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Sample records for terrestrial gross primary

  1. Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J. E.; Berry, J. A.; Seibt, U.; Smith, S. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Launois, T.; Belviso, S.; Bopp, L.; Laine, M.

    2017-04-05

    Growth in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) may provide a feedback for climate change, but there is still strong disagreement on the extent to which biogeochemical processes may suppress this GPP growth at the ecosystem to continental scales. The consequent uncertainty in modeling of future carbon storage by the terrestrial biosphere constitutes one of the largest unknowns in global climate projections for the next century. Here we provide a global, measurement-based estimate of historical GPP growth using long-term atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) records derived from ice core, firn, and ambient air samples. We interpret these records using a model that relates changes in the COS concentration to changes in its sources and sinks, the largest of which is proportional to GPP. The COS history was most consistent with simulations that assume a large historical GPP growth. Carbon-climate models that assume little to no GPP growth predicted trajectories of COS concentration over the anthropogenic era that differ from those observed. Continued COS monitoring may be useful for detecting ongoing changes in GPP while extending the ice core record to glacial cycles could provide further opportunities to evaluate earth system models.

  2. Joint control of terrestrial gross primary productivity by plant phenology and physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jianyang; Niu, Shuli; Ciais, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) varies greatly over time and space. A better understanding of this variability is necessary for more accurate predictions of the future climate–carbon cycle feedback. Recent studies have suggested that variability in GPP is driven by a broad range of b...

  3. Joint control of terrestrial gross primary productivity by plant phenology and physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.; Niu, S.; Ciais, P.; Janssens, I.A.; Chen, J.; Ammann, C.; Arain, A.; Blanken, P.D.; Cescatti, A.; Moors, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) varies greatly over time and space. A better understanding of this variability is necessary for more accurate predictions of the future climate–carbon cycle feedback. Recent studies have suggested that variability in GPP is driven by a broad range of

  4. Site-level evaluation of satellite-based global terrestrial gross primary production and net primary production monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David P. Turner; William D. Ritts; Warren B. Cohen; Thomas K. Maeirsperger; Stith T. Gower; Al A. Kirschbaum; Steve W. Runnings; Maosheng Zhaos; Steven C. Wofsy; Allison L. Dunn; Beverly E. Law; John L. Campbell; Walter C. Oechel; Hyo Jung Kwon; Tilden P. Meyers; Eric E. Small; Shirley A. Kurc; John A. Gamon

    2005-01-01

    Operational monitoring of global terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) and net primary production (NPP) is now underway using imagery from the satellite-borne Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Evaluation of MODIS GPP and NPP products will require site-level studies across a range of biomes, with close attention to numerous scaling...

  5. Remote sensing of annual terrestrial gross primary productivity from MODIS: an assessment using the FLUXNET La Thuile data set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verma, M.; Friedl, M.A.; Richardson, A.D.; Kiely, G.; Cescatti, A.; Law, B.E.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Gielen, G.; Roupsard, O.; Moors, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Gross primary productivity (GPP) is the largest and most variable component of the global terrestrial carbon cycle. Repeatable and accurate monitoring of terrestrial GPP is therefore critical for quantifying dynamics in regional-to-global carbon budgets. Remote sensing provides high frequency

  6. MODIS-based global terrestrial estimates of gross primary productivity and evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Y.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Kobayashi, H.; Li, J.; van Ingen, C.; Agarwal, D.; Jackson, K.; Humphrey, M.

    2010-12-01

    We propose a novel approach to quantify gross primary productivity (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET) at global scale (5 km resolution with 8-day interval). The MODIS-based, process-oriented approach couples photosynthesis, evaporation, two-leaf energy balance and nitrogen, which are different from the previous satellite-based approaches. We couple information from MODIS with flux towers to assess the drivers and parameters of GPP and ET. Incoming shortwave radiation components (direct and diffuse PAR, NIR) under all sky condition are modeled using a Monte-Carlo based atmospheric radiative transfer model. The MODIS Level 2 Atmospheric products are gridded and overlaid with MODIS Land products to produce spatially compatible forcing variables. GPP is modeled using a two-leaf model (sunlit and shaded leaf) and the maximum carboxylation rate is estimated using albedo-Nitrogen-leaf trait relations. The GPP is used to calculate canopy conductance via Ball-Berry model. Then, we apply Penman-Monteith equation to calculate evapotranspiration. The process-oriented approach allows us to investigate the main drivers of GPP and ET at global scale. Finally we explore the spatial and temporal variability of GPP and ET at global scale.

  7. Effects of foliage clumping on the estimation of global terrestrial gross primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing M.; Mo, Gang; Pisek, Jan; Liu, Jane; Deng, Feng; Ishizawa, Misa; Chan, Douglas

    2012-03-01

    Sunlit and shaded leaf separation proposed by Norman (1982) is an effective way to upscale from leaf to canopy in modeling vegetation photosynthesis. The Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) makes use of this methodology, and has been shown to be reliable in modeling the gross primary productivity (GPP) derived from CO2flux and tree ring measurements. In this study, we use BEPS to investigate the effect of canopy architecture on the global distribution of GPP. For this purpose, we use not only leaf area index (LAI) but also the first ever global map of the foliage clumping index derived from the multiangle satellite sensor POLDER at 6 km resolution. The clumping index, which characterizes the degree of the deviation of 3-dimensional leaf spatial distributions from the random case, is used to separate sunlit and shaded LAI values for a given LAI. Our model results show that global GPP in 2003 was 132 ± 22 Pg C. Relative to this baseline case, our results also show: (1) global GPP is overestimated by 12% when accurate LAI is available but clumping is ignored, and (2) global GPP is underestimated by 9% when the effective LAI is available and clumping is ignored. The clumping effects in both cases are statistically significant (p < 0.001). The effective LAI is often derived from remote sensing by inverting the measured canopy gap fraction to LAI without considering the clumping. Global GPP would therefore be generally underestimated when remotely sensed LAI (actually effective LAI by our definition) is used. This is due to the underestimation of the shaded LAI and therefore the contribution of shaded leaves to GPP. We found that shaded leaves contribute 50%, 38%, 37%, 39%, 26%, 29% and 21% to the total GPP for broadleaf evergreen forest, broadleaf deciduous forest, evergreen conifer forest, deciduous conifer forest, shrub, C4 vegetation, and other vegetation, respectively. The global average of this ratio is 35%.

  8. Assessing the ability of MODIS EVI to estimate terrestrial ecosystem gross primary production of multiple land cover types

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shi, H.; Li, L.; Eamus, D.; Huete, A.; Cleverly, J.; Tian, X.; Yu, Q.; Wang, S.; Montagnani, L.; Magliulo, V.; Rotenberg, E.; Pavelka, Marian; Carrara, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 72, Jan (2017), s. 153-164 ISSN 1470-160X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015061 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Enhanced vegetation index * Gross primary production * Land cover types * Leaf area index * MODIS * Remote sensing Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 3.898, year: 2016

  9. Detecting robust signals of interannual variability of gross primary productivity in Asia from multiple terrestrial carbon cycle models and long-term satellite-based vegetation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, K.; Kondo, M.; Ueyama, M.; Kato, T.; Ito, A.; Sasai, T.; Sato, H.; Kobayashi, H.; Saigusa, N.

    2014-12-01

    Long term record of satellite-based terrestrial vegetation are important to evaluate terrestrial carbon cycle models. In this study, we demonstrate how multiple satellite observation can be used for evaluating past changes in gross primary productivity (GPP) and detecting robust anomalies in terrestrial carbon cycle in Asia through our model-data synthesis analysis, Asia-MIP. We focused on the two different temporal coverages: long-term (30 years; 1982-2011) and decadal (10 years; 2001-2011; data intensive period) scales. We used a NOAA/AVHRR NDVI record for long-term analysis and multiple satellite data and products (e.g. Terra-MODIS, SPOT-VEGETATION) as historical satellite data, and multiple terrestrial carbon cycle models (e.g. BEAMS, Biome-BGC, ORCHIDEE, SEIB-DGVM, and VISIT). As a results of long-term (30 years) trend analysis, satellite-based time-series data showed that approximately 40% of the area has experienced a significant increase in the NDVI, while only a few areas have experienced a significant decreasing trend over the last 30 years. The increases in the NDVI were dominant in the sub-continental regions of Siberia, East Asia, and India. Simulations using the terrestrial biosphere models also showed significant increases in GPP, similar to the results for the NDVI, in boreal and temperate regions. A modeled sensitivity analysis showed that the increases in GPP are explained by increased temperature and precipitation in Siberia. Precipitation, solar radiation, CO2fertilization and land cover changes are important factors in the tropical regions. However, the relative contributions of each factor to GPP changes are different among the models. Year-to-year variations of terrestrial GPP were overall consistently captured by the satellite data and terrestrial carbon cycle models if the anomalies are large (e.g. 2003 summer GPP anomalies in East Asia and 2002 spring GPP anomalies in mid to high latitudes). The behind mechanisms can be consistently

  10. Terrestrial gross carbon dioxide uptake : Global distribution and covariation with climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, Christian; Reichstein, Markus; Tomelleri, Enrico; Ciais, Philippe; Jung, Martin; Carvalhais, Nuno; Rödenbeck, Christian; Arain, M. Altaf; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Bonan, Gordon B.; Bondeau, Alberte; Cescatti, Alessandro; Lasslop, Gitta; Lindroth, Anders; Lomas, Mark; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Margolis, Hank; Oleson, Keith W.; Roupsard, Olivier; Veenendaal, Elmar; Viovy, Nicolas; Williams, Christopher M.; Woodward, F. Ian; Papale, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) is the largest global CO 2 flux driving several ecosystem functions. We provide an observation-based estimate of this flux at 123 ± 8 petagrams of carbon per year (Pg C year-1) using eddy covariance flux data and various diagnostic models. Tropical forests

  11. Scaling Gross Primary Production (GPP) over boreal and deciduous forest landscapes in support of MODIS GPP product validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David P. Turner; William D. Ritts; Warren B. Cohen; Stith T. Gower; Maosheng Zhao; Steve W. Running; Steven C. Wofsy; Shawn Urbanski; Allison L. Dunn; J.W. Munger

    2003-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Radiometer (MODIS) is the primary instrument in the NASA Earth Observing System for monitoring the seasonality of global terrestrial vegetation. Estimates of 8-day mean daily gross primary production (GPP) at the 1 km spatial resolution are now operationally produced by the MODIS Land Science Team for the global terrestrial surface using...

  12. A model-data comparison of gross primary productivity: Results from the North American Carbon Program site synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Schaefer; Christopher R. Schwalm; Chris Williams; M. Altaf Arain; Alan Barr; Jing M. Chen; Kenneth J. Davis; Dimitre Dimitrov; Timothy W. Hilton; David Y. Hollinger; Elyn Humphreys; Benjamin Poulter; Brett M. Raczka; Andrew D. Richardson; Alok Sahoo; Peter Thornton; Rodrigo Vargas; Hans Verbeeck; Ryan Anderson; Ian Baker; T. Andrew Black; Paul Bolstad; Jiquan Chen; Peter S. Curtis; Ankur R. Desai; Michael Dietze; Danilo Dragoni; Christopher Gough; Robert F. Grant; Lianhong Gu; Atul Jain; Chris Kucharik; Beverly Law; Shuguang Liu; Erandathie Lokipitiya; Hank A. Margolis; Roser Matamala; J. Harry McCaughey; Russ Monson; J. William Munger; Walter Oechel; Changhui Peng; David T. Price; Dan Ricciuto; William J. Riley; Nigel Roulet; Hanqin Tian; Christina Tonitto; Margaret Torn; Ensheng Weng; Xiaolu Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Accurately simulating gross primary productivity (GPP) in terrestrial ecosystem models is critical because errors in simulated GPP propagate through the model to introduce additional errors in simulated biomass and other fluxes. We evaluated simulated, daily average GPP from 26 models against estimated GPP at 39 eddy covariance flux tower sites across the United States...

  13. Towards 250 m mapping of terrestrial primary productivity over Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsamo, A.; Chen, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are an important part of the climate and global change systems. Their role in climate change and in the global carbon cycle is yet to be well understood. Dataset from satellite earth observation, coupled with numerical models provide the unique tools for monitoring the spatial and temporal dynamics of territorial carbon cycle. The Boreal Ecosystems Productivity Simulator (BEPS) is a remote sensing based approach to quantifying the terrestrial carbon cycle by that gross and net primary productivity (GPP and NPP) and terrestrial carbon sinks and sources expressed as net ecosystem productivity (NEP). We have currently implemented a scheme to map the GPP, NPP and NEP at 250 m for first time over Canada using BEPS model. This is supplemented by improved mapping of land cover and leaf area index (LAI) at 250 m over Canada from MODIS satellite dataset. The results from BEPS are compared with MODIS GPP product and further evaluated with estimated LAI from various sources to evaluate if the results capture the trend in amount of photosynthetic biomass distributions. Final evaluation will be to validate both BEPS and MODIS primary productivity estimates over the Fluxnet sites over Canada. The primary evaluation indicate that BEPS GPP estimates capture the over storey LAI variations over Canada very well compared to MODIS GPP estimates. There is a large offset of MODIS GPP, over-estimating the lower GPP value compared to BEPS GPP estimates. These variations will further be validated based on the measured values from the Fluxnet tower measurements over Canadian. The high resolution GPP (NPP) products at 250 m will further be used to scale the outputs between different ecosystem productivity models, in our case the Canadian carbon budget model of Canadian forest sector CBM-CFS) and the Integrated Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon model (InTEC).

  14. Spatiotemporal patterns of terrestrial gross primary production: A review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anav, A.; Friedlingstein, P.; Beer, Ch.; Cials, P.; Harper, A.; Jones, Ch.; Murray-Tortarolo, G.; Papale, Dario; Parazoo, N. C.; Peylin, P.; Piao, S.; Sitch, S.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zhao, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2016), s. 785-818 ISSN 8755-1209 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : GPP * DGVMs * ESMs * satellite * MTE Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 12.340, year: 2016

  15. Performance of a two-leaf light use efficiency model for mapping gross primary productivity against remotely sensed sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Mei; Zhou, Yanlian; Ju, Weimin; Zhang, Yongguang; Zhang, Leiming; Liu, Yibo

    2018-02-01

    Estimating terrestrial gross primary production is an important task when studying the carbon cycle. In this study, the ability of a two-leaf light use efficiency model to simulate regional gross primary production in China was validated using satellite Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument - 2 sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence data. The two-leaf light use efficiency model was used to estimate daily gross primary production in China's terrestrial ecosystems with 500-m resolution for the period from 2007 to 2014. Gross primary production simulated with the two-leaf light use efficiency model was resampled to a spatial resolution of 0.5° and then compared with sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence. During the study period, sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and gross primary production simulated by the two-leaf light use efficiency model exhibited similar spatial and temporal patterns in China. The correlation coefficient between sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and monthly gross primary production simulated by the two-leaf light use efficiency model was significant (pproduction simulated by the two-leaf light use efficiency model were similar in spring and autumn in most vegetated regions, but dissimilar in winter and summer. The spatial variability of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and gross primary production simulated by the two-leaf light use efficiency model was similar in spring, summer, and autumn. The proportion of spatial variations of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and annual gross primary production simulated by the two-leaf light use efficiency model explained by ranged from 0.76 (2011) to 0.80 (2013) during the study period. Overall, the two-leaf light use efficiency model was capable of capturing spatial and temporal variations in gross primary production in China. However, the model needs further improvement to better simulate gross primary production in summer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. MODIS-derived terrestrial primary production [chapter 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maosheng Zhao; Steven Running; Faith Ann Heinsch; Ramakrishna Nemani

    2011-01-01

    Temporal and spatial changes in terrestrial biological productivity have a large impact on humankind because terrestrial ecosystems not only create environments suitable for human habitation, but also provide materials essential for survival, such as food, fiber and fuel. A recent study estimated that consumption of terrestrial net primary production (NPP; a list of...

  17. [Effect of gross saponins of Tribulus terrestris on cardiocytes impaired by adriamycin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Li, Hong; Xu, Hui; Yang, Shi-Jie

    2010-01-01

    This study is to observe the protection of gross saponins of Tribulus terrestris (GSTT) on cardiocytes impaired by adriamycin (ADR) and approach its mechanism of action. Cardiocytes of neonate rat were cultivated for 72 hours and divided into normal control group, model (ADR 2 mg x L(-1)) group, and GSTT (100, 30, and 10 mg x L(-1)) groups. MTT colorimetric method was deployed to detect cardiocyte survival rate, activities of CK, LDH, AST, SOD, MDA and NO were detected, and apoptosis was detected with flow cytometry. Effect of GSTT on caspase-3 was detected with Western blotting. Compared with control group, contents of CK, LDH, AST, MDA and NO were increased, and activity of SOD was reduced (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001) by ADR. Numbers of survival cells were increased (P < 0.05, P < 0.001), contents of CK, LDH, AST, MDA and NO were decreased, and activity of SOD was increased (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001) by GSTT (100 and 30 mg x L(-1)). Apoptosis of cardiocytes and concentration of caspase-3 can be reduced by GSTT (100 and 30 mg x L(-1)). GSTT can protect cardiocytes impaired by ADR, which are possible involved with its effect of resisting oxygen free radical.

  18. Modeling and Monitoring Terrestrial Primary Production in a Changing Global Environment: Toward a Multiscale Synthesis of Observation and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufen Pan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a critical need to monitor and predict terrestrial primary production, the key indicator of ecosystem functioning, in a changing global environment. Here we provide a brief review of three major approaches to monitoring and predicting terrestrial primary production: (1 ground-based field measurements, (2 satellite-based observations, and (3 process-based ecosystem modelling. Much uncertainty exists in the multi-approach estimations of terrestrial gross primary production (GPP and net primary production (NPP. To improve the capacity of model simulation and prediction, it is essential to evaluate ecosystem models against ground and satellite-based measurements and observations. As a case, we have shown the performance of the dynamic land ecosystem model (DLEM at various scales from site to region to global. We also discuss how terrestrial primary production might respond to climate change and increasing atmospheric CO2 and uncertainties associated with model and data. Further progress in monitoring and predicting terrestrial primary production requires a multiscale synthesis of observations and model simulations. In the Anthropocene era in which human activity has indeed changed the Earth’s biosphere, therefore, it is essential to incorporate the socioeconomic component into terrestrial ecosystem models for accurately estimating and predicting terrestrial primary production in a changing global environment.

  19. Consistency Between Sun-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Gross Primary Production of Vegetation in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Xiao, Xiangming; Jin, Cui; Dong, Jinwei; Zhou, Sha; Wagle, Pradeep; Joiner, Joanna; Guanter, Luis; Zhang, Yongguang; Zhang , Geli; hide

    2016-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the gross primary production (GPP) of terrestrial ecosystems is vital for a better understanding of the spatial-temporal patterns of the global carbon cycle. In this study,we estimate GPP in North America (NA) using the satellite-based Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) images at 8-day temporal and 500 meter spatial resolutions, and NCEP-NARR (National Center for Environmental Prediction-North America Regional Reanalysis) climate data. The simulated GPP (GPP (sub VPM)) agrees well with the flux tower derived GPP (GPPEC) at 39 AmeriFlux sites (155 site-years). The GPP (sub VPM) in 2010 is spatially aggregated to 0.5 by 0.5-degree grid cells and then compared with sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) data from Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2), which is directly related to vegetation photosynthesis. Spatial distribution and seasonal dynamics of GPP (sub VPM) and GOME-2 SIF show good consistency. At the biome scale, GPP (sub VPM) and SIF shows strong linear relationships (R (sup 2) is greater than 0.95) and small variations in regression slopes ((4.60-5.55 grams Carbon per square meter per day) divided by (milliwatts per square meter per nanometer per square radian)). The total annual GPP (sub VPM) in NA in 2010 is approximately 13.53 petagrams Carbon per year, which accounts for approximately 11.0 percent of the global terrestrial GPP and is within the range of annual GPP estimates from six other process-based and data-driven models (11.35-22.23 petagrams Carbon per year). Among the seven models, some models did not capture the spatial pattern of GOME-2 SIF data at annual scale, especially in Midwest cropland region. The results from this study demonstrate the reliable performance of VPM at the continental scale, and the potential of SIF data being used as a benchmark to compare with GPP models.

  20. Improving Global Gross Primary Productivity Estimates by Computing Optimum Light Use Efficiencies Using Flux Tower Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Nima; Kimball, John S.; Running, Steven W.

    2017-11-01

    In the light use efficiency (LUE) approach of estimating the gross primary productivity (GPP), plant productivity is linearly related to absorbed photosynthetically active radiation assuming that plants absorb and convert solar energy into biomass within a maximum LUE (LUEmax) rate, which is assumed to vary conservatively within a given biome type. However, it has been shown that photosynthetic efficiency can vary within biomes. In this study, we used 149 global CO2 flux towers to derive the optimum LUE (LUEopt) under prevailing climate conditions for each tower location, stratified according to model training and test sites. Unlike LUEmax, LUEopt varies according to heterogeneous landscape characteristics and species traits. The LUEopt data showed large spatial variability within and between biome types, so that a simple biome classification explained only 29% of LUEopt variability over 95 global tower training sites. The use of explanatory variables in a mixed effect regression model explained 62.2% of the spatial variability in tower LUEopt data. The resulting regression model was used for global extrapolation of the LUEopt data and GPP estimation. The GPP estimated using the new LUEopt map showed significant improvement relative to global tower data, including a 15% R2 increase and 34% root-mean-square error reduction relative to baseline GPP calculations derived from biome-specific LUEmax constants. The new global LUEopt map is expected to improve the performance of LUE-based GPP algorithms for better assessment and monitoring of global terrestrial productivity and carbon dynamics.

  1. Improved assessment of gross and net primary productivity of Canada's landmass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsamo, Alemu; Chen, Jing M.; Price, David T.; Kurz, Werner A.; Liu, Jane; Boisvenue, Céline; Hember, Robbie A.; Wu, Chaoyang; Chang, Kuo-Hsien

    2013-12-01

    assess Canada's gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) using boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS) at 250 m spatial resolution with improved input parameter and driver fields and phenology and nutrient release parameterization schemes. BEPS is a process-based two-leaf enzyme kinetic terrestrial ecosystem model designed to simulate energy, water, and carbon (C) fluxes using spatial data sets of meteorology, remotely sensed land surface variables, soil properties, and photosynthesis and respiration rate parameters. Two improved key land surface variables, leaf area index (LAI) and land cover type, are derived at 250 m from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer sensor. For diagnostic error assessment, we use nine forest flux tower sites where all measured C flux, meteorology, and ancillary data sets are available. The errors due to input drivers and parameters are then independently corrected for Canada-wide GPP and NPP simulations. The optimized LAI use, for example, reduced the absolute bias in GPP from 20.7% to 1.1% for hourly BEPS simulations. Following the error diagnostics and corrections, daily GPP and NPP are simulated over Canada at 250 m spatial resolution, the highest resolution simulation yet for the country or any other comparable region. Total NPP (GPP) for Canada's land area was 1.27 (2.68) Pg C for 2008, with forests contributing 1.02 (2.2) Pg C. The annual comparisons between measured and simulated GPP show that the mean differences are not statistically significant (p > 0.05, paired t test). The main BEPS simulation error sources are from the driver fields.

  2. Constraining Ecosystem Gross Primary Production and Transpiration with Measurements of Photosynthetic 13CO2 Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonquist, J. M.; Wingate, L.; Ogeé, J.; Bowling, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    The stable carbon isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 (δ13Ca) can provide useful information on water use efficiency (WUE) dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems and potentially constrain models of CO2 and water fluxes at the land surface. This is due to the leaf-level relationship between photosynthetic 13CO2 discrimination (Δ), which influences δ13Ca, and the ratio of leaf intercellular to atmospheric CO2 mole fractions (Ci / Ca), which is related to WUE and is determined by the balance between C assimilation (CO2 demand) and stomatal conductance (CO2 supply). We used branch-scale Δ derived from tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy measurements collected in a Maritime pine forest to estimate Ci / Ca variations over an entire growing season. We combined Ci / Ca estimates with rates of gross primary production (GPP) derived from eddy covariance (EC) to estimate canopy-scale stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration (T). Estimates of T were highly correlated to T estimates derived from sapflow data (y = 1.22x + 0.08; r2 = 0.61; slope P MuSICA) (y = 0.88x - 0.05; r2 = 0.64; slope P MuSICA (y = 1.10 + 0.42; r2 = 0.50; slope P < 0.001). Results demonstrate that the leaf-level relationship between Δ and Ci / Ca can be extended to the canopy-scale and that Δ measurements have utility for partitioning ecosystem-scale CO2 and water fluxes.

  3. Structural Uncertainty in Model-Simulated Trends of Global Gross Primary Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaichun Zhu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Projected changes in the frequency and severity of droughts as a result of increase in greenhouse gases have a significant impact on the role of vegetation in regulating the global carbon cycle. Drought effect on vegetation Gross Primary Production (GPP is usually modeled as a function of Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD and/or soil moisture. Climate projections suggest a strong likelihood of increasing trend in VPD, while regional changes in precipitation are less certain. This difference in projections between VPD and precipitation can cause considerable discrepancies in the predictions of vegetation behavior depending on how ecosystem models represent the drought effect. In this study, we scrutinized the model responses to drought using the 30-year record of Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS 3g Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI dataset. A diagnostic ecosystem model, Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS, was used to estimate global GPP from 1982 to 2009 under nine different experimental simulations. The control run of global GPP increased until 2000, but stayed constant after 2000. Among the simulations with single climate constraint (temperature, VPD, rainfall and solar radiation, only the VPD-driven simulation showed a decrease in 2000s, while the other scenarios simulated an increase in GPP. The diverging responses in 2000s can be attributed to the difference in the representation of the impact of water stress on vegetation in models, i.e., using VPD and/or precipitation. Spatial map of trend in simulated GPP using GIMMS 3g data is consistent with the GPP driven by soil moisture than the GPP driven by VPD, confirming the need for a soil moisture constraint in modeling global GPP.

  4. Upscaling Ameriflux observations to assess drought impacts on gross primary productivity across the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, M.; Moore, D. J.; Scott, R. L.; MacBean, N.; Ponce-Campos, G. E.; Breshears, D. D.

    2017-12-01

    Both satellite observations and eddy covariance estimates provide crucial information about the Earth's carbon, water and energy cycles. Continuous measurements from flux towers facilitate exploration of the exchange of carbon dioxide, water and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere at fine temporal and spatial scales, while satellite observations can fill in the large spatial gaps of in-situ measurements and provide long-term temporal continuity. The Southwest (Southwest United States and Northwest Mexico) and other semi-arid regions represent a key uncertainty in interannual variability in carbon uptake. Comparisons of existing global upscaled gross primary production (GPP) products with flux tower data at sites across the Southwest show widespread mischaracterization of seasonality in vegetation carbon uptake, resulting in large (up to 200%) errors in annual carbon uptake estimates. Here, remotely sensed and distributed meteorological inputs are used to upscale GPP estimates from 25 Ameriflux towers across the Southwest to the regional scale using a machine learning approach. Our random forest model incorporates two novel features that improve the spatial and temporal variability in GPP. First, we incorporate a multi-scalar drought index at multiple timescales to account for differential seasonality between ecosystem types. Second, our machine learning algorithm was trained on twenty five ecologically diverse sites to optimize both the monthly variability in and the seasonal cycle of GPP. The product and its components will be used to examine drought impacts on terrestrial carbon cycling across the Southwest including the effects of drought seasonality and on carbon uptake. Our spatially and temporally continuous upscaled GPP product drawing from both ground and satellite data over the Southwest region helps us understand linkages between the carbon and water cycles in semi-arid ecosystems and informs predictions of vegetation response to future

  5. MODELING AND FORECASTING THE GROSS ENROLLMENT RATIO IN ROMANIAN PRIMARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINOIU CRISTIAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The gross enrollment ratio in primary school is one of the basic indicators used in order to evaluate the proposed objectives of the educational system. Knowing its evolution allows a more rigorous substantiation of the strategies and of the human resources politics not only from the educational field but also from the economic one. In this paper we propose an econometric model in order to describe the gross enrollment ratio in Romanian primary school and we achieve its prediction for the next years, having as a guide the Box-Jenkins’s methodology. The obtained results indicate the continuous decrease of this rate for the next years.

  6. Comparison between remote sensing and a dynamic vegetation model for estimating terrestrial primary production of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardö, Jonas

    2015-12-01

    Africa is an important part of the global carbon cycle. It is also a continent facing potential problems due to increasing resource demand in combination with climate change-induced changes in resource supply. Quantifying the pools and fluxes constituting the terrestrial African carbon cycle is a challenge, because of uncertainties in meteorological driver data, lack of validation data, and potentially uncertain representation of important processes in major ecosystems. In this paper, terrestrial primary production estimates derived from remote sensing and a dynamic vegetation model are compared and quantified for major African land cover types. Continental gross primary production estimates derived from remote sensing were higher than corresponding estimates derived from a dynamic vegetation model. However, estimates of continental net primary production from remote sensing were lower than corresponding estimates from the dynamic vegetation model. Variation was found among land cover classes, and the largest differences in gross primary production were found in the evergreen broadleaf forest. Average carbon use efficiency (NPP/GPP) was 0.58 for the vegetation model and 0.46 for the remote sensing method. Validation versus in situ data of aboveground net primary production revealed significant positive relationships for both methods. A combination of the remote sensing method with the dynamic vegetation model did not strongly affect this relationship. Observed significant differences in estimated vegetation productivity may have several causes, including model design and temperature sensitivity. Differences in carbon use efficiency reflect underlying model assumptions. Integrating the realistic process representation of dynamic vegetation models with the high resolution observational strength of remote sensing may support realistic estimation of components of the carbon cycle and enhance resource monitoring, providing suitable validation data is available.

  7. Evaluation of MODIS gross primary productivity for Africa using eddy covariance data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sjöström, M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available MOD17A2 provides operational gross primary production (GPP) data globally at 1 km spatial resolution and 8-day temporal resolution. MOD17A2 estimates GPP according to the light use efficiency (LUE) concept assuming a fixed maximum rate of carbon...

  8. Variance-based sensitivity analysis of BIOME-BGC for gross and net primary production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raj, R.; Hamm, N.A.S.; van der Tol, C.; Stein, A.

    2014-01-01

    Parameterization and calibration of a process-based simulator (PBS) is a major challenge when simulating gross and net primary production (GPP and NPP). The large number of parameters makes the calibration computationally expensive and is complicated by the dependence of several parameters on other

  9. Linking climate, gross primary productivity, and site index across forests of the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron R. Weiskittel; Nicholas L. Crookston; Philip J. Radtke

    2011-01-01

    Assessing forest productivity is important for developing effective management regimes and predicting future growth. Despite some important limitations, the most common means for quantifying forest stand-level potential productivity is site index (SI). Another measure of productivity is gross primary production (GPP). In this paper, SI is compared with GPP estimates...

  10. Modeling gross primary production of an evergreen needleleaf forest using MODIS and climate data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiangming Xiao; Qingyuan Zhang; David Hollinger; John Aber; Berrien, III Moore

    2005-01-01

    Forest canopies are composed of photosynthetically active vegetation (PAV, chloroplasts) and nonphotosynthetic vegetation (NPV, e.g., cell wall, vein, branch). The fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by the canopy (FAPAR) should be partitioned into FAPARPAV and FAPARNPV. Gross primary production (...

  11. Evaluation of MODIS gross primary productivity for Africa using eddy covariance data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjostrom, M.; Zhao, M.; Archibald, S.; Veenendaal, E.M.

    2013-01-01

    MOD17A2 provides operational gross primary production (GPP) data globally at 1 km spatial resolution and 8-day temporal resolution. MOD17A2 estimates GPP according to the light use efficiency (LUE) concept assuming a fixed maximum rate of carbon assimilation per unit photosynthetically active

  12. Vegetation-specific model parameters are not required for estimating gross primary production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yuan, W.; Cai, W.; Liu, S.; Dong, W.; Chen, J.; Altaf Arain, M.; Blanken, P. D.; Cescatti, A.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Georgiadis, T.; Genesio, L.; Gianelle, D.; Grelle, A.; Kiely, G.; Knohl, A.; Liu, D.; Marek, Michal V.; Merbold, L.; Montagnani, L.; Panferov, O.; Peltoniemi, M.; Rambal, S.; Raschi, A.; Varlagin, A.; Xia, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 292, NOV 24 2014 (2014), s. 1-10 ISSN 0304-3800 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : light use efficiency * gross primary production * model parameters Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.321, year: 2014

  13. Precipitation and Carbon-Water Coupling Jointly Control the Interannual Variability of Global Land Gross Primary Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Xiao, Xiangming; Guanter, Luis; Zhou, Sha; Ciais, Philippe; Joiner, Joanna; Sitch, Stephen; Wu, Xiaocui; Nabel, Julian; Dong, Jinwei; hide

    2016-01-01

    Carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems is increasing along with the rising of atmospheric CO2 concentration. Embedded in this trend, recent studies suggested that the interannual variability (IAV) of global carbon fluxes may be dominated by semi-arid ecosystems, but the underlying mechanisms of this high variability in these specific regions are not well known. Here we derive an ensemble of gross primary production (GPP) estimates using the average of three data-driven models and eleven process-based models. These models are weighted by their spatial representativeness of the satellite-based solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF). We then use this weighted GPP ensemble to investigate the GPP variability for different aridity regimes. We show that semi-arid regions contribute to 57% of the detrended IAV of global GPP. Moreover, in regions with higher GPP variability, GPP fluctuations are mostly controlled by precipitation and strongly coupled with evapotranspiration (ET). This higher GPP IAV in semi-arid regions is co-limited by supply (precipitation)-induced ET variability and GPP-ET coupling strength. Our results demonstrate the importance of semi-arid regions to the global terrestrial carbon cycle and posit that there will be larger GPP and ET variations in the future with changes in precipitation patterns and dryland expansion.

  14. Diagnostic extrapolation of gross primary production from flux tower sites to the globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Christian; Reichstein, Markus; Tomelleri, Enrico; Ciais, Philippe; Jung, Martin; Carvalhais, Nuno; Rödenbeck, Christian; Baldocchi, Dennis; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Papale, Dario

    2010-05-01

    The uptake of atmospheric CO2 by plant photosynthesis is the largest global carbon flux and is thought of driving most terrestrial carbon cycle processes. While the photosynthesis processes at the leaf and canopy levels are quite well understood, so far only very crude estimates of its global integral, the Gross Primary Production (GPP) can be found in the literature. Existing estimates have been lacking sound empirical basis. Reasons for such limitations lie in the absence of direct estimates of ecosystem-level GPP and methodological difficulties in scaling local carbon flux measurements to global scale across heterogeneous vegetation. Here, we present global estimates of GPP based on different diagnostic approaches. These up-scaling schemes integrated high-resolution remote sensing products, such as land cover, the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) and leaf-area index, with carbon flux measurements from the global network of eddy covariance stations (FLUXNET). In addition, meteorological datasets from diverse sources and river runoff observations were used. All the above-mentioned approaches were also capable of estimating uncertainties. With six novel or newly parameterized and highly diverse up-scaling schemes we consistently estimated a global GPP of 122 Pg C y-1. In the quantification of the total uncertainties, we considered uncertainties arising from the measurement technique and data processing (i.e. partitioning into GPP and respiration). Furthermore, we accounted for the uncertainties of drivers and the structural uncertainties of the extrapolation approach. The total propagation led to a global uncertainty of 15 % of the mean value. Although our mean GPP estimate of 122 Pg C y-1 is similar to the previous postulate by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in 2001, we estimated a different variability among ecoregions. The tropics accounted for 32 % of GPP showing a greater importance of tropical ecosystems for the global carbon

  15. Leaf chlorophyll constraint on model simulated gross primary productivity in agricultural systems

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus

    2015-05-05

    Leaf chlorophyll content (Chll) may serve as an observational proxy for the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vmax), which describes leaf photosynthetic capacity and represents the single most important control on modeled leaf photosynthesis within most Terrestrial Biosphere Models (TBMs). The parameterization of Vmax is associated with great uncertainty as it can vary significantly between plants and in response to changes in leaf nitrogen (N) availability, plant phenology and environmental conditions. Houborg et al. (2013) outlined a semi-mechanistic relationship between V max 25 (Vmax normalized to 25 °C) and Chll based on inter-linkages between V max 25 , Rubisco enzyme kinetics, N and Chll. Here, these relationships are parameterized for a wider range of important agricultural crops and embedded within the leaf photosynthesis-conductance scheme of the Community Land Model (CLM), bypassing the questionable use of temporally invariant and broadly defined plant functional type (PFT) specific V max 25 values. In this study, the new Chll constrained version of CLM is refined with an updated parameterization scheme for specific application to soybean and maize. The benefit of using in-situ measured and satellite retrieved Chll for constraining model simulations of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) is evaluated over fields in central Nebraska, U.S.A between 2001 and 2005. Landsat-based Chll time-series records derived from the Regularized Canopy Reflectance model (REGFLEC) are used as forcing to the CLM. Validation of simulated GPP against 15 site-years of flux tower observations demonstrate the utility of Chll as a model constraint, with the coefficient of efficiency increasing from 0.91 to 0.94 and from 0.87 to 0.91 for maize and soybean, respectively. Model performances particularly improve during the late reproductive and senescence stage, where the largest temporal variations in Chll (averaging 35–55 μg cm−2 for maize and 20–35 μg cm−2 for soybean) are

  16. Assessing the relationship between microwave vegetation optical depth and gross primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubner, Irene E.; Forkel, Matthias; Jung, Martin; Liu, Yi Y.; Miralles, Diego G.; Parinussa, Robert; van der Schalie, Robin; Vreugdenhil, Mariette; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Tramontana, Gianluca; Camps-Valls, Gustau; Dorigo, Wouter A.

    2018-03-01

    At the global scale, the uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide by terrestrial ecosystems through photosynthesis is commonly estimated through vegetation indices or biophysical properties derived from optical remote sensing data. Microwave observations of vegetated areas are sensitive to different components of the vegetation layer than observations in the optical domain and may therefore provide complementary information on the vegetation state, which may be used in the estimation of Gross Primary Production (GPP). However, the relation between GPP and Vegetation Optical Depth (VOD), a biophysical quantity derived from microwave observations, is not yet known. This study aims to explore the relationship between VOD and GPP. VOD data were taken from different frequencies (L-, C-, and X-band) and from both active and passive microwave sensors, including the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT), the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observation System (AMSR-E) and a merged VOD data set from various passive microwave sensors. VOD data were compared against FLUXCOM GPP and Solar-Induced chlorophyll Fluorescence (SIF) from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2). FLUXCOM GPP estimates are based on the upscaling of flux tower GPP observations using optical satellite data, while SIF observations present a measure of photosynthetic activity and are often used as a proxy for GPP. For relating VOD to GPP, three variables were analyzed: original VOD time series, temporal changes in VOD (ΔVOD), and positive changes in VOD (ΔVOD≥0). Results show widespread positive correlations between VOD and GPP with some negative correlations mainly occurring in dry and wet regions for active and passive VOD, respectively. Correlations between VOD and GPP were similar or higher than between VOD and SIF. When comparing the three variables for relating VOD to GPP, correlations with GPP were higher for the original VOD time

  17. Net primary productivity of China's terrestrial ecosystems from a process model driven by remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X; Liu, G; Chen, J M; Chen, M; Liu, J; Ju, W M; Sun, R; Zhou, W

    2007-11-01

    The terrestrial carbon cycle is one of the foci in global climate change research. Simulating net primary productivity (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystems is important for carbon cycle research. In this study, China's terrestrial NPP was simulated using the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS), a carbon-water coupled process model based on remote sensing inputs. For these purposes, a national-wide database (including leaf area index, land cover, meteorology, vegetation and soil) at a 1 km resolution and a validation database were established. Using these databases and BEPS, daily maps of NPP for the entire China's landmass in 2001 were produced, and gross primary productivity (GPP) and autotrophic respiration (RA) were estimated. Using the simulated results, we explore temporal-spatial patterns of China's terrestrial NPP and the mechanisms of its responses to various environmental factors. The total NPP and mean NPP of China's landmass were 2.235 GtC and 235.2 gCm(-2)yr(-1), respectively; the total GPP and mean GPP were 4.418 GtC and 465 gCm(-2)yr(-1); and the total RA and mean RA were 2.227 GtC and 234 gCm(-2)yr(-1), respectively. On average, NPP was 50.6% of GPP. In addition, statistical analysis of NPP of different land cover types was conducted, and spatiotemporal patterns of NPP were investigated. The response of NPP to changes in some key factors such as LAI, precipitation, temperature, solar radiation, VPD and AWC are evaluated and discussed.

  18. Comparison of Gross Primary Productivity Derived from GIMMS NDVI3g, GIMMS, and MODIS in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbang Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Gross primary production (GPP plays an important role in the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems. It is particularly important to monitor GPP in Southeast Asia because of increasing rates of tropical forest degradation and deforestation in the region in recent decades. The newly available, improved, third generation Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI3g from the Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS group provides a long temporal dataset, from July 1981 to December 2011, for terrestrial carbon cycle and climate response research. However, GIMMS NDVI3g-based GPP estimates are not yet available. We applied the GLOPEM-CEVSA model, which integrates an ecosystem process model and a production efficiency model, to estimate GPP in Southeast Asia based on three independent results of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR from GIMMS NDVI3g (GPPNDVI3g, GIMMS NDVI1g (GPPNDVI1g, and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS MOD15A2 FPAR product (GPPMOD15. The GPP results were validated using ground data from eddy flux towers located in different forest biomes, and comparisons were made among the three GPPs as well as the MOD17A2 GPP products (GPPMOD17. Based on validation with flux tower derived GPP estimates the results show that GPPNDVI3g is more accurate than GPPNDVI1g and is comparable in accuracy with GPPMOD15. In addition, GPPNDVI3g and GPPMOD15 have good spatial-temporal consistency. Our results indicate that GIMMS NDVI3g is an effective dataset for regional GPP simulation in Southeast Asia, capable of accurately tracking the variation and trends in long-term terrestrial ecosystem GPP dynamics.

  19. Variations of Terrestrial Net Primary Productivity in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangmin Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the heterogeneity and complexity of terrestrial ecosystems of East Asia, a better understanding of relationships between climate change and net primary productivity (NPP distribution is important to predict future carbon dynamics. The objective of this study is to analyze the temporal-spatial patterns of NPP in East Asia (10°S - 55°N, 60 - 155°E from 1982 to 2006 using the process-based Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS model. Prior to the regional simulation, the annual simulated NPP was validated using field observed NPP demonstrating the ability of BEPS to simulate NPP in different ecosystems of East Asia.

  20. MODIS/Terra Gross Primary Productivity 8-Day L4 Global 1km SIN Grid V055

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Terra/MODIS Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) product (MOD17A2) is a cumulative composite of GPP values based on the radiation-use efficiency concept that is...

  1. Chlorophyll fluorescence better captures seasonal and interannual gross primary productivity dynamics across dryland ecosystems of southwestern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satellite remote sensing provides unmatched spatiotemporal information on vegetation gross primary productivity (GPP). Yet, understanding of the relationship between GPP and remote sensing observations and how it changes as a function of factors such as scale, biophysical constraint, and vegetation ...

  2. Efficiency of chlorophyll in gross primary productivity: A proof of concept and application in crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitelson, Anatoly A; Peng, Yi; Viña, Andrés; Arkebauer, Timothy; Schepers, James S

    2016-08-20

    One of the main factors affecting vegetation productivity is absorbed light, which is largely governed by chlorophyll. In this paper, we introduce the concept of chlorophyll efficiency, representing the amount of gross primary production per unit of canopy chlorophyll content (Chl) and incident PAR. We analyzed chlorophyll efficiency in two contrasting crops (soybean and maize). Given that they have different photosynthetic pathways (C3 vs. C4), leaf structures (dicot vs. monocot) and canopy architectures (a heliotrophic leaf angle distribution vs. a spherical leaf angle distribution), they cover a large spectrum of biophysical conditions. Our results show that chlorophyll efficiency in primary productivity is highly variable and responds to various physiological and phenological conditions, and water availability. Since Chl is accessible through non-destructive, remotely sensed techniques, the use of chlorophyll efficiency for modeling and monitoring plant optimization patterns is practical at different scales (e.g., leaf, canopy) and under widely-varying environmental conditions. Through this analysis, we directly related a functional characteristic, gross primary production with a structural characteristic, canopy chlorophyll content. Understanding the efficiency of the structural characteristic is of great interest as it allows explaining functional components of the plant system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. An improvement of satellite-based algorithm for gross primary production estimation optimized over Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Kyoung-Jin; Han, Kyung-Soo; Kim, In-Hwan; Kim, Sang-Il; Lee, Min-Ji

    2011-11-01

    Monitoring the global gross primary production (GPP) is relevant to understanding the global carbon cycle and evaluating the effects of interannual climate variation on food and fiber production. GPP, the flux of carbon into ecosystems via photosynthetic assimilation, is an important variable in the global carbon cycle and a key process in land surface-atmosphere interactions. The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the primary global monitoring sensors. MODIS GPP has some of the problems that have been proven in several studies. Therefore this study was to solve the regional mismatch that occurs when using the MODIS GPP global product over Korea. To solve this problem, we estimated each of the GPP component variables separately to improve the GPP estimates. We compared our GPP estimates with validation GPP data to assess their accuracy. For all sites, the correlation was close with high significance (R2 = 0.8164, RMSE = 0.6126 g.C.m-2.d-1, bias = -0.0271 g.C.m-2.d-1). We also compared our results to those of other models. The component variables tended to be either over- or under-estimated when compared to those in other studies over the Korean peninsula, although the estimated GPP was better. The results of this study will likely improve carbon cycle modeling by capturing finer patterns with an integrated method of remote sensing. Keywords: VEGETATION, Gross Primary Production, MODIS.

  4. Spatial extrapolation of light use efficiency model parameters to predict gross primary production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Schulz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To capture the spatial and temporal variability of the gross primary production as a key component of the global carbon cycle, the light use efficiency modeling approach in combination with remote sensing data has shown to be well suited. Typically, the model parameters, such as the maximum light use efficiency, are either set to a universal constant or to land class dependent values stored in look-up tables. In this study, we employ the machine learning technique support vector regression to explicitly relate the model parameters of a light use efficiency model calibrated at several FLUXNET sites to site-specific characteristics obtained by meteorological measurements, ecological estimations and remote sensing data. A feature selection algorithm extracts the relevant site characteristics in a cross-validation, and leads to an individual set of characteristic attributes for each parameter. With this set of attributes, the model parameters can be estimated at sites where a parameter calibration is not possible due to the absence of eddy covariance flux measurement data. This will finally allow a spatially continuous model application. The performance of the spatial extrapolation scheme is evaluated with a cross-validation approach, which shows the methodology to be well suited to recapture the variability of gross primary production across the study sites.

  5. A multi-sites analysis on the ozone effects on Gross Primary Production of European forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proietti, C. [Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Anav, A. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA), C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); University of Exeter, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, Exeter (United Kingdom); De Marco, A. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA), C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Sicard, P. [ACRI-HE, 260 route du Pin Montard BP234, 06904 Sophia Antipolis-cedex (France); Vitale, M., E-mail: marcello.vitale@uniroma1.it [Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    Ozone (O{sub 3}) is both a greenhouse gas and a secondary air pollutant causing adverse impacts on forests ecosystems at different scales, from cellular to ecosystem level. Specifically, the phytotoxic nature of O{sub 3} can impair CO{sub 2} assimilation that, in turn affects forest productivity. This study aims to evaluate the effects of tropospheric O{sub 3} on Gross Primary Production (GPP) at 37 European forest sites during the time period 2000–2010. Due to the lack of carbon assimilation data at O{sub 3} monitoring stations (and vice-versa) this study makes a first attempt to combine high resolution MODIS Gross Primary Production (GPP) estimates and O{sub 3} measurement data. Partial Correlations, Anomalies Analysis and the Random Forests Analysis (RFA) were used to quantify the effects of tropospheric O{sub 3} concentration and its uptake on GPP and to evaluate the most important factors affecting inter-annual GPP changes. Our results showed, along a North-West/South-East European transect, a negative impact of O{sub 3} on GPP ranging from 0.4% to 30%, although a key role of meteorological parameters respect to pollutant variables in affecting GPP was found. In particular, meteorological parameters, namely air temperature (T), soil water content (SWC) and relative humidity (RH) are the most important predictors at 81% of test sites. Moreover, it is interesting to highlight a key role of SWC in the Mediterranean areas (Spanish, Italian and French test sites) confirming that, soil moisture and soil water availability affect vegetation growth and photosynthesis especially in arid or semi-arid ecosystems such as the Mediterranean climate regions. Considering the pivotal role of GPP in the global carbon balance and the O{sub 3} ability to reduce primary productivity of the forests, this study can help in assessing the O{sub 3} impacts on ecosystem services, including wood production and carbon sequestration. - Highlights: • Assessment of the surface O{sub 3

  6. Physical fitness of primary school children in the reflection of different levels of gross motor coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Ružbarská

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lower level of motor competences may result in unsuccessful engaging of children in physical activities as early as pre-school age and also prepubescent ages. This may subsequently lead to a spiral of forming negative attitudes towards an active lifestyle and may be accompanied by a negative trend in weight status and physical fitness outcomes. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify and analyze differences in physical fitness and somatic parameters of primary school-aged children according to level of their gross motor coordination. Methods:  A sample of 436 children aged 7 to 10 years, of which were 222 girls and 214 boys, performed physical fitness tests - Eurofit test battery. The level of motor coordination was assessed using the test battery Körperkoordination-Test-für-Kinder (KTK. The anthropometric data (body mass, body height, sum of five skinfolds were measured. The one-way ANOVA was used to assess differences in physical fitness test items and anthropometry parameters between children with normal motor quotient (MQ ≥ 86 and decreased levels of gross motor coordination (MQ ≤ 85. Results: Research findings indicate a strongly negative trend in physical development of children with motor deficits (MQ ≤ 85. The results of ANOVA revealed significantly less favourable level of most of the assessed physical fitness parameters in children with decreased level of motor coordination. Conclusions: The findings suggest that physical fitness outcomes of primary school-aged children are associated with a lower level of motor coordination. Motor coordination probably plays an important role in preventing, or moderating the so-called negative trajectory leading to childhood overweight or obesity.

  7. Chlorophyll induced fluorescence retrieved from GOME2 for improving gross primary productivity estimates of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leth, Thomas C.; Verstraeten, Willem W.; Sanders, Abram F. J.

    2014-05-01

    Mapping terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence is a crucial activity to obtain information on the functional status of vegetation and to improve estimates of light-use efficiency (LUE) and global primary productivity (GPP). GPP quantifies carbon fixation by plant ecosystems and is therefore an important parameter for budgeting terrestrial carbon cycles. Satellite remote sensing offers an excellent tool for investigating GPP in a spatially explicit fashion across different scales of observation. The GPP estimates, however, still remain largely uncertain due to biotic and abiotic factors that influence plant production. Sun-induced fluorescence has the ability to enhance our knowledge on how environmentally induced changes affect the LUE. This can be linked to optical derived remote sensing parameters thereby reducing the uncertainty in GPP estimates. Satellite measurements provide a relatively new perspective on global sun-induced fluorescence, enabling us to quantify spatial distributions and changes over time. Techniques have recently been developed to retrieve fluorescence emissions from hyperspectral satellite measurements. We use data from the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME2) to infer terrestrial fluorescence. The spectral signatures of three basic components atmospheric: absorption, surface reflectance, and fluorescence radiance are separated using reference measurements of non-fluorescent surfaces (desserts, deep oceans and ice) to solve for the atmospheric absorption. An empirically based principal component analysis (PCA) approach is applied similar to that of Joiner et al. (2013, ACP). Here we show our first global maps of the GOME2 retrievals of chlorophyll fluorescence. First results indicate fluorescence distributions that are similar with that obtained by GOSAT and GOME2 as reported by Joiner et al. (2013, ACP), although we find slightly higher values. In view of optimizing the fluorescence retrieval, we will show the effect of the references

  8. Evaluating the role of land cover and climate uncertainties in computing gross primary production in Hawaiian Island ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Heather L; Selmants, Paul C; Moreno, Alvaro; Running, Steve W; Giardina, Christian P

    2017-01-01

    Gross primary production (GPP) is the Earth's largest carbon flux into the terrestrial biosphere and plays a critical role in regulating atmospheric chemistry and global climate. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS)-MOD17 data product is a widely used remote sensing-based model that provides global estimates of spatiotemporal trends in GPP. When the MOD17 algorithm is applied to regional scale heterogeneous landscapes, input data from coarse resolution land cover and climate products may increase uncertainty in GPP estimates, especially in high productivity tropical ecosystems. We examined the influence of using locally specific land cover and high-resolution local climate input data on MOD17 estimates of GPP for the State of Hawaii, a heterogeneous and discontinuous tropical landscape. Replacing the global land cover data input product (MOD12Q1) with Hawaii-specific land cover data reduced statewide GPP estimates by ~8%, primarily because the Hawaii-specific land cover map had less vegetated land area compared to the global land cover product. Replacing coarse resolution GMAO climate data with Hawaii-specific high-resolution climate data also reduced statewide GPP estimates by ~8% because of the higher spatial variability of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in the Hawaii-specific climate data. The combined use of both Hawaii-specific land cover and high-resolution Hawaii climate data inputs reduced statewide GPP by ~16%, suggesting equal and independent influence on MOD17 GPP estimates. Our sensitivity analyses within a heterogeneous tropical landscape suggest that refined global land cover and climate data sets may contribute to an enhanced MOD17 product at a variety of spatial scales.

  9. Biophysical drivers of seasonal variability in Sphagnum gross primary production in a northern temperate bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Anthony P.; Carter, Kelsey R.; Gu, Lianhong; Hanson, Paul J.; Malhotra, Avni; Norby, Richard J.; Sebestyen, Stephen D.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Weston, David J.

    2017-05-01

    Sphagnum mosses are the keystone species of peatland ecosystems. With rapid rates of climate change occurring in high latitudes, vast reservoirs of carbon accumulated over millennia in peatland ecosystems are potentially vulnerable to rising temperature and changing precipitation. We investigate the seasonal drivers of Sphagnum gross primary production (GPP)—the entry point of carbon into wetland ecosystems. Continuous flux measurements and flux partitioning show a seasonal cycle of Sphagnum GPP that peaked in the late summer, well after the peak in photosynthetically active radiation. Wavelet analysis showed that water table height was the key driver of weekly variation in Sphagnum GPP in the early summer and that temperature was the primary driver of GPP in the late summer and autumn. Flux partitioning and a process-based model of Sphagnum photosynthesis demonstrated the likelihood of seasonally dynamic maximum rates of photosynthesis and a logistic relationship between the water table and photosynthesizing tissue area when the water table was at the Sphagnum surface. The model also suggested that variability in internal resistance to CO2 transport, a function of Sphagnum water content, had minimal effect on GPP. To accurately model Sphagnum GPP, we recommend the following: (1) understanding seasonal photosynthetic trait variation and its triggers in Sphagnum; (2) characterizing the interaction of Sphagnum photosynthesizing tissue area with water table height; (3) modeling Sphagnum as a "soil" layer for consistent simulation of water dynamics; and (4) measurement of Sphagnum "canopy" properties: extinction coefficient (k), clumping (Ω), and maximum stem area index (SAI).

  10. Incident radiation and the allocation of nitrogen within Arctic plant canopies: implications for predicting gross primary productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Street, L.E.; Shaver, G.R.; Rastetter, E.B.; Wijk, van M.T.; Kaye, B.A.; Williams, M.

    2012-01-01

    Arctic vegetation is characterized by high spatial variability in plant functional type (PFT) composition and gross primary productivity (P). Despite this variability, the two main drivers of P in sub-Arctic tundra are leaf area index (LT) and total foliar nitrogen (NT). LT and NT have been shown to

  11. Regional crop gross primary production and yield estimation using fused Landsat-MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, M.; Kimball, J. S.; Maneta, M. P.; Maxwell, B. D.; Moreno, A.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate crop yield assessments using satellite-based remote sensing are of interest for the design of regional policies that promote agricultural resiliency and food security. However, the application of current vegetation productivity algorithms derived from global satellite observations are generally too coarse to capture cropland heterogeneity. Merging information from sensors with reciprocal spatial and temporal resolution can improve the accuracy of these retrievals. In this study, we estimate annual crop yields for seven important crop types -alfalfa, barley, corn, durum wheat, peas, spring wheat and winter wheat over Montana, United States (U.S.) from 2008 to 2015. Yields are estimated as the product of gross primary production (GPP) and a crop-specific harvest index (HI) at 30 m spatial resolution. To calculate GPP we used a modified form of the MOD17 LUE algorithm driven by a 30 m 8-day fused NDVI dataset constructed by blending Landsat (5 or 7) and MODIS Terra reflectance data. The fused 30-m NDVI record shows good consistency with the original Landsat and MODIS data, but provides better spatiotemporal information on cropland vegetation growth. The resulting GPP estimates capture characteristic cropland patterns and seasonal variations, while the estimated annual 30 m crop yield results correspond favorably with county-level crop yield data (r=0.96, pcrop yield performance was generally lower, but still favorable in relation to field-scale crop yield surveys (r=0.42, p<0.01). Our methods and results are suitable for operational applications at regional scales.

  12. Leaf chlorophyll constraint on model simulated gross primary productivity in agricultural systems

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus; McCabe, Matthew; Cescatti, Alessandro; Gitelson, Anatoly A.

    2015-01-01

    The benefit of using in-situ measured and satellite retrieved Chll for constraining model simulations of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) is evaluated over fields in central Nebraska, U.S.A between 2001 and 2005. Landsat-based Chll time-series records derived from the Regularized Canopy Reflectance model (REGFLEC) are used as forcing to the CLM. Validation of simulated GPP against 15 site-years of flux tower observations demonstrate the utility of Chll as a model constraint, with the coefficient of efficiency increasing from 0.91 to 0.94 and from 0.87 to 0.91 for maize and soybean, respectively. Model performances particularly improve during the late reproductive and senescence stage, where the largest temporal variations in Chll (averaging 35–55 μg cm−2 for maize and 20–35 μg cm−2 for soybean) are observed. While prolonged periods of vegetation stress did not occur over the studied fields, given the usefulness of Chll as an indicator of plant health, enhanced GPP predictabilities should be expected in fields exposed to longer periods of moisture and nutrient stress. While the results support the use of Chll as an observational proxy for V max 25 , future work needs to be directed towards improving the Chll retrieval accuracy from space observations and developing consistent and physically realistic modeling schemes that can be parameterized with acceptable accuracy over spatial and temporal domains.

  13. Annual Gross Primary Production from Vegetation Indices: A Theoretically Sound Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Amparo Gilabert

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A linear relationship between the annual gross primary production (GPP and a PAR-weighted vegetation index is theoretically derived from the Monteith equation. A semi-empirical model is then proposed to estimate the annual GPP from commonly available vegetation indices images and a representative PAR, which does not require actual meteorological data. A cross validation procedure is used to calibrate and validate the model predictions against reference data. As the calibration/validation process depends on the reference GPP product, the higher the quality of the reference GPP, the better the performance of the semi-empirical model. The annual GPP has been estimated at 1-km scale from MODIS NDVI and EVI images for eight years. Two reference data sets have been used: an optimized GPP product for the study area previously obtained and the MOD17A3 product. Different statistics show a good agreement between the estimates and the reference GPP data, with correlation coefficient around 0.9 and relative RMSE around 20%. The annual GPP is overestimated in semiarid areas and slightly underestimated in dense forest areas. With the above limitations, the model provides an excellent compromise between simplicity and accuracy for the calculation of long time series of annual GPP.

  14. Dominant role of plant physiology in trend and variability of gross primary productivity in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sha; Zhang, Yao; Ciais, Philippe; Xiao, Xiangming; Luo, Yiqi; Caylor, Kelly K.; Huang, Yuefei; Wang, Guangqian

    2017-02-01

    Annual gross primary productivity (GPP) varies considerably due to climate-induced changes in plant phenology and physiology. However, the relative importance of plant phenology and physiology on annual GPP variation is not clear. In this study, a Statistical Model of Integrated Phenology and Physiology (SMIPP) was used to evaluate the relative contributions of maximum daily GPP (GPPmax) and the start and end of growing season (GSstart and GSend) to annual GPP variability, using a regional GPP product in North America during 2000-2014 and GPP data from 24 AmeriFlux sites. Climatic sensitivity of the three indicators was assessed to investigate the climate impacts on plant phenology and physiology. The SMIPP can explain 98% of inter-annual variability of GPP over mid- and high latitudes in North America. The long-term trend and inter-annual variability of GPP are dominated by GPPmax both at the ecosystem and regional scales. During warmer spring and autumn, GSstart is advanced and GSend delayed, respectively. GPPmax responds positively to summer temperature over high latitudes (40-80°N), but negatively in mid-latitudes (25-40°N). This study demonstrates that plant physiology, rather than phenology, plays a dominant role in annual GPP variability, indicating more attention should be paid to physiological change under futher climate change.

  15. 2,4-D and Glyphosate affect aquatic biofilm accrual, gross primary production, and community respiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawton E. Shaw

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D and glyphosate are widely used agricultural herbicides commonly found in surface waters near cultivated land. Field experiments were conducted to determine the effects of 2,4-D and glyphosate on biofilms in a pond next to agricultural land in Athabasca, Alberta. Contaminant-exposure substrates (CES consisted of GF/C glass fiber or a cellulose filter paper substrates placed on specimen jars filled with agar that contained low levels of nitrogen and phosphorus, and different concentrations (15, 9.0, 1.5 mM of either 2,4-D or glyphosate. Nutrients and herbicide diffused freely through the agar to the substrate surface. CES arrays were deployed 15 cm below the water surface for 22 days, after which biofilms were collected and biomass (chlorophyll a, autotroph gross primary production (GPP, and heterotroph community respiration (CR were measured. 2,4-D (15 mM caused significant decreases in rates of biomass accrual (−22%, GPP (−34%, and CR(−63%. Glyphosate (15 mM also caused significant decreases in rates of biomass accrual (−50%, GPP (−67%, and CR (−47%. For the contaminant concentrations used, mean flux rates are estimated to be between 50–700 ng cm−2 min−1.

  16. Impact of meteorological anomalies in the 2003 summer on Gross Primary Productivity in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saigusa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Northern Eurasia experienced anomalous weather conditions in the 2003 summer. We examined how forest ecosystems responded to the meteorological anomalies during the period using the dataset collected at flux monitoring sites in Asia, including a boreal forest in Mongolia, temperate forests in China and Japan, and a sub-tropical forest in China, as well as the dataset from satellite remote sensing. From July to August 2003, an active rain band stayed in the mid-latitude in East Asia for an unusually long period. Under the influence of the rain band, the Gross Primary Production (GPP, of temperate forests was 20–30% lower in the 2003 summer than in other years due to significant reduction in the Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density (PPFD. The GPP of a cool-temperate forest in the north of the rain band was slightly enhanced by the higher PPFD; however, the GPP of a sub-tropical forest located in the south of the rain band was reduced by drought stress due to extremely hot and dry conditions. The correlation coefficients for the year-to-year changes in the PPFD and GPP during mid-summer were calculated, and the spatial distribution was examined. The spatial pattern of the PPFD was calculated by satellite data, and that of the GPP was estimated by a regression-type model, which was trained and tested by ground observation data. The correlation was positive in the mid- and high-latitudes since light was an essential factor of the summer GPP. On the other hand, a negative correlation appeared in the lower latitudes, suggesting that the water limitation was much more important than the PPFD in the region. Our study illustrated that the integration of flux data from wide areas by combining satellite remote sensing data can help us gain an understanding of the ecosystem responses to large-scale meteorological phenomena.

  17. Gross primary production controls the subsequent winter CO2 exchange in a boreal peatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junbin; Peichl, Matthias; Öquist, Mats; Nilsson, Mats B

    2016-12-01

    In high-latitude regions, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions during the winter represent an important component of the annual ecosystem carbon budget; however, the mechanisms that control the winter CO 2 emissions are currently not well understood. It has been suggested that substrate availability from soil labile carbon pools is a main driver of winter CO 2 emissions. In ecosystems that are dominated by annual herbaceous plants, much of the biomass produced during the summer is likely to contribute to the soil labile carbon pool through litter fall and root senescence in the autumn. Thus, the summer carbon uptake in the ecosystem may have a significant influence on the subsequent winter CO 2 emissions. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a plot-scale shading experiment in a boreal peatland to reduce the gross primary production (GPP) during the growing season. At the growing season peak, vascular plant biomass in the shaded plots was half that in the control plots. During the subsequent winter, the mean CO 2 emission rates were 21% lower in the shaded plots than in the control plots. In addition, long-term (2001-2012) eddy covariance data from the same site showed a strong correlation between the GPP (particularly the late summer and autumn GPP) and the subsequent winter net ecosystem CO 2 exchange (NEE). In contrast, abiotic factors during the winter could not explain the interannual variation in the cumulative winter NEE. Our study demonstrates the presence of a cross-seasonal link between the growing season biotic processes and winter CO 2 emissions, which has important implications for predicting winter CO 2 emission dynamics in response to future climate change. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Estimating Gross Primary Production in Cropland with High Spatial and Temporal Scale Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S.; Li, J.; Liu, Q.

    2018-04-01

    Satellite remote sensing data provide spatially continuous and temporally repetitive observations of land surfaces, and they have become increasingly important for monitoring large region of vegetation photosynthetic dynamic. But remote sensing data have their limitation on spatial and temporal scale, for example, higher spatial resolution data as Landsat data have 30-m spatial resolution but 16 days revisit period, while high temporal scale data such as geostationary data have 30-minute imaging period, which has lower spatial resolution (> 1 km). The objective of this study is to investigate whether combining high spatial and temporal resolution remote sensing data can improve the gross primary production (GPP) estimation accuracy in cropland. For this analysis we used three years (from 2010 to 2012) Landsat based NDVI data, MOD13 vegetation index product and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) geostationary data as input parameters to estimate GPP in a small region cropland of Nebraska, US. Then we validated the remote sensing based GPP with the in-situ measurement carbon flux data. Results showed that: 1) the overall correlation between GOES visible band and in-situ measurement photosynthesis active radiation (PAR) is about 50 % (R2 = 0.52) and the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ERA-Interim reanalysis data can explain 64 % of PAR variance (R2 = 0.64); 2) estimating GPP with Landsat 30-m spatial resolution data and ERA daily meteorology data has the highest accuracy(R2 = 0.85, RMSE MODIS 1-km NDVI/EVI product import; 3) using daily meteorology data as input for GPP estimation in high spatial resolution data would have higher relevance than 8-day and 16-day input. Generally speaking, using the high spatial resolution and high frequency satellite based remote sensing data can improve GPP estimation accuracy in cropland.

  19. Impacts of climate extremes on gross primary production under global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, I N; Torn, M S; Riley, W J; Wehner, M F

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of historical droughts and heat-waves on ecosystems are often considered indicative of future global warming impacts, under the assumption that water stress sets in above a fixed high temperature threshold. Historical and future (RCP8.5) Earth system model (ESM) climate projections were analyzed in this study to illustrate changes in the temperatures for onset of water stress under global warming. The ESMs examined here predict sharp declines in gross primary production (GPP) at warm temperature extremes in historical climates, similar to the observed correlations between GPP and temperature during historical heat-waves and droughts. However, soil moisture increases at the warm end of the temperature range, and the temperature at which soil moisture declines with temperature shifts to a higher temperature. The temperature for onset of water stress thus increases under global warming and is associated with a shift in the temperature for maximum GPP to warmer temperatures. Despite the shift in this local temperature optimum, the impacts of warm extremes on GPP are approximately invariant when extremes are defined relative to the optimal temperature within each climate period. The GPP sensitivity to these relative temperature extremes therefore remains similar between future and present climates, suggesting that the heat- and drought-induced GPP reductions seen recently can be expected to be similar in the future, and may be underestimates of future impacts given model projections of increased frequency and persistence of heat-waves and droughts. The local temperature optimum can be understood as the temperature at which the combination of water stress and light limitations is minimized, and this concept gives insights into how GPP responds to climate extremes in both historical and future climate periods. Both cold (temperature and light-limited) and warm (water-limited) relative temperature extremes become more persistent in future climate projections

  20. Sensitivity of vegetation indices and gross primary production of tallgrass prairie to severe drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagle, Pradeep; Xiao, Xiangming; Torn, Margaret S.; Cook, David R.; Matamala, Roser; Fischer, Marc L.; Jin, Cui; Dong, Jinwei; Biradar, Chandrashekhar

    2014-09-01

    Drought affects vegetation photosynthesis and growth.Many studies have used the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is calculated as the normalized ratio between near infrared and red spectral bands in satellite images, to evaluate the response of vegetation to drought. In this study, we examined the impacts of drought on three vegetation indices (NDVI, enhanced vegetation index, EVI, and land surface water index, LSWI) and CO2 flux from three tallgrass prairie eddy flux tower sites in the U.S. Gross primary production (GPP) was also modeled using a satellite-based Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM), and the modeled GPP (GPPVPM) was compared with the GPP (GPPEC) derived from eddy covariance measurements. Precipitation at two sites in Oklahoma was 30% below the historical mean in both years of the study period (2005–2006), while the site in Illinois did not experience drought in the 2005–2007 study period. The EVI explained the seasonal dynamics of GPP better than did NDVI. The LSWI dropped below zero during severe droughts in the growing season, showing its potential to track drought. The result shows that GPP was more sensitive to drought than were vegetation indices, and EVI and LSWI were more sensitive than NDVI. We developed a modified function (Wscalar), calculated as a function of LSWI, to account for the effect of severe droughts on GPP in VPM. The GPPVPM from the modified VPM accounted for the rapid reduction in GPP during severe droughts and the seasonal dynamics of GPPVPM agreed reasonably well with GPPEC. Our analysis shows that 8-day averaged values (temperature, vapor-pressure deficit) do not reflect the short-term extreme climate events well, suggesting that satellite based models may need to be run at daily or hourly scales, especially under unfavorable climatic conditions.

  1. Assessment of SMAP soil moisture for global simulation of gross primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liming; Chen, Jing M.; Liu, Jane; Bélair, Stéphane; Luo, Xiangzhong

    2017-07-01

    In this study, high-quality soil moisture data derived from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite measurements are evaluated from a perspective of improving the estimation of the global gross primary production (GPP) using a process-based ecosystem model, namely, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS). The SMAP soil moisture data are assimilated into BEPS using an ensemble Kalman filter. The correlation coefficient (r) between simulated GPP from the sunlit leaves and Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) measured by Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 is used as an indicator to evaluate the performance of the GPP simulation. Areas with SMAP data in low quality (i.e., forests), or with SIF in low magnitude (e.g., deserts), or both are excluded from the analysis. With the assimilated SMAP data, the r value is enhanced for Africa, Asia, and North America by 0.016, 0.013, and 0.013, respectively (p r appears in single-cropping agricultural land where the irrigation is not considered in the model but well captured by SMAP (e.g., 0.09 in North America, p < 0.05). With the assimilation of SMAP, areas with weak model performances are identified in double or triple cropping cropland (e.g., part of North China Plain) and/or mountainous area (e.g., Spain and Turkey). The correlation coefficient is enhanced by 0.01 in global average for shrub, grass, and cropland. This enhancement is small and insignificant because nonwater-stressed areas are included.

  2. Exploring Simple Algorithms for Estimating Gross Primary Production in Forested Areas from Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna R. Nemani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms that use remotely-sensed vegetation indices to estimate gross primary production (GPP, a key component of the global carbon cycle, have gained a lot of popularity in the past decade. Yet despite the amount of research on the topic, the most appropriate approach is still under debate. As an attempt to address this question, we compared the performance of different vegetation indices from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS in capturing the seasonal and the annual variability of GPP estimates from an optimal network of 21 FLUXNET forest towers sites. The tested indices include the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, Leaf Area Index (LAI, and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation absorbed by plant canopies (FPAR. Our results indicated that single vegetation indices captured 50–80% of the variability of tower-estimated GPP, but no one index performed universally well in all situations. In particular, EVI outperformed the other MODIS products in tracking seasonal variations in tower-estimated GPP, but annual mean MODIS LAI was the best estimator of the spatial distribution of annual flux-tower GPP (GPP = 615 × LAI − 376, where GPP is in g C/m2/year. This simple algorithm rehabilitated earlier approaches linking ground measurements of LAI to flux-tower estimates of GPP and produced annual GPP estimates comparable to the MODIS 17 GPP product. As such, remote sensing-based estimates of GPP continue to offer a useful alternative to estimates from biophysical models, and the choice of the most appropriate approach depends on whether the estimates are required at annual or sub-annual temporal resolution.

  3. Optimized estimation and its uncertainties of gross primary production over oasis-desert ecosystems in an arid region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Li, X.; Xiao, J.; Ma, M.

    2017-12-01

    Arid and semi-arid ecosystems cover more than one-third of the Earth's land surface, it is of great important to the global carbon cycle. However, the magnitude of carbon sequestration and its contribution to global atmospheric carbon cycle is poorly understood due to the worldwide paucity of measurements of carbon exchange in the arid ecosystems. Accurate and continuous monitoring the production of arid ecosystem is of great importance for regional carbon cycle estimation. The MOD17A2 product provides high frequency observations of terrestrial Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) over the world. Although there have been plenty of studies to validate the MODIS GPP products with ground based measurements over a range of biome types, few have comprehensively validated the performance of MODIS estimates in arid and semi-arid ecosystems. Thus, this study examined the performance of the MODIS-derived GPP comparing with the EC observed GPP at different timescales for the main arid ecosystems in the arid and semi-arid ecosystems in China, and optimized the performance of the MODIS GPP calculations by using the in-situ metrological forcing data, and optimization of biome-specific parameters with the Bayesian approach. Our result revealed that the MOD17 algorithm could capture the broad trends of GPP at 8-day time scales for all investigated sites on the whole. However, the GPP product was underestimated in most ecosystems in the arid region, especially the irrigated cropland and forest ecosystems, while the desert ecosystem was overestimated in the arid region. On the annual time scale, the best performance was observed in grassland and cropland, followed by forest and desert ecosystems. On the 8-day timescale, the RMSE between MOD17 products and in-situ flux observations of all sites was 2.22 gC/m2/d, and R2 was 0.69. By using the in-situ metrological data driven, optimizing the biome-based parameters of the algorithm, we improved the performances of the MODIS GPP calculation

  4. Diagnosing the Dynamics of Observed and Simulated Ecosystem Gross Primary Productivity with Time Causal Information Theory Quantifiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Sippel

    Full Text Available Data analysis and model-data comparisons in the environmental sciences require diagnostic measures that quantify time series dynamics and structure, and are robust to noise in observational data. This paper investigates the temporal dynamics of environmental time series using measures quantifying their information content and complexity. The measures are used to classify natural processes on one hand, and to compare models with observations on the other. The present analysis focuses on the global carbon cycle as an area of research in which model-data integration and comparisons are key to improving our understanding of natural phenomena. We investigate the dynamics of observed and simulated time series of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP, a key variable in terrestrial ecosystems that quantifies ecosystem carbon uptake. However, the dynamics, patterns and magnitudes of GPP time series, both observed and simulated, vary substantially on different temporal and spatial scales. We demonstrate here that information content and complexity, or Information Theory Quantifiers (ITQ for short, serve as robust and efficient data-analytical and model benchmarking tools for evaluating the temporal structure and dynamical properties of simulated or observed time series at various spatial scales. At continental scale, we compare GPP time series simulated with two models and an observations-based product. This analysis reveals qualitative differences between model evaluation based on ITQ compared to traditional model performance metrics, indicating that good model performance in terms of absolute or relative error does not imply that the dynamics of the observations is captured well. Furthermore, we show, using an ensemble of site-scale measurements obtained from the FLUXNET archive in the Mediterranean, that model-data or model-model mismatches as indicated by ITQ can be attributed to and interpreted as differences in the temporal structure of the respective

  5. Evaluation of optical remote sensing parameters to improve modeling of gross primary productivity in a heterogeneous agricultural area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schickling, A.; Damm, A.; Schween, J.; Rascher, U.; Crewell, S.; Wahner, A.

    2011-12-01

    Terrestrial photosynthesis greatly determines plant mediated exchange processes in the vegetation atmosphere system and substantially influences patterns in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and water vapor. Therefore, an accurate quantification of photosynthetic CO2 uptake, commonly referred to as gross primary productivity (GPP), is a key parameter to distinguish those atmospheric patterns on various spatio-temporal scales. Remote sensing (RS) offers the unique possibility to determine GPP at different spatial scales ranging from the local to the global scale. Attempts to estimate GPP from RS data focus on the light use efficiency (LUE) concept of Monteith which relates GPP to the absorbed photosynthetically active radiation and the efficiency of plant canopies to utilize the absorbed radiation for photosynthesis. To reliably predict GPP on different spatio-temporal scales LUE has to be linked to optical RS parameters which detect changes in photosynthetic efficiency due to environmental conditions. In this study we evaluated two optical RS parameters, namely the sun-induced fluorescence (Fs) and the photochemical reflectance index (PRI), for their potential to serve as a proxy for LUE. The parameters were derived from two ASD FieldSpec spectrometers which were operated in parallel. During several days one instrument was installed on the ground above the vegetation canopy of either a winter wheat or a sugar beet field. The second instrument was operated from a small research aircraft continuously crossing the observation sites at low altitude (sugar beet fields during the day. Results of this spatio-temporal investigation revealed a significant variability of GPP between different winter wheat fields compared to the within-field variability. In addition to the significant between-field variability of sugar beet the results also showed an increase of the within-field variability in the afternoon. Moreover, for the first time it could be shown that

  6. Terrestrial laser scanning and a degenerated cylinder model to determine gross morphological change of cadavers under conditions of natural decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Glennie, Craig L; Bucheli, Sibyl R; Lindgren, Natalie K; Lynne, Aaron M

    2014-08-01

    Decomposition can be a highly variable process with stages that are difficult to quantify. Using high accuracy terrestrial laser scanning a repeated three-dimensional (3D) documentation of volumetric changes of a human body during early decomposition is recorded. To determine temporal volumetric variations as well as 3D distribution of the changed locations in the body over time, this paper introduces the use of multiple degenerated cylinder models to provide a reasonable approximation of body parts against which 3D change can be measured and visualized. An iterative closest point algorithm is used for 3D registration, and a method for determining volumetric change is presented. Comparison of the laser scanning estimates of volumetric change shows good agreement with repeated in-situ measurements of abdomen and limb circumference that were taken diurnally. The 3D visualizations of volumetric changes demonstrate that bloat is a process with a beginning, middle, and end rather than a state of presence or absence. Additionally, the 3D visualizations show conclusively that cadaver bloat is not isolated to the abdominal cavity, but also occurs in the limbs. Detailed quantification of the bloat stage of decay has the potential to alter how the beginning and end of bloat are determined by researchers and can provide further insight into the effects of the ecosystem on decomposition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Soil Water Retention and Gross Primary Productivity in the Zábrod area in the Šumava Mts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šír, Miloslav; Lichner, Ľ.; Tesař, Miroslav; Krejča, M.; Váchal, J.

    roč. 3, s. 1 (2008), s130-s138 ISSN 1801-5395 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS200420562; GA ČR GA205/05/2312; GA ČR GA205/06/0375; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1A6/151/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : hydrologic cycle * evapotranspiration * gross primary productivity * entropy production * soil water retention Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  8. Variability and Changes in Climate, Phenology, and Gross Primary Production of an Alpine Wetland Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Kang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the variability and changes in phenology and gross primary production (GPP of alpine wetlands in the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau under climate change is essential for assessing carbon (C balance dynamics at regional and global scales. In this study, in situ eddy covariance (EC flux tower observations and remote sensing data were integrated with a modified, satellite-based vegetation photosynthesis model (VPM to investigate the variability in climate change, phenology, and GPP of an alpine wetland ecosystem, located in Zoige, southwestern China. Two-year EC data and remote sensing vegetation indices showed that warmer temperatures corresponded to an earlier start date of the growing season, increased GPP, and ecosystem respiration, and hence increased the C sink strength of the alpine wetlands. Twelve-year long-term simulations (2000–2011 showed that: (1 there were significantly increasing trends for the mean annual enhanced vegetation index (EVI, land surface water index (LSWI, and growing season GPP (R2 ≥ 0.59, p < 0.01 at rates of 0.002, 0.11 year−1 and 16.32 g·C·m−2·year−1, respectively, which was in line with the observed warming trend (R2 = 0.54, p = 0.006; (2 the start and end of the vegetation growing season (SOS and EOS experienced a continuous advancing trend at a rate of 1.61 days·year−1 and a delaying trend at a rate of 1.57 days·year−1 from 2000 to 2011 (p ≤ 0.04, respectively; and (3 with increasing temperature, the advanced SOS and delayed EOS prolonged the wetland’s phenological and photosynthetically active period and, thereby, increased wetland productivity by about 3.7–4.2 g·C·m−2·year−1 per day. Furthermore, our results indicated that warming and the extension of the growing season had positive effects on carbon uptake in this alpine wetland ecosystem.

  9. Global estimates of evapotranspiration and gross primary production based on MODIS and global meteorology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W.; Liu, S.; Yu, G.; Bonnefond, J.-M.; Chen, J.; Davis, K.; Desai, A.R.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Gianelle, D.; Rossi, F.; Suyker, A.E.; Verma, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    The simulation of gross primary production (GPP) at various spatial and temporal scales remains a major challenge for quantifying the global carbon cycle. We developed a light use efficiency model, called EC-LUE, driven by only four variables: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), air temperature, and the Bowen ratio of sensible to latent heat flux. The EC-LUE model may have the most potential to adequately address the spatial and temporal dynamics of GPP because its parameters (i.e., the potential light use efficiency and optimal plant growth temperature) are invariant across the various land cover types. However, the application of the previous EC-LUE model was hampered by poor prediction of Bowen ratio at the large spatial scale. In this study, we substituted the Bowen ratio with the ratio of evapotranspiration (ET) to net radiation, and revised the RS-PM (Remote Sensing-Penman Monteith) model for quantifying ET. Fifty-four eddy covariance towers, including various ecosystem types, were selected to calibrate and validate the revised RS-PM and EC-LUE models. The revised RS-PM model explained 82% and 68% of the observed variations of ET for all the calibration and validation sites, respectively. Using estimated ET as input, the EC-LUE model performed well in calibration and validation sites, explaining 75% and 61% of the observed GPP variation for calibration and validation sites respectively.Global patterns of ET and GPP at a spatial resolution of 0.5° latitude by 0.6° longitude during the years 2000–2003 were determined using the global MERRA dataset (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). The global estimates of ET and GPP agreed well with the other global models from the literature, with the highest ET and GPP over tropical forests and the lowest values in dry and high latitude areas. However, comparisons with observed

  10. ESTIMATING GROSS PRIMARY PRODUCTION IN CROPLAND WITH HIGH SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL SCALE REMOTE SENSING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing data provide spatially continuous and temporally repetitive observations of land surfaces, and they have become increasingly important for monitoring large region of vegetation photosynthetic dynamic. But remote sensing data have their limitation on spatial and temporal scale, for example, higher spatial resolution data as Landsat data have 30-m spatial resolution but 16 days revisit period, while high temporal scale data such as geostationary data have 30-minute imaging period, which has lower spatial resolution (> 1 km. The objective of this study is to investigate whether combining high spatial and temporal resolution remote sensing data can improve the gross primary production (GPP estimation accuracy in cropland. For this analysis we used three years (from 2010 to 2012 Landsat based NDVI data, MOD13 vegetation index product and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES geostationary data as input parameters to estimate GPP in a small region cropland of Nebraska, US. Then we validated the remote sensing based GPP with the in-situ measurement carbon flux data. Results showed that: 1 the overall correlation between GOES visible band and in-situ measurement photosynthesis active radiation (PAR is about 50 % (R2 = 0.52 and the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ERA-Interim reanalysis data can explain 64 % of PAR variance (R2 = 0.64; 2 estimating GPP with Landsat 30-m spatial resolution data and ERA daily meteorology data has the highest accuracy(R2 = 0.85, RMSE < 3 gC/m2/day, which has better performance than using MODIS 1-km NDVI/EVI product import; 3 using daily meteorology data as input for GPP estimation in high spatial resolution data would have higher relevance than 8-day and 16-day input. Generally speaking, using the high spatial resolution and high frequency satellite based remote sensing data can improve GPP estimation accuracy in cropland.

  11. [Characteristics of terrestrial ecosystem primary productivity in East Asia based on remote sensing and process-based model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang-Min; Ju, Wei-Min; Chen, Jing-Ming; Wang, Shao-Qiang; Yu, Gui-Rui; Han, Shi-Jie

    2012-02-01

    Based on the bi-linearly interpolated meteorological reanalysis data from National Centers for Environmental Prediction, USA and by using the leaf area index data derived from the GIMMS NDVI to run the process-based Boreal Ecosystems Productivity Simulator (BEPS) model, this paper simulated and analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of the terrestrial ecosystem gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) in East Asia in 2000-2005. Before regional simulating and calculating, the observation GPP data of different terrestrial ecosystem in 15 experimental stations of AsiaFlux network and the inventory measurements of NPP at 1300 sampling sites were applied to validate the BEPS GPP and NPP. The results showed that BEPS could well simulate the changes in GPP and NPP of different terrestrial ecosystems, with the R2 ranging from 0.86 to 0.99 and the root mean square error (RMSE) from 0.2 to 1.2 g C x m(-2) x d(-1). The simulated values by BEPS could explain 78% of the changes in annual NPP, and the RMSE was 118 g C x m(-2) x a(-1). In 2000-2005, the averaged total GPP and total NPP of the terrestrial ecosystems in East Asia were 21.7 and 10.5 Pg C x a(-1), respectively, and the GPP and NPP exhibited similar spatial and temporal variation patterns. During the six years, the total NPP of the terrestrial ecosystems varied from 10.2 to 10.7 Pg C x a(-1), with a coefficient of variation being 2. 2%. High NPP (above 1000 g C x m(-2) x a(-1)) occurred in the southeast island countries, while low NPP (below 30 g C x m(-2) x a(-1)) occurred in the desert area of Northwest China. The spatial patterns of NPP were mainly attributed to the differences in the climatic variables across East Asia. The NPP per capita also varied greatly among different countries, which was the highest (70217 kg C x a(-1)) in Mongolia, far higher than that (1921 kg C x a(-1)) in China, and the lowest (757 kg C x a(-1)) in India.

  12. Respiration of new and old carbon in the surface ocean: Implications for estimates of global oceanic gross primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Matheus C.; Schulz, Kai G.; Eyre, Bradley D.

    2017-06-01

    New respiration (Rnew, of freshly fixated carbon) and old respiration (Rold, of storage carbon) were estimated for different regions of the global surface ocean using published data on simultaneous measurements of the following: (1) primary productivity using 14C (14PP); (2) gross primary productivity (GPP) based on 18O or O2; and (3) net community productivity (NCP) using O2. The ratio Rnew/GPP in 24 h incubations was typically between 0.1 and 0.3 regardless of depth and geographical area, demonstrating that values were almost constant regardless of large variations in temperature (0 to 27°C), irradiance (surface to 100 m deep), nutrients (nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor waters), and community composition (diatoms, flagellates, etc,). As such, between 10 and 30% of primary production in the surface ocean is respired in less than 24 h, and most respiration (between 55 and 75%) was of older carbon. Rnew was most likely associated with autotrophs, with minor contribution from heterotrophic bacteria. Patterns were less clear for Rold. Short 14C incubations are less affected by respiratory losses. Global oceanic GPP is estimated to be between 70 and 145 Gt C yr-1.Plain Language SummaryHere we present a comprehensive coverage of ocean new and old respiration. Our results show that nearly 20% of oceanic gross primary production is consumed in the first 24 h. However, most (about 60%) respiration is of older carbon fixed at least 24 h before its consumption. Rates of new respiration relative to gross primary production were remarkably constant for the entire ocean, which allowed a preliminary estimation of global primary productivity as between 70 and 145 gt C yr-1.

  13. Protection by the gross saponins of Tribulus terrestris against cerebral ischemic injury in rats involves the NF-κB pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-ping Jiang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether the gross saponins of Tribulus terrestris (GSTT, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, have neuroprotective effects on rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO, through nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB pathway and inflammatory mediators. Cerebral ischemia was produced by MCAO in either untreated (control or GSTT-pretreated rats, and the animals were examined for infarct volume, cerebral edema, neuro-behavioral abnormality and pathological changes. Meanwhile, the expression of NF-κB protein in brain tissue was analyzed on Western blots and the serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1 were determined by ELISA. The experimental results demonstrated that, compared with the control MCAO group, GSTT-pretreated MCAO group had significantly reduced infarct volume, brain edema and neuro-behavioral abnormality, and lesser degree of pathologic changes in the brain, as well as had lower levels of serum TNF-α and IL-1β, and higher levels of brain NF-κB (P<0.05. Furthermore, treatment with an NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC abolished the protective effects of GSTT against MCAO-induced cerebral ischemic injury. These results indicated that GSTT's ability to protect against cerebral ischemic injury was mediated through the NF-κB signaling pathway, and that GSTT may act through inhibition of the production of inflammatory mediators.

  14. A Continuous Measure of Gross Primary Production for the Conterminous U.S. Derived from MODIS and AmeriFlux Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Jingfeng; Zhuang, Qianlai; Law, Beverly E.; Chen, Jiquan; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Cook, David R.; Oren, Ram; Richardson, Andrew D.; Wharton, Sonia; Ma, Siyan; Martin, Timothy A.; Verma, Shashi B.; Suyker, Andrew E.; Scott, Russell L.; Monson, Russell K.; Litvak, Marcy; Hollinger, David Y.; Sun, Ge; Davis, Kenneth J.; Bolstad, Paul V.; Burns, Sean P.; Curtis, Peter S.; Drake, Bert G.; Falk, Matthias; Fischer, Marc L.; Foster, David R.; Gu, Lianhong; Hadley, Julian L.; Katul, Gabriel G.; Matamala, Roser; McNulty, Steve; Meyers, Tilden P.; Munger, J. William; Noormets, Asko; Oechel, Walter C.; U, Kyaw Tha Paw; Schmid, Hans Peter; Starr, Gregory; Torn, Margaret S.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2009-01-28

    The quantification of carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is of scientific importance and also relevant to climate-policy making. Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of ecosystem-level exchange of carbon dioxide spanning diurnal, synoptic, seasonal, and interannual time scales. However, these measurements only represent the fluxes at the scale of the tower footprint. Here we used remotely-sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to upscale gross primary productivity (GPP) data from eddy covariance flux towers to the continental scale. We first combined GPP and MODIS data for 42 AmeriFlux towers encompassing a wide range of ecosystem and climate types to develop a predictive GPP model using a regression tree approach. The predictive model was trained using observed GPP over the period 2000-2004, and was validated using observed GPP over the period 2005-2006 and leave-one-out cross-validation. Our model predicted GPP fairly well at the site level. We then used the model to estimate GPP for each 1 km x 1 km cell across the U.S. for each 8-day interval over the period from February 2000 to December 2006 using MODIS data. Our GPP estimates provide a spatially and temporally continuous measure of gross primary production for the U.S. that is a highly constrained by eddy covariance flux data. Our study demonstrated that our empirical approach is effective for upscaling eddy flux GPP data to the continental scale and producing continuous GPP estimates across multiple biomes. With these estimates, we then examined the patterns, magnitude, and interannual variability of GPP. We estimated a gross carbon uptake between 6.91 and 7.33 Pg C yr{sup -1} for the conterminous U.S. Drought, fires, and hurricanes reduced annual GPP at regional scales and could have a significant impact on the U.S. net ecosystem carbon exchange. The sources of the interannual variability of U.S. GPP were dominated

  15. Patterns of new versus recycled primary production in the terrestrial biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability regulate plant productivity throughout the terrestrial biosphere, influencing the patterns and magnitude of net primary production (NPP) by land plants both now and into the future. These nutrients enter ecosystems via geologic and atmospheric pathways, a...

  16. The energetic contributions of aquatic primary producers to terrestrial food webs in a mid-size river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautza, Adam; Mazeika, S; Sullivan, P

    2016-03-01

    Rivers are increasingly recognized as providing nutritional subsidies (i.e., energy and nutrients) to adjacent terrestrial food webs via depredation of aquatic organisms (e.g., emergent aquatic insects, crayfish, fish) by terrestrial consumers. However, because these prey organisms assimilate energy from both aquatic (e.g., benthic algae, phytoplankton, aquatic macrophytes) and terrestrial (e.g., riparian leaf detritus) primary producers, river subsidies to terrestrial consumers represent a combination of aquatically and terrestrially derived energy. To date, the explicit contribution of energy derived from aquatic primary producers to terrestrial consumers has not been fully explored yet might be expected to be quantitatively important to terrestrial food webs. At 12 reaches along a 185-km segment of the sixth-order Scioto River system (Ohio, USA), we quantified the relative contribution of energy derived from aquatic primary producers to a suite of terrestrial riparian consumers that integrate the adjacent landscape across multiple spatial scales through their foraging activities (tetragnathid spiders, rove beetles, adult coenagrionid damselflies, riparian swallows, and raccoons). We used naturally abundant stable isotopes (13C and 15N) of periphyton, phytoplankton, macrophytes, and terrestrial vegetation to evaluate the energetic contribution of aquatic primary producers to terrestrial food webs. Shoreline tetragnathid spiders were most reliant on aquatic primary producers (50%), followed by wider-ranging raccoons (48%), damselflies (44%), and riparian swallows (41%). Of the primary producers, phytoplankton (19%) provisioned the greatest nutritional contribution to terrestrial consumers (considered collectively), followed by periphyton (14%) and macrophytes (11%). Our findings provide empirical evidence that aquatic primary producers of large streams and rivers can be a critical nutritional resource for terrestrial food webs. We also show that aquatically

  17. Oxygen isotope anomaly in tropospheric CO2 and implications for CO2 residence time in the atmosphere and gross primary productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Mao-Chang; Mahata, Sasadhar; Laskar, Amzad H; Thiemens, Mark H; Newman, Sally

    2017-10-13

    The abundance variations of near surface atmospheric CO 2 isotopologues (primarily 16 O 12 C 16 O, 16 O 13 C 16 O, 17 O 12 C 16 O, and 18 O 12 C 16 O) represent an integrated signal from anthropogenic/biogeochemical processes, including fossil fuel burning, biospheric photosynthesis and respiration, hydrospheric isotope exchange with water, and stratospheric photochemistry. Oxygen isotopes, in particular, are affected by the carbon and water cycles. Being a useful tracer that directly probes governing processes in CO 2 biogeochemical cycles, Δ 17 O (=ln(1 + δ 17 O) - 0.516 × ln(1 + δ 18 O)) provides an alternative constraint on the strengths of the associated cycles involving CO 2 . Here, we analyze Δ 17 O data from four places (Taipei, Taiwan; South China Sea; La Jolla, United States; Jerusalem, Israel) in the northern hemisphere (with a total of 455 measurements) and find a rather narrow range (0.326 ± 0.005‰). A conservative estimate places a lower limit of 345 ± 70 PgC year -1 on the cycling flux between the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere and infers a residence time of CO 2 of 1.9 ± 0.3 years (upper limit) in the atmosphere. A Monte Carlo simulation that takes various plant uptake scenarios into account yields a terrestrial gross primary productivity of 120 ± 30 PgC year -1 and soil invasion of 110 ± 30 PgC year -1 , providing a quantitative assessment utilizing the oxygen isotope anomaly for quantifying CO 2 cycling.

  18. Influence of gross saponins from tribulus terrestris L on SOD activity and MDA content for chronic high intraocular pressure in rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuo Li

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe influence of gross saponins from tribulus terrestris L(GSTTon SOD activity and MDA content for chronic high intraocular pressure in rabbit, and discusses the retina oxidative damage inhibition on chronic high intraocular pressure model of rabbit. METHODS:Totally 24 healthy New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control group(A group; high intraocular pressure model blank group(B group; high intraocular pressure model with GSTT treated group(C group; high intraocular pressure model with Erigeron brevicapas hand mass(EBHMtreated group(D group. High intraocular pressure model was induced by 20g/L methylcellulose injection into the anterior chamber in B group, C group and D group. D group was injected 5 mg/kg GSTT and C group was injected 4.5mg/kg EBHM and measured intraocular pressure with Schiotz tonometer every day for 4 weeks. The retina tissue superoxide dismutase(SODand maleic dialdehyde(MDAcontent were detected 28 days later. RESULTS: After glaucoma model of rabbit eyes were established, the intraocular pressure during observation period was maintained in 32-39mmHg; High intraocular pressure model blank group and normal control group, EBHM treatment group, GSTT treatment group were compared, the differences of retina MDA, SOD content had statistical significance(P0.05; EBHM treatment group, GSTT treatment group and normal control group were compared, the content of MDA in the retina was still slightly higher(P<0.05, the content of SOD slightly lower(P<0.05 CONCLUSION: GSTT can effectively improve the retina SOD activity of chronic high intraocular pressure in rabbit and reduce the content of MDA, which has a protective effect of persistent high intraocular retinal oxidative stress.

  19. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRIMARY ENERGY CONSUMPTION, PRODUCTION AND GROSS DOMESTIC INCOME (GDP IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÖZGE KORKMAZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to reach a sustainable economic growth of countries initially depends on the usage of energy resources efficiently. But an unequal  distribution of energy resources in the world increases the dependency on energy in countries which have insufficient energy resources such as Turkey. Therefore, it has a great importance to analyze the share of imported energy resources for economic growth. The correlation between energy consumption and changes in gross domestic product, increases the importance of energy policies while determining  the economical policies of countries. In this study, the causality relationship between energy consumption, energy generation  and GDP in Turkey are examined using annual data for the period 1960-2009. Johansen Cointegration Causality Test and Vector Error Correction Mechanism (VECM is used for this study. Empirical results for the period under discussion there is a relationship between the variables and error correction mechanism based on long-term Granger causality test. It showed that  bileteral causality  with the energy consumption to GDP.

  20. Effects of in-situ and reanalysis climate data on estimation of cropland gross primary production using the Vegetation Photosynthesis Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Cui; Xiao, Xiangming; Wagle, Pradeep; Griffis, Timothy; Dong, Jinwei; Wu, Chaoyang; Qin, Yuanwei; Cook, David R.

    2015-11-01

    Satellite-based Production Efficiency Models (PEMs) often require meteorological reanalysis data such as the North America Regional Reanalysis (NARR) by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) as model inputs to simulate Gross Primary Production (GPP) at regional and global scales. This study first evaluated the accuracies of air temperature (TNARR) and downward shortwave radiation (RNARR) of the NARR by comparing with in-situ meteorological measurements at 37 AmeriFlux non-crop eddy flux sites, then used one PEM – the Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM) to simulate 8-day mean GPP (GPPVPM) at seven AmeriFlux crop sites, and investigated the uncertainties in GPPVPM from climate inputs as compared with eddy covariance-based GPP (GPPEC). Results showed that TNARR agreed well with in-situ measurements; RNARR, however, was positively biased. An empirical linear correction was applied to RNARR, and significantly reduced the relative error of RNARR by ~25% for crop site-years. Overall, GPPVPM calculated from the in-situ (GPPVPM(EC)), original (GPPVPM(NARR)) and adjusted NARR (GPPVPM(adjNARR)) climate data tracked the seasonality of GPPEC well, albeit with different degrees of biases. GPPVPM(EC) showed a good match with GPPEC for maize (Zea mays L.), but was slightly underestimated for soybean (Glycine max L.). Replacing the in-situ climate data with the NARR resulted in a significant overestimation of GPPVPM(NARR) (18.4/29.6% for irrigated/rainfed maize and 12.7/12.5% for irrigated/rainfed soybean). GPPVPM(adjNARR) showed a good agreement with GPPVPM(EC) for both crops due to the reduction in the bias of RNARR. The results imply that the bias of RNARR introduced significant uncertainties into the PEM-based GPP estimates, suggesting that more accurate surface radiation datasets are needed to estimate primary production of terrestrial ecosystems at regional and global scales.

  1. Effects of canopy photosynthesis saturation on the estimation of gross primary productivity from MODIS data in a tropical forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Propastin, P.; Ibrom, Andreas; Knohl, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) gross primary production (GPP) product (GPPMOD17A2) was evaluated against GPP from the eddy covariance flux measurements (GPPm) at a CO2 flux tower test site in a tropical rainforest in Sulawesi, Indonesia. The dynamics of 8-day GPPMOD17A2...... conditions. Obviously, these seasonal differences are caused by too large seasonal amplitudes in GPPMOD17A2. The observed inconsistencies of the GPPMOD17A2with GPPm were traced to the inputs of the MODIS GPP algorithm, including fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) and light use...... efficiency (εg). This showed that underestimation of low values is caused by several uncertainties in the MODIS fAPAR input, whereas overestimation at high irradiance is caused by the MODIS light use efficiency approach which does not account for saturation of canopy photosynthesis under clear sky conditions...

  2. Attributing regional trends of evapotranspiration and gross primary productivity with remote sensing: a case study in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xingguo; Chen, Xuejuan; Hu, Shi; Liu, Suxia; Xia, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Attributing changes in evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary productivity (GPP) is crucial for impact and adaptation assessment of the agro-ecosystems to climate change. Simulations with the VIP model revealed that annual ET and GPP slightly increased from 1981 to 2013 over the North China Plain. The tendencies of both ET and GPP were upward in the spring season, while they were weak and downward in the summer season. A complete factor analysis illustrated that the relative contributions of climatic change, CO2 fertilization, and management to the ET (GPP) trend were 56 (-32) %, -28 (25) %, and 68 (108) %, respectively. The decline of global radiation resulted from deteriorated aerosol and air pollution was the principal cause of GPP decline in summer, while air warming intensified the water cycle and advanced the plant productivity in the spring season. Generally, agronomic improvements were the principal drivers of crop productivity enhancement.

  3. Current /sup 14/C methods for measuring primary production: gross underestimates in oceanic waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieskes, W W.C.; Kraay, G W; Baars, M A [Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Texel, Netherlands

    1979-10-01

    The amount of organic matter produced through autotrophic processes in the euphotic zone of the tropical open ocean and available for respiration of autotrophs and heterotrophs was at least 5 to 15 times higher than values derived from the common /sup 14/C method suggested. The new estimates are based on measurements of /sup 14/C incorporation in organic matter of ocean samples incubated in bottles of up to 4 litres. Oceanic phytoplankton appeared to have a high growth rate, with generation times of hours, not days. High heterotrophic activity, finding its expression in high dark fixation rates of /sup 14/C, took place in conjunction with this high primary production of organic matter.

  4. Global parameterization and validation of a two-leaf light use efficiency model for predicting gross primary production across FLUXNET sites: TL-LUE Parameterization and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yanlian [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science and Technology, School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing China; Joint Center for Global Change Studies, Beijing China; Wu, Xiaocui [International Institute for Earth System Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing China; Joint Center for Global Change Studies, Beijing China; Ju, Weimin [International Institute for Earth System Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing China; Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographic Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing China; Chen, Jing M. [International Institute for Earth System Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing China; Joint Center for Global Change Studies, Beijing China; Wang, Shaoqiang [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing China; Wang, Huimin [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing China; Yuan, Wenping [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Future Earth Research Institute, Beijing Normal University, Beijing China; Andrew Black, T. [Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver British Columbia Canada; Jassal, Rachhpal [Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver British Columbia Canada; Ibrom, Andreas [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Kgs. Lyngby Denmark; Han, Shijie [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang China; Yan, Junhua [South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou China; Margolis, Hank [Centre for Forest Studies, Faculty of Forestry, Geography and Geomatics, Laval University, Quebec City Quebec Canada; Roupsard, Olivier [CIRAD-Persyst, UMR Ecologie Fonctionnelle and Biogéochimie des Sols et Agroécosystèmes, SupAgro-CIRAD-INRA-IRD, Montpellier France; CATIE (Tropical Agricultural Centre for Research and Higher Education), Turrialba Costa Rica; Li, Yingnian [Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining China; Zhao, Fenghua [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing China; Kiely, Gerard [Environmental Research Institute, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University College Cork, Cork Ireland; Starr, Gregory [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa Alabama USA; Pavelka, Marian [Laboratory of Plants Ecological Physiology, Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology AS CR, Prague Czech Republic; Montagnani, Leonardo [Forest Services, Autonomous Province of Bolzano, Bolzano Italy; Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Free University of Bolzano, Bolzano Italy; Wohlfahrt, Georg [Institute for Ecology, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck Austria; European Academy of Bolzano, Bolzano Italy; D' Odorico, Petra [Grassland Sciences Group, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, ETH Zurich Switzerland; Cook, David [Atmospheric and Climate Research Program, Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois USA; Arain, M. Altaf [McMaster Centre for Climate Change and School of Geography and Earth Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton Ontario Canada; Bonal, Damien [INRA Nancy, UMR EEF, Champenoux France; Beringer, Jason [School of Earth and Environment, The University of Western Australia, Crawley Australia; Blanken, Peter D. [Department of Geography, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder Colorado USA; Loubet, Benjamin [UMR ECOSYS, INRA, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, Thiverval-Grignon France; Leclerc, Monique Y. [Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens Georgia USA; Matteucci, Giorgio [Viea San Camillo Ed LellisViterbo, University of Tuscia, Viterbo Italy; Nagy, Zoltan [MTA-SZIE Plant Ecology Research Group, Szent Istvan University, Godollo Hungary; Olejnik, Janusz [Meteorology Department, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Poznan Poland; Department of Matter and Energy Fluxes, Global Change Research Center, Brno Czech Republic; Paw U, Kyaw Tha [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis California USA; Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge USA; Varlagin, Andrej [A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow Russia

    2016-04-06

    Light use efficiency (LUE) models are widely used to simulate gross primary production (GPP). However, the treatment of the plant canopy as a big leaf by these models can introduce large uncertainties in simulated GPP. Recently, a two-leaf light use efficiency (TL-LUE) model was developed to simulate GPP separately for sunlit and shaded leaves and has been shown to outperform the big-leaf MOD17 model at 6 FLUX sites in China. In this study we investigated the performance of the TL-LUE model for a wider range of biomes. For this we optimized the parameters and tested the TL-LUE model using data from 98 FLUXNET sites which are distributed across the globe. The results showed that the TL-LUE model performed in general better than the MOD17 model in simulating 8-day GPP. Optimized maximum light use efficiency of shaded leaves (εmsh) was 2.63 to 4.59 times that of sunlit leaves (εmsu). Generally, the relationships of εmsh and εmsu with εmax were well described by linear equations, indicating the existence of general patterns across biomes. GPP simulated by the TL-LUE model was much less sensitive to biases in the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) input than the MOD17 model. The results of this study suggest that the proposed TL-LUE model has the potential for simulating regional and global GPP of terrestrial ecosystems and it is more robust with regard to usual biases in input data than existing approaches which neglect the bi-modal within-canopy distribution of PAR.

  5. Drought-induced reduction in global terrestrial net primary production from 2000 through 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Maosheng; Running, Steven W

    2010-08-20

    Terrestrial net primary production (NPP) quantifies the amount of atmospheric carbon fixed by plants and accumulated as biomass. Previous studies have shown that climate constraints were relaxing with increasing temperature and solar radiation, allowing an upward trend in NPP from 1982 through 1999. The past decade (2000 to 2009) has been the warmest since instrumental measurements began, which could imply continued increases in NPP; however, our estimates suggest a reduction in the global NPP of 0.55 petagrams of carbon. Large-scale droughts have reduced regional NPP, and a drying trend in the Southern Hemisphere has decreased NPP in that area, counteracting the increased NPP over the Northern Hemisphere. A continued decline in NPP would not only weaken the terrestrial carbon sink, but it would also intensify future competition between food demand and proposed biofuel production.

  6. How drought severity constrains gross primary production(GPP) and its partitioning among carbon pools in a Quercus ilex coppice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambal, S.; Lempereur, M.; Limousin, J. M.; Martin-StPaul, N. K.; Ourcival, J. M.; Rodríguez-Calcerrada, J.

    2014-12-01

    The partitioning of photosynthates toward biomass compartments plays a crucial role in the carbon (C) sink function of forests. Few studies have examined how carbon is allocated toward plant compartments in drought-prone forests. We analyzed the fate of gross primary production (GPP) in relation to yearly water deficit in an old evergreen Mediterranean Quercus ilex coppice severely affected by water limitations. Carbon fluxes between the ecosystem and the atmosphere were measured with an eddy covariance flux tower running continuously since 2001. Discrete measurements of litterfall, stem growth and fAPAR allowed us to derive annual productions of leaves, wood, flowers and acorns, and an isometric relationship between stem and belowground biomass has been used to estimate perennial belowground growth. By combining eddy covariance fluxes with annual net primary productions (NPP), we managed to close a C budget and derive values of autotrophic, heterotrophic respirations and carbon-use efficiency (CUE; the ratio between NPP and GPP). Average values of yearly net ecosystem production (NEP), GPP and Reco were 282, 1259 and 977 g C m-2. The corresponding aboveground net primary production (ANPP) components were 142.5, 26.4 and 69.6 g C m-2 for leaves, reproductive effort (flowers and fruits) and stems, respectively. NEP, GPP and Reco were affected by annual water deficit. Partitioning to the different plant compartments was also impacted by drought, with a hierarchy of responses going from the most affected - the stem growth - to the least affected - the leaf production. The average CUE was 0.40, which is well in the range for Mediterranean-type forest ecosystems. CUE tended to decrease less drastically in response to drought than GPP and NPP did, probably due to drought acclimation of autotrophic respiration. Overall, our results provide a baseline for modeling the inter-annual variations of carbon fluxes and allocation in this widespread Mediterranean ecosystem, and

  7. Quantifying Impacts of Land-Use/Cover Change on Urban Vegetation Gross Primary Production: A Case Study of Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishi Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study quantified the impacts of land-use/cover change (LUCC on gross primary production (GPP during 2000–2013 in a typical densely urbanized Chinese city, Wuhan. GPP was estimated at 30-m spatial resolution using annual land cover maps, meteorological data of the baseline year, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, which was generated with the spatial and temporal adaptive reflectance fusion model (STARFM based on Landsat and MODIS images. The results showed that approximately 309.95 Gg C was lost over 13 years, which was mainly due to the conversion from cropland to built-up areas. The interannual variation of GPP was affected by the change of vegetation composition, especially the increasing relative fraction of forests. The loss of GPP due to the conversion from forest to cropland fluctuated through the study period, but showed a sharp decrease in 2007 and 2008. The gain of GPP due to the conversion from cropland to forest was low between 2001 and 2009, but increased dramatically between 2009 and 2013. The change rate map showed an increasing trend along the highways, and a decreasing trend around the metropolitan area and lakes. The results indicated that carbon consequences should be considered before land management policies are put forth.

  8. Simulation of olive grove gross primary production by the combination of ground and multi-sensor satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilli, L.; Chiesi, M.; Maselli, F.; Moriondo, M.; Gioli, B.; Toscano, P.; Zaldei, A.; Bindi, M.

    2013-08-01

    We developed and tested a methodology to estimate olive (Olea europaea L.) gross primary production (GPP) combining ground and multi-sensor satellite data. An eddy-covariance station placed in an olive grove in central Italy provided carbon and water fluxes over two years (2010-2011), which were used as reference to evaluate the performance of a GPP estimation methodology based on a Monteith type model (modified C-Fix) and driven by meteorological and satellite (NDVI) data. A major issue was related to the consideration of the two main olive grove components, i.e. olive trees and inter-tree ground vegetation: this issue was addressed by the separate simulation of carbon fluxes within the two ecosystem layers, followed by their recombination. In this way the eddy covariance GPP measurements were successfully reproduced, with the exception of two periods that followed tillage operations. For these periods measured GPP could be approximated by considering synthetic NDVI values which simulated the expected response of inter-tree ground vegetation to tillages.

  9. Plant, microbial and ecosystem carbon use efficiencies interact to stabilize microbial growth as a fraction of gross primary production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsabaugh, Robert L; Moorhead, Daryl L; Xu, Xiaofeng; Litvak, Marcy E

    2017-06-01

    The carbon use efficiency of plants (CUE a ) and microorganisms (CUE h ) determines rates of biomass turnover and soil carbon sequestration. We evaluated the hypothesis that CUE a and CUE h counterbalance at a large scale, stabilizing microbial growth (μ) as a fraction of gross primary production (GPP). Collating data from published studies, we correlated annual CUE a , estimated from satellite imagery, with locally determined soil CUE h for 100 globally distributed sites. Ecosystem CUE e , the ratio of net ecosystem production (NEP) to GPP, was estimated for each site using published models. At the ecosystem scale, CUE a and CUE h were inversely related. At the global scale, the apparent temperature sensitivity of CUE h with respect to mean annual temperature (MAT) was similar for organic and mineral soils (0.029°C -1 ). CUE a and CUE e were inversely related to MAT, with apparent sensitivities of -0.009 and -0.032°C -1 , respectively. These trends constrain the ratio μ : GPP (= (CUE a  × CUE h )/(1 - CUE e )) with respect to MAT by counterbalancing the apparent temperature sensitivities of the component processes. At the ecosystem scale, the counterbalance is effected by modulating soil organic matter stocks. The results suggest that a μ : GPP value of c. 0.13 is a homeostatic steady state for ecosystem carbon fluxes at a large scale. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Variations of Global Terrestrial Primary Production Observed by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) From 2000 to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, M.; Running, S.; Heinsch, F. A.

    2006-12-01

    Since the first Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite Terra was launched in December 1999 and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor onboard Terra began to provide data in February 2000, we have had six-year MODIS global 1-km terrestrial Gross and Net Primary Production (GPP &NPP) datasets. In this article, we present the variations (seasonality and inter-annual variability) of global GPP/NPP from the latest improved Collection 4.8 (C4.8) MODIS datasets for the past six-year (2000 - 2005), as well as improvements of the algorithm, validations of GPP and NPP. Validation results show that the C4.8 data have higher accuracy and quality than the previous version. Analyses of the variations in GPP/NPP show that GPP not only can reflect strong seasonality of photosynthesis activities by plants in mid- and high-latitude, but importantly, can reveal enhanced growth of Amazon rainforests during dry season, consistent with the reports by Huete et al. (2006) on GRL. Spatially, plants over mid- and high-latitude (north to 22.5°N) are the major contributor of global GPP seasonality. Inter-annual variability of MODIS NPP for 2000 - 2005 reveals the negative effects of major droughts on carbon sequestration at the regional and continental scales. A striking phenomenon is that the severe drought in 2005 over Amazon reduced NPP, indicating water availability becomes the dominant limiting factor rather than solar radiation under normal conditions. GMAO and NCEP driven global total NPPs have the similar interannual anomalies, and they generally follow the inverted CO2 growth rate anomaly with correlation of 0.85 and 0.91, respectively, which are higher than the correlation of 0.7 found by Nemani et al. (2003) on Science. Though there are only 6 years of MODIS data, results show that global NPP decreased from 2000 to 2005, and spatially most decreased NPP areas are in tropic and south hemisphere.

  11. Retrieval of daily gross primary production over Europe and Africa from an ensemble of SEVIRI/MSG products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, B.; Sanchez-Ruiz, S.; Gilabert, M. A.; Moreno, A.; Campos-Taberner, M.; García-Haro, F. J.; Trigo, I. F.; Aurela, M.; Brümmer, C.; Carrara, A.; De Ligne, A.; Gianelle, D.; Grünwald, T.; Limousin, J. M.; Lohila, A.; Mammarella, I.; Sottocornola, M.; Steinbrecher, R.; Tagesson, T.

    2018-03-01

    The main goal of this paper is to derive a method for a daily gross primary production (GPP) product over Europe and Africa taking the full advantage of the SEVIRI/MSG satellite products from the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) sensors delivered from the Satellite Application Facility for Land Surface Analysis (LSA SAF) system. Special attention is paid to model the daily GPP response from an optimized Montheith's light use efficiency model under dry conditions by controlling water shortage limitations from the actual evapotranspiration and the potential evapotranspiration (PET). The PET was parameterized using the mean daily air temperature at 2 m (Ta) from ERA-Interim data. The GPP product (MSG GPP) was produced for 2012 and assessed by direct site-level comparison with GPP from eddy covariance data (EC GPP). MSG GPP presents relative bias errors lower than 40% for the most forest vegetation types with a high agreement (r > 0.7) when compared with EC GPP. For drylands, MSG GPP reproduces the seasonal variations related to water limitation in a good agreement with site level GPP estimates (RMSE = 2.11 g m-2 day-1; MBE = -0.63 g m-2 day-1), especially for the dry season. A consistency analysis against other GPP satellite products (MOD17A2 and FLUXCOM) reveals a high consistency among products (RMSD Africa. The major GPP disagreement arises over moist biomes in central Africa (RMSD > 3.0 g m-2 day-1) and over dry biomes with MSG GPP estimates lower than FLUXCOM (MBD up to -3.0 g m-2 day-1). This newly derived product has the potential for analysing spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of GPP at the MSG spatial resolutions on a daily basis allowing to better capture the GPP dynamics and magnitude.

  12. Comparing MODIS Net Primary Production Estimates with Terrestrial National Forest Inventory Data in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Neumann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The mission of this study is to compare Net Primary Productivity (NPP estimates using (i forest inventory data and (ii spatio-temporally continuous MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer remote sensing data for Austria. While forest inventories assess the change in forest growth based on repeated individual tree measurements (DBH, height etc., the MODIS NPP estimates are based on ecophysiological processes such as photosynthesis, respiration and carbon allocation. We obtained repeated national forest inventory data from Austria, calculated a “ground-based” NPP estimate and compared the results with “space-based” MODIS NPP estimates using different daily climate data. The MODIS NPP estimates using local Austrian climate data exhibited better compliance with the forest inventory driven NPP estimates than the MODIS NPP predictions using global climate data sets. Stand density plays a key role in addressing the differences between MODIS driven NPP estimates versus terrestrial driven inventory NPP estimates. After addressing stand density, both results are comparable across different scales. As forest management changes stand density, these findings suggest that management issues are important in understanding the observed discrepancies between MODIS and terrestrial NPP.

  13. Impacts of droughts and extreme-temperature events on gross primary production and ecosystem respiration: a systematic assessment across ecosystems and climate zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. von Buttlar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Extreme climatic events, such as droughts and heat stress, induce anomalies in ecosystem–atmosphere CO2 fluxes, such as gross primary production (GPP and ecosystem respiration (Reco, and, hence, can change the net ecosystem carbon balance. However, despite our increasing understanding of the underlying mechanisms, the magnitudes of the impacts of different types of extremes on GPP and Reco within and between ecosystems remain poorly predicted. Here we aim to identify the major factors controlling the amplitude of extreme-event impacts on GPP, Reco, and the resulting net ecosystem production (NEP. We focus on the impacts of heat and drought and their combination. We identified hydrometeorological extreme events in consistently downscaled water availability and temperature measurements over a 30-year time period. We then used FLUXNET eddy covariance flux measurements to estimate the CO2 flux anomalies during these extreme events across dominant vegetation types and climate zones. Overall, our results indicate that short-term heat extremes increased respiration more strongly than they downregulated GPP, resulting in a moderate reduction in the ecosystem's carbon sink potential. In the absence of heat stress, droughts tended to have smaller and similarly dampening effects on both GPP and Reco and, hence, often resulted in neutral NEP responses. The combination of drought and heat typically led to a strong decrease in GPP, whereas heat and drought impacts on respiration partially offset each other. Taken together, compound heat and drought events led to the strongest C sink reduction compared to any single-factor extreme. A key insight of this paper, however, is that duration matters most: for heat stress during droughts, the magnitude of impacts systematically increased with duration, whereas under heat stress without drought, the response of Reco over time turned from an initial increase to a downregulation after about 2 weeks. This confirms

  14. Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and photochemical reflectance index improve remote-sensing gross primary production estimates under varying nutrient availability in a typical Mediterranean savanna ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Priego, O.; Guan, J.; Rossini, M.; Fava, F.; Wutzler, T.; Moreno, G.; Carvalhais, N.; Carrara, A.; Kolle, O.; Julitta, T.; Schrumpf, M.; Reichstein, M.; Migliavacca, M.

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the performances of different optical indices to estimate gross primary production (GPP) of herbaceous stratum in a Mediterranean savanna with different nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) availability. Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence yield computed at 760 nm (Fy760), scaled photochemical reflectance index (sPRI), MERIS terrestrial-chlorophyll index (MTCI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were computed from near-surface field spectroscopy measurements collected using high spectral resolution spectrometers covering the visible near-infrared regions. GPP was measured using canopy chambers on the same locations sampled by the spectrometers. We tested whether light-use efficiency (LUE) models driven by remote-sensing quantities (RSMs) can better track changes in GPP caused by nutrient supplies compared to those driven exclusively by meteorological data (MM). Particularly, we compared the performances of different RSM formulations - relying on the use of Fy760 or sPRI as a proxy for LUE and NDVI or MTCI as a fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) - with those of classical MM. Results showed higher GPP in the N-fertilized experimental plots during the growing period. These differences in GPP disappeared in the drying period when senescence effects masked out potential differences due to plant N content. Consequently, although MTCI was closely related to the mean of plant N content across treatments (r2 = 0.86, p < 0.01), it was poorly related to GPP (r2 = 0.45, p < 0.05). On the contrary sPRI and Fy760 correlated well with GPP during the whole measurement period. Results revealed that the relationship between GPP and Fy760 is not unique across treatments, but it is affected by N availability. Results from a cross-validation analysis showed that MM (AICcv = 127, MEcv = 0.879) outperformed RSM (AICcv =140, MEcv = 0.8737) when soil moisture was used to constrain the seasonal dynamic of LUE. However

  15. Impacts of droughts and extreme-temperature events on gross primary production and ecosystem respiration: a systematic assessment across ecosystems and climate zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Buttlar, Jannis; Zscheischler, Jakob; Rammig, Anja; Sippel, Sebastian; Reichstein, Markus; Knohl, Alexander; Jung, Martin; Menzer, Olaf; Altaf Arain, M.; Buchmann, Nina; Cescatti, Alessandro; Gianelle, Damiano; Kiely, Gerard; Law, Beverly E.; Magliulo, Vincenzo; Margolis, Hank; McCaughey, Harry; Merbold, Lutz; Migliavacca, Mirco; Montagnani, Leonardo; Oechel, Walter; Pavelka, Marian; Peichl, Matthias; Rambal, Serge; Raschi, Antonio; Scott, Russell L.; Vaccari, Francesco P.; van Gorsel, Eva; Varlagin, Andrej; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Mahecha, Miguel D.

    2018-03-01

    Extreme climatic events, such as droughts and heat stress, induce anomalies in ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 fluxes, such as gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco), and, hence, can change the net ecosystem carbon balance. However, despite our increasing understanding of the underlying mechanisms, the magnitudes of the impacts of different types of extremes on GPP and Reco within and between ecosystems remain poorly predicted. Here we aim to identify the major factors controlling the amplitude of extreme-event impacts on GPP, Reco, and the resulting net ecosystem production (NEP). We focus on the impacts of heat and drought and their combination. We identified hydrometeorological extreme events in consistently downscaled water availability and temperature measurements over a 30-year time period. We then used FLUXNET eddy covariance flux measurements to estimate the CO2 flux anomalies during these extreme events across dominant vegetation types and climate zones. Overall, our results indicate that short-term heat extremes increased respiration more strongly than they downregulated GPP, resulting in a moderate reduction in the ecosystem's carbon sink potential. In the absence of heat stress, droughts tended to have smaller and similarly dampening effects on both GPP and Reco and, hence, often resulted in neutral NEP responses. The combination of drought and heat typically led to a strong decrease in GPP, whereas heat and drought impacts on respiration partially offset each other. Taken together, compound heat and drought events led to the strongest C sink reduction compared to any single-factor extreme. A key insight of this paper, however, is that duration matters most: for heat stress during droughts, the magnitude of impacts systematically increased with duration, whereas under heat stress without drought, the response of Reco over time turned from an initial increase to a downregulation after about 2 weeks. This confirms earlier theories that

  16. Testing the applicability of BIOME-BGC to simulate beech gross primary production in Europe using a new continental weather dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Chiesi , Marta; Chirici , Gherardo; Marchetti , Marco; Hasenauer , Hubert; Moreno , Adam; Knohl , Alexander; Matteucci , Giorgio; Pilegaard , Kim; Granier , André; Longdoz , Bernard; Maselli , Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Key message A daily 1-km Pan-European weather dataset can drive the BIOME-BGC model for the estimation of current and future beech gross primary production (GPP). Annual beech GPP is affected primarily by spring temperature and more irregularly by summer water stress. [br/] Context The spread of beech forests in Europe enhances the importance of modelling and monitoring their growth in view of ongoing climate changes. [br/] Aims The current paper assesses the capability o...

  17. Integrating Chlorophyll fapar and Nadir Photochemical Reflectance Index from EO-1/Hyperion to Predict Cornfield Daily Gross Primary Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyuan; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Cheng, Yen-Ben; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Cook, Bruce D.; Corp, Lawrence A.; Kustas, William P.; Russ, Andrew L.; Prueger, John H.; Yao, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The concept of light use efficiency (Epsilon) and the concept of fraction of photosynthetically active ration (PAR) absorbed for vegetation photosynthesis (PSN), i.e., fAPAR (sub PSN), have been widely utilized to estimate vegetation gross primary productivity (GPP). It has been demonstrated that the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) is empirically related to e. An experimental US Department of Agriculture (USDA) cornfield in Maryland was selected as our study field. We explored the potential of integrating fAPAR(sub chl) (defined as the fraction of PAR absorbed by chlorophyll) and nadir PRI (PRI(sub nadir)) to predict cornfield daily GPP. We acquired nadir or near-nadir EO-1/Hyperion satellite images that covered the cornfield and took nadir in-situ field spectral measurements. Those data were used to derive the PRI(sub nadir) and fAPAR (sub chl). The fAPAR (sub chl) is retrieved with the advanced radiative transfer model PROSAIL2 and the Metropolis approach, a type of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) estimation procedure. We define chlorophyll light use efficiency Epsilon (sub chl) as the ratio of vegetation GPP as measured by eddy covariance techniques to PAR absorbed by chlorophyll (Epsilon(sub chl) = GPP/APAR (sub chl). Daily Epsilon (sub chl) retrieved with the EO-1 Hyperion images was regressed with a linear equation of PRI (sub nadir) Epsilon (sub chl) = Alpha × PRI (sub nadir) + Beta). The satellite Epsilon(sub chl- PRI (sub nadir) linear relationship for the cornfield was implemented to develop an integrated daily GPP model [GPP = (Alpha × PRI(sub nadir) + Beta) × fAPAR (sub chl) × PAR], which was evaluated with fAPAR (sub chl) and PRI (sub nadir) retrieved from field measurements. Daily GPP estimated with this fAPAR (sub chl-) PRI (nadir) integration model was strongly correlated with the observed tower in-situ daily GPP (R(sup 2) = 0.93); with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.71 g C mol-(sup -1) PPFD and coefficient of variation (CV) of 16

  18. Modeling spatially explicit fire impact on gross primary production in interior Alaska using satellite images coupled with eddy covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengli; Liu, Heping; Dahal, Devendra; Jin, Suming; Welp, Lisa R.; Liu, Jinxun; Liu, Shuguang

    2013-01-01

    In interior Alaska, wildfires change gross primary production (GPP) after the initial disturbance. The impact of fires on GPP is spatially heterogeneous, which is difficult to evaluate by limited point-based comparisons or is insufficient to assess by satellite vegetation index. The direct prefire and postfire comparison is widely used, but the recovery identification may become biased due to interannual climate variability. The objective of this study is to propose a method to quantify the spatially explicit GPP change caused by fires and succession. We collected three Landsat images acquired on 13 July 2004, 5 August 2004, and 6 September 2004 to examine the GPP recovery of burned area from 1987 to 2004. A prefire Landsat image acquired in 1986 was used to reconstruct satellite images assuming that the fires of 1987–2004 had not occurred. We used a light-use efficiency model to estimate the GPP. This model was driven by maximum light-use efficiency (Emax) and fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR). We applied this model to two scenarios (i.e., an actual postfire scenario and an assuming-no-fire scenario), where the changes in Emax and FPAR were taken into account. The changes in Emax were represented by the change in land cover of evergreen needleleaf forest, deciduous broadleaf forest, and shrub/grass mixed, whose Emax was determined from three fire chronosequence flux towers as 1.1556, 1.3336, and 0.5098 gC/MJ PAR. The changes in FPAR were inferred from NDVI change between the actual postfire NDVI and the reconstructed NDVI. After GPP quantification for July, August, and September 2004, we calculated the difference between the two scenarios in absolute and percent GPP changes. Our results showed rapid recovery of GPP post-fire with a 24% recovery immediately after burning and 43% one year later. For the fire scars with an age range of 2–17 years, the recovery rate ranged from 54% to 95%. In addition to the averaging

  19. A continuous measure of gross primary production for the conterminous United States derived from MODIS and AmeriFlux data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingfeng Xiao; Qianlai Zhuang; Beverly E. Law; Jiquan Chen; Dennis D. Baldocchi; David R. Cook; Ram Oren; Andrew D. Richardson; Sonia Wharton; Siyan Ma; Tomothy A. Martin; Shashi B. Verma; Andrew E. Suyker; Russel L. Scott; Russel K. Monson; Marcy Litvak; David Y. Hollinger; Ge Sun; Kenneth J. Davis; Paul V. Bolstad; Sean P. Burns; Peter S. Curtis; BErt G. Drake; Matthias Falk; MArc L. Fischer; David R. Foster; Lianhong Gu; Julian L. Hadley; Gabriel G. Katul; Roser Matamala; Steve McNulty; Tilden P. Meyers; J. William Munger; Asko Noormets; Walter C. Oechel; Kyaw Tha U Paw; Hans Peter Schmid; Gregory Starr; Margaret S. Torn; Steven C. Wofsy

    2010-01-01

    The quantification of carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is of scientific importance and also relevant to climate-policy making. Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of ecosystem-level exchange of carbon dioxide spanning diurnal, synoptic, seasonal, and interannual time scales....

  20. Gross primary production dynamics assessment of a mediterranean holm oak forest by remote sensing time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuéndez, Víctor; Huesca, Margarita; Rodriguez-Rastrero, Manuel; Litago, Javier; Recuero, Laura; Merino de Miguel, Silvia; Palacios Orueta, Alicia

    2014-05-01

    Agroforestry ecosystems have a significant social, economic and environmental impact on the development of many regions of the world. In the Iberian Peninsula the agroforestry oak forest called "Dehesa" or "Montado" is considered as the extreme case of transformation of a Mediterranean forest by the management of human to provide a wide range of natural resources. The high variability of the Mediterranean climate and the different extensive management practices which human realized on the Dehesa result in a high spatial and temporal dynamics of the ecosystem. This leads to a complex pattern in CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and the ecosystem, i.e. in ecosystem's production. Thus, it is essential to assess Dehesa's carbon cycle to reach maximum economic benefits ensuring environmental sustainability. In this sense, the availability of high frequency Remote Sensing (RS) time series allows the assessment of ecosystem evolution at different temporal and spatial scales. Extensive research has been conducted to estimate production from RS data in different ecosystems. However, there are few studies on the Dehesa type ecosystems, probably due to their complexity in terms of spatial arrangement and temporal dynamics. In this study our overall objective is to assess the Gross Primary Production (GPP) dynamics of a Dehesa ecosystem situated in Central Spain by analyzing time series (2004-2008) of two models: (1) GPP provided by Remote Sensing Images of sensor MODIS (MOD17A2 product) and (2) GPP estimated by the implementation of a Site Specific Light Use Efficiency model based as MODIS model on Monteith equation (1972), but taking into account local ecological and meteorological parameters. Both models have been compared with the Production provided by an Eddy Covariance (EC) flux Tower that is located in our study area. In addition, dynamic relationships between models of GPP with Precipitation and Soil Water Content have been investigated by means of cross

  1. Estimation of Crop Gross Primary Production (GPP): I. Impact of MODIS Observation Footprint and Impact of Vegetation BRDF Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyuan; Cheng, Yen-Ben; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Xiao, Xiangming; Suyker, Andrew; Verma, Shashi; Tan, Bin; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimation of gross primary production (GPP) is essential for carbon cycle and climate change studies. Three AmeriFlux crop sites of maize and soybean were selected for this study. Two of the sites were irrigated and the other one was rainfed. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the enhanced vegetation index (EVI), the green band chlorophyll index (CIgreen), and the green band wide dynamic range vegetation index (WDRVIgreen) were computed from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance data. We examined the impacts of the MODIS observation footprint and the vegetation bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) on crop daily GPP estimation with the four spectral vegetation indices (VIs - NDVI, EVI, WDRVIgreen and CIgreen) where GPP was predicted with two linear models, with and without offset: GPP = a × VI × PAR and GPP = a × VI × PAR + b. Model performance was evaluated with coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), and coefficient of variation (CV). The MODIS data were filtered into four categories and four experiments were conducted to assess the impacts. The first experiment included all observations. The second experiment only included observations with view zenith angle (VZA) = 35? to constrain growth of the footprint size,which achieved a better grid cell match with the agricultural fields. The third experiment included only forward scatter observations with VZA = 35?. The fourth experiment included only backscatter observations with VZA = 35?. Overall, the EVI yielded the most consistently strong relationships to daily GPP under all examined conditions. The model GPP = a × VI × PAR + b had better performance than the model GPP = a × VI × PAR, and the offset was significant for most cases. Better performance was obtained for the irrigated field than its counterpart rainfed field. Comparison of experiment 2 vs. experiment 1 was used to examine the observation

  2. Responses of Terrestrial Ecosystems’ Net Primary Productivity to Future Regional Climate Change in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongsheng; Wu, Shaohong; Yin, Yunhe

    2013-01-01

    The impact of regional climate change on net primary productivity (NPP) is an important aspect in the study of ecosystems’ response to global climate change. China’s ecosystems are very sensitive to climate change owing to the influence of the East Asian monsoon. The Lund–Potsdam–Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model for China (LPJ-CN), a global dynamical vegetation model developed for China’s terrestrial ecosystems, was applied in this study to simulate the NPP changes affected by future climate change. As the LPJ-CN model is based on natural vegetation, the simulation in this study did not consider the influence of anthropogenic activities. Results suggest that future climate change would have adverse effects on natural ecosystems, with NPP tending to decrease in eastern China, particularly in the temperate and warm temperate regions. NPP would increase in western China, with a concentration in the Tibetan Plateau and the northwest arid regions. The increasing trend in NPP in western China and the decreasing trend in eastern China would be further enhanced by the warming climate. The spatial distribution of NPP, which declines from the southeast coast to the northwest inland, would have minimal variation under scenarios of climate change. PMID:23593325

  3. Responses of terrestrial ecosystems' net primary productivity to future regional climate change in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongsheng; Wu, Shaohong; Yin, Yunhe

    2013-01-01

    The impact of regional climate change on net primary productivity (NPP) is an important aspect in the study of ecosystems' response to global climate change. China's ecosystems are very sensitive to climate change owing to the influence of the East Asian monsoon. The Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model for China (LPJ-CN), a global dynamical vegetation model developed for China's terrestrial ecosystems, was applied in this study to simulate the NPP changes affected by future climate change. As the LPJ-CN model is based on natural vegetation, the simulation in this study did not consider the influence of anthropogenic activities. Results suggest that future climate change would have adverse effects on natural ecosystems, with NPP tending to decrease in eastern China, particularly in the temperate and warm temperate regions. NPP would increase in western China, with a concentration in the Tibetan Plateau and the northwest arid regions. The increasing trend in NPP in western China and the decreasing trend in eastern China would be further enhanced by the warming climate. The spatial distribution of NPP, which declines from the southeast coast to the northwest inland, would have minimal variation under scenarios of climate change.

  4. Responses of terrestrial ecosystems' net primary productivity to future regional climate change in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongsheng Zhao

    Full Text Available The impact of regional climate change on net primary productivity (NPP is an important aspect in the study of ecosystems' response to global climate change. China's ecosystems are very sensitive to climate change owing to the influence of the East Asian monsoon. The Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model for China (LPJ-CN, a global dynamical vegetation model developed for China's terrestrial ecosystems, was applied in this study to simulate the NPP changes affected by future climate change. As the LPJ-CN model is based on natural vegetation, the simulation in this study did not consider the influence of anthropogenic activities. Results suggest that future climate change would have adverse effects on natural ecosystems, with NPP tending to decrease in eastern China, particularly in the temperate and warm temperate regions. NPP would increase in western China, with a concentration in the Tibetan Plateau and the northwest arid regions. The increasing trend in NPP in western China and the decreasing trend in eastern China would be further enhanced by the warming climate. The spatial distribution of NPP, which declines from the southeast coast to the northwest inland, would have minimal variation under scenarios of climate change.

  5. Ground-based grasslands data to support remote sensing and ecosystem modeling of terrestrial primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R. J.; Scurlock, J. M. O.; Turner, R. S.; Jennings, S. V.

    1995-01-01

    Estimating terrestrial net primary production (NPP) using remote-sensing tools and ecosystem models requires adequate ground-based measurements for calibration, parameterization, and validation. These data needs were strongly endorsed at a recent meeting of ecosystem modelers organized by the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program's (IGBP's) Data and Information System (DIS) and its Global Analysis, Interpretation, and Modelling (GAIM) Task Force. To meet these needs, a multinational, multiagency project is being coordinated by the IGBP DIS to compile existing NPP data from field sites and to regionalize NPP point estimates to various-sized grid cells. Progress at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on compiling NPP data for grasslands as part of the IGBP DIS data initiative is described. Site data and associated documentation from diverse field studies are being acquired for selected grasslands and are being reviewed for completeness, consistency, and adequacy of documentation, including a description of sampling methods. Data are being compiled in a database with spatial, temporal, and thematic characteristics relevant to remote sensing and global modeling. NPP data are available from the ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) for biogeochemical dynamics. The ORNL DAAC is part of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System, of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  6. Ground-based grasslands data to support remote sensing and ecosystem modeling of terrestrial primary production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R.J.; Turner, R.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Scurlock, J.M.O. [King`s College London, (England); Jennings, S.V. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Estimating terrestrial net primary production (NPP) using remote- sensing tools and ecosystem models requires adequate ground-based measurements for calibration, parameterization, and validation. These data needs were strongly endorsed at a recent meeting of ecosystem modelers organized by the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme`s (IGBP`s) Data and Information System (DIS) and its Global Analysis, Interpretation, and Modelling (GAIM) Task Force. To meet these needs, a multinational, multiagency project is being coordinated by the IGBP DIS to compile existing NPP data from field sites and to regionalize NPP point estimates to various-sized grid cells. Progress at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on compiling NPP data for grasslands as part of the IGBP DIS data initiative is described. Site data and associated documentation from diverse field studies are being acquired for selected grasslands and are being reviewed for completeness, consistency, and adequacy of documentation, including a description of sampling methods. Data are being compiled in a database with spatial, temporal, and thematic characteristics relevant to remote sensing and global modeling. NPP data are available from the ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) for biogeochemical dynamics. The ORNL DAAC is part of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System, of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  7. Climate dependence of the CO2 fertilization effect on terrestrial net primary production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, G.A.; Yamagata, Y.; Oikawa, T.

    2003-01-01

    The quantitative formulation of the fertilization effect of CO 2 enrichment on net primary production (NPP) introduced by Keeling and Bacastow in 1970s (known as Keeling's formula) has been recognized as a summary of experimental data and has been used in various assessments of the industrial impact on atmospheric chemistry. Nevertheless, the magnitude of the formula's key coefficient, the so-called growth factor, has remained open to question. Some of the global carbon cycle modelers avoid this question by tuning growth factor and choosing the value that fits the observed course of atmospheric CO 2 changes. However, for mapping terrestrial sinks induced by the CO 2 fertilization effect one needs a geographical pattern of the growth factor rather than its globally averaged value. The earlier approach to this problem involved formulating the climate dependence of the growth factor and the derivation of its global pattern from climatic variables (whose geographical distribution is known). We use a process-based model (TsuBiMo) for this purpose and derive the values of growth factor for major biomes for comparison our approach with the earlier studies. Contrary to the earlier prevailing opinion, TsuBiMo predicts that these values decrease with mean annual temperature (excluding biomes of limited water supply). We attribute this result to the effect of light limitation caused by mutual shading inside a canopy, which was considered earlier as unimportant, and conclude that current hypotheses about CO 2 fertilization effect (and thus projections of the related carbon sink) are very sensitive to the choice of driving forces taken into account

  8. Copula Multivariate analysis of Gross primary production and its hydro-environmental driver; A BIOME-BGC model applied to the Antisana páramos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaya, Veronica; Corzo, Gerald; van der Kwast, Johannes; Galarraga, Remigio; Mynett, Arthur

    2014-05-01

    Simulations of carbon cycling are prone to uncertainties from different sources, which in general are related to input data, parameters and the model representation capacities itself. The gross carbon uptake in the cycle is represented by the gross primary production (GPP), which deals with the spatio-temporal variability of the precipitation and the soil moisture dynamics. This variability associated with uncertainty of the parameters can be modelled by multivariate probabilistic distributions. Our study presents a novel methodology that uses multivariate Copulas analysis to assess the GPP. Multi-species and elevations variables are included in a first scenario of the analysis. Hydro-meteorological conditions that might generate a change in the next 50 or more years are included in a second scenario of this analysis. The biogeochemical model BIOME-BGC was applied in the Ecuadorian Andean region in elevations greater than 4000 masl with the presence of typical vegetation of páramo. The change of GPP over time is crucial for climate scenarios of the carbon cycling in this type of ecosystem. The results help to improve our understanding of the ecosystem function and clarify the dynamics and the relationship with the change of climate variables. Keywords: multivariate analysis, Copula, BIOME-BGC, NPP, páramos

  9. Estimation Terrestrial Net Primary Productivity Based on CASA Model: a Case Study in Minnan Urban Agglomeration, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, L Z; Liu, H; Zhang, X L; Zheng, Y; Man, W; Yin, K

    2014-01-01

    Net Primary Productivity (NPP) is a key component of the terrestrial carbon cycle. The research of net primary productivity will help in understanding the amount of carbon fixed by terrestrial vegetation and its influencing factors. Model simulation is considered as a cost-effective and time-efficient method for the estimation of regional and global NPP. In the paper, a terrestrial biosphere model, CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach), was applied to estimate monthly NPP in Minnan urban agglomeration (i.e. Xiamen, Zhangzhou and Quanzhou cities) of Fujian province, China, in 2009 and 2010, by incorporating satellite observation of SPOT Vegetation NDVI data together with other climatic parameters and landuse map. The model estimates average annual terrestrial NPP of Minnan area as 16.3 million Mg C. NPP decreased from southwest to the northeast. The higher NPP values exceeding 720 gC·m − 2 ·a −1 showed in North Zhangzhou city and lower values under 500 gC·m − 2 ·a −1 showed in the some areas of northeast Quanzhou city. Seasonal variations of NPP were large. It was about 45% of the total annual NPP in the three months in summer, and the NPP values were very low in winter. From 2009 to 2010, the value of annual NPP showed a slightly decrease trend, approximately 7.8% because the annual temperature for 2010 decline 13.6% compared with 2009 in despite of an increase in rainfall of about 34.3%. The results indicate that temperature was a main limiting factor on vegetation growth, but water is not a limiting factor in the rainy area

  10. Testing the applicability of BIOME-BGC to simulate beech gross primary production in Europe using a new continental weather dataset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiesi, Marta; Chirici, Gherardo; Marchetti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A daily 1-km Pan-European weather dataset can drive the BIOME-BGC model for the estimation of current and future beech gross primary production (GPP). Annual beech GPP is affected primarily by spring temperature and more irregularly by summer water stress.The spread of beech forests in Europe...... forest ecosystems having different climatic conditions where the eddy covariance technique is used to measure water and carbon fluxes. The experiment is in three main steps. First, the accuracy of BIOME-BGC GPP simulations is assessed through comparison with flux observations. Second, the influence...... of two major meteorological drivers (spring minimum temperature and growing season dryness) on observed and simulated inter-annual GPP variations is analysed. Lastly, the impacts of two climate change scenarios on beech GPP are evaluated through statistical analyses of the ground data and model...

  11. Modeling gross primary production of agro-forestry ecosystems by assimilation of satellite-derived information in a process-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliavacca, Mirco; Meroni, Michele; Busetto, Lorenzo; Colombo, Roberto; Zenone, Terenzio; Matteucci, Giorgio; Manca, Giovanni; Seufert, Guenther

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present results obtained in the framework of a regional-scale analysis of the carbon budget of poplar plantations in Northern Italy. We explored the ability of the process-based model BIOME-BGC to estimate the gross primary production (GPP) using an inverse modeling approach exploiting eddy covariance and satellite data. We firstly present a version of BIOME-BGC coupled with the radiative transfer models PROSPECT and SAILH (named PROSAILH-BGC) with the aims of i) improving the BIOME-BGC description of the radiative transfer regime within the canopy and ii) allowing the assimilation of remotely-sensed vegetation index time series, such as MODIS NDVI, into the model. Secondly, we present a two-step model inversion for optimization of model parameters. In the first step, some key ecophysiological parameters were optimized against data collected by an eddy covariance flux tower. In the second step, important information about phenological dates and about standing biomass were optimized against MODIS NDVI. Results obtained showed that the PROSAILH-BGC allowed simulation of MODIS NDVI with good accuracy and that we described better the canopy radiation regime. The inverse modeling approach was demonstrated to be useful for the optimization of ecophysiological model parameters, phenological dates and parameters related to the standing biomass, allowing good accuracy of daily and annual GPP predictions. In summary, this study showed that assimilation of eddy covariance and remote sensing data in a process model may provide important information for modeling gross primary production at regional scale.

  12. Modeling Gross Primary Production of Agro-Forestry Ecosystems by Assimilation of Satellite-Derived Information in a Process-Based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guenther Seufert

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present results obtained in the framework of a regional-scale analysis of the carbon budget of poplar plantations in Northern Italy. We explored the ability of the process-based model BIOME-BGC to estimate the gross primary production (GPP using an inverse modeling approach exploiting eddy covariance and satellite data. We firstly present a version of BIOME-BGC coupled with the radiative transfer models PROSPECT and SAILH (named PROSAILH-BGC with the aims of i improving the BIOME-BGC description of the radiative transfer regime within the canopy and ii allowing the assimilation of remotely-sensed vegetation index time series, such as MODIS NDVI, into the model. Secondly, we present a two-step model inversion for optimization of model parameters. In the first step, some key ecophysiological parameters were optimized against data collected by an eddy covariance flux tower. In the second step, important information about phenological dates and about standing biomass were optimized against MODIS NDVI. Results obtained showed that the PROSAILH-BGC allowed simulation of MODIS NDVI with good accuracy and that we described better the canopy radiation regime. The inverse modeling approach was demonstrated to be useful for the optimization of ecophysiological model parameters, phenological dates and parameters related to the standing biomass, allowing good accuracy of daily and annual GPP predictions. In summary, this study showed that assimilation of eddy covariance and remote sensing data in a process model may provide important information for modeling gross primary production at regional scale.

  13. Familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism/hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome caused by germline gross deletion or point mutations of CDC73 gene in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jing; Wang, Ou; Nie, Min; Shi, Jie; Hu, Yingying; Jiang, Yan; Li, Mei; Xia, Weibo; Meng, Xunwu; Xing, Xiaoping

    2014-08-01

    Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome (HPT-JT) and familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism (FIHP) are two subtypes of familial primary hyperparathyroidism, which are rarely reported in Chinese population. Here, we reported three FIHP families and one HPT-JT family with long-term follow-up and genetic analysis. A total of 22 patients, from four FIHP/HPT-JT families of Chinese descent, were recruited and genomic DNA was extracted from their peripheral blood lymphocytes. Direct sequencing for MEN1, CDC73, CASR gene was conducted. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) were used to study the effect of splice site mutations and gross deletion mutations. Immunohistochemistry was performed to analyse parafibromin expression in parathyroid tumours. Genotype-phenotype correlations were assessed through clinical characteristics and long-term follow-up data. Genetic analysis revealed four CDC73 germline mutations that were responsible for the four kindreds, including two novel point mutation (c.157 G>T and IVS3+1 G>A), one recurrent point mutation (c.664 C>T) and one deletion mutation (c.307+?_513-?del exons 4, 5, 6). RT-PCR confirmed that IVS3+1 G>A generated an aberrant transcript with exon3 deletion. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated reduced nuclear parafibromin expression in tumours supporting the pathogenic effects of these mutations. This study supplies information on mutations and phenotypes of HPT-JT/FIHP syndrome in Chinese. Screening for gross deletion and point mutations of the CDC73 gene is necessary in susceptible subjects. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Is litter decomposition 'primed' by primary producer-release of labile carbon in terrestrial and aquatic experimental systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, A. Margarida P. M.; Kritzberg, Emma S.; Rousk, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    It is possible that recalcitrant organic matter (ROM) can be 'activated' by inputs of labile organic matter (LOM) through the priming effect (PE). Investigating the PE is of major importance to fully understand the microbial use of ROM and its role on carbon (C) and nutrient cycling in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In aquatic ecosystems it is thought that the PE is triggered by periphytic algae release of LOM. Analogously, in terrestrial systems it is hypothesized that the LOM released in plant rhizospheres, or from the green crusts on the surface of agricultural soils, stimulate the activity and growth of ROM decomposers. Most previous studies on PE have utilised pulse additions of single substrates at high concentrations. However, to achieve an assessment of the true importance of the PE, it is important to simulate a realistic delivery of LOM. We investigated, in a series of 2-week laboratory experiments, how primary producer (PP)-release of LOM influence litter degradation in terrestrial and aquatic experimental systems. We used soil (terrestrial) and pond water (aquatic) microbial communities to which litter was added under light and dark conditions. In addition, glucose was added at PP delivery rates in dark treatments to test if the putative PE in light systems could be reproduced. We observed an initial peak of bacterial growth rate followed by an overall decrease over time with no treatment differences. In light treatments, periphytic algae growth and increased fungal production was stimulated when bacterial growth declined. In contrast, both fungal growth and algal production were negligible in dark treatments. This reveals a direct positive influence of photosynthesis on fungal growth. To investigate if PP LOM supplements, and the associated fungal growth, translate into a modulated litter decomposition, we are using stable isotopes to track the use of litter and algal-derived carbon by determining the δ13C in produced CO2. Fungi and bacteria

  15. Isotopic tracers for net primary productivity for a terrestrial ecosystem: a case study of the Volta River basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayford, E.K.; Odamtten, G.T.; Enu-Kwesi, L.

    2006-01-01

    The coupling effect of vapour release and CO2 uptake during photosynthesis plays an important role in the carbon and hydrologic cycles. The water use efficiency (WUE) for transpiration was used in calculating the net primary productivity (NPP) for terrestrial ecosystem. Three parameters were used in calculating the water and carbon balance of the River Volta watershed. These are 1) stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, 2) long-term data on precipitation and evapotranspiration, and 3) stoichiometric relations of water and carbon. Results indicate that soils in the watershed annually respire 0.199 Pg C, and that the NPP is +0.029 Pg C yr-1. This implies an annual change in CO2 to the atmosphere within the watershed. Annually, River Volta watershed receives about 380 km3 of rainfall; approximately 50 per cent of which is returned to the atmosphere through plant transpiration. Associated with annual transpiration flux is a carbon flux of 0.170 x 1015 g C yr-1 or 428 g C m-2 yr-1 from the terrestrial ecosystem. Modeled estimates of heterotrophic soil respiration exceeds slightly the estimated NPP values, implying that carbon flux to and from the Volta river watershed is close to being in balance. In other words, the watershed releases annually more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere than it takes. Apart from the terrestrial carbon flux, the balance of photosynthesis and respiration in the Volta lake was also examined. The lake was found to release carbon dioxide to the atmosphere although the magnitude of the flux is smaller than that of the terrestrial ecosystem. (au)

  16. Standard Test Method for Calibration of Primary Non-Concentrator Terrestrial Photovoltaic Reference Cells Using a Tabular Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method is intended to be used for calibration and characterization of primary terrestrial photovoltaic reference cells to a desired reference spectral irradiance distribution, such as Tables G173. The recommended physical requirements for these reference cells are described in Specification E1040. Reference cells are principally used in the determination of the electrical performance of photovoltaic devices. 1.2 Primary photovoltaic reference cells are calibrated in natural sunlight using the relative spectral response of the cell, the relative spectral distribution of the sunlight, and a tabulated reference spectral irradiance distribution. 1.3 This test method requires the use of a pyrheliometer that is calibrated according to Test Method E816, which requires the use of a pyrheliometer that is traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR). Therefore, reference cells calibrated according to this test method are traceable to the WRR. 1.4 This test method is a technique that may be used ...

  17. Monitoring and Assessing the 2012 Drought in the Great Plains: Analyzing Satellite-Retrieved Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Drought Indices, and Gross Primary Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siheng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the relationship between satellite measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF and several meteorological drought indices, including the multi-time-scale standard precipitation index (SPI and the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI, to evaluate the potential of using SIF to monitor and assess drought. We found significant positive relationships between SIF and drought indices during the growing season (from June to September. SIF was found to be more sensitive to short-term SPIs (one or two months and less sensitive to long-term SPI (three months than were the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI or the normalized difference water index (NDWI. Significant correlations were found between SIF and PDSI during the growing season for the Great Plains. We found good consistency between SIF and flux-estimated gross primary production (GPP for the years studied, and synchronous declines of SIF and GPP in an extreme drought year (2012. We used SIF to monitor and assess the drought that occurred in the Great Plains during the summer of 2012, and found that although a meteorological drought was experienced throughout the Great Plains from June to September, the western area experienced more agricultural drought than the eastern area. Meanwhile, SIF declined more significantly than NDVI during the peak growing season. Yet for senescence, during which time the reduction of NDVI still went on, the reduction of SIF was eased. Our work provides an alternative to traditional reflectance-based vegetation or drought indices for monitoring and assessing agricultural drought.

  18. Global parameterization and validation of a two-leaf light use efficiency model for predicting gross primary production across FLUXNET sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Yanlian; Wu, Xiaocui; Ju, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    Light use efficiency (LUE) models are widely used to simulate gross primary production (GPP). However, the treatment of the plant canopy as a big leaf by these models can introduce large uncertainties in simulated GPP. Recently, a two-leaf light use efficiency (TL-LUE) model was developed...... to simulate GPP separately for sunlit and shaded leaves and has been shown to outperform the big-leaf MOD17 model at six FLUX sites in China. In this study we investigated the performance of the TL-LUE model for a wider range of biomes. For this we optimized the parameters and tested the TL-LUE model using...... data from 98 FLUXNET sites which are distributed across the globe. The results showed that the TL-LUE model performed in general better than the MOD17 model in simulating 8 day GPP. Optimized maximum light use efficiency of shaded leaves (epsilon(msh)) was 2.63 to 4.59 times that of sunlit leaves...

  19. Spatial-temporal consistency between gross primary productivity and solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence of vegetation in China during 2007-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J.; Xiao, X.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, B.; Zhao, B.

    2017-12-01

    Great significance exists in accurately estimating spatial-temporal patterns of gross primary production (GPP) because of its important role in global carbon cycle. Satellite-based light use efficiency (LUE) models are regarded as an efficient tool in simulating spatially time-sires GPP. However, the estimation of the accuracy of GPP simulations from LUE at both spatial and temporal scales is still a challenging work. In this study, we simulated GPP of vegetation in China during 2007-2014 using a LUE model (Vegetation Photosynthesis Model, VPM) based on MODIS (moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer) images of 8-day temporal and 500-m spatial resolutions and NCEP (National Center for Environmental Prediction) climate data. Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2) solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) data were used to compare with VPM simulated GPP (GPPVPM) temporally and spatially using linear correlation analysis. Significant positive linear correlations exist between monthly GPPVPM and SIF data over both single year (2010) and multiple years (2007-2014) in China. Annual GPPVPM is significantly positive correlated with SIF (R2>0.43) spatially for all years during 2007-2014 and all seasons in 2010 (R2>0.37). GPP dynamic trends is high spatial-temporal heterogeneous in China during 2007-2014. The results of this study indicate that GPPVPM is temporally and spatially in line with SIF data, and space-borne SIF data have great potential in validating and parameterizing GPP estimation of LUE-based models.

  20. Water, Energy, and Carbon with Artificial Neural Networks (WECANN): a statistically based estimate of global surface turbulent fluxes and gross primary productivity using solar-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed Alemohammad, Seyed; Fang, Bin; Konings, Alexandra G.; Aires, Filipe; Green, Julia K.; Kolassa, Jana; Miralles, Diego; Prigent, Catherine; Gentine, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    A new global estimate of surface turbulent fluxes, latent heat flux (LE) and sensible heat flux (H), and gross primary production (GPP) is developed using a machine learning approach informed by novel remotely sensed solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) and other radiative and meteorological variables. This is the first study to jointly retrieve LE, H, and GPP using SIF observations. The approach uses an artificial neural network (ANN) with a target dataset generated from three independent data sources, weighted based on a triple collocation (TC) algorithm. The new retrieval, named Water, Energy, and Carbon with Artificial Neural Networks (WECANN), provides estimates of LE, H, and GPP from 2007 to 2015 at 1° × 1° spatial resolution and at monthly time resolution. The quality of ANN training is assessed using the target data, and the WECANN retrievals are evaluated using eddy covariance tower estimates from the FLUXNET network across various climates and conditions. When compared to eddy covariance estimates, WECANN typically outperforms other products, particularly for sensible and latent heat fluxes. Analyzing WECANN retrievals across three extreme drought and heat wave events demonstrates the capability of the retrievals to capture the extent of these events. Uncertainty estimates of the retrievals are analyzed and the interannual variability in average global and regional fluxes shows the impact of distinct climatic events - such as the 2015 El Niño - on surface turbulent fluxes and GPP.

  1. Assessing the ability of three land ecosystem models to simulate gross carbon uptake of forests from boreal to Mediterranean climate in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, M.; Le Maire, Guerric; Zaehle, S.; Luyssaert, S.; Vetter, M.; Churkina, G.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.; Reichstein, M.

    2007-01-01

    Three terrestrial biosphere models (LPJ, Orchidee, Biome-BGC) were evaluated with respect to their ability to simulate large-scale climate related trends in gross primary production (GPP) across European forests. Simulated GPP and leaf area index (LAI) were compared with GPP estimates based on flux

  2. Bacterial Growth on Photochemically Transformed Leachates from Aquatic and Terrestrial Primary Producers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anesio, A.M.; Nielsen, Jon Theil; Granéli, W.

    2000-01-01

    We measured bacterial growth on phototransformed dissolved organic matter (DOM) leached from eight different primary producers. Leachates (10 mg C liter-1) were exposed to artificial UVA + UVB radiation, or kept in darkness, for 20 h. DOM solutions were subsequently inoculated with lake water...

  3. MRI versus {sup 68}Ga-PSMA PET/CT for gross tumour volume delineation in radiation treatment planning of primary prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboglou, Constantinos; Kirste, Simon; Fechter, Tobias; Grosu, Anca-Ligia [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg (Germany); Wieser, Gesche [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Hennies, Steffen [University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Goettingen (Germany); Rempel, Irene; Soschynski, Martin; Langer, Mathias [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Rischke, Hans Christian [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); Jilg, Cordula A. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Urology, Freiburg (Germany); Meyer, Philipp T. [German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg (Germany); University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Bock, Michael [German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg (Germany); University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Freiburg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) is widely used in radiation treatment planning of primary prostate cancer (PCA). Focal dose escalation to the dominant intraprostatic lesions (DIPL) may lead to improved PCA control. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is overexpressed in most PCAs. {sup 68}Ga-labelled PSMA inhibitors have demonstrated promising results in detection of PCA with PET/CT. The aim of this study was to compare {sup 68}Ga-PSMA PET/CT with MRI for gross tumour volume (GTV) definition in primary PCA. This retrospective study included 22 patients with primary PCA analysed after {sup 68}Ga-PSMA PET/CT and mpMRI. GTVs were delineated on MR images by two radiologists (GTV-MRIrad) and two radiation oncologists separately. Both volumes were merged leading to GTV-MRIint. GTVs based on PET/CT were delineated by two nuclear medicine physicians in consensus (GTV-PET). Laterality (left, right, and left and right prostate lobes) on mpMRI, PET/CT and pathological analysis after biopsy were assessed. Mean GTV-MRIrad, GTV-MRIint and GTV-PET were 5.92, 3.83 and 11.41 cm{sup 3}, respectively. GTV-PET was significant larger then GTV-MRIint (p = 0.003). The MRI GTVs GTV-MRIrad and GTV-MRIint showed, respectively, 40 % and 57 % overlap with GTV-PET. GTV-MRIrad and GTV-MRIint included the SUVmax of GTV-PET in 12 and 11 patients (54.6 % and 50 %), respectively. In nine patients (47 %), laterality on mpMRI, PET/CT and histopathology after biopsy was similar. Ga-PSMA PET/CT and mpMRI provided concordant results for delineation of the DIPL in 47 % of patients (40 % - 54 % of lesions). GTV-PET was significantly larger than GTV-MRIint. {sup 68}Ga-PSMA PET/CT may have a role in radiation treatment planning for focal radiation to the DIPL. Exact correlation of PET and MRI images with histopathology is needed. (orig.)

  4. Effects of the international soybean trade on the dynamics of Gross Primary Productivity in soybean-producing regions in China and Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viña, A.; Silva, R. F. B. D.; Yang, H.; Liu, J.

    2017-12-01

    The international trade of agricultural commodities, such as soybean, is driven by a series of pull and push factors linked to market demand. These in turn fluctuate based on changes in economic affluence, infrastructure development, and socioeconomic homogenization, among others, in both sending and receiving systems. While many studies have analyzed some of these push/pull factors and their environmental effects in either sending or receiving systems, few studies have assessed these effects simultaneously in both sending and receiving systems. This study evaluates the effects of the soybean trade between Brazil and China on the spatio-temporal patterns of gross primary productivity (GPP) in both sending and receiving systems. The GPP is a measure of the amount of biomass produced through photosynthesis across space and through time. This metric is directly related with the amount of carbon that is sequestered from the atmosphere, and thus is related with the impacts of land use/cover dynamics on global climate change. The spatio-temporal patterns of both GPP and land use/cover were evaluated simultaneously in two soybean-producing regions (state of Mato Grosso in Brazil, and Heilongjiang province in China) through the use of surface reflectance data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard NASA's Terra satellite, combined with a production efficiency model (PEM) entirely based on remotely sensed data. Results from this analysis provide new insights on the consequences of the international trade at local/regional scales, and allow assessing how changes in market demand for agricultural commodities may generate drastic environmental effects in both sending and receiving systems, with global implications on carbon sequestration and thus on climate change.

  5. Spatial-temporal consistency between gross primary productivity and solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence of vegetation in China during 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Xiao, Xiangming; Zhang, Yao; Doughty, Russell; Chen, Bangqian; Zhao, Bin

    2018-10-15

    Accurately estimating spatial-temporal patterns of gross primary production (GPP) is important for the global carbon cycle. Satellite-based light use efficiency (LUE) models are regarded as an efficient tool in simulating spatial-temporal dynamics of GPP. However, the accuracy assessment of GPP simulations from LUE models at both spatial and temporal scales remains a challenge. In this study, we simulated GPP of vegetation in China during 2007-2014 using a LUE model (Vegetation Photosynthesis Model, VPM) based on MODIS (moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer) images with 8-day temporal and 500-m spatial resolutions and NCEP (National Center for Environmental Prediction) climate data. Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2) solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) data were used to compare with VPM simulated GPP (GPP VPM ) temporally and spatially using linear correlation analysis. Significant positive linear correlations exist between monthly GPP VPM and SIF data over a single year (2010) and multiple years (2007-2014) in most areas of China. GPP VPM is also significantly positive correlated with GOME-2 SIF (R 2  > 0.43) spatially for seasonal scales. However, poor consistency was detected between GPP VPM and SIF data at yearly scale. GPP dynamic trends have high spatial-temporal variation in China during 2007-2014. Temperature, leaf area index (LAI), and precipitation are the most important factors influence GPP VPM in the regions of East Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Loss Plateau, and Southwestern China, respectively. The results of this study indicate that GPP VPM is temporally and spatially in line with GOME-2 SIF data, and space-borne SIF data have great potential for evaluating LUE-based GPP models. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evidence of a robust relationship between solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and gross primary productivity across dryland ecosystems of southwestern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. K.; Biederman, J. A.; Scott, R. L.; Moore, D. J.; Kimball, J. S.; He, M.; Yan, D.; Hudson, A.; Barnes, M.; MacBean, N.; Fox, A. M.; Litvak, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing provides unmatched spatiotemporal information on multiple facets of vegetation dynamics including seasonal to interannual total photosynthesis, termed gross primary productivity (GPP). Yet, our understanding of the relationship between GPP and remote sensing observations - and how this relationship changes with scale, biophysical constraint, vegetation type, etc. - remains limited. This knowledge gap is especially apparent for dryland ecosystems, which have high spatial and temporal variability and are under-represented by long-term, continuous field measurements. Here, utilizing a new synthesis of eddy covariance flux tower data for southwestern North America, we present a first assessment of the ability of novel satellite remote sensing vegetation proxies to accurately capture seasonal to interannual GPP dynamics across the region. We evaluate the greenness-based Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and emerging proxies linked to plant physiological function, Solar-Induced Fluorescence (SIF) and Photochemical Reflectivity Index (PRI). We find that SIF observations more consistently correlate with seasonal GPP dynamics (R = 0.90) compared to EVI (R = 0.85) and PRI (R = 0.78). More, we find that SIF observations are also more sensitive to interannual GPP variability (linear slope = 0.80) relative to EVI (linear slope = 0.63) and PRI (linear slope = 0.35). This is likely due to increased sensitivity of SIF to GPP during periods of decoupling between greenness and photosynthesis due to water-limitation / stomatal closure. Conversely, EVI and PRI observations better capture spatial GPP variability between flux tower sites. These results suggest that combinations of these independent vegetation growth proxies could yield synergistic improvements in satellite-based GPP estimates.

  7. Estimating Diurnal Courses of Gross Primary Production for Maize: A Comparison of Sun-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Light-Use Efficiency and Process-Based Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianxiang Cui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurately quantifying gross primary production (GPP is of vital importance to understanding the global carbon cycle. Light-use efficiency (LUE models and process-based models have been widely used to estimate GPP at different spatial and temporal scales. However, large uncertainties remain in quantifying GPP, especially for croplands. Recently, remote measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF have provided a new perspective to assess actual levels of plant photosynthesis. In the presented study, we evaluated the performance of three approaches, including the LUE-based multi-source data synergized quantitative (MuSyQ GPP algorithm, the process-based boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS model, and the SIF-based statistical model, in estimating the diurnal courses of GPP at a maize site in Zhangye, China. A field campaign was conducted to acquire synchronous far-red SIF (SIF760 observations and flux tower-based GPP measurements. Our results showed that both SIF760 and GPP were linearly correlated with APAR, and the SIF760-GPP relationship was adequately characterized using a linear function. The evaluation of the modeled GPP against the GPP measured from the tower demonstrated that all three approaches provided reasonable estimates, with R2 values of 0.702, 0.867, and 0.667 and RMSE values of 0.247, 0.153, and 0.236 mg m−2 s−1 for the MuSyQ-GPP, BEPS and SIF models, respectively. This study indicated that the BEPS model simulated the GPP best due to its efficiency in describing the underlying physiological processes of sunlit and shaded leaves. The MuSyQ-GPP model was limited by its simplification of some critical ecological processes and its weakness in characterizing the contribution of shaded leaves. The SIF760-based model demonstrated a relatively limited accuracy but showed its potential in modeling GPP without dependency on climate inputs in short-term studies.

  8. Characterizing uncertainties in recent trends of global terrestrial net primary production through ensemble modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.; Hashimoto, H.; Ganguly, S.; Votava, P.; Nemani, R. R.; Myneni, R. B.

    2010-12-01

    Large uncertainties exist in our understanding of the trends and variability in global net primary production (NPP) and its controls. This study attempts to address this question through a multi-model ensemble experiment. In particular, we drive ecosystem models including CASA, LPJ, Biome-BGC, TOPS-BGC, and BEAMS with a long-term climate dataset (i.e., CRU-NCEP) to estimate global NPP from 1901 to 2009 at a spatial resolution of 0.5 x 0.5 degree. We calculate the trends of simulated NPP during different time periods and test their sensitivities to climate variables of solar radiation, air temperature, precipitation, vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and atmospheric CO2 levels. The results indicate a large diversity among the simulated NPP trends over the past 50 years, ranging from nearly no trend to an increasing trend of ~0.1 PgC/yr. Spatial patterns of the NPP generally show positive trends in boreal forests, induced mainly by increasing temperatures in these regions; they also show negative trends in the tropics, although the spatial patterns are more diverse. These diverse trends result from different climatic sensitivities of NPP among the tested models. Depending the ecological processes (e.g., photosynthesis or respiration) a model emphasizes, it can be more or less responsive to changes in solar radiation, temperatures, water, or atmospheric CO2 levels. Overall, these results highlight the limit of current ecosystem models in simulating NPP, which cannot be easily observed. They suggest that the traditional single-model approach is not ideal for characterizing trends and variability in global carbon cycling.

  9. NM Gross Receipts Baseline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  10. Classification and multivariate analysis of differences in gross primary production at different elevations using biome-bgc in the páramos, ecuadorian andean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Minaya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gross primary production (GPP in climate change studies with multi- species and elevation variables are difficult to measure and simulate. Models tend to provide a representation of dynamic process through long-term analysis by using generalized parameterizations. Even, current approaches of modelling do not contemplate easily the variation of GPP at different elevations for different vegetation types in regions like páramos, mainly due to data unavailability. In these models information from cells is commonly averaged, and therefore average elevation, ecophysiology of vegetation, as well as other parameters is generalized. The vegetation model BIOME- BGC was applied to the Ecuadorian Andean region for elevations greater than 4000 masl with the presence of typical vegetation of páramo for 10 years of simulation (period 2000-2009. An estimation of the difference of GPP obtained using a generalized altitude and predominant type of vegetation could lead to a better estimation of the uncertainty in the magnitude of the errors in global climate models. This research explores GPP from 3 different altitudes and 3 vegetation types against 2 main climate drivers (Short Wave Radiation and Vapor Pressure Deficit. Since it is important to measure the possible errors or difference in the use of averaged meteorological and ecophysiological data, here we present a multivariate analysis of the dynamic difference of GPP in time, relative to an altitude and type of vegetation. A copula multivariable model allows us to identify and classify the changes in GPP per type of vegetation and altitude. The Frank copula model of joint distributions was our best fit between GPP and climate drivers and it allowed us to understand better the dependency of the variables. These results can explore extreme situations where averaged simplified approaches could mislead. The change of GPP over time is essential for future climate scenarios of the ecosystem storage and release

  11. Spatial and temporal shifts in gross primary productivity, respiration, and nutrient concentrations in urban streams impacted by wastewater treatment plant effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, S. H.; Toran, L.

    2017-12-01

    Impacts of wastewater treatment plant effluent on nutrient retention and stream productivity are highly varied. The working theory has been that large pulses of nutrients from plants may hinder in-stream nutrient retention. We evaluated nitrate, total dissolved phosphorus, and dissolved oxygen in Wissahickon Creek, an urban third-order stream in Montgomery and Philadelphia counties, PA, that receives effluent from four wastewater treatment plants. Wastewater treatment plant effluent had nitrate concentrations of 15-30 mg N/L and total dissolved phosphorus of 0.3 to 1.8 mg/L. Seasonal longitudinal water quality samples showed nitrate concentrations were highest in the fall, peaking at 22 mg N/L, due to low baseflow, but total dissolved phosphorous concentrations were highest in the spring, reaching 0.6 mg/L. Diurnal dissolved oxygen patterns above and below one of the treatment plants provided estimates of gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER). A site 1 km below effluent discharge had higher GPP in April (80 g O2 m-2 d-1) than the site above the plant (28 g O2 m-2 d-1). The pulse in productivity did not continue downstream, as the site 3 km below the plant had GPP of only 12 g O2 m-2 d-1. Productivity fell in June to 1-2 g O2 m-2 d-1 and the differences in productivity above and below plants were minimal. Ecosystem respiration followed a similar pattern in April, increasing from -17 g O2 m-2 d-1 above the plant to -47 g O2 m-2 d-1 1 km below the plant, then decreasing to -8 g O2 m-2 d-1 3 km below the plant. Respiration dropped to -3 g O2 m-2 d-1 above the plant in June but only fell to -9 to -10 g O2 m-2 d-1 at the two downstream sites. These findings indicate that large nutrient pulses from wastewater treatment plants spur productivity and respiration, but that these increases may be strongly seasonally dependent. Examining in-stream productivity and respiration is critical in wastewater impacted streams to understanding the seasonal and

  12. Evaluating the relationships between solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence from Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 and gross primary productivity from eddy covariance flux towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Xiao, J.; He, B.

    2017-12-01

    Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) opens a new perspective on the monitoring of vegetation photosynthesis from space, and has been recently used to estimate gross primary productivity (GPP). However, previous studies on SIF were mainly based on satellite observations from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2), and the evaluation of these coarse-resolution SIF measurements using GPP derived from eddy covariance (EC) flux towers has been hindered by the scale mismatch between satellite and tower footprints. We use new far-red SIF observations from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) satellite with much finer spatial resolution and GPP data from EC flux towers from 2014 to 2016 to examine the relationship between GPP and SIF for temperate forests. The OCO-2 SIF tracked tower GPP fairly well, and had strong correlation with tower GPP at both retrieval bands (757nm and 771nm) and both instantaneous (mid-day) and daily timescales. Daily SIF at 757nm (SIF757) exhibited much stronger correlation with tower GPP compared to MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from either Terra or Aqua and had a similarly strong relationship as EVI based on the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) corrected reflectance product (Terra+Aqua). Absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) explained 85% of the variance in SIF757, while the product of APAR and two environmental scalars - fTmin and fVPD (representing minimum temperature stress and water stress) explained slightly higher variance (92%) in SIF757. This suggests that SIF mainly depends on APAR and also contains information on light use efficiency (LUE) reflecting environmental stresses and physiological or biochemical variations of vegetation. The hyperbolic model based on SIF757 estimated GPP well (R2=0.81, pmodel - the MODSI GPP algorithm. Our findings demonstrate the strong

  13. Gross primary production of a semiarid grassland is enhanced by six years of exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2, warming, and irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, E.; Ogle, K.; Peltier, D.; Williams, D. G.; Pendall, E.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this study was to quantify interannual variation of gross primary production (GPP) and evaluate potential drivers of GPP with global change using the Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment (PHACE) experiment in semiarid grassland in southeastern Wyoming. PHACE consists of the treatments: control, warming only, elevated CO2 (eCO2) only, eCO2 and warming, and irrigation only. We expected that GPP would be most strongly influenced by interannual variability in precipitation under all PHACE treatments, soil water availability under eCO2, and nitrogen availability. GPP data were obtained from paired measurements of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and ecosystem respiration (Reco; GPP = Reco - NEE) made on 2-4 week intervals over six growing seasons (2007-2012). Soil temperature (T), soil water content (SWC), vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were continuously recorded at the plot (T, SWC) and site (VPD, PAR) scales. Annual, plot-level aboveground plant nitrogen content (N) was measured during peak biomass. We fit a non-linear light-response model to the GPP data within a Bayesian framework, and modeled the maximum GPP rate (Gmax) and canopy light-use efficiency (Q) as functions of N and current and antecedent SWC, T, and VPD. The model fit the GPP data well (R2 = 0.64), and regardless of the PHACE treatment the most important drivers of GPP were N (for Gmax), VPD (Gmax and Q), antecedent T (Gmax), and antecedent VPD (Q). Model simulations predicted that annual GPP increased on average by about 16% with eCO2, 14% with warming, 12% with eCO2 and warming, and 23% with irrigation. For four of the six years, annual GPP was significantly affected by either eCO2 alone or when combined with warming. The increase in annual GPP under irrigation was similar to the increase under eCO2 during a dry year (2012), but irrigation stimulated GPP to a greater degree than eCO2 during wet years (2008, 2009). Hence, increases in GPP under eCO2

  14. Gross National Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giri, Krishna Prasad; Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced...... of Gross National Happiness and Educating for Gross National happiness....

  15. Gross Sales Tax Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data is captured directly from the MS Department of Revenue and specific to the City of Jackson. It is compiled from Gross Sales Tax reported by taxpayers each...

  16. Loovkirjutamist õpetab Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    T.S. Elioti luulepreemia laureaat Philip Gross on Tallinna Ülikooli talvekooli rahvusvahelise kursuse "Poetry: A Conversation between Words and Silence" läbiviija. Oma seminarides keskendub ta lisaks loovkirjutamisele ka loova lugemise vajadusele

  17. Comparison of imaging-based gross tumor volume and pathological volume determined by whole-mount serial sections in primary cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Y

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ying Zhang,1,* Jing Hu,1,* Jianping Li,1 Ning Wang,1 Weiwei Li,1 Yongchun Zhou,1 Junyue Liu,1 Lichun Wei,1 Mei Shi,1 Shengjun Wang,2 Jing Wang,2 Xia Li,3 Wanling Ma4 1Department of Radiation Oncology, 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, 3Department of Pathology, 4Department of Radiology, Xijing Hospital, Xi'an, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workObjective: To investigate the accuracy of imaging-based gross tumor volume (GTV compared with pathological volume in cervical cancer.Methods: Ten patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I–II cervical cancer were eligible for investigation and underwent surgery in this study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET/computed tomography (CT scans were taken the day before surgery. The GTVs under MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT (GTV-MRI, GTV-PET, GTV-CT were calculated automatically by Eclipse treatment-planning systems. Specimens of excised uterine cervix and cervical cancer were consecutively sliced and divided into whole-mount serial sections. The tumor border of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections was outlined under a microscope by an experienced pathologist. GTV through pathological image (GTV-path was calculated with Adobe Photoshop.Results: The GTVs (average ± standard deviation delineated and calculated under CT, MRI, PET, and histopathological sections were 19.41 ± 11.96 cm3, 12.66 ± 10.53 cm3, 11.07 ± 9.44 cm3, and 10.79 ± 8.71 cm3, respectively. The volume of GTV-CT or GTV-MR was bigger than GTV-path, and the difference was statistically significant (P 0.05. Spearman correlation analysis showed that GTV-CT, GTV-MRI, and GTV-PET were significantly correlated with GTV-path (P < 0.01. There was no significant difference in the lesion coverage factor among the three modalities.Conclusion: The present study showed that GTV defined under 40% of maximum standardized

  18. Terrestrial water fluxes dominated by transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasechko, Scott; Sharp, Zachary D; Gibson, John J; Birks, S Jean; Yi, Yi; Fawcett, Peter J

    2013-04-18

    Renewable fresh water over continents has input from precipitation and losses to the atmosphere through evaporation and transpiration. Global-scale estimates of transpiration from climate models are poorly constrained owing to large uncertainties in stomatal conductance and the lack of catchment-scale measurements required for model calibration, resulting in a range of predictions spanning 20 to 65 per cent of total terrestrial evapotranspiration (14,000 to 41,000 km(3) per year) (refs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5). Here we use the distinct isotope effects of transpiration and evaporation to show that transpiration is by far the largest water flux from Earth's continents, representing 80 to 90 per cent of terrestrial evapotranspiration. On the basis of our analysis of a global data set of large lakes and rivers, we conclude that transpiration recycles 62,000 ± 8,000 km(3) of water per year to the atmosphere, using half of all solar energy absorbed by land surfaces in the process. We also calculate CO2 uptake by terrestrial vegetation by connecting transpiration losses to carbon assimilation using water-use efficiency ratios of plants, and show the global gross primary productivity to be 129 ± 32 gigatonnes of carbon per year, which agrees, within the uncertainty, with previous estimates. The dominance of transpiration water fluxes in continental evapotranspiration suggests that, from the point of view of water resource forecasting, climate model development should prioritize improvements in simulations of biological fluxes rather than physical (evaporation) fluxes.

  19. Small global effect on terrestrial net primary production due to increased fossil fuel aerosol emissions from East Asia during the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Michael; Rap, Alex; Reddington, Carly; Spracklen, Dominick; Buermann, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The global terrestrial carbon sink has increased since the start of this century at a time of rapidly growing carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning. Here we test the hypothesis that increases in atmospheric aerosols from fossil fuel burning have increased the diffuse fraction of incoming solar radiation and the efficiency of photosynthesis leading to increased plant carbon uptake. Using a combination of atmospheric and biospheric models, we find that changes in diffuse light associated with fossil fuel aerosol emission accounts for only 2.8% of the increase in global net primary production (1.221 PgC/yr) over the study period 1998 to 2007. This relatively small global signal is however a result of large regional compensations. Over East Asia, the strong increase in fossil fuel emissions contributed nearly 70% of the increased plant carbon uptake (21 TgC/yr), whereas the declining fossil fuel aerosol emissions in Europe and North America contributed negatively (-16% and -54%, respectively) to increased plant carbon uptake. At global scale, we also find the CO2 fertilization effect on photosynthesis to be the dominant driver of increased plant carbon uptake, in line with previous studies. These results suggest that further research into alternative mechanisms by which fossil fuel emissions could increase carbon uptake, such as nitrogen deposition and carbon-nitrogen interactions, is required to better understand a potential link between the recent changes in fossil fuel emissions and terrestrial carbon uptake.

  20. Pushing the envelope: laparoscopy and primary anastomosis are technically feasible in stable patients with Hinchey IV perforated acute diverticulitis and gross faeculent peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Saverio, Salomone; Vennix, Sandra; Birindelli, Arianna; Weber, Dieter; Lombardi, Raffaele; Mandrioli, Matteo; Tarasconi, Antonio; Bemelman, Willem A

    2016-12-01

    Modern management of severe acute complicated diverticulitis continues to evolve towards more conservative and minimally invasive strategies. Although open sigmoid colectomy with end colostomy remains the most commonly used procedure for the treatment of perforated diverticulitis with purulent/faeculent peritonitis, recent major advances challenged this traditional approach, including the increasing attitude towards primary anastomosis as an alternative to end colostomy and use of laparoscopic approach for urgent colectomy. Provided an accurate patients selection, having the necessary haemodynamic stability, pneumoperitoneum is established with open Hasson technique and diagnostic laparoscopy is performed. If faeculent peritonitis (Hinchey IV perforated diverticulitis) is found, laparoscopy can be continued and a further three working ports are placed using bladeless trocars, as in traditional laparoscopic sigmoidectomy, with the addition of fourth trocar in left flank. The feacal matter is aspirated either with large-size suction devices or, in case of free solid stools, these can be removed with novel application of tight sealing endobags, which can be used for scooping the feacal content out and for its protected retrieval. After decontamination, a sigmoid colectomy is performed in the traditional laparoscopic fashion. The sigmoid is fully mobilised from the retroperitoneum, and mesocolon is divided up to the origin of left colic vessels. Whenever mesentery has extremely inflamed and thickened oedematous tissues, an endostapler with vascular load can be used to avoid vascular selective ligatures. Splenic flexure should be appropriately mobilised. The specimen is extracted through mini-Pfannenstiel incision with muscle splitting technique. Transanal colo-rectal anastomosis is fashioned. Air-leak test must be performed and drains placed where appropriate. The video shows operative technique for a single-stage, entirely laparoscopic, washout and sigmoid colectomy

  1. Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Variability [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Baldocchi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A growing literature is reporting on how the terrestrial carbon cycle is experiencing year-to-year variability because of climate anomalies and trends caused by global change. As CO2 concentration records in the atmosphere exceed 50 years and as satellite records reach over 30 years in length, we are becoming better able to address carbon cycle variability and trends. Here we review how variable the carbon cycle is, how large the trends in its gross and net fluxes are, and how well the signal can be separated from noise. We explore mechanisms that explain year-to-year variability and trends by deconstructing the global carbon budget. The CO2 concentration record is detecting a significant increase in the seasonal amplitude between 1958 and now. Inferential methods provide a variety of explanations for this result, but a conclusive attribution remains elusive. Scientists have reported that this trend is a consequence of the greening of the biosphere, stronger northern latitude photosynthesis, more photosynthesis by semi-arid ecosystems, agriculture and the green revolution, tropical temperature anomalies, or increased winter respiration. At the global scale, variability in the terrestrial carbon cycle can be due to changes in constituent fluxes, gross primary productivity, plant respiration and heterotrophic (microbial respiration, and losses due to fire, land use change, soil erosion, or harvesting. It remains controversial whether or not there is a significant trend in global primary productivity (due to rising CO2, temperature, nitrogen deposition, changing land use, and preponderance of wet and dry regions. The degree to which year-to-year variability in temperature and precipitation anomalies affect global primary productivity also remains uncertain. For perspective, interannual variability in global gross primary productivity is relatively small (on the order of 2 Pg-C y-1 with respect to a large and uncertain background (123 +/- 4 Pg-C y-1

  2. Estimating regional terrestrial carbon fluxes for the Australian continent using a multiple-constraint approach. I. Using remotely sensed data and ecological observations of net primary production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Ping Wang; Barrett, Damian J.

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a modelling framework that synthesizes various types of field measurements at different spatial and temporal scales. We used this modelling framework to estimate monthly means and their standard deviations of gross photosynthesis, total ecosystem production, net primary production (NPP) and net ecosystem production (NEP) for eight regions of the Australian continent between 1990 and 1998. Annual mean NPP of the Australian continent varied between 800 and 1100 Mt C/yr between 1990 and 1998, with a coefficient of variation that is defined as the ratio of standard deviation and mean between 0.24 and 0.34. The seasonal variation of NPP for the whole continent varied between 50 and 110 Mt C/month with two maxima, one in the autumn and another in the spring. NEP was most negative in the winter (a carbon sink) and was most positive (a carbon source) in the summer. However, the coefficient of variation of monthly mean NEP was very large (> 4), and consequently confidence in the predicted net carbon fluxes for any month in the period 1990-1998 for the whole continent was very low. A companion paper will apply atmospheric inverse technique to measurements of CO 2 concentration to further constrain the continental carbon cycle and reduce uncertainty in estimated mean monthly carbon fluxes

  3. Reliability ensemble averaging of 21st century projections of terrestrial net primary productivity reduces global and regional uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exbrayat, Jean-François; Bloom, A. Anthony; Falloon, Pete; Ito, Akihiko; Smallman, T. Luke; Williams, Mathew

    2018-02-01

    Multi-model averaging techniques provide opportunities to extract additional information from large ensembles of simulations. In particular, present-day model skill can be used to evaluate their potential performance in future climate simulations. Multi-model averaging methods have been used extensively in climate and hydrological sciences, but they have not been used to constrain projected plant productivity responses to climate change, which is a major uncertainty in Earth system modelling. Here, we use three global observationally orientated estimates of current net primary productivity (NPP) to perform a reliability ensemble averaging (REA) method using 30 global simulations of the 21st century change in NPP based on the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) business as usual emissions scenario. We find that the three REA methods support an increase in global NPP by the end of the 21st century (2095-2099) compared to 2001-2005, which is 2-3 % stronger than the ensemble ISIMIP mean value of 24.2 Pg C y-1. Using REA also leads to a 45-68 % reduction in the global uncertainty of 21st century NPP projection, which strengthens confidence in the resilience of the CO2 fertilization effect to climate change. This reduction in uncertainty is especially clear for boreal ecosystems although it may be an artefact due to the lack of representation of nutrient limitations on NPP in most models. Conversely, the large uncertainty that remains on the sign of the response of NPP in semi-arid regions points to the need for better observations and model development in these regions.

  4. Gross decontamination experiment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment

  5. Gross xenon stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewins, J.D.; Wilson, P.P.H.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of xenon in thermal reactors on steady operation is generally destabilizing. Illustrating this involves the study of appropriate transfer functions, which may be conveniently displayed in three ways: as Bode, Nyquist, and root-locus diagrams. The three forms allow different aspects to be highlighted. These are illustrated for the effect of xenon with allowance not only for the stabilizing effect of the direct yield in fission but also to show the consequences of neglecting the time dependence due to the thermal capacity of the reactor. With careful interpretation, all these forms give an interpretation of stability that is consistent with direct evaluation and promote the understanding of the onset of gross oscillations in power

  6. Gross decontamination experiment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  7. A Phase II Comparative Study of Gross Tumor Volume Definition With or Without PET/CT Fusion in Dosimetric Planning for Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC): Primary Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0515

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, Jeffrey; Bae, Kyounghwa; Choi, Noah; Forster, Ken; Siegel, Barry A.; Brunetti, Jacqueline; Purdy, James; Faria, Sergio; Vu, Toni; Thorstad, Wade; Choy, Hak

    2012-01-01

    Background: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0515 is a Phase II prospective trial designed to quantify the impact of positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) compared with CT alone on radiation treatment plans (RTPs) and to determine the rate of elective nodal failure for PET/CT-derived volumes. Methods: Each enrolled patient underwent definitive radiation therapy for non–small-cell lung cancer (≥60 Gy) and had two RTP datasets generated: gross tumor volume (GTV) derived with CT alone and with PET/CT. Patients received treatment using the PET/CT-derived plan. The primary end point, the impact of PET/CT fusion on treatment plans was measured by differences of the following variables for each patient: GTV, number of involved nodes, nodal station, mean lung dose (MLD), volume of lung exceeding 20 Gy (V20), and mean esophageal dose (MED). Regional failure rate was a secondary end point. The nonparametric Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test was used with Bonferroni adjustment for an overall significance level of 0.05. Results: RTOG 0515 accrued 52 patients, 47 of whom are evaluable. The follow-up time for all patients is 12.9 months (2.7–22.2). Tumor staging was as follows: II = 6%; IIIA = 40%; and IIIB = 54%. The GTV was statistically significantly smaller for PET/CT-derived volumes (98.7 vs. 86.2 mL; p < 0.0001). MLDs for PET/CT plans were slightly lower (19 vs. 17.8 Gy; p = 0.06). There was no significant difference in the number of involved nodes (2.1 vs. 2.4), V20 (32% vs. 30.8%), or MED (28.7 vs. 27.1 Gy). Nodal contours were altered by PET/CT for 51% of patients. One patient (2%) has developed an elective nodal failure. Conclusions: PET/CT-derived tumor volumes were smaller than those derived by CT alone. PET/CT changed nodal GTV contours in 51% of patients. The elective nodal failure rate for GTVs derived by PET/CT is quite low, supporting the RTOG standard of limiting the target volume to the primary tumor and involved nodes.

  8. [Perissodactyla: the primary structure of hemoglobins from the lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris): glutamic acid in position 2 of the beta chains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, G; Braunitzer, G

    1984-09-01

    The hemoglobins from a lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) were analysed and the complete primary structure is described. The globin chains were separated on CM cellulose column in 8M urea and the amino-acid sequences were determined in the liquid phase sequenator. The results show that globin consists of two alpha chains (alpha I and alpha II) and beta major and beta minor components. The alpha chains differ only at one position: alpha I contains aspartic acid and alpha II glycine. The beta chains are heterogeneous: aspartic and glutamic acid were found at position beta 21 and beta 73 of the beta major components and asparagine and serine at position beta 139. In the beta minor components four positions were found with more than one amino acid, namely beta 2, beta 4, beta 6 and beta 56. The sequences are compared with those of man, horse and rhinoceros. Four residues of horse methemoglobin, which are involved in the alpha 1 beta 1 contacts are substituted in tapir hemoglobins. In the alpha chains: alpha 107(G14)Ser----Val, alpha 111-(G18) Val----Leu, alpha 115(GH3) Asn----Asp or Gly; in the beta chains: beta 116(G18) Arg----Gln. The amino acid at beta 2 of the major components is glutamic acid while glutamine and histidine are found in the minor components. Although glutamic acid, a binding site for ATP, does not interact with 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate, glutamine and histidine in the minor components are responsible for the slight effect of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate on tapir hemoglobin.

  9. Terrestrial magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, D.C.; Agarwal, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a review about terrestrial magnetosphere. During the last few years considerable investigation have been carried out about the properties of Solar Wind and its interaction with planetary magnetic fields. It is therefore of high importance to accumulate all the investigations in a comprehensive form. The paper reviews the property of earth's magnetosphere, magnetosheath, magneto pause, polar cusps, bow shook and plasma sheath. (author)

  10. Broad-Scale Comparison of Photosynthesis in Terrestrial and Aquatic Plant Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Krause-Jensen, D.

    1997-01-01

    Comparisons of photosynthesis in terrestrial and aquatic habitats have been impaired by differences in methods and time-scales of measurements. We compiled information on gross photosynthesis at high irradiance and photosynthetic efficiency at low irradiance from 109 published terrestrial studies...... communities probably due to more efficient light utilization and gas exchange in the terrestrial habitats. By contrast only small differences were found within different aquatic plant communities or within different terrestrial plant communities....... of forests, grasslands and crops and 319 aquatic studies of phytoplankton, macrophyte and attached microalgal communities to test if specific differences existed between the communities. Maximum gross photosynthesis and photosynthetic efficiency were systematically higher in terrestrial than in aquatic...

  11. Pricing, renegotiation and gross inequities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkham, J.S. (Van Cott, Bagley, Cornwall McCarthy, Salt Lake City, UT (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Reviews pricing, renegotiation and gross inequity provisions of coal supply agreements in order to provide practical assistance to an attorney called upon to draft in written form the intent of buyer and seller. 26 refs.

  12. Estimation of Global 1km-grid Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Part I: Developing Inputs and Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai, T.; Murakami, K.; Kato, S.; Matsunaga, T.; Saigusa, N.; Hiraki, K.

    2015-12-01

    Global terrestrial carbon cycle largely depends on a spatial pattern in land cover type, which is heterogeneously-distributed over regional and global scales. However, most studies, which aimed at the estimation of carbon exchanges between ecosystem and atmosphere, remained within several tens of kilometers grid spatial resolution, and the results have not been enough to understand the detailed pattern of carbon exchanges based on ecological community. Improving the sophistication of spatial resolution is obviously necessary to enhance the accuracy of carbon exchanges. Moreover, the improvement may contribute to global warming awareness, policy makers and other social activities. In this study, we show global terrestrial carbon exchanges (net ecosystem production, net primary production, and gross primary production) with 1km-grid resolution. As methodology for computing the exchanges, we 1) developed a global 1km-grid climate and satellite dataset based on the approach in Setoyama and Sasai (2013); 2) used the satellite-driven biosphere model (Biosphere model integrating Eco-physiological And Mechanistic approaches using Satellite data: BEAMS) (Sasai et al., 2005, 2007, 2011); 3) simulated the carbon exchanges by using the new dataset and BEAMS by the use of a supercomputer that includes 1280 CPU and 320 GPGPU cores (GOSAT RCF of NIES). As a result, we could develop a global uniform system for realistically estimating terrestrial carbon exchange, and evaluate net ecosystem production in each community level; leading to obtain highly detailed understanding of terrestrial carbon exchanges.

  13. Intercomparison of terrestrial carbon fluxes and carbon use efficiency simulated by CMIP5 Earth System Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongmin; Lee, Myong-In; Jeong, Su-Jong; Im, Jungho; Cha, Dong Hyun; Lee, Sanggyun

    2017-12-01

    This study compares historical simulations of the terrestrial carbon cycle produced by 10 Earth System Models (ESMs) that participated in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Using MODIS satellite estimates, this study validates the simulation of gross primary production (GPP), net primary production (NPP), and carbon use efficiency (CUE), which depend on plant function types (PFTs). The models show noticeable deficiencies compared to the MODIS data in the simulation of the spatial patterns of GPP and NPP and large differences among the simulations, although the multi-model ensemble (MME) mean provides a realistic global mean value and spatial distributions. The larger model spreads in GPP and NPP compared to those of surface temperature and precipitation suggest that the differences among simulations in terms of the terrestrial carbon cycle are largely due to uncertainties in the parameterization of terrestrial carbon fluxes by vegetation. The models also exhibit large spatial differences in their simulated CUE values and at locations where the dominant PFT changes, primarily due to differences in the parameterizations. While the MME-simulated CUE values show a strong dependence on surface temperatures, the observed CUE values from MODIS show greater complexity, as well as non-linear sensitivity. This leads to the overall underestimation of CUE using most of the PFTs incorporated into current ESMs. The results of this comparison suggest that more careful and extensive validation is needed to improve the terrestrial carbon cycle in terms of ecosystem-level processes.

  14. Estimation of Global 1km-grid Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Part II: Evaluations and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, K.; Sasai, T.; Kato, S.; Niwa, Y.; Saito, M.; Takagi, H.; Matsunaga, T.; Hiraki, K.; Maksyutov, S. S.; Yokota, T.

    2015-12-01

    Global terrestrial carbon cycle largely depends on a spatial pattern in land cover type, which is heterogeneously-distributed over regional and global scales. Many studies have been trying to reveal distribution of carbon exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and atmosphere for understanding global carbon cycle dynamics by using terrestrial biosphere models, satellite data, inventory data, and so on. However, most studies remained within several tens of kilometers grid spatial resolution, and the results have not been enough to understand the detailed pattern of carbon exchanges based on ecological community and to evaluate the carbon stocks by forest ecosystems in each countries. Improving the sophistication of spatial resolution is obviously necessary to enhance the accuracy of carbon exchanges. Moreover, the improvement may contribute to global warming awareness, policy makers and other social activities. We show global terrestrial carbon exchanges (net ecosystem production, net primary production, and gross primary production) with 1km-grid resolution. The methodology for these estimations are shown in the 2015 AGU FM poster "Estimation of Global 1km-grid Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Part I: Developing Inputs and Modelling". In this study, we evaluated the carbon exchanges in various regions with other approaches. We used the satellite-driven biosphere model (BEAMS) as our estimations, GOSAT L4A CO2 flux data, NEP retrieved by NICAM and CarbonTracer2013 flux data, for period from Jun 2001 to Dec 2012. The temporal patterns for this period were indicated similar trends between BEAMS, GOSAT, NICAM, and CT2013 in many sub-continental regions. Then, we estimated the terrestrial carbon exchanges in each countries, and could indicated the temporal patterns of the exchanges in large carbon stock regions.Global terrestrial carbon cycle largely depends on a spatial pattern of land cover type, which is heterogeneously-distributed over regional and global scales. Many

  15. Sequential optimization of a terrestrial biosphere model constrained by multiple satellite based products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, K.; Kondo, M.; Wang, W.; Hashimoto, H.; Nemani, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    Various satellite-based spatial products such as evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary productivity (GPP) are now produced by integration of ground and satellite observations. Effective use of these multiple satellite-based products in terrestrial biosphere models is an important step toward better understanding of terrestrial carbon and water cycles. However, due to the complexity of terrestrial biosphere models with large number of model parameters, the application of these spatial data sets in terrestrial biosphere models is difficult. In this study, we established an effective but simple framework to refine a terrestrial biosphere model, Biome-BGC, using multiple satellite-based products as constraints. We tested the framework in the monsoon Asia region covered by AsiaFlux observations. The framework is based on the hierarchical analysis (Wang et al. 2009) with model parameter optimization constrained by satellite-based spatial data. The Biome-BGC model is separated into several tiers to minimize the freedom of model parameter selections and maximize the independency from the whole model. For example, the snow sub-model is first optimized using MODIS snow cover product, followed by soil water sub-model optimized by satellite-based ET (estimated by an empirical upscaling method; Support Vector Regression (SVR) method; Yang et al. 2007), photosynthesis model optimized by satellite-based GPP (based on SVR method), and respiration and residual carbon cycle models optimized by biomass data. As a result of initial assessment, we found that most of default sub-models (e.g. snow, water cycle and carbon cycle) showed large deviations from remote sensing observations. However, these biases were removed by applying the proposed framework. For example, gross primary productivities were initially underestimated in boreal and temperate forest and overestimated in tropical forests. However, the parameter optimization scheme successfully reduced these biases. Our analysis

  16. Terrestrial ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The main effort of the Terrestrial Ecology Division has been redirected to a comprehensive study of the Espiritu Santo Drainage Basin located in northeastern Puerto Rico. The general objective are to provide baseline ecological data for future environmental assessment studies at the local and regional levels, and to provide through an ecosystem approach data for the development of management alternatives for the wise utilization of energy, water, and land resources. The interrelationships among climate, vegetation, soils, and man, and their combined influence upon the hydrologic cycle will be described and evaluated. Environmental management involves planning and decision making, and both require an adequate data base. At present, little is known about the interworkings of a complete, integrated system such as a drainage basin. A literature survey of the main research areas confirmed that, although many individual ecologically oriented studies have been carried out in a tropical environment, few if any provide the data base required for environmental management. In view of rapidly changing socio-economic conditions and natural resources limitations, management urgently requires data from these systems: physical (climatological), biological, and cultural. This integrated drainage basin study has been designed to provide such data. The scope of this program covers the hydrologic cycle as it is affected by the interactions of the physical, biological, and cultural systems

  17. Determination of gross alpha and gross beta in soil around repository facility at Bukit Kledang, Perak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adziz, Mohd Izwan Abdul; Siong, Khoo Kok

    2018-04-01

    Recently, the Long Term Storage Facility (LTSF) in Bukit Kledang, Perak, Malaysia, has been upgraded to repository facility upon the completion of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) process. Thorium waste and contaminated material that may contain some minor amounts of thorium hydroxide were disposed in this facility. This study is conducted to determine the concentrations of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivities in soil samples collected around the repository facility. A total of 12 soil samples were collected consisting 10 samples from around the facility and 2 samples from selected residential area near the facility. In addition, the respective dose rates were measured 5 cm and 1 m above the ground by using survey meter with Geiger Muller (GM) detector and Sodium Iodide (NaI) detector. Soil samples were collected using hand auger and then were taken back to the laboratory for further analysis. Samples were cleaned, dried, pulverized and sieved prior to analysis. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurements were carried out using gas flow proportional counter, Canberra Series 5 XLB - Automatic Low Background Alpha and Beta Counting System. The obtained results show that, the gross alpha and gross beta activity concentration ranged from 1.55 to 5.34 Bq/g with a mean value of 3.47 ± 0.09 Bq/g and 1.64 to 5.78 Bq/g with a mean value of 3.49 ± 0.09 Bq/g, respectively. These results can be used as an additional data to represent terrestrial radioactivity baseline data for Malaysia environment. This estimation will also serve as baseline for detection of any future related activities of contamination especially around the repository facility area.

  18. Investigating impacts of economic growth on the environment using remote sensing tools: A case study of gross domestic product and net primary production in China from 2001 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Naizhuo

    Pursuing sustainable co-development of economy and environment has been established as a basic national policy by the present Chinese government. However, studies regarding actual outcomes of the co-development policy at the whole Chinese scale are still limited. Detecting China's economic growth and changes of environmental quality will not only contribute to evaluation of outcomes of the co-development policy but more importantly is an opportunity to examine the suitability of the IPAT model and improve our understanding of human-environment interactions. The core of the IPAT theory is an equation where I=PxAxT that models human impact on the environment as a function of changes to population (P), affluence ( A), and technology (T). The IPAT theory emphasizes that economic growth will inevitably produce negative impacts on the environment. Thus, if China's environmental quality declined while economic growth occurred, then the IPAT theory will be substantiated. Otherwise, the suitability of the IPAT theory will be called into question and its tenets must be reconsidered. In this dissertation research I selected gross domestic product (GDP) and net primary production (NPP) as indicators to evaluate production of social and ecological systems respectively. The main study objectives are (1) to develop a methodology to facilitate integration of the two indicators derived from demographic data sources and satellite imagery at different geographic scales, (2) to jointly explore changing patterns of China's economic and ecological production (i.e., spatially and temporally coincident patterns of change in GDP and NPP) across different spatial scales, (3) to analyze whether economic growth has produced negative impacts on ecosystem production and whether the impacts correlate to the economic growth, and finally (4) to discuss whether the IPAT theory is suitable for explaining the joint changes of GDP and NPP in China or if it is in need of modification. To fulfill the

  19. Quantum Gross-Pitaevskii Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutho Haegeman, Damian Draxler, Vid Stojevic, J. Ignacio Cirac, Tobias J. Osborne, Frank Verstraete

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a non-commutative generalization of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for one-dimensional quantum gasses and quantum liquids. This generalization is obtained by applying the time-dependent variational principle to the variational manifold of continuous matrix product states. This allows for a full quantum description of many body system ---including entanglement and correlations--- and thus extends significantly beyond the usual mean-field description of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which is known to fail for (quasi one-dimensional systems. By linearizing around a stationary solution, we furthermore derive an associated generalization of the Bogoliubov -- de Gennes equations. This framework is applied to compute the steady state response amplitude to a periodic perturbation of the potential.

  20. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  1. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  2. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  3. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  4. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  5. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  6. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  7. Global variation of carbon use efficiency in terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaolu; Carvalhais, Nuno; Moura, Catarina; Reichstein, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Carbon use efficiency (CUE), defined as the ratio between net primary production (NPP) and gross primary production (GPP), is an emergent property of vegetation that describes its effectiveness in storing carbon (C) and is of significance for understanding C biosphere-atmosphere exchange dynamics. A constant CUE value of 0.5 has been widely used in terrestrial C-cycle models, such as the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford-Approach model, or the Marine Biological Laboratory/Soil Plant-Atmosphere Canopy Model, for regional or global modeling purposes. However, increasing evidence argues that CUE is not constant, but varies with ecosystem types, site fertility, climate, site management and forest age. Hence, the assumption of a constant CUE of 0.5 can produce great uncertainty in estimating global carbon dynamics between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. Here, in order to analyze the global variations in CUE and understand how CUE varies with environmental variables, a global database was constructed based on published data for crops, forests, grasslands, wetlands and tundra ecosystems. In addition to CUE data, were also collected: GPP and NPP; site variables (e.g. climate zone, site management and plant function type); climate variables (e.g. temperature and precipitation); additional carbon fluxes (e.g. soil respiration, autotrophic respiration and heterotrophic respiration); and carbon pools (e.g. stem, leaf and root biomass). Different climate metrics were derived to diagnose seasonal temperature (mean annual temperature, MAT, and maximum temperature, Tmax) and water availability proxies (mean annual precipitation, MAP, and Palmer Drought Severity Index), in order to improve the local representation of environmental variables. Additionally were also included vegetation phenology dynamics as observed by different vegetation indices from the MODIS satellite. The mean CUE of all terrestrial ecosystems was 0.45, 10% lower than the previous assumed constant CUE of 0

  8. Changes in terrestrial CO2 budget in Siberia in the past three decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, K.; Kondo, M.; Ueyama, M.; Ito, A.; Kobayashi, H.; Maksyutov, S. S.; Maki, T.; Nakamura, T.; Niwa, Y.; Patra, P. K.; Saeki, T.; Sato, H.; Sasai, T.; Saigusa, N.; Tian, H.; Yanagi, Y.; Zhang, B.

    2015-12-01

    Siberia is one of the regions where significant warming is proceeding, and the warming might cause changes in terrestrial carbon cycle. We analyzed interannual and decadal changes in terrestrial CO2 fluxes in the regions using multiple data sets, such as empirically estimated carbon fluxes based on multiple eddy-covariance sites (empirical upscaling; Support Vector Regression with AsiaFlux data), satellite-based vegetation index data, multiple terrestrial carbon cycle models from Asia-MIP (e.g. BEAMS, Biome-BGC, SEIB-DGVM, and VISIT), and atmospheric inverse models (e.g. ACTM, JMA, NICAM-TM) for the past 3 decades (1980s, 1990s, and 2000s). First, we checked the consistency in interannual variation of net carbon exchange between empirical upscaling and Asia-MIP model for 2001-2011 period, and found these two estimations show overall consistent interannual variation. Second, we analyzed net carbon exchange form Asia-MIP models and atmospheric inversions for the past three decades, and found persistent increases in terrestrial CO2 sink from two estimates. Magnitudes of estimated terrestrial CO2 sinks are also consistent (e.g. Asia-MIP: 0.2 PgC yr-1 in 1980s and 0.3 PgC yr-1 in 2000s and Inversions: 0.2 PgC yr-1 in 1980s and 0.5 PgC/yr in 2000s). We further analyzed the cause of persistent increases in CO2 uptake in the region using Asia-MIP model outputs, and climate changes (both warming and increases in water availability) and CO2 fertilization plays almost equivalent roles in sink increases. In addition, both gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE) were increased, but increase in GPP was larger than that in RE.

  9. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley

    2016-01-01

    .93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice......Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated...... the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age...

  10. Evaluation of gross radioactivity in foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorer, Oezlem Selcuk; Oeter, Cigdem

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of radiological investigations of food products sampled in the summer and fall of 2011 and 2012 in different parts of Van, Turkey. Gross radioactivity measurements in food products were evaluated. Food items were divided into eight groups: (1) water, (2) fish, (3) cheese products, (4) fruits, (5) vegetables, (6) herbs, (7) walnut and (8) rock salt. The levels of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in all food samples varied widely ranging from 0.070 to 10.885 Bq/g and from 0.132 to 48.285 Bq/g on dry mass basis, respectively. In one sample, gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were found to be relatively high according to the other samples and in all samples, the gross alpha radioactivity was measured lower than the gross beta radioactivity. The gross α and gross β activities were measured by using α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604).

  11. Evaluation of gross radioactivity in foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorer, Oezlem Selcuk; Oeter, Cigdem [Yuzuncu Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-05-15

    The paper presents the results of radiological investigations of food products sampled in the summer and fall of 2011 and 2012 in different parts of Van, Turkey. Gross radioactivity measurements in food products were evaluated. Food items were divided into eight groups: (1) water, (2) fish, (3) cheese products, (4) fruits, (5) vegetables, (6) herbs, (7) walnut and (8) rock salt. The levels of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in all food samples varied widely ranging from 0.070 to 10.885 Bq/g and from 0.132 to 48.285 Bq/g on dry mass basis, respectively. In one sample, gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were found to be relatively high according to the other samples and in all samples, the gross alpha radioactivity was measured lower than the gross beta radioactivity. The gross α and gross β activities were measured by using α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604).

  12. Measures of Gross National Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruut Veenhoven

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Happiness is rising on the political agenda and this calls for measures of how well nations perform in creating great happiness for a great number, analogous to measures of success in creating wealth, such as GDP. Happiness is defined as subjective enjoyment of one’s life as-a-whole and this can be measured using self-reports. Question on happiness are currently used in large scale surveys of the general population in nations. As a result we have now comparable data on happiness in 144 contemporary nations and time-series of 25 years and longer on 11 developed nations. These data can be aggregated in different ways: If the aim is simply greater happiness for a greater number of citizens, Average happiness (AH is an appropriate measure. If the focus is on enduring happiness, it is better to combine average happiness with longevity in an index of Happy Life Years (HLY. If the aim is to reduce disparity among citizens a relevant indicator is the Inequality of Happiness (IH in the nations as measured with the standard deviation. Average and dispersion can also be combined in an index of Inequality-Adjusted Happiness (IAH. Comparison across nations shows sizable differences on all these measures of gross national happiness and these differences correspond with societal characteristics that can be influenced by policy makers, such as freedom and justice. Comparison over time shows major improvement during the last decade.

  13. Recent Changes in Global Photosynthesis and Terrestrial Ecosystem Respiration Constrained From Multiple Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Ciais, Philippe; Wang, Yilong; Yin, Yi; Peng, Shushi; Zhu, Zaichun; Bastos, Ana; Yue, Chao; Ballantyne, Ashley P.; Broquet, Grégoire; Canadell, Josep G.; Cescatti, Alessandro; Chen, Chi; Cooper, Leila; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Le Quéré, Corinne; Myneni, Ranga B.; Piao, Shilong

    2018-01-01

    To assess global carbon cycle variability, we decompose the net land carbon sink into the sum of gross primary productivity (GPP), terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER), and fire emissions and apply a Bayesian framework to constrain these fluxes between 1980 and 2014. The constrained GPP and TER fluxes show an increasing trend of only half of the prior trend simulated by models. From the optimization, we infer that TER increased in parallel with GPP from 1980 to 1990, but then stalled during the cooler periods, in 1990-1994 coincident with the Pinatubo eruption, and during the recent warming hiatus period. After each of these TER stalling periods, TER is found to increase faster than GPP, explaining a relative reduction of the net land sink. These results shed light on decadal variations of GPP and TER and suggest that they exhibit different responses to temperature anomalies over the last 35 years.

  14. Alternative Measure of Wellbeing: Bhutan's Gross National ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There is growing demand for innovative yet rigorous measures of national wellbeing beyond gross domestic product. In 2008, the Centre for Bhutan Studies - Bhutan's main policy research centre - posted data from a preliminary survey of the country's Gross National Happiness (GNH). The Centre for Bhutan Studies ...

  15. Characterization of major histocompatibility complex (MHC DRB exon 2 and DRA exon 3 fragments in a primary terrestrial rabies vector (Procyon lotor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarrah Castillo

    Full Text Available The major histocompatibility complex (MHC presents a unique system to explore links between genetic diversity and pathogens, as diversity within MHC is maintained in part by pathogen driven selection. While the majority of wildlife MHC studies have investigated species that are of conservation concern, here we characterize MHC variation in a common and broadly distributed species, the North American raccoon (Procyon lotor. Raccoons host an array of broadly distributed wildlife diseases (e.g., canine distemper, parvovirus and raccoon rabies virus and present important human health risks as they persist in high densities and in close proximity to humans and livestock. To further explore how genetic variation influences the spread and maintenance of disease in raccoons we characterized a fragment of MHC class II DRA exon 3 (250 bp and DRB exon 2 (228 bp. MHC DRA was found to be functionally monomorphic in the 32 individuals screened; whereas DRB exon 2 revealed 66 unique alleles among the 246 individuals screened. Between two and four alleles were observed in each individual suggesting we were amplifying a duplicated DRB locus. Nucleotide differences between DRB alleles ranged from 1 to 36 bp (0.4-15.8% divergence and translated into 1 to 21 (1.3-27.6% divergence amino acid differences. We detected a significant excess of nonsynonymous substitutions at the peptide binding region (P = 0.005, indicating that DRB exon 2 in raccoons has been influenced by positive selection. These data will form the basis of continued analyses into the spatial and temporal relationship of the raccoon rabies virus and the immunogenetic response in its primary host.

  16. Characterizing Terrestrial Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, V. S.; Lustig-Yaeger, J.; Lincowski, A.; Arney, G. N.; Robinson, T. D.; Schwieterman, E. W.; Deming, L. D.; Tovar, G.

    2017-11-01

    We will provide an overview of the measurements, techniques, and upcoming missions required to characterize terrestrial planet environments and evolution, and search for signs of habitability and life.

  17. Combined climate factors alleviate changes in gross soil nitrogen dynamics in heathlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorsne, Anna-Karin; Rutting, Tobias; Ambus, Per

    2014-01-01

    of exposure to three climate change factors, i.e. warming, elevated CO2 (eCO(2)) and summer drought, applied both in isolation and in combination. By conducting laboratory N-15 tracing experiments we show that warming increased both gross N mineralization and nitrification rates. In contrast, gross......The ongoing climate change affects biogeochemical cycling in terrestrial ecosystems, but the magnitude and direction of this impact is yet unclear. To shed further light on the climate change impact, we investigated alterations in the soil nitrogen (N) cycling in a Danish heathland after 5 years......CO(2). In the full treatment combination, simulating the predicted climate for the year 2075, gross N transformations were only moderately affected compared to control, suggesting a minor alteration of the N cycle due to climate change. Overall, our study confirms the importance of multifactorial field...

  18. NACP Site: Terrestrial Biosphere Model and Aggregated Flux Data in Standard Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides standardized output variables for gross primary productivity (GPP), net ecosystem exchange (NEE), leaf area index (LAI), ecosystem respiration...

  19. NACP Site: Terrestrial Biosphere Model and Aggregated Flux Data in Standard Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides standardized output variables for gross primary productivity (GPP), net ecosystem exchange (NEE), leaf area index (LAI), ecosystem...

  20. Impacts of droughts on carbon sequestration by China's terrestrial ecosystems from 2000 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Ju, W.; Wang, S.; Wu, X.; He, M.; Zhu, G.

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, China's terrestrial ecosystems have experienced frequent droughts. How these droughts have affected carbon sequestration by the terrestrial ecosystems is still unclear. In this study, the process-based Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) model, driven by remotely sensed vegetation parameters, was employed to assess the effects of droughts on net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of terrestrial ecosystems in China from 2000 to 2011. Droughts of differing severity, as indicated by a standard precipitation index (SPI), hit terrestrial ecosystems in China extensively in 2001, 2006, 2009, and 2011. The national total annual NEP exhibited the slight decline of -11.3 Tg C yr-2 during the aforementioned years of extensive droughts. The NEP reduction ranged from 61.1 Tg C yr-1 to 168.8 Tg C yr-1. National and regional total NEP anomalies were correlated with the annual mean SPI, especially in Northwest China, North China, Central China, and Southwest China. The reductions in annual NEP in 2001 and 2011 might have been caused by a larger decrease in annual gross primary productivity (GPP) than in annual ecosystem respiration (ER). The reductions experienced in 2009 might be due to a decrease in annual GPP and an increase in annual ER, while reductions in 2006 could stem from a larger increase in ER than in GPP. The effects of droughts on NEP lagged up to 3-6 months, due to different responses of GPP and ER. In eastern China, where is humid and warm, droughts have predominant and short-term lagged influences on NEP. In western regions, cold and arid, the drought effects on NEP were relatively weaker but prone to lasting longer.

  1. V. Terrestrial vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Pearson; Deborah Finch

    2011-01-01

    Within the Interior West, terrestrial vertebrates do not represent a large number of invasive species relative to invasive weeds, aquatic vertebrates, and invertebrates. However, several invasive terrestrial vertebrate species do cause substantial economic and ecological damage in the U.S. and in this region (Pimental 2000, 2007; Bergman and others 2002; Finch and...

  2. Design of New Complex Detector Used for Gross Beta Measuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Junmin

    2010-01-01

    The level of gross β for radioactive aerosol in the containment of nuclear plants can indicate how serious the radioactive pollution is in the shell, and it can provide evidence which shows whether there is the phenomenon of leak in the boundaries of confined aquifer of the primary coolant circuit equipment.In the process of measuring, the counting of gross β is influenced by γ. In order to avoid the influence of γ, a new method was introduced and a new detector was designed using plastic scintillator as the major detecting component and BGO as the sub-component. Based on distinctive difference of light attenuation time, signal induced in them can be discriminated. γ background in plastic scintillator was subtracted according to the counting of γ in BGO. The functions of absolute detection efficiency were obtained. The simulation for Monte-Carlo method shows that the influence of γ background is decreased about one order of magnitude. (authors)

  3. Variations and trends of terrestrial NPP and its relation to climate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using global terrestrial ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP) data, we validated the simulated multi-model ensemble ..... tion on the solar radiation at six Canadian stations; Solar ... balance have enhanced the terrestrial carbon sink in the.

  4. The Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    We present the most recent data on the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule obtained from the combined BEBC Narrow Band Neon and GGM-PS Freon neutrino/antineutrino experiments. The data for the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule as a function of q 2 suggest a smaller value for the QCD coupling constant parameter Λ than is obtained from the analysis of the higher moments. (author)

  5. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Downs

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98. The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  6. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley; Syhler, Birgit; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  7. Estimating Gross Primary Productivity of a tropical forest ecosystem ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    37

    forest ecosystem over north-east India using LAI and meteorological ... water and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) fluxes between the biosphere and the at- mosphere ..... calculated from these by internal algorithms of LAI-2200 and stored in its in-built ..... 2007). As a result of these enhanced CO2 emission could be observed from.

  8. Assessment of Gross Malnutrition among Primary School Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-28

    Jun 28, 2017 ... with overweight and obesity belonged to upper social class, whereas more underweight ... Department of Paediatrics, Federal Teaching Hospital, .... physical activities as well as quality health education ..... States, Brazil, China and Russia. ... The Nigerian poverty profile 2010 reportReliefweb.int/report/.

  9. Assessment of gross malnutrition among primary school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The socioeconomic class significantly affected the prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity as more subjects with overweight and obesity belonged to upper social class, whereas more underweight subjects belonged to lower social class. Conclusion: Overweight and obesity are emerging in a background of ...

  10. Estimating gross primary productivity of a tropical forest ecosystem ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pramit Kumar Deb Burman

    2017-10-06

    Oct 6, 2017 ... ing model simulations of GPP and its variation at multiple spatial and .... the process-based models require CO2 and H2O data at half-hourly or .... in MatLab. Only the data ..... A global scale simulation for upscaling carbon and ...

  11. Requirement of radiochemical recovery determination for gross alpha and gross beta estimation in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raveendran, Nanda; Rao, D.D.; Hegde, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Presence of radionuclides in drinking water which emits Alpha and Beta particles are the potential sources of internal exposure in drinking water. Gross alpha and gross beta determination in drinking water and packaged drinking water (PDW) as per BIS (Bureau of Indian standards) standards is discussed here. The methods have been tested to account for losses in the radiochemical procedures using radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 226 Ra, 239 Pu, 243 Am, 232 U. The methods have also been validated in an IAEA proficiency test conducted during 2009. Monitoring of gross alpha and gross beta activity observed in drinking water/packaged drinking water from various states of India were within the limits set by BIS. Average radiochemical recoveries of 84% and 63% were obtained for gross α and gross β respectively. (author)

  12. Schistosomiasis and nutritional myopathy in a Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamini, B; Schillhorn van Veen, T W

    1988-10-01

    Gross lesions suggestive of severe hepatoenteropathy and myopathy were noted in a 4.5-yr-old Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris) from a zoo in Michigan (USA). The major microscopic lesions were granulomatous hepatitis and hemorrhagic enteritis associated with non-operculated eggs compatible with those of the Schistosomatidae (Digenea). Skeletal muscle and tongue contained foci of severe acute myodegeneration and necrosis. The hepatic vitamin E value of 1.3 ppm dry weight was considered critically low.

  13. Introduced Terrestrial Species (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted future potential distributions of terrestrial plants, animals, and pathogens non-native to the Middle-Atlantic region. These data are...

  14. Strategies for monitoring terrestrial animals and habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Holthausen; Raymond L. Czaplewski; Don DeLorenzo; Greg Hayward; Winifred B. Kessler; Pat Manley; Kevin S. McKelvey; Douglas S. Powell; Leonard F. Ruggiero; Michael K. Schwartz; Bea Van Horne; Christina D. Vojta

    2005-01-01

    This General Technical Report (GTR) addresses monitoring strategies for terrestrial animals and habitats. It focuses on monitoring associated with National Forest Management Act planning and is intended to apply primarily to monitoring efforts that are broader than individual National Forests. Primary topics covered in the GTR are monitoring requirements; ongoing...

  15. Terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davis-Reddy, Claire

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecoregions Terrestrial Biomes Protected Areas Climate Risk and Vulnerability: A Handbook for Southern Africa | 75 7.2. Non-climatic drivers of ecosystem change 7.2.1. Land-use change, habitat loss and fragmentation Land-use change and landscape... concentrations of endemic plant and animal species, but these mainly occur in areas that are most threatened by human activity. Diverse terrestrial ecosystems in the region include tropical and sub-tropical forests, deserts, savannas, grasslands, mangroves...

  16. Parallel Computing for Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dali; Post, Wilfred M.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Berry, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are a primary component of research on global environmental change. Observational and modeling research on terrestrial ecosystems at the global scale, however, has lagged behind their counterparts for oceanic and atmospheric systems, largely because the unique challenges associated with the tremendous diversity and complexity of terrestrial ecosystems. There are 8 major types of terrestrial ecosystem: tropical rain forest, savannas, deserts, temperate grassland, deciduous forest, coniferous forest, tundra, and chaparral. The carbon cycle is an important mechanism in the coupling of terrestrial ecosystems with climate through biological fluxes of CO 2 . The influence of terrestrial ecosystems on atmospheric CO 2 can be modeled via several means at different timescales. Important processes include plant dynamics, change in land use, as well as ecosystem biogeography. Over the past several decades, many terrestrial ecosystem models (see the 'Model developments' section) have been developed to understand the interactions between terrestrial carbon storage and CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere, as well as the consequences of these interactions. Early TECMs generally adapted simple box-flow exchange models, in which photosynthetic CO 2 uptake and respiratory CO 2 release are simulated in an empirical manner with a small number of vegetation and soil carbon pools. Demands on kinds and amount of information required from global TECMs have grown. Recently, along with the rapid development of parallel computing, spatially explicit TECMs with detailed process based representations of carbon dynamics become attractive, because those models can readily incorporate a variety of additional ecosystem processes (such as dispersal, establishment, growth, mortality etc.) and environmental factors (such as landscape position, pest populations, disturbances, resource manipulations, etc.), and provide information to frame policy options for climate change

  17. New era of satellite chlorophyll fluorescence and soil moisture observations leads to advances in the predictive understanding of global terrestrial coupled carbon-water cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, B.; Xue, Y.; Fisher, J.; Guo, W.

    2017-12-01

    The terrestrial carbon cycle and water cycle are coupled through a multitude of connected processes among soil, roots, leaves, and the atmosphere. The strength and sensitivity of these couplings are not yet well known at the global scale, which contributes to uncertainty in predicting the terrestrial water and carbon budgets. For the first time, we now have synchronous, high fidelity, global-scale satellite observations of critical terrestrial carbon and water cycle components: sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) and soil moisture. We used these observations within the framework of a well-established global terrestrial biosphere model (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model version 2.0, SSiB2) to investigate carbon-water coupling processes. We updated SSiB2 to include a mechanistic representation of SIF and tested the sensitivity of model parameters to improve the simulation of both SIF and soil moisture with the ultimate objective of improving the first-order terrestrial carbon component, gross primary production (GPP). Although several vegetation parameters, such as leaf area index (LAI) and green leaf fraction, improved the simulated SIF, and several soil parameters, such as hydraulic conductivity, improved simulated soil moisture, their effects were mainly limited to their respective cycles. One parameter emerged as the key coupler between the carbon and water cycles: the wilting point. Updates to the wilting point significantly improved the simulations for both soil moisture and SIF, as well as GPP. This study demonstrates the value of synchronous global measurements of the terrestrial carbon and water cycles in improving the understanding of coupled carbon-water cycles.

  18. Gross alpha and gross beta determination in surface and groundwater water by liquid scintillation counting (LSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Ligia S.; Moreira, Rubens M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study has used 40 samples of groundwater and surface water collected at four different sites along the period of one year in Brumadinho and Nova Lima, two municipalities in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, as part of a more extensive study aiming at determination of the natural radioactivity in the water used for domestic use. These two sites are inside an Environmental Protection Area is located in a region of very intensive iron ore exploration. In addition of mineral resources, the region has a geological characteristic that includes quartzitic conglomerates associated with uranium. Radioactivity levels were determined via liquid scintillation counting (LSC), a fast and high counting efficiency method that can be advantageously employed to determine gross alpha and gross beta activity in liquid samples. Previously to gross alpha and gross beta counting the samples were acidified with concentrated HNO 3 in the field. The technique involved a pre-concentration of the sample to obtain a low detection limit. Specific details of the employed methodology are commented. The results showed that concentrations of gross alpha natural activity and gross beta values ranged from less than the detection limit of the equipment (0.03 Bq.L -1 ) to 0.275 ± 0.05 Bq.L -1 for gross alpha. As regards gross beta, all samples were below the limit of detection. (author)

  19. Measurement of gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations in human tooth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeguet, Omer; Aydin, Mehmet Fatih; Kuecuekoender, Erdal; Zorer, Ozlem Selcuk; Dogru, Mahmut

    2010-01-01

    The gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were measured in human tooth taken from 3 to 6 age-groups to 40 and over ones. Accumulated teeth samples are investigated in two groups as under and above 18 years. The gross alpha and beta radioactivity of human tooth samples was measured by using a gas-flow proportional counter (PIC-MPC 9604-α/β counter). In tooth samples, for female age-groups, the obtained results show that the mean gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations varied between 0.534-0.203 and 0.010-0.453 Bq g -1 and the same concentrations for male age-groups varied between 0.009-1.168 and 0.071-0.204 Bq g -1 , respectively.

  20. Terrestrial Analogs to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.; Arcone, S.; Arvidson, R. W.; Baker, V.; Barlow, N. G.; Beaty, D.; Bell, M. S.; Blankenship, D. D.; Bridges, N.; Briggs, G.; Bulmer, M.; Carsey, F.; Clifford, S. M.; Craddock, R. A.; Dickerson, P. W.; Duxbury, N.; Galford, G. L.; Garvin, J.; Grant, J.; Green, J. R.; Gregg, T. K. P.; Guinness, E.; Hansen, V. L.; Hecht, M. H.; Holt, J.; Howard, A.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Lee, P.; Lanagan, P. D.; Lentz, R. C. F.; Leverington, D. W.; Marinangeli, L.; Moersch, J. E.; Morris-Smith, P. A.; Mouginis-Mark, P.; Olhoeft, G. R.; Ori, G. G.; Paillou, P.; Reilly, J. F., II; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Robinson, C. A.; Sheridan, M.; Snook, K.; Thomson, B. J.; Watson, K.; Williams, K.; Yoshikawa, K.

    2002-08-01

    It is well recognized that interpretations of Mars must begin with the Earth as a reference. The most successful comparisons have focused on understanding geologic processes on the Earth well enough to extrapolate to Mars' environment. Several facets of terrestrial analog studies have been pursued and are continuing. These studies include field workshops, characterization of terrestrial analog sites, instrument tests, laboratory measurements (including analysis of Martian meteorites), and computer and laboratory modeling. The combination of all these activities allows scientists to constrain the processes operating in specific terrestrial environments and extrapolate how similar processes could affect Mars. The Terrestrial Analogs for Mars Community Panel has considered the following two key questions: (1) How do terrestrial analog studies tie in to the Mars Exploration Payload Assessment Group science questions about life, past climate, and geologic evolution of Mars, and (2) How can future instrumentation be used to address these questions. The panel has considered the issues of data collection, value of field workshops, data archiving, laboratory measurements and modeling, human exploration issues, association with other areas of solar system exploration, and education and public outreach activities.

  1. 26 CFR 1.61-1 - Gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income. 1.61-1 Section 1.61-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Definition of Gross Income, Adjusted Gross Income, and Taxable Income § 1.61-1 Gross...

  2. Terrestrial and extraterrestrial fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heymann, D.; Jenneskens, L.W.; Jehlicka, J; Koper, C.; Vlietstra, E. [Rice Univ, Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Earth Science

    2003-07-01

    This paper reviews reports of occurrences of fullerenes in circumstellar media, interstellar media, meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), lunar rocks, hard terrestrial rocks from Shunga (Russia), Sudbury (Canada) and Mitov (Czech Republic), coal, terrestrial sediments from the Cretaceous-Tertiary-Boundary and Pennian-Triassic-Boundary, fulgurite, ink sticks, dinosaur eggs, and a tree char. The occurrences are discussed in the context of known and postulated processes of fullerene formation, including the suggestion that some natural fullerenes might have formed from biological (algal) remains.

  3. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how

  4. Evaluation of atmospheric aerosol and tropospheric ozone effects on global terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min

    The increasing human activities have produced large amounts of air pollutants ejected into the atmosphere, in which atmospheric aerosols and tropospheric ozone are considered to be especially important because of their negative impacts on human health and their impacts on global climate through either their direct radiative effect or indirect effect on land-atmosphere CO2 exchange. This dissertation dedicates to quantifying and evaluating the aerosol and tropospheric ozone effects on global terrestrial ecosystem dynamics using a modeling approach. An ecosystem model, the integrated Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (iTem), is developed to simulate biophysical and biogeochemical processes in terrestrial ecosystems. A two-broad-band atmospheric radiative transfer model together with the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measured atmospheric parameters are used to well estimate global downward solar radiation and the direct and diffuse components in comparison with observations. The atmospheric radiative transfer modeling framework were used to quantify the aerosol direct radiative effect, showing that aerosol loadings cause 18.7 and 12.8 W m -2 decrease of direct-beam Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR) and Near Infrared Radiation (NIR) respectively, and 5.2 and 4.4 W m -2 increase of diffuse PAR and NIR, respectively, leading to a total 21.9 W m-2 decrease of total downward solar radiation over the global land surface during the period of 2003-2010. The results also suggested that the aerosol effect may be overwhelmed by clouds because of the stronger extinction and scattering ability of clouds. Applications of the iTem with solar radiation data and with or without considering the aerosol loadings shows that aerosol loading enhances the terrestrial productions [Gross Primary Production (GPP), Net Primary Production (NPP) and Net Ecosystem Production (NEP)] and carbon emissions through plant respiration (RA) in global terrestrial ecosystems over the

  5. Asia-MIP: Multi Model-data Synthesis of Terrestrial Carbon Cycles in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, K.; Kondo, M.; Ito, A.; Kang, M.; Sasai, T.; SATO, H.; Ueyama, M.; Kobayashi, H.; Saigusa, N.; Kim, J.

    2013-12-01

    Asia, which is characterized by monsoon climate and intense human activities, is one of the prominent understudied regions in terms of terrestrial carbon budgets and mechanisms of carbon exchange. To better understand terrestrial carbon cycle in Asia, we initiated multi-model and data intercomparison project in Asia (Asia-MIP). We analyzed outputs from multiple approaches: satellite-based observations (AVHRR and MODIS) and related products, empirically upscaled estimations (Support Vector Regression) using eddy-covariance observation network in Asia (AsiaFlux, CarboEastAsia, FLUXNET), ~10 terrestrial biosphere models (e.g. BEAMS, Biome-BGC, LPJ, SEIB-DGVM, TRIFFID, VISIT models), and atmospheric inversion analysis (e.g. TransCom models). We focused on the two difference temporal coverage: long-term (30 years; 1982-2011) and decadal (10 years; 2001-2010; data intensive period) scales. The regions of covering Siberia, Far East Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia (60-80E, 10S-80N), was analyzed in this study for assessing the magnitudes, interannual variability, and key driving factors of carbon cycles. We will report the progress of synthesis effort to quantify terrestrial carbon budget in Asia. First, we analyzed the recent trends in Gross Primary Productivities (GPP) using satellite-based observation (AVHRR) and multiple terrestrial biosphere models. We found both model outputs and satellite-based observation consistently show an increasing trend in GPP in most of the regions in Asia. Mechanisms of the GPP increase were analyzed using models, and changes in temperature and precipitation play dominant roles in GPP increase in boreal and temperate regions, whereas changes in atmospheric CO2 and precipitation are important in tropical regions. However, their relative contributions were different. Second, in the decadal analysis (2001-2010), we found that the negative GPP and carbon uptake anomalies in 2003 summer in Far East Asia is one of the largest

  6. Histories of terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, K.

    1981-01-01

    The uneven historical development of terrestrial planets - Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon and Mars - is probably due to the differences in their size, weight and rotational dynamics in association with the internal planet structure, their distance from the Sun, etc. A systematic study of extraterrestrial planets showed that the time span of internal activity was not the same for all bodies. It is assumed that the initial history of all terrestrial planets was marked with catastrophic events connected with the overall dynamic development of the solar system. In view of the fact that the cores of small terrestrial bodies cooled quicker, their geological development almost stagnated after two or three thousand million years. This is what probably happened to the Mercury and the Moon as well as the Mars. Therefore, traces of previous catastrophic events were preserved on the surface of the planets. On the other hand, the Earth is the most metamorphosed terrestrial planet and compared to the other planets appears to be atypical. Its biosphere is significantly developed as well as the other shell components, its hydrosphere and atmosphere, and its crust is considerably differentiated. (J.P.)

  7. Terrestrial planet formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K; O'Brien, D P

    2011-11-29

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (~10(6) y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few 10(6) y), and finally embryos to planets (10(7)-10(8) y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids.

  8. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocock, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the distribution and movement of radionuclides in semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems in north-west England with particular emphasis on inputs to, and outputs from ecosystems; on plant and soil aspects; and on radionuclides in fallout and in discharges by the nuclear industry. (author)

  9. The 2010 spring drought reduced primary productivity in southwestern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Li Jing; Xiao Jingfeng; Wang Kun; Lei Liping; Guo Huadong

    2012-01-01

    Many parts of the world experience frequent and severe droughts. Summer drought can significantly reduce primary productivity and carbon sequestration capacity. The impacts of spring droughts, however, have received much less attention. A severe and sustained spring drought occurred in southwestern China in 2010. Here we examine the influence of this spring drought on the primary productivity of terrestrial ecosystems using data on climate, vegetation greenness and productivity. We first assess the spatial extent, duration and severity of the drought using precipitation data and the Palmer drought severity index. We then examine the impacts of the drought on terrestrial ecosystems using satellite data for the period 2000–2010. Our results show that the spring drought substantially reduced the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and gross primary productivity (GPP) during spring 2010 (March–May). Both EVI and GPP also substantially declined in the summer and did not fully recover from the drought stress until August. The drought reduced regional annual GPP and net primary productivity (NPP) in 2010 by 65 and 46 Tg C yr −1 , respectively. Both annual GPP and NPP in 2010 were the lowest over the period 2000–2010. The negative effects of the drought on annual primary productivity were partly offset by the remarkably high productivity in August and September caused by the exceptionally wet conditions in late summer and early fall and the farming practices adopted to mitigate drought effects. Our results show that, like summer droughts, spring droughts can also have significant impacts on vegetation productivity and terrestrial carbon cycling. (letter)

  10. Monitoring of gross alpha, gross beta and tritium activities in portuguese drinking waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, I.; Madruga, M.J.; Ferrador, G.O.; Sequeira, M.M.; Oliveira, E.J.; Gomes, A.R.; Rodrigues, F.D.; Carvalho, F.P.

    2006-01-01

    The gross beta and tritium activities in the forty Portuguese drinking waters analyzed using the ISO standard methods (Portuguese Guidelines) are below the guidance levels proposed in the Portuguese Drinking Water Quality Guidelines. In what concerns the gross alpha activity only 18% exceeded the recommended level. In general, it can be concluded that the ingestion of these drinking waters does not create a radiological hazard to the human consumption, however, more detailed analyses will be necessary mainly the determinations of the individual alpha emitters radionuclide concentrations. The minimum gross alpha and gross beta detectable activities by L.S.C. methodology are higher than for the proportional counting technique (ISO method). Higher concentration factors will be needed to reach lower required detection limits. (authors)

  11. Determination of gross gamma and gross beta activities in liquid effluent samples. Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, K.E.; Sood, S.P.

    1985-08-01

    Several inadequacies in the presently used procedures for gross gamma and gross beta measurements in aqueous wastes have been identified. Both the presence of suspended particulate activity and the use of cesium-137 as a calibration standard can cause gross gamma measurements to overestimate the actual activity in the sample. At the same time, sample preparation for the determination of gross beta activities causes large losses of radioiodine before the measurement step and the presence of solid material can cause a serious decrease in the beta counting efficiency. A combination of these errors could result in large discrepancies between the results obtained by the two measurement methods. Improved procedures are required to overcome these problems

  12. Current usage and future trends in gross digital photography in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Christopher L; DeKoning, Lawrence; Klonowski, Paul; Naugler, Christopher

    2014-01-14

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current usage, utilization and future direction of digital photography of gross surgical specimens in pathology laboratories across Canada. An online survey consisting of 23 multiple choice and free-text questions regarding gross digital photography was sent out to via email to laboratory staff across Canada involved in gross dissection of surgical specimens. Sixty surveys were returned with representation from most of the provinces. Results showed that gross digital photography is utilized at most institutions (90.0%) and the primary users of the technology are Pathologists (88.0%), Pathologists' Assistants (54.0%) and Pathology residents (50.0%). Most respondents felt that there is a definite need for routine digital imaging of gross surgical specimens in their practice (80.0%). The top two applications for gross digital photography are for documentation of interesting/ complex cases (98.0%) and for teaching purposes (84.0%). The main limitations identified by the survey group are storage space (42.5%) and security issues (40.0%). Respondents indicated that future applications of gross digital photography mostly include teaching (96.6%), presentation at tumour boards/ clinical rounds (89.8%), medico-legal documentation (72.9%) and usage for consultation purposes (69.5%). The results of this survey indicate that pathology staff across Canada currently utilizes gross digital images for regular documentation and educational reasons. They also show that the technology will be needed for future applications in teaching, consultation and medico-legal purposes.

  13. Activity level of gross α and gross β in airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bin; Ye Jida; Chen Qianyuan; Wu Xiaofei; Song Weili; Wang Hongfeng

    2007-01-01

    The monitoring results of gross α and gross 13 activity from 2001 to 2005 for environmental airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base are presented in this paper. A total of 170 aerosol samples were collected from monitoring sites of Caichenmen village, Qinlian village, Xiajiawan village and Yangliucun village around the Qinshan NPP base. The measured specific activity of gross α and gross β are in the range of 0.02-0.38 mBq/m 3 and 0.10-1.81 mBq/m 3 , respectively, with an average of 0.11 mBq/m 3 and 0.45mBq/m 3 , respectively. They are lower than the average of 0.15 mBq/m 3 and 0.52 mBq/m 3 , of reference site at Hangzhou City. It is indicated that the specific activity of gross α and gross β for environmental aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base had not been increased in normal operating conditions of the NPP. (authors)

  14. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES: GROSS ANOMALIES

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Prakash; Rajniti; Deepika; Royana

    2015-01-01

    BACK GROUND: Prenatal exposure of AgNPs can induces devastative and detrimental effect in the organogenesis period of the developing embryos and foetuses. Organogenesis period is highly condemnatory and persuadable. Any injury to embryo during this period leads to dysmorphogenesis or even death AIM: The present study means to evaluate the gross anomalies on developing f o etus subsequent to silver nanoparticle ingestion during the gestational period. ...

  15. Exploring the changing learning environment of the gross anatomy lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Robin; Regehr, Glenn; Wilson, Timothy D

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of virtual models and prosected specimens in the context of the gross anatomy lab. In 2009, student volunteers from an undergraduate anatomy class were randomly assigned to study groups in one of three learning conditions. All groups studied the muscles of mastication and completed identical learning objectives during a 45-minute lab. All groups were provided with two reference atlases. Groups were distinguished by the type of primary tools they were provided: gross prosections, three-dimensional stereoscopic computer model, or both resources. The facilitator kept observational field notes. A prepost multiple-choice knowledge test was administered to evaluate students' learning. No significant effect of the laboratory models was demonstrated between groups on the prepost assessment of knowledge. Recurring observations included students' tendency to revert to individual memorization prior to the posttest, rotation of models to match views in the provided atlas, and dissemination of groups into smaller working units. The use of virtual lab resources seemed to influence the social context and learning environment of the anatomy lab. As computer-based learning methods are implemented and studied, they must be evaluated beyond their impact on knowledge gain to consider the effect technology has on students' social development.

  16. Working group 4: Terrestrial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A working group at a Canada/USA symposium on climate change and the Arctic identified major concerns and issues related to terrestrial resources. The group examined the need for, and the means of, involving resource managers and users at local and territorial levels in the process of identifying and examining the impacts and consequences of climatic change. Climatic change will be important to the Arctic because of the magnitude of the change projected for northern latitudes; the apparent sensitivity of its terrestrial ecosystems, natural resources, and human support systems; and the dependence of the social, cultural, and economic welfare of Arctic communities, businesses, and industries on the health and quality of their environment. Impacts of climatic change on the physical, biological, and associated socio-economic environment are outlined. Gaps in knowledge needed to quantify these impacts are listed along with their relationships with resource management. Finally, potential actions for response and adaptation are presented

  17. Phytopharmacology of Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, M; Riaz, M; Talpur, M M A; Pirzada, T

    2016-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris is an annual herb which belongs to the Zygophyllaceae family. This plant has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases for hundreds of decades. The main active phytoconstituents of this plant include flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, lignin, amides, and glycosides. The plant parts have different pharmacological activities including aphrodisiac, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential. T. terrestris is most often used for infertility and loss of libido. It has potential application as immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, anthelmintic and anticarcinogenic activities. The aim of the present article is to create a database for further investigation of the phytopharmacological properties of this plant to promote research. This study will definitely help to confirm its traditional use along with its value-added utility, eventually leading to higher revenues from the plant.

  18. Terrestrial plant methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature...... the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  19. A Method Validation for Determination of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta in Water Sample Using Low Background Gross Alpha/ Beta Counting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal Uyun Wan Mahmood; Norfaizal Mohamed; Nita Salina Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    Method validation (MV) for the measurement of gross alpha and gross beta activity in water (drinking, mineral and environmental) samples using Low Background Gross Alpha/ Beta Counting System was performed to characterize precision, accuracy and reliable results. The main objective of this assignment is to ensure that both the instrument and method always good performed and resulting accuracy and reliable results. Generally, almost the results of estimated RSD, z-score and U_s_c_o_r_e were reliable which are recorded as ≤30 %, less than 2 and less than 1.5, respectively. Minimum Detected Activity (MDA) was estimated based on the counting time of 100 minutes and present background counting value of gross alpha (0.01 - 0.35 cpm) and gross beta (0.50 - 2.18 cpm). Estimated Detection Limit (DL) was 0.1 Bq/ L for gross alpha and 0.2 Bq/ L for gross beta and expended uncertainty was relatively small of 9.77 % for gross alpha and 10.57 % for gross beta. Align with that, background counting for gross alpha and gross beta was ranged of 0.01 - 0.35 cpm and 0.50 - 2.18 cpm, respectively. While, sample volume was set at minimum of 500 mL and maximum of 2000 mL. These proven the accuracy and precision result that are generated from developed method/ technique is satisfactory and method is recommended to be used. Therefore, it can be concluded that the MV found no doubtful on the ability of the developed method. The test result showed the method is suitable for all types of water samples which are contained several radionuclides and elements as well as any impurities that interfere the measurement analysis of gross alpha and gross beta. (author)

  20. Monitoring of spatiotemporal patterns of Net and Gross Primary Productivity (NPP & GPP) and their ratios (NPP/GPP) derived from MODIS data: assessment natural drivers and their effects on NDVI anomalies in arid and semi-arid zones of Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aralova, Dildora; Jarihani, Ben; Khujanazarov, Timur; Toderich, Kristina; Gafurov, Dilshod; Gismatulina, Liliya

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that precipitation anomalies and raising of temperature trends were deteriorate affected on large-scale of vegetation surveys in Central Asia (CA). Nowadays, remote sensing techniques can provide estimation of Net and Gross Primary Productivity (NPP & GPP) for regional and global scales, and selected zones in CA (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) dominated by C4 plants (biomes) what it reveals more accurately simulate C4 carbon. The estimation of NPP & GPP from source (MOD17A2/A3) would be beneficial to determine natural driver factors, whether on rangeland ecosystem is a carbon sink or source, such as a vast area of the selected zones incorporates exacerbate regional drought-risk factors nowadays. Generally, we have combined last available NPP & GPP (2000-2015) with 1 km resolution from MODIS, with investigation of long-term vegetation patterns under Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) with 8 km resolution from AVHRR-GIMMS 3g sources (2001-2015) within aim to estimate potential values of rangeland ecosystems. Interaction ratios of NPP/GPP are integrating more accurately describe carbon sink process under natural or anthropogenic factors, specifically last results of NDVI trends were described as decreasing trends due to climate anomalies, besides the eastern and northern parts of CA (mostly boreal forest zones) where accumulated or indicated of raising trends of NDVI in last three years (2012-2015). Results revealed that, in CA were averaged annually value NDVI ranges from 0.19-0.21; (Kyrgyzstan: 0.23-0.26; Kazakhstan: 0.21-0.24; Tajikistan: 0.19-0.21); and resting countries as low NDVI accumulated areas were Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan ranges 0.13-0.16; Comparing datasets of GPP given the response dynamic change structures of NDVI values and explicit carbon uptake (CO2) in arid ecosystems and average GPPyearlyin CA ranges 2.42 kg C/m2; including to Tajikistan, Uzbekistan (3.09 kg C/m2) and

  1. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  2. 75 FR 78897 - Definition of Omission From Gross Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Definition of Omission From Gross Income AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final regulations. SUMMARY: This document contains final regulations defining an omission from gross income for... overstatement of basis in a sold asset results in an omission from gross income. The regulations will affect any...

  3. Effect of climate warming on the annual terrestrial net ecosystem CO2 exchange globally in the boreal and temperate regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Renduo; Cescatti, Alessandro; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Buchmann, Nina; Zhu, Juan; Chen, Guanhong; Moyano, Fernando; Pumpanen, Jukka; Hirano, Takashi; Takagi, Kentaro; Merbold, Lutz

    2017-06-08

    The net ecosystem CO 2 exchange is the result of the imbalance between the assimilation process (gross primary production, GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE). The aim of this study was to investigate temperature sensitivities of these processes and the effect of climate warming on the annual terrestrial net ecosystem CO 2 exchange globally in the boreal and temperate regions. A database of 403 site-years of ecosystem flux data at 101 sites in the world was collected and analyzed. Temperature sensitivities of rates of RE and GPP were quantified with Q 10 , defined as the increase of RE (or GPP) rates with a temperature rise of 10 °C. Results showed that on the annual time scale, the intrinsic temperature sensitivity of GPP (Q 10sG ) was higher than or equivalent to the intrinsic temperature sensitivity of RE (Q 10sR ). Q 10sG was negatively correlated to the mean annual temperature (MAT), whereas Q 10sR was independent of MAT. The analysis of the current temperature sensitivities and net ecosystem production suggested that temperature rise might enhance the CO 2 sink of terrestrial ecosystems both in the boreal and temperate regions. In addition, ecosystems in these regions with different plant functional types should sequester more CO 2 with climate warming.

  4. Terrestrial carbohydrates support freshwater zooplankton during phytoplankton deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Taipale, Sami J.; Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Aalto, Sanni L.; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; Strandberg, Ursula; Kankaala, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater food webs can be partly supported by terrestrial primary production, often deriving from plant litter of surrounding catchment vegetation. Although consisting mainly of poorly bioavailable lignin, with low protein and lipid content, the carbohydrates from fallen tree leaves and shoreline vegetation may be utilized by aquatic consumers. Here we show that during phytoplankton deficiency, zooplankton (Daphnia magna) can benefit from terrestrial particulate organic matter by using terr...

  5. Innovative procedure for the determination of gross-alpha/gross-beta activities in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisser, S.; Frenzel, E.; Dittmer, M.

    2006-01-01

    An alternative sample preparation method for the determination of gross-alpha/beta activity concentrations in drinking water is introduced in this paper. After the freeze-drying of tap water samples, determination by liquid scintillation counting can be applied utilizing alpha/beta separation. It has been shown that there is no adsorption or loss of solid radionuclides during the freeze-drying procedure. However, the samples have to be measured quickly after the preparation since the ingrowth of daughter isotopes negatively effects the measurement. The limits of detection for gross-alpha and gross-beta activity are in the range 25-210 mBq/l, respectively, for a measurement time of only 8-9 h

  6. Gross shell structure of moments of inertia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleplanque, M.A.; Frauendorf, S.; Pashkevich, V.V.; Chu, S.Y.; Unzhakova, A.

    2002-01-01

    Average yrast moments of inertia at high spins, where the pairing correlations are expected to be largely absent, were found to deviate from the rigid-body values. This indicates that shell effects contribute to the moment of inertia. We discuss the gross dependence of moments of inertia and shell energies on the neutron number in terms of the semiclassical periodic orbit theory. We show that the ground-state shell energies, nuclear deformations and deviations from rigid-body moments of inertia are all due to the same periodic orbits

  7. Solitons in Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, E.

    1985-01-01

    It is observed that, when the potential is integrable and repulsive, the Gross-Pitaevskii Equation, with non-vanishing boundary conditions, describes a family of planar solitons. A method is presented which provides an exact soliton field to the Dirac Delta potential and an approximation solution to any other kind of potential. As an example the method is then applied to the case of a repulsive Yukawa potential. A brief discuss the relation between these solitons and Anderson's superfluidity mechanism, is also presented. (author) [pt

  8. Fine and gross motor skills: The effects on skill-focused dual-tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisbeck, Louisa D; Diekfuss, Jed A

    2015-10-01

    Dual-task methodology often directs participants' attention towards a gross motor skill involved in the execution of a skill, but researchers have not investigated the comparative effects of attention on fine motor skill tasks. Furthermore, there is limited information about participants' subjective perception of workload with respect to task performance. To examine this, the current study administered the NASA-Task Load Index following a simulated shooting dual-task. The task required participants to stand 15 feet from a projector screen which depicted virtual targets and fire a modified Glock 17 handgun equipped with an infrared laser. Participants performed the primary shooting task alone (control), or were also instructed to focus their attention on a gross motor skill relevant to task execution (gross skill-focused) and a fine motor skill relevant to task execution (fine skill-focused). Results revealed that workload was significantly greater during the fine skill-focused task for both skill levels, but performance was only affected for the lesser-skilled participants. Shooting performance for the lesser-skilled participants was greater during the gross skill-focused condition compared to the fine skill-focused condition. Correlational analyses also demonstrated a significant negative relationship between shooting performance and workload during the gross skill-focused task for the higher-skilled participants. A discussion of the relationship between skill type, workload, skill level, and performance in dual-task paradigms is presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council, established the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) to address the need for coordinated and standardized monitoring of Arctic environments. The CBMP includes an international...... on developing and implementing long-term plans for monitoring the integrity of Arctic biomes: terrestrial, marine, freshwater, and coastal (under development) environments. The CBMP Terrestrial Expert Monitoring Group (CBMP-TEMG) has developed the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan (CBMP......-Terrestrial Plan/the Plan) as the framework for coordinated, long-term Arctic terrestrial biodiversity monitoring. The goal of the CBMP-Terrestrial Plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders, northern communities, and scientists to detect, understand and report on long...

  10. Divergent apparent temperature sensitivity of terrestrial ecosystem respiration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Song, B.; Niu, S.; Luo, R.; Chen, J.; Yu, G.; Olejnik, Janusz; Wohlfahrt, G.; Kiely, G.; Noormels, A.; Montagnani, L.; Cescatti, A.; Magliulo, V.; Law, B. E.; Lund, M.; Varlagin, A.; Raschi, A.; Peichl, M.; Nilsson, M.; Merbold, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 5 (2014), s. 419-428 ISSN 1752-9921 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : activation energy * ecosystem respiration * index of water availability * gross primary productivity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.646, year: 2014

  11. Contaminant exposure in terrestrial vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Philip N.; Cobb, George P.; Godard-Codding, Celine; Hoff, Dale; McMurry, Scott T.; Rainwater, Thomas R.; Reynolds, Kevin D.

    2007-01-01

    Here we review mechanisms and factors influencing contaminant exposure among terrestrial vertebrate wildlife. There exists a complex mixture of biotic and abiotic factors that dictate potential for contaminant exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial vertebrates. Chemical fate and transport in the environment determine contaminant bioaccessibility. Species-specific natural history characteristics and behavioral traits then play significant roles in the likelihood that exposure pathways, from source to receptor, are complete. Detailed knowledge of natural history traits of receptors considered in conjunction with the knowledge of contaminant behavior and distribution on a site are critical when assessing and quantifying exposure. We review limitations in our understanding of elements of exposure and the unique aspects of exposure associated with terrestrial and semi-terrestrial taxa. We provide insight on taxa-specific traits that contribute, or limit exposure to, transport phenomenon that influence exposure throughout terrestrial systems, novel contaminants, bioavailability, exposure data analysis, and uncertainty associated with exposure in wildlife risk assessments. Lastly, we identify areas related to exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial organisms that warrant additional research. - Both biotic and abiotic factors determine chemical exposure for terrestrial vertebrates

  12. GROSS- GAMMA RAY OBSERVATORY ATTITUDE DYNAMICS SIMULATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) spacecraft will constitute a major advance in gamma ray astronomy by offering the first opportunity for comprehensive observations in the range of 0.1 to 30,000 megaelectronvolts (MeV). The Gamma Ray Observatory Attitude Dynamics Simulator, GROSS, is designed to simulate this mission. The GRO Dynamics Simulator consists of three separate programs: the Standalone Profile Program; the Simulator Program, which contains the Simulation Control Input/Output (SCIO) Subsystem, the Truth Model (TM) Subsystem, and the Onboard Computer (OBC) Subsystem; and the Postprocessor Program. The Standalone Profile Program models the environment of the spacecraft and generates a profile data set for use by the simulator. This data set contains items such as individual external torques; GRO spacecraft, Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS), and solar and lunar ephemerides; and star data. The Standalone Profile Program is run before a simulation. The SCIO subsystem is the executive driver for the simulator. It accepts user input, initializes parameters, controls simulation, and generates output data files and simulation status display. The TM subsystem models the spacecraft dynamics, sensors, and actuators. It accepts ephemerides, star data, and environmental torques from the Standalone Profile Program. With these and actuator commands from the OBC subsystem, the TM subsystem propagates the current state of the spacecraft and generates sensor data for use by the OBC and SCIO subsystems. The OBC subsystem uses sensor data from the TM subsystem, a Kalman filter (for attitude determination), and control laws to compute actuator commands to the TM subsystem. The OBC subsystem also provides output data to the SCIO subsystem for output to the analysts. The Postprocessor Program is run after simulation is completed. It generates printer and CRT plots and tabular reports of the simulated data at the direction of the user. GROSS is written in FORTRAN 77 and

  13. The Limits of Acclimation of land plants in a Terrestrial Ecosystems Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothavala, Zavareh

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we examine the role of the terrestrial carbon cycle and the ability of different plant types to acclimate to a changing climate at the centennial scale using a global ecosystems model with updated biogeochemical processes related to moisture, carbon, and nitrogen. Elevated level of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) increases CO2 fertilization, resulting in more CO2 uptake by vegetation, whereas the concomitant warming increases autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration, releasing CO2 to the atmosphere. Additionally, warming will enhance photosynthesis if current temperatures are below the optimal temperature for plant growth, while it will reduce photosynthesis if current temperatures are above the optimal temperature for plant growth. We present a series of ensemble simulations to evaluate the ability of plants to acclimate to changing conditions over the last century and how this affects the terrestrial carbon sink. A set of experiments related to (a) the varying relationship between CO2 fertilization and the half saturation constant, (b) the factors related to gross primary productivity and maintenance respiration, and (c) the variables related to heterotrophic respiration, were conducted with thirteen plant functional types. The experiments were performed using the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) with a present-day vegetation distribution without the effects of natural or human disturbance, and a closed Nitrogen cycle, at a half-degree resolution over the globe. The experiment design consisted of eight scenarios that are consistent with past and future ecosystem conditions, presented in other scientific studies. The significance of model trends related to runoff, soil moisture, soil carbon, Net Primary Productivity (NPP), crop yield, and Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP) for different seasons, as well as surface temperature, precipitation, vapor pressure, and photosynthetically active radiation are analyzed for various ecosystems at the global

  14. Response of Water Use Efficiency to Global Environmental Change Based on Output From Terrestrial Biosphere Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Sha [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Yu, Bofu [Griffith Univ., Nathan Queensland (Australia); Schwalm, Christopher R. [Woods Hole Research Center, Falmouth, MA (United States); Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Ciais, Philippe [Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Zhang, Yao [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Fisher, Joshua B. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Michalak, Anna M. [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA (United States); Wang, Weile [California State Uni., Monterey Bay, Seasid, CA (United States); Poulter, Benjamin [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Huntzinger, Deborah N. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Niu, Shuli [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China); Mao, Jiafu [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jain, Atul [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Ricciuto, Daniel M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shi, Xiaoying [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ito, Akihiko [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Wei, Yaxing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Huang, Yuefei [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Qinghai Univ., Xining (China); Wang, Guangqian [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    2017-10-18

    Here, water use efficiency (WUE), defined as the ratio of gross primary productivity and evapotranspiration at the ecosystem scale, is a critical variable linking the carbon and water cycles. Incorporating a dependency on vapor pressure deficit, apparent underlying WUE (uWUE) provides a better indicator of how terrestrial ecosystems respond to environmental changes than other WUE formulations. Here we used 20th century simulations from four terrestrial biosphere models to develop a novel variance decomposition method. With this method, we attributed variations in apparent uWUE to both the trend and interannual variation of environmental drivers. The secular increase in atmospheric CO2 explained a clear majority of total variation (66 ± 32%: mean ± one standard deviation), followed by positive trends in nitrogen deposition and climate, as well as a negative trend in land use change. In contrast, interannual variation was mostly driven by interannual climate variability. To analyze the mechanism of the CO2 effect, we partitioned the apparent uWUE into the transpiration ratio (transpiration over evapotranspiration) and potential uWUE. The relative increase in potential uWUE parallels that of CO2, but this direct CO2 effect was offset by 20 ± 4% by changes in ecosystem structure, that is, leaf area index for different vegetation types. However, the decrease in transpiration due to stomatal closure with rising CO2 was reduced by 84% by an increase in leaf area index, resulting in small changes in the transpiration ratio. CO2 concentration thus plays a dominant role in driving apparent uWUE variations over time, but its role differs for the two constituent components: potential uWUE and transpiration.

  15. Response of Water Use Efficiency to Global Environmental Change Based on Output From Terrestrial Biosphere Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sha; Yu, Bofu; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Ciais, Philippe; Zhang, Yao; Fisher, Joshua B.; Michalak, Anna M.; Wang, Weile; Poulter, Benjamin; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Niu, Shuli; Mao, Jiafu; Jain, Atul; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Shi, Xiaoying; Ito, Akihiko; Wei, Yaxing; Huang, Yuefei; Wang, Guangqian

    2017-11-01

    Water use efficiency (WUE), defined as the ratio of gross primary productivity and evapotranspiration at the ecosystem scale, is a critical variable linking the carbon and water cycles. Incorporating a dependency on vapor pressure deficit, apparent underlying WUE (uWUE) provides a better indicator of how terrestrial ecosystems respond to environmental changes than other WUE formulations. Here we used 20th century simulations from four terrestrial biosphere models to develop a novel variance decomposition method. With this method, we attributed variations in apparent uWUE to both the trend and interannual variation of environmental drivers. The secular increase in atmospheric CO2 explained a clear majority of total variation (66 ± 32%: mean ± one standard deviation), followed by positive trends in nitrogen deposition and climate, as well as a negative trend in land use change. In contrast, interannual variation was mostly driven by interannual climate variability. To analyze the mechanism of the CO2 effect, we partitioned the apparent uWUE into the transpiration ratio (transpiration over evapotranspiration) and potential uWUE. The relative increase in potential uWUE parallels that of CO2, but this direct CO2 effect was offset by 20 ± 4% by changes in ecosystem structure, that is, leaf area index for different vegetation types. However, the decrease in transpiration due to stomatal closure with rising CO2 was reduced by 84% by an increase in leaf area index, resulting in small changes in the transpiration ratio. CO2 concentration thus plays a dominant role in driving apparent uWUE variations over time, but its role differs for the two constituent components: potential uWUE and transpiration.

  16. Terrestrial carbohydrates support freshwater zooplankton during phytoplankton deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, Sami J; Galloway, Aaron W E; Aalto, Sanni L; Kahilainen, Kimmo K; Strandberg, Ursula; Kankaala, Paula

    2016-08-11

    Freshwater food webs can be partly supported by terrestrial primary production, often deriving from plant litter of surrounding catchment vegetation. Although consisting mainly of poorly bioavailable lignin, with low protein and lipid content, the carbohydrates from fallen tree leaves and shoreline vegetation may be utilized by aquatic consumers. Here we show that during phytoplankton deficiency, zooplankton (Daphnia magna) can benefit from terrestrial particulate organic matter by using terrestrial-origin carbohydrates for energy and sparing essential fatty acids and amino acids for somatic growth and reproduction. Assimilated terrestrial-origin fatty acids from shoreline reed particles exceeded available diet, indicating that Daphnia may convert a part of their dietary carbohydrates to saturated fatty acids. This conversion was not observed with birch leaf diets, which had lower carbohydrate content. Subsequent analysis of 21 boreal and subarctic lakes showed that diet of herbivorous zooplankton is mainly based on high-quality phytoplankton rich in essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. The proportion of low-quality diets (bacteria and terrestrial particulate organic matter) was <28% of the assimilated carbon. Taken collectively, the incorporation of terrestrial carbon into zooplankton was not directly related to the concentration of terrestrial organic matter in experiments or lakes, but rather to the low availability of phytoplankton.

  17. Fractional Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook kinetic equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goychuk, Igor

    2017-11-01

    The linear Boltzmann equation (LBE) approach is generalized to describe fractional superdiffusive transport of the Lévy walk type in external force fields. The time distribution between scattering events is assumed to have a finite mean value and infinite variance. It is completely characterized by the two scattering rates, one fractional and a normal one, which defines also the mean scattering rate. We formulate a general fractional LBE approach and exemplify it with a particularly simple case of the Bohm and Gross scattering integral leading to a fractional generalization of the Bhatnagar, Gross and Krook (BGK) kinetic equation. Here, at each scattering event the particle velocity is completely randomized and takes a value from equilibrium Maxwell distribution at a given fixed temperature. We show that the retardation effects are indispensable even in the limit of infinite mean scattering rate and argue that this novel fractional kinetic equation provides a viable alternative to the fractional Kramers-Fokker-Planck (KFP) equation by Barkai and Silbey and its generalization by Friedrich et al. based on the picture of divergent mean time between scattering events. The case of divergent mean time is also discussed at length and compared with the earlier results obtained within the fractional KFP. Also a phenomenological fractional BGK equation without retardation effects is proposed in the limit of infinite scattering rates. It cannot be, however, rigorously derived from a scattering model, being rather clever postulated. It this respect, this retardationless equation is similar to the fractional KFP by Barkai and Silbey. However, it corresponds to the opposite, much more physical limit and, therefore, also presents a viable alternative.

  18. Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, M.; Chambers, D. P.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    During 2014 dryness continued in the Northern Hemisphere and relative wetness continued in the Southern Hemisphere (Fig. 2.21; Plate 2.1g). These largely canceled out such that the global land surface began and ended the year with a terrestrial water storage (TWS) anomaly slightly below 0 cm (equivalent height of water; Fig. 2.22). TWS is the sum of groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow, and ice. Groundwater responds more slowly to meteorological phenomena than the other components because the overlying soil acts as a low pass filter, but often it has a larger range of variability on multiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti 2001; Alley et al. 2002).In situ groundwater data are only archived and made and Tanzania. The rest of the continent experienced mixed to dry conditions. Significant reductions in TWS in Greenland, Antarctica, and southern coastal Alaska reflect ongoing ice sheet and glacier ablation, not groundwater depletion.

  19. Comparison of a gross anatomy laboratory to online anatomy software for teaching anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if equivalent learning outcomes could be achieved regardless of learning tool used. In addition, it was important to determine why students chose the gross anatomy laboratory over online AnatomyTV. A two group, post-test only design was used with data gathered at the end of the course. Primary outcomes were students' grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction. In addition, a survey was used to collect descriptive data. One cadaver prosection was available for every four students in the gross anatomy laboratory. AnatomyTV was available online through the university library. At the conclusion of the course, the gross anatomy laboratory group had significantly higher grade percentage, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction than the AnatomyTV group. However, the practical significance of the difference is debatable. The significantly greater time spent in gross anatomy laboratory during the laboratory portion of the course may have affected the study outcomes. In addition, some students may find the difference in (B+) versus (A-) grade as not practically significant. Further research needs to be conducted to identify what specific anatomy teaching resources are most effective beyond prosection for students without access to a gross anatomy laboratory. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  20. Effect of temperate climate tree species on gross ammonification, gross nitrification and N2O formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, N.; Rosenkranz, P.; Papen, H.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2003-04-01

    Microbial nitrogen turnover processes in the soil, like ammonification, nitrification and denitrification, play an important role in the formation of nitrous oxide (N2O): (i) ammonification, because it releases nitrogen from organic material in the form of ammonium (NH4+), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification; (ii) nitrification itself (i.e. the turnover of NH4+ to nitrate, NO3-), during which nitric oxide (NO) and N2O can be released as by-products at varying ratios; (iii) denitrification, in which NO3- serves as electron acceptor and is converted to molecular nitrogen (N2) via NO and N2O as intermediates, that can also be partially lost to the atmosphere. Temperate forest soils are a substantial source of atmospheric N2O contributing up to 10% to the total atmospheric N2O budget. However, this figure is afflicted with a huge uncertainty due to a number of factors governing the soil N2O formation, consumption, release and uptake, which are not fully understood at present. To one of these factors belongs the influence of the tree species on nitrogen turnover processes in the soil and the formation of N trace gases related with them. The aim of the present work was to analyse this tree species effect for the temperate climate region. For this purpose the effect of five different temperate tree species, having the same age and growing on the same soil in direct vicinity to each other, on gross ammonification and gross nitrification as well as on N2O formation was investigated. The trees (common beech, Fagus sylvatica; pedunculate oak, Quercus robur; Norway spruce, Picea abies; Japanese larch, Larix leptolepis; mountain pine, Pinus mugo) were part of a species trial in Western Jutland, Denmark, established in 1965 on a former sandy heathland. Samples from the soil under these five tree species were taken in spring and in summer 2002, respectively, differentiating between organic layer and mineral soil. The gross rates of ammonification as well of

  1. A study of gross morphological and histological syringeal features of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of gross morphological and histological syringeal features of true francolins (Galliformes: Francolinus, Scleroptila, Peliperdix and Dendroperdix spp.) and spurfowls ( Pternistis spp.) in a phylogenetic context.

  2. Seeing the sink beneath the source: an improved stable isotope tracer method for measuring highly variable gross fluxes of methyl halides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, R. C.

    2011-12-01

    Measuring methyl bromide (CH3Br) and methyl chloride (CH3Cl) fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems is complicated by the presence of simultaneous production (typically associated with plants and/or fungi) and consumption (typically associated with soils). Thus, specific sites within an ecosystem can act as either a net source or net sink, depending on season, soil conditions, or vegetative cover. To interpret the highly variable net fluxes found in many of these ecosystems, a stable isotope tracer technique has been developed to measure gross fluxes of CH3Br and CH3Cl. This method entails adding small amounts of 13CH3Br and 13CH3Cl to an incubation chamber, monitoring the headspace concentration changes of both 13C and 13C isotopologues, and applying a box model to simultaneously solve for gross production and consumption. Over the last decade, this technique has been successfully applied to laboratory soil incubations and field studies from a variety of ecosystems, including boreal forest, annual grasslands, shortgrass steppe, oak-savanna woodland, and Arctic tundra. These studies demonstrate that gross uptake rates are strongly affected by soil moisture within ecosystems but are on average much lower than previously estimated, and that gross production rates are highly dependent on plant species enclosed, with minor production within the soils as well. Measuring gross uptake rates is more challenging in ecosystems with large net emissions of methyl halides, such as coastal salt marshes, rice fields and certain grassland sites. Using the tallgrass prairie of Kansas as a case study, four slightly different models to calculate gross fluxes are compared. These models are largely in agreement except at sites with large emissions (i.e., sites with Amorpha shrubs), where one of the models most robustly quantifies gross consumption. This improved stable isotope tracer method is used to track the separate responses of gross production and gross consumption of methyl halides

  3. Tidally Heated Terrestrial Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Wade Garrett

    This work models the surface and internal temperatures for hypothetical terrestrial planets in situations involving extreme tidal heating. The feasibility of such planets is evaluated in terms of the orbital perturbations that may give rise to them, their required proximity to a hoststar, and the potential for the input tidal heating to cause significant partial melting of the mantle. Trapping terrestrial planets into 2:1 resonances with migrating Hot Jupiters is considered as a reasonable way for Earth-like worlds to both maintain high eccentricities and to move to short enough orbital periods (1-20 days) for extreme tidal heating to occur. Secular resonance and secular orbital perturbations may support moderate tidal heating at a low equilibrium eccentricity. At orbital periods below 10-30 days, with eccentricities from 0.01 to 0.1, tidal heat may greatly exceed radiogenic heat production. It is unlikely to exceed insolation, except when orbiting very low luminosity hosts, and thus will have limited surface temperature expression. Observations of such bodies many not be able to detect tidal surface enhancements given a few percent uncertainty in albedo, except on the nightside of spin synchronous airless objects. Otherwise detection may occur via spectral detection of hotspots or high volcanic gas concentrations including sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. The most extreme cases may be able to produce magma oceans, or magma slush mantles with up to 40-60% melt fractions. Tides may alter the habitable zones for smaller red dwarf stars, but are generally detrimental. Multiple viscoelastic models, including the Maxwell, Voigt-Kelvin, Standard Anelastic Solid, and Burgers rheologies are explored and applied to objects such as Io and the super-Earth planet GJ 876d. The complex valued Love number for the Burgers rheology is derived and found to be a useful improvement when modeling the low temperature behavior of tidal bodies, particularly during low eccentricity

  4. Terrestrial forest management plan for Palmyra Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Stacie A.; McEachern, Kathryn; Fisher, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    This 'Terrestrial Forest Management Plan for Palmyra Atoll' was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for The Nature Conservancy (TNC) Palmyra Program to refine and expand goals and objectives developed through the Conservation Action Plan process. It is one in a series of adaptive management plans designed to achieve TNC's mission toward the protection and enhancement of native wildlife and habitat. The 'Terrestrial Forest Management Plan for Palmyra Atoll' focuses on ecosystem integrity and specifically identifies and addresses issues related to assessing the status and distribution of resources, as well as the pressures acting upon them, most specifically nonnative and potentially invasive species. The plan, which presents strategies for increasing ecosystem integrity, provides a framework to implement and track the progress of conservation and restoration goals related to terrestrial resources on Palmyra Atoll. The report in its present form is intended to be an overview of what is known about historical and current forest resources; it is not an exhaustive review of all available literature relevant to forest management but an attempt to assemble as much information specific to Palmyra Atoll as possible. Palmyra Atoll is one of the Northern Line Islands in the Pacific Ocean southwest of the Hawai`ian Islands. It consists of many heavily vegetated islets arranged in a horseshoe pattern around four lagoons and surrounded by a coral reef. The terrestrial ecosystem consists of three primary native vegetation types: Pisonia grandis forest, coastal strand forest, and grassland. Among these vegetation types, the health and extent of Pisonia grandis forest is of particular concern. Overall, the three vegetation types support 25 native plant species (two of which may be extirpated), 14 species of sea birds, six shore birds, at least one native reptile, at least seven native insects, and six native land crabs. Green and hawksbill turtles forage at Palmyra Atoll

  5. Ecological transfer mechanisms - Terrestrial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.E.; Raines, Gilbert E.; Bloom, S.G.; Levin, A.A.

    1969-01-01

    Radionuclides produced by nuclear excavation detonations and released to the environment may enter a variety of biogeochemical cycles and follow essentially the same transfer pathways as their stable-element counterparts. Estimation of potential internal radiation doses to individuals and/or populations living in or near fallout-contaminated areas requires analysis of the food-chain and other ecological pathways by which radionuclides released to the environment may be returned to man. A generalized materials transfer diagram, applicable to the forest, agricultural, freshwater and marine ecosystems providing food and water to the indigenous population of Panama and Colombia in regions that could be affected by nuclear excavation of a sea-level canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, is presented. Transfer mechanisms effecting the movement of stable elements and radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems are discussed, and methods used to simulate these processes by means of mathematical models are described to show how intake values are calculated for different radionuclides in the major ecological pathways leading to man. These data provide a basis for estimating potential internal radiation doses for comparison with the radiation protection criteria established by recognized authorities; and this, in turn, provides a basis for recommending measures to insure the radiological safety of the nuclear operation plan. (author)

  6. Solar-terrestrial physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, V.L.

    1977-01-01

    The Glossary is designed to be a technical dictionary that will provide solar workers of various specialties, students, other astronomers and theoreticians with concise information on the nature and the properties of phenomena of solar and solar-terrestrial physics. Each term, or group of related terms, is given a concise phenomenological and quantitative description, including the relationship to other phenomena and an interpretation in terms of physical processes. The references are intended to lead the non-specialist reader into the literature. This section deals with: geomagnetic field; coordinate systems; geomagnetic indices; Dst index; auroral electrojet index AE; daily, 27-day and semi-annual variations of geomagnetic field; micropulsation; geomagnetic storms; storm sudden commencement (SSC) or sudden commencement (SC); initial phase; ring current; sudden impulses; ionosphere; D region; polar cap absorption; sudden ionospheric disturbance; E region; sporadic E; equatorial electrojet; solar flare effect; F 1 and F 2 regions; spread F; travelling ionospheric disturbances; magnetosphere; magnetospheric coordinate systems; plasmasphere; magnetosheath; magnetospheric tail; substorm; radiation belts or Van Allen belts; whistlers; VLF emissions; aurora; auroral forms; auroral oval and auroral zones; auroral intensity; stable auroral red arcs; pulsing aurora; polar glow aurora; and airglow. (B.R.H.)

  7. Ecological transfer mechanisms - Terrestrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, W E; Raines, Gilbert E; Bloom, S G; Levin, A A [Battelle Memorial Institute, CoIumbus, OH (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Radionuclides produced by nuclear excavation detonations and released to the environment may enter a variety of biogeochemical cycles and follow essentially the same transfer pathways as their stable-element counterparts. Estimation of potential internal radiation doses to individuals and/or populations living in or near fallout-contaminated areas requires analysis of the food-chain and other ecological pathways by which radionuclides released to the environment may be returned to man. A generalized materials transfer diagram, applicable to the forest, agricultural, freshwater and marine ecosystems providing food and water to the indigenous population of Panama and Colombia in regions that could be affected by nuclear excavation of a sea-level canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, is presented. Transfer mechanisms effecting the movement of stable elements and radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems are discussed, and methods used to simulate these processes by means of mathematical models are described to show how intake values are calculated for different radionuclides in the major ecological pathways leading to man. These data provide a basis for estimating potential internal radiation doses for comparison with the radiation protection criteria established by recognized authorities; and this, in turn, provides a basis for recommending measures to insure the radiological safety of the nuclear operation plan. (author)

  8. Estimating Net Primary Productivity Using Satellite and Ancillary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Bhaskar J.

    2002-01-01

    The net primary productivity (C) or the annual rate of carbon accumulation per unit ground area by terrestrial plant communities is the difference of gross photosynthesis (A(sub g)) and respiration (R) per unit ground area. Available field observations show that R is a large and variable fraction of A(sub g), although it is generally recognized that there are considerable difficulties in determining these fluxes, and thus pose challenge in assessing the accuracy. Further uncertainties arise in extrapolating field measurements (which are acquired over a hectare or so area) to regional scale. Here, an approach is presented for determining these fluxes using satellite and ancillary data to be representative of regional scale and allow assessment of interannual variation. A, has been expressed as the product of radiation use efficiency for gross photosynthesis by an unstressed canopy and intercepted photosynthetically active radiation, which is then adjusted for stresses due to soil water shortage and temperature away from optimum. R has been calculated as the sum of growth and maintenance components (respectively, R(sub g) and R(sub m)).The R(sub m) has been determined from nitrogen content of plant tissue per unit ground area, while R(sub g) has been obtained as a fraction of the difference of A(sub g) and R(sub m). Results for five consecutive years (1986-1990) are presented for the Amazon-Tocontins, Mississippi, and Ob River basins.

  9. Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. M.; Boutrup, S.; Bijl, L. van der

    This report presents the 2004 results of the Danish National Monitoring and Assess-ment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments (NOVANA). 2004 was the first year in which terrestrial nature was included in the monitoring pro-gramme. The report reviews the state of the groundwater......, watercourses, lakes and marine waters and the pressures upon them and reviews the monitoring of terrestrial natural habitats and selected plants and animals. The report is based on the annual reports prepared for each subprogramme by the Topic Centres. The latter reports are mainly based on data collected...

  10. 26 CFR 1.832-1 - Gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., except that in the case of a mutual fire insurance company described in § 1.831-1 the amount of single... TAXES Other Insurance Companies § 1.832-1 Gross income. (a) Gross income as defined in section 832(b)(1... approved by the National Convention of Insurance Commissioners, as well as the gain derived from the sale...

  11. 26 CFR 1.993-6 - Definition of gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of gross receipts. 1.993-6 Section 1.993-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.993-6 Definition of gross receipts. (a...

  12. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... payments (APP), and base production payments (BPP). Repayment rates shall be based on previous payment... 50 gallons of net production increase. (2) For BPP, which will be made on production not eligible for... biodiesel production gross payable units. (3) Adding the APP and BPP to determine biodiesel gross payable...

  13. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  14. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Gross Motor Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…

  15. Patterns and controls of inter-annual variability in the terrestrial carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Marcolla

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial carbon fluxes show the largest variability among the components of the global carbon cycle and drive most of the temporal variations in the growth rate of atmospheric CO2. Understanding the environmental controls and trends of the terrestrial carbon budget is therefore essential to predict the future trajectories of the CO2 airborne fraction and atmospheric concentrations. In the present work, patterns and controls of the inter-annual variability (IAV of carbon net ecosystem exchange (NEE have been analysed using three different data streams: ecosystem-level observations from the FLUXNET database (La Thuile and 2015 releases, the MPI-MTE (model tree ensemble bottom–up product resulting from the global upscaling of site-level fluxes, and the Jena CarboScope Inversion, a top–down estimate of surface fluxes obtained from observed CO2 concentrations and an atmospheric transport model. Consistencies and discrepancies in the temporal and spatial patterns and in the climatic and physiological controls of IAV were investigated between the three data sources. Results show that the global average of IAV at FLUXNET sites, quantified as the standard deviation of annual NEE, peaks in arid ecosystems and amounts to  ∼  120 gC m−2 y−1, almost 6 times more than the values calculated from the two global products (15 and 20 gC m−2 y−1 for MPI-MTE and the Jena Inversion, respectively. Most of the temporal variability observed in the last three decades of the MPI-MTE and Jena Inversion products is due to yearly anomalies, whereas the temporal trends explain only about 15 and 20 % of the variability, respectively. Both at the site level and on a global scale, the IAV of NEE is driven by the gross primary productivity and in particular by the cumulative carbon flux during the months when land acts as a sink. Altogether these results offer a broad view on the magnitude, spatial patterns and environmental drivers of IAV

  16. Patterns and controls of inter-annual variability in the terrestrial carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcolla, Barbara; Rödenbeck, Christian; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2017-08-01

    The terrestrial carbon fluxes show the largest variability among the components of the global carbon cycle and drive most of the temporal variations in the growth rate of atmospheric CO2. Understanding the environmental controls and trends of the terrestrial carbon budget is therefore essential to predict the future trajectories of the CO2 airborne fraction and atmospheric concentrations. In the present work, patterns and controls of the inter-annual variability (IAV) of carbon net ecosystem exchange (NEE) have been analysed using three different data streams: ecosystem-level observations from the FLUXNET database (La Thuile and 2015 releases), the MPI-MTE (model tree ensemble) bottom-up product resulting from the global upscaling of site-level fluxes, and the Jena CarboScope Inversion, a top-down estimate of surface fluxes obtained from observed CO2 concentrations and an atmospheric transport model. Consistencies and discrepancies in the temporal and spatial patterns and in the climatic and physiological controls of IAV were investigated between the three data sources. Results show that the global average of IAV at FLUXNET sites, quantified as the standard deviation of annual NEE, peaks in arid ecosystems and amounts to ˜ 120 gC m-2 y-1, almost 6 times more than the values calculated from the two global products (15 and 20 gC m-2 y-1 for MPI-MTE and the Jena Inversion, respectively). Most of the temporal variability observed in the last three decades of the MPI-MTE and Jena Inversion products is due to yearly anomalies, whereas the temporal trends explain only about 15 and 20 % of the variability, respectively. Both at the site level and on a global scale, the IAV of NEE is driven by the gross primary productivity and in particular by the cumulative carbon flux during the months when land acts as a sink. Altogether these results offer a broad view on the magnitude, spatial patterns and environmental drivers of IAV from a variety of data sources that can be

  17. Terrestrial Water Storage and Vegetation Resilience to Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, V.; Reager, J. T., II; Konings, A. G.

    2017-12-01

    The expected increased occurrences of hydrologic extreme events such as droughts in the coming decades motivates studies to better understand and predict the response of vegetation to such extreme conditions. Previous studies have addressed vegetation resilience to drought, defined as its ability to recover from a perturbation (Hirota et al., 2011; Vicente-Serrano et al., 2012), but appear to only focus on precipitation and a couple of vegetation indices, hence lacking a key element: terrestrial water storage (TWS). In this study, we combine and compare multiple remotely-sensed hydro-ecological datasets providing information on climatic and hydrological conditions (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)) and indices characterizing the state of the vegetation (vegetation water content using Vegetation Optical Depth (VOD) from SMAP (Soil Moisture Active and Passive), Gross Primary Production (GPP) from FluxCom and Specific Fluorescence Intensity (SFI, from GOSat)) to assess the ability of vegetation to face and recover from droughts across the globe. Our results suggest that GRACE hydrological data bridge the knowledge gap between precipitation deficit and vegetation response. All products are aggregated at a 0.5º spatial resolution and a monthly temporal resolution to match the GRACE Mascon product. Despite these coarse spatiotemporal resolutions, we find that the relationship between existing remotely-sensed eco-hydrologic data varies spatially, both in terms of strength of relationship and time lag, showing the response time of vegetation characteristics to hydrological changes and highlighting the role of water storage. A special attention is given to the Amazon river basin, where two well documented droughts occurred in 2005 and 2010, and where a more recent drought occurred in 2015/2016. References : Hirota, Marina, et al. "Global resilience of tropical forest and savanna to critical transitions." Science

  18. Consequences of simulating terrestrial N dynamics for projecting future terrestrial C storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaehle, S.; Friend, A. D.; Friedlingstein, P.

    2009-04-01

    We present results of a new land surface model, O-CN, which includes a process-based coupling between the terrestrial cycling of energy, water, carbon, and nitrogen. The model represents the controls of the terrestrial nitrogen (N) cycling on carbon (C) pools and fluxes through photosynthesis, respiration, changes in allocation patterns, as well as soil organic matter decomposition, and explicitly accounts for N leaching and gaseous losses. O-CN has been shown to give realistic results in comparison to observations at a wide range of scales, including in situ flux measurements, productivity databases, and atmospheric CO2 concentration data. Notably, O-CN simulates realistic responses of net primary productivity, foliage area, and foliage N content to elevated atmospheric [CO2] as evidenced at free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) sites (Duke, Oak Ridge). We re-examine earlier model-based assessments of the terrestrial C sequestration potential using a global transient O-CN simulation driven by increases in atmospheric [CO2], N deposition and climatic changes over the 21st century. We find that accounting for terrestrial N cycling about halves the potential to store C in response to increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations; mainly due to a reduction of the net C uptake in temperate and boreal forests. Nitrogen deposition partially alleviates the effect of N limitation, but is by far not sufficient to compensate for the effect completely. These findings underline the importance of an accurate representation of nutrient limitations in future projections of the terrestrial net CO2 exchanges and therefore land-climate feedback studies.

  19. An electronic instructor for gross anatomy dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Eleanor M; Moore, Larry J

    2006-01-01

    Gross anatomy is time consuming to teach and to learn. Because the process of dissection takes up so much student time, assistance in the form of an in-lab instructional DVD program might improve student performance. The DVD could be viewed with a portable device by individual dissection groups at their tables. Groups could dissect at their own pace, with access to step-by-step demonstrations and answers to frequently asked anatomical questions. We created an instructional DVD program demonstrating dissection of the canine ventral neck and thoracic limb. The effect on student exam scores of using the DVD versus not using it was measured in a controlled, two-sample study using incoming first-year veterinary students as volunteers. Volunteers were told the study was of two different dissection methods; the DVD was not specifically mentioned until after the students were separated into two groups (Blue/DVD group and Orange/No DVD group), and then only to volunteers in the Blue group. Except for the DVD, the two groups had the same resources. The difference in scores on an exam given after a single dissection period did not differ sufficiently to conclude that DVD use raised the mean score; however, 73% of the DVD group scored 60% or higher, while only 38% of the No DVD group scored 60% or higher. The difference in mean scores overall was 2.3 points out of a possible 49, suggesting that the DVD helped students, especially those with lower scores, to earn two to three more points than they would have otherwise.

  20. Assimilating solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence into the terrestrial biosphere model BETHY-SCOPE v1.0: model description and information content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Alexander J.; Rayner, Peter J.; Koffi, Ernest N.; Scholze, Marko

    2018-04-01

    The synthesis of model and observational information using data assimilation can improve our understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle, a key component of the Earth's climate-carbon system. Here we provide a data assimilation framework for combining observations of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) and a process-based model to improve estimates of terrestrial carbon uptake or gross primary production (GPP). We then quantify and assess the constraint SIF provides on the uncertainty in global GPP through model process parameters in an error propagation study. By incorporating 1 year of SIF observations from the GOSAT satellite, we find that the parametric uncertainty in global annual GPP is reduced by 73 % from ±19.0 to ±5.2 Pg C yr-1. This improvement is achieved through strong constraint of leaf growth processes and weak to moderate constraint of physiological parameters. We also find that the inclusion of uncertainty in shortwave down-radiation forcing has a net-zero effect on uncertainty in GPP when incorporated into the SIF assimilation framework. This study demonstrates the powerful capacity of SIF to reduce uncertainties in process-based model estimates of GPP and the potential for improving our predictive capability of this uncertain carbon flux.

  1. Relationship between habitual physical activity and gross motor skills is multifaceted in 5- to 8-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukkanen, A; Pesola, A; Havu, M; Sääkslahti, A; Finni, T

    2014-04-01

    Adequate motor skills are essential for children participating in age-related physical activities, and gross motor skills may play an important role for maintaining sufficient level of physical activity (PA) during life course. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between gross motor skills and PA in children when PA was analyzed by both metabolic- and neuromuscular-based methods. Gross motor skills (KTK--Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder and APM inventory--manipulative skill test) of 84 children aged 5-8 years (53 preschoolers, 28 girls; 31 primary schoolers, 18 girls) were measured, and accelerometer-derived PA was analyzed using in parallel metabolic counts and neuromuscular impact methods. The gross motor skills were associated with moderate-to-high neuromuscular impacts, PA of vigorous metabolic intensity, and mean level of PA in primary school girls (0.5 motor skills (0.4 motor skills and PA stressing both metabolic and neuromuscular systems in children. Furthermore, PA highly stressing neuromuscular system interacts with gross motor proficiency in girls especially. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Gross greenhouse gas fluxes from hydro-power reservoir compared to thermo-power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Marco Aurelio dos; Pinguelli Rosa, Luiz; Sikar, Bohdan; Sikar, Elizabeth; Santos, Ednaldo Oliveira dos

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of gross carbon dioxide and methane emissions measurements in several Brazilian hydro-reservoirs, compared to thermo power generation. The term 'gross emissions' means gas flux measurements from the reservoir surface without natural pre-impoundment emissions by natural bodies such as the river channel, seasonal flooding and terrestrial ecosystems. The net emissions result from deducting pre-existing emissions by the reservoir. A power dam emits biogenic gases such as CO 2 and CH 4 . However, studies comparing gas emissions (gross emissions) from the reservoir surface with emissions by thermo-power generation technologies show that the hydro-based option presents better results in most cases analyzed. In this study, measurements were carried in the Miranda, Barra Bonita, Segredo, Tres Marias, Xingo, and Samuel and Tucurui reservoirs, located in two different climatological regimes. Additional data were used here from measurements taken at the Itaipu and Serra da Mesa reservoirs. Comparisons were also made between emissions from hydro-power plants and their thermo-based equivalents. Bearing in mind that the estimated values for hydro-power plants include emissions that are not totally anthropogenic, the hydro-power plants studied generally posted lower emissions than their equivalent thermo-based counterparts. Hydro-power complexes with greater power densities (capacity/area flooded-W/m 2 ), such as Itaipu, Xingo, Segredo and Miranda, have the best performance, well above thermo-power plants using state-of-the-art technology: combined cycle fueled by natural gas, with 50% efficiency. On the other hand, some hydro-power complexes with low-power density perform only slightly better or even worse than their thermo-power counterparts

  3. Summarized report of geothermal well Gross Buchholz Gt1; Kurzprofil der Geothermiebohrung Gross Buchholz Gt1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Frauke; Hesshaus, Annalena; Jatho, Reiner; Luppold, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Pletsch, Thomas; Tischner, Torsten [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Hunze, Sabine; Orilski, Judith; Wonik, Thomas [Leibniz-Institut fuer Angewandte Geophysik (LIAG), Hannover (Germany); Roehling, Heinz-Gerd [Landesamt fuer Bergbau, Energie und Geologie (LBEG), Hannover (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    The well Gross Buchholz Gt1 is a deep geothermal well intended to demonstrate the feasibility of deep geothermal energy mining from tight sedimentary rocks. It is the core part of the GeneSys (Generated Geothermal Energy Systems) project, aiming at developing single well concepts for direct use of geothermal energy. During the course of the project, three different single well concepts have been developed and tested at the research well Horstberg Z1 which is geologically comparable to the Gross Buchholzwell. The latter is intended to supply the heating energy for the premises of Geozentrum Hannover, an office and lab complex of some 35.000 m{sup 2} housing about 1000 employees. The geothermal target are the sandstones of the Lower Triassic Middle Buntsandstein Formation, which have a temperature of about 165 C at 3700 depth. The well has reached a final depth of 3901 m below ground level, penetrating a nearly complete succession from the Lower Cretaceous (Albian) to the Lower Triassic (Lower Buntsandstein), while Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous sediments are missing. This article summarizes technical and geographic data, stratigraphic classification, geophysical logging, cores, and sidewall cores of the well. (orig.)

  4. Measurement of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta Radioactivity of River Yobe, North Eastern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abba, H. T.; Sadiq, U.; Adeyemo, D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity of River Yobe has been carried out. Fifteen samples of the river water were collected from the farming, fishing, domestic/livestock and control areas along the river and were analyzed using desktop alpha/beta (MPC 2000- DP) counting system. The count results show the average alpha activities in farming, fishing, domestic/livestock and control areas are 0.207±0.082, 0.257±0.13, 0.437±0.315 and 0.237±0.10 Bq L -1 , respectively. The average beta activities in the four areas are 0.813±0.122, 0.308±0.0145, 0.563±0.230 and 0.225±0.0096 Bq L -1 , respectively. The overall results show that the alpha and beta activities in the four areas are far below the practical screening level of radioactivity in drinking water of 0.5 Bq L -1 for alpha and 1 Bq L -1 for beta recommended by CEC-FAO and WHO and therefore may not pose any serious detrimental health side-effects to the public users of the river.

  5. Convergence and Divergence in a Multi-Model Ensemble of Terrestrial Ecosystem Models in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungan, J. L.; Wang, W.; Hashimoto, H.; Michaelis, A.; Milesi, C.; Ichii, K.; Nemani, R. R.

    2009-12-01

    In support of NACP, we are conducting an ensemble modeling exercise using the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) to evaluate uncertainties among ecosystem models, satellite datasets, and in-situ measurements. The models used in the experiment include public-domain versions of Biome-BGC, LPJ, TOPS-BGC, and CASA, driven by a consistent set of climate fields for North America at 8km resolution and daily/monthly time steps over the period of 1982-2006. The reference datasets include MODIS Gross Primary Production (GPP) and Net Primary Production (NPP) products, Fluxnet measurements, and other observational data. The simulation results and the reference datasets are consistently processed and systematically compared in the climate (temperature-precipitation) space; in particular, an alternative to the Taylor diagram is developed to facilitate model-data intercomparisons in multi-dimensional space. The key findings of this study indicate that: the simulated GPP/NPP fluxes are in general agreement with observations over forests, but are biased low (underestimated) over non-forest types; large uncertainties of biomass and soil carbon stocks are found among the models (and reference datasets), often induced by seemingly “small” differences in model parameters and implementation details; the simulated Net Ecosystem Production (NEP) mainly responds to non-respiratory disturbances (e.g. fire) in the models and therefore is difficult to compare with flux data; and the seasonality and interannual variability of NEP varies significantly among models and reference datasets. These findings highlight the problem inherent in relying on only one modeling approach to map surface carbon fluxes and emphasize the pressing necessity of expanded and enhanced monitoring systems to narrow critical structural and parametrical uncertainties among ecosystem models.

  6. Gross motor skill development of kindergarten children in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Thanda; Kuramoto-Ahuja, Tsugumi; Sato, Tamae; Sadakiyo, Kaori; Watanabe, Miyoko; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2018-05-01

    [Purpose] The purposes of this study were to assess and explore the gender-based differences in gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Japanese children. [Subjects and Methods] This cross-sectional study recruited 60 healthy 5-year-old (third-year kindergarten, i.e., nencho ) children (34 boys, 26 girls) from one local private kindergarten school in Otawara city, Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. Gross motor skills, including six locomotor and six object control skills, were assessed using the test of gross motor development, second edition (TGMD-2). All subjects performed two trials of each gross motor skill, and the performances were video-recorded and scored. Assessment procedures were performed according to the standardized guidelines of the TGMD-2. [Results] The majority of subjects had an average level of overall gross motor skills. Girls had significantly better locomotor skills. Boys had significantly better object control skills. [Conclusion] The gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Japanese children involves gender-based differences in locomotor and object control skills. This study provided valuable information that can be used to establish normative references for the gross motor skills of 5-year-old Japanese children.

  7. Methane emissions form terrestrial plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamaschi, P.; Dentener, F.; Grassi, G.; Leip, A.; Somogyi, Z.; Federici, S.; Seufert, G.; Raes, F. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    In a recent issue of Nature Keppler et al. (2006) report the discovery that terrestrial plants emit CH4 under aerobic conditions. Until now it was thought that bacterial decomposition of plant material under anaerobic conditions, such as in wetlands and water flooded rice paddies, is the main process leading to emissions from terrestrial ecosystems. In a first attempt to upscale these measurements, the authors estimate that global total emissions may be 149 Tg CH4/yr (62-236 Tg CH4/yr), with the main contribution estimated from tropical forests and grasslands (107 Tg CH4/yr with a range of 46-169 Tg CH4/yr). If confirmed, this new source of emission would constitute a significant fraction of the total global methane sources (estimated 500-600 Tg CH4/yr for present day total natural and anthropogenic sources) and have important implications for the global CH4 budget. To accommodate it within the present budget some sources would need to be re-assessed downwards and/or some sinks re-assessed upwards. Furthermore, also considering that methane is a {approx}23 times more powerful greenhouse gas than CO2, the possible feedbacks of these hitherto unknown CH4 emissions on global warming and their impacts on greenhouse gases (GHG) mitigation strategies need to be carefully evaluated. The merit of the paper is without doubt related to the remarkable discovery of a new process of methane emissions active under aerobic conditions. However, we think that the applied approach of scaling up emissions from the leaf level to global totals by using only few measured data (mainly from herbaceous species) and the Net Primary Productivity of the main biomes is scientifically questionable and tends to overestimate considerably the global estimates, especially for forest biomes. Furthermore, some significant constraints on the upper limit of the global natural CH4 emissions arise from the pre-industrial CH4 budget. Pre-industrial atmospheric CH4 mixing ratios have been measured

  8. Estimation of inhalation doses from airborne releases using gross monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, N.P.

    1978-01-01

    Monitoring programs at most nuclear facilities involve continuous gross measurements supplemented by periodic isotopic analyses of release samples. The isotopic measurements are required to accurately assess the potential dose from the various effluent streams, but in between these measurements, one depends on the gross monitors to provide approximate indications of the dose. The effluent streams release a variety of nuclides, each with its own dose factor. This means that the relationship between the counting rate in a gross monitor and the potential dose of the effluent being monitored will depend on the isotopic composition of this release. If this composition changes, then the dose indicated by the gross monitor (calibrated for the original group of isotopes) may be significantly in error. The problem of indicating inhalation doses from gross monitoring of airborne releases is considered. In order for this type of monitor to accurately indicate dose, regardless of the isotopic makeup of a release, the analysis shows that its response to each isotope should be proportional to the dose factor of that isotope. These ideas are applied to the monitoring of air particulates using gross beta and gross gamma monitors. The study shows that the former more closely satisfies this condition and as a result, satisfactorily indicates the actual dose from reactor effluents, as determined from detailed isotopic data published in the literature. On the other hand, the gross gamma monitor, with its poorer fit to the condition, provided less than satisfactory accuracy in its dose estimates. In addition, a variety of other mathematical response functions were considered but their dose estimation capabilities were not much better than the straight beta response. The study shows that reasonably accurate dose estimates can be made using properly selected gross monitors, but that significant errors can result with improper ones. (author)

  9. 26 CFR 1.61-4 - Gross income of farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... exchange is to be included in gross income. Proceeds of insurance, such as hail or fire insurance on... include crop insurance proceeds in income for taxable year following taxable year of destruction. For...

  10. Gross efficiency during rowing is not affected by stroke rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmijster, M.J.; van Soest, A.J.; de Koning, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: It has been suggested that the optimal stroke rate in rowing is partly determined by the stroke-rate dependence of internal power losses. This should be reflected in a stroke-rate dependency of gross efficiency (e

  11. A variational approach to the Gross-Neveu model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, H.; Misra, P.; Mishra, A.

    1988-01-01

    The authors solve the instability of perturbative vacuum of Gross-Neveu model. They use a variational method. The analysis is nonperturbative as it uses only equal time commmutator/anticommutator algebra

  12. Utilization of the terrestrial cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Furukawa, Jun; Kimura, Shunta; Yokoshima, Mika; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    The terrestrial, N _{2}-fixing cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune has expected to utilize for agriculture, food and terraforming cause of its extracellular polysaccharide, desiccation tolerance and nitrogen fixation. Previously, the first author indicated that desiccation related genes were analyzed and the suggested that the genes were related to nitrogen fixation and metabolisms. In this report, we suggest possibility of agriculture, using the cyanobacterium. Further, we also found radioactive compounds accumulated N. commune (cyanobacterium) in Fukushima, Japan after nuclear accident. Thus, it is investigated to decontaminate radioactive compounds from the surface soil by the cyanobacterium and showed to accumulate radioactive compounds using the cyanobacterium. We will discuss utilization of terrestrial cyanobacteria under closed environment. Keyword: Desiccation, terrestrial cyanobacteria, bioremediation, agriculture

  13. Soil and terrestrial biology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Soil and terrestrial biology studies focused on developing an understanding of the uptake of gaseous substances from the atmosphere by plants, biodegradation of oil, and the movement of Pu in the terrestrial ecosystems of the southeastern United States. Mathematical models were developed for SO 2 and tritium uptake from the atmosphere by plants; the uptake of tritium by soil microorganisms was measured; and the relationships among the Pu content of soil, plants, and animals of the Savannah River Plant area were studied. Preliminary results are reported for studies on the biodegradation of waste oil on soil surfaces

  14. Structure of the terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyttleton, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Recent reviews (cf. Runcorn, 1968; or Cook, 1972, 1975) on the structure of the planets omit reference to the phase-change hypothesis for the nature of the terrestrial core, despite that numerous prior predictions of the theory based on this hypothesis have subsequently been borne out as correct. These reviews also ignore the existence of theoretical calculations of the internal structure of Venus which can be computed with high accuracy by use of the terrestrial seismic data. Several examples of numerous mistakes committed in these reviews are pointed out. (Auth.)

  15. Priapism caused by 'Tribulus terrestris'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, M; De Thomasis, R; Tenaglia, R L

    2016-01-01

    A 36-year-old Caucasian man was diagnosed with a 72-h-lasting priapism that occurred after the assumption of a Herbal supplement based on Tribulus terrestris, which is becoming increasingly popular for the treatment of sexual dysfunction. The patient underwent a cavernoglandular shunt (Ebbehoj shunt) in order to obtain complete detumescence, from which derived negative post-episode outcomes on sexual function. All patients consuming non-FDA-approved alternative supplements such as Tribulus terrestris should be warned about the possible serious side effects.

  16. Relevancia de la anatomía humana en el ejercicio de la medicina de asistencia primaria y en el estudio de las asignaturas de segundo ciclo de la licenciatura en medicina Relevance of Gross Human Anatomy in health primary care and in clinical disciplines of medical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Mompeó

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer la relevancia y la necesidad que de conocimientos en Anatomía macroscópica tenían los médicos de asistencia primaria y los alumnos del segundo ciclo de la licenciatura en Medicina. También nos interesó saber cual era su opinión sobre esta disciplina del curriculum médico. Para ello, médicos de asistencia primaria de los Centros de Salud de la provincia de las Palmas y alumnos de 6º curso de la Licenciatura en Medicina de la U.L.P.G.C., cumplimentaron un cuestionario en el que se valoraron los aspectos referidos. Ambos grupos consideraron que la Anatomía era fundamental para la exploración física y para la interpretación de técnicas de imagen. Los conocimientos más necesarios a la hora de su aplicación a la práctica y al estudio de las asignaturas clínicas fueron los de sistema nervioso y aparato locomotor. Modificarían la docencia que recibieron, incrementando el número de clases prácticas y dándole un mayor enfoque clínico. Los tres objetivos fundamentales de aprendizaje propuestos por los profesionales en ejercicio fueron: 1. Conocer las estructuras anatómicas y relaciones entre ellas 2. Reconocer estructuras anatómicas mediante técnicas de imagen y 3. Ser capaz de describir las bases anatómicas de la patología.The aim of this work was to highlight the relevance and necessity about gross anatomy knowledge had on family physicians and clinical-courses medical students. We also wanted to know their suggestions about the discipline Human Anatomy in Medical studies. To obtain our objective, physicians of Health Centres in Las Palmas and last-year medical students of U.L.P.G.C. were asked to fill a questionnaire. In this questionnaire the referred items were considered. The data obtained showed that both groups thought that Gross Anatomy was fundamental in the physical exploration and the image techniques interpretation. They considered that anatomical knowledge more necessary for

  17. Research progress on spatial-temporal dynamic simulation model of net primary productivity of terrestrial ecosystems%陆地生态系统净初级生产力的时空动态模拟研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莺; 夏文韬; 梁天刚

    2010-01-01

    陆地生态系统净初级生产力(Net Primary Productivity, NPP)研究是全球变化的核心内容之一,反映了植被每年通过光合作用所固定的碳总量.近年来将遥感数据引入到NPP的模型设计和估算中已成为了一种新的发展方向,它利用遥感获得的全覆盖数据,使区域及全球尺度的NPP估算成为可能.回顾了NPP研究历史,综合分析了气候相关统计模型、生态系统过程模型和光能利用率模型的优缺点;以CASA、C-FIX和BIOME-BGC这3种遥感参数模型为例,阐述和分析了该类模型的特点以及国内外的研究进展,提出了NPP模型存在的问题和未来的发展方向.

  18. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C H; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2014-02-01

    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7- to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n=56; 39 boys, 17 girls), gross motor skills were assessed with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and measured annually during a 3-year period. Motor scores of 253 typically developing children (125 boys, 112 girls) were collected for references values. The multilevel analyses showed that the ball skills of children with LD improved with age (p50). Boys had higher ball skill scores than girls (p=.002) and these differences were constant over time. Typically developing children outperformed the children with LD on the locomotor skills and ball skills at all ages, except the locomotor skills at age 7. Children with LD develop their ball skills later in the primary school-period compared to typically developing peers. However, 11 year-old children with LD had a lag in locomotor skills and ball skills of at least four and three years, respectively, compared to their peers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Solar terrestrial coupling through space plasma processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birn, J.

    2000-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project investigates plasma processes that govern the interaction between the solar wind, charged particles ejected from the sun, and the earth's magnetosphere, the region above the ionosphere governed by the terrestrial magnetic field. Primary regions of interest are the regions where different plasma populations interact with each other. These are regions of particularly dynamic plasma behavior, associated with magnetic flux and energy transfer and dynamic energy release. The investigations concerned charged particle transport and energization, and microscopic and macroscopic instabilities in the magnetosphere and adjacent regions. The approaches combined space data analysis with theory and computer simulations

  20. The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library (PTAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, S. C.; Dypvik, H.; Poulet, F.; Rull Perez, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Bultel, B.; Casanova Roque, C.; Carter, J.; Cousin, A.; Guzman, A.; Hamm, V.; Hellevang, H.; Lantz, C.; Lopez-Reyes, G.; Manrique, J. A.; Maurice, S.; Medina Garcia, J.; Navarro, R.; Negro, J. I.; Neumann, E. R.; Pilorget, C.; Riu, L.; Sætre, C.; Sansano Caramazana, A.; Sanz Arranz, A.; Sobron Grañón, F.; Veneranda, M.; Viennet, J.-C.; PTAL Team

    2018-04-01

    The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library project aims to build and exploit a spectral data base for the characterisation of the mineralogical and geological evolution of terrestrial planets and small solar system bodies.

  1. Terrestrial Steering Group. 2014. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Peter; Aronsson, Mora; Barry, Tom

    capacity and information may be currently available and (b) to outline near-term required steps to begin implementing the plan and reporting on an initial set of Arctic terrestrial biodiversity focal ecosystem component attributes. The specific objectives of the workshop were to: Identify key products...... for TSG for the next two years. Identify key components of a pan-Arctic status report for priority focal ecosystem components (FEC) attributes for policy and decision makers. Develop a prioritized set of activities to meet reporting objectives. Identify key milestones and timelines for the successful...... implementation of the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan for the next two years. Identify expert networks required for successful implementation of the plan. Identify key gaps and opportunities for the TSG related to plan implementation and identify near-term next steps to address gaps....

  2. Complementarity of flux- and biometric-based data to constrain parameters in a terrestrial carbon model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenggang Du

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve models for accurate projections, data assimilation, an emerging statistical approach to combine models with data, have recently been developed to probe initial conditions, parameters, data content, response functions and model uncertainties. Quantifying how many information contents are contained in different data streams is essential to predict future states of ecosystems and the climate. This study uses a data assimilation approach to examine the information contents contained in flux- and biometric-based data to constrain parameters in a terrestrial carbon (C model, which includes canopy photosynthesis and vegetation–soil C transfer submodels. Three assimilation experiments were constructed with either net ecosystem exchange (NEE data only or biometric data only [including foliage and woody biomass, litterfall, soil organic C (SOC and soil respiration], or both NEE and biometric data to constrain model parameters by a probabilistic inversion application. The results showed that NEE data mainly constrained parameters associated with gross primary production (GPP and ecosystem respiration (RE but were almost invalid for C transfer coefficients, while biometric data were more effective in constraining C transfer coefficients than other parameters. NEE and biometric data constrained about 26% (6 and 30% (7 of a total of 23 parameters, respectively, but their combined application constrained about 61% (14 of all parameters. The complementarity of NEE and biometric data was obvious in constraining most of parameters. The poor constraint by only NEE or biometric data was probably attributable to either the lack of long-term C dynamic data or errors from measurements. Overall, our results suggest that flux- and biometric-based data, containing different processes in ecosystem C dynamics, have different capacities to constrain parameters related to photosynthesis and C transfer coefficients, respectively. Multiple data sources could also

  3. Using satellite data to improve the leaf phenology of a global terrestrial biosphere model

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacBean, N.; Maignan, F.; Peylin, P.; Bacour, C.; Bréon, F.-M.; Ciais, P.

    2015-12-01

    Correct representation of seasonal leaf dynamics is crucial for terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs), but many such models cannot accurately reproduce observations of leaf onset and senescence. Here we optimised the phenology-related parameters of the ORCHIDEE TBM using satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data (MODIS NDVI v5) that are linearly related to the model fAPAR. We found the misfit between the observations and the model decreased after optimisation for all boreal and temperate deciduous plant functional types, primarily due to an earlier onset of leaf senescence. The model bias was only partially reduced for tropical deciduous trees and no improvement was seen for natural C4 grasses. Spatial validation demonstrated the generality of the posterior parameters for use in global simulations, with an increase in global median correlation of 0.56 to 0.67. The simulated global mean annual gross primary productivity (GPP) decreased by ~ 10 PgC yr-1 over the 1990-2010 period due to the substantially shortened growing season length (GSL - by up to 30 days in the Northern Hemisphere), thus reducing the positive bias and improving the seasonal dynamics of ORCHIDEE compared to independent data-based estimates. Finally, the optimisations led to changes in the strength and location of the trends in the simulated vegetation productivity as represented by the GSL and mean annual fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR), suggesting care should be taken when using un-calibrated models in attribution studies. We suggest that the framework presented here can be applied for improving the phenology of all global TBMs.

  4. Measurement of gross alpha, gross beta, radon and radium activity concentrations in aqueous samples using liquid scintillation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaini Hamzah; Ahmad Saat; Masitah Alias; Siti Afiqah Abdul Rahman; Mohamed Kasim; Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Malaysia has taken a positive step toward providing a better water quality by introducing more water quality parameters into its Water Quality Standard. With regard to the natural radionuclides that may present in the water, 3 parameters were introduced that is gross alpha, gross beta and radium which need to be measured and cannot exceed 0.1, 1.0 and 1.0 Bq/ L respectively. This study was conducted to develop a more practical method in measuring these parameters in aqueous environmental samples. Besides having a lot of former tin mining areas, some part of Malaysia is located on the granitic rock which also contributes to a certain extent the amount of natural radionuclides such as uranium and thorium. For all we know these two radionuclides are the origin of other radionuclides being produced from their decay series. The State of Kelantan was chosen as the study area, where the water samples were collected from various part of the Kelantan River. 25 liters of samples were collected, acidify to pH 2 and filtered before the analysis. Measurement of these parameters was done using liquid scintillation counter (LSC). The LSC was set up to the optimum discriminator level and counting was done using alpha-beta mode. The results show that gross alpha and beta can be measured using scintillation cocktail and radium and radon using extraction method. The results for gross alpha, gross beta, 222 Ra and 226 Ra are 0.39-6.42, 0.66-16.18, 0.40-4.65 and 0.05-0.56 Bq/ L. MDA for gross alpha, gross beta and radium is 0.03, 0.08 and 0.00035 Bq/ L respectively. (Author)

  5. Effect of water content nitrogen gross mineralization and immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videla C, Ximena; Parada, Ana Maria; Nario M, Adriana; Pino N, Ines; Hood, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    The decomposition of organic matter in soil, and the accompanying mineralization and immobilization of inorganic N, are key processes in the soil plant cycle. It is hypothesized that moisture regime may also play an important role on these processes. Two laboratory studies were carried out to investigate the effect of moisture regime on gross mineralization and immobilization of N, in and Ultisol soil, which was incubated at 25 o C, under two moisture regimes, field capacity (CC) (40% w/w) and 85% of field capacity (34% w/w): Using mirror image 15 N isotope dilution techniques, it was possible to determine gross nitrification and mineralization rates. The rates of gross mineralization and nitrification rate in this soil was extremely rapid and efficient, specially with 85% CC. The N transformations varied with moisture regime (author)

  6. Assessing the ability of three land ecosystem models to simulate gross carbon uptake of forests from boreal to Mediterranean climate in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jung

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Three terrestrial biosphere models (LPJ, Orchidee, Biome-BGC were evaluated with respect to their ability to simulate large-scale climate related trends in gross primary production (GPP across European forests. Simulated GPP and leaf area index (LAI were compared with GPP estimates based on flux separated eddy covariance measurements of net ecosystem exchange and LAI measurements along a temperature gradient ranging from the boreal to the Mediterranean region. The three models capture qualitatively the pattern suggested by the site data: an increase in GPP from boreal to temperate and a subsequent decline from temperate to Mediterranean climates. The models consistently predict higher GPP for boreal and lower GPP for Mediterranean forests. Based on a decomposition of GPP into absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (APAR and radiation use efficiency (RUE, the overestimation of GPP for the boreal coniferous forests appears to be primarily related to too high simulated LAI - and thus light absorption (APAR – rather than too high radiation use efficiency. We cannot attribute the tendency of the models to underestimate GPP in the water limited region to model structural deficiencies with confidence. A likely dry bias of the input meteorological data in southern Europe may create this pattern.

    On average, the models compare similarly well to the site GPP data (RMSE of ~30% or 420 gC/m2/yr but differences are apparent for different ecosystem types. In terms of absolute values, we find the agreement between site based GPP estimates and simulations acceptable when we consider uncertainties about the accuracy in model drivers, a potential representation bias of the eddy covariance sites, and uncertainties related to the method of deriving GPP from eddy covariance measurements data. Continental to global data-model comparison studies should be fostered in the future since they are necessary to identify consistent model bias along environmental

  7. Land use related silica dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems.

    OpenAIRE

    Clymans, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Silicon (Si) provides the base component for well-balanced food-webs in aquatic systems. Here, together with nitrogen and phosphorous Si determines phytoplankton composition, and plays a major role in eutrophication problems and carbon sequestration. Rivers are the primary source of Si for the oceans, and is ultimately derived from mineral weathering. However there is growing evidence illustrating the importance of biological Si cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Riverine Si fluxes will be af...

  8. A survey of gross alpha and gross beta activity in soil samples in Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Siak Kuan; Wagiran, Husin; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations from the different soil types found in the Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia. A total of 128 soil samples were collected and their dose rates were measured 1 m above the ground. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurements were carried out using gas flow proportional counter, Tennelec Series 5 LB5500 Automatic Low Background Counting System. The alpha activity concentration ranged from 15 to 9634 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 1558±121 Bq kg -1 . The beta activity concentration ranged from 142 to 6173 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 1112±32 Bq kg -1 . High alpha and beta activity concentrations are from the same soil type. The results of the analysis show a strong correlation between the gross alpha activity concentration and dose rate (R = 0.92). The data obtained can be used as a database for each soil type. (authors)

  9. Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie T Manipadam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD is a rare cause of ACTH-independent Cushing′s syndrome and has characteristic gross and microscopic pathologic findings. We report a case of PPNAD in a 15-year-old boy, which was not associated with Carney′s complex. Bilateral adrenalectomy is the treatment of choice.

  10. Spatial vision in Bombus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravin eChakravarthi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bombus terrestris is one of the most commonly used insect models to investigate visually guided behavior and spatial vision in particular. Two fundamental measures of spatial vision are spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity. In this study, we report the threshold of spatial resolution in B. terrestris and characterize the contrast sensitivity function of the bumblebee visual system for a dual choice discrimination task. We trained bumblebees in a Y-maze experimental set-up to associate a vertical sinusoidal grating with a sucrose reward, and a horizontal grating with absence of a reward. Using a logistic psychometric function, we estimated a resolution threshold of 0.21 cycles deg-1 of visual angle. This resolution is in the same range but slightly lower than that found in honeybees (Apis mellifera and A. cerana and another bumblebee species (B. impatiens. We also found that the contrast sensitivity of B. terrestris was 1.57 for the spatial frequency 0.09 cycles deg-1 and 1.26. for 0.18 cycles deg-1.

  11. Geospatial variability of soil CO2-C exchange in the main terrestrial ecosystems of Keller Peninsula, Maritime Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomazini, A; Francelino, M R; Pereira, A B; Schünemann, A L; Mendonça, E S; Almeida, P H A; Schaefer, C E G R

    2016-08-15

    Soils and vegetation play an important role in the carbon exchange in Maritime Antarctica but little is known on the spatial variability of carbon processes in Antarctic terrestrial environments. The objective of the current study was to investigate (i) the soil development and (ii) spatial variability of ecosystem respiration (ER), net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), gross primary production (GPP), soil temperature (ST) and soil moisture (SM) under four distinct vegetation types and a bare soil in Keller Peninsula, King George Island, Maritime Antarctica, as follows: site 1: moss-turf community; site 2: moss-carpet community; site 3: phanerogamic antarctic community; site 4: moss-carpet community (predominantly colonized by Sanionia uncinata); site 5: bare soil. Soils were sampled at different layers. A regular 40-point (5×8 m) grid, with a minimum separation distance of 1m, was installed at each site to quantify the spatial variability of carbon exchange, soil moisture and temperature. Vegetation characteristics showed closer relation with soil development across the studied sites. ER reached 2.26μmolCO2m(-2)s(-1) in site 3, where ST was higher (7.53°C). A greater sink effect was revealed in site 4 (net uptake of 1.54μmolCO2m(-2)s(-1)) associated with higher SM (0.32m(3)m(-3)). Spherical models were fitted to describe all experimental semivariograms. Results indicate that ST and SM are directly related to the spatial variability of CO2 exchange. Heterogeneous vegetation patches showed smaller range values. Overall, poorly drained terrestrial ecosystems act as CO2 sink. Conversely, where ER is more pronounced, they are associated with intense soil carbon mineralization. The formations of new ice-free areas, depending on the local soil drainage condition, have an important effect on CO2 exchange. With increasing ice/snow melting, and resulting widespread waterlogging, increasing CO2 sink in terrestrial ecosystems is expected for Maritime Antarctica. Copyright

  12. Changes of global terrestrial carbon budget and major drivers in recent 30 years simulated using the remote sensing driven BEPS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, W.; Chen, J.; Liu, R.; Liu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The process-based Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) model was employed in conjunction with spatially distributed leaf area index (LAI), land cover, soil, and climate data to simulate the carbon budget of global terrestrial ecosystems during the period from 1981 to 2008. The BEPS model was first calibrated and validated using gross primary productivity (GPP), net primary productivity (NPP), and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) measured in different ecosystems across the word. Then, four global simulations were conducted at daily time steps and a spatial resolution of 8 km to quantify the global terrestrial carbon budget and to identify the relative contributions of changes in climate, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and LAI to the global terrestrial carbon sink. The long term LAI data used to drive the model was generated through fusing Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and historical Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data pixel by pixel. The meteorological fields were interpolated from the 0.5° global daily meteorological dataset produced by the land surface hydrological research group at Princeton University. The results show that the BEPS model was able to simulate carbon fluxes in different ecosystems. Simulated GPP, NPP, and NEP values and their temporal trends exhibited distinguishable spatial patterns. During the period from 1981 to 2008, global terrestrial ecosystems acted as a carbon sink. The averaged global totals of GPP NPP, and NEP were 122.70 Pg C yr-1, 56.89 Pg C yr-1, and 2.76 Pg C yr-1, respectively. The global totals of GPP and NPP increased greatly, at rates of 0.43 Pg C yr-2 (R2=0.728) and 0.26 Pg C yr-2 (R2=0.709), respectively. Global total NEP did not show an apparent increasing trend (R2= 0.036), averaged 2.26 Pg C yr-1, 3.21 Pg C yr-1, and 2.72 Pg C yr-1 for the periods from 1981 to 1989, from 1990 to 1999, and from 2000 to 2008, respectively. The magnitude and temporal trend of global

  13. Influence of crosstalk phenomenon on the measurement of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerilemandahu; Haribala; Xu Xiao; Shen Na; Sai Wenga; Bai Guilin; Wang Chengguo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of crosstalk phenomenon on the measurement of gross radioactivity in drinking water. Methods: The gross activity in different standard materials with different thickness and area was measured using national standard method. Results: There was no obvious change in crosstalk factor with the increase of "2"4"1Am powder amount in the measurement, whereas the larger amount of uranium used might lead to larger crosstalk factor. The different measurement channels resulted in different crosstalk factors. The influence of beta radioactivity on alpha radioactivity measurement was significant. On the contrary, the alpha-to-beta crosstalk factor was negligible. The area of sample plate imposed no significant influence on crosstalk factor. Conclusions: The gross beta activity can be corrected to decrease the influence of alpha radioactivity using powder standard samples, when simultaneous alpha and beta counting mode is applied in measurement grass radioactivity in drinking water. (authors)

  14. A biophysical process based approach for estimating net primary production using satellite and ground observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Bhaskar J.

    An approach is presented for calculating interannual variation of net primary production (C) of terrestrial plant communities at regional scale using satellite and ground measurements. C has been calculated as the difference of gross photosynthesis (A g) and respiration (R), recognizing that different biophysical factors exert major control on these two processes. A g has been expressed as the product of radiation use efficiency for gross photosynthesis by an unstressed canopy and intercepted photosynthetically active radiation, which is then adjusted for stresses due to soil water shortage and temperature away from optimum. R has been calculated as the sum of growth and maintenance components (respectively, R g and R m. The R m has been determined from nitrogen content of plant tissue per unit ground area, while R g has been obtained as a fraction of the difference of A g and R m. Model parameters have not been determined by matching the calculated fluxes against observations at any location. Results are presented for cultivated and temperate deciduous forest areas over North America for five consecutive years (1986-1990) and compared with observations.

  15. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hardiono D. Pusponegoro; Pustika Efar; Soedjatmiko; Amanda Soebadi; Agus Firmansyah; Hui-Ju Chen; Kun-Long Hung

    2016-01-01

    While social impairment is considered to be the core deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a large proportion of these children have poor gross motor ability, and gross motor deficits may influence socialization skills in children with ASD. The objectives of this study were to compare gross motor skills in children with ASD to typically developing children, to describe gross motor problems in children with ASD, and to investigate associations between gross motor and sociali...

  16. Crustal development in the terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of planetary crusts may be divided into primary, resulting from melting during accretion, and secondary crusts developed by partial melting from planetary mantles. The Mercurian crust is probably primary with no compelling evidence of later basaltic extrusions. Reflectance spectral evidence for the existence Fe2(+) is equivocal. The Viking Lander XRF data on Mars indicate basaltic material at both sites 4,000 km apart. Surface aeolian processes would be expected to provide a homogeneous average of the crust, but no evidence of more siliceous material is present. This conclusion is weakly supported by the Russian gamma ray data. No evidence for granite appears from the Russian Venera XRF data which indicates MORB-type and alkali basalt (4% K2O) surface compositions. The highlands of Ishtar Terra and Aphrodite probably owe their elevation to tectonic processes rather than compositional effects. Venus may thus resemble the early Archean Earth. The terrestrial granitic continental crust is a product of episodic multiple partial melting events, probably a consequence of the presence of surface water.

  17. ϵ-expansion in the Gross-Neveu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, Avinash [Center for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2016-10-18

    We use the recently developed CFT techniques of Rychkov and Tan to compute anomalous dimensions in the O(N) Gross-Neveu model in d=2+ϵ dimensions. To do this, we extend the “cowpie contraction' algorithm of http://arxiv.org/abs/1506.06616 to theories with fermions. Our results match perfectly with Feynman diagram computations.

  18. Gross and microscopic lesions in corals from Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Hughen, Konrad A.

    2015-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  19. Gross morphometric study on the reproductive system of Japanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quail farming is emerging in commercial poultry farming to provide alternatives to domestic chicken production and also strengthen the poultry production demands for animal protein. This study was conducted to determine the gross morphometry of the ovary and oviduct of inapparently healthy adult laying Japanese quail ...

  20. Awareness and use of Gross Motor Function Classification System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction The degree of disability in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) can be evaluated with the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), a valid tool which was designed for such purposes. However, there appears to be paucity of data on the awareness and use of the GMFCS particularly in the ...

  1. Gross and morphometric anatomical changes of the thyroid gland in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gross and morphometric anatomical changes of the thyroid gland in the West African Dwarf Goat ( Capra hircus ) during the foetal and post-natal periods of development. ... The right lobe was more cranially located on the larynx and trachea than the left lobe in all age groups. Thyroid isthmus was absent in few foetal thyroid ...

  2. Survey On Management Systems And Gross Profit Analysis Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey On Management Systems And Gross Profit Analysis Of Muturu In Southern Cross River State. ... in muturu rearing for commercial purposes. Cost price of muturu within the study area was uniform due to the influence of market associations. The selling price of muturu cattle is however influenced by the location.

  3. Interlimb Coordination: An Important Facet of Gross-Motor Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Tatiana; Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila

    2009-01-01

    Motor development attains landmark significance during early childhood. Although early childhood educators may be familiar with the gross-motor skill category, the subcategory of interlimb coordination needs greater attention than it typically receives from teachers of young children. Interlimb coordination primarily involves movements requiring…

  4. 77 FR 51706 - Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... [Docket No. FMCSA-2012-0156] RIN 2126-AB53 Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition AGENCY... combination weight rating'' (GCWR) in our regulations. The definition currently prescribes how the GCWR is... comment, if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review a Privacy...

  5. 77 FR 65497 - Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... [Docket No. FMCSA-2012-0156] RIN 2126-AB53 Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition AGENCY... combination weight rating'' (GCWR) in 49 CFR parts 383 and 390. The DFR would have taken effect on October 26... submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review a Privacy Act notice...

  6. Monopol suretab kohaliku loomakasvataja / Oleg Gross ; interv . Illar Mõttus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Oleg, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Väike-Maarja jäätmetehase monopoolse seisundi vastu sõna võtnud OG Elektra omanik Oleg Gross on kindel, et jäätmetehasega suretatakse kohalikud väiksemad lihatootjad välja. Kommenteerivad talupidaja Jüri Järvet ja Rakvere Lihakombinaadi direktor Olle Horm

  7. casual relationship between gross domestic saving and economic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TOSHIBA

    private saving has both direct and indirect effects on economic growth. ... sector have a bigger impact on GDP than gross domestic savings. ... Development economists have been concerned for decades about the crucial role of ..... higher investment and higher economic growth is not supported by East African countries.

  8. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia: case report with gross and histological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Marcello Pecoraro; Schultz, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) is a rare placental disorder characterized by placental enlargement and areas of abnormal, enlarged, grape-like villi. This condition may resemble a partial hydatidiform mole and may occur associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) or in phenotypically normal fetuses. There were 110 cases reported so far. We describe one case with typical gross and microscopic placental lesions.

  9. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia: case report with gross and histological findings

    OpenAIRE

    Marcello Pecoraro Toscano; Regina Schultz

    2014-01-01

    Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) is a rare placental disorder characterized by placental enlargement and areas of abnormal, enlarged, grape-like villi. This condition may resemble a partial hydatidiform mole and may occur associated with Beckwith?Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) or in phenotypically normal fetuses. There were 110 cases reported so far. We describe one case with typical gross and microscopic placental lesions.

  10. Anomaly detection in real-time gross payment data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triepels, Ron; Daniels, Hennie; Heijmans, R.; Camp, Olivier; Filipe, Joaquim

    2017-01-01

    We discuss how an autoencoder can detect system-level anomalies in a real-time gross settlement system by reconstructing a set of liquidity vectors. A liquidity vector is an aggregated representation of the underlying payment network of a settlement system for a particular time interval.

  11. Comments on the research article by Gross et al. (2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guntur, Srinivas; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this Letter to the Editor is to present a discussion on the physics of rotational augmentation based on existing work. One of the latest works by Gross et al. (2012) is highlighted here, and its conclusions are discussed. Based on the existing understanding of rotational augmentati...

  12. Lattice simulation of 2d Gross-Neveu-type models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limmer, M.; Gattringer, C.; Hermann, V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: We discuss a Monte Carlo simulation of 2d Gross-Neveu-type models on the lattice. The four-Fermi interaction is written as a Gaussian integral with an auxiliary field and the fermion determinant is included by reweighting. We present results for bulk quantities and correlators and compare them to a simulation using a fermion-loop representation. (author)

  13. Potato production in Europe - a gross margin analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Bizik, Jan; Costa, Luisa Dalla

    The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show that pot...

  14. Gross theory of nuclear β-decay with shell effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabst, M.

    1979-01-01

    The present work tries to introduce shell effects selection rules into the gross theory systematically. Instead of an unbunched or bunched Fermigas spectrum a single-particle spectrum in the shell model with a Woods-Saxon potential is used. The knowledge of spin and parity of the levels allows us to introduce selection rules in an approximative way. (orig.)

  15. The effects of climatic factors on the occurrence and gross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacterial agents of ovine and caprine pneumonia and associated gross pathological lesions were studied for a period of ten years (1985-1995). Bacteriological data were obtained from the necropsy report books of the Microbiology and Pathology Dagnostic units of the Department of Vetinary Pathology and ...

  16. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma : gross appearance and corresponding pathologic and radiologic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Kwon Ha; Kim, Chang Guhn; Lee, Moon Gyu; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Auh, Yong Ho; Lim, Jae Hoon

    1999-01-01

    To assess the clinical and pathologic features of each type of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, which is divided into three types according to gross appearance, and to determine the efficacy of CT in detecting this tumor. The pathologic and CT features of 53 surgically proven cases of intrahepatic cholangio-carcinoma were reviewed. On the basis of their gross appearance, the tumors were divided into three types, as follows : mass forming (n=33), periductal infiltrating (n=6), and intraductal growth type (n=14). CT scans were analyzed for sensitivity of detection and correlation between a tumors appearance and its histopathology. The most common histopathologic feature of mass forming and periductal infiltrating type was tubular adenocarcinoma, while in the intraductal growth type, papillary adenocarcinoma (100%) was common. With regard to pattern of tumor spread, intrahepatic and lymph node metastasis were more common in the mass forming and periductal infiltrating type than in the intraductal growth type. CT findings including intrahepatic mass, ductal wall thickening or intraductal mass associated with segmental dilatation of intrahepataic bile ducts, corresponded with these morphologic types. This classification according to gross appearance is of considerable value when interpreting the pathologic features of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. CT seems to be a useful modality for the detection of tumors and may be consistent with their gross morphologic findings

  17. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Philip, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  18. Fine and Gross Motor Ability in Males with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Both fine and gross motor abilities were evaluated in 10-year-old males with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and compared to a group of control children at the School of Psychology, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia.

  19. Energy use and gross margin analysis for sesame production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As the negative impacts of energy by-products affect the climate, the knowledge and efficient use of energy in crop production will minimise environmental problems and promote sustainable agriculture as an economic production system in Nigeria and else where. The aim of the study was to evaluate energy use and gross ...

  20. Gross and Histomorphological Assessment of the Oropharynx and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the morphology of the oropharynx and tongue of the guinea fowl using gross anatomical and histological techniques. The results showed that the mouth and pharynx of the guinea fowl lacked a definite line of demarcation, and so formed a common oropharyngeal cavity. The roof of the oropharynx ...

  1. School Physical Activity Programming and Gross Motor Skills in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ryan D; Fu, You; Hannon, James C; Brusseau, Timothy A

    2017-09-01

    We examined the effect of a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) on gross motor skills in children. Participants were 959 children (1st-6th grade; Mean age = 9.1 ± 1.5 years; 406 girls, 553 boys) recruited from 5 low-income schools receiving a year-long CSPAP intervention. Data were collected at the beginning of the school year and at a 36-week follow-up. Gross motor skills were assessed using the Test for Gross Motor Development (3rd ed.) (TGMD-3) instrument. Multi-level mixed effects models were employed to examine the effect of CSPAP on TGMD-3 scores, testing age and sex as effect modifiers and adjusting for clustering of observations within the data structure. There were statistically significant coefficients for time (β = 8.1, 95% CI [3.9, 12.3], p skills and ball skills sub-test scores. Children showed improved gross motor skill scores at the end of the 36-week CSPAP that were modified by age, as younger children displayed greater improvements in TGMD-3 scores compared to older children.

  2. Assessing Gross Motor Skills of Kosovar Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala, Merita

    2009-01-01

    In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…

  3. Gross Motor Skill Acquisition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegan, Sarah; Maraj, Brian K. V.; Weeks, Daniel; Chua, Romeo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether verbal-motor performances deficits exhibited by individuals with Down syndrome limited their ability to acquire gross motor skills when given visual and verbal instruction together and then transferred to either a visual or verbal instructional mode to reproduce the movement. Nine individuals with…

  4. A Study on Gross Motor Skills of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joanne Hui-Tzu

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a creative movement program on gross motor skills of preschool children. Sixty children between the ages of 3 to 5 were drawn from the population of a preschool in Taichung, Taiwan. An experimental pretest-posttest control-group design was utilized. The children enrolled in the…

  5. Associations of Gross Motor Delay, Behavior, and Quality of Life in Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedgecock, James B; Dannemiller, Lisa A; Shui, Amy M; Rapport, Mary Jane; Katz, Terry

    2018-04-01

    Young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have gross motor delays that may accentuate problem daytime behavior and health-related quality of life (QoL). The objective of this study was to describe the degree of gross motor delays in young children with ASD and associations of gross motor delays with problem daytime behavior and QoL. The primary hypothesis was that Gross motor delays significantly modifies the associations between internalizing or externalizing problem daytime behavior and QoL. This study used a cross-sectional, retrospective analysis. Data from 3253 children who were 2 to 6 years old and who had ASD were obtained from the Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network and analyzed using unadjusted and adjusted linear regression. Measures included the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 2nd edition, gross motor v-scale score (VABS-GM) (for Gross motor delays), the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (for Problem daytime behavior), and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) (for QoL). The mean VABS-GM was 12.12 (SD = 2.2), representing performance at or below the 16th percentile. After adjustment for covariates, the internalizing CBCL t score decreased with increasing VABS-GM (β = - 0.64 SE = 0.12). Total and subscale PedsQL scores increased with increasing VABS-GM (for total score: β = 1.79 SE = 0.17; for subscale score: β = 0.9-2.66 SE = 0.17-0.25). CBCL internalizing and externalizing t scores decreased with increasing PedsQL total score (β = - 0.39 SE = 0.01; β = - 0.36 SE = 0.01). The associations between CBCL internalizing or externalizing t scores and PedsQL were significantly modified by VABSGM (β = - 0.026 SE = 0.005]; β = - 0.019 SE = 0.007). The study lacked ethnic and socioeconomic diversity. Measures were collected via parent report without accompanying clinical assessment. Cross motor delay was independently associated with Problem daytime behavior and QoL in children with ASD. Gross

  6. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) comprises groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow,and ice. Groundwater typically varies more slowly than the other TWS components because itis not in direct contact with the atmosphere, but often it has a larger range of variability onmultiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti, 2001; Alley et al., 2002). In situ groundwaterdata are only archived and made available by a few countries. However, monthly TWSvariations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE; Tapley et al.,2004) satellite mission, which launched in 2002, are a reasonable proxy for unconfinedgroundwater at climatic scales.

  7. Uranium, thorium, gross alpha and gross beta assessment in fountain waters in towns of the Iron Quadrangle, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Claudia A.; Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Chaves, Renata D.A.; Dalmazio, Ilza, E-mail: cferreiraquimica@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: help@cdtn.br, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: rda@cdtn.br, E-mail: id@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Iron Quadrangle region is known worldwide for its diversity, both ores and rock types, which record a long and important period of Earth's history. For thousands of years erosive processes have exposed ancient rocks, Archean and Proterozoic, in this region. The concentration of uranium, thorium, gross alpha and gross beta activities has been assessed in 34 fountains water samples collected from different towns in the Iron Quadrangle. The results obtained were compared to values established by CONAMA nº 396/2008 and Decree nº 2914/2011 by the Ministry of Health. For Th in water consumption there is no value established in the Brazilian legislation and the concentrations in all samples were lower than 0.01 μg L{sup -1}. For uranium, the values ranged from less than 0.002 to 0.61 μg L{sup -1}, and all results were lower than the value allowed of 15 μg L{sup -1} and 30 μg L{sup -1} established by the legislations above, respectively. The results for the radiation levels of gross alpha and gross beta activity in some fountains waters were slightly above the limits (0.5 Bq L{sup -1} and 1.0 Bq L{sup -1}) established by CONAMA nº 396/2008 and Decreet nº 2914/2011, respectively. (author)

  8. Uranium, thorium, gross alpha and gross beta assessment in fountain waters in towns of the Iron Quadrangle, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Claudia A.; Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Chaves, Renata D.A.; Dalmazio, Ilza

    2013-01-01

    The Iron Quadrangle region is known worldwide for its diversity, both ores and rock types, which record a long and important period of Earth's history. For thousands of years erosive processes have exposed ancient rocks, Archean and Proterozoic, in this region. The concentration of uranium, thorium, gross alpha and gross beta activities has been assessed in 34 fountains water samples collected from different towns in the Iron Quadrangle. The results obtained were compared to values established by CONAMA nº 396/2008 and Decree nº 2914/2011 by the Ministry of Health. For Th in water consumption there is no value established in the Brazilian legislation and the concentrations in all samples were lower than 0.01 μg L -1 . For uranium, the values ranged from less than 0.002 to 0.61 μg L -1 , and all results were lower than the value allowed of 15 μg L -1 and 30 μg L -1 established by the legislations above, respectively. The results for the radiation levels of gross alpha and gross beta activity in some fountains waters were slightly above the limits (0.5 Bq L -1 and 1.0 Bq L -1 ) established by CONAMA nº 396/2008 and Decreet nº 2914/2011, respectively. (author)

  9. Methods and Data Used to Investigate Polonium-210 as a Source of Excess Gross-Alpha Radioactivity in Ground Water, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Ralph L.

    2007-01-01

    Ground water is the major source of drinking water in the Carson River Basin, California and Nevada. Previous studies have shown that uranium and gross-alpha radioactivities in ground water can be greater than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Levels, particularly in the Carson Desert, Churchill County, Nevada. Studies also have shown that the primary source of the gross-alpha radioactivity and alpha-emitting radionuclides in ground water is the dissolution of uranium-rich granitic rocks and basin-fill sediments that have their origins in the Sierra Nevada. However, ground water sampled from some wells in the Carson Desert had gross-alpha radioactivities greater than could be accounted for by the decay of dissolved uranium. The occurrence of polonium-210 (Po-210) was hypothesized to explain the higher than expected gross-alpha radioactivities. This report documents and describes the study design, field and analytical methods, and data used to determine whether Po-210 is the source of excess gross-alpha radioactivity in ground water underlying the Carson Desert in and around Fallon, Nevada. Specifically, this report presents: 1) gross alpha and uranium radioactivities for 100 wells sampled from June to September 2001; and 2) pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and Po-210 radioactivity for 25 wells sampled in April and June 2007. Results of quality-control samples for the 2007 dataset are also presented.

  10. Comparative Climatology of Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackwell, Stephen J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Harder, Jerald W.; Bullock, Mark A.

    Public awareness of climate change on Earth is currently very high, promoting significant interest in atmospheric processes. We are fortunate to live in an era where it is possible to study the climates of many planets, including our own, using spacecraft and groundbased observations as well as advanced computational power that allows detailed modeling. Planetary atmospheric dynamics and structure are all governed by the same basic physics. Thus differences in the input variables (such as composition, internal structure, and solar radiation) among the known planets provide a broad suite of natural laboratory settings for gaining new understanding of these physical processes and their outcomes. Diverse planetary settings provide insightful comparisons to atmospheric processes and feedbacks on Earth, allowing a greater understanding of the driving forces and external influences on our own planetary climate. They also inform us in our search for habitable environments on planets orbiting distant stars, a topic that was a focus of Exoplanets, the preceding book in the University of Arizona Press Space Sciences Series. Quite naturally, and perhaps inevitably, our fascination with climate is largely driven toward investigating the interplay between the early development of life and the presence of a suitable planetary climate. Our understanding of how habitable planets come to be begins with the worlds closest to home. Venus, Earth, and Mars differ only modestly in their mass and distance from the Sun, yet their current climates could scarcely be more divergent. Our purpose for this book is to set forth the foundations for this emerging science and to bring to the forefront our current understanding of atmospheric formation and climate evolution. Although there is significant comparison to be made to atmospheric processes on nonterrestrial planets in our solar system — the gas and ice giants — here we focus on the terrestrial planets, leaving even broader comparisons

  11. Gross Domestic Savings and Gross Capital: what Matters to Their Formation in an Era of Economic Recession in Nigeria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Success Abusomwan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to empirically investigate the long run and short run dynamic impact of interest rate and output on gross domestic savings and gross capital formation in Nigeria. Literatures, both theoretical and empirical, suggest that the rate of interest and output are the key factors influencing savings and investments. A review of factors influencing interest rates and output in Nigeria is necessitated by the recent economic downturns in Nigeria that has resulted in tight monetary policy which some commentators regard as inimical to growth. Employing Ordinary Least Squares, Co-integration, Error Correction Mechanism and Granger Causality econometric techniques on a data spanning 1981 to 2014 of the Nigerian economy sourced from the World Development Index, it was found that changes in output explains the long run and short run dynamic behaviour of gross domestic savings and gross capital formation which were used as proxies for savings and investment respectively. Whereas, a bi-causality was established between output and investment, causality flowed from output to savings in Nigeria. The research also found that interest rate is not a significant determinant of savings and investment in Nigeria in both long run and short run. It is therefore recommended that to enhance investment in a period of economic downturn in Nigeria, aggregate demand should be boosted to enhance output through vigorous pursuit of fiscal policy while implementing contractionary monetary policy to address inflationary pressures created by the increase in demand. Domestic savings will improve and gross capital formation will be sustained.

  12. The terrestrial biosphere in the SFR region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerling, L; Isaeus, M [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany; Lanneck, J [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Geography; Lindborg, T; Schueldt, R [Danish Nature Council, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2001-03-01

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1.SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, which is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, one km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. A part of the SAFE-analysis aims at analysing the transport of radionuclides in the ecosystems.To do so one has to build a model that includes a large amount of information concerning the biosphere.The first step is to collect and compile descriptions of the biosphere.This report is a first attempt to characterise the terrestrial environment of the SFR area of Forsmark. In the first part of the report the terrestrial environment, land class distribution and production of the area is described. The primary production in different terrestrial ecosystems is estimated for a model area in the Forsmark region. The estimations are based on the actual land class distribution and the values for the total primary production (d.w. above ground biomass)and the amount carbon produced, presented as g/m{sup 2} for each land class respectively. An important aspect of the biosphere is the vegetation and its development. The future development of vegetation is of interest since production,decomposition and thus storage of organic material, vary strongly among vegetation types and this has strong implications for the transport of radionuclides.Therefore an attempt to describe the development of terrestrial vegetation has been made in the second part. Any prediction of future vegetation is based on knowledge of the past together with premises for the future development.The predictions made, thus, becomes marred with errors enforced by the assumptions and incomplete information of the past. The assumptions made for the predictions in this report are crude and results in a

  13. The terrestrial biosphere in the SFR region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerling, L.; Isaeus, M.

    2001-03-01

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1.SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, which is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, one km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. A part of the SAFE-analysis aims at analysing the transport of radionuclides in the ecosystems.To do so one has to build a model that includes a large amount of information concerning the biosphere.The first step is to collect and compile descriptions of the biosphere.This report is a first attempt to characterise the terrestrial environment of the SFR area of Forsmark. In the first part of the report the terrestrial environment, land class distribution and production of the area is described. The primary production in different terrestrial ecosystems is estimated for a model area in the Forsmark region. The estimations are based on the actual land class distribution and the values for the total primary production (d.w. above ground biomass)and the amount carbon produced, presented as g/m 2 for each land class respectively. An important aspect of the biosphere is the vegetation and its development. The future development of vegetation is of interest since production,decomposition and thus storage of organic material, vary strongly among vegetation types and this has strong implications for the transport of radionuclides.Therefore an attempt to describe the development of terrestrial vegetation has been made in the second part. Any prediction of future vegetation is based on knowledge of the past together with premises for the future development.The predictions made, thus, becomes marred with errors enforced by the assumptions and incomplete information of the past. The assumptions made for the predictions in this report are crude and results in a coarse

  14. The terrestrial biosphere in the SFR region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerling, L.; Isaeus, M. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany; Lanneck, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Geography; Lindborg, T.; Schueldt, R. [Danish Nature Council, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2001-03-01

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1.SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, which is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, one km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. A part of the SAFE-analysis aims at analysing the transport of radionuclides in the ecosystems.To do so one has to build a model that includes a large amount of information concerning the biosphere.The first step is to collect and compile descriptions of the biosphere.This report is a first attempt to characterise the terrestrial environment of the SFR area of Forsmark. In the first part of the report the terrestrial environment, land class distribution and production of the area is described. The primary production in different terrestrial ecosystems is estimated for a model area in the Forsmark region. The estimations are based on the actual land class distribution and the values for the total primary production (d.w. above ground biomass)and the amount carbon produced, presented as g/m{sup 2} for each land class respectively. An important aspect of the biosphere is the vegetation and its development. The future development of vegetation is of interest since production,decomposition and thus storage of organic material, vary strongly among vegetation types and this has strong implications for the transport of radionuclides.Therefore an attempt to describe the development of terrestrial vegetation has been made in the second part. Any prediction of future vegetation is based on knowledge of the past together with premises for the future development.The predictions made, thus, becomes marred with errors enforced by the assumptions and incomplete information of the past. The assumptions made for the predictions in this report are crude and results

  15. A model using marginal efficiency of investment to analyse carbon and nitrogen interactions in terrestrial ecosystems (ACONITE Version 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. Q.; Williams, M.

    2014-04-01

    Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles are coupled in terrestrial ecosystems through multiple processes including photosynthesis, tissue allocation, respiration, N fixation, N uptake, and decomposition of litter and soil organic matter. Capturing the constraint of N on terrestrial C uptake and storage has been a focus of the Earth System modelling community. However there is little understanding of the trade-offs and sensitivities of allocating C and N to different tissues in order to optimize the productivity of plants. Here we describe a new, simple model of ecosystem C-N cycling and interactions (ACONITE), that builds on theory related to plant economics in order to predict key ecosystem properties (leaf area index, leaf C : N, N fixation, and plant C use efficiency) using emergent constraints provided by marginal returns on investment for C and/or N allocation. We simulated and evaluated steady-state ecosystem stocks and fluxes in three different forest ecosystems types (tropical evergreen, temperate deciduous, and temperate evergreen). Leaf C : N differed among the three ecosystem types (temperate deciduous database describing plant traits. Gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) estimates compared well to observed fluxes at the simulation sites. Simulated N fixation at steady-state, calculated based on relative demand for N and the marginal return on C investment to acquire N, was an order of magnitude higher in the tropical forest than in the temperate forest, consistent with observations. A sensitivity analysis revealed that parameterization of the relationship between leaf N and leaf respiration had the largest influence on leaf area index and leaf C : N. Also, a widely used linear leaf N-respiration relationship did not yield a realistic leaf C : N, while a more recently reported non-linear relationship performed better. A parameter governing how photosynthesis scales with day length had the largest influence on total vegetation C

  16. A model using marginal efficiency of investment to analyze carbon and nitrogen interactions in terrestrial ecosystems (ACONITE Version 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. Q.; Williams, M.

    2014-09-01

    Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles are coupled in terrestrial ecosystems through multiple processes including photosynthesis, tissue allocation, respiration, N fixation, N uptake, and decomposition of litter and soil organic matter. Capturing the constraint of N on terrestrial C uptake and storage has been a focus of the Earth System Modeling community. However, there is little understanding of the trade-offs and sensitivities of allocating C and N to different tissues in order to optimize the productivity of plants. Here we describe a new, simple model of ecosystem C-N cycling and interactions (ACONITE), that builds on theory related to plant economics in order to predict key ecosystem properties (leaf area index, leaf C : N, N fixation, and plant C use efficiency) based on the outcome of assessments of the marginal change in net C or N uptake associated with a change in allocation of C or N to plant tissues. We simulated and evaluated steady-state ecosystem stocks and fluxes in three different forest ecosystems types (tropical evergreen, temperate deciduous, and temperate evergreen). Leaf C : N differed among the three ecosystem types (temperate deciduous database describing plant traits. Gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) estimates compared well to observed fluxes at the simulation sites. Simulated N fixation at steady-state, calculated based on relative demand for N and the marginal return on C investment to acquire N, was an order of magnitude higher in the tropical forest than in the temperate forest, consistent with observations. A sensitivity analysis revealed that parameterization of the relationship between leaf N and leaf respiration had the largest influence on leaf area index and leaf C : N. A parameter governing how photosynthesis scales with day length had the largest influence on total vegetation C, GPP, and NPP. Multiple parameters associated with photosynthesis, respiration, and N uptake influenced the rate of N

  17. Dietary characterization of terrestrial mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Munoz, Silvia; Alroy, John

    2014-08-22

    Understanding the feeding behaviour of the species that make up any ecosystem is essential for designing further research. Mammals have been studied intensively, but the criteria used for classifying their diets are far from being standardized. We built a database summarizing the dietary preferences of terrestrial mammals using published data regarding their stomach contents. We performed multivariate analyses in order to set up a standardized classification scheme. Ideally, food consumption percentages should be used instead of qualitative classifications. However, when highly detailed information is not available we propose classifying animals based on their main feeding resources. They should be classified as generalists when none of the feeding resources constitute over 50% of the diet. The term 'omnivore' should be avoided because it does not communicate all the complexity inherent to food choice. Moreover, the so-called omnivore diets actually involve several distinctive adaptations. Our dataset shows that terrestrial mammals are generally highly specialized and that some degree of food mixing may even be required for most species.

  18. Terrestrial Zone Exoplanets and Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Brenda

    2018-01-01

    One of the most exciting results from ALMA has been the detection of significant substructure within protoplanetary disks that can be linked to planet formation processes. For the first time, we are able to observe the process of assembly of material into larger bodies within such disks. It is not possible, however, for ALMA to probe the growth of planets in protoplanetary disks at small radii, i.e., in the terrestrial zone, where we expect rocky terrestrial planets to form. In this regime, the optical depths prohibit observation at the high frequencies observed by ALMA. To probe the effects of planet building processes and detect telltale gaps and signatures of planetary mass bodies at such small separations from the parent star, we require a facility of superior resolution and sensitivity at lower frequencies. The ngVLA is just such a facility. We will present the fundamental science that will be enabled by the ngVLA in protoplanetary disk structure and the formation of planets. In addition, we will discuss the potential for an ngVLA facility to detect the molecules that are the building blocks of life, reaching limits well beyond those reachable with the current generation of telescopes, and also to determine whether such planets will be habitable based on studies of the impact of stars on their nearest planetary neighbours.

  19. Terrestrial carbon storage dynamics: Chasing a moving target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y.; Shi, Z.; Jiang, L.; Xia, J.; Wang, Y.; Kc, M.; Liang, J.; Lu, X.; Niu, S.; Ahlström, A.; Hararuk, O.; Hastings, A.; Hoffman, F. M.; Medlyn, B. E.; Rasmussen, M.; Smith, M. J.; Todd-Brown, K. E.; Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems have been estimated to absorb roughly 30% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Past studies have identified myriad drivers of terrestrial carbon storage changes, such as fire, climate change, and land use changes. Those drivers influence the carbon storage change via diverse mechanisms, which have not been unified into a general theory so as to identify what control the direction and rate of terrestrial carbon storage dynamics. Here we propose a theoretical framework to quantitatively determine the response of terrestrial carbon storage to different exogenous drivers. With a combination of conceptual reasoning, mathematical analysis, and numeric experiments, we demonstrated that the maximal capacity of an ecosystem to store carbon is time-dependent and equals carbon input (i.e., net primary production, NPP) multiplying by residence time. The capacity is a moving target toward which carbon storage approaches (i.e., the direction of carbon storage change) but usually does not attain. The difference between the capacity and the carbon storage at a given time t is the unrealized carbon storage potential. The rate of the storage change is proportional to the magnitude of the unrealized potential. We also demonstrated that a parameter space of NPP, residence time, and carbon storage potential can well characterize carbon storage dynamics quantified at six sites ranging from tropical forests to tundra and simulated by two versions (carbon-only and coupled carbon-nitrogen) of the Australian Community Atmosphere-Biosphere Land Ecosystem (CABLE) Model under three climate change scenarios (CO2 rising only, climate warming only, and RCP8.5). Overall this study reveals the unified mechanism unerlying terrestrial carbon storage dynamics to guide transient traceability analysis of global land models and synthesis of empirical studies.

  20. Riparian vegetation in the alpine connectome: Terrestrial-aquatic and terrestrial-terrestrial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharescu, Dragos G; Palanca-Soler, Antonio; Hooda, Peter S; Tanase, Catalin; Burghelea, Carmen I; Lester, Richard N

    2017-12-01

    Alpine regions are under increased attention worldwide for their critical role in early biogeochemical cycles, their high sensitivity to environmental change, and as repositories of natural resources of high quality. Their riparian ecosystems, at the interface between aquatic and terrestrial environments, play important geochemical functions in the watershed and are biodiversity hotspots, despite a harsh climate and topographic setting. With climate change rapidly affecting the alpine biome, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of the extent of interactions between riparian surface, lake and catchment environments. A total of 189 glacial - origin lakes were surveyed in the Central Pyrenees to test how key elements of the lake and terrestrial environments interact at different scales to shape riparian plant composition. Secondly, we evaluated how underlying ecotope features drive the formation of natural communities potentially sensitive to environmental change and assessed their habitat distribution. At the macroscale, vegetation composition responded to pan-climatic gradients altitude and latitude, which captured in a narrow geographic area the transition between large European climatic zones. Hydrodynamics was the main catchment-scale factor connecting riparian vegetation with major water fluxes, followed by topography and geomorphology. Lake sediment Mg and Pb, and water Mn and Fe contents reflected local influences from mafic bedrock and soil water saturation. Community analysis identified four keystone ecosystems: (i) damp ecotone, (ii) snow bed-silicate bedrock, (iii) wet heath, and (iv) calcareous substrate. These communities and their connections with ecotope elements could be at risk from a number of environmental change factors including warmer seasons, snow line and lowland species advancement, increased nutrient/metal input and water level fluctuations. The results imply important natural terrestrial-aquatic linkages in the riparian environment

  1. Gross-Pitaevski map as a chaotic dynamical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Italo

    2017-03-01

    The Gross-Pitaevski map is a discrete time, split-operator version of the Gross-Pitaevski dynamics in the circle, for which exponential instability has been recently reported. Here it is studied as a classical dynamical system in its own right. A systematic analysis of Lyapunov exponents exposes strongly chaotic behavior. Exponential growth of energy is then shown to be a direct consequence of rotational invariance and for stationary solutions the full spectrum of Lyapunov exponents is analytically computed. The present analysis includes the "resonant" case, when the free rotation period is commensurate to 2π, and the map has countably many constants of the motion. Except for lowest-order resonances, this case exhibits an integrable-chaotic transition.

  2. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000.

  3. Gross alpha and beta activities in Tunisian mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrouni Benbelgacem, Samar

    2011-01-01

    The quality of natural mineral water is a universal health problem seeing its vital importance. This problem is related to the presence of the radionuclides since this water is coming from underground, during their circulation it dissolves and conveys the radionuclides which are present in the earth's crust. This problem which leads to the contamination of the mineral water urged the World Health Organization to set standards and to recommend the respect of the median values of the activities alpha and beta within the framework of the man protection against this internal exhibition. Concerning the radiological quality of Tunisian mineral water studied in this project, we showed, by using the gross alpha and beta activities counting, that this water is specific to human consumption since their gross alpha and beta activities do not forward any risk on health.

  4. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000. PMID:23293404

  5. GLOBALIZATION AND GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT CONSTRUCTION IN ASEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sri Wahyudi Suliswanto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no more doubt about the importance of economic growth, which can be calculated fromGross Domestic Product (GDP. This research analyzes the role of globalization on GDP inASEAN-5 by estimating panel data. It uses a fixed effect approach to accommodate various characteristicsin the countries. To accommodate such variation, it assumes that the intercepts variesacross these countries, while the slopes remain similar. Based on the estimation result, it suggeststhat net export and foreign direct investment represent the globalization process. Both have positiveand significant influences on GDP in the corresponding countries.Keywords: Globalization, international trade, foreign direct investment, gross domestic productJEL classification numbers: E01, F51, F43

  6. The San Andreas fault experiment. [gross tectonic plates relative velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Vonbun, F. O.

    1973-01-01

    A plan was developed during 1971 to determine gross tectonic plate motions along the San Andreas Fault System in California. Knowledge of the gross motion along the total fault system is an essential component in the construction of realistic deformation models of fault regions. Such mathematical models will be used in the future for studies which will eventually lead to prediction of major earthquakes. The main purpose of the experiment described is the determination of the relative velocity of the North American and the Pacific Plates. This motion being so extremely small, cannot be measured directly but can be deduced from distance measurements between points on opposite sites of the plate boundary taken over a number of years.

  7. Jatropha curcas – Analysis of Gross Calorific Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Ružbarský

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years biofuels have obtained a considerable interest, due to the implementation of ruling and gradual replacement of fossil fuels. One of production steps at gaining the oil is a pressing process. Wastes come into being from this process. These wastes are used as feed, fertilizer prospectively as fuel. A contemporary scientific literature pays attention namely to one of prospective produces which is a produce of the tropical and subtropical zones Jatropa curcas. Tests were performed at Jatropha Curcas seeds of a brown colour (that means gnaw. The aim of a research is an analysis of Jatropa curcas seed from the utilization point of view of the gross calorific value. The basic instrument to evaluate the gross calorific value of each variant of the experiment was a calorimeter PARR 6200 and digital scales for accurate laboratory weighing.

  8. Impact of non-native terrestrial mammals on the structure of the terrestrial mammal food web of Newfoundland, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin S Strong

    Full Text Available The island of Newfoundland is unique because it has as many non-native terrestrial mammals as native ones. The impacts of non-native species on native flora and fauna can be profound and invasive species have been identified as one of the primary drivers of species extinction. Few studies, however, have investigated the effects of a non-native species assemblage on community and ecosystem properties. We reviewed the literature to build the first terrestrial mammal food web for the island of Newfoundland and then used network analyses to investigate how the timing of introductions and trophic position of non-native species has affected the structure of the terrestrial mammal food web in Newfoundland. The first non-native mammals (house mouse and brown rat became established in Newfoundland with human settlement in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. Coyotes and southern red-backed voles are the most recent mammals to establish themselves on the island in 1985 and 1998, respectively. The fraction of intermediate species increased with the addition of non-native mammals over time whereas the fraction of basal and top species declined over time. This increase in intermediate species mediated by non-native species arrivals led to an overall increase in the terrestrial mammal food web connectance and generality (i.e. mean number of prey per predator. This diverse prey base and sources of carrion may have facilitated the natural establishment of coyotes on the island. Also, there is some evidence that the introduction of non-native prey species such as the southern red-backed vole has contributed to the recovery of the threatened American marten. Long-term monitoring of the food web is required to understand and predict the impacts of the diverse novel interactions that are developing in the terrestrial mammal food web of Newfoundland.

  9. Short- and long-term effects of selective dorsal rhizotomy on gross motor function in ambulatory children with spastic diplegia Clinical article

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schie, P.E.M.; Schothorst, M.; Dallmeijer, A.J.; Vermeulen, R.J.; van Ouwerkerk, W.J.R.; Strijers, R.L.M.; Becher, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Object. The primary aim of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate the short-term (1 year) and long-term (mean 6 years) effects of selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) on gross motor function and spasticity in ambulatory children with spastic diplegia. Secondary aims were to investigate side

  10. Unitarity violation in noninteger dimensional Gross-Neveu-Yukawa model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yao; Kelly, Michael

    2018-05-01

    We construct an explicit example of unitarity violation in fermionic quantum field theories in noninteger dimensions. We study the two-point correlation function of four-fermion operators. We compute the one-loop anomalous dimensions of these operators in the Gross-Neveu-Yukawa model. We find that at one-loop order, the four-fermion operators split into three classes with one class having negative norms. This implies that the theory violates unitarity, following the definition in Ref. [1].

  11. Gross efficiency and energy expenditure in kayak ergometer exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B B; Mourão, L; Massart, A; Figueiredo, P; Vilas-Boas, J P; Santos, A M C; Fernandes, R J

    2012-08-01

    We purposed to study energy expenditure, power output and gross efficiency during kayak ergometer exercise in 12 elite sprint kayakers. 6 males (age 24.2±4.8 years, height 180.4±4.8 cm, body mass 79.7±8.5 kg) and 6 females (age 24.3±4.5 years, height 164.5±3.9 cm, body mass 65.4±3.5 kg), performed an incremental intermittent protocol on kayak ergometer with VO2 and blood lactate concentration assessment, a non-linear increase between power output and energy expenditure being observed. Paddling power output, energy expenditure and gross efficiency corresponding to VO2max averaged 199.92±50.41 W, 75.27±6.30 ml.kg - 1.min - 1, and 10.10±1.08%. Male kayakers presented higher VO2max, power output and gross efficiency at the VO2max, and lower heart rate and maximal lactate concentration than females, but no differences were found between genders regarding energy expenditure at VO2max. Aerobic and anaerobic components of energy expenditure evidenced a significant contribution of anaerobic energy sources in sprint kayak performance. Results also suggested the dependence of the gross efficiency on the changes in the amount of the aerobic and anaerobic contributions, at heavy and severe intensities. The inter-individual variance of the relationship between energy expenditure and the corresponding paddling power output revealed a relevant tracking for females (FDγ=0.73±0.06), conversely to the male group (FDγ=0.27±0.08), supporting that some male kayakers are more skilled in some paddling intensities than others. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Gross alfa activity measurement in water from the Agueda river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, F.; Figueroa, C.F.; Gomez, J.M.G.; Lozano, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Gross α activity has been measured in water from the Agueda river, in the province of Salamanca (Spain), covering about 45 km around the uranium mine Fe. The activity has been found to be negligeable above the mine, and average values range from 0.13Bq/λ just after the mine to 0,05 Bq/λ 22 km below. (author) 9 refs

  13. Determination of gross plasma equilibrium from magnetic multipoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessel, C.E.

    1986-05-01

    A new approximate technique to determine the gross plasma equilibrium parameters, major radius, minor radius, elongation and triangularity for an up-down symmetric plasma is developed. It is based on a multipole representation of the externally applied poloidal magnetic field, relating specific terms to the equilibrium parameters. The technique shows reasonable agreement with free boundary MHD equilibrium results. The method is useful in dynamic simulation and control studies.

  14. Determination of gross plasma equilibrium from magnetic multipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, C.E.

    1986-05-01

    A new approximate technique to determine the gross plasma equilibrium parameters, major radius, minor radius, elongation and triangularity for an up-down symmetric plasma is developed. It is based on a multipole representation of the externally applied poloidal magnetic field, relating specific terms to the equilibrium parameters. The technique shows reasonable agreement with free boundary MHD equilibrium results. The method is useful in dynamic simulation and control studies

  15. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia: case report with gross and histological findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Pecoraro Toscano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD is a rare placental disorder characterized by placental enlargement and areas of abnormal, enlarged, grape-like villi. This condition may resemble a partial hydatidiform mole and may occur associated with Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (BWS or in phenotypically normal fetuses. There were 110 cases reported so far. We describe one case with typical gross and microscopic placental lesions.

  16. Quantification of terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics in the conterminous United States combining a process-based biogeochemical model and MODIS and AmeriFlux data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing provides continuous temporal and spatial information of terrestrial ecosystems. Using these remote sensing data and eddy flux measurements and biogeochemical models, such as the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM, should provide a more adequate quantification of carbon dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems. Here we use Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, Land Surface Water Index (LSWI and carbon flux data of AmeriFlux to conduct such a study. We first modify the gross primary production (GPP modeling in TEM by incorporating EVI and LSWI to account for the effects of the changes of canopy photosynthetic capacity, phenology and water stress. Second, we parameterize and verify the new version of TEM with eddy flux data. We then apply the model to the conterminous United States over the period 2000–2005 at a 0.05° × 0.05° spatial resolution. We find that the new version of TEM made improvement over the previous version and generally captured the expected temporal and spatial patterns of regional carbon dynamics. We estimate that regional GPP is between 7.02 and 7.78 Pg C yr−1 and net primary production (NPP ranges from 3.81 to 4.38 Pg C yr−1 and net ecosystem production (NEP varies within 0.08–0.73 Pg C yr−1 over the period 2000–2005 for the conterminous United States. The uncertainty due to parameterization is 0.34, 0.65 and 0.18 Pg C yr−1 for the regional estimates of GPP, NPP and NEP, respectively. The effects of extreme climate and disturbances such as severe drought in 2002 and destructive Hurricane Katrina in 2005 were captured by the model. Our study provides a new independent and more adequate measure of carbon fluxes for the conterminous United States, which will benefit studies of carbon-climate feedback and facilitate policy-making of carbon management and climate.

  17. New data-driven estimation of terrestrial CO2 fluxes in Asia using a standardized database of eddy covariance measurements, remote sensing data, and support vector regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, Kazuhito; Ueyama, Masahito; Kondo, Masayuki; Saigusa, Nobuko; Kim, Joon; Alberto, Ma. Carmelita; Ardö, Jonas; Euskirchen, Eugénie S.; Kang, Minseok; Hirano, Takashi; Joiner, Joanna; Kobayashi, Hideki; Marchesini, Luca Belelli; Merbold, Lutz; Miyata, Akira; Saitoh, Taku M.; Takagi, Kentaro; Varlagin, Andrej; Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia; Kitamura, Kenzo; Kosugi, Yoshiko; Kotani, Ayumi; Kumar, Kireet; Li, Sheng-Gong; Machimura, Takashi; Matsuura, Yojiro; Mizoguchi, Yasuko; Ohta, Takeshi; Mukherjee, Sandipan; Yanagi, Yuji; Yasuda, Yukio; Zhang, Yiping; Zhao, Fenghua

    2017-04-01

    The lack of a standardized database of eddy covariance observations has been an obstacle for data-driven estimation of terrestrial CO2 fluxes in Asia. In this study, we developed such a standardized database using 54 sites from various databases by applying consistent postprocessing for data-driven estimation of gross primary productivity (GPP) and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE). Data-driven estimation was conducted by using a machine learning algorithm: support vector regression (SVR), with remote sensing data for 2000 to 2015 period. Site-level evaluation of the estimated CO2 fluxes shows that although performance varies in different vegetation and climate classifications, GPP and NEE at 8 days are reproduced (e.g., r2 = 0.73 and 0.42 for 8 day GPP and NEE). Evaluation of spatially estimated GPP with Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 sensor-based Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence shows that monthly GPP variations at subcontinental scale were reproduced by SVR (r2 = 1.00, 0.94, 0.91, and 0.89 for Siberia, East Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia, respectively). Evaluation of spatially estimated NEE with net atmosphere-land CO2 fluxes of Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) Level 4A product shows that monthly variations of these data were consistent in Siberia and East Asia; meanwhile, inconsistency was found in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Furthermore, differences in the land CO2 fluxes from SVR-NEE and GOSAT Level 4A were partially explained by accounting for the differences in the definition of land CO2 fluxes. These data-driven estimates can provide a new opportunity to assess CO2 fluxes in Asia and evaluate and constrain terrestrial ecosystem models.

  18. Effects of active forest fire on terrestrial ecosystem production and greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannigrahi, Srikanta; Rahmat, Shahid; Bhatt, Sandeep; Rana, Virendra

    2017-04-01

    The forest fire is one of the most catalysing agents which degrade an ecosystems leading to the loss of net and gross primary productivity (NPP & GPP) and carbon sequestration service. Additionally, it can suppress the efficiency of service providing capacity of an ecosystem throughout the time and space. Remote sensing-based forest fire estimation in a diverse ecosystem is very much essential for mitigating the biodiversity and productivity losses due to the forest fire. Satellite-based Land Surface Temperature (LST) has been calculated for the pre-fire and fire years to identify the burn severity hotspot across all eco-regions in the Lower Himalaya region. Several burn severity indices: Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR), Burnt Area Index (BAI), Normalized Multiband Drought Index (NMDI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Global Environmental Monitoring Index (GEMI), Enhance Vegetation Index (EVI) have been used in this study to quantify the spatial and temporal changes (delta) of the selected indices. Two Light Use Efficiency (LUE) models: Carnegie- Ames-Stanford-Approach (CASA) and Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM) have been used to quantify the terrestrial Net Primary Productivity (NPP) in the pre-fire and fire years across all biomes of the region. A novel approach has been preceded in this field to demonstrate the correlation between forest fire density (FFD) and NPP. A strong positive correlation was found between burn severity indices and predicted NPP: BAI and NPP (r = 0.49), NBR and NPP: (r = 0.58), EVI and NPP: (r = 0.72), SAVI and NPP: (r = 0.67), whereas, a negative association has noted between the NMDI and NPP: (r = -0.36) during the both studied years. Results have shown that the NPP is highly correlated with the forest fire density (R2 = 0.75, RMSE = 5.03 gC m-2 month-1). The estimated LST of the individual fire days has witnessed a sharp temperature increase by > 6oC - 9oC in comparison to the non-fire days clearly indicates high fire risk (in

  19. Multi-Model Assessment of Trends and Variability in Terrestrial Carbon Uptake in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A. S.; Bala, G.; Ravindranath, N. H.

    2015-12-01

    Indian terrestrial ecosystem exhibits large temporal and spatial variability in carbon sources and sinks due to its monsoon based climate system, diverse land use and land cover distribution and cultural practices. In this study, a multi-model based assessment is made to study the trends and variability in the land carbon uptake for India over the 20th century. Data from nine models which are a part of a recent land surface model intercomparison project called TRENDY is used for the study. These models are driven with common forcing data over the period of 1901-2010. Model output variables assessed include: gross primary production (GPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh), autotrophic respiration (Ra) and net primary production (NPP). The net ecosystem productivity (NEP) for the Indian region was calculated as a difference of NPP and Rh and it was found that NEP for the region indicates an estimated increase in uptake over the century by -0.6 TgC/year per year. NPP for India also shows an increasing trend of 2.03% per decade from 1901-2010. Seasonal variation in the multimodel mean NPP is maximum during the southwest monsoon period (JJA) followed by the post monsoon period (SON) and is attributed to the maximum in rainfall for the region during the months of JJA. To attribute the changes seen in the land carbon variables, influence of climatic drivers such as precipitation, temperature and remote influences of large scale phenomenon such as ENSO on the land carbon of the region are also estimated in the study. It is found that although changes in precipitation shows a good correlation to the changes seen in NEP, remote drivers like ENSO do not have much effect on them. The Net Ecosystem Exchange is calculated with the inclusion of the land use change flux and fire flux from the models. NEE suggests that the region behaves as a small sink for carbon with an net uptake of 5 GtC over the past hundred years.

  20. Improvements of mass formula and β-decay gross theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Takahiro

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear mass greatly decreases when the number of protons Z and neutrons N is simultaneously equal to a magic number (mutual support of magicities). The mass also tends to decrease due to deformation as both N and Z are away from the magic numbers (mutual support of deformations). These two effects are introduced to a nuclear mass formula containing a constant-type shell term to derive a new formula. The mass excess is expressed by a sum of three parts, i.e. gross part, even-odd part and shell part. The gross part, which represents the general nature, consists of two rest mass terms and a coulomb term. The even-odd part is of a typical form with a correction term. The shell part consists of a proton shell term, neutron shell term, third term expressing the two mutual support effects, and fourth term representing a decrease in coulomb energy due to deformation of the nucleus. The improvements made in the β-decay gross theory are associated with the single particle intensity function D 0 GT (E,ε). They are intended for: (1) reproducing the peak that accounts for about a half of the Gamow-Teller intensity, which has recently been found in (p,n) reactions at energies above the isobaric analogue state and (2) explaining the other half by an exponential-type D 0 GT (E,ε). (Nogami, K.)

  1. Treatment of Persistent Gross Hematuria with Tranexamic Acid in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In this retrospective study we aimed to compare the effect of tranexamic acid (TXA vs etamsylate, two hemostatic agents, on hematuria duration in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD patients with persistent gross hematuria. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 40 patients with ADPKD and macroscopic hematuria. 20 patients receiving TXA and snake venom blood clotting enzyme injection were compared with 20 matched patients receiving etamsylate and snake venom blood clotting enzyme injection. The primary outcome was hematuria duration and the secondary outcomes were blood transfusion requirements and adverse events. Results: The hematuria duration was shorter in the TXA group compared with the etamsylate group (4[3-5] d vs 7[6-10] d, P<0.001. The volume of blood transfusion tended to be less in the TXA group than in the etamsylate group (300±115 ml vs 486±195 ml, P=0.12, and the number of patients needing a blood transfusion also tended to be lower [20% (4/20 vs 35% (7/20, P=0.29]. TXA and etamsylate were equally well tolerated and no serious adverse events were observed in both groups. Conclusions: Our study indicates that TXA treatment was more effective than etamsylate in stopping bleeding in ADPKD patients with persistent gross hematuria.

  2. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2013-08-01

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models.

  3. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models

  4. The Solar-Terrestrial Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, John Keith

    1995-05-01

    The book begins with three introductory chapters that provide some basic physics and explain the principles of physical investigation. The principal material contained in the main part of the book covers the neutral and ionized upper atmosphere, the magnetosphere, and structures, dynamics, disturbances, and irregularities. The concluding chapter deals with technological applications. The account is introductory, at a level suitable for readers with a basic background in engineering or physics. The intent is to present basic concepts, and for that reason, the mathematical treatment is not complex. SI units are given throughout, with helpful notes on cgs units where these are likely to be encountered in the research literature. This book is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students who are taking introductory courses on upper atmospheric, ionospheric, or magnetospheric physics. This is a successor to The Upper Atmosphere and Solar-Terrestrial Relations, published in 1979.

  5. Radionuclide transfer in terrestrial animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGregorio, D.; Kitchings, T.; Van Voris, P.

    1978-01-01

    The analysis of dispersion of radionuclides in terrestrial food chains, generally, is a series of equations identifying the fractional input and outflow rates from trophic level to trophic level. Data that are prerequisite inputs for these food chain transport models include: (1) identification of specific transport pathway, (2) assimilation at each pathway link, and (3) the turnover rate or retention function by successive receptor species in the appropriate food chain. In this report, assimilation coefficients, biological half-lives, and excretion rates for a wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species and radionuclides have been compiled from an extensive search of the available literature. Using the information accumulated from the literature, correlations of nuclide metabolism and body weight are also discussed. (author)

  6. Methyl mercury in terrestrial compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeppler, M.; Burow, M.; Padberg, S.; May, K.

    1993-09-01

    On the basis of the analytical methodology available at present the state of the art for the determination of total mercury and of various organometallic compounds of mercury in air, precipitation, limnic systems, soils, plants and biota is reviewed. This is followed by the presentation and discussion of examples for the data obtained hitherto for trace and ultratrace levels of total mercury and mainly methyl mercury in terrestrial and limnic environments as well as in biota. The data discussed stem predominantly from the past decade in which, due to significant methodological progress, many new aspects were elucidated. They include the most important results in this area achieved by the Research Centre (KFA) Juelich within the project 'Origin and Fate of Methyl Mercury' (contracts EV4V-0138-D and STEP-CT90-0057) supported by the Commission of the European Communities, Brussels. (orig.) [de

  7. Traumatic insemination in terrestrial arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarnic, Nikolai J; Cassis, Gerasimos; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic insemination is a bizarre form of mating practiced by some invertebrates in which males use hypodermic genitalia to penetrate their partner's body wall during copulation, frequently bypassing the female genital tract and ejaculating into their blood system. The requirements for traumatic insemination to evolve are stringent, yet surprisingly it has arisen multiple times within invertebrates. In terrestrial arthropods traumatic insemination is most prevalent in the true bug infraorder Cimicomorpha, where it has evolved independently at least three times. Traumatic insemination is thought to occur in the Strepsiptera and has recently been recorded in fruit fly and spider lineages. We review the putative selective pressures that may have led to the evolution of traumatic insemination across these lineages, as well as the pressures that continue to drive divergence in male and female reproductive morphology and behavior. Traumatic insemination mechanisms and attributes are compared across independent lineages.

  8. Phytopharmacological overview of Tribulus terrestris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Saurabh; Nesari, Tanuja; Somani, Gauresh; Kanchan, Divya; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris (family Zygophyllaceae), commonly known as Gokshur or Gokharu or puncture vine, has been used for a long time in both the Indian and Chinese systems of medicine for treatment of various kinds of diseases. Its various parts contain a variety of chemical constituents which are medicinally important, such as flavonoids, flavonol glycosides, steroidal saponins, and alkaloids. It has diuretic, aphrodisiac, antiurolithic, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, absorption enhancing, hypolipidemic, cardiotonic, central nervous system, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, anticancer, antibacterial, anthelmintic, larvicidal, and anticariogenic activities. For the last few decades or so, extensive research work has been done to prove its biological activities and the pharmacology of its extracts. The aim of this review is to create a database for further investigations of the discovered phytochemical and pharmacological properties of this plant to promote research. This will help in confirmation of its traditional use along with its value-added utility, eventually leading to higher revenues from the plant. PMID:24600195

  9. Terrestrial atmosphere, water and astrobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coradini M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Primitive life, defined as a chemical system capable to transfer its molecular information via self-replication and also capable to evolve, originated about 4 billion years ago from the processing of organic molecules by liquid water. Terrestrial atmosphere played a key role in the process by allowing the permanent presence of liquid water and by participating in the production of carbon-based molecules. Water molecules exhibit specific properties mainly due to a dense network of hydrogen bonds. The carbon-based molecules were either home made in the atmosphere and/or in submarine hydrothermal systems or delivered by meteorites and micrometeorites. The search for possible places beyond the earth where the trilogy atmosphere/water/life could exist is the main objective of astrobiology. Within the Solar System, exploration missions are dedicated to Mars, Europa, Titan and the icy bodies. The discovery of several hundreds of extrasolar planets opens the quest to the whole Milky Way.

  10. Terrestrial pathways of radionuclide particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boone, F.W.; Ng, Y.C.

    1981-01-01

    Formulations are developed for computing potential human intake of 13 radionuclides via the terrestrial food chains. The formulations are an extension of the NRC methodology. Specific regional crop and livestock transfer and fractional distribution data from the southern part of the U.S.A. are provided and used in the computation of comparative values with those computed by means of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109 formulations. In the development of the model, emphasis was also placed on identifying the various time-delay compartments of the food chains and accounting for all of the activity initially deposited. For all radionuclides considered, except 137 Cs, the new formulations predict lower potential intakes from the total of all food chains combined than do the comparable Regulatory Guide formulations by as much as a factor of 40. For 137 Cs the new formulations predict 10% higher potential intakes. (author)

  11. Energetics of the terrestrial bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrin, Maria; Gunell, Herbert; Norqvist, Patrik

    2017-04-01

    The solar wind is the primary energy source for the magnetospheric energy budget. Energy can enter through the magnetopause both as kinetic energy (plasma entering via e.g. magnetic reconnection and impulsive penetration) and as electromagnetic energy (e.g. by the conversion of solar wind kinetic energy into electromagnetic energy in magnetopause generators). However, energy is extracted from the solar wind already at the bow shock, before it encounters the terrestrial magnetopause. At the bow shock the supersonic solar wind is slowed down and heated, and the region near the bow shock is known to host many complex processes, including the accelerating of particles and the generation of waves. The processes at and near the bow shock can be discussed in terms of energetics: In a generator (load) process kinetic energy is converted to (from) electromagnetic energy. Bow shock regions where the solar wind is decelerated correspond to generators, while regions where particles are energized (accelerated and heated) correspond to loads. Recently, it has been suggested that currents from the bow shock generator should flow across the magnetosheath and connect to the magnetospause current systems [Siebert and Siscoe, 2002; Lopez et al., 2011]. In this study we use data from the Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission to investigate the energetics of the bow shock and the current closure, and we compare with the MHD simulations of Lopez et al., 2011.

  12. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  13. Energy-Efficient Optimal Power Allocation in Integrated Wireless Sensor and Cognitive Satellite Terrestrial Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shengchao; Li, Guangxia; An, Kang; Gao, Bin; Zheng, Gan

    2017-09-04

    This paper proposes novel satellite-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which integrate the WSN with the cognitive satellite terrestrial network. Having the ability to provide seamless network access and alleviate the spectrum scarcity, cognitive satellite terrestrial networks are considered as a promising candidate for future wireless networks with emerging requirements of ubiquitous broadband applications and increasing demand for spectral resources. With the emerging environmental and energy cost concerns in communication systems, explicit concerns on energy efficient resource allocation in satellite networks have also recently received considerable attention. In this regard, this paper proposes energy-efficient optimal power allocation schemes in the cognitive satellite terrestrial networks for non-real-time and real-time applications, respectively, which maximize the energy efficiency (EE) of the cognitive satellite user while guaranteeing the interference at the primary terrestrial user below an acceptable level. Specifically, average interference power (AIP) constraint is employed to protect the communication quality of the primary terrestrial user while average transmit power (ATP) or peak transmit power (PTP) constraint is adopted to regulate the transmit power of the satellite user. Since the energy-efficient power allocation optimization problem belongs to the nonlinear concave fractional programming problem, we solve it by combining Dinkelbach's method with Lagrange duality method. Simulation results demonstrate that the fading severity of the terrestrial interference link is favorable to the satellite user who can achieve EE gain under the ATP constraint comparing to the PTP constraint.

  14. Landscape History of Grosses Moos, NW Swiss Alpine Foreland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanna Heer, Aleksandra; Adamiec, Grzegorz; Veit, Heinz; May, Jan-Hendrik; Novenko, Elena; Hajdas, Irka

    2017-04-01

    The western Swiss Plateau with Lake Neuchâtel is part of the alpine foreland and among the key areas for the reconstruction of environmental changes since the last postglacial. This study was carried out in a landscape located NE of the lake and called Grosses Moos (The Large Fen) - currently designated the Swiss largest, continuous farming area, after the fen was drained in course of landscape engineering projects performed in Switzerland at the end of the 19th century. The study contributes new results from nine excavations of littoral ridges identified in Grosses Moos, and integrates sedimentology, paleo-environmental analysis and three independent chronological methods. Radiocarbon dating, pollen analysis and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) were applied to the sediments. While pollen and radiocarbon follow the standard procedures, the evaluation of the luminescence age estimates demanded adjustment according to the physical and microdosimetric properties of the alpine quartz, and consideration of the peculiarities of the changing littoral environments of Grosses Moos. The Grosses Moos landscape developed on the temporary surface of the post-Last Glacial sedimentary infill of the over-deepened glacial Aare valley. In this study the landscape history has been fitted into the existing supraregional time scales of NGRIP, the Swiss bio-zones system and the human history based on archaeological and historic records and covers a time span of up to 15'000 yr b2k. The wide-ranging suite of geomorphic features and sedimentary sequences, including littoral lake sediments, beach ridges, dunes, palaeo-channels, peat and colluvial deposits, enable the extensive reconstruction of spatially and temporally variable natural shaping processes. In addition, our results indicate remobilization of soil, colluvium, and sediment due to human settlement activities since the Neolithic - with an important increase in sediment load and spatial variability since the Bronze Age

  15. Determination of radon daughter activities of different aerosol fractions by gross-α and gross-β measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katona, T.; Kanyar, B.; Jobbagy, V.; Kavasi, N.; Molnar, A.; Imre, K.

    2004-01-01

    The aim was to determine the radioactivities of the radon progenies ( 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi and 214 Po) attached to the carrier aerosol particles with respect to the size distribution in order to improve the assessment of the inhalation dose. We derived the radionuclide-specific activity concentrations from gross alpha and gross beta measurements provided during 2 hours after sampling and model calculations including parameter estimation. For the aerosol sampling we used an electrical low pressure impactor, which is able to collect aerosol particles in 12 different diameter ranges. In our test investigations the aerosol particles were collected from a closed chamber in a common laboratory building. The chamber contained a relatively high radon concentration (60-90 kBq/m 3 ) in equilibrium with the short lived daughters generated previously without any additional aerosol sources. For the nuclear measurements of the aerosol samples ZnS/plastic sandwich detectors have been used. The time series data of gross alpha and gross beta activities were fitted simultaneously and the initial activities of the daughters were estimated. According to the results from two different fractions (0.06 and 0.7 μm) just followed the end of sampling they contain a higher 218 Po activity than the 214 Pb and 214 Bi ones. The preliminary assessments for the special air conditions show that the 214 Pb-to- 218 Po activity ratios are higher for the small aerosol particles than for the larger ones. The estimated errors of the initial activities were near to 50% in a large part of cases. (author)

  16. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activities of Tribulus Terrestris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harraz, Fathalla M; Ghazy, Nabila M; Hammoda, Hala M; Nafeaa, Abeer A.; Abdallah, Ingy I.

    2015-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris L. has been used in folk medicine throughout history. The present study examined the acute toxicity of the total ethanolic extract of T. Terrestris followed by investigation of the hepatoprotective activity of the total ethanolic extract and different fractions of the aerial

  17. 26 CFR 1.61-14 - Miscellaneous items of gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... as treble damages under the antitrust laws and exemplary damages for fraud are gross income. Another... by law. Illegal gains constitute gross income. Treasure trove, to the extent of its value in United...

  18. Using the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) to Analyze Impacts of Climate Change on Ecosystems within Northern California Climate Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, K.; Little, M.; Loewenstein, M.; Iraci, L. T.; Milesi, C.; Schmidt, C.; Skiles, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    The projected impacts of climate change on Northern California ecosystems using model outputs from the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) for the period 1950-2099 based on 1km downscaled climate data from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) model are analyzed in this study. The impacts are analyzed for the Special Report Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B and A2, both maintaining present levels of urbanization constant and under projected urban expansion. The analysis is in support of the Climate Adaptation Science Investigation at NASA Ames Research Center. A statistical analysis is completed for time series of temperature, precipitation, gross primary productivity (GPP), evapotranspiration, soil runoff, and vapor pressure deficit. Trends produced from this analysis show that increases in maximum and minimum temperatures lead to declines in peak GPP, length of growing seasons, and overall declines in runoff within the watershed. For Northern California, GPP is projected under the A2 scenario to decrease by 18-25% by the 2090 decade as compared to the 2000 decade. These trends indicate a higher risk to crop production and other ecosystem services, as conditions would be less hospitable to vegetation growth. The increase in dried out vegetation would then lead to a higher risk of wildfire and mudslides in the mountainous regions.

  19. The relationship between gross motor skills and visual perception of preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    TEPELI, Kezban

    2014-01-01

    Answers were searched for these questions; “Is there a relationship between visual perceptions and gross motor skills of preschool children?”, “Are preschool children's visual perceptions predictors of their gross motor skills?”, “Is there any difference between visual perceptions of the children having low, average and high level of gross motor skills?” within this study where the relationship between preschool children's visual perceptions and their gross motor skills were compara...

  20. Experimental rickets in broilers: gross, microscopic, and radiographic lesions. III. Vitamin D deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, P.H.; Lee, S.R.; Rowland, G.N.; Britton, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    Day-old broiler chicks were fed a vitamin D-deficient diet for 30 days. Gross, microscopic, and radiographic examinations of the proximal tibiotarsus were done at 2, 3, and 4 weeks of age. In 2-week-old chicks, there was variable lengthening and disorganization of the proliferating-prehypertrophied zone (P-PHZ), resorption of cartilage spicules in the degenerating hypertrophied zone and primary spongiosa, and lengthening of bone spicules in the secondary spongiosa; many bone surfaces were lined with increased osteoid. In 3-week-old chicks, there was a tendency for the P-PHZ to decrease in relative length and for cartilage spicules to increase in length. In 4-week-old chicks, however, there was marked lengthening of the P-PHZ, resorption of cartilage spicules, and replacement of the metaphysis with irregularly oriented islands of woven bone, osteoid, and loose fibrous connective tissue

  1. A continuous hyperspatial monitoring system of evapotranspiration and gross primary productivity from Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Bandini, Filippo; Jakobsen, Jakob; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo J.; Köppl, Christian Josef; Haugård Olesen, Daniel; Ibrom, Andreas; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Garcia, Monica

    2017-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) can collect optical and thermal hyperspatial (challenges for an operational monitoring using UAS compared to satellites: the payload capacity of most commercial UAS is less than 2 kg, but miniaturized sensors have low signal to noise ratios and small field of view requires mosaicking hundreds of images and accurate orthorectification. In addition, wind gusts and lower platform stability require appropriate geometric and radiometric corrections. Finally, modeling fluxes on days without images is still an issue for both satellite and UAS applications. This study focuses on designing an operational UAS-based monitoring system including payload design, sensor calibration, based on routine collection of optical and thermal images in a Danish willow field to perform a joint monitoring of ET and GPP dynamics over continuous time at daily time steps. The payload (approach (Potter et al., 1993). Both models estimate ET and GPP under optimum potential conditions down-regulated by the same biophysical constraints dependent on remote sensing and atmospheric data to reflect multiple stresses. Vegetation indices were calculated from the multispectral data to assess vegetation conditions, while thermal infrared imagery was used to compute a thermal inertia index to infer soil moisture constraints. To interpolate radiometric temperature between flights, a prognostic Surface Energy Balance model (Margulis et al., 2001) based on the force-restore method was applied in a data assimilation scheme to obtain continuous ET and GPP fluxes. With this operational system, regular flight campaigns with a hexacopter (DJI S900) have been conducted in a Danish willow flux site (Risø) over the 2016 growing season. The observed energy, water and carbon fluxes from the Risø eddy covariance flux tower were used to validate the model simulation. This UAS monitoring system is suitable for agricultural management and land-atmosphere interaction studies.

  2. Biophysical drivers of seasonal variability in Sphagnum gross primary production in a northern temperate bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony P. Walker; Kelsey R. Carter; Lianhong Gu; Paul J. Hanson; Avni Malhotra; Richard J. Norby; Stephen D. Sebestyen; Stan D. Wullschleger; David J. Weston

    2017-01-01

    Sphagnum mosses are the keystone species of peatland ecosystems. With rapid rates of climate change occurring in high latitudes, vast reservoirs of carbon accumulated over millennia in peatland ecosystems are potentially vulnerable to rising temperature and changing precipitation. We investigate the seasonal drivers of Sphagnum...

  3. 26 CFR 1.924(a)-1T - Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... trading gross receipts. 1.924(a)-1T Section 1.924(a)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... United States § 1.924(a)-1T Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts. (a) In general. The term “foreign trading gross receipts” means any of the five amounts described in paragraphs...

  4. 26 CFR 1.61-3 - Gross income derived from business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 1.61-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Definition of Gross Income, Adjusted Gross Income, and..., merchandising, or mining business, “gross income” means the total sales, less the cost of goods sold, plus any...

  5. 46 CFR 167.01-8 - Inspection of school ships using gross tonnage criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of school ships using gross tonnage criterion... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS General Provisions § 167.01-8 Inspection of school ships using gross... school ships by relative sizes in gross tonnages. When it is determined in accordance with § 70.05-20 of...

  6. The Relationship between Gross Motor Skills and Academic Achievement in Children with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor skills and academic performance in reading,…

  7. 26 CFR 1.872-1 - Gross income of nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.872-1 Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general—(1) Inclusions. The gross income of a nonresident alien...

  8. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  9. Biological control of the terrestrial carbon sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, E.-D.

    2006-03-01

    This lecture reviews the past (since 1964 when the International Biological Program began) and the future of our understanding of terrestrial carbon fluxes with focus on photosynthesis, respiration, primary-, ecosystem-, and biome-productivity. Photosynthetic capacity is related to the nitrogen concentration of leaves, but the capacity is only rarely reached under field conditions. Average rates of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance are closely correlated and operate near 50% of their maximal rate, with light being the limiting factor in humid regions and air humidity and soil water the limiting factor in arid climates. Leaf area is the main factor to extrapolate from leaves to canopies, with maximum surface conductance being dependent on leaf level stomatal conductance. Additionally, gas exchange depends also on rooting depth which determines the water and nutrient availability and on mycorrhizae which regulate the nutrient status. An important anthropogenic disturbance is the nitrogen uptake from air pollutants, which is not balanced by cation uptake from roots and this may lead to damage and breakdown of the plant cover. Photosynthesis is the main carbon input into ecosystems, but it alone does not represent the ecosystem carbon balance, which is determined by respiration of various kinds. Plant respiration and photosynthesis determine growth (net primary production) and microbial respiration balances the net ecosystem flux. In a spruce forest, 30% of the assimilatory carbon gain is used for respiration of needles, 20% is used for respiration in stems. Soil respiration is about 50% the carbon gain, half of which is root respiration, half is microbial respiration. In addition, disturbances lead to carbon losses, where fire, harvest and grazing bypass the chain of respiration. In total, the carbon balance at the biome level is only about 1% of the photosynthetic carbon input, or may indeed become negative. The recent observed increase in plant growth has

  10. Biological control of the terrestrial carbon sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.-D. Schulze

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This lecture reviews the past (since 1964 when the International Biological Program began and the future of our understanding of terrestrial carbon fluxes with focus on photosynthesis, respiration, primary-, ecosystem-, and biome-productivity. Photosynthetic capacity is related to the nitrogen concentration of leaves, but the capacity is only rarely reached under field conditions. Average rates of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance are closely correlated and operate near 50% of their maximal rate, with light being the limiting factor in humid regions and air humidity and soil water the limiting factor in arid climates. Leaf area is the main factor to extrapolate from leaves to canopies, with maximum surface conductance being dependent on leaf level stomatal conductance. Additionally, gas exchange depends also on rooting depth which determines the water and nutrient availability and on mycorrhizae which regulate the nutrient status. An important anthropogenic disturbance is the nitrogen uptake from air pollutants, which is not balanced by cation uptake from roots and this may lead to damage and breakdown of the plant cover. Photosynthesis is the main carbon input into ecosystems, but it alone does not represent the ecosystem carbon balance, which is determined by respiration of various kinds. Plant respiration and photosynthesis determine growth (net primary production and microbial respiration balances the net ecosystem flux. In a spruce forest, 30% of the assimilatory carbon gain is used for respiration of needles, 20% is used for respiration in stems. Soil respiration is about 50% the carbon gain, half of which is root respiration, half is microbial respiration. In addition, disturbances lead to carbon losses, where fire, harvest and grazing bypass the chain of respiration. In total, the carbon balance at the biome level is only about 1% of the photosynthetic carbon input, or may indeed become negative. The recent observed increase in

  11. Terrestrial ecosystems: an ecological content for radionuclide research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heal, O.W.; Horrill, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    The distribution and retention of radionuclides within terrestrial ecosystems varies greatly with both the radionuclide and the environmental conditions. Physico-chemical conditions, particularly those of the soil, strongly influence element retention but superimposed and interacting with these conditions are the biological processes which control the dynamics of the labile fraction of most elements. Net ecosystem production expresses the complementary biological processes of primary production and decomposition which control the internal element dynamics and the balance of inputs to and outputs from terrestrial ecosystems. Analysis of ecosystem structure and function has shown that although research often concentrates on relatively stable stages of ecosystem development, element retention is high during the early stages of ecosystem succession through the accumulation of plant biomass and dead organic matter. Element output tends to increase with time reaching a balance with inputs in mature ecosystems. Following disturbance, plant uptake tends to be reduced and decomposition stimulated, resulting in increased output until secondary succession and accumulation is re-established. Research on element dynamics in ecosystems indicates that major factors influencing the mobility of radionuclides in terrestrial systems will be the successional state of the ecosystem and intensity of disturbance. (author)

  12. Gross anatomy education for South African undergraduate physiotherapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shead, Dorothy A; Roos, Ronel; Olivier, Benita; Ihunwo, Amadi O

    2018-01-16

    Eight faculties in South Africa offer undergraduate physiotherapy training with gross anatomy included as a basis for clinical practice. Little information exists about anatomy education for this student body. A 42-question peer-reviewed survey was distributed to physiotherapy gross anatomy course coordinators in all the eight faculties. Seven coordinators from six (75%) of the universities responded. Two respondents' data from the same university were pooled. Collected data show that staff qualifications and experience varied widely and high to average staff to student ratios exist between faculties. Direct anatomy teaching duration was 12.3 (SD ±5.2) weeks per semester. Total number of weeks in courses per faculty was 27.6 (SD ±5.7) varying widely between institutions. Calculable direct contact anatomy hours ranged between 100 and 308 with a mean of 207.6 (SD ±78.1). Direct contact hours in lectures averaged 3.9 (SD ±1.6) per week and the average direct contact hours in practical sessions were 3.5 (SD ±1.8) per week. Dissection, prosection, plastinated models, surface anatomy, and e-learning were available across faculties. Ancillary modalities such as vertical integration and inter-professional learning were in use. All faculties had multiple-choice questions, spot tests, and short examination questions. Half had viva-voce examinations and one had additional long questions assessment. Students evaluated teaching performance in five faculties. Four faculties were reviewing anatomy programs to consider implementing changes to anatomy curriculum or pedagogy. The findings highlighted disparity between programs and also identified the need for specific guidelines to develop a unified South African gross anatomy course for physiotherapy students. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.

  13. Verbal priming and taste sensitivity make moral transgressions gross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Rachel S

    2014-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess whether: (a) visceral and moral disgust share a common oral origin (taste); (b) moral transgressions that are also viscerally involving are evaluated accordingly as a function of individual differences in taste sensitivity; (c) verbal priming interacts with taste sensitivity to alter how disgust is experienced in moral transgressions; and (d) whether gender moderates these effects. Standard tests of disgust sensitivity, a questionnaire developed for this research assessing different types of moral transgressions (nonvisceral, implied-visceral, visceral) with the terms "angry" and "grossed-out," and a taste sensitivity test of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) were administered to 102 participants. Results confirmed past findings that the more sensitive to PROP a participant was the more disgusted they were by visceral, but not moral, disgust elicitors. Importantly, the findings newly revealed that taste sensitivity had no bearing on evaluations of moral transgressions, regardless of their visceral nature, when "angry" was the emotion primed. However, when "grossed-out" was primed for evaluating moral violations, the more intense PROP tasted to a participant the more "grossed-out" they were by all transgressions. Women were generally more disgust sensitive and morally condemning than men, but disgust test, transgression type, and priming scale modulated these effects. The present findings support the proposition that moral and visceral disgust do not share a common oral origin, but show that linguistic priming can transform a moral transgression into a viscerally repulsive event and that susceptibility to this priming varies as a function of an individual's sensitivity to the origins of visceral disgust-bitter taste.

  14. The Schroedinger functional for Gross-Neveu models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leder, B.

    2007-01-01

    Gross-Neveu type models with a finite number of fermion flavours are studied on a two-dimensional Euclidean space-time lattice. The models are asymptotically free and are invariant under a chiral symmetry. These similarities to QCD make them perfect benchmark systems for fermion actions used in large scale lattice QCD computations. The Schroedinger functional for the Gross-Neveu models is defined for both, Wilson and Ginsparg-Wilson fermions, and shown to be renormalisable in 1-loop lattice perturbation theory. In two dimensions four fermion interactions of the Gross-Neveu models have dimensionless coupling constants. The symmetry properties of the four fermion interaction terms and the relations among them are discussed. For Wilson fermions chiral symmetry is explicitly broken and additional terms must be included in the action. Chiral symmetry is restored up to cut-off effects by tuning the bare mass and one of the couplings. The critical mass and the symmetry restoring coupling are computed to second order in lattice perturbation theory. This result is used in the 1-loop computation of the renormalised couplings and the associated beta-functions. The renormalised couplings are defined in terms of suitable boundary-to-boundary correlation functions. In the computation the known first order coefficients of the beta-functions are reproduced. One of the couplings is found to have a vanishing betafunction. The calculation is repeated for the recently proposed Schroedinger functional with exact chiral symmetry, i.e. Ginsparg-Wilson fermions. The renormalisation pattern is found to be the same as in the Wilson case. Using the regularisation dependent finite part of the renormalised couplings, the ratio of the Lambda-parameters is computed. (orig.)

  15. Nitrogen Availability Dampens the Positive Impacts of CO2 Fertilization on Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon and Water Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liming; Chen, Jing M.; Croft, Holly; Gonsamo, Alemu; Luo, Xiangzhong; Liu, Jane; Zheng, Ting; Liu, Ronggao; Liu, Yang

    2017-11-01

    The magnitude and variability of the terrestrial CO2 sink remain uncertain, partly due to limited global information on ecosystem nitrogen (N) and its cycle. Without N constraint in ecosystem models, the simulated benefits from CO2 fertilization and CO2-induced increases in water use efficiency (WUE) may be overestimated. In this study, satellite observations of a relative measure of chlorophyll content are used as a proxy for leaf photosynthetic N content globally for 2003-2011. Global gross primary productivity (GPP) and evapotranspiration are estimated under elevated CO2 and N-constrained model scenarios. Results suggest that the rate of global GPP increase is overestimated by 85% during 2000-2015 without N limitation. This limitation is found to occur in many tropical and boreal forests, where a negative leaf N trend indicates a reduction in photosynthetic capacity, thereby suppressing the positive vegetation response to enhanced CO2 fertilization. Based on our carbon-water coupled simulations, enhanced CO2 concentration decreased stomatal conductance and hence increased WUE by 10% globally over the 1982 to 2015 time frame. Due to increased anthropogenic N application, GPP in croplands continues to grow and offset the weak negative trend in forests due to N limitation. Our results also show that the improved WUE is unlikely to ease regional droughts in croplands because of increases in evapotranspiration, which are associated with the enhanced GPP. Although the N limitation on GPP increase is large, its associated confidence interval is still wide, suggesting an urgent need for better understanding and quantification of N limitation from satellite observations.

  16. Recent developments and future directions in the monitoring of terrestrial sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanter, L.

    2017-12-01

    Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) is an electromagnetic signal emitted by the chlorophyll-a of assimilating plants in the 650-850 nm spectral range. The SIF emission has a mechanistic link to photosynthesis and responds instantaneously to perturbations in environmental conditions such as light and water stress, which makes it a powerful proxy for plants' photosynthetic activity. Global measurements of SIF from space have been available since late 2011 from four different atmospheric satellite missions (chronologically, GOSAT, SCIAMACHY, GOME-2 and OCO-2). The potential of the derived SIF data sets to represent the photosynthetic activity of different ecosystems, including large crop belts worldwide, the Amazon rainforest and boreal evergreen forests has been demonstrated in the relatively short life-time of global SIF data. Despite the demonstrated potential of SIF data as a proxy for global terrestrial gross primary production, current observations are partly hampered by a coarse spatial resolution or the lack of spatial coverage. For this reason, great expectations are put on the upcoming TROPOMI instrument onboard the Copernicus' Sentinel 5-Precursor mission to be launched by mid-end of 2017. TROPOMI will provide daily global coverage with a spatial resolution between 3 and 7 km and continuous spectral coverage of the visible and near-infrared part of the spectrum. The recent selection of FLEX as the ESA Earth Explorer 8 to be launched around 2022 and several upcoming geostationary missions (TEMPO, Sentinel-4 and GeoCARB, covering Europe and the Americas) with potential for SIF retrievals complete an exciting near-future scenario for the monitoring of SIF from space. In this contribution, we will provide an overview of recent developments in the global monitoring of SIF and will introduce the near-future observational scenario with especial emphasis on TROPOMI and the geostationary missions to be launched in the coming years.

  17. Gross beta activity of the Danube river samples in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaskovic, I.; Pantelic, G.; Eremic-Savkovic, M.; Vuletic, V.; Javorina, Lj.; Tanaskovic, I.)

    2007-01-01

    Our paper presents the results of radioactivity control of the Danube samples on Serbian (Bezdan left coast) in 2006. The measurements were carried out by low-phone proportional gas alpha beta counter PIC-WPC-9550. Efficiency for activity was 47%. The results of measurements of gross beta activity (water, sediment, algae and fish) reveal that the values are at the same level as they were before the Paks Nuclear power plant started running. Our results of measurements correlate well with the results of Hungarian part. (author) [sr

  18. Gross shell structure at high spin in heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleplanque, Marie-Agnes; Frauendorf, Stefan; Pashkevich, Vitaly V.; Chu, S.Y.; Unzhakova, Anja

    2003-01-01

    Experimental nuclear moments of inertia at high spins along the yrast line have been determined systematically and found to differ from the rigid-body values. The difference is attributed to shell effect and these have been calculated microscopically. The data and quantal calculations are interpreted by means of the semiclassical Periodic Orbit Theory. From this new perspective, features in the moments of inertia as a function of neutron number and spin, as well as their relation to the shell energies can be understood. Gross shell effects persist up to the highest angular momenta observed

  19. Characterizing the development of sectoral gross domestic product composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Raphael; Spies, Michael; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.; Rybski, Diego

    2013-07-01

    We consider the sectoral composition of a country's gross domestic product (GDP), i.e., the partitioning into agrarian, industrial, and service sectors. Exploring a simple system of differential equations, we characterize the transfer of GDP shares between the sectors in the course of economic development. The model fits for the majority of countries providing four country-specific parameters. Relating the agrarian with the industrial sector, a data collapse over all countries and all years supports the applicability of our approach. Depending on the parameter ranges, country development exhibits different transfer properties. Most countries follow three of eight characteristic paths. The types are not random but show distinct geographic and development patterns.

  20. A Langevin simulation of the Gross-Neveu spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacaze, R.; Morel, A.; Petersson, B.

    1989-01-01

    We study the order parameter of Chiral symmetry, and fermion and boson masses in the Gross-Neveu model as a function of the flavour number N and of the Langevin time step ε in the scaling region. The 1/N dependence of the ε=0 value of the order parameter is in excellent agreement with an analytical calculation up to second order. Care is taken of the important two fermion contribution in the bosonic correlation functions. Mass ratios are found to be ε dependent, but their ε=0 extrapolation is compatible with the analytic expectation

  1. Electron scattering from the deuteron using the Gross equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.W. Van Orden; N. Devine; F. Gross

    1996-01-01

    The elastic electromagnetic form factors for the deuteron are calculated in the context of a one-boson-exchange model using the Gross or Spectator equation [1]. The formalism is manifestly covariant and gauge invariant. Results are shown for the impulse approximation and for pxy exchange currents. The impulse approximation results are quite close to the available data which suggests that only a relatively small exchange current contribution is required. It is shown that by using a soft form factor for the exchange current, the model provides a very good representation of the data.

  2. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Weak turbulence theory for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, S.; West, R.; Lvov, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to use the ideas developed for the NLSE to derive a weak turbulence theory for a large set of random waves described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. An interesting picture emerges even from a naive application of the results already obtained for the NLSE case. Imagine an arbitrary initial excitation; a superposition of modes with energies somewhere in the middle of the potential well. Because of the nonlinear interaction (''collisions'') there is a redistribution of energy E and particles N among the modes. (orig.)

  4. Does terrestrial epidemiology apply to marine systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Hamish I.; Kuris, Armand M.; Harvell, C. Drew; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Smith, Garriet W.; Porter, James

    2004-01-01

    Most of epidemiological theory has been developed for terrestrial systems, but the significance of disease in the ocean is now being recognized. However, the extent to which terrestrial epidemiology can be directly transferred to marine systems is uncertain. Many broad types of disease-causing organism occur both on land and in the sea, and it is clear that some emergent disease problems in marine environments are caused by pathogens moving from terrestrial to marine systems. However, marine systems are qualitatively different from terrestrial environments, and these differences affect the application of modelling and management approaches that have been developed for terrestrial systems. Phyla and body plans are more diverse in marine environments and marine organisms have different life histories and probably different disease transmission modes than many of their terrestrial counterparts. Marine populations are typically more open than terrestrial ones, with the potential for long-distance dispersal of larvae. Potentially, this might enable unusually rapid propagation of epidemics in marine systems, and there are several examples of this. Taken together, these differences will require the development of new approaches to modelling and control of infectious disease in the ocean.

  5. Steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Li-Ping; Wu, Ke-Lei; Yu, He-Shui; Pang, Xu; Liu, Jie; Han, Li-Feng; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Song, Xin-Bo; Liu, Chao; Cong, Yu-Wen; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Sixteen steroidal saponins, including seven previously unreported compounds, were isolated from Tribulus terrestris. The structures of the saponins were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. They were identified as: 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-2α,3β,22α,26-tetrol-12-one (terrestrinin C), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin D), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,6,12-trione (terrestrinin E), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5α-furostan-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one (terrestrinin F), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-12β,22α,26-triol-3-one (terrestrinin G), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin H), and 24-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5α-spirostan-3β,24β-diol-12-one-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-galactopyranoside (terrestrinin I). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their platelet aggregation activities. Three of the known saponins exhibited strong effects on the induction of platelet aggregation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sex ratio variation in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duchateau, Marie José; Velthuis, Hayo H. W.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2004-01-01

    Bombus terrestris, bumblebees, colony development, queen control, reproductive strategies, sex allocation......Bombus terrestris, bumblebees, colony development, queen control, reproductive strategies, sex allocation...

  7. The Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program Terrestrial Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    , understand and report on long-term change in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity, and to identify knowledge gaps and priorities. This poster will outline the key management questions the plan aims to address and the proposed nested, multi-scaled approach linking targeted, research based monitoring...... and coastal environments. The CBMP Terrestrial Plan is a framework to focus and coordinate monitoring of terrestrial biodiversity across the Arctic. The goal of the plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders, northern communities, and scientists to detect...

  8. The implications of particle energy and acidic media on gross alpha and gross beta determination using liquid scintillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata-Garcia, D. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Llaurado, M., E-mail: montse.llaurado@ub.edu [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rauret, G. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    The interaction of humans with radioactivity present in the environment from natural and artificial sources necessitates an evaluation of its risk on human health. Gross alpha and gross beta activities can provide a rapid evaluation of the radioactive content of a sample and can be simultaneously determined by using liquid scintillation counters. However, calibration of the liquid scintillation counter is required and is affected by many factors, such as particle energy and the acidity of the media. This study investigates what effect the particle energy used for calibration has on misclassification and how to account for this misclassification in routine measurements. The variability in measurement produced by the final pH, as well as any acids used in sample treatment, was also studied. These results showed that the most commonly used acid for these types of analyses, HNO{sub 3}, produced a high amount of misclassifications at very low pH. The results improved when HCl was used to adjust the sample to low pH. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of alpha and beta energies on PSA optimisation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimum PSA shifts to higher values as the alpha energy increases. Beta energies do not affect it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of pH on the simultaneous determination of gross alpha/beta activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HNO{sub 3} produces a high amount of misclassification at very low pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results improve when HCl is used to adjust the sample to low pH.

  9. The implications of particle energy and acidic media on gross alpha and gross beta determination using liquid scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata-García, D.; Llauradó, M.; Rauret, G.

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of humans with radioactivity present in the environment from natural and artificial sources necessitates an evaluation of its risk on human health. Gross alpha and gross beta activities can provide a rapid evaluation of the radioactive content of a sample and can be simultaneously determined by using liquid scintillation counters. However, calibration of the liquid scintillation counter is required and is affected by many factors, such as particle energy and the acidity of the media. This study investigates what effect the particle energy used for calibration has on misclassification and how to account for this misclassification in routine measurements. The variability in measurement produced by the final pH, as well as any acids used in sample treatment, was also studied. These results showed that the most commonly used acid for these types of analyses, HNO 3 , produced a high amount of misclassifications at very low pH. The results improved when HCl was used to adjust the sample to low pH. - Highlights: ► We study the effect of alpha and beta energies on PSA optimisation. ► The optimum PSA shifts to higher values as the alpha energy increases. Beta energies do not affect it. ► We study the effect of pH on the simultaneous determination of gross alpha/beta activities. ► HNO 3 produces a high amount of misclassification at very low pH. ► The results improve when HCl is used to adjust the sample to low pH.

  10. Gross morphological changes in premature and post mature human plancentae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherin, F.; Afzal, E.; Seema, N.

    2015-01-01

    Placenta is a valuable tool for maternal and foetal diseases. Gross pathological changes are seen in the placenta of many disorders of pregnancy, which are associated with high perinatal morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted with the aim to compare the morphological features of preterm, term and post term placentae in our setup. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 150 placentae: 50 were from normal (term) pregnancies considered as control (delivered between 37 to 42 weeks of gestation.), 50 from premature pregnancies (gestational age between 35-37 weeks) from mothers having hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and 50 from post mature pregnancies (gestational age more than 42 weeks). The placentae were collected from Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, through purposive sampling. Placentae were examined in the department of Anatomy, Khyber Medical College Peshawar. Results: In gross morphological features of placentae (weight and diameter) showed significant (p<0.001) among the groups Conclusion: In was concluded that the hypertensive disorders of the pregnancy adversely influence the morphology of placenta, which leads to the premature delivery. (author)

  11. Leadership and professionalism curriculum in the Gross Anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlina, Wojciech; Hromanik, Michael J; Milanese, Tia R; Dierkhising, Ross; Viggiano, Thomas R; Carmichael, Stephen W

    2006-09-01

    Today's physicians must demonstrate both professionalism and leadership skills in order to succeed in largely team-based healthcare environments. The purpose of this study was to determine if professionalism attributes, leadership style, and leadership style adaptability are associated with academic performance among first-year students early in their medical curriculum. Students were divided into 4-member dissection groups for the duration of the Gross and Developmental Anatomy course. Leadership responsibility was randomly assigned to a team member on a rotating basis every 5 weeks. After each 5-week block, student performance was measured by written and practical examinations, and each student assessed their leader's or their own professionalism attributes and leadership style using validated survey instruments. Most students demonstrated either a "selling" only (57%) or "participating" only (30%) leadership style with low to moderate leadership adaptability. "Participating" and "delegating" leadership styles have the highest average group written exam scores (89.4%, P leadership styles and aspects of professionalism are associated with written and practical examination scores in the Gross and Developmental Anatomy course. Furthermore, it demonstrates that first-year medical students are in need of leadership skill development.

  12. Electricity prices and generator behaviour in gross pool electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Mahoney, Amy; Denny, Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    Electricity market liberalisation has become common practice internationally. The justification for this process has been to enhance competition in a market traditionally characterised by statutory monopolies in an attempt to reduce costs to end-users. This paper endeavours to see whether a pool market achieves this goal of increasing competition and reducing electricity prices. Here the electricity market is set up as a sealed bid second price auction. Theory predicts that such markets should result with firms bidding their marginal cost, thereby resulting in an efficient outcome and lower costs to consumers. The Irish electricity system with a gross pool market experiences among the highest electricity prices in Europe. Thus, we analyse the Irish pool system econometrically in order to test if the high electricity prices seen there are due to participants bidding outside of market rules or out of line with theory. Overall we do not find any evidence that the interaction between generator and the pool in the Irish electricity market is not efficient. Thus, the pool element of the market structure does not explain the high electricity prices experienced in Ireland. - Highlights: • We consider whether a gross pool achieves competitive behaviour. • We analyse the Irish pool system econometrically. • Results indicate the Irish pool system appears to work efficiently. • Generators appear to be bidding appropriately

  13. Design of a Quality Control Program for the Measurement of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta Activities (LMPR-CIEMAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, A.; Yague, L.; Gasco, C.; Navarro, N.; Higueras, E.; Noguerales, C.

    2010-01-01

    In accordance with international standards, general requirements for testing laboratories have to include a quality system for planning, implementing, and assessing the work performed by the organization and for carrying out required quality assurance and quality control. The purpose of internal laboratory quality control is to monitor performance, identify problems, and initiate corrective actions. This report describes the internal quality control to monitor the gross alpha and beta activities determination. Identification of specific performance indicators, the principles that govern their use and statistical means of evaluation are explained. Finally, calculation of alpha and beta specific activities, uncertainties and detection limits are performed. (Author) 10 refs.

  14. Development of a data driven process-based model for remote sensing of terrestrial ecosystem productivity, evapotranspiration, and above-ground biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Masri, Bassil

    2011-12-01

    Modeling terrestrial ecosystem functions and structure has been a subject of increasing interest because of the importance of the terrestrial carbon cycle in global carbon budget and climate change. In this study, satellite data were used to estimate gross primary production (GPP), evapotranspiration (ET) for two deciduous forests: Morgan Monroe State forest (MMSF) in Indiana and Harvard forest in Massachusetts. Also, above-ground biomass (AGB) was estimated for the MMSF and the Howland forest (mixed forest) in Maine. Surface reflectance and temperature, vegetation indices, soil moisture, tree height and canopy area derived from the Moderate Resolution Imagining Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMRS-E), LIDAR, and aerial imagery respectively, were used for this purpose. These variables along with others derived from remotely sensed data were used as inputs variables to process-based models which estimated GPP and ET and to a regression model which estimated AGB. The process-based models were BIOME-BGC and the Penman-Monteith equation. Measured values for the carbon and water fluxes obtained from the Eddy covariance flux tower were compared to the modeled GPP and ET. The data driven methods produced good estimation of GPP and ET with an average root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.17 molC/m2 and 0.40 mm/day, respectively for the MMSF and the Harvard forest. In addition, allometric data for the MMSF were used to develop the regression model relating AGB with stem volume. The performance of the AGB regression model was compared to site measurements using remotely sensed data for the MMSF and the Howland forest where the model AGB RMSE ranged between 2.92--3.30 Kg C/m2. Sensitivity analysis revealed that improvement in maintenance respiration estimation and remotely sensed maximum photosynthetic activity as well as accurate estimate of canopy resistance will result in improved GPP and ET predictions. Moreover, AGB estimates were

  15. Change in terrestrial ecosystem water-use efficiency over the last three decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mengtian; Piao, Shilong; Sun, Yan; Ciais, Philippe; Cheng, Lei; Mao, Jiafu; Poulter, Ben; Shi, Xiaoying; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Wang, Yingping

    2015-06-01

    Defined as the ratio between gross primary productivity (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET), ecosystem-scale water-use efficiency (EWUE) is an indicator of the adjustment of vegetation photosynthesis to water loss. The processes controlling EWUE are complex and reflect both a slow evolution of plants and plant communities as well as fast adjustments of ecosystem functioning to changes of limiting resources. In this study, we investigated EWUE trends from 1982 to 2008 using data-driven models derived from satellite observations and process-oriented carbon cycle models. Our findings suggest positive EWUE trends of 0.0056, 0.0007 and 0.0001 g C m(-2)  mm(-1)  yr(-1) under the single effect of rising CO2 ('CO2 '), climate change ('CLIM') and nitrogen deposition ('NDEP'), respectively. Global patterns of EWUE trends under different scenarios suggest that (i) EWUE-CO2 shows global increases, (ii) EWUE-CLIM increases in mainly high latitudes and decreases at middle and low latitudes, (iii) EWUE-NDEP displays slight increasing trends except in west Siberia, eastern Europe, parts of North America and central Amazonia. The data-driven MTE model, however, shows a slight decline of EWUE during the same period (-0.0005 g C m(-2)  mm(-1)  yr(-1) ), which differs from process-model (0.0064 g C m(-2)  mm(-1)  yr(-1) ) simulations with all drivers taken into account. We attribute this discrepancy to the fact that the nonmodeled physiological effects of elevated CO2 reducing stomatal conductance and transpiration (TR) in the MTE model. Partial correlation analysis between EWUE and climate drivers shows similar responses to climatic variables with the data-driven model and the process-oriented models across different ecosystems. Change in water-use efficiency defined from transpiration-based WUEt (GPP/TR) and inherent water-use efficiency (IWUEt , GPP×VPD/TR) in response to rising CO2 , climate change, and nitrogen deposition are also discussed. Our analyses will

  16. Nitrogen deposition and terrestrial biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher M. Clark; Yongfei Bai; William D. Bowman; Jane M. Cowles; Mark E. Fenn; Frank S. Gilliam; Gareth K. Phoenix; Ilyas Siddique; Carly J. Stevens; Harald U. Sverdrup; Heather L. Throop

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen deposition, along with habitat losses and climate change, has been identified as a primary threat to biodiversity worldwide (Butchart et al., 2010; MEA, 2005; Sala et al., 2000). The source of this stressor to natural systems is generally twofold: burning of fossil fuels and the use of fertilizers in modern intensive agriculture. Each of these human...

  17. Possible climates on terrestrial exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget, F; Leconte, J

    2014-04-28

    What kind of environment may exist on terrestrial planets around other stars? In spite of the lack of direct observations, it may not be premature to speculate on exoplanetary climates, for instance, to optimize future telescopic observations or to assess the probability of habitable worlds. To begin with, climate primarily depends on (i) the atmospheric composition and the volatile inventory; (ii) the incident stellar flux; and (iii) the tidal evolution of the planetary spin, which can notably lock a planet with a permanent night side. The atmospheric composition and mass depends on complex processes, which are difficult to model: origins of volatiles, atmospheric escape, geochemistry, photochemistry, etc. We discuss physical constraints, which can help us to speculate on the possible type of atmosphere, depending on the planet size, its final distance for its star and the star type. Assuming that the atmosphere is known, the possible climates can be explored using global climate models analogous to the ones developed to simulate the Earth as well as the other telluric atmospheres in the solar system. Our experience with Mars, Titan and Venus suggests that realistic climate simulators can be developed by combining components, such as a 'dynamical core', a radiative transfer solver, a parametrization of subgrid-scale turbulence and convection, a thermal ground model and a volatile phase change code. On this basis, we can aspire to build reliable climate predictors for exoplanets. However, whatever the accuracy of the models, predicting the actual climate regime on a specific planet will remain challenging because climate systems are affected by strong positive feedbacks. They can drive planets with very similar forcing and volatile inventory to completely different states. For instance, the coupling among temperature, volatile phase changes and radiative properties results in instabilities, such as runaway glaciations and runaway greenhouse effect.

  18. The determination of the national background radioactivity of gross alpha and gross beta in water samples at the PUSPATI site and its neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.T.A.

    1983-01-01

    The determination of the natural background radioactivity in water samples has been made at the PUSPATI site and its environs. The study was performed in January 1981 until June 1981. Samples of river, rain and tap water are periodically collected and analyzed in order to determine gross alpha and gross beta activity. In general, the total radioactivity of water is considerably low. The mean concentration of gross alpha in river water and tap water samples are 1.2 +- 0.1 and 0.2 +- 0.1 pCi/ respectively. The level of gross alpha in rain water is however, below the background rate of the detector. The mean concentration of gross beta in river water, tap water and rain water samples are 4.2 +- 0.6, 1.6 +- 0.3, and 1.9 +- 0.3 pCi/ respectively. (author)

  19. Can polar bears use terrestrial foods to offset lost ice-based hunting opportunities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D.; Robbins, Charles T.; Nelson, Lynne; Amstrup, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Increased land use by polar bears (Ursus maritimus) due to climate-change-induced reduction of their sea-ice habitat illustrates the impact of climate change on species distributions and the difficulty of conserving a large, highly specialized carnivore in the face of this global threat. Some authors have suggested that terrestrial food consumption by polar bears will help them withstand sea-ice loss as they are forced to spend increasing amounts of time on land. Here, we evaluate the nutritional needs of polar bears as well as the physiological and environmental constraints that shape their use of terrestrial ecosystems. Only small numbers of polar bears have been documented consuming terrestrial foods even in modest quantities. Over much of the polar bear's range, limited terrestrial food availability supports only low densities of much smaller, resident brown bears (Ursus arctos), which use low-quality resources more efficiently and may compete with polar bears in these areas. Where consumption of terrestrial foods has been documented, polar bear body condition and survival rates have declined even as land use has increased. Thus far, observed consumption of terrestrial food by polar bears has been insufficient to offset lost ice-based hunting opportunities but can have ecological consequences for other species. Warming-induced loss of sea ice remains the primary threat faced by polar bears.

  20. Durable terrestrial bedrock predicts submarine canyon formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elliot; Finnegan, Noah J.; Mueller, Erich R.; Best, Rebecca J.

    2017-01-01

    Though submarine canyons are first-order topographic features of Earth, the processes responsible for their occurrence remain poorly understood. Potentially analogous studies of terrestrial rivers show that the flux and caliber of transported bedload are significant controls on bedrock incision. Here we hypothesize that coarse sediment load could exert a similar role in the formation of submarine canyons. We conducted a comprehensive empirical analysis of canyon occurrence along the West Coast of the contiguous United States which indicates that submarine canyon occurrence is best predicted by the occurrence of durable crystalline bedrock in adjacent terrestrial catchments. Canyon occurrence is also predicted by the flux of bed sediment to shore from terrestrial streams. Surprisingly, no significant correlation was observed between canyon occurrence and the slope or width of the continental shelf. These findings suggest that canyon incision is promoted by greater yields of durable terrestrial clasts to the shore.

  1. Gross community production and metabolic balance in the South Pacific Gyre, using a non intrusive bio-optical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Claustre

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The very clear waters of the South Pacific Gyre likely constitute an end-member of oligotrophic conditions which remain essentially unknown with respect to its impact on carbon fixation and exportation. We describe a non-intrusive bio-optical method to quantify the various terms of a production budget (Gross community production, community losses, net community production in this area. This method is based on the analysis of the diel cycle in Particulate Organic Carbon (POC, derived from high frequency measurements of the particle attenuation coefficient cp. We report very high integrated rates of Gross Community Production within the euphotic layer (average of 846±484 mg C m−2 d−1 for 17 stations that are far above any rates determined using incubation techniques for such areas. Furthermore we show that the daily production of POC is essentially balanced by the losses so that the system cannot be considered as net heterotrophic. Our results thus agree well with geochemical methods, but not with incubation studies based on oxygen methods. We stress to the important role of deep layers, below the euphotic layer, in contributing to carbon fixation when incident irradiance at the ocean surface is high (absence of cloud coverage. These deep layers, not considered up to know, might fuel part of the heterotrophic processes in the upper layer, including through dissolved organic carbon. We further demonstrate that, in these extremely clear and stratified waters, integrated gross community production is proportional to the POC content and surface irradiance via an efficiency index ψ GCP*, the water column cross section for Gross Community Production. We finally discuss our results in the context of the role of oligotrophic gyre in the global carbon budget and of the possibility of using optical proxies from space for the development of growth community rather than primary production

  2. Task-specific gross motor skills training for ambulant school-aged children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toovey, Rachel; Bernie, Charmaine; Harvey, Adrienne R; McGinley, Jennifer L; Spittle, Alicia J

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective is to systematically evaluate the evidence for the effectiveness of task-specific training (TST) of gross motor skills for improving activity and/or participation outcomes in ambulant school-aged children with cerebral palsy (CP). The secondary objective is to identify motor learning strategies reported within TST and assess relationship to outcome. Systematic review. Relevant databases were searched for studies including: children with CP (mean age >4 years and >60% of the sample ambulant); TST targeting gross motor skills and activity (skill performance, gross motor function and functional skills) and/or participation-related outcomes. Quality of included studies was assessed using standardised tools for risk of bias, study design and quality of evidence across outcomes. Continuous data were summarised for each study using standardised mean difference (SMD) and 95% CIs. Thirteen studies met inclusion criteria: eight randomised controlled trials (RCTs), three comparative studies, one repeated-measures study and one single-subject design study. Risk of bias was moderate across studies. Components of TST varied and were often poorly reported. Within-group effects of TST were positive across all outcomes of interest in 11 studies. In RCTs, between-group effects were conflicting for skill performance and functional skills, positive for participation-related outcomes (one study: Life-HABITS performance SMD=1.19, 95% CI 0.3 to 2.07, pmotor function. The quality of evidence was low-to-moderate overall. Variability and poor reporting of motor learning strategies limited assessment of relationship to outcome. Limited evidence for TST for gross motor skills in ambulant children with CP exists for improving activity and participation-related outcomes and recommendations for use over other interventions are limited by poor study methodology and heterogeneous interventions. PROSPERO ID42016036727.

  3. Relationship between gross motor and intellectual function in children with cerebral palsy: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvand, Hamid; Dehghan, Leila; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Feizy, Awat; Hosseini, Seyed Ali

    2012-03-01

    To explore the relationship between gross motor and intellectual function in children with cerebral palsy (CP). A cross-sectional study. Occupational therapy clinic. Children with CP (N=662; 281 girls, 381 boys; age range, 3-14y). Not applicable. Intelligence testing was carried out by means of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. Gross motor function level was determined by the Gross Motor Function Classification System Expanded and Revised (GMFCS E&R). Of the children, 10.4% were at level I of the GMFCS E&R, 38% at levels II and III, and 51.5% at levels IV and V. The lowest level of intelligence or profound intellectual disability was found in children with spastic quadriplegia (n=28, 62.2%). Children at the lowest levels (I-IV, GMFCS E&R) obtained higher ratings in terms of intelligence in comparison with children at level V. Based on the present results, the diagnosis was statistically related to the intellectual level as dependent variable (Pintelligence, respectively. Sex and age were not statistically related to the dependent variable. The study results demonstrated a significant association between GMFCS E&R and intellectual function. Therefore, we suggest that particular attention should be paid to the intellectual level in terms of evaluations of gross motor function. These results, in respect, might be interested for occupational and physical therapists who are involved in rehabilitation programs for these children. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Carbon dioxide efficiency of terrestrial enhanced weathering

    OpenAIRE

    Moosdorf, Nils; Renforth, Philip; Hartmann, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial enhanced weathering, the spreading of ultramafic silicate rock flour to enhance natural weathering rates, has been suggested as part of a strategy to reduce global atmospheric CO2 levels. We budget potential CO2 sequestration against associated CO2 emissions to assess the net CO2 removal of terrestrial enhanced weathering. We combine global spatial data sets of potential source rocks, transport networks, and application areas with associated CO2 emissions in optimistic and pessimi...

  5. Grazing livestock are exposed to terrestrial cyanobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    McGorum , Bruce C; Pirie , R Scott; Glendinning , Laura; McLachlan , Gerry; Metcalf , James S; Banack , Sandra A; Cox , Paul A; Codd , Geoffrey A

    2015-01-01

    While toxins from aquatic cyanobacteria are a well-recognised cause of disease in birds and animals, exposure of grazing livestock to terrestrial cyanobacteria has not been described. This study identified terrestrial cyanobacteria, predominantly Phormidium spp., in the biofilm of plants from most livestock fields investigated. Lower numbers of other cyanobacteria, microalgae and fungi were present on many plants. Cyanobacterial 16S rDNA, predominantly from Phormidium spp., was detected in al...

  6. Criteria for requesting specific radionuclide analysis through gross α and gross β concentration measurements in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper suggests some criteria for the decision to proceed with the analysis of specific radionuclides based on results of the determination of gross α and β concentrations in environmental samples of aerosols, water, dairy and agricultural products, soil and sediments. The samples considered are provenient from the environmental surveillance of uranium mining and milling facilities as well as the mining and processing plants of monazite sands. The radionuclides to be analysed are those considered to be the most critical to human health, that is: U-nat; Th-nat; Th-230; Ra-228; Ra-226; Po-210; Pb-210. The measured gross α and β concentrations will be compared with the Maximum Allowable Concentrations for some defined radionuclides. Radiochemical analysis of specific radionuclides may then become necessary, depending upon the results of this comparison. The main goal of the proposed guide is to simplify and to discipline the execution of environmental surveillance programs in a safe and economical way, avoiding unnecessary analysis. (author) [pt

  7. Linking animals aloft with the terrestrial landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buler, Jeffrey J.; Barrow, Wylie; Boone, Matthew; Dawson, Deanna K.; Diehl, Robert H.; Moore, Frank R.; Randall, Lori A.; Schreckengost, Timothy; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.

    2018-01-01

    Despite using the aerosphere for many facets of their life, most flying animals (i.e., birds, bats, some insects) are still bound to terrestrial habitats for resting, feeding, and reproduction. Comprehensive broad-scale observations by weather surveillance radars of animals as they leave terrestrial habitats for migration or feeding flights can be used to map their terrestrial distributions either as point locations (e.g., communal roosts) or as continuous surface layers (e.g., animal densities in habitats across a landscape). We discuss some of the technical challenges to reducing measurement biases related to how radars sample the aerosphere and the flight behavior of animals. We highlight a recently developed methodological approach that precisely and quantitatively links the horizontal spatial structure of birds aloft to their terrestrial distributions and provides novel insights into avian ecology and conservation across broad landscapes. Specifically, we present case studies that (1) elucidate how migrating birds contend with crossing ecological barriers and extreme weather events, (2) identify important stopover areas and habitat use patterns of birds along their migration routes, and (3) assess waterfowl response to wetland habitat management and restoration. These studies aid our understanding of how anthropogenic modification of the terrestrial landscape (e.g., urbanization, habitat management), natural geographic features, and weather (e.g., hurricanes) can affect the terrestrial distributions of flying animals.

  8. Anthropogenic transformation of the terrestrial biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Erle C

    2011-03-13

    Human populations and their use of land have transformed most of the terrestrial biosphere into anthropogenic biomes (anthromes), causing a variety of novel ecological patterns and processes to emerge. To assess whether human populations and their use of land have directly altered the terrestrial biosphere sufficiently to indicate that the Earth system has entered a new geological epoch, spatially explicit global estimates of human populations and their use of land were analysed across the Holocene for their potential to induce irreversible novel transformation of the terrestrial biosphere. Human alteration of the terrestrial biosphere has been significant for more than 8000 years. However, only in the past century has the majority of the terrestrial biosphere been transformed into intensively used anthromes with predominantly novel anthropogenic ecological processes. At present, even were human populations to decline substantially or use of land become far more efficient, the current global extent, duration, type and intensity of human transformation of ecosystems have already irreversibly altered the terrestrial biosphere at levels sufficient to leave an unambiguous geological record differing substantially from that of the Holocene or any prior epoch. It remains to be seen whether the anthropogenic biosphere will be sustained and continue to evolve.

  9. Terrestrial-style feeding in a very early aquatic tetrapod is supported by evidence from experimental analysis of suture morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Markey, Molly J.; Marshall, Charles R.

    2007-01-01

    There is no consensus on when in the fish-tetrapod transition suction feeding, the primary method of prey capture in the aquatic realm, evolved into the direct biting on prey typical of terrestrial animals. Here, we show that differences in the morphology of selected cranial sutures between species that span the fish–tetrapod transition (the Devonian osteolepiform fish Eusthenopteron, the aquatic Devonian tetrapod Acanthostega, and the Permian terrestrial tetrapod Phonerpeton) can be used to ...

  10. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusponegoro, Hardiono D; Efar, Pustika; Soedjatmiko; Soebadi, Amanda; Firmansyah, Agus; Chen, Hui-Ju; Hung, Kun-Long

    2016-12-01

    While social impairment is considered to be the core deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a large proportion of these children have poor gross motor ability, and gross motor deficits may influence socialization skills in children with ASD. The objectives of this study were to compare gross motor skills in children with ASD to typically developing children, to describe gross motor problems in children with ASD, and to investigate associations between gross motor and socialization skills in children with ASD. This was a cross-sectional study including 40 ASD children aged from 18 months to 6 years and 40 age-matched typically developing controls. Gross motor and socialization skills were scored using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 2 nd edition (Vineland-II). Below average gross motor function was found in eight of 40 (20%) ASD children. The mean gross motor v-scale score in the ASD group was 15.1 [standard deviation (SD) 3.12], significantly lower than in the control group [18.7, SD 2.09, p = 0.0001; 95% confidence intervals (CI) from -4.725 to -2.525]. The differences were most prominent in ball throwing and catching, using stairs, jumping, and bicycling. The ASD children with gross motor impairments had a mean socialization domain score of 66.6 (SD 6.50) compared to 85.7 (SD 10.90) in those without gross motor impairments (p = 0.0001, 95% CI from -25.327 to -12.736). Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Most people think of groundwater as a resource, but it is also a useful indicator of climate variability and human impacts on the environment. Groundwater storage varies slowly relative to other non-frozen components of the water cycle, encapsulating long period variations and trends in surface meteorology. On seasonal to interannual timescales, groundwater is as dynamic as soil moisture, and it has been shown that groundwater storage changes have contributed to sea level variations. Groundwater monitoring well measurements are too sporadic and poorly assembled outside of the United States and a few other nations to permit direct global assessment of groundwater variability. However, observational estimates of terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations from the GRACE satellites largely represent groundwater storage variations on an interannual basis, save for high latitude/altitude (dominated by snow and ice) and wet tropical (surface water) regions. A figure maps changes in mean annual TWS from 2009 to 2010, based on GRACE, reflecting hydroclimatic conditions in 2010. Severe droughts impacted Russia and the Amazon, and drier than normal weather also affected the Indochinese peninsula, parts of central and southern Africa, and western Australia. Groundwater depletion continued in northern India, while heavy rains in California helped to replenish aquifers that have been depleted by drought and withdrawals for irrigation, though they are still below normal levels. Droughts in northern Argentina and western China similarly abated. Wet weather raised aquifer levels broadly across western Europe. Rains in eastern Australia caused flooding to the north and helped to mitigate a decade long drought in the south. Significant reductions in TWS seen in the coast of Alaska and the Patagonian Andes represent ongoing glacier melt, not groundwater depletion. Figures plot time series of zonal mean and global GRACE derived non-seasonal TWS anomalies (deviation from the mean of

  12. Gross national happiness as a framework for health impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennock, Michael; Ura, Karma

    2011-01-01

    The incorporation of population health concepts and health determinants into Health Impact Assessments has created a number of challenges. The need for intersectoral collaboration has increased; the meaning of 'health' has become less clear; and the distinctions between health impacts, environmental impacts, social impacts and economic impacts have become increasingly blurred. The Bhutanese concept of Gross National Happiness may address these issues by providing an over-arching evidence-based framework which incorporates health, social, environmental and economic contributors as well as a number of other key contributors to wellbeing such as culture and governance. It has the potential to foster intersectoral collaboration by incorporating a more limited definition of health which places the health sector as one of a number of contributors to wellbeing. It also allows for the examination of the opportunity costs of health investments on wellbeing, is consistent with whole-of-government approaches to public policy and emerging models of social progress.

  13. Optimal Bilinear Control of Gross--Pitaevskii Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Hintermü ller, Michael; Marahrens, Daniel; Markowich, Peter A.; Sparber, Christof

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical framework for optimal bilinear control of nonlinear Schrödinger equations of Gross--Pitaevskii type arising in the description of Bose--Einstein condensates is presented. The obtained results generalize earlier efforts found in the literature in several aspects. In particular, the cost induced by the physical workload over the control process is taken into account rather than the often used L^2- or H^1-norms for the cost of the control action. Well-posedness of the problem and existence of an optimal control are proved. In addition, the first order optimality system is rigorously derived. Also a numerical solution method is proposed, which is based on a Newton-type iteration, and used to solve several coherent quantum control problems.

  14. Measurement and Quantification of Gross Human Shoulder Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T. Newkirk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The shoulder girdle plays an important role in the large pointing workspace that humans enjoy. The goal of this work was to characterize the human shoulder girdle motion in relation to the arm. The overall motion of the human shoulder girdle was characterized based on motion studies completed on test subjects during voluntary (natural/unforced motion. The collected data from the experiments were used to develop surface fit equations that represent the position and orientation of the glenohumeral joint for a given humeral pointing direction. These equations completely quantify gross human shoulder girdle motion relative to the humerus. The equations are presented along with goodness-of-fit results that indicate the equations well approximate the motion of the human glenohumeral joint. This is the first time the motion has been quantified for the entire workspace, and the equations provide a reference against which to compare future work.

  15. Labor Absorption and Its Impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ika Prastyadewi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of labor absorption in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector and its impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product/GRDP at Bali Province. This study is important due to the fact that the GRDP in this sector is the highest compared to other sector but the labor absorption is lower than the agriculture sector. This study used panel data comprising 9 regencies/cities at Bali Province in the period 2003-2009 including fixed effect model and simultaneous equation model of Two-Stage Least Square. The results showed that GRDP, working age population, and the minimum wage have positive effect on employment, while the educated unemployment has no significant effect on the employment in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector. In addition, increases in employment and workers productivity have positive and significant effects the GRDP in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector at Bali Province.

  16. Surface deposition measurements of the TMI-2 gross decontamination experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIssac, C.V.; Hetzer, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    In order to measure the effectiveness of the gross decontamination experiment (principally a water spray technique) performed in the TMI-2 reactor building, the Technical Information and Examination Program's Radiation and Environment personnel made surface activity measurements before and after the experiment. In conjunction with surface sampling, thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) and gamma spectrometry measurements were also performed to distinguish between radiation fields and contamination. The surface sampler used to collect samples from external surfaces within the reactor building is a milling tool having four major components: a 1.27-cm constant-speed drill; a drill support assembly that allows setting sample penetration depth; filter cartridges for intake air purification and sample collection; and an air pump that forces air across the surface being sampled and through the sample filter cartridge

  17. Satellite Driven Estimation of Primary Productivity of Agroecosystems in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, N. R.; Dadhwal, V. K.; Agrawal, S.; Saha, S. K.

    2011-08-01

    Earth observation driven ecosystem modeling have played a major role in estimation of carbon budget components such as gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary production (NPP) over terrestrial ecosystems, including agriculture. The present study therefore evaluate satellite-driven vegetation photosynthesis (VPM) model for GPP estimation over agro-ecosystems in India by using time series of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from SPOT-VEGETATION, cloud cover observation from MODIS, coarse-grid C3/C4 crop fraction and decadal grided databases of maximum and minimum temperatures. Parameterization of VPM parameters e.g. maximum light use efficiency (ɛ*) and Tscalar was done based on eddy-covariance measurements and literature survey. Incorporation of C3/C4 crop fraction is a modification to commonly used constant maximum LUE. Modeling results from VPM captured very well the geographical pattern of GPP and NPP over cropland in India. Well managed agro-ecosystems in Trans-Gangetic and upper Indo-Gangetic plains had the highest magnitude of GPP with peak GPP during kharif occurs in sugarcane-wheat system (western UP) and it occurs in rice-wheat system (Punjab) during Rabi season. Overall, croplands in these plains had more annual GPP (> 1000 g C m-2) and NPP (> 600 g C m-2) due to input-intensive cultivation. Desertic tracts of western Rajasthan showed the least GPP and NPP values. Country-level contribution of croplands to national GPP and NPP amounts to1.34 Pg C year-1 and 0.859 Pg C year-1, respectively. Modeled estimates of cropland NPP agrees well with ground-based estimates for north-western India (R2 = 0.63 and RMSE = 108 g C m-2). Future research will focus on evaluating the VPM model with medium resolution sensors such as AWiFS and MODIS for rice-wheat system and validating with eddy-covariance measurements.

  18. Description, calibration and sensitivity analysis of the local ecosystem submodel of a global model of carbon and nitrogen cycling and the water balance in the terrestrial biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kercher, J.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Chambers, J.Q. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)]|[California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1995-10-01

    We have developed a geographically-distributed ecosystem model for the carbon, nitrogen, and water dynamics of the terrestrial biosphere TERRA. The local ecosystem model of TERRA consists of coupled, modified versions of TEM and DAYTRANS. The ecosystem model in each grid cell calculates water fluxes of evaporation, transpiration, and runoff; carbon fluxes of gross primary productivity, litterfall, and plant and soil respiration; and nitrogen fluxes of vegetation uptake, litterfall, mineralization, immobilization, and system loss. The state variables are soil water content; carbon in live vegetation; carbon in soil; nitrogen in live vegetation; organic nitrogen in soil and fitter; available inorganic nitrogen aggregating nitrites, nitrates, and ammonia; and a variable for allocation. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics are calibrated to specific sites in 17 vegetation types. Eight parameters are determined during calibration for each of the 17 vegetation types. At calibration, the annual average values of carbon in vegetation C, show site differences that derive from the vegetation-type specific parameters and intersite variation in climate and soils. From calibration, we recover the average C{sub v} of forests, woodlands, savannas, grasslands, shrublands, and tundra that were used to develop the model initially. The timing of the phases of the annual variation is driven by temperature and light in the high latitude and moist temperate zones. The dry temperate zones are driven by temperature, precipitation, and light. In the tropics, precipitation is the key variable in annual variation. The seasonal responses are even more clearly demonstrated in net primary production and show the same controlling factors.

  19. On the uncertainty of phenological responses to climate change, and implications for a terrestrial biosphere model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Migliavacca

    2012-06-01

    degree of warming varied between 2.2 days °C−1 and 5.2 days °C−1 depending on model structure.

    We quantified the impact of uncertainties in bud-burst forecasts on simulated photosynthetic CO2 uptake and evapotranspiration (ET using a process-based terrestrial biosphere model. Uncertainty in phenology model structure led to uncertainty in the description of forest seasonality, which accumulated to uncertainty in annual model estimates of gross primary productivity (GPP and ET of 9.6% and 2.9%, respectively. A sensitivity analysis shows that a variation of ±10 days in bud-burst dates led to a variation of ±5.0% for annual GPP and about ±2.0% for ET.

    For phenology models, differences among future climate scenarios (i.e. driver represent the largest source of uncertainty, followed by uncertainties related to model structure, and finally, related to model parameterization. The uncertainties we have quantified will affect the description of the seasonality of ecosystem processes and in particular the simulation of carbon uptake by forest ecosystems, with a larger impact of uncertainties related to phenology model structure, followed by uncertainties related to phenological model parameterization.

  20. Terrestrial Background Reduction in RPM Systems by Direct Internal Shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Sean M.; Ashbaker, Eric D.; Schweppe, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-ray detection systems that are close to the earth or other sources of background radiation often require shielding, especially when trying to detect a relatively weak source. One particular case of interest that we address in this paper is that encountered by the Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs) systems placed at border-crossing Ports of Entry (POE). These RPM systems are used to screen for illicit radiological materials, and they are often placed in situations where terrestrial background is large. In such environments, it is desirable to consider simple physical modifications that could be implemented to reduce the effects from background radiation without affecting the flow of traffic and the normal operation of the portal. Simple modifications include adding additional shielding to the environment, either inside or outside the apparatus. Previous work (2) has shown the utility of some of these shielding configurations for increasing the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of gross-counting RPMs. Because the total cost for purchasing and installing RPM systems can be quite expensive, in the range of hundreds of thousands of dollars for each cargo-screening installation, these shielding variations may offer increases in detection capability for relatively small cost. Several modifications are considered here in regard to their real-world applicability, and are meant to give a general idea of the effectiveness of the schemes used to reduce background for both gross-counting and spectroscopic detectors. These scenarios are modeled via the Monte-Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code package (1) for ease of altering shielding configurations, as well as enacting unusual scenarios prior to prototyping in the field. The objective of this paper is to provide results representative of real modifications that could enhance the sensitivity of this, as well as the next generation of radiation detectors. The models used in this work were designed to provide the most general results for

  1. Microplastics in the terrestrial ecosystem: Implications for Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Gertsen, H.F.; Gooren, H.; Peters, P.D.; Salanki, T.E.; Ploeg, van der M.J.C.; Besseling, E.; Koelmans, A.A.; Geissen, V.

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris is widespread in the environment, but information on the effects of microplastics on terrestrial fauna is completely lacking. Here, we studied the survival and fitness of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) exposed to microplastics (Polyethylene, <150 μm)

  2. Trained, generalized, and collateral behavior changes of preschool children receiving gross-motor skills training.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, K C; Holborn, S W

    1986-01-01

    Three preschool children participated in a behavioral training program to improve their gross-motor skills. Ten target behaviors were measured in the training setting to assess direct effects of the program. Generalization probes for two gross-motor behaviors, one fine-motor skill, and two social behaviors were conducted in other settings. Results indicated that the training program improved the gross-motor skills trained and that improvements sometimes generalized to other settings. Contrary...

  3. [The physical therapy undergraduate students' responses to the gross human anatomy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anahara, Reiko; Kawashiro, Yukiko; Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Mori, Chisato; Kohno, Toshihiko

    2008-09-01

    Instruction in gross human anatomy is one of the important items in the subject for co-medical students of the physical therapist course. The physical therapy undergraduate students are required to have a solid understanding of the structure and formation of the human body. Therefore, their good-understanding of the course on the gross human anatomy and their experience of the gross human anatomy laboratory (observation practice) are acquired to improve their knowledge of the human body. To clarify the student responses to the gross human anatomy course including the gross human anatomy laboratory, several questionnaires were administered to the freshman physical therapy undergraduate student for two years. We found that more than 80% of the students, who felt a negative attitude for gross human anatomy before the course started, had a positive attitude about the gross human anatomy after going through the course. The experience of the gross human anatomy laboratory increased the students' activity of learning and they thought more about the dignity of being human after the course than before viewing. In addition, the results suggested that the multiple experiences of the gross human anatomy course are useful for the physical therapy undergraduate students to improve the quality of their understanding of the human body.

  4. Gross domestic product and health expenditure associated with incidence, 30-day fatality, and age at stroke onset: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sposato, Luciano A; Saposnik, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Differences in definitions of socioeconomic status and between study designs hinder their comparability across countries. We aimed to analyze the correlation between 3 widely used macrosocioeconomic status indicators and clinical outcomes. We selected population-based studies reporting incident stroke risk and/or 30-day case-fatality according to prespecified criteria. We used 3 macrosocioeconomic status indicators that are consistently defined by international agencies: per capita gross domestic product adjusted for purchasing power parity, total health expenditures per capita at purchasing power parity, and unemployment rate. We examined the correlation of each macrosocioeconomic status indicator with incident risk of stroke, 30-day case-fatality, proportion of hemorrhagic strokes, and age at stroke onset. Twenty-three articles comprising 30 population-based studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Age-adjusted incident risk of stroke using the standardized World Health Organization World population was associated to lower per capita gross domestic product adjusted for purchasing power parity (ρ=-0.661, P=0.027, R(2)=0.32) and total health expenditures per capita at purchasing power parity (ρ=-0.623, P=0.040, R(2)=0.26). Thirty-day case-fatality rates and proportion of hemorrhagic strokes were also related to lower per capita gross domestic product adjusted for purchasing power parity and total health expenditures per capita at purchasing power parity. Moreover, stroke occurred at a younger age in populations with low per capita gross domestic product adjusted for purchasing power parity and total health expenditures per capita at purchasing power parity. There was no correlation between unemployment rates and outcome measures. Lower per capita gross domestic product adjusted for purchasing power parity and total health expenditures per capita at purchasing power parity were associated with higher incident risk of stroke, higher case-fatality, a greater

  5. ANATOMIA ÓSSEA E MUSCULAR DO CÍNGULO ESCAPULAR E BRAÇO DE Tapirus terrestris (PERISSODACTYLA: TAPIRIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Gonçalves Pereira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tapirus terrestris (Linneaus, 1758 is a mammal found in South America and in almost all Brazilian biomes. The aim of this study was to describe the anatomy of bone and muscle of the scapular cingulum and arm of Tapirus terrestris and compare it with other species of mammals, especially equines. We used four animals donated to the Laboratory of Education and Research of Wild Animals of the Federal University of Uberlândia, after their death with no trauma. The bones were carefully analyzed, described and the muscles were dissected, analyzed and described in accordance with the usual techniques of gross anatomy. The skeleton of the scapular cingulum and arm of Tapirus terrestris is formed by scapula and humerus bones, the lateral muscles of the scapula are subclavian m., deltoid m. supraspinatus m. and infraspinatus, teres minor m., subscapularis m., teres major m., coracobrachialis m., shoulder joint m., biceps brachii m., brachial m. triceps, forearm tensor fasciae m., anconeus m. The muscular and bone standard found is similar to the horse (Equus caballus T. terrestris has bone and muscle characteristics of a suitable animal to displacement and eventual swimming with obvious bone accidents and developed muscles .

  6. Terrestrial Energy bets on molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial Energy is a Canadian enterprise, founded in 2013, for marketing the integral molten salt reactor (IMSR). A first prototype (called MSRE and with an energy output of 8 MW) was designed and operated between 1965 and 1969 by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. IMSR is a small, modular reactor with a thermal energy output of 400 MW. According to Terrestrial Energy the technology of conventional power reactors is too complicated and too expensive. On the contrary IMSR's technology appears to be simple, easy to operate and affordable. With a staff of 30 people Terrestrial Energy appears to be a start-up in the nuclear sector. A process of pre-licensing will be launched in 2016 with the Canadian nuclear safety authority. (A.C.)

  7. Ancient Terrestrial Carbon: Lost and Found

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon fluxes in terrestrial environments dominate the global carbon cycle. The fluxes of terrestrial carbon are strongly tied to regional climate due to the influences of temperature, water, and nutrient dynamics on plant productivity. However, climate also influences the destruction of terrestrial organic matter, through weathering, erosion, and biomass loss via fire and oxidative microbial processes. Organic geochemical methods enable us to interrogate past terrestrial carbon dynamics and learn how continental processes might accelerate, or mitigate carbon transfer to the atmosphere, and the associated greenhouse warming. Terrestrial soil systems represent the weathering rind of the continents, and are inherently non-depositional and erosive. The production, transport, and depositional processes affecting organics in continental settings each impart their own biases on the amount and characteristics of preserved carbon. Typically, the best archives for biomarker records are sediments in ancient lakes or subaqueous fans, which represents a preservation bias that tends to favor wetter environments. Paleosols, or ancient soils, formed under depositional conditions that, for one reason or another, truncated soil ablation, erosion, or other loss processes. In modern soils, widely ranging organic carbon abundances are almost always substantially greater than the trace amounts of carbon left behind in ancient soils. Even so, measureable amounts of organic biomarkers persist in paleosols. We have been investigating processes that preserve soil organic carbon on geologic timescales, and how these mechanisms may be sensitive to past climate change. Climate-linked changes in temperature, moisture, pH, and weathering processes can impact carbon preservation via organo-mineral sorption, soil biogeochemistry, and stability based on the physical and chemical properties of organic compounds. These will be discussed and illustrated with examples from our studies of Cenozoic

  8. Temperature dependence of CO2-enhanced primary production in the European Arctic Ocean, supplement to: Holding, Johnna; Duarte, Carlos M; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Mesa, E; Arrieta, J M; Chierici, Melissa; Hendriks, Iris; García-Corral, L S; Regaudie-de-Gioux, A; Delgado, A; Reigstad, M; Wassmann, P; Agustí, Susana (2015): Temperature dependence of CO2-enhanced primary production in the European Arctic Ocean. Nature Climate Change, 5(12), 1079-1082

    KAUST Repository

    Holding, Johnna; Duarte, Carlos M.; Sanz-Martí n, Marina; Mesa, E; Arrieta, J M; Chierici, Melissa; Hendriks, Iris; Garcí a-Corral, L S; Regaudie-de-Gioux, A; Delgado, A; Reigstad, M; Wassmann, P; Agusti, Susana

    2016-01-01

    should lead to increased rates of planktonic primary production. Yet, simultaneous assessment of warming and increased CO2 on primary production in the Arctic has not been conducted. Here we test the expectation that CO2-enhanced gross primary production

  9. Subsidy or subtraction: how do terrestrial inputs influence consumer production in lakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stuart E.; Solomon, Christopher T.; Weidel, Brian C.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-ecosystem fluxes are ubiquitous in food webs and are generally thought of as subsidies to consumer populations. Yet external or allochthonous inputs may in fact have complex and habitat-specific effects on recipient ecosystems. In lakes, terrestrial inputs of organic carbon contribute to basal resource availability, but can also reduce resource availability via shading effects on phytoplankton and periphyton. Terrestrial inputs might therefore either subsidise or subtract from consumer production. We developed and parameterised a simple model to explore this idea. The model estimates basal resource supply and consumer production given lake-level characteristics including total phosphorus (TP) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, and consumer-level characteristics including resource preferences and growth efficiencies. Terrestrial inputs diminished primary production and total basal resource supply at the whole-lake level, except in ultra-oligotrophic systems. However, this system-level generalisation masked complex habitat-specific effects. In the pelagic zone, dissolved and particulate terrestrial carbon inputs were available to zooplankton via several food web pathways. Consequently, zooplankton production usually increased with terrestrial inputs, even as total whole-lake resource availability decreased. In contrast, in the benthic zone the dominant, dissolved portion of the terrestrial carbon load had predominantly negative effects on resource availability via shading of periphyton. Consequently, terrestrial inputs always decreased zoobenthic production except under extreme and unrealistic parameterisations of the model. Appreciating the complex and habitat-specific effects of allochthonous inputs may be essential for resolving the effects of cross-habitat fluxes on consumers in lakes and other food webs.

  10. Evolutionary tracks of the terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Takafumi; Abe, Yutaka

    1987-01-01

    On the basis of the model proposed by Matsui and Abe, the authors show that two major factors - distance from the Sun and the efficiency of retention of accretional energy - control the early evolution of the terrestrial planets. A diagram of accretional energy versus the optical depth of a proto-atmosphere provides a means to follow the evolutionary track of surface temperature of the terrestrial planets and an explanation for why the third planet in our solar system is an 'aqua'-planet. 15 refs; 3 figs

  11. Magnetic reconnection in the terrestrial magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    An overview is given of quantitative comparisons between measured phenomena in the terrestrial magnetosphere thought to be associated with magnetic reconnection, and related theoretical predictions based on Petschek's simple model. Although such a comparison cannot be comprehensive because of the extended nature of the process and the relatively few in situ multipoint measurements made to date, the agreement is impressive where comparisons have been possible. This result leaves little doubt that magnetic reconnection does indeed occur in the terrestrial magnetosphere. The maximum reconnection rate, expressed in terms of the inflow Mach number, M/sub A/, is measured to be M/sub A/ = 0.2 +- 0.1

  12. Terrestrial propagation of long electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Galejs, Janis; Fock, V A

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial Propagation of Long Electromagnetic Waves deals with the propagation of long electromagnetic waves confined principally to the shell between the earth and the ionosphere, known as the terrestrial waveguide. The discussion is limited to steady-state solutions in a waveguide that is uniform in the direction of propagation. Wave propagation is characterized almost exclusively by mode theory. The mathematics are developed only for sources at the ground surface or within the waveguide, including artificial sources as well as lightning discharges. This volume is comprised of nine chapte

  13. Terrestrial and exposure histories of Antarctic meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiizumi, K.

    1986-01-01

    Records of cosmogenic effects were studied in a large suite of Antarctic meteorites. The cosmogenic nuclide measurements together with cosmic ray track measurements on Antartic meteorites provide information such as exposure age, terrestrial age, size and depth in meteoroid or parent body, influx rate in the past, and pairing. The terrestrail age is the time period between the fall of the meteorite on the Earth and the present. To define terrestrial age, two or more nuclides with different half-lives and possibly noble gases are required. The cosmogenic radionuclides used are C-14, Kr-81, Cl-36, Al-26, Be-10, Mn-53, and K-40

  14. Terrestrial and exposure histories of Antarctic meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiizumi, K.

    1986-01-01

    Records of cosmogenic effects were studied in a large suite of Antarctic meteorites. The cosmogenic nuclide measurements together with cosmic ray track measurements on Antartic meteorites provide information such as exposure age, terrestrial age, size and depth in meteoroid or parent body, influx rate in the past, and pairing. The terrestrail age is the time period between the fall of the meteorite on the Earth and the present. To define terrestrial age, two or more nuclides with different half-lives and possibly noble gases are required. The cosmogenic radionuclides used are C-14, Kr-81, Cl-36, Al-26, Be-10, Mn-53, and K-40.

  15. Emphysematous cystitis: a rare cause of gross hematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chirn-Bin; Chang, Chia-Chu

    2011-05-01

    Emphysematous cystitis is a relatively rare infectious condition of the urinary bladder. The mortality rate is high if the diagnosis is delayed or if the treatment is inadequate. We present an uncommon case of emphysematous cystitis and highlight the risk factors for this disease. An 81-year-old man with a past medical history of type 2 diabetes and a central pontine infarction presented to the Emergency Department due to gross hematuria. Computed tomography (CT) and plain radiography revealed localized gas within the bladder that was compatible with the diagnosis of emphysematous cystitis. A Foley catheter was inserted. Urine culture grew Klebsiella pneumoniae; 2 g cefotaxime daily was initiated. Subsequent plain radiography and CT scan showed regression of intraluminal gas. We recommend CT for the definitive diagnosis of emphysematous cystitis. Adequate antibiotic therapy, strict blood glucose control, adequate drainage of urine, and early goal-directed therapy for suspected sepsis are suggested to prevent the complications of emphysematous cystitis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Hospital costs estimation by micro and gross-costing approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerre, P; Hayes, N; Bertaux, A-C

    2018-03-01

    Cost analysis has become increasingly commonplace in healthcare facilities in recent years. Regardless of the aim, the first consideration for a hospital costing process is to determine the point of view, or perspective, to adopt. Should the cost figures reflect the healthcare facility's point of view or enlighten perspectives for the public health insurance system? Another consideration is in regard to the method to adopt, as there are several. The two most widely used methods to determine the costs of hospital treatments in France are the micro-costing method and the gross-costing method. The aims of this work are: (1) to describe each of these methods (e.g. data collection, assignment of monetary value to resource consumption) with their advantages and shortcomings as they relate to the difficulties encountered with their implementation in hospitals; (2) to present a review of the literature comparing the two methods and their possible combination; and (3) to propose ways to address the questions that need to be asked before compiling resource consumption data and assigning monetary value to hospital costs. A final diagram summarizes methodologies to be preferred according to the evaluation strategy and the impact on patient care. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Recommendations to avoid gross errors of dose in radiotherapeutic treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Cleber Nogueira de; Monti, Carlos Roberto; Sibata, Claudio Hissao

    2001-01-01

    Human mistakes are an important source of errors in radiotherapy and may occur at every step of the radiotherapy planning and treatment. To reduce this level of uncertainties, several specialized organizations have recommended a comprehensive quality assurance program. In Brazil, the requirement for these programs has been strongly stressed, and most radiotherapy services have pursued this goal regarding radiation units and dosimetry equipment, as well as the verification of the calculations of the patient's dose and the revision of the plan charts. As a contribution to the improvement of quality control, we present some recommendations to avoid failure of treatment due to error in the delivered dose, such as redundant check of the manual or computer calculations, weekly check of the total dose for each patient, and prevention of inadvertent access to any safety system of the equipment by any staff member that is only supposed to operate the machine. Moreover, the use of a computerized treatment record and verification system should be considered in order to eliminate errors due to incorrect selection of the treatment parameters, in a daily basis. We report four radioactive incidents with patient injuries occurred throughout the world and some gross errors of dose. (author)

  18. Gross congenital malformation at birth in a government hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Sandeep; Nanda, Smiti; Bhalla, Kapil; Sachdeva, Ruchi

    2014-01-01

    A hospital-based cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine proportion of gross congenital malformation (GCMF) occurring at intramural births. Rate of GCMF was found to be 16.4/1000 consecutive singleton births (>28 weeks) with three leading malformation as anencephaly (44.68%), talipes equinovarus (17.02%) and meningomyelocele (10.63%). Higher risk of malformed births were noticed amongst un-booked (2.07%) in-comparison to booked (1.01%) mothers; women with low level of education (up to 8 years [2.14%] vs. at least 9 years of schooling [0.82%]); gravida status of at least 3 (2.69%) followed by 1 (1.43%) and 2 (1.0%) respectively; pre-term (5.13%) vs. term (0.66%); cesarean section (4.36%) versus vaginal delivery (0.62%). Mortality was significantly higher among congenitally malformed (17.35%) than normal (0.34%) newborns. With-in study limitation, emergence of neural tube defect as the single largest category of congenital malformation indicates maternal malnutrition (especially folic acid) that needs appropriate attention and management.

  19. The gross anatomy of the renal sympathetic nerves revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mompeo, Blanca; Maranillo, Eva; Garcia-Touchard, Arturo; Larkin, Theresa; Sanudo, Jose

    2016-07-01

    Catheter-based renal denervation techniques focus on reducing blood pressure in resistant hypertension. This procedure requires exact knowledge of the anatomical interrelation between the renal arteries and the targeted renal nervous plexus. The aim of this work was to build on classical anatomical studies and describe the gross anatomy and anatomical relationships of the renal arteries and nerve supply to the kidneys in a sample of human cadavers. Twelve human cadavers (six males and six females), age range 73 to 94 years, were dissected. The nervous fibers and renal arteries were dissected using a surgical microscope. The renal plexus along the hilar renal artery comprised a fiber-ganglionic ring surrounding the proximal third of the renal artery, a neural network along the middle and distal thirds, and smaller accessory ganglia along the course of the nerve fibers. The fibers of the neural network were mainly located on the superior (95.83%) and inferior (91.66%) surfaces of the renal artery and they were sparsely interconnected by diagonal fibers. Polar arteries were present in 33.33% of cases and the renal nerve pattern for these was similar to that of the hilar arteries. Effective renal denervation needs to target the superior and inferior surfaces of the hilar and polar arteries, where the fibers of the neural network are present. Clin. Anat. 29:660-664, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Contribution of clinical trials to gross domestic product in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaló, Zoltán; Antal, János; Pénzes, Miklós; Pozsgay, Csilla; Szepezdi, Zsuzsanna; Nagyjánosi, László

    2014-10-01

    To determine the contribution of clinical trials to the gross domestic product (GDP) in Hungary. An anonymous survey of pharmaceutical companies and clinical research organizations (CROs) was conducted to estimate their clinical trial-related employment and revenues. Clinical trial documents at the National Institute of Pharmacy (NIP) were analyzed to estimate trial-related revenues at health care institutions and the value of investigational medical products (IMPs) based on avoided drug costs. Financial benefits were calculated as 2010 US $ purchasing power parity (PPP) values. Clinical trials increased the revenue of Hungarian health care providers by 1 US $65.6 million. The value of IMPs was US $67.0 million. Clinical trial operation and management activities generated 900 jobs and US $166.9 million in revenue among CROs and pharmaceutical companies. The contribution of clinical trials to the Hungarian GDP in 2010 amounted to 0.2%. Participation in international clinical trials may result in health, financial, and intangible benefits that contribute to the sustainability of health care systems, especially in countries with severe resource constraints. Although a conservative approach was employed to estimate the economic benefits of clinical trials, further research is necessary to improve the generalizability of our findings.

  1. Alternative treatment of ovarian cysts with Tribulus terrestris extract: a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, A; Esfandiari, A; Bigdeli, S Momeni

    2012-02-01

    Tribulus terrestris has long been used in traditional medicine to treat impotency and improve sexual functions in man. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of T. terrestris extract in the treatment of polycystic ovary (PCO) in Wistar rat. Estradiol valerate was injected to 15 mature Wistar rats to induce PCO. Rats were randomly divided into three groups (control, low-dose and high-dose groups) of five each and received 0, 5 and 10 mg of T. terrestris extract, respectively.Treatments began on days 50 and 61 after estradiol injection; at the same time, vaginal smear was prepared. The ovaries were removed on day 62, and histological sections were prepared accordingly. The number and diameter of corpora lutea, thickness of the theca interna layer and the number of all follicles were evaluated in both ovaries. In comparison with the control group, the number of corpora lutea and primary and secondary follicles significantly increased following T. terrestris treatment; however, the number of ovarian cysts significantly decreased. It can be concluded that T. terrestris have a luteinizing effect on ovarian cysts, which may relate to its gonadotropin-like activity; also, a high dose of the extract can efficiently remove ovarian cysts and resume ovarian activity. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Quantification of habitat fragmentation reveals extinction risk in terrestrial mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Kevin R.; Burdett, Christopher L.; Theobald, David M.; King, Sarah R. B.; Rondinini, Carlo; Boitani, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Although habitat fragmentation is often assumed to be a primary driver of extinction, global patterns of fragmentation and its relationship to extinction risk have not been consistently quantified for any major animal taxon. We developed high-resolution habitat fragmentation models and used phylogenetic comparative methods to quantify the effects of habitat fragmentation on the world’s terrestrial mammals, including 4,018 species across 26 taxonomic Orders. Results demonstrate that species with more fragmentation are at greater risk of extinction, even after accounting for the effects of key macroecological predictors, such as body size and geographic range size. Species with higher fragmentation had smaller ranges and a lower proportion of high-suitability habitat within their range, and most high-suitability habitat occurred outside of protected areas, further elevating extinction risk. Our models provide a quantitative evaluation of extinction risk assessments for species, allow for identification of emerging threats in species not classified as threatened, and provide maps of global hotspots of fragmentation for the world’s terrestrial mammals. Quantification of habitat fragmentation will help guide threat assessment and strategic priorities for global mammal conservation. PMID:28673992

  3. Microplastics in the Terrestrial Ecosystem: Implications for Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Gertsen, Hennie; Gooren, Harm; Peters, Piet; Salánki, Tamás; van der Ploeg, Martine; Besseling, Ellen; Koelmans, Albert A; Geissen, Violette

    2016-03-01

    Plastic debris is widespread in the environment, but information on the effects of microplastics on terrestrial fauna is completely lacking. Here, we studied the survival and fitness of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) exposed to microplastics (Polyethylene, digestion of ingested organic matter, microplastic was concentrated in cast, especially at the lowest dose (i.e., 7% in litter) because that dose had the highest proportion of digestible organic matter. Whereas 50 percent of the microplastics had a size of earthworms. These concentration-transport and size-selection mechanisms may have important implications for fate and risk of microplastic in terrestrial ecosystems.

  4. Modeling of the Gross Regional Product on the Basis of Production Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovin, Nikolay S.; Kokotkina, Tatiana N.; Barkalova, Tatiana G.; Tsaregorodsev, Evgeny I.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to elaboration and construction of a static model of macroeconomics in which economics is considered as an unstructured holistic unit, the input of which receives the resources, and the output is the result of the functioning of economics in the form of gross domestic product or gross regional product. Resources are…

  5. 26 CFR 41.4482(b)-1 - Definition of taxable gross weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Motor Vehicles § 41.4482(b)-1 Definition of taxable gross weight. (a) Actual unloaded weight—(1) In... general. The taxable gross weight of a highway motor vehicle is the sum of the actual unloaded weight of the vehicle fully equipped for service, the actual unloaded weight of any semitrailers or trailers...

  6. 26 CFR 1.804-3 - Gross investment income of a life insurance company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross investment income of a life insurance company. 1.804-3 Section 1.804-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Investment Income § 1.804-3 Gross investment income of a life...

  7. Fixed Point of Generalized Eventual Cyclic Gross in Fuzzy Norm Spaces for Contractive Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. M. Mohsenialhosseini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We define generalized eventual cyclic gross contractive mapping in fuzzy norm spaces, which is a generalization of the eventual cyclic gross contractions. Also we prove the existence of a fixed point for this type of contractive mapping on fuzzy norm spaces.

  8. Comparison of Gross Anatomy Test Scores Using Traditional Specimens vs. Quicktime Virtual Reality Animated Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a…

  9. Are gross motor skills and sports participation related in children with intellectual disabilities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the specific gross motor skills of 156 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50 79) with that of 255 typically developing children, aged 7-12 years. Additionally, the relationship between the specific gross motor skills and organized sports participation was examined

  10. Are Gross Motor Skills and Sports Participation Related in Children with Intellectual Disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the specific gross motor skills of 156 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50 less than or equal to IQ greater than or equal to 79) with that of 255 typically developing children, aged 7-12 years. Additionally, the relationship between the specific gross motor skills and organized sports participation was examined in…

  11. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  12. 26 CFR 1.1332-1 - Inclusion in gross income of war loss recoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Inclusion in gross income of war loss recoveries. 1.1332-1 Section 1.1332-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES War Loss Recoveries § 1.1332-1 Inclusion in gross income of...

  13. Tomato juices and tomato juice concentrates : a study of factors contributing to their gross viscosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heutink, R.

    1986-01-01

    The gross viscosity of tomato juice and tomato juice concentrates was found to be determined primarily by the water insoluble solids (WIS) content. The serum viscosity did not contribute to gross viscosity. The WIS consisted of whole tomato cells, vascular bundles and skin fragments. In general the

  14. Brief Assessment of Motor Function: Content Validity and Reliability of the Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintas, Holly Lea; Parks, Rebecca; Don, Sarah; Gerber, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Content validity and reliability of the Brief Assessment of Motor Function (BAMF) Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale (UEGMS) were evaluated in this prospective, descriptive study. The UEGMS is one of five BAMF ordinal scales designed for quick documentation of gross, fine, and oral motor skill levels. Designed to be independent of age and…

  15. De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): een onderzoek naar de betrouwbaarheid van de Nederlandse vertaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Petegem-van Beek, E. van

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). It describes the reliability of the instrument. The article "Gross Motor Function Measure" (GMFM): a validity study of the Dutch translation focusses on the responsiveness of

  16. Gross Motor Development of Malaysian Hearing Impaired Male Pre- and Early School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawi, Khairi; Lian, Denise Koh Choon; Abdullah, Rozlina Tan

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition of gross motor skill is a natural developmental process for children. This aspect of human development increases with one's chronological age, irrespective of any developmental conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of gross motor skill development among pre- and early school-aged children with motor disability.…

  17. Trained, Generalized, and Collateral Behavior Changes of Preschool Children Receiving Gross-Motor Skills Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kimberly C.; Holborn, Stephen W.

    1986-01-01

    Three preschool children participated in a behavioral training program to improve their gross-motor skills. Results indicated that the program improved the 10 targeted gross-motor skills and that improvements sometimes generalized to other settings. The program did not produce changes in fine-motor skills or social behaviors. Implications are…

  18. De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): een onderzoek naar de responsiviteit van de Nederlandse vertaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Petegem-van Beek, E. van; Vermeer, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). It describes the responsiveness to change. The article "Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): a reliability study of the Dutch translation" focuses on the reliability of the

  19. The Performance of Fundamental Gross Motor Skills by Children Enrolled in Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Rebecca J.; Yun, Joonkoo

    2001-01-01

    This study sought to descriptively evaluate the performance of fundamental gross motor skills among Head Start children. Levels of performance were compared and contrasted with performance profiles of the Test of Gross Motor Development. Findings suggest that Head Start curriculum should focus on the importance of developing fundamental gross…

  20. Gross-Motor Skill Acquisition by Preschool Dance Students under Self-Instruction Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vintere, Parsla; Hemmes, Nancy S.; Brown, Bruce L.; Poulson, Claire L.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of two training procedures -- (a) modeling and praise and (b) self-instruction, modeling, and praise -- on complex gross-motor chain acquisition for preschool dance class students were evaluated. Six girls participated in the study. A multiple baseline design across six gross-motor chains with a secondary group comparison for treatment…

  1. 25 CFR 215.21 - Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. 215.21... ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.21 Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. The superintendent of the Quapaw Indian Agency is hereby authorized and directed to pay at the...

  2. Forest inventory with terrestrial LiDAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauwens, Sébastien; Bartholomeus, Harm; Calders, Kim; Lejeune, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The application of static terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in forest inventories is becoming more effective. Nevertheless, the occlusion effect is still limiting the processing efficiency to extract forest attributes. The use of a mobile laser scanner (MLS) would reduce this occlusion. In this

  3. High efficiency, long life terrestrial solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.; Khemthong, S.; Ling, R.; Olah, S.

    1977-01-01

    The design of a high efficiency, long life terrestrial module was completed. It utilized 256 rectangular, high efficiency solar cells to achieve high packing density and electrical output. Tooling for the fabrication of solar cells was in house and evaluation of the cell performance was begun. Based on the power output analysis, the goal of a 13% efficiency module was achievable.

  4. Solar and terrestrial radiation: methods and measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coulson, Kinsell L

    1975-01-01

    ... AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM, WITHOUT PERMISSION IN WRITING FROM THE PUBLISHER. ACADEMIC PRESS, INC. Ill Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10003 United Kingdom Edition published by A C A D E M I C PRESS, INC. (LONDON) LTD. 24/28 Oval Road, London NW1 Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Coulson, Kinsell L Solar and terrestrial radiation. Inclu...

  5. South African red data book - Terrestrial mammals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smithers, RHN

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, 243 species of terrestrial wild mammals are known to occur in the Republic of South Africa. Using the well established IUCN definitions, 42 of these may be considered as exposed to some level of threat of extinction. Three species...

  6. Furostanol and Spirostanol Saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Fang; Wang, Bing-Bing; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Fang-Xu; Sun, Yan; Guo, Rui-Jie; Song, Xin-Bo; Xin, Hai-Li; Sun, Xin-Guang

    2016-03-30

    Twelve new steroidal saponins, including eleven furostanol saponins, terrestrinin J-T (1-11), and one spirostanol saponin, terrestrinin U (12), together with seven known steroidal saponins 13-19 were isolated from T. terrestris. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS, and comparisons with published data.

  7. Terrestrial water fluxes dominated by transpiration: Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Schlaepfer; Brent E. Ewers; Bryan N. Shuman; David G. Williams; John M. Frank; William J. Massman; William K. Lauenroth

    2014-01-01

    The fraction of evapotranspiration (ET) attributed to plant transpiration (T) is an important source of uncertainty in terrestrial water fluxes and land surface modeling (Lawrence et al. 2007, Miralles et al. 2011). Jasechko et al. (2013) used stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios from 73 large lakes to investigate the relative roles of evaporation (E) and T in ET...

  8. Ethnopharmacological Studies of Tribulus Terrestris (Linn). in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synergism and antagonism impact of different plant metabolites present in crude fruit extract of Tribulus terrestris 'the herbal Viagra' have been studied. Variability in plant composition, biomass and metabolites concentration in different modules was significantly contributed by spatial factor. However the edhaphic ...

  9. A global assessment of gross and net land change dynamics for current conditions and future scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Richard; Prestele, Reinhard; Verburg, Peter H.

    2018-05-01

    The consideration of gross land changes, meaning all area gains and losses within a pixel or administrative unit (e.g. country), plays an essential role in the estimation of total land changes. Gross land changes affect the magnitude of total land changes, which feeds back to the attribution of biogeochemical and biophysical processes related to climate change in Earth system models. Global empirical studies on gross land changes are currently lacking. Whilst the relevance of gross changes for global change has been indicated in the literature, it is not accounted for in future land change scenarios. In this study, we extract gross and net land change dynamics from large-scale and high-resolution (30-100 m) remote sensing products to create a new global gross and net change dataset. Subsequently, we developed an approach to integrate our empirically derived gross and net changes with the results of future simulation models by accounting for the gross and net change addressed by the land use model and the gross and net change that is below the resolution of modelling. Based on our empirical data, we found that gross land change within 0.5° grid cells was substantially larger than net changes in all parts of the world. As 0.5° grid cells are a standard resolution of Earth system models, this leads to an underestimation of the amount of change. This finding contradicts earlier studies, which assumed gross land changes to appear in shifting cultivation areas only. Applied in a future scenario, the consideration of gross land changes led to approximately 50 % more land changes globally compared to a net land change representation. Gross land changes were most important in heterogeneous land systems with multiple land uses (e.g. shifting cultivation, smallholder farming, and agro-forestry systems). Moreover, the importance of gross changes decreased over time due to further polarization and intensification of land use. Our results serve as an empirical database for

  10. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haverd

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2 budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990–2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes project, as one of numerous regional studies. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: net primary production (NPP; net ecosystem production (NEP; fire; land use change (LUC; riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial. Major biospheric fluxes were derived using BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2012, a fine-spatial-resolution (0.05° offline modelling environment in which predictions of CABLE (Wang et al., 2011, a sophisticated land surface model with carbon cycle, are constrained by multiple observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 24 (1σ error on mean and 68 ± 15 TgC yr−1, respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes, which caused net losses of 26 ± 4 TgC yr−1 and 18 ± 7 TgC yr−1, respectively. The resultant net biome production (NBP is 36 ± 29 TgC yr−1, in which the largest contributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 TgC yr−1 by 38 ± 30%. The interannual variability (IAV in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009–2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  11. Effects of solar electromagnetic radiation on the terrestrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The general intent of this essay is to discuss the effect of solar electromagnetic radiation on the terrestrial environment. Instead of giving a systematic approach considering all environment processes where solar emission is the primary energy source and all important materials which have been generated by solar driven processes, the author sketches an impression of the range of the effects of solar radiation on the environment by surveying a number of topics of particular current interest, in varying levels of detail. These include atmospheric chemistry, some aspects of the transfer of radiation within the atmosphere, global energy balance and climate feedbacks, especially those due to clouds, impacts of fossil fuel energy use, evolution of early life processes, photosynthesis and plant productivity as it relates to photosynthesis and the global carbon cycle. (Auth.)

  12. Content validity and reliability of test of gross motor development in Chilean children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cano-Cappellacci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To validate a Spanish version of the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 for the Chilean population. METHODS Descriptive, transversal, non-experimental validity and reliability study. Four translators, three experts and 92 Chilean children, from five to 10 years, students from a primary school in Santiago, Chile, have participated. The Committee of Experts has carried out translation, back-translation and revision processes to determine the translinguistic equivalence and content validity of the test, using the content validity index in 2013. In addition, a pilot implementation was achieved to determine test reliability in Spanish, by using the intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman method. We evaluated whether the results presented significant differences by replacing the bat with a racket, using T-test. RESULTS We obtained a content validity index higher than 0.80 for language clarity and relevance of the TGMD-2 for children. There were significant differences in the object control subtest when comparing the results with bat and racket. The intraclass correlation coefficient for reliability inter-rater, intra-rater and test-retest reliability was greater than 0.80 in all cases. CONCLUSIONS The TGMD-2 has appropriate content validity to be applied in the Chilean population. The reliability of this test is within the appropriate parameters and its use could be recommended in this population after the establishment of normative data, setting a further precedent for the validation in other Latin American countries.

  13. Experimental rickets in broilers: gross, microscopic, and radiographic lesions. II. Calcium deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, P.H.; Lee, S.R.; Rowland, G.N.; Britton, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    Day-old broiler chicks were fed a calcium-deficient diet for 30 days. Gross, microscopic, and radiographic examinations of the proximal tibiotarsus were done at 2, 3, and 4 weeks of age. In 2-week-old chicks, the growth-plate proliferating-prehypertrophied zone (P-PHZ) was variably lengthened and disorganized, cartilage columns of the degenerating hypertrophied zone and metaphyseal primary spongiosa were shortened, and bone spicules of the secondary spongiosa were bordered by increased osteoid. In 3-week-old chicks, lesions were either similar or more pronounced, with the additional finding of metaphyseal peritrabecular fibrosis. In 4-week-old chicks, the P-PHZ decreased in relative length, osteoid seams and fibrous connective tissue were less prominent, and tibial dyschondroplasia-like lesions were present. Results demonstrated that dietary calcium deficiency produced rachitic lesions, that the lesions were very different from those of phosphorus deficiency or calcium excess, and that the lesions were variable over time. (author)

  14. Penetrance and clinical consequences of a gross SDHB deletion in a large family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, D C; Burnichon, N; Timmers, H J L M; Raygada, M J; Kozupa, A; Merino, M J; Makey, D; Adams, K T; Venisse, A; Gimenez-Roqueplo, A-P; Pacak, K

    2009-04-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding subunit B of the mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (SDHB) are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and are associated with hereditary paraganglioma (PGL) and pheochromocytoma. The phenotype of patients with SDHB point mutations has been previously described. However, the phenotype and penetrance of gross SDHB deletions have not been well characterized as they are rarely described. The objective was to describe the phenotype and estimate the penetrance of an exon 1 large SDHB deletion in one kindred. A retrospective and prospective study of 41 relatives across five generations was carried out. The main outcome measures were genetic testing, clinical presentations, plasma catecholamines and their O-methylated metabolites. Of the 41 mutation carriers identified, 11 were diagnosed with PGL, 12 were found to be healthy carriers after evaluation, and 18 were reportedly healthy based on family history accounts. The penetrance of PGL related to the exon 1 large SDHB deletion in this family was estimated to be 35% by age 40. Variable expressivity of the phenotype associated with a large exon 1 SDHB deletion was observed, including low penetrance, diverse primary PGL tumor locations, and malignant potential.

  15. Changes of net primary productivity in China during recent 11 years detected using an ecological model driven by MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yibo; Ju, Weimin; He, Honglin; Wang, Shaoqiang; Sun, Rui; Zhang, Yuandong

    2013-03-01

    Net primary productivity (NPP) is an important component of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Accurately mapping the spatial-temporal variations of NPP in China is crucial for global carbon cycling study. In this study the process-based Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) was employed to study the changes of NPP in China's ecosystems for the period from 2000 to 2010. The BEPS model was first validated using gross primary productivity (GPP) measured at typical flux sites and forest NPP measured at different regions. Then it was driven with leaf area index (LAI) inversed from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflectance and land cover products and meteorological data interpolated from observations at 753 national basic meteorological stations to simulate NPP at daily time steps and a spatial resolution of 500 m from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010. Validations show that BEPS is able to capture the seasonal variations of tower-based GPP and the spatial variability of forest NPP in different regions of China. Estimated national total of annual NPP varied from 2.63 to 2.84Pg C·yr-1, averaging 2.74 Pg C·yr-1 during the study period. Simulated terrestrial NPP shows spatial patterns decreasing from the east to the west and from the south to the north, in association with land cover types and climate. South-west China makes the largest contribution to the national total of NPP while NPP in the North-west account for only 3.97% of the national total. During the recent 11 years, the temporal changes of NPP were heterogamous. NPP increased in 63.8% of China's landmass, mainly in areas north of the Yangtze River and decreased in most areas of southern China, owing to the low temperature freezing in early 2008 and the severe drought in late 2009.

  16. Nuclear medium effects in the evaluation of Callan Gross relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, F.; Haider, H.; Athar, M. Sajjad; Singh, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    JLab has recently measured F 1 (x) and F 2 (x) structure functions separately as well as studied the difference F 2 (x) - 2 xF 1 (x) (Callan-Gross relation) using electron-nucleus deep inelastic scattering (DIS) in the energy region of 2-6 GeV of the electron beam. Theoretically, it is important to understand nuclear medium effects for a fundamental process eN → eX (N is the nucleon and X is jet of hadrons) taking place with a nucleon bound inside the nucleus. Generally, nuclear medium effects in the DIS region are understood due to shadowing and antishadowing effects, mesonic cloud contributions, Fermi motion and binding energy etc. In the present paper we have studied nuclear medium effects in microscopic model using relativistic nucleon spectral function to describe nucleon momentum distribution. The Fermi motion, binding energy effect and nucleon-nucleon correlations are taken into account using spectral functions. The spectral functions that describe energy and momentum distribution of nucleon is obtained by using the Lehmann's representation for the relativistic nucleon propagator and nuclear many body theory is used to calculate it for an interacting Fermi sea in nuclear matter. A local density approximation is then applied to translate these results to a finite nucleus. We have taken into account pion and rho mesons cloud contributions which are found to have important contribution in the intermediate region of Bjorken variable x. Furthermore, shadowing and antishadowing effects are also taken into account using phenomenological model of Kulagin and Petti. Numerical evaluation have been performed both at the leading order (LO) and next-to-leading order (NLO)

  17. Gross Nitrogen Mineralization in Surface Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Li, Xiaofei; Yin, Guoyu; Zheng, Yanling; Deng, Fengyu

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen mineralization is a key biogeochemical process transforming organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen in estuarine and coastal sediments. Although sedimentary nitrogen mineralization is an important internal driver for aquatic eutrophication, few studies have investigated sedimentary nitrogen mineralization in these environments. Sediment-slurry incubation experiments combined with 15N isotope dilution technique were conducted to quantify the potential rates of nitrogen mineralization in surface sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. The gross nitrogen mineralization (GNM) rates ranged from 0.02 to 5.13 mg N kg-1 d-1 in surface sediments of the study area. The GNM rates were generally higher in summer than in winter, and the relative high rates were detected mainly at sites near the north branch and frontal edge of this estuary. The spatial and temporal distributions of GNM rates were observed to depend largely on temperature, salinity, sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen contents, and extracellular enzyme (urease and L-glutaminase) activities. The total mineralized nitrogen in the sediments of the Yangtze Estuary was estimated to be about 6.17 × 105 t N yr-1, and approximately 37% of it was retained in the estuary. Assuming the retained mineralized nitrogen is totally released from the sediments into the water column, which contributed 12–15% of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) sources in this study area. This result indicated that the mineralization process is a significant internal nitrogen source for the overlying water of the Yangtze Estuary, and thus may contribute to the estuarine and coastal eutrophication. PMID:26991904

  18. MRI and gross anatomy of the iliopsoas tendon complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polster, Joshua M.; Lee, Ho; Klika, Alison; Barsoum, Wael; Drake, Richard; Elgabaly, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to explain the anatomic basis of a longitudinal cleft of increased signal in the iliopsoas tendon seen on hip MR arthrograms. A prospective review of 20 MR hip arthrograms was performed using standard and fat-suppressed T1-weighted images to establish whether or not the cleft was composed of fatty tissue and to define the anatomy of the iliopsoas tendon complex. Three cadaver dissections of the hip region were then performed for anatomic correlation. Fourteen out of 20 MR hip arthrograms demonstrated a longitudinal cleft of increased T1 signal adjacent to the iliopsoas tendon, which suppressed on frequency selective fat-suppressed images, indicating fatty composition. Gross anatomic correlation demonstrated this fatty cleft to represent a fascial plane adjacent to the iliopsoas tendon, in one case separating the iliopsoas tendon medially from a thin intramuscular tendon within the lateral portion of the iliacus muscle. Also noted was a direct muscular insertion of the lateral portion of the iliacus muscle onto the anterior portion of the proximal femoral diaphysis in all 3 cadavers. The anatomy of the iliopsoas tendon complex is more complicated than typically illustrated and includes the iliopsoas tendon itself attaching to the lesser trochanter, the lateral portion of the iliacus muscle attaching directly upon the anterior portion of the proximal femoral diaphysis, and a thin intramuscular tendon within this lateral iliacus muscle that is separated from the iliopsoas tendon by a cleft of fatty fascia that accounts for the MRI findings of a cleft of increased T1 signal. (orig.)

  19. Amenorrhea - primary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of periods - primary Images Primary amenorrhea Normal uterine anatomy (cut section) Absence of menstruation (amenorrhea) References Bulun SE. The physiology and pathology of the female reproductive axis. In: ...

  20. How lichens impact on terrestrial community and ecosystem properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Johan; Wardle, David A

    2017-08-01

    Lichens occur in most terrestrial ecosystems; they are often present as minor contributors, but in some forests, drylands and tundras they can make up most of the ground layer biomass. As such, lichens dominate approximately 8% of the Earth's land surface. Despite their potential importance in driving ecosystem biogeochemistry, the influence of lichens on community processes and ecosystem functioning have attracted relatively little attention. Here, we review the role of lichens in terrestrial ecosystems and draw attention to the important, but often overlooked role of lichens as determinants of ecological processes. We start by assessing characteristics that vary among lichens and that may be important in determining their ecological role; these include their growth form, the types of photobionts that they contain, their key functional traits, their water-holding capacity, their colour, and the levels of secondary compounds in their thalli. We then assess how these differences among lichens influence their impacts on ecosystem and community processes. As such, we consider the consequences of these differences for determining the impacts of lichens on ecosystem nutrient inputs and fluxes, on the loss of mass and nutrients during lichen thallus decomposition, and on the role of lichenivorous invertebrates in moderating decomposition. We then consider how differences among lichens impact on their interactions with consumer organisms that utilize lichen thalli, and that range in size from microfauna (for which the primary role of lichens is habitat provision) to large mammals (for which lichens are primarily a food source). We then address how differences among lichens impact on plants, through for example increasing nutrient inputs and availability during primary succession, and serving as a filter for plant seedling establishment. Finally we identify areas in need of further work for better understanding the role of lichens in terrestrial ecosystems. These include