecting mounds of a particular...

  18. Multilocus sequence analysis of Thermoanaerobacter isolates reveals recombining, but differentiated, populations from geothermal springs of the Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Isaac D; Varghese, Litty B; Hemme, Christopher L; Wiegel, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    Thermal environments have island-like characteristics and provide a unique opportunity to study population structure and diversity patterns of microbial taxa inhabiting these sites. Strains having ≥98% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the obligately anaerobic Firmicutes Thermoanaerobacter uzonensis were isolated from seven geothermal springs, separated by up to 1600 m, within the Uzon Caldera (Kamchatka, Russian Far East). The intraspecies variation and spatial patterns of diversity for this taxon were assessed by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of 106 strains. Analysis of eight protein-coding loci (gyrB, lepA, leuS, pyrG, recA, recG, rplB, and rpoB) revealed that all loci were polymorphic and that nucleotide substitutions were mostly synonymous. There were 148 variable nucleotide sites across 8003 bp concatenates of the protein-coding loci. While pairwise F ST values indicated a small but significant level of genetic differentiation between most subpopulations, there was a negligible relationship between genetic divergence and spatial separation. Strains with the same allelic profile were only isolated from the same hot spring, occasionally from consecutive years, and single locus variant (SLV) sequence types were usually derived from the same spring. While recombination occurred, there was an "epidemic" population structure in which a particular T. uzonensis sequence type rose in frequency relative to the rest of the population. These results demonstrate spatial diversity patterns for an anaerobic bacterial species in a relative small geographic location and reinforce the view that terrestrial geothermal springs are excellent places to look for biogeographic diversity patterns regardless of the involved distances.

  19. Hot dry rock venture risks investigation:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    This study assesses a promising resource in central Utah as the potential site of a future commerical hot dry rock (HDR) facility for generating electricity. The results indicate that, if the HDR reservoir productivity equals expectations based on preliminary results from research projects to date, a 50 MWe HDR power facility at Roosevelt Hot Springs could generate power at cost competitive with coal-fired plants. However, it is imperative that the assumed productivity be demonstrated before funds are committed for a commercial facility. 72 refs., 39 figs., 38 tabs.

  20. Introduced Terrestrial Species (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted future potential distributions of terrestrial plants, animals, and pathogens non-native to the Middle-Atlantic region. These data are...

  1. The Magnet Cove Rutile Company mine, Hot Spring County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Douglas M.

    1949-01-01

    The Magnet Cove Rutile Company mine was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey in November 1944. The pits are on the northern edge of Magnet Cove and have been excavated in the oxidized zone of highly weathered and altered volcanic agglomerate. The agglomerate is composed of altered mafic igneous rocks in a matrix of white to gray clay, a highly altered tuff. The agglomerate appears layered and is composed of tuffaceous clay material below and igneous blocks above. The agglomerate is cut by aplite and lamprophyre dikes. Alkalic syenite dikes crop out on the ridge north of the pits. At the present stage of mine development the rutile seems to be concentrated in a narrow zone beneath the igneous blocks of the agglomerate. Rutile, associated with calcite and pyrite, occurs as disseminated acicular crystals and discontinuous vein-like masses in the altered tuff. Thin veins of rutile locally penetrate the mafic igneous blocks of the agglomerate.

  2. Mongolian development of a hot spring; Mongoru no onsen kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, Akio

    1999-04-01

    An international cooperation business group and a metal mining business group are grappling with the help business such as development of subterranean water and mineral resources investigation actively after the democratization. Much physics investigation has been done of that in such cases as the electromagnetic investigation (in such cases as the development of subterranean water and soil layer investigation which it tries recently) and the radioactive investigation (like of the uranium ore floor zone, in such cases as the investigation). (NEDO)

  3. Terrestrial–aquatic linkages in spring-fed and snowmelt-dominated streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam

    2017-01-01

    The importance of trophic linkages between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems is predicted to vary as a function of subsidy quantity and quality relative to in situ resources. To test this prediction, I used multi-year diet data from Bonneville cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki Utah in spring-fed and snowmelt-driven streams in the high desert of western North America. I documented that trout in spring-fed streams consumed more (number and weight) aquatic than terrestrial invertebrates, while trout in snowmelt-driven streams consumed a similar number of both prey types but consumed more terrestrial than aquatic invertebrates by weight. Trout in spring-fed streams consumed more aquatic invertebrates than trout in snowmelt streams and trout consumed more terrestrial invertebrates in snowmelt than in spring-fed streams. Up to 93% of trout production in spring-fed streams and 60% in snowmelt streams was fueled by aquatic invertebrates, while the remainder of trout production in each stream type was from terrestrial production. I found that the biomass and occurrence of consumed terrestrial invertebrates were not related to our measures of in situ resource quality or quantity in either stream type. These empirical data highlight the importance of autotrophic-derived production to trout in xeric regions.

  4. Thermo-aerobic bacteria from geothermal springs in Saudi Arabia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifteen isolates of thermo-aerobic bacteria were found. Bacillus cereus, B. licheniformis, B. thermoamylovorans, Pseudomonas sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter sp. were dominant in hot springs. Genetic relatedness indicated that eleven Bacillus spp. grouped together formed several clusters within one main ...

  5. An assessment of the water quality of the Isinuka springs in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2001-04-02

    Apr 2, 2001 ... poisoning might be a problem in pregnant women and bottle-fed infants. Water from Ferry Point Cottage spring met the water quality guidelines for ...... are above the maxi- mum limits recommended for drinking water. These parameters are considered to be “hot spots” in Isinuka springs which should be.

  6. Microbial ecology of hot desert edaphic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhalanyane, Thulani P; Valverde, Angel; Gunnigle, Eoin; Frossard, Aline; Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Cowan, Don A

    2015-03-01

    A significant proportion of the Earth's surface is desert or in the process of desertification. The extreme environmental conditions that characterize these areas result in a surface that is essentially barren, with a limited range of higher plants and animals. Microbial communities are probably the dominant drivers of these systems, mediating key ecosystem processes. In this review, we examine the microbial communities of hot desert terrestrial biotopes (including soils, cryptic and refuge niches and plant-root-associated microbes) and the processes that govern their assembly. We also assess the possible effects of global climate change on hot desert microbial communities and the resulting feedback mechanisms. We conclude by discussing current gaps in our understanding of the microbiology of hot deserts and suggest fruitful avenues for future research. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Learning Spring application development

    CERN Document Server

    Soni, Ravi Kant

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who are interested in learning the core features of the Spring Framework. Prior knowledge of Java programming and web development concepts with basic XML knowledge is expected.

  8. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  9. The Springs at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_springs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 5 points representing the springs, natural and man-made, at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The springs were...

  10. Hydrogeochemistry of Damt thermal springs, Yemen Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fara, M. [Sana' a University, Yemen Republic (Yemen). Dept. of Geology; Chandrasekharam, D. [Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India). Dept. of Earth Sciences; C.N.R. Center for Minerogenesis and Applied Geochemistry, Florence (Italy); Minissale, A. [C.N.R. Center for Minerogenesis and Applied Geochemistry, Florence (Italy)

    1999-04-01

    The Damt thermal springs (40-45{sup o}C), flowing through travertine deposits, belong to the Na-HCO{sub 3} type of water, and have higher pCO{sub 2} (from -1.18 to -0.58 = PCO{sub 2} from 0.07 to 0.26 atm) relative to cold Ca-SO{sub 4}-(Cl) groundwaters. The cold waters have pCO{sub 2} ranging from -1.86 to -2.50 (= PCO{sub 2} from 0.014 to 0.0035 atm). The chemical composition of the cold springs is controlled by evaporate deposits present in the Tawilah sandstone and Amran limestone formations, while simple crustal dissolution, coupled with CO{sub 2}-rich fluid-rock interaction control the chemical signature of the hot spring waters. The temperature of the feeding system, based on the K{sup 2}/Mg geothermometer, varies between 80 and 120{sup o}C. Damt thermal springs appear to be related to a 10,000 year-old volcanic activity that led to the appearance of several craters in the area. (author)

  11. Terrestrial and extraterrestrial fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heymann, D.; Jenneskens, L.W.; Jehlicka, J; Koper, C.; Vlietstra, E. [Rice Univ, Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Earth Science

    2003-07-01

    This paper reviews reports of occurrences of fullerenes in circumstellar media, interstellar media, meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), lunar rocks, hard terrestrial rocks from Shunga (Russia), Sudbury (Canada) and Mitov (Czech Republic), coal, terrestrial sediments from the Cretaceous-Tertiary-Boundary and Pennian-Triassic-Boundary, fulgurite, ink sticks, dinosaur eggs, and a tree char. The occurrences are discussed in the context of known and postulated processes of fullerene formation, including the suggestion that some natural fullerenes might have formed from biological (algal) remains.

  12. Mineralogy of saline perennial cold springs on Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut, Canada and implications for spring deposits on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battler, Melissa M.; Osinski, Gordon R.; Banerjee, Neil R.

    2013-06-01

    In recent years evidence for spring deposits on Mars has been mounting. It seems increasingly likely that groundwater upwelling and surfacing as springs may be responsible for some mineral deposits on Mars' surface. In order to more easily detect and better understand potential spring deposits on Mars, it is pertinent that we gain a better understanding of the distribution of minerals at cold spring systems on Earth. Here, we report on the detailed mineralogy and distribution of precipitates in crusts and sediments of three non-volcanic perennial saline cold spring systems associated with gypsum/anhydrite diapirs on Axel Heiberg Island, Canada: Wolf spring (WS; also known as Lost Hammer), Colour Peak springs (CP), and Gypsum Hill springs (GH). At these sites permafrost, frigid winter temperatures, and arid atmospheric conditions approximate conditions of present-day, as well as past, Mars. Mineralogy of the three springs is dominated by halite (NaCl), calcite (CaCO3), gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), thenardite (Na2SO4), mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O), and elemental sulfur (S°). Minerals at WS are more sodium-rich than at the other two sites, and water salinity is much higher, suggesting water flows through halite in the subsurface. Mirabilite is likely deposit at WS during winter months and dehydrates to thenardite during summer months. Elemental sulfur is typically associated with gypsum, and may be related to microbial metabolism. Spring sediments are home to thriving microbial communities in winter and summer months, and presumably year round. If spring systems did exist on the surface of Mars, they may represent environments capable of supporting microbial life. It is not known to what extent mineral crusts in cold saline spring systems on Earth preserve evidence of microbial life, or if they ever did on Mars. Therefore, studying terrestrial saline spring mineral deposits such as those on Axel Heiberg Island may help us to better understand cold spring precipitation on Mars

  13. Walking with springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, Thomas G.; Hollander, Kevin W.; Hitt, Joseph K.

    2011-04-01

    Developing bionic ankles poses great challenges due to the large moment, power, and energy that are required at the ankle. Researchers have added springs in series with a motor to reduce the peak power and energy requirements of a robotic ankle. We developed a "robotic tendon" that reduces the peak power by altering the required motor speed. By changing the required speed, the spring acts as a "load variable transmission." If a simple motor/gearbox solution is used, one walking step would require 38.8J and a peak motor power of 257 W. Using an optimized robotic tendon, the energy required is 21.2 J and the peak motor power is reduced to 96.6 W. We show that adding a passive spring in parallel with the robotic tendon reduces peak loads but the power and energy increase. Adding a passive spring in series with the robotic tendon reduces the energy requirements. We have built a prosthetic ankle SPARKy, Spring Ankle with Regenerative Kinetics, that allows a user to walk forwards, backwards, ascend and descend stairs, walk up and down slopes as well as jog.

  14. The terrestrial silica pump.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna C Carey

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si cycling controls atmospheric CO(2 concentrations and thus, the global climate, through three well-recognized means: chemical weathering of mineral silicates, occlusion of carbon (C to soil phytoliths, and the oceanic biological Si pump. In the latter, oceanic diatoms directly sequester 25.8 Gton C yr(-1, accounting for 43% of the total oceanic net primary production (NPP. However, another important link between C and Si cycling remains largely ignored, specifically the role of Si in terrestrial NPP. Here we show that 55% of terrestrial NPP (33 Gton C yr(-1 is due to active Si-accumulating vegetation, on par with the amount of C sequestered annually via marine diatoms. Our results suggest that similar to oceanic diatoms, the biological Si cycle of land plants also controls atmospheric CO(2 levels. In addition, we provide the first estimates of Si fixed in terrestrial vegetation by major global biome type, highlighting the ecosystems of most dynamic Si fixation. Projected global land use change will convert forests to agricultural lands, increasing the fixation of Si by land plants, and the magnitude of the terrestrial Si pump.

  15. Batteries for terrestrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulin, T.M.

    1998-07-01

    Extensive research has been conducted in the design and manufacture of very long life vented and sealed maintenance free nickel-cadmium aircraft batteries. These batteries have also been used in a number of terrestrial applications with good success. This study presents an overview of the Ni-Cd chemistry and technology as well as detailed analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the Ni-Cd couple for terrestrial applications. The performance characteristics of both sealed and vented Ni-Cd's are presented. Various charge algorithms are examined and evaluated for effectiveness and ease of implementation. Hardware requirements for charging are also presented and evaluated. The discharge characteristics of vented and sealed Ni-Cd's are presented and compared to other battery chemistries. The performance of Ni-Cd's under extreme environmental conditions is also compared to other battery chemistries. The history of various terrestrial applications is reviewed and some of the lessons learned are presented. Applications discussed include the NASA Middeck Payload Battery, Raytheon Aegis Missile System Battery, THAAD Launcher battery, and the Titan IV battery. The suitability of the Ni-Cd chemistry for other terrestrial applications such as electric vehicles and Uninterruptible Power Supply is discussed.

  16. Terrestrial planet formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K; O'Brien, D P

    2011-11-29

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (~10(6) y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few 10(6) y), and finally embryos to planets (10(7)-10(8) y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids.

  17. Spring Deposits and Mud Volcanoes on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C. C.; Oehler, D. Z.; Baker, D. M.

    2008-12-01

    We report evidence for spring deposits in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra. The Vernal structures are low mounds, each approximately 250 m by 500 m in extent, with terraced flanks, apical depressions, river-like channels, concentric fractures, and elliptical tonal anomalies. All of these features are common in terrestrial springs such as the Dalhousie complex in Australia. The structures occur in an apparent unit of interdune, water-laid sediment and are associated with evidence of subsurface fluid flow in sets of aligned outcrops. The Vernal springs may be part of a larger complex of spring deposits and lineations, suggesting that fluid flow in this region was relatively extensive. The structures in Vernal Crater are coated with a thin layer of dust, which prevents mineral identification from orbit. In an attempt to find evidence for additional spring mounds, we conducted a survey of nearly 2,000 locations for which CRISM spectral images are available. We used CRISM data to identify dust-free, hydrated areas and HiRISE, CTX, and MOC images to evaluate morphology. This study covered all longitudes and latitudes from 50N to 70S, except near Tharsis where data were analyzed south of 15S. No location exhibited morphological features that closely resembled those in Vernal Crater, suggesting that these putative spring mounds are not common in the highlands of Mars. Our search led us to concentrate on a dust-free area, centered at 41.8N, 332.5E in Acidalia Planitia where Farrand et al. (2005) identified features resembling spring mounds or mud volcanoes. Tanaka et al. (2005) mapped this region as part of the Early Amazonian Vastitas Borealis Unit, interpreted as reworked sediments from outflow channels and highland sources. We mapped over 20 high-albedo pitted domes in the area covered by one HiRISE frame, with dome diameters ranging from 350 m to 1 km. Nearby, similar domes have measured heights ranging from 36 to 65 m. The dome material is darker in THEMIS nighttime IR than

  18. Damper Spring For Omega Seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclaughlin, Scott T.; Montgomery, Stuart K.

    1993-01-01

    Damper spring reduces deflections of omega-cross-section seal, reducing probability of failure and extending life of seal. Spring is split ring with U-shaped cross section. Placed inside omega seal and inserted with seal into seal cavity. As omega seal compressed into cavity, spring and seal make contact near convolution of seal, and spring becomes compressed also. During operation, when seal dynamically loaded, spring limits deflection of seal, reducing stress on seal.

  19. Spring of women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Castillo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Terms such as “Islamic feminism” and “women’s movement” refer to those social movements of women that seek to assert their rights in Islamic societies. This brief study focuses on theses social movements of women and will presentan overview of the role and participation of women in the Arab Spring by examining news, events, press articles and opinions in order to contextualize the participation of women and feminists in the Arab Spring from a perspective of the social networking phenomenon as apparent drivers of the revolution.

  20. Pro Spring security

    CERN Document Server

    Scarioni, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Security is a key element in the development of any non-trivial application. The Spring Security Framework provides a comprehensive set of functionalities to implement industry-standard authentication and authorization mechanisms for Java applications. Pro Spring Security will be a reference and advanced tutorial that will do the following: Guides you through the implementation of the security features for a Java web application by presenting consistent examples built from the ground-up. Demonstrates the different authentication and authorization methods to secure enterprise-level applications

  1. Instant Spring security starter

    CERN Document Server

    Jagielski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to-follow format following the Starter guide approach.This book is for people who have not used Spring Security before and want to learn how to use it effectively in a short amount of time. It is assumed that readers know both Java and HTTP protocol at the level of basic web programming. The reader should also be familiar with Inversion-of-Control/Dependency Injection, preferably with the Spring framework itsel

  2. Hot debate in hot springs: Report on the second international meeting on SMC proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Tatsuya; Nishiyama, Tomoko; Shirahige, Katsuhiko

    2017-11-01

    The second international meeting on "SMC proteins: Chromosomal Organizers from Bacteria to Human" (SMC2017) was held in Nanyo City, Yamagata, Japan, from 13 to 16 June 2017. The meeting was attended by 134 participants (among them, 76 from outside of Japan) who were interested in one of the highly conserved classes of chromosomal proteins regulating large-scale chromosome structure and function. A keynote lecture was followed by 41 oral presentations and 71 poster presentations in the four-day meeting. Diverse topics surrounding eukaryotic SMC protein complexes (cohesins, condensins and SMC5/6) and prokaryotic SMCs, and a wide range of cutting-edge approaches (from polymer physics through medical genetics) were presented. Dominant themes discussed in the meeting included mechanistically how the SMC protein complexes might form chromatin loops and domains. The participants enjoyed both exciting debate about chromosome organization and warm welcome offered by local people in a small city located in the northern part of Japan. © 2017 The Authors. Genes to Cells published by Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Cold Saline Springs in Permafrost on Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldann, Jennifer; Toon, Owen B.

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes the research results which have emanated from work conducted on Cold Saline Springs in Permafrost on Earth and Mars. Three separate avenues of research including 1) terrestrial field work, 2) analysis of spacecraft data, and 3) numerical modeling were explored to provide a comprehensive investigation of water in the polar desert environments of both Earth and Mars. These investigations and their results are summarized.

  4. Microbial Biosignatures in High Iron Thermal Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parenteau, M. N.; Embaye, T.; Jahnke, L. L.; Cady, S. L.

    2003-12-01

    The emerging anoxic source waters at Chocolate Pots hot springs in Yellowstone National Park contain 2.6 to 11.2 mg/L Fe(II) and are 51-54° C and pH 5.5-6.0. These waters flow down the accumulating iron deposits and over three major phototrophic mat communities: Synechococcus/Chloroflexus at 51-54° C, Pseudanabaena at 51-54° C, and a narrow Oscillatoria at 36-45° C. We are assessing the contribution of the phototrophs to biosignature formation in this high iron system. These biosignatures can be used to assess the biological contribution to ancient iron deposits on Earth (e.g. Precambrian Banded Iron Formations) and, potentially, to those found on Mars. Most studies to date have focused on chemotrophic iron-oxidizing communities; however, recent research has demonstrated that phototrophs have a significant physiological impact on these iron thermal springs (Pierson et al. 1999, Pierson and Parenteau 2000, and Trouwborst et al., 2003). We completed a survey of the microfossils, biominerals, biofabrics, and lipid biomarkers in the phototrophic mats and stromatolitic iron deposits using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The Synechococcus/Chloroflexus mat was heavily encrusted with iron silicates while the narrow Oscillatoria mat was encrusted primarily with iron oxides. Encrustation of the cells increased with depth in the mats. Amorphous 2-line ferrihydrite is the primary precipitate in the spring and the only iron oxide mineral associated with the mats. Goethite, hematite, and siderite were detected in dry sediment samples on the face of the main iron deposit. Analysis of polar lipid fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) generated a suite of lipid biomarkers. The Synechococcus/Chloroflexus mat contained two mono-unsaturated isomers of n-C18:1 with smaller amounts of polyunsaturated n-C18:2, characteristic of cyanobacteria

  5. A Quadratic Spring Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Temple H.

    2010-01-01

    Through numerical investigations, we study examples of the forced quadratic spring equation [image omitted]. By performing trial-and-error numerical experiments, we demonstrate the existence of stability boundaries in the phase plane indicating initial conditions yielding bounded solutions, investigate the resonance boundary in the [omega]…

  6. Editors' Spring Picks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Journal, 2011

    2011-01-01

    While they do not represent the rainbow of reading tastes American public libraries accommodate, Book Review editors are a wildly eclectic bunch. One look at their bedside tables and ereaders would reveal very little crossover. This article highlights an eclectic array of spring offerings ranging from print books to an audiobook to ebook apps. It…

  7. Spring batch essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  8. Energy Matters - Spring 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-03-01

    Quarterly newsletter from DOE's Industrial Technologies Program to promote the use of energy-efficient industrial systems. The focus of the Spring 2002 Issue of Energy Matters focuses on premium energy efficiency systems, with articles on new gas technologies, steam efficiency, the Augusta Newsprint Showcase, and more.

  9. Springing of ships waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gunsteren, F.F.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis is the result of an investigation of the assumptions underlying the general applied method for the calculation of springing of ships in waves, which has been proposed by the author some decade ago. It has been found that, contrary to the general practice in seakeeping research, the

  10. Solar-Terrestrial Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    satellite for polar cap passes during large SEP events to determine the experimental geographic cutoff latitudes for the two energy ranges. 9 These...E. Lamanna, Societa Italiana di Fisica , Bologna, Italy, 1997.) Shea, M.A., and D.F. Smart, Overview of the Effects of Solar Terrestrial Phenomena...Conference, Invited, Rapporteurs, & Highlight Papers, edited by N. Iucci and E. Lamanna, Societa Italiana di Fisica , Bologna, Italy, 1997.) 27

  11. Enhanced Fe 2+ oxidation by mixed culture originated from hot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the significance information on the interaction between the factors, but also was conducted at optimal conditions for the desired objectives. It was also concluded that, the mixed culture isolated from the hot spring had the potential to oxidize ferrous to ferric irons. Key words: Biooxidation, response surface method, jarosite, ...

  12. Metagenomic analysis of bacterial diversity of Siloam hot water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacterial diversity of Siloam hot water spring was determined using 454 pyrosequencing of two 16S rRNA variable regions V1-3 and V4-7. Analysis of the community DNA revealed that the phyla Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteriodetes, Planctomycetes, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi and Verrucomicrobia were the most ...

  13. Fish Springs molluscan studies: House and Percy Springs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the findings of a limited survey of House and Percy Springs molluscan fauna within Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Various...

  14. Leaf spring, and electromagnetic actuator provided with a leaf spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Lemmen, Remco Louis Christiaan

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to a leaf spring for an electromagnetic actuator and to such an electromagnetic actuator. The leaf spring is formed as a whole from a disc of plate-shaped, resilient material. The leaf spring comprises a central fastening part, an outer fastening part extending therearound and

  15. Studying Springs in Series Using a Single Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Juan D.; Joshi, Amitabh

    2011-01-01

    Springs are used for a wide range of applications in physics and engineering. Possibly, one of their most common uses is to study the nature of restoring forces in oscillatory systems. While experiments that verify Hooke's law using springs are abundant in the physics literature, those that explore the combination of several springs together are…

  16. Habitat features and distribution of Salamandra salamandra in underground springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul Manenti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Subterranean habitats are among the less known terrestrial habitats, but can reveal an unexpected biodiversity, and can play an underestimated role for amphibians. The fire salamander Salamandra salamandra is sometimes found in underground environments, but the factors affecting its distribution in subterranean spaces remain substantially unexplored. We repeatedly surveyed some hypogeous springs, such as draining galleries and “bottini” in NW Italy, in order to evaluate the relationship between environmental features and distribution of S. salamandra in these underground springs. We performed visual encounter surveys to assess the occurrence of larvae, juveniles or adults in springs. We also recorded four habitat variables: easy of access, isolation, macrobenthos richness and forest cover of the surrounding landscape. We used generalized linear models to evaluate the relationships between habitat features and occurrence of larvae. We observed larvae of S. salamandra in 13 out of 22 springs; their presence was associated to springs with high easy of access and with relatively rich macrobenthos communities. In underground springs, larval development apparently required longer time than in nearby epigeous streams. Nevertheless, S. salamandra can attain metamorphosis in this environment. The occurrence of S. salamandra in underground environments was not accidental, but repeated in the time and interesting from an ecological point of view, confirming the high plasticity of the species.

  17. Terrestrial Steering Group. 2014. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Peter; Aronsson, Mora; Barry, Tom

    implementation of the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan for the next two years. Identify expert networks required for successful implementation of the plan. Identify key gaps and opportunities for the TSG related to plan implementation and identify near-term next steps to address gaps.......The Terrestrial Steering Group (TSG), has initiated the implementation phase of the CBMP Terrestrial Plan. The CBMP Terrestrial Steering Group, along with a set of invited experts (see Appendix A for a participants list), met in Iceland from February 25-27th to develop a three year work plan...... to guide implementation of the CBMP-Terrestrial Plan. This report describes the outcome of that workshop. The aim of the workshop was to develop a three year work plan to guide implementation of the CBMP-Terrestrial Plan. The participants were tasked with devising an approach to both (a) determine what...

  18. Spring magnet films.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, S. D.; Fullerton, E. E.; Gornakov, V. S.; Inomata, A.; Jiang, J. S.; Nikitenko, V. I.; Shapiro, A. J.; Shull, R. D.; Sowers, C. H.

    1999-03-29

    The properties of exchange-spring-coupled bilayer and superlattice films are highlighted for Sm-Co hard magnet and Fe or Co soft magnet layers. The hexagonal Sm-Co is grown via magnetron sputtering in a- and b-axis epitaxial orientations. In both cases the c-axis, in the film plane, is the easy axis of magnetization. Trends in coercivity with film thickness are established and related to the respective microstructure of the two orientations. The magnetization reversal process for the bilayers is examined by magnetometry and magneto-optical imaging, as well as by simulations that utilize a one-dimensional model to provide the spin configuration for each atomic layer. The Fe magnetization is pinned to that of the Sm-Co at the interface, and reversal proceeds via a progressive twisting of the Fe magnetization. The Fe demagnetization curves are reversible as expected for a spring magnet. Comparison of experiment and simulations indicates that the spring magnet behavior can be understood from the intrinsic properties of the hard and soft layers. Estimated are made of the ultimate gain in performance that can potentially be realized in this system.

  19. Hydrogeochemical characteristics and sources of salinity of the springs near Wenquanzhen in the eastern Sichuan Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Juan; Zhou, Xun; Wang, Lidong; Zhang, Yuqi; Shen, Xiaowei; Zhou, Haiyan; Ye, Shen; Fang, Bin

    2017-12-01

    Natural springs have the potential to provide important information on hydrogeochemical processes within aquifers. This study used traditional and classic technical methods and procedures to determine the characteristics and evolution of springs to gain further knowledge on the differences between hot saline springs and cold fresh springs. In a short river segment near Wenquanzhen in the eastern Sichuan Basin, southwest China, several natural springs coexist with total dissolved solids (TDS) ranging from less than 1 to 15 g/L and temperatures from 15 to 40 °C. The springs emanate from the outcropping Lower and Middle Triassic carbonates in the river valley cutting the core of an anticline. The cold springs are of Cl·HCO3-Na·Ca and Cl·SO4-Na types, and the hot saline springs are mainly of Cl-Na type. The chemistry of the springs has undergone some changes with time. The stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes indicate that the spring waters are of a meteoric origin. The salinity of the springs originates from dissolution of minerals, including halite, gypsum, calcite and dolomite. The evolution of the springs involves the following mechanisms: the groundwater receives recharge from infiltration of precipitation, then undergoes deep circulation in the core of the anticline (incongruent dissolution of the salt-bearing strata occurs), and emerges in the river valley in the form of hot springs with high TDS. Groundwater also undergoes shallow circulation in the northern and southern flanks of the anticline and appears in the river valley in the form of cold springs with low TDS.

  20. Microstructure of terrestrial catastrophism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clube, S.V.M. (Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astrophysics); Napier, W.M. (Royal Observatory, Edinburgh (UK))

    1984-12-15

    The theory of evolution involving episodic terrestrial catastrophism predicts that the Oort cloud is disturbed by close encounters with massive nebulae. Each disturbance generates bombardment pulses of a few million years duration, the pulse frequencies being determined by the Sun's passage through the spiral arms and central plane of the Galaxy where nebulae concentrate. The structure within a pulse is shown here to be dominated by a series of 'spikes' of approx. 0.01-0.1 Myr duration separated by approx. 0.1-1.0 Myr, each caused by the arrival in circumterrestrial space of the largest comets followed by their disintegration into short-lived Apollo asteroids. Evidence is presented that a bombardment pulse was induced 3-5 Myr ago and that a 'spike' in the form of debris from a Chiron-like progenitor of Encke's comet has dominated the terrestrial environment for the last 0.02 Myr.

  1. Hydrologic and chemical data for selected thermal-water wells and springs in the Indian Bathtub area, Owyhee County, southwestern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, H.W.; Parliman, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents data collected during January through September 1989 from 86 thermal-water wells and 5 springs in the Indian Bathtub area, southwestern Idaho. The data include well and spring locations, well-construction and water level information, hydrographs of water levels in 9 wells, hydrographs of discharges in 4 springs, and chemical and isotopic analysis of water from 33 thermal-water wells and 5 springs. These data were collected as part of a continuing study to determine the cause or causes of decreased discharge at Indian Bathtub Spring and other thermal springs along Hot Creek.

  2. Terrestrial Plume Impingement Testbed Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Masten Space Systems proposes to create a terrestrial plume impingement testbed for generating novel datasets for extraterrestrial robotic missions. This testbed...

  3. Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldocchi, Dennis; Ryu, Youngryel; Keenan, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    A growing literature is reporting on how the terrestrial carbon cycle is experiencing year-to-year variability because of climate anomalies and trends caused by global change. As CO 2 concentration records in the atmosphere exceed 50 years and as satellite records reach over 30 years in length, we are becoming better able to address carbon cycle variability and trends. Here we review how variable the carbon cycle is, how large the trends in its gross and net fluxes are, and how well the signal can be separated from noise. We explore mechanisms that explain year-to-year variability and trends by deconstructing the global carbon budget. The CO 2 concentration record is detecting a significant increase in the seasonal amplitude between 1958 and now. Inferential methods provide a variety of explanations for this result, but a conclusive attribution remains elusive. Scientists have reported that this trend is a consequence of the greening of the biosphere, stronger northern latitude photosynthesis, more photosynthesis by semi-arid ecosystems, agriculture and the green revolution, tropical temperature anomalies, or increased winter respiration. At the global scale, variability in the terrestrial carbon cycle can be due to changes in constituent fluxes, gross primary productivity, plant respiration and heterotrophic (microbial) respiration, and losses due to fire, land use change, soil erosion, or harvesting. It remains controversial whether or not there is a significant trend in global primary productivity (due to rising CO 2 , temperature, nitrogen deposition, changing land use, and preponderance of wet and dry regions). The degree to which year-to-year variability in temperature and precipitation anomalies affect global primary productivity also remains uncertain. For perspective, interannual variability in global gross primary productivity is relatively small (on the order of 2 Pg-C y -1 ) with respect to a large and uncertain background (123 +/- 4 Pg-C y -1 ), and

  4. Terrestrial plant methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature......, ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species. Further, we analyze rates of measured emission of aerobically produced CH4 in pectin and in plant tissues from different studies and argue that pectin is very far from the sole contributing precursor. Hence, scaling up of aerobic CH4 emission needs to take...... the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  5. Space Weather: Terrestrial Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulkkinen Tuija

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Space weather effects arise from the dynamic conditions in the Earth’s space environment driven by processes on the Sun. While some effects are influenced neither by the properties of nor the processes within the Earth’s magnetosphere, others are critically dependent on the interaction of the impinging solar wind with the terrestrial magnetic field and plasma environment. As the utilization of space has become part of our everyday lives, and as our lives have become increasingly dependent on technological systems vulnerable to space weather influences, understanding and predicting hazards posed by the active solar events has grown in importance. This review introduces key dynamic processes within the magnetosphere and discusses their relationship to space weather hazards.

  6. Hot-pressed geopolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjbar, Navid; Mehrali, Mohammad; Maheri, Mahmoud R.

    2017-01-01

    /FA, duration of hot-pressing and sodium concentration are studied. Together with detailed experimental studies, our results reveal that the most dominant factor is the induced pressure. The main results indicated that the highest compressive strength of the geopolymer (134 MPa) could be obtained by employing...... the hot pressing, temperature and duration of 41.4 MPa, 350 °C and 20 min, respectively. The microstructure of the hot-pressed specimens showed more developed geopolymer matrix compared with conventional ones leading to higher compressive strength in much shortest time. The improved mechanical properties...

  7. The Murray Springs Clovis site, Pleistocene extinction, and the question of extraterrestrial impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, C Vance; Boerner, J; Domanik, K; Lauretta, D; Ballenger, J; Goreva, J

    2010-03-02

    Some of the evidence for the recent hypothesis of an extraterrestrial impact that caused late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions [Firestone et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:16016-16021] was based upon samples collected at Murray Springs, a Clovis archaeological site in southeastern Arizona. Here we describe sampling and analyses of magnetic separates from within, above, and below the lower Younger Dryas boundary (LYDB) black mat at Murray Springs, as well as radiation measurements from the LYDB at Murray Springs and two other well-stratified Clovis sites. The main magnetic fraction at Murray Springs is maghemite. Magnetic microspherules have terrestrial origins but also occur as cosmic dust particles. We failed to find iridium or radiation anomalies. The evidence for massive biomass burning at Murray Springs is addressed and found to be lacking. We could not substantiate some of the claims by Firestone and others, but our findings do not preclude a terminal Pleistocene cosmic event.

  8. Spring viremia of carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahne, W.; Bjorklund, H.V.; Essbauer, S.; Fijan, N.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    pring viremia of carp (SVC) is an important disease affecting cyprinids, mainly common carp Cyprinus carpio. The disease is widespread in European carp culture, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality. Designated a notifiable disease by the Office International des Epizooties, SVC is caused by a rhabdovirus, spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). Affected fish show destruction of tissues in the kidney, spleen and liver, leading to hemorrhage, loss of water-salt balance and impairment of immune response. High mortality occurs at water temperatures of 10 to 17°C, typically in spring. At higher temperatures, infected carp develop humoral antibodies that can neutralize the spread of virus and such carp are protected against re-infection by solid immunity. The virus is shed mostly with the feces and urine of clinically infected fish and by carriers. Waterborne transmission is believed to be the primary route of infection, but bloodsucking parasites like leeches and the carp louse may serve as mechanical vectors of SVCV. The genome of SVCV is composed of a single molecule of linear, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA containing 5 genes in the order 3¹-NPMGL-5¹ coding for the viral nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein, and polymerase, respectively. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the viral proteins, and sequence homologies between the genes and gene junctions of SVCV and vesicular stomatitis viruses, have led to the placement of the virus as a tentative member of the genus Vesiculovirus in the family Rhabdoviridae. These methods also revealed that SVCV is not related to fish rhabdoviruses of the genus Novirhabdovirus. In vitro replication of SVCV takes place in the cytoplasm of cultured cells of fish, bird and mammalian origin at temperatures of 4 to 31°C, with an optimum of about 20°C. Spring viremia of carp can be diagnosed by clinical signs, isolation of virus in cell culture and molecular methods. Antibodies directed

  9. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.

    2017-06-27

    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  10. China's 'Hot Money' Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F; Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    .... The recent large inflow of financial capital into China, commonly referred to as "hot money," has led some economists to warn that such flows may have a destabilizing effect on China's economy...

  11. Hot Weather Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hot, heavy meals and don’t use the oven. Monitor medications: Find out if the person’s medications ... nia.nih.gov Photo: By High Contrast (Own work) [CC BY 3.0 de ( http://creativecommons.org/ ...

  12. Spring security 3.x cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Mankale, Anjana

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a cookbook style exploring various security solutions provided by Spring Security for various vulnerabilities and threat scenarios that web applications may be exposed to at the authentication and session level layers.This book is for all Spring-based application developers as well as Java web developers who wish to implement robust security mechanisms into web application development using Spring Security.Readers are assumed to have a working knowledge of Java web application development, a basic understanding of the Spring framework, and some knowledge of the fundamentals o

  13. Terrestrial locomotion in arachnids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagna, Joseph C; Peattie, Anne M

    2012-05-01

    In this review, we assess the current state of knowledge on terrestrial locomotion in Arachnida. Arachnids represent a single diverse (>100,000 species) clade containing well-defined subgroups (at both the order and subordinal levels) that vary morphologically around a basic body plan, yet exhibit highly disparate limb usage, running performance, and tarsal attachment mechanisms. Spiders (Araneae), scorpions (Scorpiones), and harvestmen (Opiliones) have received the most attention in the literature, while some orders have never been subject to rigorous mechanical characterization. Most well-characterized taxa move with gaits analogous to the alternating tripod gaits that characterize fast-moving Insecta - alternating tetrapods or alternating tripods (when one pair of legs is lifted from the ground for some other function). However, between taxa, there is considerable variation in the regularity of phasing between legs. Both large and small spiders appear to show a large amount of variation in the distribution of foot-ground contact, even between consecutive step-cycles of a single run. Mechanisms for attachment to vertical surfaces also vary, and may depend on tufts of adhesive hairs, fluid adhesives, silks, or a combination of these. We conclude that Arachnida, particularly with improvements in microelectronic force sensing technology, can serve as a powerful study system for understanding the kinematics, dynamics, and ecological correlates of sprawled-posture locomotion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. M.; Boutrup, S.; Bijl, L. van der

    This report presents the 2004 results of the Danish National Monitoring and Assess-ment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments (NOVANA). 2004 was the first year in which terrestrial nature was included in the monitoring pro-gramme. The report reviews the state of the groundwater......, watercourses, lakes and marine waters and the pressures upon them and reviews the monitoring of terrestrial natural habitats and selected plants and animals. The report is based on the annual reports prepared for each subprogramme by the Topic Centres. The latter reports are mainly based on data collected...

  15. Experimenting with Inexpensive Plastic Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Leander; Marques, Adriana; Sánchez, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Acommon undergraduate laboratory experience is the determination of the elastic constant of a spring, whether studying the elongation under a static load or studying the damped harmonic motion of the spring with a suspended mass. An alternative approach to this laboratory experience has been suggested by Menezes et al., aimed at studying the…

  16. Microbial biosynthesis of wax esters during desiccation: an adaptation for colonization of the earliest terrestrial environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, D. B.; Brassell, S. C.; Pratt, L. M.

    2008-12-01

    Biosynthesis of wax esters (WE) by prokaryotes in natural systems, notably bacteria from hot springs and marine phytoplankton, is poorly documented, primarily because saponification is a routine step in the analysis of microbial mat lipids. Use of this preparative procedure, critical for characterization of the diagnostic distributions of carboxylic acids in phospholipids, precludes recovery of intact WE. Examination of non-saponified lipids in emergent and desiccated mats with comparable microbial communities from the Warner Lake region, Oregon, reveals increases in the relative abundance (18.6 to 59.9μg/g Corg) and average chain length (C38 to C46) of WE in the latter, combined with assimilation of phytol and tocopherol moieties. Prokaryotes can accumulate WE as storage lipids in vitro, notably at elevated temperature or under nitrogen limiting conditions, but we propose that biosynthesis of long-chain WE that have a low solubility and are resistant to degradation/oxidation may represent an evolutionary strategy to survive desiccation in evaporative environments. Moreover, aeolian transport of desiccated mat-rip-ups between lake flats allows for migration of microbial communities within and between lake flats and basins during arid conditions. Subsequent rehydration within an alkaline environment would naturally saponify WE, and thereby regenerate alcohol and acid moieties that could serve as membrane lipids for the next viable microbial generation. The evolutionary cradle of WE was likely abiotic generation under hydrothermal conditions, which is consistent with the antiquity of the ester linkage necessitated by its integral role in the membranes of Eubacteria (though not Archaea) and in bacteriochlorophyll. The subsequent capability of microbes to biosynthesize WE may have facilitated their survival when nutrients were limiting, and production of long-chain WE (>C40) may represent a further critical evolutionary threshold that enabled their persistence through

  17. DECIPHERING THERMAL PHASE CURVES OF DRY, TIDALLY LOCKED TERRESTRIAL PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koll, Daniel D. B.; Abbot, Dorian S., E-mail: dkoll@uchicago.edu [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2015-03-20

    Next-generation space telescopes will allow us to characterize terrestrial exoplanets. To do so effectively it will be crucial to make use of all available data. We investigate which atmospheric properties can, and cannot, be inferred from the broadband thermal phase curve of a dry and tidally locked terrestrial planet. First, we use dimensional analysis to show that phase curves are controlled by six nondimensional parameters. Second, we use an idealized general circulation model to explore the relative sensitivity of phase curves to these parameters. We find that the feature of phase curves most sensitive to atmospheric parameters is the peak-to-trough amplitude. Moreover, except for hot and rapidly rotating planets, the phase amplitude is primarily sensitive to only two nondimensional parameters: (1) the ratio of dynamical to radiative timescales and (2) the longwave optical depth at the surface. As an application of this technique, we show how phase curve measurements can be combined with transit or emission spectroscopy to yield a new constraint for the surface pressure and atmospheric mass of terrestrial planets. We estimate that a single broadband phase curve, measured over half an orbit with the James Webb Space Telescope, could meaningfully constrain the atmospheric mass of a nearby super-Earth. Such constraints will be important for studying the atmospheric evolution of terrestrial exoplanets as well as characterizing the surface conditions on potentially habitable planets.

  18. A bountiful spring harvest

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Although we recently put the clocks forward and spring has officially begun, the view from my window looks more autumnal – befitting of the season of mists and mellow fruitfulness, rather than that of sowing seeds for the future. Which, in a way is appropriate. With the LHC paused, we are reaping a kind of harvest in the form of recognition for our efforts.   Two weeks ago, I was in Edinburgh, on behalf of everyone at CERN, to collect the Edinburgh medal, which we shared with Peter Higgs. I particularly like the citation for this honour: “The Edinburgh Medal is awarded each year to men and women of science and technology whose professional achievements are judged to have made a significant contribution to the understanding and well-being of humanity.” I like this, because it underlines a fact that needs to be shouted louder – that fundamental science does more than build the sum of human knowledge, it is also the foundation of human well-being. A few d...

  19. Spring comes for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Butin, F.

    2004-01-01

    (First published in the CERN weekly bulletin 24/2004, 7 June 2004.) A short while ago the ATLAS cavern underwent a spring clean, marking the end of the installation of the detector's support structures and the cavern's general infrastructure. The list of infrastructure to be installed in the ATLAS cavern from September 2003 was long: a thousand tonnes of mechanical structures spread over 13 storeys, two lifts, two 65-tonne overhead travelling cranes 25 metres above cavern floor, with a telescopic boom and cradle to access the remaining 10 metres of the cavern, a ventilation system for the 55 000 cubic metre cavern, a drainage system, a standard sprinkler system and an innovative foam fire-extinguishing system, as well as the external cryogenic system for the superconducting magnets and the liquid argon calorimeters (comprising, amongst other things, two helium refrigeration units, a nitrogen refrigeration unit and 5 km of piping for gaseous or liquid helium and nitrogen), not to mention the handling eq...

  20. Effect of temperature on the orthodontic clinical applications of niti closed-coil springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinar-Escalona, Eduardo; Llamas-Carreras, José M.; Barrera-Mora, José M.; Abalos-Lasbrucci, Camilo

    2013-01-01

    NiTi spring coils were used to obtain large deformation under a constant force. The device consists on a NiTi coil spring, superelastic at body temperature, in order to have a stress plateau during the austenitic retransformation during the unloading. The temperature variations induced changes in the spring force. Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the temperature variations in the spring forces and corrosion behaviour simulating the ingestion hot/cold drinks and food. Study Design: The springs were subjected to a tensile force using universal testing machine MTS-Adamel (100 N load cell). All tests were performed in artificial saliva maintained at different temperatures. The corrosion tests were performed according to the ISO-standard 10993-15:2000. Results: The increase in temperature of 18oC induced an increase in the spring force of 30%. However, when the temperature returns to 37oC the distraction force recovers near the initial level. After cooling down the spring to 15oC, the force decreased by 46%. This investigation show as the temperature increase, the corrosion potential shifts towards negative values and the corrosion density is rising. Conclusions: The changes of the temperatures do not modify the superelastic behaviour of the NiTi closed-coil springs. The corrosion potential of NiTi in artificial saliva is decreasing by the rise of the temperatures. Key words:Superelasticity, NiTi, springs, orthodontic, coils, recovery, temperature. PMID:23722142

  1. IR Hot Wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, T. B.

    2010-04-01

    The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace is a breakthrough heat treatment system for manufacturing metal components. Near-infrared (IR) radiant energy combines with IR convective heating for heat treating. Heat treatment is an essential process in the manufacture of most components. The controlled heating and cooling of a metal or metal alloy alters its physical, mechanical, and sometimes chemical properties without changing the object's shape. The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace offers the simplest, quickest, most efficient, and cost-effective heat treatment option for metals and metal alloys. Compared with other heat treatment alternatives, the IR Hot Wave{trademark} system: (1) is 3 to 15 times faster; (2) is 2 to 3 times more energy efficient; (3) is 20% to 50% more cost-effective; (4) has a {+-}1 C thermal profile compared to a {+-}10 C thermal profile for conventional gas furnaces; and (5) has a 25% to 50% smaller footprint.

  2. A Microseismometer for Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerdt, W.; Kaiser, W.; Vanzandt, T.

    1993-01-01

    The scientific and technical requirements of extraterrestrial seismology place severe demands on instrumentation. Performance in terms of sensitivity, stability, and frequency band must match that of the best terrestrial instruments, at a fraction of the size, mass, and power. In addition, this performance must be realized without operator intervention in harsh temperature, shock, and radiation environments. These constraints have forced us to examine some fundamental limits of accelerometer design in order to produce a small, rugged, sensitive seismometer. Silicon micromachined sensor technology offers techniques for the fabrication of monolithic, robust, compact, low-power and -mass accelerometers. However, currently available sensors offer inadequate sensitivity and bandwidth. Our implementation of an advanced silicon micro machined seismometer is based on principles developed at JPL for high-sensitivity position sensor technology. The use of silicon micro machining technology with these new principles should enable the fabrication of a 10(exp -11) g sensitivity seismometer with a bandwidth of at least 0.01 to 20 Hz. The low Q properties of pure single-crystal silicon are essential in order to minimize the Brownian thermal noise limitations generally characteristic of seismometers with small proof masses. A seismometer consists of a spring-supported proof mass and a transducer for measuring its motion. For long period motion a position sensor is generally used, for which the displacement is proportional to the ground acceleration. The mechanical sensitivity can be increased either by increasing the proof mass or decreasing the spring stiffness, neither of which is desirable for planetary applications. Our approach has been to use an ultra sensitive capacitive position sensor with a sensitivity of better than 10(exp -13) m/Hz(exp 1/2). This allows the use of a stiffer suspension and a smaller proof mass. We have built several prototypes using these principles

  3. Non-thermal hydrogen atoms in the terrestrial upper thermosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianqi; Waldrop, Lara

    2016-12-06

    Model predictions of the distribution and dynamical transport of hydrogen atoms in the terrestrial atmosphere have long-standing discrepancies with ultraviolet remote sensing measurements, indicating likely deficiencies in conventional theories regarding this crucial atmospheric constituent. Here we report the existence of non-thermal hydrogen atoms that are much hotter than the ambient oxygen atoms in the upper thermosphere. Analysis of satellite measurements indicates that the upper thermospheric hydrogen temperature, more precisely the mean kinetic energy of the atomic hydrogen population, increases significantly with declining solar activity, contrary to contemporary understanding of thermospheric behaviour. The existence of hot hydrogen atoms in the upper thermosphere, which is the key to reconciling model predictions and observations, is likely a consequence of low atomic oxygen density leading to incomplete collisional thermalization of the hydrogen population following its kinetic energization through interactions with hot atomic or ionized constituents in the ionosphere, plasmasphere or magnetosphere.

  4. Fast heating and cooling in nanoimprint using a spring-loaded adapter in a preheated press

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schift, Helmut; Bellini, Sandro; Gobrecht, Jens

    2007-01-01

    By using a spring-loaded adapter, instant heating and cooling of wafer-type substrates was implemented in standard hot embossing equipment. This was possible by using the well-known concept of a clamped stack of stamp and substrate, pre-assembled in an alignment fixture. A number of thermoplastic...

  5. Effects of Timber Harvests and Silvicultural Edges on Terrestrial Salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Jami E.; Williams, Rod N.

    2014-01-01

    Balancing timber production and conservation in forest management requires an understanding of how timber harvests affect wildlife species. Terrestrial salamanders are useful indicators of mature forest ecosystem health due to their importance to ecosystem processes and sensitivity to environmental change. However, the effects of timber harvests on salamanders, though often researched, are still not well understood. To further this understanding, we used artificial cover objects to monitor the relative abundance of terrestrial salamanders for two seasons (fall and spring) pre-harvest and five seasons post-harvest in six forest management treatments, and for three seasons post-harvest across the edge gradients of six recent clearcuts. In total, we recorded 19,048 encounters representing nine species of salamanders. We observed declines in mean encounters of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) and northern slimy salamanders (P. glutinosus) from pre- to post-harvest in group selection cuts and in clearcuts. However, we found no evidence of salamander declines at shelterwoods and forested sites adjacent to harvests. Edge effects induced by recent clearcuts influenced salamanders for approximately 20 m into the forest, but edge influence varied by slope orientation. Temperature, soil moisture, and canopy cover were all correlated with salamander counts. Our results suggest silvicultural techniques that remove the forest canopy negatively affect salamander relative abundance on the local scale during the years immediately following harvest, and that the depth of edge influence of clearcuts on terrestrial salamanders is relatively shallow (harvests (<4 ha) and techniques that leave the forest canopy intact may be compatible with maintaining terrestrial salamander populations across a forested landscape. Our results demonstrate the importance of examining species-specific responses and monitoring salamanders across multiple seasons and years. Long

  6. Fish Springs weather CY 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Weather data for calendar year 2010 at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Data is provided for each month and includes maximum temperature, minimum temperature,...

  7. Steller's Eider spring migration surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Annual spring aerial surveys were conducted most years from 1992 to 2008, to monitor the population status and habitat use of Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri)...

  8. Geophysical investigations of the geologic and hydrothermal framework of the Pilgrim Springs Geothermal Area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, Jonathan; McPhee, Darcy K.; Bedrosian, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Pilgrim Hot Springs, located on the Seward Peninsula in west-central Alaska, is characterized by hot springs, surrounding thawed regions, and elevated lake temperatures. The area is of interest because of its potential for providing renewable energy for Nome and nearby rural communities. We performed ground and airborne geophysical investigations of the Pilgrim Springs geothermal area to identify areas indicative of high heat flow and saline geothermal fluids, and to map key structures controlling hydrothermal fluid flow. Studies included ground gravity and magnetic measurements, as well as an airborne magnetic and frequency-domain electromagnetic (EM) survey. The structural and conceptual framework developed from this study provides critical information for future development of this resource and is relevant more generally to our understanding of geothermal systems in active extensional basins. Potential field data reveal the Pilgrim area displays a complex geophysical fabric reflecting a network of intersecting fault and fracture sets ranging from inherited basement structures to Tertiary faults. Resistivity models derived from the airborne EM data reveal resistivity anomalies in the upper 100 m of the subsurface that suggest elevated temperatures and the presence of saline fluids. A northwest trending fabric across the northeastern portion of the survey area parallels structures to the east that may be related to accommodation between the two major mountain ranges south (Kigluaik) and east (Bendeleben) of Pilgrim Springs. The area from the springs southward to the range front, however, is characterized by east-west trending, range-front-parallel anomalies likely caused by late Cenozoic structures associated with north-south extension that formed the basin. The area around the springs (~10 km2 ) is coincident with a circular magnetic high punctuated by several east-west trending magnetic lows, the most prominent occurring directly over the springs. These features

  9. Experience with hot catchpots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1945-02-02

    The first part of this report was actually a letter regarding the question, ''could the hot circulating pump be omitted when processing pitch at 700 atm.'' It had been stated that the hot circulation pump could be omitted if the quantity of cold letdown was correspondingly increased. The latest experiences with the catchpot at Poelitz showed the following. When running pitch, tar, or petroleum in the liquid-phase stalls, frequent trouble with the hot catchpot was encountered due to the coking. This coking was caused by irregular letdown yield, which could not be avoided due to small temperature fluctuations in the stall. This caused interruption of the uniform flow in the hot catchpot and the deposition of the solids contained in the letdown, largely catalyst solids, due to the asphalt content. Coking of the product was initiated by this concentration of catalyst solids. A perforated double jacket was inserted in the conical part of the catchpot through which about 3000 m/sup 3/ per hour of cold gas was blown in continuously. By this agitation and cooling in the lowest part of the catchpot, catalyst deposits were prevented from forming and the product received a continuous added supply of hydrogen. Another letter was given discussing the same question and an alternate solution. This second letter described Welheim's design for the hot catchpot. It featured introduction of 5000 to 6000 m/sup 3//hr of cold circulating gas into the lower part of the catchpot, and withdrawal of letdown from a point above the gas inlet. The advantages were continued agitation and cooling of the sludge and constant retention of some cold sludge in the catchpot (which evened out throughput and content fluctuations)

  10. Physical, chemical, and isotopic data for samples from the Anderson Springs area, Lake County, California, 1998-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, C.J.; Goff, F.; Sorey, M.L.; Rytuba, J.J.; Counce, D.; Colvard, E.M.; Huebner, M.; White, L.D.; Foster, A.

    1999-01-01

    Anderson Springs is located about 90 miles (145 kilometers) north of San Francisco, California, in the southwestern part of Lake County. The area was first developed in the late 1800s as a health resort, which was active until the 1930s. In the rugged hills to the south of the resort were four small mercury mines of the eastern Mayacmas quicksilver district. About 1,260 flasks of mercury were produced from these mines between 1909 and 1943. In the 1970s, the high-elevation areas surrounding Anderson Springs became part of The Geysers geothermal field. Today, several electric powerplants are located on the ridges above Anderson Springs, utilizing steam produced from a 240°C vapor-dominated reservoir. The primary purpose of this report is to provide physical, chemical, and isotopic data on samples collected in the Anderson Springs area during 1998 and 1999, in response to a Freedom of Information Act request. In July 1998, drainage from the Schwartz adit of the abandoned Anderson mercury mine increased substantially over a 2-day period, transporting a slurry of water and precipitates down a tributary and into Anderson Creek. In August 1998, J.J. Rytuba and coworkers sampled the Schwartz adit drainage and water from the Anderson Springs Hot Spring for base metal and methylmercury analysis. They measured a maximum temperature (Tm) of 85°C in the Hot Spring. Published records show that the temperature of the Anderson Springs Hot Spring (main spring) was 63°C in 1889, 42–52°C from 1974 through 1991, and 77°C in March 1995. To investigate possible changes in thermal spring activity and to collect additional samples for geochemical analysis, C.J. Janik and coworkers returned to the area in September and December 1998. They determined that a cluster of springs adjacent to the main spring had Tm=98°C, and they observed that a new area of boiling vents and small fumaroles (Tm=99.3°C) had formed in an adjacent gully about 20 meters to the north of the main spring

  11. Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) is one of the largest hot cells dedicated to radioactive materials research at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The nation's...

  12. Terrestrial ecosystems and climatic change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emanuel, W.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Schimel, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA). Natural Resources Ecology Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    The structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems depend on climate, and in turn, ecosystems influence atmospheric composition and climate. A comprehensive, global model of terrestrial ecosystem dynamics is needed. A hierarchical approach appears advisable given currently available concepts, data, and formalisms. The organization of models can be based on the temporal scales involved. A rapidly responding model describes the processes associated with photosynthesis, including carbon, moisture, and heat exchange with the atmosphere. An intermediate model handles subannual variations that are closely associated with allocation and seasonal changes in productivity and decomposition. A slow response model describes plant growth and succession with associated element cycling over decades and centuries. These three levels of terrestrial models are linked through common specifications of environmental conditions and constrain each other. 58 refs.

  13. The hot chocolate effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Frank S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1982-05-01

    The "hot chocolate effect" was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the ten percent accuracy of the experiments.

  14. RAPID ARSENITE OXIDATION BY THERMUS AQUATICUS AND THERMUS THERMOPHILUS: FIELD AND LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS. (R826189)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermus aquaticus and Thermus thermophilus, common inhabitants of terrestrial hot springs and thermally polluted domestic and industrial waters, have been found to rapidly oxidize arsenite to arsenate. Field investigations at a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park revealed ...

  15. Microbial community composition and endolith colonization at an Arctic thermal spring are driven by calcite precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Verena; Kirshtein, Julie; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Steele, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Environmental conditions shape community composition. Arctic thermal springs provide an opportunity to study how environmental gradients can impose strong selective pressures on microbial communities and provide a continuum of niche opportunities. We use microscopic and molecular methods to conduct a survey of microbial community composition at Troll Springs on Svalbard, Norway, in the high Arctic. Microorganisms there exist under a wide range of environmental conditions: in warm water as periphyton, in moist granular materials, and in cold, dry rock as endoliths. Troll Springs has two distinct ecosystems, aquatic and terrestrial, together in close proximity, with different underlying environmental factors shaping each microbial community. Periphyton are entrapped during precipitation of calcium carbonate from the spring's waters, providing microbial populations that serve as precursors for the development of endolithic communities. This process differs from most endolith colonization, in which the rock predates the communities that colonize it. Community composition is modulated as environmental conditions change within the springs. At Troll, the aquatic environments show a small number of dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that are specific to each sample. The terrestrial environments show a more even distribution of OTUs common to multiple samples.

  16. Solar Hot Water Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The solar panels pictured below, mounted on a Moscow, Idaho home, are part of a domestic hot water heating system capable of providing up to 100 percent of home or small business hot water needs. Produced by Lennox Industries Inc., Marshalltown, Iowa, the panels are commercial versions of a collector co-developed by NASA. In an effort to conserve energy, NASA has installed solar collectors at a number of its own facilities and is conducting research to develop the most efficient systems. Lewis Research Center teamed with Honeywell Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota to develop the flat plate collector shown. Key to the collector's efficiency is black chrome coating on the plate developed for use on spacecraft solar cells, the coating prevents sun heat from "reradiating," or escaping outward. The design proved the most effective heat absorber among 23 different types of collectors evaluated in a Lewis test program. The Lennox solar domestic hot water heating system has three main components: the array of collectors, a "solar module" (blue unit pictured) and a conventional water heater. A fluid-ethylene glycol and water-is circulated through the collectors to absorb solar heat. The fluid is then piped to a double-walled jacket around a water tank within the solar module.

  17. Scoping assessment of radiological doses to aquatic organisms and wildlife -- N Springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.; Soldat, J.K.

    1992-10-01

    Estimated does rates were determined for endemic biota inhabiting the N Springs area based primarily on spring water data collected from the first 6 months of 1991. Radiological dose estimates were computed from measured values of specific radionuclides and modeled levels of radionuclides using established computer codes. The highest doses were predicted in hypothetical populations of clams, fish-eating ducks, and rabbits. The calculated dose estimates did not exceed 1 rad/d, an administrative dose rate established by the US Department of Energy for the protection of native aquatic biota. An administrative dose rate has not been established for terrestrial wildlife.

  18. Terrestrial ecosystems and their change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anatoly Z. Shvidenko; Eric Gustafson; A. David McGuire; Vjacheslav I. Kharuk; Dmitry G. Schepaschenko; Herman H. Shugart; Nadezhda M. Tchebakova; Natalia N. Vygodskaya; Alexander A. Onuchin; Daniel J. Hayes; Ian McCallum; Shamil Maksyutov; Ludmila V. Mukhortova; Amber J. Soja; Luca Belelli-Marchesini; Julia A. Kurbatova; Alexander V. Oltchev; Elena I. Parfenova; Jacquelyn K. Shuman

    2012-01-01

    This chapter considers the current state of Siberian terrestrial ecosystems, their spatial distribution, and major biometric characteristics. Ongoing climate change and the dramatic increase of accompanying anthropogenic pressure provide different but mostly negative impacts on Siberian ecosystems. Future climates of the region may lead to substantial drying on large...

  19. Cosmogenic Radionuclides in Hot Desert Chondrites with Low C-14 Activities: A Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welten, Kees; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Caffee, Marc W.

    1999-01-01

    Terrestrial ages of meteorites from hot deserts provide an important tool to estimate meteorite fluxes to the Earth. Most desert meteorites have terrestrial ages less than 40 ky, but a few achondrites from the Sahara region were recently shown to have significantly higher ages, up to approx. 100 ky. In general, C-14 (half-life = 5730 y) is the most suited radionuclide to determine terrestrial ages for desert meteorites. However for meteorites with ages greater than 35 ky, the concentration of cosmogenic C-14 has decreased to a level at which it becomes difficult to distinguish between cosmogenic C-14 and terrestrial contamination. These meteorites may therefore be much older than 35 ky. We selected chondrites with low C-14 activities (less than or equal to 2 dpm/kg) for measurements of the concentrations of cosmogenic Cl-36 (half-life= 3.01 x 10 (exp 5) y) and Ca-41 (half-life= 1.04 x 10 (exp 5) y) in the metal phase. Since the ratio of Ca-14/Cl-36 in the metal phase of chondrites is relatively constant and well known, the measured ratio is a direct measure of the terrestrial age. A major problem is that most or sometimes all of the metal in these old "hot desert" meteorites has been oxidized to hydrated Fe-Ni-oxides. Therefore, we also measured the concentrations of Be-10, Al-26 and Cl-36 in the stony phase in order to constrain the terrestrial age as much as possible.

  20. Cosmogenic Radionuclides in Hot Desert Chondrites With Low C-14 Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welten, K. C.; Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M. W.

    2000-01-01

    Terrestrial ages of meteorites from hot deserts provide an important tool to estimate meteorite fluxes to the Earth. Most desert meteorites have terrestrial ages less than 40 ky, but a few achondrites from the Sahara region were recently shown to have significantly higher ages, up to approx.100 ky. In general, C-14 (half-life = 5730 y) is the most suited radionuclide to determine terrestrial ages for desert meteorites. However for meteorites with ages >35 ky, the concentration of cosmogenic C-14 has decreased to a level at which it becomes difficult to distinguish between cosmogenic C-14 and terrestrial contamination. These meteorites may therefore be much older than 35 ky. We selected chondrites with low C-14 activities (less than or equal to 2 dpm/kg) for measurements of the concentrations of cosmogenic Cl-36 (half-life= 3.01 x 105 y) and Ca-41 (half-life= 1.04 x 105 y) in the metal phase. Since the ratio of Ca-41/Cl-36 in the metal phase of chondrites is relatively constant and well known, the measured ratio is a direct measure of the terrestrial age]. A major problem is that most or sometimes all. of the metal in these old "hot desert" meteorites has been oxidized to hydrated Fe-Ni-oxides. Therefore, we also measured the concentrations of Be-10, Al-26 and Cl-36 in the stony phase in order to constrain the terrestrial age as much as possible.

  1. Instant Spring for Android starter

    CERN Document Server

    Dahanne, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Packt Instant Starter: get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This is a Starter which gives you an introduction to Spring for Android with plenty of well-explained practical code examples.If you are an Android developer who wants to learn about RESTful web services and OAuth authentication and authorization, and you also want to know how to speed up your development involving those architectures using Spring for Android abstractions, then this book is for you.But core Java developers

  2. Terrestrial hyperspectral image shadow restoration through fusion with terrestrial lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, Preston J.; Glennie, Craig L.; Finnegan, David C.; Hauser, Darren L.

    2017-05-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing technology have expanded the acquisition and fusion of active lidar and passive hyperspectral imagery (HSI) from exclusively airborne observations to include terrestrial modalities. In contrast to airborne collection geometry, hyperspectral imagery captured from terrestrial cameras is prone to extensive solar shadowing on vertical surfaces leading to reductions in pixel classification accuracies or outright removal of shadowed areas from subsequent analysis tasks. We demonstrate the use of lidar spatial information for sub-pixel HSI shadow detection and the restoration of shadowed pixel spectra via empirical methods that utilize sunlit and shadowed pixels of similar material composition. We examine the effectiveness of radiometrically calibrated lidar intensity in identifying these similar materials in sun and shade conditions and further evaluate a restoration technique that leverages ratios derived from the overlapping lidar laser and HSI wavelengths. Simulations of multiple lidar wavelengths, i.e., multispectral lidar, indicate the potential for HSI spectral restoration that is independent of the complexity and costs associated with rigorous radiometric transfer models, which have yet to be developed for horizontal-viewing terrestrial HSI sensors. The spectral restoration performance of shadowed HSI pixels is quantified for imagery of a geologic outcrop through improvements in spectral shape, spectral scale, and HSI band correlation.

  3. Biological Characterization of Microenvironments in a Hypersaline Cold Spring Mars Analog

    OpenAIRE

    Haley M. Sapers; Haley M. Sapers; Haley M. Sapers; Jennifer Ronholm; Jennifer Ronholm; Isabelle Raymond-Bouchard; Raven Comrey; Gordon R. Osinski; Gordon R. Osinski; Gordon R. Osinski; Lyle G. Whyte

    2017-01-01

    While many habitable niches on Earth are characterized by permanently cold conditions, little is known about the spatial structure of seasonal communities and the importance of substrate-cell associations in terrestrial cyroenvironments. Here we use the 16S rRNA gene as a marker for genetic diversity to compare two visually distinct but spatially integrated surface microbial mats on Axel Heiberg Island, Canadian high arctic, proximal to a perennial saline spring. This is the first study to de...

  4. Research Synopsis: Spring 1983 Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta Community Coll. District, Oakland, CA. Office of Research, Planning and Development.

    An analysis of spring 1983 retention rates and grade distributions within the Peralta Community College District (PCCD) revealed: (1) College of Alameda had the highest successful retention rate in the PCCD, defined as the total of all students who completed the term with a grade of A, B, C, D, or CR (credit); (2) the PCCD's successful retention…

  5. Spring for It: First Novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffert, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    How do publishers describe the first novels they will be releasing this spring and summer? "Amazing," "fabulous," and "unique" are words that pop up frequently, though hats off to one publicist forthright or cheeky enough to call a work "weird Western/horror." The proof of such praise is in the reading, but why not check out this preview of first…

  6. A Laboratory of Spring. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Wachowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to a special issue published on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the premiere of 'The Rite of Spring' by Igor Stravinsky. The articles cover the field of musicology as well as history, philosophy, psychology, sociology, ethnography and cognitive science of music.

  7. Finding Spring on Planet X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    For a given orbital period and eccentricity, we determine the maximum time lapse between the winter solstice and the spring equinox on a planet. In addition, given an axial precession path, we determine the effects on the seasons. This material can be used at various levels to illustrate ideas such as periodicity, eccentricity, polar coordinates,…

  8. Snowpack displacement measured by terrestrial radar interferometry as precursor for wet snow avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caduff, Rafael; Wiesmann, Andreas; Bühler, Yves

    2016-04-01

    Wet snow and full depth gliding avalanches commonly occur on slopes during springtime when air temperatures rise above 0°C for longer time. The increase in the liquid water content changes the mechanical properties of the snow pack. Until now, forecasts of wet snow avalanches are mainly done using weather data such as air and snow temperatures and incoming solar radiation. Even tough some wet snow avalanche events are indicated before the release by the formation of visible signs such as extension cracks or compressional bulges in the snow pack, a large number of wet snow avalanches are released without any previously visible signs. Continuous monitoring of critical slopes by terrestrial radar interferometry improves the scale of reception of differential movement into the range of millimetres per hour. Therefore, from a terrestrial and remote observation location, information on the mechanical state of the snow pack can be gathered on a slope wide scale. Recent campaigns in the Swiss Alps showed the potential of snow deformation measurements with a portable, interferometric real aperture radar operating at 17.2 GHz (1.76 cm wavelength). Common error sources for the radar interferometric measurement of snow pack displacements are decorrelation of the snow pack at different conditions, the influence of atmospheric disturbances on the interferometric phase and transition effects from cold/dry snow to warm/wet snow. Therefore, a critical assessment of those parameters has to be considered in order to reduce phase noise effects and retrieve accurate displacement measurements. The most recent campaign in spring 2015 took place in Davos Dorf/GR, Switzerland and its objective was to observe snow glide activity on the Dorfberg slope. A validation campaign using total station measurements showed good agreement to the radar interferometric line of sight displacement measurements in the range of 0.5 mm/h. The refinement of the method led to the detection of numerous gliding

  9. Hot skull: Malignant or feminine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, J.C.; Isslet, J.W. van; Buul, M.M.C. van; Oei, H.Y.; Rijk, P.P. van

    1987-07-01

    Diffusely increased uptake in the calvarium on bone scintigraphy (a hot skull) is often present in patients with bone metastases and metabolic diseases. Excluding these known facts the prevalence of the hot skull and its relation with malignancy and, more specifically, with breast carcinoma have been studied in 673 patients. In women, the hot skull is clearly related to malignancy and to a lesser extent to breast carcinoma. However, another remarkable feature of the hot skull is its predominance in women in general (compared to men) and, therefore, the data suggest that the hot skull can also represent a normal variant of the female skull. We conclude that the hot skull has no clinical value in screening protocols.

  10. Submarine groundwater discharge driven nitrogen fluxes to Long Island Sound, NY: Terrestrial vs. marine sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborski, J. J.; Cochran, J. K.; Bokuniewicz, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    Bottom-waters in Smithtown Bay (Long Island Sound, NY) are subject to hypoxic conditions every summer despite limited nutrient inputs from waste-water and riverine sources, while modeling estimates of groundwater inputs are thought to be insignificant. Terrestrial and marine fluxes of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) were quantified to Smithtown Bay using mass balances of 222Rn, 224Ra, 226Ra and 228Ra during the spring and summer of 2014/2015, in order to track this seasonal transition period. Intertidal pore waters from a coastal bluff (terrestrial SGD) and from a barrier beach (marine SGD) displayed substantial differences in N concentrations and sources, traced using a multi-isotope approach (222Rn, Ra, δ15N-NO3-, δ18O-NO3-). NO3- in terrestrial SGD did not display any seasonality and was derived from residential septic systems and fertilizer. Marine SGD N concentrations varied month-to-month because of mixing between oxic seawater and hypoxic saline pore waters; N concentrations were greatest during the summer, when NO3- was derived from the remineralization of organic matter. Short-lived 222Rn and 224Ra SGD fluxes were used to determine remineralized N loads along tidal recirculation flow paths, while long-lived 228Ra was used to trace inputs of anthropogenic N in terrestrial SGD. 228Ra-derived terrestrial N load estimates were between 20 and 55% lower than 224Ra-derived estimates (excluding spring 2014); 228Ra may be a more appropriate tracer of terrestrial SGD N loads. Terrestrial SGD NO3- (derived from 228Ra) to Smithtown Bay varied from (1.40-12.8) ∗ 106 mol N y-1, with comparable marine SGD NO3- fluxes of (1.70-6.79) ∗ 106 mol N y-1 derived from 222Rn and 224Ra. Remineralized N loads were greater during the summer compared with spring, and these may be an important driver toward the onset of seasonal hypoxic conditions in Smithtown Bay and western Long Island Sound. Seawater recirculation through the coastal aquifer can rival the N load from

  11. Mars : a small terrestrial planet

    OpenAIRE

    Mangold, N.; Baratoux, David; Witasse, O.; Encrenaz, T.; Sotin, C.

    2016-01-01

    Mars is characterized by geological landforms familiar to terrestrial geologists. It has a tenuous atmosphere that evolved differently from that of Earth and Venus and a differentiated inner structure. Our knowledge of the structure and evolution of Mars has strongly improved thanks to a huge amount of data of various types (visible and infrared imagery, altimetry, radar, chemistry, etc) acquired by a dozen of missions over the last two decades. In situ data have provided ground truth for rem...

  12. Hot, Dry and Cloudy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Hot, Dry and Cloudy This artist's concept shows a cloudy Jupiter-like planet that orbits very close to its fiery hot star. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was recently used to capture spectra, or molecular fingerprints, of two 'hot Jupiter' worlds like the one depicted here. This is the first time a spectrum has ever been obtained for an exoplanet, or a planet beyond our solar system. The ground-breaking observations were made with Spitzer's spectrograph, which pries apart infrared light into its basic wavelengths, revealing the 'fingerprints' of molecules imprinted inside. Spitzer studied two planets, HD 209458b and HD 189733b, both of which were found, surprisingly, to have no water in the tops of their atmospheres. The results suggest that the hot planets are socked in with dry, high clouds, which are obscuring water that lies underneath. In addition, HD209458b showed hints of silicates, suggesting that the high clouds on that planet contain very fine sand-like particles. Capturing the spectra from the two hot-Jupiter planets was no easy feat. The planets cannot be distinguished from their stars and instead appear to telescopes as single blurs of light. One way to get around this is through what is known as the secondary eclipse technique. In this method, changes in the total light from a so-called transiting planet system are measured as a planet is eclipsed by its star, vanishing from our Earthly point of view. The dip in observed light can then be attributed to the planet alone. This technique, first used by Spitzer in 2005 to directly detect the light from an exoplanet, currently only works at infrared wavelengths, where the differences in brightness between the planet and star are less, and the planet's light is easier to pick out. For example, if the experiment had been done in visible light, the total light from the system would appear to be unchanged, even as the planet

  13. Optimization of holddown spring in KOFA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jung Sik; Lee, Jae Kyung; Sohn, Dong Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-08-01

    As a part of establishment of capability for design change and optimization of fuel components, the analysis method of holddown spring was improved and the optimization capability for the holddown spring was established. With the improved analysis method the characteristics of 17 x 17 holddown spring of KOFA and straight type holddown spring were analyzed and the results were compared with test results. It showed that the improved analysis method predicts the spring characteristic well agree with the test results. As an example of an optimization, the thickness of straight type holddown spring was optimized and the characteristic with this thickness was discussed. (Author) 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Noble gases in meteorites and terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    Terrestrial planets and chondrites have noble gas platforms that are sufficiently alike, especially Ne/Ar, that they may have acquired their noble gases by similar processes. Meteorites presumably obtained their noble gases during formation in the solar nebula. Adsorption onto C - the major gas carrier in chondrites - is the likely mechanism for trapping noble gases; recent laboratory simulations support this hypothesis. The story is more complex for planets. An attractive possibility is that the planets acquired their noble gases in a late accreting veneer of chondritic material. In chondrites, noble gases correlate with C, N, H, and volatile metals; by Occam's Razor, we would expect a similar coupling in planets. Indeed, the Earth's crust and mantle contain chondritic like trace volatiles and PL group metals, respectively and the Earth's oceans resemble C chondrites in their enrichment of D (8X vs 8-10X of the galactic D/H ratio). Models have been proposed to explain some of the specific noble gas patterns in planets. These include: (1) noble gases may have been directly trapped by preplanetary material instead of arriving in a veneer; (2) for Venus, irradiation of preplanetary material, followed by diffusive loss of Ne, could explain the high concentration of AR-36; (3) the Earth and Venus may have initially had similar abundances of noble gases, but the Earth lost its share during the Moon forming event; (4) noble gases could have been captured by planetestimals, possibly leading to gravitational fractionation, particularly of Xe isotopes and (5) noble gases may have been dissolved in the hot outer portion of the Earth during contact with a primordial atmosphere.

  15. Biomarkers in Carbonate Thermal Springs: Implications for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C. C.; Kivett, S. J.; McKay, D. S.

    1998-01-01

    Evidence of possible relict biogenic activity has been reported in carbonate inclusions within martian meteorite ALH 84001. The initial evidence included ovoid and elongated forms 50 - 500 nanometers in length, morphologically similar to but significantly smaller than many terrestrial microbes. More recently, thin structures resembling the remains of organic biofilms have been reported in the same meteorite. Carbonates have also been discussed in the context of Mars sample return missions. Thermal spring deposits have often been cited as prime locations for exobiological exploration. By analogy to Earth, specialized microbes may have existed in the heated, mineralized waters, and precipitates of carbonate and/or silica from these waters may have trapped and preserved evidence of life. Since the geological interactions that produce thermal springs can be recognized in orbital imagery, directed searches for microfossils in such deposits are deemed possible. We are engaged in a study of the signatures produced by contemporary biogenic activity (biomarkers) in carbonate thermal springs. We are examining the microbes that live in such environments and the preservation of microbial forms, biofilms, and petrographic fabrics indicative of life in thermal spring mineral deposits. This work is part of a much more extensive study to refine the appropriate tools, techniques, and approaches to seek evidence of life in a range of planetary samples. A deeper understanding of biological signatures will prepare us for the detailed search for life on Mars and eventually on other planets. Overall. the study of biomarkers in rocks and soils will provide insight into the evolution of life because such signatures are a record of how life interacts with its environment, how it adapts to changing conditions, and how life can influence geology and climate.

  16. Autumn leaf subsidies influence spring dynamics of freshwater plankton communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, Samuel B; Mertens, Andrew N; Cottingham, Kathryn L

    2015-07-01

    While ecologists primarily focus on the immediate impact of ecological subsidies, understanding the importance of ecological subsidies requires quantifying the long-term temporal dynamics of subsidies on recipient ecosystems. Deciduous leaf litter transferred from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems exerts both immediate and lasting effects on stream food webs. Recently, deciduous leaf additions have also been shown to be important subsidies for planktonic food webs in ponds during autumn; however, the inter-seasonal effects of autumn leaf subsidies on planktonic food webs have not been studied. We hypothesized that autumn leaf drop will affect the spring dynamics of freshwater pond food webs by altering the availability of resources, water transparency, and the metabolic state of ponds. We created leaf-added and no-leaf-added field mesocosms in autumn 2012, allowed mesocosms to ice-over for the winter, and began sampling the physical, chemical, and biological properties of mesocosms immediately following ice-off in spring 2013. At ice-off, leaf additions reduced dissolved oxygen, elevated total phosphorus concentrations and dissolved materials, and did not alter temperature or total nitrogen. These initial abiotic effects contributed to higher bacterial densities and lower chlorophyll concentrations, but by the end of spring, the abiotic environment, chlorophyll and bacterial densities converged. By contrast, zooplankton densities diverged between treatments during the spring, with leaf additions stimulating copepods but inhibiting cladocerans. We hypothesized that these differences between zooplankton orders resulted from resource shifts following leaf additions. These results suggest that leaf subsidies can alter both the short- and long-term dynamics of planktonic food webs, and highlight the importance of fully understanding how ecological subsidies are integrated into recipient food webs.

  17. RECONSTRUCTION OF FALSE SPRING OCCURRENCE OVER THE SOUTHEASTERN U.S., 1901–2007: INCREASING RISK OF SPRING FREEZE DAMAGE?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, G.P.; Kaiser, D.P.

    2009-01-01

    Near-record warmth over much of the United States during March 2007 promoted early growth of crops and vegetation. A widespread arctic air outbreak followed in early April, resulting in extensive agricultural losses over the southeastern U.S. This “false spring” event also resulted in widespread damage to newly grown tissues of native deciduous forest species, shown by previous researchers to have affected the terrestrial carbon cycle. The current study reconstructed the historical occurrence of false springs for the southeastern U.S. (32–39 °N; 75–98 °W) from 1901–2007 using daily maximum and minimum temperature records from 176 stations in the Global Historical Climatology Network database, and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite observations. A false spring index examined the relative timing of the start of the growing season (SGS), or leaf-out, to the timing of a potentially damaging last hard freeze (≤ -2.2 °C). SGS was modeled for the domain by combining EVI data with ground-based temperature “degree-day” calculations refl ecting the rate of springtime warming. No significant area-wide, long-term SGS trend was found (0.2 days later/decade; p = 0.3). However, the timing of the last hard freeze did occur significantly later (>1 day/decade; p < 0.05) over a contiguous region stretching from Mississippi eastward to the Carolinas. The index also found that false spring risk increased over the same area, although a domain-averaged trend showed no change since 1901. These results illustrate the complexity of observed climate change over the last century. In a generally warming world, the character of temperature changes in some regions does not result in decreasing risk of false spring, and may in fact pose increased risk if occurring during vulnerable plant growth stages.

  18. Triangular springs for modeling nonlinear membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delingette, Hervé

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a formal connexion between springs and continuum mechanics in the context of one-dimensional and two-dimensional elasticity. In a first stage, the equivalence between tensile springs and the finite element discretization of stretching energy on planar curves is established. Furthermore, when considering a quadratic strain function of stretch, we introduce a new type of springs called tensile biquadratic springs. In a second stage, we extend this equivalence to non-linear membranes (St Venant-Kirchhoff materials) on triangular meshes leading to triangular biquadratic and quadratic springs. Those tensile and angular springs produce isotropic deformations parameterized by Young modulus and Poisson ratios on unstructured meshes in an efficient and simple way. For a specific choice of the Poisson ratio, 0.3, we show that regular spring-mass models may be used realistically to simulate a membrane behavior. Finally, the different spring formulations are tested in pure traction and cloth simulation experiments.

  19. Fish Springs NWR Water Use Report : 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) for 2010. A general background is presented on historical spring water...

  20. TRUEX hot demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlain, D.B.; Leonard, R.A.; Hoh, J.C.; Gay, E.C.; Kalina, D.G.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1990-04-01

    In FY 1987, a program was initiated to demonstrate technology for recovering transuranic (TRU) elements from defense wastes. This hot demonstration was to be carried out with solution from the dissolution of irradiated fuels. This recovery would be accomplished with both PUREX and TRUEX solvent extraction processes. Work planned for this program included preparation of a shielded-cell facility for the receipt and storage of spent fuel from commercial power reactors, dissolution of this fuel, operation of a PUREX process to produce specific feeds for the TRUEX process, operation of a TRUEX process to remove residual actinide elements from PUREX process raffinates, and processing and disposal of waste and product streams. This report documents the work completed in planning and starting up this program. It is meant to serve as a guide for anyone planning similar demonstrations of TRUEX or other solvent extraction processing in a shielded-cell facility.

  1. The main chemical properties of hot and cold mineral waters in Bayankhongor, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Oyuntsetseg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, hot and cold mineral springs and sub mineral waters in the Bayankhongor province were examined for their chemical characteristics and identified cold mineral waters classification according to mineral water classification of Mongolia. The hot spring waters belong to Na+-HCO3- and Na+-SO42- types. The cold mineral spring of Lkham belongs to Ca2+-HCO3- type. All sub mineral waters are generally located in the two areas (northern part or mountain forest area and the southern part or Gobi desert area. TDS concentrations of cold springs of the southern part in the study area were higher than northern part’s cold springs. The total dissolved silica content of cold spring was ranged from 4.5mg/L to 26 mg/L which did not correspond to requirements of mineral water standard of Mongolia. Thus, these cold springs are belonging to sub mineral water classification. The sub mineral waters were characterized into four types such as a Ca2+-SO42-, Na+-SO42-, Na+-HCO3 and Ca2+ - HCO3 by their chemical composition in the study area. The values for the quartz, chalcedony geothermometer and the Na/K geothermometer were quite different. The silica-enthalpy mixing model predicts a subsurface reservoir temperature between 124 and 197°C and most of the hot waters have been  probably mixed with cold water. The result shows that an averaged value of calculated temperature ranges from 77°C to 119°C which indicates that studied area has low temperature geothermal resources. DOI: http://doi.dx.org/10.5564/mjc.v15i0.324 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 15 (41, 2014, p56-62

  2. Spring Framework 5: Themes & Trends

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Spring Framework 5.0/5.1, scheduled for release in early/late 2017, focuses on several key themes: reactive web applications based on Reactive Streams, comprehensive support for JDK 9 and HTTP/2, as well as the latest API generations in the Enterprise Java ecosystem. This talk presents the overall story in the context of wider industry trends, highlighting Spring’s unique programming model strategy.

  3. The first CERN Spring Campus

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    From 14 to 16 April, the first edition of the CERN Spring Campus took place in Spain. Taking place over three intensive days, this event brought experts from CERN together at the University of Oviedo, where they met the engineers and scientists of the future in a programme of scientific and technological dissemination and cultural exchange.   The young participants of the first CERN Spring Campus and their instructors show their enthusiasm after the intensive three-day course. “This three-day school focuses on preparing young engineers for the job market, with a particular emphasis on computing,” explains Derek Mathieson, Advanced Information Systems Group Leader in the GS Department and Head of the CERN Spring Campus organising committee. “We organised talks on entrepreneurship and IT, as well as on job interviews and CV writing. It was also an important opportunity for the participants to meet CERN computing engineers to find out what it is like to work in I...

  4. 75 FR 39241 - Hooper Springs Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Bonneville Power Administration Hooper Springs Project AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA... Hooper Springs Project). The new BPA substation would be called Hooper Springs Substation and would be... 115-kV Lane Creek Substation, east of the City of Wayan, Idaho. The proposed project would address...

  5. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their original position...

  6. Terrestrial ecosystems under warmer and drier climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Future warmer and drier climates will likely affect many of the world's terrestrial ecosystems. These changes will fundamentally reshape terrestrial systems through their components and across organization levels. However, it is unclear to what extent terrestrial ecosystems would be resilient enough to stay put to increased temperature and water stress by only adjusting carbon fluxes and water balances? And to what extent it would reach the thresholds at which terrestrial ecosystems were forced to alter species compositions and ecosystem structures for adapting to newer climates? The energy balance of terrestrial ecosystems link thermal and water conditions to defines terrestrial carbon processes and feedbacks to climate, which will inevitably change under warmer and drier climates. Recent theoretical studies provide a new framework, suggesting that terrestrial ecosystems were capable of balancing costs of carbon gain and water transport to achieve optimums for functioning and distribution. Such a paradigm is critical for understanding the dynamics of future terrestrial ecosystems under climate changes, and facilitate modeling terrestrial ecosystems which needs generalized principles for formulating ecosystem behaviors. This study aims to review some recent studies that explore responses of terrestrial ecosystems to rather novel climate conditions, such as heat-induced droughts, intending to provide better comprehension of complex carbon-water interactions through plants to an ecosystem, and relevant factors that may alleviate or worsen already deteriorated climates such as elevated CO2 and soil conditions.

  7. Software Simulation of Hot Tearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.; Hansen, P.N.; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    1999-01-01

    . With this additional information, the criteria can, for the first time, be used to their full potential.The purpose of this paper is to first give an introduction to a stress/strain simulation procedure that can be used in any foundry. Then, some results how to predict the hot cracking tendency in a casting are shown......The brittleness of a solidifying alloy in a temperature range near the solidus temperature has been recognised since the fifties as the mechanism responsible for hot tearing. Due to this brittlenes, the metal will crack under even small amounts of strain in that temperature range. We see these hot...... the solidification rate and the strain rate of the hot tear prone areas. But, until recently it was only possible to simulate the solidification rate, so that the criteria could not be used effectively.Today, with new software developments, it is possible to also simulate the strain rate in the hot tear prone areas...

  8. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) comprises groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow,and ice. Groundwater typically varies more slowly than the other TWS components because itis not in direct contact with the atmosphere, but often it has a larger range of variability onmultiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti, 2001; Alley et al., 2002). In situ groundwaterdata are only archived and made available by a few countries. However, monthly TWSvariations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE; Tapley et al.,2004) satellite mission, which launched in 2002, are a reasonable proxy for unconfinedgroundwater at climatic scales.

  9. Consumer Control of Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, D.

    2012-12-01

    More than half of the earth's terrestrial surface is grazed by large herbivores and their effects on plant and soil carbon and nitrogen processes are large and widespread. Yet the large effects of these animals on terrestrial processes have largely been ignored in global change models. This presentation will explore the many pathways that consumers affect short and long time-scale terrestrial nitrogen and carbon processes. Large herbivores influence the quality of soil organic matter and the size of the active (i.e., labile) pool of soil carbon and nitrogen in several ways. Herbivory leads to greater abundance of species producing low quality material in forest and dry grassland, via feeding preferentially on high quality forage, and high quality material in mesic grassland habitat, via the high quality of material that regrows after a plant is grazed. Defoliation stimulates the rate of root exudation that enhances rhizospheric processes and the availability of nitrogen in the plant rhizosphere. Herbivores also change the species composition of mycorrhizae fungal associates that influence plant growth and affect soil structure and the turnover rate of soil carbon. Recent radiocarbon measurements have revealed that herbivores also markedly affect the turnover dynamics of the large pool of old soil carbon. In Yellowstone Park, ungulates slow the mean turnover of the relatively old (i.e., slow and passive) 0 - 20 cm deep soil organic carbon by 350 years in upland, dry grassland and speed up that rate in slope-bottom, mesic grassland by 300 years. This represents a 650 year swing in the turnover period of old soil carbon across the Yellowstone landscape. By comparison, mean turnover time for the old pool of 0 - 10 cm deep soil organic carbon shifts by about 300 years across the steep climatic gradient that includes tropical, temperate, and northern hardwood forest, and tallgrass, shortgrass and desert grassland. This large body of evidence suggests consumers play a

  10. Fieldwide reservoir engineering analysis of the Pilgrim Springs, Alaska, geothermal reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Economides, M.J. (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks); Economides, C.A.E.; Kunze, J.F.; Lofgren, B.

    1982-01-01

    The wells drilled in the region of the geothermal anomaly near Pilgrim Springs provide considerable insight into the general characteristics of the geothermal system. Previous work, including resistivity studies and geothermometry are corroborated by the temperature profiles observed in the six wells. The existence of a hot water zone of about 150/sup 0/C and at a depth of around 5000 ft is now virtually certain.

  11. Hot Spot Cosmic Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    length of more than 3 million light-years, or no less than one-and-a-half times the distance from the Milky Way to the Andromeda galaxy, this structure is indeed gigantic. The region where the jets collide with the intergalactic medium are known as " hot spots ". Superposing the intensity contours of the radio emission from the southern "hot spot" on a near-infrared J-band (wavelength 1.25 µm) VLT ISAAC image ("b") shows three distinct emitting areas; they are even better visible on the I-band (0.9 µm) FORS1 image ("c"). This emission is obviously associated with the shock front visible on the radio image. This is one of the first times it has been possible to obtain an optical/near-IR image of synchrotron emission from such an intergalactic shock and, thanks to the sensitivity and image sharpness of the VLT, the most detailed view of its kind so far . The central area (with the strongest emission) is where the plasma jet from the galaxy centre hits the intergalactic medium. The light from the two other "knots", some 10 - 15,000 light-years away from the central "hot spot", is also interpreted as synchrotron emission. However, in view of the large distance, the astronomers are convinced that it must be caused by electrons accelerated in secondary processes at those sites . The new images thus confirm that electrons are being continuously accelerated in these "knots" - hence called "cosmic accelerators" - far from the galaxy and the main jets, and in nearly empty space. The exact physical circumstances of this effect are not well known and will be the subject of further investigations. The present VLT-images of the "hot spots" near 3C 445 may not have the same public appeal as some of those beautiful images that have been produced by the same instruments during the past years. But they are not less valuable - their unusual importance is of a different kind, as they now herald the advent of fundamentally new insights into the mysteries of this class of remote and active

  12. Really Hot Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Spectacular VLT Photos Unveil Mysterious Nebulae Summary Quite a few of the most beautiful objects in the Universe are still shrouded in mystery. Even though most of the nebulae of gas and dust in our vicinity are now rather well understood, there are some which continue to puzzle astronomers. This is the case of a small number of unusual nebulae that appear to be the subject of strong heating - in astronomical terminology, they present an amazingly "high degree of excitation". This is because they contain significant amounts of ions, i.e., atoms that have lost one or more of their electrons. Depending on the atoms involved and the number of electrons lost, this process bears witness to the strength of the radiation or to the impact of energetic particles. But what are the sources of that excitation? Could it be energetic stars or perhaps some kind of exotic objects inside these nebulae? How do these peculiar objects fit into the current picture of universal evolution? New observations of a number of such unusual nebulae have recently been obtained with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). In a dedicated search for the origin of their individual characteristics, a team of astronomers - mostly from the Institute of Astrophysics & Geophysics in Liège (Belgium) [1] - have secured the first detailed, highly revealing images of four highly ionized nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds, two small satellite galaxies of our home galaxy, the Milky Way, only a few hundred thousand light-years away. In three nebulae, they succeeded in identifying the sources of energetic radiation and to eludicate their exceptional properties: some of the hottest, most massive stars ever seen, some of which are double. With masses of more than 20 times that of the Sun and surface temperatures above 90 000 degrees, these stars are truly extreme. PR Photo 09a/03: Nebula around the hot star AB7 in the SMC. PR Photo 09b/03: Nebula near the hot Wolf-Rayet star BAT99

  13. Comparative Climatology of Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackwell, Stephen J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Harder, Jerald W.; Bullock, Mark A.

    Public awareness of climate change on Earth is currently very high, promoting significant interest in atmospheric processes. We are fortunate to live in an era where it is possible to study the climates of many planets, including our own, using spacecraft and groundbased observations as well as advanced computational power that allows detailed modeling. Planetary atmospheric dynamics and structure are all governed by the same basic physics. Thus differences in the input variables (such as composition, internal structure, and solar radiation) among the known planets provide a broad suite of natural laboratory settings for gaining new understanding of these physical processes and their outcomes. Diverse planetary settings provide insightful comparisons to atmospheric processes and feedbacks on Earth, allowing a greater understanding of the driving forces and external influences on our own planetary climate. They also inform us in our search for habitable environments on planets orbiting distant stars, a topic that was a focus of Exoplanets, the preceding book in the University of Arizona Press Space Sciences Series. Quite naturally, and perhaps inevitably, our fascination with climate is largely driven toward investigating the interplay between the early development of life and the presence of a suitable planetary climate. Our understanding of how habitable planets come to be begins with the worlds closest to home. Venus, Earth, and Mars differ only modestly in their mass and distance from the Sun, yet their current climates could scarcely be more divergent. Our purpose for this book is to set forth the foundations for this emerging science and to bring to the forefront our current understanding of atmospheric formation and climate evolution. Although there is significant comparison to be made to atmospheric processes on nonterrestrial planets in our solar system — the gas and ice giants — here we focus on the terrestrial planets, leaving even broader comparisons

  14. Effect of segregations on mechanical properties and crack propagation in spring steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Žužek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Considerable efforts have been made over the last decades to improve performance of spring steels, which would increase the service time of springs and also allow vehicles weight reduction. There are different possibilities of improving properties of spring steels, from modifying the chemical composition of steels to optimizing the deformation process and changing the heat treatment parameters. Another way of improving steel properties is through refining the microstructure and reducing amount of inclusions. Therefore, the focus of the current investigation was to determine the effect of more uniform and cleaner microstructure obtained through electro-slag remelting (ESR of steel on the mechanical and dynamic properties of spring steel, with special focus on the resistance to fatigue crack propagation. Effect of the microstructure refinement was evaluated in terms of tensile strength, elongation, fracture and impact toughness, and fatigue resistance under bending and tensile loading. After the mechanical tests the fracture surfaces of samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM and the influence of microstructure properties on the crack propagation and crack propagation resistance was studied. Investigation was performed on hot rolled, soft annealed and vacuum heat treated 51CrV4 spring steel produced by conventional continuous casting and compared with steel additional refined through ESR. Results shows that elimination of segregations and microstructure refinement using additional ESR process gives some improvement in terms of better repeatability and reduced scattering, but on the other hand it has negative effect on crack propagation resistance and fatigue properties of the spring steel.

  15. Spring Recipes A Problem-solution Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Josh; Mak, Gary

    2010-01-01

    With over 3 Million users/developers, Spring Framework is the leading "out of the box" Java framework. Spring addresses and offers simple solutions for most aspects of your Java/Java EE application development, and guides you to use industry best practices to design and implement your applications. The release of Spring Framework 3 has ushered in many improvements and new features. Spring Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach, Second Edition continues upon the bestselling success of the previous edition but focuses on the latest Spring 3 features for building enterprise Java applications.

  16. Incorporation of microplastics from litter into burrows of Lumbricus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Gertsen, Hennie; Gooren, Harm; Peters, Piet; Salánki, Tamás; van der Ploeg, Martine; Besseling, Ellen; Koelmans, Albert A; Geissen, Violette

    2017-01-01

    Pollution caused by plastic debris is an urgent environmental problem. Here, we assessed the effects of microplastics in the soil surface litter on the formation and characterization of burrows built by the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris in soil and quantified the amount of microplastics that was transported and deposited in L. terrestris burrows. Worms were exposed to soil surface litter treatments containing microplastics (Low Density Polyethylene) for 2 weeks at concentrations of 0%, 7%, 28%, 45% and 60%. The latter representing environmentally realistic concentrations found in hot spot soil locations. There were significantly more burrows found when soil was exposed to the surface treatment composed of 7% microplastics than in all other treatments. The highest amount of organic matter in the walls of the burrows was observed after using the treatments containing 28 and 45% microplastics. The highest microplastic bioturbation efficiency ratio (total microplastics (mg) in burrow walls/initial total surface litter microplastics (mg)) was found using the concentration of 7% microplastics, where L. terrestris introduced 73.5% of the surface microplastics into the burrow walls. The highest burrow wall microplastic content per unit weight of soil (11.8 ± 4.8 g kg- 1 ) was found using a concentration of 60% microplastics. L. terrestris was responsible for size-selective downward transport when exposed to concentrations of 7, 28 and 45% microplastics in the surface litter, as the fraction ≤50 μm microplastics in burrow walls increased by 65% compared to this fraction in the original surface litter plastic. We conclude that the high biogenic incorporation rate of the small-fraction microplastics from surface litter into burrow walls causes a risk of leaching through preferential flow into groundwater bodies. Furthermore, this leaching may have implications for the subsequent availability of microplastics to terrestrial organisms or for the transport

  17. Origin of Boron and Brine Evolution in Saline Springs in the Nangqen Basin, Southern Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-long Han

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nangqen Basin is a typical shearing-extensional basin situated in the hinterland of the Tibetan Plateau. It contains abundant saline spring resources and abnormal trace element enrichments. The hydrochemical molar ratios (Na/Cl, B/Cl, and Br/Cl, H-O isotopes, and B isotopes of the saline spring were systematically measured to describe the evolution of brines and the origin of the boron. The sodium chloride coefficient of the water samples in this area is around 1.0 or slightly greater, which is characteristic of leached brines; the highest B/Cl value is 4.25 (greater than that of seawater. The Na/Cl, B/Cl, and Br/Cl values of the springs are clear indicators of a crustal origin. The δ18O values of the spring waters range from −12.88‰ to −16.05‰, and the δD values range from −100.91‰ to −132.98‰. Meanwhile the B content and B isotopes in the saline springs are in the ranges of 1.00 to 575.56 ppm and +3.55‰ to +29.59‰, respectively. It has been proven that the saline springs in the Nangqen Basin are a type of leached brine, suggesting that the saline springs have a terrestrial origin. The δ11B-B characteristics of the springs are similar to those observed in the Tibetan geothermal area, indicating that these two places have the same B source. Moreover, they have a crustal origin (marine carbonate rocks and volcanic rocks instead of a deep mantle source.

  18. Convergence of broad-scale migration strategies in terrestrial birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sorte, Frank A; Fink, Daniel; Hochachka, Wesley M; Kelling, Steve

    2016-01-27

    Migration is a common strategy used by birds that breed in seasonal environments. Selection for greater migration efficiency is likely to be stronger for terrestrial species whose migration strategies require non-stop transoceanic crossings. If multiple species use the same transoceanic flyway, then we expect the migration strategies of these species to converge geographically towards the most optimal solution. We test this by examining population-level migration trajectories within the Western Hemisphere for 118 migratory species using occurrence information from eBird. Geographical convergence of migration strategies was evident within specific terrestrial regions where geomorphological features such as mountains or isthmuses constrained overland migration. Convergence was also evident for transoceanic migrants that crossed the Gulf of Mexico or Atlantic Ocean. Here, annual population-level movements were characterized by clockwise looped trajectories, which resulted in faster but more circuitous journeys in the spring and more direct journeys in the autumn. These findings suggest that the unique constraints and requirements associated with transoceanic migration have promoted the spatial convergence of migration strategies. The combination of seasonal atmospheric and environmental conditions that has facilitated the use of similar broad-scale migration strategies may be especially prone to disruption under climate and land-use change. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Tectonic evolution of terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. W.; Solomon, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    The tectonic style of each terrestrial planet, referring to the thickness and division of its lithosphere, can be inferred from surface features and compared to models of planetary thermal history. Factors governing planetary tectonic evolution are planet diameter, chemistry, and external and internal heat sources, all of which determine how a planet generates and rids itself of heat. The earth is distinguished by its distinct, mobile plates, which are recycled into the mantle and show large-scale lateral movements, whereas the moon, Mars, and Mercury are single spherical shells, showing no evidence of destruction and renewal of the lithospheric plates over the latter 80% of their history. Their smaller volume to surface area results in a more rapid cooling, formation, and thickening of the lithosphere. Vertical tectonics, due to lithospheric loading, is controlled by the local thickness and rheology of the lithosphere. Further studies of Venus, which displays both the craterlike surface features of the one-plate planets, and the rifts and plateaus of earth, may indicate which factors are most important in controlling the tectonic evolution of terrestrial planets.

  20. The Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics is dedicated to the advancement of knowledge in Earth and planetary science, by conducting innovative research using space technology. The Laboratory's mission and activities support the work and new initiatives at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The Laboratory's success contributes to the Earth Science Directorate as a national resource for studies of Earth from Space. The Laboratory is part of the Earth Science Directorate based at the GSFC in Greenbelt, MD. The Directorate itself is comprised of the Global Change Data Center (GCDC), the Space Data and Computing Division (SDCD), and four science Laboratories, including Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics, Laboratory for Atmospheres, and Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes all in Greenbelt, MD. The fourth research organization, Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), is in New York, NY. Relevant to NASA's Strategic Plan, the Laboratory ensures that all work undertaken and completed is within the vision of GSFC. The philosophy of the Laboratory is to balance the completion of near term goals, while building on the Laboratory's achievements as a foundation for the scientific challenges in the future.

  1. Riparian vegetation in the alpine connectome: Terrestrial-aquatic and terrestrial-terrestrial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharescu, Dragos G; Palanca-Soler, Antonio; Hooda, Peter S; Tanase, Catalin; Burghelea, Carmen I; Lester, Richard N

    2017-12-01

    Alpine regions are under increased attention worldwide for their critical role in early biogeochemical cycles, their high sensitivity to environmental change, and as repositories of natural resources of high quality. Their riparian ecosystems, at the interface between aquatic and terrestrial environments, play important geochemical functions in the watershed and are biodiversity hotspots, despite a harsh climate and topographic setting. With climate change rapidly affecting the alpine biome, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of the extent of interactions between riparian surface, lake and catchment environments. A total of 189 glacial - origin lakes were surveyed in the Central Pyrenees to test how key elements of the lake and terrestrial environments interact at different scales to shape riparian plant composition. Secondly, we evaluated how underlying ecotope features drive the formation of natural communities potentially sensitive to environmental change and assessed their habitat distribution. At the macroscale, vegetation composition responded to pan-climatic gradients altitude and latitude, which captured in a narrow geographic area the transition between large European climatic zones. Hydrodynamics was the main catchment-scale factor connecting riparian vegetation with major water fluxes, followed by topography and geomorphology. Lake sediment Mg and Pb, and water Mn and Fe contents reflected local influences from mafic bedrock and soil water saturation. Community analysis identified four keystone ecosystems: (i) damp ecotone, (ii) snow bed-silicate bedrock, (iii) wet heath, and (iv) calcareous substrate. These communities and their connections with ecotope elements could be at risk from a number of environmental change factors including warmer seasons, snow line and lowland species advancement, increased nutrient/metal input and water level fluctuations. The results imply important natural terrestrial-aquatic linkages in the riparian environment

  2. Hot Hydrogen Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. David Swank

    2007-02-01

    The core in a nuclear thermal rocket will operate at high temperatures and in hydrogen. One of the important parameters in evaluating the performance of a nuclear thermal rocket is specific impulse, ISp. This quantity is proportional to the square root of the propellant’s absolute temperature and inversely proportional to square root of its molecular weight. Therefore, high temperature hydrogen is a favored propellant of nuclear thermal rocket designers. Previous work has shown that one of the life-limiting phenomena for thermal rocket nuclear cores is mass loss of fuel to flowing hydrogen at high temperatures. The hot hydrogen test facility located at the Idaho National Lab (INL) is designed to test suitability of different core materials in 2500°C hydrogen flowing at 1500 liters per minute. The facility is intended to test non-uranium containing materials and therefore is particularly suited for testing potential cladding and coating materials. In this first installment the facility is described. Automated Data acquisition, flow and temperature control, vessel compatibility with various core geometries and overall capabilities are discussed.

  3. Neptune's 'Hot' South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    These thermal images show a 'hot' south pole on the planet Neptune. These warmer temperatures provide an avenue for methane to escape out of the deep atmosphere. The images were obtained with the Very Large Telescope in Chile, using an imager/spectrometer for mid-infrared wavelengths on Sept. 1 and 2, 2006. The telescope is operated by the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (known as ESO). Scientists say Neptune's south pole is 'hotter' than anywhere else on the planet by about 10 degrees Celsius (50 degrees Fahrenheit). The average temperature on Neptune is about minus 200 degrees Celsius (minus 392 degrees Fahrenheit). The upper left image samples temperatures near the top of Neptune's troposphere (near 100 millibar pressure, which is one-tenth the Earth atmospheric pressure at sea level). The hottest temperatures are indicated at the lower part of the image, at Neptune's south pole (see the graphic at the upper right). The lower two images, taken 6.3 hours apart, sample temperatures at higher altitudes in Neptune's stratosphere. They do show generally warmer temperatures near, but not at, the south pole. They also show a distinct warm area which can be seen in the lower left image and rotated completely around the back of the planet and returned to the earth-facing hemisphere in the lower right image.

  4. Solutions for Hot Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    From the company that brought the world an integral heating and cooling food service system after originally developing it for NASA's Apollo Program, comes yet another orbital offshoot: a product that can be as thin as paper and as strong as steel. Nextel Ceramic Textiles and Composites from 3M Company offer space-age protection and innovative solutions for hot situations, ranging from NASA to NASCAR. With superior thermal protection, Nextel fabrics, tape, and sleevings outperform other high temperature textiles such as aramids, carbon, glass, and quartz, permitting engineers and manufacturers to handle applications up to 2,500 F (1,371 C). The stiffness and strength of Nextel Continuous Ceramic Fibers make them a great match for improving the rigidity of aluminum in metal matrix composites. Moreover, the fibers demonstrate low shrinkage at operating temperatures, which allow for the manufacturing of a dimensionally stable product. These novel fibers also offer excellent chemical resistance, low thermal conductivity, thermal shock resistance, low porosity, and unique electrical properties.

  5. Interannual influence of spring phenological transitions on the water use efficiency of forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jiaxin; Wang, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Climate change has significantly influenced the productivity of terrestrial ecosystems through water cycles. Understanding the phenological regulation mechanisms underlying coupled carbon-water cycles is important for improving ecological assessments and projecting terrestrial ecosystem responses and feedback to climate change. In this study, we present an analysis of the interannual relationships among flux-based spring phenological transitions (referred as photosynthetic onset) and water use efficiency (WUE) in North America and Europe using 166 site-years of data from 22 flux sites, including 10 deciduous broadleaf forest (DBF) and 12 evergreen needleleaf forest (ENF) ecosystems. We found that the WUE responses to variations in spring phenological transitions differed substantially across plant functional types (PFTs) and growth periods. During the early spring (defined as one month from spring onset) in the DBF ecosystem, photosynthetic onset dominated changes in WUE by dominating gross primary production (GPP), with one day of advanced onset increasing the WUE by 0.037 gC kg-1H2O in early spring. For the ENF sites, although advanced photosynthetic onset also significantly promoted GPP, earlier onset did not have a significant positive impact on WUE in early spring because it was not significantly correlated to evapotranspiration (ET), which is a more dominant factor for WUE than GPP across the ENF sites. Statistically significant correlations were not observed between interannual variability in photosynthetic onset and WUE for either the DBF or ENF ecosystems following a prolonged period after photosynthetic onset. For the DBF sites, the interannual variability of photosynthetic onset provided a better explanation of the variations in WUE (ca. 51.4%) compared with climatic factors, although this was only applicable to the early spring. For the ENF sites, photosynthetic onset variations did not provide a better explanation of the interannual WUE variations

  6. Mercury Methylation and Detoxification by Novel Microorganisms in Mercury Enriched Mesothermal Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gionfriddo, C. M.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Stott, M.; Wick, R. R.; Schultz, M. B.; Holt, K. E.; Moreau, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Hot springs and fumaroles release significant quantities of aqueous and gaseous mercury into the environment. Yet few studies have looked at the microbial underpinnings of mercury transformations in geothermal settings. Recent advancements in culture-independent molecular techniques, such as ultra-high-throughput sequencing, allow us to delve deeply into the functional and phylogenetic make-up of these extreme environments. Here we present results from deep metagenomic sequencing of geothermal microbial communities cycling mercury, focussing on the connections between putative metabolisms and mercury methylation, and the evolution of the mer-operon. Presented are data from two adjacent, acidic (pHNew Zealand), extremely enriched in total mercury (>1000 ng L-1), and varying methylmercury concentrations (1-10 ng L-1). Microbial communities of both springs are dominated by mercury resistant acidophilic, sulfur- and iron-cycling microbes: Acidithiobacillus, Thiomonas, and Thermoplasma. Mercury methylation genes (hgcAB) were only detected in the cooler spring (ΔT~10 °C), with an order of magnitude greater methylmercury (10 ng L-1). The hgcAB genes have no known closest relatives (40°C), and methylmercury concentration. We conclude that the relative amount of mercury methylation in each hot spring is controlled by the presence of methylating bacteria and archaea, the release of bioavailable mercury species from sulfide minerals, counterbalanced by microbial mercury demethylation and reduction and mercury sulfide mineralization.

  7. CACTUS SPRING ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Kuizon, Lucia

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

  8. Workshop on Extraterrestrial Materials from Cold and Hot Deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Ludolf; Franchi, Ian A.; Reid, Arch M.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1969 expeditions from Japan, the United States, and European countries have recovered more than 20,000 meteorite specimens from remote ice fields of Antarctica. They represent approximately 4000-6000 distinct falls, more than all non-Antarctic meteorite falls and finds combined. Recently many meteorite specimens of a new "population" have become available: meteorites from hot deserts. It turned out that suitable surfaces in hot deserts, like the Sahara in Africa, the Nullarbor Plain in Western and South Australia, or desert high plains of the U.S. (e.g., Roosevelt County, New Mexico), contain relatively high meteorite concentrations. For example, the 1985 Catalogue of Meteorites of the British Museum lists 20 meteorites from Algeria and Libya. Today, 1246 meteorites finds from these two countries have been published in MetBase 4.0. Four workshops in 1982, 1985, 1988, and 1989 have discussed the connections between Antarctic glaciology and Antarctic meteorites, and the differences between Antarctic meteorites and modem falls. In 1995, a workshop addressed differences between meteorites from Antarctica, hot deserts, and modem falls, and the implications of possible different parent populations, infall rates, and weathering processes. Since 1995 many more meteorites have been recovered from new areas of Antarctica and hot deserts around the world. Among these finds are several unusual and interesting specimens like lunar meteorites or SNCs of probable martian origin. The Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society took place in 1999 in Johannesburg, South Africa. As most of the recent desert finds originate from the Sahara, a special workshop was planned prior to this meeting in Africa. Topics discussed included micrometeorites, which have been collected in polar regions as well as directly in the upper atmosphere. The title "Workshop on Extraterrestrial Materials from Cold and Hot Deserts" was chosen and the following points were emphasized: (1) weathering

  9. Workshop on Extraterrestrial Materials from Cold and Hot Deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Ludolf (Editor); Franchi, Ian A. (Editor); Reid, Arch M. (Editor); Zolensky, Michael E. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    Since 1969 expeditions from Japan, the United States, and European countries have recovered more than 20,000 meteorite specimens from remote ice fields of Antarctica. They represent approximately 4000-6000 distinct falls, more than all non-Antarctic meteorite falls and finds combined. Recently many meteorite specimens of a new "population" have become available: meteorites from hot deserts. It turned out that suitable surfaces in hot deserts, like the Sahara in Africa, the Nullarbor Plain in Western and South Australia, or desert high plains of the U.S. (e.g., Roosevelt County, New Mexico), contain relatively high meteorite concentrations. For example, the 1985 Catalog of Meteorites of the British Museum lists 20 meteorites from Algeria and Libya. Today, 1246 meteorites finds from these two countries have been published in MetBase 4.0. Four workshops in 1982, 1985, 1988, and 1989 have discussed the connections between Antarctic glaciology and Antarctic meteorites, and the differences between Antarctic meteorites and modern falls. In 1995, a workshop addressed differences between meteorites from Antarctica, hot deserts, and modem falls, and the implications of possible different parent populations, infall rates, and weathering processes. Since 1995 many more meteorites have been recovered from new areas of Antarctica and hot deserts around the world. Among these finds are several unusual and interesting specimens like lunar meteorites or SNCs of probable martian origin. The Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society took place in 1999 in Johannesburg, South Africa. As most of the recent desert finds originate from the Sahara, a special workshop was planned prior to this meeting in Africa. Topics discussed included micrometeorites, which have been collected in polar regions as well as directly in the upper atmosphere. The title "Workshop on Extraterrestri