Converse, Paul E; Kuchta, Shawn R; Hauswaldt, J Susanne; Roosenburg, Willem M
Diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) were a popular food item in early twentieth century America, and were consumed in soup with sherry. Intense market demand for terrapin meat resulted in population declines, notably along the Atlantic seaboard. Efforts to supply terrapins to markets resulted in translocation events, as individuals were moved about to stock terrapin farms. However, in 1920 the market for turtle soup buckled with the enactment of the eighteenth amendment to the United States' Constitution-which initiated the prohibition of alcoholic drinks-and many terrapin fisheries dumped their stocks into local waters. We used microsatellite data to show that patterns of genetic diversity along the terrapin's coastal range are consistent with historical accounts of translocation and cultivation activities. We identified possible instances of human-mediated dispersal by estimating gene flow over historical and contemporary timescales, Bayesian model testing, and bottleneck tests. We recovered six genotypic clusters along the Gulf and Atlantic coasts with varying degrees of admixture, including increased contemporary gene flow from Texas to South Carolina, from North Carolina to Maryland, and from North Carolina to New York. In addition, Bayesian models incorporating translocation events outperformed stepping-stone models. Finally, we were unable to detect population bottlenecks, possibly due to translocation reintroducing genetic diversity into bottlenecked populations. Our data suggest that current patterns of genetic diversity in the terrapin were altered by the demand for turtle soup followed by the enactment of alcohol prohibition. In addition, our study shows that population genetic tools can elucidate metapopulation dynamics in taxa with complex genetic histories impacted by anthropogenic activities.
Holliday, Dawn K., E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Biological Sciences and the Appalachian Rural Health Institute, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Holliday, Casey M., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Pathology and Anatomical Sciences, M318 Medical Sciences Building, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65212 (United States)
Bone is a dynamic tissue with diverse functions including growth, structural support, pH balance and reproduction. These functions may be compromised in the presence of organopollutants that can alter bone properties. We exposed juvenile diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) to 3,3 Prime ,4,4 Prime ,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), a ubiquitous anthropogenic organochlorine, and measured organic content, apparent bone mineral density (aBMD) using radiography and computed tomography, and quantified bone microstructure using histological preparations of femora. PCB-exposed terrapins were smaller in total size. Skulls of exposed animals had a higher organic content and a skeletal phenotype more typical of younger animals. The femora of exposed individuals had significantly reduced aBMD and significantly more cortical area occupied by non-bone. Because bone is an integral component of physiology, the observed skeletal changes can have far-reaching impacts on feeding and locomotor performance, calcium reserves and ultimately life history traits and reproductive success. Additionally, we caution that measurements of bone morphology, density, and composition from field-collected animals need to account not only for relatedness and age, but also environmental pollutants.
Harwood, Valerie J.; Butler, Joseph; Parrish, Danny; Wagner, Victoria
Total and fecal coliform bacteria were isolated from the cloaca and feces of the estuarine diamondback terrapin. The majority of samples contained fecal coliforms. Escherichia coli was the predominant fecal coliform species isolated, and members of the genus Salmonella were isolated from 2 of 39 terrapins. Fecal coliform numbers are used to regulate shellfish harvests, and diamondback terrapins inhabit the brackish-water habitats where oyster beds are found; therefore, these findings have imp...
Harwood, V J; Butler, J; Parrish, D; Wagner, V
Total and fecal coliform bacteria were isolated from the cloaca and feces of the estuarine diamondback terrapin. The majority of samples contained fecal coliforms. Escherichia coli was the predominant fecal coliform species isolated, and members of the genus Salmonella were isolated from 2 of 39 terrapins. Fecal coliform numbers are used to regulate shellfish harvests, and diamondback terrapins inhabit the brackish-water habitats where oyster beds are found; therefore, these findings have implications for the efficacy of current regulatory parameters in shellfishing waters.
Maximum standard metabolic rate corresponds with the salinity of maximum growth in hatchlings of the estuarine northern diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin terrapin): Implications for habitat conservation
Rowe, Christopher L.
I evaluated standard metabolic rates (SMR) of hatchling northern diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin terrapin) across a range of salinities (salinity = 1.5, 4, 8, 12, and 16 psu) that they may encounter in brackish habitats such as those in the Maryland portion of the Chesapeake Bay, U.S.A. Consumption of O2 and production of CO2 by resting, unfed animals served as estimates of SMR. A peak in SMR occurred at 8 psu which corresponds closely with the salinity at which hatchling growth was previously shown to be maximized (salinity ∼ 9 psu). It appears that SMR is influenced by growth, perhaps reflecting investments in catabolic pathways that fuel anabolism. This ecophysiological information can inform environmental conservation and management activities by identifying portions of the estuary that are bioenergetically optimal for growth of hatchling terrapins. I suggest that conservation and restoration efforts to protect terrapin populations in oligo-to mesohaline habitats should prioritize protection or creation of habitats in regions where average salinity is near 8 psu and energetic investments in growth appear to be maximized.
Standard metabolic rates of early life stages of the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin), an estuarine turtle, suggest correlates between life history changes and the metabolic economy of hatchlings.
Rowe, Christopher L
I estimated standard metabolic rates (SMR) using measurements of oxygen consumption rates of embryos and unfed, resting hatchlings of the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin) three times during embryonic development and twice during the early post-hatching period. The highest observed SMRs occurred during mid to late embryonic development and the early post-hatching period when hatchlings were still reliant on yolk reserves provided by the mother. Hatchlings that were reliant on yolk displayed per capita SMR 135 % higher than when measured 25 calendar days later after they became reliant on exogenous resources. The magnitude of the difference in hatchling SMR between yolk-reliant and exogenously feeding stages was much greater than that attributed to costs of digestion (specific dynamic action) observed in another emydid turtle, suggesting that processing of the yolk was not solely responsible for the observed difference. The pre-feeding period of yolk reliance of hatchlings corresponds with the period of dispersal from the nesting site, suggesting that elevated SMR during this period could facilitate dispersal activities. Thus, I hypothesize that the reduction in SMR after the development of feeding behaviors may reflect an energy optimization strategy in which a high metabolic expenditure in support of development and growth of the embryo and dispersal of the hatchling is followed by a substantial reduction in metabolic expenditure coincident with the individual becoming reliant on exogenous resources following yolk depletion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVES: An outbreak of Salmonella tel-el-kebir occurring over a 6-month period is described in this report. This is the first outbreak of S. tel-el-kebir in the reported literature. METHODS: S. tel-el-kebir was isolated from human faecal samples using conventional laboratory methods. RESULTS: Eight patients had S. tel-el-kebir isolated from faeces. All patients were owners of, or in close contact with, pet terrapins. The terrapins were purchased in the same pet shop, where they were imported from America. The epidemiological link with these pets was confirmed, as S. tel-el-kebir was isolated from cloacal swabs from the terrapins, and from terrapin water. Molecular biology studies using DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) gave identical fingerprint patterns for all human and terrapin isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Salmonellosis associated with exotic pets is a re-emerging disease in the 1990s, and measures to reduce this are discussed.
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Turtles, tortoises, and terrapins. 71.52 Section 71..., INSPECTION, LICENSING FOREIGN QUARANTINE Importations § 71.52 Turtles, tortoises, and terrapins. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Turtles includes all animals commonly known as turtles...
Chen, Pelf-Nyok; Wong, Adrian
A Southern River Terrapin (Batagur affinis edwardmolli) Conservation Project was initiated on one terrapin nesting bank in 2011, following the discovery of a River Terrapin population in the Kemaman River, Terengganu in 2010. Since this project was initiated, Turtle Conservation Society of Malaysia (TCS) was instrumental in the gazettement of three nesting banks along the Kemaman River, from which all River Terrapin eggs are collected for incubation. However, there are at least a dozen other "unprotected" nesting banks along the river, where all eggs were collected for human consumption. This project attempted to determine the movements of a post-nesting River Terrapin, with hopes that it would provide the preliminary baseline information on the utilization of adjacent nesting banks. The solution was a GPS tracking device that transmitted coordinates every hour over cellular networks. Location-based data was sent via Short Message Service (SMS) to our own SMS gateway running on a Raspberry Pi credit-card size computer, which was then logged in a database and presented graphically via Google Maps. It was a complete tracking and monitoring system. This solution enabled researchers to remotely track the movements of a River Terrapin, hence reducing the costs of research. The movements of a post-nesting River Terrapin were tracked for eight days before the battery was drained. On the third day, this River Terrapin ascended an adjacent riverbank and spent less than an hour on the bank, presumably to deposit her remaining eggs. This study confirmed that River Terrapins do utilize other suitable nesting banks if/whenever available. Results from such tracking studies will be used to leverage on the protection of adjacent nesting banks, thus providing greater protection for the critically endangered River Terrapins.
Martorell, J; Espada, Y; Ruiz de Gopegui, R
Thirty red-eared slider terrapins (Trachemys scripta elegans) were examined by ultrasound to establish the normal ultrasonographic appearance of their coelomic structures. They were not sedated, and owing to their small size they were examined through the inguinal window of the carapace. High resolution transducers (7.5 and 11 MHz) enhanced the ultrasonographic imaging of the bowel, urinary bladder, liver, gall bladder, heart, kidney and gonads, but the pancreas, adrenal glands, thyroid glands and spleen could not be visualised.
Makau, Christopher M; Towett, Philemon K; Abelson, Klas S P
BACKGROUND: The role of noradrenergic system in the control of nociception is documented in some vertebrate animals. However, there are no data showing the role of this system on nociception in the marsh terrapins. METHODOLOGY: In this study, the antinociceptive action of intrathecal administration...... of the α 2-adrenoreceptor agonist clonidine and α 2-adrenoreceptor antagonist yohimbine was evaluated in the African marsh terrapin using the formalin test. The interaction of clonidine and yohimbine was also evaluated. RESULTS: Intrathecal administration of clonidine (37.5 or 65 μg/kg) caused...... a significant reduction in the mean time spent in pain-related behavior. Yohimbine, at a dose of 25 μg/kg, significantly blocked the effect of clonidine (65 μg/kg). However, administration of yohimbine (40 or 53 μg/kg) caused a significant reduction in the mean time spent in pain-related behavior. Intrathecal...
Knotkova, Z; Dorrestein, G M; Jekl, V; Janouskova, J; Knotek, Z
The fasting and postprandial serum concentrations of bile acids and other blood constituents were measured in a group of 10 clinically healthy, female, six-year-old captive red-eared terrapins (Trachemys scripta elegans). The terrapins were housed in a temperate room and maintained in four aquaria in which the water temperature ranged from 24 to 27 degrees C and the temperature above the basking site ranged from 27 to 30 degrees C. The serum concentrations of bile acids were measured four times in a period of five months, and at the second sampling the fasting and two postprandial (after 24 and 48 hours) serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, glucose, uric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and bile acids were determined. Coelioscopy revealed vitellogenic and previtellogenic follicles on the ovaries of all the terrapins, and eggs with calcified shells were detected in two of them. The livers were mostly pink to deep yellow in colour, with sharp edges, a smooth serosal surface, distinct large superficial vessels, and multifocal melanin deposits. Liver biopsies revealed fine, more or less oil red O-positive lipid droplets in all the hepatocytes, but in none of the cases was it considered to be pathological lipidosis. The mean (sd) bile acid concentrations ranged from 7.35 (4.52) to 10.04 (7.40) micromol/l. The fasting and postprandial concentrations were 3.1 (2.3), 4.5 (5.4) (24 hours) and 2.2 (1.5) (48 hours) micromol/l. High concentrations between 27.6 and 66.6 micromol/l were associated with lipaemia. There were no significant differences between the biochemical profiles of the fasting and postprandial serum samples.
Poser, H; Russello, G; Zanella, A; Bellini, L; Gelli, D
Echocardiographic evaluation was performed in six healthy young adult non-sedated terrapins (Trachemys scripta elegans). The best imaging quality was obtained through the right cervical window. Base-apex inflow and outflow views were recorded, ventricular size, ventricular wall thickness and ventricular outflow tract were measured, and fractional shortening was calculated. Pulsed-wave Doppler interrogation enabled the diastolic biphasic atrio-ventricular flow and the systolic ventricular outflow patterns to be recorded. The following Doppler-derived functional parameters were calculated: early diastolic (E) and late diastolic (A) wave peak velocities, E/A ratio, ventricular outflow systolic peak and mean velocities and gradients, Velocity-Time Integral, acceleration and deceleration times, and Ejection Time. For each parameter the mean, standard deviation and 95% confidence interval were calculated. Echocardiography resulted as a useful and easy-to-perform diagnostic tool in this poorly known species that presents difficulties during evaluation.
.... 26. Diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin)--Inclusion in Appendix II. Birds 27. Gyrfalcon (Falco...) leithii), Malaysian giant turtle (Orlitia borneensis), wattle-necked softshell turtle (Palea steindachneri...
Proterometra epholkos sp. n. (Digenea: Azygiidae) from Terrapin Creek, Alabama, USA: molecular characterization of life cycle, redescription of Proterometra albacauda, and updated lists of host and geographic locality records for Proterometra spp. in North America.
Womble, Matthew R; Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A
Proterometra epholkos sp. n. asexually reproduces in the stream dwelling prosobranch, Elimia cf. modesta (Cerithioidea: Pleuroceridae) and infects the buccal cavity epithelium of spotted bass, Micropterus punctulatus (Perciformes: Centrarchidae) in the Coosa River (Terrapin Creek; N33°51'36.56″, W85°31'28.15″; Cleburne County, Alabama, USA). We characterize cercariae and adults of the new species using morphology and molecular sequence data and redescribe its morphologically similar congener Proterometra albacauda based on the holotype and paratype (USNPC Nos. 61229-30). The new species can be distinguished most easily from P. albacauda by the combination of having cercariae with long mamillae (>100μm) that encircle the tail stem anteriorly, that are restricted to 1 lateral column per body margin at midbody, and that are absent from the medial surface of the tail stem as well as by having adults with a partly extracecal uterus, a transverse metraterm occupying the space between the oral sucker and prostatic sac, and a vitellarium that is longer than the ceca and extends anteriad to the level of or beyond the posterior margin of the oral sucker. Sequence data from the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2; 251bp) did not reject the notion that the cercariae and adults we collected simultaneously from those infected, sympatric, individual snails and fish in Terrapin Creek were conspecific. Also provided herein for species of Proterometra are (i) taxonomic keys for cercariae and adults based on morphological and behavioral characteristics sourced from the published literature, (ii) updated lists of host records (prosobranchs and fishes) and geographic locality records for Proterometra spp., and (iii) synopses and assessments of the morphological features previously used to differentiate them. Proterometra macrostoma (type species), Proterometra melanophora, and Proterometra hodgesiana are species inquirendae; requiring new collections from type
The majority of species is well protected in existing reserves. The small number of chelonian species in southern Africa and their relatively well-known distributions, test the efficacy of an iterative reserve selection algorithm. The presence of many allopatric (or nearly so) congeneric species leads to the selection of iterative ...
Crawford, Brian A.; Moore, Clinton; Norton, Terry M.; Maerz, John C.
A challenge for making conservation decisions is predicting how wildlife populations respond to multiple, concurrent threats and potential management strategies, usually under substantial uncertainty. Integrated modeling approaches can improve estimation of demographic rates necessary for making predictions, even for rare or cryptic species with sparse data, but their use in management applications is limited. We developed integrated models for a population of diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) impacted by road-associated threats to (i) jointly estimate demographic rates from two mark-recapture datasets, while directly estimating road mortality and the impact of management actions deployed during the study; and (ii) project the population using population viability analysis under simulated management strategies to inform decision-making. Without management, population extirpation was nearly certain due to demographic impacts of road mortality, predators, and vegetation. Installation of novel flashing signage increased survival of terrapins that crossed roads by 30%. Signage, along with small roadside barriers installed during the study, increased population persistence probability, but the population was still predicted to decline. Management strategies that included actions targeting multiple threats and demographic rates resulted in the highest persistence probability, and roadside barriers, which increased adult survival, were predicted to increase persistence more than other actions. Our results support earlier findings showing mitigation of multiple threats is likely required to increase the viability of declining populations. Our approach illustrates how integrated models may be adapted to use limited data efficiently, represent system complexity, evaluate impacts of threats and management actions, and provide decision-relevant information for conservation of at-risk populations.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for threatened/endangered sea turtles, diamondback terrapins, and rare reptiles/amphibians in coastal Rhode...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for estuarine reptiles (turtles, terrapins) and amphibians (salamanders, frogs) for the Hudson River....
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for sea turtles, crocodiles, mangrove terrapins, and other rare species in [for] South Florida. Vector...
To date, only a single species of Hemolivia, Hemolivia mauritanica (Sergent & Sergent, 1904), has been described from African terrestrial tortoises. Although various haemogregarines have been described from southern African terrapins and tortoises, including species from the genus Haemogregarina and one from the ...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Turtles intrastate and interstate requirements....62 Turtles intrastate and interstate requirements. (a) Definition. As used in this section the term “turtles” includes all animals commonly known as turtles, tortoises, terrapins, and all other animals of...
The European pond terrapin(Emys orbicularis) is a turtle found in southern and central Europe, West Asia and North Africa. In this study, we used juvenile E. orbicularis (females of 4 - 5 years old) which was captured from the different area of the Mazandaran province in April 2006. Blood was collected from the dorsal sinus ...
Jul 4, 2007 ... The European pond terrapin (Emys orbicularis) is a turtle found in southern and central Europe, West. Asia and North Africa. In this study, we used juvenile E. orbicularis (females of 4 - 5 years old) which was captured from the different area of the Mazandaran province in April 2006. Blood was collected.
Winters, J. M.; Jungblut, D.; Catena, A. N.; Rubenstein, D. I.
Providing rigorous academic supplement to a professional development program for teachers, QUEST is a fusion of Drexel University's environmental science research department with Princeton University's Program in Teacher Preparation. Completed in the summers of 2012 (in partnership with Earthwatch) and 2013 in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, QUEST's terrapin field research program enhances K-12 teachers' ecological knowledge, develops inquiry-based thinking in the classroom, and builds citizen science engagement. With a focus on quality question development and data analysis to answer questions, teachers are coached in developing, implementing, and presenting independent research projects on diamondback terrapin nesting ecology. As a result, teachers participating in QUEST's week long program bring a realistic example of science in action into their classrooms, helping to develop their own students' critical thinking skills. For teachers, this program provides training towards educating students on how to do real and imaginative science - subsequently sending students to university better prepared to engage in their own independent research. An essential component of the collaboration through QUEST, in addition to the teacher's experience during and after the summer institute, is the research data collected which supplements that of the Principal Investigator. In 2012, by documenting terrapin nest site predators, teachers gained valuable scientific experience, while Drexel acquired important ecological data which would have not been able to be collected otherwise. In 2013, teachers helped answer important questions about terrapin nesting success post Superstorm Sandy. In fact, the 2013 QUEST teachers are the first to visualize the frighteningly increased erosion of a primary terrapin nesting site due to Sandy; showing how most terrapin nests now lie in the bay, instead of safe on shore. Teachers comment that interacting with scientists in the field, and contributing to
system. Many pipes, lift stations, and sewer manholes are in poor condition. Terrapin has begun to rehabilitate or replace the entire wastewater...A number of renovations to the system have been proposed to meet regulatory requirements, including rehabilitating many BMPs. 126.96.36.199 Electrical...a landfill . There are no known capacity issues at area landfills , and recycling or reuse of waste generated during construction reduces the quantity
R. Lalitha; V.R. Chandavar
The freshwater Testudine species have gained importance in recent years, as most of their population is threatened due to exploitation for delicacy and pet trade. In this regard, Lissemys punctata, a freshwater terrapin, predominantly distributed in Asian countries has gained its significance for the study. A pilot study report on mitochondrial markers (Cyt b and D-loop) conducted on L. punctata species from southern Karnataka, India was presented in this investigation. A complete region span...
Full Text Available New fossil vertebrates from the most representative Upper Pleistocene section (Tyrrhenian, MIS 5e of the outcrop of San Giovanni di Sinis (Oristano, Sardinia are here reported and described. The fossils, although scarce and fragmentary, document the occurrence of a terrapin (Mauremys sp. and the endemic Sardinian deer (Praemegaceros cazioti. Significant is the occurrence of the terrapin because it is the youngest representative of the genus in the central Mediterranean area where it is extinct at present. The Late Pleistocene extinction of Mauremys in Italy follows the same pattern of other Mediterranean reptiles, in being in some cases delayed on the islands. A comparison of the modern range of Mauremys and that of the pond turtle, Emys, as well as of their past ranges as evidenced by the fossil record, might suggest that some sort of thermophily (at least during pre-hatching stages characterized the former taxon and is responsible for its past and present distribution. SHORT NOTE
Full Text Available The early to early-Middle Pleistocene fossil assemblage form the Buia area (Northern Danakil Depression, Eritrea hosts, along with Homo and several other large mammal taxa, the following reptiles: Nile Crocodile, Crocodylus niloticus, Serrated Hinged Terrapin, Pelusios cf. P. sinuatus, Nile Monitor, Varanus niloticus and African Rock Python, Python gr. sebae. All the identified taxa belong to living species. At present, these taxa do not occur in the Northern Danakil depression since it is an arid area. P. sinuatus is not a member of the Eritrean herpetofauna. Although the marked preponderance of the crocodile remains is probably connected to the taphonomy of the sites and the collecting methods used, the ecological value of the reptile fauna corroborates that of the mammals, in indicating a lacustrine or fluvio-deltaic palaeoenvironment and a tropical/subtropical or even sub-Sahelic climate. The Buia remains represent the first reported Eritrean palaeoherpetofauna.
Magnino, S.; Colin, P.; Dei-Cas, E.
recently increased in some areas of the world. Biological risks associated with the consumption of products from both farmed and wild reptile meat and eggs include infections caused by bacteria (Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp.). parasites (Spirometra, Trichinella, Gnathostoma, pentastomids), as well...... to increase the occurrence of biological hazards in reptile meat. Application of GHP, GMP and HACCP procedures, respectively at farm and slaughterhouse level, is crucial for controlling the hazards.......The consumption of a wide variety of species of reptiles caught from the wild has been an important source of protein for humans world-wide for millennia. Terrapins. snakes, lizards, crocodiles and iguanas are now farmed and the consumption and trade of their meat and other edible products have...
, have been recorded together with representatives of the genus Sub triquetra and immature and larval forms of Leiperia. To date the two monospecific genera, Pelonia, from two terrapin species, Pelusios sinuatus and Pelomedusa subrufa, in South Africa, and Diesingia from Hydraspis geoffroyana and Hydromedusa tectifera in South America, are the only chelonian pentastomes recovered world-wide. A possible exception is the crocodilian pentastome Sebekia mississippiensis which can reach maturity in exper imentally infected terrapins.
Junker, K; Boomker, J
together with representatives of the genus Subtriquetra and immature and larval forms of Leiperia. To date the two monospecific genera, Pelonia, from two terrapin species, Pelusios sinuatus and Pelomedusa subrufa, in South Africa, and Diesingia from Hydraspis geoffroyana and Hydromedusa tectifera in South America, are the only chelonian pentastomes recovered world-wide. A possible exception is the crocodilian pentastome Sebekia mississippiensis which can reach maturity in experimentally infected terrapins.
Hunter, Elizabeth A.; Nibbelink, Nathan P.; Alexander, Clark R.; Barrett, Kyle; Mengak, Lara F.; Guy, Rachel; Moore, Clinton; Cooper, Robert J.
Sea level rise (SLR) may degrade habitat for coastal vertebrates in the Southeastern United States, but it is unclear which groups or species will be most exposed to habitat changes. We assessed 28 coastal Georgia vertebrate species for their exposure to potential habitat changes due to SLR using output from the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model and information on the species’ fundamental niches. We assessed forecasted habitat change up to the year 2100 using three structural habitat metrics: total area, patch size, and habitat permanence. Almost all of the species (n = 24) experienced negative habitat changes due to SLR as measured by at least one of the metrics. Salt marsh and ocean beach habitats experienced the most change (out of 16 categorical land cover types) across the three metrics and species that used salt marsh extensively (rails and marsh sparrows) were ranked highest for exposure to habitat changes. Species that nested on ocean beaches (Diamondback Terrapins, shorebirds, and terns) were also ranked highly, but their use of other foraging habitats reduced their overall exposure. Future studies on potential effects of SLR on vertebrates in southeastern coastal ecosystems should focus on the relative importance of different habitat types to these species’ foraging and nesting requirements. Our straightforward prioritization approach is applicable to other coastal systems and can provide insight to managers on which species to focus resources, what components of their habitats need to be protected, and which locations in the study area will provide habitat refuges in the face of SLR.
Zancolli, Giulia; Mahsberg, Dieter; Sickel, Wiebke; Keller, Alexander
Bacterial infections secondary to snakebites and human pathogens (e.g., Salmonella) have been linked to the oral microbiota of snakes and pet reptiles. Based on culture-dependent studies, it is speculated that snakes' oral microbiota reflects the fecal flora of their ingested preys. However, cultured-based techniques have been shown to be limited as they fail to identify unculturable microorganisms which represent the vast majority of the microbial diversity. Here, we used culture-independent high-throughput sequencing to identify reptile-associated pathogens and to characterize the oral microbial community of five snakes, one gecko, and two terrapins. Few potential human pathogens were detected at extremely low frequencies. Moreover, bacterial taxa represented in the snake's oral cavity bore little resemblance to their preys' fecal microbiota. Overall, we found distinct, highly diverse microbial communities with consistent, species-specific patterns contrary to previous culture-based studies. Our study does not support the widely held assumption that reptiles' oral cavity acts as pathogen reservoir and provides important insights for future research.
Saito, M; Sugiyama, K
Gangliosides of eye lenses were examined in mammals (rat, rabbits, pig, cow), bird (chicken), reptile (terrapin), amphibian (bullfrog), bony fish (red sea bream, bluefin tuna, bonito, Pacific mackerel) and molluscs (common squid, Pacific octopus). Besides the fact that GM3 was the common ganglioside species, the composition of major gangliosides in mammalian eye lenses significantly differed from each other. While gangliotetraose gangliosides were abundant in rat eye lens, they did not constitute major components in porcine and bovine tissues. The c-series ganglioside GT3 was expressed in rat eye lenses but were practically absent in other mammalian tissues. The composition of major gangliosides in eye lenses of lower animals varied from species to species, whereas c-series gangliosides were consistently expressed, showing similar compositional profiles. Our results demonstrate the species-specific compositions of lenticular gangliosides. Evidence was also provided suggesting that eye lenses of common squid (Todarodes pacificus) and Pacific octopus (Octopus vulgaris) express gangliosides including gangliotetraose species and c-series gangliosides.
Full Text Available The freshwater Testudine species have gained importance in recent years, as most of their population is threatened due to exploitation for delicacy and pet trade. In this regard, Lissemys punctata, a freshwater terrapin, predominantly distributed in Asian countries has gained its significance for the study. A pilot study report on mitochondrial markers (Cyt b and D-loop conducted on L. punctata species from southern Karnataka, India was presented in this investigation. A complete region spanning 1.14 kb and ∼1 kb was amplified by HotStart PCR and sequenced by Sanger sequencing. The Cyt b sequence revealed 85 substitution sites, no indels and 17 parsimony informative sites, whereas D-loop showed 189 variable sites, 51 parsimony informative sites with 5′ functional domains TAS, CSB-F, CSBs (1, 2, 3 preceding tandem repeat at 3′ end. Current data highlights the intraspecific variations in these target regions and variations validated using suitable evolutionary models points out that the overall point mutations observed in the region are transitions leading to no structural and functional alterations. The mitochondrial data generated uncover the genetic diversity within species and conservationist can utilize the data to estimate the effective population size or for forensic identification of animal or its seizures during unlawful trade activities.
Nicholson, David B.; Holroyd, Patricia A.; Valdes, Paul; Barrett, Paul M.
The latitudinal biodiversity gradient (LBG)-the pattern of increasing taxonomic richness with decreasing latitude-is prevalent in the structure of the modern biota. However, some freshwater taxa show peak richness at mid-latitudes; for example, extant Testudines (turtles, terrapins and tortoises) exhibit their greatest diversity at 25° N, a pattern sometimes attributed to recent bursts of climatically mediated species diversification. Here, we test whether this pattern also characterizes the Mesozoic distribution of turtles, to determine whether it was established during either their initial diversification or as a more modern phenomenon. Using global occurrence data for non-marine testudinate genera, we find that subsampled richness peaks at palaeolatitudes of 15-30° N in the Jurassic, 30-45° N through the Cretaceous to the Campanian, and from 30° to 60° N in the Maastrichtian. The absence of a significant diversity peak in southern latitudes is consistent with results from climatic models and turtle niche modelling that demonstrate a dearth of suitable turtle habitat in Gondwana during the Jurassic and Late Cretaceous. Our analyses confirm that the modern testudinate LBG has a deep-time origin and further demonstrate that LBGs are not always expressed as a smooth, equator-to-pole distribution.
Biscardi, Brianna; Welsh, Wendy; Kennedy, Anthony
The ability to discriminate between objects manufactured from animal horn and chelonian (turtle, tortoise, or terrapin) shell is important from a cultural and archeological perspective such that it may allow conservators to determine the appropriate treatment and long-term care solution. It would also aid curators in identifying and cataloging items manufactured from these materials. Discrimination and classification is also a valuable tool for those involved in tracking the illegal trade in restricted materials of this nature. Attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, using a single reflection diamond internal reflection element (IRE), coupled with discrimination analysis was used to analyze a total of thirty-nine samples (29 calibration samples, 10 validation samples). A discrimination analysis model was constructed using Mahalanobis distances to classify spectra into one of two classes. The model was then subsequently used to successfully classify all validation samples and correctly identify them as animal horn or chelonian shell based on second-derivative spectra of the amide I and II regions. This technique requires minimal to no sample preparation and may be used to nondestructively identify very small samples successfully without performing detailed secondary structural curve-fitting routines. This model should be a valuable resource to museums, conservators, and wildlife management programs for rapidly and reliably discriminating between animal horn and chelonian shell.
Full Text Available A new analysis of the most representative Upper Pleistocene (Tyrrhenian, MIS 5e section of San Giovanni di Sinis (Oristano, Sardinia has provided a more detailed genetic stratigraphy of a low wave energy beach and temperate lagoon up to emerged peri-lagoonal facies deposits. These peri-lagoonal facies contain remains of fossil vertebrates, which, though few and fragmentary, bear witness to an at least temporary freshwater palaeoenvironment and the presence of deers and terrapins. Besides, the stratigraphy of this outcrop shows shoreface-backshore sandstones overlaying an erosion surface cut on the vertebrate-bearing layers. Facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy of the succession have provided support to a new eustatic interpretation significance. In fact, there appears to be evidence of one irregular single eustatic highstand, rather than two eustatic peaks as previously believed. The facies evolution and the local stratigraphic disconformities are interpreted as being associated with a lateral shift of the depositional environment within the same system formed during the MIS 5e sea level variations. As sea water level continued to rise so an erosional unconformity, caused by wave ravinement, formed between the low wave energy beach-lagoon sequence and the successive wave dominated beach facies sequence. This interpretation is supported by comparison with other sections of the Tyrrhenian in western Sardinia. The maximum sea level attained during the Tyrrhenian stage is a clear indication of a warm-temperate climate which can be correlated to the well known orbital interglacial configuration when the eustatic signal of Greenland's ice sheet melting occurred. SHORT NOTES
Oddy, Donna M.; Stolen, Eric D.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Larson, Vickie L.; Hall, Patrice; Hensley, Melissa A.
characteristic of species that occur in the Indian River Lagoon system. Twenty-five species of waterbirds were observed during quarterly surveys on PAFB, including five species listed as species of special concern by the state of Florida: Snowy Egret (Egretta thula), Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea), Tricolored Heron (Egretta tricolo4, White Ibis (Eudocimus albus), and Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis). The Golf Course was used extensively by almost all species of waterbirds on PAFB. Twenty-two species of shorebirds were observed on PAFB. Although no listed species were observed, the potential exists for several protected species of shorebirds to use the beach at PAFB during some parts of the year. The Airfield runways and associated grass areas were important sites at PAFB for loafing and feeding for some shorebirds. Surveys of rooftop nesting by Least Terns (Stema antillarum) on PAFB found a large colony on a rooftop in the PAFB Industrial Area. This colony produced some independent young. Two rooftop Least Tern colonies reported from previous years were inactive during 1996. A small number of Black Skimmers (Rhynchops nigee attempted to nest at the Least Ten colony but were unsuccessful. Surveys for the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) revealed burrows and tortoises only at the Waste Study Site; five burrows and three tortoises were observed. No Florida scrub lizards (Sceloporus woodi), eastern indigo snakes (Drymarchon corais couperl), or diamondback terrapins (Malademys terrapin terrapin) were observed. American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) were observed on the Golf Course and using ditches, ponds, and areas along the Banana River. The amount of dune habitat could be expanded by not mowing areas adjacent to the dunes to allow dune species to colonize and expand. Planting dune species as part of the beach renourishment project will also increase this habitat. Exotic plants dominate several areas on the base and are used by threatened, endangered, and
Magnino, Simone; Colin, Pierre; Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Madsen, Mogens; McLauchlin, Jim; Nöckler, Karsten; Maradona, Miguel Prieto; Tsigarida, Eirini; Vanopdenbosch, Emmanuel; Van Peteghem, Carlos
The consumption of a wide variety of species of reptiles caught from the wild has been an important source of protein for humans world-wide for millennia. Terrapins, snakes, lizards, crocodiles and iguanas are now farmed and the consumption and trade of their meat and other edible products have recently increased in some areas of the world. Biological risks associated with the consumption of products from both farmed and wild reptile meat and eggs include infections caused by bacteria (Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp.), parasites (Spirometra, Trichinella, Gnathostoma, pentastomids), as well as intoxications by biotoxins. For crocodiles, Salmonella spp. constitute a significant public health risk due to the high intestinal carrier rate which is reflected in an equally high contamination rate in their fresh and frozen meat. There is a lack of information about the presence of Salmonella spp. in meat from other edible reptilians, though captive reptiles used as pets (lizards or turtles) are frequently carriers of these bacteria in Europe. Parasitic protozoa in reptiles represent a negligible risk for public health compared to parasitic metazoans, of which trichinellosis, pentastomiasis, gnathostomiasis and sparganosis can be acquired through consumption of contaminated crocodile, monitor lizard, turtle and snake meat, respectively. Other reptiles, although found to harbour the above parasites, have not been implicated with their transmission to humans. Freezing treatment inactivates Spirometra and Trichinella in crocodile meat, while the effectiveness of freezing of other reptilian meat is unknown. Biotoxins that accumulate in the flesh of sea turtles may cause chelonitoxism, a type of food poisoning with a high mortality rate in humans. Infections by fungi, including yeasts, and viruses widely occur in reptiles but have not been linked to a human health risk through the contamination of their meat. Currently there are no indications that natural transmissible spongiform