WorldWideScience

Sample records for terrestrial applications volume

  1. From Extraterrestrial to Terrestrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobl, G. F. X.; Laroche, G.; Rasch, K.-D.; Hey, G.

    In the early 1950s, Bell Laboratories in the USA investigated possible applications of silicon semiconductors in electronics. While improving transistors, Bell scientists Gerald Pearson and Calvin Fuller invented the first silicon solar cell. That first effort was further improved for applications in remote humid locations by Darryl Chapin [1]. The first experiment with silicon yielded an efficiency of 2.3%. Improvements with regard to the dopants, the metallic contacts to the p- and n-side and the application of an antireflection coating led to efficiencies of 4%. In 1954, cells with 6% efficiency could be reliably manufactured.

  2. Isotope powered Stirling generator for terrestrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, G.L.; Sorensen, G.C.; Ross, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    An electric power supply, small enough to be man-portable, is being developed for remote, terrestrial applications. This system is designed for an operating lifetime of five years without maintenance or refueling. A small Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) has been developed. The energy source of the generator is a 60 watt plutonium-238 fuel clad used in the General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) developed for space applications. A free piston Stirling Engine drives a linear alternator to convert the heat to power. The system weighs about 7.5 kg and produces 11 watts AC power with a conversion efficiency of 18.5%. Two engine models have been designed, fabricated, and tested to date: (a) a developmental model instrumented to confirm and test parameters, and (b) an electrically heated model with an electrical heater equipped power input leads. Critical components have been tested for 10,000 to 20,000 hours. One complete generator has been operating for over 11,000 hours. Radioisotope heated prototypes are expected to be fabricated and tested in late 1995

  3. Application of Terrestrial Environments in Orion Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbre, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the Marshall Space Flight Center Natural Environments Terrestrial and Planetary Environments (TPE) Team support to the NASA Orion space vehicle. The TPE utilizes meteorological data to assess the sensitivities of the vehicle due to the terrestrial environment. The Orion vehicle, part of the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Program, is designed to carry astronauts beyond low-earth orbit and is currently undergoing a series of tests including Exploration Test Flight (EFT) - 1. The presentation describes examples of TPE support for vehicle design and several tests, as well as support for EFT-1 and planning for upcoming Exploration Missions while emphasizing the importance of accounting for the natural environment's impact to the vehicle early in the vehicle's program.

  4. Assessment of radioisotope heaters for remote terrestrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uherka, K.L.

    1987-05-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of using radioisotope byproducts for special heating applications at remote sites in Alaska and other cold regions. The investigation included assessment of candidate radioisotope materials for heater applications, identification of the most promising cold region applications, evaluation of key technical issues and implementation constraints, and development of conceptual heater designs for candidate applications. Strontium-90 (Sr-90) was selected as the most viable fuel for radioisotopic heaters used in terrestrial applications. Opportunities for the application of radioisotopic heaters were determined through site visits to representative Alaska installations. Candidate heater applications included water storage tanks, sludge digesters, sewage lagoons, water piping systems, well-head pumping stations, emergency shelters, and fuel storage tank deicers. Radioisotopic heaters for water storage tank freeze-up protection and for enhancement of biological waste treatment processes at remote sites were selected as the most promising applications

  5. Aerospace gas/liquid separator for terrestrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondt, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    The space gas/liquid separator, a key component in the heat transport subsystem of a space reactor power system, was developed to remove helium gas from liquid lithium in zero gravity. Helium is generated from lithium irradiation in the reactor core and would reach saturation in lithium after 48 hours of full power operations. The gas/liquid separator is also applicable for large commercial powerplants to deaerate the water before and after the feedwater heaters. Another terrestrial application is for industrial companies to use the gas/liquid separator and wet chemistry to remove all the gases from the air and only discharge clean air to the atmosphere. An additional application that resulted from this gas/liquid separator technology, was separating liquid carbon dioxide from nitrogen. This application is opposite from the space application in that it is removing a liquid from a gas rather than a gas from a liquid

  6. Utilization of space technology for terrestrial solar power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, R. K.; Patterson, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of the evolution of photovoltaic power systems designed and built for terrestrial applications, giving attention to problem areas which are currently impeding the further development of such systems. The rooftop testing of surplus solar panels is considered along with solar powered seismic observatories, solar powered portable radio sets, and design considerations identified from past experience. Present activities discussed are related to a solar powered on-shore beacon flasher system, a solar powered buoy, and a solar powered beacon flasher buoy.

  7. Gas-cooled reactors for advanced terrestrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesavan, K.; Lance, J.R.; Jones, A.R.; Spurrier, F.R.; Peoples, J.A.; Porter, C.A.; Bresnahan, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Conceptual design of a power plant on an inert gas cooled nuclear coupled to an open, air Brayton power conversion cycle is presented. The power system, called the Westinghouse GCR/ATA (Gas-Cooled Reactors for Advanced Terrestrial Applications), is designed to meet modern military needs, and offers the advantages of secure, reliable and safe electrical power. The GCR/ATA concept is adaptable over a range of 1 to 10 MWe power output. Design descriptions of a compact, air-transportable forward base unit for 1 to 3 MWe output and a fixed-base, permanent installation for 3 to 10 MWe output are presented

  8. Investigating the Suitability of Mirrorless Cameras in Terrestrial Photogrammetric Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incekara, A. H.; Seker, D. Z.; Delen, A.; Acar, A.

    2017-11-01

    Digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLR) which are commonly referred as mirrored cameras are preferred for terrestrial photogrammetric applications such as documentation of cultural heritage, archaeological excavations and industrial measurements. Recently, digital cameras which are called as mirrorless systems that can be used with different lens combinations have become available for using similar applications. The main difference between these two camera types is the presence of the mirror mechanism which means that the incoming beam towards the lens is different in the way it reaches the sensor. In this study, two different digital cameras, one with a mirror (Nikon D700) and the other without a mirror (Sony a6000), were used to apply close range photogrammetric application on the rock surface at Istanbul Technical University (ITU) Ayazaga Campus. Accuracy of the 3D models created by means of photographs taken with both cameras were compared with each other using difference values between field and model coordinates which were obtained after the alignment of the photographs. In addition, cross sections were created on the 3D models for both data source and maximum area difference between them is quite small because they are almost overlapping. The mirrored camera has become more consistent in itself with respect to the change of model coordinates for models created with photographs taken at different times, with almost the same ground sample distance. As a result, it has been determined that mirrorless cameras and point cloud produced using photographs obtained from these cameras can be used for terrestrial photogrammetric studies.

  9. Quantifying Standing Dead Tree Volume and Structural Loss with Voxelized Terrestrial Lidar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, S. C.; Putman, E.

    2017-12-01

    Standing dead trees (SDTs) are an important forest component and impact a variety of ecosystem processes, yet the carbon pool dynamics of SDTs are poorly constrained in terrestrial carbon cycling models. The ability to model wood decay and carbon cycling in relation to detectable changes in tree structure and volume over time would greatly improve such models. The overall objective of this study was to provide automated aboveground volume estimates of SDTs and automated procedures to detect, quantify, and characterize structural losses over time with terrestrial lidar data. The specific objectives of this study were: 1) develop an automated SDT volume estimation algorithm providing accurate volume estimates for trees scanned in dense forests; 2) develop an automated change detection methodology to accurately detect and quantify SDT structural loss between subsequent terrestrial lidar observations; and 3) characterize the structural loss rates of pine and oak SDTs in southeastern Texas. A voxel-based volume estimation algorithm, "TreeVolX", was developed and incorporates several methods designed to robustly process point clouds of varying quality levels. The algorithm operates on horizontal voxel slices by segmenting the slice into distinct branch or stem sections then applying an adaptive contour interpolation and interior filling process to create solid reconstructed tree models (RTMs). TreeVolX estimated large and small branch volume with an RMSE of 7.3% and 13.8%, respectively. A voxel-based change detection methodology was developed to accurately detect and quantify structural losses and incorporated several methods to mitigate the challenges presented by shifting tree and branch positions as SDT decay progresses. The volume and structural loss of 29 SDTs, composed of Pinus taeda and Quercus stellata, were successfully estimated using multitemporal terrestrial lidar observations over elapsed times ranging from 71 - 753 days. Pine and oak structural loss rates

  10. Applications of landscape genetics to connectivity research in terrestrial animals [Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisette P. Waits; Samuel A. Cushman; Steve F. Spear

    2016-01-01

    Landscape genetic studies have focused on terrestrial animals more than any other taxonomic group. This chapter focuses on applications of landscape genetics for understanding connectivity of terrestrial animal populations. It starts with a general introduction covering unique characteristics and challenges of the terrestrial study system. This is followed by...

  11. A voxel-based technique to estimate the volume of trees from terrestrial laser scanner data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, A.; Hess, C.; Maas, H.-G.; von Oheimb, G.

    2014-06-01

    The precise determination of the volume of standing trees is very important for ecological and economical considerations in forestry. If terrestrial laser scanner data are available, a simple approach for volume determination is given by allocating points into a voxel structure and subsequently counting the filled voxels. Generally, this method will overestimate the volume. The paper presents an improved algorithm to estimate the wood volume of trees using a voxel-based method which will correct for the overestimation. After voxel space transformation, each voxel which contains points is reduced to the volume of its surrounding bounding box. In a next step, occluded (inner stem) voxels are identified by a neighbourhood analysis sweeping in the X and Y direction of each filled voxel. Finally, the wood volume of the tree is composed by the sum of the bounding box volumes of the outer voxels and the volume of all occluded inner voxels. Scan data sets from several young Norway maple trees (Acer platanoides) were used to analyse the algorithm. Therefore, the scanned trees as well as their representing point clouds were separated in different components (stem, branches) to make a meaningful comparison. Two reference measurements were performed for validation: A direct wood volume measurement by placing the tree components into a water tank, and a frustum calculation of small trunk segments by measuring the radii along the trunk. Overall, the results show slightly underestimated volumes (-0.3% for a probe of 13 trees) with a RMSE of 11.6% for the individual tree volume calculated with the new approach.

  12. INVESTIGATING THE SUITABILITY OF MIRRORLESS CAMERAS IN TERRESTRIAL PHOTOGRAMMETRIC APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Incekara

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLR which are commonly referred as mirrored cameras are preferred for terrestrial photogrammetric applications such as documentation of cultural heritage, archaeological excavations and industrial measurements. Recently, digital cameras which are called as mirrorless systems that can be used with different lens combinations have become available for using similar applications. The main difference between these two camera types is the presence of the mirror mechanism which means that the incoming beam towards the lens is different in the way it reaches the sensor. In this study, two different digital cameras, one with a mirror (Nikon D700 and the other without a mirror (Sony a6000, were used to apply close range photogrammetric application on the rock surface at Istanbul Technical University (ITU Ayazaga Campus. Accuracy of the 3D models created by means of photographs taken with both cameras were compared with each other using difference values between field and model coordinates which were obtained after the alignment of the photographs. In addition, cross sections were created on the 3D models for both data source and maximum area difference between them is quite small because they are almost overlapping. The mirrored camera has become more consistent in itself with respect to the change of model coordinates for models created with photographs taken at different times, with almost the same ground sample distance. As a result, it has been determined that mirrorless cameras and point cloud produced using photographs obtained from these cameras can be used for terrestrial photogrammetric studies.

  13. Special issue: Terrestrial fluids, earthquakes and volcanoes: The Hiroshi Wakita volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Nemesio M.; King, Chi-Yu; Gurrieri, Sergio; McGee, Kenneth A.

    2006-01-01

    Terrestrial Fluids, Earthquakes and Volcanoes: The Hiroshi Wakita Volume I is a special publication to honor Professor Hiroshi Wakita for his scientific contributions. This volume consists of 17 original papers dealing with various aspects of the role of terrestrial fluids in earthquake and volcanic processes, which reflect Prof. Wakita’s wide scope of research interests.Professor Wakita co-founded the Laboratory for Earthquake Chemistry in 1978 and served as its director from 1988 until his retirement from the university in 1997. He has made the laboratory a leading world center for studying earthquakes and volcanic activities by means of geochemical and hydrological methods. Together with his research team and a number of foreign guest researchers that he attracted, he has made many significant contributions in the above-mentioned scientific fields of interest. This achievement is a testimony to not only his scientific talent, but also his enthusiasm, his open mindedness, and his drive in obtaining both human and financial support.

  14. Commercialization of terrestrial applications of aerospace power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberg, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    The potential for commercialization of terrestrial energy systems based upon aerospace power technology's explored. Threats to the aerospace power technology industry, caused by the end of the cold war and weak world economy are described. There are also new opportunities caused by increasing terrestrial energy needs and world-wide concern for the environment. In this paper, the strengths and weaknesses of the aerospace power industry in commercializing terrestrial energy technologies are reviewed. Finally, actions which will enable the aerospace power technology industry to commercialize products into terrestrial energy markets are described

  15. AUTOMATIC THICKNESS AND VOLUME ESTIMATION OF SPRAYED CONCRETE ON ANCHORED RETAINING WALLS FROM TERRESTRIAL LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Martínez-Sánchez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available When ground conditions are weak, particularly in free formed tunnel linings or retaining walls, sprayed concrete can be applied on the exposed surfaces immediately after excavation for shotcreting rock outcrops. In these situations, shotcrete is normally applied conjointly with rock bolts and mesh, thereby supporting the loose material that causes many of the small ground falls. On the other hand, contractors want to determine the thickness and volume of sprayed concrete for both technical and economic reasons: to guarantee their structural strength but also, to not deliver excess material that they will not be paid for. In this paper, we first introduce a terrestrial LiDAR-based method for the automatic detection of rock bolts, as typically used in anchored retaining walls. These ground support elements are segmented based on their geometry and they will serve as control points for the co-registration of two successive scans, before and after shotcreting. Then we compare both point clouds to estimate the sprayed concrete thickness and the expending volume on the wall. This novel methodology is demonstrated on repeated scan data from a retaining wall in the city of Vigo (Spain, resulting in a rock bolts detection rate of 91%, that permits to obtain a detailed information of the thickness and calculate a total volume of 3597 litres of concrete. These results have verified the effectiveness of the developed approach by increasing productivity and improving previous empirical proposals for real time thickness estimation.

  16. Automatic Thickness and Volume Estimation of Sprayed Concrete on Anchored Retaining Walls from Terrestrial LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, J.; Puente, I.; GonzálezJorge, H.; Riveiro, B.; Arias, P.

    2016-06-01

    When ground conditions are weak, particularly in free formed tunnel linings or retaining walls, sprayed concrete can be applied on the exposed surfaces immediately after excavation for shotcreting rock outcrops. In these situations, shotcrete is normally applied conjointly with rock bolts and mesh, thereby supporting the loose material that causes many of the small ground falls. On the other hand, contractors want to determine the thickness and volume of sprayed concrete for both technical and economic reasons: to guarantee their structural strength but also, to not deliver excess material that they will not be paid for. In this paper, we first introduce a terrestrial LiDAR-based method for the automatic detection of rock bolts, as typically used in anchored retaining walls. These ground support elements are segmented based on their geometry and they will serve as control points for the co-registration of two successive scans, before and after shotcreting. Then we compare both point clouds to estimate the sprayed concrete thickness and the expending volume on the wall. This novel methodology is demonstrated on repeated scan data from a retaining wall in the city of Vigo (Spain), resulting in a rock bolts detection rate of 91%, that permits to obtain a detailed information of the thickness and calculate a total volume of 3597 litres of concrete. These results have verified the effectiveness of the developed approach by increasing productivity and improving previous empirical proposals for real time thickness estimation.

  17. Terrestrial Micro Renewable Energy Applications of Space Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komerath, N. M.; Komerath, P. P.

    This paper explores the synergy between technologies intended for extraterrestrial in situ resource utilization and those for terrestrial mass-market micro renewable power generation systems. The case for a micro renewable energy architecture is presented. The obstacles hindering market success are summarized, along with opportunities from recent demonstrations suggesting that the public appetite for sophisticated technology worldwide may be underappreciated by technical researchers. Technical innovations from space research are summarized along with estimates of possible conversion efficiencies. It is argued that the cost-effectiveness of micro power generation must be viewed through the value of the first few watts of available power, rather than the marginal cost per kilowatt-hour of electric power from utility power grids. This leads to the finding that the actual target cost per unit power, and efficiency, are well within reach of space technology products. Hybrid systems integrating power extraction from multiple resources, and adaptable for multiple applications, can break through mass market price barriers. Recent work to develop learning resources and test beds as part of a Micro Renewable Energy Laboratory is summarized.

  18. Application of Autonomous Spacecraft Power Control Technology to Terrestrial Microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Timothy P.; Trase, Larry M.; Soeder, James F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the potential of the power campus located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio for microgrid development. First, the benefits provided by microgrids to the terrestrial power grid are described, and an overview of Technology Needs for microgrid development is presented. Next, GRC's work on development of autonomous control for manned deep space vehicles, which are essentially islanded microgrids, is covered, and contribution of each of these developments to the microgrid Technology Needs is detailed. Finally, a description is provided of GRC's existing physical assets which can be applied to microgrid technology development, and a phased plan for development of a microgrid test facility is presented.

  19. Finite Volumes for Complex Applications VII

    CERN Document Server

    Ohlberger, Mario; Rohde, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The methods considered in the 7th conference on "Finite Volumes for Complex Applications" (Berlin, June 2014) have properties which offer distinct advantages for a number of applications. The second volume of the proceedings covers reviewed contributions reporting successful applications in the fields of fluid dynamics, magnetohydrodynamics, structural analysis, nuclear physics, semiconductor theory and other topics. The finite volume method in its various forms is a space discretization technique for partial differential equations based on the fundamental physical principle of conservation. Recent decades have brought significant success in the theoretical understanding of the method. Many finite volume methods preserve further qualitative or asymptotic properties, including maximum principles, dissipativity, monotone decay of free energy, and asymptotic stability. Due to these properties, finite volume methods belong to the wider class of compatible discretization methods, which preserve qualitative propert...

  20. VOXEL-BASED APPROACH FOR ESTIMATING URBAN TREE VOLUME FROM TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vonderach

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of single trees and the determination of related parameters has been recognized in recent years, e.g. for forest inventories or management. For urban areas an increasing interest in the data acquisition of trees can be observed concerning aspects like urban climate, CO2 balance, and environmental protection. Urban trees differ significantly from natural systems with regard to the site conditions (e.g. technogenic soils, contaminants, lower groundwater level, regular disturbance, climate (increased temperature, reduced humidity and species composition and arrangement (habitus and health status and therefore allometric relations cannot be transferred from natural sites to urban areas. To overcome this problem an extended approach was developed for a fast and non-destructive extraction of branch volume, DBH (diameter at breast height and height of single trees from point clouds of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS. For data acquisition, the trees were scanned with highest scan resolution from several (up to five positions located around the tree. The resulting point clouds (20 to 60 million points are analysed with an algorithm based on voxel (volume elements structure, leading to an appropriate data reduction. In a first step, two kinds of noise reduction are carried out: the elimination of isolated voxels as well as voxels with marginal point density. To obtain correct volume estimates, the voxels inside the stem and branches (interior voxels where voxels contain no laser points must be regarded. For this filling process, an easy and robust approach was developed based on a layer-wise (horizontal layers of the voxel structure intersection of four orthogonal viewing directions. However, this procedure also generates several erroneous "phantom" voxels, which have to be eliminated. For this purpose the previous approach was extended by a special region growing algorithm. In a final step the volume is determined layer-wise based on the

  1. Application of terrestrial laser scanning for measuring tree crown structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretzsch, H.; Seifert, S.; Huang, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the potential of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) for describing and modelling of tree crown structure and dynamics. We first present a general approach for the metabolic and structural scaling of tree crowns. Out of this approach we emphasize those normalization and scaling parameters which become accessible by TLS. For example we show how the individual tree leaf area index, convex hull, and its space-filling by leaves can be extracted out of laser scan data. This contributes to a theoretical and empirical substantiation of crown structure models which were missing so far for e.g. quantification of structural and species diversity in forest stands, inventory of crown biomass, species detection by remote sensing, and understanding of self- and alien-thinning in pure and mixed stands. Up to now works on this topic delivered a rather scattered empirical knowledge mainly by single inventories of trees and stands. In contrast, we recommend to start with a model approach, and to complete existing data with repeated TLS inventories in order to come to a consistent and theoretically based model of tree crowns. (author) [de

  2. Smart Grid Development Issues for Terrestrial and Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, James F.

    2014-01-01

    The development of the so called Smart Grid has as many definitions as individuals working in the area. Based on the technology or technologies that are of interest, be it high speed communication, renewable generation, smart meters, energy storage, advanced sensors, etc. they can become the individual defining characteristic of the Smart Grid. In reality the smart grid encompasses all of these items and quite at bit more. This discussion attempts to look at what the needs are for the grid of the future, such as the issues of increased power flow capability, use of renewable energy, increased security and efficiency and common power and data standards. It also shows how many of these issues are common with the needs of NASA for future exploration programs. A common theme to address both terrestrial and space exploration issues is to develop micro-grids that advertise the ability to enable the load leveling of large power generation facilities. However, for microgrids to realize their promise there needs to a holistic systems approach to their development and integration. The overall system integration issues are presented along with potential solution methodologies.

  3. Magnetic suspension and flywheels: Spaceborne and terrestrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poubeau, P C

    1981-01-01

    Satellite attitude control, using inertia wheels, is discussed. Elimination of friction effects through application of magnetic bearings is considered. The inertia wheel/magnetic bearing configuration can also be used to store kinetic energy. Higher rotational velocities create a need for stronger rotor construction materials, improved mechanical properties can be achieved with composite materials. Kinetic energy storage for earthside applications (solar energy storage electric vehicles) is mentioned.

  4. Applications of plasma core reactors to terrestrial energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantham, T.S.; Biancardi, F.R.; Rodgers, R.J.

    1974-01-01

    Plasma core reactors offer several new options for future energy needs in addition to space power and propulsion applications. Power extraction from plasma core reactors with gaseous nuclear fuel allows operation at temperatures higher than conventional reactors. Highly efficient thermodynamic cycles and applications employing direct coupling of radiant energy are possible. Conceptual configurations of plasma core reactors for terrestrail applications are described. Closed-cycle gas turbines, MHD systems, photo- and thermo-chemical hydrogen production processes, and laser systems using plasma core reactors as prime energy sources are considered. Cycle efficiencies in the range of 50 to 65 percent are calculated for closed-cycle gas turbine and MHD electrical generators. Reactor advantages include continuous fuel reprocessing which limits inventory of radioactive by-products and thorium-U-233 breeder configurations with about 5-year doubling times

  5. Recent terrestrial and undersea applications of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosell, F.E. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    For more than a decade the Navy has used strontium-90 RTGs as remote power sources under diverse conditions at various global locations. Four recent projects which give a general cross-section of the types of applications for which RTGs have been found suitable are discussed

  6. Disaster warning system: Satellite feasibility and comparison with terrestrial systems. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoor, J. H.; Hodge, W. H.; Fluk, M. J.; Bamford, T. F.

    1974-01-01

    The Disaster Warning System (DWS) is a conceptual system which will provide the National Weather Service (NWS) with communication services in the 1980s to help minimize losses caused by natural disasters. The object of this study is a comparative analysis between a terrestrial DWS and a satellite DWS. Baseline systems satisfying the NOAA requirements were synthesized in sufficient detail so that a comparison could be made in terms of performance and cost. The cost of both baseline systems is dominated by the disaster warning and spotter reporting functions. An effort was undertaken to reduce system cost through lower-capacity alternative systems generated by modifying the baseline systems. By reducing the number of required channels and modifying the spotter reporting techniques, alternative satellite systems were synthesized. A terrestrial alternative with the coverage reduced to an estimated 95 percent of the population was considered.

  7. Stirling engine alternatives for the terrestrial solar application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, J.

    1985-01-01

    The first phase of the present study of Stirling engine alternatives for solar thermal-electric generation has been completed. Development risk levels are considered to be high for all engines evaluated. Free-piston type and Ringbom-type Stirling engine-alternators are not yet developed for the 25 to 50-kW electrical power range, although smaller machines have demonstrated the inherent robustness of the machines. Kinematic-type Stirling engines are presently achieving a 3500 hr lifetime or longer on critical components, and lifetime must still be further extended for the solar application. Operational and technical characteristics of all types of Stirling engines have been reviewed with engine developers. Technical work of merit in progress in each engine development organization should be recognized and supported in an appropriate manner.

  8. Environmental requirements for flat plate photovoltaic modules for terrestrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The environmental test requirements that have been developed for flat plate modules purchased through Department of Energy funding are described. Concurrent with the selection of the initial qualification tests from space program experience - temperature cycling and humidity - surveys of existing photovoltaic systems in the field revealed that arrays were experiencing the following failure modes: interconnect breakage, delamination, and electrical termination corrosion. These coupled with application-dependent considerations led to the development of additional qualification tests, such as cyclic pressure loading, warped mounting surface, and hail. Rationale for the selection of tests, their levels and durations is described. Comparisons between field-observed degradation and test-induced degradation show a positive correlation with some of the observed field effects. Also, the tests are proving useful for detecting design, process, and workmanship deficiencies. The status of study efforts for the development of environmental requirements for field-related problems is reviewed.

  9. Terrestrial applications of bone and muscle research in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, F. W.

    1994-08-01

    Major applications to people on Earth are possible from NASA-sponsored research on bone and muscle which is conducted either in microgravity or on Earth using models mimicking microgravity. In microgravity bone and muscle mass are lost. Humans experience a similar loss under certain conditions on Earth. Bone and muscle loss exist on Earth as humans age from adulthood to senescence, during limb immobilization for healing of orthopedic injuries, during wheelchair confinement because of certain diseases, and during chronic bed rest prescribed for curing of diseases. NASA-sponsored research is dedicated to learning both what cause bone and muscle loss as well as finding out how to prevent this loss. The health ramifications of these discoveries will have major impact. Objective 1.6 of Healthy People 2000, a report from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, states that the performance of physical activities that improve muscular strength, muscular endurance, and flexibility is particularly important to maintaining functional independence and social integration in older adults /1/. This objective further states that these types of physical activities are important because they may protect against disability, an event which costs the U.S. economy hugh sums of money. Thus NASA research related to bone and muscle loss has potential major impact on the quality of life in the U.S. Relative to its potential health benefits, NASA and Congressional support of bone and muscle research is funded is a very low level.

  10. Carbon Nanotube Based Chemical Sensors for Space and Terrestrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Lu, Yijiang

    2009-01-01

    A nanosensor technology has been developed using nanostructures, such as single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), on a pair of interdigitated electrodes (IDE) processed with a silicon-based microfabrication and micromachining technique. The IDE fingers were fabricated using photolithography and thin film metallization techniques. Both in-situ growth of nanostructure materials and casting of the nanostructure dispersions were used to make chemical sensing devices. These sensors have been exposed to nitrogen dioxide, acetone, benzene, nitrotoluene, chlorine, and ammonia in the concentration range of ppm to ppb at room temperature. The electronic molecular sensing of carbon nanotubes in our sensor platform can be understood by intra- and inter-tube electron modulation in terms of charge transfer mechanisms. As a result of the charge transfer, the conductance of p-type or hole-richer SWNTs in air will change. Due to the large surface area, low surface energy barrier and high thermal and mechanical stability, nanostructured chemical sensors potentially can offer higher sensitivity, lower power consumption and better robustness than the state-of-the-art systems, which make them more attractive for defense and space applications. Combined with MEMS technology, light weight and compact size sensors can be made in wafer scale with low cost. Additionally, a wireless capability of such a sensor chip can be used for networked mobile and fixed-site detection and warning systems for military bases, facilities and battlefield areas.

  11. The requirements and feasibility of business planning in the office of space and terrestrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, J. S.; Miller, B. P.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of applying strategic business planning techniques which are developed and used in the private sector to the planning of certain projects within the NASA Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications was assessed. The methods of strategic business planning that are currently in use in the private sector are examined. The typical contents of a private sector strategic business plan and the techniques commonly used to develop the contents of the plan are described, along with modifications needed to apply these concepts to public sector projects. The current long-range planning process in the Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications is reviewed and program initiatives that might be candidates for the use of strategic business planning techniques are identified. In order to more fully illustrate the information requirements of a strategic business plan for a NASA program, a sample business plan is prepared for a hypothetical Operational Earth Resources Satellite program.

  12. Potential Applications of Gosat Based Carbon Budget Products to Refine Terrestrial Ecosystem Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, M.; Ichii, K.

    2011-12-01

    Estimation of carbon exchange in terrestrial ecosystem associates with difficulties due to complex entanglement of physical and biological processes: thus, the net ecosystem productivity (NEP) estimated from simulation often differs among process-based terrestrial ecosystem models. In addition to complexity of the system, validation can only be conducted in a point scale since reliable observation is only available from ground observations. With a lack of large spatial data, extension of model simulation to a global scale results in significant uncertainty in the future carbon balance and climate change. Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT), launched by the Japanese space agency (JAXA) in January, 2009, is the 1st operational satellite promised to deliver the net land-atmosphere carbon budget to the terrestrial biosphere research community. Using that information, the model reproducibility of carbon budget is expected to improve: hence, gives a better estimation of the future climate change. This initial analysis is to seek and evaluate the potential applications of GOSAT observation toward the sophistication of terrestrial ecosystem model. The present study was conducted in two processes: site-based analysis using eddy covariance observation data to assess the potential use of terrestrial carbon fluxes (GPP, RE, and NEP) to refine the model, and extension of the point scale analysis to spatial using Carbon Tracker product as a prototype of GOSAT product. In the first phase of the experiment, it was verified that an optimization routine adapted to a terrestrial model, Biome-BGC, yielded the improved result with respect to eddy covariance observation data from AsiaFlux Network. Spatial data sets used in the second phase were consists of GPP from empirical algorithm (e.g. support vector machine), NEP from Carbon Tracker, and RE from the combination of these. These spatial carbon flux estimations was used to refine the model applying the exactly same

  13. A dual use case study of space technologies for terrestrial medical applications (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozmuta, Ioana

    2017-05-01

    Many challenges exist in understanding the human body as a whole, its adaptability, its resilience, its immunological response, its healing and regeneration power. New knowledge is usually obtained by exploring unique conditions and environments and space is one such variable. Primarily, these attributes have been studied in space for the purpose of understanding the effect of the space environment on long duration space travel. However a myriad of lessons learned have emerged that are important for terrestrial medicine problems such as cardiovascular changes, intracranial pressure changes, vision changes, reduced immunity, etc. For medical study purposes, the changes induced by the space environment on the human body are in general fast and predictable; they persist while in the space environment but also revert to the initial pre-flight healthy state upon return to Earth. This provides a unique cycle to study wellness and disease prediction as well as to develop more effective countermeasures for the benefit of people on earth. At a scientific level, the environment of space can be used to develop new lines of investigations and new knowledge to push the terrestrial state of the art (i.e. study of phase diagrams, identification of new system's states, etc). Moreover, the specialized requirements for space medicine have driven advances in terrestrial medical technologies in areas such as monitoring, diagnostic, prevention and treatment. This talk will provide an overview of compelling examples in key areas of interest for terrestrial medical applications.

  14. Multiple determinants of whole and regional brain volume among terrestrial carnivorans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli M Swanson

    Full Text Available Mammalian brain volumes vary considerably, even after controlling for body size. Although several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this variation, most research in mammals on the evolution of encephalization has focused on primates, leaving the generality of these explanations uncertain. Furthermore, much research still addresses only one hypothesis at a time, despite the demonstrated importance of considering multiple factors simultaneously. We used phylogenetic comparative methods to investigate simultaneously the importance of several factors previously hypothesized to be important in neural evolution among mammalian carnivores, including social complexity, forelimb use, home range size, diet, life history, phylogeny, and recent evolutionary changes in body size. We also tested hypotheses suggesting roles for these variables in determining the relative volume of four brain regions measured using computed tomography. Our data suggest that, in contrast to brain size in primates, carnivoran brain size may lag behind body size over evolutionary time. Moreover, carnivore species that primarily consume vertebrates have the largest brains. Although we found no support for a role of social complexity in overall encephalization, relative cerebrum volume correlated positively with sociality. Finally, our results support negative relationships among different brain regions after accounting for overall endocranial volume, suggesting that increased size of one brain regions is often accompanied by reduced size in other regions rather than overall brain expansion.

  15. Obstacles using amorphous materials for volume applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiessling, Albert [Festo AG and Co. KG, 73734, Esslingen (Germany); Reininger, Thomas, E-mail: drn@de.festo.com [Festo AG and Co. KG, 73734, Esslingen (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    This contribution is especially focussed on the attempt to use amorphous or nanocrystalline metals in position sensor applications and to describe the difficulties and obstacles encountered in coherence with the development of appropriate industrial high volume series products in conjunction with the related quality requirements. The main motivation to do these investigations was to beat the generally known sensors especially silicon based Hall-sensors as well as AMR- and GMR-sensors - well known from mobile phones and electronic storage devices like hard discs and others - in terms of cost-effectiveness and functionality.

  16. Volumetrically-Derived Global Navigation Satellite System Performance Assessment from the Earths Surface through the Terrestrial Service Volume and the Space Service Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Bryan W.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is participating in the International Committee on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) (ICG)'s efforts towards demonstrating the benefits to the space user from the Earth's surface through the Terrestrial Service Volume (TSV) to the edge of the Space Service Volume (SSV), when a multi-GNSS solution space approach is utilized. The ICG Working Group: Enhancement of GNSS Performance, New Services and Capabilities has started a three phase analysis initiative as an outcome of recommendations at the ICG-10 meeting, in preparation for the ICG-11 meeting. The first phase of that increasing complexity and fidelity analysis initiative was recently expanded to compare nadir-facing and zenith-facing user hemispherical antenna coverage with omnidirectional antenna coverage at different distances of 8,000 km altitude and 36,000 km altitude. This report summarizes the performance using these antenna coverage techniques at distances ranging from 100 km altitude to 36,000 km to be all encompassing, as well as the volumetrically-derived system availability metrics.

  17. Vegetation Structure, Tree Volume and Biomass Estimation using Terrestrial Laser Scanning Remote Sensing: A Case Study of the Mangrove Forests in the Everglades National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, E. A.; Wdowinski, S.; Potts, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    Mangrove forests are being threatened by accelerated climate change, sea level rise and coastal projects. Carbon/above ground biomass (AGB) losses due to natural or human intervention can affect global warming. Thus, it is important to monitor AGB fluctuations in mangrove forests similar to those inhabiting the Everglades National Park (ENP). Tree volume and tree wood specific density are two important measurements for the estimation of AGB (mass = volume * density). Wood specific density is acquired in the laboratory by analyzing stem cores acquired in the field. However, tree volume is a challenging task because trees resemble tapered surfaces. The majority of published studies estimate tree volume and biomass using allometric equations, which describe the size, shape, volume or AGB of a given population of trees. However, these equations can be extremely general and might not give a representative value of volume or AGB for a specific tree species. In order to have precise biomass estimations, other methodologies for tree volume estimation are needed. To overcome this problem, we use a state-of-the-art remote sensing tool known as ground-based LiDAR a.k.a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS), which can be used to precisely measure vegetation structure and tree volume from its 3-D point cloud. We surveyed three mangrove communities: (Rhizophora mangle, Laguncuria racemosa and Avicennia germinans) in three different sites along Shark River Slough (SRS), which is the primary source of water to the ENP. Our sites included: small-, intermediate- and tall- size mangroves. Our ground measurements included both: traditional forestry surveys and TLS surveys for tree attributes (tree height and diameter at breast height (DBH)) comparison. These attributes are used as input to allometric equations for the estimation of tree volume and AGB. A total of 25 scans were collected in 2011 with a Leica ScanStation C10 TLS. The 3-D point cloud acquired from the TLS data revealed that

  18. USAF Advanced Terrestrial Energy Study. Volume 4. Analysis, Data, and Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    bYftUb IUM sac E1PT 𔃾U CUP- Ps4 #t~f*-- PAGE NO 3kr-3 CONP TIt PUWEM bU$JkCL%* bYNPI~bIUl4 COMP PLAeLi ATLANTIL Lilt. NJ* USA COMP DAIL 12 JUt. IV76 PubLe...ATTRACTIVE WHEN COMPARED WITH BATTERIES AND DIESEL ENGINES. IT IS THE ENELRGY-WEIGHT RATIO WHICH MOTIVATE & FUEL-ICELL APPLICATION. EXAMINATION OP THE...Allocated Study, Operating Plant Reference Goal or or Experimental Number Target Results or Comments B. 7 >60% 65-70% Golf cart Motive power size B. 23 60

  19. Application of the idea of morphism in solar-terrestrial physics and space weather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateev, Lachezar; Tassev, Yordan; Velinov, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The actual problems of solar-terrestrial physics, in particular of space weather are related to the prediction of the space environment state and are solved by means of different analyses and models. In the present work we introduce a new mathematical approach to the study of physical processes in the system Sun-Earth. For example, in the ionization of the ionosphere and atmosphere under the influence of cosmic rays a model is used that applies the principle of homomorphism. When calculating the parameters of space weather such as solar wind, interplanetary magnetic fields, Earth’s magnetosphere, geomagnetic storms and others, the introduction and application of mathematical objects is appropriate: morphisms, groups, categories, monads, functors, natural transformations and others. Such an approach takes into account the general laws of physical processes in the system Sun – Earth and helps in their testing and calculation. It is useful for such complex systems and processes as these in the solar-terrestrial physics and space weather. Some methods for algebraic structures can be introduced. These methods give the possibility for axiomatization of the physical data reality and the application of algebraic methods for their processing. Here we give the base for the transformation from the algebraic theory of categories and morphisms to the physical structure of concepts and data. Such problems are principally considered in the proposed work. Key words: pace weather, space radiation environment, solar effects, forecasting, energetic solar particles, cosmic rays

  20. Quantitative Morphometric Analysis of Terrestrial Glacial Valleys and the Application to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Kory

    Although the current climate on Mars is very cold and dry, it is generally accepted that the past environments on the planet were very different. Paleo-environments may have been warm and wet with oceans and rivers. And there is abundant evidence of water ice and glaciers on the surface as well. However, much of that comes from visual interpretation of imagery and other remote sensing data. For example, some of the characteristics that have been utilized to distinguish glacial forms are the presence of landscape features that appear similar to terrestrial glacial landforms, constraining surrounding topography, evidence of flow, orientation, elevation and valley shape. The main purpose of this dissertation is to develop a model that uses quantitative variables extracted from elevation data that can accurately categorize a valley basin as either glacial or non-glacial. The application of this model will limit the inherent subjectivity of image analysis by human interpretation. The model developed uses hypsometric attributes (elevation-area relationship), a newly defined variable similar to the equilibrium line altitude for an alpine glacier, and two neighborhood search functions intended to describe the valley cross-sectional curvature, all based on a digital elevation model (DEM) of a region. The classification model uses data-mining techniques trained on several terrestrial mountain ranges in varied geologic and geographic settings. It was applied to a select set of previously catalogued locations on Mars that resemble terrestrial glaciers. The results suggest that the landforms do have a glacial origin, thus supporting much of the previous research that has identified the glacial landforms. This implies that the paleo-environment of Mars was at least episodically cold and wet, probably during a period of increased planetary obliquity. Furthermore, the results of this research and the implications thereof add to the body of knowledge for the current and past

  1. Multi-Flight-Phase GPS Navigation Filter Applications to Terrestrial Vehicle Navigation and Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young W.; Montez, Moises N.

    1994-01-01

    A candidate onboard space navigation filter demonstrated excellent performance (less than 8 meter level RMS semi-major axis accuracy) in performing orbit determination of a low-Earth orbit Explorer satellite using single-frequency real GPS data. This performance is significantly better than predicted by other simulation studies using dual-frequency GPS data. The study results revealed the significance of two new modeling approaches evaluated in the work. One approach introduces a single-frequency ionospheric correction through pseudo-range and phase range averaging implementation. The other approach demonstrates a precise axis-dependent characterization of dynamic sample space uncertainty to compute a more accurate Kalman filter gain. Additionally, this navigation filter demonstrates a flexibility to accommodate both perturbational dynamic and observational biases required for multi-flight phase and inhomogeneous application environments. This paper reviews the potential application of these methods and the filter structure to terrestrial vehicle and positioning applications. Both the single-frequency ionospheric correction method and the axis-dependent state noise modeling approach offer valuable contributions in cost and accuracy improvements for terrestrial GPS receivers. With a modular design approach to either 'plug-in' or 'unplug' various force models, this multi-flight phase navigation filter design structure also provides a versatile GPS navigation software engine for both atmospheric and exo-atmospheric navigation or positioning use, thereby streamlining the flight phase or application-dependent software requirements. Thus, a standardized GPS navigation software engine that can reduce the development and maintenance cost of commercial GPS receivers is now possible.

  2. A multiparameter wearable physiologic monitoring system for space and terrestrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Carsten W.; Montgomery, Kevin N.; Udoh, Usen E.; Barker, Valerie N.; Thonier, Guillaume C.; Tellier, Arnaud M.; Ricks, Robert D.; Darling, Robert B.; Cagle, Yvonne D.; Cabrol, Nathalie A.; hide

    2005-01-01

    A novel, unobtrusive and wearable, multiparameter ambulatory physiologic monitoring system for space and terrestrial applications, termed LifeGuard, is presented. The core element is a wearable monitor, the crew physiologic observation device (CPOD), that provides the capability to continuously record two standard electrocardiogram leads, respiration rate via impedance plethysmography, heart rate, hemoglobin oxygen saturation, ambient or body temperature, three axes of acceleration, and blood pressure. These parameters can be digitally recorded with high fidelity over a 9-h period with precise time stamps and user-defined event markers. Data can be continuously streamed to a base station using a built-in Bluetooth RF link or stored in 32 MB of on-board flash memory and downloaded to a personal computer using a serial port. The device is powered by two AAA batteries. The design, laboratory, and field testing of the wearable monitors are described.

  3. Application of a new Terrestrial Telecommunications System in the European Air Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draško Marin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aeronautical Public Correspondence (APC is a telecommtmicationsse!Vice, which enables passengers onboard aircraftto make telecommunication calls to people on the ground.This article describes the terrestrial communications seiVicewhich is based on cellular network for the European CEPTmember countries (CEPT- European Conference of Postaland Telecommunications Administrations named TerrestrialFlight Telecommunications System (TFTS.This system is a Pan-European System, which means theusage of hannonised frequencies in Europe with hannonisedstandards for the TFTS equipment, which have been issued bythe European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI.Frequencies allocated for TFTS have been designated bythe World Administrative Radio Conference, WARC-92 withfrequency bandwidth of 2x5 MHz:1670- 1675 MHz, for ground to air1800- 1805 MHz, for air to ground.TFTS planning is perfonned by the application of frequencyblocks (42 blocks with 164 channels in total. Bandwidthof each radio channel, which contains 4 speech channels,is equal to 30.3 kHz.Due to the very high flight of the aircraft (about 13,000 m,it needs a long distance between the centres of cells (radio stationon the ground to avoid the eo-channel or adjacent channelinteJference.The article presents the planning process with typical cellradius of240km or 350km. In the viewofthatfact, the need ispointed out for finding a compromise solution with regard toemitting power and the influence of interference.Final(v, it is noted that TFTS ground radio stations inCroatia, which are located in Zagreb and Split, may cover theterritory of some neighbouring countries other than Croatia,which is important from the commercial point of view.

  4. 47 CFR 25.149 - Application requirements for ancillary terrestrial components in the mobile-satellite service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application requirements for ancillary terrestrial components in the mobile-satellite service networks operating in the 1.5./1.6 GHz, 1.6/2.4 GHz and 2 GHz mobile-satellite service. 25.149 Section 25.149 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS...

  5. Application of terrestrial photogrammetry for the mass balance calculation on Montasio Occidentale Glacier (Julian Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermattei, Livia; Carturan, Luca; Calligaro, Simone; Blasone, Giacomo; Guarnieri, Alberto; Tarolli, Paolo; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo; Vettore, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) of glaciated terrain are commonly used to measure changes in geometry and hence infer the mass balance of glaciers. Different tools and methods exist to obtain information about the 3D geometry of terrain. Recent improvements on the quality and performance of digital cameras for close-range photogrammetry, and the development of automatic digital photogrammetric processing makes the 'structure from motion' photogrammetric technique (SfM) competitive for high quality 3D models production, compared to efficient but also expensive and logistically-demanding survey technologies such as airborn and terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). The purpose of this work is to test the SfM approach, using a consumer-grade SLR camera and the low-cost computer vision-based software package Agisoft Photoscan (Agisoft LLC), to monitor the mass balance of Montasio Occidentale glacier, a 0.07km2, low-altitude, debris-covered glacier located in the Eastern Italian Alps. The quality of the 3D models produced by the SfM process has been assessed by comparison with digital terrain models obtained through TLS surveys carried out at the same dates. TLS technique has indeed proved to be very effective in determining the volume change of this glacier in the last years. Our results shows that the photogrammetric approach can produce point cloud densities comparable to those derived from TLS measurements. Furthermore, the horizontal and vertical accuracies are also of the same order of magnitude as for TLS (centimetric to decimetric). The effect of different landscape characteristics (e.g. distance from the camera or terrain gradient) and of different substrata (rock, debris, ice, snow and firn) was also evaluated in terms of SfM reconstruction's accuracy vs. TLS. Given the good results obtained on the Montasio Occidentale glacier, it can be concluded that the terrestrial photogrammetry, with the advantageous features of portability, ease of use and above all low costs

  6. Experimental analysis of a capillary pumped loop for terrestrial applications with several evaporators in parallel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blet, Nicolas; Bertin, Yves; Ayel, Vincent; Romestant, Cyril; Platel, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper introduces experimental studies of a CPLTA with 3 evaporators in parallel. • Operating principles of mono-evaporator CPLTA are reminded. • A reference test with the new bench with only one evaporator is introduced. • Global behavior of the multi-evaporators loop is presented and discussed. • Some additional thermohydraulic couplings are revealed. - Abstract: In the context of high-dissipation electronics cooling for ground transportation, a new design of two-phase loop has been improved in recent years: the capillary pumped loop for terrestrial application (CPLTA). This hybrid system, between the two standard capillary pumped loop (CPL) and loop heat pipe (LHP), has been widely investigated with a single evaporator, and so a single dissipative area, to know its mean operating principles and thermohydraulic couplings between the components. To aim to extend its scope of applications, a new experimental CPLTA with three evaporators in parallel is studied in this paper with methanol as working fluid. Even if the dynamics of the loop in multi-evaporators mode appears on the whole similar to that with a single operating evaporator, additional couplings are highlighted between the several evaporators. A decoupling between vapor generation flow rate and pressure drop in each evaporator is especially revealed. The impact of this phenomenon on the conductance at evaporator is analyzed.

  7. Testing the Application of Terrestrial Laser Scanning to Measure Forest Canopy Gap Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mark Danson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial laser scanners (TLS have the potential to revolutionise measurement of the three-dimensional structure of vegetation canopies for applications in ecology, hydrology and climate change. This potential has been the subject of recent research that has attempted to measure forest biophysical variables from TLS data, and make comparisons with two-dimensional data from hemispherical photography. This research presents a systematic comparison between forest canopy gap fraction estimates derived from TLS measurements and hemispherical photography. The TLS datasets used in the research were obtained between April 2008 and March 2009 at Delamere Forest, Cheshire, UK. The analysis of canopy gap fraction estimates derived from TLS data highlighted the repeatability and consistency of the measurements in comparison with those from coincident hemispherical photographs. The comparison also showed that estimates computed considering only the number of hits and misses registered in the TLS datasets were consistently lower than those estimated from hemispherical photographs. To examine this difference, the potential information available in the intensity values recorded by TLS was investigated and a new method developed to estimate canopy gap fraction proposed. The new approach produced gap fractions closer to those estimated from hemispherical photography, but the research also highlighted the limitations of single return TLS data for this application.

  8. Quantifying the eroded volume of mercury-contaminated sediment using terrestrial laser scanning at Stocking Flat, Deer Creek, Nevada County, California, 2010–13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howle, James F.; Alpers, Charles N.; Bawden, Gerald W.; Bond, Sandra

    2016-07-28

    High-resolution ground-based light detection and ranging (lidar), also known as terrestrial laser scanning, was used to quantify the volume of mercury-contaminated sediment eroded from a stream cutbank at Stocking Flat along Deer Creek in the Sierra Nevada foothills, about 3 kilometers west of Nevada City, California. Terrestrial laser scanning was used to collect sub-centimeter, three-dimensional images of the complex cutbank surface, which could not be mapped non-destructively or in sufficient detail with traditional surveying techniques.The stream cutbank, which is approximately 50 meters long and 8 meters high, was surveyed on four occasions: December 1, 2010; January 20, 2011; May 12, 2011; and February 4, 2013. Volumetric changes were determined between the sequential, three-dimensional lidar surveys. Volume was calculated by two methods, and the average value is reported. Between the first and second surveys (December 1, 2010, to January 20, 2011), a volume of 143 plus or minus 15 cubic meters of sediment was eroded from the cutbank and mobilized by Deer Creek. Between the second and third surveys (January 20, 2011, to May 12, 2011), a volume of 207 plus or minus 24 cubic meters of sediment was eroded from the cutbank and mobilized by the stream. Total volumetric change during the winter and spring of 2010–11 was 350 plus or minus 28 cubic meters. Between the third and fourth surveys (May 12, 2011, to February 4, 2013), the differencing of the three-dimensional lidar data indicated that a volume of 18 plus or minus 10 cubic meters of sediment was eroded from the cutbank. The total volume of sediment eroded from the cutbank between the first and fourth surveys was 368 plus or minus 30 cubic meters.

  9. A compact, inherently safe liquid metal reactor plant concept for terrestrial defense power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, P.M.; Dubberley, A.E.; Lutz, D.E.; Palmer, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    A compact, inherently safe, liquid metal reactor concept based on the GE PRISM innovative LMR design has been developed for terrestrial defense power applications in the 2-50 MWe range. The concept uses a small, sodium-cooled, U-5%Zr metal fueled reactor contained within two redundant steel vessels. The core is designed to operate at a low power density and temperature (925 F) and can operate 30 years without refueling. One two primary coolant loops, depending upon the plant size, transport heat from the core to sodium-to-air, double-wall heat exchangers. Power is produced by a gas turbine operated in a closed ''bottoming'' cycle that employs intercoolers between the compressor stages and a recuperator. Inherent safety is provided by passive means only; operator action is not required to ensure plant safety even for events normally considered Beyond Design Basis Accidents. In addition to normal shutdown heat removal via the sodium-to-air heat exchangers, the design utilizes an inherently passive radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system similar to that designed for PRISM. The use of an air cycle gas turbine eliminates the cost and complexity of the sodium-water reactor pressure relief system required for a steam cycle sodium-cooled reactor

  10. Graphical User Interfaces for Volume Rendering Applications in Medical Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Lindfors, Lisa; Lindmark, Hanna

    2002-01-01

    Volume rendering applications are used in medical imaging in order to facilitate the analysis of three-dimensional image data. This study focuses on how to improve the usability of graphical user interfaces of these systems, by gathering user requirements. This is achieved by evaluations of existing systems, together with interviews and observations at clinics in Sweden that use volume rendering to some extent. The usability of the applications of today is not sufficient, according to the use...

  11. Application of terrestrial laser scanning for coastal geomorphologic research questions in western Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeister, Dirk; Curdt, Constanze; Tilly, Nora; Ntageretzis, Konstantin; Aasen, Helge; Vött, Andreas; Bareth, Georg

    2013-04-01

    Coasts are areas of permanent change, influenced by gradual changes and sudden impacts. In particular, western Greece is a tectonically active region, due to the nearby plate boundary of the Hellenic Arc. The region has suffered from numerous earthquakes and tsunamis during prehistoric and historic times and is thus characterized by a high seismic and tsunami hazard risk. Additionally, strong winter storms may reach considerable dimensions. In this study, terrestrial laser scanning was applied for (i) annual change detection at seven coastal areas of western Greece for three years (2009-2011) and (ii) accurate parameter detection of large boulders, dislocated by high-energy wave impacts. The Riegl LMS-Z420i laser scanner was used in combination with a precise DGPS system (Topcon HiPer Pro) for all surveys. Each scan position and a further target were recorded for georeferencing and merging of the point clouds. (i) For the annual detection of changes, reference points for the base station of the DGPS system were marked. High-resolution digital elevation models (HRDEM) were generated from each dataset of the different years and are compared to each other, resulting in mass balances. (ii) 3D-models of dislocated boulders were reconstructed and parameters (e.g. volume in combination with density measurements, distance and height above present sea-level) were derived for the solution of wave transport equations, which estimate the minimum wave height or velocity that is necessary for boulder movement. (i) Our results show that annual changes are detectable by multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning. In general, volumetric changes and affected areas are quantifiable and maps of changes can be established. On exposed beach areas, bigger changes were detectable, where seagrass and sand is eroded and gravel accumulated. In opposite, only minor changes for elevated areas are derived. Dislocated boulders on several sites showed no movement. At coastal areas with a high

  12. Application of terrestrial 'structure-from-motion' photogrammetry on a medium-size Arctic valley glacier: potential, accuracy and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynek, Bernhard; Binder, Daniel; Boffi, Geo; Schöner, Wolfgang; Verhoeven, Geert

    2014-05-01

    Terrestrial photogrammetry was the standard method for mapping high mountain terrain in the early days of mountain cartography, until it was replaced by aerial photogrammetry and airborne laser scanning. Modern low-price digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras and highly automatic and cheap digital computer vision software with automatic image matching and multiview-stereo routines suggest the rebirth of terrestrial photogrammetry, especially in remote regions, where airborne surveying methods are expensive due to high flight costs. Terrestrial photogrammetry and modern automated image matching is widely used in geodesy, however, its application in glaciology is still rare, especially for surveying ice bodies at the scale of some km², which is typical for valley glaciers. In August 2013 a terrestrial photogrammetric survey was carried out on Freya Glacier, a 6km² valley glacier next to Zackenberg Research Station in NE-Greenland, where a detailed glacier mass balance monitoring was initiated during the last IPY. Photos with a consumer grade digital camera (Nikon D7100) were taken from the ridges surrounding the glacier. To create a digital elevation model, the photos were processed with the software photoscan. A set of ~100 dGPS surveyed ground control points on the glacier surface was used to georeference and validate the final DEM. Aim of this study was to produce a high resolution and high accuracy DEM of the actual surface topography of the Freya glacier catchment with a novel approach and to explore the potential of modern low-cost terrestrial photogrammetry combined with state-of-the-art automated image matching and multiview-stereo routines for glacier monitoring and to communicate this powerful and cheap method within the environmental research and glacier monitoring community.

  13. Estimation of Global 1km-grid Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Part II: Evaluations and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, K.; Sasai, T.; Kato, S.; Niwa, Y.; Saito, M.; Takagi, H.; Matsunaga, T.; Hiraki, K.; Maksyutov, S. S.; Yokota, T.

    2015-12-01

    Global terrestrial carbon cycle largely depends on a spatial pattern in land cover type, which is heterogeneously-distributed over regional and global scales. Many studies have been trying to reveal distribution of carbon exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and atmosphere for understanding global carbon cycle dynamics by using terrestrial biosphere models, satellite data, inventory data, and so on. However, most studies remained within several tens of kilometers grid spatial resolution, and the results have not been enough to understand the detailed pattern of carbon exchanges based on ecological community and to evaluate the carbon stocks by forest ecosystems in each countries. Improving the sophistication of spatial resolution is obviously necessary to enhance the accuracy of carbon exchanges. Moreover, the improvement may contribute to global warming awareness, policy makers and other social activities. We show global terrestrial carbon exchanges (net ecosystem production, net primary production, and gross primary production) with 1km-grid resolution. The methodology for these estimations are shown in the 2015 AGU FM poster "Estimation of Global 1km-grid Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Part I: Developing Inputs and Modelling". In this study, we evaluated the carbon exchanges in various regions with other approaches. We used the satellite-driven biosphere model (BEAMS) as our estimations, GOSAT L4A CO2 flux data, NEP retrieved by NICAM and CarbonTracer2013 flux data, for period from Jun 2001 to Dec 2012. The temporal patterns for this period were indicated similar trends between BEAMS, GOSAT, NICAM, and CT2013 in many sub-continental regions. Then, we estimated the terrestrial carbon exchanges in each countries, and could indicated the temporal patterns of the exchanges in large carbon stock regions.Global terrestrial carbon cycle largely depends on a spatial pattern of land cover type, which is heterogeneously-distributed over regional and global scales. Many

  14. Application of Integrated Photogrammetric and Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data to Cultural Heritage Surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapa, Przemyslaw; Mitka, Bartosz; Zygmunt, Mariusz

    2017-12-01

    The terrestrial laser scanning technology has a wide spectrum of applications, from land surveying, civil engineering and architecture to archaeology. The technology is capable of obtaining, in a short time, accurate coordinates of points which represent the surface of objects. Scanning of buildings is therefore a process which ensures obtaining information on all structural elements a building. The result is a point cloud consisting of millions of elements which are a perfect source of information on the object and its surrounding. The photogrammetric techniques allow documenting an object in high resolution in the form of orthophoto plans, or are a basis to develop 2D documentation or obtain point clouds for objects and 3D modelling. Integration of photogrammetric data and TLS brings a new quality in surveying historic monuments. Historic monuments play an important cultural and historical role. Centuries-old buildings require constant renovation and preservation of their structural and visual invariability while maintaining safety of people who use them. The full process of surveying allows evaluating the actual condition of monuments and planning repairs and renovations. Huge sizes and specific types of historic monuments cause problems in obtaining reliable and full information on them. The TLS technology allows obtaining such information in a short time and is non-invasive. A point cloud is not only a basis for developing architectural and construction documentation or evaluation of actual condition of a building. It also is a real visualization of monuments and their entire environment. The saved image of object surface can be presented at any time and place. A cyclical TLS survey of historic monuments allows detecting structural changes and evaluating damage and changes that cause deformation of monument’s components. The paper presents application of integrated photogrammetric data and TLS illustrated on an example of historic monuments from southern

  15. Application of terrestrial laser scanning to the development and updating of the base map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapa, Przemysław; Mitka, Bartosz

    2017-06-01

    The base map provides basic information about land to individuals, companies, developers, design engineers, organizations, and government agencies. Its contents include spatial location data for control network points, buildings, land lots, infrastructure facilities, and topographic features. As the primary map of the country, it must be developed in accordance with specific laws and regulations and be continuously updated. The base map is a data source used for the development and updating of derivative maps and other large scale cartographic materials such as thematic or topographic maps. Thanks to the advancement of science and technology, the quality of land surveys carried out by means of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) matches that of traditional surveying methods in many respects. This paper discusses the potential application of output data from laser scanners (point clouds) to the development and updating of cartographic materials, taking Poland's base map as an example. A few research sites were chosen to present the method and the process of conducting a TLS land survey: a fragment of a residential area, a street, the surroundings of buildings, and an undeveloped area. The entire map that was drawn as a result of the survey was checked by comparing it to a map obtained from PODGiK (pol. Powiatowy Ośrodek Dokumentacji Geodezyjnej i Kartograficznej - Regional Centre for Geodetic and Cartographic Records) and by conducting a field inspection. An accuracy and quality analysis of the conducted fieldwork and deskwork yielded very good results, which provide solid grounds for predicating that cartographic materials based on a TLS point cloud are a reliable source of information about land. The contents of the map that had been created with the use of the obtained point cloud were very accurately located in space (x, y, z). The conducted accuracy analysis and the inspection of the performed works showed that high quality is characteristic of TLS surveys. The

  16. Application of Digital Terrestrial Photogrammetry in Architectural Conservation: the Mosque of Abdullah Ibn Salam of Oran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukerch, I.; Takarli, B.; Mahmoudi, R.; Tellai, S.; Chadli, D.

    2016-10-01

    Studies on the architectural heritage can now be supported by three-dimensional reconstruction of actual buildings. The 3D digital model can be an effective medium for documenting the current state of historic buildings but also to create a resource for researchers who conduct their analysis on historical evolution. Architectural photogrammetry has its own specifications in relation to other photogrammetric applications, however it meets these expectations. The traditional approach requires the use of metric cameras but with the development of computational techniques, this requirement is overcome and opens the way for the use of non-metric camera. The use of the shots that is no longer restricted to the parallel configuration of bundles, the images may be convergent, horizontal or oblique. Combining and modelling several cameras increasingly powerful in resolution and stability, has great scope and the same workflow can be used in varied applications. ISPRS and ICOMOS created CIPA because they both believe that a monument can be restored and protected only when it has been fully measured and documented and when its development has been documented several times, i.e. monitored, also with respect to its environment, and stored in proper heritage information and management systems. In this paper the 3D modelling of an important cultural site using terrestrial photogrammetric techniques for architectural preservation is presented. The site is the mosque of Abdullah Ibn Salam, Built in 1880 at the initiative of Simon Kanoui, also known as the Great Synagogue of Oran was inaugurated in 1918 only. It was one of the largest and most beautiful synagogues in North Africa. It was built with stone imported from Jerusalem. This place of worship became in 1975 the mosque of Abdullah Ibn Salam who was a rich Jew of Medina who was converted to Islam. The structure is modelled using 321 oriented photos taken in five series of shots that cover all the façade and the interior of

  17. 8th conference on Finite Volumes for Complex Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Omnes, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    This first volume of the proceedings of the 8th conference on "Finite Volumes for Complex Applications" (Lille, June 2017) covers various topics including convergence and stability analysis, as well as investigations of these methods from the point of view of compatibility with physical principles. It collects together the focused invited papers comparing advanced numerical methods for Stokes and Navier–Stokes equations on a benchmark, as well as reviewed contributions from internationally leading researchers in the field of analysis of finite volume and related methods, offering a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in the field. The finite volume method in its various forms is a space discretization technique for partial differential equations based on the fundamental physical principle of conservation, and recent decades have brought significant advances in the theoretical understanding of the method. Many finite volume methods preserve further qualitative or asymptotic properties, including m...

  18. Terrestrial liming to promote Atlantic Salmon recovery in Nova Scotia - approaches needed and knowledge gained after a trial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, S. M.; Angelidis, C.; Armstrong, M.; Biagi, K. M.; Clair, T. A.; Jackson, N.; Breen, A.

    2014-09-01

    Populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Southwest Nova Scotia (SWNS) have plummeted since the 1980s. Acidification is considered a main threat to this population. The lakes and streams of SWNS were among the most heavily acidified in North America during the last century and calcium levels are predicted to continue to fall in coming decades. One of the most promising mitigation options to reduce the risk of extirpation of the SWNS Salmo salar is terrestrial liming; however, both the chemistry of SWNS rivers, and effective strategies for terrestrial liming in SWNS are poorly understood. Here we have launched the first terrestrial liming study in Nova Scotia, employing a test hydrologic source area liming strategy in a 5 ha experimental catchment in SWNS, Maria Brook; we apply an average local application rate of 13 t ha-1 to 10% of the 47 ha catchment. We employ high frequency stream monitoring to complement grab sampling to identify which constituents pose a threat to Salmo salar and to identify strategies for larger scale terrestrial liming that would fit the local conditions. Results indicate that the water chemistry conditions are currently at toxic levels for Salmo salar throughout the year, with levels of ionic aluminium exceeding toxic thresholds almost 100% of the time. The stream chemistry in Maria Brook is remarkably similar to pre-recovery conditions in other heavily acidified watersheds, such as Birkenes in Norway. Our results support the hypothesis that there has been no recovery from acidification in SWNS. Results from the first year of post-liming do not show an improvement in stream chemistry levels, and further lime application is needed to improve the water chemistry conditions to needed levels for the recovery of Salmo salar.

  19. Volume 2. Probabilistic analysis of HTGR application studies. Supporting data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    Volume II, Probabilistic Analysis of HTGR Application Studies - Supporting Data, gives the detail data, both deterministic and probabilistic, employed in the calculation presented in Volume I. The HTGR plants and the fossil plants considered in the study are listed. GCRA provided the technical experts from which the data were obtained by MAC personnel. The names of the technical experts (interviewee) and the analysts (interviewer) are given for the probabilistic data

  20. The Development of Terrestrial Water Cycle Applications for SMAP Soil Moisture Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil moisture storage sits at the locus of the terrestrial water cycle and governs the relative partitioning of precipitation into various land surface flux components. Consequently, improved observational constraint of soil moisture variations should improve our ability to globally monitor the te...

  1. Rectangular maximum-volume submatrices and their applications

    KAUST Repository

    Mikhalev, Aleksandr; Oseledets, I.V.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a definition of the volume of a general rectangular matrix, which is equivalent to an absolute value of the determinant for square matrices. We generalize results of square maximum-volume submatrices to the rectangular case, show a connection of the rectangular volume with an optimal experimental design and provide estimates for a growth of coefficients and an approximation error in spectral and Chebyshev norms. Three promising applications of such submatrices are presented: recommender systems, finding maximal elements in low-rank matrices and preconditioning of overdetermined linear systems. The code is available online.

  2. Rectangular maximum-volume submatrices and their applications

    KAUST Repository

    Mikhalev, Aleksandr

    2017-10-18

    We introduce a definition of the volume of a general rectangular matrix, which is equivalent to an absolute value of the determinant for square matrices. We generalize results of square maximum-volume submatrices to the rectangular case, show a connection of the rectangular volume with an optimal experimental design and provide estimates for a growth of coefficients and an approximation error in spectral and Chebyshev norms. Three promising applications of such submatrices are presented: recommender systems, finding maximal elements in low-rank matrices and preconditioning of overdetermined linear systems. The code is available online.

  3. 6th international symposium on finite volumes for complex applications

    CERN Document Server

    Halama, Jan; Herbin, Raphaèle; Hubert, Florence; Fort, Jaroslav; FVCA 6; Finite Volumes for Complex Applications VI : Problems and perspectives

    2011-01-01

    Finite volume methods are used for various applications in fluid dynamics, magnetohydrodynamics, structural analysis or nuclear physics. A closer look reveals many interesting phenomena and mathematical or numerical difficulties, such as true error analysis and adaptivity, modelling of multi-phase phenomena or fitting problems, stiff terms in convection/diffusion equations and sources. To overcome existing problems and to find solution methods for future applications requires many efforts and always new developments. The goal of The International Symposium on Finite Volumes for Complex Applica

  4. Non-Equilibrium Plasma Applications for Water Purification Supporting Human Spaceflight and Terrestrial Point-of-Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankson, Isaiah M.; Foster, John E.; Adamovsky, Grigory

    2016-01-01

    2016 NASA Glenn Technology Day Panel Presentation on May 24, 2016. The panel description is: Environmental Impact: NASA Glenn Water Capabilities Both global water scarcity and water treatment concerns are two of the most predominant environmental issues of our time. Glenn researchers share insights on a snow sensing technique, hyper spectral imaging of Lake Erie algal blooms, and a discussion on non-equilibrium plasma applications for water purification supporting human spaceflight and terrestrial point-of-use. The panel moderator will be Bryan Stubbs, Executive Director of the Cleveland Water Alliance.

  5. Effects of design on cost of flat-plate solar photovoltaic arrays for terrestrial central station power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, P.; Stolte, W.

    1978-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of module and array designs on the balance-of-plant costs for flat-plate terrestrial central station power applications. Consideration is given to the following types of arrays: horizontal, tandem, augmented, tilt adjusted, and E-W tracking. The life-cycle cost of a 20-year plant life serves as the costing criteria for making design and cost tradeoffs. A tailored code of accounts is developed for determining consistent photovoltaic power plant costs and providing credible photovoltaic system cost baselines for flat-plate module and array designs by costing several varying array design approaches.

  6. Quantifying volume loss from ice cliffs on debris-covered glaciers using high-resolution terrestrial and aerial photogrammetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brun, Fanny; Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan S.; Wagnon, Patrick; Steiner, J.F.; Berthier, Etienne; Ragettli, S.; Kraaijenbrink, P.D.A.; Immerzeel, W.W.; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    Mass losses originating from supraglacial ice cliffs at the lower tongues of debris-covered glaciers are a potentially large component of the mass balance, but have rarely been quantified. In this study, we develop a method to estimate ice cliff volume losses based on high-resolution topographic

  7. Long-term exposure of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ to a terrestrial environment. Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaton, R.C.; Patterson, J.H.; Steinkruger, F.J.; Coffelt, K.P.

    1985-02-01

    A plutonium oxide source consisting of a single piece of 83% /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ and weighing 38 g was exposed for 2.9 years to a humid, temperate terrestrial environment in an environmental simulation chamber. The soil tray of the chamber was divided into four compartments so that different soil types could be studied under identical conditions. Soils examined in this experiment included loam, silt loam, sand, and humus. Plutonium released into the soils, the soil drainages, and the condensates from the dehumidifier was monitored throughout the experiment. The total plutonium release rate from the PuO/sub 2/ source was approximately 2 ng/m/sup 2//s. The generation of short-ranged airborne plutonium, able to travel from a few centimeters to half a meter, was one of the most significant release pathways. The amount of plutonium released in this way was 10 times that washed directly off the source by rainwater and 20 times that from the fully airborne (longer ranged) release. Of the 200 ..mu..g of plutonium deposited in the soils, less than 0.1 ..mu..g was released into the soil percolates. In fact, the soil percolates constituted the least significant release pathway. Within the uncertainties in deriving the plutonium inventories of the soil compartments, we found no discernible differences among the behaviors of the four soil types towards plutonium. There was little or no seasonal effect on the release of plutonium from the soil.

  8. Workshop proceedings: Photovoltaic conversion of solar energy for terrestrial applications. Volume 2: Invited papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    A photovoltaic device development plan is reported that considers technological as well as economical aspects of single crystal silicon, polycrystal silicon, cadmium sulfide/copper sulfide thin films, as well as other materials and devices for solar cell energy conversion systems.

  9. Application of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV) in monitoring of terrestrial habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Borgen; Strandberg, Beate; Bak, Jesper Leth

    2015-01-01

    I the last years there have been high focus on UAVs (drones) for many civil purposes and UAVs are also increasingly used for ecological data gathering. This presentation will first make an appetizer to show the new possibilities of using UAVs. The traditional concept of separating “data......” that are “real” from “models” that are “simulations” has to be refined in the area of field investigations, in order to utilize UAVs to make a revolution in data and understanding about the terrestrial habitats. However, this is not straightforward, and the presentation will line up the obstacles for using UAVs...

  10. Quantifying spatially derived carrying capacity occupation: Framework for characterisation modelling and application to terrestrial acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Margni, M.; Bulle, C.

    *year. This metric resembles that of the ecological footprint method and may be compared to the availability of land or water. The framework was applied to the terrestrial acidification impact category. The geochemical steady-state model PROFILE was used to quantify carrying capacities as deposition levels......The popularity of the ecological footprint method and the planetary boundaries concept shows an increasing interest among decision makers in comparing environmental impacts to carrying capacities of natural systems. Recently carrying capacity-based normalisation references were developed for impact...

  11. Application of the Monte Carlo method for the efficiency calibration of CsI and NaI detectors for gamma-ray measurements from terrestrial samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccouche, S.; Al-Azmi, D.; Karunakara, N.; Trabelsi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray measurements in terrestrial/environmental samples require the use of high efficient detectors because of the low level of the radionuclide activity concentrations in the samples; thus scintillators are suitable for this purpose. Two scintillation detectors were studied in this work; CsI(Tl) and NaI(Tl) with identical size for measurement of terrestrial samples for performance study. This work describes a Monte Carlo method for making the full-energy efficiency calibration curves for both detectors using gamma-ray energies associated with the decay of naturally occurring radionuclides 137 Cs (661 keV), 40 K (1460 keV), 238 U ( 214 Bi, 1764 keV) and 232 Th ( 208 Tl, 2614 keV), which are found in terrestrial samples. The magnitude of the coincidence summing effect occurring for the 2614 keV emission of 208 Tl is assessed by simulation. The method provides an efficient tool to make the full-energy efficiency calibration curve for scintillation detectors for any samples geometry and volume in order to determine accurate activity concentrations in terrestrial samples. - Highlights: ► CsI (Tl) and NaI (Tl) detectors were studied for the measurement of terrestrial samples. ► Monte Carlo method was used for efficiency calibration using natural gamma emitting terrestrial radionuclides. ► The coincidence summing effect occurring for the 2614 keV emission of 208 Tl is assessed by simulation.

  12. Application of a Terrestrial LIDAR System for Elevation Mapping in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoungsig Cho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR system has high productivity and accuracy for topographic mapping, but the harsh conditions of Antarctica make LIDAR operation difficult. Low temperatures cause malfunctioning of the LIDAR system, and unpredictable strong winds can deteriorate data quality by irregularly shaking co-registration targets. For stable and efficient LIDAR operation in Antarctica, this study proposes and demonstrates the following practical solutions: (1 a lagging cover with a heating pack to maintain the temperature of the terrestrial LIDAR system; (2 co-registration using square planar targets and two-step point-merging methods based on extracted feature points and the Iterative Closest Point (ICP algorithm; and (3 a georeferencing module consisting of an artificial target and a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS receiver. The solutions were used to produce a topographic map for construction of the Jang Bogo Research Station in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica. Co-registration and georeferencing precision reached 5 and 45 mm, respectively, and the accuracy of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM generated from the LIDAR scanning data was ±27.7 cm.

  13. Application of a Terrestrial LIDAR System for Elevation Mapping in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyoungsig; Hong, Seunghwan; Kim, Sangmin; Park, Hyokeun; Park, Ilsuk; Sohn, Hong-Gyoo

    2015-09-16

    A terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) system has high productivity and accuracy for topographic mapping, but the harsh conditions of Antarctica make LIDAR operation difficult. Low temperatures cause malfunctioning of the LIDAR system, and unpredictable strong winds can deteriorate data quality by irregularly shaking co-registration targets. For stable and efficient LIDAR operation in Antarctica, this study proposes and demonstrates the following practical solutions: (1) a lagging cover with a heating pack to maintain the temperature of the terrestrial LIDAR system; (2) co-registration using square planar targets and two-step point-merging methods based on extracted feature points and the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm; and (3) a georeferencing module consisting of an artificial target and a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver. The solutions were used to produce a topographic map for construction of the Jang Bogo Research Station in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica. Co-registration and georeferencing precision reached 5 and 45 mm, respectively, and the accuracy of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) generated from the LIDAR scanning data was ±27.7 cm.

  14. The application of volume-outcome contouring in data warehousing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studnicki, James; Berndt, Donald J; Luther, Stephen L; Fisher, John W

    2004-01-01

    Despite a compelling body of published research on the nature of provider volume and clinical outcomes, healthcare executives and policymakers have not managed to develop and implement systems that are useful in directing patients to higher volume providers via selective referral or avoidance. A specialized data warehouse application, utilizing hospital discharge data linked to physician biographical information, allows detailed analysis of physician and hospital volume and the resulting pattern (contour) of related outcomes such as mortality, complications, and medical errors. The approach utilizes a historical repository of hospital discharge data in which the outcomes of interest, important patient characteristics and risk factors used in severity-adjusting of the outcomes are derived from the coding structure of the data.

  15. An experimental result of estimating an application volume by machine learning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tatsuhito; Koshino, Makoto; Kimura, Haruhiko

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we improved the usability of smartphones by automating a user's operations. We developed an intelligent system using machine learning techniques that periodically detects a user's context on a smartphone. We selected the Android operating system because it has the largest market share and highest flexibility of its development environment. In this paper, we describe an application that automatically adjusts application volume. Adjusting the volume can be easily forgotten because users need to push the volume buttons to alter the volume depending on the given situation. Therefore, we developed an application that automatically adjusts the volume based on learned user settings. Application volume can be set differently from ringtone volume on Android devices, and these volume settings are associated with each specific application including games. Our application records a user's location, the volume setting, the foreground application name and other such attributes as learning data, thereby estimating whether the volume should be adjusted using machine learning techniques via Weka.

  16. Sensors Applications, Volume 4, Sensors for Automotive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Jiri; Trah, Hans-Peter; Suzuki, Yasutoshi; Yokomori, Iwao

    2003-07-01

    An international team of experts from the leading companies in this field gives a detailed picture of existing as well as future applications. They discuss in detail current technologies, design and construction concepts, market considerations and commercial developments. Topics covered include vehicle safety, fuel consumption, air conditioning, emergency control, traffic control systems, and electronic guidance using radar and video. Meeting the growing need for comprehensive information on the capabilities, potentials and limitations of modern sensor systems, Sensors Applications is a book series covering the use of sophisticated technologies and materials for the creation of advanced sensors and their implementation in the key areas process monitoring, building control, health care, automobiles, aerospace, environmental technology and household appliances.

  17. Fusion of Terrestrial and Airborne Laser Data for 3D modeling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Hani Mahmoud

    This thesis deals with the 3D modeling phase of the as-built large BIM projects. Among several means of BIM data capturing, such as photogrammetric or range tools, laser scanners have been one of the most efficient and practical tool for a long time. They can generate point clouds with high resolution for 3D models that meet nowadays' market demands. The current 3D modeling projects of as-built BIMs are mainly focused on using one type of laser scanner data, such as Airborne or Terrestrial. According to the literatures, no significant (few) efforts were made towards the fusion of heterogeneous laser scanner data despite its importance. The importance of the fusion of heterogeneous data arises from the fact that no single type of laser data can provide all the information about BIM, especially for large BIM projects that are existing on a large area, such as university buildings, or Heritage places. Terrestrial laser scanners are able to map facades of buildings and other terrestrial objects. However, they lack the ability to map roofs or higher parts in the BIM project. Airborne laser scanner on the other hand, can map roofs of the buildings efficiently and can map only small part of the facades. Short range laser scanners can map the interiors of the BIM projects, while long range scanners are used for mapping wide exterior areas in BIM projects. In this thesis the long range laser scanner data obtained in the Stop-and-Go mapping mode, the short range laser scanner data, obtained in a fully static mapping mode, and the airborne laser data are all fused together to bring a complete effective solution for a large BIM project. Working towards the 3D modeling of BIM projects, the thesis framework starts with the registration of the data, where a new fast automatic registration algorithm were developed. The next step is to recognize the different objects in the BIM project (classification), and obtain 3D models for the buildings. The last step is the development of an

  18. Application of terrestrial laser scanning to the development and updating of the base map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klapa Przemysław

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The base map provides basic information about land to individuals, companies, developers, design engineers, organizations, and government agencies. Its contents include spatial location data for control network points, buildings, land lots, infrastructure facilities, and topographic features. As the primary map of the country, it must be developed in accordance with specific laws and regulations and be continuously updated. The base map is a data source used for the development and updating of derivative maps and other large scale cartographic materials such as thematic or topographic maps. Thanks to the advancement of science and technology, the quality of land surveys carried out by means of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS matches that of traditional surveying methods in many respects.

  19. Differential equation of exospheric lateral transport and its application to terrestrial hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, R. R., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The differential equation description of exospheric lateral transport of Hodges and Johnson is reformulated to extend its utility to light gases. Accuracy of the revised equation is established by applying it to terrestrial hydrogen. The resulting global distributions for several static exobase models are shown to be essentially the same as those that have been computed by Quessette using an integral equation approach. The present theory is subsequently used to elucidate the effects of nonzero lateral flow, exobase rotation, and diurnal tidal winds on the hydrogen distribution. Finally it is shown that the differential equation of exospheric transport is analogous to a diffusion equation. Hence it is practical to consider exospheric transport as a continuation of thermospheric diffusion, a concept that alleviates the need for an artificial exobase dividing thermosphere and exosphere.

  20. Terrestrial Hydrological Data from NASA's Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC): Products, Services, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongliang; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Mocko, David M.; Rodell, Matthew; Teng, Bill; Vollmer, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial hydrological variables are important in global hydrology, climate, and carbon cycle studies. The North American and Global Land Data Assimilation Systems (NLDAS and GLDAS, respectively) have been generating a series of land surface states (soil moisture, snow, and temperature) and fluxes (evapotranspiration, radiation, and heat flux) variables. These data, hosted at and available from NASA s Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC), include the NLDAS hourly 1/8 degree products and the GLDAS 3-hourly 0.25 and 1.0 degree products. HDISC provides easy access and visualization and analysis capabilities for these products, thus reducing the time and resources spent by scientists on data management and facilitating hydrological research. Users can perform spatial and parameter subsetting, data format transformation, and data analysis operations without needing to first download the data. HDISC is continually being developed as a data and services portal that supports weather and climate forecasts, and water and energy cycle research.

  1. Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant applicability study. Volume III. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    Volume III suppliees supporting information to assist Congress in making a decision on the optimum utilization of the Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant. Included are applicable fuel cycle policies; properties of reference fuels; description and evaluation of alternative operational (flue cycle) modes; description and evaluation of safeguards systems and techniques; description and evaluation of spiking technology; waste and waste solidification evaluation; and Department of Energy programs relating to nonproliferation

  2. Water for Two Worlds: Designing Terrestrial Applications for Exploration-class Sanitation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Constance; Andersson, Ingvar; Feighery, John

    2004-01-01

    At the United Nations Millennium Summit in September of 2000, the world leaders agreed on an ambitious agenda for reducing poverty and improving lives: the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), a list of issues they consider highly pernicious, threatening to human welfare and, thereby, to global security and prosperity. Among the eight goals are included fundamental human needs such as the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger, the promotion of gender equality, the reduction of child mortality and improvement of maternal health, and ensuring the sustainability of our shared environment. In order to help focus the efforts to meet these goals, the United Nations (UN) has established a set of eighteen concrete targets, each with an associated schedule. Among these is Target 10: "By 2015, reduce by half the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water." A closely related target of equal dignity was agreed at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg, September 2002): "By 2015, reduce by half the proportion of people without access to basic sanitation." One of the greatest successes in the development of Exploration-class technologies for closed-loop, sustainable support of long-duration human space missions has been the work both ESA and NASA have done in bioregenerative water reclamation (WRS), and secondarily, in solid-waste management. Solid-waste and WRS systems tend to be combined in the commercial world into the field of sanitation, although as we will see, the most essential principles of sustainable terrestrial sanitation actually insist upon the separation of solid and liquid excreta. Seeing the potential synergy between the space program ALS technologies developed for Mars and the urgent needs of hundreds of millions of people for secure access to clean water here on Earth, we set out to organize the adaptation of these technologies to help the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) meet Target 10. In this paper, we will

  3. Nuclear reactor closed Brayton cycle power conversion system optimization trends for extra-terrestrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashe, T.L.; Baggenstoss, W.G.; Bons, R.

    1990-01-01

    Extra-terrestrial exploration and development missions of the next century will require reliable, low-mass power generation modules of 100 kW e and more. These modules will be required to support both fixed-base and manned rover/explorer power needs. Low insolation levels at and beyond Mars and long periods of darkness on the moon make solar conversion less desirable for surface missions. For these missions, a closed Brayton cycle energy conversion system coupled with a reactor heat source is a very attractive approach. The authors conducted parametric studies to assess optimized system design trends for nuclear-Brayton systems as a function of operating environment and user requirements. The inherent design flexibility of the closed Brayton cycle energy conversion system permits ready adaptation of the system to future design constraints. This paper describes a dramatic contrast between system designs requiring man-rated shielding. The paper also considers the ramification of using indigenous materials to provide reactor shielding for a fixed-base power source

  4. MODELLING LANDSCAPE MORPHODYNAMICS BY TERRESTRIAL PHOTOGRAMMETRY: AN APPLICATION TO BEACH AND FLUVIAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sánchez-García

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Beach and fluvial systems are highly dynamic environments, being constantly modified by the action of different natural and anthropic phenomena. To understand their behaviour and to support a sustainable management of these fragile environments, it is very important to have access to cost-effective tools. These methods should be supported on cutting-edge technologies that allow monitoring the dynamics of the natural systems with high periodicity and repeatability at different temporal and spatial scales instead the tedious and expensive field-work that has been carried out up to date. The work herein presented analyses the potential of terrestrial photogrammetry to describe beach morphology. Data processing and generation of high resolution 3D point clouds and derived DEMs is supported by the commercial Agisoft PhotoScan. Model validation is done by comparison of the differences in the elevation among the photogrammetric point cloud and the GPS data along different beach profiles. Results obtained denote the potential that the photogrammetry 3D modelling has to monitor morphological changes and natural events getting differences between 6 and 25 cm. Furthermore, the usefulness of these techniques to control the layout of a fluvial system is tested by the performance of some modeling essays in a hydraulic pilot channel.

  5. Application of airborne gamma spectrometric survey data to estimating terrestrial gamma-ray dose rates: An example in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Revzan, K.L.; Smith, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    The authors examine the applicability of radioelement data from the National Aerial Radiometric Reconnaissance (NARR) to estimate terrestrial gamma-ray absorbed dose rates, by comparing dose rates calculated from aeroradiometric surveys of U, Th, and K concentrations in 1 x 2 degree quadrangles with dose rates calculated from a radiogeologic data base and the distribution of lithologies in California. Gamma-ray dose rates increase generally from north to south following lithological trends. Low values of 25--30 nG/h occur in the northernmost quadrangles where low-radioactivity basaltic and ultramafic rocks predominate. Dose rates then increase southward due to the preponderance of clastic sediments and basic volcanics of the Franciscan Formation and Sierran metamorphics in north central and central California, and to increasing exposure southward of the Sierra Nevada batholith, Tertiary marine sedimentary rocks, intermediate to acidic volcanics, and granitic rocks of the Coast Ranges. High values, to 100 nGy/h occur in southeastern California, due primarily to the presence of high-radioactivity Precambrian and pre Cenozoic metamorphic rocks. Lithologic-based estimates of mean dose rates in the quadrangles generally match those from aeroradiometric data, with statewide means of 63 and 60 nGy/h, respectively. These are intermediate between a population-weighted global average of 51 nGy/h and a weighted continental average of 70 nGy/h, based on the global distribution of rock types. The concurrence of lithologically- and aeroradiometrically- determined dose rates in California, with its varied geology and topography encompassing settings representative of the continents, indicates that the NARR data are applicable to estimates of terrestrial absorbed dose rates from natural gamma emitters

  6. Applications of the First Law to Ecological Systems. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, R. D.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This report describes concepts presented in another module called "The First Law of…

  7. Application of models to conservation planning for terrestrial birds in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jane A.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Dettmers, Randy; Jones, Tim; Rustay, Christopher; Ruth, Janet M.; Thompson, Frank R.; Will, Tom; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Thompson, Frank R.

    2009-01-01

    Partners in Flight (PIF), a public–private coalition for the conservation of land birds, has developed one of four international bird conservation plans recognized under the auspices of the North American Bird Conservation Initiative (NABCI). Partners in Flight prioritized species most in need of conservation attention and set range-wide population goals for 448 species of terrestrial birds. Partnerships are now tasked with developing spatially explicit estimates of the distribution, and abundance of priority species across large ecoregions and identifying habitat acreages needed to support populations at prescribed levels. The PIF Five Elements process of conservation design identifies five steps needed to implement all bird conservation at the ecoregional scale. Habitat assessment and landscape characterization describe the current amounts of different habitat types and summarize patch characteristics, and landscape configurations that define the ability of a landscape to sustain healthy bird populations and are a valuable first step to describing the planning area before pursuing more complex species-specific models. Spatially linked database models, landscape-scale habitat suitability models, and statistical models are viable alternatives for predicting habitat suitability or bird abundance across large planning areas to help assess conservation opportunities, design landscapes to meet population objectives, and monitor change in habitat suitability or bird numbers over time.Bird conservation in the United States is a good example of the use of models in large-scale wildlife conservation planning because of its geographic extent, focus on multiple species, involvement of multiple partners, and use of simple to complex models. We provide some background on the recent development of bird conservation initiatives in the United States and the approaches used for regional conservation assessment and planning. We focus on approaches being used for landscape

  8. Extraterrestrial Hemorrhage Control: Terrestrial Developments in Technique, Technology, and Philosophy with Applicability to Traumatic Hemorrhage in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew; Dawson, David; Campbell, Mark; Jones, Jeff; Ball, Chad G.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Dulchavsky, Scott; McBeth, Paul; Holcomb, John

    2004-01-01

    Managing injury and illness during long duration space flight limits efforts to explore beyond low earths orbit. Traumatic injury may be expected to occur in space and is a frequent cause of preventable deaths, often related to uncontrolled or ongoing hemorrhage (H). Such bleeding causes 40% of terrestrial injury mortality. Current guidelines emphasize early control of H compared to intravenous infusions. Recent advances in surgical and critical care may be applicable to trauma care in space, with appropriate considerations of the extreme logistical and personnel limitations. Methods: Recent developments in technique, resuscitation fluids, hemoglobin (Hb) substitutes, hemostatic agents, interventional angiography, damage control principles, and concepts related to suspended animation were reviewed. Results: H associated with instability frequently requires definitive intervention. Direct pressure should be applied to all compressible bleeding, but novel approaches are required for intracavitary noncompressible bleeding. Intravenous hemostatic agents such as recombinant Factor VII may facilitate hemostasis especially when combined with a controlled hypotension approach. Both open and laparoscopic techniques could be used in weightlessness, but require technical expertise not likely to be available. Specific rehearsed invasive techniques such as laparotomy with packing, or arterial catherterization with with robotic intravascular embolization might be considered . Hemodynamic support, thermal manipulation, or pharmacologic induction of a state of metabolic down regulation for whole body preservation may be appropriate. Hypertonic saline, with or without dextran, may temporize vascular support and decrease reperfusion injury, with less mass than other solutions. Hb substitutes have other theoretical advantages. Conclusions: Terrestrial developments suggest potential novel strategies to control H in space, but will required a coordinated program of evaluation and

  9. Feasibility study of a small, thorium-based fission power system for space and terrestrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Michael Jason

    One of the current challenges facing space exploration is the creation of a power source capable of providing useful energy for the entire duration of a mission. Historically, radioisotope batteries have been used to provide load power, but this conventional system may not be capable of sustaining continuous power for longer duration missions. To remedy this, many forays into nuclear powered spacecraft have been investigated, but no robust system for long-term power generation has been found. In this study, a novel spin on the traditional fission power system that represents a potential optimum solution is presented. By utilizing mature High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) technology in conjunction with the capabilities of the thorium fuel cycle, we have created a light-weight, long-term power source capable of a continuous electric power output of up to 70kW for over 15 years. This system relies upon a combination of fissile, highly-enriched uranium dioxide and fertile thorium carbide Tri-Structural Isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles embedded in a hexagonal beryllium oxide matrix. As the primary fissile material is consumed, the fertile material breeds new fissile material leading to more steady fuel loading over the lifetime of the core. Reactor control is achieved through an innovative approach to the conventional boron carbide neutron absorber by utilizing sections of borated aluminum placed in rotating control drums within the reflector. Borated aluminum allows for much smaller boron concentrations, thus eliminating the potential for 10B(n,alpha)6Li heating issues that are common in boron carbide systems. A wide range of other reactivity control systems are also investigated, such as a radially-split rotating reflector. Lastly, an extension of the design to a terrestrial based system is investigated. In this system, uranium enrichment is dropped to 20 percent in order to meet current regulations, a solid uranium-zirconium hydride fissile driver replaces the

  10. Remote volume rendering pipeline for mHealth applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Petkov, Kaloian; Papadopoulos, Charilaos; Zhao, Xin; Park, Ji Hwan; Kaufman, Arie; Cha, Ronald

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a novel remote volume rendering pipeline for medical visualization targeted for mHealth (mobile health) applications. The necessity of such a pipeline stems from the large size of the medical imaging data produced by current CT and MRI scanners with respect to the complexity of the volumetric rendering algorithms. For example, the resolution of typical CT Angiography (CTA) data easily reaches 512^3 voxels and can exceed 6 gigabytes in size by spanning over the time domain while capturing a beating heart. This explosion in data size makes data transfers to mobile devices challenging, and even when the transfer problem is resolved the rendering performance of the device still remains a bottleneck. To deal with this issue, we propose a thin-client architecture, where the entirety of the data resides on a remote server where the image is rendered and then streamed to the client mobile device. We utilize the display and interaction capabilities of the mobile device, while performing interactive volume rendering on a server capable of handling large datasets. Specifically, upon user interaction the volume is rendered on the server and encoded into an H.264 video stream. H.264 is ubiquitously hardware accelerated, resulting in faster compression and lower power requirements. The choice of low-latency CPU- and GPU-based encoders is particularly important in enabling the interactive nature of our system. We demonstrate a prototype of our framework using various medical datasets on commodity tablet devices.

  11. Application of the Monte Carlo method for the efficiency calibration of CsI and NaI detectors for gamma-ray measurements from terrestrial samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccouche, S., E-mail: souad.baccouche@cnstn.rnrt.tn [UR-MDTN, National Center for Nuclear Sciences and Technology, Technopole Sidi Thabet, 2020 Sidi Thabet (Tunisia); Al-Azmi, D., E-mail: ds.alazmi@paaet.edu.kw [Department of Applied Sciences, College of Technological Studies, Public Authority for Applied Education and Training, Shuwaikh, P.O. Box 42325, Code 70654 (Kuwait); Karunakara, N., E-mail: karunakara_n@yahoo.com [University Science Instrumentation Centre, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri 574199 (India); Trabelsi, A., E-mail: adel.trabelsi@fst.rnu.tn [UR-MDTN, National Center for Nuclear Sciences and Technology, Technopole Sidi Thabet, 2020 Sidi Thabet (Tunisia); UR-UPNHE, Faculty of Sciences of Tunis, El-Manar University, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia)

    2012-01-15

    Gamma-ray measurements in terrestrial/environmental samples require the use of high efficient detectors because of the low level of the radionuclide activity concentrations in the samples; thus scintillators are suitable for this purpose. Two scintillation detectors were studied in this work; CsI(Tl) and NaI(Tl) with identical size for measurement of terrestrial samples for performance study. This work describes a Monte Carlo method for making the full-energy efficiency calibration curves for both detectors using gamma-ray energies associated with the decay of naturally occurring radionuclides {sup 137}Cs (661 keV), {sup 40}K (1460 keV), {sup 238}U ({sup 214}Bi, 1764 keV) and {sup 232}Th ({sup 208}Tl, 2614 keV), which are found in terrestrial samples. The magnitude of the coincidence summing effect occurring for the 2614 keV emission of {sup 208}Tl is assessed by simulation. The method provides an efficient tool to make the full-energy efficiency calibration curve for scintillation detectors for any samples geometry and volume in order to determine accurate activity concentrations in terrestrial samples. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CsI (Tl) and NaI (Tl) detectors were studied for the measurement of terrestrial samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monte Carlo method was used for efficiency calibration using natural gamma emitting terrestrial radionuclides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coincidence summing effect occurring for the 2614 keV emission of {sup 208}Tl is assessed by simulation.

  12. Very small HTGR nuclear power plant concepts for special terrestrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.; Goodjohn, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The role of the very small nuclear power plant, of a few megawatts capacity, is perceived to be for special applications where an energy source as required but the following prevail: 1) no indigenous fossil fuel source, in long transport distances that add substantially to the cost of oil, coal in gas, and 3) secure long-term power production for defense applications with freedom from fuel supply lines. A small High Temperature Gas-Cooled reactor (HTGR) plant could provide the total energy needs for 1) a military installation, 2) an island base of strategic significance, 3) an industrial community or 4) an urban area. The small HTGR is regarded as a fixed-base installation (as opposed to a mobile system). All of the major components would be factory fabricated and transported to the site where emphasis would be placed on minimizing the construction time. The very small HTGR plant, currently in an early stage of design definition, has the potential for meeting the unique needs of the small energy user in both the military and private sectors. The plant may find acceptance for specialized applications in the industrialized nations and to meet the energy needs of developing nations. Emphasis in the design has been placed on safety, simplicity and compactness

  13. Cosmogenic radionuclides. Theory and applications in the terrestrial and space environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, Juerg; Steiger, Rudolf von; McCracken, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Cosmogenic radionuclides are radioactive isotopes which are produced by natural processes and distributed within the Earth system. With a holistic view of the environment the authors show in this book how cosmogenic radionuclides can be used to trace and to reconstruct the history of a large variety of processes. They discuss the way in which cosmogenic radionuclides can assist in the quantification of complex processes in the present-day environment. The book aims to demonstrate to the reader the strength of analytic tools based on cosmogenic radionuclides, their contribution to almost any field of modern science, and how these tools may assist in the solution of many present and future problems that we face here on Earth. The book provides a comprehensive discussion of the basic principles behind the applications of cosmogenic (and other) radionuclides as environmental tracers and dating tools. The second section of the book discusses in some detail the production of radionuclides by cosmic radiation, their transport and distribution in the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, their storage in natural archives, and how they are measured. The third section of the book presents a number of examples selected to illustrate typical tracer and dating applications in a number of different spheres (atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, biosphere, solar physics and astronomy). At the same time the authors have outlined the limitations of the use of cosmogenic radionuclides. Written on a level understandable by graduate students without specialist skills in physics or mathematics, the book addresses a wide audience, ranging from archaeology, biophysics, and geophysics, to atmospheric physics, hydrology, astrophysics and space science.

  14. Cosmogenic radionuclides. Theory and applications in the terrestrial and space environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Juerg [Eidgenoessische Anstalt fuer Wasserversorgung, Abwasserreinigung und Gewaesserschutz, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Steiger, Rudolf von [International Space Science Insitute, Bern (Switzerland); McCracken, Ken [Maryland Univ., College Park (United States). IPST

    2012-07-01

    Cosmogenic radionuclides are radioactive isotopes which are produced by natural processes and distributed within the Earth system. With a holistic view of the environment the authors show in this book how cosmogenic radionuclides can be used to trace and to reconstruct the history of a large variety of processes. They discuss the way in which cosmogenic radionuclides can assist in the quantification of complex processes in the present-day environment. The book aims to demonstrate to the reader the strength of analytic tools based on cosmogenic radionuclides, their contribution to almost any field of modern science, and how these tools may assist in the solution of many present and future problems that we face here on Earth. The book provides a comprehensive discussion of the basic principles behind the applications of cosmogenic (and other) radionuclides as environmental tracers and dating tools. The second section of the book discusses in some detail the production of radionuclides by cosmic radiation, their transport and distribution in the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, their storage in natural archives, and how they are measured. The third section of the book presents a number of examples selected to illustrate typical tracer and dating applications in a number of different spheres (atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, biosphere, solar physics and astronomy). At the same time the authors have outlined the limitations of the use of cosmogenic radionuclides. Written on a level understandable by graduate students without specialist skills in physics or mathematics, the book addresses a wide audience, ranging from archaeology, biophysics, and geophysics, to atmospheric physics, hydrology, astrophysics and space science.

  15. New Class of Flow Batteries for Terrestrial and Aerospace Energy Storage Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; West, William C.; Kindler, Andrew; Smart, Marshall C.

    2013-01-01

    Future sustainable energy generation technologies such as photovoltaic and wind farms require advanced energy storage systems on a massive scale to make the alternate (green) energy options practical. The daunting requirements of such large-scale energy systems such as long operating and cycle life, safety, and low cost are not adequately met by state-of-the-art energy storage technologies such as vanadium flow cells, lead-acid, and zinc-bromine batteries. Much attention is being paid to redox batteries specifically to the vanadium redox battery (VRB) due to their simplicity, low cost, and good life characteristics compared to other related battery technologies. NASA is currently seeking high-specific- energy and long-cycle-life rechargeable batteries in the 10-to-100-kW range to support future human exploration missions, such as planetary habitats, human rovers, etc. The flow batteries described above are excellent candidates for these applications, as well as other applications that propose to use regenerative fuel cells. A new flow cell technology is proposed based on coupling two novel electrodes in the form of solvated electron systems (SES) between an alkali (or alkaline earth) metal and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), separated by an ionically conducting separator. The cell reaction involves the formation of such SES with a PAH of high voltage in the cathode, while the alkali (or alkaline earth metal) is reduced from such an MPAH complex in the anode half-cell. During recharge, the reactions are reversed in both electrodes. In other words, the alkali (alkaline earth) metal ion simply shuttles from one M-PAH complex (SES) to another, which are separated by a metal-ion conducting solid or polymer electrolyte separator. As an example, the concept was demonstrated with Li-naphthalene//Li DDQ (DDQ is 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyano- 1,4-benzoquinone) separated by lithium super ion conductor, either ceramic or polymer (solid polymer or gel polymer) electrolytes. The

  16. Use of nuclear space technology of direct energy conversion for terrestrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitaykin, V.I.; Meleta, Ye.A.; Yarygin, V.I.; Mikheyev, A.S.; Tulin, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    In due time the SSC RF-IPPE exercised the scientific supervision and directly participated in the development, fabrication, space flight test and maintenance of the direct energy conversion nuclear power plants (NPP) for space application under the 'BUK' and 'TOPAZ' programs. We have used the acquired experience and the high technologies developed for the 'BUK' NPP with a thermoelectric conversion of thermal (nuclear) energy into electrical one in the development under the order of RAO 'GAZPROM' of the natural gas fired self contained thermoelectric current sources (AIT-500) and heat and electricity sources (TEP-500). These are intended for electrochemical rust protection of gas pipelines and for the electricity and heat supply to the telemetric and microwave-link systems located along the gas pipelines. Of special interest at the moment are the new developments of self contained current sources with the electrical output of ∼500 Wel for new gas pipelines being constructed under the projects such as the 'Yamal-Europe' project. The electrochemical rust protection of gas pipelines laying on unsettled and non-electrified territory of arctic regions of Russia is performed by means of the so-called Cathodic Protection Stations (CPS). Accounting for a complex of rather rigid requirements imposed by arctic operating conditions, the most attractive sources of electricity supply to the CPS are the thermoelectric heat-into-electricity converters and the generators (TEG). This paper deals with the essential results of the development, investigation and testing of unconventional TEGs using the low-temperature bismuth-tellurium thermoelectric batteries assembled together as tubular thermoelectric batteries with a radial ring geometry built into the gas-heated thermoelectric modules, which are collected to make up either the thermoelectric plants for heat and electricity supply or the self contained power sources. One of the peculiarities of these plants is the combination of

  17. Terrestrial magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, D.C.; Agarwal, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a review about terrestrial magnetosphere. During the last few years considerable investigation have been carried out about the properties of Solar Wind and its interaction with planetary magnetic fields. It is therefore of high importance to accumulate all the investigations in a comprehensive form. The paper reviews the property of earth's magnetosphere, magnetosheath, magneto pause, polar cusps, bow shook and plasma sheath. (author)

  18. Turbine design and application volumes 1, 2, and 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Arthur J. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    NASA has an interest in turbines related primarily to aeronautics and space applications. Airbreathing turbine engines provide jet and turboshaft propulsion, as well as auxiliary power for aircraft. Propellant-driven turbines provide rocket propulsion and auxiliary power for spacecraft. Closed-cycle turbine engines using inert gases, organic fluids, and metal fluids have been studied for providing long-duration electric power for spacecraft. Other applications of interest for turbine engines include land-vehicle (cars, trucks, buses, trains, etc.) propulsion power and ground-based electrical power. In view of the turbine-system interest and efforts at Lewis Research Center, a course entitled 'Turbine Design and Application' was presented during 1968-69 as part of the In-house Graduate Study Program. The course was somewhat revised and again presented in 1972-73. Various aspects of turbine technology were covered including thermodynamic and fluid-dynamic concepts, fundamental turbine concepts, velocity diagrams, losses, blade aerodynamic design, blade cooling, mechanical design, operation, and performance. The notes written and used for the course have been revised and edited for publication. Such a publication can serve as a foundation for an introductory turbine course, a means for self-study, or a reference for selected topics. Any consistent set of units will satisfy the equations presented. Two commonly used consistent sets of units and constant values are given after the symbol definitions. These are the SI units and the U.S. customary units. A single set of equations covers both sets of units by including all constants required for the U.S. customary units and defining as unity those not required for the SI units. Three volumes are compiled into one.

  19. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings Volume 635. Anisotropic Nanoparticles - Synthesis, Characterization and Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lyon, L

    2000-01-01

    This volume contains a series of papers originally presented at Symposium C, "Anisotropic Nanoparticles Synthesis, Characterization and Applications," at the 2000 MRS Fall Meeting in Boston, Massachusetts...

  20. Development and application of terrestrial food-chain models to assess health risks to man from releases of pollutants to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, S.V.; Hoffman, O.; McDowell-Boyer, L.M.; Baes, C.F.

    1982-01-01

    The paper reviews development and application of mathematical models used to predict the terrestrial food-chain transport of pollutants of potential importance to human health. A distinction is made between models developed specifically for assessment applications and models which may function as research tools. Differentiation is also made between models whose structure is based on steady-state relationships among food-chain compartments and dynamic models developed to simulate food-chain and pollutant kinetics. The strengths and weaknesses of these models are related to the needs of the model-user, the availability of relevant data for parameter quantification, and the feasibility for model validation. For assessment purposes, an optimum level of structural complexity will be achieved when all parameters are readily measurable and predictive error due to unforeseen correlations among parameters is small. The optimum level of simplification, however, will be determined by model validation results and the ease of model implementation. Most examples are derived from models used to assess the terrestrial food-chain transport of radionuclides because assessment methodologies for other types of pollutants are only at an early stage of development. It is concluded that current limitations in parameter quantification and model validation will probably restrict most assessment applications of terrestrial food-chain models to a type of screening calculation. However, once pollutant releases actually occur, environmental monitoring will be necessary to ensure that potential model misprediction does not result in unacceptable consequences. (author)

  1. Development and application of terrestrial food chain models to assess health risks to man and releases of pollutants to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, S.V.; Hoffman, F.O.; McDowell-Boyer, L.M.; Baes, C.F.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews the development and application of mathematical models used to predict the terrestrial food chain transport of pollutants of potential importance to human health. A distinction is made between models developed specifically for assessment applications and models which may function as research tools. Differentiation is also made between models whose structure is based on steady-state relationships among food chain compartments and dynamic models developed to simulate food chain and pollutant kinetics. The strengths and weaknesses of these models are related to the needs of the model user, the availability of relevant data for parameter quantification, and the feasibility for model validation. For assessment purposes, an optimum level of structural complexity will be achieved when all parameters are readily measurable and predictive error due to unforeseen correlations among parameters is small. The optimum level of simplification, however, will be determined by model validation results and the ease of model implementation. Most examples are derived from models used to assess the terrestrial food chain transport of radionuclides because assessment methodologies for other types of pollutants are only at an early stage of development. It is concluded that current limitations in parameter quantification and model validation will probably restrict most assessment applications of terrestrial food chain models to a type of screening calculation. However, once pollutant releases actually occur, environmental monitoring will be necessary to ensure that potential model misprediction does not result in unacceptable consequences

  2. The Combined Strength of Thermodynamics and Comparative Planetology: Application of Activity Models to Core Formation in Terrestrial Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Pando, K. M.; Danielson, L. R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent models for accretion of terrestrial bodies involve metal-silicate equilibrium as the metallic core formed during growth. Most elements considered are either refractory or well studied elements for which effects of pressure, temperature, oxygen fugacity, and metallic liquid composition are well known. There are a large number of elements that are both siderophile and volatile, whose fate in such models is unknown, largely due to a lack of data at comparable conditions and com-positions (FeNi core with light elements such as S, C, Si, and O). We have focused on Ge, In, As, Sb and determined the effect of Si and C on metal-silicate partitioning, and developed a thermo-dynamic model that allows application of these new data to a wide range of planetary bodies. New experiments: We have previously carried out experiments with FeSi metallic liquid at C-saturated conditions at 1600 and 1800 C [4]. In a new series of experiments we investigate the effect of Si in carbon-free systems at 1600 C for comparison. Experiments were carried out at 1 GPa in MgO capsules using the same basaltic starting composition as in previous studies. The MgO capsule reacts with the silicate melt to form more MgO-rich liquids that have 22-26 wt% MgO. Experimental met-als and silicates were analyzed using a combination of electron microprobe analysis and laser ablation ICP-MS. Results: The new results can be interpreted by considering Ge as an example, in the simple exchange equilibrium Fe + GeO = FeO + Ge, where the equilibrium constant Kd can be examined as a function of Si content of the metal. The slope of lnKd vs. (1-XSi) for this new series allows derivation of the epsilon interaction parameter for each of these four elements and Si (both C-saturated and C-free).All four elements have positive epsilon values, indicating that Si causes a decrease in the partition coefficients; values are 6.6, 6.5, 27.8 and 25.2 for In, Ge, As, and Sb, respectively, at 1 GPa and 1600 C. As an example of

  3. Integrated remote sensing and visualization (IRSV) system for transportation infrastructure operations and management, phase one, volume 3 : use of scanning LiDAR in structural evaluation of bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This volume introduces several applications of remote bridge inspection technologies studied in : this Integrated Remote Sensing and Visualization (IRSV) study using ground-based LiDAR : systems. In particular, the application of terrestrial LiDAR fo...

  4. Cutaneous application of an accessory-gland secretion after sperm exchange in a terrestrial slug (Mollusca : Pulmonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benke, Mandy; Reise, Heike; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Koene, Joris M

    Competition for fertilisation in hermaphroditic animals seems to have led to many odd behaviours and complex morphologies involved in the transfer of accessory-gland products to the partner. Terrestrial slugs of the genus Deroceras show remarkably elaborate and interspecifically diverse penis

  5. Anisotropic 3D texture synthesis with application to volume rendering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lasse Farnung; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2011-01-01

    images using a 12.1 megapixel camera. Next, we extend the volume rendering pipeline by creating a transfer function which yields not only color and opacity from the input intensity, but also texture coordinates for our synthesized 3D texture. Thus, we add texture to the volume rendered images....... This method is applied to a high quality visualization of a pig carcass, where samples of meat, bone, and fat have been used to produce the anisotropic 3D textures....

  6. IMAGE information monitoring and applied graphics software environment. Volume 4. Applications description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallam, J.W.; Ng, K.B.; Upham, G.L.

    1986-09-01

    The EPRI Information Monitoring and Applied Graphics Environment (IMAGE) system is designed for 'fast proto-typing' of advanced concepts for computer-aided plant operations tools. It is a flexible software system which can be used for rapidly creating, dynamically driving and evaluating advanced operator aid displays. The software is written to be both host computer and graphic device independent. This four volume report includes an Executive Overview of the IMAGE package (Volume 1), followed by Software Description (Volume II), User's Guide (Volume III), and Description of Example Applications (Volume IV)

  7. Application of a terrestrial ecosystem model (ORCHIDEE-STICS) in simulating energy and CO2 fluxes in Asian rice croplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Piao, S.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.

    2012-12-01

    Process-based terrestrial ecosystem models have shown great potentials in predicting the response of managed ecosystems to environmental changes. However, the simulated water and carbon fluxes over rice ecosystems in tropical Asia are still subject to large uncertainties, partly due to poorly constrained parameters in the models. Here, a terrestrial ecosystem model incorporating a more realistic crop module (ORCHIDEE-STICS) was calibrated against in-situ flux data and observed and remotely sensed leaf area indexes over rice ecosystems in Asia. The key parameters adjusted include maximum photosynthetic carboxylation rate (Vcmax) and electron transport rate (Vjmax), temperature sensitivity of heterotrophic respiration (Q10) and a series of critical thresholds for different crop development stages. Compared with the observations, the calibrated model more realistically simulated the seasonal and year-to-year variation of the observed water and carbon fluxes with reductions in the root mean square difference and better timing in the crop development stages. Sensitivity tests further reveal that management practices like the timing of transplanting and draining could affect the seasonal and inter-annual variation of the net carbon exchange, suggesting that the absence of explicit accounting the change of management practices in the terrestrial ecosystem models may induce large uncertainties in predicting cropland ecosystem response to future climate change.

  8. Phytopharmacology of Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, M; Riaz, M; Talpur, M M A; Pirzada, T

    2016-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris is an annual herb which belongs to the Zygophyllaceae family. This plant has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases for hundreds of decades. The main active phytoconstituents of this plant include flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, lignin, amides, and glycosides. The plant parts have different pharmacological activities including aphrodisiac, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential. T. terrestris is most often used for infertility and loss of libido. It has potential application as immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, anthelmintic and anticarcinogenic activities. The aim of the present article is to create a database for further investigation of the phytopharmacological properties of this plant to promote research. This study will definitely help to confirm its traditional use along with its value-added utility, eventually leading to higher revenues from the plant.

  9. The Application of an Online Data Visualization Tool, Ptplot, in the World Data Center (WDC for Solar-Terrestrial Science (STS in IPS Radio and Space Services, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ptplot is a set of two dimensional signal plotters components written in Java with multiple properties, such as being embeddable in applets or applications, utilizing automatic or manual tick marks, logarithmic axes, infinite zooming, and much more. The World Data Centre of IPS applies Ptplot as a multiple function online data plot tool by converting various text format data files into Ptplot recognizable XML files with the AWK language. At present, Ptplot has allowed eight archived solar-terrestrial science data sets to be easily plotted, viewed, and downloaded from the IPS web site.

  10. Terrestrial ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The main effort of the Terrestrial Ecology Division has been redirected to a comprehensive study of the Espiritu Santo Drainage Basin located in northeastern Puerto Rico. The general objective are to provide baseline ecological data for future environmental assessment studies at the local and regional levels, and to provide through an ecosystem approach data for the development of management alternatives for the wise utilization of energy, water, and land resources. The interrelationships among climate, vegetation, soils, and man, and their combined influence upon the hydrologic cycle will be described and evaluated. Environmental management involves planning and decision making, and both require an adequate data base. At present, little is known about the interworkings of a complete, integrated system such as a drainage basin. A literature survey of the main research areas confirmed that, although many individual ecologically oriented studies have been carried out in a tropical environment, few if any provide the data base required for environmental management. In view of rapidly changing socio-economic conditions and natural resources limitations, management urgently requires data from these systems: physical (climatological), biological, and cultural. This integrated drainage basin study has been designed to provide such data. The scope of this program covers the hydrologic cycle as it is affected by the interactions of the physical, biological, and cultural systems

  11. Low volume undiluted Btk application against heavy gypsy moth population densities in southern Corsica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Fusco; Jean-Claude Martin

    2003-01-01

    Low volume undiluted applications of Bacillus thuringiensis are common and efficacious against coniferous forest pests such as pine processionary moth and spruce budworm, but have not been common practice against deciduous forest pests due to coverage issues.

  12. Workshop proceedings: Photovoltaic conversion of solar energy for terrestrial applications. Volume 1: Working group and panel reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Technological aspects of solar energy conversion by photovoltaic cells are considered. The advantage of the single crystal silicon solar cell approach is developed through comparisons with polycrystalline silicon, cadmium sulfide/copper sulfide thin film cells, and other materials and devices.

  13. Automatic definition of targeted biological volumes for the radiotherapy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatt, M.; Visvikis, D.; Cheze-Le-Rest, C.; Pradier, O.

    2009-01-01

    The proposed method: Fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian (F.L.A.B.) showed its reliability and its precision on very complete collection of realistic simulated and real data. Its use in the context of radiotherapy allows to consider easily the studies implementation and scenari of dose painting or dose escalation, including in complex cases of heterogenous fixations. It is conceivable to apply F.L.A.B. on PET images with F.M.I.S.O. ( 18 F fluoro misonidazole) or F.L.T. (fluoro-L-thymidine) to complete the definition of the biological target volume. (N.C.)

  14. Validation and Application of the Modified Satellite-Based Priestley-Taylor Algorithm for Mapping Terrestrial Evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjun Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-based vegetation indices (VIs and Apparent Thermal Inertia (ATI derived from temperature change provide valuable information for estimating evapotranspiration (LE and detecting the onset and severity of drought. The modified satellite-based Priestley-Taylor (MS-PT algorithm that we developed earlier, coupling both VI and ATI, is validated based on observed data from 40 flux towers distributed across the world on all continents. The validation results illustrate that the daily LE can be estimated with the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE varying from 10.7 W/m2 to 87.6 W/m2, and with the square of correlation coefficient (R2 from 0.41 to 0.89 (p < 0.01. Compared with the Priestley-Taylor-based LE (PT-JPL algorithm, the MS-PT algorithm improves the LE estimates at most flux tower sites. Importantly, the MS-PT algorithm is also satisfactory in reproducing the inter-annual variability at flux tower sites with at least five years of data. The R2 between measured and predicted annual LE anomalies is 0.42 (p = 0.02. The MS-PT algorithm is then applied to detect the variations of long-term terrestrial LE over Three-North Shelter Forest Region of China and to monitor global land surface drought. The MS-PT algorithm described here demonstrates the ability to map regional terrestrial LE and identify global soil moisture stress, without requiring precipitation information.

  15. Optical fiber sensors: Systems and applications. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culshaw, Brian; Dakin, John

    State-of-the-art fiber-optic (FO) sensors and their applications are described in chapters contributed by leading experts. Consideration is given to interferometers, FO gyros, intensity- and wavelength-based sensors and optical actuators, Si in FO sensors, point-sensor multiplexing principles, and distributed FO sensor systems. Also examined are chemical, biochemical, and medical sensors; physical and chemical sensors for process control; FO-sensor applications in the marine and aerospace industries; FO-sensor monitoring systems for security and safety, structural integrity, NDE, and the electric-power industry; and the market situation for FO-sensor technology. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, and photographs are provided.

  16. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education Yearbook. Volume 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Readers of the online journal "Update: Applications of Research in Music Education" who prefer a printed copy of articles most relevant to their work will find them in the new 2005-2006 "Update Yearbook." Now available to everyone interested in the latest music education trends, the Yearbook contains in print the entire online issues for…

  17. Multiagent Systems and Applications Volume 1Practice and Experience

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi

    2013-01-01

    The focus of the book is on completed implementations of agent-based software systems. Here, agent technology is considered broadly, starting from development of agent platforms, all the way through systems actually implemented. The covered topics also include lessons learned during implementation of agent platforms and the reflection on the process of development and application of agent-based systems.   The book includes 10 chapters where interested reader can find discussion of important issues encountered during development of well-known agent platforms such as JADE and Jadex as well as some interesting experiences in developing a new platform that combines software agent and Web Services. Furthermore, the book shows readers several valuable examples of applications based on multi-agent systems including simulations, agents in autonomous negotiations and agents in public administration modelling. We believe that the book will prove useful to the researchers, professors and the practitioners in all discip...

  18. ESB application for effective synchronization of large volume measurements data

    CERN Document Server

    Wyszkowski, Przemysław Michał

    2011-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment at CERN aims at measurement of total cross section, elastic scattering and diffractive processes of colliding protons in the Large Hadron Collider. In order for the research to be possible, it is necessary to process huge amounts of data coming from variety of sources: TOTEM detectors, CMS detectors, measurement devices around the Large Hadron Collider tunnel and many other external systems. Preparing final results involves also calculating plenty of intermediate figures, which also need to be stored. In order for the work of the scientist to be effective and convenient it is crucial to provide central point for the data storage, where all raw and intermediate figures will be stored. This thesis aims at presenting the usage of Enterprise Service Bus concept in building software infrastructure for transferring large volume of measurements data. Topics discussed here include technologies and mechanisms realizing the concept of integration bus, model of data transferring system based on ...

  19. Grouting applications in civil engineering. Volume I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einstein, H.H.; Barvenik, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive description of grouting applications in civil engineering is presented that can serve as a basis for the selection of grouting methods in the borehole sealing problem. The breadth and depth of the study was assured by conducting the main part of the review, the collection and evaluation of information, without specifically considering the borehole sealing problem (but naturally incorporating any aspect of civil engineering applications that could be of potential use). Grouting is very much an art and not a science. In most cases, it is a trial and error procedure where an inexpensive method is initially tried and then a more expensive one is used until the desired results are obtained. Once a desired effect is obtained, it is difficult to credit any one procedure with the success because the results are due to the summation of all the methods used. In many cases, the method that proves successful reflects a small abnormality in the ground or structure rather than its overall characteristics. Hence, successful grouting relies heavily on good engineering judgement and experience, and not on a basic set of standard correlations or equations. 800 references

  20. Volume 1. Probabilistic analysis of HTGR application studies. Technical discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, J.; Perry, L.

    1980-01-01

    The HTGR Program encompasses a number of decisions facing both industry and government which are being evaluated under the HTGR application studies being conducted by the GCRA. This report is in support of these application studies, specifically by developing comparative probabilistic energy costs of the alternative HTGR plant types under study at this time and of competitive PWR and coal-fired plants. Management decision analytic methodology was used as the basis for the development of the comparative probabilistic data. This study covers the probabilistic comparison of various HTGR plant types at a commercial development stage with comparative PWR and coal-fired plants. Subsequent studies are needed to address the sequencing of HTGR plants from the lead plant to the commercial plants and to integrate the R and D program into the plant construction sequence. The probabilistic results cover the comparison of the 15-year levelized energy costs for commercial plants, all with 1995 startup dates. For comparison with the HTGR plants, PWR and fossil-fired plants have been included in the probabilistic analysis, both as steam electric plants and as combined steam electric and process heat plants

  1. MBE growth of VCSELs for high volume applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Roland; Riedl, Michael C.

    2011-05-01

    Mass market applications like laser computer mouse or optical data transmission based on vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) chips need a high over all yield including epitaxy, processing, dicing, mounting and testing. One yield limitation for VCSEL structures is the emission wavelength variation of the substrate surface area leading to the fraction on laser chips which are below or above the specification limits. For most 850 nm VCSEL products a resonator wavelength variation of ±2 nm is common. This represents an average resonator thickness variation of much less than 1% which is quite challenging to be fulfilled on the entire processed wafer surface area. A high over all yield is demonstrated on MBE grown VCSEL structures.

  2. High Volume Fraction Carbon Nanotube Composites for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siochi, E. J.; Kim, J.-W.; Sauti, G.; Cano, R. J.; Wincheski, R. A.; Ratcliffe, J. G.; Czabaj, M.

    2016-01-01

    Reported mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at the nanoscale suggest their potential to enable significantly lighter structures of interest for space applications. However, their utility depends on the retention of these properties in bulk material formats that permit practical fabrication of large structures. This presentation summarizes recent progress made to produce carbon nanotube composites with specific tensile properties that begin to rival those of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites. CNT content in these nanocomposites was greater than 70% by weight. Tested nanocomposite specimens were fabricated from kilometers or tens of square meters of CNT, depending on the starting material format. Processing methods to yield these results, and characterization and testing to evaluate the performance of these composites will be discussed. The final objective is the demonstration of a CNT composite overwrapped pressure vessel to be flight tested in the Fall of 2016.

  3. A Condensation–coalescence Cloud Model for Exoplanetary Atmospheres: Formulation and Test Applications to Terrestrial and Jovian Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, Kazumasa; Okuzumi, Satoshi [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2017-02-01

    A number of transiting exoplanets have featureless transmission spectra that might suggest the presence of clouds at high altitudes. A realistic cloud model is necessary to understand the atmospheric conditions under which such high-altitude clouds can form. In this study, we present a new cloud model that takes into account the microphysics of both condensation and coalescence. Our model provides the vertical profiles of the size and density of cloud and rain particles in an updraft for a given set of physical parameters, including the updraft velocity and the number density of cloud condensation nuclei (CCNs). We test our model by comparing with observations of trade-wind cumuli on Earth and ammonia ice clouds in Jupiter. For trade-wind cumuli, the model including both condensation and coalescence gives predictions that are consistent with observations, while the model including only condensation overestimates the mass density of cloud droplets by up to an order of magnitude. For Jovian ammonia clouds, the condensation–coalescence model simultaneously reproduces the effective particle radius, cloud optical thickness, and cloud geometric thickness inferred from Voyager observations if the updraft velocity and CCN number density are taken to be consistent with the results of moist convection simulations and Galileo probe measurements, respectively. These results suggest that the coalescence of condensate particles is important not only in terrestrial water clouds but also in Jovian ice clouds. Our model will be useful to understand how the dynamics, compositions, and nucleation processes in exoplanetary atmospheres affect the vertical extent and optical thickness of exoplanetary clouds via cloud microphysics.

  4. A Condensation–coalescence Cloud Model for Exoplanetary Atmospheres: Formulation and Test Applications to Terrestrial and Jovian Clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Kazumasa; Okuzumi, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    A number of transiting exoplanets have featureless transmission spectra that might suggest the presence of clouds at high altitudes. A realistic cloud model is necessary to understand the atmospheric conditions under which such high-altitude clouds can form. In this study, we present a new cloud model that takes into account the microphysics of both condensation and coalescence. Our model provides the vertical profiles of the size and density of cloud and rain particles in an updraft for a given set of physical parameters, including the updraft velocity and the number density of cloud condensation nuclei (CCNs). We test our model by comparing with observations of trade-wind cumuli on Earth and ammonia ice clouds in Jupiter. For trade-wind cumuli, the model including both condensation and coalescence gives predictions that are consistent with observations, while the model including only condensation overestimates the mass density of cloud droplets by up to an order of magnitude. For Jovian ammonia clouds, the condensation–coalescence model simultaneously reproduces the effective particle radius, cloud optical thickness, and cloud geometric thickness inferred from Voyager observations if the updraft velocity and CCN number density are taken to be consistent with the results of moist convection simulations and Galileo probe measurements, respectively. These results suggest that the coalescence of condensate particles is important not only in terrestrial water clouds but also in Jovian ice clouds. Our model will be useful to understand how the dynamics, compositions, and nucleation processes in exoplanetary atmospheres affect the vertical extent and optical thickness of exoplanetary clouds via cloud microphysics.

  5. Application of a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS to the Study of the Séchilienne Landslide (Isère, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Jaud

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The active Séchilienne landslide (Isère, France has been continuously monitored by tacheometry, radar and extensometry devices for 25 years. Indeed, if the 3 mil. m3 of rocks in the active zone named ―Ruines‖ fell down, the debris would dam the Romanche valley. The breaking of the dam by overtopping and rapid erosion would bring a catastrophic flood and other dramatic consequences throughout the valley. Given the rockfall hazard in the most active zone, it is impossible to use targets in this area: Only reflectorless remote sensing techniques can provide information. A time-series of seven Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS point clouds acquired between 2004 and 2007 enable us to monitor the 3D displacements of the whole scanned area, although point coverage is not homogeneous. From this sequential monitoring, the volume of registered collapses can be deduced and the landslide movement along the main geological structures can be inferred. From monitoring associated subsidence and toppling observed on TLS data, it can be deduced that blocks rearrangements are linked to structural settings and that the Séchilienne landslide is complex. To conclude, TLS point clouds enable an accurate monitoring of the evolution of the inaccessible "Ruines" area and, proven its ability to provide reliable kinematic information, even in areas where on-site instrumentation is infeasible.

  6. Application of Terrestrial Laser Scanner with an Integrated Thermal Camera in Non-Destructive Evaluation of Concrete Surface of Hydrotechnical Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Łukasz Dominik; Dobak, Paweł Józef; Kiełbasiński, Kamil

    2017-12-01

    The authors present possible applications of thermal data as an additional source of information on an object's behaviour during the technical assessment of the condition of a concrete surface. For the study one of the most recent propositions introduced by Zoller + Fröhlich company was used, which is an integration of a thermal camera with a terrestrial laser scanner. This solution enables an acquisition of geometric and spectral data on the surveyed object and also provides information on the surface's temperature in the selected points. A section of the dam's downstream concrete wall was selected as the subject of the study for which a number of scans were carried out and a number of thermal images were taken at different times of the day. The obtained thermal data was confronted with the acquired spectral information for the specified points. This made it possible to carry out broader analysis of the surface and an inspection of the revealed fissure. The thermal analysis of said fissure indicated that the temperature changes within it are slower, which may affect the way the concrete works and may require further elaboration by the appropriate experts. Through the integration of a thermal camera with a terrestrial laser scanner one can not only analyse changes of temperature in the discretely selected points but on the whole surface as well. Moreover, it is also possible to accurately determine the range and the area of the change affecting the surface. The authors note the limitations of the presented solution like, inter alia, the resolution of the thermal camera.

  7. Application of Terrestrial Laser Scanner with an Integrated Thermal Camera in Non-Destructive Evaluation of Concrete Surface of Hydrotechnical Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalska Maria

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors present possible applications of thermal data as an additional source of information on an object’s behaviour during the technical assessment of the condition of a concrete surface. For the study one of the most recent propositions introduced by Zoller + Fröhlich company was used, which is an integration of a thermal camera with a terrestrial laser scanner. This solution enables an acquisition of geometric and spectral data on the surveyed object and also provides information on the surface’s temperature in the selected points. A section of the dam’s downstream concrete wall was selected as the subject of the study for which a number of scans were carried out and a number of thermal images were taken at different times of the day. The obtained thermal data was confronted with the acquired spectral information for the specified points. This made it possible to carry out broader analysis of the surface and an inspection of the revealed fissure. The thermal analysis of said fissure indicated that the temperature changes within it are slower, which may affect the way the concrete works and may require further elaboration by the appropriate experts. Through the integration of a thermal camera with a terrestrial laser scanner one can not only analyse changes of temperature in the discretely selected points but on the whole surface as well. Moreover, it is also possible to accurately determine the range and the area of the change affecting the surface. The authors note the limitations of the presented solution like, inter alia, the resolution of the thermal camera.

  8. A low-volume cavity ring-down spectrometer for sample-limited applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowasser, C.; Farinas, A. D.; Ware, J.; Wistisen, D. W.; Rella, C.; Wahl, E.; Crosson, E.; Blunier, T.

    2014-08-01

    In atmospheric and environmental sciences, optical spectrometers are used for the measurements of greenhouse gas mole fractions and the isotopic composition of water vapor or greenhouse gases. The large sample cell volumes (tens of milliliters to several liters) in commercially available spectrometers constrain the usefulness of such instruments for applications that are limited in sample size and/or need to track fast variations in the sample stream. In an effort to make spectrometers more suitable for sample-limited applications, we developed a low-volume analyzer capable of measuring mole fractions of methane and carbon monoxide based on a commercial cavity ring-down spectrometer. The instrument has a small sample cell (9.6 ml) and can selectively be operated at a sample cell pressure of 140, 45, or 20 Torr (effective internal volume of 1.8, 0.57, and 0.25 ml). We present the new sample cell design and the flow path configuration, which are optimized for small sample sizes. To quantify the spectrometer's usefulness for sample-limited applications, we determine the renewal rate of sample molecules within the low-volume spectrometer. Furthermore, we show that the performance of the low-volume spectrometer matches the performance of the standard commercial analyzers by investigating linearity, precision, and instrumental drift.

  9. High-energy molecular lasers self-controlled volume-discharge lasers and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Apollonov, V V

    2016-01-01

    This book displays the physics and design of high-power molecular lasers. The lasers described are self-controlled volume-discharge lasers. The book explains self-sustained discharge lasers, self-initiated discharge lasers and technical approaches to laser design. Important topics discussed are laser efficiency, laser beam quality and electric field homogeneity. The book contains many new innovative applications.

  10. Inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. Part II: applications and fundamentals. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boumans, P.W.J.M.

    1987-01-01

    This is the second part of the two-volume treatise by this well-known and respected author. This volume reviews applications of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), summarizes fundamental studies, and compares ICP-AES methods with other methods of analysis. The first six chapters are devoted to specific fields of application, including the following: metals and other industrial materials, geology, the environment, agriculture and food, biology and clinical analysis, and organic materials. The chapter on the analysis of organic materials also covers the special instrumental considerations required when organic solvents are introduced into an inductively coupled plasma. A chapter on the direct analysis of solids completes the first part of this volume. Each of the applications chapters begins with a summary of the types of samples that are encountered in that field, and the kinds of problems that an elemental analysis can help to solve. This is followed by a tutorial approach covering applicability, advantages, and limitations of the methods. The coverage is thorough, including sample handling, storage, and preparation, acid, and fusion dissolution, avoiding contamination, methods of preconcentration, the types of interferences that can be expected and ways to reduce them, and the types of ICP plasmas that are used. The second half of the volume covers fundamental studies of ICP-AES: basic processes of aerosol generation, plasma modeling and computer simulation, spectroscopic diagnostics, excitation mechanisms, and discharge characteristics. This section introduces the experimental and modeling methods that have been used to obtain fundamental information about ICPs

  11. Effective leaf area index retrieving from terrestrial point cloud data: coupling computational geometry application and Gaussian mixture model clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S.; Tamura, M.; Susaki, J.

    2014-09-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the most important structural parameters of forestry studies which manifests the ability of the green vegetation interacted with the solar illumination. Classic understanding about LAI is to consider the green canopy as integration of horizontal leaf layers. Since multi-angle remote sensing technique developed, LAI obliged to be deliberated according to the observation geometry. Effective LAI could formulate the leaf-light interaction virtually and precisely. To retrieve the LAI/effective LAI from remotely sensed data therefore becomes a challenge during the past decades. Laser scanning technique can provide accurate surface echoed coordinates with densely scanned intervals. To utilize the density based statistical algorithm for analyzing the voluminous amount of the 3-D points data is one of the subjects of the laser scanning applications. Computational geometry also provides some mature applications for point cloud data (PCD) processing and analysing. In this paper, authors investigated the feasibility of a new application for retrieving the effective LAI of an isolated broad leaf tree. Simplified curvature was calculated for each point in order to remove those non-photosynthetic tissues. Then PCD were discretized into voxel, and clustered by using Gaussian mixture model. Subsequently the area of each cluster was calculated by employing the computational geometry applications. In order to validate our application, we chose an indoor plant to estimate the leaf area, the correlation coefficient between calculation and measurement was 98.28 %. We finally calculated the effective LAI of the tree with 6 × 6 assumed observation directions.

  12. Composite materials. Volume 3 - Engineering applications of composites. Volume 4 - Metallic matrix composites. Volume 8 - Structural design and analysis, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noton, B. R. (Editor); Kreider, K. G.; Chamis, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    This volume discusses a vaety of applications of both low- and high-cost composite materials in a number of selected engineering fields. The text stresses the use of fiber-reinforced composites, along with interesting material systems used in the electrical and nuclear industries. As to technology transfer, a similarity is noted between many of the reasons responsible for the utilization of composites and those problems requiring urgent solution, such as mechanized fabrication processes and design for production. Features topics include road transportation, rail transportation, civil aircraft, space vehicles, builing industry, chemical plants, and appliances and equipment. The laminate orientation code devised by Air Force materials laboratory is included. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  13. SU-E-T-611: Effective Treatment Volume of the Small Size IORT Applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krechetov, A.S.; Goer, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Mobile electron linear accelerators are gaining more attention recently, providing a lower cost and simpler way to perform intraoperative treatment. However, the simplicity of the treatment process does not eliminate the need for proper attention to the technical aspects of the treatment. One of the potential pitfalls is incorrect selection of the appropriate applicator size to adequately cover the tumor bed to the prescription dose. When treating tumor beds in the pelvis, the largest applicator that fits into the pelvis is usually selected as there is concern about microscopic extension of the disease along the sidewalls of the pelvis. But when treating early stage breast tumors, there is a natural tendency to select an applicator as small as possible so as not to jeopardize cosmesis. Methods This investigation questions how much of the typical breast treatment volume gets adequate exposure and what is the correct strategy in selecting the proper applicator size. Actual data from isodose scans were analyzed. Results We found that typical treatment dose prescriptions can cover as much as 80% and as little as 20% of the nominal treatment volume depending on the applicator size and energy of the beam and whether the dose is prescribed to the 80 or 90% isodose level. Treatment volume is defined as a cylinder with diameter equal to applicator and height equal to the corresponding D80 or D90 depth. Conclusion If mobile linear accelerators are used, there can be significant amount of “cold volume” depending on the applicator size and this should be taken into account when selecting the applicator that is needed. Using too small of an applicator could result in significant under-dosing to the tissue at risk. Long-term clinical data demonstrates that selecting an adequate field size results in good ontological control as well as excellent cosmesis. Intraop Medical Corp was providing facilities and equipment for this research

  14. Feasibility study on application of volume acid fracturing technology to tight gas carbonate reservoir development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nianyin Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available How to effectively develop tight-gas carbonate reservoir and achieve high recovery is always a problem for the oil and gas industry. To solve this problem, domestic petroleum engineers use the combination of the successful experiences of North American shale gas pools development by stimulated reservoir volume (SRV fracturing with the research achievements of Chinese tight gas development by acid fracturing to propose volume acid fracturing technology for fractured tight-gas carbonate reservoir, which has achieved a good stimulation effect in the pilot tests. To determine what reservoir conditions are suitable to carry out volume acid fracturing, this paper firstly introduces volume acid fracturing technology by giving the stimulation mechanism and technical ideas, and initially analyzes the feasibility by the comparison of reservoir characteristics of shale gas with tight-gas carbonate. Then, this paper analyzes the validity and limitation of the volume acid fracturing technology via the analyses of control conditions for volume acid fracturing in reservoir fracturing performance, natural fracture, horizontal principal stress difference, orientation of in-situ stress and natural fracture, and gives the solution for the limitation. The study results show that the volume acid fracturing process can be used to greatly improve the flow environment of tight-gas carbonate reservoir and increase production; the incremental or stimulation response is closely related with reservoir fracturing performance, the degree of development of natural fracture, the small intersection angle between hydraulic fracture and natural fracture, the large horizontal principal stress difference is easy to form a narrow fracture zone, and it is disadvantageous to create fracture network, but the degradable fiber diversion technology may largely weaken the disadvantage. The practices indicate that the application of volume acid fracturing process to the tight-gas carbonate

  15. 3D terrestrial lidar data classification of complex natural scenes using a multi-scale dimensionality criterion: Applications in geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodu, N.; Lague, D.

    2012-03-01

    3D point clouds of natural environments relevant to problems in geomorphology (rivers, coastal environments, cliffs, …) often require classification of the data into elementary relevant classes. A typical example is the separation of riparian vegetation from ground in fluvial environments, the distinction between fresh surfaces and rockfall in cliff environments, or more generally the classification of surfaces according to their morphology (e.g. the presence of bedforms or by grain size). Natural surfaces are heterogeneous and their distinctive properties are seldom defined at a unique scale, prompting the use of multi-scale criteria to achieve a high degree of classification success. We have thus defined a multi-scale measure of the point cloud dimensionality around each point. The dimensionality characterizes the local 3D organization of the point cloud within spheres centered on the measured points and varies from being 1D (points set along a line), 2D (points forming a plane) to the full 3D volume. By varying the diameter of the sphere, we can thus monitor how the local cloud geometry behaves across scales. We present the technique and illustrate its efficiency in separating riparian vegetation from ground and classifying a mountain stream as vegetation, rock, gravel or water surface. In these two cases, separating the vegetation from ground or other classes achieve accuracy larger than 98%. Comparison with a single scale approach shows the superiority of the multi-scale analysis in enhancing class separability and spatial resolution of the classification. Scenes between 10 and one hundred million points can be classified on a common laptop in a reasonable time. The technique is robust to missing data, shadow zones and changes in point density within the scene. The classification is fast and accurate and can account for some degree of intra-class morphological variability such as different vegetation types. A probabilistic confidence in the classification

  16. Characterizing Terrestrial Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, V. S.; Lustig-Yaeger, J.; Lincowski, A.; Arney, G. N.; Robinson, T. D.; Schwieterman, E. W.; Deming, L. D.; Tovar, G.

    2017-11-01

    We will provide an overview of the measurements, techniques, and upcoming missions required to characterize terrestrial planet environments and evolution, and search for signs of habitability and life.

  17. Continuous modelling study of numerical volumes - Applications to the visualization of anatomical structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goret, C.

    1990-12-01

    Several technics of imaging (IRM, image scanners, tomoscintigraphy, echography) give numerical informations presented by means of a stack of parallel cross-sectional images. Since many years, 3-D mathematical tools have been developed and allow the 3 D images synthesis of surfaces. In first part, we give the technics of numerical volume exploitation and their medical applications to diagnosis and therapy. The second part is about a continuous modelling of the volume with a tensor product of cubic splines. We study the characteristics of this representation and its clinical validation. Finally, we treat of the problem of surface visualization of objects contained in the volume. The results show the interest of this model and allow to propose specifications for 3-D workstation realization [fr

  18. A flexible and accurate digital volume correlation method applicable to high-resolution volumetric images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bing; Wang, Bo

    2017-10-01

    Digital volume correlation (DVC) is a powerful technique for quantifying interior deformation within solid opaque materials and biological tissues. In the last two decades, great efforts have been made to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the DVC algorithm. However, there is still a lack of a flexible, robust and accurate version that can be efficiently implemented in personal computers with limited RAM. This paper proposes an advanced DVC method that can realize accurate full-field internal deformation measurement applicable to high-resolution volume images with up to billions of voxels. Specifically, a novel layer-wise reliability-guided displacement tracking strategy combined with dynamic data management is presented to guide the DVC computation from slice to slice. The displacements at specified calculation points in each layer are computed using the advanced 3D inverse-compositional Gauss-Newton algorithm with the complete initial guess of the deformation vector accurately predicted from the computed calculation points. Since only limited slices of interest in the reference and deformed volume images rather than the whole volume images are required, the DVC calculation can thus be efficiently implemented on personal computers. The flexibility, accuracy and efficiency of the presented DVC approach are demonstrated by analyzing computer-simulated and experimentally obtained high-resolution volume images.

  19. Innovative Approaches for the Dissemination of Near Real-time Geostationary Satellite Data for Terrestrial and Space Weather Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, G.; McGrath, K.; Meyer, P. J.; Berndt, E.

    2017-12-01

    A GOES-R series receiving station has been installed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to support GOES-16 transition-to-operations projects of NASA's Earth science program and provide a community portal for GOES-16 data access. This receiving station is comprised of a 6.5-meter dish; motor-driven positioners; Quorum feed and demodulator; and three Linux workstations for ingest, processing, display, and subsequent product generation. The Community Satellite Processing Package (CSPP) is used to process GOES Rebroadcast data from the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), Solar Ultraviolet Imager (SUVI), Extreme Ultraviolet and X-ray Irradiance Sensors (EXIS), and Space Environment In-Situ Suite (SEISS) into Level 1b and Level 2 files. GeoTIFFs of the imagery from several of these instruments are ingested into an Esri Arc Enterprise Web Map Service (WMS) server with tiled imagery displayable through a web browser interface or by connecting directly to the WMS with a Geographic Information System software package. These data also drive a basic web interface where users can manually zoom to and animate regions of interest or acquire similar results using a published Application Program Interface. While not as interactive as a WMS-driven interface, this system is much more expeditious with generating and distributing requested imagery. The legacy web capability enacted for the predecessor GOES Imager currently supports approximately 500,000 unique visitors each month. Dissemination capabilities have been refined to support a significantly larger number of anticipated users. The receiving station also supports NASA's Short-term Prediction, Research, and Transition Center's (SPoRT) project activities to dissemination near real-time ABI RGB products to National Weather Service National Centers, including the Satellite Analysis Branch, National Hurricane Center, Ocean Prediction Center, and Weather Prediction Center, where they

  20. V. Terrestrial vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Pearson; Deborah Finch

    2011-01-01

    Within the Interior West, terrestrial vertebrates do not represent a large number of invasive species relative to invasive weeds, aquatic vertebrates, and invertebrates. However, several invasive terrestrial vertebrate species do cause substantial economic and ecological damage in the U.S. and in this region (Pimental 2000, 2007; Bergman and others 2002; Finch and...

  1. Application of Terrestrial Ecosystem Monitoring under the CAFF Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program: Designing and Implementing Terrestrial Monitoring to Establish the Canadian High Arctic Research Station as a Flagship Arctic Environmental Monitoring Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, D.; Kehler, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Canadian High Arctic Research Station (CHARS) is scheduled for completion in July 2017 and is the northern science component of Polar Knowledge Canada (POLAR). A mandated goal for POLAR is to establish the adjacent Experimental and Reference Area (ERA) as an Arctic Flagship monitoring site that will track change in Arctic terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. Situated in the community of Cambridge Bay, CHARS provides the opportunity to draw on the Indigenous Knowledge of local residents to help design and conduct the monitoring, and to operate 12 months a year. Monitoring at CHARS will be linked to networks nationally and internationally, and is being designed so that change in key indicators can be understood in terms of drivers and processes, modeled and scaled up regionally, and used to predict important changes in critical indicators. As a partner in the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP), the monitoring design for terrestrial ecosystems follows approaches outlined by the CBMP Terrestrial Expert Monitoring Group, who have listed key monitoring questions and identified a list of important Focal Ecosystem Components (FECs). To link drivers to FECs we are proposing a multi-scaled approach: 1) an Intensive Monitoring Area to establish replicated monitoring plots that track change in snow depth and condition, active layer depth, soil temperature, soil moisture, and soil solution chemistry that are spatially and temporally linked to changes in microbiological activity, CO2/CH4 net ecosystem flux, vegetation relative frequency, species composition, growth and foliar nutrient concentration, arthropod abundance, lemming abundance and health, and shorebird/songbird abundance and productivity. 2) These intensive observations are supported by watershed scale measures that will monitor, during the growing season, lemming winter nest abundance, songbird, shorebird and waterfowl staging and nesting, and other observations; in the winter we will

  2. Carbon dioxide efficiency of terrestrial enhanced weathering

    OpenAIRE

    Moosdorf, Nils; Renforth, Philip; Hartmann, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial enhanced weathering, the spreading of ultramafic silicate rock flour to enhance natural weathering rates, has been suggested as part of a strategy to reduce global atmospheric CO2 levels. We budget potential CO2 sequestration against associated CO2 emissions to assess the net CO2 removal of terrestrial enhanced weathering. We combine global spatial data sets of potential source rocks, transport networks, and application areas with associated CO2 emissions in optimistic and pessimi...

  3. Application of dual volume reconstruction technique in embolization of intracranial aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-hai ZHANG

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the value of dual volume reconstruction technique in Guglielmi detachable coil (GDC embolization of intracranial aneurysms. Methods Three-dimensional imaging data of 20 patients received GDC embolization of intracranial aneurysms from Jun. 2012 to Apr. 2013 were analyzed for dual volume reconstruction. The value of application of dual volume reconstruction was evaluated by the detection rate of coils bolus, degree of aneurysm occlusion, the length of aneurysm sac and aneurysm neck before and after embolization, and the characteristics and clinical value of the reconstructed images. Results  A total of 20 coil boluses were detected by dual volume reconstruction images, and the detection rate was 100%. Among all of 20 patients, no visualization of contrast medium in the aneurysm was found in 13 patients, while contrast agent was found in the aneurysm sac in 3 patients and in the aneurysm neck in 4 patients. The length of aneurysm neck and sac was somewhat changed before and after embolization with no statistically significant difference (P>0.05. The dual volume reconstruction could reveal coil bolus, vessels, cranium and fusion images, and the aneurysms could be shown by different imaging modes according to the clinical requirement. Conclusion Dual volume reconstruction technique can display the location of coil bolus, degree of occlusion and aneurysm size, and evaluate the embolization effect by multifarious imaging modes, providing a great deal of information for the evaluation of GDC embolization of intracranial aneurysm. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.02.13

  4. Best-practices guidelines for L2PSA development and applications. Volume 1 - General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimond, E.; Pichereau, F.; Durin, T.; Rahni, N.; Loeffler, H.; Roesch, O.; Lajtha, G.; Santamaria, C.S.; Dienstbier, J.; Rydl, A.; Holmberg, J.E.; Lindholm, I.; Maennistoe, I.; Pauli, E.M.; Dirksen, G.; Grindon, L.; Peers, K.; Bassi, C.; Hulqvist, G.; Parozzi, F.; Polidoro, F.; Cazzoli, E.; Vitazkova, J.; Burgazzi, L.; Brinkman, H.; Seidel, A.; Schubert, B.; Wohlstein, R.; Guentay, S.; Oury, L.; Ngatchou, C.; Siltanen, S.; Niemela, I.; Routamo, T.; Vincon, L.; Helstroem, P.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this coordinated action was to develop best practice guidelines for the performance and application of Level 2 PSA with a view to achieve harmonisation at EU level and to allow a meaningful and practical uncertainty evaluation in a Level 2 PSA. Specific relationships with communities in charge of nuclear reactor safety (utilities, safety authorities, vendors, and research or services companies) have been established in order to define the current needs in terms of guidelines for Level 2 PSA development and application. An international workshop was organised in Hamburg, with the support of VATTENFALL, in November 2008. The Level 2 PSA experts from ASAMPSA2 project partners have proposed some guidelines for the development and application of L2PSA based on their experience, open literature, and on information available from international cooperation (EC Severe Accident network of Excellence - SARNET, IAEA standards, OECD-NEA publications and workshop). There are a large number of technical issues addressed in the guideline which are not all covered with the same level of detail in the first version of the guideline. This version was submitted for external review in November 2010 by severe accident and PSA experts (especially from SARNET and OECD-NEA members). The feedback of the external review will be dis cussed during an international open works hop planned for March 2011 and all outcomes will be taken into consideration in the final version of this guideline (June 2011). The guideline includes 3 volumes: - Volume 1 - General considerations on L2PSA. - Volume 2 - Technical recommendations for Gen II and III reactors. - Volume 3 - Specific considerations for future reactors (Gen IV). The recommendations formulated in the guideline should not be considered as 'mandatory' but should help Level 2 PSA developers to achieve high quality studies with limited time and resources. It may also help Level 2 PSA reviewers by positioning one specific study in

  5. Global Monitoring of Terrestrial Chlorophyll Fluorescence from Moderate-spectral-resolution Near-infrared Satellite Measurements: Methodology, Simulations, and Application to GOME-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, J.; Gaunter, L.; Lindstrot, R.; Voigt, M.; Vasilkov, A. P.; Middleton, E. M.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Yoshida, Y.; Frankenberg, C.

    2013-01-01

    Globally mapped terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence retrievals are of high interest because they can provide information on the functional status of vegetation including light-use efficiency and global primary productivity that can be used for global carbon cycle modeling and agricultural applications. Previous satellite retrievals of fluorescence have relied solely upon the filling-in of solar Fraunhofer lines that are not significantly affected by atmospheric absorption. Although these measurements provide near-global coverage on a monthly basis, they suffer from relatively low precision and sparse spatial sampling. Here, we describe a new methodology to retrieve global far-red fluorescence information; we use hyperspectral data with a simplified radiative transfer model to disentangle the spectral signatures of three basic components: atmospheric absorption, surface reflectance, and fluorescence radiance. An empirically based principal component analysis approach is employed, primarily using cloudy data over ocean, to model and solve for the atmospheric absorption. Through detailed simulations, we demonstrate the feasibility of the approach and show that moderate-spectral-resolution measurements with a relatively high signal-to-noise ratio can be used to retrieve far-red fluorescence information with good precision and accuracy. The method is then applied to data from the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2). The GOME-2 fluorescence retrievals display similar spatial structure as compared with those from a simpler technique applied to the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). GOME-2 enables global mapping of far-red fluorescence with higher precision over smaller spatial and temporal scales than is possible with GOSAT. Near-global coverage is provided within a few days. We are able to show clearly for the first time physically plausible variations in fluorescence over the course of a single month at a spatial resolution of 0.5 deg × 0.5 deg

  6. Global monitoring of terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence from moderate-spectral-resolution near-infrared satellite measurements: methodology, simulations, and application to GOME-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Joiner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Globally mapped terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence retrievals are of high interest because they can provide information on the functional status of vegetation including light-use efficiency and global primary productivity that can be used for global carbon cycle modeling and agricultural applications. Previous satellite retrievals of fluorescence have relied solely upon the filling-in of solar Fraunhofer lines that are not significantly affected by atmospheric absorption. Although these measurements provide near-global coverage on a monthly basis, they suffer from relatively low precision and sparse spatial sampling. Here, we describe a new methodology to retrieve global far-red fluorescence information; we use hyperspectral data with a simplified radiative transfer model to disentangle the spectral signatures of three basic components: atmospheric absorption, surface reflectance, and fluorescence radiance. An empirically based principal component analysis approach is employed, primarily using cloudy data over ocean, to model and solve for the atmospheric absorption. Through detailed simulations, we demonstrate the feasibility of the approach and show that moderate-spectral-resolution measurements with a relatively high signal-to-noise ratio can be used to retrieve far-red fluorescence information with good precision and accuracy. The method is then applied to data from the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2. The GOME-2 fluorescence retrievals display similar spatial structure as compared with those from a simpler technique applied to the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT. GOME-2 enables global mapping of far-red fluorescence with higher precision over smaller spatial and temporal scales than is possible with GOSAT. Near-global coverage is provided within a few days. We are able to show clearly for the first time physically plausible variations in fluorescence over the course of a single month at a spatial resolution of 0

  7. Sustainable Use of Pesticide Applications in Citrus: A Support Tool for Volume Rate Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Garcerá

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rational application of pesticides by properly adjusting the amount of product to the actual needs and specific conditions for application is a key factor for sustainable plant protection. However, current plant protection product (PPP labels registered for citrus in EU are usually expressed as concentration (%; rate/hl and/or as the maximum dose of product per unit of ground surface, without taking into account those conditions. In this work, the fundamentals of a support tool, called CitrusVol, developed to recommend mix volume rates in PPP applications in citrus orchards using airblast sprayers, are presented. This tool takes into consideration crop characteristics (geometry, leaf area density, pests, and product and application efficiency, and it is based on scientific data obtained previously regarding the minimum deposit required to achieve maximum efficacy, efficiency of airblast sprayers in citrus orchards, and characterization of the crop. The use of this tool in several commercial orchards allowed a reduction of the volume rate and the PPPs used in comparison with the commonly used by farmers of between 11% and 74%, with an average of 31%, without affecting the efficacy. CitrusVol is freely available on a website and in an app for smartphones.

  8. Does terrestrial epidemiology apply to marine systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Hamish I.; Kuris, Armand M.; Harvell, C. Drew; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Smith, Garriet W.; Porter, James

    2004-01-01

    Most of epidemiological theory has been developed for terrestrial systems, but the significance of disease in the ocean is now being recognized. However, the extent to which terrestrial epidemiology can be directly transferred to marine systems is uncertain. Many broad types of disease-causing organism occur both on land and in the sea, and it is clear that some emergent disease problems in marine environments are caused by pathogens moving from terrestrial to marine systems. However, marine systems are qualitatively different from terrestrial environments, and these differences affect the application of modelling and management approaches that have been developed for terrestrial systems. Phyla and body plans are more diverse in marine environments and marine organisms have different life histories and probably different disease transmission modes than many of their terrestrial counterparts. Marine populations are typically more open than terrestrial ones, with the potential for long-distance dispersal of larvae. Potentially, this might enable unusually rapid propagation of epidemics in marine systems, and there are several examples of this. Taken together, these differences will require the development of new approaches to modelling and control of infectious disease in the ocean.

  9. Ecological transfer mechanisms - Terrestrial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.E.; Raines, Gilbert E.; Bloom, S.G.; Levin, A.A.

    1969-01-01

    Radionuclides produced by nuclear excavation detonations and released to the environment may enter a variety of biogeochemical cycles and follow essentially the same transfer pathways as their stable-element counterparts. Estimation of potential internal radiation doses to individuals and/or populations living in or near fallout-contaminated areas requires analysis of the food-chain and other ecological pathways by which radionuclides released to the environment may be returned to man. A generalized materials transfer diagram, applicable to the forest, agricultural, freshwater and marine ecosystems providing food and water to the indigenous population of Panama and Colombia in regions that could be affected by nuclear excavation of a sea-level canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, is presented. Transfer mechanisms effecting the movement of stable elements and radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems are discussed, and methods used to simulate these processes by means of mathematical models are described to show how intake values are calculated for different radionuclides in the major ecological pathways leading to man. These data provide a basis for estimating potential internal radiation doses for comparison with the radiation protection criteria established by recognized authorities; and this, in turn, provides a basis for recommending measures to insure the radiological safety of the nuclear operation plan. (author)

  10. Ecological transfer mechanisms - Terrestrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, W E; Raines, Gilbert E; Bloom, S G; Levin, A A [Battelle Memorial Institute, CoIumbus, OH (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Radionuclides produced by nuclear excavation detonations and released to the environment may enter a variety of biogeochemical cycles and follow essentially the same transfer pathways as their stable-element counterparts. Estimation of potential internal radiation doses to individuals and/or populations living in or near fallout-contaminated areas requires analysis of the food-chain and other ecological pathways by which radionuclides released to the environment may be returned to man. A generalized materials transfer diagram, applicable to the forest, agricultural, freshwater and marine ecosystems providing food and water to the indigenous population of Panama and Colombia in regions that could be affected by nuclear excavation of a sea-level canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, is presented. Transfer mechanisms effecting the movement of stable elements and radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems are discussed, and methods used to simulate these processes by means of mathematical models are described to show how intake values are calculated for different radionuclides in the major ecological pathways leading to man. These data provide a basis for estimating potential internal radiation doses for comparison with the radiation protection criteria established by recognized authorities; and this, in turn, provides a basis for recommending measures to insure the radiological safety of the nuclear operation plan. (author)

  11. Terrestrial propagation of long electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Galejs, Janis; Fock, V A

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial Propagation of Long Electromagnetic Waves deals with the propagation of long electromagnetic waves confined principally to the shell between the earth and the ionosphere, known as the terrestrial waveguide. The discussion is limited to steady-state solutions in a waveguide that is uniform in the direction of propagation. Wave propagation is characterized almost exclusively by mode theory. The mathematics are developed only for sources at the ground surface or within the waveguide, including artificial sources as well as lightning discharges. This volume is comprised of nine chapte

  12. Horizontal oil well applications and oil recovery assessment. Volume 2: Applications overview, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J.; Knoll, R.G.; Springer, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    Horizontal technology has been applied in over 110 formations in the USA. Volume 1 of this study addresses the overall success of horizontal technology, especially in less-publicized formations, i.e., other than the Austin Chalk, Bakken, and Niobrara. Operators in the USA and Canada were surveyed on a formation-by-formation basis by means of a questionnaire. Response data were received describing horizontal well projects in 58 formations in the USA and 88 in Canada. Operators` responses were analyzed for trends in technical and economic success based on lithology (clastics and carbonates) and resource type (light oil, heavy oil, and gas). The potential impact of horizontal technology on reserves was also estimated. A forecast of horizontal drilling activity over the next decade was developed.

  13. On-Line Monitoring of Instrument Channel Performance: Volume 3: Applications to Nuclear Power Plant Technical Specification Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.; Rasmussen, B.

    2004-01-01

    This report is a guide for a technical specification change submittal and subsequent implementation of on-line monitoring for safety-related applications. This report is the third in a three-volume set. Volume 1, ''Guidelines for Model Development and Implementation'', presents the various tasks that must be completed to prepare models for and to implement an on-line monitoring system

  14. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 4: Appendix BIR Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report consists of the waste stream profile for the WIPP transuranic waste baseline inventory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The following assumptions/modifications were made by the WTWBIR team in developing the LL waste stream profiles: since only current volumes were provided by LL, the final form volumes were assumed to be the same as the current volumes; the WTWBIR team had to assign identification numbers (IDs) to those LL waste streams not given an identifier by the site, the assigned identification numbers are consistent with the site reported numbers; LL Final Waste Form Groups were modified to be consistent with the nomenclature used in the WTWBID, these changes included word and spelling changes, the assigned Final Waste Form Groups are consistent with the information provided by LL; the volumes for the year 1993 were changed from an annual rate of generation (m 3 /year) to a cumulative value (m 3 )

  15. Introduced Terrestrial Species (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted future potential distributions of terrestrial plants, animals, and pathogens non-native to the Middle-Atlantic region. These data are...

  16. Terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davis-Reddy, Claire

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecoregions Terrestrial Biomes Protected Areas Climate Risk and Vulnerability: A Handbook for Southern Africa | 75 7.2. Non-climatic drivers of ecosystem change 7.2.1. Land-use change, habitat loss and fragmentation Land-use change and landscape... concentrations of endemic plant and animal species, but these mainly occur in areas that are most threatened by human activity. Diverse terrestrial ecosystems in the region include tropical and sub-tropical forests, deserts, savannas, grasslands, mangroves...

  17. Application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-15

    The conference on application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining was held June 1-3, 1980, at the University of Luleaa, Sweden. The papers in this volume deal almost entirely with the Naesliden project in Sweden. Stress measurements were made on the rock mass before and during mining and complex computer codes using the finite element method developed to calculate the strains and their changes as mining developed. Major problems involved the effects of joints and the mechanical properties of the hydraulic backfill and in corporating these items in the calculations. Most papers were entered individually into EDB. (LTN)

  18. Packing and deploying Soft Origami to and from cylindrical volumes with application to automotive airbags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruton, Jared T; Nelson, Todd G; Zimmerman, Trent K; Fernelius, Janette D; Magleby, Spencer P; Howell, Larry L

    2016-09-01

    Packing soft-sheet materials of approximately zero bending stiffness using Soft Origami (origami patterns applied to soft-sheet materials) into cylindrical volumes and their deployment via mechanisms or internal pressure (inflation) is of interest in fields including automobile airbags, deployable heart stents, inflatable space habitats, and dirigible and parachute packing. This paper explores twofold patterns, the 'flasher' and the 'inverted-cone fold', for packing soft-sheet materials into cylindrical volumes. Two initial packing methods and mechanisms are examined for each of the flasher and inverted-cone fold patterns. An application to driver's side automobile airbags is performed, and deployment tests are completed to compare the influence of packing method and origami pattern on deployment performance. Following deployment tests, two additional packing methods for the inverted-cone fold pattern are explored and applied to automobile airbags. It is shown that modifying the packing method (using different methods to impose the same base pattern on the soft-sheet material) can lead to different deployment performance. In total, two origami patterns and six packing methods are examined, and the benefits of using Soft Origami patterns and packing methods are discussed. Soft Origami is presented as a viable method for efficiently packing soft-sheet materials into cylindrical volumes.

  19. Toward a List of Molecules as Potential Biosignature Gases for the Search for Life on Exoplanets and Applications to Terrestrial Biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, S; Bains, W; Petkowski, J J

    2016-06-01

    Thousands of exoplanets are known to orbit nearby stars. Plans for the next generation of space-based and ground-based telescopes are fueling the anticipation that a precious few habitable planets can be identified in the coming decade. Even more highly anticipated is the chance to find signs of life on these habitable planets by way of biosignature gases. But which gases should we search for? Although a few biosignature gases are prominent in Earth's atmospheric spectrum (O2, CH4, N2O), others have been considered as being produced at or able to accumulate to higher levels on exo-Earths (e.g., dimethyl sulfide and CH3Cl). Life on Earth produces thousands of different gases (although most in very small quantities). Some might be produced and/or accumulate in an exo-Earth atmosphere to high levels, depending on the exo-Earth ecology and surface and atmospheric chemistry. To maximize our chances of recognizing biosignature gases, we promote the concept that all stable and potentially volatile molecules should initially be considered as viable biosignature gases. We present a new approach to the subject of biosignature gases by systematically constructing lists of volatile molecules in different categories. An exhaustive list up to six non-H atoms is presented, totaling about 14,000 molecules. About 2500 of these are CNOPSH compounds. An approach for extending the list to larger molecules is described. We further show that about one-fourth of CNOPSH molecules (again, up to N = 6 non-H atoms) are known to be produced by life on Earth. The list can be used to study classes of chemicals that might be potential biosignature gases, considering their accumulation and possible false positives on exoplanets with atmospheres and surface environments different from Earth's. The list can also be used for terrestrial biochemistry applications, some examples of which are provided. We provide an online community usage database to serve as a registry for volatile molecules

  20. Spatial and temporal patterns of CH4 and N2O fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of North America during 1979–2008: application of a global biogeochemistry model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Continental-scale estimations of terrestrial methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O fluxes over a long time period are crucial to accurately assess the global balance of greenhouse gases and enhance our understanding and prediction of global climate change and terrestrial ecosystem feedbacks. Using a process-based global biogeochemical model, the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM, we quantified simultaneously CH4 and N2O fluxes in North America's terrestrial ecosystems from 1979 to 2008. During the past 30 years, approximately 14.69 ± 1.64 T g C a−1 (1 T g = 1012 g of CH4, and 1.94 ± 0.1 T g N a−1 of N2O were released from terrestrial ecosystems in North America. At the country level, both the US and Canada acted as CH4 sources to the atmosphere, but Mexico mainly oxidized and consumed CH4 from the atmosphere. Wetlands in North America contributed predominantly to the regional CH4 source, while all other ecosystems acted as sinks for atmospheric CH4, of which forests accounted for 36.8%. Regarding N2O emission in North America, the US, Canada, and Mexico contributed 56.19%, 18.23%, and 25.58%, respectively, to the continental source over the past 30 years. Forests and croplands were the two ecosystems that contributed most to continental N2O emission. The inter-annual variations of CH4 and N2O fluxes in North America were mainly attributed to year-to-year climatic variability. While only annual precipitation was found to have a significant effect on annual CH4 flux, both mean annual temperature and annual precipitation were significantly correlated to annual N2O flux. The regional estimates and spatiotemporal patterns of terrestrial ecosystem CH4 and N2O fluxes in North America generated in this study provide useful information for global change research and policy making.

  1. Methods of Celestial Mechanics Volume II: Application to Planetary System, Geodynamics and Satellite Geodesy

    CERN Document Server

    Beutler, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    G. Beutler's Methods of Celestial Mechanics is a coherent textbook for students as well as an excellent reference for practitioners. Volume II is devoted to the applications and to the presentation of the program system CelestialMechanics. Three major areas of applications are covered: (1) Orbital and rotational motion of extended celestial bodies. The properties of the Earth-Moon system are developed from the simplest case (rigid bodies) to more general cases, including the rotation of an elastic Earth, the rotation of an Earth partly covered by oceans and surrounded by an atmosphere, and the rotation of an Earth composed of a liquid core and a rigid shell (Poincaré model). (2) Artificial Earth Satellites. The oblateness perturbation acting on a satellite and the exploitation of its properties in practice is discussed using simulation methods (CelestialMechanics) and (simplified) first order perturbation methods. The perturbations due to the higher-order terms of the Earth's gravitational potential and reso...

  2. Development, Verification and Validation of Parallel, Scalable Volume of Fluid CFD Program for Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jeff; Yang, H. Q.

    2014-01-01

    There are many instances involving liquid/gas interfaces and their dynamics in the design of liquid engine powered rockets such as the Space Launch System (SLS). Some examples of these applications are: Propellant tank draining and slosh, subcritical condition injector analysis for gas generators, preburners and thrust chambers, water deluge mitigation for launch induced environments and even solid rocket motor liquid slag dynamics. Commercially available CFD programs simulating gas/liquid interfaces using the Volume of Fluid approach are currently limited in their parallel scalability. In 2010 for instance, an internal NASA/MSFC review of three commercial tools revealed that parallel scalability was seriously compromised at 8 cpus and no additional speedup was possible after 32 cpus. Other non-interface CFD applications at the time were demonstrating useful parallel scalability up to 4,096 processors or more. Based on this review, NASA/MSFC initiated an effort to implement a Volume of Fluid implementation within the unstructured mesh, pressure-based algorithm CFD program, Loci-STREAM. After verification was achieved by comparing results to the commercial CFD program CFD-Ace+, and validation by direct comparison with data, Loci-STREAM-VoF is now the production CFD tool for propellant slosh force and slosh damping rate simulations at NASA/MSFC. On these applications, good parallel scalability has been demonstrated for problems sizes of tens of millions of cells and thousands of cpu cores. Ongoing efforts are focused on the application of Loci-STREAM-VoF to predict the transient flow patterns of water on the SLS Mobile Launch Platform in order to support the phasing of water for launch environment mitigation so that vehicle determinantal effects are not realized.

  3. The identification of potential applications for robotics and remote control systems in Canadian mining. 2 Volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary overview of potential applications for robotics and remote control in the Canadian mining industry. The first of two volumes, summarizes the industry awareness and interest in using these technologies. Also included is a look at factors playing a major role in the development of the mining robotics industry, such as safety, productivity, labour and the economic climate. The role of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada (EMR)/CANMET is also discussed. Finally, recommendations are made as to how Canada, through EMR, can ensure Canada's participation in the development of robotics in the mining industry. Volume two is comprised of the contact records. These are abbreviated notes of conversations which took place between the interviewers and their contacts in a number of Canadian and US mines and associated government and private agencies. (The interviews represent the opinions of the respondents, not necessarily that of their companies). The survey indicated that the industry is essentially negative to the idea of robotics in mining, but they were able to suggest many potential areas of application, especially at the short term level.

  4. Terrestrial Analogs to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.; Arcone, S.; Arvidson, R. W.; Baker, V.; Barlow, N. G.; Beaty, D.; Bell, M. S.; Blankenship, D. D.; Bridges, N.; Briggs, G.; Bulmer, M.; Carsey, F.; Clifford, S. M.; Craddock, R. A.; Dickerson, P. W.; Duxbury, N.; Galford, G. L.; Garvin, J.; Grant, J.; Green, J. R.; Gregg, T. K. P.; Guinness, E.; Hansen, V. L.; Hecht, M. H.; Holt, J.; Howard, A.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Lee, P.; Lanagan, P. D.; Lentz, R. C. F.; Leverington, D. W.; Marinangeli, L.; Moersch, J. E.; Morris-Smith, P. A.; Mouginis-Mark, P.; Olhoeft, G. R.; Ori, G. G.; Paillou, P.; Reilly, J. F., II; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Robinson, C. A.; Sheridan, M.; Snook, K.; Thomson, B. J.; Watson, K.; Williams, K.; Yoshikawa, K.

    2002-08-01

    It is well recognized that interpretations of Mars must begin with the Earth as a reference. The most successful comparisons have focused on understanding geologic processes on the Earth well enough to extrapolate to Mars' environment. Several facets of terrestrial analog studies have been pursued and are continuing. These studies include field workshops, characterization of terrestrial analog sites, instrument tests, laboratory measurements (including analysis of Martian meteorites), and computer and laboratory modeling. The combination of all these activities allows scientists to constrain the processes operating in specific terrestrial environments and extrapolate how similar processes could affect Mars. The Terrestrial Analogs for Mars Community Panel has considered the following two key questions: (1) How do terrestrial analog studies tie in to the Mars Exploration Payload Assessment Group science questions about life, past climate, and geologic evolution of Mars, and (2) How can future instrumentation be used to address these questions. The panel has considered the issues of data collection, value of field workshops, data archiving, laboratory measurements and modeling, human exploration issues, association with other areas of solar system exploration, and education and public outreach activities.

  5. Electrokinetic applications for environmental restoration, waste volume reduction, and contaminant containment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomasney, H.L.; Lomasney, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the US and all over the world, following over 50 years of nuclear arms production operations, the magnitude of resultant environmental damage is only beginning to surface. The US Department of Energy estimates that by the year 2070, the total volume of high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and low-level mixed waste, generated as a result of past and current nuclear activities, will exceed 20 million cubic meters. In Russia, it is reported that more than 30% of all groundwater is contaminated with agricultural and industrial chemical waste. Government agencies today are faced with the responsibility of developing technologies that are suitable for dealing with severe environmental contamination and accumulating waste inventories. In response to this demand, applications of electrokinetics have emerged in the field of environmental waste management as alternatives for environmental decontamination and ecological protection. Electrokinetics involves the movement of charged species under the influence of an applied electric field and is applicable in several areas of environmental waste management, including cleanup of soil and groundwater, barrier detection, and emergency or protective fencing. The worldwide interest in this technology has steadily escalated over the past decade. Today, state-of-the-art applications of electrokinetics have been demonstrated in the US, The Netherlands, Russia, The Ukraine, and India. This paper addresses the latest advances in the various applications of this technology as well as the most significant breakthroughs in the history of electrokinetics

  6. In-Swath Spray Deposition Characteristics of a Low Drift Nozzle for Low Volume Aerial Application - Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CP flat-fan nozzles with selectable tips were evaluated for droplet spectra and coverage using water sensitive papers placed in the spray swath. This study used low application volumes (1, 2, and 3 GPA) at a certain spray application height as measured precisely by laser mounted in the aircraft. No...

  7. Terrestrial and extraterrestrial fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heymann, D.; Jenneskens, L.W.; Jehlicka, J; Koper, C.; Vlietstra, E. [Rice Univ, Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Earth Science

    2003-07-01

    This paper reviews reports of occurrences of fullerenes in circumstellar media, interstellar media, meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), lunar rocks, hard terrestrial rocks from Shunga (Russia), Sudbury (Canada) and Mitov (Czech Republic), coal, terrestrial sediments from the Cretaceous-Tertiary-Boundary and Pennian-Triassic-Boundary, fulgurite, ink sticks, dinosaur eggs, and a tree char. The occurrences are discussed in the context of known and postulated processes of fullerene formation, including the suggestion that some natural fullerenes might have formed from biological (algal) remains.

  8. Prospects of application of artificial neural networks for forecasting of cargo transportation volume in transport systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Yakupov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research – to identify the prospects for the use of neural network approach in relation to the tasks of economic forecasting of logistics performance, in particular of volume freight traffic in the transport system promiscuous regional freight traffic, as well as to substantiate the effectiveness of the use of artificial neural networks (ANN, as compared with the efficiency of traditional extrapolative methods of forecasting. The authors consider the possibility of forecasting to use ANN for these economic indicators not as an alternative to the traditional methods of statistical forecasting, but as one of the available simple means for solving complex problems.Materials and methods. When predicting the ANN, three methods of learning were used: 1 the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm-network training stops when the generalization ceases to improve, which is shown by the increase in the mean square error of the output value; 2 Bayes regularization method - network training is stopped in accordance with the minimization of adaptive weights; 3 the method of scaled conjugate gradients, which is used to find the local extremum of a function on the basis of information about its values and gradient. The Neural Network Toolbox package is used for forecasting. The neural network model consists of a hidden layer of neurons with a sigmoidal activation function and an output neuron with a linear activation function, the input values of the dynamic time series, and the predicted value is removed from the output. For a more objective assessment of the prospects of the ANN application, the results of the forecast are presented in comparison with the results obtained in predicting the method of exponential smoothing.Results. When predicting the volumes of freight transportation by rail, satisfactory indicators of the verification of forecasting by both the method of exponential smoothing and ANN had been obtained, although the neural network

  9. Low Cost High Performance Generator Technology Program. Volume 4. Mission application study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    Results of initial efforts to investigate application of selenide thermoelectric RTG's to specific missions as well as an indication of development requirements to enable satisfaction of emerging RTG performance criteria are presented. Potential mission applications in DoD such as SURVSATCOM, Advance Defense Support Program, Laser Communication Satellite, Satellite Data System, Global Positioning Satellite, Deep Space Surveillance Satellite, and Unmanned Free Swimming Submersible illustrate power requirements in the range of 500 to 1000 W. In contrast, the NASA applications require lower power ranging from 50 W for outer planetary atmospheric probes to about 200 W for spacecraft flights to Jupiter and other outer planets. The launch dates for most of these prospective missions is circa 1980, a requirement roughly compatible with selenide thermoelectric and heat source technology development. A discussion of safety criteria is included to give emphasis to the requirements for heat source design. In addition, the observation is made that the potential accident environments of all launch vehicles are similar so that a reasonable composite set of design specifications may be derived to satisfy almost all applications. Details of the LCHPG application potential is afforded by three designs: an 80 W RTG using improved selenide thermoelectric material, a 55 to 65 W LCHPG using current and improved selenide materials, and the final 500 W LCHPG as reported in Volume 2. The final results of the LCHPG design study have shown that in general, all missions can expect an LCHPG design which yields 10 percent efficiency at 3 W/lb with the current standard selenide thermoelectric materials, with growth potential to 14 percent at greater than 4 W/lb in the mid 1980's time frame

  10. Environmental fate model for ultra-low-volume insecticide applications used for adult mosquito management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleier, Jerome J.; Peterson, Robert K.D.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Marshall, Lucy M.; Weaver, David K.; Preftakes, Collin J.

    2012-01-01

    One of the more effective ways of managing high densities of adult mosquitoes that vector human and animal pathogens is ultra-low-volume (ULV) aerosol applications of insecticides. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency uses models that are not validated for ULV insecticide applications and exposure assumptions to perform their human and ecological risk assessments. Currently, there is no validated model that can accurately predict deposition of insecticides applied using ULV technology for adult mosquito management. In addition, little is known about the deposition and drift of small droplets like those used under conditions encountered during ULV applications. The objective of this study was to perform field studies to measure environmental concentrations of insecticides and to develop a validated model to predict the deposition of ULV insecticides. The final regression model was selected by minimizing the Bayesian Information Criterion and its prediction performance was evaluated using k-fold cross validation. Density of the formulation and the density and CMD interaction coefficients were the largest in the model. The results showed that as density of the formulation decreases, deposition increases. The interaction of density and CMD showed that higher density formulations and larger droplets resulted in greater deposition. These results are supported by the aerosol physics literature. A k-fold cross validation demonstrated that the mean square error of the selected regression model is not biased, and the mean square error and mean square prediction error indicated good predictive ability.

  11. Introducing the Jacobian-volume-histogram of deforming organs: application to parotid shrinkage evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorino, Claudio; Maggiulli, Eleonora; Broggi, Sara; Cattaneo, Giovanni Mauro; Calandrino, Riccardo; Liberini, Simone; Faggiano, Elena; Rizzo, Giovanna; Dell'Oca, Italo; Di Muzio, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    The Jacobian of the deformation field of elastic registration between images taken during radiotherapy is a measure of inter-fraction local deformation. The histogram of the Jacobian values (Jac) within an organ was introduced (JVH-Jacobian-volume-histogram) and first applied in quantifying parotid shrinkage. MVCTs of 32 patients previously treated with helical tomotherapy for head-neck cancers were collected. Parotid deformation was evaluated through elastic registration between MVCTs taken at the first and last fractions. Jac was calculated for each voxel of all parotids, and integral JVHs were calculated for each parotid; the correlation between the JVH and the planning dose-volume histogram (DVH) was investigated. On average, 82% (±17%) of the voxels shrinks (Jac 50% (Jac < 0.5). The best correlation between the DVH and the JVH was found between V10 and V15, and Jac < 0.4-0.6 (p < 0.01). The best constraint predicting a higher number of largely compressing voxels (Jac0.5<7.5%, median value) was V15 ≥ 75% (OR: 7.6, p = 0.002). Jac and the JVH are promising tools for scoring/modelling toxicity and for evaluating organ/contour variations with potential applications in adaptive radiotherapy.

  12. ON-Line Monitoring of Instrument Channel Performance: Volume 3: Applications to Nuclear Power Plant Technical Specification Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E Davis, B Rasmussen

    2004-12-31

    This report is a guide for a technical specification change submittal and subsequent implementation of on-line monitoring for safety-related applications. This report is the third in a three-volume set. Volume 1, ''Guidelines for Model Development and Implementation'', presents the various tasks that must be completed to prepare models for and to implement an on-line monitoring system.

  13. Histories of terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, K.

    1981-01-01

    The uneven historical development of terrestrial planets - Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon and Mars - is probably due to the differences in their size, weight and rotational dynamics in association with the internal planet structure, their distance from the Sun, etc. A systematic study of extraterrestrial planets showed that the time span of internal activity was not the same for all bodies. It is assumed that the initial history of all terrestrial planets was marked with catastrophic events connected with the overall dynamic development of the solar system. In view of the fact that the cores of small terrestrial bodies cooled quicker, their geological development almost stagnated after two or three thousand million years. This is what probably happened to the Mercury and the Moon as well as the Mars. Therefore, traces of previous catastrophic events were preserved on the surface of the planets. On the other hand, the Earth is the most metamorphosed terrestrial planet and compared to the other planets appears to be atypical. Its biosphere is significantly developed as well as the other shell components, its hydrosphere and atmosphere, and its crust is considerably differentiated. (J.P.)

  14. Terrestrial planet formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K; O'Brien, D P

    2011-11-29

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (~10(6) y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few 10(6) y), and finally embryos to planets (10(7)-10(8) y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids.

  15. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocock, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the distribution and movement of radionuclides in semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems in north-west England with particular emphasis on inputs to, and outputs from ecosystems; on plant and soil aspects; and on radionuclides in fallout and in discharges by the nuclear industry. (author)

  16. Molecular theory of partial molar volume and its applications to biomolecular systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Imai

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The paial molar volume (PMV is a thermodynamic quantity which contains important information about the solute-solvent interactions as well as the solute structure in solution.Additionally, the PMV is the most essential quantity in the analysis of the pressure effect on chemical reactions. This aicle reviews the recent developments in molecular theories of the PMV, especially the reference interaction site model (RISMtheory of molecular liquids and its three-dimensional generalization version (3D-RISM, which are combined with the Kirkwood-Buff solution theory to calculate the PMV. This aicle also introduces our recent applications of the theory to some interesting issues concerning the PMV of biomolecules. In addition, theoretical representations of the effects of intramolecular fluctuation on the PMV, which are significant for biomacromolecules, are briefly discussed.

  17. Control and dynamic systems: advances in theory and applications. Volume 14, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leondes, C.T.

    1978-01-01

    The theme for this volume, containing five contributions, is models for complex and/or large-scale engineering systems. The first contribution deals with techniques of modeling and model error compensation in linear regulator problems. The next contribution, on pressurized water reactors, deals with many important systems modeling and control issues in nuclear reactors. The next two contributions serve as a companion set on models for the aircraft jet engine. The first presents the modeling formulation problems for such systems from the point of view of physics and engineering technology; the second emphasizes the system state equation and effective control principles. The last contribution deals with complex many-element power systems, but the techniques presented are generally applicable to any complex engineering system in which there are many interacting elements

  18. Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets, July 20-23,2004, Santa Fe, New Mexico. The contents include: 1) Experimental Constraints on Oxygen and Other Light Element Partitioning During Planetary Core Formation; 2) In Situ Determination of Fe(3+)/SigmaFe of Spinels by Electron Microprobe: An Evaluation of the Flank Method; 3) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Large-Strain Deformation and Recrystallization of Olivine; 4) Plagioclase-Liquid Trace Element Oxygen Barometry and Oxygen Behaviour in Closed and Open System Magmatic Processes; 5) Core Formation in the Earth: Constraints from Ni and Co; 6) Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of the Terrestrial Planets; 7) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Electrical Conduction of Olivine and Implications for Earth s Mantle; 8) Redox Chemical Diffusion in Silicate Melts: The Impact of the Semiconductor Condition; 9) Ultra-High Temperature Effects in Earth s Magma Ocean: Pt and W Partitioning; 10) Terrestrial Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Variations: Primordial Values, Systematics, Subsolidus Effects, Planetary Comparisons, and the Role of Water; 11) Redox State of the Moon s Interior; 12) How did the Terrestrial Planets Acquire Their Water?; 13) Molecular Oxygen Mixing Ratio and Its Seasonal Variability in the Martian Atmosphere; 14) Exchange Between the Atmosphere and the Regolith of Mars: Discussion of Oxygen and Sulfur Isotope Evidence; 15) Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Systematics of Atmospheric Water Vapor and Meteoric Waters: Evidence from North Texas; 16) Implications of Isotopic and Redox Heterogeneities in Silicate Reservoirs on Mars; 17) Oxygen Isotopic Variation of the Terrestrial Planets; 18) Redox Exchanges in Hydrous Magma; 19) Hydrothermal Systems on Terrestrial Planets: Lessons from Earth; 20) Oxygen in Martian Meteorites: A Review of Results from Mineral Equilibria Oxybarometers; 21) Non-Linear Fractionation of Oxygen Isotopes Implanted in

  19. Forest inventory with terrestrial LiDAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauwens, Sébastien; Bartholomeus, Harm; Calders, Kim; Lejeune, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The application of static terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in forest inventories is becoming more effective. Nevertheless, the occlusion effect is still limiting the processing efficiency to extract forest attributes. The use of a mobile laser scanner (MLS) would reduce this occlusion. In this

  20. Automatic delineation of functional volumes in emission tomography for oncology applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatt, M.

    2008-12-01

    One of the main factors of error for semi-quantitative analysis in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging for diagnosis and patient follow up, as well as new flourishing applications like image guided radiotherapy, is the methodology used to define the volumes of interest in the functional images. This is explained by poor image quality in emission tomography resulting from noise and partial volume effects induced blurring, as well as the variability of acquisition protocols, scanner models and image reconstruction procedures. The large number of proposed methodologies for the definition of a PET volume of interest does not help either. The majority of such proposed approaches are based on deterministic binary thresholding that are not robust to contrast variation and noise. In addition, these methodologies are usually unable to correctly handle heterogeneous uptake inside tumours. The objective of this thesis is to develop an automatic, robust, accurate and reproducible 3D image segmentation approach for the functional volumes determination of tumours of all sizes and shapes, and whose activity distribution may be strongly heterogeneous. The approach we have developed is based on a statistical image segmentation framework, combined with a fuzzy measure, which allows to take into account both noisy and blurry properties of nuclear medicine images. It uses a stochastic iterative parameters estimation and a locally adaptive model of the voxel and its neighbours for the estimation and segmentation. The developed approaches have been evaluated using a large array of datasets, comprising both simulated and real acquisitions of phantoms and tumours. The results obtained on phantom acquisitions allowed to validate the accuracy of the segmentation with respect to the size of considered structures, down to 13 mm in diameter (about twice the spatial resolution of a typical PET scanner), as well as its robustness with respect to noise, contrast variation, acquisition

  1. Are urine flow-volume nomograms developed on Caucasian men optimally applicable for Indian men? Need for appraisal of flow-volume relations in local population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank M Agarwal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Flow-volume nomograms and volume-corrected flow-rates (cQ are tools to correct uroflow rates (Q with varied voided volumes (VV of urine. We investigated the applicability of the available nomograms in our local population. Materials and Methods : Raw data of our previous study on variation in Q with voiding position (standing, sitting, and squatting in healthy adult men was reanalyzed. Additionally, the departmental urodynamic database of the last four years was searched for uroflow data of men with voiding symptoms (International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS > 7 and global quality of life score >2. These results were projected on the Liverpool and Siroky nomograms for men. The Q-VV relations were statistically analyzed using curve-estimation regression method to examine the current definition of corrected maximum flow rate (Qmax. Results : We found a cubic relation between Q and VV; based on this we developed novel equation for cQ [cQ=Q/(VV 1/3 ] and novel confidence-limit flow-volume nomograms. The imaginary 16 th percentile line of Liverpool nomogram, -1 standard-deviation line of Siroky nomogram and lower 68% confidence-limit line of our nomogram had sensitivity of 96.2%, 100% and 89.3%, and specificity of 75.3% 69.3% and 86.0%, respectively for Qmax-VV relations. Corresponding values for average flow rate (Qave-volume relations were 96.2%, 100% and 94.6%, and 75.2%, 50.4% and 86.0%, respectively. The area under curve of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve for cQmax and cQave was 0.954 and 0.965, respectively, suggesting significantly higher discriminatory power than chance (P = 0.0001. Conclusion : Flow-volume nomograms developed on Caucasian population may not be optimally applicable to the Indian population. We introduce flow-volume nomograms and cQ, which have high sensitivity and specificity.

  2. Comparative Climatology of Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackwell, Stephen J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Harder, Jerald W.; Bullock, Mark A.

    to a future volume. Our authors have taken on the task to look at climate on the terrestrial planets in the broadest sense possible — by comparing the atmospheric processes at work on the four terrestrial bodies, Earth, Venus, Mars, and Titan (Titan is included because it hosts many of the common processes), and on terrestrial planets around other stars. These processes include the interactions of shortwave and thermal radiation with the atmosphere, condensation and vaporization of volatiles, atmospheric dynamics, chemistry and aerosol formation, and the role of the surface and interior in the long-term evolution of climate. Chapters herein compare the scientific questions, analysis methods, numerical models, and spacecraft remote sensing experiments of Earth and the other terrestrial planets, emphasizing the underlying commonality of physical processes. We look to the future by identifying objectives for ongoing research and new missions. Through these pages we challenge practicing planetary scientists, and most importantly new students of any age, to find pathways and synergies for advancing the field. In Part I, Foundations, we introduce the fundamental physics of climate on terrestrial planets. Starting with the best studied planet by far, Earth, the first chapters discuss what is known and what is not known about the atmospheres and climates of the terrestrial planets of the solar system and beyond. In Part II, Greenhouse Effect and Atmospheric Dynamics, we focus on the processes that govern atmospheric motion and the role that general circulation models play in our current understanding. In Part III, Clouds and Hazes, we provide an in-depth look at the many effects of clouds and aerosols on planetary climate. Although this is a vigorous area of research in the Earth sciences, and very strongly influences climate modeling, the important role that aerosols and clouds play in the climate of all planets is not yet well constrained. This section is intended to

  3. Terrestrial and aquatic ecotoxicity assessment of Cr(VI) by the ReCiPe method calculation (LCIA): application on an old industrial contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Véronique; Quaranta, Gaétana; Loyaux-Lawniczak, Stéphanie

    2013-05-01

    The most stable forms of chromium in the environment are chromium (III) and chromium (VI), the former being relatively immobile and necessary for organisms, and the latter being highly soluble and toxic. It is thus important to characterise ecotoxicological impacts of Cr(VI). However, there are still some important uncertainties in the calculation of ecotoxicological impacts of heavy metals in the LCIA global approach. The aim of this paper is to understand how the spatial and dynamic characterization of life cycle inventory (LCI) data can be exploited in life cycle impact assessment and particularly for the evaluation of the aquatic and terrestrial ecotoxicity of Cr(VI). To quantify these impacts, we studied an industrial waste landfill in the North of France that was contaminated with chromium. On the polluted area, the aquatic contamination is due to the slag heap as well as to chromium spots in soil. The soil contamination is mainly due to infiltration of chromium from the infill. The concentration of Cr(VI) in soil and water varies according to seasonal climatic variations and groundwater level. These variations have an effect on the Cr(VI) fate factor, in particular on transfer and residence time of the substance. This study underlines the spatial distribution of aquatic ecotoxicity and the temporal variation of freshwater ecotoxicity. We analysed the correlation between precipitation, temperature, concentration and ecotoxicity impact. With regards to the terrestrial ecotoxicity, the study focused on the vertical variation of the ecotoxicity and the major role of the soil layer composition into terrestrial pollution.

  4. Proceedings of the international symposium on environmental technologies: Plasma systems and applications. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayne, P.W.; Mulholland, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma technology is an extremely versatile and powerful means of obtaining very high temperatures that can be used in a variety of environmental situations. Since most types of waste products and contaminants can be treated effectively and efficiently, plasma systems have been developed to address the disposal and annihilation domestic of medical, hazardous, radioactive, military, and miscellaneous wastes. Plasma technologies can also be implemented to recycle and recover usable materials from metallic wastes. The International Symposium on Environmental Technologies: Plasma Systems and Applications was held at the Omni Hotel in Atlanta, Georgia on October 8--12, 1995 to bring together a large group of technical experts working on the use of plasma for solving environmental problems. The Symposium is a sequel to the 1994 Metatechnies Conference on Stabilization and Volarization of Ultimate Waste by Plasma Processes that was held in September of 1994 at Bordeaux Lac, France. The proceedings to this second international conference contain the written contributions from eleven sessions and are published in two volumes. A total of 65 papers address the use of plasma systems for environmental applications and include topics concerning the development and use of innovative technologies for waste treatment, environmental remediation, recycling, characterization of the plasma and solid residue, off-gas analyses, as well as case studies and regulatory policies

  5. Experiment on Synchronous Timing Signal Detection from ISDB-T Terrestrial Digital TV Signal with Application to Autonomous Distributed ITS-IVC Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, Yoshio; Kumagai, Taichi; Takemoto, Atsushi; Fujii, Takeo; Ito, Kenji; Suzuki, Noriyoshi

    A novel timing synchronizing scheme is proposed for use in inter-vehicle communication (IVC) with an autonomous distributed intelligent transport system (ITS). The scheme determines the timing of packet signal transmission in the IVC network and employs the guard interval (GI) timing in the orthogonal frequency divisional multiplexing (OFDM) signal currently used for terrestrial broadcasts in the Japanese digital television system (ISDB-T). This signal is used because it is expected that the automotive market will demand the capability for cars to receive terrestrial digital TV broadcasts in the near future. The use of broadcasts by automobiles presupposes that the on-board receivers are capable of accurately detecting the GI timing data in an extremely low carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) condition regardless of a severe multipath environment which will introduce broad scatter in signal arrival times. Therefore, we analyzed actual broadcast signals received in a moving vehicle in a field experiment and showed that the GI timing signal is detected with the desired accuracy even in the case of extremely low-CNR environments. Some considerations were also given about how to use these findings.

  6. Study of liver volume measurement and its clinical application for liver transplantation using multiple-slice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Zhiyi; Yu Zhefeng; Kuang Pingding; Xiao Shengxiang; Huang Dongsheng; Zheng Shusen; Wu Jian

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the accuracy of liver volume measurement using MSCT and its application in liver transplantation. Methods: (1) Experimental study. Ten pig livers were scanned using MSCT with two collimations (3.2 mm and 6.5 mm) and pitch 1.25. Semi-automatic method was used to reconstruct 3D liver models to measure the liver volume. (2) Clinical study. Twenty-three patients received MSCT scan with collimation of 6.5 mm before liver transplantation. Same method was used to calculate the liver volume and the measurement was repeated by the same observer after 1 month. Results: (1) Experimental study. Actual liver volumes were (1134.1 ± 288.0) ml. Liver volumes by MSCT with two collimations were (1125.0 ± 282.5) ml (3.2 mm) and (1101.6 ± 277.6) ml (6.5 mm). The accuracy was (99.5 ± 0.8)% and (97.4 ± 0.8)%, respectively. Both showed same good agreement with actual liver volume: r=0.999, P<0.01 (2) Clinical study. Actual liver volumes were (1455.7±730.0) ml. Liver volume by MSCT was (1462.7 ± 774.1) ml. The accuracy was (99.5±9.6)%, r=0.986, P<0.01. Liver volume measured again was (1449.4 ± 768.9) ml, r=0.991 (P<0.01). Conclusion: MSCT can assess the liver volume correctly, and could be used as a routine step for evaluations before liver transplantation

  7. Working group 4: Terrestrial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A working group at a Canada/USA symposium on climate change and the Arctic identified major concerns and issues related to terrestrial resources. The group examined the need for, and the means of, involving resource managers and users at local and territorial levels in the process of identifying and examining the impacts and consequences of climatic change. Climatic change will be important to the Arctic because of the magnitude of the change projected for northern latitudes; the apparent sensitivity of its terrestrial ecosystems, natural resources, and human support systems; and the dependence of the social, cultural, and economic welfare of Arctic communities, businesses, and industries on the health and quality of their environment. Impacts of climatic change on the physical, biological, and associated socio-economic environment are outlined. Gaps in knowledge needed to quantify these impacts are listed along with their relationships with resource management. Finally, potential actions for response and adaptation are presented

  8. Terrestrial plant methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature...... the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  9. Accurate Automatic Delineation of Heterogeneous Functional Volumes in Positron Emission Tomography for Oncology Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatt, Mathieu; Cheze le Rest, Catherine; Descourt, Patrice; Dekker, Andre; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Oellers, Michel; Lambin, Philippe; Pradier, Olivier; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate contouring of positron emission tomography (PET) functional volumes is now considered crucial in image-guided radiotherapy and other oncology applications because the use of functional imaging allows for biological target definition. In addition, the definition of variable uptake regions within the tumor itself may facilitate dose painting for dosimetry optimization. Methods and Materials: Current state-of-the-art algorithms for functional volume segmentation use adaptive thresholding. We developed an approach called fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian (FLAB), validated on homogeneous objects, and then improved it by allowing the use of up to three tumor classes for the delineation of inhomogeneous tumors (3-FLAB). Simulated and real tumors with histology data containing homogeneous and heterogeneous activity distributions were used to assess the algorithm's accuracy. Results: The new 3-FLAB algorithm is able to extract the overall tumor from the background tissues and delineate variable uptake regions within the tumors, with higher accuracy and robustness compared with adaptive threshold (T bckg ) and fuzzy C-means (FCM). 3-FLAB performed with a mean classification error of less than 9% ± 8% on the simulated tumors, whereas binary-only implementation led to errors of 15% ± 11%. T bckg and FCM led to mean errors of 20% ± 12% and 17% ± 14%, respectively. 3-FLAB also led to more robust estimation of the maximum diameters of tumors with histology measurements, with bckg and FCM lead to 10%, 12%, and 13%, respectively. Conclusion: These encouraging results warrant further investigation in future studies that will investigate the impact of 3-FLAB in radiotherapy treatment planning, diagnosis, and therapy response evaluation.

  10. Personnel neutron dose assessment upgrade: Volume 2, Field neutron spectrometer for health physics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Reece, W.D.; Miller, S.D.

    1988-07-01

    Both the (ICRP) and the (NCPR) have recommended an increase in neutron quality factors and the adoption of effective dose equivalent methods. The series of reports entitled Personnel Neutron Dose Assessment Upgrade (PNL-6620) addresses these changes. Volume 1 in this series of reports (Personnel Neutron Dosimetry Assessment) provided guidance on the characteristics, use, and calibration of personnel neutron dosimeters in order to meet the new recommendations. This report, Volume 2: Field Neutron Spectrometer for Health Physics Applications describes the development of a portable field spectrometer which can be set up for use in a few minutes by a single person. The field spectrometer described herein represents a significant advance in improving the accuracy of neutron dose assessment. It permits an immediate analysis of the energy spectral distribution associated with the radiation from which neutron quality factor can be determined. It is now possible to depart from the use of maximum Q by determining and realistically applying a lower Q based on spectral data. The field spectrometer is made up of two modules: a detector module with built-in electronics and an analysis module with a IBM PC/reg sign/-compatible computer to control the data acquisition and analysis of data in the field. The unit is simple enough to allow the operator to perform spectral measurements with minimal training. The instrument is intended for use in steady-state radiation fields with neutrons energies covering the fission spectrum range. The prototype field spectrometer has been field tested in plutonium processing facilities, and has been proven to operate satisfactorily. The prototype field spectrometer uses a 3 He proportional counter to measure the neutron energy spectrum between 50 keV and 5 MeV and a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) to measure absorbed neutron dose

  11. Relationship between LIBS Ablation and Pit Volume for Geologic Samples: Applications for in situ Absolute Geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devismes, D.; Cohen, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    In planetary sciences, in situ absolute geochronology is a scientific and engineering challenge. Currently, the age of the Martian surface can only be determined by crater density counting. However this method has significant uncertainties and needs to be calibrated with absolute ages. We are developing an instrument to acquire in situ absolute geochronology based on the K-Ar method. The protocol is based on the laser ablation of a rock by hundreds of laser pulses. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) gives the potassium content of the ablated material and a mass spectrometer (quadrupole or ion trap) measures the quantity of 40Ar released. In order to accurately measure the quantity of released 40Ar in cases where Ar is an atmospheric constituent (e.g., Mars), the sample is first put into a chamber under high vacuum. The 40Arquantity, the concentration of K and the estimation of the ablated mass are the parameters needed to give the age of the rocks. The main uncertainties with this method are directly linked to the measures of the mass (typically some µg) and of the concentration of K by LIBS (up to 10%). Because the ablated mass is small compared to the mass of the sample, and because material is redeposited onto the sample after ablation, it is not possible to directly measure the ablated mass. Our current protocol measures the ablated volume and estimates the sample density to calculate ablated mass. The precision and accuracy of this method may be improved by using knowledge of the sample's geologic properties to predict its response to laser ablation, i.e., understanding whether natural samples have a predictable relationship between laser energy deposited and resultant ablation volume. In contrast to most previous studies of laser ablation, theoretical equations are not highly applicable. The reasons are numerous, but the most important are: a) geologic rocks are complex, polymineralic materials; b) the conditions of ablation are unusual (for example

  12. Application Level Protocol Development for Library and Information Science Applications. Volume 1: Service Definition. Volume 2: Protocol Specification. Report No. TG.1.5; TG.50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, James S.; And Others

    This two-volume document specifies a protocol that was developed using the Reference Model for Open Systems Interconnection (OSI), which provides a framework for communications within a heterogeneous network environment. The protocol implements the features necessary for bibliographic searching, record maintenance, and mail transfer between…

  13. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 1, Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This volume includes the following chapters: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant RCRA A permit application; facility description; waste analysis plan; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; RCRA contingency plan; personnel training; corrective action for solid waste management units; and other Federal laws.

  14. The Solar-Terrestrial Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, John Keith

    1995-05-01

    The book begins with three introductory chapters that provide some basic physics and explain the principles of physical investigation. The principal material contained in the main part of the book covers the neutral and ionized upper atmosphere, the magnetosphere, and structures, dynamics, disturbances, and irregularities. The concluding chapter deals with technological applications. The account is introductory, at a level suitable for readers with a basic background in engineering or physics. The intent is to present basic concepts, and for that reason, the mathematical treatment is not complex. SI units are given throughout, with helpful notes on cgs units where these are likely to be encountered in the research literature. This book is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students who are taking introductory courses on upper atmospheric, ionospheric, or magnetospheric physics. This is a successor to The Upper Atmosphere and Solar-Terrestrial Relations, published in 1979.

  15. OMI Satellite and Ground-Based Pandora Observations and Their Application to Surface NO2 Estimations at Terrestrial and Marine Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollonige, Debra E.; Thompson, Anne M.; Josipovic, Miroslav; Tzortziou, Maria; Beukes, Johan P.; Burger, Roelof; Martins, Douglas K.; van Zyl, Pieter G.; Vakkari, Ville; Laakso, Lauri

    2018-01-01

    The Pandora spectrometer that uses direct-Sun measurements to derive total column amounts of gases provides an approach for (1) validation of satellite instruments and (2) monitoring of total column (TC) ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). We use for the first time Pandora and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) observations to estimate surface NO2 over marine and terrestrial sites downwind of urban pollution and compared with in situ measurements during campaigns in contrasting regions: (1) the South African Highveld (at Welgegund, 26°34'10″S, 26°56'21″E, 1,480 m asl, 120 km southwest of the Johannesburg-Pretoria megacity) and (2) shipboard U.S. mid-Atlantic coast during the 2014 Deposition of Atmospheric Nitrogen to Coastal Ecosystems (DANCE) cruise. In both cases, there were no local NOx sources but intermittent regional pollution influences. For TC NO2, OMI and Pandora difference is 20%, with Pandora higher most times. Surface NO2 values estimated from OMI and Pandora columns are compared to in situ NO2 for both locations. For Welgegund, the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height, used in converting column to surface NO2 value, has been estimated by three methods: co-located Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observations; a model simulation; and radiosonde data from Irene, 150 km northeast of the site. AIRS PBL heights agree within 10% of radiosonde-derived values. Absolute differences between Pandora- and OMI-estimated surface NO2 and the in situ data are better at the terrestrial site ( 0.5 ppbv and 1 ppbv or greater, respectively) than under clean marine air conditions, with differences usually >3 ppbv. Cloud cover and PBL variability influence these estimations.

  16. Formation of hydrogen negative ions by surface and volume processes with application to negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiskes, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    During the last few decades interest in negative-hydrogen ion sources has been directed mainly toward synchrotron and other particle accelerator applications, with emphasis on high current densities delivered for short pulses. But within the last several years there has been an awareness in the magnetic fusion program of the future need for negative ions as a means for generating high energy neutral beams, beams with energies above a few hundred keV. Negative ions seem to be the only effective intermediary for efficiently producing such beams. Although methods for generating negative ion beams have relied upon synchrotron concepts, the requirements for fusion are very different: here one is interested in more moderate current densities, up to 100 m A cm -2 , but with continuous operation. Proposed source modules would accelerate of the order of 10 A of beam current and deliver several megawatts of beam power. Both H - and D - beams are being considered for application in different reactor systems. The conceptualization of negative ion sources is now in a very volatile stage. But of the great variety of proposals that have been offered to date, three general areas appear ready for development. These are: first, the double charge exchange method for converting a positive ion beam into a negative ion beam; second, electron-volume processes wherein low energy electrons interacting with molecular species lead to negative ion products via dissociative attachment or recombination; and third, generation of negative ions in surface interactions, principally via desorption and backscattering. Both our qualitative and our quantitative understanding of these processes diminishes as one proceeds from the first through the third. The physics of these three methods is considered in detail

  17. Comparison of different application systems and CT- assisted treatment planning procedures in primary endometrium cancer: Is it technically possible to include the whole uterus volume in the volume treated by brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mock, U.; Knocke, Th.; Fellner, C.; Poetter, R.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Brachytherapy is regarded as the definitive component of treatment for inoperable patients with endometrium cancer. In published series the whole uterus has been claimed to represent the target volume independently of the individual tumor spread. The purpose of this work is to compare different planning and application procedures and to analyze the target volumes (whole uterus), treatment volumes and their respective relation for the given various conditions. Material and Methods: In ten patients with primary endometrium cancer the correlation between target- and treatment volume was analysed based on standard one-channel applicators or individual Heyman applicators. A comparative analysis of target volumes resulting from two different planning procedures of Heyman applications was performed. CT was carried out after insertion of the Heyman ovoids. Target volume was estimated by measuring the uterus size at different cross sections of the CT images. Dose calculation was performed with (PLATO-system) or without (NPS-system) transferring these data directly to the planning system. We report on the differences in treatment volumes resulting from the two application and planning systems. Results: The mean value of the uterus volume was 180 ccm (range 57 ccm to 316 ccm). Four out of 10 patients had an asymmetric uterus configuration with a side-difference (in longitudinal or transversal direction) of more than 1 cm. On average 70% (range 48-95%) of the uterus volume was included by the treatment volume when Heymann applicators were used compared to 45 % (range 25-89%) when standard one channel applicators were used. This represents an improvement of 25% (range from 11%-35%). By utilizing the more sophisticated way of treatment planning a more adequate coverage of the uterus volume was achieved in five out of ten patients. The treated volume increased on the average by 20 % (range 11 %-32%). In three cases changes in the irradiation volume were less than 5%. In

  18. Lung Volume Reduction After Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy of Lung Tumors: Potential Application to Emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkley, Michael S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Shrager, Joseph B. [Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Leung, Ann N. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Popat, Rita [Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Trakul, Nicholas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Atwood, Todd F.; Chaudhuri, Aadel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Maxim, Peter G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Diehn, Maximilian, E-mail: Diehn@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Loo, Billy W., E-mail: BWLoo@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) improves dyspnea and other outcomes in selected patients with severe emphysema, but many have excessive surgical risk for LVRS. We analyzed the dose-volume relationship for lobar volume reduction after stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) of lung tumors, hypothesizing that SABR could achieve therapeutic volume reduction if applied in emphysema. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified patients treated from 2007 to 2011 who had SABR for 1 lung tumor, pre-SABR pulmonary function testing, and ≥6 months computed tomographic (CT) imaging follow-up. We contoured the treated lobe and untreated adjacent lobe(s) on CT before and after SABR and calculated their volume changes relative to the contoured total (bilateral) lung volume (TLV). We correlated lobar volume reduction with the volume receiving high biologically effective doses (BED, α/β = 3). Results: 27 patients met the inclusion criteria, with a median CT follow-up time of 14 months. There was no grade ≥3 toxicity. The median volume reduction of the treated lobe was 4.4% of TLV (range, −0.4%-10.8%); the median expansion of the untreated adjacent lobe was 2.6% of TLV (range, −3.9%-11.6%). The volume reduction of the treated lobe was positively correlated with the volume receiving BED ≥60 Gy (r{sup 2}=0.45, P=.0001). This persisted in subgroups determined by high versus low pre-SABR forced expiratory volume in 1 second, treated lobe CT emphysema score, number of fractions, follow-up CT time, central versus peripheral location, and upper versus lower lobe location, with no significant differences in effect size between subgroups. Volume expansion of the untreated adjacent lobe(s) was positively correlated with volume reduction of the treated lobe (r{sup 2}=0.47, P<.0001). Conclusions: We identified a dose-volume response for treated lobe volume reduction and adjacent lobe compensatory expansion after lung tumor SABR, consistent across

  19. Assessment of research needs for advanced heterogeneous catalysts for energy applications. Final report: Volume 1, Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, G.A.

    1994-04-01

    This report assesses the direction, technical content, and priority of research needs judged to provide the best chance of yielding new and improved heterogeneous catalysts for energy-related applications over a period of 5--20 years. It addresses issues of energy conservation, alternate fuels and feedstocks, and the economics and applications that could alleviate pollution from energy processes. Recommended goals are defined in 3 major, closely linked research thrusts: catalytic science, environmental protection by catalysis, and industrial catalytic applications. This volume provides a comprehensive executive summary, including research recommendations.

  20. Energy-state formulation of lumped volume dynamic equations with application to a simplified free piston Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, C. J.; Lorenzo, C. F.

    1979-01-01

    Lumped volume dynamic equations are derived using an energy-state formulation. This technique requires that kinetic and potential energy state functions be written for the physical system being investigated. To account for losses in the system, a Rayleigh dissipation function is also formed. Using these functions, a Lagrangian is formed and using Lagrange's equation, the equations of motion for the system are derived. The results of the application of this technique to a lumped volume are used to derive a model for the free-piston Stirling engine. The model was simplified and programmed on an analog computer. Results are given comparing the model response with experimental data.

  1. Automatic definition of targeted biological volumes for the radiotherapy applications; Definition automatique des volumes biologiques cibles pour les applications de radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatt, M.; Visvikis, D. [LaTIM, U650 Inserm, 29 - Brest (France); Cheze-Le-Rest, C. [Service de medecine nucleaire, 29 - Brest (France); Pradier, O. [Service de radiotherapie, 29 - Brest (France)

    2009-10-15

    The proposed method: Fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian (F.L.A.B.) showed its reliability and its precision on very complete collection of realistic simulated and real data. Its use in the context of radiotherapy allows to consider easily the studies implementation and scenari of dose painting or dose escalation, including in complex cases of heterogenous fixations. It is conceivable to apply F.L.A.B. on PET images with F.M.I.S.O. ({sup 18}F fluoro misonidazole) or F.L.T. (fluoro-L-thymidine) to complete the definition of the biological target volume. (N.C.)

  2. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council, established the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) to address the need for coordinated and standardized monitoring of Arctic environments. The CBMP includes an international...... on developing and implementing long-term plans for monitoring the integrity of Arctic biomes: terrestrial, marine, freshwater, and coastal (under development) environments. The CBMP Terrestrial Expert Monitoring Group (CBMP-TEMG) has developed the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan (CBMP......-Terrestrial Plan/the Plan) as the framework for coordinated, long-term Arctic terrestrial biodiversity monitoring. The goal of the CBMP-Terrestrial Plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders, northern communities, and scientists to detect, understand and report on long...

  3. Hydration and blood volume effects on human thermoregulation in the heat: Space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, Michael N.; Gonzalez, Richard R.; Pandolf, Kent B.

    1994-01-01

    Astronauts exposed to prolonged weightlessness will experience deconditioning, dehydration, and hypovolemia which all adversely affect thermoregulation. These thermoregulatory problems can be minimized by several countermeasures that manipulate body water and vascular volumes. USARIEM scientists have extensively studied dehydration effects and several possible countermeasures including hyperhydration, plasma and erythrocyte volume expansion. This paper reviews USARIEM research into these areas.

  4. Study of factors affecting thyroid volume determination by SPECT and preliminary clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yan

    1992-01-01

    Volumes of 7 thyroid phantoms (12-113.4 ml) and 25 thyroids of hyperthyroid patients were determined using TOSHIBA GCA-901A SPECT scanner. Accuracy of calculated volumes was strongly affected by the spatial resolution, total counts of acquisition and the threshold of background subtraction which depended on the thyroid size and the type of collimator used

  5. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  6. Critical levels and loads of atmospheric pollutants for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The emergence of a scientific concept. Application potentials and their limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landmann, G.

    1993-01-01

    The 'critical loads and levels' are defined as the highest atmospheric deposition rate or concentration of a gaseous pollutant, respectively, that will not cause harmful effects on sensitive elements of an ecosystem. The recent emergence of the concept of critical loads and levels is described, from the first explicit mention in 1986 to the production of the first European maps in 1991. The difficulties linked to the definition of the concept and to its english-derived terminology are discussed. The main approaches used for assessing critical loads and levels are briefly described. Important research is developed under the auspices of the Convention of Geneva (Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution Transport, UN-ECE), arising from intensive studies which have been carried out on the effects of air pollution on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems for the past ten or fifteen years. Current knowledge is summarized, as well as the remaining gaps (and questions) which hinder the calculation of the critical thresholds. Finally, beyond the fundamental relevance of this scientifically sound and easily understood concept, its limits are pointed out. In brief, the 'critical loads and levels' concept is attractive and motivating to many scientists: it implies to apply an integrated and finalized approach, favors the prospecting of poorly known ecosystems and regions, and represents an interesting interface with decision makers

  7. Contaminant exposure in terrestrial vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Philip N.; Cobb, George P.; Godard-Codding, Celine; Hoff, Dale; McMurry, Scott T.; Rainwater, Thomas R.; Reynolds, Kevin D.

    2007-01-01

    Here we review mechanisms and factors influencing contaminant exposure among terrestrial vertebrate wildlife. There exists a complex mixture of biotic and abiotic factors that dictate potential for contaminant exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial vertebrates. Chemical fate and transport in the environment determine contaminant bioaccessibility. Species-specific natural history characteristics and behavioral traits then play significant roles in the likelihood that exposure pathways, from source to receptor, are complete. Detailed knowledge of natural history traits of receptors considered in conjunction with the knowledge of contaminant behavior and distribution on a site are critical when assessing and quantifying exposure. We review limitations in our understanding of elements of exposure and the unique aspects of exposure associated with terrestrial and semi-terrestrial taxa. We provide insight on taxa-specific traits that contribute, or limit exposure to, transport phenomenon that influence exposure throughout terrestrial systems, novel contaminants, bioavailability, exposure data analysis, and uncertainty associated with exposure in wildlife risk assessments. Lastly, we identify areas related to exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial organisms that warrant additional research. - Both biotic and abiotic factors determine chemical exposure for terrestrial vertebrates

  8. Bystander Exposure to Ultra-Low-Volume Insecticide Applications Used for Adult Mosquito Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K.D. Peterson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A popular and effective management option for adult mosquitoes is the use of insecticides applied by ultra-low-volume (ULV equipment. However, there is a paucity of data on human dermal exposure to insecticides applied by this method. The objective of the current study was to estimate dermal exposures to the insecticide active ingredient permethrin using water- (Aqua-Reslin® and oil-based (Permanone® 30-30 formulations with passive dosimetry. No significant differences in deposition of permethrin were observed between years, distance from the spray source, front or back of the body, or the placement of the patches on the body. However, exposure to Aqua-Reslin was significantly greater than Permanone 30-30 and average concentrations deposited on the body were 4.2 and 2.1 ng/cm2, respectively. The greater deposition of Aqua-Reslin is most likely due to the higher density of the water-based formulation which causes it to settle out faster than the lighter oil-based formulation of Permanone 30-30. The estimated average absorbed dermal exposure for permethrin from Aqua-Reslin and Permanone 30-30 was 0.00009 and 0.00005 mg/kg body weight, respectively. We also found that ground deposition of ULV insecticides can be used as a surrogate for estimating dermal exposure. The estimated exposures support the findings of previous risk assessments that exposure to ULV applications used for mosquito management are below regulatory levels of concern.

  9. Report on the Survey of the Design Review of New Reactor Applications. Volume 3: Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, Steven; Monninger, John; Nevalainen, Janne; Lorin, Aurelie; ); Webster, Philip; Joyer, Philippe; Kawamura, Tomonori; Lankin, Mikhail; Kubanyi, Jozef; Haluska, Ladislav; Persic, Andreja; Reierson, Craig; Kang, Kyungmin; Kim, Walter

    2016-01-01

    At the tenth meeting of the CNRA Working Group on the Regulation of New Reactors (WGRNR) in March 2013, the Working Group agreed to present the responses to the Second Phase, or Design Phase, of the Licensing Process Survey as a multi-volume text. As such, each report will focus on one of the eleven general technical categories covered in the survey. The general technical categories were selected to conform to the topics covered in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Guide GS-G-4.1. This document, which is the third report on the results of the Design Phase Survey, focuses on the Reactor. The Reactor category includes the following technical topics: fuel system design, reactor internals and core support, nuclear design and core nuclear performance, thermal and hydraulic design, reactor materials, and functional design of reactivity control system. For each technical topic, the member countries described the information provided by the applicant, the scope and level of detail of the technical review, the technical basis for granting regulatory authorisation, the skill sets required and the level of effort needed to perform the review. Based on a comparison of the information provided by the member countries in response to the survey, the following observations were made: - Although the description of the information provided by the applicant differs in scope and level of detail among the member countries that provided responses, there are similarities in the information that is required. - All of the technical topics covered in the survey are reviewed in some manner by all of the regulatory authorities that provided responses. - Design review strategies most commonly used to confirm that the regulatory requirements have been met include document review and independent verification of calculations, computer codes, or models used to describe the design and performance of the core and the fuel. - It is common to consider operating experience and

  10. Sampling based motion planning with reachable volumes: Application to manipulators and closed chain systems

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2014-09-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a geometric representation of the regions the joints of a robot can reach. They can be used to generate constraint satisfying samples for problems including complicated linkage robots (e.g. closed chains and graspers). They can also be used to assist robot operators and to help in robot design.We show that reachable volumes have an O(1) complexity in unconstrained problems as well as in many constrained problems. We also show that reachable volumes can be computed in linear time and that reachable volume samples can be generated in linear time in problems without constraints. We experimentally validate reachable volume sampling, both with and without constraints on end effectors and/or internal joints. We show that reachable volume samples are less likely to be invalid due to self-collisions, making reachable volume sampling significantly more efficient for higher dimensional problems. We also show that these samples are easier to connect than others, resulting in better connected roadmaps. We demonstrate that our method can be applied to 262-dof, multi-loop, and tree-like linkages including combinations of planar, prismatic and spherical joints. In contrast, existing methods either cannot be used for these problems or do not produce good quality solutions.

  11. Sampling based motion planning with reachable volumes: Application to manipulators and closed chain systems

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy; Thomas, Shawna; Amato, Nancy M.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a geometric representation of the regions the joints of a robot can reach. They can be used to generate constraint satisfying samples for problems including complicated linkage robots (e.g. closed chains and graspers). They can also be used to assist robot operators and to help in robot design.We show that reachable volumes have an O(1) complexity in unconstrained problems as well as in many constrained problems. We also show that reachable volumes can be computed in linear time and that reachable volume samples can be generated in linear time in problems without constraints. We experimentally validate reachable volume sampling, both with and without constraints on end effectors and/or internal joints. We show that reachable volume samples are less likely to be invalid due to self-collisions, making reachable volume sampling significantly more efficient for higher dimensional problems. We also show that these samples are easier to connect than others, resulting in better connected roadmaps. We demonstrate that our method can be applied to 262-dof, multi-loop, and tree-like linkages including combinations of planar, prismatic and spherical joints. In contrast, existing methods either cannot be used for these problems or do not produce good quality solutions.

  12. Price-volume multifractal analysis and its application in Chinese stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Zhuang, Xin-tian; Liu, Zhi-ying

    2012-06-01

    An empirical research on Chinese stock markets is conducted using statistical tools. First, the multifractality of stock price return series, ri(ri=ln(Pt+1)-ln(Pt)) and trading volume variation series, vi(vi=ln(Vt+1)-ln(Vt)) is confirmed using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. Furthermore, a multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis between stock price return and trading volume variation in Chinese stock markets is also conducted. It is shown that the cross relationship between them is also found to be multifractal. Second, the cross-correlation between stock price Pi and trading volume Vi is empirically studied using cross-correlation function and detrended cross-correlation analysis. It is found that both Shanghai stock market and Shenzhen stock market show pronounced long-range cross-correlations between stock price and trading volume. Third, a composite index R based on price and trading volume is introduced. Compared with stock price return series ri and trading volume variation series vi, R variation series not only remain the characteristics of original series but also demonstrate the relative correlation between stock price and trading volume. Finally, we analyze the multifractal characteristics of R variation series before and after three financial events in China (namely, Price Limits, Reform of Non-tradable Shares and financial crisis in 2008) in the whole period of sample to study the changes of stock market fluctuation and financial risk. It is found that the empirical results verified the validity of R.

  13. A simple method for the production of large volume 3D macroporous hydrogels for advanced biotechnological, medical and environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savina, Irina N.; Ingavle, Ganesh C.; Cundy, Andrew B.; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V.

    2016-02-01

    The development of bulk, three-dimensional (3D), macroporous polymers with high permeability, large surface area and large volume is highly desirable for a range of applications in the biomedical, biotechnological and environmental areas. The experimental techniques currently used are limited to the production of small size and volume cryogel material. In this work we propose a novel, versatile, simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of large volume porous polymer hydrogels by cryogelation. By controlling the freezing process of the reagent/polymer solution, large-scale 3D macroporous gels with wide interconnected pores (up to 200 μm in diameter) and large accessible surface area have been synthesized. For the first time, macroporous gels (of up to 400 ml bulk volume) with controlled porous structure were manufactured, with potential for scale up to much larger gel dimensions. This method can be used for production of novel 3D multi-component macroporous composite materials with a uniform distribution of embedded particles. The proposed method provides better control of freezing conditions and thus overcomes existing drawbacks limiting production of large gel-based devices and matrices. The proposed method could serve as a new design concept for functional 3D macroporous gels and composites preparation for biomedical, biotechnological and environmental applications.

  14. Finite elements volumes methods: applications to the Navier-Stokes equations and convergence results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emonot, P.

    1992-01-01

    In the first chapter are described the equations modeling incompressible fluid flow and a quick presentation of finite volumes method. The second chapter is an introduction to the finite elements volumes method. The box model is described and a method adapted to Navier-Stokes problems is proposed. The third chapter shows a fault analysis of the finite elements volumes method for the Laplacian problem and some examples in one, two, three dimensional calculations. The fourth chapter is an extension of the error analysis of the method for the Navier-Stokes problem

  15. Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, M.; Chambers, D. P.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    During 2014 dryness continued in the Northern Hemisphere and relative wetness continued in the Southern Hemisphere (Fig. 2.21; Plate 2.1g). These largely canceled out such that the global land surface began and ended the year with a terrestrial water storage (TWS) anomaly slightly below 0 cm (equivalent height of water; Fig. 2.22). TWS is the sum of groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow, and ice. Groundwater responds more slowly to meteorological phenomena than the other components because the overlying soil acts as a low pass filter, but often it has a larger range of variability on multiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti 2001; Alley et al. 2002).In situ groundwater data are only archived and made and Tanzania. The rest of the continent experienced mixed to dry conditions. Significant reductions in TWS in Greenland, Antarctica, and southern coastal Alaska reflect ongoing ice sheet and glacier ablation, not groundwater depletion.

  16. Data acquisition considerations for Terrestrial Laser Scanning of forest plots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkes, Phil; Lau Sarmiento, Alvaro; Disney, Mathias; Calders, Kim; Burt, Andrew; Gonzalez De Tanago Meñaca, J.; Bartholomeus, Harm; Brede, Benjamin; Herold, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The poor constraint of forest Above Ground Biomass (AGB) is responsible, in part, for large uncertainties in modelling future climate scenarios. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) can be used to derive unbiased and non-destructive estimates of tree structure and volume and can, therefore, be used to

  17. The application of finite volume methods for modelling three-dimensional incompressible flow on an unstructured mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, R. D.; Webster, R.

    This paper demonstrates the application of a simple finite volume approach to a finite element mesh, combining the economy of the former with the geometrical flexibility of the latter. The procedure is used to model a three-dimensional flow on a mesh of linear eight-node brick (hexahedra). Simulations are performed for a wide range of flow problems, some in excess of 94,000 nodes. The resulting computer code ASTEC that incorporates these procedures is described.

  18. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: Part B Permit application. Volume 2, Chapter C, Appendix C1-Appendix C8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Volume 2 contains appendices for the following: chemical compatibility analysis of waste forms and container materials; data accumulated from headspace-gas analyses; totals analysis versus toxicity characteristic leaching procedure; waste characterization sampling methods; applicability of real-time radiography; quality assurance objectives for waste characterization sampling and analytical methods; quality assurance project plan requirements; and Waste Isolation Pilot Plant generator/storage site waste screening and acceptance audit program

  19. Application Guide for Bioslurping Volume 2 Principles and Practices of Bioslurping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoeppel, Ron

    1998-01-01

    ...) can make preliminary decisions rather quickly. By reading Volume I, RPMs may determine whether this technology is feasible for remediation of a site contaminated with light, non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL...

  20. Blood volume determination with two radioisotopes: application to non-cardiogenic shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallet, J.-J.

    1975-01-01

    Knowledge of the circulating blood volume may be of great assistance in the study of clinical shock. The isotope dilution principle is used to measure both plasma and red cell volume. Considering the increased capillary permeability in patients in shock, it may be of considerable value to quantify the diffusion of liquid through the capillary walls. A double determination of the volume of distribution of the tracer is to be envisaged. Two methods are described. The first one uses a non-diffusible tracer (sup(99m)Tc-labelled red cells) confined to the intravascular space, giving a measure of the intravascular blood volume. The latter uses 131 I-labelled serum albumin which remains, usually, in the vascular bed, but is able to diffuse through the pores of the capillary membrane, because of its low molecular weight. A resulting increase of the tracer volume distribution, with regard to this capillary diffusion is considered. A comparison of the two methods used simultaneously appear to provide information on the possible liquid diffusion in clinical shock. The results obtained in several pathological conditions are described. They enable conclusion to be drawn on the possibility of errors introduced by the use of 131 I-labelled serum albumin alone in determining the circulating blood volume in clinical shock [fr

  1. Variability of basin-scale terrestrial water storage from a novel application of the water budget equation: the Amazon and the Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, J.; Zeng, N.; Mariotti, A.; Swenson, S.

    2007-12-01

    In an approach termed the P-E-R (or simply PER) method, we apply the basin water budget equation to diagnose the long-term variability of the total terrestrial water storage (TWS). The key input variables are observed precipitation (P) and runoff (R), and estimated evaporation (E). Unlike typical offline land-surface model estimate where only atmospheric variables are used as input, the direct use of observed runoff in the PER method imposes an important constraint on the diagnosed TWS. Although there lack basin-scale observations of evaporation, the tendency of E to have significantly less variability than the difference between precipitation and runoff (P-R) minimizes the uncertainties originating from estimated evaporation. Compared to the more traditional method using atmospheric moisture convergence (MC) minus R (MCR method), the use of observed precipitation in PER method is expected to lead to general improvement, especially in regions atmospheric radiosonde data are too sparse to constrain the atmospheric model analyzed MC such as in the remote tropics. TWS was diagnosed using the PER method for the Amazon (1970-2006) and the Mississippi Basin (1928-2006), and compared with MCR method, land-surface model and reanalyses, and NASA's GRACE satellite gravity data. The seasonal cycle of diagnosed TWS over the Amazon is about 300 mm. The interannual TWS variability in these two basins are 100-200 mm, but multi-dacadal changes can be as large as 600-800 mm. Major droughts such as the Dust Bowl period had large impact with water storage depleted by 500 mm over a decade. Within the short period 2003-2006 when GRACE data was available, PER and GRACE show good agreement both for seasonal cycle and interannual variability, providing potential to cross-validate each other. In contrast, land-surface model results are significantly smaller than PER and GRACE, especially towards longer timescales. While we currently lack independent means to verify these long-term changes

  2. Gastropod shell size and architecture influence the applicability of methods used to estimate internal volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragagnin, Marilia Nagata; Gorman, Daniel; McCarthy, Ian Donald; Sant'Anna, Bruno Sampaio; de Castro, Cláudio Campi; Turra, Alexander

    2018-01-11

    Obtaining accurate and reproducible estimates of internal shell volume is a vital requirement for studies into the ecology of a range of shell-occupying organisms, including hermit crabs. Shell internal volume is usually estimated by filling the shell cavity with water or sand, however, there has been no systematic assessment of the reliability of these methods and moreover no comparison with modern alternatives, e.g., computed tomography (CT). This study undertakes the first assessment of the measurement reproducibility of three contrasting approaches across a spectrum of shell architectures and sizes. While our results suggested a certain level of variability inherent for all methods, we conclude that a single measure using sand/water is likely to be sufficient for the majority of studies. However, care must be taken as precision may decline with increasing shell size and structural complexity. CT provided less variation between repeat measures but volume estimates were consistently lower compared to sand/water and will need methodological improvements before it can be used as an alternative. CT indicated volume may be also underestimated using sand/water due to the presence of air spaces visible in filled shells scanned by CT. Lastly, we encourage authors to clearly describe how volume estimates were obtained.

  3. Tidally Heated Terrestrial Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Wade Garrett

    This work models the surface and internal temperatures for hypothetical terrestrial planets in situations involving extreme tidal heating. The feasibility of such planets is evaluated in terms of the orbital perturbations that may give rise to them, their required proximity to a hoststar, and the potential for the input tidal heating to cause significant partial melting of the mantle. Trapping terrestrial planets into 2:1 resonances with migrating Hot Jupiters is considered as a reasonable way for Earth-like worlds to both maintain high eccentricities and to move to short enough orbital periods (1-20 days) for extreme tidal heating to occur. Secular resonance and secular orbital perturbations may support moderate tidal heating at a low equilibrium eccentricity. At orbital periods below 10-30 days, with eccentricities from 0.01 to 0.1, tidal heat may greatly exceed radiogenic heat production. It is unlikely to exceed insolation, except when orbiting very low luminosity hosts, and thus will have limited surface temperature expression. Observations of such bodies many not be able to detect tidal surface enhancements given a few percent uncertainty in albedo, except on the nightside of spin synchronous airless objects. Otherwise detection may occur via spectral detection of hotspots or high volcanic gas concentrations including sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. The most extreme cases may be able to produce magma oceans, or magma slush mantles with up to 40-60% melt fractions. Tides may alter the habitable zones for smaller red dwarf stars, but are generally detrimental. Multiple viscoelastic models, including the Maxwell, Voigt-Kelvin, Standard Anelastic Solid, and Burgers rheologies are explored and applied to objects such as Io and the super-Earth planet GJ 876d. The complex valued Love number for the Burgers rheology is derived and found to be a useful improvement when modeling the low temperature behavior of tidal bodies, particularly during low eccentricity

  4. Sample volume and alignment analysis for an optical particle counter sizer, and other applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holve, D.J.; Davis, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    Optical methods for particle size distribution measurements in practical high temperature environments are approaching feasibility and offer significant advantages over conventional sampling methods. A key requirement of single particle counting techniques is the need to know features of the sample volume intensity distribution which in general are a function of the particle scattering properties and optical system geometry. In addition, the sample volume intensity distribution is sensitive to system alignment and thus calculations of alignment sensitivity are required for assessment of practical alignment tolerances. To this end, an analysis of sample volume characteristics for single particle counters in general has been developed. Results from the theory are compared with experimental measurements and shown to be in good agreement. A parametric sensitivity analysis is performed and a criterion for allowable optical misalignment is derived for conditions where beam steering caused by fluctuating refractive-index gradients is significant

  5. Weight and volume estimates for aluminum-air batteries designed for electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    The weights and volumes of reactants, electrolyte, and hardware components are estimated for an aluminum-air battery designed for a 40-kW (peak), 70-kWh aluminum-air battery. Generalized equations are derived which express battery power and energy content as functions of total anode area, aluminum-anode weight, and discharge current density. Equations are also presented which express total battery weight and volume as linear combinations of the variables, anode area and anode weight. The sizing and placement of battery components within the engine compartment of typical five-passenger vehicles is briefly discussed.

  6. Solar-terrestrial physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, V.L.

    1977-01-01

    The Glossary is designed to be a technical dictionary that will provide solar workers of various specialties, students, other astronomers and theoreticians with concise information on the nature and the properties of phenomena of solar and solar-terrestrial physics. Each term, or group of related terms, is given a concise phenomenological and quantitative description, including the relationship to other phenomena and an interpretation in terms of physical processes. The references are intended to lead the non-specialist reader into the literature. This section deals with: geomagnetic field; coordinate systems; geomagnetic indices; Dst index; auroral electrojet index AE; daily, 27-day and semi-annual variations of geomagnetic field; micropulsation; geomagnetic storms; storm sudden commencement (SSC) or sudden commencement (SC); initial phase; ring current; sudden impulses; ionosphere; D region; polar cap absorption; sudden ionospheric disturbance; E region; sporadic E; equatorial electrojet; solar flare effect; F 1 and F 2 regions; spread F; travelling ionospheric disturbances; magnetosphere; magnetospheric coordinate systems; plasmasphere; magnetosheath; magnetospheric tail; substorm; radiation belts or Van Allen belts; whistlers; VLF emissions; aurora; auroral forms; auroral oval and auroral zones; auroral intensity; stable auroral red arcs; pulsing aurora; polar glow aurora; and airglow. (B.R.H.)

  7. Licensing an assured isolation facility for low-level radioactive waste. Volume 2: Recommendations on the content and review of an application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, D.J.; Bauser, M.A. [Morgan, Lewis and Bockius, Washington, DC (United States); Baird, R.D. [Rogers and Associates Engineering Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report provides a detailed set of proposed criteria and guidance for the preparation of a license application for an assured isolation facility (AIF). The report is intended to provide a detailed planning basis upon which a prospective applicant may begin pre-licensing discussions with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and initiate development of a license application. The report may also be useful to the NRC or to state regulatory agencies that may be asked to review such an application. Volume 1 of this report provides background information, and describes the licensing approach and methodology. Volume 2 identifies specific information that is recommended for inclusion in a license application.

  8. Licensing an assured isolation facility for low-level radioactive waste. Volume 2: Recommendations on the content and review of an application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, D.J.; Bauser, M.A.; Baird, R.D.

    1998-07-01

    This report provides a detailed set of proposed criteria and guidance for the preparation of a license application for an assured isolation facility (AIF). The report is intended to provide a detailed planning basis upon which a prospective applicant may begin pre-licensing discussions with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and initiate development of a license application. The report may also be useful to the NRC or to state regulatory agencies that may be asked to review such an application. Volume 1 of this report provides background information, and describes the licensing approach and methodology. Volume 2 identifies specific information that is recommended for inclusion in a license application

  9. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 4: License Application Plan and Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-01

    Volume 4 provides the DOE plan and cost estimate for the remaining work necessary to proceed from completing this VA to submitting an LA to NRC. This work includes preparing an EIS and evaluating the suitability of the site. Both items are necessary components of the documentation required to support a decision in 2001 by the Secretary of Energy on whether or not to recommend that the President approve the site for development as a repository. If the President recommends the site to Congress and the site designation becomes effective, then DOE will submit the LA to NRC in 2002 for authorization to construct the repository. The work described in Volume 4 constitutes the last step in the characterization of the Yucca Mountain site and the design and evaluation of the performance of a repository system in the geologic setting of this site. The plans in this volume for the next 4 years' work are based on the results of the previous 15 years' work, as reported in Volumes 1, 2, and 3 of this VA. Volume 1 summarizes what DOE has learned to date about the Yucca Mountain site. Volume 2 describes the current, reference repository design, several design options that might enhance the performance of the reference design, and several alternative designs that represent substantial departures from the reference design. Volume 2 also summarizes the results of tests of candidate materials for waste packages and for support of the tunnels into which waste would be emplaced. Volume 3 provides the results of the latest performance assessments undertaken to evaluate the performance of the design in the geologic setting of Yucca Mountain. The results described in Volumes 1, 2, and 3 provide the basis for identifying and prioritizing the work described in this volume. DOE believes that the planned work, together with the results of previous work, will be sufficient to support a site suitability evaluation for site recommendation and, if the site is recommended and designated, a

  10. Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. M.; Boutrup, S.; Bijl, L. van der

    This report presents the 2004 results of the Danish National Monitoring and Assess-ment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments (NOVANA). 2004 was the first year in which terrestrial nature was included in the monitoring pro-gramme. The report reviews the state of the groundwater......, watercourses, lakes and marine waters and the pressures upon them and reviews the monitoring of terrestrial natural habitats and selected plants and animals. The report is based on the annual reports prepared for each subprogramme by the Topic Centres. The latter reports are mainly based on data collected...

  11. Handbook of Game Theory and Industrial Organization, Volume II: Applications. An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Corchon, Luis; Marini, Marco A.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce here the second volume of the Handbook of Game Theory and Industrial Organization, by L. C. Corchón and M. A. Marini (ed.), Edward Elgar, Cheltenam, UK and Northampton, MA, describing its main aim and its basic structure.

  12. Hybrid Vehicle Technology Constraints and Application Assessment Study : Volume 3. Sections 5 through 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    This four-volume report presents analyses and assessments of both heat engine/battery- and heat engine/flywheel-powered hybrid vehicles to determine if they could contribute to near-term (1980-1990) reductions in transportation energy consumption und...

  13. Hybrid Vehicle Technology Constraints and Application Assessment Study : Volume 1. Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    This four-volume report presents analyses and assessments of both heat engine/battery- and heat engine/flywheel-powered hybrid vehicles to determine if they could contribute to near-term (1980-1990) reductions in transportation energy consumption und...

  14. Hybrid Vehicle Technology Constraints and Application Assessment Study : Volume 2. Sections 1 through 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    This four-volume report presents analyses and assessments of both heat engine/battery- and heat engine/flywheel-powered hybrid vehicles to determine if they could contribute to near-term (1980-1990) reductions in transportation energy consumption und...

  15. Hybrid Vehicle Technology Constraints and Application Assessment Study : Volume 4. Sections 10, 11, and Appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    This four-volume report presents analyses and assessments of both heat engine/battery- and heat engine/flywheel-powered hybrid vehicles to determine if they could contribute to near-term (1980-1990) reductions in transportation energy consumption und...

  16. Implementation of Energy Strategies in Communities (Annex 63) Volume 3: Application of Strategic Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    This report describes, for different scales (city, district and project level) and for 29 conceptualised case studies, how implementation champions can apply the strategic measues from Volume 2. Implementation champions are hereby understood as stakeholders in the city who take the initiative...... to lead and facilitate implementation processes....

  17. Automated cerebellar segmentation: Validation and application to detect smaller volumes in children prenatally exposed to alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie A. Cardenas

    2014-01-01

    Discussion: These results demonstrate excellent reliability and validity of automated cerebellar volume and mid-sagittal area measurements, compared to manual measurements. These data also illustrate that this new technology for automatically delineating the cerebellum leads to conclusions regarding the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the cerebellum consistent with prior studies that used labor intensive manual delineation, even with a very small sample.

  18. Nuclear Fuel Recovery and Recycling Center. License application, PSAR, volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Volume 3 comprises Chapter 5 which provides descriptive information on Nuclear Fuel Recovery and Recycling Center buildings and other facilities, including their locations. The design features discussed include those used to withstand environmental and accidental forces and to insure radiological protection

  19. Environmental radionuclides tracers and timers of terrestrial processes

    CERN Document Server

    Froehlich, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The book presents a state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides to study processes and systems in the continental part of the Earth's environment. It is conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers in the marine environment (Livingston, Marine Radioactivity) and with the radioecology of natural and man-made terrestrial systems (Shaw, Radioactivity in Terrestrial Ecosystems). Although the book focuses on natural and anthropogenic radionuclides (radioactive isotopes), it also refers to stable environmental isotopes, which i

  20. Fluid structure interaction due to fluid communications between fluid volumes. Application to seismic behaviour of F.B.R. vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durandet, E.; Gibert, R.J.; Gantenbein, F.

    1988-01-01

    The internal structures of a pool-type breeder reactor are mainly axisymmetric shells separated by fluid volumes which are connected one to another by small communications. Unfortunately, the communications destroy the axisymmetry of the problem and a correct modelisation by finite element method generally need a lot of small elements compared to the size of the standard mesh of the fluid volumes. To overcome these difficulties, an equivalent axisymmetric element based on a local tridimensional solution in the vicinity of the fluid communication is defined and will be described in the paper. This special fluid element is characterized by an equivalent length and annular cross-section. The second part of the paper is devoted to the application to an horizontal seismic calculation of breeder reactor

  1. Radioactive waste package assay facility. Volume 1. Application of assay technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, D.J.S.; Green, T.H.; Molesworth, T.V.; Staniforth, D.; Strachan, N.R.; Rogers, J.D.; Wise, M.O.; Forrest, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    This report, in three volumes, covers the work carried out by Taylor Woodrow Construction Ltd., and two major sub-contractors: Harwell Laboratory (AEA Technology) and Siemens Plessey Controls Ltd., on the development of a radioactive waste package assay facility, for cemented 500 litre intermediate level waste drums. In volume 1, the reasons for assay are considered together with the various techniques that can be used, and the information that can be obtained. The practical problems associated with the use of the various techniques in an integrated assay facility are identified, and the key parameters defined. Engineering and operational features are examined and provisional designs proposed for facilities at three throughput levels: 15,000, 750 and 30 drums per year respectively. The capital and operating costs for such facilities have been estimated. A number of recommendations are made for further work. 16 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs

  2. Clinical application of tumor volume in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma to predict outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ching-Chih; Huang, Tze-Ta; Lee, Moon-Sing; Hsiao, Shih-Hsuan; Lin, Hon-Yi; Su, Yu-Chieh; Hsu, Feng-Chun; Hung, Shih-Kai

    2010-01-01

    Current staging systems have limited ability to adjust optimal therapy in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This study aimed to delineate the correlation between tumor volume, treatment outcome and chemotherapy cycles in advanced NPC. A retrospective review of 110 patients with stage III-IV NPC was performed. All patients were treated first with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, then concurrent chemoradiation, and followed by adjuvant chemotherapy as being the definitive therapy. Gross tumor volume of primary tumor plus retropharyngeal nodes (GTVprn) was calculated to be an index of treatment outcome. GTVprn had a close relationship with survival and recurrence in advanced NPC. Large GTVprn (≧13 ml) was associated with a significantly poorer local control, lower distant metastasis-free rate, and poorer survival. In patients with GTVprn ≧ 13 ml, overall survival was better after ≧4 cycles of chemotherapy than after less than 4 cycles. The incorporation of GTVprn can provide more information to adjust treatment strategy

  3. Fuzzy Regression Prediction and Application Based on Multi-Dimensional Factors of Freight Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mengting; Li, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Based on the reality of the development of air cargo, the multi-dimensional fuzzy regression method is used to determine the influencing factors, and the three most important influencing factors of GDP, total fixed assets investment and regular flight route mileage are determined. The system’s viewpoints and analogy methods, the use of fuzzy numbers and multiple regression methods to predict the civil aviation cargo volume. In comparison with the 13th Five-Year Plan for China’s Civil Aviation Development (2016-2020), it is proved that this method can effectively improve the accuracy of forecasting and reduce the risk of forecasting. It is proved that this model predicts civil aviation freight volume of the feasibility, has a high practical significance and practical operation.

  4. Water volume quantitation using nuclear magnetic resonance imaging: application to cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecouffe, P.; Huglo, D.; Dubois, P.; Rousseau, J.; Marchandise, X.

    1990-01-01

    Quantitation in proton NMR imaging is applied to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Total intracranial CSF volume was measured from Condon's method: CSF signal was compared with distilled water standard signal in a single sagittal thick slice. Brain signal was reduced to minimum using a 5000/360/400 sequence. Software constraints did not permit easy implementing on imager and uniformity correction was performed on a microcomputer. Accuracy was better than 4%. Total intracranial CSF was found between 91 and 164 ml in 5 healthy volunteers. Extraventricular CSF quantitation appears very improved by this method, but planimetric methods seem better in order to quantify ventricular CSF. This technique is compared to total lung water measurement from proton density according to Mac Lennan's method. Water volume quantitation confirms ability of NMR imaging to quantify biologic parameters but image defects have to be known by strict quality control [fr

  5. Radioactivity handbook. Volume 2: radioactive disintegrations, radiations-matter interactions, applications of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.; Bonfand, E.; Rimbert, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    This volume is the second one of a group of three. The first one exposed nuclides, with neutrons and protons in a stable building: atomic nucleus. Here is the second one with unstable, radioactive nucleus. After the description of different kinds of disintegrations, it is justified to follow radiations in matter and modifications attached to them; different uses of radioactivity are developed in medicine, age determination, industrial utilization and biology

  6. Holographic Recording and Applications of Multiplexed Volume Bragg Gratings in Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-06

    photo-film and was used by Gabor in his first hologram [23]. A photosensitive silver halide is suspended in an emulsion such as a gelatin . The grain...One of the earliest holographic materials to be utilized was the silver halide emulsion. This is essentially a volume manifestation of a traditional...recording full color visible holograms. The sensitivity is around 1-10 μJ/cm2 making silver halide emulsions extremely sensitive and allowing rapid exposure

  7. Application of the finite volume method in the simulation of saturated flows of binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murad, M.A.; Gama, R.M.S. da; Sampaio, R.

    1989-12-01

    This work presents the simulation of saturated flows of an incompressible Newtonian fluid through a rigid, homogeneous and isotropic porous medium. The employed mathematical model is derived from the Continuum Theory of Mixtures and generalizes the classical one which is based on Darcy's Law form of the momentum equation. In this approach fluid and porous matrix are regarded as continuous constituents of a binary mixture. The finite volume method is employed in the simulation. (author) [pt

  8. Sampling Terrestrial Environments for Bacterial Polyketides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hill

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial polyketides are highly biologically active molecules that are frequently used as drugs, particularly as antibiotics and anticancer agents, thus the discovery of new polyketides is of major interest. Since the 1980s discovery of polyketides has slowed dramatically due in large part to the repeated rediscovery of known compounds. While recent scientific and technical advances have improved our ability to discover new polyketides, one key area has been under addressed, namely the distribution of polyketide-producing bacteria in the environment. Identifying environments where producing bacteria are abundant and diverse should improve our ability to discover (bioprospect new polyketides. This review summarizes for the bioprospector the state-of-the-field in terrestrial microbial ecology. It provides insight into the scientific and technical challenges limiting the application of microbial ecology discoveries for bioprospecting and summarizes key developments in the field that will enable more effective bioprospecting. The major recent efforts by researchers to sample new environments for polyketide discovery is also reviewed and key emerging environments such as insect associated bacteria, desert soils, disease suppressive soils, and caves are highlighted. Finally strategies for taking and characterizing terrestrial samples to help maximize discovery efforts are proposed and the inclusion of non-actinomycetal bacteria in any terrestrial discovery strategy is recommended.

  9. Volume Recovery of Polymeric Glasses: Application of a Capacitance-based Measurement Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakib, Nazam; Simon, Sindee

    Glasses, including polymeric glasses, are inherently non-equilibrium materials. As a consequence, the volume and enthalpy of a glass evolve towards equilibrium in a process termed structural recovery. Several open questions and new controversies remain unanswered in the field. Specifically, the presence of intermediate plateaus during isothermal structural recovery has been reported in recent enthalpy work. In addition, the dependence of the relaxation time on state variables and thermal history is unclear. Dilatometry is particularly useful for structural recovery studies because volume is an absolute quantity and volumetric measurements can be done in-situ. A capillary dilatometer, fitted with a linear variable differential transducer, was used previously to measure volume recovery of polymeric glass formers in our laboratory. To improve on the limitations associated with that methodology, including competition between the range of measurements versus the sensitivity, a capacitance-based technique has been developed following the work of Richert, 2010. The modification is performed by converting the glass capillary dilatometer into a cylindrical capacitor. For precision in capacitance data acquisition, an Andeen-Hagerling ultra-precision capacitance bridge (2550A, 1 kHz) is used. The setup will be tested by performing the signatures of structural recovery as described by Kovacs, 1963. Experiments are also planned to address the open questions in the field.

  10. Technical support document for land application of sewage sludge. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.; Beyer, L.; Rookwood, M.; Pacenka, J.; Bergin, J.

    1992-11-01

    The document provides the technical background and justification for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) final regulation (40 CFR Part 503) covering the land application of sewage sludge. The document summarizes current practices in land application and presents data supporting the risk assessment methodology used to derive human health and environmental risk-based limits for contaminants in land applied sewage sludge. The management practices associated with land application are outlined and the different pathways by which contaminants reach highly-exposed individuals (HEIs) through land application are discussed

  11. Westinghouse Reference Safety Analysis Report, RESAR-414. License application, preliminary safety analysis report (RESAR-414) volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Westinghouse's standardized four-loop, single unit NSSS for a pressurized water reactor is described including the core, coolant system, ECCS, emergency boration, chemical and volume control, RHR system, boron recycle, fuel handling, spent fuel pool and associated instrumentation and controls. This reactor is applicable to a plant with a core power level of 3800 MW(t) and 1295 MW(e). The reactor is controlled by temperature coefficients of reactivity; control rod motion, and by a soluble neutron absorber-boric acid

  12. Novel regenerative large-volume immobilized enzyme reactor: preparation, characterization and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Guihua; Wei, Meiping; Chen, Zhengyi; Su, Rihui; Du, Fuyou; Zheng, Yanjie

    2014-09-15

    A novel large-volume immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) on small column was prepared with organic-inorganic hybrid silica particles and applied for fast (10 min) and oriented digestion of protein. At first, a thin enzyme support layer was formed in the bottom of the small column by polymerization with α-methacrylic acid and dimethacrylate. After that, amino SiO2 particles was prepared by the sol-gel method with tetraethoxysilane and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. Subsequently, the amino SiO2 particles were activated by glutaraldehyde for covalent immobilization of trypsin. Digestive capability of large-volume IMER for proteins was investigated by using bovine serum albumin (BSA), cytochrome c (Cyt-c) as model proteins. Results showed that although the sequence coverage of the BSA (20%) and Cyt-c (19%) was low, the large-volume IMER could produce peptides with stable specific sequence at 101-105, 156-160, 205-209, 212-218, 229-232, 257-263 and 473-451 of the amino sequence of BSA when digesting 1mg/mL BSA. Eight of common peptides were observed during each of the ten runs of large-volume IMER. Besides, the IMER could be easily regenerated by reactivating with GA and cross-linking with trypsin after breaking the -C=N- bond by 0.01 M HCl. The sequence coverage of BSA from regenerated IMER increased to 25% comparing the non-regenerated IMER (17%). 14 common peptides. accounting for 87.5% of first use of IMER, were produced both with IMER and regenerated IMER. When the IMER was applied for ginkgo albumin digestion, the sequence coverage of two main proteins of ginkgo, ginnacin and legumin, was 56% and 55%, respectively. (Reviewer 2) Above all, the fast and selective digestion property of the large-volume IMER indicated that the regenerative IMER could be tentatively used for the production of potential bioactive peptides and the study of oriented protein digestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Study on the Evaluation of Field Application of High-Fluidity Concrete Containing High Volume Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Wang Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent concrete industry, high-fluidity concrete is being widely used for the pouring of dense reinforced concrete. Normally, in the case of high-fluidity concrete, it includes high binder contents, so it is necessary to replace part of the cement through admixtures such as fly ash to procure economic feasibility and durability. This study shows the mechanical properties and field applicability of high-fluidity concrete using mass of fly ash as alternative materials of cement. The high-fluidity concrete mixed with 50% fly ash was measured to manufacture concrete that applies low water/binder ratio to measure the mechanical characteristics as compressive strength and elastic modulus. Also, in order to evaluate the field applicability, high-fluidity concrete containing high volume fly ash was evaluated for fluidity, compressive strength, heat of hydration, and drying shrinkage of concrete.

  14. Volume of visual field assessed with kinetic perimetry and its application to static perimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoforidis JB

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available John B ChristoforidisCollege of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to quantify the volume of the kinetic visual field with a single unit that accounts for visual field area and differential luminance sensitivity.Methods: Kinetic visual field perimetry was performed with a Goldmann perimeter using I4e, I3e, I2e, and I1e targets. The visual fields of 25 normal volunteers (17 women, eight men of mean age 33.9 ± 10.1 (range 17–64 years were obtained and digitized. Isopter areas were measured with a method devised to correct cartographic distortion due to polar projection inherent in perimetry and are expressed in steradians. The third dimension of each isopter represents sensitivity to target luminance and was calculated as log (target luminance-1. If luminance is expressed in cd/m2, the values for the third dimension are 0.5 for I4e, 1.0 for I3e, 1.5 for I2e, and 2.0 for I1e. The resulting unit is a steradian (log 103 (cd/m2-1 which is referred to as a Goldmann. In addition, the visual fields of four patients with representative visual defect patterns were examined and compared with normal subjects.Results: Mean isopter areas for normal subjects were 3.092 ± 0.242 steradians for I4e, 2.349 ± 0.280 steradians for I3e, 1.242 ± 0.263 steradians for I2e, and 0.251 ± 0.114 steradians for the I1e target. Isopter volumes were 1.546 ± 0.121 Goldmanns for the I4e target, 1.174 ± 0.140 Goldmanns for I3e, 0.621 ± 0.131 Goldmanns for I2e, and 0.126 ± 0.057 Goldmanns for I1e. The total mean visual field volume in our study for the I target was 3.467 ± 0.371 Goldmanns.Conclusion: The volume of the island of vision may be used to quantify a visual field with a single value which contains information about both visual field extension and differential luminance sensitivity. This technique may be used to assess the progression or stability of visual field defects over time. A similar method may

  15. Three dimensional volume rendering virtual endoscopy of the ossicles using a multi-row detector CT: applications and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Su Yeon; Choi, Sun Seob; Kang, Myung Jin; Shin, Tae Beom; Lee, Ki Nam; Kang, Myung Koo

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to know the applications and limitations of three dimensional volume rendering virtual endoscopy of the ossicles using a multi-row detector CT. This study examined 25 patients who underwent temporal bone CT using a 16-row detector CT as a result of hearing problems or trauma. The axial CT scan of the temporal bone was performed with a 0.6 mm collimation, and a reconstruction was carried out with a U70u sharp of kernel value, a 1 mm thickness and 0.5-1.0 mm increments. After observing the ossicles in the axial and coronal images, virtual endoscopy was performed using a three dimensional volume rendering technique with a threshold value of-500 HU. The intra-operative otoendoscopy was performed in 12 ears, and was compared with the virtual endoscopy findings. Virtual endoscopy of the 29 ears without hearing problems demonstrated hypoplastic or an incomplete depiction of the stapes superstructures in 25 ears and a normal depiction in 4 ears. Virtual endoscopy of 21 ears with hearing problems demonstrated no ossicles in 1 ears, no malleus in 3 ears, a malleoincudal subluxation in 6 ears, a dysplastic incus in 5 ears, an incudostapedial subluxation in 9 ears, dysplastic stapes in 2 ears, a hypoplastic or incomplete depiction of the stapes in 16 ears and no stapes in 1 ears. In contrast to the intra-operative otoendoscopy, 8 out of 12 ears showed a hypoplastic or deformed stapes in the virtual endoscopy. Volume rendering virtual endoscopy using a multi-row detector CT is an excellent method for evaluation the ossicles in three dimension, even thought the partial volume effect for the stapes superstructures needs to be considered

  16. Real-time bladder volume monitoring by the application of a new implantable bladder volume sensor for a small animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Sup Lee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Although real-time monitoring of bladder volume together with intravesical pressure can provide more information for understanding the functional changes of the urinary bladder, it still entails difficulties in the accurate prediction of real-time bladder volume in urodynamic studies with small animal models. We studied a new implantable bladder volume monitoring device with eight rats. During cystometry, microelectrodes prepared by the microelectromechanical systems process were placed symmetrically on both lateral walls of the bladder, and the expanded bladder volume was calculated. Immunohistological study was done after 1 week and after 4 weeks to evaluate the biocompatibility of the microelectrode. From the point that infused saline volume into the bladder was higher than 0.6 mL, estimated bladder volume was statistically correlated with the volume of saline injected (p<0.01. Additionally, the microelectromechanical system microelectrodes used in this study showed reliable biocompatibility. Therefore, the device can be used to evaluate changes in bladder volume in studies with small animals, and it may help to provide more information about functional changes in the bladder in laboratory studies. Furthermore, owing to its biocompatibility, the device could be chronically implanted in conscious ambulating animals, thus allowing a novel longitudinal study to be performed for a specific purpose.

  17. Global analytic treatment of terrestrial photogrammetric networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mayoud, M

    1980-01-01

    In order to solve certain special CERN metrology problems, analytical terrestrial photogrammetry may have some advantages which are first discussed along with their drawbacks and limitations. In this application, it is necessary to carry out a rigorous and global adjustment of the observations and simultaneously process all the perspective ray bundles. The basic principles, the least squares solution and the stochastic analysis of the results are presented. However, for the CERN project, one wonders if the production of digital theodolites is going to reduce the advantages of the photogrammetric method. (12 refs).

  18. High-resolution dynamic angiography using flat-panel volume CT: feasibility demonstration for neuro and lower limb vascular applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehndiratta, Amit; Rabinov, James D.; Grasruck, Michael; Liao, Eric C.; Crandell, David; Gupta, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates a prototype flat-panel volume CT (fpVCT) for dynamic in vivo imaging in a variety of neurovascular and lower limb applications. Dynamic CTA was performed on 12 patients (neuro = 8, lower limb = 4) using an fpVCT with 120 kVp, 50 mA, rotation time varying from 8 to 19 s, and field of view of 25 x 25 x 18 cm 3 . Four-dimensional data sets (i.e. 3D images over time) were reconstructed and reviewed. Dynamic CTA demonstrated sufficient spatio-temporal resolution to elucidate first-pass and recirculation dynamics of contrast bolus through neurovasclar pathologies and phasic blood flow though lower-limb vasculature and grafts. The high spatial resolution of fpVCT resulted in reduced partial volume and metal beam-hardening artefacts. This facilitated assessment of vascular lumen in the presence of calcified plaque and evaluation of fractures, especially in the presence of fixation hardware. Evaluation of arteriovenous malformation using dynamic fpVCT angiography was of limited utility. Dynamic CTA using fpVCT can visualize time-varying phenomena in neuro and lower limb vascular applications and has sufficient diagnostic imaging quality to evaluate a number of pathologies affecting these regions. (orig.)

  19. High-resolution dynamic angiography using flat-panel volume CT: feasibility demonstration for neuro and lower limb vascular applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehndiratta, Amit [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); University of Oxford, Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Keble College, Oxford (United Kingdom); Indian Institute of Technology Delhi and All India Institute of Medical Science, Centre for Biomedical Engineering, New Delhi (India); Rabinov, James D. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Interventional Neuroradiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Grasruck, Michael [Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany); Liao, Eric C. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Center for Regenerative Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Crandell, David [Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA (United States); Gupta, Rajiv [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-07-15

    This paper evaluates a prototype flat-panel volume CT (fpVCT) for dynamic in vivo imaging in a variety of neurovascular and lower limb applications. Dynamic CTA was performed on 12 patients (neuro = 8, lower limb = 4) using an fpVCT with 120 kVp, 50 mA, rotation time varying from 8 to 19 s, and field of view of 25 x 25 x 18 cm{sup 3}. Four-dimensional data sets (i.e. 3D images over time) were reconstructed and reviewed. Dynamic CTA demonstrated sufficient spatio-temporal resolution to elucidate first-pass and recirculation dynamics of contrast bolus through neurovasclar pathologies and phasic blood flow though lower-limb vasculature and grafts. The high spatial resolution of fpVCT resulted in reduced partial volume and metal beam-hardening artefacts. This facilitated assessment of vascular lumen in the presence of calcified plaque and evaluation of fractures, especially in the presence of fixation hardware. Evaluation of arteriovenous malformation using dynamic fpVCT angiography was of limited utility. Dynamic CTA using fpVCT can visualize time-varying phenomena in neuro and lower limb vascular applications and has sufficient diagnostic imaging quality to evaluate a number of pathologies affecting these regions. (orig.)

  20. Intersatellite Link (ISL) application to commercial communications satellites. Volume 2: Technical final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S. Lee

    1987-01-01

    Intersatellite Link (ISL) applications can improve and expand communication satellite services in a number of ways. As the demand for orbital slots within prime regions of the geostationary arc increases, attention is being focused on ISLs as a method to utilize this resource more efficiently and circumvent saturation. Various GEO-to-GEO applications were determined that provide potential benefits over existing communication systems. A set of criteria was developed to assess the potential applications. Intersatellite link models, network system architectures, and payload configurations were developed. For each of the chosen ISL applications, ISL versus non-ISL satellite systems architectures were derived. Both microwave and optical ISL implementation approaches were evaluated for payload sizing and cost analysis. The technological availability for ISL implementations was assessed. Critical subsystems technology areas were identified, and an estamate of the schedule and cost to advance the technology to the requiered state of readiness was made.

  1. An overview of artificial intelligence and robotics. Volume 1: Artificial intelligence. Part B: Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is an emerging technology that has recently attracted considerable attention. Many applications are now under development. This report, Part B of a three part report on AI, presents overviews of the key application areas: Expert Systems, Computer Vision, Natural Language Processing, Speech Interfaces, and Problem Solving and Planning. The basic approaches to such systems, the state-of-the-art, existing systems and future trends and expectations are covered.

  2. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 3: Environmental issues and evaluation criteria for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1979-01-01

    The environmental issues and evaluation criteria relating to the suitability of sites proposed for photovoltaic (PV) system deployment are identified. The important issues are defined, briefly discussed and then developed into evaluation criteria. System designers are provided with information on the environmental sensitivity of PV systems in realistic applications, background material which indicates the applicability of the siting issues identified, and evaluation criteria are defined to facilitate the selection of sites that maximize PV system operation.

  3. Clinical application of three-dimensional spiral CT cerebral angiography with volume rendering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Shaoyin; Huang Xi'en; Kang Jianghe; Zhang Dantong; Lin Qingchi; Cai Guoxiang; Xu Meixin; Pang Ruilin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the methodology and assess the clinical value of three-dimensional CT angiography (3D-CTA) with volume rendering (VR) in cerebral vessels. Methods: Sixty-two patients were examined by means of 3D-CTA with volume rendering. VR was used in the reconstruction of 3D images, and the demonstration of normal vessels and vascular lesions were particularly analyzed. At the same time, comparisons were made between the images of VR and SSD, MIP, and also between the diagnosis of VR-CTA and DSA or postoperative results. Results: In VR images, cerebral vessel routes and vessel cavities were showed clearly, while the relationship among vascular lesions, surrounding vessels, and neighboring structure was distinguished. 50 cases (80.6%) were found positive, 48 of which were correct and 2 were false-positive compared with DSA or postoperative results. The accurate rate of diagnosis was 96.0%. There was no obvious difference in showing the cerebral vessel among the images of VR, SSD and MIP (P > 0.25). Conclusion: Three-dimensional CT cerebral angiography with VR is a new noninvasive effective method. It can even partly replace the DSA. The 3D-images have the characteristics of showing the cerebral vascular cavity and overlapped vessels without cutting the skull

  4. Application of the Streamflow Prediction Tool to Estimate Sediment Dredging Volumes in Texas Coastal Waterways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, E.; Dreaper, G.; Afshari, S.; Tavakoly, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past six fiscal years, the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has contracted an average of about a billion dollars per year for navigation channel dredging. To execute these funds effectively, USACE Districts must determine which navigation channels need to be dredged in a given year. Improving this prioritization process results in more efficient waterway maintenance. This study uses the Streamflow Prediction Tool, a runoff routing model based on global weather forecast ensembles, to estimate dredged volumes. This study establishes regional linear relationships between cumulative flow and dredged volumes over a long-term simulation covering 30 years (1985-2015), using drainage area and shoaling parameters. The study framework integrates the National Hydrography Dataset (NHDPlus Dataset) with parameters from the Corps Shoaling Analysis Tool (CSAT) and dredging record data from USACE District records. Results in the test cases of the Houston Ship Channel and the Sabine and Port Arthur Harbor waterways in Texas indicate positive correlation between the simulated streamflows and actual dredging records.

  5. Pin on flat wear volume prediction of UHMWPE against cp Ti for orthopedic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handoko, Suyitno, Dharmastiti, Rini; Magetsari, Rahadyan

    2018-04-01

    Tribological assessment of orthopedic biomaterials requires a lot of testing time. Researchers must test the biomaterials in millions of cycles at low frequency (1 Hz) to mimic the in vivo conditions. It is a problem because product designs and developments could not wait longer for wear data to predict the lifetime of their products. The problem can be solved with the use of computation techniques to model the wear phenomena and provide predicted data. The aim of this research is to predict the wear volume of the commonly used ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) sliding against commercially pure titanium (cp Ti) in the unidirectional pin on flat tests. The 9 mm diameter UHMWPE pin and cp Ti plate contact mechanics were modeled using Abaqus. Contact pressure was set at 3 MPa. Outputs of the computations (contact pressure and contact area) were used to calculate the wear volume with Archard law. A custom Python script was made to automate the process. The results were then compared with experimental data for validations. The predicted data were in a good trend with numerical errors from 0.3% up to 26%.

  6. Visual interface for space and terrestrial analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Edmund G.; Williams, Jason R.; George, Arthur A.; Heckathorn, Harry M.; Snyder, William A.

    1995-01-01

    The management of large geophysical and celestial data bases is now, more than ever, the most critical path to timely data analysis. With today's large volume data sets from multiple satellite missions, analysts face the task of defining useful data bases from which data and metadata (information about data) can be extracted readily in a meaningful way. Visualization, following an object-oriented design, is a fundamental method of organizing and handling data. Humans, by nature, easily accept pictorial representations of data. Therefore graphically oriented user interfaces are appealing, as long as they remain simple to produce and use. The Visual Interface for Space and Terrestrial Analysis (VISTA) system, currently under development at the Naval Research Laboratory's Backgrounds Data Center (BDC), has been designed with these goals in mind. Its graphical user interface (GUI) allows the user to perform queries, visualization, and analysis of atmospheric and celestial backgrounds data.

  7. Assessment of research needs for advanced heterogeneous catalysts for energy applications. Final report: Volume 2, Topic reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, G.A.

    1994-04-01

    This report assesses the direction, technical content, and priority of research needs judged to provide the best chance of yielding new and improved heterogeneous catalysts for energy-related applications over the period of 5-20 years. It addresses issues of energy conservation, alternate fuels and feedstocks, and the economics and applications that could alleviate pollution from energy processes. Recommended goals are defined in 3 research thrusts: catalytic science, environmental protection by catalysis, and industrial catalytic applications. This study was conducted by an 11-member panel of experts from industry and academia, including one each from Japan and Europe. This volume first presents an in-depth overview of the role of catalysis in future energy technology in chapter 1; then current catalytic research is critically reviewed and research recommended in 8 topic chapters: catalyst preparation (design and synthesis), catalyst characterization (structure/function), catalyst performance testing, reaction kinetics/reactor design, catalysis for industrial chemicals, catalysis for electrical applications (clean fuels, pollution remediation), catalysis for control of exhaust emissions, and catalysts for liquid transportation fuels from petroleum, coal, residual oil, and biomass.

  8. Feedback linearization based control of a variable air volume air conditioning system for cooling applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thosar, Archana; Patra, Amit; Bhattacharyya, Souvik

    2008-07-01

    Design of a nonlinear control system for a Variable Air Volume Air Conditioning (VAVAC) plant through feedback linearization is presented in this article. VAVAC systems attempt to reduce building energy consumption while maintaining the primary role of air conditioning. The temperature of the space is maintained at a constant level by establishing a balance between the cooling load generated in the space and the air supply delivered to meet the load. The dynamic model of a VAVAC plant is derived and formulated as a MIMO bilinear system. Feedback linearization is applied for decoupling and linearization of the nonlinear model. Simulation results for a laboratory scale plant are presented to demonstrate the potential of keeping comfort and maintaining energy optimal performance by this methodology. Results obtained with a conventional PI controller and a feedback linearizing controller are compared and the superiority of the proposed approach is clearly established.

  9. Capillary plasma jet: A low volume plasma source for life science applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topala, I., E-mail: ionut.topala@uaic.ro, E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Iasi Plasma Advanced Research Center (IPARC), Bd. Carol I No. 11, Iasi 700506 (Romania); Nagatsu, M., E-mail: ionut.topala@uaic.ro, E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)

    2015-02-02

    In this letter, we present results from multispectroscopic analysis of protein films, after exposure to a peculiar plasma source, i.e., the capillary plasma jet. This plasma source is able to generate very small pulsed plasma volumes, in kilohertz range, with characteristic dimensions smaller than 1 mm. This leads to specific microscale generation and transport of all plasma species. Plasma diagnosis was realized using general electrical and optical methods. Depending on power level and exposure duration, this miniature plasma jet can induce controllable modifications to soft matter targets. Detailed discussions on protein film oxidation and chemical etching are supported by results from absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques. Further exploitation of principles presented here may consolidate research interests involving plasmas in biotechnologies and plasma medicine, especially in patterning technologies, modified biomolecule arrays, and local chemical functionalization.

  10. Volume-heated boiling pool behavior and application to transition phase accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsberg, T.; Jones, O.C. Jr.; Chen, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Observations of two-phase flow fields in volume-heated boiling pools are reported. Photographic observations, together with pool-average void fraction measurements are presented. Flow regime transition criterial derived from the measurements are discussed. The churn-turbulent flow regime was the dominant regime for superficial vapor velocity. Within this range of conditions, a churn-turbulent drift flux model provides a reasonable prediction of the pool-average void fraction data. The results of the experiment and analysis are extrapolated to transition phase conditions. It is shown that intense pool boil-up could occur where the pool-average void fraction would be greater than 0.6 for steel vaporization rates equivalent to power levels greater than one percent of nominal LMFBR power density. (author)

  11. Volume-heated boiling pool flow behavior and application to transition phase accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsberg, T.; Jones, O.C. Jr.; Chen, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Observations of two-phase flow fields in volume-heated boiling pools are reported. Photographic observations, together with pool-average void fraction measurements are presented. Flow regime transition criteria derived from the measurements are discussed. The churn-turbulent flow regime was the dominant regime for superficial vapor velocities up to nearly five times the Kutateladze dispersal velocity. Within this range of conditions, a churn-turbulent drift flux model provides a reasonable prediction of the pool-average void fraction data. The results of the experiment and analyses are extrapolated to transition phase conditions. It is shown that intense pool boil-up could occur where the pool-average void fraction would be greater than 0.6 for steel vaporization rates equivalent to power levels greater than one percent of nominal LMFBR power density

  12. Capillary plasma jet: A low volume plasma source for life science applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topala, I.; Nagatsu, M.

    2015-02-01

    In this letter, we present results from multispectroscopic analysis of protein films, after exposure to a peculiar plasma source, i.e., the capillary plasma jet. This plasma source is able to generate very small pulsed plasma volumes, in kilohertz range, with characteristic dimensions smaller than 1 mm. This leads to specific microscale generation and transport of all plasma species. Plasma diagnosis was realized using general electrical and optical methods. Depending on power level and exposure duration, this miniature plasma jet can induce controllable modifications to soft matter targets. Detailed discussions on protein film oxidation and chemical etching are supported by results from absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques. Further exploitation of principles presented here may consolidate research interests involving plasmas in biotechnologies and plasma medicine, especially in patterning technologies, modified biomolecule arrays, and local chemical functionalization.

  13. Application of volume of fluid method for simulation of a droplet impacting a fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khalili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, impact of a Newtonian drop on horizontal thin fibers with circular cross section is simulated in 2D views. The numerical simulations of the phenomena are carried out using volume of fluid (VOF method for tracking the free surface motion. Impacting of a Newtonian droplet on a circular thin fiber (350μm radius investigated numerically. The main focus of this simulation is to acquire threshold radius and velocity of a drop which is entirely captured by the fiber. The model agrees well with the experiments and demonstrates the threshold radius decreased generally with the increase of impact velocity. In other words, for velocity larger than threshold velocity of capture perhaps only a small portion of fluid is stuck on the solid and the rest of the drop is ejected for impact velocity smaller than critical velocity the drop is totally captured. This threshold velocity has been determined when the impact is centered.

  14. Industrial applications study. Volume V. Bibliography of relevant literature. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Harry L.; Hamel, Bernard B.; Karamchetty, Som; Steigelmann, William H.; Gajanana, Birur C.; Agarwal, Anil P.; Klock, Lawrence W.; Henderson, James M.; Calobrisi, Gary; Hedman, Bruce A.; Koluch, Michael; Biancardi, Frank; Bass, Robert; Landerman, Abraham; Peters, George; Limaye, Dilip; Price, Jeffrey; Farr, Janet

    1976-12-01

    This five-volume report represents an initial Phase O evaluation of waste heat recovery and utilization potential in the manufacturing portion of the industrial sector. The scope of this initial phase was limited to the two-digit SIC level and addressed the feasibility of obtaining in-depth energy information in the industrial sector. Within this phase, a successful methodology and approaches for data gathering and assessment are established. Using these approaches, energy use and waste heat profiles were developed at the 2-digit level; with this data, waste heat utilization technologies were evaluated. The first section of the bibliography lists extensive citations for all industries. The next section is composed of an extensive literature search with abstracts for industrial energy conservation. EPA publications on specific industries and general references conclude the publication. (MCW)

  15. Multiagent Systems and Applications Volume 2 Development Using the GORITE BDI Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Jarvis, Dennis; Ronnquist, Ralph; Jain, Lakhmi C

    2013-01-01

    Since its conception almost 30 years ago, the BDI (Belief Desire Intention) model of agency has become established, along with Soar, as the approach of choice for practitioners in the development of knowledge intensive agent applications. However, in developing BDI agent applications for over 15 years, the authors of this book have observed a disconnect between what the BDI model provides and what is actually required of an agent model in order to build practical systems. The GORITE BDI framework was  developed to address this gap and this book is written for students, researchers and practitioners who wish to gain a practical understanding of how GORITE is used to develop BDI agent applications. In this regard, a feature of the book is the use of complete, annotated examples. As GORITE is a Java framework,  a familiarity with Java (or a similar language) is assumed, but no prior knowledge of the BDI model is required.

  16. Microinvasion of liver metastases from colorectal cancer: predictive factors and application for determining clinical target volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Yang; Zeng, Zhao-Chong; Ji, Yuan; Xiao, Yin-Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the microscopic characteristics of liver metastases from colorectal cancer (LMCRC) invasion and provides a reference for expansion from gross tumor volume (GTV) to clinical targeting volume (CTV). Data from 129 LMCRC patients treated by surgical resection at our hospital between January 2008 and September 2009 were collected for study. Tissue sections used for pathology and clinical data were reviewed. Patient information used for the study included gender, age, original tumor site, number of tumors, tumor size, levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199), synchronous or metachronous liver metastases, and whether patients received chemotherapy. The distance of liver microinvasion from the tumor boundary was measured microscopically by two senior pathologists. Of 129 patients evaluated, 81 (62.8 %) presented microinvasion distances from the tumor boundary ranging between 1.0 − 7.0 mm. A GTV-to-CTV expansion of 5, 6.7, or 7.0 mm was required to provide a 95, 99, or 100 % probability, respectively, of obtaining clear resection margins by microscopic observation. The extent of invasion was not related to gender, age, synchronous or metachronous liver metastases, tumor size, CA199 level, or chemotherapy. The extent of invasion was related to original tumor site, CEA level, and number of tumors. A scoring system was established based on the latter three positive predictors. Using this system, an invasion distance less than 3 mm was measured in 93.4 % of patients with a score of ≤1 point, but in only 85.7 % of patients with a score of ≤2 points. The extent of tumor invasion in our LMCRC patient cohort correlated with original tumor site, CEA level, and number of tumors. These positive predictors may potentially be used as a scoring system for determining GTV-to-CTV expansion

  17. Application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-15

    The conference on application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining was held June 1-3, 1980, at the University of Luleaa, Luleaa, Sweden. Basic rock mechanics investigations of interest involving improving the support characteristics of backfilling by adding cement, compacting, and water removal have been entered individually into EDB. The papers also cover measurements of the support capability of such fills and the application of deformation measurements and calculations using finite element computer codes to the mining of particular ore bodies, including changes in the calculations as the mining progressed. (LTN)

  18. Utilization of the terrestrial cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Furukawa, Jun; Kimura, Shunta; Yokoshima, Mika; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    The terrestrial, N _{2}-fixing cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune has expected to utilize for agriculture, food and terraforming cause of its extracellular polysaccharide, desiccation tolerance and nitrogen fixation. Previously, the first author indicated that desiccation related genes were analyzed and the suggested that the genes were related to nitrogen fixation and metabolisms. In this report, we suggest possibility of agriculture, using the cyanobacterium. Further, we also found radioactive compounds accumulated N. commune (cyanobacterium) in Fukushima, Japan after nuclear accident. Thus, it is investigated to decontaminate radioactive compounds from the surface soil by the cyanobacterium and showed to accumulate radioactive compounds using the cyanobacterium. We will discuss utilization of terrestrial cyanobacteria under closed environment. Keyword: Desiccation, terrestrial cyanobacteria, bioremediation, agriculture

  19. Case-study application of venture analysis: the integrated energy utility. Volume 3. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fein, E; Gordon, T J; King, R; Kropp, F G; Shuchman, H L; Stover, J; Hausz, W; Meyer, C

    1978-11-01

    The appendices for a case-study application of venture analysis for an integrated energy utility for commercialization are presented. The following are included and discussed: utility interviews; net social benefits - quantitative calculations; the financial analysis model; market penetration decision model; international district heating systems; political and regulatory environment; institutional impacts.

  20. The Art and Science of Psychological Operations: Case Studies of Military Application. Volume One

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    and of the Royal Ballet against the background of the Pyramids of Giza during the city of Cairo’s millenary celebrations in 1969, accounted for only 8...Research Associate, Department of Psy- Mary chology, Swarthmore College. GESSNER, Free-lance film editor and camera as- Peter sistant. GIZA ...Army, by Richard H. Giza --------- 1100 East Asia ---------------------------------------------- 1105 Political Warfare-Qualified Application, by

  1. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a research and development facility for the demonstration of the permanent isolation of transuranic radioactive wastes in a geologic formation. The facility was constructed in southeastern New Mexico in a manner intended to meet criteria established by the scientific and regulatory community for the safe, long-term disposal of transuranic wastes. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing an application to demonstrate compliance with the requirements outlined in Title 40, Part 191 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for the permanent disposal of transuranic wastes. As mandated by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Land Withdrawal Act of 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must evaluate this compliance application and provide a determination regarding compliance with the requirements within one year of receiving a complete application. Because the WIPP is a very complex program, the DOE has planned to submit the application as a draft in two parts. This strategy will allow for the DOE and the EPA to begin technical discussions on critical WIPP issues before the one-year compliance determination period begins. This report is the first of these two draft submittals.

  2. Probabilistic risk assessment course documentation. Volume 2. Probability and statistics for PRA applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iman, R.L.; Prairie, R.R.; Cramond, W.R.

    1985-08-01

    This course is intended to provide the necessary probabilistic and statistical skills to perform a PRA. Fundamental background information is reviewed, but the principal purpose is to address specific techniques used in PRAs and to illustrate them with applications. Specific examples and problems are presented for most of the topics

  3. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a research and development facility for the demonstration of the permanent isolation of transuranic radioactive wastes in a geologic formation. The facility was constructed in southeastern New Mexico in a manner intended to meet criteria established by the scientific and regulatory community for the safe, long-term disposal of transuranic wastes. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing an application to demonstrate compliance with the requirements outlined in Title 40, Part 191 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for the permanent disposal of transuranic wastes. As mandated by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Land Withdrawal Act of 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must evaluate this compliance application and provide a determination regarding compliance with the requirements within one year of receiving a complete application. Because the WIPP is a very complex program, the DOE has planned to submit the application as a draft in two parts. This strategy will allow for the DOE and the EPA to begin technical discussions on critical WIPP issues before the one-year compliance determination period begins. This report is the first of these two draft submittals

  4. Iso-Surface Volume Rendering : speed and accuracy for medical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, Marco

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes the research on the accuracy and speed of different methods for the visualization of three-dimensional (3D)sets of (measured) data. In medical environments, these 3D datasets are generated by for instance CT and MRI scanners. The medical application makes special demands on the

  5. Soil and terrestrial biology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Soil and terrestrial biology studies focused on developing an understanding of the uptake of gaseous substances from the atmosphere by plants, biodegradation of oil, and the movement of Pu in the terrestrial ecosystems of the southeastern United States. Mathematical models were developed for SO 2 and tritium uptake from the atmosphere by plants; the uptake of tritium by soil microorganisms was measured; and the relationships among the Pu content of soil, plants, and animals of the Savannah River Plant area were studied. Preliminary results are reported for studies on the biodegradation of waste oil on soil surfaces

  6. Structure of the terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyttleton, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Recent reviews (cf. Runcorn, 1968; or Cook, 1972, 1975) on the structure of the planets omit reference to the phase-change hypothesis for the nature of the terrestrial core, despite that numerous prior predictions of the theory based on this hypothesis have subsequently been borne out as correct. These reviews also ignore the existence of theoretical calculations of the internal structure of Venus which can be computed with high accuracy by use of the terrestrial seismic data. Several examples of numerous mistakes committed in these reviews are pointed out. (Auth.)

  7. Priapism caused by 'Tribulus terrestris'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, M; De Thomasis, R; Tenaglia, R L

    2016-01-01

    A 36-year-old Caucasian man was diagnosed with a 72-h-lasting priapism that occurred after the assumption of a Herbal supplement based on Tribulus terrestris, which is becoming increasingly popular for the treatment of sexual dysfunction. The patient underwent a cavernoglandular shunt (Ebbehoj shunt) in order to obtain complete detumescence, from which derived negative post-episode outcomes on sexual function. All patients consuming non-FDA-approved alternative supplements such as Tribulus terrestris should be warned about the possible serious side effects.

  8. Handbook of reflector antennas and feed systems v.3 applications of reflectors

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Sudhakar; Sharma, Satish K

    2013-01-01

    This is the first truly comprehensive and most up-to-date handbook available on modern reflector antennas and feed sources for diversified space and ground applications. There has never been such an all-encompassing reflector handbook in print, and no currently available title offers coverage of such recent research developments. The Handbook consists of three volumes. Volume III focuses on the range of reflector antenna applications, including space, terrestrial, and radar. The intent of this book volume is to provide practical applications and design information on reflector antennas used fo

  9. Carbon dioxide efficiency of terrestrial enhanced weathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosdorf, Nils; Renforth, Phil; Hartmann, Jens

    2014-05-06

    Terrestrial enhanced weathering, the spreading of ultramafic silicate rock flour to enhance natural weathering rates, has been suggested as part of a strategy to reduce global atmospheric CO2 levels. We budget potential CO2 sequestration against associated CO2 emissions to assess the net CO2 removal of terrestrial enhanced weathering. We combine global spatial data sets of potential source rocks, transport networks, and application areas with associated CO2 emissions in optimistic and pessimistic scenarios. The results show that the choice of source rocks and material comminution technique dominate the CO2 efficiency of enhanced weathering. CO2 emissions from transport amount to on average 0.5-3% of potentially sequestered CO2. The emissions of material mining and application are negligible. After accounting for all emissions, 0.5-1.0 t CO2 can be sequestered on average per tonne of rock, translating into a unit cost from 1.6 to 9.9 GJ per tonne CO2 sequestered by enhanced weathering. However, to control or reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations substantially with enhanced weathering would require very large amounts of rock. Before enhanced weathering could be applied on large scales, more research is needed to assess weathering rates, potential side effects, social acceptability, and mechanisms of governance.

  10. Application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-15

    The conference on application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining was held June 1-3, 1980, at the University of Luleaa, Sweden. The conference began with reviews of the application of rock mechanics to mining and back filling in Australia, Canada and the USA. More particular papers involved mines in Sweden, Italy, Australia (pre reinforcement of walls with steel cables cemented in) and at the Con Mine in Canada. Two papers involved backfill material and specifications. Eight papers involved the use of the mathematical models for calculating the stresses developed in the rock mass by computer calculations and therefore, the probable stability. Such calculations are particularly necessary in deep mines. Papers of general interest were entered individually into EDB. (LTN)

  11. Application handbook for a Standardized Control Module (SCM) for DC-DC converters, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. C.; Mahmoud, M. F.; Yu, Y.

    1980-01-01

    The standardized control module (SCM) was developed for application in the buck, boost and buck/boost DC-DC converters. The SCM used multiple feedback loops to provide improved input line and output load regulation, stable feedback control system, good dynamic transient response and adaptive compensation of the control loop for changes in open loop gain and output filter time constraints. The necessary modeling and analysis tools to aid the design engineer in the application of the SCM to DC-DC Converters were developed. The SCM functional block diagram and the different analysis techniques were examined. The average time domain analysis technique was chosen as the basic analytical tool. The power stage transfer functions were developed for the buck, boost and buck/boost converters. The analog signal and digital signal processor transfer functions were developed for the three DC-DC Converter types using the constant on time, constant off time and constant frequency control laws.

  12. Application handbook for a Standardized Control Module (SCM) for DC-DC converters, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. C.; Mahmoud, M. F.; Yu, Y.

    1980-04-01

    The standardized control module (SCM) was developed for application in the buck, boost and buck/boost DC-DC converters. The SCM used multiple feedback loops to provide improved input line and output load regulation, stable feedback control system, good dynamic transient response and adaptive compensation of the control loop for changes in open loop gain and output filter time constraints. The necessary modeling and analysis tools to aid the design engineer in the application of the SCM to DC-DC Converters were developed. The SCM functional block diagram and the different analysis techniques were examined. The average time domain analysis technique was chosen as the basic analytical tool. The power stage transfer functions were developed for the buck, boost and buck/boost converters. The analog signal and digital signal processor transfer functions were developed for the three DC-DC Converter types using the constant on time, constant off time and constant frequency control laws.

  13. Solar thermal power systems point-focusing thermal and electric applications projects. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, A.

    1980-01-01

    The activities of the Point-Focusing Thermal and Electric Applications (PETEA) project for the fiscal year 1979 are summarized. The main thrust of the PFTEA Project, the small community solar thermal power experiment, was completed. Concept definition studies included a small central receiver approach, a point-focusing distributed receiver system with central power generation, and a point-focusing distributed receiver concept with distributed power generation. The first experiment in the Isolated Application Series was initiated. Planning for the third engineering experiment series, which addresses the industrial market sector, was also initiated. In addition to the experiment-related activities, several contracts to industry were let and studies were conducted to explore the market potential for point-focusing distributed receiver (PFDR) systems. System analysis studies were completed that looked at PFDR technology relative to other small power system technology candidates for the utility market sector.

  14. Space applications of Automation, Robotics and Machine Intelligence Systems (ARAMIS). Volume 2: Space projects overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. H.; Minsky, M. L.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1982-01-01

    Applications of automation, robotics, and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS) to space activities, and their related ground support functions are studied so that informed decisions can be made on which aspects of ARAMIS to develop. The space project breakdowns, which are used to identify tasks ('functional elements'), are described. The study method concentrates on the production of a matrix relating space project tasks to pieces of ARAMIS.

  15. AGARD Flight Test Instrumentation Series. Volume 18. Microprocessor Applications in Airborne Flight Test Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    flowcharting . 3. ProEram Codin in HLL. This stage consists of transcribing the previously designed program into R an t at can be translated into the machine...specified conditios 7. Documentation. Program documentation is necessary for user information, for maintenance, and for future applications. Flowcharts ...particular CP U. Asynchronous. Operating without reference to an overall timing source. BASIC. Beginners ’ All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code; a widely

  16. Application of advanced diffraction based optical metrology overlay capabilities for high-volume manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai-Hsiung; Huang, Guo-Tsai; Hsieh, Hung-Chih; Ni, Wei-Feng; Chuang, S. M.; Chuang, T. K.; Ke, Chih-Ming; Huang, Jacky; Rao, Shiuan-An; Cumurcu Gysen, Aysegul; d'Alfonso, Maxime; Yueh, Jenny; Izikson, Pavel; Soco, Aileen; Wu, Jon; Nooitgedagt, Tjitte; Ottens, Jeroen; Kim, Yong Ho; Ebert, Martin

    2017-03-01

    On-product overlay requirements are becoming more challenging with every next technology node due to the continued decrease of the device dimensions and process tolerances. Therefore, current and future technology nodes require demanding metrology capabilities such as target designs that are robust towards process variations and high overlay measurement density (e.g. for higher order process corrections) to enable advanced process control solutions. The impact of advanced control solutions based on YieldStar overlay data is being presented in this paper. Multi patterning techniques are applied for critical layers and leading to additional overlay measurement demands. The use of 1D process steps results in the need of overlay measurements relative to more than one layer. Dealing with the increased number of overlay measurements while keeping the high measurement density and metrology accuracy at the same time presents a challenge for high volume manufacturing (HVM). These challenges are addressed by the capability to measure multi-layer targets with the recently introduced YieldStar metrology tool, YS350. On-product overlay results of such multi-layers and standard targets are presented including measurement stability performance.

  17. Remote spectral measurements of the blood volume pulse with applications for imaging photoplethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, Ethan B.; Estepp, Justin R.; McDuff, Daniel J.

    2018-02-01

    Imaging photoplethysmography uses camera image sensors to measure variations in light absorption related to the delivery of the blood volume pulse to peripheral tissues. The characteristics of the measured BVP waveform depends on the spectral absorption of various tissue components including melanin, hemoglobin, water, and yellow pigments. Signal quality and artifact rejection can be enhanced by taking into account the spectral properties of the BVP waveform and surrounding tissue. The current literature regarding the spectral relationships of remote PPG is limited. To supplement this fundamental data, we present an analysis of remotely-measured, visible and near-infrared spectroscopy to better understand the spectral signature of remotely measured BVP signals. To do so, spectra were measured from the right cheek of 25, stationary participants whose heads were stabilized by a chinrest. A collimating lens was used to collect reflected light from a region of 3 cm in diameter. The spectrometer provided 3 nm resolution measurements from 500-1000 nm. Measurements were acquired at a rate of 50 complete spectra per second for a period of five minutes. Reference physiology, including electrocardiography was simultaneously and synchronously acquired. The spectral data were analyzed to determine the relationship between light wavelength and the resulting remote-BVP signal-to-noise ratio and to identify those bands best suited for pulse rate measurement. To our knowledge this is the most comprehensive dataset of remotely-measured spectral iPPG data. In due course, we plan to release this dataset for research purposes.

  18. Evaluation of semiconductor devices for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle (EHV) ac-drive applications, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. C.; Chen, D. Y.; Jovanovic, M.; Hopkins, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    The results of evaluation of power semiconductor devices for electric hybrid vehicle ac drive applications are summarized. Three types of power devices are evaluated in the effort: high power bipolar or Darlington transistors, power MOSFETs, and asymmetric silicon control rectifiers (ASCR). The Bipolar transistors, including discrete device and Darlington devices, range from 100 A to 400 A and from 400 V to 900 V. These devices are currently used as key switching elements inverters for ac motor drive applications. Power MOSFETs, on the other hand, are much smaller in current rating. For the 400 V device, the current rating is limited to 25 A. For the main drive of an electric vehicle, device paralleling is normally needed to achieve practical power level. For other electric vehicle (EV) related applications such as battery charger circuit, however, MOSFET is advantageous to other devices because of drive circuit simplicity and high frequency capability. Asymmetrical SCR is basically a SCR device and needs commutation circuit for turn off. However, the device poses several advantages, i.e., low conduction drop and low cost.

  19. Development and Application of a Low-Volume Flow System for Solution-State in Vivo NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei Anaraki, Maryam; Dutta Majumdar, Rudraksha; Wagner, Nicole; Soong, Ronald; Kovacevic, Vera; Reiner, Eric J; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Ortiz Almirall, Xavier; Lane, Daniel; Simpson, Myrna J; Heumann, Hermann; Schmidt, Sebastian; Simpson, André J

    2018-06-18

    In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a particularly powerful technique, since it allows samples to be analyzed in their natural, unaltered state, criteria paramount for living organisms. In this study, a novel continuous low-volume flow system, suitable for in vivo NMR metabolomics studies, is demonstrated. The system allows improved locking, shimming, and water suppression, as well as allowing the use of trace amounts of expensive toxic contaminants or low volumes of precious natural environmental samples as stressors. The use of a double pump design with a sump slurry pump return allows algal food suspensions to be continually supplied without the need for filters, eliminating the possibility of clogging and leaks. Using the flow system, the living organism can be kept alive without stress indefinitely. To evaluate the feasibility and applicability of the flow system, changes in the metabolite profile of 13 C enriched Daphnia magna over a 24-h period are compared when feeding laboratory food vs exposing them to a natural algal bloom sample. Clear metabolic changes are observed over a range of metabolites including carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, and a nucleotide demonstrating in vivo NMR as a powerful tool to monitor environmental stress. The particular bloom used here was low in microcystins, and the metabolic stress impacts are consistent with the bloom being a poor food source forcing the Daphnia to utilize their own energy reserves.

  20. Application of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane hybrid process for water reclamation

    KAUST Repository

    Im, Sung-Ju

    2017-11-15

    A new concept of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane (VRO-LPM) hybrid process was developed and evaluated for the first time in this study. Commercially available forward osmosis (FO) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were employed in a VRO-LPM hybrid process to overcome energy limitations of draw solution (DS) regeneration and production of permeate in the FO process. To evaluate its feasibility as a water reclamation process, and to optimize the operational conditions, cross-flow FO and dead-end mode UF processes were individually evaluated. For the FO process, a DS concentration of 0.15 g mL−1 of polysulfonate styrene (PSS) was determined to be optimal, having a high flux with a low reverse salt flux. The UF membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 1 kDa was chosen for its high PSS rejection in the LPM process. As a single process, UF (LPM) exhibited a higher flux than FO, but this could be controlled by adjusting the effective membrane area of the FO and UF membranes in the VRO-LPM system. The VRO-LPM hybrid process only required a circulation pump for the FO process. This led to a decrease in the specific energy consumption of the VRO-LPM process for potable water production, that was similar to the single FO process. Therefore, the newly developed VRO-LPM hybrid process, with an appropriate DS selection, can be used as an energy efficient water production method, and can outperform conventional water reclamation processes.

  1. Application of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane hybrid process for water reclamation

    KAUST Repository

    Im, Sung-Ju; Choi, Jungwon; Lee, Jung Gil; Jeong, Sanghyun; Jang, Am

    2017-01-01

    A new concept of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane (VRO-LPM) hybrid process was developed and evaluated for the first time in this study. Commercially available forward osmosis (FO) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were employed in a VRO-LPM hybrid process to overcome energy limitations of draw solution (DS) regeneration and production of permeate in the FO process. To evaluate its feasibility as a water reclamation process, and to optimize the operational conditions, cross-flow FO and dead-end mode UF processes were individually evaluated. For the FO process, a DS concentration of 0.15 g mL−1 of polysulfonate styrene (PSS) was determined to be optimal, having a high flux with a low reverse salt flux. The UF membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 1 kDa was chosen for its high PSS rejection in the LPM process. As a single process, UF (LPM) exhibited a higher flux than FO, but this could be controlled by adjusting the effective membrane area of the FO and UF membranes in the VRO-LPM system. The VRO-LPM hybrid process only required a circulation pump for the FO process. This led to a decrease in the specific energy consumption of the VRO-LPM process for potable water production, that was similar to the single FO process. Therefore, the newly developed VRO-LPM hybrid process, with an appropriate DS selection, can be used as an energy efficient water production method, and can outperform conventional water reclamation processes.

  2. Application of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane hybrid process for water reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Sung-Ju; Choi, Jungwon; Lee, Jung-Gil; Jeong, Sanghyun; Jang, Am

    2018-03-01

    A new concept of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane (VRO-LPM) hybrid process was developed and evaluated for the first time in this study. Commercially available forward osmosis (FO) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were employed in a VRO-LPM hybrid process to overcome energy limitations of draw solution (DS) regeneration and production of permeate in the FO process. To evaluate its feasibility as a water reclamation process, and to optimize the operational conditions, cross-flow FO and dead-end mode UF processes were individually evaluated. For the FO process, a DS concentration of 0.15 g mL -1 of polysulfonate styrene (PSS) was determined to be optimal, having a high flux with a low reverse salt flux. The UF membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 1 kDa was chosen for its high PSS rejection in the LPM process. As a single process, UF (LPM) exhibited a higher flux than FO, but this could be controlled by adjusting the effective membrane area of the FO and UF membranes in the VRO-LPM system. The VRO-LPM hybrid process only required a circulation pump for the FO process. This led to a decrease in the specific energy consumption of the VRO-LPM process for potable water production, that was similar to the single FO process. Therefore, the newly developed VRO-LPM hybrid process, with an appropriate DS selection, can be used as an energy efficient water production method, and can outperform conventional water reclamation processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical Application of an Open-Source 3D Volume Rendering Software to Neurosurgical Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes de Oliveira Santos, Bruno; Silva da Costa, Marcos Devanir; Centeno, Ricardo Silva; Cavalheiro, Sergio; Antônio de Paiva Neto, Manoel; Lawton, Michael T; Chaddad-Neto, Feres

    2018-02-01

    Preoperative recognition of the anatomic individualities of each patient can help to achieve more precise and less invasive approaches. It also may help to anticipate potential complications and intraoperative difficulties. Here we describe the use, accuracy, and precision of a free tool for planning microsurgical approaches using 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructions from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We used the 3D volume rendering tool of a free open-source software program for 3D reconstruction of images of surgical sites obtained by MRI volumetric acquisition. We recorded anatomic reference points, such as the sulcus and gyrus, and vascularization patterns for intraoperative localization of lesions. Lesion locations were confirmed during surgery by intraoperative ultrasound and/or electrocorticography and later by postoperative MRI. Between August 2015 and September 2016, a total of 23 surgeries were performed using this technique for 9 low-grade gliomas, 7 high-grade gliomas, 4 cortical dysplasias, and 3 arteriovenous malformations. The technique helped delineate lesions with an overall accuracy of 2.6 ± 1.0 mm. 3D reconstructions were successfully performed in all patients, and images showed sulcus, gyrus, and venous patterns corresponding to the intraoperative images. All lesion areas were confirmed both intraoperatively and at the postoperative evaluation. With the technique described herein, it was possible to successfully perform 3D reconstruction of the cortical surface. This reconstruction tool may serve as an adjunct to neuronavigation systems or may be used alone when such a system is unavailable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. High-volume use of self-cementing spray dry absorber material for structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Charles E.

    Spray dry absorber (SDA) material, or spray dryer ash, is a byproduct of energy generation by coal combustion and sulfur emissions controls. Like any resource, it ought to be used to its fullest potential offsetting as many of the negative environmental impacts of coal combustion as possible throughout its lifecycle. Its cementitious and pozzolanic properties suggest it be used to augment or replace another energy and emissions intensive product: Portland cement. There is excellent potential for spray dryer ash to be used beneficially in structural applications, which will offset CO2 emissions due to Portland cement production, divert landfill waste by further utilizing a plentiful coal combustion by-product, and create more durable and sustainable structures. The research into beneficial use applications for SDA material is relatively undeveloped and the material is highly underutilized. This dissertation explored a specific self-cementing spray dryer ash for use as a binder in structural materials. Strength and stiffness properties of hydrated spray dryer ash mortars were improved by chemical activation with Portland cement and reinforcement with polymer fibers from automobile tire recycling. Portland cement at additions of five percent of the cementitious material was found to function effectively as an activating agent for spray dryer ash and had a significant impact on the hardened properties. The recycled polymer fibers improved the ductility and toughness of the material in all cases and increased the compressive strength of weak matrix materials like the pure hydrated ash. The resulting hardened materials exhibited useful properties that were sufficient to suggest that they be used in structural applications such as concrete, masonry block, or as a hydraulic cement binder. While the long-term performance characteristics remain to be investigated, from an embodied-energy and carbon emissions standpoint the material investigated here is far superior to

  5. Thirteenth Workshop for Computational Fluid Dynamic Applications in Rocket Propulsion and Launch Vehicle Technology. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. W. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    This conference publication includes various abstracts and presentations given at the 13th Workshop for Computational Fluid Dynamic Applications in Rocket Propulsion and Launch Vehicle Technology held at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center April 25-27 1995. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss experimental and computational fluid dynamic activities in rocket propulsion and launch vehicles. The workshop was an open meeting for government, industry, and academia. A broad number of topics were discussed including computational fluid dynamic methodology, liquid and solid rocket propulsion, turbomachinery, combustion, heat transfer, and grid generation.

  6. Intersatellite Link (ISL) application to commercial communications satellites. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S. Lee

    1987-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive evaluation of the fundamental Intersatellite Link (ISL) systems characteristics, potential applications of ISLs to domestic, regional, and global commercial satellite communications were identified, and their cost-effectiveness and other systems benefits quantified wherever possible. Implementation scenarios for the cost-effective communications satellite systems employing ISLs were developed for the first launch in 1993 to 1994 and widespread use of ISLs in the early 2000's. Critical technology requirements for both the microwave (60 GHz) and optical (0.85 micron) ISL implementations were identified, and their technology development programs, including schedule and cost estimates, were derived.

  7. Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 1: Final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive study of advanced water recovery and solid waste processing techniques employed in both aerospace and domestic or commercial applications is reported. A systems approach was used to synthesize a prototype system design of an advanced water treatment/waste processing system. Household water use characteristics were studied and modified through the use of low water use devices and a limited amount of water reuse. This modified household system was then used as a baseline system for development of several water treatment waste processing systems employing advanced techniques. A hybrid of these systems was next developed and a preliminary design was generated to define system and hardware functions.

  8. Phase 3 study of selected tether applications in space. Volume 2: Study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Engineering designs were developed relative to a tethered launch assist from the Shuttle for payloads up to 10,000 kg mass and the tethering of a 15,000 kg science platform from the space station. These designs are used for a cost benefit analysis which assesses the feasibility of using such systems as a practical alternative to what would otherwise be accomplished by conventional means. The term conventional as related to both these applications is intended to apply to the use of some form(s) of chemical propulsion system.

  9. Optimal nutrient application strategy for bioremediation of oil-polluted beaches. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Zhao, Q.; Boufadel, M.C.; Venosa, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    Offshore oil spills in coastal areas generally occur in the intertidal zone of beaches and affect the top 25 cm of soil, known as the bioremediation zone. Biostimulation by nutrient application such as nitrogen and phosphorus is a viable technology for restoring oil-contaminated beaches. The key for achieving a rapid cost-effective cleanup is to ensure maximum nutrient residence time. This study proposed a strategy that consisted of injecting nutrients through a perforated pipe at the high tide line. Beach hydraulics were numerically simulated to estimate the optimal injection flow rate of nutrient solution. It was shown that the optimal application should begin following high tide just as it drops and should last for half a tidal cycle. The flow rate ensures that the saturated wet-front of the nutrient solution on the beach surface moves seaward with the same speed of the falling tide keeping a constant distance with the tide line. The numerical results were generalized to a broad range of hydraulic and tidal properties of beaches using an innovative dimensionless formulation for water flow and solute transport in porous media. Nomographs were presented to provide the flow rate based on 4 parameters, notably the beach slope, permeability, tidal amplitude and tidal period. 29 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  10. Grouting applications in civil engineering. Volume I and II. [800 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einstein, H.H.; Barvenik, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive description of grouting applications in civil engineering is presented that can serve as a basis for the selection of grouting methods in the borehole sealing problem. The breadth and depth of the study was assured by conducting the main part of the review, the collection and evaluation of information, without specifically considering the borehole sealing problem (but naturally incorporating any aspect of civil engineering applications that could be of potential use). Grouting is very much an art and not a science. In most cases, it is a trial and error procedure where an inexpensive method is initially tried and then a more expensive one is used until the desired results are obtained. Once a desired effect is obtained, it is difficult to credit any one procedure with the success because the results are due to the summation of all the methods used. In many cases, the method that proves successful reflects a small abnormality in the ground or structure rather than its overall characteristics. Hence, successful grouting relies heavily on good engineering judgement and experience, and not on a basic set of standard correlations or equations. 800 references. (JRD)

  11. Selection methodology for LWR safety programs and proposals. Volume 2. Methodology application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritzman, R.L.; Husseiny, A.A.

    1980-08-01

    The results of work done to update and apply a methodology for selecting (prioritizing) LWR safety technology R and D programs are described. The methodology is based on multiattribute utility (MAU) theory. Application of the methodology to rank-order a group of specific R and D programs included development of a complete set of attribute utility functions, specification of individual attribute scaling constants, and refinement and use of an interactive computer program (MAUP) to process decision-maker inputs and generate overall (multiattribute) program utility values. The output results from several decision-makers are examined for consistency and conclusions and recommendations regarding general use of the methodology are presented. 3 figures, 18 tables

  12. Study of application of adaptive systems to the exploration of the solar system. Volume 1: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The field of artificial intelligence to identify practical applications to unmanned spacecraft used to explore the solar system in the decade of the 80s is examined. If an unmanned spacecraft can be made to adjust or adapt to the environment, to make decisions about what it measures and how it uses and reports the data, it can become a much more powerful tool for the science community in unlocking the secrets of the solar system. Within this definition of an adaptive spacecraft or system, there is a broad range of variability. In terms of sophistication, an adaptive system can be extremely simple or as complex as a chess-playing machine that learns from its mistakes.

  13. The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library (PTAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, S. C.; Dypvik, H.; Poulet, F.; Rull Perez, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Bultel, B.; Casanova Roque, C.; Carter, J.; Cousin, A.; Guzman, A.; Hamm, V.; Hellevang, H.; Lantz, C.; Lopez-Reyes, G.; Manrique, J. A.; Maurice, S.; Medina Garcia, J.; Navarro, R.; Negro, J. I.; Neumann, E. R.; Pilorget, C.; Riu, L.; Sætre, C.; Sansano Caramazana, A.; Sanz Arranz, A.; Sobron Grañón, F.; Veneranda, M.; Viennet, J.-C.; PTAL Team

    2018-04-01

    The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library project aims to build and exploit a spectral data base for the characterisation of the mineralogical and geological evolution of terrestrial planets and small solar system bodies.

  14. Terrestrial Steering Group. 2014. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Peter; Aronsson, Mora; Barry, Tom

    capacity and information may be currently available and (b) to outline near-term required steps to begin implementing the plan and reporting on an initial set of Arctic terrestrial biodiversity focal ecosystem component attributes. The specific objectives of the workshop were to: Identify key products...... for TSG for the next two years. Identify key components of a pan-Arctic status report for priority focal ecosystem components (FEC) attributes for policy and decision makers. Develop a prioritized set of activities to meet reporting objectives. Identify key milestones and timelines for the successful...... implementation of the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan for the next two years. Identify expert networks required for successful implementation of the plan. Identify key gaps and opportunities for the TSG related to plan implementation and identify near-term next steps to address gaps....

  15. Highly Accurate Tree Models Derived from Terrestrial Laser Scan Data: A Method Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hackenberg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for fitting cylinders into a point cloud, derived from a terrestrial laser-scanned tree. Utilizing high scan quality data as the input, the resulting models describe the branching structure of the tree, capable of detecting branches with a diameter smaller than a centimeter. The cylinders are stored as a hierarchical tree-like data structure encapsulating parent-child neighbor relations and incorporating the tree’s direction of growth. This structure enables the efficient extraction of tree components, such as the stem or a single branch. The method was validated both by applying a comparison of the resulting cylinder models with ground truth data and by an analysis between the input point clouds and the models. Tree models were accomplished representing more than 99% of the input point cloud, with an average distance from the cylinder model to the point cloud within sub-millimeter accuracy. After validation, the method was applied to build two allometric models based on 24 tree point clouds as an example of the application. Computation terminated successfully within less than 30 min. For the model predicting the total above ground volume, the coefficient of determination was 0.965, showing the high potential of terrestrial laser-scanning for forest inventories.

  16. Assessment of human sinus cavity air volume using tunable diode laser spectroscopy, with application to sinusitis diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Li, Tianqi; Lin, Huiying; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2015-11-01

    Sinusitis is a very common disease and improved diagnostic tools are desirable also in view of reducing over-prescription of antibiotics. A non-intrusive optical technique called GASMAS (GAs in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy), which has a true potential of being developed into an important complement to other means of detection, was utilized in this work. Water vapor in the frontal sinuses, related to the free gas volume, was studied at around 937 nm in healthy volunteers. The results show a good stability of the GASMAS signals over extended times for the frontal sinuses for all volunteers, showing promising applicability to detect anomalies due to sinusitis. Measurements were also performed following the application of a decongestion spray. No noticeable signal change was observed, which is consistent with the fact that the water vapor concentration is given by the temperature only, and is not influenced by changes in cavity ventilation. Evaluated GASMAS data recorded on 6 consecutive days show signal stability for the left and right frontal sinus in one of the test volunteers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution (EASIE), version 1.0. Volume 2: Program integration guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Randall, Donald P.; Stallcup, Scott S.; Rowell, Lawrence F.

    1988-01-01

    The Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution, EASIE, provides a methodology and a set of software utility programs to ease the task of coordinating engineering design and analysis codes. EASIE was designed to meet the needs of conceptual design engineers that face the task of integrating many stand-alone engineering analysis programs. Using EASIE, programs are integrated through a relational data base management system. In volume 2, the use of a SYSTEM LIBRARY PROCESSOR is used to construct a DATA DICTIONARY describing all relations defined in the data base, and a TEMPLATE LIBRARY. A TEMPLATE is a description of all subsets of relations (including conditional selection criteria and sorting specifications) to be accessed as input or output for a given application. Together, these form the SYSTEM LIBRARY which is used to automatically produce the data base schema, FORTRAN subroutines to retrieve/store data from/to the data base, and instructions to a generic REVIEWER program providing review/modification of data for a given template. Automation of these functions eliminates much of the tedious, error prone work required by the usual approach to data base integration.

  18. Applications of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to radionuclide determinations: Second volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrow, R.W.; Crain, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    Even from its early conception, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was thought to be well-suited to the unique measurement problems facing the nuclear industry. These thoughts were well-founded; indeed, one might consider it unusual if a modern nuclear research center did not have access to one or more ICP mass spectrometers (quadrupole or otherwise). However, as ICP-MS has matured, improvements in sensitivity and precision have made possible measurements that were inconceivable to the founding fathers of the technology. Therefore, there is a periodic need to gather information and obtain a snapshot in time of the technology and its applications in nuclear energy. This second symposium was an international event in which speakers from the US, Europe, and the Middle East described new developments in ICP-MS relevant to the nuclear energy community. The papers presented at the 1998 symposium are published herein. Several papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  19. Case-study application of venture analysis: the integrated energy utility. Volume 2. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fein, E; Gordon, T J; King, R; Kropp, F G; Shuchman, H L; Stover, J; Hausz, W; Meyer, C

    1978-11-01

    Application of venture analysis would, at a minimum, need to address issues involving careful definition of the product/service being considered; market needs that the product will satisfy; investment/manufacturing costs; minimum selling price needed to achieve desired ROI or other financial measure; market potential at relevant prices; potential for competitors to obsolete the product before investment is recovered; assessment of companies' resources and capabilities to supply the product. There is clearly no single method for performing every venture analysis, because the economic and structural environment associated with each industry varies widely. These and other factors produce differences in cost structure, marketing organizations, and nature of products which dictate that an appropriate method of venture analysis must be tailored to each industry. The initial chapter of the report presents some brief remarks concerning the important concepts that all venture analyses must consider and then describes in detail the method used for the venture analyzed in this report. The case study addresses IEUS for commercialization. The type of IEUS investigated supplies electricity and thermal energy; the thermal energy distributed in the form of high-temperature water, i.e., water from at least 90/sup 0/C upwards to 200/sup 0/C. (MCW)

  20. Water vapor estimation using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, S.; Ohta, H.; Hanado, H.; Yamamoto, M. K.; Shiga, N.; Kido, K.; Yasuda, S.; Goto, T.; Ichikawa, R.; Amagai, J.; Imamura, K.; Fujieda, M.; Iwai, H.; Sugitani, S.; Iguchi, T.

    2017-03-01

    A method of estimating water vapor (propagation delay due to water vapor) using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves is proposed. Our target is to improve the accuracy of numerical weather forecast for severe weather phenomena such as localized heavy rainstorms in urban areas through data assimilation. In this method, we estimate water vapor near a ground surface from the propagation delay of digital terrestrial broadcasting waves. A real-time delay measurement system with a software-defined radio technique is developed and tested. The data obtained using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves show good agreement with those obtained by ground-based meteorological observation. The main features of this observation are, no need for transmitters (receiving only), applicable wherever digital terrestrial broadcasting is available and its high time resolution. This study shows a possibility to estimate water vapor using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves. In the future, we will investigate the impact of these data toward numerical weather forecast through data assimilation. Developing a system that monitors water vapor near the ground surface with time and space resolutions of 30 s and several kilometers would improve the accuracy of the numerical weather forecast of localized severe weather phenomena.

  1. Disease Threat at High Terrestrial Altitudes. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    vegetation form called the " paramo " exists between 4,003 and 5,000 meters. The paramo consists of rosettes, cushion plants, and bunch grass. It has little...in height from 0.5 to 5 meters. Generally below the paramo , a vegetation type known as the subparamo exists. The subparamo often contains one of the

  2. Potential use of geothermal resources in the Snake River Basin: an environmental overview. Volume II. Annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F.; Sullivan, J.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    This volume is a partially annotated bibliography of reference materials pertaining to the seven KGRA's. The bibliography is divided into sections by program element as follows: terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, heritage resources, socioeconomics and demography, geology, geothermal, soils, hydrology and water quality, seismicity, and subsidence. Cross-referencing is available for those references which are applicable to specific KGRA's. (MHR)

  3. Terrestrial photovoltaic technologies - Recent progress in manufacturing R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, C. E.; Surek, T.; Mitchell, R. L.; Symko-Davies, M.; Thomas, H. P.

    2000-05-15

    This paper describes photovoltaics (PV) as used for energy generation in terrestrial applications. A brief historical perspective of PV development is provided. Solar-to-electricity conversion efficiencies for various photovoltaic materials are presented, as well as expectations for further material improvements. Recent progress in reducing manufacturing costs through process R&D and product improvements are described. Applications that are most suitable for the different technologies are discussed. Finally, manufacturing capacities and current and projected module manufacturing costs are presented.

  4. Clinical application of calculated split renal volume using computed tomography-based renal volumetry after partial nephrectomy: Correlation with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chan Ho; Park, Young Joo; Ku, Ja Yoon; Ha, Hong Koo

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical application of computed tomography-based measurement of renal cortical volume and split renal volume as a single tool to assess the anatomy and renal function in patients with renal tumors before and after partial nephrectomy, and to compare the findings with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan. The data of 51 patients with a unilateral renal tumor managed by partial nephrectomy were retrospectively analyzed. The renal cortical volume of tumor-bearing and contralateral kidneys was measured using ImageJ software. Split estimated glomerular filtration rate and split renal volume calculated using this renal cortical volume were compared with the split renal function measured with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan. A strong correlation between split renal function and split renal volume of the tumor-bearing kidney was observed before and after surgery (r = 0.89, P volumetry had a strong correlation with the split renal function measured using technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan. Computed tomography-based split renal volume measurement before and after partial nephrectomy can be used as a single modality for anatomical and functional assessment of the tumor-bearing kidney. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  5. Spatial vision in Bombus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravin eChakravarthi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bombus terrestris is one of the most commonly used insect models to investigate visually guided behavior and spatial vision in particular. Two fundamental measures of spatial vision are spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity. In this study, we report the threshold of spatial resolution in B. terrestris and characterize the contrast sensitivity function of the bumblebee visual system for a dual choice discrimination task. We trained bumblebees in a Y-maze experimental set-up to associate a vertical sinusoidal grating with a sucrose reward, and a horizontal grating with absence of a reward. Using a logistic psychometric function, we estimated a resolution threshold of 0.21 cycles deg-1 of visual angle. This resolution is in the same range but slightly lower than that found in honeybees (Apis mellifera and A. cerana and another bumblebee species (B. impatiens. We also found that the contrast sensitivity of B. terrestris was 1.57 for the spatial frequency 0.09 cycles deg-1 and 1.26. for 0.18 cycles deg-1.

  6. Evaluation of ultra low volume and thermal fog pesticide applications against Old World Phlebotomine sand fly vectors of Leishmania in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    One component of the Department of Defense (DoD) pest management system is ultra-low volume (ULV) and/or thermal fog aerosol pesticide application. Despite widespread implementations of this and other components of the system, such as use of repellents and permethrin, US military operations in hot-a...

  7. Application of SLIM-MAUD: A test of an interactive computer-based method for organizing expert assessment of human performance and reliability: Volume 2, Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spettell, C.M.; Rosa, E.A.; Humphreys, P.C.; Embrey, D.E.

    1986-10-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has been conducting a multiyear research program to investigate different methods for using expert judgments to estimate human error probabilities (HEPs) in nuclear power plants. One of the methods investigated, derived from multi-attribute utility theory, is the Success Likelihood Index Methodolocy implemented through Multi-Attribute Utility Decomposition (SLIM-MAUD). This report describes a systematic test application of the SLIM-MAUD methodology. The test application is evaluated on the basis of three criteria: practicality, acceptability, and usefulness. Volume I of this report represents an overview of SLIM-MAUD, describes the procedures followed in the test application, and provides a summary of the results obtained. Volume II consists of technical appendices to support in detail the materials contained in Volume I, and the users' package of explicit procedures to be followed in implementing SLIM-MAUD. The results obtained in the test application provide support for the application of SLIM-MAUD to a wide variety of applications requiring estimates of human errors

  8. Report of the Survey on the Design Review of New Reactor Applications. Volume 1 - Instrumentation and Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, Steven

    2014-06-01

    At the tenth meeting of the CNRA Working Group on the Regulation of New Reactors (WGRNR) in March 2013, the members agreed to present the responses to the Second Phase, or Design Phase, of the Licensing Process Survey as a multi-volume text. As such, each report will focus on one of the eleven general technical categories covered in the survey. The general technical categories were selected to conform to the topics covered in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Guide GS-G-4.1. This report, which is the first volume, provides a discussion of the survey responses related to Instrumentation and Control (I and C). The Instrumentation and Control category includes the twelve following technical topics: Reactor trip system, actuation systems for Engineered Safety Features (ESF), safe shutdown system, safety-related display instrumentation, information and interlock systems important to safety, controls systems, main control room, supplementary control room, diverse I and C systems, data communication systems, software reliability and cyber-security. For each technical topic, the member countries described the information provided by the applicant, the scope and level of detail of the technical review, the technical basis for granting regulatory authorisation, the skill sets required and the Level of effort needed to perform the review. Based on a comparison of the information provided in response to the survey, the following observations were made: - Among the regulatory organisations that responded to the survey, there are similarities in the design information provided by an applicant. In most countries, the design information provided by an applicant includes, but is not limited to, a description of the I and C system design and functions, a description of the verification and validation programmes, and provisions for analysis, testing, and inspection of various I and C systems. - In addition to the regulations, it is a common practice for countries

  9. Report on the Survey of the Design Review of New Reactor Applications. Volume 4: Reactor Coolant and Associated Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, Steven; Monninger, John; Nevalainen, Janne; Joyer, Philippe; Koley, Jaharlal; Kawamura, Tomonori; Chung, Yeon-Ki; Haluska, Ladislav; Persic, Andreja; Reierson, Craig; Monninger, John; Choi, Young-Joon; )

    2017-01-01

    At the tenth meeting of the Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) Working Group on the Regulation of New Reactors (WGRNR) in March 2013, the Working Group agreed to present the responses to the Second Phase, or Design Phase, of the licensing process survey as a multi-volume text. As such, each report will focus on one of the eleven general technical categories covered in the survey. The general technical categories were selected to conform to the topics covered in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Guide GS-G-4.1. This report provides a discussion of the survey responses related to the Reactor Coolant and Associated Systems category. The Reactor Coolant and Associated Systems category includes the following technical topics: overpressure protection, reactor coolant pressure boundary, reactor vessel, and design of the reactor coolant system. For each technical topic, the member countries described the information provided by the applicant, the scope and level of detail of the technical review, the technical basis for granting regulatory authorisation, the skill sets required and the level of effort needed to perform the review. Based on a comparison of the information provided by the member countries in response to the survey, the following observations were made: - Although the description of the information provided by the applicant differs in scope and level of detail among the member countries that provided responses, there are similarities in the information that is required. - All of the technical topics covered in the survey are reviewed in some manner by all of the regulatory authorities that provided responses. - It is common to consider operating experience and lessons learnt from the current fleet during the review process. - The most commonly and consistently identified technical expertise needed to perform design reviews related to this category are mechanical engineering and materials engineering. The complete survey

  10. Role of computation fluid dynamics in aeronautical engineering (4). Development and applications of implicit TVD finete volume code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shima, Eiji; Jounouchi, Tadamasa

    1986-12-01

    Potential analysis in aeronautic design has reached the stage of practical use although it involves problems concerning accuracy and restrictions on its application. On the other hand, numerical analysis using Euler and Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations is based on a highly accurate theory, so is preferable, but has not reached the stage of practical use because it involves problems that shapes that can be analyzed are restricted on account of factors relating to computation lattice generation and because it involves difficulty relating to computation time. The essential factor in numerical analysis is stoutness (numeric stability). From this viewpoint, an Euler/N-S method was developed; the theory begins with TVD finite volume code, and incorporates various types of improvement to raise accuracy and shorten computation time; hence, it satisfies design requirements. The use of this method helps get solution under a wide range of flow condition without any fine adjustments, such as artificial viscosity. (6 figs, 1 tab, 10 refs)

  11. Separation of surface, subsurface and volume fatigue damage effects in AISI 348 steel for power plant applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Martin; Nowak, David; Walther, Frank [Technical Univ. Dortmund (Germany). Dept. of Materials Test Engineering (WPT); Starke, Peter [Saarland Univ., Saarbruecken (Germany). Chair of Non-Destructive Testing and Quality Assurance; Boller, Christian [Saarland Univ., Saarbruecken (Germany). Chair of Non-Destructive Testing and Quality Assurance; Fraunhofer IZFP, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    A wide range of industries including energy, chemistry, pharmacy, textiles, food and drink, pulp and paper, etc. is using stainless steels. Metastable austenitic steels such as used in power plants and chemical industry are subjected to cyclic mechanical and thermal loading in air as well as under the influence of corrosive media. This paper provides an overview on different nondestructive and electrochemical measurement techniques, which allow differentiating fatigue damage effects in total strain controlled multiple and constant amplitude tests with respect to damage appearance on surface, in subsurface area as well as in volume of specimens or components microstructure. In addition to conventional mechanical stress-strain hysteresis curves, electrical resistance, magnetic and open circuit potential measurements have been applied to characterize the cyclic deformation behavior of the metastable austenitic steel AISI 348 (X10CrNiNb18-9) in laboratory air and in distilled water. Based on these results obtained, the paper provides an outlook on the possibility for an efficient (remaining) fatigue life evaluation approach, which is adapted to the needs of the application areas.

  12. Transformation procedures in 3D terrestrial coordinate systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedlák Vladimír

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Transformation procedures belong to the main tasks of surveyor working in a field of geodesy, for example in satellite geodesy or astronomical geodesy. It is necessary to know transformation procedures in 3D terrestrial (Earth coordinate systems. Increasingly a dynamic advance growth of application of satellite navigation systems, for example GPS (Global Positioning System into engineering surveying, real estate register and others spheres of applied geodesy and geo-surveying (mine surveying exacts knowledge of these transformation procedures between coordinates in various coordinate systems. These tasks are common for daily work for various practical surveyors too, not only for theoretical scientific working surveyors.Conventional Terrestrial System is 3D coordinate system what is the most important coordinate system in global geodesy. Conventional Terrestrial System is an approximation of the nature coordinate system of the Earth. The origin of this coordinate system is placed in the earth substantial centre of gravity and in the centre of geoid. Conventional Terrestrial System is the Cartesian right-handed coordinate system, i.e. positive one. The Local Astronomical System is 3D coordinate system too and it belongs to an important coordinate system in geodesy from its practical point of view. Many geodetic measurements are realized in this coordinate system. Designation of this coordinate system as astronomical system expresses its sticking to a normal line to an equipotential plane, i.e. to a vertical. Local Astronomical system is the left-handed cartesian coordinate system.Transformation procedures in 3D terrestrial coordinate systems with theory of these systems are presented in the paper. Transformation in the local astronomical coordinate system presents common transformation in a frame of an adjustment of various local geodetic networks. In a case of satellite measurements (GPS, satellite altimetry, etc. transformation between local and

  13. New methods to interpolate large volume of data from points or particles (Mesh-Free) methods application for its scientific visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Lopez, Y.; Yervilla Herrera, H.; Viamontes Esquivel, A.; Recarey Morfa, C. A.

    2009-01-01

    In the following paper we developed a new method to interpolate large volumes of scattered data, focused mainly on the results of the Mesh free Methods, Points Methods and the Particles Methods application. Through this one, we use local radial basis function as interpolating functions. We also use over-tree as the data structure that allows to accelerate the localization of the data that influences to interpolate the values at a new point, speeding up the application of scientific visualization techniques to generate images from large data volumes from the application of Mesh-free Methods, Points and Particle Methods, in the resolution of diverse models of physics-mathematics. As an example, the results obtained after applying this method using the local interpolation functions of Shepard are shown. (Author) 22 refs

  14. Combined Global Navigation Satellite Systems in the Space Service Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force, Dale A.; Miller, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Besides providing position, velocity, and timing (PVT) for terrestrial users, the Global Positioning System (GPS) is also being used to provide PVT information for earth orbiting satellites. In 2006, F. H. Bauer, et. al., defined the Space Service Volume in the paper GPS in the Space Service Volume , presented at ION s 19th international Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division, and looked at GPS coverage for orbiting satellites. With GLONASS already operational, and the first satellites of the Galileo and Beidou/COMPASS constellations already in orbit, it is time to look at the use of the new Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) coming into service to provide PVT information for earth orbiting satellites. This presentation extends GPS in the Space Service Volume by examining the coverage capability of combinations of the new constellations with GPS GPS was first explored as a system for refining the position, velocity, and timing of other spacecraft equipped with GPS receivers in the early eighties. Because of this, a new GPS utility developed beyond the original purpose of providing position, velocity, and timing services for land, maritime, and aerial applications. GPS signals are now received and processed by spacecraft both above and below the GPS constellation, including signals that spill over the limb of the earth. Support of GPS space applications is now part of the system plan for GPS, and support of the Space Service Volume by other GNSS providers has been proposed to the UN International Committee on GNSS (ICG). GPS has been demonstrated to provide decimeter level position accuracy in real-time for satellites in low Earth orbit (centimeter level in non-real-time applications). GPS has been proven useful for satellites in geosynchronous orbit, and also for satellites in highly elliptical orbits. Depending on how many satellites are in view, one can keep time locked to the GNSS standard, and through that to Universal Time as long as at least one

  15. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) comprises groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow,and ice. Groundwater typically varies more slowly than the other TWS components because itis not in direct contact with the atmosphere, but often it has a larger range of variability onmultiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti, 2001; Alley et al., 2002). In situ groundwaterdata are only archived and made available by a few countries. However, monthly TWSvariations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE; Tapley et al.,2004) satellite mission, which launched in 2002, are a reasonable proxy for unconfinedgroundwater at climatic scales.

  16. Dietary characterization of terrestrial mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Munoz, Silvia; Alroy, John

    2014-08-22

    Understanding the feeding behaviour of the species that make up any ecosystem is essential for designing further research. Mammals have been studied intensively, but the criteria used for classifying their diets are far from being standardized. We built a database summarizing the dietary preferences of terrestrial mammals using published data regarding their stomach contents. We performed multivariate analyses in order to set up a standardized classification scheme. Ideally, food consumption percentages should be used instead of qualitative classifications. However, when highly detailed information is not available we propose classifying animals based on their main feeding resources. They should be classified as generalists when none of the feeding resources constitute over 50% of the diet. The term 'omnivore' should be avoided because it does not communicate all the complexity inherent to food choice. Moreover, the so-called omnivore diets actually involve several distinctive adaptations. Our dataset shows that terrestrial mammals are generally highly specialized and that some degree of food mixing may even be required for most species.

  17. Terrestrial Zone Exoplanets and Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Brenda

    2018-01-01

    One of the most exciting results from ALMA has been the detection of significant substructure within protoplanetary disks that can be linked to planet formation processes. For the first time, we are able to observe the process of assembly of material into larger bodies within such disks. It is not possible, however, for ALMA to probe the growth of planets in protoplanetary disks at small radii, i.e., in the terrestrial zone, where we expect rocky terrestrial planets to form. In this regime, the optical depths prohibit observation at the high frequencies observed by ALMA. To probe the effects of planet building processes and detect telltale gaps and signatures of planetary mass bodies at such small separations from the parent star, we require a facility of superior resolution and sensitivity at lower frequencies. The ngVLA is just such a facility. We will present the fundamental science that will be enabled by the ngVLA in protoplanetary disk structure and the formation of planets. In addition, we will discuss the potential for an ngVLA facility to detect the molecules that are the building blocks of life, reaching limits well beyond those reachable with the current generation of telescopes, and also to determine whether such planets will be habitable based on studies of the impact of stars on their nearest planetary neighbours.

  18. Riparian vegetation in the alpine connectome: Terrestrial-aquatic and terrestrial-terrestrial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharescu, Dragos G; Palanca-Soler, Antonio; Hooda, Peter S; Tanase, Catalin; Burghelea, Carmen I; Lester, Richard N

    2017-12-01

    Alpine regions are under increased attention worldwide for their critical role in early biogeochemical cycles, their high sensitivity to environmental change, and as repositories of natural resources of high quality. Their riparian ecosystems, at the interface between aquatic and terrestrial environments, play important geochemical functions in the watershed and are biodiversity hotspots, despite a harsh climate and topographic setting. With climate change rapidly affecting the alpine biome, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of the extent of interactions between riparian surface, lake and catchment environments. A total of 189 glacial - origin lakes were surveyed in the Central Pyrenees to test how key elements of the lake and terrestrial environments interact at different scales to shape riparian plant composition. Secondly, we evaluated how underlying ecotope features drive the formation of natural communities potentially sensitive to environmental change and assessed their habitat distribution. At the macroscale, vegetation composition responded to pan-climatic gradients altitude and latitude, which captured in a narrow geographic area the transition between large European climatic zones. Hydrodynamics was the main catchment-scale factor connecting riparian vegetation with major water fluxes, followed by topography and geomorphology. Lake sediment Mg and Pb, and water Mn and Fe contents reflected local influences from mafic bedrock and soil water saturation. Community analysis identified four keystone ecosystems: (i) damp ecotone, (ii) snow bed-silicate bedrock, (iii) wet heath, and (iv) calcareous substrate. These communities and their connections with ecotope elements could be at risk from a number of environmental change factors including warmer seasons, snow line and lowland species advancement, increased nutrient/metal input and water level fluctuations. The results imply important natural terrestrial-aquatic linkages in the riparian environment

  19. An Industrial Perspective of CAM/ROB Fuzzy Integrated Postprocessing Implementation for Redundant Robotic Workcells Applicability for Big Volume Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, J.; Gracia, L.; Tornero, J.; García, J. A.; González, F.

    2009-11-01

    The implementation of a postprocessor for the NX™ platform (Siemens Corp.) is described in this paper. It is focused on a milling redundant robotic milling workcell consisting of one KUKA KR 15/2 manipulator (6 rotary joints, KRC2 controller) mounted on a linear axis and synchronized with a rotary table (i.e., two additional joints). For carrying out a milling task, a choice among a set of possible configurations is required, taking into account the ability to avoid singular configurations by using both additional joints. Usually, experience and knowledge of the workman allow an efficient control in these cases, but being it a tedious job. Similarly to this expert knowledge, a stand-alone fuzzy controller has been programmed with Matlab's Fuzzy Logic Toolbox (The MathWorks, Inc.). Two C++ programs complement the translation of the toolpath tracking (expressed in the Cartesian space) from the NX™-CAM module into KRL (KUKA Robot Language). In order to avoid singularities or joint limits, the location of the robot and the workpiece during the execution of the task is fit after an inverse kinematics position analysis and a fuzzy inference (i.e., fuzzy criterion in the Joint Space). Additionally, the applicability of robot arms for the manufacture of big volume prototypes with this technique is proven by means of one case studied. It consists of a big orographic model to simulate floodways, return flows and retention storage of a reservoir in the Mijares river (Puebla de Arenoso, Spain). This article deals with the problem for a constant tool orientation milling process and sets the technological basis for future research at five axis milling operations.

  20. The application value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in gross tumor volume delineation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Dongliang; Shi Gaofeng; Gao Xianshu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the application value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWMRI) in gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Methods: Twenty-nine patients with esophageal SCC treated with radical surgery were analyzed. Routine CT scan, MRI T 2 -weighted and DWMRI were employed before surgery; diffusion-sensitive gradient b-values were taken 400, 600 and 800 s/mm 2 . GTVs were delineated using CT, MRI T 2 -weighted images and DWMRI under different b-value images. The length of GTVs measured under different images was compared with the pathological length and confirm the most accurate imaging condition. Use radiotherapy planning system to fuse DWMRI images and CT images to investigate the possibility of delineate GTVs on fused images. Results: The difference of GTV length value between CT, T 2 WI images and specimen was 3.36 mm and 2.84 mm. When b =400,600 and 800 s/mm 2 , the difference between GTV length value on the DWMRI images and on specimen was 0.47 mm, -0.47 mm and - 1.53 mm; the correlation coefficient of the measuring esophageal lengths on DWMRI images and the pathological lengths was 0.928, 0.927 and 0.938. DWMRI images and CT images could fuse accurately on radiotherapy planning system. GTV margin could.show clearly on fused images. Conclusions: DWMRI images can display the esophageal carcinoma lengths and margin accurately. When DWMRI images fused with CT images, GTV margin could show clearly,it can be used to delineate GTV accurately. (authors)

  1. DECIPHERING THERMAL PHASE CURVES OF DRY, TIDALLY LOCKED TERRESTRIAL PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koll, Daniel D. B.; Abbot, Dorian S., E-mail: dkoll@uchicago.edu [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2015-03-20

    Next-generation space telescopes will allow us to characterize terrestrial exoplanets. To do so effectively it will be crucial to make use of all available data. We investigate which atmospheric properties can, and cannot, be inferred from the broadband thermal phase curve of a dry and tidally locked terrestrial planet. First, we use dimensional analysis to show that phase curves are controlled by six nondimensional parameters. Second, we use an idealized general circulation model to explore the relative sensitivity of phase curves to these parameters. We find that the feature of phase curves most sensitive to atmospheric parameters is the peak-to-trough amplitude. Moreover, except for hot and rapidly rotating planets, the phase amplitude is primarily sensitive to only two nondimensional parameters: (1) the ratio of dynamical to radiative timescales and (2) the longwave optical depth at the surface. As an application of this technique, we show how phase curve measurements can be combined with transit or emission spectroscopy to yield a new constraint for the surface pressure and atmospheric mass of terrestrial planets. We estimate that a single broadband phase curve, measured over half an orbit with the James Webb Space Telescope, could meaningfully constrain the atmospheric mass of a nearby super-Earth. Such constraints will be important for studying the atmospheric evolution of terrestrial exoplanets as well as characterizing the surface conditions on potentially habitable planets.

  2. Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris L.: noxious weed or powerful medical herb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonko Pacanoski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris L., an annual dicot species of the family Zygophyllaceae, is a common herb that is often found in disturbed habitats and agricultural areas in many parts of the temperate, tropical and desert regions of the world. T. terrestris is an aggressive species that has the potential to injure livestock, reduce hay and wool values, detour recreationists and reduces plant biodivesity. The species may become troublesome because of its weedy potential. It has been declared a weed in at least 37 countries and in at least 21 crops (cotton, maize, vineyards, orchards, etc.. It is adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions and grows on a wide variety of soil types. The management of T. terrestris can be achieved by herbicide application, mechanical (hand pulling, hoeing, mulching and biological control methods. Beside its invasive potential as a noxious and troublesome weed, T. terrestris is considered highly useful herb which is used for various purposes in folk and modern medicine and sport, as well.

  3. Measurement of the terrestrial magnetic field and its anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duret, D.

    1994-01-01

    After a presentation of the terrestrial magnetic field and its various anomalies, the different types of magnetometers commonly used are reviewed with their characteristics and performances: scalar magnetometers (free precession and continuous polarization proton magnetometers, dynamic polarization proton magnetometers, optical pumping magnetometers, electronic resonance scalar magnetometers (without pumping)); vectorial magnetometers (flux gate magnetometers, induction magnetometers, suspended magnet magnetometers, superconducting magnetometers, integrated magnetometers, resonance directional magnetometers). The magnetometry market and applications are discussed. 20 figs., 9 tabs., 72 refs

  4. Indexes and parameters of activity in solar-terrestrial physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minasyants, G.S.; Minasyants, T.M.

    2005-01-01

    The daily variation of different indexes and parameters of the solar-terrestrial physics at the 23 cycle were considered to find the most important from them for the forecast of geomagnetic activity. The validity of application of the Wolf numbers in quality of the characteristic of solar activity at sunspots is confirmed. The best geo-effective parameter in the arrival of the interplanetary shock from coronal mass ejection to an orbit of the Earth. (author)

  5. Rapid jetting status inspection and accurate droplet volume measurement for a piezo drop-on-demand inkjet print head using a scanning mirror for display applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Youn; Kim, Minsung

    2017-02-01

    Despite the inherent fabrication simplicity of piezo drop-on-demand inkjet printing, the non-uniform deposition of colourants or electroluminescent organic materials leads to faulty display products, and hence, the importance of rapid jetting status inspection and accurate droplet volume measurement increases from a process perspective. In this work, various jetting status inspections and droplet volume measurement methods are reviewed by discussing their advantages and disadvantages, and then, the opportunities for the developed prototype with a scanning mirror are explored. This work demonstrates that jetting status inspection of 384 fictitious droplets can be performed within 17 s with maximum and minimum measurement accuracies of 0.2 ± 0.5 μ m for the fictitious droplets of 50 μ m in diameter and -1.2 ± 0.3 μ m for the fictitious droplets of 30 μ m in diameter, respectively. In addition to the new design of an inkjet monitoring instrument with a scanning mirror, two novel methods to accurately measure the droplet volume by amplifying a minute droplet volume difference and then converting to other physical properties are suggested and the droplet volume difference of ±0.3% is demonstrated to be discernible using numerical simulations, even with the low measurement accuracy of 1 μ m . When the fact is considered that the conventional vision-based method with a CCD camera requires the optical measurement accuracy less than 25 nm to measure the volume of an in-flight droplet in the nominal diameter of 50 μ m at the same volume measurement accuracy, the suggested method with the developed prototype offers a whole new opportunity to inkjet printing for display applications.

  6. Innovation in Deep Space Habitat Interior Design: Lessons Learned From Small Space Design in Terrestrial Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Matthew A.; Toups, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Increased public awareness of carbon footprints, crowding in urban areas, and rising housing costs have spawned a 'small house movement' in the housing industry. Members of this movement desire small, yet highly functional residences which are both affordable and sensitive to consumer comfort standards. In order to create comfortable, minimum-volume interiors, recent advances have been made in furniture design and approaches to interior layout that improve both space utilization and encourage multi-functional design for small homes, apartments, naval, and recreational vehicles. Design efforts in this evolving niche of terrestrial architecture can provide useful insights leading to innovation and efficiency in the design of space habitats for future human space exploration missions. This paper highlights many of the cross-cutting architectural solutions used in small space design which are applicable to the spacecraft interior design problem. Specific solutions discussed include reconfigurable, multi-purpose spaces; collapsible or transformable furniture; multi-purpose accommodations; efficient, space saving appliances; stowable and mobile workstations; and the miniaturization of electronics and computing hardware. For each of these design features, descriptions of how they save interior volume or mitigate other small space issues such as confinement stress or crowding are discussed. Finally, recommendations are provided to provide guidance for future designs and identify potential collaborations with the small spaces design community.

  7. Estimation of mean tree stand volume using high-resolution aerial RGB imagery and digital surface model, obtained from sUAV and Trestima mobile application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Rybakov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study considers a remote sensing technique for mean volume estimation based on a very high-resolution (VHR aerial RGB imagery obtained using a small-sized unmanned aerial vehicle (sUAV and a high-resolution photogrammetric digital surface model (DSM as well as an innovative technology for field measurements (Trestima. The study area covers approx. 220 ha of forestland in Finland. The work concerns the entire process from remote sensing and field data acquisition to statistical analysis and forest volume wall-to-wall mapping. The study showed that the VHR aerial imagery and the high-resolution DSM produced based on the application of the sUAV have good prospects for forest inventory. For the sUAV based estimation of forest variables such as Height, Basal Area and mean Volume, Root Mean Square Error constituted 6.6 %, 22.6 % and 26.7 %, respectively. Application of Trestima for estimation of the mean volume of the standing forest showed minor difference over the existing Forest Management Plan at all the selected forest compartments. Simultaneously, the results of the study confirmed that the technologies and the tools applied at this work could be a reliable and potentially cost-effective means of forest data acquisition with high potential of operational use.

  8. Relationship Between LIBS Ablation and Pit Volume for Geologic Samples: Applications for the In Situ Absolute Geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devismes, Damien; Cohen, Barbara; Miller, J.-S.; Gillot, P.-Y.; Lefevre, J.-C.; Boukari, C.

    2014-01-01

    These first results demonstrate that LIBS spectra can be an interesting tool to estimate the ablated volume. When the ablated volume is bigger than 9.10(exp 6) cubic micrometers, this method has less than 10% of uncertainties. Far enough to be directly implemented in the KArLE experiment protocol. Nevertheless, depending on the samples and their mean grain size, the difficulty to have homogeneous spectra will increase with the ablated volume. Several K-Ar dating studies based on this approach will be implemented. After that, the results will be shown and discussed.

  9. Normal and refractory concretes for LMFBR applications. Volume 1. Review of literature on high-temperature behavior of portland cement and refractory concretes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazant, Z.P.; Chern, J.C.; Abrams, M.S.; Gillen, M.P.

    1982-06-01

    The extensive literature on the properties and behavior at elevated temperature of portland cement concrete and various refractory concretes was reviewed to collect in concise form the physical and chemical properties of castable refractory concretes and of conventional portland cement concretes at elevated temperature. This survey, together with an extensive bibliography of source documents, is presented in Volume 1. A comparison was made of these properties, the relative advantages of the various concretes was evaluated for possible liquid metal fast breeder reactor applications, and a selection was made of several materials of interest for such applications. Volume 2 concludes with a summary of additional knowledge needed to support such uses of these materials together with recommendations on research to provide that knowledge

  10. The solar generation childhood and adolescence of terrestrial photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Philip R

    2018-01-01

    The first book to address the early development of the photovoltaic industry, and the pioneering researchers and companies in the sector. Well before the end of this century, solar power will be the world's dominant power source. This book looks at the origins of this smart sustainable energy technology, tracing the pioneering years from its inception following the 1973 oil crisis to the end of the last millennium—just as the sector was poised for explosive growth. It focuses on the progress of the early terrestrial photovoltaic sector, often in the face of skepticism or apathy. It also covers the research and achievements of people and organizations within the PV business. Written by a leader in the field with more than 40 years of experience and an international reputation in the sustainable energy industry, The Solar Generation: Childhood and Adolescence of Terrestrial Photovoltaics offers enlightening coverage on the terrestrial PV industry. The first part of this 3-volume set provides a historical bac...

  11. Substrate attributes determine gait in a terrestrial gastropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Amberle; Voltzow, Janice; Pernet, Bruno

    2013-02-01

    Some terrestrial gastropods are able to move using two gaits: adhesive crawling, where the entire foot is separated from the substrate only by a thin layer of mucus and the snail leaves a continuous mucus trail; and loping, where regions of the foot arch above the substrate and the snail leaves a discontinuous mucus trail. Loping has been interpreted as a means of rapidly escaping predators. We found that the pulmonate Cornu aspersum moved using adhesive crawling on dry acrylic or glass substrates, but loped on dry concrete or wood. Loping snails did not move more rapidly than snails using adhesive crawling. Snails moving on concrete secreted a greater volume of pedal mucus per area of trail than those moving on acrylic; locomotion on concrete thus requires greater expenditure of mucus than does locomotion on acrylic. Because loping snails deposit a smaller area of mucus per distance traveled than do snails using adhesive crawling, loping may conserve mucus when moving on porous, absorbent substrates. Members of several other terrestrial pulmonate taxa can also lope on concrete, suggesting that this plasticity in gait is widespread among terrestrial snails.

  12. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2013-08-01

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models.

  13. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models

  14. Radionuclide transfer in terrestrial animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGregorio, D.; Kitchings, T.; Van Voris, P.

    1978-01-01

    The analysis of dispersion of radionuclides in terrestrial food chains, generally, is a series of equations identifying the fractional input and outflow rates from trophic level to trophic level. Data that are prerequisite inputs for these food chain transport models include: (1) identification of specific transport pathway, (2) assimilation at each pathway link, and (3) the turnover rate or retention function by successive receptor species in the appropriate food chain. In this report, assimilation coefficients, biological half-lives, and excretion rates for a wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species and radionuclides have been compiled from an extensive search of the available literature. Using the information accumulated from the literature, correlations of nuclide metabolism and body weight are also discussed. (author)

  15. Methyl mercury in terrestrial compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeppler, M.; Burow, M.; Padberg, S.; May, K.

    1993-09-01

    On the basis of the analytical methodology available at present the state of the art for the determination of total mercury and of various organometallic compounds of mercury in air, precipitation, limnic systems, soils, plants and biota is reviewed. This is followed by the presentation and discussion of examples for the data obtained hitherto for trace and ultratrace levels of total mercury and mainly methyl mercury in terrestrial and limnic environments as well as in biota. The data discussed stem predominantly from the past decade in which, due to significant methodological progress, many new aspects were elucidated. They include the most important results in this area achieved by the Research Centre (KFA) Juelich within the project 'Origin and Fate of Methyl Mercury' (contracts EV4V-0138-D and STEP-CT90-0057) supported by the Commission of the European Communities, Brussels. (orig.) [de

  16. Traumatic insemination in terrestrial arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarnic, Nikolai J; Cassis, Gerasimos; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic insemination is a bizarre form of mating practiced by some invertebrates in which males use hypodermic genitalia to penetrate their partner's body wall during copulation, frequently bypassing the female genital tract and ejaculating into their blood system. The requirements for traumatic insemination to evolve are stringent, yet surprisingly it has arisen multiple times within invertebrates. In terrestrial arthropods traumatic insemination is most prevalent in the true bug infraorder Cimicomorpha, where it has evolved independently at least three times. Traumatic insemination is thought to occur in the Strepsiptera and has recently been recorded in fruit fly and spider lineages. We review the putative selective pressures that may have led to the evolution of traumatic insemination across these lineages, as well as the pressures that continue to drive divergence in male and female reproductive morphology and behavior. Traumatic insemination mechanisms and attributes are compared across independent lineages.

  17. Phytopharmacological overview of Tribulus terrestris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Saurabh; Nesari, Tanuja; Somani, Gauresh; Kanchan, Divya; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris (family Zygophyllaceae), commonly known as Gokshur or Gokharu or puncture vine, has been used for a long time in both the Indian and Chinese systems of medicine for treatment of various kinds of diseases. Its various parts contain a variety of chemical constituents which are medicinally important, such as flavonoids, flavonol glycosides, steroidal saponins, and alkaloids. It has diuretic, aphrodisiac, antiurolithic, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, absorption enhancing, hypolipidemic, cardiotonic, central nervous system, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, anticancer, antibacterial, anthelmintic, larvicidal, and anticariogenic activities. For the last few decades or so, extensive research work has been done to prove its biological activities and the pharmacology of its extracts. The aim of this review is to create a database for further investigations of the discovered phytochemical and pharmacological properties of this plant to promote research. This will help in confirmation of its traditional use along with its value-added utility, eventually leading to higher revenues from the plant. PMID:24600195

  18. Terrestrial atmosphere, water and astrobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coradini M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Primitive life, defined as a chemical system capable to transfer its molecular information via self-replication and also capable to evolve, originated about 4 billion years ago from the processing of organic molecules by liquid water. Terrestrial atmosphere played a key role in the process by allowing the permanent presence of liquid water and by participating in the production of carbon-based molecules. Water molecules exhibit specific properties mainly due to a dense network of hydrogen bonds. The carbon-based molecules were either home made in the atmosphere and/or in submarine hydrothermal systems or delivered by meteorites and micrometeorites. The search for possible places beyond the earth where the trilogy atmosphere/water/life could exist is the main objective of astrobiology. Within the Solar System, exploration missions are dedicated to Mars, Europa, Titan and the icy bodies. The discovery of several hundreds of extrasolar planets opens the quest to the whole Milky Way.

  19. Terrestrial pathways of radionuclide particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boone, F.W.; Ng, Y.C.

    1981-01-01

    Formulations are developed for computing potential human intake of 13 radionuclides via the terrestrial food chains. The formulations are an extension of the NRC methodology. Specific regional crop and livestock transfer and fractional distribution data from the southern part of the U.S.A. are provided and used in the computation of comparative values with those computed by means of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109 formulations. In the development of the model, emphasis was also placed on identifying the various time-delay compartments of the food chains and accounting for all of the activity initially deposited. For all radionuclides considered, except 137 Cs, the new formulations predict lower potential intakes from the total of all food chains combined than do the comparable Regulatory Guide formulations by as much as a factor of 40. For 137 Cs the new formulations predict 10% higher potential intakes. (author)

  20. Excess molar volumes of (an alkanol plus a branched chain ether) at the temperature 298.15 K and the application of the ERAS model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Letcher, TM

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Phase Equilibria 140 (1997) 207-220 The excess molar the temperature volumes of (an alkanol + a branched chain ether) at 298.15 K and the application of the ERAS model Trevor M. Letcher * , Penny U. Govender ? Drpartnwnt... V,,? results presented here, together with the previously reported data for the molar excess enthalpy Hi, has been used to test the Extended Real Associated Solution (ERAS) model. 0 1997 Elsevier Science B.V. Ke...

  1. Developments and innovation in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and storage technology. Volume 1: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transport and industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercedes Maroto-Valer, M. (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    This volume initially reviews the economics, regulation and planning of CCS for power plants and industry, and goes on to explore developments and innovation in post- and pre-combustion and advanced combustion processes and technologies for CO{sub 2} capture in power plants. This coverage is extended with sections on CO{sub 2} compression, transport and injection and industrial applications of CCS technology, including in the cement and concrete and iron and steel industries.

  2. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activities of Tribulus Terrestris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harraz, Fathalla M; Ghazy, Nabila M; Hammoda, Hala M; Nafeaa, Abeer A.; Abdallah, Ingy I.

    2015-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris L. has been used in folk medicine throughout history. The present study examined the acute toxicity of the total ethanolic extract of T. Terrestris followed by investigation of the hepatoprotective activity of the total ethanolic extract and different fractions of the aerial

  3. Experimental applications for the MARK-1 and MARK-1A pulsed ionizing radiation detection systems. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harker, Y.D.; Lawrence, R.S.; Yoon, W.Y.; Lones, J.L.

    1993-12-01

    This report is the third volume in a three volume set describing the MARK series of pulsed ionizing radiation detection systems. This volume describes the MARK-1A detection system, compares it with the MARK-1 system, and describes the experimental testing of the detection systems. Volume 1 of this set presents the technical specifications for the MARK-1 detection system. Volume 2 is an operations manual specifically for the MARK-1 system, but it generally applies to the MARK-1A system as well. These detection systems operate remotely and detect photon radiation from a single or a multiple pulsed source. They contain multiple detector (eight in the MARK-1 and ten in the MARK-1A) for determination of does and incident photon effective energy. The multiple detector arrangement, having different detector sizes and shield thicknesses, provides the capability of determining the effective photon energy of the radiation spectrum. Dose measurements using these units are consistent with TLD measurements. The detection range is from 3 nanorads to 90 microrads per source burst; the response is linear over that range. Three units were built and are ready for field deployment

  4. Estimating Exposure of Terrestrial Wildlife to Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a general model for exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants (Sect. 2), methods for estimating parameters of the model (Sect. 3), species specific parameters for endpoint species on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Sect. 4), and a sample application (Sect. 5). Exposure can be defined as the coincidence in both space and time of a receptor and a stressor, such that the receptor and stressor come into contact and interact (Risk Assessment Forum 1992). In the context of ecological risk assessment, receptors include all endpoint species or communities identified for a site [see Suter (1989) and Suter et al. (1994) for discussions of ecological endpoints for waste sites]. In the context of waste site assessments, stressors are chemical contaminations, and the contact and interaction are uptake of the contaminant by the receptor. Without sufficient exposure of the receptor to the contaminants, there is no ecological risk. Unlike some other endpoint assemblages, terrestrial wildlife are significantly exposed to contaminants in multiple media. They may drink or swim in contaminated water, ingest contaminated food and soil, and breath contaminated air. In addition, because most wildlife are mobile, moving among and within habitats, exposure is not restricted to a single location. They may integrate contamination from several spatially discrete sources. Therefore, exposure models for terrestrial wildlife must include multiple media. This document provides models and parameters for estimating exposure of birds and mammals. Reptiles and amphibians are not considered because few data exist with which to assess exposure to these organisms. In addition, because toxicological data are scarce for both classes, evaluation of the significance of exposure estimates is problematic. However, the general exposure estimation procedure developed herein for birds and mammals is applicable to reptiles and amphibians. Exposure models must be appropriate to the

  5. Tidal heating in multilayered terrestrial exoplanets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, Wade G.; Hurford, Terry, E-mail: wade.g.henning@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The internal pattern and overall magnitude of tidal heating for spin-synchronous terrestrial exoplanets from 1 to 2.5 R{sub E} is investigated using a propagator matrix method for a variety of layer structures. Particular attention is paid to ice-silicate hybrid super-Earths, where a significant ice mantle is modeled to rest atop an iron-silicate core, and may or may not contain a liquid water ocean. We find multilayer modeling often increases tidal dissipation relative to a homogeneous model, across multiple orbital periods, due to the ability to include smaller volume low viscosity regions, and the added flexure allowed by liquid layers. Gradations in parameters with depth are explored, such as allowed by the Preliminary Earth Reference Model. For ice-silicate hybrid worlds, dramatically greater dissipation is possible beyond the case of a silicate mantle only, allowing non-negligible tidal activity to extend to greater orbital periods than previously predicted. Surface patterns of tidal heating are found to potentially be useful for distinguishing internal structure. The influence of ice mantle depth and water ocean size and position are shown for a range of forcing frequencies. Rates of orbital circularization are found to be 10-100 times faster than standard predictions for Earth-analog planets when interiors are moderately warmer than the modern Earth, as well as for a diverse range of ice-silicate hybrid super-Earths. Circularization rates are shown to be significantly longer for planets with layers equivalent to an ocean-free modern Earth, as well as for planets with high fractions of either ice or silicate melting.

  6. Tidal Heating in Multilayered Terrestrial Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Wade G.; Hurford, Terry

    2014-01-01

    The internal pattern and overall magnitude of tidal heating for spin-synchronous terrestrial exoplanets from 1 to 2.5 R(sub E) is investigated using a propagator matrix method for a variety of layer structures. Particular attention is paid to ice-silicate hybrid super-Earths, where a significant ice mantle is modeled to rest atop an iron-silicate core, and may or may not contain a liquid water ocean. We find multilayer modeling often increases tidal dissipation relative to a homogeneous model, across multiple orbital periods, due to the ability to include smaller volume low viscosity regions, and the added flexure allowed by liquid layers. Gradations in parameters with depth are explored, such as allowed by the Preliminary Earth Reference Model. For ice-silicate hybrid worlds, dramatically greater dissipation is possible beyond the case of a silicate mantle only, allowing non-negligible tidal activity to extend to greater orbital periods than previously predicted. Surface patterns of tidal heating are found to potentially be useful for distinguishing internal structure. The influence of ice mantle depth and water ocean size and position are shown for a range of forcing frequencies. Rates of orbital circularization are found to be 10-100 times faster than standard predictions for Earth-analog planets when interiors are moderately warmer than the modern Earth, as well as for a diverse range of ice-silicate hybrid super-Earths. Circularization rates are shown to be significantly longer for planets with layers equivalent to an ocean-free modern Earth, as well as for planets with high fractions of either ice or silicate melting.

  7. Tidal heating in multilayered terrestrial exoplanets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, Wade G.; Hurford, Terry

    2014-01-01

    The internal pattern and overall magnitude of tidal heating for spin-synchronous terrestrial exoplanets from 1 to 2.5 R E is investigated using a propagator matrix method for a variety of layer structures. Particular attention is paid to ice-silicate hybrid super-Earths, where a significant ice mantle is modeled to rest atop an iron-silicate core, and may or may not contain a liquid water ocean. We find multilayer modeling often increases tidal dissipation relative to a homogeneous model, across multiple orbital periods, due to the ability to include smaller volume low viscosity regions, and the added flexure allowed by liquid layers. Gradations in parameters with depth are explored, such as allowed by the Preliminary Earth Reference Model. For ice-silicate hybrid worlds, dramatically greater dissipation is possible beyond the case of a silicate mantle only, allowing non-negligible tidal activity to extend to greater orbital periods than previously predicted. Surface patterns of tidal heating are found to potentially be useful for distinguishing internal structure. The influence of ice mantle depth and water ocean size and position are shown for a range of forcing frequencies. Rates of orbital circularization are found to be 10-100 times faster than standard predictions for Earth-analog planets when interiors are moderately warmer than the modern Earth, as well as for a diverse range of ice-silicate hybrid super-Earths. Circularization rates are shown to be significantly longer for planets with layers equivalent to an ocean-free modern Earth, as well as for planets with high fractions of either ice or silicate melting.

  8. Application of artificial neural networks for the prediction of volume fraction using spectra of gamma rays backscattered by three-phase flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipour Peyvandi, R.; Islami Rad, S. Z.

    2017-12-01

    The determination of the volume fraction percentage of the different phases flowing in vessels using transmission gamma rays is a conventional method in petroleum and oil industries. In some cases, with access only to the one side of the vessels, attention was drawn toward backscattered gamma rays as a desirable choice. In this research, the volume fraction percentage was measured precisely in water-gasoil-air three-phase flows by using the backscatter gamma ray technique andthe multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network. The volume fraction determination in three-phase flows requires two gamma radioactive sources or a dual-energy source (with different energies) while in this study, we used just a 137Cs source (with the single energy) and a NaI detector to analyze backscattered gamma rays. The experimental set-up provides the required data for training and testing the network. Using the presented method, the volume fraction was predicted with a mean relative error percentage less than 6.47%. Also, the root mean square error was calculated as 1.60. The presented set-up is applicable in some industries with limited access. Also, using this technique, the cost, radiation safety and shielding requirements are minimized toward the other proposed methods.

  9. Application of Prigogine-Flory-Patterson theory to excess molar volume of mixtures of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Feng; Wang Haijun

    2009-01-01

    The densities of two binary mixtures formed by 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [bmim][BF 4 ] and 1-butyl-3-methy limidazolium hexafluorophosphate [bmim][PF 6 ] with compound N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone have been determined over the full range of composition and range of temperature from (298.15 to 313.15) K and at atmospheric pressure using a vibrating-tube densimeter (DMA4500). Excess molar volumes, V m E , have been obtained from these experimental results, and been fitted by the fourth-order Redlich-Kister equation. From the experimental results, partial molar volumes, apparent molar volume and partial molar volumes at infinite dilution were calculated over the whole composition range. Our results show that V m E decreases slightly when temperature increases in the systems studied. The experimental results have been used to test the applicability of the Prigogine-Flory-Patterson (PFP) theory. The results have been interpreted in terms of ion-dipole interactions and structural factors of the ionic liquid and these organic molecular liquids

  10. Photovoltaics. [research and development of terrestrial electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The federal government has sponsored a program of research and development on terrestrial photovoltaic systems that is designed to reduce the costs of such systems through technological advances. There are many potential paths to lower system costs, and successful developments have led to increased private investment in photovoltaics. The prices for photovoltaic collectors and systems that appear to be achievable within this decade offer hope that the systems will soon be attractive in utility applications within the United States. Most of the advances achieved will also be directly applicable to the remote markets in which photovoltaic systems are now commercially successful

  11. Solar generators in terrestrial communication technology. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, E

    1978-01-01

    To begin with, the basic terms solar cell, solar cell module, solar generator, and solar generator system are defined and illustrated by examples. After this, the advantages and disadvantages of solar generators in power supply for terrestrial communications as compared to dry cell batteries, diesel generators and mains operation are discussed with a view to technical, economic, and ecological aspects. After some hints for an optimum design of systems, a comprehensive, general list of possible applications is given. The second part will give a detailed description of typical and exemplary applications.

  12. Steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Li-Ping; Wu, Ke-Lei; Yu, He-Shui; Pang, Xu; Liu, Jie; Han, Li-Feng; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Song, Xin-Bo; Liu, Chao; Cong, Yu-Wen; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Sixteen steroidal saponins, including seven previously unreported compounds, were isolated from Tribulus terrestris. The structures of the saponins were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. They were identified as: 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-2α,3β,22α,26-tetrol-12-one (terrestrinin C), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin D), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,6,12-trione (terrestrinin E), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5α-furostan-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one (terrestrinin F), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-12β,22α,26-triol-3-one (terrestrinin G), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin H), and 24-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5α-spirostan-3β,24β-diol-12-one-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-galactopyranoside (terrestrinin I). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their platelet aggregation activities. Three of the known saponins exhibited strong effects on the induction of platelet aggregation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. New municipal solid waste processing technology reduces volume and provides beneficial reuse applications for soil improvement and dust control

    Science.gov (United States)

    A garbage-processing technology has been developed that shreds, sterilizes, and separates inorganic and organic components of municipal solid waste. The technology not only greatly reduces waste volume, but the non-composted byproduct of this process, Fluff®, has the potential to be utilized as a s...

  14. Spatial and temporal single-cell volume estimation by a fluorescence imaging technique with application to astrocytes in primary culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatibi, Siamak; Allansson, Louise; Gustavsson, Tomas; Blomstrand, Fredrik; Hansson, Elisabeth; Olsson, Torsten

    1999-05-01

    Cell volume changes are often associated with important physiological and pathological processes in the cell. These changes may be the means by which the cell interacts with its surrounding. Astroglial cells change their volume and shape under several circumstances that affect the central nervous system. Following an incidence of brain damage, such as a stroke or a traumatic brain injury, one of the first events seen is swelling of the astroglial cells. In order to study this and other similar phenomena, it is desirable to develop technical instrumentation and analysis methods capable of detecting and characterizing dynamic cell shape changes in a quantitative and robust way. We have developed a technique to monitor and to quantify the spatial and temporal volume changes in a single cell in primary culture. The technique is based on two- and three-dimensional fluorescence imaging. The temporal information is obtained from a sequence of microscope images, which are analyzed in real time. The spatial data is collected in a sequence of images from the microscope, which is automatically focused up and down through the specimen. The analysis of spatial data is performed off-line and consists of photobleaching compensation, focus restoration, filtering, segmentation and spatial volume estimation.

  15. Field evaluation of indoor thermal fog and ultra-low volume applications for control of Aedes aegypti, in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficacies of a hand-held thermal fogger (PatriotTM) and hand-held Ultra-low volume (ULV) sprayer (TwisterTM) with combinations of two different adulticides and an insect growth regulator (pyriproxyfen) were field assessed and compared for their impact on reducing dengue vector populations in Thaila...

  16. Dynamic Thermodynamics with Internal Energy, Volume, and Amount of Moles as States : Application to Liquefied Gas Tank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendsen, A. R. J.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic models for process design, optimization, and control usually solve a set of heat and/or mass balances as a function of time and/or position in the process. To obtain more robust dynamic models and to minimize the amount of assumptions, internal energy, volume, and amount of moles are chosen

  17. Sex ratio variation in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duchateau, Marie José; Velthuis, Hayo H. W.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2004-01-01

    Bombus terrestris, bumblebees, colony development, queen control, reproductive strategies, sex allocation......Bombus terrestris, bumblebees, colony development, queen control, reproductive strategies, sex allocation...

  18. The Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program Terrestrial Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    , understand and report on long-term change in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity, and to identify knowledge gaps and priorities. This poster will outline the key management questions the plan aims to address and the proposed nested, multi-scaled approach linking targeted, research based monitoring...... and coastal environments. The CBMP Terrestrial Plan is a framework to focus and coordinate monitoring of terrestrial biodiversity across the Arctic. The goal of the plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders, northern communities, and scientists to detect...

  19. Artificial neural network and neutron application in a volume fraction calculation in annular and stratified multiphase system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Robson; Brandao, Luis E.B.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Schirru, Roberto; Silva, Ademir Xavier da

    2009-01-01

    Multiphase flows, type oil-water-gas are very common among different industrial activities, such as chemical industries and petroleum extraction, and its measurements show some difficulties to be taken. Precisely determining the volume fraction of each one of the elements that composes a multiphase flow is very important in chemical plants and petroleum industries. This work presents a methodology able to determine volume fraction on Annular and Stratified multiphase flow system with the use of neutrons and artificial intelligence, using the principles of transmission/scattering of fast neutrons from a 241 Am-Be source and measurements of point flow that are influenced by variations of volume fractions. The proposed geometries used on the mathematical model was used to obtain a data set where the thicknesses referred of each material had been changed in order to obtain volume fraction of each phase providing 119 compositions that were used in the simulation with MCNP-X -computer code based on Monte Carlo Method that simulates the radiation transport. An artificial neural network (ANN) was trained with data obtained using the MCNP-X, and used to correlate such measurements with the respective real fractions. The ANN was able to correlate the data obtained on the simulation with MCNP-X with the volume fractions of the multiphase flows (oil-water-gas), both in the pattern of annular flow as stratified, resulting in a average relative error (%) for each production set of: annular (air = 3.85; water = 4.31; oil=1.08); stratified (air = 3.10, water 2.01, oil = 1.45). The method demonstrated good efficiency in the determination of each material that composes the phases, thus demonstrating the feasibility of the technique. (author)

  20. Artificial neural network and neutron application in a volume fraction calculation in annular and stratified multiphase system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Robson; Brandao, Luis E.B.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A., E-mail: robson@ien.gov.b, E-mail: brandao@ien.gov.b, E-mail: cmnap@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Radiofarmacos; Schirru, Roberto; Silva, Ademir Xavier da, E-mail: schirru@lmp.ufrj.b, E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Engineering Dept.

    2009-07-01

    Multiphase flows, type oil-water-gas are very common among different industrial activities, such as chemical industries and petroleum extraction, and its measurements show some difficulties to be taken. Precisely determining the volume fraction of each one of the elements that composes a multiphase flow is very important in chemical plants and petroleum industries. This work presents a methodology able to determine volume fraction on Annular and Stratified multiphase flow system with the use of neutrons and artificial intelligence, using the principles of transmission/scattering of fast neutrons from a {sup 241}Am-Be source and measurements of point flow that are influenced by variations of volume fractions. The proposed geometries used on the mathematical model was used to obtain a data set where the thicknesses referred of each material had been changed in order to obtain volume fraction of each phase providing 119 compositions that were used in the simulation with MCNP-X -computer code based on Monte Carlo Method that simulates the radiation transport. An artificial neural network (ANN) was trained with data obtained using the MCNP-X, and used to correlate such measurements with the respective real fractions. The ANN was able to correlate the data obtained on the simulation with MCNP-X with the volume fractions of the multiphase flows (oil-water-gas), both in the pattern of annular flow as stratified, resulting in a average relative error (%) for each production set of: annular (air = 3.85; water = 4.31; oil=1.08); stratified (air = 3.10, water 2.01, oil = 1.45). The method demonstrated good efficiency in the determination of each material that composes the phases, thus demonstrating the feasibility of the technique. (author)

  1. Variable volume combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  2. Large-volume injection of sample diluents not miscible with the mobile phase as an alternative approach in sample preparation for bioanalysis: an application for fenspiride bioequivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedovici, Andrei; Udrescu, Stefan; Albu, Florin; Tache, Florentin; David, Victor

    2011-09-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction of target compounds from biological matrices followed by the injection of a large volume from the organic layer into the chromatographic column operated under reversed-phase (RP) conditions would successfully combine the selectivity and the straightforward character of the procedure in order to enhance sensitivity, compared with the usual approach of involving solvent evaporation and residue re-dissolution. Large-volume injection of samples in diluents that are not miscible with the mobile phase was recently introduced in chromatographic practice. The risk of random errors produced during the manipulation of samples is also substantially reduced. A bioanalytical method designed for the bioequivalence of fenspiride containing pharmaceutical formulations was based on a sample preparation procedure involving extraction of the target analyte and the internal standard (trimetazidine) from alkalinized plasma samples in 1-octanol. A volume of 75 µl from the octanol layer was directly injected on a Zorbax SB C18 Rapid Resolution, 50 mm length × 4.6 mm internal diameter × 1.8 µm particle size column, with the RP separation being carried out under gradient elution conditions. Detection was made through positive ESI and MS/MS. Aspects related to method development and validation are discussed. The bioanalytical method was successfully applied to assess bioequivalence of a modified release pharmaceutical formulation containing 80 mg fenspiride hydrochloride during two different studies carried out as single-dose administration under fasting and fed conditions (four arms), and multiple doses administration, respectively. The quality attributes assigned to the bioanalytical method, as resulting from its application to the bioequivalence studies, are highlighted and fully demonstrate that sample preparation based on large-volume injection of immiscible diluents has an increased potential for application in bioanalysis.

  3. Methane emissions form terrestrial plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamaschi, P.; Dentener, F.; Grassi, G.; Leip, A.; Somogyi, Z.; Federici, S.; Seufert, G.; Raes, F. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    In a recent issue of Nature Keppler et al. (2006) report the discovery that terrestrial plants emit CH4 under aerobic conditions. Until now it was thought that bacterial decomposition of plant material under anaerobic conditions, such as in wetlands and water flooded rice paddies, is the main process leading to emissions from terrestrial ecosystems. In a first attempt to upscale these measurements, the authors estimate that global total emissions may be 149 Tg CH4/yr (62-236 Tg CH4/yr), with the main contribution estimated from tropical forests and grasslands (107 Tg CH4/yr with a range of 46-169 Tg CH4/yr). If confirmed, this new source of emission would constitute a significant fraction of the total global methane sources (estimated 500-600 Tg CH4/yr for present day total natural and anthropogenic sources) and have important implications for the global CH4 budget. To accommodate it within the present budget some sources would need to be re-assessed downwards and/or some sinks re-assessed upwards. Furthermore, also considering that methane is a {approx}23 times more powerful greenhouse gas than CO2, the possible feedbacks of these hitherto unknown CH4 emissions on global warming and their impacts on greenhouse gases (GHG) mitigation strategies need to be carefully evaluated. The merit of the paper is without doubt related to the remarkable discovery of a new process of methane emissions active under aerobic conditions. However, we think that the applied approach of scaling up emissions from the leaf level to global totals by using only few measured data (mainly from herbaceous species) and the Net Primary Productivity of the main biomes is scientifically questionable and tends to overestimate considerably the global estimates, especially for forest biomes. Furthermore, some significant constraints on the upper limit of the global natural CH4 emissions arise from the pre-industrial CH4 budget. Pre-industrial atmospheric CH4 mixing ratios have been measured

  4. BEDVH--A method for evaluating biologically effective dose volume histograms: Application to eye plaque brachytherapy implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, Nolan L.; Leonard, Kara L.; Huber, Kathryn E.; Mignano, John E.; Duker, Jay S.; Laver, Nora V.; Rivard, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A method is introduced to examine the influence of implant duration T, radionuclide, and radiobiological parameters on the biologically effective dose (BED) throughout the entire volume of regions of interest for episcleral brachytherapy using available radionuclides. This method is employed to evaluate a particular eye plaque brachytherapy implant in a radiobiological context. Methods: A reference eye geometry and 16 mm COMS eye plaque loaded with 103 Pd, 125 I, or 131 Cs sources were examined with dose distributions accounting for plaque heterogeneities. For a standardized 7 day implant, doses to 90% of the tumor volume ( TUMOR D 90 ) and 10% of the organ at risk volumes ( OAR D 10 ) were calculated. The BED equation from Dale and Jones and published α/β and μ parameters were incorporated with dose volume histograms (DVHs) for various T values such as T = 7 days (i.e., TUMOR 7 BED 10 and OAR 7 BED 10 ). By calculating BED throughout the volumes, biologically effective dose volume histograms (BEDVHs) were developed for tumor and OARs. Influence of T, radionuclide choice, and radiobiological parameters on TUMOR BEDVH and OAR BEDVH were examined. The nominal dose was scaled for shorter implants to achieve biological equivalence. Results: TUMOR D 90 values were 102, 112, and 110 Gy for 103 Pd, 125 I, and 131 Cs, respectively. Corresponding TUMOR 7 BED 10 values were 124, 140, and 138 Gy, respectively. As T decreased from 7 to 0.01 days, the isobiologically effective prescription dose decreased by a factor of three. As expected, TUMOR 7 BEDVH did not significantly change as a function of radionuclide half-life but varied by 10% due to radionuclide dose distribution. Variations in reported radiobiological parameters caused TUMOR 7 BED 10 to deviate by up to 46%. Over the range of OAR α/β values, OAR 7 BED 10 varied by up to 41%, 3.1%, and 1.4% for the lens, optic nerve, and lacrimal gland, respectively. Conclusions: BEDVH permits evaluation of the

  5. Possible climates on terrestrial exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget, F; Leconte, J

    2014-04-28

    What kind of environment may exist on terrestrial planets around other stars? In spite of the lack of direct observations, it may not be premature to speculate on exoplanetary climates, for instance, to optimize future telescopic observations or to assess the probability of habitable worlds. To begin with, climate primarily depends on (i) the atmospheric composition and the volatile inventory; (ii) the incident stellar flux; and (iii) the tidal evolution of the planetary spin, which can notably lock a planet with a permanent night side. The atmospheric composition and mass depends on complex processes, which are difficult to model: origins of volatiles, atmospheric escape, geochemistry, photochemistry, etc. We discuss physical constraints, which can help us to speculate on the possible type of atmosphere, depending on the planet size, its final distance for its star and the star type. Assuming that the atmosphere is known, the possible climates can be explored using global climate models analogous to the ones developed to simulate the Earth as well as the other telluric atmospheres in the solar system. Our experience with Mars, Titan and Venus suggests that realistic climate simulators can be developed by combining components, such as a 'dynamical core', a radiative transfer solver, a parametrization of subgrid-scale turbulence and convection, a thermal ground model and a volatile phase change code. On this basis, we can aspire to build reliable climate predictors for exoplanets. However, whatever the accuracy of the models, predicting the actual climate regime on a specific planet will remain challenging because climate systems are affected by strong positive feedbacks. They can drive planets with very similar forcing and volatile inventory to completely different states. For instance, the coupling among temperature, volatile phase changes and radiative properties results in instabilities, such as runaway glaciations and runaway greenhouse effect.

  6. Durable terrestrial bedrock predicts submarine canyon formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elliot; Finnegan, Noah J.; Mueller, Erich R.; Best, Rebecca J.

    2017-01-01

    Though submarine canyons are first-order topographic features of Earth, the processes responsible for their occurrence remain poorly understood. Potentially analogous studies of terrestrial rivers show that the flux and caliber of transported bedload are significant controls on bedrock incision. Here we hypothesize that coarse sediment load could exert a similar role in the formation of submarine canyons. We conducted a comprehensive empirical analysis of canyon occurrence along the West Coast of the contiguous United States which indicates that submarine canyon occurrence is best predicted by the occurrence of durable crystalline bedrock in adjacent terrestrial catchments. Canyon occurrence is also predicted by the flux of bed sediment to shore from terrestrial streams. Surprisingly, no significant correlation was observed between canyon occurrence and the slope or width of the continental shelf. These findings suggest that canyon incision is promoted by greater yields of durable terrestrial clasts to the shore.

  7. Energy-Efficient Optimal Power Allocation in Integrated Wireless Sensor and Cognitive Satellite Terrestrial Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shengchao; Li, Guangxia; An, Kang; Gao, Bin; Zheng, Gan

    2017-09-04

    This paper proposes novel satellite-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which integrate the WSN with the cognitive satellite terrestrial network. Having the ability to provide seamless network access and alleviate the spectrum scarcity, cognitive satellite terrestrial networks are considered as a promising candidate for future wireless networks with emerging requirements of ubiquitous broadband applications and increasing demand for spectral resources. With the emerging environmental and energy cost concerns in communication systems, explicit concerns on energy efficient resource allocation in satellite networks have also recently received considerable attention. In this regard, this paper proposes energy-efficient optimal power allocation schemes in the cognitive satellite terrestrial networks for non-real-time and real-time applications, respectively, which maximize the energy efficiency (EE) of the cognitive satellite user while guaranteeing the interference at the primary terrestrial user below an acceptable level. Specifically, average interference power (AIP) constraint is employed to protect the communication quality of the primary terrestrial user while average transmit power (ATP) or peak transmit power (PTP) constraint is adopted to regulate the transmit power of the satellite user. Since the energy-efficient power allocation optimization problem belongs to the nonlinear concave fractional programming problem, we solve it by combining Dinkelbach's method with Lagrange duality method. Simulation results demonstrate that the fading severity of the terrestrial interference link is favorable to the satellite user who can achieve EE gain under the ATP constraint comparing to the PTP constraint.

  8. Effects of chemicals on terrestrial ecosystems exhibiting different types of stability. Pt. 2. Application of fractal geometry to structural analysis in terrestrial ecotoxicology; Auswirkungen von Chemikalien auf terrestrische Oekosysteme unterschiedlichen Stabilitaetstyps. T. 2. Anwendung der fraktalen Geometrie zur Strukturanalyse in der terrestrischen Oekotoxikologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornkamm, R.; Darius, F.

    1995-04-01

    The problem at issue in the present study was whether and how reactions of terrestial ecosystems to anthropogenic xenobiotics can be measured and interpreted. For this pupose test were performed on two types of vegetation which are primarily distinguishable by their reproductive strategies (via seeds and buds, respectively) and also represented by plants of different taxonomic classes. The chemicals used were two low-dosed herbicides (2.4.5-T and atrazine) which elicit responses on several important physiological levels of the plant organism. Strength and duration of responses differed considerably between the two plant systems studied. These observations gave rise to the question as to what can be said on the tested plant systems in general concerning the extent and reversibility of the effects brought about by these interventions. For this purpose the processes assumed to be acting within the biocoeonoces had to be formulated in a model and interpreted. The resultant model permits following the chain of events leading from an individual stress reaction to a complex response of the whole system. It was possible to compare various simulation results with the reactions found in tests on real ecosystems and in other cases to derive from the hypotheses capable of experimental verification. The authors believe that activities in terrestrial ecotoxicology should go beyond the gathering of data from empirical substance testing, which is undoubtedly a necessity for licensing procedures, by furthering basic research. Theoretical considerations make it seem unrealistic to attempt predictions on the future development of any certain ecosystem (whether with or without anthropogenic stress). Statements on the probability of effects, by contrast, to have a certain validty, provided they are based on a sufficient knowledge of type-specific responses of systems and of influences of background conditions. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer die Bearbeitung des Problems, ob und wie Reaktionen

  9. The geometry of terrestrial laser scanning; identification of errors, modeling and mitigation of scanning geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soudarissanane, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, Terrestrial Laser Scanners are increasingly being used in a broad spectrum of applications, from surveying to civil engineering, medical modeling and forensics. Especially surveying applications require on one hand a quickly obtainable, high resolution point cloud but also

  10. Parallel Computing for Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dali; Post, Wilfred M.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Berry, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are a primary component of research on global environmental change. Observational and modeling research on terrestrial ecosystems at the global scale, however, has lagged behind their counterparts for oceanic and atmospheric systems, largely because the unique challenges associated with the tremendous diversity and complexity of terrestrial ecosystems. There are 8 major types of terrestrial ecosystem: tropical rain forest, savannas, deserts, temperate grassland, deciduous forest, coniferous forest, tundra, and chaparral. The carbon cycle is an important mechanism in the coupling of terrestrial ecosystems with climate through biological fluxes of CO 2 . The influence of terrestrial ecosystems on atmospheric CO 2 can be modeled via several means at different timescales. Important processes include plant dynamics, change in land use, as well as ecosystem biogeography. Over the past several decades, many terrestrial ecosystem models (see the 'Model developments' section) have been developed to understand the interactions between terrestrial carbon storage and CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere, as well as the consequences of these interactions. Early TECMs generally adapted simple box-flow exchange models, in which photosynthetic CO 2 uptake and respiratory CO 2 release are simulated in an empirical manner with a small number of vegetation and soil carbon pools. Demands on kinds and amount of information required from global TECMs have grown. Recently, along with the rapid development of parallel computing, spatially explicit TECMs with detailed process based representations of carbon dynamics become attractive, because those models can readily incorporate a variety of additional ecosystem processes (such as dispersal, establishment, growth, mortality etc.) and environmental factors (such as landscape position, pest populations, disturbances, resource manipulations, etc.), and provide information to frame policy options for climate change

  11. Grazing livestock are exposed to terrestrial cyanobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    McGorum , Bruce C; Pirie , R Scott; Glendinning , Laura; McLachlan , Gerry; Metcalf , James S; Banack , Sandra A; Cox , Paul A; Codd , Geoffrey A

    2015-01-01

    While toxins from aquatic cyanobacteria are a well-recognised cause of disease in birds and animals, exposure of grazing livestock to terrestrial cyanobacteria has not been described. This study identified terrestrial cyanobacteria, predominantly Phormidium spp., in the biofilm of plants from most livestock fields investigated. Lower numbers of other cyanobacteria, microalgae and fungi were present on many plants. Cyanobacterial 16S rDNA, predominantly from Phormidium spp., was detected in al...

  12. Application of Nuclear Volume Measurements to Comprehend the Cell Cycle in Root-Knot Nematode-Induced Giant Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Dijair Antonino de Souza Junior

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes induce galls that contain giant-feeding cells harboring multiple enlarged nuclei within the roots of host plants. It is recognized that the cell cycle plays an essential role in the set-up of a peculiar nuclear organization that seemingly steers nematode feeding site induction and development. Functional studies of a large set of cell cycle genes in transgenic lines of the model host Arabidopsis thaliana have contributed to better understand the role of the cell cycle components and their implication in the establishment of functional galls. Mitotic activity mainly occurs during the initial stages of gall development and is followed by an intense endoreduplication phase imperative to produce giant-feeding cells, essential to form vigorous galls. Transgenic lines overexpressing particular cell cycle genes can provoke severe nuclei phenotype changes mainly at later stages of feeding site development. This can result in chaotic nuclear phenotypes affecting their volume. These aberrant nuclear organizations are hampering gall development and nematode maturation. Herein we report on two nuclear volume assessment methods which provide information on the complex changes occurring in nuclei during giant cell development. Although we observed that the data obtained with AMIRA tend to be more detailed than Volumest (Image J, both approaches proved to be highly versatile, allowing to access 3D morphological changes in nuclei of complex tissues and organs. The protocol presented here is based on standard confocal optical sectioning and 3-D image analysis and can be applied to study any volume and shape of cellular organelles in various complex biological specimens. Our results suggest that an increase in giant cell nuclear volume is not solely linked to increasing ploidy levels, but might result from the accumulation of mitotic defects.

  13. DosedPet application for Nuclear Medicine: Calculation of the volume of medication needed for PET/CT patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Pedro Augusto do; Rodrigues, Araken dos S. Werneck

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the application (APP) DosePet that calculates the amount of medicament for PET / CT in patients according to the predetermined radiation dose. The software has been designed using the web MIT App Inventor2 tool for Android platform. The application allows the workers to simulate the amount of radiation still existing in the facilities after the applications, increasing security and reducing exposures, and enable greater efficiency in the use of the radiopharmaceutical. (author)

  14. Application of soil washing system to the volume reduction of radioactively contaminated soils and automated treatment of sludge cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouri, Mitsuo; Tsuchida, Mitsuru; Baba, Naoki; Nakajima, Takuma

    2013-01-01

    The pilot plant study was intended to evaluate; a) the removal efficiency of radioactive Cs, b) the volume reduction rate of feed soils, c) the volumetric rate and concentration rate of discharged sludge cake, and d) the effect of radiation exposure reduction by automated filter press unit and automated packing unit of sludge cake. As a result of this study, following observations were made; 1) the radioactive Cs content of clean sands ranged 882∼2,940 Bq/kg as compared to the feed soils of 8,790 to 26,270 Bq/kg, 2) the removal efficiency of radioactive Cs ranged 84∼92% of feed soils, 3) the volume reduction rate of feed soils ranged 70∼86% (ave. 82%), and 4) the automated filter press unit and the automated packing system of sludge cake were helpful for workers in reducing radiation exposure. It is concluded that soil washing system can effectively reduce volume of radioactively contaminated soils and can be practically used in Fukushima for remediation of soils. (author)

  15. A discriminative structural similarity measure and its application to video-volume registration for endoscope three-dimensional motion tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiongbiao; Mori, Kensaku

    2014-06-01

    Endoscope 3-D motion tracking, which seeks to synchronize pre- and intra-operative images in endoscopic interventions, is usually performed as video-volume registration that optimizes the similarity between endoscopic video and pre-operative images. The tracking performance, in turn, depends significantly on whether a similarity measure can successfully characterize the difference between video sequences and volume rendering images driven by pre-operative images. The paper proposes a discriminative structural similarity measure, which uses the degradation of structural information and takes image correlation or structure, luminance, and contrast into consideration, to boost video-volume registration. By applying the proposed similarity measure to endoscope tracking, it was demonstrated to be more accurate and robust than several available similarity measures, e.g., local normalized cross correlation, normalized mutual information, modified mean square error, or normalized sum squared difference. Based on clinical data evaluation, the tracking error was reduced significantly from at least 14.6 mm to 4.5 mm. The processing time was accelerated more than 30 frames per second using graphics processing unit.

  16. Linking animals aloft with the terrestrial landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buler, Jeffrey J.; Barrow, Wylie; Boone, Matthew; Dawson, Deanna K.; Diehl, Robert H.; Moore, Frank R.; Randall, Lori A.; Schreckengost, Timothy; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.

    2018-01-01

    Despite using the aerosphere for many facets of their life, most flying animals (i.e., birds, bats, some insects) are still bound to terrestrial habitats for resting, feeding, and reproduction. Comprehensive broad-scale observations by weather surveillance radars of animals as they leave terrestrial habitats for migration or feeding flights can be used to map their terrestrial distributions either as point locations (e.g., communal roosts) or as continuous surface layers (e.g., animal densities in habitats across a landscape). We discuss some of the technical challenges to reducing measurement biases related to how radars sample the aerosphere and the flight behavior of animals. We highlight a recently developed methodological approach that precisely and quantitatively links the horizontal spatial structure of birds aloft to their terrestrial distributions and provides novel insights into avian ecology and conservation across broad landscapes. Specifically, we present case studies that (1) elucidate how migrating birds contend with crossing ecological barriers and extreme weather events, (2) identify important stopover areas and habitat use patterns of birds along their migration routes, and (3) assess waterfowl response to wetland habitat management and restoration. These studies aid our understanding of how anthropogenic modification of the terrestrial landscape (e.g., urbanization, habitat management), natural geographic features, and weather (e.g., hurricanes) can affect the terrestrial distributions of flying animals.

  17. Anthropogenic transformation of the terrestrial biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Erle C

    2011-03-13

    Human populations and their use of land have transformed most of the terrestrial biosphere into anthropogenic biomes (anthromes), causing a variety of novel ecological patterns and processes to emerge. To assess whether human populations and their use of land have directly altered the terrestrial biosphere sufficiently to indicate that the Earth system has entered a new geological epoch, spatially explicit global estimates of human populations and their use of land were analysed across the Holocene for their potential to induce irreversible novel transformation of the terrestrial biosphere. Human alteration of the terrestrial biosphere has been significant for more than 8000 years. However, only in the past century has the majority of the terrestrial biosphere been transformed into intensively used anthromes with predominantly novel anthropogenic ecological processes. At present, even were human populations to decline substantially or use of land become far more efficient, the current global extent, duration, type and intensity of human transformation of ecosystems have already irreversibly altered the terrestrial biosphere at levels sufficient to leave an unambiguous geological record differing substantially from that of the Holocene or any prior epoch. It remains to be seen whether the anthropogenic biosphere will be sustained and continue to evolve.

  18. Comparing marine and terrestrial ecosystems: Implications for the design of coastal marine reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M.H.; Neigel, J.E.; Estes, J.A.; Andelman, S.; Warner, R.R.; Largier, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    Concepts and theory for the design and application of terrestrial reserves is based on our understanding of environmental, ecological, and evolutionary processes responsible for biological diversity and sustainability of terrestrial ecosystems and how humans have influenced these processes. How well this terrestrial-based theory can be applied toward the design and application of reserves in the coastal marine environment depends, in part, on the degree of similarity between these systems. Several marked differences in ecological and evolutionary processes exist between marine and terrestrial ecosystems as ramifications of fundamental differences in their physical environments (i.e., the relative prevalence of air and water) and contemporary patterns of human impacts. Most notably, the great extent and rate of dispersal of nutrients, materials, holoplanktonic organisms, and reproductive propagules of benthic organisms expand scales of connectivity among near-shore communities and ecosystems. Consequently, the "openness" of marine populations, communities, and ecosystems probably has marked influences on their spatial, genetic, and trophic structures and dynamics in ways experienced by only some terrestrial species. Such differences appear to be particularly significant for the kinds of organisms most exploited and targeted for protection in coastal marine ecosystems (fishes and macroinvertebrates). These and other differences imply some unique design criteria and application of reserves in the marine environment. In explaining the implications of these differences for marine reserve design and application, we identify many of the environmental and ecological processes and design criteria necessary for consideration in the development of the analytical approaches developed elsewhere in this Special Issue.

  19. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, volume 2. [application and processing of remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Application and processing of remotely sensed data are discussed. Areas of application include: pollution monitoring, water quality, land use, marine resources, ocean surface properties, and agriculture. Image processing and scene analysis are described along with automated photointerpretation and classification techniques. Data from infrared and multispectral band scanners onboard LANDSAT satellites are emphasized.

  20. Gibbs and Hill Standard Safety Analysis Report, GIBBSSAR. License application, volume 1: chapters 1--3 (section 7)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    License application for the GIBBSSAR Standard Plant is presented. The reactor used with the GIBBSSAR balance-of-plant system is the Westinghouse 3800 MW(t) PWR. This portion of the application includes a general plant description; site characteristics; and design of structures, components, equipment and systems

  1. Application of ERAS-model and Prigogine-Flory-Patterson theory to excess molar volumes for ternary mixtures of (2-chlorobutane + butylacetate + isobutanol) at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanlarzadeh, K.; Iloukhani, H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Density of ternary and three binary mixtures of (2-chlorobutane + butylacetate + isobutanol) determined. → Excess molar volume, partial molar volume and apparent molar volume were calculated. → Excess molar volume was correlated as a function of mole fraction by using the Redlich-Kister and Cibulka equation for all mixtures. → The experimental results have been used to test the applicability of the ERAS-model and PFP theory. - Abstract: Densities of the ternary mixture consisting of {2-chlorobutane (1) + butylacetate (2) + isobutanol (3)} and related binary mixtures were measured over the whole range of composition at T = 298.15 K and ambient pressure. Excess molar volumes V m E for the mixtures were derived and correlated as a function of mole fraction by using the Redlich-Kister and the Cibulka equations for binary and ternary mixtures, respectively. From the experimental data, partial molar volumes, V-bar m,i excess partial molar volumes, V-bar i E partial molar volumes at infinite dilution V-bar m,i 0 and apparent molar volumes V-bar φ,i were also calculated. For all binary mixtures over the entire range of mole fractions V m E data are positive. The experimental results of the constituted binary mixtures have been used to test the applicability of the extended real associated solution (ERAS-model) and Prigogine-Flory-Paterson (PFP) theory.

  2. Application of Compressible Volume of Fluid Model in Simulating the Impact and Solidification of Hollow Spherical ZrO2 Droplet on a Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Hadi; Emami, Mohsen Davazdah; Jazi, Hamidreza Salimi; Mostaghimi, Javad

    2017-12-01

    Applications of hollow spherical particles in thermal spraying process have been developed in recent years, accompanied by attempts in the form of experimental and numerical studies to better understand the process of impact of a hollow droplet on a surface. During such process, volume and density of the trapped gas inside droplet change. The numerical models should be able to simulate such changes and their consequent effects. The aim of this study is to numerically simulate the impact of a hollow ZrO2 droplet on a flat surface using the volume of fluid technique for compressible flows. An open-source, finite-volume-based CFD code was used to perform the simulations, where appropriate subprograms were added to handle the studied cases. Simulation results were compared with the available experimental data. Results showed that at high impact velocities ( U 0 > 100 m/s), the compression of trapped gas inside droplet played a significant role in the impact dynamics. In such velocities, the droplet splashed explosively. Compressibility effects result in a more porous splat, compared to the corresponding incompressible model. Moreover, the compressible model predicted a higher spread factor than the incompressible model, due to planetary structure of the splat.

  3. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Most people think of groundwater as a resource, but it is also a useful indicator of climate variability and human impacts on the environment. Groundwater storage varies slowly relative to other non-frozen components of the water cycle, encapsulating long period variations and trends in surface meteorology. On seasonal to interannual timescales, groundwater is as dynamic as soil moisture, and it has been shown that groundwater storage changes have contributed to sea level variations. Groundwater monitoring well measurements are too sporadic and poorly assembled outside of the United States and a few other nations to permit direct global assessment of groundwater variability. However, observational estimates of terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations from the GRACE satellites largely represent groundwater storage variations on an interannual basis, save for high latitude/altitude (dominated by snow and ice) and wet tropical (surface water) regions. A figure maps changes in mean annual TWS from 2009 to 2010, based on GRACE, reflecting hydroclimatic conditions in 2010. Severe droughts impacted Russia and the Amazon, and drier than normal weather also affected the Indochinese peninsula, parts of central and southern Africa, and western Australia. Groundwater depletion continued in northern India, while heavy rains in California helped to replenish aquifers that have been depleted by drought and withdrawals for irrigation, though they are still below normal levels. Droughts in northern Argentina and western China similarly abated. Wet weather raised aquifer levels broadly across western Europe. Rains in eastern Australia caused flooding to the north and helped to mitigate a decade long drought in the south. Significant reductions in TWS seen in the coast of Alaska and the Patagonian Andes represent ongoing glacier melt, not groundwater depletion. Figures plot time series of zonal mean and global GRACE derived non-seasonal TWS anomalies (deviation from the mean of

  4. Investigations on the properties of gas telescopes with three-piece measuring volume concerning their application for the spectrometry of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borst, H.

    1976-07-01

    In this paper, the properties of gas telescopes with three-piece measuring volume are analyzed. First, the principle of measurement on which gas telescopes are based is explained and ranges of application resulting from it as well as principles of possible realizations are discussed. Then a new theory of proportional gas amplification is derived in its application on methane gas, whose results are used in further descriptions. The following section deals with energy-dependent properties of gas telescopes. Here, it is shown that neutron energies above 100 keV can be measured with gas telescopes. In a further section, the prototype is described and its theoretical properties are shown. Finally, alternative possibilties of design are given from which good properties may be expected, even with accompanying gamma rays. (orig./GSC) [de

  5. High-resolution neutron protein crystallography with radically small crystal volumes: Application of perdeuteration to human aldose reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazemann, I.; Dauvergne, M.T.; Blakeley, M.P.; Meilleur, Flora; Haertlein, M.; Van Dorsselaer, A.; Mitschler, A.; Myles, Dean A.A.; Podjarny, A.

    2005-01-01

    Neutron diffraction data have been collected to 2.2 (angstrom) resolution from a small (0.15 mm 3 ) crystal of perdeuterated human aldose reductase (h-AR; MW = 36 kDa) in order to help to determine the protonation state of the enzyme. h-AR belongs to the aldo-keto reductase family and is implicated in diabetic complications. Its ternary complexes (h-AR-coenzyme NADPH-selected inhibitor) provide a good model to study both the enzymatic mechanism and inhibition. Here, the successful production of fully deuterated human aldose reductase (h-AR(D)), subsequent crystallization of the ternary complex h-AR(D)-NADPH-IDD594 and neutron Laue data collection at the LADI instrument at ILL using a crystal volume of just 0.15 mm 3 are reported. Neutron data were recorded to 2 (angstrom) resolution, with subsequent data analysis using data to 2.2 (angstrom). This is the first fully deuterated enzyme of this size (36 kDa) to be solved by neutron diffraction and represents a milestone in the field, as the crystal volume is at least one order of magnitude smaller than those usually required for other high-resolution neutron structures determined to date. This illustrates the significant increase in the signal-to-noise ratio of data collected from perdeuterated crystals and demonstrates that good-quality neutron data can now be collected from more typical protein crystal volumes. Indeed, the signal-to-noise ratio is then dominated by other sources of instrument background, the nature of which is under investigation. This is important for the design of future instruments, which should take maximum advantage of the reduction in the intrinsic diffraction pattern background from fully deuterated samples.

  6. Application of some geometrical and empirical models to excess molar volume for the multi-component mixtures at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iloukhani, H.; Khanlarzadeh, K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Excess molar volume of quartenary mixtures of 1-chlorobutane, 2-chlorobutane, butylamine, and butylacetate was determined. ► The experimental data were correlated by some empirical and semi empirical models. ► A comparison with PFP theory has been successfully applied from binary data. - Abstract: Densities of the quaternary mixture consisting of {1-chlorobutane (1) + 2-chlorobutane (2) + butylamine (3) + butylacetate (4)} and related ternary mixtures of {1-chlorobutane (1) + 2-chlorobutane (2) + butylamine (3)}, {1-chlorobutane (1) + 2-chlorobutane (2) + butylacetate (4)}, {2-chlorobutane (2) + butylamine (3) + butylacetate (4)}, and binary systems of {1-chlorobutane (1) + 2-chlorobutane (2)}, {2-chlorobutane (2) + butylamine (3)}, were measured over the whole range of composition at T = 298.15 K and ambient pressure. Excess molar volumes, V m E , for the mixtures were derived and correlated as a function of mole fraction by using the Redlich–Kister and the Cibulka equations for binary and ternary mixtures, respectively. From the experimental data, partial molar volumes, V m,i and excess partial molar volumes, V m,i E were also calculated for binary systems. The experimental results of the constituted binary mixtures have been used to test the applicability of the Prigogine–Flory–Paterson (PFP) theory. A number of geometrical and empirical equations were also used to verify their ability to predict ternary and quaternary properties from their lower order mixtures. The experimental data were used to evaluate the nature and type of intermolecular interactions in multi-component mixtures.

  7. High-throughput analysis using non-depletive SPME: challenges and applications to the determination of free and total concentrations in small sample volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyacı, Ezel; Bojko, Barbara; Reyes-Garcés, Nathaly; Poole, Justen J; Gómez-Ríos, Germán Augusto; Teixeira, Alexandre; Nicol, Beate; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2018-01-18

    In vitro high-throughput non-depletive quantitation of chemicals in biofluids is of growing interest in many areas. Some of the challenges facing researchers include the limited volume of biofluids, rapid and high-throughput sampling requirements, and the lack of reliable methods. Coupled to the above, growing interest in the monitoring of kinetics and dynamics of miniaturized biosystems has spurred the demand for development of novel and revolutionary methodologies for analysis of biofluids. The applicability of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is investigated as a potential technology to fulfill the aforementioned requirements. As analytes with sufficient diversity in their physicochemical features, nicotine, N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide, and diclofenac were selected as test compounds for the study. The objective was to develop methodologies that would allow repeated non-depletive sampling from 96-well plates, using 100 µL of sample. Initially, thin film-SPME was investigated. Results revealed substantial depletion and consequent disruption in the system. Therefore, new ultra-thin coated fibers were developed. The applicability of this device to the described sampling scenario was tested by determining the protein binding of the analytes. Results showed good agreement with rapid equilibrium dialysis. The presented method allows high-throughput analysis using small volumes, enabling fast reliable free and total concentration determinations without disruption of system equilibrium.

  8. Bridge between control science and technology. Volume 5 Manufacturing man-machine systems, computers, components, traffic control, space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rembold, U; Kempf, K G; Towill, D R; Johannsen, G; Paul, M

    1985-01-01

    Among the topics discussed are: robotics; CAD/CAM applications; and man-machine systems. Consideration is also given to: tools and software for system design and integration; communication systems for real-time computer control; fail-safe design of real-time computer systems; and microcomputer-based control systems. Additional topics discussed include: programmable and intelligent components and instruments in automatic control; transportation systems; and space applications of automatic control systems.

  9. Sampling supraglacial debris thickness using terrestrial photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Lindsey; Mertes, Jordan

    2017-04-01

    The melt rate of debris-covered ice differs to that of clean ice primarily as a function of debris thickness. The spatial distribution of supraglacial debris thickness must therefore be known in order to understand how it is likely to impact glacier behaviour, and meltwater contribution to local hydrological resources and global sea level rise. However, practical means of determining debris cover thickness remain elusive. In this study we explore the utility of terrestrial photogrammetry to produce high resolution, scaled and texturized digital terrain models of debris cover exposures above ice cliffs as a means of quantifying and characterizing debris thickness. Two Nikon D5000 DSLRs with Tamron 100mm lenses were used to photograph a sample area of the Ngozumpa glacier in the Khumbu Himal of Nepal in April 2016. A Structure from Motion workflow using Agisoft Photoscan software was used to generate a surface models with <10cm resolution. A Trimble Geo7X differential GPS with Zephyr antenna, along with a local base station, was used to precisely measure marked ground control points to scale the photogrammetric surface model. Measurements of debris thickness along the exposed cliffline were made from this scaled model, assuming that the ice surface at the debris-ice boundary is horizontal, and these data are compared to 50 manual point measurements along the same clifftops. We conclude that sufficiently high resolution photogrammetry, with precise scaling information, provides a useful means to determine debris thickness at clifftop exposures. The resolution of the possible measurements depends on image resolution, the accuracy of the ground control points and the computational capacity to generate centimetre scale surface models. Application of such techniques to sufficiently high resolution imagery from UAV-borne cameras may offer a powerful means of determining debris thickness distribution patterns over debris covered glacier termini.

  10. Synthesis of Volumetric Ring Antenna Array for Terrestrial Coverage Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Reyna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a synthesis of a volumetric ring antenna array for a terrestrial coverage pattern. This synthesis regards the spacing among the rings on the planes X-Y, the positions of the rings on the plane X-Z, and uniform and concentric excitations. The optimization is carried out by implementing the particle swarm optimization. The synthesis is compared with previous designs by resulting with proper performance of this geometry to provide an accurate coverage to be applied in satellite applications with a maximum reduction of the antenna hardware as well as the side lobe level reduction.

  11. Synthesis of Volumetric Ring Antenna Array for Terrestrial Coverage Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Alberto; Panduro, Marco A.; Del Rio Bocio, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of a volumetric ring antenna array for a terrestrial coverage pattern. This synthesis regards the spacing among the rings on the planes X-Y, the positions of the rings on the plane X-Z, and uniform and concentric excitations. The optimization is carried out by implementing the particle swarm optimization. The synthesis is compared with previous designs by resulting with proper performance of this geometry to provide an accurate coverage to be applied in satellite applications with a maximum reduction of the antenna hardware as well as the side lobe level reduction. PMID:24701150

  12. Satellite and terrestrial radio positioning techniques a signal processing perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Dardari, Davide; Falletti, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    * The first book to combine satellite and terrestrial positioning techniques - vital for the understanding and development of new technologies * Written and edited by leading experts in the field, with contributors belonging to the European Commission's FP7 Network of Excellence NEWCOM++ Applications to a wide range of fields, including sensor networks, emergency services, military use, location-based billing, location-based advertising, intelligent transportation, and leisure Location-aware personal devices and location-based services have become ever more prominent in the past few years

  13. Gliomas: Application of Cumulative Histogram Analysis of Normalized Cerebral Blood Volume on 3 T MRI to Tumor Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungjin; Choi, Seung Hong; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Ryoo, Inseon; Kim, Soo Chin; Yeom, Jeong A.; Shin, Hwaseon; Jung, Seung Chai; Lee, A. Leum; Yun, Tae Jin; Park, Chul-Kee; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Park, Sung-Hye

    2013-01-01

    Background Glioma grading assumes significant importance in that low- and high-grade gliomas display different prognoses and are treated with dissimilar therapeutic strategies. The objective of our study was to retrospectively assess the usefulness of a cumulative normalized cerebral blood volume (nCBV) histogram for glioma grading based on 3 T MRI. Methods From February 2010 to April 2012, 63 patients with astrocytic tumors underwent 3 T MRI with dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted imaging. Regions of interest containing the entire tumor volume were drawn on every section of the co-registered relative CBV (rCBV) maps and T2-weighted images. The percentile values from the cumulative nCBV histograms and the other histogram parameters were correlated with tumor grades. Cochran’s Q test and the McNemar test were used to compare the diagnostic accuracies of the histogram parameters after the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Using the parameter offering the highest diagnostic accuracy, a validation process was performed with an independent test set of nine patients. Results The 99th percentile of the cumulative nCBV histogram (nCBV C99), mean and peak height differed significantly between low- and high-grade gliomas (P = histogram analysis of nCBV using 3 T MRI can be a useful method for preoperative glioma grading. The nCBV C99 value is helpful in distinguishing high- from low-grade gliomas and grade IV from III gliomas. PMID:23704910

  14. Cost-Loss Analysis of Ensemble Solar Wind Forecasting: Space Weather Use of Terrestrial Weather Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, E. M.; Pope, E. C. D.

    2017-12-01

    This commentary concerns recent work on solar wind forecasting by Owens and Riley (2017). The approach taken makes effective use of tools commonly used in terrestrial weather—notably, via use of a simple model—generation of an "ensemble" forecast, and application of a "cost-loss" analysis to the resulting probabilistic information, to explore the benefit of this forecast to users with different risk appetites. This commentary aims to highlight these useful techniques to the wider space weather audience and to briefly discuss the general context of application of terrestrial weather approaches to space weather.

  15. The XII Century Towers, a Benchmark of the Rome Countryside almost Cancelled: the Safeguard Plan by Low Cost Uav and Terrestrial Dsm Photogrammetry Surveying and 3d Web GIS Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelli, L.; Paolini, P.; Forti, G.

    2017-11-01

    "Giving a bird-fly look at the Rome countryside, throughout the Middle Age central period, it would show as if the multiple city towers has been widely spread around the territory" on a radial range of maximum thirty kilometers far from the Capitol Hill center (Carocci and Vendittelli, 2004). This is the consequence of the phenomenon identified with the "Incasalamento" neologism, described in depth in the following paper, intended as the general process of expansion of the urban society interests outside the downtown limits, started from the half of the XII and developed through all the XIII century, slowing down and ending in the following years. From the XIX century till today the architectural finds of this reality have raised the interest of many national and international scientists, which aimed to study and catalog them all to create a complete framework that, cause of its extension, didn't allow yet attempting any element by element detailed analysis. From the described situation has started our plan of intervention, we will apply integrated survey methods and technologies of terrestrial and UAV near stereo-photogrammetry, by the use of low cost drones, more than action cameras and reflex on extensible rods, integrated and referenced with GPS and topographic survey. In the final project we intend to produce some 3D scaled and textured surface models of any artifact (almost two hundreds were firstly observed still standing), to singularly study the dimensions and structure, to analyze the building materials and details and to formulate an hypothesis about any function, based even on the position along the territory. These models, successively georeferenced, will be imported into a 2D and 3D WebGIS and organized in layers made visible on basemaps of reference, as much as on historical maps.

  16. An Efficient, Hierarchical Viewpoint Planning Strategy for Terrestrial Laser Scanner Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, F.; Lichti, D. D.

    2018-05-01

    Terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) techniques have been widely adopted in a variety of applications. However, unlike in geodesy or photogrammetry, insufficient attention has been paid to the optimal TLS network design. It is valuable to develop a complete design system that can automatically provide an optimal plan, especially for high-accuracy, large-volume scanning networks. To achieve this goal, one should look at the "optimality" of the solution as well as the computational complexity in reaching it. In this paper, a hierarchical TLS viewpoint planning strategy is developed to solve the optimal scanner placement problems. If one targeted object to be scanned is simplified as discretized wall segments, any possible viewpoint can be evaluated by a score table representing its visible segments under certain scanning geometry constraints. Thus, the design goal is to find a minimum number of viewpoints that achieves complete coverage of all wall segments. The efficiency is improved by densifying viewpoints hierarchically, instead of a "brute force" search within the entire workspace. The experiment environments in this paper were simulated from two buildings located on University of Calgary campus. Compared with the "brute force" strategy in terms of the quality of the solutions and the runtime, it is shown that the proposed strategy can provide a scanning network with a compatible quality but with more than a 70 % time saving.

  17. Microplastics in the terrestrial ecosystem: Implications for Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Gertsen, H.F.; Gooren, H.; Peters, P.D.; Salanki, T.E.; Ploeg, van der M.J.C.; Besseling, E.; Koelmans, A.A.; Geissen, V.

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris is widespread in the environment, but information on the effects of microplastics on terrestrial fauna is completely lacking. Here, we studied the survival and fitness of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) exposed to microplastics (Polyethylene, <150 μm)

  18. A potential mechanism for allometric trabecular bone scaling in terrestrial mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Patrik; Ito, Keita; van Rietbergen, Bert

    2015-03-01

    Trabecular bone microstructural parameters, including trabecular thickness, spacing, and number, have been reported to scale with animal size with negative allometry, whereas bone volume fraction is animal size-invariant in terrestrial mammals. As for the majority of scaling patterns described in animals, its underlying mechanism is unknown. However, it has also been found that osteocyte density is inversely related to animal size, possibly adapted to metabolic rate, which shows a negative relationship as well. In addition, the signalling reach of osteocytes is limited by the extent of the lacuno-canalicular network, depending on trabecular dimensions and thus also on animal size. Here we propose animal size-dependent variations in osteocyte density and their signalling influence distance as a potential mechanism for negative allometric trabecular bone scaling in terrestrial mammals. Using an established and tested computational model of bone modelling and remodelling, we run simulations with different osteocyte densities and influence distances mimicking six terrestrial mammals covering a large range of body masses. Simulated trabecular structures revealed negative allometric scaling for trabecular thickness, spacing, and number, constant bone volume fraction, and bone turnover rates inversely related to animal size. These results are in agreement with previous observations supporting our proposal of osteocyte density and influence distance variation as a potential mechanism for negative allometric trabecular bone scaling in terrestrial mammals. The inverse relationship between bone turnover rates and animal size further indicates that trabecular bone scaling may be linked to metabolic rather than mechanical adaptations. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  19. Portal Vein Embolization with Contralateral Application of Stem Cells Facilitates Increase of Future Liver Remnant Volume in Patients with Liver Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludvík, Jaroslav; Duras, Petr; Třeška, Vladislav; Matoušková, Táňa; Brůha, Jan; Fichtl, Jakub; Lysák, Daniel; Ferda, Jiří; Baxa, Jan

    2017-01-01

    ObjectivesThis study aimed to evaluate the progress of future liver remnant volume (FLRV) in patients with liver metastases after portal vein embolization (PVE) with the application of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and compare it with a patients control group after PVE only.MethodsTwenty patients (group 1) underwent PVE with contralateral HSC application. Subsequently, CT volumetry with the determination of FLRV was performed at weekly intervals, in total three weeks. A sample of twenty patients (group 2) who underwent PVE without HSC application was used as a control group.ResultsThe mean of FLRV increased by 173.2 mL during three weeks after the PVE/HSC procedure, whereas by 98.9 mL after PVE only (p = 0.015). Furthermore, the mean daily growth of FLRV by 7.6 mL in group 1 was significantly higher in comparison with 4.1 mL in group 2 (p = 0.007).ConclusionsPVE with the application of HSC significantly facilitates growth of FLRV in comparison with PVE only. This method could be one of the new suitable approaches to increase the resectability of liver tumours.

  20. Portal Vein Embolization with Contralateral Application of Stem Cells Facilitates Increase of Future Liver Remnant Volume in Patients with Liver Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludvík, Jaroslav, E-mail: ludvikj@fnplzen.cz; Duras, Petr [Charles University, Department of Imaging Methods, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Třeška, Vladislav [Charles University, Department of Surgery, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Matoušková, Táňa [Charles University, Department of Imaging Methods, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Brůha, Jan; Fichtl, Jakub [Charles University, Department of Surgery, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Lysák, Daniel [Charles University, Department of Haemato-Oncology, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Ferda, Jiří; Baxa, Jan [Charles University, Department of Imaging Methods, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic)

    2017-05-15

    ObjectivesThis study aimed to evaluate the progress of future liver remnant volume (FLRV) in patients with liver metastases after portal vein embolization (PVE) with the application of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and compare it with a patients control group after PVE only.MethodsTwenty patients (group 1) underwent PVE with contralateral HSC application. Subsequently, CT volumetry with the determination of FLRV was performed at weekly intervals, in total three weeks. A sample of twenty patients (group 2) who underwent PVE without HSC application was used as a control group.ResultsThe mean of FLRV increased by 173.2 mL during three weeks after the PVE/HSC procedure, whereas by 98.9 mL after PVE only (p = 0.015). Furthermore, the mean daily growth of FLRV by 7.6 mL in group 1 was significantly higher in comparison with 4.1 mL in group 2 (p = 0.007).ConclusionsPVE with the application of HSC significantly facilitates growth of FLRV in comparison with PVE only. This method could be one of the new suitable approaches to increase the resectability of liver tumours.

  1. RETRAN-02: a program for transient thermal-hydraulic analysis of complex fluid-flow systems. Volume 4. Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, C.E.; Gose, G.C.; McFadden, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    RETRAN-02 represents a significant achievement in the development of a versatile and reliable computer program for use in best estimate transient thermal-hydraulic analysis of light water reactor systems. The RETRAN-02 computer program is an extension of the RETRAN-01 program designed to provide analysis capabilities for 1) BWR and PWR transients, 2) small break loss of coolant accidents, 3) balance of plant modeling, and 4) anticipated transients without scram, while maintaining the analysis capabilities of the predecessor code. The RETRAN-02 computer code is constructed in a semimodular and dynamic dimensioned form where additions to the code can be easily carried out as new and improved models are developed. This report (the fourth of a five volume computer code manual) describes the verification and validation of RETRAN-02

  2. Technical analysis of volume-rendering algorithms: application in low-contrast structures using liver vascularisation as a model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cademartiri, Filippo; Luccichenti, Giacomo; Runza, Giuseppe; Bartolotta, Tommaso Vincenzo; Midiri, Massimo; Gualerzi, Massimo; Brambilla, Lorenzo; Coruzzi, Paolo; Soliani, Paolo; Sianesi, Mario

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the influence of pre-set volume rendering opacity curves (OC) on image quality and to identify which absolute parameters (density of aorta, hepatic parenchyma and portal vein) affect visualization of portal vascular structures (low-contrast structures). Materials and methods: Twenty-two patients underwent a dual-phase spiral CT with the following parameters: collimation 3 mm, pitch 2, increment 1 mm. Three scans were performed: one without contrast medium and the latter two after the injection of contrast material (conventionally identified as 'arterial' and 'portal'). The images were sent to a workstation running on an NT platform equipped with post-processing software allowing three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions to generate volume-rendered images of the vascular supply to the liver. Correlation between the absolute values of aorta, liver and portal vein density, OC parameters, and image quality were assessed. Results: 3D images generated using pre-set OC obtained a much mower overall quality score than those produced with OC set by the operator. High contrast between the liver and the portal vein, for example during the portal vascular phase, allows wider windows, thus improving image quality. Conversely, the OC in the parenchymal phase scans must have a high gradient in order to better differentiate between the vascular structures and the surrounding hepatic parenchyma. Conclusions: Image features considered to be of interest by the operator cannot be simplified by the mean of pre-set OC. Due to their strong individual variability automatic 3D algorithms cannot be universally applied: they should be adapted to both image and patient characteristics [it

  3. Assembly Discontinuity Factors for the Neutron Diffusion Equation discretized with the Finite Volume Method. Application to BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, A.; Roman, J.E.; Miró, R.; Verdú, G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A method is proposed to solve the eigenvalue problem of the Neutron Diffusion Equation in BWR. • The Neutron Diffusion Equation is discretized with the Finite Volume Method. • The currents are calculated by using a polynomial expansion of the neutron flux. • The current continuity and boundary conditions are defined implicitly to reduce the size of the matrices. • Different structured and unstructured meshes were used to discretize the BWR. - Abstract: The neutron flux spatial distribution in Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) can be calculated by means of the Neutron Diffusion Equation (NDE), which is a space- and time-dependent differential equation. In steady state conditions, the time derivative terms are zero and this equation is rewritten as an eigenvalue problem. In addition, the spatial partial derivatives terms are transformed into algebraic terms by discretizing the geometry and using numerical methods. As regards the geometrical discretization, BWRs are complex systems containing different components of different geometries and materials, but they are usually modelled as parallelepiped nodes each one containing only one homogenized material to simplify the solution of the NDE. There are several techniques to correct the homogenization in the node, but the most commonly used in BWRs is that based on Assembly Discontinuity Factors (ADFs). As regards numerical methods, the Finite Volume Method (FVM) is feasible and suitable to be applied to the NDE. In this paper, a FVM based on a polynomial expansion method has been used to obtain the matrices of the eigenvalue problem, assuring the accomplishment of the ADFs for a BWR. This eigenvalue problem has been solved by means of the SLEPc library.

  4. Direct heat applications of geothermal energy in The Geysers/Clear Lake region. Volume I. Geotechnical assessment, agribusiness applications, socioeconomic assessment, engineering assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    Discussion is presented under the following section headings: background and some technical characteristics of geothermal resources; geology and geohydrology, geophysics, and, conclusions regarding availability of geothermal energy for nonelectric uses; agricultural assessment of Lake County, site assessment for potential agricultural development, analysis of potential agricultural applications, special application of low cost geothermal energy to algae harvesting, development of an integrated agribusiness, geothermal complex in Lake County, analysis of individual enterprises, and, recommendations for subsequent work; demographic characteristics, economic condition and perspective of Lake County, economic impact of geothermal in Lake County, social and economic factors related to geothermal resource development, socioeconomic impact of nonelectric uses of geothermal energy, and, identification of direct heat applications of geothermal energy for Lake County based on selected interviews; cost estimate procedure, example, justification of procedure, and, typical costs and conclusions; and, recommended prefeasibility and feasibility studies related to construction of facilities for nonelectric applications of geothermal resource utilization. (JGB)

  5. Institutional origins of the Department of Energy: the Office of Military Application. Energy History Series Volume 1, No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, R.M.

    1980-08-01

    The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 brought together for the first time in one department most of the government's energy programs. With these programs came a score of organizational entities, each with its own history and traditions, from a dozen departments and independent agencies. This report traces the history of the Office of Military Application, from its inception as the Division of Military Application in the Atomic Energy Commission, through the Energy Research and Development Administration to its present status as an office in the Department of Energy

  6. Terrestrial Energy bets on molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial Energy is a Canadian enterprise, founded in 2013, for marketing the integral molten salt reactor (IMSR). A first prototype (called MSRE and with an energy output of 8 MW) was designed and operated between 1965 and 1969 by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. IMSR is a small, modular reactor with a thermal energy output of 400 MW. According to Terrestrial Energy the technology of conventional power reactors is too complicated and too expensive. On the contrary IMSR's technology appears to be simple, easy to operate and affordable. With a staff of 30 people Terrestrial Energy appears to be a start-up in the nuclear sector. A process of pre-licensing will be launched in 2016 with the Canadian nuclear safety authority. (A.C.)

  7. Assessing the impacts of truck based ultra-low volume applications of mosquito adulticides on honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquito control reduces populations of mosquitoes to minimize the risk of mosquito-borne diseases. As part of an integrated approach to mosquito control, application of adulticides can be effective in rapidly reducing mosquito populations during times of high arbovirus transmission. However, impact...

  8. Worldwide Intelligent Systems: Approaches to Telecommunications and Network Management. Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, Volume 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebowitz, Jay, Ed.; Prerau, David S., Ed.

    This is an international collection of 12 papers addressing artificial intelligence (AI) and knowledge technology applications in telecommunications and network management. It covers the latest and emerging AI technologies as applied to the telecommunications field. The papers are: "The Potential for Knowledge Technology in…

  9. NASTRAN thermal analyzer: Theory and application including a guide to modeling engineering problems, volume 1. [thermal analyzer manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. P.

    1977-01-01

    The NASTRAN Thermal Analyzer Manual describes the fundamental and theoretical treatment of the finite element method, with emphasis on the derivations of the constituent matrices of different elements and solution algorithms. Necessary information and data relating to the practical applications of engineering modeling are included.

  10. Low volume, large force (>1mN) and nanometer resolution, electrostatic microactuator for low displacement applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarajlic, Edin; Berenschot, Johan W.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2003-01-01

    A compact electrostatic microactuator suitable for low displacement applications is proposed. The actuator employs a large number of basic units working in parallel together with a built-in mechanical transformation to generate large force. Influence of distinct design parameters on actuator

  11. Ancient Terrestrial Carbon: Lost and Found

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon fluxes in terrestrial environments dominate the global carbon cycle. The fluxes of terrestrial carbon are strongly tied to regional climate due to the influences of temperature, water, and nutrient dynamics on plant productivity. However, climate also influences the destruction of terrestrial organic matter, through weathering, erosion, and biomass loss via fire and oxidative microbial processes. Organic geochemical methods enable us to interrogate past terrestrial carbon dynamics and learn how continental processes might accelerate, or mitigate carbon transfer to the atmosphere, and the associated greenhouse warming. Terrestrial soil systems represent the weathering rind of the continents, and are inherently non-depositional and erosive. The production, transport, and depositional processes affecting organics in continental settings each impart their own biases on the amount and characteristics of preserved carbon. Typically, the best archives for biomarker records are sediments in ancient lakes or subaqueous fans, which represents a preservation bias that tends to favor wetter environments. Paleosols, or ancient soils, formed under depositional conditions that, for one reason or another, truncated soil ablation, erosion, or other loss processes. In modern soils, widely ranging organic carbon abundances are almost always substantially greater than the trace amounts of carbon left behind in ancient soils. Even so, measureable amounts of organic biomarkers persist in paleosols. We have been investigating processes that preserve soil organic carbon on geologic timescales, and how these mechanisms may be sensitive to past climate change. Climate-linked changes in temperature, moisture, pH, and weathering processes can impact carbon preservation via organo-mineral sorption, soil biogeochemistry, and stability based on the physical and chemical properties of organic compounds. These will be discussed and illustrated with examples from our studies of Cenozoic

  12. Environmental Report 1996, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrach, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1996, prepared for the US Department of Energy. Volume 2 supports Volume 1 summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Volume 2 includes information on monitoring of air, air effluents, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance.

  13. Evolutionary tracks of the terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Takafumi; Abe, Yutaka

    1987-01-01

    On the basis of the model proposed by Matsui and Abe, the authors show that two major factors - distance from the Sun and the efficiency of retention of accretional energy - control the early evolution of the terrestrial planets. A diagram of accretional energy versus the optical depth of a proto-atmosphere provides a means to follow the evolutionary track of surface temperature of the terrestrial planets and an explanation for why the third planet in our solar system is an 'aqua'-planet. 15 refs; 3 figs

  14. Magnetic reconnection in the terrestrial magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    An overview is given of quantitative comparisons between measured phenomena in the terrestrial magnetosphere thought to be associated with magnetic reconnection, and related theoretical predictions based on Petschek's simple model. Although such a comparison cannot be comprehensive because of the extended nature of the process and the relatively few in situ multipoint measurements made to date, the agreement is impressive where comparisons have been possible. This result leaves little doubt that magnetic reconnection does indeed occur in the terrestrial magnetosphere. The maximum reconnection rate, expressed in terms of the inflow Mach number, M/sub A/, is measured to be M/sub A/ = 0.2 +- 0.1

  15. Terrestrial and exposure histories of Antarctic meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiizumi, K.

    1986-01-01

    Records of cosmogenic effects were studied in a large suite of Antarctic meteorites. The cosmogenic nuclide measurements together with cosmic ray track measurements on Antartic meteorites provide information such as exposure age, terrestrial age, size and depth in meteoroid or parent body, influx rate in the past, and pairing. The terrestrail age is the time period between the fall of the meteorite on the Earth and the present. To define terrestrial age, two or more nuclides with different half-lives and possibly noble gases are required. The cosmogenic radionuclides used are C-14, Kr-81, Cl-36, Al-26, Be-10, Mn-53, and K-40

  16. Terrestrial and exposure histories of Antarctic meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiizumi, K.

    1986-01-01

    Records of cosmogenic effects were studied in a large suite of Antarctic meteorites. The cosmogenic nuclide measurements together with cosmic ray track measurements on Antartic meteorites provide information such as exposure age, terrestrial age, size and depth in meteoroid or parent body, influx rate in the past, and pairing. The terrestrail age is the time period between the fall of the meteorite on the Earth and the present. To define terrestrial age, two or more nuclides with different half-lives and possibly noble gases are required. The cosmogenic radionuclides used are C-14, Kr-81, Cl-36, Al-26, Be-10, Mn-53, and K-40.

  17. Morphometry of terrestrial shield volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Pablo; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2018-03-01

    Shield volcanoes are described as low-angle edifices built primarily by the accumulation of successive lava flows. This generic view of shield volcano morphology is based on a limited number of monogenetic shields from Iceland and Mexico, and a small set of large oceanic islands (Hawaii, Galápagos). Here, the morphometry of 158 monogenetic and polygenetic shield volcanoes is analyzed quantitatively from 90-meter resolution SRTM DEMs using the MORVOLC algorithm. An additional set of 24 lava-dominated 'shield-like' volcanoes, considered so far as stratovolcanoes, are documented for comparison. Results show that there is a large variation in shield size (volumes from 0.1 to > 1000 km3), profile shape (height/basal width (H/WB) ratios mostly from 0.01 to 0.1), flank slope gradients (average slopes mostly from 1° to 15°), elongation and summit truncation. Although there is no clear-cut morphometric difference between shield volcanoes and stratovolcanoes, an approximate threshold can be drawn at 12° average slope and 0.10 H/WB ratio. Principal component analysis of the obtained database enables to identify four key morphometric descriptors: size, steepness, plan shape and truncation. Hierarchical cluster analysis of these descriptors results in 12 end-member shield types, with intermediate cases defining a continuum of morphologies. The shield types can be linked in terms of growth stages and shape evolution, related to (1) magma composition and rheology, effusion rate and lava/pyroclast ratio, which will condition edifice steepness; (2) spatial distribution of vents, in turn related to the magmatic feeding system and the tectonic framework, which will control edifice plan shape; and (3) caldera formation, which will condition edifice truncation.

  18. Interim report on the development and application of environmental mapped data digitization, encoding, analysis, and display software for the ALICE system. Volume II. [MAP, CHAIN, FIX, and DOUT, in FORTRAN IV for PDP-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiot, L.W.; Lima, R.J.; Scholbrock, S.D.; Shelman, C.B.; Wehman, R.H.

    1979-06-01

    Volume I of An Interim Report on the Development and Application of Environmental Mapped Data Digitization, Encoding, Analysis, and Display Software for the ALICE System provided an overall description of the software developed for the ALICE System and presented an example of its application. The scope of the information presented in Volume I was directed both to the users and developers of digitization, encoding, analysis, and display software. Volume II presents information which is directly related to the actual computer code and operational characteristics (keys and subroutines) of the software. Volume II will be of more interest to developers of software than to users of the software. However, developers of software should be aware that the code developed for the ALICE System operates in an environment where much of the peripheral hardware to the PDP-10 is ANL/AMD built. For this reason, portions of the code may have to be modified for implementation on other computer system configurations. 11 tables.

  19. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 1: Guidelines for evaluating the management and operations planning of photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1979-01-01

    Guidelines are provided to the Field Centers for organization, scheduling, project and cost control, and performance in the areas of project management and operations planning for Photovoltaics Test and Applications. These guidelines may be used in organizing a T and A Project Team for system design/test, site construction and operation, and as the basis for evaluating T and A proposals. The attributes are described for project management and operations planning to be used by the Field Centers. Specifically, all project management and operational issues affecting costs, schedules and performance of photovoltaic systems are addressed. Photovoltaic tests and applications include residential, intermediate load center, central station, and stand-alone systems. The sub-categories of system maturity considered are: Initial System Evaluation Experiments (ISEE); System Readiness Experiments (SRE); and Commercial Readiness Demonstration Projects (CRDP).

  20. The Logistics of Oil Spill Dispersant Application. Volume I. Logistics-Related Properties of Oil Spill Dispersants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    time of application. Such designs were probably influenced by the ready availabilit " 51 of fire-fighting hoses on ships and tugs; the water stream not...8217 I I1 ---- i . . .. . IIII . . . I I PREFACE The use of chemicals for the dispersal of oil spilled on water has been the subject of discussion (and of...20 Oil Type, Weathering and Emulsification.. 20 Slick Thickness .......................... 28 Water Temperature

  1. Nanostructural Free-Volume Effects in Humidity-Sensitive MgO-Al2O3 Ceramics for Sensor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klym, H.; Ingram, A.; Shpotyuk, O.; Hadzaman, I.; Hotra, O.; Kostiv, Yu.

    2016-03-01

    Technologically modified spinel MgO-Al2O3 ceramics were prepared from Al2O3 and 4MgCO3·Mg(OH)2·5H2O powders at sintering temperatures of 1200, 1300, and 1400 °C. Free-volume structural effects in MgO-Al2O3 ceramics and their electrophysical properties were studied using combined x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Hg-porosimetry, and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. It is shown that increasing of sintering temperature from 1200 to 1400 °C results in the transformation of pore size distribution in ceramics from tri- to bi-modal including open macro- and meso(micro)pores with sizes from ten to hundreds nm and nanopores with sizes up to a few nm. Microstructure of these ceramics is improved with the increase of sintering temperature, which results in decreased amount of additional phases located near grain boundaries. These phase extractions serve as specific trapping centers for positrons penetrating the ceramics. The positron trapping and ortho-positronium decaying components are considered in the mathematical treatment of the measured spectra. Classic Tao-Eldrup model is used to draw the correlation between the ortho-positronium lifetime and the size of nanopores, which is complementary to porosimetry data. The studied ceramics with optimal nanoporous structure are highly sensitive to humidity changes in the region of 31-96% with minimal hysteresis in adsorption-desorption cycles.

  2. Spine segmentation from C-arm CT data sets: application to region-of-interest volumes for spinal interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerger, C.; Lorenz, C.; Babic, D.; Hoppenbrouwers, J.; Homan, R.; Nachabe, R.; Racadio, J. M.; Grass, M.

    2017-03-01

    Spinal fusion is a common procedure to stabilize the spinal column by fixating parts of the spine. In such procedures, metal screws are inserted through the patients back into a vertebra, and the screws of adjacent vertebrae are connected by metal rods to generate a fixed bridge. In these procedures, 3D image guidance for intervention planning and outcome control is required. Here, for anatomical guidance, an automated approach for vertebra segmentation from C-arm CT images of the spine is introduced and evaluated. As a prerequisite, 3D C-arm CT images are acquired covering the vertebrae of interest. An automatic model-based segmentation approach is applied to delineate the outline of the vertebrae of interest. The segmentation approach is based on 24 partial models of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae which aggregate information about (i) the basic shape itself, (ii) trained features for image based adaptation, and (iii) potential shape variations. Since the volume data sets generated by the C-arm system are limited to a certain region of the spine the target vertebra and hence initial model position is assigned interactively. The approach was trained and tested on 21 human cadaver scans. A 3-fold cross validation to ground truth annotations yields overall mean segmentation errors of 0.5 mm for T1 to 1.1 mm for C6. The results are promising and show potential to support the clinician in pedicle screw path and rod planning to allow accurate and reproducible insertions.

  3. Regional applicability and potential of salt-gradient solar ponds in the United States. Volume 2: Detailed report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, E. I. H.

    1982-03-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the regional applicability and potential of salt-gradient solar ponds in the United States is provided. The assessment is focused on the general characteristics of twelve defined geographic regions. Natural resources essential to solar ponds are surveyed. Meteorological and hydrogeological conditions affecting pond performance are examined. Potentially favorable pond sites are identified. Regional thermal and electrical energy output from solar ponds is calculated. Selected pond design cases are studied. Five major potential market sectors are evaluated in terms of technical and energy-consumption characteristics, and solar-pond applicability and potential. Relevant pond system data and financial factors are analyzed. Solar-pond energy costs are compared with conventional energy costs. The assessment concludes that, excepting Alaska, ponds are applicable in all regions for at least two market sectors. Total solar pond energy supply potential in the five market sectors examined is estimated to be 8.94 quads/yr by the year 2000, approximately 7.2% of the projected total national energy demand.

  4. Direct heat applications of geothermal energy in The Geysers/Clear Lake region. Volume I. Geotechnical assessment, agribusiness applications, socioeconomic assessment, engineering assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    The different uses to which geothermal heat and fluids could be applied as a direct utilization of resource or as heat utilization are explored. The following aspects are covered: geotechnical assessment, agricultural and industrial applications, socioeconomic assessment, and engineering assessment. (MHR)

  5. Microplastics in the Terrestrial Ecosystem: Implications for Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Gertsen, Hennie; Gooren, Harm; Peters, Piet; Salánki, Tamás; van der Ploeg, Martine; Besseling, Ellen; Koelmans, Albert A; Geissen, Violette

    2016-03-01

    Plastic debris is widespread in the environment, but information on the effects of microplastics on terrestrial fauna is completely lacking. Here, we studied the survival and fitness of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) exposed to microplastics (Polyethylene, digestion of ingested organic matter, microplastic was concentrated in cast, especially at the lowest dose (i.e., 7% in litter) because that dose had the highest proportion of digestible organic matter. Whereas 50 percent of the microplastics had a size of earthworms. These concentration-transport and size-selection mechanisms may have important implications for fate and risk of microplastic in terrestrial ecosystems.

  6. The Application of Le Chatelier – Brown Principle for Interpretation of the Results of the LongLasting Fluctuations of the Electric Strength in Minor Volumes of Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Glagolev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses a Le Chatelier – Brown principle to describe a balanced state in various physical problems. The Le Chatelier – Brown principle applications are demonstrated in problems of chemical thermodynamics, mechanics, electrodynamics as well as in descriptions of biosphere processes. The paper defines an inverse correlation for the Kullback's measure values of fluctuations of the electric strength in minor volumes of electrolytes on the density of entropy production in the environment. It shows that influence of dissipative processes on isolated electrolytic cell can be described using the Le Chatelier – Brown principle. The correlation coefficient of Kullback's measure values and density of entropy production in transformation of the Sun radiation into the Earth surface thermal radiation is calculated.

  7. A prospective study of the effects of ultralow volume (ULV) aerial application of malathion on epidemic Plasmodium falciparum malaria. II. Entomologic and operational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R T; Solis, M; Weathers, D B; Taylor, J W

    1975-03-01

    In a large-scale study in the Miragoane Valley of Haiti, designed to test the effects of aerial ultralow volume (ULV) malathion on epidemic Plasmodium falciparum malaria, spray operations resulted in an immediate and sharp decline in numbers of the vector, Anopheles albimanus. The adult population of this mosquito remained at less than 1% of previous levels until several weeks after a 50-day spray period (27 October-16 December 1972) during which six cycles were completed. The study area offered ideal conditions of wind, temperature, humidity, and mountain barriers. Mosquitoes in the area were highly susceptible to malathion. Results indicated that aerial ULV treatment with malathion can reduce A. albimanus populations rapidly and effectively when applications are made over an area as large as 20,000 acres. Preliminary results showed that effective control was not achieved in areas one-quarter that size; these areas were not sufficiently large, and infiltration of mosquitoes from adjacent untreated areas was possible.

  8. Multivariate and multiscale data assimilation in terrestrial systems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montzka, Carsten; Pauwels, Valentijn R N; Franssen, Harrie-Jan Hendricks; Han, Xujun; Vereecken, Harry

    2012-11-26

    More and more terrestrial observational networks are being established to monitor climatic, hydrological and land-use changes in different regions of the World. In these networks, time series of states and fluxes are recorded in an automated manner, often with a high temporal resolution. These data are important for the understanding of water, energy, and/or matter fluxes, as well as their biological and physical drivers and interactions with and within the terrestrial system. Similarly, the number and accuracy of variables, which can be observed by spaceborne sensors, are increasing. Data assimilation (DA) methods utilize these observations in terrestrial models in order to increase process knowledge as well as to improve forecasts for the system being studied. The widely implemented automation in observing environmental states and fluxes makes an operational computation more and more feasible, and it opens the perspective of short-time forecasts of the state of terrestrial systems. In this paper, we review the state of the art with respect to DA focusing on the joint assimilation of observational data precedents from different spatial scales and different data types. An introduction is given to different DA methods, such as the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), Particle Filter (PF) and variational methods (3/4D-VAR). In this review, we distinguish between four major DA approaches: (1) univariate single-scale DA (UVSS), which is the approach used in the majority of published DA applications, (2) univariate multiscale DA (UVMS) referring to a methodology which acknowledges that at least some of the assimilated data are measured at a different scale than the computational grid scale, (3) multivariate single-scale DA (MVSS) dealing with the assimilation of at least two different data types, and (4) combined multivariate multiscale DA (MVMS). Finally, we conclude with a discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of the assimilation of multiple data types in a

  9. Multivariate and Multiscale Data Assimilation in Terrestrial Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Vereecken

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available More and more terrestrial observational networks are being established to monitor climatic, hydrological and land-use changes in different regions of the World. In these networks, time series of states and fluxes are recorded in an automated manner, often with a high temporal resolution. These data are important for the understanding of water, energy, and/or matter fluxes, as well as their biological and physical drivers and interactions with and within the terrestrial system. Similarly, the number and accuracy of variables, which can be observed by spaceborne sensors, are increasing. Data assimilation (DA methods utilize these observations in terrestrial models in order to increase process knowledge as well as to improve forecasts for the system being studied. The widely implemented automation in observing environmental states and fluxes makes an operational computation more and more feasible, and it opens the perspective of short-time forecasts of the state of terrestrial systems. In this paper, we review the state of the art with respect to DA focusing on the joint assimilation of observational data precedents from different spatial scales and different data types. An introduction is given to different DA methods, such as the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF, Particle Filter (PF and variational methods (3/4D-VAR. In this review, we distinguish between four major DA approaches: (1 univariate single-scale DA (UVSS, which is the approach used in the majority of published DA applications, (2 univariate multiscale DA (UVMS referring to a methodology which acknowledges that at least some of the assimilated data are measured at a different scale than the computational grid scale, (3 multivariate single-scale DA (MVSS dealing with the assimilation of at least two different data types, and (4 combined multivariate multiscale DA (MVMS. Finally, we conclude with a discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of the assimilation of multiple data types in a

  10. High efficiency, long life terrestrial solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.; Khemthong, S.; Ling, R.; Olah, S.

    1977-01-01

    The design of a high efficiency, long life terrestrial module was completed. It utilized 256 rectangular, high efficiency solar cells to achieve high packing density and electrical output. Tooling for the fabrication of solar cells was in house and evaluation of the cell performance was begun. Based on the power output analysis, the goal of a 13% efficiency module was achievable.

  11. Solar and terrestrial radiation: methods and measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coulson, Kinsell L

    1975-01-01

    ... AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM, WITHOUT PERMISSION IN WRITING FROM THE PUBLISHER. ACADEMIC PRESS, INC. Ill Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10003 United Kingdom Edition published by A C A D E M I C PRESS, INC. (LONDON) LTD. 24/28 Oval Road, London NW1 Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Coulson, Kinsell L Solar and terrestrial radiation. Inclu...

  12. Strategies for monitoring terrestrial animals and habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Holthausen; Raymond L. Czaplewski; Don DeLorenzo; Greg Hayward; Winifred B. Kessler; Pat Manley; Kevin S. McKelvey; Douglas S. Powell; Leonard F. Ruggiero; Michael K. Schwartz; Bea Van Horne; Christina D. Vojta

    2005-01-01

    This General Technical Report (GTR) addresses monitoring strategies for terrestrial animals and habitats. It focuses on monitoring associated with National Forest Management Act planning and is intended to apply primarily to monitoring efforts that are broader than individual National Forests. Primary topics covered in the GTR are monitoring requirements; ongoing...

  13. South African red data book - Terrestrial mammals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smithers, RHN

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, 243 species of terrestrial wild mammals are known to occur in the Republic of South Africa. Using the well established IUCN definitions, 42 of these may be considered as exposed to some level of threat of extinction. Three species...

  14. Furostanol and Spirostanol Saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Fang; Wang, Bing-Bing; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Fang-Xu; Sun, Yan; Guo, Rui-Jie; Song, Xin-Bo; Xin, Hai-Li; Sun, Xin-Guang

    2016-03-30

    Twelve new steroidal saponins, including eleven furostanol saponins, terrestrinin J-T (1-11), and one spirostanol saponin, terrestrinin U (12), together with seven known steroidal saponins 13-19 were isolated from T. terrestris. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS, and comparisons with published data.

  15. Terrestrial water fluxes dominated by transpiration: Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Schlaepfer; Brent E. Ewers; Bryan N. Shuman; David G. Williams; John M. Frank; William J. Massman; William K. Lauenroth

    2014-01-01

    The fraction of evapotranspiration (ET) attributed to plant transpiration (T) is an important source of uncertainty in terrestrial water fluxes and land surface modeling (Lawrence et al. 2007, Miralles et al. 2011). Jasechko et al. (2013) used stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios from 73 large lakes to investigate the relative roles of evaporation (E) and T in ET...

  16. Ethnopharmacological Studies of Tribulus Terrestris (Linn). in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synergism and antagonism impact of different plant metabolites present in crude fruit extract of Tribulus terrestris 'the herbal Viagra' have been studied. Variability in plant composition, biomass and metabolites concentration in different modules was significantly contributed by spatial factor. However the edhaphic ...

  17. 1993 RCRA Part B permit renewal application, Savannah River Site: Volume 10, Consolidated Incineration Facility, Section C, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molen, G.

    1993-08-01

    This section describes the chemical and physical nature of the RCRA regulated hazardous wastes to be handled, stored, and incinerated at the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) at the Savannah River Site. It is in accordance with requirements of South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations R.61-79.264.13(a) and(b), and 270.14(b)(2). This application is for permit to store and teat these hazardous wastes as required for the operation of CIF. The permit is to cover the storage of hazardous waste in containers and of waste in six hazardous waste storage tanks. Treatment processes include incineration, solidification of ash, and neutralization of scrubber blowdown

  18. Enabling novel planetary and terrestrial mechanisms using electroactive materials at the JPL's NDEAA Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Chang, Zensheu; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh

    2004-01-01

    Increasingly, electroactive materials are used to produce acutators, sensors, displays and other elements of mechanisms and devices. In recognition of the potential of these materials, research at the JPL's NDEAA Lab have led to many novel space and terrestrial applications. This effort involves mostly the use of piezoelectric and electroactive polymers (EAP).

  19. Numerical simulation of dynamics of brushless dc motors for aerospace and other applications. Volume 1: Model development and applications, part A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerdash, N. A. O.; Nehl, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    The development, fabrication and evaluation of a prototype electromechanical actuator (EMA) is discussed. Application of the EMA as a motor for control surfaces in aerospace flight is examined. A mathematical model of the EMA is developed for design optimization. Nonlinearities which complicate the mathematical model are discussed. The dynamics of the EMA from the underlying physical principles are determined and a discussion of similating the control logic by means of equivalent boolean expressions is presented.

  20. Terrestrial laser scanning to quantify above-ground biomass of structurally complex coastal wetland vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owers, Christopher J.; Rogers, Kerrylee; Woodroffe, Colin D.

    2018-05-01

    Above-ground biomass represents a small yet significant contributor to carbon storage in coastal wetlands. Despite this, above-ground biomass is often poorly quantified, particularly in areas where vegetation structure is complex. Traditional methods for providing accurate estimates involve harvesting vegetation to develop mangrove allometric equations and quantify saltmarsh biomass in quadrats. However broad scale application of these methods may not capture structural variability in vegetation resulting in a loss of detail and estimates with considerable uncertainty. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) collects high resolution three-dimensional point clouds capable of providing detailed structural morphology of vegetation. This study demonstrates that TLS is a suitable non-destructive method for estimating biomass of structurally complex coastal wetland vegetation. We compare volumetric models, 3-D surface reconstruction and rasterised volume, and point cloud elevation histogram modelling techniques to estimate biomass. Our results show that current volumetric modelling approaches for estimating TLS-derived biomass are comparable to traditional mangrove allometrics and saltmarsh harvesting. However, volumetric modelling approaches oversimplify vegetation structure by under-utilising the large amount of structural information provided by the point cloud. The point cloud elevation histogram model presented in this study, as an alternative to volumetric modelling, utilises all of the information within the point cloud, as opposed to sub-sampling based on specific criteria. This method is simple but highly effective for both mangrove (r2 = 0.95) and saltmarsh (r2 > 0.92) vegetation. Our results provide evidence that application of TLS in coastal wetlands is an effective non-destructive method to accurately quantify biomass for structurally complex vegetation.

  1. A distribution benefits model for improved information on worldwide crop production. Volume 1: Model structure and application to wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J.

    1976-01-01

    The improved model is suitable for the study of benefits of worldwide information on a variety of crops. Application to the previously studied case of worldwide wheat production shows that about $108 million per year of distribution benefits to the United States would be achieved by a satellite-based wheat information system meeting the goals of LACIE. The model also indicates that improved information alone will not change world stock levels unless production itself is stabilized. The United States benefits mentioned above are associated with the reduction of price fluctuations within the year and the more effective use of international trade to balance supply and demand. Price fluctuations from year to year would be reduced only if production variability were itself reduced.

  2. Evaluation of synthetic rainfall application with respect to the flow volume at upstream Brantas watershed, East Java Province of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limantara Lily Montarcih

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian Technical Implementation Unit (UPT of Synthetic Rainfall has modified climate by generating synthetic rainfall from 9th May until 4th June 2013. This unit has cooperated with the Department of Technological Study and Application (BPPT of Indonesia and Perum Jasa Tirta I and TNI AU Lanud Abdulrachman Saleh. This study intended to increase reservoirs water level in upstream Brantas watershed, one of them is Sutami reservoir. Successive grade evaluation of synthetic rainfall used the method of Double Ratio and Flow Discharge. The target area is upstream Brantas watershed that is represented by 12 rainfall stations and the control area is in the distance of ±30 km from the boundary of upstream Brantas watershed and is represented by 5 rainfall stations. Results show rainfall increasing by 152.05% according to the Double Ratio method and the increase of flow discharge from Sutami reservoir by 74.19% according to the Flow Discharge method.

  3. Louisiana ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for terrestrial mammals in Louisiana. Vector polygons in this data set represent terrestrial mammal...

  4. Surface exposure dating of non-terrestrial bodies using optically stimulated luminescence: A new method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Jain, Mayank; Murray, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new method for in situ surface exposure dating of non-terrestrial geomorphological features using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL); our approach is based on the progressive emptying of trapped charge with exposure to light at depth into a mineral surface. A complete model of t...... charge population. The potential dating applications for (a) include dust accumulation, volcanic rocks and impact-related sediments, and for (b) fault scarps, rock-falls, landslides and ice-scoured bedrock. Using assumptions based on terrestrial observations we expect that this approach...

  5. Monitoring Riverbank Erosion in Mountain Catchments Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Longoni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sediment yield is a key factor in river basins management due to the various and adverse consequences that erosion and sediment transport in rivers may have on the environment. Although various contributions can be found in the literature about sediment yield modeling and bank erosion monitoring, the link between weather conditions, river flow rate and bank erosion remains scarcely known. Thus, a basin scale assessment of sediment yield due to riverbank erosion is an objective hard to be reached. In order to enhance the current knowledge in this field, a monitoring method based on high resolution 3D model reconstruction of riverbanks, surveyed by multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning, was applied to four banks in Val Tartano, Northern Italy. Six data acquisitions over one year were taken, with the aim to better understand the erosion processes and their triggering factors by means of more frequent observations compared to usual annual campaigns. The objective of the research is to address three key questions concerning bank erosion: “how” erosion happens, “when” during the year and “how much” sediment is eroded. The method proved to be effective and able to measure both eroded and deposited volume in the surveyed area. Finally an attempt to extrapolate basin scale volume for bank erosion is presented.

  6. Space applications of Automation, Robotics and Machine Intelligence Systems (ARAMIS). Volume 4: Application of ARAMIS capabilities to space project functional elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. H.; Minsky, M. L.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1982-01-01

    Applications of automation, robotics, and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS) to space activities and their related ground support functions are studied, so that informed decisions can be made on which aspects of ARAMIS to develop. The specific tasks which will be required by future space project tasks are identified and the relative merits of these options are evaluated. The ARAMIS options defined and researched span the range from fully human to fully machine, including a number of intermediate options (e.g., humans assisted by computers, and various levels of teleoperation). By including this spectrum, the study searches for the optimum mix of humans and machines for space project tasks.

  7. Terrestrial forest management plan for Palmyra Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Stacie A.; McEachern, Kathryn; Fisher, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    This 'Terrestrial Forest Management Plan for Palmyra Atoll' was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for The Nature Conservancy (TNC) Palmyra Program to refine and expand goals and objectives developed through the Conservation Action Plan process. It is one in a series of adaptive management plans designed to achieve TNC's mission toward the protection and enhancement of native wildlife and habitat. The 'Terrestrial Forest Management Plan for Palmyra Atoll' focuses on ecosystem integrity and specifically identifies and addresses issues related to assessing the status and distribution of resources, as well as the pressures acting upon them, most specifically nonnative and potentially invasive species. The plan, which presents strategies for increasing ecosystem integrity, provides a framework to implement and track the progress of conservation and restoration goals related to terrestrial resources on Palmyra Atoll. The report in its present form is intended to be an overview of what is known about historical and current forest resources; it is not an exhaustive review of all available literature relevant to forest management but an attempt to assemble as much information specific to Palmyra Atoll as possible. Palmyra Atoll is one of the Northern Line Islands in the Pacific Ocean southwest of the Hawai`ian Islands. It consists of many heavily vegetated islets arranged in a horseshoe pattern around four lagoons and surrounded by a coral reef. The terrestrial ecosystem consists of three primary native vegetation types: Pisonia grandis forest, coastal strand forest, and grassland. Among these vegetation types, the health and extent of Pisonia grandis forest is of particular concern. Overall, the three vegetation types support 25 native plant species (two of which may be extirpated), 14 species of sea birds, six shore birds, at least one native reptile, at least seven native insects, and six native land crabs. Green and hawksbill turtles forage at Palmyra Atoll

  8. Guidebook for performance assessment parameters used in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant compliance certification application. Volume 1: Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, S.M.; Martell, M.A.; Weiner, R.; Lattier, C.

    1998-06-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) Parameter Database and its ties to supporting information evolved over the course of two years. When the CCA was submitted to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996, information such as identification of parameter value or distribution source was documented using processes established by Sandia National Laboratories WIPP Quality Assurance Procedures. Reviewers later requested additional supporting documentation, links to supporting information, and/or clarification for many parameters. This guidebook is designed to document a pathway through the complex parameter process and help delineate flow paths to supporting information for all WIPP CCA parameters. In addition, this report is an aid for understanding how model parameters used in the WIPP CCA were developed and qualified. To trace the source information for a particular parameter, a dual-route system was established. The first route uses information from the Parameter Records Package as it existed when the CCA calculations were run. The second route leads from the EPA Parameter Database to additional supporting information

  9. Guidebook for performance assessment parameters used in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant compliance certification application. Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, S.M.; Martell, M.A.; Weiner, R.; Lattier, C.

    1998-06-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) Parameter Database and its ties to supporting information evolved over the course of two years. When the CCA was submitted to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996, information such as identification of parameter value or distribution source was documented using processes established by Sandia National Laboratories WIPP Quality Assurance Procedures. Reviewers later requested additional supporting documentation, links to supporting information, and/or clarification for many parameters. This guidebook is designed to document a pathway through the complex parameter process and help delineate flow paths to supporting information for all WIPP CCA parameters. In addition, this report is an aid for understanding how model parameters used in the WIPP CCA were developed and qualified. To trace the source information for a particular parameter, a dual-route system was established. The first route uses information from the Parameter Records package as it existed when the CCA calculations were run. The second route leads from the EPA Parameter Database to additional supporting information

  10. Automatic Tree Data Removal Method for Topography Measurement Result Using Terrestrial Laser Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, H.; Chikatsu, H.

    2017-02-01

    Recently, laser scanning has been receiving greater attention as a useful tool for real-time 3D data acquisition, and various applications such as city modelling, DTM generation and 3D modelling of cultural heritage sites have been proposed. And, former digital data processing were demanded in the past digital archive techniques for cultural heritage sites. However, robust filtering method for distinguishing on- and off-terrain points by terrestrial laser scanner still have many issues. In the past investigation, former digital data processing using air-bone laser scanner were reported. Though, efficient tree removal methods from terrain points for the cultural heritage are not considered. In this paper, authors describe a new robust filtering method for cultural heritage using terrestrial laser scanner with "the echo digital processing technology" as latest data processing techniques of terrestrial laser scanner.

  11. Long Term Evolution of Planetary Systems with a Terrestrial Planet and a Giant Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakarakos, Nikolaos; Dobbs-Dixon, Ian; Way, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    We study the long term orbital evolution of a terrestrial planet under the gravitational perturbations of a giant planet. In particular, we are interested in situations where the two planets are in the same plane and are relatively close. We examine both possible configurations: the giant planet orbit being either outside or inside the orbit of the smaller planet. The perturbing potential is expanded to high orders and an analytical solution of the terrestrial planetary orbit is derived. The analytical estimates are then compared against results from the numerical integration of the full equations of motion and we find that the analytical solution works reasonably well. An interesting finding is that the new analytical estimates improve greatly the predictions for the timescales of the orbital evolution of the terrestrial planet compared to an octupole order expansion. Finally, we briefly discuss possible applications of the analytical estimates in astrophysical problems.

  12. MODIS-derived terrestrial primary production [chapter 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maosheng Zhao; Steven Running; Faith Ann Heinsch; Ramakrishna Nemani

    2011-01-01

    Temporal and spatial changes in terrestrial biological productivity have a large impact on humankind because terrestrial ecosystems not only create environments suitable for human habitation, but also provide materials essential for survival, such as food, fiber and fuel. A recent study estimated that consumption of terrestrial net primary production (NPP; a list of...

  13. Environmental report 1995. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A.; Gallegos, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) annual Environmental Report 1995. This volume is intended to support summary data from Volume 1 and is essentially a detailed data report that provides additional data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in Volume 2, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. Volume 2 includes information in eight chapters on monitoring of air, air effluent, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation, as well as three chapters on ground water protection, compliance self-monitoring and quality assurance

  14. Assessment of United States industry structural codes and standards for application to advanced nuclear power reactors: Appendices. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, T.M.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1995-10-01

    Throughout its history, the USNRC has remained committed to the use of industry consensus standards for the design, construction, and licensing of commercial nuclear power facilities. The existing industry standards are based on the current class of light water reactors and as such may not adequately address design and construction features of the next generation of Advanced Light Water Reactors and other types of Advanced Reactors. As part of their on-going commitment to industry standards, the USNRC commissioned this study to evaluate US industry structural standards for application to Advanced Light Water Reactors and Advanced Reactors. The initial review effort included (1) the review and study of the relevant reactor design basis documentation for eight Advanced Light Water Reactors and Advanced Reactor Designs, (2) the review of the USNRCs design requirements for advanced reactors, (3) the review of the latest revisions of the relevant industry consensus structural standards, and (4) the identification of the need for changes to these standards. The results of these studies were used to develop recommended changes to industry consensus structural standards which will be used in the construction of Advanced Light Water Reactors and Advanced Reactors. Over seventy sets of proposed standard changes were recommended and the need for the development of four new structural standards was identified. In addition to the recommended standard changes, several other sets of information and data were extracted for use by USNRC in other on-going programs. This information included (1) detailed observations on the response of structures and distribution system supports to the recent Northridge, California (1994) and Kobe, Japan (1995) earthquakes, (2) comparison of versions of certain standards cited in the standard review plan to the most current versions, and (3) comparison of the seismic and wind design basis for all the subject reactor designs

  15. Demonstration project as a procedure for accelerating the application of new technology (Charpie Task Force report). Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    This report examines the issues associated with government programs proposed for the ''commercialization'' of new energy technologies; these programs are intended to hasten the pace at which target technologies are adopted by the private sector. The ''commercial demonstration'' is the principal tool used in these programs. Most previous government interventions in support of technological change have focused on R and D and left to the private sector the decision as to adoption for commercial utilization; thus there is relatively little in the way of analysis or experience which bears direct application. The analysis is divided into four sections. First, the role of R, D, and D within the structure of the national energy goals and policies is examined. The issue of ''prices versus gaps'' is described as a crucial difference of viewpoint concerning the role of the government in the future of the energy system. Second, the process of technological change as it occurs with respect to energy technologies is then examined for possible sources of misalignment of social and private incentives. The process is described as a series of investments. Third, correction of these sources of misalignment then becomes the goal of commercial demonstration programs as this goal and the means for attaining it are explored. Government-supported commercialization may be viewed as a subsidy to the introduction stage of the process; the circumstances under which such subsidies are likely to affect the success of the subsequent diffusion stage are addressed. The discussion then turns to the political, legal, and institutional problems. Finally, methods for evaluation and planning of commercial demonstration programs are analyzed. The critical areas of ignorance are highlighted and comprise a research agenda for improved analytical techniques to support decisions in this area.

  16. Overview of Photocatalysis, Photocatalytic Surface Materials Studies, and Demonstration of Self-Cleaning Materials for Space and Terrestrial Based Applications at the Infinity Science Center at NASA Stennis Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Lauren W.

    2012-01-01

    Research into photocatalytic technology has been progressing for over three decades in the early 1990s Japanese and European companies initiate research into photocatalytic technology. In the 1996 specific focus on the technology with the first large-scale application: the construction of a church in Rome (Jubilee Church). And in 2000 Europe and Japan research into the benefits of photocatalytic technology. Currently, photocatalytic technology continues to improve, and with time development is becoming more efficient and effective. What is Photocatalysis? Photo: phenomenon induced by the light, having specifically a wavelength around 320-400 nm (artificial or natural sunlight). Catalyst: a material that induces a reaction but is not consumed or transformed by it. The catalyst remains constantly available. In this case, the catalyst is made with nano-particles of titanium oxide (Ti02).

  17. Application of the Price-Volume Approach in Cases of Innovative Drugs Where Value-Based Pricing is Inadequate: Description of Real Experiences in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messori, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Several cases of expensive drugs designed for large patient populations (e.g. sofosbuvir) have raised a complex question in terms of drug pricing. Even assuming value-based pricing, the treatment with these drugs of all eligible patients would have an immense budgetary impact, which is unsustainable also for the richest countries. This raises the need to reduce the prices of these agents in comparison with those suggested by the value-based approach and to devise new pricing methods that can achieve this goal. The present study discusses in detail the following two methods: (i) The approach based on setting nation-wide budget thresholds for individual innovative agents in which a fixed proportion of the historical pharmaceutical expenditure represents the maximum budget attributable to an innovative treatment; (ii) The approach based on nation-wide price-volume agreements in which drug prices are progressively reduced as more patients receive the treatment. The first approach has been developed in the USA by the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review and has been applied to PCSK9 inhibitors (alirocumab and evolocumab). The second approach has been designed for the Italian market and has found a systematic application to manage the price of ranibizumab, sofosbuvir, and PCSK9 inhibitors. While, in the past, price-volume agreements have been applied only on an empirical basis (i.e. in the absence of any quantitative theoretical rule), more recently some explicit mathematical models have been described. The performance of these models is now being evaluated on the basis of the real-world experiences conducted in some European countries, especially Italy.

  18. Improving Completeness of Geometric Models from Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Nothegger

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of terrestrial laser scanning for the documentation of cultural heritage assets is becoming increasingly common. While the point cloud by itself is sufficient for satisfying many documentation needs, it is often desirable to use this data for applications other than documentation. For these purposes a triangulated model is usually required. The generation of topologically correct triangulated models from terrestrial laser scans, however, still requires much interactive editing. This is especially true when reconstructing models from medium range panoramic scanners and many scan positions. Because of residual errors in the instrument calibration and the limited spatial resolution due to the laser footprint, the point clouds from different scan positions never match perfectly. Under these circumstances many of the software packages commonly used for generating triangulated models produce models which have topological errors such as surface intersecting triangles, holes or triangles which violate the manifold property. We present an algorithm which significantly reduces the number of topological errors in the models from such data. The algorithm is a modification of the Poisson surface reconstruction algorithm. Poisson surfaces are resilient to noise in the data and the algorithm always produces a closed manifold surface. Our modified algorithm partitions the data into tiles and can thus be easily parallelized. Furthermore, it avoids introducing topological errors in occluded areas, albeit at the cost of producing models which are no longer guaranteed to be closed. The algorithm is applied to scan data of sculptures of the UNESCO World Heritage Site Schönbrunn Palace and data of a petrified oyster reef in Stetten, Austria. The results of the method’s application are discussed and compared with those of alternative methods.

  19. Terrestrial ecosystems in a changing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canadell, J.G. [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Global Carbon Project; Pataki, D.E. [California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth System Science]|[California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology; Pitelka, L.F. (eds.) [Maryland Univ., Frostburg, MD (United States). Appalachian Lab.

    2007-07-01

    Over 100 authors present 25 contributions on the impacts of global change on terrestrial ecosystems including: * key processes of the earth system such as the CO2 fertilization effect, shifts in disturbances and biome distribution, the saturation of the terrestrial carbon sink, and changes in functional biodiversity, * ecosystem services such the production of wheat, pest control, and carbon storage in croplands, and * sensitive regions in the world threaten by rapid changes in climate and land use such as high latitudes ecosystems, tropical forest in Southeast Asia, and ecosystems dominated by Monsoon climate. The book also explores new research developments on spatial thresholds and nonlinearities, the key role of urban development in global biogeochemical processes, and the integration of natural and social sciences to address complex problems of the human-environment system. (orig.)

  20. Effect factors for terrestrial acidification in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crespo Mendes, Natalia; Laurent, Alexis; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    conditions, which is an essential approach considering countries like Brazil, with high biodiversity. Previous studies have assessed the impacts of terrestrial acidification from the estimations of the potential losses of vascular plants species richness as a result of exposure to acidifying substances...... for 13 biomes, with 2409 species addressed for whole world. In this context this work aims to provide spatially-differentiated effect factors (EF) for terrestrial acidification in Brazil and support the development of spatially-differentiated characterization factors for Brazil. In order to maintain...... in Brazil, represented by 33167 species, indicating that this is a comprehensive study. Maps of soil pH in Brazil were extracted at 1-km resolution and pH values were extracted for the depth range of 0-30cm. For each ecoregion, species richness was plotted against soil pH and the exposure-response curves...

  1. Spiral arms, comets and terrestrial catastrophism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clube, S.V.M.; Napier, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    A review is presented of an hypothesis of terrestrial catastrophism in which comets grow in molecular clouds and are captured by the Sun as it passes through the spiral arms of the Galaxy. Assuming that comets are a major supplier of the Earth-crossing (Appollo) asteroid population, the latter fluctuates correspondingly and leads to episodes of terrestrial bombardment. Changes in the rotational momentum of core and mantle, generated by impacts, lead to episodes of magnetic field reversal and tectonic activity, while surface phenomena lead to ice-ages and mass extinctions. An episodic geophysical history with an interstellar connection is thus implied. If comets in spiral arms are necessary intermediaries in the process of star formation, the theory also has implications relating to early solar system history and galactic chemistry. These aspects are briefly discussed with special reference to the nature of spiral arms. (author)

  2. The circumpolar biodiversity monitoring program - Terrestrial plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    , northern communities, and scientists to detect, understand and report on long-term change in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity. This presentation will outline the key management questions the plan aims to address and the proposed nested, multi-scaled approach linking targeted, research based...... monitoring with survey-based monitoring and remotely sensed data. The CBMP Terrestrial Plan intends to build upon and expand existing monitoring networks, engaging participants across a range of capacity and interests. The presentation will summarize the recommended focal soil ecosystem components...... and attributes to monitor in the plan related to soil invertebrates. Focal Ecosystem Components (FECs) of the soil decomposer system include the soil living invertebrates such as microarthropods, enchytraeids and earthworms and the functions performed by microorganisms such as nitrification, decomposition...

  3. Individual Global Navigation Satellite Systems in the Space Service Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force, Dale A.

    2015-01-01

    Besides providing position, navigation, and timing (PNT) to terrestrial users, GPS is currently used to provide for precision orbit determination, precise time synchronization, real-time spacecraft navigation, and three-axis control of Earth orbiting satellites. With additional Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) coming into service (GLONASS, Beidou, and Galileo), it will be possible to provide these services by using other GNSS constellations. The paper, "GPS in the Space Service Volume," presented at the ION GNSS 19th International Technical Meeting in 2006 (Ref. 1), defined the Space Service Volume, and analyzed the performance of GPS out to 70,000 km. This paper will report a similar analysis of the performance of each of the additional GNSS and compare them with GPS alone. The Space Service Volume, defined as the volume between 3,000 km altitude and geosynchronous altitude, as compared with the Terrestrial Service Volume between the surface and 3,000 km. In the Terrestrial Service Volume, GNSS performance will be similar to performance on the Earth's surface. The GPS system has established signal requirements for the Space Service Volume. A separate paper presented at the conference covers the use of multiple GNSS in the Space Service Volume.

  4. MAFF monitoring of the terrestrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherlock, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses the food surveillance programme of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF), in particular the Terrestrial Radioactivity Monitoring Programme (TRAMP) and the estimation of dietary intake of radionuclides. To define the surveillance programme the following issues need to be decided upon: 1) the type of food which should be analysed; 2) the nature of the contaminants which should be analysed; and 3) the geographical location from which the food samples should be taken. (author)

  5. A molecular palaeobiological exploration of arthropod terrestrialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozano-Fernandez, Jesus; Carton, Robert; Tanner, Alastair R.

    2016-01-01

    to the colonization of land is the most likely scenario.Molecular clock analyses confirmed an origin for the three terrestrial lineages bracketed between the Cambrian and the Silurian. While molecular divergence times for Arachnida are consistent with the fossil record,Myriapoda are inferred to have colonized land......, consistent with morphological arguments for convergence in tracheal systems. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks’....

  6. Astrophysical and terrestrial neutrinos in Supernova detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagage, P.O.

    1985-09-01

    Supernova (SN) explosions are the place of very fundamental phenomena, whose privileged messengers are neutrinos. But such events are very rare. Then, SN detection has to be combined with other purposes. The recent developments of SN detectors have been associated with developments of underground particle physics (proton decay, monopoles ...). But here, I will restrict myself to discuss the possibilities for a supernova detector to be sensitive to other sources of neutrinos, astrophysical or terrestrial

  7. Furostanol and Spirostanol Saponins from Tribulus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Fang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Twelve new steroidal saponins, including eleven furostanol saponins, terrestrinin J–T (1–11, and one spirostanol saponin, terrestrinin U (12, together with seven known steroidal saponins 13–19 were isolated from T. terrestris. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS, and comparisons with published data.

  8. Terrestrial water fluxes dominated by transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasechko, Scott; Sharp, Zachary D; Gibson, John J; Birks, S Jean; Yi, Yi; Fawcett, Peter J

    2013-04-18

    Renewable fresh water over continents has input from precipitation and losses to the atmosphere through evaporation and transpiration. Global-scale estimates of transpiration from climate models are poorly constrained owing to large uncertainties in stomatal conductance and the lack of catchment-scale measurements required for model calibration, resulting in a range of predictions spanning 20 to 65 per cent of total terrestrial evapotranspiration (14,000 to 41,000 km(3) per year) (refs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5). Here we use the distinct isotope effects of transpiration and evaporation to show that transpiration is by far the largest water flux from Earth's continents, representing 80 to 90 per cent of terrestrial evapotranspiration. On the basis of our analysis of a global data set of large lakes and rivers, we conclude that transpiration recycles 62,000 ± 8,000 km(3) of water per year to the atmosphere, using half of all solar energy absorbed by land surfaces in the process. We also calculate CO2 uptake by terrestrial vegetation by connecting transpiration losses to carbon assimilation using water-use efficiency ratios of plants, and show the global gross primary productivity to be 129 ± 32 gigatonnes of carbon per year, which agrees, within the uncertainty, with previous estimates. The dominance of transpiration water fluxes in continental evapotranspiration suggests that, from the point of view of water resource forecasting, climate model development should prioritize improvements in simulations of biological fluxes rather than physical (evaporation) fluxes.

  9. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.7--pulse power technology and its application sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 18 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the seventh one, the content is about pulse power technology and its application sub-volume

  10. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.8--radiation research and its application sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 12 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the eighth one, the content is about radiation research and its application sub-volume

  11. Some effects of pollutants in terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, W.H.; McIntyre, A.D.; Mills, C.F.

    1975-01-01

    occur when persistent chemicals enter organisms that eliminate them poorly. However, loss of chemicals in the food chain must be more common than accumulation. The great concentration from water to aquatic organism is chiefly a physical phenomenon, not a food chain effect, but it affords high starting levels for these chains. Terrestrial food chains often start at a high level with heavily contaminated, struggling prey. Litter feeders are another important base. Vegetation may be contaminated enough to be dangerous to animals that eat it. Dermal and respiratory routes of intoxication occur in the wild, but the oral route is far more important at most times and places. The organisms that govern soil fertility and texture are affected more by cultivation than by pesticides. Above ground, growing knowledge of resistance, species differences, and biological controls is leading to integrated control, in which use of chemicals is limited and specific. We do not know what is happening to most nontarget invertebrates. Amphibians and reptiles may be killed by applications of insecticides, but are not highly sensitive and can carry large residues. Effects of these residues on reproduction are little known. Heavy kills of birds by pesticides still occur in the field. Fish-eating and bird-eating birds also undergo shell thinning and related reproductive troubles in many areas, sometimes to the point of population decline and local or regional extermination. DDE most often correlates with shell thinning in the wild and in experiments. No other known chemical approaches DDE in causing severe and lasting shell thinning. Herbivorous birds seem to be largely immune to this effect. It is uncertain how much dieldrin and PCBs contribute to embryotoxicity in carnivorous birds. Mammals may be killed by the more toxic pesticides, but some of the commonest small rodents are so resistant, and lose their residues so rapidly, that they are of little

  12. Terrestrial Ecosystems - Land Surface Forms of the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cress, Jill J.; Sayre, Roger G.; Comer, Patrick; Warner, Harumi

    2009-01-01

    As part of an effort to map terrestrial ecosystems, the U.S. Geological Survey has generated land surface form classes to be used in creating maps depicting standardized, terrestrial ecosystem models for the conterminous United States, using an ecosystems classification developed by NatureServe . A biophysical stratification approach, developed for South America and now being implemented globally, was used to model the ecosystem distributions. Since land surface forms strongly influence the differentiation and distribution of terrestrial ecosystems, they are one of the key input layers in this biophysical stratification. After extensive investigation into various land surface form mapping methodologies, the decision was made to use the methodology developed by the Missouri Resource Assessment Partnership (MoRAP). MoRAP made modifications to Hammond's land surface form classification, which allowed the use of 30-meter source data and a 1-km2 window for analyzing the data cell and its surrounding cells (neighborhood analysis). While Hammond's methodology was based on three topographic variables, slope, local relief, and profile type, MoRAP's methodology uses only slope and local relief. Using the MoRAP method, slope is classified as gently sloping when more than 50 percent of the area in a 1-km2 neighborhood has slope less than 8 percent, otherwise the area is considered moderately sloping. Local relief, which is the difference between the maximum and minimum elevation in a neighborhood, is classified into five groups: 0-15 m, 16-30 m, 31-90 m, 91-150 m, and >150 m. The land surface form classes are derived by combining slope and local relief to create eight landform classes: flat plains (gently sloping and local relief = 90 m), low hills (not gently sloping and local relief = 150 m). However, in the USGS application of the MoRAP methodology, an additional local relief group was used (> 400 m) to capture additional local topographic variation. As a result, low

  13. Radioisotope power sources in the terrestrial and marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holleman, T.J.; Wahlquist, E.J.

    1976-01-01

    In response to user agency needs, the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), Division of Nuclear Research and Applications (NRA), has undertaken a variety of research and development efforts to insure the availability of highly reliable, long-lived nuclear power sources for special purpose terrestrial missions planned for the late 1970's and early 1980's. One such effort currently being pursued is the development of a 1kW(e) Stirling Radioisotope Power System for integration into an Unmanned Free Swimming Submersible (UFSS) demonstration vehicle now under development by the Naval Research Laboratory. Another important effort which NRA has undertaken is a study to evaluate both isotope fueled and non-isotope fueled unattended power systems in the 2kW(e) range for application in cold regions. In the lower power ranges of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators, NRA continues to support new development efforts and new application areas. The Division is providing assistance to the Navy on a 1 / 2 W(e) RTG for use in various underwater applications. The various efforts are briefly discussed

  14. Quantitative Hydraulic Models Of Early Land Plants Provide Insight Into Middle Paleozoic Terrestrial Paleoenvironmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. P.; Fischer, W. W.

    2010-12-01

    Fossil plants provide useful proxies of Earth’s climate because plants are closely connected, through physiology and morphology, to the environments in which they lived. Recent advances in quantitative hydraulic models of plant water transport provide new insight into the history of climate by allowing fossils to speak directly to environmental conditions based on preserved internal anatomy. We report results of a quantitative hydraulic model applied to one of the earliest terrestrial plants preserved in three dimensions, the ~396 million-year-old vascular plant Asteroxylon mackei. This model combines equations describing the rate of fluid flow through plant tissues with detailed observations of plant anatomy; this allows quantitative estimates of two critical aspects of plant function. First and foremost, results from these models quantify the supply of water to evaporative surfaces; second, results describe the ability of plant vascular systems to resist tensile damage from extreme environmental events, such as drought or frost. This approach permits quantitative comparisons of functional aspects of Asteroxylon with other extinct and extant plants, informs the quality of plant-based environmental proxies, and provides concrete data that can be input into climate models. Results indicate that despite their small size, water transport cells in Asteroxylon could supply a large volume of water to the plant's leaves--even greater than cells from some later-evolved seed plants. The smallest Asteroxylon tracheids have conductivities exceeding 0.015 m^2 / MPa * s, whereas Paleozoic conifer tracheids do not reach this threshold until they are three times wider. However, this increase in conductivity came at the cost of little to no adaptations for transport safety, placing the plant’s vegetative organs in jeopardy during drought events. Analysis of the thickness-to-span ratio of Asteroxylon’s tracheids suggests that environmental conditions of reduced relative

  15. The solar-terrestrial environment. An introduction to geospace - the science of the terrestrial upper atmosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, J. K.

    This textbook is a successor to "The upper atmosphere and solar-terrestrial relations" first published in 1979. It describes physical conditions in the upper atmosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth. This geospace environment begins 70 kilometres above the surface of the Earth and extends in near space to many times the Earth's radius. It is the region of near-Earth environment where the Space Shuttle flies, the aurora is generated, and the outer atmosphere meets particles streaming out of the sun. The account is introductory. The intent is to present basic concepts, and for that reason the mathematical treatment is not complex. There are three introductory chapters that give basic physics and explain the principles of physical investigation. The principal material contained in the main part of the book covers the neutral and ionized upper atmosphere, the magetosphere, and structures, dynamics, disturbances and irregularities. The concluding chapter deals with technological applications.

  16. Acute oral toxicity of chemicals in terrestrial life stages of amphibians: Comparisons to birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Mark; Finnegan, Meaghean; Weltje, Lennart; Kosmala-Grzechnik, Sylwia; Gross, Melanie; Wheeler, James R

    2016-10-01

    Amphibians are currently the most threatened and rapidly declining group of vertebrates and this has raised concerns about their potential sensitivity and exposure to plant protection products and other chemicals. Current environmental risk assessment procedures rely on surrogate species (e.g. fish and birds) to cover the risk to aquatic and terrestrial life stages of amphibians, respectively. Whilst a recent meta-analysis has shown that in most cases amphibian aquatic life stages are less sensitive to chemicals than fish, little research has been conducted on the comparative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages. Therefore, in this paper we address the questions "What is the relative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages to acute chemical oral exposure when compared with mammals and birds?" and "Are there correlations between oral toxicity data for amphibians and data for mammals or birds?" Identifying a relationship between these data may help to avoid additional vertebrate testing. Acute oral amphibian toxicity data collected from the scientific literature and ecotoxicological databases were compared with toxicity data for mammals and birds. Toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages are generally sparse, as noted in previous reviews. Single-dose oral toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages were available for 26 chemicals and these were positively correlated with LD50 values for mammals, while no correlation was found for birds. Further, the data suggest that oral toxicity to terrestrial amphibian life stages is similar to or lower than that for mammals and birds, with a few exceptions. Thus, mammals or birds are considered adequate toxicity surrogates for use in the assessment of the oral exposure route in amphibians. However, there is a need for further data on a wider range of chemicals to explore the wider applicability of the current analyses and recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Terrestrial gamma radiation baseline mapping using ultra low density sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt, R; Watson, D

    2016-01-01

    Baseline terrestrial gamma radiation maps are indispensable for providing basic reference information that may be used in assessing the impact of a radiation related incident, performing epidemiological studies, remediating land contaminated with radioactive materials, assessment of land use applications and resource prospectivity. For a large land mass, such as Queensland, Australia (over 1.7 million km(2)), it is prohibitively expensive and practically difficult to undertake detailed in-situ radiometric surveys of this scale. It is proposed that an existing, ultra-low density sampling program already undertaken for the purpose of a nationwide soil survey project be utilised to develop a baseline terrestrial gamma radiation map. Geoelement data derived from the National Geochemistry Survey of Australia (NGSA) was used to construct a baseline terrestrial gamma air kerma rate map, delineated by major drainage catchments, for Queensland. Three drainage catchments (sampled at the catchment outlet) spanning low, medium and high radioelement concentrations were selected for validation of the methodology using radiometric techniques including in-situ measurements and soil sampling for high resolution gamma spectrometry, and comparative non-radiometric analysis. A Queensland mean terrestrial air kerma rate, as calculated from the NGSA outlet sediment uranium, thorium and potassium concentrations, of 49 ± 69 nGy h(-1) (n = 311, 3σ 99% confidence level) is proposed as being suitable for use as a generic terrestrial air kerma rate background range. Validation results indicate that catchment outlet measurements are representative of the range of results obtained across the catchment and that the NGSA geoelement data is suitable for calculation and mapping of terrestrial air kerma rate. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Terrestrial Planet Formation from an Annulus -- Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deienno, Rogerio; Walsh, Kevin J.; Kretke, Katherine A.; Levison, Harold F.

    2018-04-01

    Numerous recent theories of terrestrial planet formation suggest that, in order to reproduce the observed large Earth to Mars mass ratio, planets formed from an annulus of material within 1 au. The success of these models typically rely on a Mars sized embryo being scattered outside 1 au (to ~1.5 au) and starving, while those remaining inside 1 au continue growing, forming Earth and Venus. In some models the scattering is instigated by the migration of giant planets, while in others an embryo-instability naturally occurs due to the dissipation of the gaseous solar nebula. While these models can typically succeed in reproducing the overall mass ratio among the planets, the final angular momentum deficit (AMD) of the present terrestrial planets in our Solar System, and their radial mass concentration (RMC), namely the position where Mars end up in the simulations, are not always well reproduced. Assuming that the gas nebula may not be entirely dissipated when such an embryo-instability happens, here, we study the effects that the time of such an instability can have on the final AMD and RMC. In addition, we also included energy dissipation within embryo-embryo collisions by assuming a given coefficient of restitution for collisions. Our results show that: i) dissipation within embryo-embryo collisions do not play any important role in the final terrestrial planetary system; ii) the final AMD decreases only when the number of final planets formed increases; iii) the RMC tends to always be lower than the present value no matter the number of final planets; and iv) depending on the time that the embryo-instability happen, if too early, with too much gas still present, a second instability will generally happen after the dissipation of the gas nebula.

  19. Application for approval of derived authorized limits for the release of the 190-C trenches and 105-C process water tunnels at the Hanford Site: Volume 2 - source term development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, D.H.; Winslow, S.L.; Moeller, M.P.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1997-03-01

    As part of environmental restoration activities at the Hanford Site, Bechtel Hanford, Inc. is conducting a series of evaluations to determine appropriate release conditions for specific facilities following the completion of decontamination and decommissioning projects. The release conditions, with respect to the residual volumetric radioactive contamination, are termed authorized limits. This report presents the summary of the supporting information and the final application for approval of derived authorized limits for the release of the 190-C trenches and the 105-C process water tunnels. This document contains two volumes; this volume (Vol. 2) contains the radiological characterization data, spreadsheet analyses, and radiological source terms

  20. Halogens in chondritic meteorites and terrestrial accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Patricia L.; Burgess, Ray; Busemann, Henner; Ruzié-Hamilton, Lorraine; Joachim, Bastian; Day, James M. D.; Ballentine, Christopher J.

    2017-11-01

    Volatile element delivery and retention played a fundamental part in Earth’s formation and subsequent chemical differentiation. The heavy halogens—chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br) and iodine (I)—are key tracers of accretionary processes owing to their high volatility and incompatibility, but have low abundances in most geological and planetary materials. However, noble gas proxy isotopes produced during neutron irradiation provide a high-sensitivity tool for the determination of heavy halogen abundances. Using such isotopes, here we show that Cl, Br and I abundances in carbonaceous, enstatite, Rumuruti and primitive ordinary chondrites are about 6 times, 9 times and 15-37 times lower, respectively, than previously reported and usually accepted estimates. This is independent of the oxidation state or petrological type of the chondrites. The ratios Br/Cl and I/Cl in all studied chondrites show a limited range, indistinguishable from bulk silicate Earth estimates. Our results demonstrate that the halogen depletion of bulk silicate Earth relative to primitive meteorites is consistent with the depletion of lithophile elements of similar volatility. These results for carbonaceous chondrites reveal that late accretion, constrained to a maximum of 0.5 ± 0.2 per cent of Earth’s silicate mass, cannot solely account for present-day terrestrial halogen inventories. It is estimated that 80-90 per cent of heavy halogens are concentrated in Earth’s surface reservoirs and have not undergone the extreme early loss observed in atmosphere-forming elements. Therefore, in addition to late-stage terrestrial accretion of halogens and mantle degassing, which has removed less than half of Earth’s dissolved mantle gases, the efficient extraction of halogen-rich fluids from the solid Earth during the earliest stages of terrestrial differentiation is also required to explain the presence of these heavy halogens at the surface. The hydropilic nature of halogens, whereby they track