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Sample records for terrestrial animals mammals

  1. Dietary characterization of terrestrial mammals.

    Pineda-Munoz, Silvia; Alroy, John

    2014-08-22

    Understanding the feeding behaviour of the species that make up any ecosystem is essential for designing further research. Mammals have been studied intensively, but the criteria used for classifying their diets are far from being standardized. We built a database summarizing the dietary preferences of terrestrial mammals using published data regarding their stomach contents. We performed multivariate analyses in order to set up a standardized classification scheme. Ideally, food consumption percentages should be used instead of qualitative classifications. However, when highly detailed information is not available we propose classifying animals based on their main feeding resources. They should be classified as generalists when none of the feeding resources constitute over 50% of the diet. The term 'omnivore' should be avoided because it does not communicate all the complexity inherent to food choice. Moreover, the so-called omnivore diets actually involve several distinctive adaptations. Our dataset shows that terrestrial mammals are generally highly specialized and that some degree of food mixing may even be required for most species.

  2. Louisiana ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for terrestrial mammals in Louisiana. Vector polygons in this data set represent terrestrial mammal...

  3. Tuberculous and tuberculoid lesions in free living small terrestrial mammals and the risk of infection to humans and animals: a review

    Skorič, M.; Shitaye, E. J.; Halouzka, R.; Fictum, P.; Trčka, I.; Heroldová, Marta; Tkadlec, Emil; Pavlík, I.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2007), s. 144-161 ISSN 0375-8427 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/04/2003 Grant - others:MZE(CZ) 1B53009 Program:1B Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : bovine tuberculosis * paratuberculosis * avian tuberculosis * mycobacteriosis * terrestrial mammals * zoonoses Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2007 http://www.vri.cz/docs/vetmed/52-4-144.pdf

  4. South African red data book - Terrestrial mammals

    Smithers, RHN

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, 243 species of terrestrial wild mammals are known to occur in the Republic of South Africa. Using the well established IUCN definitions, 42 of these may be considered as exposed to some level of threat of extinction. Three species...

  5. Future hotspots of terrestrial mammal loss

    Visconti, Piero; Pressey, Robert L.; Giorgini, Daniele; Maiorano, Luigi; Bakkenes, Michel; Boitani, Luigi; Alkemade, Rob; Falcucci, Alessandra; Chiozza, Federica; Rondinini, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Current levels of endangerment and historical trends of species and habitats are the main criteria used to direct conservation efforts globally. Estimates of future declines, which might indicate different priorities than past declines, have been limited by the lack of appropriate data and models. Given that much of conservation is about anticipating and responding to future threats, our inability to look forward at a global scale has been a major constraint on effective action. Here, we assess the geography and extent of projected future changes in suitable habitat for terrestrial mammals within their present ranges. We used a global earth-system model, IMAGE, coupled with fine-scale habitat suitability models and parametrized according to four global scenarios of human development. We identified the most affected countries by 2050 for each scenario, assuming that no additional conservation actions other than those described in the scenarios take place. We found that, with some exceptions, most of the countries with the largest predicted losses of suitable habitat for mammals are in Africa and the Americas. African and North American countries were also predicted to host the most species with large proportional global declines. Most of the countries we identified as future hotspots of terrestrial mammal loss have little or no overlap with the present global conservation priorities, thus confirming the need for forward-looking analyses in conservation priority setting. The expected growth in human populations and consumption in hotspots of future mammal loss mean that local conservation actions such as protected areas might not be sufficient to mitigate losses. Other policies, directed towards the root causes of biodiversity loss, are required, both in Africa and other parts of the world. PMID:21844048

  6. Terrestrial and aquatic mammals of the Pantanal

    CJR. Alho

    Full Text Available Different works have registered the number of mammal species within the natural habitats of the Pantanal based on currently known records, with species richness ranging from 89 to 152 of annotated occurrences. Our present list sums 174 species. However, at least three factors have to be emphasised to deal with recorded numbers: 1 to establish the ecotone limit between the floodplain (which is the Pantanal and its neighbouring domain like the Cerrado, besides the existence of maps recently produced; 2 the lack of intensive surveys, especially on small mammals, rodents and marsupials; and 3 the constant taxonomic revision on bats, rodents and marsupials. Some species are very abundant - for example the capybara Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris and the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous, and some are rare, and others are still intrinsically rare - for example, the bush dog Speothos venaticus. Abundance of species is assumed to reflect ecological resources of the habitat. Local diversity and number of individuals of wild rodents and marsupials also rely on the offering of ecological resources and behavioural specialisation to microhabitat components. A large number of species interact with the type of the vegetation of the habitat, by means of habitat selection through active patterns of ecological behaviour, resulting on dependency on arboreal and forested habitats of the Pantanal. In addition, mammals respond to seasonal shrinking-and-expansion of habitats due to flooding regime of the Pantanal. The highest number of species is observed during the dry season, when there is a considerable expansion of terrestrial habitats, mainly seasonally flooded grassland. Major threats to mammal species are the loss and alteration of habitats due to human intervention, mainly deforestation, unsustainable agricultural and cattle-ranching practices, which convert the natural vegetation into pastures. The Pantanal still harbours about a dozen of species officially listened

  7. Quantification of habitat fragmentation reveals extinction risk in terrestrial mammals

    Crooks, Kevin R.; Burdett, Christopher L.; Theobald, David M.; King, Sarah R. B.; Rondinini, Carlo; Boitani, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Although habitat fragmentation is often assumed to be a primary driver of extinction, global patterns of fragmentation and its relationship to extinction risk have not been consistently quantified for any major animal taxon. We developed high-resolution habitat fragmentation models and used phylogenetic comparative methods to quantify the effects of habitat fragmentation on the world’s terrestrial mammals, including 4,018 species across 26 taxonomic Orders. Results demonstrate that species with more fragmentation are at greater risk of extinction, even after accounting for the effects of key macroecological predictors, such as body size and geographic range size. Species with higher fragmentation had smaller ranges and a lower proportion of high-suitability habitat within their range, and most high-suitability habitat occurred outside of protected areas, further elevating extinction risk. Our models provide a quantitative evaluation of extinction risk assessments for species, allow for identification of emerging threats in species not classified as threatened, and provide maps of global hotspots of fragmentation for the world’s terrestrial mammals. Quantification of habitat fragmentation will help guide threat assessment and strategic priorities for global mammal conservation. PMID:28673992

  8. A potential mechanism for allometric trabecular bone scaling in terrestrial mammals.

    Christen, Patrik; Ito, Keita; van Rietbergen, Bert

    2015-03-01

    Trabecular bone microstructural parameters, including trabecular thickness, spacing, and number, have been reported to scale with animal size with negative allometry, whereas bone volume fraction is animal size-invariant in terrestrial mammals. As for the majority of scaling patterns described in animals, its underlying mechanism is unknown. However, it has also been found that osteocyte density is inversely related to animal size, possibly adapted to metabolic rate, which shows a negative relationship as well. In addition, the signalling reach of osteocytes is limited by the extent of the lacuno-canalicular network, depending on trabecular dimensions and thus also on animal size. Here we propose animal size-dependent variations in osteocyte density and their signalling influence distance as a potential mechanism for negative allometric trabecular bone scaling in terrestrial mammals. Using an established and tested computational model of bone modelling and remodelling, we run simulations with different osteocyte densities and influence distances mimicking six terrestrial mammals covering a large range of body masses. Simulated trabecular structures revealed negative allometric scaling for trabecular thickness, spacing, and number, constant bone volume fraction, and bone turnover rates inversely related to animal size. These results are in agreement with previous observations supporting our proposal of osteocyte density and influence distance variation as a potential mechanism for negative allometric trabecular bone scaling in terrestrial mammals. The inverse relationship between bone turnover rates and animal size further indicates that trabecular bone scaling may be linked to metabolic rather than mechanical adaptations. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  9. Influenza A virus infections in marine mammals and terrestrial carnivores.

    Harder, Timm C; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Vahlenkamp, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAV), members of the Orthomyxoviridae, cover a wide host spectrum comprising a plethora of avian and, in comparison, a few mammalian species. The viral reservoir and gene pool are kept in metapopulations of aquatic wild birds. The mammalian-adapted IAVs originally arose by transspecies transmission from avian sources. In swine, horse and man, species-adapted IAV lineages circulate independently of the avian reservoir and cause predominantly respiratory disease of highly variable severity. Sporadic outbreaks of IAV infections associated with pneumonic clinical signs have repeatedly occurred in marine mammals (harbour seals [Phoca vitulina]) off the New England coast of the U.S.A. due to episodic transmission of avian IAV. However, no indigenous marine mammal IAV lineages are described. In contrast to marine mammals, avian- and equine-derived IAVs have formed stable circulating lineages in terrestrial carnivores: IAVs of subtype H3N2 and H3N8 are found in canine populations in South Korea, China, and the U.S.A. Experimental infections revealed that dogs and cats can be infected with an even wider range of avian IAVs. Cats, in particular, also proved susceptible to native infection with human pandemic H1N1 viruses and, according to serological data, may be vulnerable to infection with further human-adapted IAVs. Ferrets are susceptible to a variety of avian and mammalian IAVs and are an established animal model of human IAV infection. Thus, a potential role of pet cats, dogs and ferrets as mediators of avian-derived viruses to the human population does exist. A closer observation for influenza virus infections and transmissions at this animal-human interface is indicated.

  10. Impact of non-native terrestrial mammals on the structure of the terrestrial mammal food web of Newfoundland, Canada.

    Justin S Strong

    Full Text Available The island of Newfoundland is unique because it has as many non-native terrestrial mammals as native ones. The impacts of non-native species on native flora and fauna can be profound and invasive species have been identified as one of the primary drivers of species extinction. Few studies, however, have investigated the effects of a non-native species assemblage on community and ecosystem properties. We reviewed the literature to build the first terrestrial mammal food web for the island of Newfoundland and then used network analyses to investigate how the timing of introductions and trophic position of non-native species has affected the structure of the terrestrial mammal food web in Newfoundland. The first non-native mammals (house mouse and brown rat became established in Newfoundland with human settlement in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. Coyotes and southern red-backed voles are the most recent mammals to establish themselves on the island in 1985 and 1998, respectively. The fraction of intermediate species increased with the addition of non-native mammals over time whereas the fraction of basal and top species declined over time. This increase in intermediate species mediated by non-native species arrivals led to an overall increase in the terrestrial mammal food web connectance and generality (i.e. mean number of prey per predator. This diverse prey base and sources of carrion may have facilitated the natural establishment of coyotes on the island. Also, there is some evidence that the introduction of non-native prey species such as the southern red-backed vole has contributed to the recovery of the threatened American marten. Long-term monitoring of the food web is required to understand and predict the impacts of the diverse novel interactions that are developing in the terrestrial mammal food web of Newfoundland.

  11. Physics of chewing in terrestrial mammals

    Virot, Emmanuel; Ma, Grace; Clanet, Christophe; Jung, Sunghwan

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies on chewing frequency across animal species have focused on finding a single universal scaling law. Controversy between the different models has been aroused without elucidating the variations in chewing frequency. In the present study we show that vigorous chewing is limited by the maximum force of muscle, so that the upper chewing frequency scales as the -1/3 power of body mass for large animals and as a constant frequency for small animals. On the other hand, gentle chewing to mix food uniformly without excess of saliva describes the lower limit of chewing frequency, scaling approximately as the -1/6 power of body mass. These physical constraints frame the -1/4 power law classically inferred from allometry of animal metabolic rates. All of our experimental data stay within these physical boundaries over six orders of magnitude of body mass regardless of food types.

  12. Native Terrestrial Animal Species Richness

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all native mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are...

  13. Linking animals aloft with the terrestrial landscape

    Buler, Jeffrey J.; Barrow, Wylie; Boone, Matthew; Dawson, Deanna K.; Diehl, Robert H.; Moore, Frank R.; Randall, Lori A.; Schreckengost, Timothy; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.

    2018-01-01

    Despite using the aerosphere for many facets of their life, most flying animals (i.e., birds, bats, some insects) are still bound to terrestrial habitats for resting, feeding, and reproduction. Comprehensive broad-scale observations by weather surveillance radars of animals as they leave terrestrial habitats for migration or feeding flights can be used to map their terrestrial distributions either as point locations (e.g., communal roosts) or as continuous surface layers (e.g., animal densities in habitats across a landscape). We discuss some of the technical challenges to reducing measurement biases related to how radars sample the aerosphere and the flight behavior of animals. We highlight a recently developed methodological approach that precisely and quantitatively links the horizontal spatial structure of birds aloft to their terrestrial distributions and provides novel insights into avian ecology and conservation across broad landscapes. Specifically, we present case studies that (1) elucidate how migrating birds contend with crossing ecological barriers and extreme weather events, (2) identify important stopover areas and habitat use patterns of birds along their migration routes, and (3) assess waterfowl response to wetland habitat management and restoration. These studies aid our understanding of how anthropogenic modification of the terrestrial landscape (e.g., urbanization, habitat management), natural geographic features, and weather (e.g., hurricanes) can affect the terrestrial distributions of flying animals.

  14. Radionuclide transfer in terrestrial animals

    DiGregorio, D.; Kitchings, T.; Van Voris, P.

    1978-01-01

    The analysis of dispersion of radionuclides in terrestrial food chains, generally, is a series of equations identifying the fractional input and outflow rates from trophic level to trophic level. Data that are prerequisite inputs for these food chain transport models include: (1) identification of specific transport pathway, (2) assimilation at each pathway link, and (3) the turnover rate or retention function by successive receptor species in the appropriate food chain. In this report, assimilation coefficients, biological half-lives, and excretion rates for a wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species and radionuclides have been compiled from an extensive search of the available literature. Using the information accumulated from the literature, correlations of nuclide metabolism and body weight are also discussed. (author)

  15. Mycobacteria in Terrestrial Small Mammals on Cattle Farms in Tanzania

    Durnez, Lies; Katakweba, Abdul; Sadiki, Harrison

    2011-01-01

    The control of bovine tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in developing countries is important but difficult because of the existence of wildlife reservoirs. In cattle farms in Tanzania, mycobacteria were detected in 7.3% of 645 small mammals and in cow's milk. The cattle farms we....... However, because of the high prevalence of mycobacteria in some small mammal species, these infected animals can pose a risk to humans, especially in areas with a high HIV-prevalence as is the case in Tanzania.......The control of bovine tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in developing countries is important but difficult because of the existence of wildlife reservoirs. In cattle farms in Tanzania, mycobacteria were detected in 7.3% of 645 small mammals and in cow's milk. The cattle farms were...... and PCR in the small mammals were atypical mycobacteria. Analysis of the presence of mycobacteria in relation to the reactor status of the cattle farms does not exclude transmission between small mammals and cattle but indicates that transmission to cattle from another source of infection is more likely...

  16. Establishing macroecological trait datasets: digitalization, extrapolation, and validation of diet preferences in terrestrial mammals worldwide.

    Kissling, Wilm Daniel; Dalby, Lars; Fløjgaard, Camilla; Lenoir, Jonathan; Sandel, Brody; Sandom, Christopher; Trøjelsgaard, Kristian; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2014-07-01

    Ecological trait data are essential for understanding the broad-scale distribution of biodiversity and its response to global change. For animals, diet represents a fundamental aspect of species' evolutionary adaptations, ecological and functional roles, and trophic interactions. However, the importance of diet for macroevolutionary and macroecological dynamics remains little explored, partly because of the lack of comprehensive trait datasets. We compiled and evaluated a comprehensive global dataset of diet preferences of mammals ("MammalDIET"). Diet information was digitized from two global and cladewide data sources and errors of data entry by multiple data recorders were assessed. We then developed a hierarchical extrapolation procedure to fill-in diet information for species with missing information. Missing data were extrapolated with information from other taxonomic levels (genus, other species within the same genus, or family) and this extrapolation was subsequently validated both internally (with a jack-knife approach applied to the compiled species-level diet data) and externally (using independent species-level diet information from a comprehensive continentwide data source). Finally, we grouped mammal species into trophic levels and dietary guilds, and their species richness as well as their proportion of total richness were mapped at a global scale for those diet categories with good validation results. The success rate of correctly digitizing data was 94%, indicating that the consistency in data entry among multiple recorders was high. Data sources provided species-level diet information for a total of 2033 species (38% of all 5364 terrestrial mammal species, based on the IUCN taxonomy). For the remaining 3331 species, diet information was mostly extrapolated from genus-level diet information (48% of all terrestrial mammal species), and only rarely from other species within the same genus (6%) or from family level (8%). Internal and external

  17. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for terrestrial mammals for the Upper Coast of Texas. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  18. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for State and Federally threatened and endangered terrestrial mammals in [for] South Florida. Vector...

  19. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for rare/sensitive species occurrences of terrestrial mammals in Central California. Vector polygons in...

  20. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for small terrestrial mammals (woodrats, myotis, muskrat, mink) for the Hudson River. Vector polygons in...

  1. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for rare and threatened/endangered terrestrial mammals in Southern California. Vector polygons in this data...

  2. Radionuclides in the terrestrial ecosystem near a Canadian uranium mill -- Part 2: Small mammal food chains and bioavailability

    Thomas, P.A.

    2000-06-01

    Food chain transfer through the soil-vegetation-small mammal food chain was measured by concentration ratios (CRs) for uranium, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, and {sup 210}Po at three sites near the Key Lake uranium mill in northern Saskatchewan. Plant/soil CRs, animal carcass/GI tract CRs, and animal/soil CRs were depressed at sites impacted by mill and tailings dusts relative to a nearby control site. Thus, radionuclides associated with large particulates in tailings and/or ore dusts may be less bioavailable to terrestrial plants and animals than natural sources of radioactive dust. These results show that reliance on default food chain transfer parameters, obtained from uncontaminated terrestrial ecosystems, may overpredict impacts at uranium mine and mill sites. Given the omnivorous diet of small mammals and birds, animal/soil CRs are recommended as the most cost-effective and robust means of predicting animal concentrations from environmental monitoring data at uranium mill facilities.

  3. Radionuclides in the terrestrial ecosystem near a Canadian uranium mill -- Part 2: Small mammal food chains and bioavailability

    Thomas, P.A.

    2000-01-01

    Food chain transfer through the soil-vegetation-small mammal food chain was measured by concentration ratios (CRs) for uranium, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, and 210 Po at three sites near the Key Lake uranium mill in northern Saskatchewan. Plant/soil CRs, animal carcass/GI tract CRs, and animal/soil CRs were depressed at sites impacted by mill and tailings dusts relative to a nearby control site. Thus, radionuclides associated with large particulates in tailings and/or ore dusts may be less bioavailable to terrestrial plants and animals than natural sources of radioactive dust. These results show that reliance on default food chain transfer parameters, obtained from uncontaminated terrestrial ecosystems, may overpredict impacts at uranium mine and mill sites. Given the omnivorous diet of small mammals and birds, animal/soil CRs are recommended as the most cost-effective and robust means of predicting animal concentrations from environmental monitoring data at uranium mill facilities

  4. Strategies for monitoring terrestrial animals and habitats

    Richard Holthausen; Raymond L. Czaplewski; Don DeLorenzo; Greg Hayward; Winifred B. Kessler; Pat Manley; Kevin S. McKelvey; Douglas S. Powell; Leonard F. Ruggiero; Michael K. Schwartz; Bea Van Horne; Christina D. Vojta

    2005-01-01

    This General Technical Report (GTR) addresses monitoring strategies for terrestrial animals and habitats. It focuses on monitoring associated with National Forest Management Act planning and is intended to apply primarily to monitoring efforts that are broader than individual National Forests. Primary topics covered in the GTR are monitoring requirements; ongoing...

  5. Myoglobin oxygen affinity in aquatic and terrestrial birds and mammals.

    Wright, Traver J; Davis, Randall W

    2015-07-01

    Myoglobin (Mb) is an oxygen binding protein found in vertebrate skeletal muscle, where it facilitates intracellular transport and storage of oxygen. This protein has evolved to suit unique physiological needs in the muscle of diving vertebrates that express Mb at much greater concentrations than their terrestrial counterparts. In this study, we characterized Mb oxygen affinity (P50) from 25 species of aquatic and terrestrial birds and mammals. Among diving species, we tested for correlations between Mb P50 and routine dive duration. Across all species examined, Mb P50 ranged from 2.40 to 4.85 mmHg. The mean P50 of Mb from terrestrial ungulates was 3.72±0.15 mmHg (range 3.70-3.74 mmHg). The P50 of cetaceans was similar to terrestrial ungulates ranging from 3.54 to 3.82 mmHg, with the exception of the melon-headed whale, which had a significantly higher P50 of 4.85 mmHg. Among pinnipeds, the P50 ranged from 3.23 to 3.81 mmHg and showed a trend for higher oxygen affinity in species with longer dive durations. Among diving birds, the P50 ranged from 2.40 to 3.36 mmHg and also showed a trend of higher affinities in species with longer dive durations. In pinnipeds and birds, low Mb P50 was associated with species whose muscles are metabolically active under hypoxic conditions associated with aerobic dives. Given the broad range of potential globin oxygen affinities, Mb P50 from diverse vertebrate species appears constrained within a relatively narrow range. High Mb oxygen affinity within this range may be adaptive for some vertebrates that make prolonged dives. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Interactions between terrestrial mammals and the fruits of two neotropical rainforest tree species

    Camargo-Sanabria, Angela A.; Mendoza, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    Mammalian frugivory is a distinctive biotic interaction of tropical forests; however, most efforts in the Neotropics have focused on cases of animals foraging in the forest canopy, in particular primates and bats. In contrast much less is known about this interaction when it involves fruits deposited on the forest floor and terrestrial mammals. We conducted a camera-trapping survey to analyze the characteristics of the mammalian ensembles visiting fruits of Licania platypus and Pouteria sapota deposited on the forest floor in a well preserved tropical rainforest of Mexico. Both tree species produce large fruits but contrast in their population densities and fruit chemical composition. In particular, we expected that more species of terrestrial mammals would consume P. sapota fruits due to its higher pulp:seed ratio, lower availability and greater carbohydrate content. We monitored fruits at the base of 13 trees (P. sapota, n = 4 and L. platypus, n = 9) using camera-traps. We recorded 13 mammal species from which we had evidence of 8 consuming or removing fruits. These eight species accounted for 70% of the species of mammalian frugivores active in the forest floor of our study area. The ensemble of frugivores associated with L. platypus (6 spp.) was a subset of that associated with P. sapota (8 spp). Large body-sized species such as Tapirus bairdii, Pecari tajacu and Cuniculus paca were the mammals more frequently interacting with fruits of the focal species. Our results further our understanding of the characteristics of the interaction between terrestrial mammalian frugivores and large-sized fruits, helping to gain a more balanced view of its importance across different tropical forests and providing a baseline to compare against defaunated forests.

  7. Forelimb bone curvature in terrestrial and arboreal mammals

    Keith Henderson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been proposed that the caudal curvature (concave caudal side observed in the radioulna of terrestrial quadrupeds is an adaptation to the habitual action of the triceps muscle which causes cranial bending strains (compression on cranial side. The caudal curvature is proposed to be adaptive because longitudinal loading induces caudal bending strains (increased compression on the caudal side, and these opposing bending strains counteract each other leaving the radioulna less strained. If this is true for terrestrial quadrupeds, where triceps is required for habitual elbow extension, then we might expect that in arboreal species, where brachialis is habitually required to maintain elbow flexion, the radioulna should instead be cranially curved. This study measures sagittal curvature of the ulna in a range of terrestrial and arboreal primates and marsupials, and finds that their ulnae are curved in opposite directions in these two locomotor categories. This study also examines sagittal curvature in the humerus in the same species, and finds differences that can be attributed to similar adaptations: the bone is curved to counter the habitual muscle action required by the animal’s lifestyle, the difference being mainly in the distal part of the humerus, where arboreal animals tend have a cranial concavity, thought to be in response the carpal and digital muscles that pull cranially on the distal humerus.

  8. Scaling of Natal Dispersal Distances in Terrestrial Birds and Mammals

    Glenn D. Sutherland

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Natal dispersal is a process that is critical in the spatial dynamics of populations, including population spread, recolonization, and gene flow. It is a central focus of conservation issues for many vertebrate species. Using data for 77 bird and 68 mammal species, we tested whether median and maximum natal dispersal distances were correlated with body mass, diet type, social system, taxonomic family, and migratory status. Body mass and diet type were found to predict both median and maximum natal dispersal distances in mammals: large species dispersed farther than small ones, and carnivorous species dispersed farther than herbivores and omnivores. Similar relationships occurred for carnivorous bird species, but not for herbivorous or omnivorous ones. Natal dispersal distances in birds or mammals were not significantly related to broad categories of social systems. Only in birds were factors such as taxonomic relatedness and migratory status correlated with natal dispersal, and then only for maximum distances. Summary properties of dispersal processes appeared to be derived from interactions among behavioral and morphological characteristics of species and from their linkages to the dynamics of resource availability in landscapes. In all the species we examined, most dispersers moved relatively short distances, and long-distance dispersal was uncommon. On the basis of these findings, we fit an empirical model based on the negative exponential distribution for calculating minimum probabilities that animals disperse particular distances from their natal areas. This model, coupled with knowledge of a species' body mass and diet type, can be used to conservatively predict dispersal distances for different species and examine possible consequences of large-scale habitat alterations on connectedness between populations. Taken together, our results can provide managers with the means to identify species vulnerable to landscape-level habitat changes

  9. All about Mammals. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    2000

    In this videotape, students learn more about the characteristics of common warm-blooded mammals and what makes them different from other animals. Children also find out how humans are more advanced in structure than other mammals, but how they still share the same basic traits. This videotape correlates to the following National Science Education…

  10. Small terrestrial mammals of Albania: annotated list and distribution

    Ferdinand Bego

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Abstract We report for Albania new records of small terrestrial mammals (Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha, Rodentia and outline previously published data. Twenty-four species (one hedgehog, six soricomorhps and 17 rodents have been collected in 161 localities surveyed throughout the country. Nine species (Neomys anomalus, Crocidura leucodon, Talpa stankovici, Dryomys nitedula, Muscardinus avellanarius, Micromys minutus, Mus macedonicus, Myodes glareolus, and Microtus thomasi are recorded for Albania for the first time. The present list is far from being complete and presence of a further 11 species has to be confirmed. Riassunto I Micromammiferi dell'Albania: status e distribuzione Viene presentato un quadro della distribuzione dei micromammiferi in Albania, evidenziando le specie di recente scoperta così come alcuni dati già pubblicati. L'esame di 161 località distribuite sull'intero territorio nazionale ha permesso di raccogliere informazioni sulla presenza di 24 specie di micromammiferi (1 Erinaceomorpha, 6 Soricomorpha e 17 Rodentia. Nove specie  (Neomys anomalus, Crocidura leucodon, Talpa stankovici, Dryomys nitedula, Muscardinus avellanarius, Micromys minutus, Mus macedonicus, Myodes glareolus, e Microtus thomasi vengono segnalate per la prima volta. L'elenco qui presentato non può essere considerato definitivo. Ulteriori ricerche potrebbero accertare la presenza di altre 11 specie.

  11. Lead concentrations: bats vs. terrestrial small mammals collected near a major highway

    Clark, D.R.

    1979-03-01

    Lead concentrations in two species of bats and three species of terrestrial small mammals (meadow voles, short-tailed shrews, and white-footed mice) collected near a heavily travelled highway are compared. Roosting bats away from the parkway contained as much or more lead as the terrestrial mammals that were collected within 18 m of the road. Estimated doses of lead ingested by little brown bats, shrews, and voles equal or exceed doses that have caused mortality or reproductive impairment in domestic mammals. (24 references, 3 tables)

  12. Terrestrial mammal fauna and habitat in environmental assessment reports of thermal and nuclear power stations

    Yatake, Hatsuho; Nashimoto, Makoto; Chiba, Shinji [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba (Japan). Abiko Research Lab

    2000-04-01

    We analyzed the geological distribution of mammals, relationships between ecological distribution of mammals and land use, and vegetation type in the 49 environmental assessment reports of thermal and nuclear power stations in the coastal area of Japan. Seven orders and 17 families of 66 terrestrial mammal species including subspecies were listed from the reports. This is about 40% of the total species of terrestrial mammals observed in Japan. Mammals were divided into 3 groups: distributed in the nationwide, in limited districts, and in limited area. The geological distributions of Insectivora, Rodentia, Chiroptera and naturalized mammals, of which have not been well known, were arranged in a topographic map at the scale of 1:50,000 in this survey. The characteristics of power station sites were classified into 4 categories as follows: Industrial site, Industrial-agricultural mixed site, Industrial-agricultural-forest mixed site, and forest site. The relationships between site categories and species compositions were analyzed. The listed species were fifteen species in the industrial site, however, there were thirty six species in the forest site. The mammal species were classified into six groups by vegetation types of habitat; forest-dwelling, grassland-dwelling, farmland and orchard-dwelling, wide-dwelling except residential area, wide-dwelling mammals including residential area, and residential area-dwelling mammals. (author)

  13. Terrestrial mammal fauna and habitat in environmental assessment reports of thermal and nuclear power stations

    Yatake, Hatsuho; Nashimoto, Makoto; Chiba, Shinji

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed the geological distribution of mammals, relationships between ecological distribution of mammals and land use, and vegetation type in the 49 environmental assessment reports of thermal and nuclear power stations in the coastal area of Japan. Seven orders and 17 families of 66 terrestrial mammal species including subspecies were listed from the reports. This is about 40% of the total species of terrestrial mammals observed in Japan. Mammals were divided into 3 groups: distributed in the nationwide, in limited districts, and in limited area. The geological distributions of Insectivora, Rodentia, Chiroptera and naturalized mammals, of which have not been well known, were arranged in a topographic map at the scale of 1:50,000 in this survey. The characteristics of power station sites were classified into 4 categories as follows: Industrial site, Industrial-agricultural mixed site, Industrial-agricultural-forest mixed site, and forest site. The relationships between site categories and species compositions were analyzed. The listed species were fifteen species in the industrial site, however, there were thirty six species in the forest site. The mammal species were classified into six groups by vegetation types of habitat; forest-dwelling, grassland-dwelling, farmland and orchard-dwelling, wide-dwelling except residential area, wide-dwelling mammals including residential area, and residential area-dwelling mammals. (author)

  14. An assessment of non-volant terrestrial vertebrates response to wind farms--a study of small mammals.

    Łopucki, Rafał; Mróz, Iwona

    2016-02-01

    The majority of studies on the effects of wind energy development on wildlife have been focused on birds and bats, whereas knowledge of the response of terrestrial, non-flying vertebrates is very scarce. In this paper, the impact of three functioning wind farms on terrestrial small mammal communities (rodents and shrews) and the population parameters of the most abundant species were studied. The study was carried out in southeastern Poland within the foothills of the Outer Western Carpathians. Small mammals were captured at 12 sites around wind turbines and at 12 control sites. In total, from 1200 trap-days, 885 individuals of 14 studied mammal species were captured. There was no difference in the characteristics of communities of small mammals near wind turbines and within control sites; i.e. these types of sites were inhabited by a similar number of species of similar abundance, similar species composition, species diversity (H' index) and species evenness (J') (Pielou's index). For the two species with the highest proportion in the communities (Apodemus agrarius and Microtus arvalis), the parameters of their populations (mean body mass, sex ratio, the proportion of adult individuals and the proportion of reproductive female) were analysed. In both species, none of the analysed parameters differed significantly between sites in the vicinity of turbines and control sites. For future studies on the impact of wind turbines on small terrestrial mammals in different geographical areas and different species communities, we recommend the method of paired 'turbine-control sites' as appropriate for animal species with pronounced fluctuations in population numbers.

  15. Solitary mammals provide an animal model for autism spectrum disorders.

    Reser, Jared Edward

    2014-02-01

    Species of solitary mammals are known to exhibit specialized, neurological adaptations that prepare them to focus working memory on food procurement and survival rather than on social interaction. Solitary and nonmonogamous mammals, which do not form strong social bonds, have been documented to exhibit behaviors and biomarkers that are similar to endophenotypes in autism. Both individuals on the autism spectrum and certain solitary mammals have been reported to be low on measures of affiliative need, bodily expressiveness, bonding and attachment, direct and shared gazing, emotional engagement, conspecific recognition, partner preference, separation distress, and social approach behavior. Solitary mammals also exhibit certain biomarkers that are characteristic of autism, including diminished oxytocin and vasopressin signaling, dysregulation of the endogenous opioid system, increased Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) activity to social encounters, and reduced HPA activity to separation and isolation. The extent of these similarities suggests that solitary mammals may offer a useful model of autism spectrum disorders and an opportunity for investigating genetic and epigenetic etiological factors. If the brain in autism can be shown to exhibit distinct homologous or homoplastic similarities to the brains of solitary animals, it will reveal that they may be central to the phenotype and should be targeted for further investigation. Research of the neurological, cellular, and molecular basis of these specializations in other mammals may provide insight for behavioral analysis, communication intervention, and psychopharmacology for autism.

  16. Acute oral toxicity of chemicals in terrestrial life stages of amphibians: Comparisons to birds and mammals.

    Crane, Mark; Finnegan, Meaghean; Weltje, Lennart; Kosmala-Grzechnik, Sylwia; Gross, Melanie; Wheeler, James R

    2016-10-01

    Amphibians are currently the most threatened and rapidly declining group of vertebrates and this has raised concerns about their potential sensitivity and exposure to plant protection products and other chemicals. Current environmental risk assessment procedures rely on surrogate species (e.g. fish and birds) to cover the risk to aquatic and terrestrial life stages of amphibians, respectively. Whilst a recent meta-analysis has shown that in most cases amphibian aquatic life stages are less sensitive to chemicals than fish, little research has been conducted on the comparative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages. Therefore, in this paper we address the questions "What is the relative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages to acute chemical oral exposure when compared with mammals and birds?" and "Are there correlations between oral toxicity data for amphibians and data for mammals or birds?" Identifying a relationship between these data may help to avoid additional vertebrate testing. Acute oral amphibian toxicity data collected from the scientific literature and ecotoxicological databases were compared with toxicity data for mammals and birds. Toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages are generally sparse, as noted in previous reviews. Single-dose oral toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages were available for 26 chemicals and these were positively correlated with LD50 values for mammals, while no correlation was found for birds. Further, the data suggest that oral toxicity to terrestrial amphibian life stages is similar to or lower than that for mammals and birds, with a few exceptions. Thus, mammals or birds are considered adequate toxicity surrogates for use in the assessment of the oral exposure route in amphibians. However, there is a need for further data on a wider range of chemicals to explore the wider applicability of the current analyses and recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Distribution patterns of terrestrial mammals in KwaZulu-Natal

    Hluhluwe-Umfolozi Park, Itala Game Reserve), the numbers of mammal species recorded .... Chiroptera and Rodentia, cannot be explained by the level of sampling, and .... generated data. A count of the ...... radarida aI/sorge;. Tmiarida condY/ ...

  18. Threatened and Endangered Terrestrial Animal Species Richness

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all U.S. listed threatened and endangered mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians in the Middle-Atlantic...

  19. Priority conservation plans of ecological function areas for terrestrial endangered mammals in China

    Gongqi Sun; Yi Qu; Meiqing Tang; Xiao Liu; Xiaofeng Luan

    2013-01-01

    To reduce costs and maximize species protection in China, we identified conservation priorities of endangered terrestrial mammals. Using geographic information system (GIS), we identified the irreplaceable values (IR) of 1,434 units of the terrestrial ecological function areas. Based on the IR values of the units, we divided the units into three classes with decreasing priorities, including the mandatory reserve (MR) units (20), the negotiable reserve (NR) units (29), and the partially reserv...

  20. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for small mammal species in coastal Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey. Vector polygons in...

  1. A pheasantry as the habitat of small terrestrial mammals (Rodentia, Insectivora) in southern Moravia (Czech Republic)

    Suchomel, J.; Heroldová, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2007), s. 185-191 ISSN 1212-4834 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP526/03/P051 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : pheasantry * diversity * small terrestrial mammals Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://journals.uzpi.cz:8050/uniqueFiles/00162.pdf/

  2. Examining predator–prey body size, trophic level and body mass across marine and terrestrial mammals

    Tucker, Marlee A.; Rogers, Tracey L.

    2014-01-01

    Predator–prey relationships and trophic levels are indicators of community structure, and are important for monitoring ecosystem changes. Mammals colonized the marine environment on seven separate occasions, which resulted in differences in species' physiology, morphology and behaviour. It is likely that these changes have had a major effect upon predator–prey relationships and trophic position; however, the effect of environment is yet to be clarified. We compiled a dataset, based on the literature, to explore the relationship between body mass, trophic level and predator–prey ratio across terrestrial (n = 51) and marine (n = 56) mammals. We did not find the expected positive relationship between trophic level and body mass, but we did find that marine carnivores sit 1.3 trophic levels higher than terrestrial carnivores. Also, marine mammals are largely carnivorous and have significantly larger predator–prey ratios compared with their terrestrial counterparts. We propose that primary productivity, and its availability, is important for mammalian trophic structure and body size. Also, energy flow and community structure in the marine environment are influenced by differences in energy efficiency and increased food web stability. Enhancing our knowledge of feeding ecology in mammals has the potential to provide insights into the structure and functioning of marine and terrestrial communities. PMID:25377460

  3. Examining predator-prey body size, trophic level and body mass across marine and terrestrial mammals.

    Tucker, Marlee A; Rogers, Tracey L

    2014-12-22

    Predator-prey relationships and trophic levels are indicators of community structure, and are important for monitoring ecosystem changes. Mammals colonized the marine environment on seven separate occasions, which resulted in differences in species' physiology, morphology and behaviour. It is likely that these changes have had a major effect upon predator-prey relationships and trophic position; however, the effect of environment is yet to be clarified. We compiled a dataset, based on the literature, to explore the relationship between body mass, trophic level and predator-prey ratio across terrestrial (n = 51) and marine (n = 56) mammals. We did not find the expected positive relationship between trophic level and body mass, but we did find that marine carnivores sit 1.3 trophic levels higher than terrestrial carnivores. Also, marine mammals are largely carnivorous and have significantly larger predator-prey ratios compared with their terrestrial counterparts. We propose that primary productivity, and its availability, is important for mammalian trophic structure and body size. Also, energy flow and community structure in the marine environment are influenced by differences in energy efficiency and increased food web stability. Enhancing our knowledge of feeding ecology in mammals has the potential to provide insights into the structure and functioning of marine and terrestrial communities. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Establishing macroecological trait datasets: digitalization, extrapolation, and validation of diet preferences in terrestrial mammals worldwide

    Kissling, W. Daniel; Dalby, Lars; Fløjgaard, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    , the importance of diet for macroevolutionary and macroecological dynamics remains little explored, partly because of the lack of comprehensive trait datasets. We compiled and evaluated a comprehensive global dataset of diet preferences of mammals (“MammalDIET”). Diet information was digitized from two global...... species within the same genus, or family) and this extrapolation was subsequently validated both internally (with a jack-knife approach applied to the compiled species-level diet data) and externally (using independent species-level diet information from a comprehensive continentwide data source). Finally...... information (48% of all terrestrial mammal species), and only rarely from other species within the same genus (6%) or from family level (8%). Internal and external validation showed that: (1) extrapolations were most reliable for primary food items; (2) several diet categories (“Animal”, “Mammal...

  5. Status and Conservation Possibilities of Papua New Guinea’s Terrestrial Mammals

    David Lopez Cornelio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The status of Papua New Guinea’s terrestrial mammals is revised according to their geographical distribution,life history characteristics, and current conservation plans and legislation. Considering their uniqueness andthreatening factors, their appropriate management is critical to achieve sustainable development in the country.Concerning marsupial species no one has been yet domesticated, there is no organized breeding and theirnatural productivity is generally lower than ruminants. Their conservation status is related to their size assmaller species are usually more prolific, less conspicuous, and less preferred by hunters. Differences onevolutionary ecology between families are discussed, and recommendations are given for the assessment andfurther conservation of vulnerable species. Conservation programs must go alongside with rural livelihoodsimprovement through ecotourism, food security, and marketing of non timber forest products.Keywords: terrestrial mammal, marsupial spesies, conservation status, Papua New Guinea

  6. Indicators for wild animal offtake: methods and case study for African mammals and birds

    Daniel J. Ingram

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Unsustainable exploitation of wild animals is one of the greatest threats to biodiversity and to millions of people depending on wild meat for food and income. The international conservation and development community has committed to implementing plans for sustainable use of natural resources and has requested development of monitoring systems of bushmeat offtake and trade. Although offtake monitoring systems and indicators for marine species are more developed, information on harvesting terrestrial species is limited. Building on approaches developed to monitor exploitation of fisheries and population trends, we have proposed two novel indicators for harvested terrestrial species: the mean body mass indicator (MBMI assessing whether hunters are relying increasingly on smaller species over time, as a measure of defaunation, by tracking body mass composition of harvested species within samples across various sites and dates; and the offtake pressure indicator (OPI as a measure of harvesting pressure on groups of wild animals within a region by combining multiple time series of the number of harvested individuals across species. We applied these two indicators to recently compiled data for West and Central African mammals and birds. Our exploratory analyses show that the MBMI of harvested mammals decreased but that of birds rose between 1966/1975 and 2010. For both mammals and birds the OPI increased substantially during the observed time period. Given our results, time-series data and information collated from multiple sources are useful to investigate trends in body mass of hunted species and offtake volumes. In the absence of comprehensive monitoring systems, we suggest that the two indicators developed in our study are adequate proxies of wildlife offtake, which together with additional data can inform conservation policies and actions at regional and global scales.

  7. Terrestrial mammals in an Atlantic Forest remnant, Paraná, Brazil

    Gustavo Borba de Miranda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The threat degree and the ecological importance of terrestrial mammals make clear the need for constantly conducting researches in order to add information to the current knowledge on this theme. This study aimed to provide a list of terrestrial mammal species in an Atlantic Forest remnant located in the Southwestern Paraná state, Brazil. Species richness and occurrence frequency were studied from April to October 2009 using two methods: direct observation and recording of traces. We registered 20 taxa distributed into 7 orders: Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Didelphimorphia, Lagomorpha, Primates, Rodentia, and Xenarthra. Among these, 4 taxa were registered either by direct observation or by recording of traces and the others were registered only through traces. The most frequently occurring species were Didelphis sp. (30.6% and Cerdocyon thous (25.6%. Out of the 20 registered taxa, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, and Cuniculus paca are listed as vulnerable in the Red Book of Threatened Fauna in Parana State. Although small, the study area may assist in the availability of food and shelter for the fauna of mammals, representing an important element of the regional landscape.

  8. Contribution to the distribution of terrestrial small mammals in the Sǎlaj county, Romania

    Gubányi A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During the research period (2014-2015 287 small mammals, five species of shrews and eight species of rodents (Crocidura leucodon, C. suaveolens, Sorex araneus, S. minutus, Neomys anomalus, Microtus agrestis M. arvalis, M. subterraneus, Myodes glareolus. Apodemus agrarius, A. flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, A. uralensis were detected in the Sǎlaj County. The striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius and the common vole (Microtus arvalis proved to be the characteristic dominant species of the small mammal communities investigated in this area. The number of terrestrial small mammalian species lagged behind our expectations. Micromys minutus was not collected during the research period in the habitats characterized by reed-bed and/or tall sedge vegetation.

  9. Challenges to natural resource monitoring in a small border park: terrestrial mammals at Coronado National Memorial, Cochise County, Arizona

    Swann, Don E.; Bucci, Melanie; Kuenzi, Amy J.; Alberti, Barbara N.; Schwalbe, Cecil R.; Halvorson, William L.; van Riper, Charles; Schwalbe, Cecil R.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term monitoring in national parks is essential to meet National Park Service and other important public goals. Terrestrial mammals are often proposed for monitoring because large mammals are of interest to visitors and small mammals are important as prey. However, traditional monitoring strategies for mammals are often too expensive and complex to sustain for long periods, particularly in small parks. To evaluate potential strategies for long-term monitoring in small parks, we conducted an intensive one-year inventory of terrestrial mammals at Coronado National Memorial, located in Arizona on the U.S.-Mexico international border, then continued less-intensive monitoring at the site for 7 additional years. During 1996-2003 we confirmed 44 species of terrestrial mammals. Most species (40) were detected in the intensive first year of the study, but we continued to detect new species in later years. Mark-recapture data on small mammals indicated large inter-annual fluctuations in population size, but no significant trend over the 7-year period. Issues associated with the international border affected monitoring efforts and increased sampling costs. Our study confirms that sustained annual monitoring of mammals is probably not feasible in small park units like Coronado. However, comparisons of our data with past studies provide insight into important changes in the mammal community since the 1970s, including an increase in abundance and diversity of grassland rodents. Our results suggest that intensive inventories every 10-20 years may be a valuable and cost-effective approach for detecting long-term trends in terrestrial mammal communities in small natural areas.

  10. The impact of small terrestrial mammals on beech (Fagus sylvatica plantations in spruce monoculture

    Luboš Purchart

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the impact of small terrestrial mammals on forest regeneration as yet. In order to determine the level of small rodent impact on artificial forest regeneration, 508 saplings have been researched in a spruce monoculture in the Drahany Uplands. With the objective to hone the interpretation of the data, small terrestrial rodents were trapped to help determine species spectrum. The occurrence of Apodemus flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus and Sorex araneus was verified. In 52 cases damage to the trunk caused by small rodents was monitored (10.1% of all saplings. 8 specimens (1.6% had their branches nibbled and 9 saplings (1.8% had tips of branches or trunk tops browsed. Browsing by Lepus europaeus – 423 (83.3% of all damaged specimens was significant.

  11. Nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition of bone collagen from marine and terrestrial animals

    Schoeninger, M.J.; DeNiro, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    The stable nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios of bone collagen prepared from more than 100 animals representing 66 species of birds, fish, and mammals are presented. The delta 15 N values of bone collagen from animals that fed exclusively in the marine environment are, on average, 9 per mille more positive than those from animals that fed exclusively in the terrestrial environment: ranges for the two groups overlap by less than 1 per mille. Bone collagen delta 15 N values also serve to separate marine fish from the small number of freshwater fish we analyzed. The bone collagen delta 15 N values of birds and fish that spent part of their life cycles feeding in the marine environment and part in the freshwater environment are intermediate between those of animals that fed exclusively in one or the other system. Further, animals that fed at successive trophic levels in the marine and terrestrial environment are separated, on average, by a 3 per mille difference in the delta 15 N values of their bone collagen. Results are given and discussed. (author)

  12. Effectiveness of Protected Areas for Representing Species and Populations of Terrestrial Mammals in Costa Rica

    González-Maya, José F.; Víquez-R, Luis R.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Costa Rica has one of the greatest percentages (26%) of protected land in the world. The National Protected Areas System (NPAS) of Costa Rica was established in 1976 and currently includes >190 protected areas within seven different protection categories. The effectiveness of the NPAS to represent species, populations, and areas with high species richness has not been properly evaluated. Such evaluations are fundamental to understand what is necessary to strengthen the NPAS and better protect biodiversity. We present a novel assessment of NPAS effectiveness in protecting mammal species. We compiled the geographical ranges of all terrestrial Costa Rican mammals then determined species lists for all protected areas and the estimated proportion of each species’ geographic range protected. We also classified mammal species according to their conservation status using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. We found almost complete representation of mammal species (98.5%) in protected areas, but low relative coverage (28.3% on average) of their geographic ranges in Costa Rica and 25% of the species were classified as underprotected according to a priori representation targets. Interestingly, many species-rich areas are not protected, and at least 43% of cells covering the entire country are not included in protected areas. Though protected areas in Costa Rica represent species richness well, strategic planning for future protected areas to improve species complementarity and range protection is necessary. Our results can help to define sites where new protected areas can have a greater impact on mammal conservation, both in terms of species richness and range protection. PMID:25970293

  13. Effectiveness of protected areas for representing species and populations of terrestrial mammals in Costa Rica.

    José F González-Maya

    Full Text Available Costa Rica has one of the greatest percentages (26% of protected land in the world. The National Protected Areas System (NPAS of Costa Rica was established in 1976 and currently includes >190 protected areas within seven different protection categories. The effectiveness of the NPAS to represent species, populations, and areas with high species richness has not been properly evaluated. Such evaluations are fundamental to understand what is necessary to strengthen the NPAS and better protect biodiversity. We present a novel assessment of NPAS effectiveness in protecting mammal species. We compiled the geographical ranges of all terrestrial Costa Rican mammals then determined species lists for all protected areas and the estimated proportion of each species' geographic range protected. We also classified mammal species according to their conservation status using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. We found almost complete representation of mammal species (98.5% in protected areas, but low relative coverage (28.3% on average of their geographic ranges in Costa Rica and 25% of the species were classified as underprotected according to a priori representation targets. Interestingly, many species-rich areas are not protected, and at least 43% of cells covering the entire country are not included in protected areas. Though protected areas in Costa Rica represent species richness well, strategic planning for future protected areas to improve species complementarity and range protection is necessary. Our results can help to define sites where new protected areas can have a greater impact on mammal conservation, both in terms of species richness and range protection.

  14. International standards: the World Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code.

    Thiermann, A B

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides a description of the international standards contained in the TerrestrialAnimal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) that relate to the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. It identifies the rights and obligations of OIE Member Countries regarding the notification of animal disease occurrences, as well as the recommendations to be followed for a safe and efficient international trade of animals and their products.

  15. Line Transect Surveys Underdetect Terrestrial Mammals: Implications for the Sustainability of Subsistence Hunting

    Levi, Taal; Oliveira, Luiz F. B.; Luzar, Jeffrey B.; Overman, Han; Read, Jane M.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of Neotropical game species must take into account the livelihood and food security needs of local human populations. Hunting management decisions should therefore rely on abundance and distribution data that are as representative as possible of true population sizes and dynamics. We simultaneously applied a commonly used encounter-based method and an infrequently used sign-based method to estimate hunted vertebrate abundance in a 48,000-km2 indigenous landscape in southern Guyana. Diurnal direct encounter data collected during three years along 216, four-kilometer -long transects consistently under-detected many diurnal and nocturnal mammal species readily detected through sign. Of 32 species analyzed, 31 were detected by both methods; however, encounters did not detect one and under-detected another 12 of the most heavily hunted species relative to sign, while sign under-detected 12 never or rarely collected species relative to encounters. The six most important game animals in the region, all ungulates, were not encountered at 11–40% of village and control sites or on 29–72% of transects where they were detected by sign. Using the sign methodology, we find that tapirs, one of the terrestrial vertebrates considered most sensitive to overexploitation, are present at many sites where they were never visually detected during distance sampling. We find that this is true for many other species as well. These high rates of under-detection suggest that behavioral changes in hunted populations may affect apparent occurrence and abundance of these populations. Accumulation curves (detection of species on transects) were much steeper for sign for 12 of 16 hunted species than for encounters, but that pattern was reversed for 12 of 16 species unhunted in our area. We conclude that collection of sign data is an efficient and effective method of monitoring hunted vertebrate populations that complements encounter and camera-trapping methods in areas impacted by

  16. Do terrestrial animals avoid areas close to turbines in functioning wind farms in agricultural landscapes?

    Łopucki, Rafał; Klich, Daniel; Gielarek, Sylwia

    2017-07-01

    Most studies on the effects of wind energy on animals have focused on avian and bat activity, habitat use, and mortality, whereas very few have been published on terrestrial, non-volant wildlife. In this paper, we studied the utilization of functioning wind farm areas by four terrestrial animals common to agricultural landscapes: European roe deer, European hare, red fox, and the common pheasant. Firstly, we expected that the studied animals do not avoid areas close to turbines and utilize the whole area of functioning wind farms with a frequency similar to the control areas. Secondly, we expected that there is no relation between the turbine proximity and the number of tracks of these animals. The study was conducted over two winter seasons using the snow-tracking method along 100 m linear transects. In total, 583 transects were recorded. Wind farm operations may affect terrestrial animals both in wind farm interiors and in a 700-m buffer zone around the edge of turbines. The reactions of animals were species specific. Herbivorous mammals (roe deer and European hare) avoided wind farm interiors and proximity to turbines. The common pheasant showed a positive reaction to wind turbine proximity. The red fox had the most neutral response to wind turbines. Although this species visited wind farm interiors less often than the control area, there was no relation between fox track density and turbine proximity. Greater weight should be given to the effects of wind farms on non-flying wildlife than at present. Investors and regulatory authorities should always consider the likely impacts of wind farms during environmental impact assessments and try to reduce these negative effects.

  17. Geographical Gradients in Argentinean Terrestrial Mammal Species Richness and Their Environmental Correlates

    Márquez, Ana L.; Real, Raimundo; Kin, Marta S.; Guerrero, José Carlos; Galván, Betina; Barbosa, A. Márcia; Olivero, Jesús; Palomo, L. Javier; Vargas, J. Mario; Justo, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    We analysed the main geographical trends of terrestrial mammal species richness (SR) in Argentina, assessing how broad-scale environmental variation (defined by climatic and topographic variables) and the spatial form of the country (defined by spatial filters based on spatial eigenvector mapping (SEVM)) influence the kinds and the numbers of mammal species along these geographical trends. We also evaluated if there are pure geographical trends not accounted for by the environmental or spatial factors. The environmental variables and spatial filters that simultaneously correlated with the geographical variables and SR were considered potential causes of the geographic trends. We performed partial correlations between SR and the geographical variables, maintaining the selected explanatory variables statistically constant, to determine if SR was fully explained by them or if a significant residual geographic pattern remained. All groups and subgroups presented a latitudinal gradient not attributable to the spatial form of the country. Most of these trends were not explained by climate. We used a variation partitioning procedure to quantify the pure geographic trend (PGT) that remained unaccounted for. The PGT was larger for latitudinal than for longitudinal gradients. This suggests that historical or purely geographical causes may also be relevant drivers of these geographical gradients in mammal diversity. PMID:23028254

  18. Geographical Gradients in Argentinean Terrestrial Mammal Species Richness and Their Environmental Correlates

    Ana L. Márquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the main geographical trends of terrestrial mammal species richness (SR in Argentina, assessing how broad-scale environmental variation (defined by climatic and topographic variables and the spatial form of the country (defined by spatial filters based on spatial eigenvector mapping (SEVM influence the kinds and the numbers of mammal species along these geographical trends. We also evaluated if there are pure geographical trends not accounted for by the environmental or spatial factors. The environmental variables and spatial filters that simultaneously correlated with the geographical variables and SR were considered potential causes of the geographic trends. We performed partial correlations between SR and the geographical variables, maintaining the selected explanatory variables statistically constant, to determine if SR was fully explained by them or if a significant residual geographic pattern remained. All groups and subgroups presented a latitudinal gradient not attributable to the spatial form of the country. Most of these trends were not explained by climate. We used a variation partitioning procedure to quantify the pure geographic trend (PGT that remained unaccounted for. The PGT was larger for latitudinal than for longitudinal gradients. This suggests that historical or purely geographical causes may also be relevant drivers of these geographical gradients in mammal diversity.

  19. Species richness and conservation status of medium and large terrestrial mammals from four Sky Islands in Sonora, northwestern Mexico

    Coronel-Arellano, Helí; Lara-Díaz, Nalleli; Jiménez-Maldonado, Rosa; López-González, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We present the first systematic checklist of medium and large terrestrial mammals on four mountain ranges known as Sky Islands, in northeastern Sonora, Mexico. We used camera traps for recording mammals, with which we documented 25 wild species. Two of the native species are in the IUCN Red List and four are threatened at the national level. We did not document seven wild species with potential distribution at study sites, probably due to limited availability of habitat and/or local extirpati...

  20. Applications of landscape genetics to connectivity research in terrestrial animals [Chapter 12

    Lisette P. Waits; Samuel A. Cushman; Steve F. Spear

    2016-01-01

    Landscape genetic studies have focused on terrestrial animals more than any other taxonomic group. This chapter focuses on applications of landscape genetics for understanding connectivity of terrestrial animal populations. It starts with a general introduction covering unique characteristics and challenges of the terrestrial study system. This is followed by...

  1. Right place, wrong species: a 20-year review of rabies virus cross species transmission among terrestrial mammals in the United States.

    Ryan M Wallace

    Full Text Available In the continental US, four terrestrial mammalian species are reservoirs for seven antigenic rabies virus variants. Cross species transmission (CST occurs when a rabies virus variant causes disease in non-reservoir species.This study analyzed national surveillance data for rabies in terrestrial mammals. The CST rate was defined as: number of rabid non-reservoir animals/number of rabid reservoir animals. CST rates were analyzed for trend. Clusters of high CST rate counties were evaluated using space-time scanning statistics.The number of counties reporting a raccoon variant CST rate >1.0 increased from 75 in 1992 to 187 in 2011; counties with skunk variant CST rates >1.0 remained unchanged during the same period. As of 2011, for every rabid raccoon reported within the raccoon variant region, there were 0.73 cases of this variant reported in non-reservoir animals. Skunks were the most common non-reservoir animal reported with the raccoon rabies variant. Domestic animals were the most common non-reservoir animal diagnosed with a skunk rabies virus variant (n = 1,601. Cross species transmission rates increased fastest among domestic animals.Cross species transmission of rabies virus variants into non-reservoir animals increases the risk of human exposures and threatens current advances toward rabies control. Cross species transmission in raccoon rabies enzootic regions increased dramatically during the study period. Pet owners should vaccinate their dogs and cats to ensure against CST, particularly in regions with active foci of rabies circulation. Clusters of high CST activity represent areas for further study to better understand interspecies disease transmission dynamics. Each CST event has the potential to result in a rabies virus adapted for sustained transmission in a new species; therefore further understanding of the dynamics of CST may help in early detection or prevention of the emergence of new terrestrial rabies virus variants.

  2. Transuranic elements in terrestrial animals and the environment: an introduction

    Potter, G.D.

    1977-01-01

    This discussion provides background information to the session on the ''Transuranic Elements in Terrestrial Animals.'' Briefly outlined are some of the historical events leading to the introduction and dispersion of the transuranic elements into the biosphere, to the establishment of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG), and to the studies conducted by the Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory (EMSL-LV) and the University of Nevada-Las Vegas involving the transuranics distributed by the ''safety shots'' and the nuclear weapons testing program at the Nevada Test Site and the Tonopah Test Range. These studies are described in relation to the overall objectives of the NAEG program. Other potential sources of the transuranic radionuclides are also discussed

  3. Comparative analysis of components incorporated in conservation priority assessments: a case study based on South African species of terrestrial mammals

    Keith, M

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available priority assessments of South African terrestrial mammals 99 Estimates of conservation value a) Relative Endemism (RE) – (modified from Freitag & van Jaarsveld (1997)). The extent of occurrence, obtained from various sources (Halte- north & Diller 1980... of threat a) Relative Body Mass (RBM) – Based on average body weights (in grams) for each taxon obtained from Dorst & Dandelot (1972), Haltenorth & Diller (1980), Skinner & Smithers (1990), and Skinner & Chimimba (2005) and was computed as: RBM = log...

  4. Wind power's effects on terrestrial mammals. A synthesis report; Vindkraftens effekter paa landlevande daeggdjur. En syntesrapport

    Helldin, Jan Olof; Skarin, Anna; Widemo, Fredrik [SLU, Uppsala (Sweden); Jung, Jens [SLU, Skara (Sweden); Neumann, Wiebke [SLU, Umeaa (Sweden); Olsson, Mattias [SLU (Sweden)

    2012-06-15

    - We compiled available knowledge and experience of the impact of wind power on terrestrial mammals, both wild and domestic. The literature in the field is very limited, so we also tried to draw lessons from related fields, such as disturbance from noise, construction work, traffic, hunting and outdoor activities, and the effects of habitat change. - Although the knowledge is generally sparse, the summary shows that it is possible that terrestrial mammals, especially large carnivores and ungulates including domestic reindeer, are affected by wind power development in various ways. - For the larger game species as well as domestic reindeer, the influence from wind power should primarily be due to the network of access roads to the turbines. The main factor is probably the increased access for recreation, hunting and leisure traffic. It is well known that interference from such human activities can impact moose, wild deer, domestic reindeer and large carnivores, and in effect cause a habitat loss. - New wind power farms are expected to be situated in more remote, upland, currently roadless areas, at least in the forested landscape. Such areas may serve as refugia for e.g. large predators or as important grazing areas for ungulates. Accordingly, wind power and associated infrastructure in these areas may have an impact on the population level of these species. - By contrast, the habitat changes caused by access roads are not necessarily a problem for the larger mammal species. Open land, new edge zones and roadsides could rather benefit many wildlife species. Open land and edges create new browsing areas; roads can facilitate animal movement in the landscape or help animals escaping parasitic insects. - The effects of power lines on reindeer tend to differ depending on the geographic scale studied; on a regional scale, an avoidance of large areas around power lines may be observed, while no effects have been shown for reindeer studied near power lines. - A few studies

  5. Species-specific differences in the accumulation features of organohalogen contaminants and their metabolites in the blood of Japanese terrestrial mammals

    Mizukawa, Hazuki; Nomiyama, Kei; Nakatsu, Susumu; Yachimori, Shuuji; Hayashi, Terutake; Tashiro, Yutaka; Nagano, Yasuko; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-01-01

    Residue levels and patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs, OH-PBDEs), and methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs) in the blood of various terrestrial mammals in Japan, including cats, raccoon dogs, dogs, masked palm civets, foxes, raccoons, badgers, and mongooses were determined. Tri- through penta-chlorinated OH-PCBs were predominant in cat blood, whereas hexa- through octa-chlorinated OH-PCBs were found in other species. High proportion of BDE209 was found in all species, suggesting exposure to municipal waste and soil containing higher levels of deca-BDE products. 6OH-/MeO-BDE47 and 2′OH-/MeO-BDE68 were dominant in all terrestrial mammals. This is first report on the detection of OH-/MeO-PBDEs in the blood of terrestrial mammals. High concentrations of OH-/MeO-PBDEs were found in cats, suggesting the intake of these compounds from seafood. Cats exhibited higher accumulation and specific patterns of OH-PCBs, OH-PBDEs, and MeO-PBDEs, they may be at a high risk from these metabolites. -- Highlights: ► Analysis of organohalogen metabolites in the blood of Japanese terrestrial mammals. ► First study on analysis of OH-/MeO-PBDEs in terrestrial mammals. ► Cats showed specific residue pattern of OH-PCBs compare to other species. ► Metabolic capacities of PCBs in carnivore were higher than marine mammals. ► Marine natural occurrence OH-/MeO-PBDEs were found in terrestrial mammals. -- Cats showed specific residue pattern of OH-PCBs compare to other species and marine natural occurrence OH-/MeO-PBDEs were detected in terrestrial mammals

  6. Attempted molecular detection of the thermally dimorphic human fungal pathogen Emergomyces africanus in terrestrial small mammals in South Africa.

    Cronjé, Nadine; Schwartz, Ilan S; Retief, Liezl; Bastos, Armanda D S; Matthee, Sonja; Preiser, Wolfgang; Bennett, Nigel C; Maphanga, Tsidiso; Govender, Nelesh P; Colebunders, Robert; Kenyon, Chris

    2018-06-01

    The ecological niche of Emergomyces africanus (formerly Emmonsia species), a dimorphic fungus that causes an AIDS-related mycosis in South Africa, is unknown. We hypothesized that natural infection with E. africanus occurs in wild small mammals. Using molecular detection with primers specific for E. africanus, we examined 1402 DNA samples from 26 species of mole-rats, rodents, and insectivores trapped in South Africa that included 1324 lung, 37 kidney, and 41 liver specimens. DNA of E. africanus was not detected in any animals. We conclude that natural infection of wild small mammals in South Africa with E. africanus has not been proven.

  7. Constitutional basis of longevity in the cetacea: do the whales and the terrestrial mammals obey the same laws

    Sacher, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    The maximum lifespans in captivity for terrestrial mammalian species can be estimated by means of a multiple linear regression of logarithm of lifespan (L) on the logarithm of adult brain weight (E) and body weight (S). This paper describes the application of regression formulas based on data from terrestrial mammals to the estimation of odontocete and mysticete lifespans. The regression formulas predict cetacean lifespans that are in accord with the data on maximum cetacean lifespans obtained in recent years by objective age determination procedures. More remarkable is the correct prediction by the regression formulas that the odontocete species have nearly constant lifespans, almost independent of body weight over a 300:1 body weight range. This prediction is a consequence of the fact, remarkable in itself, that over this body weight range the Odontoceti have a brain:body allometric slope of 1/3, as compared to a slope of 2/3 for the Mammalia as a whole.

  8. MLVA-16 typing of 295 marine mammal Brucella isolates from different animal and geographic origins identifies 7 major groups within Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis

    Jacques Isabelle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1994, Brucella strains have been isolated from a wide range of marine mammals. They are currently recognized as two new Brucella species, B. pinnipedialis for the pinniped isolates and B. ceti for the cetacean isolates in agreement with host preference and specific phenotypic and molecular markers. In order to investigate the genetic relationships within the marine mammal Brucella isolates and with reference to terrestrial mammal Brucella isolates, we applied in this study the Multiple Loci VNTR (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA approach. A previously published assay comprising 16 loci (MLVA-16 that has been shown to be highly relevant and efficient for typing and clustering Brucella strains from animal and human origin was used. Results 294 marine mammal Brucella strains collected in European waters from 173 animals and a human isolate from New Zealand presumably from marine origin were investigated by MLVA-16. Marine mammal Brucella isolates were shown to be different from the recognized terrestrial mammal Brucella species and biovars and corresponded to 3 major related groups, one specific of the B. ceti strains, one of the B. pinnipedialis strains and the last composed of the human isolate. In the B. ceti group, 3 subclusters were identified, distinguishing a cluster of dolphin, minke whale and porpoise isolates and two clusters mostly composed of dolphin isolates. These results were in accordance with published analyses using other phenotypic or molecular approaches, or different panels of VNTR loci. The B. pinnipedialis group could be similarly subdivided in 3 subclusters, one composed exclusively of isolates from hooded seals (Cystophora cristata and the two others comprising other seal species isolates. Conclusion The clustering analysis of a large collection of marine mammal Brucella isolates from European waters significantly strengthens the current view of the population structure of these two

  9. Exotic and invasive terrestrial and freshwater animal species in the Dutch Caribbean

    Buurt, van G.; Debrot, A.O.

    2011-01-01

    An overview of 72 invasive animals of the terrestrial and freshwater environments of the Dutch Caribbean, eleven of which are no longer present. All invasive animals that are principally agricultural pests and or animal and plant diseases (46 species) are excluded as these are discussed separately

  10. Effects of climate change on terrestrial animals [Chapter 9

    Megan M. Friggens; Mary I. Williams; Karen E. Bagne; Tosha T. Wixom; Samuel A. Cushman

    2018-01-01

    The Intermountain Adaptation Partnership (IAP) region encompasses a high diversity of grassland, shrubland, and forest habitats across a broad range of elevational gradients, supporting high biodiversity in the interior western United States. Terrestrial species comprise a wide range of life forms, each expressing varying levels of habitat specialization and life...

  11. Inventory of terrestrial mammals in the Rincon Mountains using camera traps

    Don E. Swann; Nic Perkins

    2013-01-01

    The Sky Island region of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico is well-known for its diversity of mammals, including endemic species and species representing several different biogeographic provinces. Camera trap studies have provided important insight into mammalian distribution and diversity in the Sky Islands in recent years, but few studies have...

  12. Terrestrial mammal assemblages in protected and human impacted areas in Northern Brazilian Amazonia

    Rodolfo Burgos de Luna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mammal communities in the vicinity of human settlements are often subject to subsistence hunting and retaliatory killings. We used fourteen digital camera traps equipped with infrared triggers to sample the medium-sized and large mammal communities for ca. 34 (±1.64 days per site. Diversity was measured as both Shannon entropy and Fager´s number of moves (NMS, and dominance was quantified using the Berger-Parker index. We used Kruskall-Wallis tests to investigate if there were statistically significant differences in richness, diversity and dominance among the sites. At an overall sampling effort of 1,946 trap days we recorded 216 independent observations of a total of 20 species belonging to 17 genera and 15 families. Richness and diversity appeared to be determined by forest structure, since, independent of the level of human impact, the richest areas were those closest to the ombrophilous forests of southern Guyana shield, closest to central Amazonia, whereas the poorest were at those sites closest to the vegetation mosaics of central Guyana shield. The disappearance of Tayassu pecari from the impacted areas as well as higher relative abundances in the protected areas, albeit not significant, foresees a possible bleak future for the mammalian assemblages in the near future.

  13. Terrestrial Mammal Occupancy in the Context of Widespread Forest Loss and a Proposed Interoceanic Canal in Nicaragua's Decreasingly Remote South Caribbean Region.

    Christopher A Jordan

    Full Text Available Central America is experiencing rapid forest loss and habitat degradation both inside and outside of protected areas. Despite increasing deforestation, the Caribbean region of Nicaragua plays an important role in the survival or extinction of large mammal populations in Central America given that it still retains core areas of habitat for large mammal species. The proposed interoceanic canal project that would bisect the southern half of this Caribbean region represents a new threat that, combined with an advancing agricultural frontier, could affect populations of large mammal species such as jaguars, white-lipped peccaries, and Baird's tapirs. We used occupancy models to examine the relative occupancy probabilities for an assemblage of terrestrial mammals in the south Caribbean region of Nicaragua to identify current core areas for our study species and conduct a preliminary evaluation of the potential impacts of the proposed interoceanic canal. We modeled a community level distribution of eight species with varying levels of sensitivity to human encroachment and a range of habitat associations. Our model results reveal three priority areas for terrestrial mammal conservation in our study area. The mapped predictions show that the only remaining area of suitable habitat for large mammals in the path of the proposed interoceanic canal is a relatively thin strip of forest that runs along the Caribbean Coast. In light of these findings, we propose five recommendations that will help ensure the conservation of this area of the proposed canal route as suitable habitat for our study species.

  14. Establishing macroecological trait datasets: digitalisation, extrapolation and validation of diet preferences in terrestrial mammals worldwide

    Kissling, W.D.; Dalby, L.; Fløjgaard, C.; Lenoir, J.; Sandel, B.; Sandom, C.; Trøjelsgaard, K.; Svenning, J.-C.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological trait data are essential for understanding the broad-scale distribution of biodiversity and its response to global change. For animals, diet represents a fundamental aspect of species’ evolutionary adaptations, ecological and functional roles, and trophic interactions. However, the

  15. Terrestrial animals as invasive species and as species at risk from invasions

    Deborah M. Finch; Dean Pearson; Joseph Wunderle; Wayne Arendt

    2010-01-01

    Including terrestrial animal species in the invasive species strategy plan is an important step in invasive species management. Invasions by nonindigenous species threaten nearly 50 percent of imperiled native species in the United States and are the Nation's second leading cause of species endangerment. Invasion and conversion of native habitats by exotic species...

  16. Control of breathing in African lungfish (Protopterus dolloi): A comparison of aquatic and cocooned (terrestrialized) animals

    Perry, S.F.; Euverman, R.; Wang, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    in terrestrialized fish consisted of multiple bouts of inspiration and expiration in rapid succession, the mean frequency of pulmonary breathing events was unaltered in the terrestrialized fish (16.7 ± 1.4 h-1 versus 20.1 ± 4.9 h-1 in the aquatic and terrestrialized fish, respectively). Hypoxia ( 20 mmHg) increased...... the frequency of breathing events by 16 and 23 h-1 in the aquatic and terrestrialized fish, respectively. Hyperoxia ( 550 mmHg) decreased breathing event frequency by 10 and 15 h-1 in the aquatic and terrestrialized animals. Aquatic hypercapnia ( 37.5 mmHg) increased pulmonary breathing frequency (from 15......African lungfish, Protopterus dolloi exhibited constant rates of O2 consumption before (0.95 ± 0.07 mmol kg-1 h-1), during (1.21 ± 0.32 mmol kg-1 h-1) and after (1.14 ± 0.14 mmol kg-1 h-1) extended periods (1-2 months) of terrestrialization while cocooned. Although a breathing event...

  17. Conservation on international boundaries: the impact of security barriers on selected terrestrial mammals in four protected areas in Arizona, USA.

    Jamie W McCallum

    Full Text Available Several thousand terrestrial protected areas (PAs lie on international boundaries. Because international boundaries can be focal points for trade, illegal activity and development, such PAs can be vulnerable to a range of anthropogenic threats. There is an increasing trend towards the erection of international boundary infrastructure (including fences, barriers and ditches in many parts of the world, which may reduce the risk of these anthropogenic threats to some PAs. However this may restrict home range and access to resources for some native species. We sought to understand the impacts of these two different types of threat by using camera traps to measure the activity level of humans, native and invasive mammals in four US PAs on the Mexican international boundary. Comparisons were made between treatment areas with barriers and those without. Results showed that puma and coati were more likely to appear in treatment areas without barriers, whereas humans were not observed more frequently in one treatment area over another. The suggestion is that the intermittent fencing present in this part of the world does affect some native species, but does not necessarily restrict the movement of humans (including illegal migrants, who may negatively impact native species.

  18. Morbidity and mortality of invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals at a major exotic companion animal wholesaler.

    Ashley, Shawn; Brown, Susan; Ledford, Joel; Martin, Janet; Nash, Ann-Elizabeth; Terry, Amanda; Tristan, Tim; Warwick, Clifford

    2014-01-01

    The authors formally investigated a major international wildlife wholesaler and subsequently confiscated more than 26,400 nonhuman animals of 171 species and types. Approximately 80% of the nonhuman animals were identified as grossly sick, injured, or dead, with the remaining in suspected suboptimal condition. Almost 3,500 deceased or moribund animals (12% of stock), mostly reptiles, were being discarded on a weekly basis. Mortality during the 6-week "stock turnover" period was determined to be 72%. During a 10-day period after confiscation, mortality rates (including euthanasia for humane reasons) for the various taxa were 18% for invertebrates, 44.5% for amphibians, 41.6% for reptiles, and 5.5% for mammals. Causes of morbidity and mortality included cannibalism, crushing, dehydration, emaciation, hypothermic stress, infection, parasite infestation, starvation, overcrowding, stress/injuries, euthanasia on compassionate grounds, and undetermined causes. Contributing factors for disease and injury included poor hygiene; inadequate, unreliable, or inappropriate provision of food, water, heat, and humidity; presumed high levels of stress due to inappropriate housing leading to intraspecific aggression; absent or minimal environmental enrichment; and crowding. Risks for introduction of invasive species through escapes and/or spread of pathogens to naive populations also were identified.

  19. Is a wild mammal kept and reared in captivity still a wild animal?

    Künzl, Christine; Kaiser, Sylvia; Meier, Edda; Sachser, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    This study compared domestic guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus; DGP) and two different populations of the wild cavy (Cavia aperea), its ancestor, to examine whether rearing of wild mammals in captivity affects their behavior and physiological stress responses. One population of wild cavies consisted of wild-trapped animals and their first laboratory-reared offspring (WGP-1). The animals of the other population were reared in captivity for about 30 generations (WGP-30). The spontaneous behavior of each of six groups of WGP-1 and WGP-30 and nine groups of DGP, each consisting of one adult male and two adult females, was analyzed quantitatively. Blood samples of the males were taken to determine cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine concentrations. In addition, the exploratory behavior of 60-day-old male WGP-1, WGP-30, and DGP was investigated in an exploration apparatus. The domesticated animals displayed significantly less aggression, but significantly more sociopositive and male courtship behavior than their wild ancestors. In addition, DGP were much less attentive to their physical environment. Surprisingly, no behavioral difference was found between WGP-1 and WGP-30. Basal cortisol concentrations did not differ between wild and domestic guinea pigs. Catecholamine concentrations, however, as well as the challenge values of cortisol, were distinctly reduced in the DGP. WGP-1 and WGP-30 did not differ with respect to their endocrine stress responses. In the exploration apparatus both forms of wild cavies were much more explorative than the domestic animals. These data suggest that the long-term breeding and rearing of wild guinea pigs in captivity do not result in significant changes in behavior and hormonal stress responses. It appears to take much longer periods of time and artificial selection by humans to bring about characters of domestication in wild animals.

  20. Game animals and small terrestrial mammals - Suitable bioindicators for the pollution assessment in agrarian ecosystems

    Vávrová, M.; Zlámalová Gargošová, H.; Šucman, E.; Večerek, V.; Kořínek, P.; Zukal, Jan; Zejda, Jan; Sebestiánová, N.; Kubištová, I.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2003), s. 165-172 ISSN 1018-4619 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Keywords : bioindicator s * agrarian ecosystems * pollution Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.325, year: 2003 http://www.psp-parlar.de/details_artikel.asp?tabelle=FEBArtikel&artikel_id=234&jahr=2003

  1. Constraints on muscle performance provide a novel explanation for the scaling of posture in terrestrial animals.

    Usherwood, James R

    2013-08-23

    Larger terrestrial animals tend to support their weight with more upright limbs. This makes structural sense, reducing the loading on muscles and bones, which is disproportionately challenging in larger animals. However, it does not account for why smaller animals are more crouched; instead, they could enjoy relatively more slender supporting structures or higher safety factors. Here, an alternative account for the scaling of posture is proposed, with close parallels to the scaling of jump performance. If the costs of locomotion are related to the volume of active muscle, and the active muscle volume required depends on both the work and the power demanded during the push-off phase of each step (not just the net positive work), then the disproportional scaling of requirements for work and push-off power are revealing. Larger animals require relatively greater active muscle volumes for dynamically similar gaits (e.g. top walking speed)-which may present an ultimate constraint to the size of running animals. Further, just as for jumping, animals with shorter legs and briefer push-off periods are challenged to provide the power (not the work) required for push-off. This can be ameliorated by having relatively long push-off periods, potentially accounting for the crouched stance of small animals.

  2. Potential efficacy of mitochondrial genes for animal DNA barcoding: a case study using eutherian mammals.

    Luo, Arong; Zhang, Aibing; Ho, Simon Yw; Xu, Weijun; Zhang, Yanzhou; Shi, Weifeng; Cameron, Stephen L; Zhu, Chaodong

    2011-01-28

    A well-informed choice of genetic locus is central to the efficacy of DNA barcoding. Current DNA barcoding in animals involves the use of the 5' half of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 gene (CO1) to diagnose and delimit species. However, there is no compelling a priori reason for the exclusive focus on this region, and it has been shown that it performs poorly for certain animal groups. To explore alternative mitochondrial barcoding regions, we compared the efficacy of the universal CO1 barcoding region with the other mitochondrial protein-coding genes in eutherian mammals. Four criteria were used for this comparison: the number of recovered species, sequence variability within and between species, resolution to taxonomic levels above that of species, and the degree of mutational saturation. Based on 1,179 mitochondrial genomes of eutherians, we found that the universal CO1 barcoding region is a good representative of mitochondrial genes as a whole because the high species-recovery rate (> 90%) was similar to that of other mitochondrial genes, and there were no significant differences in intra- or interspecific variability among genes. However, an overlap between intra- and interspecific variability was still problematic for all mitochondrial genes. Our results also demonstrated that any choice of mitochondrial gene for DNA barcoding failed to offer significant resolution at higher taxonomic levels. We suggest that the CO1 barcoding region, the universal DNA barcode, is preferred among the mitochondrial protein-coding genes as a molecular diagnostic at least for eutherian species identification. Nevertheless, DNA barcoding with this marker may still be problematic for certain eutherian taxa and our approach can be used to test potential barcoding loci for such groups.

  3. Novel peptide chemistry in terrestrial animals: natural luciferin analogues from the bioluminescent earthworm Fridericia heliota.

    Dubinnyi, Maxim A; Tsarkova, Aleksandra S; Petushkov, Valentin N; Kaskova, Zinaida M; Rodionova, Natalja S; Kovalchuk, Sergey I; Ziganshin, Rustam H; Baranov, Mikhail S; Mineev, Konstantin S; Yampolsky, Ilia V

    2015-03-02

    We report isolation and structure elucidation of AsLn5, AsLn7, AsLn11 and AsLn12: novel luciferin analogs from the bioluminescent earthworm Fridericia heliota. They were found to be highly unusual modified peptides, comprising either of the two tyrosine-derived chromophores, CompX or CompY and a set of amino acids, including threonine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, homoarginine, and unsymmetrical N,N-dimethylarginine. These natural compounds represent a unique peptide chemistry found in terrestrial animals and rise novel questions concerning their biosynthetic origin. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Assessing Monkeypox Virus Prevalence in Small Mammals at the Human–Animal Interface in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Jeffrey B. Doty

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During 2012, 2013 and 2015, we collected small mammals within 25 km of the town of Boende in Tshuapa Province, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The prevalence of monkeypox virus (MPXV in this area is unknown; however, cases of human infection were previously confirmed near these collection sites. Samples were collected from 353 mammals (rodents, shrews, pangolins, elephant shrews, a potamogale, and a hyrax. Some rodents and shrews were captured from houses where human monkeypox cases have recently been identified, but most were trapped in forests and agricultural areas near villages. Real-time PCR and ELISA were used to assess evidence of MPXV infection and other Orthopoxvirus (OPXV infections in these small mammals. Seven (2.0% of these animal samples were found to be anti-orthopoxvirus immunoglobulin G (IgG antibody positive (six rodents: two Funisciurus spp.; one Graphiurus lorraineus; one Cricetomys emini; one Heliosciurus sp.; one Oenomys hypoxanthus, and one elephant shrew Petrodromus tetradactylus; no individuals were found positive in PCR-based assays. These results suggest that a variety of animals can be infected with OPXVs, and that epidemiology studies and educational campaigns should focus on animals that people are regularly contacting, including larger rodents used as protein sources.

  5. Assessing Monkeypox Virus Prevalence in Small Mammals at the Human-Animal Interface in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Doty, Jeffrey B; Malekani, Jean M; Kalemba, Lem's N; Stanley, William T; Monroe, Benjamin P; Nakazawa, Yoshinori U; Mauldin, Matthew R; Bakambana, Trésor L; Liyandja Dja Liyandja, Tobit; Braden, Zachary H; Wallace, Ryan M; Malekani, Divin V; McCollum, Andrea M; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia; Kondas, Ashley; Peterson, A Townsend; Osorio, Jorge E; Rocke, Tonie E; Karem, Kevin L; Emerson, Ginny L; Carroll, Darin S

    2017-10-03

    During 2012, 2013 and 2015, we collected small mammals within 25 km of the town of Boende in Tshuapa Province, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The prevalence of monkeypox virus (MPXV) in this area is unknown; however, cases of human infection were previously confirmed near these collection sites. Samples were collected from 353 mammals (rodents, shrews, pangolins, elephant shrews, a potamogale, and a hyrax). Some rodents and shrews were captured from houses where human monkeypox cases have recently been identified, but most were trapped in forests and agricultural areas near villages. Real-time PCR and ELISA were used to assess evidence of MPXV infection and other Orthopoxvirus (OPXV) infections in these small mammals. Seven (2.0%) of these animal samples were found to be anti-orthopoxvirus immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody positive (six rodents: two Funisciurus spp.; one Graphiurus lorraineus ; one Cricetomys emini ; one Heliosciurus sp.; one Oenomys hypoxanthus , and one elephant shrew Petrodromus tetradactylus ); no individuals were found positive in PCR-based assays. These results suggest that a variety of animals can be infected with OPXVs, and that epidemiology studies and educational campaigns should focus on animals that people are regularly contacting, including larger rodents used as protein sources.

  6. How long is enough to detect terrestrial animals? Estimating the minimum trapping effort on camera traps

    Xingfeng Si

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Camera traps is an important wildlife inventory tool for estimating species diversity at a site. Knowing what minimum trapping effort is needed to detect target species is also important to designing efficient studies, considering both the number of camera locations, and survey length. Here, we take advantage of a two-year camera trapping dataset from a small (24-ha study plot in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve, eastern China to estimate the minimum trapping effort actually needed to sample the wildlife community. We also evaluated the relative value of adding new camera sites or running cameras for a longer period at one site. The full dataset includes 1727 independent photographs captured during 13,824 camera days, documenting 10 resident terrestrial species of birds and mammals. Our rarefaction analysis shows that a minimum of 931 camera days would be needed to detect the resident species sufficiently in the plot, and c. 8700 camera days to detect all 10 resident species. In terms of detecting a diversity of species, the optimal sampling period for one camera site was c. 40, or long enough to record about 20 independent photographs. Our analysis of evaluating the increasing number of additional camera sites shows that rotating cameras to new sites would be more efficient for measuring species richness than leaving cameras at fewer sites for a longer period.

  7. Tracing water sources of terrestrial animal populations with stable isotopes: laboratory tests with crickets and spiders.

    Kevin E McCluney

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water between ecosystem components and organisms have great impacts across levels of biological organization. Although much progress has been made in tracing carbon and nitrogen, difficulty remains in tracing water sources from the ecosystem to animals and among animals (the "water web". Naturally occurring, non-radioactive isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water provide a potential method for tracing water sources. However, using this approach for terrestrial animals is complicated by a change in water isotopes within the body due to differences in activity of heavy and light isotopes during cuticular and transpiratory water losses. Here we present a technique to use stable water isotopes to estimate the mean mix of water sources in a population by sampling a group of sympatric animals over time. Strong correlations between H and O isotopes in the body water of animals collected over time provide linear patterns of enrichment that can be used to predict a mean mix of water sources useful in standard mixing models to determine relative source contribution. Multiple temperature and humidity treatment levels do not greatly alter these relationships, thus having little effect on our ability to estimate this population-level mix of water sources. We show evidence for the validity of using multiple samples of animal body water, collected across time, to estimate the isotopic mix of water sources in a population and more accurately trace water sources. The ability to use isotopes to document patterns of animal water use should be a great asset to biologists globally, especially those studying drylands, droughts, streamside areas, irrigated landscapes, and the effects of climate change.

  8. Tracing water sources of terrestrial animal populations with stable isotopes: laboratory tests with crickets and spiders.

    McCluney, Kevin E; Sabo, John L

    2010-12-31

    Fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water between ecosystem components and organisms have great impacts across levels of biological organization. Although much progress has been made in tracing carbon and nitrogen, difficulty remains in tracing water sources from the ecosystem to animals and among animals (the "water web"). Naturally occurring, non-radioactive isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water provide a potential method for tracing water sources. However, using this approach for terrestrial animals is complicated by a change in water isotopes within the body due to differences in activity of heavy and light isotopes during cuticular and transpiratory water losses. Here we present a technique to use stable water isotopes to estimate the mean mix of water sources in a population by sampling a group of sympatric animals over time. Strong correlations between H and O isotopes in the body water of animals collected over time provide linear patterns of enrichment that can be used to predict a mean mix of water sources useful in standard mixing models to determine relative source contribution. Multiple temperature and humidity treatment levels do not greatly alter these relationships, thus having little effect on our ability to estimate this population-level mix of water sources. We show evidence for the validity of using multiple samples of animal body water, collected across time, to estimate the isotopic mix of water sources in a population and more accurately trace water sources. The ability to use isotopes to document patterns of animal water use should be a great asset to biologists globally, especially those studying drylands, droughts, streamside areas, irrigated landscapes, and the effects of climate change.

  9. Major decline in marine and terrestrial animal consumption by brown bears (Ursus arctos).

    Matsubayashi, Jun; Morimoto, Junko O; Tayasu, Ichiro; Mano, Tsutomu; Nakajima, Miyuki; Takahashi, Osamu; Kobayashi, Kyoko; Nakamura, Futoshi

    2015-03-17

    Human activities have had the strongest impacts on natural ecosystems since the last glacial period, including the alteration of interspecific relationships such as food webs. In this paper, we present a historical record of major alterations of trophic structure by revealing millennium-scale dietary shifts of brown bears (Ursus arctos) on the Hokkaido islands, Japan, using carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur stable isotope analysis. Dietary analysis of brown bears revealed that salmon consumption by bears in the eastern region of Hokkaido significantly decreased from 19% to 8%. In addition, consumption of terrestrial animals decreased from 56% to 5% in western region, and 64% to 8% in eastern region. These dietary shifts are likely to have occurred in the last approximately 100-200 years, which coincides with the beginning of modernisation in this region. Our results suggest that human activities have caused an alteration in the trophic structure of brown bears in the Hokkaido islands. This alteration includes a major decline in the marine-terrestrial linkage in eastern region, and a loss of indirect-interactions between bears and wolves, because the interactions potentially enhanced deer predation by brown bears.

  10. Effects of ionizing radiation on terrestrial plants and animals: A workshop report

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1995-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Air, Water, and Radiation Division (EH-412) is preparing to issue protective radiological standards for aquatic and terrestrial organisms. To support this effort, DOE sponsored a workshop to evaluate the adequacy of current approaches to radiological protection. Workshop participants reviewed and discussed a 1992 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) report on radiological protection of biota for its adequacy and completeness in answering the following questions: can DOE use these data and conclusions for promulgating radiological standards for the protection of terrestrial organisms; are the conclusions given in this report still valid or have they been superseded by more recent data? The consensus of the workshop participants was that the dose limits for animals and plants recommended by the IAEA are adequately supported by the available scientific information. Participants agreed, however, that better guidance on application of those dose limits is needed. Participants further agreed with the IAEA that dose limits deigned to protect humans generally protect biota as well, except when (1) human access is restricted without restricting access by biota, (2) unique exposure pathways exist, (3) rare or endangered species are present, or (4) other stresses are significant. To deal with these exceptions, site-specific exposures should be considered in developing secondary standards

  11. Effects of ionizing radiation on terrestrial plants and animals: A workshop report

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1995-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Air, Water, and Radiation Division (EH-412) is preparing to issue protective radiological standards for aquatic and terrestrial organisms. To support this effort, DOE sponsored a workshop to evaluate the adequacy of current approaches to radiological protection. Workshop participants reviewed and discussed a 1992 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) report on radiological protection of biota for its adequacy and completeness in answering the following questions: can DOE use these data and conclusions for promulgating radiological standards for the protection of terrestrial organisms; are the conclusions given in this report still valid or have they been superseded by more recent data? The consensus of the workshop participants was that the dose limits for animals and plants recommended by the IAEA are adequately supported by the available scientific information. Participants agreed, however, that better guidance on application of those dose limits is needed. Participants further agreed with the IAEA that dose limits deigned to protect humans generally protect biota as well, except when (1) human access is restricted without restricting access by biota, (2) unique exposure pathways exist, (3) rare or endangered species are present, or (4) other stresses are significant. To deal with these exceptions, site-specific exposures should be considered in developing secondary standards.

  12. An inventory of terrestrial mammals at national parks in the Northeast Temperate Network and Sagamore Hill National Historic Site

    Gilbert, Andrew T.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Annand, Elizabeth M.; Talancy, Neil W.; Sauer, John R.; Nichols, James D.

    2008-01-01

    An inventory of mammals was conducted during 2004 at nine national park sites in the Northeast Temperate Network (NETN): Acadia National Park (NP), Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park (NHP), Minute Man NHP, Morristown NHP, Roosevelt-Vanderbilt National Historic Site (NHS), Saint-Gaudens NHS, Saugus Iron Works NHS, Saratoga NHP, and Weir Farm NHS. Sagamore Hill NHS, part of the Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network (NCBN), was also surveyed. Each park except Acadia NP was sampled twice, once in the winter/spring and again in the summer/fall. During the winter/spring visit, indirect measure (IM) sampling arrays were employed at 2 to 16 stations and included sampling by remote cameras, cubby boxes (covered trackplates), and hair traps. IM stations were established and re-used during the summer/fall sampling period. Trapping was conducted at 2 to 12 stations at all parks except Acadia NP during the summer/fall period and consisted of arrays of small-mammal traps, squirrel-sized live traps, and some fox-sized live traps. We used estimation-based procedures and probabilistic sampling techniques to design this inventory. A total of 38 species was detected by IM sampling, trapping, and field observations. Species diversity (number of species) varied among parks, ranging from 8 to 24, with Minute Man NHP having the most species detected. Raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana), Fisher (Martes pennanti), and Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris) were the most common medium-sized mammals detected in this study and White-footed Mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), Northern Short-tailed Shrew (Blarina brevicauda), Deer Mouse (P. maniculatus), and Meadow Vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) the most common small mammals detected. All species detected are considered fairly common throughout their range including the Fisher, which has been reintroduced in several New England states. We did not detect any state or federal endangered or threatened species.

  13. Small terrestrial mammals in two types of forest complexes in intensively managed landscape of South Moravia (the Czech Republic)

    Suchomel, J.; Heroldová, Marta

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2004), s. 377-384 ISSN 1335-342X R&D Projects: GA ČR GP526/03/P051; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : small mammal community * windbreaks * small woods Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.078, year: 2004 http://ecology.aepress.sk/01AV_absinfo.php?h@t=&v=084e0343a0486ff05530df6c705c8bb4&rok=2004&mesiac=04&fileinfo=2004_04_377&find=

  14. Lithuanian mammal fauna review

    Linas Balciauskas

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Data on Lithuania mammal fauna are presented. From 78 mammal species recorded in Lithuania, 7 were seen only in the 17-18th centuries, two species are extinct. Recent Lithuanian mammal fauna contains 68 species. Five of them are observed occasionally. 63 mammal species are permant inhabitants, 18 included in the Red Data Book, mostly bats and dormice. 8 mammal species were introduced or reintroduced. Population tendencies of game animals are also considered.

  15. The Immune Responses of the Animal Hosts of West Nile Virus: A Comparison of Insects, Birds, and Mammals

    Laura R. H. Ahlers

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vector-borne diseases, including arboviruses, pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. Arboviruses of the flavivirus genus, such as Zika virus (ZIKV, dengue virus, yellow fever virus (YFV, and West Nile virus (WNV, are transmitted to humans from insect vectors and can cause serious disease. In 2017, over 2,000 reported cases of WNV virus infection occurred in the United States, with two-thirds of cases classified as neuroinvasive. WNV transmission cycles through two different animal populations: birds and mosquitoes. Mammals, particularly humans and horses, can become infected through mosquito bites and represent dead-end hosts of WNV infection. Because WNV can infect diverse species, research on this arbovirus has investigated the host response in mosquitoes, birds, humans, and horses. With the growing geographical range of the WNV mosquito vector and increased human exposure, improved surveillance and treatment of the infection will enhance public health in areas where WNV is endemic. In this review, we survey the bionomics of mosquito species involved in Nearctic WNV transmission. Subsequently, we describe the known immune response pathways that counter WNV infection in insects, birds, and mammals, as well as the mechanisms known to curb viral infection. Moreover, we discuss the bacterium Wolbachia and its involvement in reducing flavivirus titer in insects. Finally, we highlight the similarities of the known immune pathways and identify potential targets for future studies aimed at improving antiviral therapeutic and vaccination design.

  16. Parasite spread at the domestic animal - wildlife interface: anthropogenic habitat use, phylogeny and body mass drive risk of cat and dog flea (Ctenocephalides spp.) infestation in wild mammals.

    Clark, Nicholas J; Seddon, Jennifer M; Šlapeta, Jan; Wells, Konstans

    2018-01-08

    Spillover of parasites at the domestic animal - wildlife interface is a pervasive threat to animal health. Cat and dog fleas (Ctenocephalides felis and C. canis) are among the world's most invasive and economically important ectoparasites. Although both species are presumed to infest a diversity of host species across the globe, knowledge on their distributions in wildlife is poor. We built a global dataset of wild mammal host associations for cat and dog fleas, and used Bayesian hierarchical models to identify traits that predict wildlife infestation probability. We complemented this by calculating functional-phylogenetic host specificity to assess whether fleas are restricted to hosts with similar evolutionary histories, diet or habitat niches. Over 130 wildlife species have been found to harbour cat fleas, representing nearly 20% of all mammal species sampled for fleas. Phylogenetic models indicate cat fleas are capable of infesting a broad diversity of wild mammal species through ecological fitting. Those that use anthropogenic habitats are at highest risk. Dog fleas, by contrast, have been recorded in 31 mammal species that are primarily restricted to certain phylogenetic clades, including canids, felids and murids. Both flea species are commonly reported infesting mammals that are feral (free-roaming cats and dogs) or introduced (red foxes, black rats and brown rats), suggesting the breakdown of barriers between wildlife and invasive reservoir species will increase spillover at the domestic animal - wildlife interface. Our empirical evidence shows that cat fleas are incredibly host-generalist, likely exhibiting a host range that is among the broadest of all ectoparasites. Reducing wild species' contact rates with domestic animals across natural and anthropogenic habitats, together with mitigating impacts of invasive reservoir hosts, will be crucial for reducing invasive flea infestations in wild mammals.

  17. Radiography atlas of domestic animals. Small mammals, birds, reptilia, and amphibia. Atlas der Roentgendiagnostik bei Heimtieren. Kleinsaeuger, Voegel, Reptilien und Amphibien

    Ruebel, G.A.; Isenbuegel, E.; Wolvekamp, P. (eds.); Gabrisch, K.; Grimm, F.; Koblik, P.; Paul-Murphy, J.; Oschwald, C.P.; Schildger, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    The 370 radiographs presented in the atlas together with notes and explanations give information on normal roentgenographic findings, physiological variations, and important pathological findings observed in small mammals, birds, reptilia and amphibia. Introductory notes to each chapter explain the principles of exposure techniques and the handling of the animals. (VHE).

  18. Sleep alterations in mammals: did aquatic conditions inhibit rapid eye movement sleep?

    Madan, Vibha; Jha, Sushil K

    2012-12-01

    Sleep has been studied widely in mammals and to some extent in other vertebrates. Higher vertebrates such as birds and mammals have evolved an inimitable rapid eye movement (REM) sleep state. During REM sleep, postural muscles become atonic and the temperature regulating machinery remains suspended. Although REM sleep is present in almost all the terrestrial mammals, the aquatic mammals have either radically reduced or completely eliminated REM sleep. Further, we found a significant negative correlation between REM sleep and the adaptation of the organism to live on land or in water. The amount of REM sleep is highest in terrestrial mammals, significantly reduced in semi-aquatic mammals and completely absent or negligible in aquatic mammals. The aquatic mammals are obligate swimmers and have to surface at regular intervals for air. Also, these animals live in thermally challenging environments, where the conductive heat loss is approximately ~90 times greater than air. Therefore, they have to be moving most of the time. As an adaptation, they have evolved unihemispheric sleep, during which they can rove as well as rest. A condition that immobilizes muscle activity and suspends the thermoregulatory machinery, as happens during REM sleep, is not suitable for these animals. It is possible that, in accord with Darwin's theory, aquatic mammals might have abolished REM sleep with time. In this review, we discuss the possibility of the intrinsic role of aquatic conditions in the elimination of REM sleep in the aquatic mammals.

  19. The novel primers for mammal species identification-based mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence: implication for reserved wild animals in Thailand and endangered mammal species in Southeast Asia.

    Muangkram, Yuttamol; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Amano, Akira; Sukmak, Manakorn

    2018-01-01

    We presented the powerful techniques for species identification using the short amplicon of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequence. Two faecal samples and one single hair sample of the Asian tapir were tested using the new cytochrome b primers. The results showed a high sequence similarity with the mainland Asian tapir group. The comparative sequence analysis of the reserved wild mammals in Thailand and the other endangered mammal species from Southeast Asia comprehensibly verified the potential of our novel primers. The forward and reverse primers were 94.2 and 93.2%, respectively, by the average value of the sequence identity among 77 species sequences, and the overall mean distance was 35.9%. This development technique could provide rapid, simple, and reliable tools for species confirmation. Especially, it could recognize the problematic biological specimens contained less DNA material from illegal products and assist with wildlife crime investigation of threatened species and related forensic casework.

  20. The terrestrial isopod microbiome: An all-in-one toolbox for animal-microbe interactions of ecological relevance

    Didier Bouchon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial symbionts represent essential drivers of arthropod ecology and evolution, influencing host traits such as nutrition, reproduction, immunity and speciation. However, the majority of work on arthropod microbiota has been conducted in insects and more studies in non-model species across different ecological niches will be needed to complete our understanding of host-microbiota interactions. In this review, we present terrestrial isopod crustaceans as an emerging model organism to investigate symbiotic associations with potential relevance to ecosystem functioning. Terrestrial isopods comprise a group of crustaceans that have evolved a terrestrial lifestyle and represent keystone species in terrestrial ecosystems, contributing to the decomposition of organic matter and regulating the microbial food web. Since their nutrition is based on plant detritus, it has long been suspected that bacterial symbionts located in the digestive tissues might play an important role in host nutrition via the provisioning of digestive enzymes, thereby enabling the utilization of recalcitrant food compounds (e.g. cellulose or lignins. If this were the case, then (i the acquisition of these bacteria might have been an important evolutionary prerequisite for the colonization of land by isopods, and (ii these bacterial symbionts would directly mediate the role of their hosts in ecosystem functioning. Several bacterial symbionts have indeed been discovered in the midgut caeca of terrestrial isopods and some of them might be specific to this group of animals (i.e. Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum, Candidatus Hepatincola porcellionum and Rhabdochlamydia porcellionis, while others are well-known intracellular pathogens (Rickettsiella spp. or reproductive parasites (Wolbachia sp.. Moreover, a recent investigation of the microbiota in Armadillidium vulgare has revealed that this species harbors a highly diverse bacterial community which varies between host

  1. The Terrestrial Isopod Microbiome: An All-in-One Toolbox for Animal-Microbe Interactions of Ecological Relevance.

    Bouchon, Didier; Zimmer, Martin; Dittmer, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts represent essential drivers of arthropod ecology and evolution, influencing host traits such as nutrition, reproduction, immunity, and speciation. However, the majority of work on arthropod microbiota has been conducted in insects and more studies in non-model species across different ecological niches will be needed to complete our understanding of host-microbiota interactions. In this review, we present terrestrial isopod crustaceans as an emerging model organism to investigate symbiotic associations with potential relevance to ecosystem functioning. Terrestrial isopods comprise a group of crustaceans that have evolved a terrestrial lifestyle and represent keystone species in terrestrial ecosystems, contributing to the decomposition of organic matter and regulating the microbial food web. Since their nutrition is based on plant detritus, it has long been suspected that bacterial symbionts located in the digestive tissues might play an important role in host nutrition via the provisioning of digestive enzymes, thereby enabling the utilization of recalcitrant food compounds (e.g., cellulose or lignins). If this were the case, then (i) the acquisition of these bacteria might have been an important evolutionary prerequisite for the colonization of land by isopods, and (ii) these bacterial symbionts would directly mediate the role of their hosts in ecosystem functioning. Several bacterial symbionts have indeed been discovered in the midgut caeca of terrestrial isopods and some of them might be specific to this group of animals (i.e., Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum, Candidatus Hepatincola porcellionum, and Rhabdochlamydia porcellionis ), while others are well-known intracellular pathogens ( Rickettsiella spp.) or reproductive parasites ( Wolbachia sp.). Moreover, a recent investigation of the microbiota in Armadillidium vulgare has revealed that this species harbors a highly diverse bacterial community which varies between host populations

  2. Animal water balance drives top-down effects in a riparian forest-implications for terrestrial trophic cascades.

    McCluney, Kevin E; Sabo, John L

    2016-08-17

    Despite the clear importance of water balance to the evolution of terrestrial life, much remains unknown about the effects of animal water balance on food webs. Based on recent research suggesting animal water imbalance can increase trophic interaction strengths in cages, we hypothesized that water availability could drive top-down effects in open environments, influencing the occurrence of trophic cascades. We manipulated large spider abundance and water availability in 20 × 20 m open-air plots in a streamside forest in Arizona, USA, and measured changes in cricket and small spider abundance and leaf damage. As expected, large spiders reduced both cricket abundance and herbivory under ambient, dry conditions, but not where free water was added. When water was added (free or within moist leaves), cricket abundance was unaffected by large spiders, but spiders still altered herbivory, suggesting behavioural effects. Moreover, we found threshold-type increases in herbivory at moderately low soil moisture (between 5.5% and 7% by volume), suggesting the possibility that water balance may commonly influence top-down effects. Overall, our results point towards animal water balance as an important driver of direct and indirect species interactions and food web dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Potential and Actual Terrestrial Rabies Exposures in People and Domestic Animals, Upstate South Carolina, 1994–2004: A Surveillance Study

    Foppa Ivo M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there has been a reduction of rabies in pets and domestic animals during recent decades in the United States, rabies remains enzootic among bats and several species of terrestrial wildlife. Spillover transmission of wildlife rabies to domestic animals therefore remains a public health threat Methods Retrospective analysis of surveillance data of reported animal incidents (bites, scratches, mucous membrane contacts from South Carolina, 1995 to 2003, was performed to assess risk factors of potential rabies exposures among human and animal victims. Results Dogs and cats contributed the majority (66.7% and 26.4%, respectively of all reported incidents, with stray dogs and cats contributing 9.0% and 15.1 respectively. Current rabies vaccination status of dogs and cats (40.2% and 13.8%, respectively were below World Health Organization recommended levels. Owned cats were half as likely to be vaccinated for rabies as dogs (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.48, 0.58. Animal victims were primarily exposed to wildlife (83.0%, of which 27.5% were rabid. Almost 90% of confirmed rabies exposures were due to wildlife. Skunks had the highest prevalence of rabies among species of exposure animals (63.2%. Among rabid domestic animals, stray cats were the most commonly reported (47.4%. Conclusion While the majority of reported potential rabies exposures are associated with dog and cat incidents, most rabies exposures derive from rabid wildlife. Stray cats were most frequently rabid among domestic animals. Our results underscore the need for improvement of wildlife rabies control and the reduction of interactions of domestic animals, including cats, with wildlife.

  4. Diversity and similarity of trophic system "Barn Owl - terrestrial mammals" in the volcanic districts of Latium (Italy / Diversità ed affinità dei sistemi trofici "Tyto alba - mammiferi terragnoli" nei comprensori vulcanici del Lazio

    Fiorella Aste

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bony remains of about ten thousands small terrestrial mammals preyed by Barn Owl in six volcanic districts of Latium were examined and relevant biocoenotic parameters (such as biotic diversity, thermoxerophily index, Renkonen's and Faith's indexes calculated. Diversity values exhibit no apparent correlation with a number of environmental and biocoenotic parameters of non-anthropic origin - i.e.: district age, height on sea level, latitude, biocoenotic (Renkonen's and faunistic (Faith's affinities. Conversely, a clearly significant, negative correlation with landscape anthropization was shown, revealing the importance of man's impact in shaping functional connections in the terrestrial communities of studied region. Riassunto L'esame del sistema trofico in argomento in 6 distretti vulcanici del Lazio ha posto in evidenza che la diversità biotica è significativamente e inversamente correlata con l'antropizzazione territoriale, ma non con altri fattori ambientali di origine anantropica.

  5. Early hominin diet included diverse terrestrial and aquatic animals 1.95 Ma in East Turkana, Kenya.

    Braun, David R; Harris, John W K; Levin, Naomi E; McCoy, Jack T; Herries, Andy I R; Bamford, Marion K; Bishop, Laura C; Richmond, Brian G; Kibunjia, Mzalendo

    2010-06-01

    The manufacture of stone tools and their use to access animal tissues by Pliocene hominins marks the origin of a key adaptation in human evolutionary history. Here we report an in situ archaeological assemblage from the Koobi Fora Formation in northern Kenya that provides a unique combination of faunal remains, some with direct evidence of butchery, and Oldowan artifacts, which are well dated to 1.95 Ma. This site provides the oldest in situ evidence that hominins, predating Homo erectus, enjoyed access to carcasses of terrestrial and aquatic animals that they butchered in a well-watered habitat. It also provides the earliest definitive evidence of the incorporation into the hominin diet of various aquatic animals including turtles, crocodiles, and fish, which are rich sources of specific nutrients needed in human brain growth. The evidence here shows that these critical brain-growth compounds were part of the diets of hominins before the appearance of Homo ergaster/erectus and could have played an important role in the evolution of larger brains in the early history of our lineage.

  6. Kisspeptin as a master player in the central control of reproduction in mammals: an overview of kisspeptin research in domestic animals.

    Okamura, Hiroaki; Yamamura, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Yoshihiro

    2013-05-01

    The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is the regulatory system for reproduction in mammals. Because secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) into the portal vessels is the final step at which the brain controls gonadal activities, the GnRH neuronal system had been thought to be central to the HPG axis. A newly discovered neural peptide, kisspeptin, has opened a new era in reproductive neuroendocrinology. As shown in a variety of mammals, kisspeptin is a potent endogenous secretagogue of GnRH, and the kisspeptin neuronal system governs both the pulsatile GnRH secretion that drives folliculogenesis, spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis, and the GnRH surge that triggers ovulation in females. The kisspeptin neuronal system is therefore considered a master player in the central control of mammalian reproduction, and kisspeptin and related substances could therefore be valuable for the development of novel strategies for the management of fertility in farm animals. To this end, the present review aimed to summarize the current research on kisspeptin signaling with a focus on domestic animals such as sheep, goats, cattle, pigs and horses. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Convergence of calls as animals form social bonds, active compensation for noisy communication channels, and the evolution of vocal learning in mammals.

    Tyack, Peter L

    2008-08-01

    The classic evidence for vocal production learning involves imitation of novel, often anthropogenic sounds. Among mammals, this has been reported for dolphins, elephants, harbor seals, and humans. A broader taxonomic distribution has been reported for vocal convergence, where the acoustic properties of calls from different individuals converge when they are housed together in captivity or form social bonds in the wild. Vocal convergence has been demonstrated for animals as diverse as songbirds, parakeets, hummingbirds, bats, elephants, cetaceans, and primates. For most species, call convergence is thought to reflect a group-distinctive identifier, with shared calls reflecting and strengthening social bonds. A ubiquitous function for vocal production learning that is starting to receive attention involves modifying signals to improve communication in a noisy channel. Pooling data on vocal imitation, vocal convergence, and compensation for noise suggests a wider taxonomic distribution of vocal production learning among mammals than has been generally appreciated. The wide taxonomic distribution of this evidence for vocal production learning suggests that perhaps more of the neural underpinnings for vocal production learning are in place in mammals than is usually recognized. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  8. A reappraisal of the stratigraphy and chronology of Early Pliocene palaeontological sites from Lanzarote Island containing fossil terrestrial animals

    Lomoschitz, Alejandro; Sánchez Marco, Antonio; Huertas, María José; Betancort, Juan F.; Isern, Arnau; Sanz, Elena; Meco, Joaquín

    2016-11-01

    The Famara massif, in the north of Lanzarote Island, constitutes the remains of a former island inhabited by the oldest known vertebrate fauna of the Canary archipelago off the coast of Africa. In this study, new ages are offered for the underlying and overlying basaltic lava flows of two paleontological sites. The island's three major palaeontological sites, which contain remains of this ancient fauna (Valle Grande, Valle Chico and Fuente de Gusa), are intercorrelated according to their lithologies, sedimentology, palaeontological content and geochronology. The new K/Ar age interval for the fossiliferous sedimentary deposits ranges between 4.3 ± 0.7 and 3.78 ± 0.71 Ma, within the Early Pliocene, and shows that the first known terrestrial animals in Lanzarote were present on the island for about 500 ka. The principal component of the deposits is a bioclastic calcarenite of aeolian origin (sand sheet deposits), which is present in all three sites and constitutes 65% of the beds. The remaining 35% is of fluvial-aeolian origin (mainly stream deposits). All the beds contain the same fossils (insect egg pods, land snails, avian eggshells and tortoise eggshells). The local palaeogeography and the formation of the deposits were conditioned by a flat plain, larger than 16 km2, over which aeolian sands moved freely with a prevailing NNE-WSW wind direction. In agreement with previous investigations, the palaeoclimate in this interval (ca. 4.3 to 3.8 Ma) must have been mainly dry with some rainy episodes.

  9. The comparison of species longevity and size evolution in fossilized dinosaurs vs. fossilized mammals

    Baeza, E.; Srinath, A.; Hernandez, A.; Heim, N.; Payne, J.

    2016-12-01

    For over 200 million years, two animal groups have been competing for dominance over Earth: the reptiles, (in this case, dinosaurs), and the mammals. At the beginning of the Triassic, mammals were small, rat-like creatures that were dwarfed by the dinosaurs. Dinosaurs progressively continued to grow larger throughout the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, thus outweighing and outliving the current mammals. But at the end of the Cretaceous, the K-T mass extinction occurred, and that wiped out the dinosaurs from the face of the Earth. After the disappearance of dinosaurs, mammals started to grow larger to fill the niches that the dinosaurs left open. With this evolution in mammals, would they be able to match or even beat the dinosaur's previous records? To judge that, we need to utilize two significant factors to help judge our answer. The two factors that set them apart were body mass and longevity. Documenting the body mass shows us how much the animal weighed compared to other species. The heaviest animal in our data set weighed 77 tons. The other factor is longevity, which indicates how long a certain species has existed on a geologic time scale. The longest living animal species in our data set lived for over 20 million years. With all the data we have analyzed, we have conducted research on this subject to find out how terrestrial mammals contrasted dinosaurs in the terms of body mass and species longevity. Our research brought us to the conclusion that mammals could not overtake the body mass and longevity of dinosaurs. Although mammals came pretty close to overlapping the dinosaurs' body masses, they were just below them marginally. We had a similar pattern in longevity, where we found out that heavier animals tended to have longer longevity, therefore the dinosaurs came out on top. Additionally, we did another contrast between Mesozoic and Cenozoic mammals, where Cenozoic mammals were larger, but both had similar longevities.

  10. The extraordinary biology and development of marsupial frogs (Hemiphractidae) in comparison with fish, mammals, birds, amphibians and other animals.

    Del Pino, Eugenia M

    2018-01-03

    The study of oogenesis and early development of frogs belonging to the family Hemiphractidae provide important comparison to the aquatic development of other frogs, such as Xenopus laevis, because reproduction on land characterizes the Hemiphractidae. In this review, the multinucleated oogenesis of the marsupial frog Flectonotus pygmaeus (Hemiphractidae) is analyzed and interpreted. In addition, the adaptations associated with the incubation of embryos in the pouch of the female marsupial frog Gastrotheca riobambae (Hemiphractidae) and the embryonic development of this frog are summarized. Moreover, G. riobambae gastrulation is compared with the gastrulation modes of Engystomops randi and Engystomops coloradorum (Leptodactylidae); Ceratophrys stolzmanni (Ceratophryidae); Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni and Espadarana callistomma (Centrolenidae); Ameerega bilinguis, Dendrobates auratus, Epipedobates anthonyi, Epipedobates machalilla, Epipedobates tricolor, and Hyloxalus vertebralis (Dendrobatidae); Eleutherodactylus coqui (Terrarana: Eleutherodactylidae), and X. laevis (Pipidae). The comparison indicated two modes of frog gastrulation. In X. laevis and in frogs with aquatic reproduction, convergent extension begins during gastrulation. In contrast, convergent extension occurs in the post-gastrula of frogs with terrestrial reproduction. These two modes of gastrulation resemble the transitions toward meroblastic cleavage found in ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii). In spite of this difference, the genes that guide early development seem to be highly conserved in frogs. I conclude that the shift of convergent extension to the post-gastrula accompanied the diversification of frog egg size and terrestrial reproductive modes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The contamination of the different groups of animals. Chapter 3

    Molotkov, D.V.; Galkovskaya, G.A.; Khmeleva, N.N.; Golubev, A.P.; Plenin, A.E.; Moroz, M.D.; Shevtsova, T.M.; Voronovich, A.I.; Matveenko, A.A.; Maksimova, S.L.; Blinov, V.V.; Litvinova, A.N.; Belyavskaya, V.I.; Maksimenkov, M.V.; Pikulik, M.M.; Drobenkov, S.M.; Vyazovich, Yu.A.; Gutkovskaya, G.F.; Parejko, O.A.; Tarletskaya, R.Yu.; Kozulin, A.V.; Rozhdestvenskaya, A.S.; Sidorovich, V.E.; Kozlo, P.G.; Kuchmel', S.V.; Dunin, V.F.; Emel'yanova, L.G.; Deryabina, T.G.; Fomenkov, A.N.

    1995-01-01

    By means of radiometric monitoring of fauna it was detected territorial and chronological features of radioactive contamination of various animal groups of water and terrestrial ecosystems such as seston, plankton, benthos, fishes, soil invertebrates, insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. 12 tabs., 13 figs

  12. Southeast US Historical Marine Mammal Stranding Database

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data on marine mammal strandings are collected by the Southeast Marine Mammal Stranding Network. Basic data on the location, species identification, animal...

  13. Natural History of Oregon Coast Mammals

    Chris Maser; Bruce R. Mate; Jerry F. Franklin; C.T. Dyrness

    1981-01-01

    The book presents detailed information on the biology, habitats, and life histories of the 96 species of mammals of the Oregon coast. Soils, geology, and vegetation are described and related to wildlife habitats for the 65 terrestrial and 31 marine species. The book is not simply an identification guide to the Oregon coast mammals but is a dynamic portrayal of their...

  14. Improvements to Passive Acoustic Tracking Methods for Marine Mammal Monitoring

    2016-05-02

    separate and associate calls from individual animals . Marine mammal; Passive acoustic monitoring; Localization; Tracking; Multiple source; Sparse array...position and hydrophone timing offset in addition to animal position Almost all marine mammal tracking methods treat animal position as the only unknown...Workshop on Detection, Classification and Localization (DCL) of Marine Mammals). The animals were expected to be relatively close to the surface

  15. 78 FR 33357 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    2013-06-04

    ... confidence in these values is unknown. Table 3--Marine Mammal Density Estimates Density Species (animals/km\\2... unintentional taking of marine animals occurring incidental to the shock testing which involved large explosives... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting...

  16. Carnitine biosynthesis in mammals

    Vaz, Frédéric M.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.

    2002-01-01

    Carnitine is indispensable for energy metabolism, since it enables activated fatty acids to enter the mitochondria, where they are broken down via beta-oxidation. Carnitine is probably present in all animal species, and in numerous micro-organisms and plants. In mammals, carnitine homoeostasis is

  17. Where and how are roads endangering mammals in Southeast Asia's forests?

    Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Lynam, Antony J; Gaveau, David; Yap, Wei Lim; Lhota, Stanislav; Goosem, Miriam; Laurance, Susan; Laurance, William F

    2014-01-01

    Habitat destruction and overhunting are two major drivers of mammal population declines and extinctions in tropical forests. The construction of roads can be a catalyst for these two threats. In Southeast Asia, the impacts of roads on mammals have not been well-documented at a regional scale. Before evidence-based conservation strategies can be developed to minimize the threat of roads to endangered mammals within this region, we first need to locate where and how roads are contributing to the conversion of their habitats and illegal hunting in each country. We interviewed 36 experts involved in mammal research from seven Southeast Asian countries to identify roads that are contributing the most, in their opinion, to habitat conversion and illegal hunting. Our experts highlighted 16 existing and eight planned roads - these potentially threaten 21% of the 117 endangered terrestrial mammals in those countries. Apart from gathering qualitative evidence from the literature to assess their claims, we demonstrate how species-distribution models, satellite imagery and animal-sign surveys can be used to provide quantitative evidence of roads causing impacts by (1) cutting through habitats where endangered mammals are likely to occur, (2) intensifying forest conversion, and (3) contributing to illegal hunting and wildlife trade. To our knowledge, ours is the first study to identify specific roads threatening endangered mammals in Southeast Asia. Further through highlighting the impacts of roads, we propose 10 measures to limit road impacts in the region.

  18. North Slope, Alaska ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for brown bears, caribou, and muskoxen for the North Slope, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set...

  19. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammals)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  20. Southeast Alaska ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for brown bears in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of bear concentrations....

  1. Columbia River ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for beavers, otters, nutria, mink, muskrats, and Columbian white-tailed deer in the Columbia River area....

  2. Alabama ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for Alabama and Perdido Key beach mice in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent the rare...

  3. Alaska Wilderness: A Bibliography for Secondary Students on Marine Vertebrates, Birds, Small or Fur Bearing Mammals and Game Animals of Alaska.

    Symons, Ann

    This is an annotated bibliography for secondary school students. It contains fourteen entries on marine vertebrates, nine entries on birds, twenty-nine entries on mammals, and one on amphibians and reptiles. Some of the entries are fiction. (BB)

  4. Wild Animals and Justice : The Case of the Dead Elephant in the Room

    Kopnina, H.N.

    2016-01-01

    Elephants, the largest terrestrial representatives of the animal kingdom, are highorder mammals with complex ethology and social dynamics, looming large both in natural landscapes and cultural settings in diverse locations.1 Elephants are “wonderful or terrible, depending on where or who you are.”2

  5. Soil- to-Whole Body Transfer Factors of Radionuclides for Terrestrial Wild Animals Living around the Gyeongju Nuclear Site

    Lim, Kwang-Muk; Choi, Yong-Ho; Jun, In; Kim, Byung-Ho; Keum, Dong-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In the Gyeongju nuclear site, a low and medium level radioactive waste repository and five nuclear reactors are currently operating. The IAEA and ICRP consider it necessary to demonstrate that not only men but also wild organisms are protected from ionizing radiations. Therefore, it may not be long before the dose assessment for wildlife should be carried out in Korea. The transfer factor (TF) defined as the concentration ratio between an organism and an environmental medium is a key parameter in assessing the radiation dose to wildlife. For eight animal species inhabiting mountainous areas around the Gyeongju nuclear site, the TF values of 22 stable elements were measured. The acquired values varied considerably with the elements and animal species. Further TF data need to be produced for various Korean wild animal and plant species in preparation for future governmental regulations of wildlife exposure to ionizing radiations.

  6. Animals

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  7. Introduced Terrestrial Species (Future)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted future potential distributions of terrestrial plants, animals, and pathogens non-native to the Middle-Atlantic region. These data are...

  8. Animator

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  9. Animals

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  10. 45 CFR 670.19 - Designation of native mammals.

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of native mammals. 670.19 Section 670... CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates § 670.19 Designation of native mammals. The following are designated native mammals: Pinnipeds: Crabeater seal—Lobodon...

  11. Small mammal populations in zoonotic disease and toxicological studies

    Muul, I.

    1978-01-01

    Examples of zoonotic diseases are discussed in relation to their distribution in mammalian hosts. Various ecological factors influence disease distribution patterns so that only a certain portion of the mammalian populations are subject to infections. Emphasis was placed on some of these ecological factors in studying the mainstream of infections in endemic hosts and vectors. This approach might be called medical ecology and would be supplemental to epidemiological studies which characteristically emphasize human involvement in zoonotic disease transmission. For example, occurrence in certain habitats and vertical distribution within forest habitats predisposed various mammalian species to infections. Arboreal species did not have scrub typhus infections while terrestrial species had high infection rates. Malaria parasites were common in arboreal mammals but uncommon in terrestrial species. Additionally, disease surveys in the absence of population data pertaining to potential host species sometimes yield misleading results, especially if age structure within populations changes through time. In field studies use of sentinel animals of known immunological history provide valuable supplemental information to surveys of free living animals which may have been infected at some unknown time in the past. As many different species should be studied as is practical since some species may not be susceptible to certain diseases under study. In laboratory studies, inclusion of non-standard mammals may provide opportunities to culture disease organisms which do not proliferate in standard laboratory species, or to replace diminishing resources of such species as primates

  12. Marine Mammals.

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  13. 77 FR 841 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of...

    2012-01-06

    ... and the Single Ping Equivalent (SPE) To model potential impacts to marine animals from exposure to... Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 218 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals... [Docket No. 110808485-1534-01] RIN 0648-BB14 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals...

  14. Role of small mammals in ecosystems

    Golley, F.B.

    1978-01-01

    Small mammals are one of the groups commonly studied as an ecological unit in ecosystem analysis; the aggregation being justified on taxonomic or methodological grounds. Since small mammals include animals with habits of herbivory, omnivory, and carnivory, nocturnal and diurnal habits, living in a great variety of habitats, and adapted to conditions of life such as burrowing and flight, the collection is a diverse taxonomic aggregation and an unusually bad ecological grouping. For ecosystem analysis, groupings of organisms that have evolved in common with each other in the community seem more reasonable than aggregations based on taxonomic grounds. The depth of the problem is made clear when we examine the record and find that there are almost no studies of energy and material flow in terrestrial food chains. It is incredible that almost every study of a population considers that population as a receiver and donor of energy and materials acting independently. It would appear that aggregation of food chains into ecosystem components might be more fruitful than aggregation of independent populations

  15. Unifying principles in terrestrial locomotion: do hopping Australian marsupials fit in?

    Bennett, M B

    2000-01-01

    Mammalian terrestrial locomotion has many unifying principles. However, the Macropodoidea are a particularly interesting group that exhibit a number of significant deviations from the principles that seem to apply to other mammals. While the properties of materials that comprise the musculoskeletal system of mammals are similar, evidence suggests that tendon properties in macropodoid marsupials may be size or function dependent, in contrast to the situation in placental mammals. Postural differences related to hopping versus running have a dramatic effect on the scaling of the pelvic limb musculoskeletal system. Ratios of muscle fibre to tendon cross-sectional areas for ankle extensors and digital flexors scale with positive allometry in all mammals, but exponents are significantly higher in macropods. Tendon safety factors decline with increasing body mass in mammals, with eutherians at risk of ankle extensor tendon rupture at a body mass of about 150 kg, whereas kangaroos encounter similar problems at a body mass of approximately 35 kg. Tendon strength appears to limit locomotor performance in these animals. Elastic strain energy storage in tendons is mass dependent in all mammals, but exponents are significantly larger in macropodid. Tibial stresses may scale with positive allometry in kangaroos, which result in lower bone safety factors in macropods compared to eutherian mammals.

  16. Development of the Gecko (Pachydactylus turneri) Animal Model during Foton M-2 to Study Comparative Effects of Microgravity in Terrestrial and Aquatic Organisms

    Almeida, E. A.; Roden, C.; Phillips, J. A.; Globus, R. K.; Searby, N.; Vercoutere, W.; Morey-Holton, E.; Gulimova, V.; Saveliev, S.; Tairbekov, M.; hide

    2006-01-01

    Terrestrial organisms exposed to microgravity during spaceflight experience degeneration in bone, muscle, and possibly other tissues that require gravity-mediated mechanical stimulation for normal regenerative growth. In the Gecko experiment aboard Foton M-2, we flew for the first time, five terrestrial Pachydactylus turneri specimens to develop a model of microgravity effects comparable to the newt Pleurodeles waltl, a well-established model organism for spaceflight. These lower vertebrate species have similar body plans and size, are poikilothermic, have tissue regenerative ability, and are adapted to moderate periods of fasting. Furthermore the gecko (Pachydactylus) can also survive prolonged periods without water. In pre-flight control experiments and after a 16-day Foton M-2 spaceflight without food or water, the geckos were recovered and showed no apparent negative health effects. However, detailed analysis of bone mass and architecture by micro Computed Tomography { pCT), showed that both synchronous control and spaceflight animals lost significant amounts of cancellous bone in the distal femur and humerus relative to basal controls. In addition, cell cycle analysis of 30h post-flight liver tissue reveals a shift of DNA content from G2 and S to G1, both in spaceflight and synchronous controls. Together, these results suggest that housing conditions alone induce rapid catabolism of cancellous bone and reduced normal tissue regeneration. Further use of the gecko Puchydactylus turneri as a spaceflight model requires modification of housing conditions, possibly by including water and food, or changing other factors such as eliminating housing stresses to obtain stable bone structure and tissue regeneration during spaceflight experiments.

  17. 9 CFR 3.113 - Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals.

    2010-01-01

    ... marine mammals. 3.113 Section 3.113 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... the animals, their handlers, or other persons. (d) Marine mammals transported in the same primary... used. Within the primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals, the animals will be maintained on...

  18. 77 FR 42279 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    2012-07-18

    ... the shutdown zone clear of marine mammals; animals will be allowed to remain in the shutdown zone (i.e... these problems, any adverse responses to construction activities by marine mammals, and a complete... of impacts of sound on marine mammals, it is common practice to estimate how many animals are likely...

  19. Southeast Region Level A Marine Mammal Stranding Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data on marine mammal strandings are collected by the Southeast Marine Mammal Stranding Network. Basic data on the location, species identification, animal...

  20. Terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity

    Davis-Reddy, Claire

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecoregions Terrestrial Biomes Protected Areas Climate Risk and Vulnerability: A Handbook for Southern Africa | 75 7.2. Non-climatic drivers of ecosystem change 7.2.1. Land-use change, habitat loss and fragmentation Land-use change and landscape... concentrations of endemic plant and animal species, but these mainly occur in areas that are most threatened by human activity. Diverse terrestrial ecosystems in the region include tropical and sub-tropical forests, deserts, savannas, grasslands, mangroves...

  1. Mystacial Whisker Layout and Musculature in the Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus): A Social, Diurnal Mammal.

    Grant, Robyn A; Delaunay, Mariane G; Haidarliu, Sebastian

    2017-03-01

    All mammals (apart from apes and humans) have whiskers that make use of a similar muscle arrangement. Whisker specialists, such as rats and mice, tend to be nocturnal and arboreal, relying on their whisker sense of touch to guide exploration around tree canopies at night. As such, nocturnal arboreal rodents have many whiskers that are organised into a grid-like pattern, and moved using a complex array of muscles. Indeed, most arboreal, nocturnal mammals tend to have specialised whiskers that are longer and arranged in a dense, regular grid, compared with terrestrial, diurnal mammals. The guinea pig diverged early from murid rodents (around 75 million years ago), and are ground-dwelling, diurnal animals. It would be predicted that, as a terrestrial mammal, they may have less whiskers and a reduced muscle architecture compared to arboreal, nocturnal rodents. We examined the mystacial whisker layout, musculature and movement capacity of Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) whiskers and found that they did indeed have a disorganized whisker layout, with a fortification around the eye area. In addition, there was a reduction in musculature, especially in the intrinsic muscles. Despite guinea pigs not cyclically moving their whiskers, the mystacial musculature was still very similar to that of murid rodents. We suggest that the conserved presence of whisker layout and musculature, even in visual mammals such as primates and guinea pigs, may indicate that whiskers still play an important role in these animals, including protecting the eyes and being involved in tactile social behaviors. Anat Rec, 300:527-536, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Allometry in dinosaurs and mammals

    Lee, Scott

    2015-03-01

    The proportions of the leg bones change as the size of an animal becomes larger since the mass of the animal increases at a faster rate than the cross-sectional area of its leg bones. For the case of elastic similarity (in which the longitudinal stress in the legs remains constant in animals of all sizes), the diameter d and length L of the femur should be related as d = A L3/2. For geometric similarity (in which all dimensions are scaled by the same factor), d = A L. For animals with femora longer than 20 cm, we find the power law relationship to be d = A Lb with b = 1.13 +/- 0.06 for extant mammals (the largest mammal being Loxodonta africana with a 1.00-m-long femur) and b = 1.18 +/- 0.02 for dinosaurs (the largest dinosaur being Brachiosaurus brancai with a 2.03-m-long femur). These data show that extinct dinosaurs and extant animals scale in the same basic manner. The large sauropods (with femora twice as long as found in elephants) scale in a manner consistent with extrapolation of the scaling shown by extant mammals. These results argue that extinct dinosaurs moved in a manner very similar to extant mammals.

  3. Neo-oogenesis in mammals.

    Porras-Gómez, Tania Janeth; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma

    2017-08-01

    Recently, the existence of a mechanism for neo-oogenesis in the ovaries of adult mammals has generated much controversy within reproductive biology. This mechanism, which proposes that the ovary has cells capable of renewing the follicular reserve, has been described for various species of mammals. The first evidence was found in prosimians and humans. However, these findings were not considered relevant because the predominant dogma for reproductive biology at the time was that of Zuckerman. This dogma states that female mammals are born with finite numbers of oocytes that decline throughout postnatal life. Currently, the concept of neo-oogenesis has gained momentum due to the discovery of cells with mitotic activity in adult ovaries of various mammalian species (mice, humans, rhesus monkeys, domestic animals such as pigs, and wild animals such as bats). Despite these reports, the concept of neo-oogenesis has not been widely accepted by the scientific community, generating much criticism and speculation about its accuracy because it has been impossible to reproduce some evidence. This controversy has led to the creation of two positions: one in favour of neo-oogenesis and the other against it. Various animal models have been used in support of both camps, including both classic laboratory animals and domestic and wild animals. The aim of this review is to critically present the current literature on the subject and to evaluate the arguments pro and contra neo-oogenesis in mammals.

  4. High diversity of genogroup I picobirnaviruses in mammals

    Patrick CY Woo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In a molecular epidemiology study using 791 fecal samples collected from different terrestrial and marine mammals in Hong Kong, genogroup I picobirnaviruses (PBVs were positive by RT-PCR targeting the partial RdRp gene in specimens from 5 cattle, 6 monkeys, 17 horses, 9 pigs, 1 rabbit, 1 dog and 12 California sea lions, with 11, 9, 23, 17, 1, 1 and 15 sequence types in the positive specimens from the corresponding animals, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the PBV sequences from each kind of animal were widely distributed in the whole tree with high diversity, sharing 47.4 to 89.0% nucleotide identities with other genogroup I PBV strains based on the partial RdRp gene. Nine complete segments 1 (viral loads 1.7×104 to 5.9×106/ml and 15 segments 2 (viral loads 4.1×103 to 1.3×106/ml of otarine PBVs from fecal samples serially collected from California sea lions were sequenced. In the two phylogenetic trees constructed using ORF2 and ORF3 of segment 1, the nine segment 1 sequences were clustered into four distinct clades (C1 to C4. In the tree constructed using RdRp gene of segment 2, the 15 segment 2 sequences were clustered into nine distinct clades (R1 to R9. In four sea lions, PBVs were detected in two different years, with the same segment 1 clade (C3 present in two consecutive years from one sea lion and different clades present in different years from three sea lions. A high diversity of PBVs was observed in a variety of terrestrial and marine mammals. Multiple sequence types with significant differences, representing multiple strains of PBV, were present in the majority of PBV-positive samples from different kinds of animals.

  5. Introduced mammals on Western Indian Ocean islands

    James C. Russell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of introduced mammals and their introduction history varies greatly across the Western Indian Ocean (WIO islands, from ancient introductions in the past millennia on islands off the East coast of Africa where extant terrestrial native mammal communities exist, to very recent invasions in the past decades on islands in the Mascarene archipelago. We compile the distribution of 16 introduced mammal taxa on 28 island groups comprising almost 2000 islands. Through an exhaustive literature review and expert consultation process we recorded all mammal eradications, and species recoveries which could be attributed to introduced mammal eradication or control. All island groups have been invaded by mammals, and invasive cats and rats in particular are ubiquitous, but cultural contingency has also led to regional invasions by other mammals such as lemurs, civets and tenrecs. Mammal eradications have been attempted on 45 islands in the WIO, the majority in the Seychelles and Mauritius, and where successful have resulted in spectacular recovery of species and ecosystems. Invasive mammalian predator eradication or control in association with habitat management has led to improved conservation prospects for at least 24 species, and IUCN red-list down-listing of eight species, in the Mascarene Islands. Future island conservation prioritisation in the region will need to take account of global climate change and predicted sea-level rises and coastal inundation. Greater investment and prioritisation in island conservation in the region is warranted, given its high biodiversity values and the extent of invasions.

  6. ANATOMIA ÓSSEA E MUSCULAR DO CÍNGULO ESCAPULAR E BRAÇO DE Tapirus terrestris (PERISSODACTYLA: TAPIRIDAE

    Saulo Gonçalves Pereira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tapirus terrestris (Linneaus, 1758 is a mammal found in South America and in almost all Brazilian biomes. The aim of this study was to describe the anatomy of bone and muscle of the scapular cingulum and arm of Tapirus terrestris and compare it with other species of mammals, especially equines. We used four animals donated to the Laboratory of Education and Research of Wild Animals of the Federal University of Uberlândia, after their death with no trauma. The bones were carefully analyzed, described and the muscles were dissected, analyzed and described in accordance with the usual techniques of gross anatomy. The skeleton of the scapular cingulum and arm of Tapirus terrestris is formed by scapula and humerus bones, the lateral muscles of the scapula are subclavian m., deltoid m. supraspinatus m. and infraspinatus, teres minor m., subscapularis m., teres major m., coracobrachialis m., shoulder joint m., biceps brachii m., brachial m. triceps, forearm tensor fasciae m., anconeus m. The muscular and bone standard found is similar to the horse (Equus caballus T. terrestris has bone and muscle characteristics of a suitable animal to displacement and eventual swimming with obvious bone accidents and developed muscles .

  7. Rabies Virus Exposure of Brazilian Free-ranging Wildlife from Municipalities without Clinical Cases in Humans or in Terrestrial Wildlife.

    Marcelo Azevedo de Paula Antunes, João; de Castro Demoner, Larissa; Morosini de Andrade Cruvinel, Tatiana; Paula Kataoka, Ana; Fátima Alves Martorelli, Luzia; Puglia Machado, Gustavo; Megid, Jane

    2017-07-01

    Rabies is a zoonosis that causes thousands of animal and human deaths worldwide. Serological studies provide information concerning rabies virus circulation among animals and humans. We evaluated the circulation of the rabies virus in wildlife in nine municipalities of São Paulo State, Brazil. We took blood samples from 27 terrestrial animals of nine different mammalian species in locations without cases of rabies in human and wild terrestrial mammals. Sera were tested with the use of the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) for the detection of rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies (RVNA). The RFFIT was positive in 100% of the samples, with many (81.48%) showing protective titer levels (>0.5 IU/mL) with other samples (18.52%) showing titers representing exposure (rabies virus in municipalities without a history of human rabies cases, which demonstrated a need for research to understand the role of these animals in the circulation and transmission of the disease.

  8. 77 FR 50289 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of...

    2012-08-20

    ... areas of high marine animal densities, we believe that the incidental take of marine mammals would... response, tagging of free-ranging marine animals at-sea, and radar-based detection of marine mammals from... effects of sonar use will not be greater on animals listed under the ESA than the effects on other marine...

  9. 78 FR 20800 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction and...

    2013-04-08

    ... mammals observed by species, sex, age class, their location within the zone, and their reaction (if any... or description of the animal(s) involved; (8) the fate of the animal(s); and (9) photographs or video... Protected Resources, within 24 hours of the discovery. Port Dolphin should provide photographs or video...

  10. Mamíferos terrestres de la zona lagunar del istmo de Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, México Terrestrial mammals of the lagoon area from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico

    José A. López

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available El principal objetivo de este estudio fue elaborar un listado taxonómico de los mamíferos de los alrededores de la laguna Inferior al sur del istmo de Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, incluyendo datos de riqueza, abundancia, similitud mastofaunística entre diferentes regiones geográficas y estado de conservación de las especies. Se recolectaron y observaron murciélagos y roedores en 4 localidades al norte de la laguna Inferior, con vegetación compuesta por diversas asociaciones con predominancia del pastizal. Se tomaron en consideración registros adicionales de localidades diferentes a los sitios de colecta y registros obtenidos por diversos tipos de evidencia. Se encontró un total de 59 especies, 47 géneros, 18 familias y 8 órdenes de mamíferos en la zona lagunar del istmo de Tehuantepec. Las áreas geográficas con tipos de vegetación, climas y altitudes similares mostraron mayor porcentaje de similitud en número de especies de mamíferos, como el área costera de Oaxaca (39% y la región norte del estado (32%. Del total de especies de mamíferos registrados, 14 se encuentran bajo alguna categoría de riesgo. Se propone el establecimiento de un área natural protegida en la zona lagunar del istmo de Tehuantepec para la conservación de las especies de mamíferos y sus hábitats.The principal goal of this study was to prepare a taxonomic list of the mammals around the Laguna Inferior, in the southern Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, including data on mammal richness, abundance, similarity between geographical regions, and conservation status. We collected and observed bats and rodents in 4 different localities at the north of the Laguna Inferior. The vegetation was composed of diverse associations with pastures predominating. We considered additional records of other localities and records that were obtained by diverse types of evidence. We found 59 species, 47 genera, 18 families, and 8 orders. Geographical areas with similar vegetation

  11. Microhabitat of small mammals at ground and understorey levels in a deciduous, southern Atlantic forest.

    Melo, Geruza L; Miotto, Barbara; Peres, Brisa; Cáceres, Nilton C

    2013-01-01

    Each animal species selects specific microhabitats for protection, foraging, or micro-climate. To understand the distribution patterns of small mammals on the ground and in the understorey, we investigated the use of microhabitats by small mammals in a deciduous forest of southern Brazil. Ten trap stations with seven capture points were used to sample the following microhabitats: liana, fallen log, ground litter, terrestrial ferns, simple-trunk tree, forked tree, and Piper sp. shrubs. Seven field phases were conducted, each for eight consecutive days, from September 2006 through January 2008. Four species of rodents (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Mus musculus) and two species of marsupials (Didelphis albiventris and Gracilinanus microtarsus) were captured. Captured species presented significant differences on their microhabitat use (ANOVA, p = 0.003), particularly between ground and understorey sites. Akodon montensis selected positively terrestrial ferns and trunks, S. angouya selected lianas, D. albiventris selected fallen trunks and Piper sp., and G. microtarsus choose tree trunks and lianas. We demonstrated that the local small-mammal assemblage does select microhabitats, with different types of associations between species and habitats. Besides, there is a strong evidence of habitat selection in order to diminish predation.

  12. In vivo and in vitro animal investigation of the effect of a mixture of herbal extracts from Tribulus terrestris and Cornus officinalis on penile erection.

    Kam, Sung Chul; Do, Jung Mo; Choi, Jae Hwi; Jeon, Byeong Tak; Roh, Gu Seob; Hyun, Jae Seog

    2012-10-01

    Herbal preparations have long been used as folk remedies for erectile dysfunction (ED). This study examined the effects of Tribulus terrestris and Cornus officinalis extracts on relaxation of the smooth muscle of the corpus cavernosum (CC), their mechanisms of action, and the effects of oral administration of a mixture of the herbal extracts on penile erection. The relaxation effects and the mechanisms of action of T. terrestris extract, C. officinalis extract, and the mixture of both extracts on the rabbit CC were investigated in an organ bath. To evaluate whether the relaxation response of the CC shown in an organ bath occurs in vivo, intracavernous pressure (ICP) was calculated in rats after oral administration for a month. Additionally, adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and guanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) in the CC were measured using immunoassay. Smooth muscle relaxation was expressed as the percent decrease in precontraction induced by phenylephrine. ICP was assessed in rats after the oral administration of a mixture of both extracts for 1 month and changes in cGMP and cAMP concentrations were measured based on the concentration of the mixture of both extracts. T. terrestris extract, C. officinalis extract, and the mixture of both extracts showed concentration-dependent relaxation effects of the CC. In both the endothelium-removed group and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester pretreatment group, T. terrestris extract inhibited relaxation. ICP measured after oral administration of the extract mixture for a month was higher than that measured in the control group, and a significant increase in cAMP was observed in the mixture group. T. terrestris extract and C. officinalis extract exhibited concentration-dependent relaxation in an organ bath. In the in vivo study of the extract mixture, ICP and cAMP was significantly potentiated. Accordingly, the mixture of T. terrestris extract and C. officinalis extract may improve erectile function.

  13. 78 FR 35851 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    2013-06-14

    ... area is 995 km\\2\\ (384 mi\\2\\). The receiver layout and seismic survey data will be acquired using the... desirable acoustic environment; and Cease feeding or social interaction. For example, at the Guerreo Negro... similar to those in humans and other terrestrial mammals (Southall et al. 2007). Based on data from...

  14. COMPOSITION OF MEDIUM AND LARGE MAMMALS IN FOREST RESERVE IN THE CERRADO OF BRAZIL CENTRAL

    Rodrigo Jose Viana Leite

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowledge about fauna location and distribution is very important for animal biology understanding. Conservation Units are relevant to biodiversity when considering factors such as hunting, agricultural expansion and forest fires. The conservation of native vegetation fragments under more suitable management plans, recovery areas and surveys are essential to the mammals preservation. This study aimed to survey the mammals of medium and large size of the Brasilia National Forest Area 1. To carry out this study it was performed weekly rounds in search for direct and indirect mammals traces existing at forest reserve. It is reported the presence of 27 species in the study area. According to the IUCN Red List, four species are vulnerable to extinction: tapir (Tapirus terrestris, giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus and oncilla (Leopardus guttulus. Two species were recorded nearly threatened species: maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus and pampas deer (Ozotocerus bezoarticus. Also according to the same list, 48% (n=13 of species are declining in population trend and 26% (n=7 for this data is unknown. Differences in the area were observed, with mammal species presence associated to Cerrado vegetation types and in distribution of records over the period.

  15. Foraging and fasting can influence contaminant concentrations in animals: an example with mercury contamination in a free-ranging marine mammal

    Peterson, Sarah; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Crocker, Daniel E.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2018-01-01

    Large fluctuations in animal body mass in relation to life-history events can influence contaminant concentrations and toxicological risk. We quantified mercury concentrations in adult northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) before and after lengthy at sea foraging trips (n = 89) or fasting periods on land (n = 27), and showed that mercury concentrations in blood and muscle changed in response to these events. The highest blood mercury concentrations were observed after the breeding fast, whereas the highest muscle mercury concentrations were observed when seals returned to land to moult. Mean female blood mercury concentrations decreased by 30% across each of the two annual foraging trips, demonstrating a foraging-associated dilution of mercury concentrations as seals gained mass. Blood mercury concentrations increased by 103% and 24% across the breeding and moulting fasts, respectively, demonstrating a fasting-associated concentration of mercury as seals lost mass. In contrast to blood, mercury concentrations in female's muscle increased by 19% during the post-breeding foraging trip and did not change during the post-moulting foraging trip. While fasting, female muscle mercury concentrations increased 26% during breeding, but decreased 14% during moulting. Consequently, regardless of exposure, an animal's contaminant concentration can be markedly influenced by their annual life-history events.

  16. Seasonal and Diel Activity Patterns of Eight Sympatric Mammals in Northern Japan Revealed by an Intensive Camera-Trap Survey.

    Takashi Ikeda

    Full Text Available The activity patterns of mammals are generally categorized as nocturnal, diurnal, crepuscular (active at twilight, and cathemeral (active throughout the day. These patterns are highly variable across regions and seasons even within the same species. However, quantitative data is still lacking, particularly for sympatric species. We monitored the seasonal and diel activity patterns of terrestrial mammals in Hokkaido, Japan. Through an intensive camera-trap survey a total of 13,279 capture events were recorded from eight mammals over 20,344 camera-trap days, i.e., two years. Diel activity patterns were clearly divided into four categories: diurnal (Eurasian red squirrels, nocturnal (raccoon dogs and raccoons, crepuscular (sika deer and mountain hares, and cathemeral (Japanese martens, red foxes, and brown bears. Some crepuscular and cathemeral mammals shifted activity peaks across seasons. Particularly, sika deer changed peaks from twilight during spring-autumn to day-time in winter, possibly because of thermal constraints. Japanese martens were cathemeral during winter-summer, but nocturnal in autumn. We found no clear indication of predator-prey and competitive interactions, suggesting that animal densities are not very high or temporal niche partitioning is absent among the target species. This long-term camera-trap survey was highly cost-effective and provided one of the most detailed seasonal and diel activity patterns in multiple sympatric mammals under natural conditions.

  17. 76 FR 20257 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; U.S. Navy's Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation...

    2011-04-12

    ... marine mammals (e.g., whale watching or dolphin watching boats), scientists have documented that animals... marine mammal(s) Wave height (in feet) Visibility Sonar source in use (y/n) Indication of whether animal...-AX11 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; U.S. Navy's Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation...

  18. Taxonomic Report on Small Mammals from Two Coastal Wetland ...

    Fiifi Baidoo

    Abstract. Surveys of the small mammal populations of two coastal wetlands in Ghana, .... Captured animals were euthanized with chloroform, according to the American Society of. Mammalogy Animal Care and Use Committee guidelines.

  19. 78 FR 52135 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental To...

    2013-08-22

    ...--Marine Mammal Density Estimates Density Species (animals/km \\2\\) Bottlenose dolphin \\1\\ 0.455 Atlantic... criteria and thresholds in a final rule on the unintentional taking of marine animals occurring incidental... analysis assumed the marine species populations were 100 percent small animals. The criterion with the...

  20. Metabolic heat production and thermal conductance are mass-independent adaptations to thermal environment in birds and mammals.

    Fristoe, Trevor S; Burger, Joseph R; Balk, Meghan A; Khaliq, Imran; Hof, Christian; Brown, James H

    2015-12-29

    The extent to which different kinds of organisms have adapted to environmental temperature regimes is central to understanding how they respond to climate change. The Scholander-Irving (S-I) model of heat transfer lays the foundation for explaining how endothermic birds and mammals maintain their high, relatively constant body temperatures in the face of wide variation in environmental temperature. The S-I model shows how body temperature is regulated by balancing the rates of heat production and heat loss. Both rates scale with body size, suggesting that larger animals should be better adapted to cold environments than smaller animals, and vice versa. However, the global distributions of ∼9,000 species of terrestrial birds and mammals show that the entire range of body sizes occurs in nearly all climatic regimes. Using physiological and environmental temperature data for 211 bird and 178 mammal species, we test for mass-independent adaptive changes in two key parameters of the S-I model: basal metabolic rate (BMR) and thermal conductance. We derive an axis of thermal adaptation that is independent of body size, extends the S-I model, and highlights interactions among physiological and morphological traits that allow endotherms to persist in a wide range of temperatures. Our macrophysiological and macroecological analyses support our predictions that shifts in BMR and thermal conductance confer important adaptations to environmental temperature in both birds and mammals.

  1. Dry paths effectively reduce road mortality of small and medium-sized terrestrial vertebrates.

    Niemi, Milla; Jääskeläinen, Niina C; Nummi, Petri; Mäkelä, Tiina; Norrdahl, Kai

    2014-11-01

    Wildlife passages are widely used mitigation measures designed to reduce the adverse impacts of roads on animals. We investigated whether road kills of small and medium-sized terrestrial vertebrates can be reduced by constructing dry paths adjacent to streams that pass under road bridges. The study was carried out in southern Finland during the summer of 2008. We selected ten road bridges with dry paths and ten bridges without them, and an individual dry land reference site for each study bridge on the basis of landscape and traffic features. A total of 307 dead terrestrial vertebrates were identified during the ten-week study period. The presence of dry paths decreased the amount of road-killed terrestrial vertebrates (Poisson GLMM; p road-kills on mammals was not such clear. In the mammal model, a lack of dry paths increased the amount of carcasses (p = 0.001) whereas the number of casualties at dry path bridges was comparable with dry land reference sites. A direct comparison of the dead ratios suggests an average efficiency of 79% for the dry paths. When considering amphibians and mammals alone, the computed effectiveness was 88 and 70%, respectively. Our results demonstrate that dry paths under road bridges can effectively reduce road-kills of small and medium-sized terrestrial vertebrates, even without guiding fences. Dry paths seemed to especially benefit amphibians which are a threatened species group worldwide and known to suffer high traffic mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Infection of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) with terrestrial Brucella spp.

    Avalos-Téllez, Rosalía; Ramírez-Pfeiffer, Carlos; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Díaz-Aparicio, Efrén; Sánchez-Domínguez, Carlos; Zavala-Norzagaray, Alan; Arellano-Reynoso, Beatriz; Suárez-Güemes, Francisco; Aguirre, A Alonso; Aurioles-Gamboa, David

    2014-10-01

    Infections with Brucella ceti and pinnipedialis are prevalent in marine mammals worldwide. A total of 22 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) were examined to determine their exposure to Brucella spp. at San Esteban Island in the Gulf of California, Mexico, in June and July 2011. Although samples of blood, vaginal mucus and milk cultured negative for these bacteria, the application of rose Bengal, agar gel immunodiffusion, PCR and modified fluorescence polarization assays found that five animals (22.7%) had evidence of exposure to Brucella strains. The data also suggested that in two of these five sea lions the strains involved were of terrestrial origin, a novel finding in marine mammals. Further work will be required to validate and determine the epidemiological significance of this finding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Po-210 and other radionuclides in terrestrial and freshwater environments

    Gjelsvik, Runhild; Brown, Justin [eds.; Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Holm, Elis [Univ. of Lund (Sweden); Roos, Per [Risoe DTU (Denmark); Saxen, Ritva; Outola, Iisa [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    This report provides new information on Po-210 (and where appropriate its grandparent Pb-210) behaviour in environmental systems including humans. This has primarily been achieved through measurements of Po-210 in aquatic and terrestrial environments that has led to the derivation of information on the levels of this radioisotope in plants, animals and the biotic components of their habitat (i.e. water, soil) providing basic information on transfer where practicable. For freshwater environments, Po-210 concentration ratios derived for freshwater benthic fish and bivalve mollusc were substantially different to values collated from earlier review work. For terrestrial environments, activity concentrations of Po-210 in small mammals (although of a preliminary nature because no correction was made for ingrowth from Pb-210) were considerably higher than values derived from earlier data compilations. It was envisaged that data on levels of naturally occurring radionuclides would render underpinning data sets more comprehensive and would thus allow more robust background dose calculations to be performed subsequently. By way of example, unweighted background dose-rates arising from internal distributions of Po-210 were calculated for small mammals in the terrestrial study. The biokinetics of polonium in humans has been studied following chronic and acute oral intakes of selected Po radioisotopes. This work has provided information on gastrointestinal absorption factors and biological retention times thus improving the database upon which committed effective doses to humans are derived. The information generated in the report, in its entirety, should be of direct relevance for both human and non-human impact assessments. (au)

  4. Po-210 and other radionuclides in terrestrial and freshwater environments

    Gjelsvik, Runhild; Brown, Justin; Roos, Per; Saxen, Ritva; Outola, Iisa

    2009-01-01

    This report provides new information on Po-210 (and where appropriate its grandparent Pb-210) behaviour in environmental systems including humans. This has primarily been achieved through measurements of Po-210 in aquatic and terrestrial environments that has led to the derivation of information on the levels of this radioisotope in plants, animals and the biotic components of their habitat (i.e. water, soil) providing basic information on transfer where practicable. For freshwater environments, Po-210 concentration ratios derived for freshwater benthic fish and bivalve mollusc were substantially different to values collated from earlier review work. For terrestrial environments, activity concentrations of Po-210 in small mammals (although of a preliminary nature because no correction was made for ingrowth from Pb-210) were considerably higher than values derived from earlier data compilations. It was envisaged that data on levels of naturally occurring radionuclides would render underpinning data sets more comprehensive and would thus allow more robust background dose calculations to be performed subsequently. By way of example, unweighted background dose-rates arising from internal distributions of Po-210 were calculated for small mammals in the terrestrial study. The biokinetics of polonium in humans has been studied following chronic and acute oral intakes of selected Po radioisotopes. This work has provided information on gastrointestinal absorption factors and biological retention times thus improving the database upon which committed effective doses to humans are derived. The information generated in the report, in its entirety, should be of direct relevance for both human and non-human impact assessments. (au)

  5. Introduced species: domestic mammals are more significant transmitters of parasites to native mammals than are feral mammals.

    Landaeta-Aqueveque, Carlos; Henríquez, Analía; Cattan, Pedro E

    2014-03-01

    The study of parasitism related to biological invasion has focused on attributes and impacts of parasites as invaders and the impact of introduced hosts on endemic parasitism. Thus, there is currently no study of the attributes of hosts which influence the invasiveness of parasites. We aimed to determine whether the degree of domestication of introduced mammalian species - feral introduced mammals, livestock or pets, hereafter 'D' - is important in the spillover of introduced parasites. The literature on introduced parasites of mammals in Chile was reviewed. We designed an index for estimating the relevance of the introduced host species to parasite spillover and determined whether the D of introduced mammals predicted this index. A total of 223 introduced parasite species were found. Our results indicate that domestic mammals have a higher number of introduced parasites and spillover parasites, and the index indicates that these mammals, particularly pets, are more relevant introducers than introduced feral mammals. Further analyses indicated that the higher impact is due to higher parasite richness, a longer time since introduction and wider dispersal, as well as how these mammals are maintained. The greater relevance of domestic mammals is important given that they are basically the same species distributed worldwide and can become the main transmitters of parasites to native mammals elsewhere. This finding also underlines the feasibility of management in order to reduce the transmission of parasites to native fauna through anti-parasitic treatment of domestic mammals, animal-ownership education and the prevention of importing new parasite species. Copyright © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A checklist of the mammals (Mammalia) from Durango, western Mexico

    García-Mendoza, Diego; López-González, Celia

    2013-01-01

    An updated list of the mammals of Durango state, Mexico was built from literature records and Museum specimens. A total of 139 species have been recorded, representing 28.3 % of the Mexican terrestrial mammals, and 25.1 % species more compared to the previous account. Two species have been extirpated from the state, 23 are endemic to Mexico. Four major ecoregions have been previously defined for the state, Arid, Valleys, Sierra, and Quebradas. Species richness is highest at the Quebradas, a t...

  7. Sexual segregation in marine fish, reptiles, birds and mammals behaviour patterns, mechanisms and conservation implications.

    Wearmouth, Victoria J; Sims, David W

    2008-01-01

    Sexual segregation occurs when members of a species separate such that the sexes live apart, either singly or in single-sex groups. It can be broadly categorised into two types: habitat segregation and social segregation. Sexual segregation is a behavioural phenomenon that is widespread in the animal kingdom yet the underlying causes remain poorly understood. Sexual segregation has been widely studied among terrestrial mammals such as ungulates, but it has been less well documented in the marine environment. This chapter clarifies terms and concepts which have emerged from the investigation of sexual segregation in terrestrial ecology and examines how a similar methodological approach may be complicated by differences of marine species. Here we discuss the behavioural patterns of sexual segregation among marine fish, reptile, bird and mammal species. Five hypotheses have been forwarded to account for sexual segregation, largely emerging from investigation of sexual segregation in terrestrial ungulates: the predation risk, forage selection, activity budget, thermal niche-fecundity and social factors hypotheses. These mechanisms are reviewed following careful assessment of their applicability to marine vertebrate species and case studies of marine vertebrates which support each mechanism recounted. Rigorous testing of all hypotheses is lacking from both the terrestrial and marine vertebrate literature and those analyses which have been attempted are often confounded by factors such as sexual body-size dimorphism. In this context, we indicate the value of studying model species which are monomorphic with respect to body size and discuss possible underlying causes for sexual segregation in this species. We also discuss why it is important to understand sexual segregation, for example, by illustrating how differential exploitation of the sexes by humans can lead to population decline.

  8. Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment 2004

    Andersen, J. M.; Boutrup, S.; Bijl, L. van der

    This report presents the 2004 results of the Danish National Monitoring and Assess-ment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments (NOVANA). 2004 was the first year in which terrestrial nature was included in the monitoring pro-gramme. The report reviews the state of the groundwater......, watercourses, lakes and marine waters and the pressures upon them and reviews the monitoring of terrestrial natural habitats and selected plants and animals. The report is based on the annual reports prepared for each subprogramme by the Topic Centres. The latter reports are mainly based on data collected...

  9. Terrestrial magnetosphere

    Pande, D.C.; Agarwal, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a review about terrestrial magnetosphere. During the last few years considerable investigation have been carried out about the properties of Solar Wind and its interaction with planetary magnetic fields. It is therefore of high importance to accumulate all the investigations in a comprehensive form. The paper reviews the property of earth's magnetosphere, magnetosheath, magneto pause, polar cusps, bow shook and plasma sheath. (author)

  10. Into the dark: patterns of middle ear adaptations in subterranean eulipotyphlan mammals

    Koyabu, Daisuke; Hosojima, Misato; Endo, Hideki

    2017-09-01

    Evolution of the middle ear ossicles was a key innovation for mammals, enhancing the transmission of airborne sound. Radiation into various habitats from a terrestrial environment resulted in diversification of the auditory mechanisms among mammals. However, due to the paucity of phylogenetically controlled investigations, how middle ear traits have diversified with functional specialization remains unclear. In order to identify the respective patterns for various lifestyles and to gain insights into fossil forms, we employed a high-resolution tomography technique and compared the middle ear morphology of eulipotyphlan species (moles, shrews and hedgehogs), a group that has radiated into various environments, such as terrestrial, aquatic and subterranean habitats. Three-dimensional geometric morphometric analysis was conducted within a phylogenetically controlled framework. Quantitative shapes were found to strongly reflect the degree of subterranean lifestyle and weakly involve phylogeny. Our analyses demonstrate that subterranean adaptation should include a relatively shorter anterior process of the malleus, an enlarged incus, an enlarged stapes footplate and a reduction of the orbicular apophysis. These traits arguably allow improving low-frequency sound transmission at low frequencies and inhibiting the low-frequency noise which disturbs the subterranean animals in hearing airborne sounds.

  11. The impact of Great Cormorants on biogenic pollution of land ecosystems: Stable isotope signatures in small mammals

    Balčiauskas, Linas; Skipitytė, Raminta; Jasiulionis, Marius; Trakimas, Giedrius; Balčiauskienė, Laima; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2016-01-01

    Studying the isotopic composition of the hair of two rodent species trapped in the territories of Great Cormorant colonies, we aimed to show that Great Cormorants transfer biogens from aquatic ecosystems to terrestrial ecosystems, and that these substances reach small mammals through the trophic cascade, thus influencing the nutrient balance in the terrestrial ecosystem. Analysis of δ"1"3C and δ"1"5N was performed on two dominant species of small mammals, Apodemus flavicollis and Myodes glareolus, inhabiting the territories of the colonies. For both species, the values of δ"1"3C and δ"1"5N were higher in the animals trapped in the territories of the colonies than those in control territories. In the hair of A. flavicollis and M. glareolus, the highest values of δ"1"5N (16.31 ± 3.01‰ and 17.86 ± 2.76‰, respectively) were determined in those animals trapped in the biggest Great Cormorant colony. δ"1"5N values were age dependent, highest in adult A. flavicollis and M. glareolus and lowest in juvenile animals. For δ"1"3C values, age-dependent differences were not registered. δ"1"5N values in both small mammal species from the biggest Great Cormorant colony show direct dependence on the intensity of influence. Biogenic pollution is at its strongest in the territories of the colonies with nests, significantly diminishing in the ecotones of the colonies and further in the control zones, where the influence of birds is negligible. Thus, Great Cormorant colonies alter ecosystem functioning by enrichment with biogens, with stable isotope values in small mammals significantly higher in the affected territories. - Highlights: • Cormorants transport nutrients from water to land ecosystems and pollute biogenically. • We studied stable isotope composition of small mammal hair in 3 cormorant colonies. • δ"1"3C and δ"1"5N were measured using elemental analyzer–isotope ratio mass spectrometer. • δ"1"3C and δ"1"5N values were higher in rodents inhabiting

  12. The impact of Great Cormorants on biogenic pollution of land ecosystems: Stable isotope signatures in small mammals

    Balčiauskas, Linas, E-mail: linasbal@ekoi.lt [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania); Skipitytė, Raminta, E-mail: raminta.skipityte@ftmc.lt [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania); Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanorių 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Jasiulionis, Marius, E-mail: mjasiulionis@ekoi.lt [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania); Trakimas, Giedrius, E-mail: giedrius.trakimas@gf.vu.lt [Center for Ecology and Environmental Research, Vilnius University, Vilnius (Lithuania); Institute of Life Sciences and Technology, Daugavpils University, Parades Str. 1a, Daugavpils, LV-5401 (Latvia); Balčiauskienė, Laima, E-mail: laiba@ekoi.lt [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania); Remeikis, Vidmantas, E-mail: vidrem@fi.lt [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanorių 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2016-09-15

    Studying the isotopic composition of the hair of two rodent species trapped in the territories of Great Cormorant colonies, we aimed to show that Great Cormorants transfer biogens from aquatic ecosystems to terrestrial ecosystems, and that these substances reach small mammals through the trophic cascade, thus influencing the nutrient balance in the terrestrial ecosystem. Analysis of δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N was performed on two dominant species of small mammals, Apodemus flavicollis and Myodes glareolus, inhabiting the territories of the colonies. For both species, the values of δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N were higher in the animals trapped in the territories of the colonies than those in control territories. In the hair of A. flavicollis and M. glareolus, the highest values of δ{sup 15}N (16.31 ± 3.01‰ and 17.86 ± 2.76‰, respectively) were determined in those animals trapped in the biggest Great Cormorant colony. δ{sup 15}N values were age dependent, highest in adult A. flavicollis and M. glareolus and lowest in juvenile animals. For δ{sup 13}C values, age-dependent differences were not registered. δ{sup 15}N values in both small mammal species from the biggest Great Cormorant colony show direct dependence on the intensity of influence. Biogenic pollution is at its strongest in the territories of the colonies with nests, significantly diminishing in the ecotones of the colonies and further in the control zones, where the influence of birds is negligible. Thus, Great Cormorant colonies alter ecosystem functioning by enrichment with biogens, with stable isotope values in small mammals significantly higher in the affected territories. - Highlights: • Cormorants transport nutrients from water to land ecosystems and pollute biogenically. • We studied stable isotope composition of small mammal hair in 3 cormorant colonies. • δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N were measured using elemental analyzer–isotope ratio mass spectrometer. • δ{sup 13}C and

  13. The Broken Zig-Zag: Late Cenozoic large mammal and tortoise extintion in South America

    Tonni, Eduardo Pedro; Cione, Alberto Luis; Soibelzon, Leopoldo Héctor

    2003-01-01

    During the latest Pleistocene-earliest Holocene, South American terrestrial vertebrate faunas suffered one of the largest (and probably the youngest) extinction in the world for this lapse. Megamammals, most of the large mammals and a giant terrestrial tortoise became extinct in the continent, and several complete ecological guilds and their predators disappeared. This mammal extinction had been attributed mainly to overkill, climatic change or a combination of both. We agree with the idea th...

  14. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas,...

  15. 78 FR 57133 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14514

    2013-09-17

    ... of marine mammal parts (hard and soft parts) from up to 200 animals per year within the order Cetacea... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW11 Marine Mammals; File No. 14514 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  16. 75 FR 23241 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14514

    2010-05-03

    ... subsistence harvests; from marine mammals caught incidental to fisheries; or from animals in foreign countries... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW11 Marine Mammals; File No. 14514 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  17. 77 FR 36488 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17350

    2012-06-19

    ... to augment the National Marine Mammal Tissue Bank or state tissue archives. No animals would be... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC067 Marine Mammals; File No. 17350 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  18. Osteoarthritis in two marine mammals and 22 land mammals: learning from skeletal remains.

    Nganvongpanit, Korakot; Soponteerakul, Ratsadakorn; Kaewkumpai, Piyatida; Punyapornwithaya, Veerasak; Buddhachat, Kittisak; Nomsiri, Raksiri; Kaewmong, Patcharaporn; Kittiwatanawong, Kongkiat; Chawangwongsanukun, Rachanchai; Angkawanish, Taweepoke; Thitaram, Chatchote; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2017-07-01

    The occurrence of osteoarthritis (OA) in marine mammals is still questionable. Here we investigated the prevalence of OA in marine (dolphin and dugong) and terrestrial mammals (Asian elephant, Asiatic buffalo, camel, cat, cattle, deer, dog, domestic goat, horse, human, hyena, impala, lion, Malayan tapir, Assam macaque, mule, pig, rabbit, red kangaroo, sheep, tiger and waterbuck). Skeletal remains obtained from five institutes were used as subjects; a total of 45 different parts (locations) of bones were observed for OA lesions. The prevalence of OA was reported as number of OA lesions/total number of bones. Our results revealed that the presence of OA in marine species (dolphin and dugong) was 2.44% and 3.33%, respectively. In dolphins, the highest OA occurrence was on the left and right humeral trochlea, with 13.68% and 12.63%, respectively, while the highest number of OA lesions in dugongs was on the lumbar vertebrae (8.79%). No significant difference (P > 0.05) in the prevalence of OA between sexes in dolphins and dugongs was observed, but we found a significant difference (P mammals, similar to terrestrial mammals, even though their natural habitat is the ocean. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  19. Lungworm seroprevalence in free-ranging harbour seals and molecular characterisation of marine mammal MSP

    Sophia Arlena Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina are frequently infected with the lungworms Otostrongylus circumlitus and Parafilaroides gymnurus. The infection is often accompanied by secondary bacterial infections and can cause severe bronchopneumonia and even death in affected animals. Hitherto, the detection of lungworm infections was based on post mortem investigations from animals collected within stranding networks and a valid detection method for live free-ranging harbour seals was not available. Recently, an ELISA was developed for detecting lungworm antibodies in harbour seal serum, using major sperm protein (MSP of the bovine lungworm, Dictyocaulus viviparus as recombinant diagnostic antigen. To determine lungworm seroprevalence in free-ranging harbour seals, serum was taken from four different seal age groups (n = 313 resulting in an overall prevalence of 17.9% (18.9% of males, 16.7% of females. 0.7% of harbour seals up to six weeks of age were seropositive, as were 89% of seals between six weeks and six months, 53.6% between six and 18 months and 24.2% of seals over 18 months of age. In the 18 months and over age group, seropositive animals showed statistically significant reductions in body weight (P = 0.003 and length (P < 0.001. Sera from lungworm infected harbour seals in rehabilitation (n = 6 revealed that duration of antibody persistence may be similar to that of lungworm infected cattle, but further studies are needed to confirm this. Phylogenetic analyses of MSP sequences of different marine and terrestrial mammal parasitic nematodes revealed that lungworm MSP of the genus Dictyocaulus (superfamily Trichostrongyloidea is more closely related to metastrongylid marine mammal lungworms than to trichostrongylid nematodes of terrestrial hosts.

  20. Identifying biodiversity hotspots for threatened mammal species in Iran

    Farashi, Azita; Shariati Najafabadi, Mitra; Hosseini, Mahshid

    2017-01-01

    Conservation biology has much more attention for biodiversity hot spots than before. In order to recognize the hotspots for Iranian terrestrial mammal species that are listed in any red list, nationally or globally, ten Species Distribution Models (SDMs) have been applied. The SDMs evaluation

  1. 76 FR 41463 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    2011-07-14

    ... requirements, many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are exposed to chronic stimuli... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a Marine... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). ACTION: Notice; proposed...

  2. A system for gathering small mammal data

    Robert D. Neely; Robert W. Campbell

    1973-01-01

    As an aid to studying vertebrate predators of the gypsy moth, a radio telemetry system was designed to detect the death of small mammals and facilitate recovery of the remains. An intraperitoneally implanted radio transmitter is triggered by the drop in body temperature when the animal dies. The device was tested in white-footed mice.

  3. 76 FR 28423 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14259

    2011-05-17

    ... and endangered species parts of all marine mammals under NMFS. Please refer to the following Web site... authorized and no incidental harassment of animals would occur. Parts would be archived by the Burke Museum...

  4. Measures of Auditory Function in Stranded Marine Mammals

    Ketten, Darlene

    2000-01-01

    .... Behavioral measures, which consist of simple yes-no replies to a sound stimulus, are possible in trained marine mammals but are not applicable to the large number and diverse species of wild animals...

  5. 76 FR 25479 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Military Training Activities Conducted Within the Gulf of...

    2011-05-04

    ... Hearing of Marine Animals Passive Acoustic Detection, Classification, and Tracking of Marine Mammals The... impact of MFAS and underwater explosive detonations on marine animals. Top priorities of the ICMP include.... Furthermore, these large-grouped gregarious animals are very likely to be detected by Marine Mammal Observers...

  6. Anomalous colour in Neotropical mammals: a review with new records for Didelphis sp. (Didelphidae, Didelphimorphia and Arctocephalus australis (Otariidae, Carnivora

    MSL. Abreu

    Full Text Available Anomalous colourations occur in many tropical vertebrates. However, they are considered rare in wild populations, with very few records for the majority of animal taxa. We report two new cases of anomalous colouration in mammals. Additionally, we compiled all published cases about anomalous pigmentation registered in Neotropical mammals, throughout a comprehensive review of peer reviewed articles between 1950 and 2010. Every record was classified as albinism, leucism, piebaldism or eventually as undetermined pigmentation. As results, we report the new record of a leucistic specimen of opossum (Didelphis sp. in southern Brazil, as well as a specimen of South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis with piebaldism in Uruguay. We also found 31 scientific articles resulting in 23 records of albinism, 12 of leucism, 71 of piebaldism and 92 records classified as undetermined pigmentation. Anomalous colouration is apparently rare in small terrestrial mammals, but it is much more common in cetaceans and michrochiropterans. Out of these 198 records, 149 occurred in cetaceans and 30 in bats. The results related to cetaceans suggest that males and females with anomolous pigmentation are reproductively successful and as a consequence their frequencies are becoming higher in natural populations. In bats, this result can be related to the fact these animals orient themselves primarily through echolocation, and their refuges provide protection against light and predation. It is possible that anomalous colouration occurs more frequently in other Neotropical mammal orders, which were not formally reported. Therefore, we encourage researchers to publish these events in order to better understand this phenomenon that has a significant influence on animal survival.

  7. Marine Mammals :: NOAA Fisheries

    Resources Habitat Conservation Science and Technology International Affairs Law Enforcement Aquaculture Application Types Apply Online (APPS) Endangered Species Permits Marine Mammal Permits Public Display of : NMFS Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center North Atlantic right whales North Atlantic Right whales

  8. The impacts of Cenozoic climate and habitat changes on small mammal diversity of North America

    Samuels, Joshua X.; Hopkins, Samantha S. B.

    2017-02-01

    Through the Cenozoic, paleoclimate records show general trends of global cooling and increased aridity, and environments in North America shifted from predominantly forests to more open habitats. Paleobotanical records indicate grasses were present on the continent in the Eocene; however, paleosol and phytolith studies indicate that open habitats did not arise until the late Eocene or even later in the Oligocene. Studies of large mammalian herbivores have documented changes in ecomorphology and community structure through time, revealing that shifts in mammalian morphology occurred millions of years after the environmental changes thought to have triggered them. Smaller mammals, like rodents and lagomorphs, should more closely track climate and habitat changes due to their shorter generation times and smaller ranges, but these animals have received much less study. To examine changes in smaller mammals through time, we have assembled and analyzed an ecomorphological database of all North American rodent and lagomorph species. Analyses of these data found that rodent and lagomorph community structure changed dramatically through the Cenozoic, and shifts in diversity and ecology correspond closely with the timing of habitat changes. Cenozoic rodent and lagomorph species diversity is strongly biased by sampling of localities, but sampling-corrected diversity reveals diversity dynamics that, after an initial density-dependent diversification in the Eocene, track habitat changes and the appearance of new ecological adaptations. As habitats became more open and arid through time, rodent and lagomorph crown heights increased while burrowing, jumping, and cursorial adaptations became more prevalent. Through time, open-habitat specialists were added during periods of diversification, while closed-habitat taxa were disproportionately lost in subsequent diversity declines. While shifts among rodents and lagomorphs parallel changes in ungulate communities, they started

  9. ORTHOMYXO- AND PARAMYXOVIRUSES IN MARINE MAMMALS

    Marina G. Gulyaeva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. Marine mammals play the role of "sentries", standing guard over the health and functioning of marine ecosystems. The analysis of data reported in literature was carried out to understand and to evaluate a circulation of representatives of the Orthomyxoviridae and Paramyxoviridae, dangerous pathogens capable to cause morbidity and mortality in marine warm-blooded animals. Discussion. In the population of marine animals, in the available literature, no more than twenty infectious diseases were described. At the same time, according to preliminary estimates, about 15% of marine mammals die from indicated diseases. Previous studies conducted by various groups of scientists have already shown the circulation of various viral pathogens, which cause different infections in these animals. The present fact indicates the important role of marine mammals in the ecology and spreading of a number of viruses. In accordance with a literature data, representatives of Orthomixoviruses and Paramyxoviruses are among the most dangerous pathogens, which may infect this type of animals. Thus, it was suggested that seals may be infected with a wide range of influenza viruses without prior adaptation. It was emphasized that pinnipeds are one of the reservoir of a human influenza B virus in nature. Infections caused by morbilliviruses, can be the reason of epizootics in a population of seals and among the other species of marine mammals. Signs of a disease are similar to the clinic of carnivore plague. Main conclusions. The data presented in literature is extremely not enough for fully understanding a role of marine mammals as hosts or carriers of potential zoonotic pathogens, such as avian influenza virus (AIV, morbilliviruses and others. Thus, this issue requires further more detailed study.

  10. Terrestrial ecology

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The main effort of the Terrestrial Ecology Division has been redirected to a comprehensive study of the Espiritu Santo Drainage Basin located in northeastern Puerto Rico. The general objective are to provide baseline ecological data for future environmental assessment studies at the local and regional levels, and to provide through an ecosystem approach data for the development of management alternatives for the wise utilization of energy, water, and land resources. The interrelationships among climate, vegetation, soils, and man, and their combined influence upon the hydrologic cycle will be described and evaluated. Environmental management involves planning and decision making, and both require an adequate data base. At present, little is known about the interworkings of a complete, integrated system such as a drainage basin. A literature survey of the main research areas confirmed that, although many individual ecologically oriented studies have been carried out in a tropical environment, few if any provide the data base required for environmental management. In view of rapidly changing socio-economic conditions and natural resources limitations, management urgently requires data from these systems: physical (climatological), biological, and cultural. This integrated drainage basin study has been designed to provide such data. The scope of this program covers the hydrologic cycle as it is affected by the interactions of the physical, biological, and cultural systems

  11. Soil and terrestrial biology studies

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Soil and terrestrial biology studies focused on developing an understanding of the uptake of gaseous substances from the atmosphere by plants, biodegradation of oil, and the movement of Pu in the terrestrial ecosystems of the southeastern United States. Mathematical models were developed for SO 2 and tritium uptake from the atmosphere by plants; the uptake of tritium by soil microorganisms was measured; and the relationships among the Pu content of soil, plants, and animals of the Savannah River Plant area were studied. Preliminary results are reported for studies on the biodegradation of waste oil on soil surfaces

  12. American Samoa ESI: T_MAMPT (Terrestrial Mammal Points)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for bats in American Samoa. Vector points in this data set represent bat roosts and caves. Species-specific...

  13. A phylogenetic approach to total evaporative water loss in mammals.

    Van Sant, Matthew J; Oufiero, Christopher E; Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Hammond, Kimberly A; Williams, Joseph B

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining appropriate water balance is a constant challenge for terrestrial mammals, and this problem can be exacerbated in desiccating environments. It has been proposed that natural selection has provided desert-dwelling mammals physiological mechanisms to reduce rates of total evaporative water loss. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between total evaporative water loss and body mass in mammals by using a recent phylogenetic hypothesis. We compared total evaporative water loss in 80 species of arid-zone mammals to that in 56 species that inhabit mesic regions, ranging in size from 4 g to 3,500 kg, to test the hypothesis that mammals from arid environments have lower rates of total evaporative water loss than mammals from mesic environments once phylogeny is taken into account. We found that arid species had lower rates of total evaporative water loss than mesic species when using a dichotomous variable to describe habitat (arid or mesic). We also found that total evaporative water loss was negatively correlated with the average maximum and minimum environmental temperature as well as the maximum vapor pressure deficit of the environment. Annual precipitation and the variable Q (a measure of habitat aridity) were positively correlated with total evaporative water loss. These results support the hypothesis that desert-dwelling mammals have lower rates of total evaporative water loss than mesic species after controlling for body mass and evolutionary relatedness regardless of whether categorical or continuous variables are used to describe habitat.

  14. Correlation and persistence of hunting and logging impacts on tropical rainforest mammals.

    Brodie, Jedediah F; Giordano, Anthony J; Zipkin, Elise F; Bernard, Henry; Mohd-Azlan, Jayasilan; Ambu, Laurentius

    2015-02-01

    Humans influence tropical rainforest animals directly via exploitation and indirectly via habitat disturbance. Bushmeat hunting and logging occur extensively in tropical forests and have large effects on particular species. But how they alter animal diversity across landscape scales and whether their impacts are correlated across species remain less known. We used spatially widespread measurements of mammal occurrence across Malaysian Borneo and recently developed multispecies hierarchical models to assess the species richness of medium- to large-bodied terrestrial mammals while accounting for imperfect detection of all species. Hunting was associated with 31% lower species richness. Moreover, hunting remained high even where richness was very low, highlighting that hunting pressure persisted even in chronically overhunted areas. Newly logged sites had 11% lower species richness than unlogged sites, but sites logged >10 years previously had richness levels similar to those in old-growth forest. Hunting was a more serious long-term threat than logging for 91% of primate and ungulate species. Hunting and logging impacts across species were not correlated across taxa. Negative impacts of hunting were the greatest for common mammalian species, but commonness versus rarity was not related to species-specific impacts of logging. Direct human impacts appeared highly persistent and lead to defaunation of certain areas. These impacts were particularly severe for species of ecological importance as seed dispersers and herbivores. Indirect impacts were also strong but appeared to attenuate more rapidly than previously thought. The lack of correlation between direct and indirect impacts across species highlights that multifaceted conservation strategies may be needed for mammal conservation in tropical rainforests, Earth's most biodiverse ecosystems. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Effects of selective logging on large mammal populations in a remote indigenous territory in the northern Peruvian Amazon

    Pedro Mayor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of selective timber logging carried out by local indigenous people in remote areas within indigenous territories on the mammal populations of the Yavari-Mirin River basin on the Peru-Brazil border. Recent findings show that habitat change in the study area is minimal, and any effect of logging activities on large mammal populations is highly likely to be the result of hunting associated with logging operations. We used hunting registers to estimate the monthly and yearly biomass extracted during timber operations and to calculate the catch per unit effort (CPUE in subsistence hunting in the community of Esperanza 2 to 5 years before logging activities started and 4 to 7 years after logging began. We also used line transects and the distance method to estimate animal densities before and after logging. We found that 1389 hunted animals and 27,459 kg of mammal biomass were extracted per year from logging concessions. CPUE for ungulates declined; however, it increased for other mammal orders, such as rodents and primates, indicating a shift to alternative prey items. Although collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu and tapirs (Tapirus terrestris may also have declined in numbers, this shift may have been caused by a possibly natural population crash in white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari that coincided with the logging periods. We found no evidence that populations of primates were reduced by the logging activities. Because primates are sensitive to hunting, and their populations were of principal concern as logging commenced, this indicates that these forests remain of high conservation value. The unusual socioeconomic situation of these remote territories may mean that they are compatible with wildlife conservation in the Yavari-Mirin basin.

  16. List of recent land mammals from Mexico, 2014

    Ramirez-Pulido, Jose; Gonzalez-Ruiz, Noe; Gardner, Alfred L.; Arroyo-Cabrales, Joaquin

    2014-01-01

    We provide an updated list of the Recent land mammals of Mexico and include information on the taxonomy of certain species, and where appropriate, the endemic and threatened status of all species listed. Several taxonomic and nomenclatural changes have been made since publication of the last list of the Mexican terrestrial mammalian fauna. Within the period from 2005 to present, there have been at least 209 changes concerning the nomenclature of this fauna; these we evaluated in this paper. The land mammals of Mexico comprise 168 genera, 496 species, and 881 subspecies.

  17. Distribution of mammals in Albania

    Claudio Prigioni

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Some 63 species have been recorded in Albania from 1950 to 1994, with the exclusion of Cetacea. Another 15 species, including 5 found on the eastern border between Albania and Greece, are considered probably present. Hence 78 species could occur in Albania. According to IUCN red list of threatened animals, 8 species are defined as vulnerable, 15 as lower risk and one (the Mediterranean monk seal as critically endangered. In Albania, the legal protection of mammals includes all bat species, carnivores (except the stone marten, the red fox and the wolf, the chamois, the roe deer and the Mediterranean monk seal. General information on the distributional pattern and the population size is reported for some species, mainly carnivores.

  18. A universal scaling relationship between body mass and proximal limb bone dimensions in quadrupedal terrestrial tetrapods.

    Campione, Nicolás E; Evans, David C

    2012-07-10

    Body size is intimately related to the physiology and ecology of an organism. Therefore, accurate and consistent body mass estimates are essential for inferring numerous aspects of paleobiology in extinct taxa, and investigating large-scale evolutionary and ecological patterns in the history of life. Scaling relationships between skeletal measurements and body mass in birds and mammals are commonly used to predict body mass in extinct members of these crown clades, but the applicability of these models for predicting mass in more distantly related stem taxa, such as non-avian dinosaurs and non-mammalian synapsids, has been criticized on biomechanical grounds. Here we test the major criticisms of scaling methods for estimating body mass using an extensive dataset of mammalian and non-avian reptilian species derived from individual skeletons with live weights. Significant differences in the limb scaling of mammals and reptiles are noted in comparisons of limb proportions and limb length to body mass. Remarkably, however, the relationship between proximal (stylopodial) limb bone circumference and body mass is highly conserved in extant terrestrial mammals and reptiles, in spite of their disparate limb postures, gaits, and phylogenetic histories. As a result, we are able to conclusively reject the main criticisms of scaling methods that question the applicability of a universal scaling equation for estimating body mass in distantly related taxa. The conserved nature of the relationship between stylopodial circumference and body mass suggests that the minimum diaphyseal circumference of the major weight-bearing bones is only weakly influenced by the varied forces exerted on the limbs (that is, compression or torsion) and most strongly related to the mass of the animal. Our results, therefore, provide a much-needed, robust, phylogenetically corrected framework for accurate and consistent estimation of body mass in extinct terrestrial quadrupeds, which is important for a

  19. A universal scaling relationship between body mass and proximal limb bone dimensions in quadrupedal terrestrial tetrapods

    Campione Nicolás E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body size is intimately related to the physiology and ecology of an organism. Therefore, accurate and consistent body mass estimates are essential for inferring numerous aspects of paleobiology in extinct taxa, and investigating large-scale evolutionary and ecological patterns in the history of life. Scaling relationships between skeletal measurements and body mass in birds and mammals are commonly used to predict body mass in extinct members of these crown clades, but the applicability of these models for predicting mass in more distantly related stem taxa, such as non-avian dinosaurs and non-mammalian synapsids, has been criticized on biomechanical grounds. Here we test the major criticisms of scaling methods for estimating body mass using an extensive dataset of mammalian and non-avian reptilian species derived from individual skeletons with live weights. Results Significant differences in the limb scaling of mammals and reptiles are noted in comparisons of limb proportions and limb length to body mass. Remarkably, however, the relationship between proximal (stylopodial limb bone circumference and body mass is highly conserved in extant terrestrial mammals and reptiles, in spite of their disparate limb postures, gaits, and phylogenetic histories. As a result, we are able to conclusively reject the main criticisms of scaling methods that question the applicability of a universal scaling equation for estimating body mass in distantly related taxa. Conclusions The conserved nature of the relationship between stylopodial circumference and body mass suggests that the minimum diaphyseal circumference of the major weight-bearing bones is only weakly influenced by the varied forces exerted on the limbs (that is, compression or torsion and most strongly related to the mass of the animal. Our results, therefore, provide a much-needed, robust, phylogenetically corrected framework for accurate and consistent estimation of body mass in

  20. Validity of fish, birds and mammals as surrogates for amphibians and reptiles in pesticide toxicity assessment.

    Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Maia, Joao P; Egea-Serrano, Andrés; Lopes, Isabel

    2018-02-28

    Amphibians and reptiles are the two most endangered groups of vertebrates. Environmental pollution by pesticides is recognised as one of the major factors threatening populations of these groups. However, the effects of pesticides on amphibians and reptiles have been studied for few substances, which is partly related to the fact that these animals are not included in the mandatory toxicity testing conducted as part of environmental risk assessments of pesticides. Whether risks of pesticides to amphibians and reptiles are addressed by surrogate taxa used in risk assessment is currently under debate. In order to develop a scientifically sound and robust risk assessment scheme, information needs to be gathered to examine whether fish, birds and mammals are valid surrogates for amphibians and reptiles. We updated a systematic review of scientific literature that was recently published compiling toxicity data on amphibians and reptiles. The outcome of this review was analysed with the purposes to (1) compare endpoints from amphibians and reptiles with the available information from fish, birds and mammals, and (2) develop species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for those substances tested in at least six amphibian species (no substances were found tested in at least six reptile species) to identify a candidate amphibian model species to be used as surrogate in risk assessment. A positive correlation was found between toxicity recorded on fish and amphibians, the former revealing, in general, to be more sensitive than the latter to waterborne pollutants. In the terrestrial environment, although birds and mammals were more sensitive than amphibians and reptiles to at least 60% of tested substances, just a few weak significant correlations were observed. As a general rule, homoeothermic vertebrates are not good surrogates for reptiles and terrestrial amphibians in pesticide risk assessment. However, some chemical-dependent trends were detected, with pyrethroids and

  1. Aggregated Transfer Factors For Small Mammals Collected From the Exposed Sediments Of A 137 Cs Contaminated Reservoir

    Paller, Michael H.; Jannika, G. Timothy; Wike, Lynn D

    2005-10-04

    {sup 137}Cs transfer factors were computed for small mammals collected from the dried sediment areas of a partially drained, contaminated reservoir. Soil {sup 137}Cs concentrations were heterogeneous on small and large spatial scales, with a geometric mean of 253.1 Bq/kg dry weight. About 50% of the variance in cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus tissue {sup 137}Cs levels was explained by variation in soil {sup 137}Cs levels. Soil to animal transfer factors (whole body dry weight) averaged 6.0 for cotton rats and 1.2 for cotton mice Peromyscus gossypinus. These values are similar to {sup 137}Cs transfer factors for herbivorous, homeothermic animals from other contaminated ecosystems. Site-specific transfer factors can significantly affect the estimation of dose. In the RESRAD-BIOTA dose model, the default transfer factor for {sup 137}Cs in terrestrial animals is 110 resulting in an estimate of radiation dose to terrestrial biota that is 16 times more than the dose calculated with the actual measured transfer factor.

  2. The Mammals of Suriname

    Husson, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    The knowledge of the fauna of Suriname is of essential importance in the study of the neotropical Mammalia. The first publications containing information on mammals of Suriname appeared very early in the history of European exploration of South America. Such publications were relatively numerous in

  3. The Mammals of the

    1984, 19(4). Book Review. The Mammals of the. Southern Mrican. Subregiol1. Reay H.N. Smithers. University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 1983. 736 pp. Price RIOO. A major new work ... of wild horses with separate profIles of two subspecies of mountain ... broader problems of ecological adaptation and evolutionary history which ...

  4. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Mississippi: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for Louisiana black bear, Northern raccoon, river otter, rice rat, Eastern pipistrel, and muskrat in...

  5. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for brown bears in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea includes marine and coastal areas of Bristol Bay...

  6. U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammals)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Virgin Islands. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  7. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for northern river otter, mink, muskrat, and beaver for Long Island, New York. Vector polygons in this data...

  8. Golfo de Fonseca ESI; Honduras and Nicaragua: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammals)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Golfo de Fonseca. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  9. Isotopic and anatomical evidence of an herbivorous diet in the Early Tertiary giant bird Gastornis. Implications for the structure of Paleocene terrestrial ecosystems

    Angst, D.; Lécuyer, C.; Amiot, R.; Buffetaut, E.; Fourel, F.; Martineau, F.; Legendre, S.; Abourachid, A.; Herrel, A.

    2014-04-01

    The mode of life of the early Tertiary giant bird Gastornis has long been a matter of controversy. Although it has often been reconstructed as an apex predator feeding on small mammals, according to other interpretations, it was in fact a large herbivore. To determine the diet of this bird, we analyze here the carbon isotope composition of the bone apatite from Gastornis and contemporaneous herbivorous mammals. Based on 13C-enrichment measured between carbonate and diet of carnivorous and herbivorous modern birds, the carbonate δ13C values of Gastornis bone remains, recovered from four Paleocene and Eocene French localities, indicate that this bird fed on plants. This is confirmed by a morphofunctional study showing that the reconstructed jaw musculature of Gastornis was similar to that of living herbivorous birds and unlike that of carnivorous forms. The herbivorous Gastornis was the largest terrestrial tetrapod in the Paleocene biota of Europe, unlike the situation in North America and Asia, where Gastornis is first recorded in the early Eocene, and the largest Paleocene animals were herbivorous mammals. The structure of the Paleocene terrestrial ecosystems of Europe may have been similar to that of some large islands, notably Madagascar, prior to the arrival of humans.

  10. Response of wild mammals to seasonal shrinking-and-expansion of habitats due to flooding regime of the Pantanal, Brazil

    S. B. Mamede

    Full Text Available The Pantanal is a large savanna wetland (138,183 km² in Brazil, important for its wildlife, fed by tributaries of the upper Paraguay River, center of South America (Brazil, touching Bolivia and Paraguay. Uplands are plateaus (250-1,200 m high, 215,000 km² in Brazil and flatland is the Pantanal (80-150 m high, 147,574 km² in Brazil. Rivers are slow moving when they meet the flatland (slope 0.3-0.5 m/km east-west; 0.03-0.15 m/km north-south, periodically overflowing their banks, creating a complex seasonal habitat range. Recurrent shallow flooding occupies 80% of the Pantanal; during the dry season flooded areas dry up. Fluctuating water levels, nutrients and wildlife form a dynamic ecosystem. A flooding regime forms distinct sub-regions within the Pantanal. A mammal survey was carried out in the sub-region of the Rio Negro from April, 2003 through March, 2004 to study the diversity and abundance of terrestrial mammals during the dry and flooding seasons. A total of 36 species were observed in the field. The capybara Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris was the most frequent species, followed by the crab-eating-fox Cerdocyon thous and the marsh deer Blastocerus dichotomus. The highest abundance of species was observed during the dry season (August and September, when there is a considerable expansion of terrestrial habitats, mainly seasonally flooded grassland. Animal abundance (in terms of observed individual frequencies varied during the dry and wet seasons and the seasonally flooded grassland was the most utilized habitat by mammals in the dry season.

  11. 76 FR 76949 - Marine Mammals

    2011-12-09

    ...-XR52 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric.... 14534 is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216...

  12. 75 FR 68605 - Marine Mammals

    2010-11-08

    ...-XX23 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... permit to conduct research on marine mammals. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are available... applicant. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of...

  13. 77 FR 2512 - Marine Mammals

    2012-01-18

    ...-XA905 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal Foundation, 2240 Shelter Island Drive, 200, San Diego, CA... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended...

  14. 77 FR 14352 - Marine Mammals

    2012-03-09

    ...-XB065 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  15. 75 FR 77616 - Marine Mammals

    2010-12-13

    .... 14334] Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  16. Physiological Monitoring in Diving Mammals

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Physiological Monitoring in Diving Mammals Andreas...825-2025 email: andreas.fahlman@tamucc.edu Peter L. Tyack School of Biology Sea Mammal Research Unit Scottish Oceans Institute...OBJECTIVES This project is separated into three aims: Aim 1: Develop a new generation of tags/data logger for marine mammals that will

  17. 76 FR 38621 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    2011-07-01

    ... mammal is sighted: (i) Species, group size, age/size/sex categories (if determinable), behavior when...) involved; Fate of the animal(s); and Photographs or video footage of the animal(s) (if equipment is... provide photographs or video footage (if available) or other documentation of the stranded animal sighting...

  18. Thermodynamic Limits of Body Dimension of Warm Blooded Animals

    Ahlborn, Boye K.

    2000-05-01

    The metabolic rates Г o = aoM 0.73 [W], a 0 = 3.6, of animals of different body masses M [kg] determines their heat production Q' and their mechanical power output P. The metabolic heat production of small warm blooded animals living in a cold environment sets lower size limits for the body mass of birds and terrestrial mammals of Mt,b ≥ 0.01 kg and Maq ≥ 10 kg for fast aquatic mammals. Birds must travel at the speed υfl = 15M 1/6 [m/s] in order to stay aloft, but their muscles only generate the metabolic velocity υ Г ≤≈ 50M -0.25 [m/s]. These conditions yield an upper body size limit for flying birds: Mb ,max ≤ 15 kg. Walking speeds scale with body mass as υ walk ∝ M 1/6, while propagation speeds for endurance running are nearly independent of body mass. This makes walking faster than endurance running for animals with body masses M ≥ 600 kg.

  19. 78 FR 60852 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Construction of the East Span of the...

    2013-10-02

    ... marine mammals to experience TTS or PTS, the animals have to be close enough to be exposed to high... sighting; (6) behavior of marine animals sighted; (7) direction of travel; (8) when in relation to... animal. In addition, the reports will include an estimate of the number and species of marine mammals...

  20. 78 FR 2371 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Construction of the East Span of the...

    2013-01-11

    ... which case the animal's hearing threshold will recover over time (Southall et al. 2007). Since marine... re 1 [mu]Pa (RMS) at 1 m. However, in order for marine mammals to experience TTS or PTS, the animals... numbers of marine mammals observed, time and location of observation and behavior of the animal. In...

  1. 75 FR 3395 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; U.S. Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division...

    2010-01-21

    ... and at least 200 yards (183 m) from marine mammals other than whales, and avoid approaching animals...) behavior of marine animals sighted; (7) direction of travel; (8) environmental information associated with... of marine animals. These transect data will provide an opportunity to collect data of marine mammals...

  2. Use of the intestinal parasite community of Sigmodon hispidus as a biomonitor in terrestrial systems

    Faulkner, B.C.; Lochmiller, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the potential usefulness of parasite communities of small mammals as an endpoint for community level risk assessment in terrestrial ecosystems. A total of 350 wild cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) were collected from a Superfund site in southwestern Oklahoma between fall 1993 and fall 1995. Three contaminated study sites, representing common petrochemical disposal methods and all containing complex mixtures of contaminants, including arsenic, lead, fluoride, phenols, and hydrocarbons, were monitored seasonally. Animals were collected and gastrointestinal contents were examined grossly and microscopically for helminths and coccidial parasites. All parasites were identified to species and enumerated so that measurable alterations of the parasite community structure could be established. The authors also sampled possible intermediate host communities concurrently with Sigmodon collections. Structural characteristics of the parasite communities were compared between replicated toxic and reference study sites

  3. Levels and transfer of 210Po and 210Pb in Nordic terrestrial ecosystems

    Brown, J.E.; Gjelsvik, R.; Roos, Per

    2011-01-01

    concentrations of the main dose forming radionuclides 210Po and 210Pb in biota from terrestrial ecosystems thus providing insight into the behaviour of these radioisotopes. Samples of soil, plants and animals were collected at Dovrefjell, Central Norway and Olkiluoto, Finland. Soil profiles from Dovrefjell...... exhibited an approximately exponential fall in 210Pb activity concentrations from elevated levels in humus/surface soils to “supported” levels at depth. Activity concentrations of 210Po in fauna (invertebrates, mammals, birds) ranged between 2 and 123 Bq kg−1 d.w. and in plants and lichens between 20...... and 138 Bq kg−1 d.w.. The results showed that soil humus is an important reservoir for 210Po and 210Pb and that fauna in close contact with this media may also exhibit elevated levels of 210Po. Concentration ratios appear to have limited applicability with regards to prediction of activity concentrations...

  4. Animal welfare and use of silkworm as a model animal.

    Sekimizu, N; Paudel, A; Hamamoto, H

    2012-08-01

    Sacrificing model animals is required for developing effective drugs before being used in human beings. In Japan today, at least 4,210,000 mice and other mammals are sacrificed to a total of 6,140,000 per year for the purpose of medical studies. All the animals treated in Japan, including test animals, are managed under control of "Act on Welfare and Management of Animals". Under the principle of this Act, no person shall kill, injure, or inflict cruelty on animals without due cause. "Animal" addressed in the Act can be defined as a "vertebrate animal". If we can make use of invertebrate animals in testing instead of vertebrate ones, that would be a remarkable solution for the issue of animal welfare. Furthermore, there are numerous advantages of using invertebrate animal models: less space and small equipment are enough for taking care of a large number of animals and thus are cost-effective, they can be easily handled, and many biological processes and genes are conserved between mammals and invertebrates. Today, many invertebrates have been used as animal models, but silkworms have many beneficial traits compared to mammals as well as other insects. In a Genome Pharmaceutical Institute's study, we were able to achieve a lot making use of silkworms as model animals. We would like to suggest that pharmaceutical companies and institutes consider the use of the silkworm as a model animal which is efficacious both for financial value by cost cutting and ethical aspects in animals' welfare.

  5. Global mammal distributions, biodiversity hotspots, and conservation.

    Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R

    2006-12-19

    Hotspots, which have played a central role in the selection of sites for reserves, require careful rethinking. We carried out a global examination of distributions of all nonmarine mammals to determine patterns of species richness, endemism, and endangerment, and to evaluate the degree of congruence among hotspots of these three measures of diversity in mammals. We then compare congruence of hotspots in two animal groups (mammals and birds) to assess the generality of these patterns. We defined hotspots as the richest 2.5% of cells in a global equal-area grid comparable to 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude. Hotspots of species richness, "endemism," and extinction threat were noncongruent. Only 1% of cells and 16% of species were common to the three types of mammalian hotspots. Congruence increased with increases in both the geographic scope of the analysis and the percentage of cells defined as being hotspots. The within-mammal hotspot noncongruence was similar to the pattern recently found for birds. Thus, assigning global conservation priorities based on hotspots is at best a limited strategy.

  6. Grazing livestock are exposed to terrestrial cyanobacteria

    McGorum , Bruce C; Pirie , R Scott; Glendinning , Laura; McLachlan , Gerry; Metcalf , James S; Banack , Sandra A; Cox , Paul A; Codd , Geoffrey A

    2015-01-01

    While toxins from aquatic cyanobacteria are a well-recognised cause of disease in birds and animals, exposure of grazing livestock to terrestrial cyanobacteria has not been described. This study identified terrestrial cyanobacteria, predominantly Phormidium spp., in the biofilm of plants from most livestock fields investigated. Lower numbers of other cyanobacteria, microalgae and fungi were present on many plants. Cyanobacterial 16S rDNA, predominantly from Phormidium spp., was detected in al...

  7. Convergent evolution of the genomes of marine mammals

    Foote, Andrew D.; Liu, Yue; Thomas, Gregg W.C.; Vinař, Tomáš; Alföldi, Jessica; Deng, Jixin; Dugan, Shannon; van Elk, Cornelis E.; Hunter, Margaret; Joshi, Vandita; Khan, Ziad; Kovar, Christie; Lee, Sandra L.; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Mancia, Annalaura; Nielsen, Rasmus; Qin, Xiang; Qu, Jiaxin; Raney, Brian J.; Vijay, Nagarjun; Wolf, Jochen B. W.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Muzny, Donna M.; Worley, Kim C.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Marine mammals from different mammalian orders share several phenotypic traits adapted to the aquatic environment and therefore represent a classic example of convergent evolution. To investigate convergent evolution at the genomic level, we sequenced and performed de novo assembly of the genomes of three species of marine mammals (the killer whale, walrus and manatee) from three mammalian orders that share independently evolved phenotypic adaptations to a marine existence. Our comparative genomic analyses found that convergent amino acid substitutions were widespread throughout the genome and that a subset of these substitutions were in genes evolving under positive selection and putatively associated with a marine phenotype. However, we found higher levels of convergent amino acid substitutions in a control set of terrestrial sister taxa to the marine mammals. Our results suggest that, whereas convergent molecular evolution is relatively common, adaptive molecular convergence linked to phenotypic convergence is comparatively rare.

  8. Radionuclides in small mammals of the Saskatchewan prairie, including implications for the boreal forest and Arctic tundra

    Thomas, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The focus of the study reported was to collect and examine baseline data on radionuclides in small prairie mammal food chains and to assess the feasibility of using small mammals as radionuclide monitors in terrestrial ecosystems, in anticipation of possible future nuclear developments in northern Saskatchewan and the Northwest Territories. The study report begins with a literature review that summarizes existing data on radionuclides in small mammals, their food, the ambient environment in Canadian terrestrial ecosystems, principles of terrestrial radioecology, soil and vegetation studies, and food chain studies. It then describes a field study conducted to investigate small mammal food chains at three southwestern Saskatchewan prairie sites. Activities included collection and analysis of water, soil, grains, and foliage samples; trapping of small mammals such as mice and voles, and analysis of gastrointestinal tract samples; and determination of food chain transfer of selected radionuclides from soil to plants and to small mammals. Recommendations are made for future analyses and monitoring of small mammals. Appendices include information on radiochemical methods, soil/vegetation studies and small mammal studies conducted at northern Saskatchewan mine sites, and analyses of variance

  9. North Spain (Burgos wild mammals ectoparasites

    Domínguez G.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-seven species of arthropods were collected from 105 wild mammals, six wolves Canis lupus (Linnaeus, 1758 included. A total of 87 animals (82,8 % harboured some ectoparasites. Ticks were found in 60 % of the samples, fleas in 51.4 %, chewing-lice in 3.8 %, and others (Mesostigmata and hippoboscids in 3.8 %. Moreover, 42.5 % were single infestation and 57.5 % mixed. Some of the species were new records for a host in spanish country such as Trichodectes canis (De Géer, 1778, Ixodes trianguliceps (Birula, 1895, Ceralophyllus (Monopsyllus S. sciurorum (Schrank, 1803 and Paraceras melis melis (Walker, 1856 on several mammals. Two species were new records for Spain: Chaetopsylla matina (Jordan, 1925 and Archaeopsylla erinacei erinacei (Bouché, 1835.

  10. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in small mammals from the Ardennes region, France.

    Afonso, Eve; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Lemoine, Mélissa; Villena, Isabelle; Aubert, Dominique; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle

    2007-11-01

    Serum samples from 218 small mammals trapped in forest and grassland in the Ardennes region (North-eastern France) were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. Using the modified agglutination test, positive results were found in 4/92 Apodemus sp., 3/64 Clethrionomys glareolus, 0/26 Microtus agrestis, 0/4 Micromys minutus, 3/5 Sorex sp., 2/9 Arvicola terrestris, and 7/18 Talpa europaea. Toxoplasma gondii was not isolated from the heart of seropositive individuals after bioassay in mice. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in large fossorial mammals living in grassland than in small forest mammals, probably related to ecological factors.

  11. Distribution of 137Cs among individuals in fish and mammal populations in Chornobyl

    Smith, M.; Glenn, T.; Oleksyk, T.; Gashchak, S.; Zalissky, A.

    2001-01-01

    The frequency distribution of 137 Cs in populations of fish and mammals is not normal, because there is a strong relationship between the standard deviation and the mean of the distributions for both fish and mammals. The distribution for mammals is more skewed than for fish. These two types of vertebrates probably use their environment in fundamentally different ways and/or 137 Cs is distributed more heterogeneously in terrestrial than in aquatic environments. The greatest risk from the contaminant is confined to a few individuals in each population

  12. Inventory of mammals at Forsmark and Haallnaes

    Truve, Johan

    2012-08-01

    A selection of terrestrial mammals was surveyed in the SKB site investigation areas near Forsmark and Haallnaes between January and April 2012. The methods that were used include snow tracking along line transects, snow tracking along water, aerial survey and fecal pellet counts. The same species were found in 2012 as in previous surveys performed in 2002, 2003 and 2007. Some species show a large variation in density between years and it is difficult to draw any conclusions about their long term development. Several carnivores, i.e. lynx, fox and otter show a positive growth rate in both areas. The wild boar population is also growing whilst moose density remains fairly stable and roe deer are becoming less numerous

  13. 77 FR 27189 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey...

    2012-05-09

    ... information when a marine mammal is sighted: (i) Species, group size, age/size/sex categories (if determinable... about the sighting will be recorded: 1. Species, group size, age/size/sex categories (if determinable... animal(s) involved; Fate of the animal(s); and Photographs or video footage of the animal(s) (if...

  14. Energetic tradeoffs control the size distribution of aquatic mammals

    Gearty, William; McClain, Craig R.; Payne, Jonathan L.

    2018-04-01

    Four extant lineages of mammals have invaded and diversified in the water: Sirenia, Cetacea, Pinnipedia, and Lutrinae. Most of these aquatic clades are larger bodied, on average, than their closest land-dwelling relatives, but the extent to which potential ecological, biomechanical, and physiological controls contributed to this pattern remains untested quantitatively. Here, we use previously published data on the body masses of 3,859 living and 2,999 fossil mammal species to examine the evolutionary trajectories of body size in aquatic mammals through both comparative phylogenetic analysis and examination of the fossil record. Both methods indicate that the evolution of an aquatic lifestyle is driving three of the four extant aquatic mammal clades toward a size attractor at ˜500 kg. The existence of this body size attractor and the relatively rapid selection toward, and limited deviation from, this attractor rule out most hypothesized drivers of size increase. These three independent body size increases and a shared aquatic optimum size are consistent with control by differences in the scaling of energetic intake and cost functions with body size between the terrestrial and aquatic realms. Under this energetic model, thermoregulatory costs constrain minimum size, whereas limitations on feeding efficiency constrain maximum size. The optimum size occurs at an intermediate value where thermoregulatory costs are low but feeding efficiency remains high. Rather than being released from size pressures, water-dwelling mammals are driven and confined to larger body sizes by the strict energetic demands of the aquatic medium.

  15. Communication masking in marine mammals: A review and research strategy.

    Erbe, Christine; Reichmuth, Colleen; Cunningham, Kane; Lucke, Klaus; Dooling, Robert

    2016-02-15

    Underwater noise, whether of natural or anthropogenic origin, has the ability to interfere with the way in which marine mammals receive acoustic signals (i.e., for communication, social interaction, foraging, navigation, etc.). This phenomenon, termed auditory masking, has been well studied in humans and terrestrial vertebrates (in particular birds), but less so in marine mammals. Anthropogenic underwater noise seems to be increasing in parts of the world's oceans and concerns about associated bioacoustic effects, including masking, are growing. In this article, we review our understanding of masking in marine mammals, summarise data on marine mammal hearing as they relate to masking (including audiograms, critical ratios, critical bandwidths, and auditory integration times), discuss masking release processes of receivers (including comodulation masking release and spatial release from masking) and anti-masking strategies of signalers (e.g. Lombard effect), and set a research framework for improved assessment of potential masking in marine mammals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Some effects of pollutants in terrestrial ecosystems

    Stickel, W.H.; McIntyre, A.D.; Mills, C.F.

    1975-01-01

    occur when persistent chemicals enter organisms that eliminate them poorly. However, loss of chemicals in the food chain must be more common than accumulation. The great concentration from water to aquatic organism is chiefly a physical phenomenon, not a food chain effect, but it affords high starting levels for these chains. Terrestrial food chains often start at a high level with heavily contaminated, struggling prey. Litter feeders are another important base. Vegetation may be contaminated enough to be dangerous to animals that eat it. Dermal and respiratory routes of intoxication occur in the wild, but the oral route is far more important at most times and places. The organisms that govern soil fertility and texture are affected more by cultivation than by pesticides. Above ground, growing knowledge of resistance, species differences, and biological controls is leading to integrated control, in which use of chemicals is limited and specific. We do not know what is happening to most nontarget invertebrates. Amphibians and reptiles may be killed by applications of insecticides, but are not highly sensitive and can carry large residues. Effects of these residues on reproduction are little known. Heavy kills of birds by pesticides still occur in the field. Fish-eating and bird-eating birds also undergo shell thinning and related reproductive troubles in many areas, sometimes to the point of population decline and local or regional extermination. DDE most often correlates with shell thinning in the wild and in experiments. No other known chemical approaches DDE in causing severe and lasting shell thinning. Herbivorous birds seem to be largely immune to this effect. It is uncertain how much dieldrin and PCBs contribute to embryotoxicity in carnivorous birds. Mammals may be killed by the more toxic pesticides, but some of the commonest small rodents are so resistant, and lose their residues so rapidly, that they are of little

  17. Characterizing Terrestrial Exoplanets

    Meadows, V. S.; Lustig-Yaeger, J.; Lincowski, A.; Arney, G. N.; Robinson, T. D.; Schwieterman, E. W.; Deming, L. D.; Tovar, G.

    2017-11-01

    We will provide an overview of the measurements, techniques, and upcoming missions required to characterize terrestrial planet environments and evolution, and search for signs of habitability and life.

  18. The blastema and epimorphic regeneration in mammals.

    Seifert, Ashley W; Muneoka, Ken

    2018-01-15

    Studying regeneration in animals where and when it occurs is inherently interesting and a challenging research topic within developmental biology. Historically, vertebrate regeneration has been investigated in animals that display enhanced regenerative abilities and we have learned much from studying organ regeneration in amphibians and fish. From an applied perspective, while regeneration biologists will undoubtedly continue to study poikilothermic animals (i.e., amphibians and fish), studies focused on homeotherms (i.e., mammals and birds) are also necessary to advance regeneration biology. Emerging mammalian models of epimorphic regeneration are poised to help link regenerative biology and regenerative medicine. The regenerating rodent digit tip, which parallels human fingertip regeneration, and the regeneration of large circular defects through the ear pinna in spiny mice and rabbits, provide tractable, experimental systems where complex tissue structures are regrown through blastema formation and morphogenesis. Using these models as examples, we detail similarities and differences between the mammalian blastema and its classical counterpart to arrive at a broad working definition of a vertebrate regeneration blastema. This comparison leads us to conclude that regenerative failure is not related to the availability of regeneration-competent progenitor cells, but is most likely a function of the cellular response to the microenvironment that forms following traumatic injury. Recent studies demonstrating that targeted modification of this microenvironment can restrict or enhance regenerative capabilities in mammals helps provide a roadmap for eventually pushing the limits of human regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mammal Evolution, an mustrated Guide

    Mammal Evolution, an mustrated Guide. R.J.G. Savage and M.R. Long. British Museum of Natural ... structural anatomy of fossils can be related to their probable function. The body of the text discusses the ... gnawers, rooters and browsers, mammals on island continents, hoofed herbivores and ftnally primate evolution,.

  20. 78 FR 34047 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and...

    2013-06-06

    ... levels for these animals may be estimated using TTS data from marine mammals and relationships between... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Activities at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  1. 75 FR 69295 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Navy Training Activities Conducted Within the Northwest...

    2010-11-10

    ..., Effects of Sound on Hearing of Marine Animals, and Passive Acoustic Detection, Classification, and... Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Navy Training Activities Conducted Within the Northwest Training... Administration 50 CFR Part 218 [Docket No. 0906101030-0489-03] RIN 0648-AX88 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals...

  2. 78 FR 47282 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and...

    2013-08-05

    ..., and location) and marine mammal and/or indicator presence, species, number of animals, their behavior... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Activities at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  3. Rules of attraction: The role of bait in small mammal sampling at ...

    Baits or lures are commonly used for surveying small mammal communities, not only because they attract large numbers of these animals, but also because they provide sustenance for trapped individuals. In this study we used Sherman live traps with five bait treatments to sample small mammal populations at three ...

  4. Trap-induced mass declines in small mammals: Mass as a population index

    Dean E. Pearson; Yvette K. Ortega; Leonard F. Ruggiero

    2003-01-01

    Body mass is routinely used as an index of physical condition for comparing small-mammal populations. However, trapping effects on animals may undermine the effectiveness of body mass as an index of population health. We examined the effects of live-trapping on body mass of 3 small-mammal species: deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), southern red-...

  5. 77 FR 43238 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Training Conducted at the Silver...

    2012-07-24

    ... which case the animal's hearing threshold will recover over time (Southall et al. 2007). Since marine... et al. 2002). However, in order for marine mammals to experience TTS or PTS, the animals have to be... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Training Conducted at the Silver Strand Training...

  6. 76 FR 7156 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Construction of the East Span of the...

    2011-02-09

    ... whale. If no marine mammals are seen by the observer in that time it would be assumed that the animal... of marine animals sighted; (7) Direction of travel; (8) Environmental information associated with... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Construction of the East Span of the San Francisco...

  7. 78 FR 42042 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; U.S. Marine Corps Training Exercises...

    2013-07-15

    ... of marine mammals (e.g., milling, travel, social, foraging); (4) location and relative distance from... principal marine mammal stranding networks and other media to correlate analysis of any dolphin strandings... strike if the animal has disappeared), and whether the animal is alive or dead (or unknown); Report to us...

  8. Introduced Terrestrial Species Richness

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all introduced mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies in the Middle-Atlantic region. These data...

  9. Survey of protected terrestrial vertebrates on the Oak Ridge Reservation. Final report

    Mitchell, J.M.; Vail, E.R.; Webb, J.W.; Evans, J.W. [and others

    1996-07-01

    This document is the final report on surveys of protected terrestrial vertebrates on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) conducted from October 1994 through May 1996. The surveys were undertaken to gain information that could help prevent or minimize the potential impacts of projects on the ORR to species listed by the state or federal government as endangered, threatened, or in need of management; federal species of concern were also included. The results of the survey will assist in the effective management of the natural resources of the ORR. Currently, there are 69 species of federal or state listed terrestrial vertebrates (20 reptiles and amphibians, 20 mammals, and 29 birds) that may occur in Tennessee. Listed animal species that might be present on the ORR were targeted for survey using a prioritization system based on historical and recent sightings, known species distributions, presence of suitable habitat, literature reviews, and personal communications. Survey methods included trapping, seining, monitoring of artificial covers, active searching, and avian surveys. Surveys were conducted during the time of year when each targeted species was most likely to be encountered. The surveys confirmed the presence of 20 threatened and endangered species on the ORR. This report also includes some ancillary information. Records are provided for nonlisted species (44 species of reptiles and amphibians, 155 species of birds, and 28 species of mammals). Categorization of survey sites into 1 or more of 19 habitat types, which are briefly described, is presented. Notes are summarized on the occurrence of threatened and endangered species on the ORR. Finally, this report also lists threatened and endangered species not found that might be located by additional surveys, recommends three survey areas for natural-area status due to wildlife value, and suggests several avenues for future work.

  10. Survey of protected terrestrial vertebrates on the Oak Ridge Reservation. Final report

    Mitchell, J.M.; Vail, E.R.; Webb, J.W.; King, A.L.; Hamlett, P.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Restoration Div.

    1996-05-01

    Surveys of protected terrestrial vertebrates on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were conducted from October 1994 through May 1996. The surveys were undertaken to help avoid or minimize the potential impacts of projects on the ORR to species listed by the state or federal government as endangered, threatened, or in need-of-management; federal species of concern were included. Results of the survey will also assist in effectively managing the ORR. Currently, there are 69 species of federal- or state-listed terrestrial vertebrates (20 reptiles and amphibians, 20 mammals, and 29 birds) that may occur in Tennessee. Listed animal species that might be present on the ORR were targeted for survey using a prioritization system based on historical and recent sightings, known species distributions, presence of suitable habitat, literature reviews, and personal communications. Survey methods included trapping, seining, monitoring artificial covers, active searching, and avian surveys. Surveys were conducted during the time of year when each targeted species was most likely to be encountered. The report also includes ancillary information. Records are provided for nonlisted species (44 species of reptiles and amphibians, 155 species of birds, and 28 species of mammals). Categorization of survey sites into 1 or more of 19 habitat types, which are briefly described, is presented. Notes are summarized on the occurrence of threatened and endangered species on the ORR. The report also lists threatened and endangered species not found that might be located by additional surveys, recommends three survey areas for natural-area status due to wildlife value, and suggests several avenues for future work.

  11. Survey of protected terrestrial vertebrates on the Oak Ridge Reservation. Final report

    Mitchell, J.M.; Vail, E.R.; Webb, J.W.; King, A.L.; Hamlett, P.A.

    1996-05-01

    Surveys of protected terrestrial vertebrates on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were conducted from October 1994 through May 1996. The surveys were undertaken to help avoid or minimize the potential impacts of projects on the ORR to species listed by the state or federal government as endangered, threatened, or in need-of-management; federal species of concern were included. Results of the survey will also assist in effectively managing the ORR. Currently, there are 69 species of federal- or state-listed terrestrial vertebrates (20 reptiles and amphibians, 20 mammals, and 29 birds) that may occur in Tennessee. Listed animal species that might be present on the ORR were targeted for survey using a prioritization system based on historical and recent sightings, known species distributions, presence of suitable habitat, literature reviews, and personal communications. Survey methods included trapping, seining, monitoring artificial covers, active searching, and avian surveys. Surveys were conducted during the time of year when each targeted species was most likely to be encountered. The report also includes ancillary information. Records are provided for nonlisted species (44 species of reptiles and amphibians, 155 species of birds, and 28 species of mammals). Categorization of survey sites into 1 or more of 19 habitat types, which are briefly described, is presented. Notes are summarized on the occurrence of threatened and endangered species on the ORR. The report also lists threatened and endangered species not found that might be located by additional surveys, recommends three survey areas for natural-area status due to wildlife value, and suggests several avenues for future work

  12. Ecological effects and animal risk assessment of radiation pollution in Russia and former USSR

    Krivolutsky, D.

    1995-01-01

    The ecological after-effects of long-term radiation pollution, animal biodiversity changes and life-cycle assessment of model species of soil invertebrates mammals, birds, reptiles have been studied in 1968-1994 in the former USSR (Russia, Ukraine, Kazachstan). There has been observed an initial reduction of animal biodiversity community structure in Kyshtym (south Ural) and Chernobyl polluted areas and a low return to the former ecosystems. The secondary changes and side-effects for the active migrants (insects, birds, mammals) have been registered. The most valid bioindicators and biomarkers of radioactive pollution may be stable populations of reptiles, birds, earthworms, centipede, microarthropods. The radioactive soil pollution exerts the greatest impact on the permanent soil dwelling animals. As direct effects it has been seen the appreciable reduction of population density disturbance of the breeding process, degradation of species diversity community structure. In fact a soil with high level 90 Sr and a radiation 1--3 R/day containing 10-fold reduction of population soil inhabit millipedes earthworms, insect larvae, Enchytraeidae aranea. The accumulation of radionuclides by terrestrial and soil animals effects of trophic levels, zoogenical radionuclides migration have been studied in polluted ecosystems of South Ural and Chernobyl

  13. Thinning effects on spotted owl prey and other forest-dwelling small mammals

    Todd M. Willson; Eric D. Forsman

    2013-01-01

    Th inning has been promoted as a method for accelerating the development of late-seral habitat and improving the overall health and function of young forests in the Pacifi c Northwest. Population studies have shown early and positive responses to thinning by some small forest-floor mammals (primarily mice, terrestrial voles, and shrews). However, thinning reduces the...

  14. V. Terrestrial vertebrates

    Dean Pearson; Deborah Finch

    2011-01-01

    Within the Interior West, terrestrial vertebrates do not represent a large number of invasive species relative to invasive weeds, aquatic vertebrates, and invertebrates. However, several invasive terrestrial vertebrate species do cause substantial economic and ecological damage in the U.S. and in this region (Pimental 2000, 2007; Bergman and others 2002; Finch and...

  15. A live-trap and trapping technique for fossorial mammals

    mammals. G.C. Hickman. An effective live-trap was designed for Cryptomys hottentotus .... that there is an animal in the burrow system, and to lessen the likelihood of the .... the further testing and modification of existing trap types. Not only is it ...

  16. 77 FR 2037 - Marine Mammals; Photography Permit File No. 17032

    2012-01-13

    ... filmmaker hopes to document the behavior of marine animals in the presence of a gray whale carcass. Filming... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA929 Marine Mammals; Photography Permit File No. 17032 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...

  17. 77 FR 24470 - Marine Mammals; Photography Permit File No. 17032

    2012-04-24

    ... behavior of marine animals in the presence of a gray whale carcass. Filming will occur between April and... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA929 Marine Mammals; Photography Permit File No. 17032 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...

  18. 76 FR 56167 - Marine Mammals; Pinniped Removal Authority

    2011-09-12

    ... problem interactions. See http://www.nwr.noaa.gov/Marine-Mammals/Seals-and-Sea-Lions/Sec-120-Authority.cfm... to the pinniped predation problem at Bonneville Dam and is not a na[iuml]ve animal that can be driven... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA681 Marine...

  19. 78 FR 28809 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17410

    2013-05-16

    ... permit has been issued to the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G; Responsible Party: Robert Small... Skidmore, (301) 427-8401. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On September 10, 2012, notice was published in the..., productivity, feeding habits, and health status of marine mammals. No takes of live animals are authorized. The...

  20. Optimising camera traps for monitoring small mammals.

    Alistair S Glen

    Full Text Available Practical techniques are required to monitor invasive animals, which are often cryptic and occur at low density. Camera traps have potential for this purpose, but may have problems detecting and identifying small species. A further challenge is how to standardise the size of each camera's field of view so capture rates are comparable between different places and times. We investigated the optimal specifications for a low-cost camera trap for small mammals. The factors tested were 1 trigger speed, 2 passive infrared vs. microwave sensor, 3 white vs. infrared flash, and 4 still photographs vs. video. We also tested a new approach to standardise each camera's field of view. We compared the success rates of four camera trap designs in detecting and taking recognisable photographs of captive stoats (Mustelaerminea, feral cats (Felis catus and hedgehogs (Erinaceuseuropaeus. Trigger speeds of 0.2-2.1 s captured photographs of all three target species unless the animal was running at high speed. The camera with a microwave sensor was prone to false triggers, and often failed to trigger when an animal moved in front of it. A white flash produced photographs that were more readily identified to species than those obtained under infrared light. However, a white flash may be more likely to frighten target animals, potentially affecting detection probabilities. Video footage achieved similar success rates to still cameras but required more processing time and computer memory. Placing two camera traps side by side achieved a higher success rate than using a single camera. Camera traps show considerable promise for monitoring invasive mammal control operations. Further research should address how best to standardise the size of each camera's field of view, maximise the probability that an animal encountering a camera trap will be detected, and eliminate visible or audible cues emitted by camera traps.

  1. [Mammal bite management].

    Contreras-Marín, Misael; Sandoval-Rodríguez, Jorge Issac; García-Ramírez, Raúl; Morales-Yépez, Héctor Adolfo

    Animal bites are a major public health problem, it is estimated that 2% of the population is bitten each year. Most bites are by dogs and the risk factors include young children, men, certain breeds of dogs and untrained dogs. The risk of infection after bites differs between animal species and depends on the animal teeth and oral flora. Animal bites are still a major cause of morbidity in patients of all ages and have caused several preventable childhood deaths. These wounds often become infected. If the wound requires it, early surgical evaluation must be performed. The use of antibiotics is only recommended for high risk bite wounds. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  2. Eye shape and the nocturnal bottleneck of mammals.

    Hall, Margaret I; Kamilar, Jason M; Kirk, E Christopher

    2012-12-22

    Most vertebrate groups exhibit eye shapes that vary predictably with activity pattern. Nocturnal vertebrates typically have large corneas relative to eye size as an adaptation for increased visual sensitivity. Conversely, diurnal vertebrates generally demonstrate smaller corneas relative to eye size as an adaptation for increased visual acuity. By contrast, several studies have concluded that many mammals exhibit typical nocturnal eye shapes, regardless of activity pattern. However, a recent study has argued that new statistical methods allow eye shape to accurately predict activity patterns of mammals, including cathemeral species (animals that are equally likely to be awake and active at any time of day or night). Here, we conduct a detailed analysis of eye shape and activity pattern in mammals, using a broad comparative sample of 266 species. We find that the eye shapes of cathemeral mammals completely overlap with nocturnal and diurnal species. Additionally, most diurnal and cathemeral mammals have eye shapes that are most similar to those of nocturnal birds and lizards. The only mammalian clade that diverges from this pattern is anthropoids, which have convergently evolved eye shapes similar to those of diurnal birds and lizards. Our results provide additional evidence for a nocturnal 'bottleneck' in the early evolution of crown mammals.

  3. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis in natural populations of mammals.

    Amrein, Irmgard

    2015-05-01

    This review will discuss adult hippocampal neurogenesis in wild mammals of different taxa and outline similarities with and differences from laboratory animals. It begins with a review of evidence for hippocampal neurogenesis in various mammals, and shows the similar patterns of age-dependent decline in cell proliferation in wild and domesticated mammals. In contrast, the pool of immature neurons that originate from proliferative activity varies between species, implying a selective advantage for mammals that can make use of a large number of these functionally special neurons. Furthermore, rapid adaptation of hippocampal neurogenesis to experimental challenges appears to be a characteristic of laboratory rodents. Wild mammals show species-specific, rather stable hippocampal neurogenesis, which appears related to demands that characterize the niche exploited by a species rather than to acute events in the life of its members. Studies that investigate adult neurogenesis in wild mammals are not numerous, but the findings of neurogenesis under natural conditions can provide new insights, and thereby also address the question to which cognitive demands neurogenesis may respond during selection. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  4. Alabama ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for dolphins and manatees in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine mammal distribution...

  5. American Samoa ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for whales and dolphins in American Samoa. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine mammal...

  6. Epigenetic memory in mammals

    Zoe eMigicovsky

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic information can be passed on from one generation to another via DNA methylation, histone modifications and changes in small RNAs, a process called epigenetic memory. During a mammal’s lifecycle epigenetic reprogramming, or the resetting of most epigenetic marks, occurs twice. The first instance of reprogramming occurs in primordial germ cells and the second occurs following fertilization. These processes may be both passive and active. In order for epigenetic inheritance to occur the epigenetic modifications must be able to escape reprogramming. There are several examples supporting this non-Mendelian mechanism of inheritance including the prepacking of early developmental genes in histones instead of protamines in sperm, genomic imprinting via methylation marks, the retention of CenH3 in mammalian sperm and the inheritance of piwi-associated interfering RNAs. The ability of mammals to pass on epigenetic information to their progeny provides clear evidence that inheritance is not restricted to DNA sequence and epigenetics plays a key role in producing viable offspring.

  7. Lead contamination of small mammals from abandoned metalliferous mines

    Roberts, R D [Liverpool Univ.; Johnson, M S; Hutton, M

    1978-01-01

    Spoil tips associated with abandoned non-ferrous mines contain anomalously high levels of heavy metals compared with other contaminated environments. Little attention has been given to the impact of such contaminated environments on terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, lead in soil, vegetation, ground-living invertebrates and indigenous small mammal populations are reported for two derelict mines in Wales. Small mammal body and tissue lead concentrations were markedly elevated compared with control populations and with published data for other lead-contaminated areas. Oedema, intranuclear inclusion bodies and mitochondrial abnormalities--symptoms of clinical plumbism--were identified in kidney tissue in populations with highest tissue lead concentrations. The results and their relevance to other lead-contaminated areas, including roadside verges, are discussed.

  8. Rescue, rehabilitation, and release of marine mammals: An analysis of current views and practices.

    St. Aubin, David J.; Geraci, Joseph R.; Lounsbury, Valerie J.

    1996-01-01

    Stranded marine mammals have long attracted public attention. Those that wash up dead are, for all their value to science, seldom seen by the public as more than curiosities. Animals that are sick, injured, orphaned or abandoned ignite a different response. Generally, public sentiment supports any effort to rescue, treat and return them to sea. Institutions displaying marine mammals showed an early interest in live-stranded animals as a source of specimens -- in 1948, Marine Studios in...

  9. 78 FR 23910 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Construction at Orcas Island and...

    2013-04-23

    ... wounded animal, carcass with moderate to advanced decomposition, or scavenger damage), WSDOT shall report... that relatively few animals are likely to be within the immediate vicinity of the terminals; thus, NMFS... animals (WSDOT 2012). In addition, we expect marine mammals will avoid areas of high intensity noise...

  10. 77 FR 14736 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Pile Placement for Fishermen's...

    2012-03-13

    ... animal, carcass with moderate to advanced decomposition, or scavenger damage), Fishermen's would report... animals. Population trends for all U.S. stocks of harbor porpoises are currently unknown. Gulf of Maine... earthquakes, and animals are natural sound sources throughout the marine environment. Marine mammals produce...

  11. 78 FR 19217 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Cape Wind's High Resolution...

    2013-03-29

    ... or related to the activities authorized in the IHA (e.g., previously wounded animal, carcass with... marine mammal moves outside of the exclusion zone or if the animal has not been resighted for 60 minutes... animal has not been resighted for 60 minutes. Soft-start Procedures A ``soft-start'' technique will be...

  12. Maximizing the chances of detecting pathogenic leptospires in mammals

    Tulsiani, Suhella; Graham, G C; Dohnt, M F

    2011-01-01

    . In the earlier field investigation, serum, renal tissue and urine were collected from wild mammals, for the detection of pathogenic leptospires by culture, the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), real-time PCR and silver impregnation of smears. Although 27.6% of the rodents investigated were found leptospire....../ml, did not affect the viability or the detection of leptospires in culture, and is therefore unlikely to reduce the chances of isolating leptospires from an animal that has been euthanized with the compound. It appears that collecting multiple samples from each mammal being checked will improve...

  13. Adaptive Responses to Thermal Stress in Mammals

    Yasser Lenis Sanin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The environment animals have to cope with is a combination of natural factors such as temperature. Extreme changes in these factors can alter homeostasis, which can lead to thermal stress. This stress can be due to either high temperatures or low temperatures. Energy transference for thermoregulation in homoeothermic animals occurs through several mechanisms: conduction, convection, radiation and evaporation. When animals are subjected to thermal stress, physiological mechanisms are activated which may include endocrine, neuroendocrine and behavioral responses. Activation of the neuroendocrine system affects the secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters which act collectively as response mechanisms that allow them to adapt to stress. Mechanisms which have developed through evolution to allow animals to adapt to high environmental temperatures and to achieve thermo tolerance include physiological and physical changes in order to reduce food intake and metabolic heat production, to increase surface area of skin to dissipate heat, to increase blood flow to take heat from the body core to the skin and extremities to dissipate the heat, to increase numbers and activity of sweat glands, panting, water intake and color adaptation of integument system to reflect heat. Chronic exposure to thermal stress can cause disease, reduce growth, decrease productive and reproductive performance and, in extreme cases, lead to death. This paper aims to briefly explain the physical and physiological responses of mammals to thermal stress, like a tool for biological environment adaptation, emphasizing knowledge gaps and offering some recommendations to stress control for the animal production system.

  14. 76 FR 25308 - Marine Mammals

    2011-05-04

    ...-XA165 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Jennifer Burns, Ph.D., University of Alaska Anchorage, Biology Department, 3101 Science Circle, Anchorage, AK, has been issued a permit to conduct [[Page 25309

  15. Marine mammals as sentinel species for oceans and human health.

    Bossart, G D

    2011-05-01

    The long-term consequences of climate change and potential environmental degradation are likely to include aspects of disease emergence in marine plants and animals. In turn, these emerging diseases may have epizootic potential, zoonotic implications, and a complex pathogenesis involving other cofactors such as anthropogenic contaminant burden, genetics, and immunologic dysfunction. The concept of marine sentinel organisms provides one approach to evaluating aquatic ecosystem health. Such sentinels are barometers for current or potential negative impacts on individual- and population-level animal health. In turn, using marine sentinels permits better characterization and management of impacts that ultimately affect animal and human health associated with the oceans. Marine mammals are prime sentinel species because many species have long life spans, are long-term coastal residents, feed at a high trophic level, and have unique fat stores that can serve as depots for anthropogenic toxins. Marine mammals may be exposed to environmental stressors such as chemical pollutants, harmful algal biotoxins, and emerging or resurging pathogens. Since many marine mammal species share the coastal environment with humans and consume the same food, they also may serve as effective sentinels for public health problems. Finally, marine mammals are charismatic megafauna that typically stimulate an exaggerated human behavioral response and are thus more likely to be observed.

  16. Molecular mechanisms regulating oxygen transport and consumption in high altitude and hibernating mammals

    Revsbech, Inge Grønvall

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to broaden the knowledge of molecular mechanisms of adjustment in oxygen (O2) uptake, conduction, delivery and consumption in mammals adapted to extreme conditions. For this end, I have worked with animals living at high altitude as an example of environmental hypoxia...... of the repeatedly found adaptive traits in animals living at high altitude and in hibernating mammals during hibernation compared with the active state. Factors that affect O2 affinity of Hb include temperature, H+/CO2 via the Bohr effect as well as Cl- and organic phosphates, in mammals mainly 2...

  17. Two decades of climate driving the dynamics of functional and taxonomic diversity of a tropical small mammal community in western Mexico.

    Mason-Romo, Edgard David; Farías, Ariel A; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the effects of global climate disruption on biodiversity is important to future conservation efforts. While taxonomic diversity is widely studied, functional diversity of plants, and recently animals, is receiving increasing attention. Most studies of mammals are short-term, focus on temperate habitats, and rely on traits described in the literature rather than generating traits from observations. Unlike previous studies, this long-term field study assessed the factors driving the functional and taxonomic diversity of small-mammal assemblages in dry tropical forests using both traits recorded from literature and a demographic database. We assessed the drivers (abundance and biomass, temperature and rainfall) of taxonomic richness and functional diversity for two rain-driven seasons in two adjacent but distinct forests-upland and lowland (arroyo or riparian) forests. Our analysis found that rainfall, both seasonal and atypical, was the primary factor driving functional and taxonomic diversity of small-mammal assemblages. Functional responses differed between the two types of forests, however, with effects being stronger in the harsher conditions of the upland forests than in the less severe conditions prevailing in the arroyo (riparian) forest. The latter also supports a richer, more diverse, and more stable small-mammal assemblage. These findings highlight the importance of climate to tropical biological diversity, as extreme climate events (hurricanes, droughts and floods) and disruption of rainfall patterns were shown to decrease biodiversity. They also support the need to preserve these habitats, as their high taxonomic diversity and functional redundancy makes them resilient against global climate disruption and local extreme events. Tropical dry forests constitute a potential reservoir for biodiversity and the ecosystem services they provide. Unfortunately, these forests are among the most endangered terrestrial ecosystems because of

  18. Two decades of climate driving the dynamics of functional and taxonomic diversity of a tropical small mammal community in western Mexico.

    Edgard David Mason-Romo

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of global climate disruption on biodiversity is important to future conservation efforts. While taxonomic diversity is widely studied, functional diversity of plants, and recently animals, is receiving increasing attention. Most studies of mammals are short-term, focus on temperate habitats, and rely on traits described in the literature rather than generating traits from observations. Unlike previous studies, this long-term field study assessed the factors driving the functional and taxonomic diversity of small-mammal assemblages in dry tropical forests using both traits recorded from literature and a demographic database. We assessed the drivers (abundance and biomass, temperature and rainfall of taxonomic richness and functional diversity for two rain-driven seasons in two adjacent but distinct forests-upland and lowland (arroyo or riparian forests. Our analysis found that rainfall, both seasonal and atypical, was the primary factor driving functional and taxonomic diversity of small-mammal assemblages. Functional responses differed between the two types of forests, however, with effects being stronger in the harsher conditions of the upland forests than in the less severe conditions prevailing in the arroyo (riparian forest. The latter also supports a richer, more diverse, and more stable small-mammal assemblage. These findings highlight the importance of climate to tropical biological diversity, as extreme climate events (hurricanes, droughts and floods and disruption of rainfall patterns were shown to decrease biodiversity. They also support the need to preserve these habitats, as their high taxonomic diversity and functional redundancy makes them resilient against global climate disruption and local extreme events. Tropical dry forests constitute a potential reservoir for biodiversity and the ecosystem services they provide. Unfortunately, these forests are among the most endangered terrestrial ecosystems because

  19. Stereopsis in animals: evolution, function and mechanisms

    Nityananda, Vivek; Read, Jenny C. A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Stereopsis is the computation of depth information from views acquired simultaneously from different points in space. For many years, stereopsis was thought to be confined to primates and other mammals with front-facing eyes. However, stereopsis has now been demonstrated in many other animals, including lateral-eyed prey mammals, birds, amphibians and invertebrates. The diversity of animals known to have stereo vision allows us to begin to investigate ideas about its evolution and th...

  20. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully taken a marine mammal on the high seas and who is authorized to import such marine mammal in accordance...

  1. Heinrich event 4 characterized by terrestrial proxies in southwestern Europe

    J. M. López-García

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Heinrich event 4 (H4 is well documented in the North Atlantic Ocean as a cooling event that occurred between 39 and 40 Ka. Deep-sea cores around the Iberian Peninsula coastline have been analysed to characterize the H4 event, but there are no data on the terrestrial response to this event. Here we present for the first time an analysis of terrestrial proxies for characterizing the H4 event, using the small-vertebrate assemblage (comprising small mammals, squamates and amphibians from Terrassa Riera dels Canyars, an archaeo-palaeontological deposit located on the seaboard of the northeastern Iberian Peninsula. This assemblage shows that the H4 event is characterized in northeastern Iberia by harsher and drier terrestrial conditions than today. Our results were compared with other proxies such as pollen, charcoal, phytolith, avifauna and large-mammal data available for this site, as well as with the general H4 event fluctuations and with other sites where H4 and the previous and subsequent Heinrich events (H5 and H3 have been detected in the Mediterranean and Atlantic regions of the Iberian Peninsula. We conclude that the terrestrial proxies follow the same patterns as the climatic and environmental conditions detected by the deep-sea cores at the Iberian margins.

  2. Role of the Office International des Epizooties in protecting the health of free-ranging mammals.

    Blancou, J

    1992-12-01

    The various activities undertaken by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) since 1924 to protect the helth of free-ranging mammals are outlined and discussed. Two types of activity have been conducted over the years: --The first type promotes measures to protect the health of free-ranging mammals in order to safeguard the health of domestic animals and human beings. These measures have prevented the propagation of the highly contagious diseases of animals and the more serious zoonoses. --The second type aims at protecting the health of free-ranging mammals in order to maintain the fauna and the natural equilibrium. Ecological and epidemiological studies are promoted with a view to effective management of wildlife populations and overcoming the associated health risks. By virtue of its close contacts with officials in charge of animal health in 126 Member Countries, the OIE has made a noteworthy contribution to the protection of populations of free-ranging mammals.

  3. Terrestrial Ecology Guide.

    Morrison, James W., Ed.; Hall, James A., Ed.

    This collection of study units focuses on the study of the ecology of land habitats. Considered are such topics as map reading, field techniques, forest ecosystem, birds, insects, small mammals, soils, plant ecology, preparation of terrariums, air pollution, photography, and essentials of an environmental studies program. Each unit contains…

  4. Correlates between calcaneal morphology and locomotion in extant and extinct carnivorous mammals.

    Panciroli, Elsa; Janis, Christine; Stockdale, Maximilian; Martín-Serra, Alberto

    2017-10-01

    Locomotor mode is an important component of an animal's ecology, relating to both habitat and substrate choice (e.g., arboreal versus terrestrial) and in the case of carnivores, to mode of predation (e.g., ambush versus pursuit). Here, we examine how the morphology of the calcaneum, the 'heel bone' in the tarsus, correlates with locomotion in extant carnivores. Other studies have confirmed the correlation of calcaneal morphology with locomotion behaviour and habitat. The robust nature of the calcaneum means that it is frequently preserved in the fossil record. Here, we employ linear measurements and 2D-geometric morphometrics on a sample of calcanea from eighty-seven extant carnivorans and demonstrate a signal of correlation between calcaneal morphology and locomotor mode that overrides phylogeny. We used this correlation to determine the locomotor mode, and hence aspects of the palaeobiology of, 47 extinct carnivorous mammal taxa, including both Carnivora and Creodonta. We found ursids (bears), clustered together, separate from the other carnivorans. Our results support greater locomotor diversity for nimravids (the extinct 'false sabertooths', usually considered to be more arboreal), than previously expected. However, there are limitations to interpretation of extinct taxa because their robust morphology is not fully captured in the range of modern carnivoran morphology. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Novel Babesia and Hepatozoon agents infecting non-volant small mammals in the Brazilian Pantanal, with the first record of the tick Ornithodoros guaporensis in Brazil.

    Wolf, Rafael William; Aragona, Mônica; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Pinto, Leticia Borges; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Braga, Isis Assis; Costa, Jackeliny dos Santos; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Marcili, Arlei; Pacheco, Richard de Campos; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2016-04-01

    Taking into account the diversity of small terrestrial mammals of the Pantanal, the present study aimed to verify the occurrence of infection by Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Babesia spp. and parasitism by ticks in non-volant small mammals collected in the Brazilian Pantanal. Samples of blood, liver and spleen were collected from 64 captured animals, 22 marsupials and 42 rodents. Pathogen detection was performed by the use of genus-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays. Ticks collected from the animals consisted of Amblyomma sculptum and Amblyomma triste nymphs, and Ornithodoros guaporensis larvae. None of the vertebrate samples (blood, liver, or spleen) yielded detectable DNA of Rickettsia spp. or Ehrlichia spp. The blood of the rodent Hylaeamys megacephalus yielded an Anaplasma sp. genotype (partial 16S rRNA gene) 99% similar to multiple Anaplasma spp. genotypes around the world. The blood of three rodents of the species Calomys callosus were positive for a novel Hepatozoon sp. agent, phylogenetically related (18S rDNA gene) to distinct Hepatozoon genotypes that have been detected in rodents from different parts of the world. One marsupial (Monodelphis domestica) and three rodents (Thrichomys pachyurus) were positive to novel piroplasmid genotypes, phylogenetically (18S rDNA gene) related to Theileria bicornis, Cytauxzoon manul, and Cytauxzoon felis. The present study provides the first molecular detection of Hepatozoon sp. and piroplasmids in small mammals in Brazil. Additionally, we expanded the distribution of O. guaporensis to Brazil, since this tick species was previously known to occur only in Bolivia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Terrestrial Analogs to Mars

    Farr, T. G.; Arcone, S.; Arvidson, R. W.; Baker, V.; Barlow, N. G.; Beaty, D.; Bell, M. S.; Blankenship, D. D.; Bridges, N.; Briggs, G.; Bulmer, M.; Carsey, F.; Clifford, S. M.; Craddock, R. A.; Dickerson, P. W.; Duxbury, N.; Galford, G. L.; Garvin, J.; Grant, J.; Green, J. R.; Gregg, T. K. P.; Guinness, E.; Hansen, V. L.; Hecht, M. H.; Holt, J.; Howard, A.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Lee, P.; Lanagan, P. D.; Lentz, R. C. F.; Leverington, D. W.; Marinangeli, L.; Moersch, J. E.; Morris-Smith, P. A.; Mouginis-Mark, P.; Olhoeft, G. R.; Ori, G. G.; Paillou, P.; Reilly, J. F., II; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Robinson, C. A.; Sheridan, M.; Snook, K.; Thomson, B. J.; Watson, K.; Williams, K.; Yoshikawa, K.

    2002-08-01

    It is well recognized that interpretations of Mars must begin with the Earth as a reference. The most successful comparisons have focused on understanding geologic processes on the Earth well enough to extrapolate to Mars' environment. Several facets of terrestrial analog studies have been pursued and are continuing. These studies include field workshops, characterization of terrestrial analog sites, instrument tests, laboratory measurements (including analysis of Martian meteorites), and computer and laboratory modeling. The combination of all these activities allows scientists to constrain the processes operating in specific terrestrial environments and extrapolate how similar processes could affect Mars. The Terrestrial Analogs for Mars Community Panel has considered the following two key questions: (1) How do terrestrial analog studies tie in to the Mars Exploration Payload Assessment Group science questions about life, past climate, and geologic evolution of Mars, and (2) How can future instrumentation be used to address these questions. The panel has considered the issues of data collection, value of field workshops, data archiving, laboratory measurements and modeling, human exploration issues, association with other areas of solar system exploration, and education and public outreach activities.

  7. Assessment of mammal reproduction for hunting sustainability through community-based sampling of species in the wild.

    Mayor, Pedro; El Bizri, Hani; Bodmer, Richard E; Bowler, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Wildlife subsistence hunting is a major source of protein for tropical rural populations and a prominent conservation issue. The intrinsic rate of natural increase. (r max ) of populations is a key reproductive parameter in the most used assessments of hunting sustainability. However, researchers face severe difficulties in obtaining reproductive data in the wild, so these assessments often rely on classic reproductive rates calculated mostly from studies of captive animals conducted 30 years ago. The result is a flaw in almost 50% of studies, which hampers management decision making. We conducted a 15-year study in the Amazon in which we used reproductive data from the genitalia of 950 hunted female mammals. Genitalia were collected by local hunters. We examined tissue from these samples to estimate birthrates for wild populations of the 10 most hunted mammals. We compared our estimates with classic measures and considered the utility of the use of r max in sustainability assessments. For woolly monkey (Lagothrix poeppigii) and tapir (Tapirus terrestris), wild birthrates were similar to those from captive populations, whereas birthrates for other ungulates and lowland-paca (Cuniculus paca) were significantly lower than previous estimates. Conversely, for capuchin monkeys (Sapajus macrocephalus), agoutis (Dasyprocta sp.), and coatis (Nasua nasua), our calculated reproductive rates greatly exceeded often-used values. Researchers could keep applying classic measures compatible with our estimates, but for other species previous estimates of r max may not be appropriate. We suggest that data from local studies be used to set hunting quotas. Our maximum rates of population growth in the wild correlated with body weight, which suggests that our method is consistent and reliable. Integration of this method into community-based wildlife management and the training of local hunters to record pregnancies in hunted animals could efficiently generate useful information of life

  8. Evolution of vertebrate transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 channels: opposite temperature sensitivity between mammals and western clawed frogs.

    Shigeru Saito

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Transient Receptor Potential (TRP channels serve as temperature receptors in a wide variety of animals and must have played crucial roles in thermal adaptation. The TRP vanilloid (TRPV subfamily contains several temperature receptors with different temperature sensitivities. The TRPV3 channel is known to be highly expressed in skin, where it is activated by warm temperatures and serves as a sensor to detect ambient temperatures near the body temperature of homeothermic animals such as mammals. Here we performed comprehensive comparative analyses of the TRPV subfamily in order to understand the evolutionary process; we identified novel TRPV genes and also characterized the evolutionary flexibility of TRPV3 during vertebrate evolution. We cloned the TRPV3 channel from the western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis to understand the functional evolution of the TRPV3 channel. The amino acid sequences of the N- and C-terminal regions of the TRPV3 channel were highly diversified from those of other terrestrial vertebrate TRPV3 channels, although central portions were well conserved. In a heterologous expression system, several mammalian TRPV3 agonists did not activate the TRPV3 channel of the western clawed frog. Moreover, the frog TRPV3 channel did not respond to heat stimuli, instead it was activated by cold temperatures. Temperature thresholds for activation were about 16 °C, slightly below the lower temperature limit for the western clawed frog. Given that the TRPV3 channel is expressed in skin, its likely role is to detect noxious cold temperatures. Thus, the western clawed frog and mammals acquired opposite temperature sensitivity of the TRPV3 channel in order to detect environmental temperatures suitable for their respective species, indicating that temperature receptors can dynamically change properties to adapt to different thermal environments during evolution.

  9. Neurobehavioral endocrine regulation of small mammal populations

    Christian, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    A brief review is given of the hypothesis that density-dependent behavioral-endocrine negative feedbacks can regulate and often limit the growth of populations of many species of small mammals. Recent laboratory studies are summarized that show how stress, particularly psychogenic, which results in increased adrenocortical secretion also alters gonadotropin secretion and inhibits reproduction. Chronic stress due to crowding, immobilization, et al. inhibits the release of LH and FSH, particularly by abolishing the pulsatile release of LH, and also causes a rise in prolactin (at least acutely). Stimulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical system is accompanied by an inversely proportional inhibition of growth hormone secretion. Decreasing photoperiod enhances the sensitivity of the hypothalamus to inhibition of gonadotropin secretion by androgens and estrogens. Other endocrine responses to increased density or subordinate social rank also are summarized. How these facts fit into the negative feedback scheme is discussed, including the greatly prolonged effects of diminished lactation. The changed quality of the animals associated with changes in density discussed by Lidicker also can be explained by the above responses to density. Data on changes in growth and reproductive function which are consistent with the behavioral-endocrine feedback hypothesis are presented for several populations of small mammals, including some previously unpublished data for Microtus pennsylvanicus

  10. The ghosts of mammals past

    Turvey, Samuel T; Fritz, Susanne A

    2011-01-01

    Although the recent historical period is usually treated as a temporal base-line for understanding patterns of mammal extinction, mammalian biodiversity loss has also taken place throughout the Late Quaternary. We explore the spatial, taxonomic and phylogenetic patterns of 241 mammal species...... extinctions known to have occurred during the Holocene up to the present day. To assess whether our understanding of mammalian threat processes has been affected by excluding these taxa, we incorporate extinct species data into analyses of the impact of body mass on extinction risk. We find that Holocene...... extinctions have been phylogenetically and spatially concentrated in specific taxa and geographical regions, which are often not congruent with those disproportionately at risk today. Large-bodied mammals have also been more extinction-prone in most geographical regions across the Holocene. Our data support...

  11. 75 FR 12734 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation of Offshore...

    2010-03-17

    ... marine mammal or marine mammal stock in the wild by causing disruption of behavioral patterns, including... supplies; production operations; drilling operations; pipeline design, inspection, and maintenance; routine...

  12. Actinide elements in aquatic and terrestrial environments

    Bondietti, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported in terrestrial ecology studies with regard to plutonium in biota from the White Oak Creek forest; comparative distribution of plutonium in two forest ecosystems; an ecosystem model of plutonium dynamics; actinide element metabolism in cotton rats; and crayfish studies. Progress is reported in aquatic studies with regard to transuranics in surface waters, frogs, benthic algae, and invertebrates from pond 3513; and radioecology of transuranic elements in cotton rats bordering waste pond 3513. Progress is also reported in stability of trivalent plutonium in White Oak Lake water; chemistry of plutonium, americium, curium, and uranium in pond water; uranium, thorium, and plutonium in small mammals; and effect of soil pretreatment on the distribution of plutonium

  13. A comparison of blood nitric oxide metabolites and hemoglobin functional properties among diving mammals

    Fago, Angela; Parraga, Daniel Garcia; Petersen, Elin E

    2017-01-01

    examined oxygen affinity, sensitivity to 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) and nitrite reductase activity of the hemoglobin (Hb) to search for possible adaptive variations in these functional properties. We found levels of plasma and red blood cells nitrite similar to those reported for terrestrial mammals...... in blood oxygen affinity among diving mammals likely derive from phenotypic variations in red blood cell DPG levels. The nitrite reductase activities of the Hbs were overall slightly higher than that of human Hb, with the Hb of beluga whale, capable of longest dives, having the highest activity. Taken...

  14. Concentration and retention of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts by marine snails demonstrate a novel mechanism for transmission of terrestrial zoonotic pathogens in coastal ecosystems

    Krusor, Colin; Smith, Woutrina A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Silver, Mary; Conrad, Patricia A.; Shapiro, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The parasite Toxoplasma gondii is an environmentally persistent pathogen that can cause fatal disease in humans, terrestrial warm-blooded animals and aquatic mammals. Although an association between T. gondii exposure and prey specialization on marine snails was identified in threatened California sea otters, the ability of kelp-dwelling snails to transmit terrestrially derived pathogens has not been previously investigated. The objective of this study was to measure concentration and retention of T. gondii by marine snails in laboratory aquaria, and to test for natural T. gondii contamination in field-collected snails. Following exposure to T. gondii-containing seawater, oocysts were detected by microscopy in snail faeces and tissues for 10 and 3 days respectively. Nested polymerase chain reaction was also applied as a method for confirming putative T. gondii oocysts detected in snail faeces and tissues by microscopy. Toxoplasma gondiiwas not detected in field-collected snails. Results suggest that turban snails are competent transport hosts for T. gondii. By concentrating oocysts in faecal pellets, snails may facilitate entry of T. gondii into the nearshore marine food web. This novel mechanism also represents a general pathway by which marine transmission of terrestrially derived microorganisms can be mediated via pathogen concentration and retention by benthic invertebrates.

  15. Terrestrial and extraterrestrial fullerenes

    Heymann, D.; Jenneskens, L.W.; Jehlicka, J; Koper, C.; Vlietstra, E. [Rice Univ, Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Earth Science

    2003-07-01

    This paper reviews reports of occurrences of fullerenes in circumstellar media, interstellar media, meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), lunar rocks, hard terrestrial rocks from Shunga (Russia), Sudbury (Canada) and Mitov (Czech Republic), coal, terrestrial sediments from the Cretaceous-Tertiary-Boundary and Pennian-Triassic-Boundary, fulgurite, ink sticks, dinosaur eggs, and a tree char. The occurrences are discussed in the context of known and postulated processes of fullerene formation, including the suggestion that some natural fullerenes might have formed from biological (algal) remains.

  16. Radiography atlas of domestic animals

    Ruebel, G.A.; Isenbuegel, E.; Wolvekamp, P.; Gabrisch, K.; Grimm, F.; Koblik, P.; Paul-Murphy, J.; Oschwald, C.P.; Schildger, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    The 370 radiographs presented in the atlas together with notes and explanations give information on normal roentgenographic findings, physiological variations, and important pathological findings observed in small mammals, birds, reptilia and amphibia. Introductory notes to each chapter explain the principles of exposure techniques and the handling of the animals. (VHE) [de

  17. Microhabitat of small mammals at ground and understorey levels in a deciduous, southern Atlantic Forest

    GERUZA L. MELO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Each animal species selects specific microhabitats for protection, foraging, or micro-climate. To understand the distribution patterns of small mammals on the ground and in the understorey, we investigated the use of microhabitats by small mammals in a deciduous forest of southern Brazil. Ten trap stations with seven capture points were used to sample the following microhabitats: liana, fallen log, ground litter, terrestrial ferns, simple-trunk tree, forked tree, and Piper sp. shrubs. Seven field phases were conducted, each for eight consecutive days, from September 2006 through January 2008. Four species of rodents (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Mus musculus and two species of marsupials (Didelphis albiventris and Gracilinanus microtarsus were captured. Captured species presented significant differences on their microhabitat use (ANOVA, p = 0.003, particularly between ground and understorey sites. Akodon montensis selected positively terrestrial ferns and trunks, S. angouya selected lianas, D. albiventris selected fallen trunks and Piper sp., and G. microtarsus choose tree trunks and lianas. We demonstrated that the local small-mammal assemblage does select microhabitats, with different types of associations between species and habitats. Besides, there is a strong evidence of habitat selection in order to diminish predation.Cada espécie animal pode apresentar seletividade por micro-habitats priorizando proteção, forrageio ou microclima. Para compreender os padrões de distribuição de pequenos mamíferos ao nível do solo e de sub-bosque, nós analisamos o uso de micro-habitat por pequenos mamíferos em uma floresta estacional no sul do Brasil. Dez estações amostrais com sete pontos de captura foram usadas para amostragem dos seguintes microhabitats: liana, tronco caído, solo apenas coberto por folhiço, solo coberto por samambaias, árvore com tronco simples, árvore com bifurcações e arbustos do g

  18. Late Pleistocene and Holocene mammal extinctions on continental Africa

    Faith, J. Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the cause of late Quaternary mammal extinctions is the subject of intense debate spanning the fields of archeology and paleontology. In the global context, the losses on continental Africa have received little attention and are poorly understood. This study aims to inspire new discussion of African extinctions through a review of the extinct species and the chronology and possible causes of those extinctions. There are at least 24 large mammal (> 5 kg) species known to have disappeared from continental Africa during the late Pleistocene or Holocene, indicating a much greater taxonomic breadth than previously recognized. Among the better sampled taxa, these losses are restricted to the terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene, between 13,000 and 6000 yrs ago. The African extinctions preferentially affected species that are grazers or prefer grasslands. Where good terrestrial paleoenvironmental records are present, extinctions are associated with changes in the availability, productivity, or structure of grassland habitats, suggesting that environmental changes played a decisive role in the losses. In the broader evolutionary context, these extinctions represent recent examples of selective taxonomic winnowing characterized by the loss of grassland specialists and the establishment of large mammal communities composed of more ecologically flexible taxa over the last million years. There is little reason to believe that humans played an important role in African extinctions.

  19. 77 FR 49277 - Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Confined Blasting Operations by the U.S...

    2012-08-15

    ... effects that confined blasting can have on marine animals near the blast (Keevin et al., 1999). The visual... Atmospheric Administration Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Confined Blasting Operations... Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Confined Blasting Operations by the U.S. Army Corps of...

  20. Histories of terrestrial planets

    Benes, K.

    1981-01-01

    The uneven historical development of terrestrial planets - Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon and Mars - is probably due to the differences in their size, weight and rotational dynamics in association with the internal planet structure, their distance from the Sun, etc. A systematic study of extraterrestrial planets showed that the time span of internal activity was not the same for all bodies. It is assumed that the initial history of all terrestrial planets was marked with catastrophic events connected with the overall dynamic development of the solar system. In view of the fact that the cores of small terrestrial bodies cooled quicker, their geological development almost stagnated after two or three thousand million years. This is what probably happened to the Mercury and the Moon as well as the Mars. Therefore, traces of previous catastrophic events were preserved on the surface of the planets. On the other hand, the Earth is the most metamorphosed terrestrial planet and compared to the other planets appears to be atypical. Its biosphere is significantly developed as well as the other shell components, its hydrosphere and atmosphere, and its crust is considerably differentiated. (J.P.)

  1. Terrestrial planet formation.

    Righter, K; O'Brien, D P

    2011-11-29

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (~10(6) y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few 10(6) y), and finally embryos to planets (10(7)-10(8) y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids.

  2. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    Bocock, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the distribution and movement of radionuclides in semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems in north-west England with particular emphasis on inputs to, and outputs from ecosystems; on plant and soil aspects; and on radionuclides in fallout and in discharges by the nuclear industry. (author)

  3. Small Mammals, Reptiles, and Amphibians

    Bryce Rickel

    2005-01-01

    This chapter focuses on small mammals, reptiles, and amphibians that inhabit the grasslands within the Southwestern Region of the USDA Forest Service. The chapter is not intended to be an all inclusive list of species, but rather to address the species that play important roles in grassland ecosystems and that often are associated with the management of grasslands....

  4. 75 FR 76399 - Marine Mammals

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [File No. 781-1824] RIN 0648-XZ66 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice; receipt of application for permit amendment; extension of public...

  5. Mammals of the Oak forest

    Otalora Ardila, Aida

    2003-01-01

    The high rate of deforestation over the Andean forests has generated a large proportion of fragmented landscapes in the country. The distribution of oak groves in the country was determined based on ecosystem maps. Charala and Encino oak groves patches are the largest ones found at the east Andes and like others, due to the unfair use of these resources, have suffered a fragmentation process. Fifty-five species of mammals included in 10 orders and 14 families were found in these forests. Chiroptera and Rodentia were the most representative groups. Anthropic processes had produced a 68.1% loss of the habitat and constitute the main threat for these forests. The sizes of the patches were evaluated for three mammal species categories. The patches' area are not favorable for large-size species, intermediately to favorable to medium-size species and are favorable for small-size species. It is suggested that patches' area effect over mammal species could relate to the decrease of species richness and of each fragment area. There are good connections between patches (only five isolated), allowing the presence of a greater species diversity. There is also a bleak plateau zone between connected patches increasing their connectivity and offering different habitats and resources for some mammal species

  6. 76 FR 72680 - Marine Mammals

    2011-11-25

    ..., Office of Protected Resources, NMFS, 1315 East-West Highway, Room 13705, Silver Spring, MD 20910; phone... surveys to document seasonal distribution and abundance of marine mammals in western lower Cook Inlet... on the human environment in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of [[Page 72681...

  7. An Annotated Checklist of the Mammals of Kuwait

    Peter J. Cowan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An annotated checklist of the mammals of Kuwait is presented, based on the literature, personal communications, a Kuwait website and a blog and the author’s observations. Twenty five species occur, a further four are uncommon or rare visitors, six used to occur whilst another two are of doubtful provenance. This list should assist those planning desert rehabilitation, animal reintroduction and protected area projects in Kuwait.

  8. Effect of trophic level on the radiocesium frequency distribution in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at Chornobyl and nuclear sites in the United States

    Smith, Michael H.; Tsyusko-Omeltchenko, Olga; Oleksyk, Taras K.

    2003-01-01

    There are significant linear relationship between the standard deviation and the mean of radiocesium concentration for samples of soils, sediments, plants, and animals from Chornobyl and nuclear sites in the United States. The universal occurrence of this relationship in all types of samples suggests that a non-normal frequency distribution should be expected. The slopes of these relationships are similar for fish and mammals from the two regions of the world but those for plants are not. The slopes for plants are similar for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems within each region. We hypothesize that there are relationships between the four moments of the frequency distribution of radiocesium (mean, variance, skewness, and kurtosis), and that these relationships are caused by the functional properties of the organisms and other characteristics of the ecosystem. The way in which radiocesium was distributed across the landscape does not seem to be a factor in determining the form of the frequency distribution. (author)

  9. Serologic evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds and mammals from southeast Brazil.

    Vitaliano, Sérgio Netto; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Pena, Hilda Fáitima de Jesus; Dubey, Jitender Prakash; Gennari, Solange Maria

    2014-03-01

    In this study, serum samples of 53 wild animals from two different states from the southeast region of Brazil were analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT), with a cut-off of 1: 5 for birds and of 1: 25 for mammals. Out of the sampled animals, 27 were birds and 26 were mammals, and from this total, 83% (n = 44) were free-living animals. Antibodies were found in 13 mammals, from which 11 were free-living animals, and in five birds, all of which were free-living. In this study, T. gondii antibodies were detected in four bird species (crested seriema, Cariama cristata; buff-necked ibis, Theristicus caudatus; picazuro pigeon, Patagioenas picazuro; and burrowing owl, Athene cunicularia) and in a giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) for the first time.

  10. Changes in leptospirosis etiology in animals and humans.

    Vasylieva, Natalia; Andreychyn, Mykhaylo; Kravchuk, Yulia; Chervinska, Оlena; Iosyk, Iaryna

    2017-12-23

    Leptospirosis is endemic in Ternopil region. In Ukraine, the disease is registered in almost all regions, including the Ternopil region. The aim of the research is to study the regularities of epidemic and epizootic processes of leptospirosis, and the circulation of its pathogens among different sources (small mammals, animals) and humans. Etiologic spectrum of leptospirosis registered in Ternopil region in 1972-2016 among small mammals, farm animals and sick people was studied. Due to the analysis of pathogens circulation among different sources (small mammals, animals), as well as the annual morbidity in humans, it was proved that new leptospira serovars are endemic and brought into the regions mostly by farm animals. Farm animals introduce the infection to humans through the environment, sometimes within 3-5-years. The spread was observed of pathogen serovars, which are new in certain areas, among all types of mouse-like small mammals and rats. It was established that livestock and small mammals are parallel reservoirs. In the regions with endemic species, the structural modification in the etiology of leptospirosis in humans is caused by additional reservoirs among animals, as well as the circulation of other pathogen serovars that were absent in the main natural reservoir, i.e. mouse-like small mammals and rats. The constant monitoring of the population, contamination and carrier state of mouse-like small mammals, rats and farm animals, is required In order to predict the future epidemiological situation on leptospirosis among the population and to improve leptospirosis diagnosis.

  11. 77 FR 4765 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    2012-01-31

    ... physiological requirements, many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are exposed to chronic... readily audible to the animals based on measured received levels and the hearing sensitivity of the marine... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Northwest Pacific...

  12. Some concepts in the management and control of small mammal populations

    Wagner, F.H.

    1978-01-01

    This review discusses some broadly ecological aspects of small mammal management and some positive values of their populations. Although small mammals consume a minor fraction of the total primary production in terrestrial ecosystems, they may by preferential feeding on a few plant species suppress those species within a community. The overall lifeform of the vegetation may not be changed. In cases where severe disturbance (e.g., grazing) reduces climax vegetation (e.g., grasses), and these are replaced by seral species of a different life form (e.g., shrubs), the vegetation may be held in a seral stage by heavy, small mammal pressure on the now subdominant, climax species. They may thus maintain a different vegetation life form than would exist in the absence of their pressure, and restoration of a near-climax state may depend on intensive control. There is a large accumulation of information on small mammal species composition and densities in different vegetation types. Some of it discusses the mechanisms which relate these densities to the habitat. If this information were compiled and generalized, it would provide a basis for predicting the impact on small mammal populations of contemplated land-use programs and possible small mammal management, either control or enhancement, through vegetation manipulation. There is considerable evidence that prey abundance is an important determinant of predator densities. Concern for predator conservation needs to consider abundance of prey species and the factors which affect it

  13. Moving in the Anthropocene: Global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

    Boehning-Gaese, Katrin; Fagan, William F.; Fryxell, John M.; Van Moorter, Bram; Alberts, Susan C.; Ali, Abdullahi H.; Allen, Andrew M.; Attias, Nina; Avgar, Tal; Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie; Bayarbaatar, Buuveibaatar; Belant, Jerrold L.; Bertassoni, Alessandra; Beyer, Dean; Bidner, Laura

    2018-01-01

    Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral cha...

  14. Laboratory Surveillance of Rabies in Humans, Domestic Animals, and Bats in Madagascar from 2005 to 2010

    Reynes, Jean-Marc; Andriamandimby, Soa Fy; Razafitrimo, Girard Marcelin; Razainirina, Josette; Jeanmaire, Elisabeth Marie; Bourhy, Hervé; Heraud, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Background. Rabies virus (RABV) has circulated in Madagascar at least since the 19th century. Objectives. To assess the circulation of lyssavirus in the island from 2005 to 2010. Materials and Methods. Animal (including bats) and human samples were tested for RABV and other lyssavirus using antigen, ribonucleic acid (RNA), and antibodies detection and virus isolation. Results. Half of the 437 domestic or tame wild terrestrial mammal brains tested were found RABV antigen positive, including 54% of the 341 dogs tested. This percentage ranged from 26% to 75% across the period. Nine of the 10 suspected human cases tested were laboratory confirmed. RABV circulation was confirmed in 34 of the 38 districts sampled. No lyssavirus RNA was detected in 1983 bats specimens. Nevertheless, antibodies against Lagos bat virus were detected in the sera of 12 among 50 Eidolon dupreanum specimens sampled. Conclusion. More than a century after the introduction of the vaccine, rabies still remains endemic in Madagascar. PMID:21991442

  15. Laboratory Surveillance of Rabies in Humans, Domestic Animals, and Bats in Madagascar from 2005 to 2010

    Jean-Marc Reynes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rabies virus (RABV has circulated in Madagascar at least since the 19th century. Objectives. To assess the circulation of lyssavirus in the island from 2005 to 2010. Materials and Methods. Animal (including bats and human samples were tested for RABV and other lyssavirus using antigen, ribonucleic acid (RNA, and antibodies detection and virus isolation. Results. Half of the 437 domestic or tame wild terrestrial mammal brains tested were found RABV antigen positive, including 54% of the 341 dogs tested. This percentage ranged from 26% to 75% across the period. Nine of the 10 suspected human cases tested were laboratory confirmed. RABV circulation was confirmed in 34 of the 38 districts sampled. No lyssavirus RNA was detected in 1983 bats specimens. Nevertheless, antibodies against Lagos bat virus were detected in the sera of 12 among 50 Eidolon dupreanum specimens sampled. Conclusion. More than a century after the introduction of the vaccine, rabies still remains endemic in Madagascar.

  16. Prevalence and Genotype Allocation of Pathogenic Leptospira Species in Small Mammals from Various Habitat Types in Germany.

    Obiegala, Anna; Woll, Dietlinde; Karnath, Carolin; Silaghi, Cornelia; Schex, Susanne; Eßbauer, Sandra; Pfeffer, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Small mammals serve as most important reservoirs for Leptospira spp., the causative agents of Leptospirosis, which is one of the most neglected and widespread zoonotic diseases worldwide. The knowledge about Leptospira spp. occurring in small mammals from Germany is scarce. Thus, this study's objectives were to investigate the occurrence of Leptospira spp. and the inherent sequence types in small mammals from three different study sites: a forest in southern Germany (site B1); a National Park in south-eastern Germany (site B2) and a renaturalised area, in eastern Germany (site S) where small mammals were captured. DNA was extracted from kidneys of small mammals and tested for Leptospira spp. by real-time PCR. Positive samples were further analysed by duplex and conventional PCRs. For 14 positive samples, multi locus sequence typing (MLST) was performed. Altogether, 1213 small mammals were captured: 216 at site B1, 456 at site B2 and 541 at site S belonging to following species: Sorex (S.) araneus, S. coronatus, Apodemus (A.) flavicollis, Myodes glareolus, Microtus (Mi.) arvalis, Crocidura russula, Arvicola terrestris, A. agrarius, Mustela nivalis, Talpa europaea, and Mi. agrestis. DNA of Leptospira spp. was detected in 6% of all small mammals. At site B1, 25 small mammals (11.6%), at site B2, 15 small mammals (3.3%) and at site S, 33 small mammals (6.1%) were positive for Leptospira spp. Overall, 54 of the positive samples were further determined as L. kirschneri, nine as L. interrogans and four as L. borgpetersenii while five real-time PCR-positive samples could not be further determined by conventional PCR. MLST results revealed focal occurrence of L. interrogans and L. kirschneri sequence type (ST) 117 while L. kirschneri ST 110 was present in small mammals at all three sites. Further, this study provides evidence for a particular host association of L. borgpetersenii to mice of the genus Apodemus.

  17. Working group 4: Terrestrial

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A working group at a Canada/USA symposium on climate change and the Arctic identified major concerns and issues related to terrestrial resources. The group examined the need for, and the means of, involving resource managers and users at local and territorial levels in the process of identifying and examining the impacts and consequences of climatic change. Climatic change will be important to the Arctic because of the magnitude of the change projected for northern latitudes; the apparent sensitivity of its terrestrial ecosystems, natural resources, and human support systems; and the dependence of the social, cultural, and economic welfare of Arctic communities, businesses, and industries on the health and quality of their environment. Impacts of climatic change on the physical, biological, and associated socio-economic environment are outlined. Gaps in knowledge needed to quantify these impacts are listed along with their relationships with resource management. Finally, potential actions for response and adaptation are presented

  18. Phytopharmacology of Tribulus terrestris.

    Shahid, M; Riaz, M; Talpur, M M A; Pirzada, T

    2016-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris is an annual herb which belongs to the Zygophyllaceae family. This plant has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases for hundreds of decades. The main active phytoconstituents of this plant include flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, lignin, amides, and glycosides. The plant parts have different pharmacological activities including aphrodisiac, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential. T. terrestris is most often used for infertility and loss of libido. It has potential application as immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, anthelmintic and anticarcinogenic activities. The aim of the present article is to create a database for further investigation of the phytopharmacological properties of this plant to promote research. This study will definitely help to confirm its traditional use along with its value-added utility, eventually leading to higher revenues from the plant.

  19. Transfer and incorporation of tritium in mammals

    Hoek, J. van den; Juan, N.B.

    1979-01-01

    The metabolism of tritium in mammals has been studied in a number of laboratories which have participated in the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Behaviour of Tritium in the Environment. The results of these studies are discussed and related to data obtained elsewhere. The animals studied are small laboratory and domestic animals. Tritium has been administered as THO, both in single and long-term dosing experiments, and also as organically bound tritium. The biological half-life of tritium in the body water pool has been determined in different species. The following values have been found: 1.1 days in mice; 13.2 days in kangaroo rats; 3.8 days in pigs; 4.1 days in lactating versus 8.3 in non-lactating goats and 3.1-4.0 days in lactating cows and steers. Much attention has been paid to the incorporation of tritium into organic constituents, both in the animal organism (organs, tissues) and in the secretions of the animal after continuous administration of tritium, mostly as THO. When compared with tritium levels in body water, and expressed as the ratio of specific activities, values of 0.25 and 0.40 have been found in mice liver and testis respectively. In cow's milk, these ratios vary from 0.30 for casein to 0.60 for lactose. The transfer of tritium into milk after continuous ingestion of THO by a lactating cow is about 1.50% of the daily ingested tritium per litre of milk. Some results of experiments, utilizing organically bound tritium, are also presented. (author)

  20. Terrestrial plant methane production

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature...... the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  1. NODC Standard Format Marine Mammals of Coastal Alaska Data (1975-1981): Marine Mammal Specimens (F025) (NODC Accession 0014150)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC maintains data in three NODC Standard Format Marine Mammal Data Sets: Marine Mammal Sighting and Census (F127); Marine Mammal Specimens (F025); Marine Mammal...

  2. Transformation and diversification in early mammal evolution.

    Luo, Zhe-Xi

    2007-12-13

    Evolution of the earliest mammals shows successive episodes of diversification. Lineage-splitting in Mesozoic mammals is coupled with many independent evolutionary experiments and ecological specializations. Classic scenarios of mammalian morphological evolution tend to posit an orderly acquisition of key evolutionary innovations leading to adaptive diversification, but newly discovered fossils show that evolution of such key characters as the middle ear and the tribosphenic teeth is far more labile among Mesozoic mammals. Successive diversifications of Mesozoic mammal groups multiplied the opportunities for many dead-end lineages to iteratively evolve developmental homoplasies and convergent ecological specializations, parallel to those in modern mammal groups.

  3. XX. Animal models of pneumocystosis

    Dei-Cas, E.; Brun-Pascaud, M.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1998-01-01

    As in vitro culture systems allowing to isolate Pneumocystis samples from patients or other mammal hosts are still not available, animal models have critical importance in Pneumocystis research. The parasite was reported in numerous mammals but P. carinii pneumonia (PCP) experimental models were...... a source of parasites taxonomically related to P. carinii sp. f hominis. Moreover, primates might be used as experimental hosts to human Pneumocystis. A marked variability of parasite levels among corticosteroid-treated animals and the fact that the origin of the parasite strain remains unknown......, are important drawbacks of the corticosteroid-treated models. For these reasons, inoculated animal models of PCP were developed. The intratracheal inoculation of lung homogenates containing viable parasites in corticosteroid-treated non-latently infected rats resulted in extensive, reproducible Pneumocystis...

  4. Ancient DNA from marine mammals

    Foote, Andrew David; Hofreiter, Michael; Morin, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    such as bone, tooth, baleen, skin, fur, whiskers and scrimshaw using ancient DNA (aDNA) approaches provide an oppor- tunity for investigating such changes over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Here, we review the application of aDNA techniques to the study of marine mammals. Most of the studies have...... focused on detecting changes in genetic diversity following periods of exploitation and environmental change. To date, these studies have shown that even small sample sizes can provide useful information on historical genetic diversity. Ancient DNA has also been used in investigations of changes...... in distribution and range of marine mammal species; we review these studies and discuss the limitations of such ‘presence only’ studies. Combining aDNA data with stable isotopes can provide further insights into changes in ecology and we review past studies and suggest future potential applications. We also...

  5. Immune function in arctic mammals

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre; Jasperse, Lindsay; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2018-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are a vital part of the rapid and non-specific immune defense against invading pathogens and tumor cells. This study evaluated NK cell-like activity by flow cytometry for the first time in three ecologically and culturally important Arctic mammal species: polar bear (Ursus...... the effector:target cell ratio increased. Comparing NK activity between fresh and cryopreserved mouse lymphocytes revealed little to no difference in function, highlighting the applicability of cryopreserving cells in field studies. The evaluation of this important innate immune function in Arctic mammals can...... contribute to future population health assessments, especially as pollution-induced suppression of immune function may increase infectious disease susceptibility....

  6. Offshore Earthquakes Do Not Influence Marine Mammal Stranding Risk on the Washington and Oregon Coasts

    Grant, Rachel A.; Savirina, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary Marine mammals stranding on coastal beaches is not unusual. However, there appears to be no single cause for this, with several causes being probable, such as starvation, contact with humans (for example boat strike or entanglement with fishing gear), disease, and parasitism. We evaluated marine mammal stranding off the Washington and Oregon coasts and looked at offshore earthquakes as a possible contributing factor. Our analysis showed that offshore earthquakes did not make marine mammals more likely to strand. We also analysed a subset of data from the north of Washington State and found that non-adult animals made up a large proportion of stranded animals, and for dead animals the commonest cause of death was disease, traumatic injury, or starvation. Abstract The causes of marine mammals stranding on coastal beaches are not well understood, but may relate to topography, currents, wind, water temperature, disease, toxic algal blooms, and anthropogenic activity. Offshore earthquakes are a source of intense sound and disturbance and could be a contributing factor to stranding probability. We tested the hypothesis that the probability of marine mammal stranding events on the coasts of Washington and Oregon, USA is increased by the occurrence of offshore earthquakes in the nearby Cascadia subduction zone. The analysis carried out here indicated that earthquakes are at most, a very minor predictor of either single, or large (six or more animals) stranding events, at least for the study period and location. We also tested whether earthquakes inhibit stranding and again, there was no link. Although we did not find a substantial association of earthquakes with strandings in this study, it is likely that there are many factors influencing stranding of marine mammals and a single cause is unlikely to be responsible. Analysis of a subset of data for which detailed descriptions were available showed that most live stranded animals were pups, calves, or

  7. Late radiation pathology of mammals

    Alexandrov, S N

    1982-01-01

    The comprehensive monograph on delayed radiation effects in mammals including man comprises 3 main chapters dealing with non-neoplastic as well as neoplastic manifestations of late radiation pathology, with the prophylaxis of delayed radiation effects, and with the therapy of radiation injuries. Alterations induced by whole-body irradiation and delayed radiation effects caused by partial body irradiation are described in detail. The developmental mechanisms and pathogenesis of non-neoplastic pathological changes and of radiation-induced neoplasms are elaborated.

  8. Scale effects between body size and limb design in quadrupedal mammals.

    Kilbourne, Brandon M; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2013-01-01

    Recently the metabolic cost of swinging the limbs has been found to be much greater than previously thought, raising the possibility that limb rotational inertia influences the energetics of locomotion. Larger mammals have a lower mass-specific cost of transport than smaller mammals. The scaling of the mass-specific cost of transport is partly explained by decreasing stride frequency with increasing body size; however, it is unknown if limb rotational inertia also influences the mass-specific cost of transport. Limb length and inertial properties--limb mass, center of mass (COM) position, moment of inertia, radius of gyration, and natural frequency--were measured in 44 species of terrestrial mammals, spanning eight taxonomic orders. Limb length increases disproportionately with body mass via positive allometry (length ∝ body mass(0.40)); the positive allometry of limb length may help explain the scaling of the metabolic cost of transport. When scaled against body mass, forelimb inertial properties, apart from mass, scale with positive allometry. Fore- and hindlimb mass scale according to geometric similarity (limb mass ∝ body mass(1.0)), as do the remaining hindlimb inertial properties. The positive allometry of limb length is largely the result of absolute differences in limb inertial properties between mammalian subgroups. Though likely detrimental to locomotor costs in large mammals, scale effects in limb inertial properties appear to be concomitant with scale effects in sensorimotor control and locomotor ability in terrestrial mammals. Across mammals, the forelimb's potential for angular acceleration scales according to geometric similarity, whereas the hindlimb's potential for angular acceleration scales with positive allometry.

  9. High-precision 41K/39K measurements by MC-ICP-MS indicate terrestrial variability of δ41K

    Morgan, Leah; Santiago Ramos, Danielle P.; Davidheiser-Kroll, Brett; Faithfull, John; Lloyd, Nicholas S.; Ellam, Rob M.; Higgins, John A.

    2018-01-01

    Potassium is a major component in continental crust, the fourth-most abundant cation in seawater, and a key element in biological processes. Until recently, difficulties with existing analytical techniques hindered our ability to identify natural isotopic variability of potassium isotopes in terrestrial materials. However, measurement precision has greatly improved and a range of K isotopic compositions has now been demonstrated in natural samples. In this study, we present a new technique for high-precision measurement of K isotopic ratios using high-resolution, cold plasma multi-collector mass spectrometry. We apply this technique to demonstrate natural variability in the ratio of 41K to 39K in a diverse group of geological and biological samples, including silicate and evaporite minerals, seawater, and plant and animal tissues. The total range in 41K/39K ratios is ca. 2.6‰, with a long-term external reproducibility of 0.17‰ (2, N=108). Seawater and seawater-derived evaporite minerals are systematically enriched in 41K compared to silicate minerals by ca. 0.6‰, a result consistent with recent findings1, 2. Although our average bulk-silicate Earth value (-0.54‰) is indistinguishable from previously published values, we find systematic δ41K variability in some high-temperature sample suites, particularly those with evidence for the presence of fluids. The δ41K values of biological samples span a range of ca. 1.2‰ between terrestrial mammals, plants, and marine organisms. Implications of terrestrial K isotope variability for the atomic weight of K and K-based geochronology are discussed. Our results indicate that high-precision measurements of stable K isotopes, made using commercially available mass spectrometers, can provide unique insights into the chemistry of potassium in geological and biological systems. 

  10. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Florida Panhandle: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for beach mice, red wolf, and Florida black bear for the Florida Panhandle. Vector polygons in this data...

  11. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: New Hampshire: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for northern river otters, beavers, and muskrats in New Hampshire. Vector polygons in this data set...

  12. In vitro to in vivo extrapolation of biotransformation rates for assessing bioaccumulation of hydrophobic organic chemicals in mammals.

    Lee, Yung-Shan; Lo, Justin C; Otton, S Victoria; Moore, Margo M; Kennedy, Chris J; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2017-07-01

    Incorporating biotransformation in bioaccumulation assessments of hydrophobic chemicals in both aquatic and terrestrial organisms in a simple, rapid, and cost-effective manner is urgently needed to improve bioaccumulation assessments of potentially bioaccumulative substances. One approach to estimate whole-animal biotransformation rate constants is to combine in vitro measurements of hepatic biotransformation kinetics with in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) and bioaccumulation modeling. An established IVIVE modeling approach exists for pharmaceuticals (referred to in the present study as IVIVE-Ph) and has recently been adapted for chemical bioaccumulation assessments in fish. The present study proposes and tests an alternative IVIVE-B technique to support bioaccumulation assessment of hydrophobic chemicals with a log octanol-water partition coefficient (K OW ) ≥ 4 in mammals. The IVIVE-B approach requires fewer physiological and physiochemical parameters than the IVIVE-Ph approach and does not involve interconversions between clearance and rate constants in the extrapolation. Using in vitro depletion rates, the results show that the IVIVE-B and IVIVE-Ph models yield similar estimates of rat whole-organism biotransformation rate constants for hypothetical chemicals with log K OW  ≥ 4. The IVIVE-B approach generated in vivo biotransformation rate constants and biomagnification factors (BMFs) for benzo[a]pyrene that are within the range of empirical observations. The proposed IVIVE-B technique may be a useful tool for assessing BMFs of hydrophobic organic chemicals in mammals. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1934-1946. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  13. Risk to tourists posed by wild mammals in South Africa.

    Durrheim, D N; Leggat, P A

    1999-09-01

    One of South Africa's principal tourist attractions is the opportunity to encounter Africa's large mammals in the wild. Attacks by these mammals can be exceptionally newsworthy with potentially deleterious effects on tourism. Little is known about the risk of injury and death caused by wild mammals to visitors to South Africa's nature reserves. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of fatal and nonfatal attacks on tourists by wild mammals in South Africa and to ascertain avoidable factors, if any. Commercial press records covering all South African Newspapers archived at the Independent Newspapers' central library were systematically reviewed for a 10-year period, January 1988 to December 1997 inclusive, to identify all deaths and injuries to domestic and international tourists resulting from encounters with wild mammals in South Africa. All of these incidents were analyzed to ascertain avoidable factors. During the review period seven tourists, including two students from Thailand and a German traveler, were killed by wild mammals in South Africa. Three of the four deaths ascribed to lions resulted from tourists carelessly approaching prides on foot in lion reserves. A judicial inquiry found that the management of a KwaZulu-Natal Reserve was culpable for the remaining death. Tourist ignorance of animal behavior and flagrant disregard of rules contributed to the two fatalities involving hippopotami. The unusual behavior manifested by the bull elephant responsible for the final death, resulted from discomfort caused by a dental problem to this pachyderm. During the same period there were 14 nonfatal attacks on tourists, including five by hippo, three by buffalo, two by rhino, and one each by a lion, leopard, zebra and musth elephant. Only the latter occurred while the visitor was in a motor vehicle. Tourist ethological naivete and failure to determine the experience of trail guides prior to travel, resulted in inadvertent agonistic behavior

  14. Levels and transfer of 210Po and 210Pb in Nordic terrestrial ecosystems

    Brown, J.E.; Gjelsvik, R.; Roos, P.; Kalas, J.A.; Outola, I.; Holm, E.

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments regarding environmental impact assessment methodologies for radioactivity have precipitated the need for information on levels of naturally occurring radionuclides within and transfer to wild flora and fauna. The objectives of this study were therefore to determine activity concentrations of the main dose forming radionuclides 210 Po and 210 Pb in biota from terrestrial ecosystems thus providing insight into the behaviour of these radioisotopes. Samples of soil, plants and animals were collected at Dovrefjell, Central Norway and Olkiluoto, Finland. Soil profiles from Dovrefjell exhibited an approximately exponential fall in 210 Pb activity concentrations from elevated levels in humus/surface soils to 'supported' levels at depth. Activity concentrations of 210 Po in fauna (invertebrates, mammals, birds) ranged between 2 and 123 Bq kg -1 d.w. and in plants and lichens between 20 and 138 Bq kg -1 d.w. The results showed that soil humus is an important reservoir for 210 Po and 210 Pb and that fauna in close contact with this media may also exhibit elevated levels of 210 Po. Concentration ratios appear to have limited applicability with regards to prediction of activity concentrations of 210 Po in invertebrates and vertebrates. Biokinetic models may provide a tool to explore in a more mechanistic way the behaviour of 210 Po in this system.

  15. Levels and transfer of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in Nordic terrestrial ecosystems

    Brown, J.E., E-mail: justin.brown@nrpa.n [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, PO Box 55, N-1332, Osteras (Norway); Gjelsvik, R. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, PO Box 55, N-1332, Osteras (Norway); Roos, P. [RISO-DTU P.O. Box 49 DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Kalas, J.A. [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), Tungasletta 2, 7485 Trondheim (Norway); Outola, I. [STUK, Laippatie 4/P.O. BOX 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland); Holm, E. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, PO Box 55, N-1332, Osteras (Norway)

    2011-05-15

    Recent developments regarding environmental impact assessment methodologies for radioactivity have precipitated the need for information on levels of naturally occurring radionuclides within and transfer to wild flora and fauna. The objectives of this study were therefore to determine activity concentrations of the main dose forming radionuclides {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in biota from terrestrial ecosystems thus providing insight into the behaviour of these radioisotopes. Samples of soil, plants and animals were collected at Dovrefjell, Central Norway and Olkiluoto, Finland. Soil profiles from Dovrefjell exhibited an approximately exponential fall in {sup 210}Pb activity concentrations from elevated levels in humus/surface soils to 'supported' levels at depth. Activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po in fauna (invertebrates, mammals, birds) ranged between 2 and 123 Bq kg{sup -1} d.w. and in plants and lichens between 20 and 138 Bq kg{sup -1} d.w. The results showed that soil humus is an important reservoir for {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb and that fauna in close contact with this media may also exhibit elevated levels of {sup 210}Po. Concentration ratios appear to have limited applicability with regards to prediction of activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po in invertebrates and vertebrates. Biokinetic models may provide a tool to explore in a more mechanistic way the behaviour of {sup 210}Po in this system.

  16. Terrestrial origin of viviparity in mesozoic marine reptiles indicated by early triassic embryonic fossils.

    Motani, Ryosuke; Jiang, Da-yong; Tintori, Andrea; Rieppel, Olivier; Chen, Guan-bao

    2014-01-01

    Viviparity in Mesozoic marine reptiles has traditionally been considered an aquatic adaptation. We report a new fossil specimen that strongly contradicts this traditional interpretation. The new specimen contains the oldest fossil embryos of Mesozoic marine reptile that are about 10 million years older than previous such records. The fossil belongs to Chaohusaurus (Reptilia, Ichthyopterygia), which is the oldest of Mesozoic marine reptiles (ca. 248 million years ago, Early Triassic). This exceptional specimen captures an articulated embryo in birth position, with its skull just emerged from the maternal pelvis. Its headfirst birth posture, which is unlikely to be a breech condition, strongly indicates a terrestrial origin of viviparity, in contrast to the traditional view. The tail-first birth posture in derived ichthyopterygians, convergent with the conditions in whales and sea cows, therefore is a secondary feature. The unequivocally marine origin of viviparity is so far not known among amniotes, a subset of vertebrate animals comprising mammals and reptiles, including birds. Therefore, obligate marine amniotes appear to have evolved almost exclusively from viviparous land ancestors. Viviparous land reptiles most likely appeared much earlier than currently thought, at least as early as the recovery phase from the end-Permian mass extinction.

  17. Bone and muscular anatomy of the forearm and hand in Tapirus terrestris (Perissodactyla, Tapiridae

    Saulo Gonçalves Pereira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, there are two species of tapirs, the largest land mammals in Brazil, which belong to the order Perissodactyla, as do horses. Our aim was to describe the bone and muscular anatomy of the forearm and hand in T. terrestris and to propose adaptive functions. We used five anatomical specimens donated from a breeder to the Laboratory for Teaching and Research on Wild Animals of the Federal University of Uberlandia after death with no trauma. The bones were analyzed, the muscles dissected, and both described. The bones of the forearm and hand of the tapir are the ulna, radius, Os. metacarpalia, Os. carpi, phalanx and Os. sesamoideum. The muscles are M. extensor carpi radialis, M. ulnaris lateralis; M. flexor carpi radialis; M. extensor radialis communis; M. extensor digitorum longus II, III, IV and V, M. extensor digitorum lateralis; M. extensor digitorum; M. abductor longus; M. flexor digiti superficialis; M. flexor digitalis; M. flexor carpi ulnaris; M. flexor carpi obliquus; and M. interossei and M. lumbricales. Characteristics of bone and muscle structure are adapted to the development of the animal’s niche.

  18. Bone and muscular anatomy of the forearm and hand in Tapirus terrestris (Perissodactyla, Tapiridae

    Saulo Gonçalves Pereira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2017v30n2p35 In Brazil, there are two species of tapirs, the largest land mammals in Brazil, which belong to the order Perissodactyla, as do horses. Our aim was to describe the bone and muscular anatomy of the forearm and hand in T. terrestris and to propose adaptive functions. We used five anatomical specimens donated from a breeder to the Laboratory for Teaching and Research on Wild Animals of the Federal University of Uberlandia after death with no trauma. The bones were analyzed, the muscles dissected, and both described. The bones of the forearm and hand of the tapir are the ulna, radius, Os. metacarpalia, Os. carpi, phalanx and Os. sesamoideum. The muscles are M. extensor carpi radialis, M. ulnaris lateralis; M. flexor carpi radialis; M. extensor radialis communis; M. extensor digitorum longus II, III, IV and V, M. extensor digitorum lateralis; M. extensor digitorum; M. abductor longus; M. flexor digiti superficialis; M. flexor digitalis; M. flexor carpi ulnaris; M. flexor carpi obliquus; and M. interossei and M. lumbricales. Characteristics of bone and muscle structure are adapted to the development of the animal’s niche.

  19. Terrestrial origin of viviparity in mesozoic marine reptiles indicated by early triassic embryonic fossils.

    Ryosuke Motani

    Full Text Available Viviparity in Mesozoic marine reptiles has traditionally been considered an aquatic adaptation. We report a new fossil specimen that strongly contradicts this traditional interpretation. The new specimen contains the oldest fossil embryos of Mesozoic marine reptile that are about 10 million years older than previous such records. The fossil belongs to Chaohusaurus (Reptilia, Ichthyopterygia, which is the oldest of Mesozoic marine reptiles (ca. 248 million years ago, Early Triassic. This exceptional specimen captures an articulated embryo in birth position, with its skull just emerged from the maternal pelvis. Its headfirst birth posture, which is unlikely to be a breech condition, strongly indicates a terrestrial origin of viviparity, in contrast to the traditional view. The tail-first birth posture in derived ichthyopterygians, convergent with the conditions in whales and sea cows, therefore is a secondary feature. The unequivocally marine origin of viviparity is so far not known among amniotes, a subset of vertebrate animals comprising mammals and reptiles, including birds. Therefore, obligate marine amniotes appear to have evolved almost exclusively from viviparous land ancestors. Viviparous land reptiles most likely appeared much earlier than currently thought, at least as early as the recovery phase from the end-Permian mass extinction.

  20. Animating the Discussion about Climate Change

    Ratner, A.

    2016-12-01

    Abstract concepts such as climate change are extremely difficult for both students and adults to grasp. Given that many of these concepts involve issues at global scales or at a microscopic level, photos and video are simply insufficient much of the time. Through an innovative partnership between The Marine Mammal Center, a marine mammal hospital and education facility, and the California College of the Arts Animation Department, we have been able to provide animation students real-world experience in producing scientific animations, and the Center has been able to create an animated video highlighting the science of climate change and effects on marine mammals. Using the science direct from our veterinary and research teams, along with scientifically tested communication strategies related to climate change from the National Network of Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation and Frameworks Institute, this video enables us to teach students and adults of all ages these complex scientific concepts in a fun, engaging, and easily understandable way. Utilizing the skill set and expertise of the College professor as director (currently a lead animator at Pixar Animation), this video provided animation students critical experience in the animation field, exposure and engagement in a critical environmental issue, and an understanding of the opportunities available within the field of animation for educational and scientific purposes. This presentation will highlight the opportunities to utilize animation for educational purposes and provide resources surrounding climate change that could be beneficial to educators at their own organizations.

  1. Cytogenetic analysis of mammals from ecologically unfavourable regions of Kazakhstan

    Zhapbasov, R.; Sejsebaev, A.T.

    2000-01-01

    Cytogenetic monitoring of mammals' natural population living in unfavorable regions of Kazakhstan were carried out. With this purpose level of chromosomal aberration and genome mutation different species of mammals were studied in comparative aspect. It was revealed reliable increase of chromosomal disturbances and genome mutation in rodents' somatic cells living in Semipalatinsk test site. Genome instabilities common level for different age sheep keeping on pasture areas of the Semipalatinsk site with different rate of radiation contamination in 2-3 times exceeds indexes of animals from other regions of the Republic. Same chromosomal disturbances in bone marrow cells were established with sheep breeding in Atyrau oblast. In bone marrow of 2-3 year-age of sheep there are 3.61 % cells with chromosomal aberration, 2.96 % cells with hyperploid chromosomes set and 3.28 % with polyploid chromosome set

  2. Small mammal diversity loss in response to late-Pleistocene climatic change.

    Blois, Jessica L; McGuire, Jenny L; Hadly, Elizabeth A

    2010-06-10

    Communities have been shaped in numerous ways by past climatic change; this process continues today. At the end of the Pleistocene epoch about 11,700 years ago, North American communities were substantially altered by the interplay of two events. The climate shifted from the cold, arid Last Glacial Maximum to the warm, mesic Holocene interglacial, causing many mammal species to shift their geographic distributions substantially. Populations were further stressed as humans arrived on the continent. The resulting megafaunal extinction event, in which 70 of the roughly 220 largest mammals in North America (32%) became extinct, has received much attention. However, responses of small mammals to events at the end of the Pleistocene have been much less studied, despite the sensitivity of these animals to current and future environmental change. Here we examine community changes in small mammals in northern California during the last 'natural' global warming event at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition and show that even though no small mammals in the local community became extinct, species losses and gains, combined with changes in abundance, caused declines in both the evenness and richness of communities. Modern mammalian communities are thus depauperate not only as a result of megafaunal extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene but also because of diversity loss among small mammals. Our results suggest that across future landscapes there will be some unanticipated effects of global change on diversity: restructuring of small mammal communities, significant loss of richness, and perhaps the rising dominance of native 'weedy' species.

  3. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council, established the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) to address the need for coordinated and standardized monitoring of Arctic environments. The CBMP includes an international...... on developing and implementing long-term plans for monitoring the integrity of Arctic biomes: terrestrial, marine, freshwater, and coastal (under development) environments. The CBMP Terrestrial Expert Monitoring Group (CBMP-TEMG) has developed the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan (CBMP......-Terrestrial Plan/the Plan) as the framework for coordinated, long-term Arctic terrestrial biodiversity monitoring. The goal of the CBMP-Terrestrial Plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders, northern communities, and scientists to detect, understand and report on long...

  4. Efficacy of Tribulus Terrestris Extract on the Serum Glucose and Lipids of Women with Diabetes Mellitus

    Samani, Nasrin Babadai; Jokar, Azam; Soveid, Mahmood; Heydari, Mojtaba; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Considering folkloric use of Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris) in diabetes and proven anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of T. terrestris in animal studies, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the hydro alcoholic extract of T. terrestris on the serum glucose and lipid profile of women with diabetes mellitus. Methods: Ninety-eight diabetic women were randomly allocated to receive the T. terrestris (1000 mg/day) or placebo for three months. The patients were evaluated in terms of the fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid profile. Results: T. terrestris showed a significant blood glucose lowering effect in diabetic women compared to placebo (Pterrestris group was significantly reduced compared with placebo, while no significant effect was observed in the triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein levels. Conclusion: This study showed preliminary promising hypoglycemic effect of T. terrestris in diabetic women. PMID:27840471

  5. Efficacy of Tribulus Terrestris Extract on the Serum Glucose and Lipids of Women with Diabetes Mellitus.

    Samani, Nasrin Babadai; Jokar, Azam; Soveid, Mahmood; Heydari, Mojtaba; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah

    2016-05-01

    Considering folkloric use of Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris) in diabetes and proven anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of T. terrestris in animal studies, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the hydro alcoholic extract of T. terrestris on the serum glucose and lipid profile of women with diabetes mellitus. Ninety-eight diabetic women were randomly allocated to receive the T. terrestris (1000 mg/day) or placebo for three months. The patients were evaluated in terms of the fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid profile. T. terrestris showed a significant blood glucose lowering effect in diabetic women compared to placebo (Pterrestris group was significantly reduced compared with placebo, while no significant effect was observed in the triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein levels. This study showed preliminary promising hypoglycemic effect of T. terrestris in diabetic women.

  6. Terrestrial locomotion of the New Zealand short-tailed bat Mystacina tuberculata and the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus.

    Riskin, Daniel K; Parsons, Stuart; Schutt, William A; Carter, Gerald G; Hermanson, John W

    2006-05-01

    Bats (Chiroptera) are generally awkward crawlers, but the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) and the New Zealand short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata) have independently evolved the ability to manoeuvre well on the ground. In this study we describe the kinematics of locomotion in both species, and the kinetics of locomotion in M. tuberculata. We sought to determine whether these bats move terrestrially the way other quadrupeds do, or whether they possess altogether different patterns of movement on the ground than are observed in quadrupeds that do not fly. Using high-speed video analyses of bats moving on a treadmill, we observed that both species possess symmetrical lateral-sequence gaits similar to the kinematically defined walks of a broad range of tetrapods. At high speeds, D. rotundus use an asymmetrical bounding gait that appears to converge on the bounding gaits of small terrestrial mammals, but with the roles of the forelimbs and hindlimbs reversed. This gait was not performed by M. tuberculata. Many animals that possess a single kinematic gait shift with increasing speed from a kinetic walk (where kinetic and potential energy of the centre of mass oscillate out of phase from each other) to a kinetic run (where they oscillate in phase). To determine whether the single kinematic gait of M. tuberculata meets the kinetic definition of a walk, a run, or a gait that functions as a walk at low speed and a run at high speed, we used force plates and high-speed video recordings to characterize the energetics of the centre of mass in that species. Although oscillations in kinetic and potential energy were of similar magnitudes, M. tuberculata did not use pendulum-like exchanges of energy between them to the extent that many other quadrupedal animals do, and did not transition from a kinetic walk to kinetic run with increasing speed. The gait of M. tuberculata is kinematically a walk, but kinetically run-like at all speeds.

  7. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting some small mammals from Northern Turkey with new tick-host associations and locality records.

    Keskin, Adem; Selçuk, Ahmet Yesari; Kefelioğlu, Haluk

    2017-12-01

    Ticks are obligate ectoparasites of a vast range of terrestrial vertebrates which may play an important role in the transmission of many zoonotic pathogens to humans and animals. In the current study, we performed an investigation on ticks infesting some small mammals captured from Samsun and Tokat provinces, Northern Turkey. One hundred forty-five mammalian samples belonging to four species, namely Cricetulus migratorius (n = 1), Apodemus flavicollis (n = 17), Crocidura suaveolens (n = 102) and Sorex volnuchini (n = 25), were examined for the presence of tick infestations. A total of 273 (74 larvae, 194 nymphs, 5 females) hard ticks were collected from 88 mammalian samples. Ticks were identified as Ixodes laguri (1 nymph), I. redikorzevi (22 larvae, 186 nymphs, 5 females), I. ricinus (52 larvae, 4 nymphs) and Rhipicephalus turanicus (3 nymphs). Here, we also provided new tick mammalian host associations for Turkey. In addition, I. laguri and I. redikorzevi ticks were recorded for the first time in Samsun province of Turkey.

  8. Contribution to knowledge of Palmas Grassland mammals, Paraná, Brazil

    Fernando de Camargo Passos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The southern region of Paraná State is considered to be a priority area for mammal research in the state. This work aimed to present an inventory of the mammal species occurring in the locality known as Campos de Palmas, Paraná, Southern Brazil (26º34’59”S and 51º36’16”W, and to promote discussion about their importance for regional conservation. This assessment was carried out in two field stages, totaling 15 days. Thirty-five mammal species were recorded by direct observation, capture with mist nets, presence of feces and tracks, and identification of animals killed on the BR-280 highway. This inventory registered endangered species for Paraná and Brazil, as well as other important records of some mammal species at regional and national level.

  9. Cabinet of Curiosities: Venom Systems and Their Ecological Function in Mammals, with a Focus on Primates.

    Rode-Margono, Johanna E; Nekaris, K Anne-Isola

    2015-07-17

    Venom delivery systems (VDS) are common in the animal kingdom, but rare amongst mammals. New definitions of venom allow us to reconsider its diversity amongst mammals by reviewing the VDS of Chiroptera, Eulipotyphla, Monotremata, and Primates. All orders use modified anterior dentition as the venom delivery apparatus, except Monotremata, which possesses a crural system. The venom gland in most taxa is a modified submaxillary salivary gland. In Primates, the saliva is activated when combined with brachial gland exudate. In Monotremata, the crural spur contains the venom duct. Venom functions include feeding, intraspecific competition, anti-predator defense and parasite defense. Including mammals in discussion of venom evolution could prove vital in our understanding protein functioning in mammals and provide a new avenue for biomedical and therapeutic applications and drug discovery.

  10. Contaminant exposure in terrestrial vertebrates

    Smith, Philip N.; Cobb, George P.; Godard-Codding, Celine; Hoff, Dale; McMurry, Scott T.; Rainwater, Thomas R.; Reynolds, Kevin D.

    2007-01-01

    Here we review mechanisms and factors influencing contaminant exposure among terrestrial vertebrate wildlife. There exists a complex mixture of biotic and abiotic factors that dictate potential for contaminant exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial vertebrates. Chemical fate and transport in the environment determine contaminant bioaccessibility. Species-specific natural history characteristics and behavioral traits then play significant roles in the likelihood that exposure pathways, from source to receptor, are complete. Detailed knowledge of natural history traits of receptors considered in conjunction with the knowledge of contaminant behavior and distribution on a site are critical when assessing and quantifying exposure. We review limitations in our understanding of elements of exposure and the unique aspects of exposure associated with terrestrial and semi-terrestrial taxa. We provide insight on taxa-specific traits that contribute, or limit exposure to, transport phenomenon that influence exposure throughout terrestrial systems, novel contaminants, bioavailability, exposure data analysis, and uncertainty associated with exposure in wildlife risk assessments. Lastly, we identify areas related to exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial organisms that warrant additional research. - Both biotic and abiotic factors determine chemical exposure for terrestrial vertebrates

  11. Mammal endemism In Italy: A review

    Giovanni Amori

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although there are various checklists of Italian mammals, there is not yet a synthesis of those mammals that are endemic to Italy. Therefore, we provide for the first time a detailed review on Italian mammal endemic species including endemic taxa deserving additional studies. This review is based on the most recent taxonomic revisions obtained using Scopus and Google Scholar databases. We also considered the age of endemic species. Some aspects of mammalian conservation are also provided and discussed.

  12. Internally Coupled Ears in Living Mammals

    Mason, Matthew James

    2015-01-01

    It is generally held that the right and left middle ears of mammals are acoustically isolated from each other, such that mammals must rely on neural computation to derive sound localisation cues. There are, however, some unusual species in which the middle ear cavities intercommunicate, in which case each ear might be able to act as a pressure-difference receiver. This could improve sound localisation at lower frequencies. The platypus Ornithorhynchus is apparently unique among mammals in tha...

  13. A checklist of mammals of Kerala, India

    P. O. Nameer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of mammals of Kerala State is presented in this paper. Accepted English names, scientific binomen, prevalent vernacular names in Malayalam, IUCN conservation status, endemism, Indian Wildlife (Protection Act schedules, and the appendices in the CITES, pertaining to the mammals of Kerala are also given. The State of Kerala has 118 species of mammals, 15 of which are endemic to Western Ghats, and 29 species fall under the various threatened categories of IUCN.  

  14. Maximal aerobic and anaerobic power generation in large crocodiles versus mammals: implications for dinosaur gigantothermy.

    Seymour, Roger S

    2013-01-01

    Inertial homeothermy, the maintenance of a relatively constant body temperature that occurs simply because of large size, is often applied to large dinosaurs. Moreover, biophysical modelling and actual measurements show that large crocodiles can behaviourally achieve body temperatures above 30°C. Therefore it is possible that some dinosaurs could achieve high and stable body temperatures without the high energy cost of typical endotherms. However it is not known whether an ectothermic dinosaur could produce the equivalent amount of muscular power as an endothermic one. To address this question, this study analyses maximal power output from measured aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in burst exercising estuarine crocodiles, Crocodylusporosus, weighing up to 200 kg. These results are compared with similar data from endothermic mammals. A 1 kg crocodile at 30°C produces about 16 watts from aerobic and anaerobic energy sources during the first 10% of exhaustive activity, which is 57% of that expected for a similarly sized mammal. A 200 kg crocodile produces about 400 watts, or only 14% of that for a mammal. Phosphocreatine is a minor energy source, used only in the first seconds of exercise and of similar concentrations in reptiles and mammals. Ectothermic crocodiles lack not only the absolute power for exercise, but also the endurance, that are evident in endothermic mammals. Despite the ability to achieve high and fairly constant body temperatures, therefore, large, ectothermic, crocodile-like dinosaurs would have been competitively inferior to endothermic, mammal-like dinosaurs with high aerobic power. Endothermy in dinosaurs is likely to explain their dominance over mammals in terrestrial ecosystems throughout the Mesozoic.

  15. Maximal aerobic and anaerobic power generation in large crocodiles versus mammals: implications for dinosaur gigantothermy.

    Roger S Seymour

    Full Text Available Inertial homeothermy, the maintenance of a relatively constant body temperature that occurs simply because of large size, is often applied to large dinosaurs. Moreover, biophysical modelling and actual measurements show that large crocodiles can behaviourally achieve body temperatures above 30°C. Therefore it is possible that some dinosaurs could achieve high and stable body temperatures without the high energy cost of typical endotherms. However it is not known whether an ectothermic dinosaur could produce the equivalent amount of muscular power as an endothermic one. To address this question, this study analyses maximal power output from measured aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in burst exercising estuarine crocodiles, Crocodylusporosus, weighing up to 200 kg. These results are compared with similar data from endothermic mammals. A 1 kg crocodile at 30°C produces about 16 watts from aerobic and anaerobic energy sources during the first 10% of exhaustive activity, which is 57% of that expected for a similarly sized mammal. A 200 kg crocodile produces about 400 watts, or only 14% of that for a mammal. Phosphocreatine is a minor energy source, used only in the first seconds of exercise and of similar concentrations in reptiles and mammals. Ectothermic crocodiles lack not only the absolute power for exercise, but also the endurance, that are evident in endothermic mammals. Despite the ability to achieve high and fairly constant body temperatures, therefore, large, ectothermic, crocodile-like dinosaurs would have been competitively inferior to endothermic, mammal-like dinosaurs with high aerobic power. Endothermy in dinosaurs is likely to explain their dominance over mammals in terrestrial ecosystems throughout the Mesozoic.

  16. Exotic Small Mammals and Bartonella

    In this podcast, Dr. Nina Marano discusses Bartonella, a bacterial agent that’s prevalent in many species, including cats, dogs, and cattle. Wild animals are normally thought to carry Bartonella, so when animals are caught in the wild for pet trade, the risk that humans can become infected with Bartonella increases. Bartonella is an identified risk associated with ownership of exotic animals and has serious health consequences.

  17. Do high levels of diffuse and chronic metal pollution in sediments of Rhine and Meuse floodplains affect structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems?

    Rozema, Jelte; Notten, Martje J.M.; Aerts, Rien; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van; Hobbelen, Peter H.F.; Hamers, Timo H.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper (re)considers the question if chronic and diffuse heavy metal pollution (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) affects the structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems of Biesbosch National Park, the floodplain area of rivers Meuse and Rhine. To reach this aim, we integrated the results of three projects on: 1. the origin, transfer and effects of heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain; 2. the impact of bioavailability on effects of heavy metals on the structure and functioning of detritivorous communities; 3. the risk assessment of heavy metals for an herbivorous and a carnivorous small mammal food chain. Metal pollution levels of the Biesbosch floodplain soils are high. The bioavailability of metals in the soils is low, causing low metal levels in plant leaves. Despite this, metal concentrations in soil dwelling detritivores and in land snails at polluted locations are elevated in comparison to animals from 'non-polluted' reference sites. However, no adverse effects on ecosystem structure (species richness, density, biomass) and functioning (litter decomposition, leaf consumption, reproduction) have been found. Sediment metal pollution may pose a risk to the carnivorous small mammal food chain, in which earthworms with elevated metal concentrations are eaten by the common shrew. Additional measurements near an active metal smelter, however, show reduced leaf consumption rates and reduced reproduction by terrestrial snails, reflecting elevated metal bioavailability at this site. Since future management may also comprise reintroduction of tidal action in the Biesbosch area, changes in metal bioavailability, and as a consequence future ecosystem effects, cannot be excluded

  18. Terrestrial Water Storage

    Rodell, M.; Chambers, D. P.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    During 2014 dryness continued in the Northern Hemisphere and relative wetness continued in the Southern Hemisphere (Fig. 2.21; Plate 2.1g). These largely canceled out such that the global land surface began and ended the year with a terrestrial water storage (TWS) anomaly slightly below 0 cm (equivalent height of water; Fig. 2.22). TWS is the sum of groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow, and ice. Groundwater responds more slowly to meteorological phenomena than the other components because the overlying soil acts as a low pass filter, but often it has a larger range of variability on multiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti 2001; Alley et al. 2002).In situ groundwater data are only archived and made and Tanzania. The rest of the continent experienced mixed to dry conditions. Significant reductions in TWS in Greenland, Antarctica, and southern coastal Alaska reflect ongoing ice sheet and glacier ablation, not groundwater depletion.

  19. 76 FR 7548 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision...

    2011-02-10

    ... Importing Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapons Testing and Training by Eglin Air Force Base in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... a Letter of Authorization. SUMMARY: In accordance with provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection...

  20. 77 FR 17033 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy's Training...

    2012-03-23

    ... take marine mammals by harassment incidental to its training activities at the Gulf of Mexico (GOMEX... Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy's Training Activities at the Gulf of Mexico Range Complex AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  1. 75 FR 16754 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision...

    2010-04-02

    ... Importing Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapons Testing and Training by Eglin Air Force Base in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... a Letter of Authorization. SUMMARY: In accordance with provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection...

  2. Comparative Anatomy of the Bony Labyrinth (Inner Ear) of Placental Mammals

    Ekdale, Eric G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Variation is a naturally occurring phenomenon that is observable at all levels of morphology, from anatomical variations of DNA molecules to gross variations between whole organisms. The structure of the otic region is no exception. The present paper documents the broad morphological diversity exhibited by the inner ear region of placental mammals using digital endocasts constructed from high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT). Descriptions cover the major placental clades, and linear, angular, and volumetric dimensions are reported. Principal Findings The size of the labyrinth is correlated to the overall body mass of individuals, such that large bodied mammals have absolutely larger labyrinths. The ratio between the average arc radius of curvature of the three semicircular canals and body mass of aquatic species is substantially lower than the ratios of related terrestrial taxa, and the volume percentage of the vestibular apparatus of aquatic mammals tends to be less than that calculated for terrestrial species. Aspects of the bony labyrinth are phylogenetically informative, including vestibular reduction in Cetacea, a tall cochlear spiral in caviomorph rodents, a low position of the plane of the lateral semicircular canal compared to the posterior canal in Cetacea and Carnivora, and a low cochlear aspect ratio in Primatomorpha. Significance The morphological descriptions that are presented add a broad baseline of anatomy of the inner ear across many placental mammal clades, for many of which the structure of the bony labyrinth is largely unknown. The data included here complement the growing body of literature on the physiological and phylogenetic significance of bony labyrinth structures in mammals, and they serve as a source of data for future studies on the evolution and function of the vertebrate ear. PMID:23805251

  3. Alien species recorded in the United Arab Emirates: an initial list of terrestrial and freshwater species

    Pritpal Soorae

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Little is documented on the alien terrestrial and freshwater species in the United Arab Emirates. To address this, an assessment of terrestrial and freshwater alien species was conducted using various techniques such as a questionnaire, fieldwork data, networking with relevant people, and a detailed literature review. The results of the initial assessment show that there are 146 alien species recorded in the following seven major taxonomic groups: invertebrates 49 species, freshwater fish five species, amphibian one species, reptiles six species, birds 71 species, mammals six species and plants eight species. To inform decision makers a full list of the 146 species identified in this assessment is presented. 

  4. Predation, Competition, and Abiotic Disturbance: Population Dynamics of Small Mammals

    Yunger, John A. [Northern Illinois U.

    1996-01-01

    Predation and food availability have been implicated in annual non-cyclic fluctuations of vertebrate prey at mid-latitudes. The timing and magnitude of these factors are unclear due to a lack of large-scale field experiments, little attention to interactions, and a failure to closely link vertebrate predators with their prey. From October 1992 to January 1996, small mammal populations were censused on eight 0.6 ha plots at monthly intervals in a 32-ha prairie restoration at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Illinois. Terrestrial vertebrate predators were excluded after July 1993 from four of the eight plots and canid diets monitored. Both terrestrial and avian vertebrate predators were excluded in March 1994. During 1993 small mammal densities (i.e., Microtus pennsylvanicus, Peromyscus leucopus, and P. maniculatus) were relatively high. Following peak densities in late summer, Microtus numbers were 2-3x greater on exclusion plots relative to controls due to preferential selection of Microtus by canids, as reflected in diets. Following an ice-storm and crash in small mammal numbers (particularly Microtus), vertebrate predator exclusion had no detectable effect on P. leucopus numbers, probably due to an abundance of alternative prey (i.e., Sylvilagus floridanus). Meadow vole numbers began to increase in Fall 1995, and a numerical effect of predator exclusion, similar to that in 1993, was observed. Predator exclusion had no detectable effect on the movements and spatial patterns of Microtus during 1993. There was a significant decrease in home range and a significant increase in home range overlap for £.. leucopus on the predator exclusion plots. The change in spatial behavior may be due to interspecific competition with Microtus resulting from increased densities on exclusion plots. Thus, predators had an indirect effect on .f.. leucopus spatial patterns mediated through M. pennsylvanicus. The role of food limitation was studied using natural and manipulative

  5. Predation, Competition, and Abiotic Disturbance: Population Dynamics of Small Mammals

    Yunger, John A.; /Northern Illinois U. /Northern Illinois U.

    1996-01-01

    Predation and food availability have been implicated in annual non-cyclic fluctuations of vertebrate prey at mid-latitudes. The timing and magnitude of these factors are unclear due to a lack of large-scale field experiments, little attention to interactions, and a failure to closely link vertebrate predators with their prey. From October 1992 to January 1996, small mammal populations were censused on eight 0.6 ha plots at monthly intervals in a 32-ha prairie restoration at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Illinois. Terrestrial vertebrate predators were excluded after July 1993 from four of the eight plots and canid diets monitored. Both terrestrial and avian vertebrate predators were excluded in March 1994. During 1993 small mammal densities (i.e., Microtus Pennsylvanicus, Peromyscus leucopus, and P. maniculatus) were relatively high. Following peak densities in late summer, Microtus numbers wer 2-3x greater on exclusion plots relative to controls due to preferential selection of Microtus by canids, as reflected in dits. Following an ice-storm and crash in small mammal numbers (particularly Microtus), vertebrate predator exclusion had no detectable effect on P. leucopus numbers, probably due to an abundance of alternative prey (i.e., Sylvilagus floridanus). Meadow vole numbers began to increase in Fall 1995, and a numerical effect of predator exclusion, similar to that in 1993, was observed. Predator exclusion had no detectable effect on the movements and spatial patterns of Microtus during 1993. There was a significant decrease in home range and a significant increase in home range overlap for P. leucopus on the predator exclusion plots. The change in spatial behavior may be due to interspecific competition with Microtus resulting from increased densities on exclusion plots. Thus, predators had an indirect effect on P. leucopus spatial patterns mediated through M. Pennsylvanicus. The role of food limitation was studied using natural and manipulative

  6. Radionuclide transport processes in terrestrial ecosystems

    Whicker, F.W.

    1983-01-01

    Some major principles and the status of knowledge concerning the transport of radionuclides through terrestrial ecosystems are reviewed. Fundamental processes which control the flow of radionuclides between ecosystem components such as air, soil, plants, and animals are described, with emphasis on deposition, resuspension, plant uptake, ingestion, and assimilation. Properties of radionuclides, organisms, and ecosystems are examined in relation to their influence on the accumulation of radioactive materials by plants and animals. The effects of the physicochemical nature of the radionuclide; morphology, physiology, and behavior of the organism; and soil, nutrient, and trophic characteristics of the ecosystem are highlighted. Observations in natural ecosystems on radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 131 I, 3 H, and 239 Pu are used to illustrate current concepts. An assessment of the degree to which the processes controlling radionuclide behavior are understood and of our ability to simulate and predict such behavior with computerized models is offered. Finally, brief comments are made on research needs

  7. Evolution of the Placenta in Eutherian Mammals

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, A

    2007-01-01

    of eutherian mammals had an endotheliochorial placenta or a haemochorial one. Research has been stimulated by improved understanding of the relations between the orders of mammals provided by molecular phylogenetics. In part, the uncertainties arise from doubt about how to root the mammalian tree. Resolution...

  8. Small exotic companion mammal wellness management and environmental enrichment.

    Pilny, Anthony A

    2015-05-01

    Wellness management and environmental enrichment are important components of preventative veterinary medical care. Small exotic mammals represent a diverse group of pets with widely varying types of care, diet, and husbandry considerations; thus, environmental enrichment must go beyond the cage or tank design in order to provide proper mental fitness in meeting any pet's psychological needs. Addressing the pet's environmental, dietary, exercise, and social needs is vital to keeping these animals healthier and more disease resistant. The key to accomplishing this is largely impacted by the annual or biannual veterinary wellness visit and a commitment from the pet's owner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cardiovascular Drugs in Avian, Small Mammal, and Reptile Medicine.

    Fitzgerald, Brenna Colleen; Dias, Sara; Martorell, Jaume

    2018-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease, including congestive heart failure, pericardial disease, and atherosclerosis, is becoming increasingly better recognized in companion birds, small mammals, and reptiles. A wide range of medications is available to treat these conditions, including diuretics, vasodilators, positive and negative inotropes, antiarrhythmic agents, and pentoxifylline. This review systematically discusses each of these drug classes and their potential applications in exotic species. Although treatment approaches remain largely empirical and extrapolated from small animal and human medicine, the management strategies presented here have the potential to both maintain quality of life and extend survival time for the exotic cardiac patient. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nutrient-Sensing Biology in Mammals and Birds

    Roura, Eugeni; Foster, Simon R

    2018-01-01

    in nondigestive systems has uncovered fascinating potential as pharmacological targets relevant to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Animal Biosciences Volume 6 is February 15, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal......, bitter receptors are highly divergent and have a high incidence of polymorphisms within and between mammals and birds and are involved in the adaptation of species to specific environments. In addition, the expression of nutrient sensing genes outside the oral cavity seems to mediate the required...

  11. Baseline mercury and zinc concentrations in terrestrial and coastal organisms of Admiralty Bay, Antarctica

    Rodrigues dos Santos, Isaac; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira; Schaefer, Carlos; Maria Sella, Silvia; Silva, Carlos A.; Gomes, Vicente; Passos, Maria Jose de A.C.R.; Phan Van Ngan

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides the first quantitative information on mercury in soil, coastal sediment, and in characteristic organisms of terrestrial and shallow coastal marine ecosystems from Admiralty Bay (King George Island, Antarctica). As expected for a remote area, mercury content is low in abiotic components of the ecosystem, and probably similar to natural levels. Mercury also occurs in very low concentrations in the vegetation, invertebrates and fish. These low mercury levels may be due to sulphide formation in reducing sediments of this environment. Higher concentrations of mercury occurred in bird feathers and mammal hair, indicating biomagnification. This was not found for Zinc. These results may be useful as a reference background to detect future inputs of trace elements in this remote area of the earth. Terrestrial vegetation and bird feathers are suggested as target regional biomonitors. - Low levels of mercury and zinc occurred in soil and plant samples from Antarctica, but high levels occurred in birds and mammals

  12. Animal research

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...

  13. Effect of Tribulus terrestris on Haloperidol-induced Catalepsy in Mice

    Nishchal, B. S.; Rai, S.; Prabhu, M. N.; Ullal, Sheetal D.; Rajeswari, S.; Gopalakrishna, H. N.

    2014-01-01

    Haloperidol, an antipsychotic drug, leads to the development of a behavioural state called catalepsy, in which the animal is not able to correct an externally imposed posture. In the present study we have attempted to evaluate the anticataleptic effect of Tribulus terrestris on haloperidol-induced catalepsy in albino mice. Mice were allocated to four groups, each group containing six animals. Both, the test drug, Tribulus terrestris and the standard drug trihexyphenidyl were uniformly suspend...

  14. Tidally Heated Terrestrial Exoplanets

    Henning, Wade Garrett

    This work models the surface and internal temperatures for hypothetical terrestrial planets in situations involving extreme tidal heating. The feasibility of such planets is evaluated in terms of the orbital perturbations that may give rise to them, their required proximity to a hoststar, and the potential for the input tidal heating to cause significant partial melting of the mantle. Trapping terrestrial planets into 2:1 resonances with migrating Hot Jupiters is considered as a reasonable way for Earth-like worlds to both maintain high eccentricities and to move to short enough orbital periods (1-20 days) for extreme tidal heating to occur. Secular resonance and secular orbital perturbations may support moderate tidal heating at a low equilibrium eccentricity. At orbital periods below 10-30 days, with eccentricities from 0.01 to 0.1, tidal heat may greatly exceed radiogenic heat production. It is unlikely to exceed insolation, except when orbiting very low luminosity hosts, and thus will have limited surface temperature expression. Observations of such bodies many not be able to detect tidal surface enhancements given a few percent uncertainty in albedo, except on the nightside of spin synchronous airless objects. Otherwise detection may occur via spectral detection of hotspots or high volcanic gas concentrations including sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. The most extreme cases may be able to produce magma oceans, or magma slush mantles with up to 40-60% melt fractions. Tides may alter the habitable zones for smaller red dwarf stars, but are generally detrimental. Multiple viscoelastic models, including the Maxwell, Voigt-Kelvin, Standard Anelastic Solid, and Burgers rheologies are explored and applied to objects such as Io and the super-Earth planet GJ 876d. The complex valued Love number for the Burgers rheology is derived and found to be a useful improvement when modeling the low temperature behavior of tidal bodies, particularly during low eccentricity

  15. The shape of terrestrial abundance distributions

    Alroy, John

    2015-01-01

    Ecologists widely accept that the distribution of abundances in most communities is fairly flat but heavily dominated by a few species. The reason for this is that species abundances are thought to follow certain theoretical distributions that predict such a pattern. However, previous studies have focused on either a few theoretical distributions or a few empirical distributions. I illustrate abundance patterns in 1055 samples of trees, bats, small terrestrial mammals, birds, lizards, frogs, ants, dung beetles, butterflies, and odonates. Five existing theoretical distributions make inaccurate predictions about the frequencies of the most common species and of the average species, and most of them fit the overall patterns poorly, according to the maximum likelihood–related Kullback-Leibler divergence statistic. Instead, the data support a low-dominance distribution here called the “double geometric.” Depending on the value of its two governing parameters, it may resemble either the geometric series distribution or the lognormal series distribution. However, unlike any other model, it assumes both that richness is finite and that species compete unequally for resources in a two-dimensional niche landscape, which implies that niche breadths are variable and that trait distributions are neither arrayed along a single dimension nor randomly associated. The hypothesis that niche space is multidimensional helps to explain how numerous species can coexist despite interacting strongly. PMID:26601249

  16. Dinosaurs and the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution

    Lloyd, Graeme T; Davis, Katie E; Pisani, Davide; Tarver, James E; Ruta, Marcello; Sakamoto, Manabu; Hone, David W.E; Jennings, Rachel; Benton, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    The observed diversity of dinosaurs reached its highest peak during the mid- and Late Cretaceous, the 50 Myr that preceded their extinction, and yet this explosion of dinosaur diversity may be explained largely by sampling bias. It has long been debated whether dinosaurs were part of the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution (KTR), from 125–80 Myr ago, when flowering plants, herbivorous and social insects, squamates, birds and mammals all underwent a rapid expansion. Although an apparent explosion of dinosaur diversity occurred in the mid-Cretaceous, coinciding with the emergence of new groups (e.g. neoceratopsians, ankylosaurid ankylosaurs, hadrosaurids and pachycephalosaurs), results from the first quantitative study of diversification applied to a new supertree of dinosaurs show that this apparent burst in dinosaurian diversity in the last 18 Myr of the Cretaceous is a sampling artefact. Indeed, major diversification shifts occurred largely in the first one-third of the group's history. Despite the appearance of new clades of medium to large herbivores and carnivores later in dinosaur history, these new originations do not correspond to significant diversification shifts. Instead, the overall geometry of the Cretaceous part of the dinosaur tree does not depart from the null hypothesis of an equal rates model of lineage branching. Furthermore, we conclude that dinosaurs did not experience a progressive decline at the end of the Cretaceous, nor was their evolution driven directly by the KTR. PMID:18647715

  17. Exotic Small Mammals and Bartonella

    2009-04-09

    In this podcast, Dr. Nina Marano discusses Bartonella, a bacterial agent that’s prevalent in many species, including cats, dogs, and cattle. Wild animals are normally thought to carry Bartonella, so when animals are caught in the wild for pet trade, the risk that humans can become infected with Bartonella increases. Bartonella is an identified risk associated with ownership of exotic animals and has serious health consequences.  Created: 4/9/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

  18. Universal model for water costs of gas exchange by animals and plants.

    Woods, H Arthur; Smith, Jennifer N

    2010-05-04

    For terrestrial animals and plants, a fundamental cost of living is water vapor lost to the atmosphere during exchange of metabolic gases. Here, by bringing together previously developed models for specific taxa, we integrate properties common to all terrestrial gas exchangers into a universal model of water loss. The model predicts that water loss scales to gas exchange with an exponent of 1 and that the amount of water lost per unit of gas exchanged depends on several factors: the surface temperature of the respiratory system near the outside of the organism, the gas consumed (oxygen or carbon dioxide), the steepness of the gradients for gas and vapor, and the transport mode (convective or diffusive). Model predictions were largely confirmed by data on 202 species in five taxa--insects, birds, bird eggs, mammals, and plants--spanning nine orders of magnitude in rate of gas exchange. Discrepancies between model predictions and data seemed to arise from biologically interesting violations of model assumptions, which emphasizes how poorly we understand gas exchange in some taxa. The universal model provides a unified conceptual framework for analyzing exchange-associated water losses across taxa with radically different metabolic and exchange systems.

  19. Scaling of oxidative and glycolytic enzymes in mammals.

    Emmett, B; Hochachka, P W

    1981-09-01

    The catalytic activities of several oxidative and glycolytic enzymes were determined in the gastrocnemius muscle of 10 mammalian species differing in body weight by nearly 6 orders of magnitude. When expressed in terms of units gm-1, the activities of enzymes functioning in oxidative metabolism (citrate synthase, beta-hydroxybutyrylCoA dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase) decrease as body weight increases. Log-log plots (activity gm-1 vs body mass) yield straight lines with negative slopes that are less than the allometric exponent (-0.25) typically observed for basal metabolic rates. Since the amount of power a muscle can generate depends upon the catalytic potential of its enzyme machinery (the higher the catalytic potential the higher the maximum rate of energy generation), these data predict that the scope for aerobic activity in large mammals should be greater than in small mammals if nothing else becomes limiting, a result in fact recently obtained by Taylor et al. (Respir. Physiol., 1981). In contrast to the scaling of oxidative enzymes, the activities of enzymes functioning in anaerobic glycogenolysis (glycogen phosphorylase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase) increase as body size increases. Log-log plots (activity gm-1 vs body mass) display a positive slope indicating that the larger the animal the higher the glycolytic potential of its skeletal muscles. This unexpected result may indicate higher relative power costs for burst type locomotion in larger mammals, which is in fact observed in within-species studies of man. However, the scaling of anaerobic muscle power has not been closely assessed in between-species comparisons of mammals varying greatly in body size.

  20. Species List and Status of Mammals and Birds in Sambisa Game ...

    This study determined the species list and status of mammals and birds in Sambisa Game Reserve. Species list was determined using direct sighting, animal signs and activities, information from hunters and visits to bush meat processing and selling centers. Results indicate that a total of seventeen (17) species of ...

  1. 76 FR 18167 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    2011-04-01

    ..., many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are exposed to chronic stimuli (Richardson... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Central Gulf of Alaska, June, 2011 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  2. 76 FR 77782 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    2011-12-14

    ..., 1963), but because of ecological or physiological requirements, many marine animals may need to remain... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, February to March 2012 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...

  3. 78 FR 17359 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    2013-03-21

    ..., 1963), but because of ecological or physiological requirements, many marine animals may need to remain... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean, June to July, 2013 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  4. 76 FR 33246 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    2011-06-08

    ... ecological or physiological requirements, many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Central-Western Bering Sea, August 2011 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  5. 75 FR 8652 - Incidental Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    2010-02-25

    ... for marine animals before and during airgun operations. NMFS believes that the realistic possibility... Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, April to June 2010 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...

  6. 77 FR 25966 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Three Marine Geophysical Surveys in...

    2012-05-02

    ..., 1963), but because of ecological or physiological requirements, many marine animals may need to remain... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Three Marine Geophysical Surveys in the Northeast Pacific Ocean, June Through July 2012 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and...

  7. 76 FR 6430 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    2011-02-04

    ..., many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are exposed to chronic stimuli (Richardson... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Pacific Ocean off Costa Rica, April Through May, 2011 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  8. 76 FR 57959 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    2011-09-19

    ..., many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are exposed to chronic stimuli (Richardson... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Central Pacific Ocean, November, 2011 Through January, 2012 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  9. 77 FR 58255 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey off the...

    2012-09-19

    ... requirements, many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are exposed to chronic stimuli... Vol. 77 Wednesday, No. 182 September 19, 2012 Part III Department of Commerce Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey off the Central Coast of California...

  10. 75 FR 45527 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Military Training Activities and Research, Development...

    2010-08-03

    ..., Effects of Sound on Hearing of Marine Animals, and Passive Acoustic Detection, Classification, and.... 0907281180-0269-02] RIN 0648-AX90 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Military Training Activities and...: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce...

  11. Heavy metals content in reproductive organs of small mammals inhabiting in condition of chronic chemical exposure

    Mukhacheva, S.V.; Davydova, Yu.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this research by example of bank vole the heavy metals concentrations (cadmium, copper and zinc) in reproductive organs of small mammals inhabiting in condition of environmental pollution with wastes from copper-smelting industry have been considered. The levels of radionuclides accumulation in testes, seminal vesicle and ovaries of voles with radionuclide concentration in others organs and tissues of animals have been compared.

  12. Separating underwater ambient noise from flow noise recorded on stereo acoustic tags attached to marine mammals

    Benda-Beckmann, A.M. von; Wensveen, P.J.; Samarra, F.I.P.; Beerens, S.P.; Miller, P.J.O.

    2016-01-01

    Sound-recording acoustic tags attached to marine animals are commonly used in behavioural studies. Measuring ambient noise is of interest to efforts to understand responses of marine mammals to anthropogenic underwater sound, or to assess their communication space. Noise of water flowing around the

  13. Universal mechanisms of sound production and control in birds and mammals

    Elemans, Coen; Rasmussen, Jeppe Have; Herbst, Christian T.

    2015-01-01

    As animals vocalize, their vocal organ transforms motor commands into vocalizations for social communication. In birds, the physical mechanisms by which vocalizations are produced and controlled remain unresolved because of the extreme difficulty in obtaining in vivo measurements. Here, we...... learning and is common to MEAD sound production across birds and mammals, including humans....

  14. Early embryonic development, assisted reproductive technologies, and pluripotent stem cell biology in domestic mammals

    Hall, Vanessa Jane; Hinrichs, K.; Lazzari, G.

    2013-01-01

    production and health in animal husbandry. More recently, biomedical applications of these technologies, in particular, SCNT and stem cell culture, have been pursued in domestic mammals in order to create models for human disease and therapy. The following review focuses on presenting important aspects...

  15. Some examples of marine mammal 'discomfort thresholds' in relation to man-made noise

    Verboom, W.C.; Kastelein, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    World-wide a concern exists about the influence of man-made noise on marine life and particularly on marine mammals and fish. One of the acoustic polluters of the world’s oceans is high-power active sonar, but also pile driving and seismic activities at sea are of concern with respect to animal

  16. Small Mammal Sampling in Mortandad and Los Alamos Canyons, 2005

    Kathy Bennett; Sherri Sherwood; Rhonda Robinson

    2006-01-01

    As part of an ongoing ecological field investigation at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a study was conducted that compared measured contaminant concentrations in sediment to population parameters for small mammals in the Mortandad Canyon watershed. Mortandad Canyon and its tributary canyons have received contaminants from multiple solid waste management units and areas of concern since establishment of the Laboratory in the 1940s. The study included three reaches within Effluent and Mortandad canyons (E-1W, M-2W, and M-3) that had a spread in the concentrations of metals and radionuclides and included locations where polychlorinated biphenyls and perchlorate had been detected. A reference location, reach LA-BKG in upper Los Alamos Canyon, was also included in the study for comparison purposes. A small mammal study was initiated to assess whether potential adverse effects were evident in Mortandad Canyon due to the presence of contaminants, designated as contaminants of potential ecological concern, in the terrestrial media. Study sites, including the reference site, were sampled in late July/early August. Species diversity and the mean daily capture rate were the highest for E-1W reach and the lowest for the reference site. Species composition among the three reaches in Mortandad was similar with very little overlap with the reference canyon. Differences in species composition and diversity were most likely due to differences in habitat. Sex ratios, body weights, and reproductive status of small mammals were also evaluated. However, small sample sizes of some species within some sites affected the analysis. Ratios of males to females by species of each site (n = 5) were tested using a Chi-square analysis. No differences were detected. Where there was sufficient sample size, body weights of adult small mammals were compared between sites. No differences in body weights were found. Reproductive status of species appears to be similar across sites. However, sample

  17. Small Mammal Sampling in Mortandad and Los Alamos Canyons, 2005

    Bennett, Kathy; Sherwood, Sherri; Robinson, Rhonda

    2006-08-15

    As part of an ongoing ecological field investigation at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a study was conducted that compared measured contaminant concentrations in sediment to population parameters for small mammals in the Mortandad Canyon watershed. Mortandad Canyon and its tributary canyons have received contaminants from multiple solid waste management units and areas of concern since establishment of the Laboratory in the 1940s. The study included three reaches within Effluent and Mortandad canyons (E-1W, M-2W, and M-3) that had a spread in the concentrations of metals and radionuclides and included locations where polychlorinated biphenyls and perchlorate had been detected. A reference location, reach LA-BKG in upper Los Alamos Canyon, was also included in the study for comparison purposes. A small mammal study was initiated to assess whether potential adverse effects were evident in Mortandad Canyon due to the presence of contaminants, designated as contaminants of potential ecological concern, in the terrestrial media. Study sites, including the reference site, were sampled in late July/early August. Species diversity and the mean daily capture rate were the highest for E-1W reach and the lowest for the reference site. Species composition among the three reaches in Mortandad was similar with very little overlap with the reference canyon. Differences in species composition and diversity were most likely due to differences in habitat. Sex ratios, body weights, and reproductive status of small mammals were also evaluated. However, small sample sizes of some species within some sites affected the analysis. Ratios of males to females by species of each site (n = 5) were tested using a Chi-square analysis. No differences were detected. Where there was sufficient sample size, body weights of adult small mammals were compared between sites. No differences in body weights were found. Reproductive status of species appears to be similar across sites. However, sample

  18. Ecological transfer mechanisms - Terrestrial

    Martin, W.E.; Raines, Gilbert E.; Bloom, S.G.; Levin, A.A.

    1969-01-01

    Radionuclides produced by nuclear excavation detonations and released to the environment may enter a variety of biogeochemical cycles and follow essentially the same transfer pathways as their stable-element counterparts. Estimation of potential internal radiation doses to individuals and/or populations living in or near fallout-contaminated areas requires analysis of the food-chain and other ecological pathways by which radionuclides released to the environment may be returned to man. A generalized materials transfer diagram, applicable to the forest, agricultural, freshwater and marine ecosystems providing food and water to the indigenous population of Panama and Colombia in regions that could be affected by nuclear excavation of a sea-level canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, is presented. Transfer mechanisms effecting the movement of stable elements and radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems are discussed, and methods used to simulate these processes by means of mathematical models are described to show how intake values are calculated for different radionuclides in the major ecological pathways leading to man. These data provide a basis for estimating potential internal radiation doses for comparison with the radiation protection criteria established by recognized authorities; and this, in turn, provides a basis for recommending measures to insure the radiological safety of the nuclear operation plan. (author)

  19. Solar-terrestrial physics

    Patel, V.L.

    1977-01-01

    The Glossary is designed to be a technical dictionary that will provide solar workers of various specialties, students, other astronomers and theoreticians with concise information on the nature and the properties of phenomena of solar and solar-terrestrial physics. Each term, or group of related terms, is given a concise phenomenological and quantitative description, including the relationship to other phenomena and an interpretation in terms of physical processes. The references are intended to lead the non-specialist reader into the literature. This section deals with: geomagnetic field; coordinate systems; geomagnetic indices; Dst index; auroral electrojet index AE; daily, 27-day and semi-annual variations of geomagnetic field; micropulsation; geomagnetic storms; storm sudden commencement (SSC) or sudden commencement (SC); initial phase; ring current; sudden impulses; ionosphere; D region; polar cap absorption; sudden ionospheric disturbance; E region; sporadic E; equatorial electrojet; solar flare effect; F 1 and F 2 regions; spread F; travelling ionospheric disturbances; magnetosphere; magnetospheric coordinate systems; plasmasphere; magnetosheath; magnetospheric tail; substorm; radiation belts or Van Allen belts; whistlers; VLF emissions; aurora; auroral forms; auroral oval and auroral zones; auroral intensity; stable auroral red arcs; pulsing aurora; polar glow aurora; and airglow. (B.R.H.)

  20. Ecological transfer mechanisms - Terrestrial

    Martin, W E; Raines, Gilbert E; Bloom, S G; Levin, A A [Battelle Memorial Institute, CoIumbus, OH (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Radionuclides produced by nuclear excavation detonations and released to the environment may enter a variety of biogeochemical cycles and follow essentially the same transfer pathways as their stable-element counterparts. Estimation of potential internal radiation doses to individuals and/or populations living in or near fallout-contaminated areas requires analysis of the food-chain and other ecological pathways by which radionuclides released to the environment may be returned to man. A generalized materials transfer diagram, applicable to the forest, agricultural, freshwater and marine ecosystems providing food and water to the indigenous population of Panama and Colombia in regions that could be affected by nuclear excavation of a sea-level canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, is presented. Transfer mechanisms effecting the movement of stable elements and radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems are discussed, and methods used to simulate these processes by means of mathematical models are described to show how intake values are calculated for different radionuclides in the major ecological pathways leading to man. These data provide a basis for estimating potential internal radiation doses for comparison with the radiation protection criteria established by recognized authorities; and this, in turn, provides a basis for recommending measures to insure the radiological safety of the nuclear operation plan. (author)

  1. 77 FR 32943 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Pile Driving in the Columbia River, WA

    2012-06-04

    ...., previously wounded animal, carcass with moderate to advanced decomposition, or scavenger damage), the Port... activities (e.g., a fresh carcass). If additional measures are not likely to reduce the risk of additional...). Marine mammal reactions to sound may depend on sound frequency, ambient sound, what the animal is doing...

  2. Patterns of seabird and marine mammal carcass deposition along the central California coast, 1980-1986

    Bodkin, James L.; Jameson, Ronald J.

    1991-01-01

    At monthly intervals from February 1980 through December 1986, a 14.5-km section of central California coastline was systematically surveyed for beach-cast carcasses of marine birds and mammals. Five hundred and fifty-four bird carcasses and 194 marine mammal carcasses were found. Common murres, western grebes, and Brandt's cormorants composed 45% of the bird total. California sea lions, sea otters, and harbor seals composed 90% of the mammal total. Several factors appeared to affect patterns of carcass deposition. The El Niño – Southern Oscillation (ENSO) of 1982–1983 was the dominant influence in terms of interannual variation in carcass deposition. During this ENSO, 56% of the seabirds and 48% of the marine mammals washed ashore. Patterns of intra-annual variation were species specific and were related to animal migration patterns, reproduction, and seasonal changes in weather. Nearshore currents and winds influenced the general area of carcass deposition, while beach substrate type and local patterns of sand deposition influenced the location of carcass deposition on a smaller spatial scale. Weekly surveys along a 1.1-km section of coastline indicated that 62% of bird carcasses and 41% of mammal carcasses remained on the beach less than 9 days. Cause of death was determined for only 8% of the carcasses. Oiling was the most common indication of cause of death in birds (6%). Neonates composed 8% of all mammal carcasses.

  3. Serological evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive marine mammals in Mexico.

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Sánchez-Okrucky, R; Dubey, J P

    2012-03-23

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is important because they are considered as a sentinel for contamination of seas with T. gondii oocysts, and toxoplasmosis causes mortality in these animals, particularly sea otters. Serological evidence of T. gondii infection was determined in 75 captive marine mammals from four facilities in southern and central geographical regions in Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT, 1:25 or higher) to T. gondii were found in 55 (87.3%) of 63 Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus truncatus), 3 of 3 Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus gillii), 2 of 4 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), but not in 3 West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus), and 2 Patagonian sea lions (Otaria flavescens). Seropositive marine mammals were found in all 4 (100%) facilities sampled. All marine mammals were healthy and there has not been any case of clinical toxoplasmosis in the facilities sampled for at least the last 15 years. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in marine mammals of the same species did not vary significantly with respect to sex and age. This is the first report on the detection of antibodies to T. gondii in marine mammals in Mexico. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Locomotion in degus on terrestrial substrates varying in orientation - implications for biomechanical constraints and gait selection.

    Schmidt, André

    2014-04-01

    To gain new insights into running gaits on sloped terrestrial substrates, metric and selected kinematic parameters of the common degu (Octodon degus) were examined. Individuals were filmed at their maximum voluntary running speed using a high-speed camera placed laterally to the terrestrial substrate varying in orientations from -30° to +30°, at 10° increments. Degus used trotting, lateral-sequence (LS) and diagonal-sequence (DS) running gaits at all substrate orientations. Trotting was observed across the whole speed range whereas DS running gaits occurred at significantly higher speeds than LS running gaits. Metric and kinematic changes on sloped substrates in degus paralleled those noted for most other mammals. However, the timing of metric and kinematic locomotor adjustments differed significantly between individual degus. In addition, most of these adjustments took place at 10° rather than 30° inclines and declines, indicating significant biomechanical demands even on slightly sloped terrestrial substrates. The results of this study suggest that DS and LS running gaits may represent an advantage in small to medium-sized mammals for counteracting some level of locomotor instability. Finally, changes in locomotor parameters of the forelimbs rather than the hindlimbs seem to play an important role in gait selection in small to medium-sized mammals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Riparian Habitat Management for Mammals on Corps of Engineers Projects

    Martin, Chester

    2002-01-01

    .... This note provides an overview of the importance of riparian ecosystems to mammals, discusses regional variation in mammal communities characteristic of riparian zones, identifies potential impacts...

  6. Estimating Exposure of Terrestrial Wildlife to Contaminants

    Sample, B.E.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a general model for exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants (Sect. 2), methods for estimating parameters of the model (Sect. 3), species specific parameters for endpoint species on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Sect. 4), and a sample application (Sect. 5). Exposure can be defined as the coincidence in both space and time of a receptor and a stressor, such that the receptor and stressor come into contact and interact (Risk Assessment Forum 1992). In the context of ecological risk assessment, receptors include all endpoint species or communities identified for a site [see Suter (1989) and Suter et al. (1994) for discussions of ecological endpoints for waste sites]. In the context of waste site assessments, stressors are chemical contaminations, and the contact and interaction are uptake of the contaminant by the receptor. Without sufficient exposure of the receptor to the contaminants, there is no ecological risk. Unlike some other endpoint assemblages, terrestrial wildlife are significantly exposed to contaminants in multiple media. They may drink or swim in contaminated water, ingest contaminated food and soil, and breath contaminated air. In addition, because most wildlife are mobile, moving among and within habitats, exposure is not restricted to a single location. They may integrate contamination from several spatially discrete sources. Therefore, exposure models for terrestrial wildlife must include multiple media. This document provides models and parameters for estimating exposure of birds and mammals. Reptiles and amphibians are not considered because few data exist with which to assess exposure to these organisms. In addition, because toxicological data are scarce for both classes, evaluation of the significance of exposure estimates is problematic. However, the general exposure estimation procedure developed herein for birds and mammals is applicable to reptiles and amphibians. Exposure models must be appropriate to the

  7. Identification & Registration of Marine Animals (IRMA)

    Benders, F.P.A.; Zwan, T. van der; Verboom, W.C.

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge about habitats and behaviour of marine animals has become more important following an increased concern that acoustic sources may have an influence on marine life. Databases containing the habitats and behaviour are being filled all over the world. However, at present marine mammal

  8. A Collar for Marking Big Game Animals

    Robert L. Phillips

    1970-01-01

    A Simple, inexpensive collar made of Armor-tite (a vinyl-coated nylon fabric) was designed for marking white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and moose (Alces alces). Field tests showed that the material is easily seen and extrememly durable. It may be suitable for use on other large mammals. The collar can be quickly fitted to individual animals under field...

  9. A collaborative approach for estimating terrestrial wildlife abundance

    Ransom, Jason I.; Kaczensky, Petra; Lubow, Bruce C.; Ganbaatar, Oyunsaikhan; Altansukh, Nanjid

    2012-01-01

    Accurately estimating abundance of wildlife is critical for establishing effective conservation and management strategies. Aerial methodologies for estimating abundance are common in developed countries, but they are often impractical for remote areas of developing countries where many of the world's endangered and threatened fauna exist. The alternative terrestrial methodologies can be constrained by limitations on access, technology, and human resources, and have rarely been comprehensively conducted for large terrestrial mammals at landscape scales. We attempted to overcome these problems by incorporating local peoples into a simultaneous point count of Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus) and goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa) across the Great Gobi B Strictly Protected Area, Mongolia. Paired observers collected abundance and covariate metrics at 50 observation points and we estimated population sizes using distance sampling theory, but also assessed individual observer error to examine potential bias introduced by the large number of minimally trained observers. We estimated 5671 (95% CI = 3611–8907) wild asses and 5909 (95% CI = 3762–9279) gazelle inhabited the 11,027 km2 study area at the time of our survey and found that the methodology developed was robust at absorbing the logistical challenges and wide range of observer abilities. This initiative serves as a functional model for estimating terrestrial wildlife abundance while integrating local people into scientific and conservation projects. This, in turn, creates vested interest in conservation by the people who are most influential in, and most affected by, the outcomes.

  10. First accelerator mass spectrometry {sup 14}C dates documenting contemporaneity of nonanalog species in late Pleistocene mammal communities

    Stafford, T.W. Jr.; Semken, H.A. Jr.; Graham, R.W.; Klippel, W.F.; Markova, A.; Smirnov, N.G.; Southon, J.

    1999-10-01

    Worldwide late Pleistocene terrestrial mammal faunas are characterized by stratigraphic associations of species that now have exclusive geographic ranges. These have been interpreted as either taphonomically mixed or representative of communities that no longer exist. Accelerator mass spectrometry {sup 14}C dates (n = 60) on single bones of stratigraphically associated fossil micromammals from two American and two Russian sites document for the first time that currently allopatric mammals occurred together between 12,000 and 22,000 yr B.P. on two continents. The existence of mammal communities without modern analogs demonstrates that Northern Hemisphere biological communities are ephemeral and that many modern biomes are younger than 12 ka. Future climate change may result in new nonanalog communities.

  11. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  12. Different methods for volatile sampling in mammals.

    Marlen Kücklich

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that olfactory cues are important for mammalian communication. However, many specific compounds that convey information between conspecifics are still unknown. To understand mechanisms and functions of olfactory cues, olfactory signals such as volatile compounds emitted from individuals need to be assessed. Sampling of animals with and without scent glands was typically conducted using cotton swabs rubbed over the skin or fur and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. However, this method has various drawbacks, including a high level of contaminations. Thus, we adapted two methods of volatile sampling from other research fields and compared them to sampling with cotton swabs. To do so we assessed the body odor of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus using cotton swabs, thermal desorption (TD tubes and, alternatively, a mobile GC-MS device containing a thermal desorption trap. Overall, TD tubes comprised most compounds (N = 113, with half of those compounds being volatile (N = 52. The mobile GC-MS captured the fewest compounds (N = 35, of which all were volatile. Cotton swabs contained an intermediate number of compounds (N = 55, but very few volatiles (N = 10. Almost all compounds found with the mobile GC-MS were also captured with TD tubes (94%. Hence, we recommend TD tubes for state of the art sampling of body odor of mammals or other vertebrates, particularly for field studies, as they can be easily transported, stored and analysed with high performance instruments in the lab. Nevertheless, cotton swabs capture compounds which still may contribute to the body odor, e.g. after bacterial fermentation, while profiles from mobile GC-MS include only the most abundant volatiles of the body odor.

  13. Search for Mycobacterium leprae in wild mammals

    Sílvia Cristina Barboza Pedrini

    Full Text Available Leprosy is still a worldwide public health problem. Brazil and India show the highest prevalence rates of the disease. Natural infection of armadillos Dasypus novemcinctus with Mycobacterium leprae has been reported in some regions of the United States. Identification of bacilli is difficult, particularly due to its inability to grow in vitro. The use of molecular tools represents a fast and sensitive alternative method for diagnosis of mycobacteriosis. In the present study, the diagnostic methods used were bacilloscopy, histopathology, microbiology, and PCR using specific primers for M. leprae repetitive sequences. PCR were performed using genomic DNA extracted from 138 samples of liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and skin of 44 D. novemcinctus, Euphractus sexcinctus, Cabassous unicinctus, and C. tatouay armadillos from the Middle Western region of the state of São Paulo and from the experimental station of Embrapa Pantanal, located in Pantanal da Nhecolândia of Mato Grosso do Sul state. Also, the molecular analysis of 19 samples from internal organs of other road killed species of wild animals, such as Nasua nasua (ring-tailed coati, Procyon cancrivoros (hand-skinned, Cerdocyon thous (dog-pity-bush, Cavia aperea (restless cavy, Didelphis albiventris (skunk, Sphigurrus spinosus (hedgehog, and Gallictis vittata (ferret showed PCR negative data. None of the 157 analyzed samples had shown natural mycobacterial infection. Only the armadillo inoculated with material collected from untreated multibacillary leprosy patient presented PCR positive and its genomic sequencing revealed 100% identity with M. leprae. According to these preliminary studies, based on the used methodology, it is possible to conclude that wild mammals seem not to play an important role in the epidemiology of leprosy in the Middle Western region of the São Paulo state and in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul state.

  14. Mammal predator and prey species richness are strongly linked at macroscales

    Sandom, Christopher James; Dalby, Lars; Fløjgaard, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    Predator–prey interactions play an important role for species composition and community dynamics at local scales, but their importance in shaping large-scale gradients of species richness remains unexplored. Here, we use global range maps, structural equation models (SEM), and comprehensive...... databases of dietary preferences and body masses of all terrestrial, non-volant mammals worldwide, to test whether (1) prey-bottom-up or predator- top-down relationships are important drivers of broad-scale species richness gradients once the environment and human influence has been accounted for, (2...... between them (e.g., large prey to small predators), suggesting that mass-related energetic and physiological constraints influence broad-scale richness links, especially for large-bodied mammals. Overall, our results support the idea that trophic interactions can be important drivers of large...

  15. Standardization of Radiographic and Ultrasonographic Features and Measurements in Two Small Mammal Pet-Species: Domestic Rat (Rattus norvegicus) and Mixed Breed Dwarf Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    Balıkçı Dorotea, Sema

    2016-01-01

    Exotic animal practice is one of the fastest growing disciplines in veterinary medicine. The importance of small exotic mammals as veterinary patients has continued to grow and in some practices these animals form a significant percentage of the clientele. At the same time, knowledge regarding the anatomical, physiological, and pathophysiological characteristics of these species has rapidly increased. In addition, the demands by many small exotic mammal owners for quality medical care for the...

  16. Pesticide residues in birds and mammals

    Stickel, L.F.; Edwards, C.A.

    1973-01-01

    SUMMARY: Residues of organochlorine pesticides and their breakdown products are present in the tissues of essentially all wild birds throughout the world. These chemicals accumulate in fat from a relatively small environmental exposure. DDE and dieldrin are most prevalent. Others, such as heptachlor epoxide, chlordane, endrin, and benzene hexachloride also occur, the quantities and kinds generally reflecting local or regional use. Accumulation may be sufficient to kill animals following applications for pest control. This has occurred in several large-scale programmes in the United States. Mortality has also resulted from unintentional leakage of chemical from commercial establishments. Residues may persist in the environment for many years, exposing successive generations of animals. In general, birds that eat other birds, or fish, have higher residues than those that eat seeds and vegetation. The kinetic processes of absorption, metabolism, storage, and output differ according to both kind of chemical and species of animal. When exposure is low and continuous, a balance between intake and excretion may be achieved. Residues reach a balance at an approximate animal body equilibrium or plateau; the storage is generally proportional to dose. Experiments with chickens show that dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide have the greatest propensity for storage, endrin next, then DDT, then lindane. The storage of DDT was complicated by its metabolism to DDE and DDD, but other studies show that DDE has a much greater propensity for storage than either DDD or DDT. Methoxychlor has little cumulative capacity in birds. Residues in eggs reflect and parallel those in the parent bird during accumulation, equilibrium, and decline when dosage is discontinued. Residues with the greatest propensity for storage are also lost most slowly. Rate of loss of residues can be modified by dietary components and is speeded by weight loss of the animal. Under sublethal conditions of continuous

  17. Ancient ecology of 15-million-year-old browsing mammals within C3 plant communities from Panama.

    MacFadden, Bruce J; Higgins, Pennilyn

    2004-06-01

    Middle Miocene mammals are known from approximately 15 million-year-old sediments exposed along the Panama Canal of Central America, a region that otherwise has an exceedingly poor terrestrial fossil record. These land mammals, which represent a part of the ancient terrestrial herbivore community, include an oreodont Merycochoerus matthewi, small camel-like protoceratid artiodactyl Paratoceras wardi, two horses Anchitherium clarencei and Archaeohippus sp., and two rhinos Menoceras barbouri and Floridaceras whitei. Bulk and serial carbon and oxygen isotope analyses of the tooth enamel carbonate allow reconstruction of the ancient climate and ecology of these fossil mammals. Ancient Panama had an equable climate with seasonal temperature and rainfall fluctuations less than those seen today. The middle Miocene terrestrial community consisted predominantly, or exclusively, of C3 plants, i.e., there is no evidence for C4 grasses. Statistically different mean carbon isotope values for the mammalian herbivores indicate niche partitioning of the C3 plant food resources. The range of individual carbon isotope analyses, i.e., delta13C from -15.9 to -10.1 per thousand, indicates herbivores feeding on diverse plants from different habitats with extrapolated delta13C values of -29.9 to -24.2 per thousand, possibly ranging from dense forest to more open country woodland. The ecological niches of individual mammalian herbivore species were differentiated either by diet or body size.

  18. Animal Bites

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  19. Amphibians at risk? Susceptibility of terrestrial amphibian life stages to pesticides.

    Brühl, Carsten A; Pieper, Silvia; Weber, Brigitte

    2011-11-01

    Current pesticide risk assessment does not specifically consider amphibians. Amphibians in the aquatic environment (aquatic life stages or postmetamorphic aquatic amphibians) and terrestrial living juvenile or adult amphibians are assumed to be covered by the risk assessment for aquatic invertebrates and fish, or mammals and birds, respectively. This procedure has been evaluated as being sufficiently protective regarding the acute risk posed by a number of pesticides to aquatic amphibian life stages (eggs, larvae). However, it is unknown whether the exposure and sensitivity of terrestrial living amphibians are comparable to mammalian and avian exposure and sensitivity. We reviewed the literature on dermal pesticide absorption and toxicity studies for terrestrial life stages of amphibians, focusing on the dermal exposure pathway, that is, through treated soil or direct overspray. In vitro studies demonstrated that cutaneous absorption of chemicals is significant and that chemical percutaneous passage, P (cm/h), is higher in amphibians than in mammals. In vivo, the rapid and substantial uptake of the herbicide atrazine from treated soil by toads (Bufo americanus) has been described. Severe toxic effects on various amphibian species have been reported for field-relevant application rates of different pesticides. In general, exposure and toxicity studies for terrestrial amphibian life stages are scarce, and the reported data indicate the need for further research, especially in light of the global amphibian decline. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  20. traditional medicinal uses of small mammal products

    Dr. Nelson Boniface

    hunted small mammals mainly by dogs for cultural and ornamental reasons. Products of African ... (WHO) defines traditional medicine as ''health practices ... particularly in Asian countries. ..... Ntiamoa- Baidu Y 1992 Local Perceptions and.

  1. Ocean Disposal of Marine Mammal Carcasses

    Ocean dumping of marine mammal carcasses is allowed with a permit issued by EPA under the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. Includes permit information, potential environmental impacts, and instructions for getting the general permit.

  2. Atlantic Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in South Atlantic (Florida to Maryland) waters from 1994 to the...

  3. South African red data book - large mammals

    Skinner, JD

    1977-11-01

    Full Text Available Data sheets are provided for 22 threatened South African large mammals, one exterminated (Liechtenstein1s hartebeest), eight endangered (cheetah, hunting dog, dugong, Cape mountain zebra, black rhinoceros, tsessebe, roan antelope, suni), one...

  4. Caribbean Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in Caribbean waters conducted during 2000-2001. These surveys were...

  5. Marine Mammal Food Habits Reference Collections

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) Food Habits Reference Collection, containing over 8000 specimens of cephalopod beaks and fish bones and otoliths, is...

  6. SE Marine Mammal Histology/Tissue data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples are collected from stranded marine mammals in the Southeastern United States. These tissue samples are examined histologically and evaluated to...

  7. Animal experimentation

    Laz, Alak; Cholakova, Tanya Stefanova; Vrablova, Sofia; Arshad, Naverawaheed

    2016-01-01

    Animal experimentation is a crucial part of medical science. One of the ways to define it is any scientific experiment conducted for research purposes that cause any kind of pain or suffering to animals. Over the years, the new discovered drugs or treatments are first applied on animals to test their positive outcomes to be later used by humans. There is a debate about violating ethical considerations by exploiting animals for human benefits. However, different ethical theories have been made...

  8. Tula virus in populations of small terrestrial mammals in a rural landscape

    Heroldová, Marta; Pejčoch, M.; Bryja, Josef; Jánová, Eva; Suchomel, J.; Tkadlec, Emil

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 6 (2010), s. 599-603 ISSN 1530-3667 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH72075 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : crop fields * host species * rural habitat * Tula virus antigen Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.733, year: 2010

  9. Bomb radiocarbon in metabolically inert tissues from terrestrial and marine mammals

    Bada, J.L.; Vrolijk, C.D.; Brown, S.; Druffel, E.R.M.; Hedges, R.E.M.

    1987-01-01

    We report here radiocarbon measurements of monkey eye lens nucleus proteins and a narwhal tusk, biological tissues which have sampled the bomb radiocarbon signal in different ways. The results confirm the metabolic inertness of eye lens nucleus proteins and demonstrate the feasibility of measuring radiocarbon in small samples of biological tissue using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The narwhal tusk provides a unique record of the radiocarbon activity in Arctic Ocean waters over most of the 20th century

  10. Large forest patches promote breeding success of a terrestrial mammal in urban landscapes.

    Masashi Soga

    Full Text Available Despite a marked increase in the focus toward biodiversity conservation in fragmented landscapes, studies that confirm species breeding success are scarce and limited. In this paper, we asked whether local (area of forest patches and landscape (amount of suitable habitat surrounding of focal patches factors affect the breeding success of raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides in Tokyo, Central Japan. The breeding success of raccoon dogs is easy to judge as adults travel with pups during the breeding season. We selected 21 forest patches (3.3-797.8 ha as study sites. In each forest patch, we used infra-red-triggered cameras for a total of 60 camera days per site. We inspected each photo to determine whether it was of an adult or a pup. Although we found adult raccoon dogs in all 21 forest patches, pups were found only in 13 patches. To estimate probability of occurrence and detection for raccoon in 21 forest fragments, we used single season site occupancy models in PRESENCE program. Model selection based on AIC and model averaging showed that the occupancy probability of pups was positively affected by patch area. This result suggests that large forests improve breeding success of raccoon dogs. A major reason for the low habitat value of small, isolated patches may be the low availability of food sources and the high risk of being killed on the roads in such areas. Understanding the effects of local and landscape parameters on species breeding success may help us to devise and implement effective long-term conservation and management plans.

  11. Animal models

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  12. Animal Deliberation

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political

  13. Recovery trends in marine mammal populations.

    Anna M Magera

    Full Text Available Marine mammals have greatly benefitted from a shift from resource exploitation towards conservation. Often lauded as symbols of conservation success, some marine mammal populations have shown remarkable recoveries after severe depletions. Others have remained at low abundance levels, continued to decline, or become extinct or extirpated. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of (1 publicly available population-level abundance data for marine mammals worldwide, (2 abundance trends and recovery status, and (3 historic population decline and recent recovery. We compiled 182 population abundance time series for 47 species and identified major data gaps. In order to compare across the largest possible set of time series with varying data quality, quantity and frequency, we considered an increase in population abundance as evidence of recovery. Using robust log-linear regression over three generations, we were able to classify abundance trends for 92 spatially non-overlapping populations as Significantly Increasing (42%, Significantly Decreasing (10%, Non-Significant Change (28% and Unknown (20%. Our results were comparable to IUCN classifications for equivalent species. Among different groupings, pinnipeds and other marine mammals (sirenians, polar bears and otters showed the highest proportion of recovering populations, likely benefiting from relatively fast life histories and nearshore habitats that provided visibility and protective management measures. Recovery was less frequent among cetaceans, but more common in coastal than offshore populations. For marine mammals with available historical abundance estimates (n = 47, larger historical population declines were associated with low or variable recent recoveries so far. Overall, our results show that many formerly depleted marine mammal populations are recovering. However, data-deficient populations and those with decreasing and non-significant trends require attention. In particular

  14. Moving in the Anthropocene: Global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

    Tucker, Marlee A.; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Fagan, William F.; Fryxell, John; Van Moorter, Bram; Alberts, Susan C; Ali, Abdullahi H.; Allen, Andrew M.; Attias, Nina; Avgar, Tal; Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie; Bayarbaatar, Buuveibaatar; Belant, Jerrold L.; Bertassoni, Alessandra; Beyer, Dean; Bidner, Laura; M. van Beest, Floris; Blake, Stephen; Blaum, Niels; Bracis, Chloe; Brown, Danielle; Nico de Bruyn, P. J.; Cagnacci, Francesca; Calabrese, J.M.; Camilo-Alves, Constança; Chamaillé-Jammes, Simon; Chiaradia, Andre; Davidson, Sarah C.; Dennis, Todd; DeStefano, Stephen; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Fennessy, Julian; Fichtel, Claudia; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Fischer, Christina; Fischhoff, Ilya; Fleming, Christen H.; Ford, Adam T.; Fritz, Susanne A.; Gehr, Benedikt; Goheen, Jacob R.; Gurarie, Eliezer; Hebblewhite, Mark; Heurich, Marco; Mark Hewison, A.J.; Hof, Christian; Hurme, Edward; Isbell, Lynne A.; Janssen, René; Jeltsch, Florian; Kaczensky, Petra; Kane, Adam; Kappeler, Peter M.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Kays, Roland; Kimuyu, Duncan; Koch, Flavia; Kranstauber, Bart; LaPoint, Scott; Leimgruber, Peter; Linnell, John D. C.; López-López, Pascual; Markham, A. Catherine; Mattisson, Jenny; Medici, Emilia Patricia; Mellone, Ugo; Merrill, E.; de Miranda Mourão, Guilherme; Morato, Ronaldo G.; Morellet, Nicolas; Morrison, Thomas A.; Díaz-Muñoz, Samuel L.; Mysterud, Atle; Nandintsetseg, Dejid; Nathan, Ran; Niamir, Aidin; Odden, John; O'Hara, Robert B.; Oliveira-Santos, Luiz G. R.; Olson, Kirk A.; Patterson, Bruce D.; Cunha de Paula, Rogerio; Pedrotti, Luca; Reineking, Björn; Rimmler, Martin; Rogers, T.L.; Rolandsen, Christer Moe; Rosenberry, Christopher S.; Rubenstein, Daniel I.; Safi, Kamran; Saïd, Sonia; Sapir, Nir; Sawyer, Hall; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Selva, Nuria; Sergiel, Agnieszka; Shiilegdamba, Enkhtuvshin; Silva, João Paulo; Singh, N.; Solberg, Erling J.; Spiegel, Orr; Strand, Olav; Sundaresan, S.R.; Ullmann, Wiebke; Voigt, Ulrich; Wall, J.; Wattles, David W.; Wikelski, Martin; Wilmers, Christopher C.; Wilson, Jon W.; Wittemyer, George; Zięba, Filip; Zwijacz-Kozica, Tomasz; Mueller, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral changes of individual animals and to the exclusion of species with long-range movements from areas with higher human impact. Global loss of vagility alters a key ecological trait of animals that affects not only population persistence but also ecosystem processes such as predator-prey interactions, nutrient cycling, and disease transmission.

  15. Species longevity in North American fossil mammals.

    Prothero, Donald R

    2014-08-01

    Species longevity in the fossil record is related to many paleoecological variables and is important to macroevolutionary studies, yet there are very few reliable data on average species durations in Cenozoic fossil mammals. Many of the online databases (such as the Paleobiology Database) use only genera of North American Cenozoic mammals and there are severe problems because key groups (e.g. camels, oreodonts, pronghorns and proboscideans) have no reliable updated taxonomy, with many invalid genera and species and/or many undescribed genera and species. Most of the published datasets yield species duration estimates of approximately 2.3-4.3 Myr for larger mammals, with small mammals tending to have shorter species durations. My own compilation of all the valid species durations in families with updated taxonomy (39 families, containing 431 genera and 998 species, averaging 2.3 species per genus) yields a mean duration of 3.21 Myr for larger mammals. This breaks down to 4.10-4.39 Myr for artiodactyls, 3.14-3.31 Myr for perissodactyls and 2.63-2.95 Myr for carnivorous mammals (carnivorans plus creodonts). These averages are based on a much larger, more robust dataset than most previous estimates, so they should be more reliable for any studies that need species longevity to be accurately estimated. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. 50 CFR 216.83 - Importation of birds or mammals.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Importation of birds or mammals. 216.83 Section 216.83 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.83 Importation of birds or mammals. No mammals or birds...

  17. Elevated carboxyhemoglobin in a marine mammal, the northern elephant seal.

    Tift, Michael S; Ponganis, Paul J; Crocker, Daniel E

    2014-05-15

    Low concentrations of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), generated primarily through degradation of heme from heme-proteins, have been shown to maintain physiological function of organs and to exert cytoprotective effects. However, high concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), formed by CO binding to hemoglobin, potentially prevent adequate O2 delivery to tissues by lowering arterial O2 content. Elevated heme-protein concentrations, as found in marine mammals, are likely associated with greater heme degradation, more endogenous CO production and, consequently, elevated COHb concentrations. Therefore, we measured COHb in elephant seals, a species with large blood volumes and elevated hemoglobin and myoglobin concentrations. The levels of COHb were positively related to the total hemoglobin concentration. The maximum COHb value was 10.4% of total hemoglobin concentration. The mean (± s.e.m.) value in adult seals was 8.7 ± 0.3% (N=6), while juveniles and pups (with lower heme-protein contents) had lower mean COHb values of 7.6 ± 0.2% and 7.1 ± 0.3%, respectively (N=9 and N=9, respectively). Serial samples over several hours revealed little to no fluctuation in COHb values. This consistent elevation in COHb suggests that the magnitude and/or rate of heme-protein turnover is much higher than in terrestrial mammals. The maximum COHb values from this study decrease total body O2 stores by 7%, thereby reducing the calculated aerobic dive limit for this species. However, the constant presence of elevated CO in blood may also protect against potential ischemia-reperfusion injury associated with the extreme breath-holds of elephant seals. We suggest the elephant seal represents an ideal model for understanding the potential cytoprotective effects, mechanisms of action and evolutionary adaptation associated with chronically elevated concentrations of endogenously produced CO. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Terrestrial invertebrates in the Rhynie chert ecosystem.

    Dunlop, Jason A; Garwood, Russell J

    2018-02-05

    The Early Devonian Rhynie and Windyfield cherts remain a key locality for understanding early life and ecology on land. They host the oldest unequivocal nematode worm (Nematoda), which may also offer the earliest evidence for herbivory via plant parasitism. The trigonotarbids (Arachnida: Trigonotarbida) preserve the oldest book lungs and were probably predators that practiced liquid feeding. The oldest mites (Arachnida: Acariformes) are represented by taxa which include mycophages and predators on nematodes today. The earliest harvestman (Arachnida: Opiliones) includes the first preserved tracheae, and male and female genitalia. Myriapods are represented by a scutigeromorph centipede (Chilopoda: Scutigeromorpha), probably a cursorial predator on the substrate, and a putative millipede (Diplopoda). The oldest springtails (Hexapoda: Collembola) were probably mycophages, and another hexapod of uncertain affinities preserves a gut infill of phytodebris. The first true insects (Hexapoda: Insecta) are represented by a species known from chewing (non-carnivorous?) mandibles. Coprolites also provide insights into diet, and we challenge previous assumptions that several taxa were spore-feeders. Rhynie appears to preserve a largely intact community of terrestrial animals, although some expected groups are absent. The known fossils are (ecologically) consistent with at least part of the fauna found around modern Icelandic hot springs.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The Rhynie cherts: our earliest terrestrial ecosystem revisited'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. What lies beneath: sub-articular long bone shape scaling in eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs suggests different locomotor adaptations for gigantism.

    Bonnan, Matthew F; Wilhite, D Ray; Masters, Simon L; Yates, Adam M; Gardner, Christine K; Aguiar, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs both evolved lineages of huge terrestrial herbivores. Although significantly more saurischian dinosaurs were giants than eutherians, the long bones of both taxa scale similarly and suggest that locomotion was dynamically similar. However, articular cartilage is thin in eutherian mammals but thick in saurischian dinosaurs, differences that could have contributed to, or limited, how frequently gigantism evolved. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that sub-articular bone, which supports the articular cartilage, changes shape in different ways between terrestrial mammals and dinosaurs with increasing size. Our sample consisted of giant mammal and reptile taxa (i.e., elephants, rhinos, sauropods) plus erect and non-erect outgroups with thin and thick articular cartilage. Our results show that eutherian mammal sub-articular shape becomes narrow with well-defined surface features as size increases. In contrast, this region in saurischian dinosaurs expands and remains gently convex with increasing size. Similar trends were observed in non-erect outgroup taxa (monotremes, alligators), showing that the trends we report are posture-independent. These differences support our hypothesis that sub-articular shape scales differently between eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs. Our results show that articular cartilage thickness and sub-articular shape are correlated. In mammals, joints become ever more congruent and thinner with increasing size, whereas archosaur joints remained both congruent and thick, especially in sauropods. We suggest that gigantism occurs less frequently in mammals, in part, because joints composed of thin articular cartilage can only become so congruent before stress cannot be effectively alleviated. In contrast, frequent gigantism in saurischian dinosaurs may be explained, in part, by joints with thick articular cartilage that can deform across large areas with increasing load.

  20. What lies beneath: sub-articular long bone shape scaling in eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs suggests different locomotor adaptations for gigantism.

    Matthew F Bonnan

    Full Text Available Eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs both evolved lineages of huge terrestrial herbivores. Although significantly more saurischian dinosaurs were giants than eutherians, the long bones of both taxa scale similarly and suggest that locomotion was dynamically similar. However, articular cartilage is thin in eutherian mammals but thick in saurischian dinosaurs, differences that could have contributed to, or limited, how frequently gigantism evolved. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that sub-articular bone, which supports the articular cartilage, changes shape in different ways between terrestrial mammals and dinosaurs with increasing size. Our sample consisted of giant mammal and reptile taxa (i.e., elephants, rhinos, sauropods plus erect and non-erect outgroups with thin and thick articular cartilage. Our results show that eutherian mammal sub-articular shape becomes narrow with well-defined surface features as size increases. In contrast, this region in saurischian dinosaurs expands and remains gently convex with increasing size. Similar trends were observed in non-erect outgroup taxa (monotremes, alligators, showing that the trends we report are posture-independent. These differences support our hypothesis that sub-articular shape scales differently between eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs. Our results show that articular cartilage thickness and sub-articular shape are correlated. In mammals, joints become ever more congruent and thinner with increasing size, whereas archosaur joints remained both congruent and thick, especially in sauropods. We suggest that gigantism occurs less frequently in mammals, in part, because joints composed of thin articular cartilage can only become so congruent before stress cannot be effectively alleviated. In contrast, frequent gigantism in saurischian dinosaurs may be explained, in part, by joints with thick articular cartilage that can deform across large areas with increasing load.

  1. Animal Telemetry Network Data Assembly Center: Phase 1

    2015-09-30

    marine animal tags (Archival, Satellite and Acoustic) and from several marine animals (Fish, Sharks, Marine Mammals , Turtles and Seabirds); • Deploy...Restoration 3 Program (DARRPA) phase of the U.S. Government’s response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico . The U.S. IOOS

  2. Do Bird Friendly® Coffee Criteria Benefit Mammals? Assessment of Mammal Diversity in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Caudill, S Amanda; Rice, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity-friendly coffee certifications offer a viable way to protect wildlife habitat while providing a financial incentive to farmers. Most studies related to these certifications focus on avian habitat requirements and it is not known whether these standards also apply to other wildlife, such as mammals, that inhabit the coffee landscapes. We assessed the non-volant mammalian fauna and their associated habitat requirements in 23 sites representing forest, Bird Friendly® shade, conventional shade, and sun coffee habitats. We used Sherman trap-grids to measure small mammal abundance and richness, while camera traps were set for medium-sized and large mammals. We detected 17 species of mammals, representing 11 families. This preliminary study indicates that coffee farms in this region provide an important refuge for mammalian wildlife. Mammal species density ranked significantly higher in Bird Friendly® coffee sites than other coffee habitats, although there was no significant difference for species richness (using Chao2 estimator) among the habitat types. No significant difference was found in small mammal abundance among the habitat types. We found a higher species density of medium and large mammals in sites with larger, more mature shade trees associated with, but not required by Bird Friendly® certification standards. However, lower strata vegetation (5 cm to 1 m tall), the only vegetation parameter found to increase abundance and density for small mammals, is not specified in the Bird Friendly® standards. Our findings suggest that although the standards devised for avian habitat do benefit mammals, further study is needed on the requirements specific for mammals that could be included to enhance the coffee habitat for mammals that inhabit these coffee landscapes.

  3. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from domestic and wild mammals in Norway.

    Rosef, O; Gondrosen, B; Kapperud, G; Underdal, B

    1983-10-01

    A total of 1,262 domestic and wild mammals from Norway were surveyed for fecal carriage of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Of the five species of domestic mammals examined, the highest isolation rate was recorded among swine (100.0%), followed by sheep (8.1%) and cows (0.8%). No strains were recovered from horses or goats. Among wild mammals, C. jejuni was isolated from 1 of 23 hares, and no isolated were obtained from three species of cervids and three species of rodents. Of the 133 Campylobacter strains isolated, 114 were classified as C. coli, 18 were C. jejuni biotype 1, and 1 belonged to C. jejuni biotype 2. All 114 strains from swine were C. coli. Milk samples from 113 domestic animals with clinically diagnosed mastitis (106 cows, 5 sheep, 1 horse, and 1 pig) were negative for campylobacters.

  4. Marine mammal sightings around oil and gas installations in the central North Sea

    Delefosse, Matthieu; Rahbek, Malene Louise; Roesen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    288 animals were reported between May 2013 and May 2016. A total of seven marine mammal species were identified, five cetaceans: harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), white-beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), killer whale (Orcinus orca), pilot whales......Relatively little is known about the distribution and diversity of marine mammals around offshore anthropogenic structures. Wepresentresultsobtainedfromincidentalsightings ofmarinemammalsaroundoilandgasinstallationslocated200 kmoff the Danish coast. A total of 131 sightings corresponding to about...... (Globicephala spp.) and two species of pinnipeds: harbour (Phoca vitulina) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus). The most sighted species were harbour porpoise (41%) and minke whale (31%). Relative counts and biodiversity of marine mammals observed around installations corresponded well with the expected...

  5. Bartonella species in small mammals and their potential vectors in Asia

    Tawisa Jiyipong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, authors review the current knowledge of Bartonella infection in small mammals including rodents, insectivores, bats and exotic small mammal pets and their vectors in Asia. Species of Bartonella are Gram-negative intracellular bacteria that infect erythrocytes of various mammalian and non-mammalian animals and mainly transmitted by blood sucking arthropod vectors. The genus Bartonella includes several species of important human diseases with severe clinical signs. Several new Bartonella species were isolated from rodents and other small mammals, and from human patients in Asia. Bartonella species are identified using standard polymerase chain reaction amplification and a sequencing targeting two housekeeping genes (gltA and rpoB and the internal transcribed spacer fragment. Authors also discuss the implications in term of potential emerging zoonotic diseases.

  6. Utilization of the terrestrial cyanobacteria

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Furukawa, Jun; Kimura, Shunta; Yokoshima, Mika; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    The terrestrial, N _{2}-fixing cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune has expected to utilize for agriculture, food and terraforming cause of its extracellular polysaccharide, desiccation tolerance and nitrogen fixation. Previously, the first author indicated that desiccation related genes were analyzed and the suggested that the genes were related to nitrogen fixation and metabolisms. In this report, we suggest possibility of agriculture, using the cyanobacterium. Further, we also found radioactive compounds accumulated N. commune (cyanobacterium) in Fukushima, Japan after nuclear accident. Thus, it is investigated to decontaminate radioactive compounds from the surface soil by the cyanobacterium and showed to accumulate radioactive compounds using the cyanobacterium. We will discuss utilization of terrestrial cyanobacteria under closed environment. Keyword: Desiccation, terrestrial cyanobacteria, bioremediation, agriculture

  7. Allele specific expression and methylation in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris

    Zoë Lonsdale

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The social hymenoptera are emerging as models for epigenetics. DNA methylation, the addition of a methyl group, is a common epigenetic marker. In mammals and flowering plants methylation affects allele specific expression. There is contradictory evidence for the role of methylation on allele specific expression in social insects. The aim of this paper is to investigate allele specific expression and monoallelic methylation in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris. We found nineteen genes that were both monoallelically methylated and monoallelically expressed in a single bee. Fourteen of these genes express the hypermethylated allele, while the other five express the hypomethylated allele. We also searched for allele specific expression in twenty-nine published RNA-seq libraries. We found 555 loci with allele-specific expression. We discuss our results with reference to the functional role of methylation in gene expression in insects and in the as yet unquantified role of genetic cis effects in insect allele specific methylation and expression.

  8. 76 FR 11205 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction and...

    2011-03-01

    ... Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction and Operation of a Liquefied Natural Gas Deepwater Port in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... request from Port Dolphin Energy LLC (Port Dolphin) for authorization for the take, by Level B harassment...

  9. 75 FR 24906 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    2010-05-06

    ... physical effects; and, at least in theory, temporary or permanent hearing impairment (Richardson et al... based on measured received levels and the hearing sensitivity of that mammal group. Although various... must adapt, the introduction of strong sounds into the sea at frequencies important to marine mammals...

  10. 75 FR 20481 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    2010-04-19

    ... exploration drilling program on U.S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service (MMS) Alaska OCS... proposed drilling program in Camden Bay on marine mammals would most likely be acoustic in nature... acoustic effects on marine mammals relate to sound produced by drilling activity, vessels, and aircraft...

  11. A phenology of the evolution of endothermy in birds and mammals.

    Lovegrove, Barry G

    2017-05-01

    Recent palaeontological data and novel physiological hypotheses now allow a timescaled reconstruction of the evolution of endothermy in birds and mammals. A three-phase iterative model describing how endothermy evolved from Permian ectothermic ancestors is presented. In Phase One I propose that the elevation of endothermy - increased metabolism and body temperature (T b ) - complemented large-body-size homeothermy during the Permian and Triassic in response to the fitness benefits of enhanced embryo development (parental care) and the activity demands of conquering dry land. I propose that Phase Two commenced in the Late Triassic and Jurassic and was marked by extreme body-size miniaturization, the evolution of enhanced body insulation (fur and feathers), increased brain size, thermoregulatory control, and increased ecomorphological diversity. I suggest that Phase Three occurred during the Cretaceous and Cenozoic and involved endothermic pulses associated with the evolution of muscle-powered flapping flight in birds, terrestrial cursoriality in mammals, and climate adaptation in response to Late Cenozoic cooling in both birds and mammals. Although the triphasic model argues for an iterative evolution of endothermy in pulses throughout the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, it is also argued that endothermy was potentially abandoned at any time that a bird or mammal did not rely upon its thermal benefits for parental care or breeding success. The abandonment would have taken the form of either hibernation or daily torpor as observed in extant endotherms. Thus torpor and hibernation are argued to be as ancient as the origins of endothermy itself, a plesiomorphic characteristic observed today in many small birds and mammals. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  12. A comparison of blood nitric oxide metabolites and hemoglobin functional properties among diving mammals.

    Fago, Angela; Parraga, Daniel Garcia; Petersen, Elin E; Kristensen, Niels; Giouri, Lea; Jensen, Frank B

    2017-03-01

    The ability of marine mammals to hunt prey at depth is known to rely on enhanced oxygen stores and on selective distribution of blood flow, but the molecular mechanisms regulating blood flow and oxygen transport remain unresolved. To investigate the molecular mechanisms that may be important in regulating blood flow, we measured concentration of nitrite and S-nitrosothiols (SNO), two metabolites of the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO), in the blood of 5 species of marine mammals differing in their dive duration: bottlenose dolphin, South American sea lion, harbor seal, walrus and beluga whale. We also examined oxygen affinity, sensitivity to 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) and nitrite reductase activity of the hemoglobin (Hb) to search for possible adaptive variations in these functional properties. We found levels of plasma and red blood cells nitrite similar to those reported for terrestrial mammals, but unusually high concentrations of red blood cell SNO in bottlenose dolphin, walrus and beluga whale, suggesting enhanced SNO-dependent signaling in these species. Purified Hbs showed similar functional properties in terms of oxygen affinity and sensitivity to DPG, indicating that reported large variations in blood oxygen affinity among diving mammals likely derive from phenotypic variations in red blood cell DPG levels. The nitrite reductase activities of the Hbs were overall slightly higher than that of human Hb, with the Hb of beluga whale, capable of longest dives, having the highest activity. Taken together, these results underscore adaptive variations in circulatory NO metabolism in diving mammals but not in the oxygenation properties of the Hb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The origin and early evolution of metatherian mammals: the Cretaceous record

    Thomas E. Williamson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Metatherians, which comprise marsupials and their closest fossil relatives, were one of the most dominant clades of mammals during the Cretaceous and are the most diverse clade of living mammals after Placentalia. Our understanding of this group has increased greatly over the past 20 years, with the discovery of new specimens and the application of new analytical tools. Here we provide a review of the phylogenetic relationships of metatherians with respect to other mammals, discuss the taxonomic definition and diagnosis of Metatheria, outline the Cretaceous history of major metatherian clades, describe the paleobiology, biogeography, and macroevolution of Cretaceous metatherians, and provide a physical and climatic background of Cretaceous metatherian faunas. Metatherians are a clade of boreosphendian mammals that must have originated by the Late Jurassic, but the first unequivocal metatherian fossil is from the Early Cretaceous of Asia. Metatherians have the distinctive tightly interlocking occlusal molar pattern of tribosphenic mammals, but differ from Eutheria in their dental formula and tooth replacement pattern, which may be related to the metatherian reproductive process which includes an extended period of lactation followed by birth of extremely altricial young. Metatherians were widespread over Laurasia during the Cretaceous, with members present in Asia, Europe, and North America by the early Late Cretaceous. In particular, they were taxonomically and morphologically diverse and relatively abundant in the Late Cretaceous of western North America, where they have been used to examine patterns of biogeography, macroevolution, diversification, and extinction through the Late Cretaceous and across the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg boundary. Metatherian diversification patterns suggest that they were not strongly affected by a Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution, but they clearly underwent a severe extinction across the K-Pg boundary.

  14. Capture, Movement, Trade, and Consumption of Mammals in Madagascar

    Reuter, Kim E.; Randell, Haley; Wills, Abigail R.; Janvier, Totozafy Eric; Belalahy, Tertius Rodriguez; Sewall, Brent J.

    2016-01-01

    Wild meat trade constitutes a threat to many animal species. Understanding the commodity chain of wild animals (hunting, transportation, trade, consumption) can help target conservation initiatives. Wild meat commodity chain research has focused on the formal trade and less on informal enterprises, although informal enterprises contribute to a large portion of the wild meat trade in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the formal and informal components of these commodity chains by focusing on the mammalian wild meat trade in Madagascar. Our objectives were to: (1) identify hunting strategies used to capture different wild mammals; (2) analyze patterns of movement of wild meat from the capture location to the final consumer; (3) examine wild meat prices, volumes, and venues of sale; and (4) estimate the volume of wild meat consumption. Data were collected in May-August 2013 using semi-structured interviews with consumers (n = 1343 households, 21 towns), meat-sellers (n = 520 restaurants, open-air markets stalls, and supermarkets, 9 towns), and drivers of inter-city transit vehicles (n = 61, 5 towns). We found that: (1) a wide range of hunting methods were used, though prevalence of use differed by animal group; (2) wild meat was transported distances of up to 166 km to consumers, though some animal groups were hunted locally (Madagascar is also likely more formalized than previously thought. PMID:26926987

  15. Structure of the terrestrial planets

    Lyttleton, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Recent reviews (cf. Runcorn, 1968; or Cook, 1972, 1975) on the structure of the planets omit reference to the phase-change hypothesis for the nature of the terrestrial core, despite that numerous prior predictions of the theory based on this hypothesis have subsequently been borne out as correct. These reviews also ignore the existence of theoretical calculations of the internal structure of Venus which can be computed with high accuracy by use of the terrestrial seismic data. Several examples of numerous mistakes committed in these reviews are pointed out. (Auth.)

  16. Priapism caused by 'Tribulus terrestris'.

    Campanelli, M; De Thomasis, R; Tenaglia, R L

    2016-01-01

    A 36-year-old Caucasian man was diagnosed with a 72-h-lasting priapism that occurred after the assumption of a Herbal supplement based on Tribulus terrestris, which is becoming increasingly popular for the treatment of sexual dysfunction. The patient underwent a cavernoglandular shunt (Ebbehoj shunt) in order to obtain complete detumescence, from which derived negative post-episode outcomes on sexual function. All patients consuming non-FDA-approved alternative supplements such as Tribulus terrestris should be warned about the possible serious side effects.

  17. Exposure of burrowing mammals to {sup 222}Rn

    Beresford, N.A., E-mail: nab@ceh.ac.uk [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av. Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Barnett, C.L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av. Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Vives i Batlle, J. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Potter, E.D. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av. Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Ibrahimi, Z.-F. [Health Protection Agency, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom); Barlow, T.S.; Schieb, C.; Jones, D.G. [British Geological Survey, Environmental Science Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Copplestone, D. [School of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-01

    Estimates of absorbed dose rates to wildlife from exposure to natural background radionuclides are required to put estimates of dose rates arising from regulated releases of radioactivity and proposed benchmarks into context. Recent review papers have estimated dose rates to wildlife from {sup 40}K, and {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series radionuclides. However, only one study previous has considered the potential dose rates to burrowing animals from inhaled {sup 222}Rn and its daughter products. In this paper we describe a study conducted at seven sites in northwest England. Passive track etch detectors were used to measure the {sup 222}Rn concentrations in artificial burrows over a period of approximately one year. Results suggest that absorbed dose rates to burrowing mammals as a consequence of exposure to {sup 222}Rn are likely to be at least an order of magnitude higher than those suggested in previous evaluations of natural background exposure rates which had omitted this radionuclide and exposure pathway. Dose rates in some areas of Great Britain will be considerably in excess of incremental no-effects benchmark dose rates suggested for use as screening levels. Such advised benchmark dose rates need to be better put into context with background dose rates, including exposure to {sup 222}Rn, to ensure credibility; although the context will be determined by the purpose of the benchmark and the assessment level. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determined {sup 222}Rn concentrations in artificial burrows. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estimated dose rates to burrowing mammals from inhaled {sup 222}Rn and daughter products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 222}Rn likely to dominate exposure of burrowing mammals due to natural radionuclides.

  18. Paracellular absorption: a bat breaks the mammal paradigm.

    Enrique Caviedes-Vidal

    Full Text Available Bats tend to have less intestinal tissue than comparably sized nonflying mammals. The corresponding reduction in intestinal volume and hence mass of digesta carried is advantageous because the costs of flight increase with load carried and because take-off and maneuverability are diminished at heavier masses. Water soluble compounds, such as glucose and amino acids, are absorbed in the small intestine mainly via two pathways, the transporter-mediated transcellular and the passive, paracellular pathways. Using the microchiropteran bat Artibeus literatus (mean mass 80.6+/-3.7 g, we tested the predictions that absorption of water-soluble compounds that are not actively transported would be extensive as a compensatory mechanism for relatively less intestinal tissue, and would decline with increasing molecular mass in accord with sieve-like paracellular absorption. Using a standard pharmacokinetic technique, we fed, or injected intraperitoneally the metabolically inert carbohydrates L-rhamnose (molecular mass = 164 Da and cellobiose (molecular mass = 342 Da which are absorbed only by paracellular transport, and 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3OMD-glucose which is absorbed via both mediated (active and paracellular transport. As predicted, the bioavailability of paracellular probes declined with increasing molecular mass (rhamnose, 90+/-11%; cellobiose, 10+/-3%, n = 8 and was significantly higher in bats than has been reported for laboratory rats and other mammals. In addition, absorption of 3OMD-glucose was high (96+/-11%. We estimated that the bats rely on passive, paracellular absorption for more than 70% of their total glucose absorption, much more than in non-flying mammals. Although possibly compensating for less intestinal tissue, a high intestinal permeability that permits passive absorption might be less selective than a carrier-mediated system for nutrient absorption and might permit toxins to be absorbed from plant and animal material in the

  19. Evolutionary origins of hepatitis A virus in small mammals.

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor M; Lukashev, Alexander N; van den Brand, Judith M A; Gmyl, Anatoly P; Brünink, Sebastian; Rasche, Andrea; Seggewiβ, Nicole; Feng, Hui; Leijten, Lonneke M; Vallo, Peter; Kuiken, Thijs; Dotzauer, Andreas; Ulrich, Rainer G; Lemon, Stanley M; Drosten, Christian

    2015-12-08

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an ancient and ubiquitous human pathogen recovered previously only from primates. The sole species of the genus Hepatovirus, existing in both enveloped and nonenveloped forms, and with a capsid structure intermediate between that of insect viruses and mammalian picornaviruses, HAV is enigmatic in its origins. We conducted a targeted search for hepatoviruses in 15,987 specimens collected from 209 small mammal species globally and discovered highly diversified viruses in bats, rodents, hedgehogs, and shrews, which by pairwise sequence distance comprise 13 novel Hepatovirus species. Near-complete genomes from nine of these species show conservation of unique hepatovirus features, including predicted internal ribosome entry site structure, a truncated VP4 capsid protein lacking N-terminal myristoylation, a carboxyl-terminal pX extension of VP1, VP2 late domains involved in membrane envelopment, and a cis-acting replication element within the 3D(pol) sequence. Antibodies in some bat sera immunoprecipitated and neutralized human HAV, suggesting conservation of critical antigenic determinants. Limited phylogenetic cosegregation among hepatoviruses and their hosts and recombination patterns are indicative of major hepatovirus host shifts in the past. Ancestral state reconstructions suggest a Hepatovirus origin in small insectivorous mammals and a rodent origin of human HAV. Patterns of infection in small mammals mimicked those of human HAV in hepatotropism, fecal shedding, acute nature, and extinction of the virus in a closed host population. The evolutionary conservation of hepatovirus structure and pathogenesis provide novel insight into the origins of HAV and highlight the utility of analyzing animal reservoirs for risk assessment of emerging viruses.

  20. Synanthropic Mammals as Potential Hosts of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Panama.

    Sergio E Bermúdez

    Full Text Available Synanthropic wild mammals can be important hosts for many vector-borne zoonotic pathogens. The aim of this study was determine the exposure of synanthropic mammals to two types of tick-borne pathogens in Panama, spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR and Borrelia relapsing fever (RF spirochetes. One hundred and thirty-one wild mammals were evaluated, including two gray foxes, two crab-eating foxes (from zoos, four coyotes, 62 opossum and 63 spiny rats captured close to rural towns. To evaluate exposure to SFGR, serum samples from the animals were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA using Rickettsia rickettsii and Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii antigen. Immunoblotting was performed using Borrelia turicatae protein lysates and rGlpQ, to assess infection caused by RF spirochetes. One coyote (25% and 27 (43% opossums showed seroreactivity to SFGR. Of these opossums, 11 were seroreactive to C. R. amblyommii. Serological reactivity was not detected to B. turicatae in mammal samples. These findings may reflect a potential role of both mammals in the ecology of tick-borne pathogens in Panama.

  1. NODC Standard Format Marine Mammals of Coastal Alaska Data (1975-1976): Marine Mammal Sighting 2 (F026) (NODC Accession 0014151)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC maintains data in three NODC Standard Format Marine Mammal Data Sets: Marine Mammal Sighting and Census (F127); Marine Mammal Specimens (F025); Marine Mammal...

  2. Seasonality of reproduction and production in farm fishes, birds and mammals.

    Chemineau, P; Malpaux, B; Brillard, J P; Fostier, A

    2007-03-01

    A very large majority of farm animals express seasonal variations in their production traits, thus inducing seasonal availability of fresh derived animal products (meat, milk, cheese and eggs). This pattern is in part the consequence of the farmer's objective to market his products in the most economically favourable period. It may also be imposed by the season-dependent access to feed resources, as in ruminants, or by the specific requirements derived from adaptation to environmental conditions such as water temperature in fish. But seasonal variations in animal products are also the consequence of constraints resulting from the occurrence of a more or less marked seasonal reproductive season in most farm animal species including fish, poultry and mammals. Like their wild counterparts, at mid and high latitudes, most farm animals normally give birth at the end of winter-early spring, the most favourable period for the progeny to survive and thus promote the next generation. As a consequence, most species show seasonal variations in their ovulation frequency (mammals and fish: presence or absence of ovulation; birds: variations or suppression of laying rates), spermatogenic activity (from moderate to complete absence of sperm production), gamete quality (variations in fertilisation rates and embryo survival), and also sexual behaviour. Among species of interest for animal production, fishes and birds are generally considered as more directly sensitive to external factors (mainly temperature in fish, photoperiod in birds). In all species, it is therefore advisable that artificial photoperiodic treatments consisting of extra-light during natural short days (in chickens, turkeys, guinea fowl, sheep and goats) or melatonin during long days (in goats, sheep) be extensively used to either adjust the breeding season to animal producer needs and/or to completely overcome seasonal variations of sperm production in artificial insemination centres (mammals) and breeder flock

  3. Ethnomedicinal and cultural practices of mammals and birds in the vicinity of river Chenab, Punjab-Pakistan.

    Altaf, Muhammad; Javid, Arshad; Umair, Muhammad; Iqbal, Khalid Javed; Rasheed, Zahid; Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood

    2017-07-12

    Although, use of animal species in disease treatment and culture practices is as ancient as that of plant species; however ethnomedicinal uses and cultural values of animal species have rarely been reported. Present study is the first report on the medicinal uses of mammals and bird species in Pakistan. Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were applied to collect qualitative and quantitative data from local informants (N = 109). Relative frequency of mention (RFM), fidelity level (FL), relative popularity level (RPL), similarity index (SI) and rank order priority (ROP) indices were used to analyzed the data. One hundred and eight species of animals, which include: 83% birds and 17% mammals were documented. In total 30 mammalian and 28 birds' species were used to treat various diseases such as rheumatic disorders, skin infections and sexual weakness among several others. Fats, flesh, blood, milk and eggs were the most commonly utilized body parts. Bos taurus, Bubalus bubalis, Capra aegagrus hircus, Felis domesticus, Lepus nigricollis dayanus and Ovis aries (mammals) and Anas platyrhynchos domesticus, Columba livia, Coturnix coturnix, Gallus gallus and Passer domesticus (birds) were the highly utilized species. Medicinal and cultural uses of 30% mammals and 46% birds were reported for the first time, whereas 33% mammals and 79% birds depicted zero similarity with previous reports. Present study exhibits significant ethnozoological knowledge of local inhabitants and their strong association with animal species, which could be helpful in sustainable use of biodiversity of the region. Additionally, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of biological activities in the mammalian and birds' species with maximum fidelity level and frequency of mention could be important to discover animal based novel drugs. Some commonly used mammals and birds species of the study area.

  4. Animated Asphalt

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  5. Animal magic

    Denny, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Writing a popular-science book about animal biophysics is hard work. Authors must read through hundreds of research papers as the subject is so multidisciplinary. On both counts of research and writing, Matin Durrani and Liz Kalaugher have done a good to excellent job with their book Furry Logic: the Physics of Animal Life

  6. Animal ethics

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  7. ANIMAL code

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  8. Animal Detectives

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  9. Characterization of Clostridium perfringens isolated from mammals and birds from Guwahati city, India

    Mafruza S Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the 102 samples collected from mammals and birds, both domestic and captive wild, 48 were found to be positive for Clostridium perfringens. Most of the mammal isolates (84.38% appeared to have been collected from clinically affected animals, while 33.33% of the bird samples were from clinically affected and 21.43% from apparently healthy birds infected with C. perfringens. Isolates revealed high sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and norfloxacin. Among the isolated C. perfringens, 30 (62.50% showed DNase production. Hemolytic activity was recorded in 14 (24.16% of the isolates and 28 (58.33% showed phospholipase C production. All the phospholipase C positive isolates revealed the presence of cpa gene encoding alpha (α toxin. Of the 102 samples collected from mammals and birds, both domestic and captive wild, 48 were found to be positive for Clostridium perfringens. Most of the mammal isolates (84.38% appeared to have been collected from clinically affected animals, while 33.33% of the bird samples were from clinically affected and 21.43% from apparently healthy birds infected with C. perfringens. Isolates revealed high sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and norfloxacin. Among the isolated C. perfringens, 30 (62.50% showed DNase production. Hemolytic activity was recorded in 14 (24.16% of the isolates and 28 (58.33% showed phospholipase C production. All the phospholipase C positive isolates revealed the presence of cpa gene encoding α toxin.

  10. Comparative Morphology and Histology of the Nasal Fossa in Four Mammals: Gray Squirrel, Bobcat, Coyote, and White-Tailed Deer.

    Yee, Karen K; Craven, Brent A; Wysocki, Charles J; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire

    2016-07-01

    Although the anatomy of the nasal fossa is broadly similar among terrestrial mammals, differences are evident in the intricacies of nasal turbinal architecture, which varies from simple scroll-like to complex branching forms, and in the extent of nonsensory and olfactory epithelium covering the turbinals. In this study, detailed morphological and immunohistochemical examinations and quantitative measurements of the turbinals and epithelial lining of the nasal fossa were conducted in an array of species that include the gray squirrel, bobcat, coyote, and white-tailed deer. Results show that much more of the nose is lined with olfactory epithelium in the smallest species (gray squirrel) than in the larger species. In two species with similar body masses, bobcat and coyote, the foreshortened felid snout influences turbinal size and results in a decrease of olfactory epithelium on the ethmoturbinals relative to the longer canine snout. Ethmoturbinal surface area exceeds that of the maxilloturbinals in all four sampled animals, except the white-tailed deer, in which the two are similar in size. Combining our results with published data from a broader array of mammalian noses, it is apparent that olfactory epithelial surface area is influenced by body mass, but is also affected by aspects of life history, such as diet and habitat, as well as skull morphology, itself a product of multiple compromises between various functions, such as feeding, vision, and cognition. The results of this study warrant further examination of other mammalian noses to broaden our evolutionary understanding of nasal fossa anatomy. Anat Rec, 299:840-852, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2015-01-01

    , indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...... bodies. By using animation as a learning tool we can explore the world of emotions and question beliefs, feelings and actions in order to express our voices and enhance our communication, and well-being, both, internally and with others. Animation can be the visual expression of the emotions in movement...

  12. Area selection for conservation of Mexican mammals

    Vázquez, L. B.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Three sets of priority cells for mammal conservation in Mexico were identified using distributional data. A complementarity approach was implemented through linear integer programming. The minimum set of sites required for the representation of each mammal species varied between 38 (5.4% grid cells for at least one occurrence, 110 (15.6% grid cells for at least three occurrences, and 173 (24.5% grid cells for at least five occurrences. The complementary analyses mainly highlighted three regions of particular concern for mammal conservation in Mexico: (i the trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and natural provinces of the Pacific Coast, (ii Sierra Madre del Sur and the Highlands of Chiapas, and (iii the northern portion of the Sierra Madre Occidental. The results reported here did not indicate absolute priority locations for conservation activities, but rather identified locations warranting further investigation at finer resolutions more appropriate to such activity

  13. Life history consequences of mammal sibling rivalry.

    Stockley, P; Parker, G A

    2002-10-01

    Mammal life history traits relating to growth and reproduction are extremely diverse. Sibling rivalry may contribute to selection pressures influencing this diversity, because individuals that are relatively large at birth typically have an advantage in competition for milk. However, selection for increased growth rate is likely to be constrained by kin selection and physiological costs. Here, we present and test a model examining the ESS (evolutionarily stable strategy) balance between these constraints and advantages associated with increased prenatal growth in mammal sibling rivalry. Predictions of the model are supported by results of comparative analyses for the Carnivora and Insectivora, which demonstrate an increase in prenatal growth rate with increasing intensity of postnatal scramble competition, and a decrease in postnatal growth rate relative to size at birth. Because increased prenatal growth rates are predicted to select for reduced gestation length under certain conditions, our study also indicates that sibling rivalry may contribute to selection pressures influencing variation in altriciality and precociality among mammals.

  14. Animal experimentation.

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  15. Animal Transports

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  16. Univalents and fragments in the meiosis of mammals

    Vyglenov, A.

    1987-01-01

    The manifestation of univalents and fragments in spermatocytes in diakinese-metaphase was studied on mice, rats, Syrian hamsters and rabbits irradiated with various dose rates. It was established that the incidence of the univalents resulting from the separation of the XY and autosomic bivalents and of the fragments did not depend on the dose rate and there were no differences between the control and the irradiated animals. A species specificity was found in the manifestation of the gonosomic and to some extent of the autosomic univalents. To a certain extent the differences in the incidence of the autosomic univalents and particularly of the fragments most probably were a consequence of the various measuring methods. In comparative aspect, the investigated mammals rank as follows: with the lowest incidence of univalents and fragments was the macaque-rhesus, with higher was the rat, followed by the Syrian hamster and with very high - the mouse and rabbit

  17. Small mammals as hosts of immature ixodid ticks

    I.G. Horak

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and twenty-five small mammals belonging to 16 species were examined for ticks in Free State, Mpumalanga and Limpopo Provinces, South Africa, and 18 ixodid tick species, of which two could only be identified to genus level, were recovered. Scrub hares, Lepus saxatilis, and Cape hares, Lepus capensis, harboured the largest number of tick species. In Free State Province Namaqua rock mice, Aethomys namaquensis, and four-striped grass mice, Rhabdomys pumilio, were good hosts of the immature stages of Haemaphysalis leachi and Rhipicephalus gertrudae, while in Mpumalanga and Limpopo Provinces red veld rats, Aethomys chrysophilus, Namaqua rock mice and Natal multimammate mice, Mastomys natalensis were good hosts of H. leachi and Rhipicephalus simus. Haemaphysalis leachi was the only tick recovered from animals in all three provinces.

  18. Evidence for Chlamydia in wild mammals of the Serengeti.

    Pospischil, Andreas; Kaiser, Carmen; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans; Hilbe, Monika; Vaughan, Lloyd; Borel, Nicole

    2012-10-01

    Only limited information is available on the presence of Chlamydiaceae in wildlife, a deficit that is particularly acute concerning mammalian wildlife in Africa. In a retrospective analysis of organ material from an earlier study on wild mammals from the Seregenti National Park, 521 samples from 54 animals of 14 mammalian species were investigated. The presence of Chlamydiaceae was analyzed using molecular methods and immunohistochemistry. Chlamydial DNA was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues from large ruminants (African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, n=4) and a large predator (spotted hyena, Crocuta crocuta, n=1). Microarray results revealed Chlamydia abortus in all cases, confirmed by sequencing of selected samples, and a mixed infection with Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia pneumoniae in an African buffalo. This is the first report of Chlamydiaceae in African wildlife of the Serengeti area.

  19. The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library (PTAL)

    Werner, S. C.; Dypvik, H.; Poulet, F.; Rull Perez, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Bultel, B.; Casanova Roque, C.; Carter, J.; Cousin, A.; Guzman, A.; Hamm, V.; Hellevang, H.; Lantz, C.; Lopez-Reyes, G.; Manrique, J. A.; Maurice, S.; Medina Garcia, J.; Navarro, R.; Negro, J. I.; Neumann, E. R.; Pilorget, C.; Riu, L.; Sætre, C.; Sansano Caramazana, A.; Sanz Arranz, A.; Sobron Grañón, F.; Veneranda, M.; Viennet, J.-C.; PTAL Team

    2018-04-01

    The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library project aims to build and exploit a spectral data base for the characterisation of the mineralogical and geological evolution of terrestrial planets and small solar system bodies.

  20. Terrestrial Steering Group. 2014. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    Aastrup, Peter; Aronsson, Mora; Barry, Tom

    capacity and information may be currently available and (b) to outline near-term required steps to begin implementing the plan and reporting on an initial set of Arctic terrestrial biodiversity focal ecosystem component attributes. The specific objectives of the workshop were to: Identify key products...... for TSG for the next two years. Identify key components of a pan-Arctic status report for priority focal ecosystem components (FEC) attributes for policy and decision makers. Develop a prioritized set of activities to meet reporting objectives. Identify key milestones and timelines for the successful...... implementation of the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan for the next two years. Identify expert networks required for successful implementation of the plan. Identify key gaps and opportunities for the TSG related to plan implementation and identify near-term next steps to address gaps....

  1. Stereopsis in animals: evolution, function and mechanisms

    Read, Jenny C. A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Stereopsis is the computation of depth information from views acquired simultaneously from different points in space. For many years, stereopsis was thought to be confined to primates and other mammals with front-facing eyes. However, stereopsis has now been demonstrated in many other animals, including lateral-eyed prey mammals, birds, amphibians and invertebrates. The diversity of animals known to have stereo vision allows us to begin to investigate ideas about its evolution and the underlying selective pressures in different animals. It also further prompts the question of whether all animals have evolved essentially the same algorithms to implement stereopsis. If so, this must be the best way to do stereo vision, and should be implemented by engineers in machine stereopsis. Conversely, if animals have evolved a range of stereo algorithms in response to different pressures, that could inspire novel forms of machine stereopsis appropriate for distinct environments, tasks or constraints. As a first step towards addressing these ideas, we here review our current knowledge of stereo vision in animals, with a view towards outlining common principles about the evolution, function and mechanisms of stereo vision across the animal kingdom. We conclude by outlining avenues for future work, including research into possible new mechanisms of stereo vision, with implications for machine vision and the role of stereopsis in the evolution of camouflage. PMID:28724702

  2. Interaction between Digestive Strategy and Niche Specialization Predicts Speciation Rates across Herbivorous Mammals.

    Tran, Lucy A P

    2016-04-01

    Biotic and abiotic factors often are treated as mutually exclusive drivers of diversification processes. In this framework, ecological specialists are expected to have higher speciation rates than generalists if abiotic factors are the primary controls on species diversity but lower rates if biotic interactions are more important. Speciation rate is therefore predicted to positively correlate with ecological specialization in the purely abiotic model but negatively correlate in the biotic model. In this study, I show that the positive relationship between ecological specialization and speciation expected from the purely abiotic model is recovered only when a species-specific trait, digestive strategy, is modeled in the terrestrial, herbivorous mammals (Mammalia). This result suggests a more nuanced model in which the response of specialized lineages to abiotic factors is dependent on a biological trait. I also demonstrate that the effect of digestive strategy on the ecological specialization-speciation rate relationship is not due to a difference in either the degree of ecological specialization or the speciation rate between foregut- and hindgut-fermenting mammals. Together, these findings suggest that a biological trait, alongside historical abiotic events, played an important role in shaping mammal speciation at long temporal and large geographic scales.

  3. Impact of mining and forest regeneration on small mammal biodiversity in the Western Region of Ghana.

    Attuquayefio, Daniel K; Owusu, Erasmus H; Ofori, Benjamin Y

    2017-05-01

    Much of the terrestrial biodiversity in sub-Saharan Africa is supported by tropical rainforest. Natural resource development, particularly surface mining in the rainforest, poses great risks to the region's rich and endemic biodiversity. Here, we assessed the impact of surface mining and the success of forest rehabilitation on small mammal diversity in the Western Region of Ghana. We surveyed small mammals in the project area and two adjoining forest reserves (control sites) before the mining operation and 10 years after mine closure and forest rehabilitation (topsoil replacement and revegetation). The forest reserves recorded higher species abundance than the mining areas. Majority of the species captured in the forest reserves, including Hylomyscus alleni, Praomys tullbergi, Malacomys cansdalei, and Hybomys trivirgatus, are forest obligate species. Only one individual each of H. alleni and P. tullbergi was captured in the naturally regenerated areas (core areas of mining activities that were allowed to revegetate naturally), while 32 individuals belonging to four species (Lophuromys sikapusi, Mus musculoides, Mastomys erythroleucus, and Crocidura olivieri) were recorded in the rehabilitated areas. Our data suggested negative effects of mining on small mammal diversity and the restoration of species diversity and important ecological processes after rehabilitation of altered habitats. We strongly encourage deliberate conservation efforts, particularly the development of management plans that require the restoration of degraded land resulting from mining activities.

  4. NOD-Like Receptors: A Tail from Plants to Mammals Through Invertebrates.

    Pontillo, Alessandra; Crovella, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    NOD Like Receptors (NLRs) are the most abundant cytoplasmic immune receptors in plants and animals and they similarly act sensing pathogen invasion and activating immune response. Despite the fact that plant and mammals NLRs share homology.; with some protein structure differences.; for signalling pathway.; divergent evolution of the receptors has been hypothesized. Next generation genome sequencing has contributed to the description of NLRs in phyla others than plants and mammals and leads to new knowledge about NLRs evolution along phylogeny. Full comprehension of NLR-mediated immune response in plant could contribute to the understanding of animal NLRs physiology and/or pathology. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Radioactive marking in the study of locomotion in small mammals

    Rage, P.; Monnier, S.; Lanoir, J.; Joanny, P.

    1979-01-01

    A technique is described for continuous recording of locomotor activity in small mammals. A radioactive source (Ag 110sup(m)), enclosed in a drop of resin, is fixed to the animal's cranium. The experimental chamber is a Plexiglas cylinder in the center of which is a radiation detector, whose electrical signals are integrated and recorded on moving paper. Each displacement of the animal gives rise to a variation in the intensity of radiation and thus to a variation in recording amplitude. Locomotor activity is quantified by counting the number of significant displacements in unit time. The technique is sufficiently sensitive to bring out the differences in locomotor activity between two strains of mice. In the rat, the effects of tryptophan deprivation on locomotor activity and time spent feeding have been studied. The applicability of this method is very wide, because it allows the measurement of movement of any animal in air, water, or on dry land. It is at the moment even being applied to the study of the vertical migration of plankton. (author)

  6. Effects of Social Isolation on Glucocorticoid Regulation in Social Mammals

    Hawkley, Louise C.; Cole, Steve W.; Capitanio, John P.; Norman, Greg J.; Cacioppo, John T.

    2012-01-01

    The regulation and function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and glucocorticoids have been well conserved across vertebrate species. Glucocorticoids influence a wide range of physiological functions that include glucose regulation, metabolism, inflammatory control, as well as cardiovascular, reproductive, and neuronal effects. Some of these are relatively quick-acting non-genomic effects, but most are slower-acting genomic effects. Thus, any stimulus that affects HPA function has the potential to exert wide-ranging short-term and long-term effects on much of vertebrate physiology. Here, we review the effects of social isolation on the functioning of the HPA axis in social species, and on glucocorticoid physiology in social mammals in particular. Evidence indicates that objective and perceived social isolation alter HPA regulation, although the nature and direction of the HPA response differs among species and across age. The inconsistencies in the direction and nature of HPA effects have implications for drawing cross-species conclusions about the effects of social isolation, and are particularly problematic for understanding HPA-related physiological processes in humans. The animal and human data are incommensurate because, for example, animal studies of objective isolation have typically not been modeled on, or for comparability with, the subjective experience of isolation in humans. An animal model of human isolation must be taken more seriously if we want to advance our understanding of the mechanisms for the effects of objective and perceived isolation in humans. PMID:22663934

  7. Epizootic canine distemper virus infection among wild mammals.

    Kameo, Yuki; Nagao, Yumiko; Nishio, Yohei; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Nakano, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Kazuo; Une, Yumi; Sato, Hiroshi; Shimojima, Masayuki; Maeda, Ken

    2012-01-27

    In the spring of 2007, seven raccoon dogs and a weasel were captured near the city of Tanabe in Wakayama prefecture, Japan. The causative agent of the animals' death 1-2 days after capture was identified as canine distemper virus (CDV) by virus isolation, immunostaining with an anti-CDV polyclonal antibody, and a commercially available CDV antigen-detection kit. Sequence analysis of hemagglutinin genes indicated the isolated viruses belong to genotype Asia-1 and possess the substitution from tyrosine (Y) to histidine (H) at position 549 that is associated with the spread of CDV to non-canine hosts. A serosurvey for CDV was then conducted among wild animals in the region. The animals assayed consisted of 104 raccoons, 41 wild boars, 19 raccoon dogs, five Sika deer, two badgers, one weasel, one marten, one Siberian weasel and one fox. Virus-neutralization (VN) tests showed that, except for fox and weasel, all of the species assayed had VN antibodies to CDV. Interestingly, 11 of the 41 wild boars (27%) and two of the five Sika deer assayed possessed VN antibodies to CDV. These findings indicate that CDV infection was widespread among wild mammals during this epizootic. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Host adaptation and transmission of influenza A viruses in mammals

    Schrauwen, Eefje JA; Fouchier, Ron AM

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of influenza A viruses of pigs and birds have infected humans in the last decade, sometimes with severe clinical consequences. Each of these so-called zoonotic infections provides an opportunity for virus adaptation to the new host. Fortunately, most of these human infections do not yield viruses with the ability of sustained human-to-human transmission. However, animal influenza viruses have acquired the ability of sustained transmission between humans to cause pandemics on rare occasions in the past, and therefore, influenza virus zoonoses continue to represent threats to public health. Numerous recent studies have shed new light on the mechanisms of adaptation and transmission of avian and swine influenza A viruses in mammals. In particular, several studies provided insights into the genetic and phenotypic traits of influenza A viruses that may determine airborne transmission. Here, we summarize recent studies on molecular determinants of virulence and adaptation of animal influenza A virus and discuss the phenotypic traits associated with airborne transmission of newly emerging influenza A viruses. Increased understanding of the determinants and mechanisms of virulence and transmission may aid in assessing the risks posed by animal influenza viruses to human health, and preparedness for such risks. PMID:26038511

  9. Animal tumors

    Gillette, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    There are few trained veterinary radiation oncologists and the expense of facilities has limited the extent to which this modality is used. In recent years, a few cobalt teletherapy units and megavoltage x-ray units have been employed in larger veterinary institutions. In addition, some radiation oncologists of human medical institutions are interested and willing to cooperate with veterinarians in the treatment of animal tumors. Carefully designed studies of the response of animal tumors to new modalities serve two valuable purposes. First, these studies may lead to improved tumor control in companion animals. Second, these studies may have important implications to the improvement of therapy of human tumors. Much remains to be learned of animal tumor biology so that appropriate model systems can be described for such studies. Many of the latter studies can be sponsored by agencies interested in the improvement of cancer management

  10. Mentalizing animals

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Ethicists have tended to treat the psychology of attributing mental states to animals as an entirely separate issue from the moral importance of animals’ mental states. In this paper I bring these two issues together. I argue for two theses, one descriptive and one normative. The descriptive thesis...... holds that ordinary human agents use what are generally called phenomenal mental states (e.g., pain and other emotions) to assign moral considerability to animals. I examine recent empirical research on the attribution of phenomenal states and agential states (e.g., memory and intelligence) to argue...... that phenomenal mental states are the primary factor, psychologically, for judging an animal to be morally considerable. I further argue that, given the role of phenomenal states in assigning moral considerability, certain theories in animal ethics will meet significant psychological resistance. The normative...

  11. Terrestrial invasion of pomatiopsid gastropods in the heavy-snow region of the Japanese Archipelago

    Kato Makoto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastropod mollusks are one of the most successful animals that have diversified in the fully terrestrial habitat. They have evolved terrestrial taxa in more than nine lineages, most of which originated during the Paleozoic or Mesozoic. The rissooidean gastropod family Pomatiopsidae is one of the few groups that have evolved fully terrestrial taxa during the late Cenozoic. The pomatiopsine diversity is particularly high in the Japanese Archipelago and the terrestrial taxa occur only in this region. In this study, we conducted thorough samplings of Japanese pomatiopsid species and performed molecular phylogenetic analyses to explore the patterns of diversification and terrestrial invasion. Results Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that Japanese Pomatiopsinae derived from multiple colonization of the Eurasian Continent and that subsequent habitat shifts from aquatic to terrestrial life occurred at least twice within two Japanese endemic lineages. Each lineage comprises amphibious and terrestrial species, both of which are confined to the mountains in heavy-snow regions facing the Japan Sea. The estimated divergence time suggested that diversification of these terrestrial lineages started in the Late Miocene, when active orogenesis of the Japanese landmass and establishment of snowy conditions began. Conclusions The terrestrial invasion of Japanese Pomatiopsinae occurred at least twice beside the mountain streamlets of heavy-snow regions, which is considered the first case of this event in the area. Because snow coverage maintains stable temperatures and high humidity on the ground surface, heavy-snow conditions may have paved the way for these organisms from freshwater to land via mountain streamlets by preventing winter desiccation in mountain valleys. The fact that the terrestrialization of Pomatiopsidae occurred only in year-round wet environments, but not in seasonally dried regions, provides new insight into ancient

  12. Morphological and molecular characterization and phylogenetic relationships of a new species of trypanosome in Tapirus terrestris (lowland tapir), Trypanosoma terrestris sp. nov., from Atlantic Rainforest of southeastern Brazi.

    Acosta, Igor da Cunha Lima; da Costa, Andrea Pereira; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Gondim, Maria Fernanda Naegeli; Gatti, Andressa; Rossi, João Luiz; Gennari, Solange Maria; Marcili, Arlei

    2013-12-11

    The Lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) is the largest Brazilian mammal and despite being distributed in various Brazilian biomes, it is seriously endangered in the Atlantic Rainforest. These hosts were never evaluated for the presence of Trypanosoma parasites. The Lowland tapirs were captured in the Brazilian southeastern Atlantic Rainforest, Espírito Santo state. Trypanosomes were isolated by hemoculture, and the molecular phylogeny based on small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) and glycosomal-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) gene sequences and the ultrastructural features seen via light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy are described. Phylogenetic trees using combined SSU rDNA and gGAPDH data sets clustered the trypanosomes of Lowland tapirs, which were highly divergent from other trypanosome species. The phylogenetic position and morphological discontinuities, mainly in epimastigote culture forms, made it possible to classify the trypanosomes from Lowland tapirs as a separate species. The isolated trypanosomes from Tapirus terrestris are a new species, Trypanosoma terrestris sp. n., and were positioned in a new Trypanosoma clade, named T. terrestris clade.

  13. Threats from climate change to terrestrial vertebrate hotspots in Europe.

    Maiorano, Luigi; Amori, Giovanni; Capula, Massimo; Falcucci, Alessandra; Masi, Monica; Montemaggiori, Alessandro; Pottier, Julien; Psomas, Achilleas; Rondinini, Carlo; Russo, Danilo; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Boitani, Luigi; Guisan, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    We identified hotspots of terrestrial vertebrate species diversity in Europe and adjacent islands. Moreover, we assessed the extent to which by the end of the 21(st) century such hotspots will be exposed to average monthly temperature and precipitation patterns which can be regarded as extreme if compared to the climate experienced during 1950-2000. In particular, we considered the entire European sub-continent plus Turkey and a total of 1149 species of terrestrial vertebrates. For each species, we developed species-specific expert-based distribution models (validated against field data) which we used to calculate species richness maps for mammals, breeding birds, amphibians, and reptiles. Considering four global circulation model outputs and three emission scenarios, we generated an index of risk of exposure to extreme climates, and we used a bivariate local Moran's I to identify the areas with a significant association between hotspots of diversity and high risk of exposure to extreme climates. Our results outline that the Mediterranean basin represents both an important hotspot for biodiversity and especially for threatened species for all taxa. In particular, the Iberian and Italian peninsulas host particularly high species richness as measured over all groups, while the eastern Mediterranean basin is particularly rich in amphibians and reptiles; the islands (both Macaronesian and Mediterranean) host the highest richness of threatened species for all taxa occurs. Our results suggest that the main hotspots of biodiversity for terrestrial vertebrates may be extensively influenced by the climate change projected to occur over the coming decades, especially in the Mediterranean bioregion, posing serious concerns for biodiversity conservation.

  14. Mammals of the Savannah River Site

    Cothran, E.G.; Smith, M.H.; Wolff, J.O.; Gentry, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    This book is designed to be used as a field guide, reference book, bibliography, and introduction to the basic biology and ecology of the 54 mammal species that currently or potentially exist on or near the Savannah River Site (SRS). For 50 of these species, we present basic descriptions, distinguishing morphological features, distribution and habitat preferences, food habits, reproductive biology, social behavior, ecological relationships with other species, and economic importance to man. For those species that have been studied on the SRS, we summarize the results of these studies. Keys and illustrations are provided for whole body and skull identification. A selected glossary defines technical terminology. Illustrations of tracks of the more common larger mammals will assist in field identifications. We also summarize the results of two major long-term SRS studies, ''The Forbearer Census'' and ''White-tailed Deer Studies''. A cross-indexed list of over 300 SRS publications on mammals classifies each publication by 23 categories such as habitat, reproduction, genetics, etc., and also for each mammal species. The 149 Master's theses and Ph.D. dissertations that have been conducted at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory are provided as additional references

  15. Morbilliviruses and morbillivirus diseases of marine mammals.

    R.L. de Swart (Rik); T.C. Harder (Timm); P.S. Ross (Peter); H.W. Vos (Helma); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years, serious disease outbreaks among seals and dolphins were attributed to infection with established or newly recognized morbilliviruses. The first identification of a morbillivirus as causative agent of mass mortality among marine mammals was in 1988, when the previously

  16. Mammals of the Savannah River Site

    Cothran, E.G.; Smith, M.H.; Wolff, J.O.; Gentry, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    This book is designed to be used as a field guide, reference book, bibliography, and introduction to the basic biology and ecology of the 54 mammal species that currently or potentially exist on or near the Savannah River Site (SRS). For 50 of these species, we present basic descriptions, distinguishing morphological features, distribution and habitat preferences, food habits, reproductive biology, social behavior, ecological relationships with other species, and economic importance to man. For those species that have been studied on the SRS, we summarize the results of these studies. Keys and illustrations are provided for whole body and skull identification. A selected glossary defines technical terminology. Illustrations of tracks of the more common larger mammals will assist in field identifications. We also summarize the results of two major long-term SRS studies, The Forbearer Census'' and White-tailed Deer Studies''. A cross-indexed list of over 300 SRS publications on mammals classifies each publication by 23 categories such as habitat, reproduction, genetics, etc., and also for each mammal species. The 149 Master's theses and Ph.D. dissertations that have been conducted at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory are provided as additional references.

  17. Mammals of the Savannah River Site

    Cothran, E.G.; Smith, M.H.; Wolff, J.O.; Gentry, J.B.

    1991-12-31

    This book is designed to be used as a field guide, reference book, bibliography, and introduction to the basic biology and ecology of the 54 mammal species that currently or potentially exist on or near the Savannah River Site (SRS). For 50 of these species, we present basic descriptions, distinguishing morphological features, distribution and habitat preferences, food habits, reproductive biology, social behavior, ecological relationships with other species, and economic importance to man. For those species that have been studied on the SRS, we summarize the results of these studies. Keys and illustrations are provided for whole body and skull identification. A selected glossary defines technical terminology. Illustrations of tracks of the more common larger mammals will assist in field identifications. We also summarize the results of two major long-term SRS studies, ``The Forbearer Census`` and ``White-tailed Deer Studies``. A cross-indexed list of over 300 SRS publications on mammals classifies each publication by 23 categories such as habitat, reproduction, genetics, etc., and also for each mammal species. The 149 Master`s theses and Ph.D. dissertations that have been conducted at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory are provided as additional references.

  18. Mammals of the Genera Odocoileus and Sylvilagus

    Wagenaar Hummelinck, P.

    1940-01-01

    Whilst visiting the Leeward Group, little time could be spared to the collecting of mammals; from Odocoileus and Sylvilagus however, a rather representative series could be obtained. Regarding this, I must offer my grateful thanks and appreciation to the people who so ably and kindly assisted in

  19. Mathematical modelling of the death rate dynamics in mammals with intestinal form of radiation sicleness

    Smirnova, O.A.

    1990-01-01

    A mathematical models has been developed to describe the death rate dynamics in irradiated mammals. The model links statistical biometric functions with statistical and dynamic characteristics of the organism's 'critical' system. There is an agreement between the results of modelling and experiments with respect to death rate dynamics of small laboratory animals subjected to acute and chronic irradiation with doses and dose-rates at which small intestine epithelium is 'ctitical'

  20. Grazing livestock are exposed to terrestrial cyanobacteria.

    McGorum, Bruce C; Pirie, R Scott; Glendinning, Laura; McLachlan, Gerry; Metcalf, James S; Banack, Sandra A; Cox, Paul A; Codd, Geoffrey A

    2015-02-25

    While toxins from aquatic cyanobacteria are a well-recognised cause of disease in birds and animals, exposure of grazing livestock to terrestrial cyanobacteria has not been described. This study identified terrestrial cyanobacteria, predominantly Phormidium spp., in the biofilm of plants from most livestock fields investigated. Lower numbers of other cyanobacteria, microalgae and fungi were present on many plants. Cyanobacterial 16S rDNA, predominantly from Phormidium spp., was detected in all samples tested, including 6 plant washings, 1 soil sample and ileal contents from 2 grazing horses. Further work was performed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of cyanotoxins contributes to the pathogenesis of some currently unexplained diseases of grazing horses, including equine grass sickness (EGS), equine motor neuron disease (EMND) and hepatopathy. Phormidium population density was significantly higher on EGS fields than on control fields. The cyanobacterial neurotoxic amino acid 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) was detected in plant washings from EGS fields, but worst case scenario estimations suggested the dose would be insufficient to cause disease. Neither DAB nor the cyanobacterial neurotoxins β-N-methylamino-L-alanine and N-(2-aminoethyl) glycine were detected in neural tissue from 6 EGS horses, 2 EMND horses and 7 control horses. Phormidium was present in low numbers on plants where horses had unexplained hepatopathy. This study did not yield evidence linking known cyanotoxins with disease in grazing horses. However, further study is warranted to identify and quantify toxins produced by cyanobacteria on livestock fields, and determine whether, under appropriate conditions, known or unknown cyanotoxins contribute to currently unexplained diseases in grazing livestock.