Sample records for terphenyl mixtures propil

  1. Pyrolytic Behaviour of the Commercial Terphenyl Mixtures. Propil OM1, OM2 and OMP; Comportamiento pirolitico de las mezclas terfenilicas comerciales. Progil OM1, OM2 y OMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera Pinero, R.; Manero Rodriguez, J.


    Statistic tests on the thermal stability of the three above mentioned materials and pure para-terphenyl, at temperatures ranging 400-470 degree centigrade, are described. Several conclusions are attained with respect to the kinetics of the pyrolysis decomposition, which was controlled according to the following steps: a) Gas evolution (hydrogen and hydrocarbons). B) Intermediate boiling compound formation, such as biphenyl, benzene.alkyl-benzenes, etc. c) high boiling compound evolution. d) Decreasing of starting material. In this way, comparative data en decomposition rate and activation energy of the pyrolysis phenomena are tabulated. (Author) 15 refs.

  2. Utjecaj propil galata i ekstrakta ružmarina na oksidacijsku stabilnost smjese biljnih ulja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Moslavac


    Full Text Available U ovom radu istraživan je utjecaj sintetskog antioksidansa propil galata (0,01 % i prirodnog ekstrakta ružmarina Oxy´Less®CS (0,1 % i StabilEnhance®OSR (0,1 % na oksidacijsku stabilnost smjese suncokretovog ulja i ostalih vrsta biljnih ulja (50:50. Istraživana je smjesa suncokretovog ulja (50 % i ostalih vrsta biljnih ulja (50 %: sojino ulje, ulje kukuruzne klice, repičino ulje i ulje koštica grožđa. Oksidacijska stabilnost različitih smjesa biljnih ulja, sa i bez dodanog sintetskog i prirodnog antioksidansa, ispitivana je primjenom Rancimat testa. Rezultat oksidacije ulja izražen je sa indukcijskim periodom (IP na bazi kojih je računat i zaštitni faktor (PF. Stabilnost smjese ulja proporcionalna je indukcijskom periodu. Prirodni antioksidans ekstrakt ružmarina Oxy´Less®CS efikasnije povećava oksidacijsku stabilnost smjese suncokretovog ulja i ostalih ispitivanih ulja (50:50 u odnosu na StabilEnhance®OSR i propil galat. Rezultat istraživanja pokazuje da visoku antioksidacijsku aktivnost, mjerenu kao indukcijski period i zaštitni faktor, ima ekstrakt ružmarina Oxy´Less®CS u svim smjesama ulja. Sintetski antioksidans propil galat efikasnije povećava oksidacijsku stabilnost smjese ulja u odnosu na StabilEnhance®OSR.

  3. Vacuum UV Polarization Spectroscopy of p-Terphenyl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duy Duc; Jones, Nykola C.; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning


    p-Terphenyl is used as a component in a variety of optical devices. In this investigation, the electronic transitions of p-terphenyl are investigated by synchrotron radiation linear dichroism (SRLD) spectroscopy in the range 30000 – 58000 cm–1 (330 – 170 nm) on molecular samples aligned in stretc...

  4. Nanocalorimetry of vapor-deposited organic glasses: tris-naphthylbenzene, decalin and ortho-terphenyl (United States)

    Whitaker, Katherine R.

    Physical vapor deposition can be used to prepare glasses with extraordinary properties. By optimizing the substrate temperature and deposition rate, glasses with low enthalpy, high density and high kinetic stability, as compared to the ordinary liquid-cooled glass, can be produced. The heat capacity of 'stable glasses' has been measured with conventional calorimetry, but such techniques are limited to bulk samples; the properties of more technologically relevant thin films cannot be measured. In this thesis, nanocalorimetry was utilized to measure the heat capacity of thin films of four organic glassformers: alpha,alpha,beta-tris-naphthylbenzene (alphaalphabeta-TNB),cis- and trans-decahydronaphthalene (cis- and trans -decalin) and o-terphenyl. A number of new and important results came out of the AC nanocalorimetry experiments on these molecules. alphaalphabeta-TNB thin films showed thickness dependent transformation times for films up to one micron in thickness, consistent with the work on indomethacin. This result suggested that highly suppressed bulk transformation rates are a general feature associated with the kinetics of stable glass transformation. One way glassformers can be characterized is by their fragility, or their temperature dependent behavior as Tg is approached. Decalin, the molecular glassformer with the highest reported fragility, was shown to be capable of forming stable glasses when vapor-deposited. This result implies that surface mobility, which is deemed the controlling mechanism for stable glass formation, is also present in high fragility systems. Experiments on a variety of cis/trans-decalin mixture compositions showed that vapor deposition can also be used to make stable glasses of mixtures. The ability of an array of compositions to form stable glasses is a strong argument against nanocrystals being responsible for the extraordinary properties of stable glasses. Finally, in situ experiments on o-terphenyl were able to span the range of

  5. Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva-Aguilar Martín


    Full Text Available Metals are ubiquitous pollutants present as mixtures. In particular, mixture of arsenic-cadmium-lead is among the leading toxic agents detected in the environment. These metals have carcinogenic and cell-transforming potential. In this study, we used a two step cell transformation model, to determine the role of oxidative stress in transformation induced by a mixture of arsenic-cadmium-lead. Oxidative damage and antioxidant response were determined. Metal mixture treatment induces the increase of damage markers and the antioxidant response. Loss of cell viability and increased transforming potential were observed during the promotion phase. This finding correlated significantly with generation of reactive oxygen species. Cotreatment with N-acetyl-cysteine induces effect on the transforming capacity; while a diminution was found in initiation, in promotion phase a total block of the transforming capacity was observed. Our results suggest that oxidative stress generated by metal mixture plays an important role only in promotion phase promoting transforming capacity.

  6. Spectroscopic Evidence for Through-Space Arene-Sulfur-Arene Bonding Interaction in m-Terphenyl Thioether Radical Cations. (United States)

    Monney, Nicolas P-A; Bally, Thomas; Yamamoto, Takuhei; Glass, Richard S


    Electronic absorption spectra and quantum chemical calculations of the radical cations of m-terphenyl tert-butyl thioethers, where the S-t-Bu bond is forced to be perpendicular to the central phenyl ring, show the occurrence of through-space [π···S···π](+) bonding interactions which lead to a stabilization of the thioether radical cations. In the corresponding methyl derivatives there is a competition between delocalization of the hole that is centered on a p-AO of the S atom into the π-system of the central phenyl ring or through space into the flanking phenyl groups, which leads to a mixture of planar and perpendicular conformations in the radical cation. Adding a second m-terphenyl tert-butyl thioether moiety does not lead to further delocalization; the spin and charge remain in one of the two halves of the radical cation. These findings have interesting implications with regard to the role of methionines as hopping stations in electron transfer through proteins.

  7. Studies on Structural, Optical, Thermal and Electrical Properties of Perylene-Doped p-terphenyl Luminophors. (United States)

    Desai, Netaji K; Mahajan, Prasad G; Bhopate, Dhanaji P; Dalavi, Dattatray K; Kamble, Avinash A; Gore, Anil H; Dongale, Tukaram D; Kolekar, Govind B; Patil, Shivajirao R


    A simple solid state reaction technique was employed for the preparation of polycrystalline luminophors of p-terphenyl containing different amounts of perylene followed by spectral characterization techniques viz. XRD, SEM, TGA-DSC, UV-Visible spectroscopy, thermo-electrical conductivity, fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence life time spectroscopy and temperature dependent fluorescence. X-ray diffraction profiles of the doped p-terphenyl reveal well-defined and sharp peaks indicate homogeneity and crystallinity. The SEM micrograph of pure p-terphenyl exhibit flakes like grains and then compact and finally gets separately with perylene amounts. The observed results indicate that closed packed crystal structures of doped p-terphenyl during crystal formation. The band gaps estimated from UV-visible spectroscopy decreased from 5.20 to 4.10 eV, while thermo-electrical conductivity increases with perylene content. The fluorescence spectra showed partial quenching of p-terphenyl fluorescence and simultaneously sensitization of perylene fluorescence at the excitation wavelength of p-terphenyl (290 nm) due to excitation energy transfer from p-terphenyl to perylene. The observed sensitization results are in harmony with intense blue color seen in fluorescence microscopy images and has high demand in scintillation process.

  8. Structural, optical and dynamical properties of a high birefringence laterally fluorinated terphenyl isothiocyanate (United States)

    Sinha, D.; Mandal, P. K.; Dabrowski, R.


    A doubly fluorinated isothiocyanato butyl terphenyl compound exhibiting a broad range of the nematic and a narrow range of smectic phase has been investigated by X-ray, dielectric and optical methods and compared with the properties of singly and doubly fluorinated ethyl homologues to see the effect of fluorination and chain flexibility. Contrary to common perception, weak antiparallel correlation of molecules is observed in each compound both from X-ray and dielectric studies. Observed dielectric anisotropy is strong enough to ensure a driving voltage suitable for thin film transistor-based liquid crystal display. Measured splay elastic constant suggests that the present compound will exhibit the fastest response. Flip-flop mode relaxations are observed in a few hundred kHz to MHz range. All the compounds exhibit high birefringence (0.373-0.331). They also show high order parameters at low temperatures. These compounds are expected to be suitable for formulating high birefringence nematic mixtures for fast switching displays.

  9. Terrestrins A-G: p-terphenyl derivatives from the inedible mushroom Thelephora terrestris. (United States)

    Radulović, Niko; Quang, Dang Ngoc; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Nukada, Makiko; Asakawa, Yoshinori


    Seven p-terphenyl derivatives named terrestrins A-G together with three known ganbajunin B, thelephantins F and H, were isolated from the methanol extract of fruiting bodies of the Japanese inedible mushroom Thelephora terrestris (Thelephoraceae). Their structures were elucidated by means of high-resolution MS, 2D NMR, IR and UV spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallographic analysis.

  10. Self-assembly of aromatic-derivatized amphiphiles: Phenyl, biphenyl, and terphenyl fatty acids and phospholipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, H.C.; Perlstein, J.; Lachicotte, R.J.; Wyrozebski, K.; Whitten, D.G. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Chemical Science and Technology Div.


    This paper reports the synthesis of a series of amphiphiles (fatty acids and phosphatidylcholine derivatives) containing phenyl, biphenyl, and terphenyl chromophores inserted in the hydrocarbon chain and a study of their self-assembly in Langmuir-Blodgett films and aqueous dispersions. As observed and reported earlier for amphiphiles containing trans-stilbene, styrylthiophene, or azobenzene chromophores, several of the biphenyl and terphenyl derivatives show strong evidence of ground state association to form H aggregates characterized by a blue shift in absorption and a structured, red-shifted fluorescence. The phenyl amphiphiles show different behavior, suggesting that, even for pure films or bilayers, there is very little or no ground state association. For the biphenyl and terphenyl phospholipids, aqueous suspensions obtained by sonication are closed bilayer vesicles similar in size to those formed from the corresponding saturated phospholipids. The overall results of the present study indicate that biphenyl and terphenyl amphiphiles undergo aggregation processes to form compact arrays formally similar to those observed with stilbenen tolan, azobenzene, and squaraine derivatives but that the aromatic-aromatic interactions are considerably weaker than those for the more extended aromatics and lead to less distortion of the assembly structure.

  11. Multistep Synthesis of a Terphenyl Derivative Showcasing the Diels-Alder Reaction (United States)

    Davie, Elizabeth A. Colby


    An adaptable multistep synthesis project designed for the culmination of a second-year organic chemistry laboratory course is described. The target compound is a terphenyl derivative that is an intermediate in the synthesis of compounds used in organic light-emitting devices. Students react a conjugated diene with dimethylacetylene dicarboxylate…

  12. Comparative study of neutron and gamma-ray pulse shape discrimination of anthracene, stilbene, and p-terphenyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagida, Takayuki, E-mail: [Kyushu Institute of Technology, 2-4 Hibikino, Wakamatsu, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 808-0196 (Japan); Watanabe, Kenichi [Nagoya University, Furocho, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Fujimoto, Yutaka [Kyushu Institute of Technology, 2-4 Hibikino, Wakamatsu, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 808-0196 (Japan)


    Solid state organic scintillators, such as anthracene, stilbene, and p-terphenyl were investigated on their basic scintillation properties and neutron–gamma discrimination capabilities. Scintillation wavelengths under X-ray irradiation of anthracene, stilbene, and p-terphenyl were 445–525, 400–500, and 350–450 nm, respectively. Scintillation light yields of anthracene, stilbene, and p-terphenyl under {sup 137}Cs gamma-ray irradiation were 20100, 16000, and 19400 ph/MeV, respectively. Neutron and gamma-ray events discrimination capabilities were examined and anthracene exhibited the best figure of merit among three organic scintillators.

  13. Ethyl 4,4''-Difluoro-5'-hydroxy-1,1':3',1''-terphenyl-4'-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badiadka Narayana


    Full Text Available A simple and novel route for the synthesis of new terphenyl derivative as well as oxidative aromatization of α,β-unsaturated cyclohexenone to the corresponding phenol derivative is developed. The present work involves the condensation of ethylacetoacetate with 4,4'-difluoro chalcone followed by the aromatization using chloramine-T in acetic acid to yield the title compound (3. The synthesized compound (3 is well characterized by IR, NMR, LCMS and elemental analysis.

  14. Dynamics of a molecular glass former: Energy landscapes for diffusion in ortho-terphenyl (United States)

    Niblett, S. P.; de Souza, V. K.; Stevenson, J. D.; Wales, D. J.


    Relaxation times and transport processes of many glass-forming supercooled liquids exhibit a super-Arrhenius temperature dependence. We examine this phenomenon by computer simulation of the Lewis-Wahnström model for ortho-terphenyl. We propose a microscopic definition for a single-molecule cage-breaking transition and show that, when correlation behaviour is taken into account, these rearrangements are sufficient to reproduce the correct translational diffusion constants over an intermediate temperature range in the supercooled regime. We show that super-Arrhenius behaviour can be attributed to increasing negative correlation in particle movement at lower temperatures and relate this to the cage-breaking description. Finally, we sample the potential energy landscape of the model and show that it displays hierarchical ordering. Substructures in the landscape, which may correspond to metabasins, have boundaries defined by cage-breaking transitions. The cage-breaking formulation provides a direct link between the potential energy landscape and macroscopic diffusion behaviour.

  15. New p-terphenyls from the endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. YXf3. (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Wuringege; Li, Sui-Jun; Guo, Zhi-Kai; Zhang, Wen-Jing; Wei, Wei; Tan, Ren-Xiang; Jiao, Rui-Hua


    Five new p-terphenyls named prenylterphenyllin D (1), prenylterphenyllin E (2), 2'-O-methylprenylterphenyllin (3), 4-O-methylprenylterphenyllin (4) and 3'-O-methylterphenyllin (5) together with seven known compounds (6-12), were isolated from cultures of Aspergillus sp. YXf3. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive MS and NMR analyses. The NMR and MS data of 5 is reported for the first time, as its structure was listed in SciFinder Scholar with no associated reference. Compounds 6 and 7 were distinguished from each other on the basis of 2D NMR experiments. Compounds 1, 2, 3 and 8 showed antibacterial activities against X. oryzae pv. oryzicola Swings and E. amylovora with the same MIC values of 20μg/mL while 10 exhibited activities against E. amylovora with an MIC value of 10μg/mL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Traceless liquid-phase synthesis of biphenyls and terphenyls using pentaerythritol as a tetrapodal soluble support. (United States)

    Kim, Chul-Bae; Cho, Chul-Hee; Kim, Chang Keun; Park, Kwangyong


    Application of a novel sulfonate-based traceless multifunctional linker system using pentaerythritol as a tetrapodal soluble support was demonstrated using liquid-phase parallel and combinatorial preparation of biphenyl and terphenyl compounds. Nickel-catalyzed reactions of pentaerythritol tetrakis(arenesulfonate)s with arylmagnesium bromides generated the desired products in sufficient yields through reductive cleavage/cross-coupling of the C-S bond. Homogeneous pentaerythritol-supported reactions could be accomplished using less nucleophile with shorter reaction periods than could the corresponding heterogeneous polymer-supported reactions. This liquid-phase approach using a small polyfunctionalized support combines advantages of solution-phase and solid-phase syntheses by allowing high reactivity, high atom economy, simple isolation, and real-time monitoring of the reaction progress.

  17. A new route to multifunctionalized p-terphenyls and heteroaryl analogues via [5C + 1C(N)] annulation strategy. (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Liang, Fushun; Cheng, Xin; Liu, Qun


    p-Terphenyls and heteroaryl analogues including bipyridines were prepared via [5C + 1C(N)] annulation of alpha-aryl-alpha-alkenoyl ketene-(S,S)-acetals (five carbon 1,5-bielectrophilic species) with nitroethane or ammonium acetate. The reaction features mild conditions, multisubstitution, and functional group tolerance and is metal catalyst free. The present protocol provides a new alternative to the conventional methodologies for the synthesis of teraryls.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of soluble, blue-fluorescent polyamides and polyimides containing substituted p-terphenyl as well as long aliphatic segments in the main chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikroyannidis, JA; Tsivgoulis, GM


    A novel class of semiflexible polyamides and polyimides bearing substituted p-terphenyl as well as long aliphatic segments in the main chain were synthesized through pyrylium salts. Characterization of polymers was accomplished by inherent viscosity, elemental analysis, FT-IR, NMR, UV-vis

  19. The Second-Order Stark Effect on the 1B2u Electronic Origin of Tetracene and Pentacene in p-Terphenyl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyling, Jan H.; Wiersma, Douwe A.


    The electric field induced shift of the electronic origin of the lowest B2u singlet state of tetracene and pentacene in p-terphenyl at 1.8°K has been measured. From this shift we calculate the difference in polarizability of this state and the ground state along the long molecular axis to be 4.5 ±

  20. Terfestatins B and C, New p-Terphenyl Glycosides Produced by Streptomyces sp. RM-5–8 (United States)

    Wang, Xiachang; Reynolds, Anna R.; Elshahawi, Sherif I.; Shaaban, Khaled A.; Ponomareva, Larissa V.; Saunders, Meredith A.; Elgumati, Ibrahim S.; Zhang, Yinan; Copley, Gregory C.; Hower, James C.; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J.; Kharel, Madan K.; Van Lanen, Steven G.; Prendergast, Mark A.; Thorson, Jon S.


    Terfestatins B (1) and C (2), new p-terphenyls bearing a novel unsaturated hexuronic acid (4-deoxy-α-l-threo-hex-4-enopyranuronate), a unique β-d-glycosyl ester of 5-isoprenylindole-3-carboxylate (3) and the same rare sugar, and two new hygromycin precursors, were characterized as metabolites of the coal mine fire isolate Streptomyces sp. RM-5–8. EtOH damage neuroprotection assays using rat hippocampal-derived primary cell cultures with 1, 2, 3 and echoside B (a terfestatin C-3′-β-d-glucuronide from Streptomyces sp. RM-5– 8) revealed 1 as potently neuroprotective, highlighting a new potential application of the terfestatin scaffold. PMID:25961722

  1. Anomalous doping of a molecular crystal monitored with confocal fluorescence microscopy: Terrylene in a p-terphenyl crystal (United States)

    Białkowska, Magda; Deperasińska, Irena; Makarewicz, Artur; Kozankiewicz, Bolesław


    Highly terrylene doped single crystals of p-terphenyl, obtained by co-sublimation of both components, showed bright spots in the confocal fluorescence images. Polarization of the fluorescence excitation spectra, blinking and bleaching, and saturation behavior allowed us to attribute them to single molecules of terrylene anomalously embedded between two neighbor layers of the host crystal, in the (a,b) plane. Such an orientation of terrylene molecules results in much more efficient absorption and collection of the fluorescence photons than in the case of previously investigated molecules embedded in the substitution sites. The above conclusion was supported by quantum chemistry calculations. We postulate that the kind of doping considered in this work should be possible in other molecular crystals where the host molecules are organized in a herringbone pattern.

  2. Stochastic theory of optically detected single-spin coherent phenomena: Evidence for non-Markovian dephasing of pentacene in p-terphenyl (United States)

    Kilin, S. Ya.; Nizovtsev, A. P.; Berman, P. R.; Wrachtrup, J.; Borczyskowski, C. Von


    The optically detected coherent response of a single chromophore molecule in an organic host matrix to a microwave radiation resonant to a transition between triplet spin substates is analyzed using a model in which N independent random telegraph processes produce fluctuations of the spin transition frequency. Measurements of (i) Hahn echoes, (ii) power-broadened line shapes, (iii) transient nutation, and (iv) second-order correlation functions for single pentacene molecules in a p-terphenyl crystal are explained within the context of the model, assuming the fluctuations to be slow. The failure of the standard Bloch equations for this system is demonstrated and the effects of microwave-suppressed dephasing are discussed.

  3. Crystalline Coordination Networks of Zero-Valent Metal Centers: Formation of a 3-Dimensional Ni(0) Framework with m-Terphenyl Diisocyanides. (United States)

    Agnew, Douglas W; DiMucci, Ida M; Arroyave, Alejandra; Gembicky, Milan; Moore, Curtis E; MacMillan, Samantha N; Rheingold, Arnold L; Lancaster, Kyle M; Figueroa, Joshua S


    A permanently porous, three-dimensional metal-organic material formed from zero-valent metal nodes is presented. Combination of ditopic m-terphenyl diisocyanide, [CNArMes2]2, and the d10 Ni(0) precursor Ni(COD)2, produces a porous metal-organic material featuring tetrahedral [Ni(CNArMes2)4]n structural sites. X-ray absorption spectroscopy provides firm evidence for the presence of Ni(0) centers, while gas-sorption and differential-scanning calorimetry analysis reveal the characteristics of a robust network with a micro-domain N2-adsorption profile.

  4. Electronic energy transfer in tetracene-doped p-terphenyl nanoparticles: Extraordinarily high fluorescence enhancement and quenching efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsui, Masaaki, E-mail:; Kawano, Yuya


    Highlights: ► Tc/pTP-NPs at various doping ratios are produced by reprecipitation in water. ► The energy transfer in Tc/pTP-NPs is investigated. ► More than 10{sup 4}pTP donors were quenched by a single Tc acceptor. ► Efficient energy transfer is attributed to the rapid exciton diffusion in the NPs. - Abstract: A series of tetracene (Tc)-doped p-terphenyl (pTP) nanoparticles (Tc/pTP-NPs) were produced at various doping ratios by reprecipitation in water. The Tc/pTP-NPs are disk-like with a mean diameter of 75 nm and height of 7 nm, which were determined by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, and exhibited electronic delocalization through H-type aggregation of the pTP molecules. Electronic energy transfer in the Tc/pTP-NPs was examined using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence anisotropy experiments: pTP-NPs serve as an excellent light-harvesting nano-matrix with a large absorption coefficient that exceeds 10{sup 9} M{sup −1} cm{sup −1}. Furthermore, Stern–Volmer analysis of the donor emission was performed by changing the dopant concentration; this showed that a single Tc acceptor quenched more than 10{sup 4}pTP donors. Comparison of the experimental and theoretical energy transfer efficiencies indicated that the efficient energy transfer can be attributed to two-dimensional exciton diffusion in the host nanoparticles.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of three 2D Cd (II) coordination polymers built with terphenyl-2, 2‧, 4, 4‧-tetracarboxylate and flexible bis(imidazole) (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Jiang; Tang, Long; Zhang, Mei-Li; Gao, Lou-Jun; Ren, Yi-Xia; Hou, Xiang-Yang; Fu, Feng


    Three new CdII coordination polymers, namely, {[Cd2 (L) (1, 2-bix)2(H2O)2]ṡ2H2O}n(1), [Cd2 (L) (1, 3-bix)2]n (2), and {[Cd (H2L) (1, 4-bix) (H2O)2]ṡ2H2O}n (3) [H4L = terphenyl-2, 2‧, 4, 4‧-tetracarboxylic acid, 1, n-bix = 1, n-bis(imidazol-l-ylmethyl) benzene (n = 2, 3, 4)], have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR, thermogravimetric analysis, and fluorescent analysis. Complex 1 is a 2D wavelike network structure incorporating the dinuclear Cd2 (1, 2-bix)2 units, whereas complex 2 possesses a 2D stair-like network structure consisting of the dinuclear Cd2O2 units. Complex 3 features a 2D puckered network constructed by 1D [Cd (H2L)]n and 1D [Cd (1, 4-bix)]n chains. The results show that the structural diversity of the polymers is mainly attributed to the usage of diverse ancillary bis (imidazol-1-ylmethyl)-benzene isomers ligands. The thermal stabilities and photoluminescence behaviors were also investigated.

  6. Fluorescence quenching of 2,2'' dimethyl-p-terphenyl by carbon tetrachloride in different solvents and temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biradar, D.S. [Department of Physics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585 106, Karnataka (India); Thipperudrappa, J. [Department of Physics, BNM Institute of Technology, Bangalore 560 070 (India); Hanagodimath, S.M. [Department of Physics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585 106, Karnataka (India)]. E-mail:


    The fluorescence quenching of 2,2''-dimethyl-p-terphenyl (DMT) by carbon tetrachloride by steady state in different solvents, and by transient method in benzene has been carried out at room temperature. The Stern-Volmer (SV) plot has been found to be non-linear with a positive deviation for all the solvents studied. In order to interpret these results we have invoked the ground state complex and sphere of action static quenching models. Using these models various rate parameters have been determined. The magnitudes of these parameters imply that sphere of action static quenching model agrees well with the experimental results. Hence the positive deviation in the SV plots is attributed to the static and dynamic quenching. Further, from the studies of temperature dependence of rate parameters and lifetime measurements, it could be explained that the positive deviation is due to the presence of a small static quenching component in the overall dynamic quenching. With the use of finite sink approximation model, it was possible to check whether these bimolecular reactions as diffusion limited and to estimate independently distance parameter R' and mutual diffusion coefficient D. Finally an effort has been made to correlate the values of R' and D with the values of the encounter distance R and the mutual diffusion coefficient D determined using the Edward's empirical relation and Stokes-Einstein relation.

  7. Mixture Density Mercer Kernels (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present a method of generating Mercer Kernels from an ensemble of probabilistic mixture models, where each mixture model is generated from a Bayesian mixture...

  8. Optimal mixture experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, B K; Pal, Manisha; Das, P


    The book dwells mainly on the optimality aspects of mixture designs. As mixture models are a special case of regression models, a general discussion on regression designs has been presented, which includes topics like continuous designs, de la Garza phenomenon, Loewner order domination, Equivalence theorems for different optimality criteria and standard optimality results for single variable polynomial regression and multivariate linear and quadratic regression models. This is followed by a review of the available literature on estimation of parameters in mixture models. Based on recent research findings, the volume also introduces optimal mixture designs for estimation of optimum mixing proportions in different mixture models, which include Scheffé’s quadratic model, Darroch-Waller model, log- contrast model, mixture-amount models, random coefficient models and multi-response model.  Robust mixture designs and mixture designs in blocks have been also reviewed. Moreover, some applications of mixture desig...

  9. Purging mixture for extruder


    Okpala, Chukwubuike


    This thesis work focuses on compounding a mechanical purge mixture for extruders. The base resin for making the purge mixture is recycled High Density Polyethylene chosen for its high density and good processing temperature. The additives are mainly clay and sili-con dioxide added as filler and scrubbing materials respectively. The purge mixture was produced by mixing the base resin and additives in percentage ratios into five places la-beled A, B, C, D, and E. the mixtures were extruded and ...

  10. Mixture model modal clustering


    Chacón, José E.


    The two most extended density-based approaches to clustering are surely mixture model clustering and modal clustering. In the mixture model approach, the density is represented as a mixture and clusters are associated to the different mixture components. In modal clustering, clusters are understood as regions of high density separated from each other by zones of lower density, so that they are closely related to certain regions around the density modes. If the true density is indeed in the as...

  11. Liquids and liquid mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlinson, J S; Baldwin, J E; Buckingham, A D; Danishefsky, S


    Liquids and Liquid Mixtures, Third Edition explores the equilibrium properties of liquids and liquid mixtures and relates them to the properties of the constituent molecules using the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Topics covered include the critical state, fluid mixtures at high pressures, and the statistical thermodynamics of fluids and mixtures. This book consists of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the liquid state and the thermodynamic properties of liquids and liquid mixtures, including vapor pressure and heat capacities. The discussion then turns to the thermodynami

  12. (1E,2E-N1,N2-Bis(5′-methyl-[1,1′:3′,1′′-terphenyl]-4′-ylacenaphthylene-1,2-diimine unknown solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiong Zhu


    Full Text Available The title compound, C50H36N2, synthesized by the condensation reaction of 2-methyl-4,6-diphenylaniline and acenaphthylene-1,2-dione, crystallizes with two independent molecules (A and B in the asymmetric unit. The two molecules differ essentially in the orientation of the phenyl ring at position 3′ of the terphenyl group with respect to the central ring of this unit. In molecule A this dihedral angle is 16.68 (14°, while in molecule B the corresponding angle is 33.10 (16°. The three-fused-ring 1,2-dihydroacenaphthylene units are planar in each molecule; r.m.s. deviation of 0.025 Å in molecule A and 0.017 Å in molecule B. The central rings of the terphenyl groups are almost normal to the mean plane of the three-fused-ring units with dihedral angles of 79.43 (12 and 82.66 (13° in molecule A and 88.99 (13 and 87.98 (12° in molecule B. In the crystal, the two molecules are linked via a C—H...N hydrogen bond. These A–B units are linked by a pair of C—H...π interactions, forming a four-molecule unit located about an inversion center. These four-molecule units are linked by weak π–π interactions [most significant intercentroid distance = 3.794 (2 Å], forming columns along direction [010]. A region of disordered electron density was corrected for using the SQUEEZE routine in PLATON [Spek (2015. Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18]. The formula mass and unit-cell characteristics of this unknown solvent were not be taken into account during the refinement.

  13. Perception of trigeminal mixtures. (United States)

    Filiou, Renée-Pier; Lepore, Franco; Bryant, Bruce; Lundström, Johan N; Frasnelli, Johannes


    The trigeminal system is a chemical sense allowing for the perception of chemosensory information in our environment. However, contrary to smell and taste, we lack a thorough understanding of the trigeminal processing of mixtures. We, therefore, investigated trigeminal perception using mixtures of 3 relatively receptor-specific agonists together with one control odor in different proportions to determine basic perceptual dimensions of trigeminal perception. We found that 4 main dimensions were linked to trigeminal perception: sensations of intensity, warmth, coldness, and pain. We subsequently investigated perception of binary mixtures of trigeminal stimuli by means of these 4 perceptual dimensions using different concentrations of a cooling stimulus (eucalyptol) mixed with a stimulus that evokes warmth perception (cinnamaldehyde). To determine if sensory interactions are mainly of central or peripheral origin, we presented stimuli in a physical "mixture" or as a "combination" presented separately to individual nostrils. Results showed that mixtures generally yielded higher ratings than combinations on the trigeminal dimensions "intensity," "warm," and "painful," whereas combinations yielded higher ratings than mixtures on the trigeminal dimension "cold." These results suggest dimension-specific interactions in the perception of trigeminal mixtures, which may be explained by particular interactions that may take place on peripheral or central levels. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  14. Dynamical Dirichlet Mixture Model


    Chen, Le; Barber, David; Odobez, Jean-Marc


    In this report, we propose a statistical model to deal with the discrete-distribution data varying over time. The proposed model -- HMM+DM -- extends the Dirichlet mixture model to the dynamic case: Hidden Markov Model with Dirichlet mixture output. Both the inference and parameter estimation procedures are proposed. Experiments on the generated data verify the proposed algorithms. Finally, we discuss the potential applications of the current model.

  15. Multilevel Mixture Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Wang


    Full Text Available The mixture Kalman filter is a general sequential Monte Carlo technique for conditional linear dynamic systems. It generates samples of some indicator variables recursively based on sequential importance sampling (SIS and integrates out the linear and Gaussian state variables conditioned on these indicators. Due to the marginalization process, the complexity of the mixture Kalman filter is quite high if the dimension of the indicator sampling space is high. In this paper, we address this difficulty by developing a new Monte Carlo sampling scheme, namely, the multilevel mixture Kalman filter. The basic idea is to make use of the multilevel or hierarchical structure of the space from which the indicator variables take values. That is, we draw samples in a multilevel fashion, beginning with sampling from the highest-level sampling space and then draw samples from the associate subspace of the newly drawn samples in a lower-level sampling space, until reaching the desired sampling space. Such a multilevel sampling scheme can be used in conjunction with the delayed estimation method, such as the delayed-sample method, resulting in delayed multilevel mixture Kalman filter. Examples in wireless communication, specifically the coherent and noncoherent 16-QAM over flat-fading channels, are provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed multilevel mixture Kalman filter.

  16. Mixtures Estimation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mengersen, Kerrie; Titterington, Mike


    This book uses the EM (expectation maximization) algorithm to simultaneously estimate the missing data and unknown parameter(s) associated with a data set. The parameters describe the component distributions of the mixture; the distributions may be continuous or discrete. The editors provide a complete account of the applications, mathematical structure and statistical analysis of finite mixture distributions along with MCMC computational methods, together with a range of detailed discussions covering the applications of the methods and features chapters from the leading experts on the subject

  17. Studies on Pd/NiFe2O4 catalyzed ligand-free Suzuki reaction in aqueous phase: synthesis of biaryls, terphenyls and polyaryls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh B. Waghmode


    Full Text Available Palladium supported on nickel ferrite (Pd/NiF2O4 was found to be a highly active catalyst for the Suzuki coupling reaction between various aryl halides and arylboronic acids. The reaction gave excellent yields (70–98% under ligand free conditions in a 1:1 DMF/H2O solvent mixture, in short reaction times (10–60 min. The catalyst could be recovered easily by applying an external magnetic field. The polyaryls were similarly synthesized.

  18. Transport in superfluid mixtures (United States)

    Geracie, Michael


    We present a general method for constructing effective field theories for nonrelativistic superfluids, generalizing the previous approaches of Greiter, Witten, and Wilczek, and Son and Wingate to the case of several superfluids in solution. We investigate transport in mixtures with broken parity and find a parity-odd "Hall drag" in the presence of independent motion as well as a pinning of mass, charge, and energy to sites of nonzero relative velocity. Both effects have a simple geometric interpretation in terms of the signed volumes and directed areas of various subcomplexes of a "velocity polyhedron": the convex hull formed by the end points of the velocity vectors of a superfluid mixture. We also provide a simple quasi-one-dimensional model that exhibits nonzero Hall drag.

  19. Mixtures of truncated basis functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Rumí, Rafael


    In this paper we propose a framework, called mixtures of truncated basis functions (MoTBFs), for representing general hybrid Bayesian networks. The proposed framework generalizes both the mixture of truncated exponentials (MTEs) framework and the mixture of polynomials (MoPs) framework. Similar t...

  20. Toxicological evaluation of chemical mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, V.J.; Groten, J.P.


    This paper addresses major developments in the safety evaluation of chemical mixtures during the past 15 years, reviews today's state of the art of mixture toxicology, and discusses challenges ahead. Well-thought-out tailor-made mechanistic and empirical designs for studying the toxicity of mixtures

  1. Prevalence Incidence Mixture Models (United States)

    The R package and webtool fits Prevalence Incidence Mixture models to left-censored and irregularly interval-censored time to event data that is commonly found in screening cohorts assembled from electronic health records. Absolute and relative risk can be estimated for simple random sampling, and stratified sampling (the two approaches of superpopulation and a finite population are supported for target populations). Non-parametric (absolute risks only), semi-parametric, weakly-parametric (using B-splines), and some fully parametric (such as the logistic-Weibull) models are supported.

  2. Mixture Based Outlier Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pecherková


    Full Text Available Success/failure of adaptive control algorithms – especially those designed using the Linear Quadratic Gaussian criterion – depends on the quality of the process data used for model identification. One of the most harmful types of process data corruptions are outliers, i.e. ‘wrong data’ lying far away from the range of real data. The presence of outliers in the data negatively affects an estimation of the dynamics of the system. This effect is magnified when the outliers are grouped into blocks. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for outlier detection and removal. It is based on modelling the corrupted data by a two-component probabilistic mixture. The first component of the mixture models uncorrupted process data, while the second models outliers. When the outlier component is detected to be active, a prediction from the uncorrupted data component is computed and used as a reconstruction of the observed data. The resulting reconstruction filter is compared to standard methods on simulated and real data. The filter exhibits excellent properties, especially in the case of blocks of outliers. 

  3. Research of Deformation of Clay Soil Mixtures Mixtures


    Romas Girkontas; Tadas Tamošiūnas; Andrius Savickas


    The aim of this article is to determine clay soils and clay soils mixtures deformations during drying. Experiments consisted from: a) clay and clay mixtures bridges (height ~ 0,30 m, span ~ 1,00 m); b) tiles of clay and clay, sand and straw (height, length, wide); c) cylinders of clay; clay and straw; clay, straw and sand (diameter; height). According to the findings recommendations for clay and clay mixtures drying technology application were presented. During the experiment clay bridge bear...

  4. Mixture design and multivariate analysis in mixture research.


    Eide, I; Johnsen, H G


    Mixture design has been used to identify possible interactions between mutagens in a mixture. In this paper the use of mixture design in multidimensional isobolographic studies is introduced. Mutagenicity of individual nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was evaluated is an organic extract of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). The particles were extracted with dichloromethane (DCM). After replacing DCM with dimethyl sulfoxide, the extract was spiked with three individual nitro-PAH: 1-n...

  5. Concomitant variables in finite mixture models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedel, M

    The standard mixture model, the concomitant variable mixture model, the mixture regression model and the concomitant variable mixture regression model all enable simultaneous identification and description of groups of observations. This study reviews the different ways in which dependencies among

  6. Interacting viscous mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo


    Gravitational and hydrodynamical perturbations are analysed in a relativistic plasma containing a mixture of interacting fluids characterized by a non-negligible bulk viscosity coefficient. The energy-momentum transfer between the cosmological fluids, as well as the fluctuations of the bulk viscosity coefficients, are analyzed simultaneously with the aim of deriving a generalized set of evolution equations for the entropy and curvature fluctuations. For typical length scales larger than the Hubble radius, the fluctuations of the bulk viscosity coefficients and of the decay rate provide source terms for the evolution of both the curvature and the entropy fluctuations. According to the functional dependence of the bulk viscosity coefficient on the energy densities of the fluids composing the system, the mixing of entropy and curvature perturbations is scrutinized both analytically and numerically.

  7. Interacting viscous mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannini, Massimo [Centro ' Enrico Fermi' , Compendio del Viminale, Via Panisperna 89/A, 00184 Rome (Italy) and Department of Physics, Theory Division, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]. E-mail:


    Gravitational and hydrodynamical perturbations are analysed in a relativistic plasma containing a mixture of interacting fluids characterized by a non-negligible bulk viscosity coefficient. The energy-momentum transfer between the cosmological fluids, as well as the fluctuations of the bulk viscosity coefficients, are analyzed simultaneously with the aim of deriving a generalized set of evolution equations for the entropy and curvature fluctuations. For typical length scales larger than the Hubble radius, the fluctuations of the bulk viscosity coefficients and of the decay rate provide source terms for the evolution of both the curvature and the entropy fluctuations. According to the functional dependence of the bulk viscosity coefficient on the energy densities of the fluids composing the system, the mixing of entropy and curvature perturbations is scrutinized both analytically and numerically.

  8. Challenges in Regulating Pesticide Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lydy


    Full Text Available This paper introduces the field of mixture toxicity and the challenges in regulating pesticide mixtures. Even though pesticides are unique chemical stressors designed to have biological activity that can affect a number of nontarget species, they are intentionally placed into the environment in large quantities. Currently, methods and terminology for evaluating mixture toxicity are poorly established. The most common approach used is the assumption of additive concentration, with the concentrations adjusted for potency to a reference toxicant. Using this approach, the joint action of pesticides that have similar chemical structures and modes of toxic action can be predicted. However, this approach and other modeling techniques often provide little insight into the observed toxicity produced by mixtures of pesticides from different classes. Particularly difficult to model are mixtures that involve a secondary toxicant that changes the toxicokinetics of a primary toxicant. This may result in increased activation or a change in the persistence of the primary toxicant within the organism and may be responsible for a several-fold increase or decrease in toxicity. At present, the ecological effects caused by mixtures of pesticides are given little consideration in the regulatory process. However, mixtures are being considered in relation to human health in the pesticide registration process, setting a precedent that could be followed for ecological protection. Additionally, pesticide mixtures may be regulated through toxicity testing of surface water under the Clean Water Act. The limits of our basic knowledge of how mixtures interact are compromising both these avenues for regulating mixtures. We face many challenges to adequately protecting the environment from mixture toxicity; these challenges include understanding the interactions of toxicants within an organism, identifying the mixtures that most commonly occur and cause adverse effects, and

  9. Easy and flexible mixture distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Mabit, Stefan L.


    We propose a method to generate flexible mixture distributions that are useful for estimating models such as the mixed logit model using simulation. The method is easy to implement, yet it can approximate essentially any mixture distribution. We test it with good results in a simulation study...

  10. Protein mixtures: interactions and gelation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ersch, C.


    Gelation is a ubiquitous process in the preparation of foods. As most foods are multi constituent mixtures, understanding gelation in mixtures is an important goal in food science. Here we presented a systematic investigation on the influence of molecular interactions on the gelation in protein

  11. Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures (United States)

    SRD 4 NIST Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures (PC database for purchase)   Interactive computer program for predicting thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids and fluid mixtures containing up to 20 components. The components are selected from a database of 196 components, mostly hydrocarbons.

  12. Research of Deformation of Clay Soil Mixtures Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romas Girkontas


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to determine clay soils and clay soils mixtures deformations during drying. Experiments consisted from: a clay and clay mixtures bridges (height ~ 0,30 m, span ~ 1,00 m; b tiles of clay and clay, sand and straw (height, length, wide; c cylinders of clay; clay and straw; clay, straw and sand (diameter; height. According to the findings recommendations for clay and clay mixtures drying technology application were presented. During the experiment clay bridge bearing capacity and failure mode were determined. For investigations Vilnius Gediminas Technical University Civil Engineering Scientific Research Center infrastructure was used.

  13. Performance evaluation of Louisiana superpave mixtures. (United States)


    This report documents the performance of Louisiana Superpave mixtures through laboratory mechanistic tests, mixture : volumetric properties, gradation analysis, and early field performance. Thirty Superpave mixtures were evaluated in this : study. Fo...

  14. Nonlocal viscosity kernel of mixtures (United States)

    Smith, Ben; Hansen, J. S.; Todd, B. D.


    In this Brief Report we investigate the multiscale hydrodynamical response of a liquid as a function of mixture composition. This is done via a series of molecular dynamics simulations in which the wave-vector-dependent viscosity kernel is computed for three mixtures, each with 7-15 different compositions. We observe that the viscosity kernel is dependent on composition for simple atomic mixtures for all the wave vectors studied here; however, for a molecular mixture the kernel is independent of composition for large wave vectors. The deviation from ideal mixing is also studied. Here it is shown that the Lorentz-Berthelot interaction rule follows ideal mixing surprisingly well for a large range of wave vectors, whereas for both the Kob-Andersen and molecular mixtures large deviations are found. Furthermore, for the molecular system the deviation is wave-vector dependent such that there exists a characteristic correlation length scale at which the ideal mixing goes from underestimating to overestimating the viscosity.

  15. Mixtures of skewed Kalman filters

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyoungmoon


    Normal state-space models are prevalent, but to increase the applicability of the Kalman filter, we propose mixtures of skewed, and extended skewed, Kalman filters. To do so, the closed skew-normal distribution is extended to a scale mixture class of closed skew-normal distributions. Some basic properties are derived and a class of closed skew. t distributions is obtained. Our suggested family of distributions is skewed and has heavy tails too, so it is appropriate for robust analysis. Our proposed special sequential Monte Carlo methods use a random mixture of the closed skew-normal distributions to approximate a target distribution. Hence it is possible to handle skewed and heavy tailed data simultaneously. These methods are illustrated with numerical experiments. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  16. Separating Underdetermined Convolutive Speech Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Wang, DeLiang; Larsen, Jan


    A limitation in many source separation tasks is that the number of source signals has to be known in advance. Further, in order to achieve good performance, the number of sources cannot exceed the number of sensors. In many real-world applications these limitations are too restrictive. We propose...... a method for underdetermined blind source separation of convolutive mixtures. The proposed framework is applicable for separation of instantaneous as well as convolutive speech mixtures. It is possible to iteratively extract each speech signal from the mixture by combining blind source separation...... techniques with binary time-frequency masking. In the proposed method, the number of source signals is not assumed to be known in advance and the number of sources is not limited to the number of microphones. Our approach needs only two microphones and the separated sounds are maintained as stereo signals....

  17. Unrestricted Mixture Models for Class Identification in Growth Mixture Modeling (United States)

    Liu, Min; Hancock, Gregory R.


    Growth mixture modeling has gained much attention in applied and methodological social science research recently, but the selection of the number of latent classes for such models remains a challenging issue, especially when the assumption of proper model specification is violated. The current simulation study compared the performance of a linear…

  18. Propil Vegetasi di Kawasan Hutan Konservasi Suaka Margasatwa Gunung Raya Kecamatan Warkuk Kabupaten Oku Selatan


    Suci, Suci; Dahlan, Zulkifli; Yustian, Indra


    Vegetation Profile in the area used for cultivation of mount forest wildlife conservation of Gunung Raya in Warkuk subdistrict of OKU Selatan regency can describe the plant biodiversity, abundace, spesies dominance, type and vegetation profile, and the succesion pattern. The vegetation data was from the transek method which is line compartmentalized, namely 3 transek with the 10 plot per station. The observation was done in every growth of the vegetation which was grouped into four levels, su...

  19. Effective permittivity of dielectric mixtures (United States)

    Sihvola, Ari H.; Kong, Jin AU


    General mixing formulas are derived for discrete scatterers immersed in a host medium. The inclusion particles are assumed to be ellipsoidal. The electric field inside the scatterers is determined by quasi-static analysis, assuming the diameter of the inclusion particles to be much smaller than one wavelength. The results are applicable to general multiphase mixtures, and the scattering ellipsoids of the different phases can have different sizes and arbitrary ellipticity distribution and axis orientation, i.e., the mixture may be isotropic or anisotropic. The resulting mixing formula is nonlinear and is suitable for iterative solutions. The formula contains a quantity called the apparent permittivity, and with different choices of this quantity, the result leads to the generalized Lorentz-Lorenz formula, the generalized Polder-van Santen formula, and the generalized coherent potential-quasicrystalline approximation formula. The results are applied to calculating the complex effective permittivity of dry and wet snow, and sea ice.

  20. Mixture Model Averaging for Clustering


    Wei, Yuhong; McNicholas, Paul D.


    In mixture model-based clustering applications, it is common to fit several models from a family and report clustering results from only the `best' one. In such circumstances, selection of this best model is achieved using a model selection criterion, most often the Bayesian information criterion. Rather than throw away all but the best model, we average multiple models that are in some sense close to the best one, thereby producing a weighted average of clustering results. Two (weighted) ave...

  1. Bayesian Repulsive Gaussian Mixture Model


    Xie, Fangzheng; Xu, Yanxun


    We develop a general class of Bayesian repulsive Gaussian mixture models that encourage well-separated clusters, aiming at reducing potentially redundant components produced by independent priors for locations (such as the Dirichlet process). The asymptotic results for the posterior distribution of the proposed models are derived, including posterior consistency and posterior contraction rate in the context of nonparametric density estimation. More importantly, we show that compared to the in...

  2. Sparse Gaussian graphical mixture model


    ANANI, Lotsi; WIT, Ernst


    This paper considers the problem of networks reconstruction from heterogeneous data using a Gaussian Graphical Mixture Model (GGMM). It is well known that parameter estimation in this context is challenging due to large numbers of variables coupled with the degenerate nature of the likelihood. We propose as a solution a penalized maximum likelihood technique by imposing an l1 penalty on the precision matrix. Our approach shrinks the parameters thereby resulting in better identifiability and v...

  3. Atomistic Simulations of Bicelle Mixtures


    Jiang, Yong; Wang, Hao; Kindt, James T.


    Mixtures of long- and short-tail phosphatidylcholine lipids are known to self-assemble into a variety of aggregates combining flat bilayerlike and curved micellelike features, commonly called bicelles. Atomistic simulations of bilayer ribbons and perforated bilayers containing dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC, di-C14 tails) and dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC, di-C6 tails) have been carried out to investigate the partitioning of these components between flat and curved microenvironmen...

  4. Dielectric relaxation in dipolar mixtures (United States)

    Sharma, Ashok K.; Agarwal, Vinod K.; Mansingh, Abhai


    Dielectric constants and losses have been measured at several microwave frequencies in the range 2.4-25 GHz for two binary mixtures: bromoform +1-bromonaphthalene (dipole moment ratio is about 1:1), and nitrobenzene +1-bromonaphthalene (dipole moment ratio is about 4:1). The dielectric data of each binary system have been analyzed in terms of two superimposed Debye regions. This analysis has been carried out to study the effect of internal field on the numerical values of the relative weights or amplitudes C1 and C2 in the dipolar mixtures. It is observed that the discrepancy between the numerical values of weight factors obtained from relaxation data and dipole moment and mole fractions of the binary mixture cannot be attributed to the internal field. For the bromoform +1-bromonaphthalene system, it has been found that both the Budo and Cole-Cole equation represent the system equally well, but for nitrobenzene +1-bromonaphthalene system the Cole distribution fits better than Budo's equation.

  5. On theoretical aspects of mixture problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Dubeau


    Full Text Available Mixture problems are basic but important problems in Operations Research. In this paper we consider variants of the basic linear mixture problem and indicate mathematical links between them.

  6. 40 CFR 721.9540 - Polysulfide mixture. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polysulfide mixture. 721.9540 Section... Substances § 721.9540 Polysulfide mixture. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polysulfide mixture (PMN P-93-1043) is...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Geller


    Full Text Available A set of models to predict viscosity and thermal conductivity of refrigerant mixtures is developed. A general model for viscosity and thermal conductivity use the three contributions sum form (the dilute-gas terms, the residual terms, and the liquid terms. The corresponding states model is recommended to predict the dense gas transport properties over a range of reduced density from 0 to 2. It is shown that the RHS model provides the most reliable results for the saturated-liquid and the compressed-liquid transport properties over a range of given temperatures from 0,5 to 0,95.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid KROUPNIK


    Full Text Available In underground mining of solid minerals becoming increasingly common development system with stowing hardening mixtures. In this case the natural ore array after it is replaced by an artificial excavation of solidified filling mixture consisting of binder, aggregates and water. Such a mixture is prepared on the surface on special stowing complexes and transported underground at special stowing pipelines. However, it is transported to the horizons of a few kilometers, which requires a sustainable mode of motion of such a mixture in the pipeline. Hardening stowing mixture changes its rheological characteristics over time, which complicates the calculation of the parameters of pipeline transportation. The article suggests a method of determining the initial parameters of such mixtures: the status coefficient, indicator of transportability, coefficient of hydrodynamic resistance to motion of the mixture. These indicators characterize the mixture in terms of the possibility to transport it through pipes. On the basis of these indicators is proposed methodology for calculating the parameters of pipeline transport hardening filling mixtures in drift mode when traffic on the horizontal part of the mixture under pressure column of the mixture in the vertical part of the backfill of the pipeline. This technique allows stable operation is guaranteed to provide pipeline transportation.

  9. Effect of Cement on Emulsified Asphalt Mixtures (United States)

    Oruc, Seref; Celik, Fazil; Akpinar, M. Vefa


    Emulsified asphalt mixtures have environmental, economical, and logistical advantages over hot mixtures. However, they have attracted little attention as structural layers due to their inadequate performance and susceptibility to early life damage by rainfall. The objective of this article is to provide an improved insight into how the mechanical properties of emulsion mixtures may be improved and to determine the influence of cement on emulsified asphalt mixtures. Laboratory tests on strength, temperature susceptibility, water damage, creep and permanent deformation were implemented to evaluate the mechanical properties of emulsified asphalt mixtures. The test results showed that mechanical properties of emulsified asphalt mixtures have significantly improved with Portland cement addition. This experimental study suggested that cement modified asphalt emulsion mixtures might be an alternate way of a structural layer material in pavement.

  10. Accelerated Hazards Mixture Cure Model (United States)

    Zhang, Jiajia; Peng, Yingwei


    We propose a new cure model for survival data with a surviving or cure fraction. The new model is a mixture cure model where the covariate effects on the proportion of cure and the distribution of the failure time of uncured patients are separately modeled. Unlike the existing mixture cure models, the new model allows covariate effects on the failure time distribution of uncured patients to be negligible at time zero and to increase as time goes by. Such a model is particularly useful in some cancer treatments when the treat effect increases gradually from zero, and the existing models usually cannot handle this situation properly. We develop a rank based semiparametric estimation method to obtain the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters in the model. We compare it with existing models and methods via a simulation study, and apply the model to a breast cancer data set. The numerical studies show that the new model provides a useful addition to the cure model literature. PMID:19697127

  11. Supercritical Water Mixture (SCWM) Experiment (United States)

    Hicks, Michael C.; Hegde, Uday G.


    The subject presentation, entitled, Supercritical Water Mixture (SCWM) Experiment, was presented at the International Space Station (ISS) Increment 33/34 Science Symposium. This presentation provides an overview of an international collaboration between NASA and CNES to study the behavior of a dilute aqueous solution of Na2SO4 (5% w) at near-critical conditions. The Supercritical Water Mixture (SCWM) investigation, serves as important precursor work for subsequent Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) experiments. The SCWM investigation will be performed in DECLICs High Temperature Insert (HTI) for the purpose of studying critical fluid phenomena at high temperatures and pressures. The HTI includes a completely sealed and integrated test cell (i.e., Sample Cell Unit SCU) that will contain approximately 0.3 ml of the aqueous test solution. During the sequence of tests, scheduled to be performed in FY13, temperatures and pressures will be elevated to critical conditions (i.e., Tc = 374C and Pc = 22 MPa) in order to observe salt precipitation, precipitate agglomeration and precipitate transport in the presence of a temperature gradient without the influences of gravitational forces. This presentation provides an overview of the motivation for this work, a description of the DECLIC HTI hardware, the proposed test sequences, and a brief discussion of the scientific research objectives.

  12. Secondary avalanches in gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Şahin, Özkan, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Uludağ University, 16059 Bursa (Turkey); Tapan, İlhan [Department of Physics, Uludağ University, 16059 Bursa (Turkey); Veenhof, Rob [RD51 Collaboration, CERN, Genève (Switzerland)


    Avalanche development in gas-based detectors relies not only on direct ionisation but also on excitation of noble gas atoms. Some quencher molecules can be ionised when they collide with excited atoms, a process on which we reported earlier [1]. Alternatively, excited atoms can decay by photon emission. If these photons are insufficiently absorbed by the quencher, yet capable of ionising, then they may escape from the avalanche region and start secondary avalanches. This process, called photon feedback, leads to an over-exponential increase of the gas gain which limits the working range. In this paper, we derive photon feedback parameters from published gain measurements for several gas mixtures and fit these parameters in a model which describes their dependence on the quencher concentration and the pressure.

  13. Atomistic simulations of bicelle mixtures. (United States)

    Jiang, Yong; Wang, Hao; Kindt, James T


    Mixtures of long- and short-tail phosphatidylcholine lipids are known to self-assemble into a variety of aggregates combining flat bilayerlike and curved micellelike features, commonly called bicelles. Atomistic simulations of bilayer ribbons and perforated bilayers containing dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC, di-C(14) tails) and dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC, di-C(6) tails) have been carried out to investigate the partitioning of these components between flat and curved microenvironments and the stabilization of the bilayer edge by DHPC. To approach equilibrium partitioning of lipids on an achievable simulation timescale, configuration-bias Monte Carlo mutation moves were used to allow individual lipids to change tail length within a semigrand-canonical ensemble. Since acceptance probabilities for direct transitions between DMPC and DHPC were negligible, a third component with intermediate tail length (didecanoylphosphatidylcholine, di-C(10) tails) was included at a low concentration to serve as an intermediate for transitions between DMPC and DHPC. Strong enrichment of DHPC is seen at ribbon and pore edges, with an excess linear density of approximately 3 nm(-1). The simulation model yields estimates for the onset of edge stability with increasing bilayer DHPC content between 5% and 15% DHPC at 300 K and between 7% and 17% DHPC at 323 K, higher than experimental estimates. Local structure and composition at points of close contact between pores suggest a possible mechanism for effective attractions between pores, providing a rationalization for the tendency of bicelle mixtures to aggregate into perforated vesicles and perforated sheets. (c) 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Some properties of explosive mixtures containing peroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeman, Svatopluk [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, CZ-532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic)], E-mail:; Trzcinski, Waldemar A. [Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, PL-00-908 Warsaw 49 (Poland); Matyas, Robert [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, CZ-532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic)


    This study concerns mixtures of triacetone triperoxide (3,3,6,6,9,9-hexamethyl-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexoxonane, TATP) and ammonium nitrate (AN) with added water (W), as the case may be, and dry mixtures of TATP with urea nitrate (UN). Relative performances (RP) of the mixtures and their individual components, relative to TNT, were determined by means of ballistic mortar. The detonation energies, E{sub 0}, and detonation velocities, D, were calculated for the mixtures studied by means of the thermodynamic code CHEETAH. Relationships have been found and are discussed between the RP and the E{sub 0} values related to unit volume of gaseous products of detonation of these mixtures. These relationships together with those between RP and oxygen balance values of the mixtures studied indicate different types of participation of AN and UN in the explosive decomposition of the respective mixtures. Dry TATP/UN mixtures exhibit lower RP than analogous mixtures TATP/AN containing up to 25% of water. Depending on the water content, the TATP/AN mixtures possess higher detonability values than the ANFO explosives. A semi-logarithmic relationship between the D values and oxygen coefficients has been derived for all the mixtures studied at the charge density of 1000 kg m{sup -3}. Among the mixtures studied, this relationship distinguishes several samples of the type of 'tertiary explosives' as well as samples that approach 'high explosives' in their performances and detonation velocities.

  15. Shear viscosity of liquid mixtures Mass dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushal, R


    Expressions for zeroth, second, and fourth sum rules of transverse stress autocorrelation function of two component fluid have been derived. These sum rules and Mori's memory function formalism have been used to study shear viscosity of Ar-Kr and isotopic mixtures. It has been found that theoretical result is in good agreement with the computer simulation result for the Ar-Kr mixture. The mass dependence of shear viscosity for different mole fraction shows that deviation from ideal linear model comes even from mass difference in two species of fluid mixture. At higher mass ratio shear viscosity of mixture is not explained by any of the emperical model.

  16. Thermodynamics of mixtures containing amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)], E-mail:; Mozo, Ismael; Garcia de la Fuente, Isaias; Cobos, Jose Carlos [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Riesco, Nicolas [Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, LE113TU Leicestershire (United Kingdom)


    Mixtures with dimethyl or trimethylpyridines and alkane, aromatic compound or 1-alkanol have been examined using different theories: DISQUAC, Flory, the concentration-concentration structure factor, S{sub CC}(0), or the Kirkwood-Buff formalism. DISQUAC represents fairly well the available experimental data, and improves theoretical calculations from Dortmund UNIFAC. Two important effects have been investigated: (i) the effect of increasing the number of methyl groups attached to the aromatic ring of the amine; (ii) the effect of modifying the position of the methyl groups in this ring. The molar excess enthalpy, H{sup E}, and the molar excess volume, V{sup E}, decrease in systems with alkane or methanol as follows: pyridine > 3-methylpyridine > 3,5-dimethylpyridine and pyridine > 2-methylpyridine > 2,4-dimethylpyridine > 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine, which has been attributed to a weakening of the amine-amine interactions in the same sequences. This is in agreement with the relative variation of the effective dipole moment, {mu}-bar, and of the differences between the boiling temperature of a pyridine base and that of the homomorphic alkane. For heptane solutions, the observed H{sup E} variation, H{sup E} (3,5-dimethylpyridine) > H{sup E} (2,4-dimethylpyridine) > H{sup E} (2,6-dimethylpyridine), is explained similarly. Calculations on the basis of the Flory model confirm that orientational effects become weaker in systems with alkane in the order: pyridine > methylpyridine > dimethylpyridine > trimethylpyridine. S{sub CC}(0) calculations show that steric effects increase with the number of CH{sub 3}- groups in the pyridine base, and that the steric effects exerted by methyl groups in positions 2 and 6 are higher than when they are placed in positions 3 and 5. The hydrogen bond energy in methanol mixtures is independent of the pyridine base, and it is estimated to be -35.2 kJ mol{sup -1}. Heterocoordination in these solutions is due in part to size effects. Their

  17. Concrete pavement mixture design and analysis (MDA) : an innovative approach to proportioning concrete mixtures. (United States)


    Mixture proportioning is routinely a matter of using a recipe based on a previously produced concrete, rather than adjusting the : proportions based on the needs of the mixture and the locally available materials. As budgets grow tighter and increasi...

  18. Broad temperature range antiferroelectric regular mixtures (United States)

    Dabrowski, Roman; Czuprynski, Krzysztof; Gasowska, J.; Oton, Jose; Quintana, Xabier; Castillo, P. L.; Bennis, N.


    Tristate regular mixtures with different electro-optical properties such as threshold voltage, saturation voltage, holding ratio and response time are presented. The relation of properties with the structure of compounds is discussed. All of mixtures show only moderate dynamic and static contrast but big gray level scale without hysteresis for positive and negative field driving.

  19. Nucleation kinetics of emulsified triglyceride mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloek, W.; Walstra, P.; Vliet, T.


    The purpose of this study is to determine characteristic nucleation parameters such as the surface free energy for nucleus formation in mixtures of fully hydrogenated palm oil (HP) in sunflower oil (SF). These parameters will be used to model the bulk crystallization kinetics of the same mixtures.

  20. Mixture Modeling of Individual Learning Curves (United States)

    Streeter, Matthew


    We show that student learning can be accurately modeled using a mixture of learning curves, each of which specifies error probability as a function of time. This approach generalizes Knowledge Tracing [7], which can be viewed as a mixture model in which the learning curves are step functions. We show that this generality yields order-of-magnitude…

  1. Fibril assembly in whey protein mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolder, S.G.


    The objective of this thesis was to study fibril assembly in mixtures of whey proteins. The effect of the composition of the protein mixture on the structures and the resulting phase behaviour was investigated. The current work has shown that beta-lactoglobulin is responsible for the fibril assembly

  2. Mixture Modeling: Applications in Educational Psychology (United States)

    Harring, Jeffrey R.; Hodis, Flaviu A.


    Model-based clustering methods, commonly referred to as finite mixture modeling, have been applied to a wide variety of cross-sectional and longitudinal data to account for heterogeneity in population characteristics. In this article, we elucidate 2 such approaches: growth mixture modeling and latent profile analysis. Both techniques are…

  3. Recursive unsupervised learning of finite mixture models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zivkovic, Z.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand


    There are two open problems when finite mixture densities are used to model multivariate data: the selection of the number of components and the initialization. In this paper, we propose an online (recursive) algorithm that estimates the parameters of the mixture and that simultaneously selects the

  4. Deformation Properties and Fatigue of Bituminous Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek Schlosser


    Full Text Available Deformation properties and fatigue performance are important characteristics of asphalt bound materials which are used for construction of pavement layers. Viscoelastic asphalt mixtures are better characterized via dynamic tests. This type of tests allows us to collate materials with regard to axle vibrations which lie usually in the range of 6 Hz–25 Hz for standard conditions. Asphalt modified for heat sensitivity in the range from −20°C to +60°C has significant impact on the overall characteristics of the mixture. Deformation properties are used as inputs for empirical mixture design, and fatigue performance of asphalt mixtures reflects the parameters of functional tests. Master curves convey properties of asphalt mixtures for various conditions and allow us to evaluate them without the need of time expensive testing.

  5. Mixture toxicity of PBT-like chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syberg, Kristian; Dai, Lina; Ramskov, Tina

    addition is a suitable model for default estimations of mixture effects. One of the major challenges is therefore how to select specific chemicals for actual mixture toxicity assessments. Persistant chemicals are likely to be present in the environment for an extended period of time, thus increasing......Even though most chemicals regulation is still conducted on a chemical by chemical basis, mixture toxicity is achieving increasing attention. The scientific understanding has increased substantially in the last decades, and a general consensus now seems to have been acieved that concentration...... the likelihood of them being present in environmentally found mixtures. Persistant, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals are therefore a highly relevant group of chemicals to consider for mixture toxicity regulation. The present study evaluates to what extent a number of PBT-like chemicals posess concern...

  6. From chemical mixtures to antibiotic resistance. (United States)

    Ye, Jun; Rensing, Christopher; Su, Jianqiang; Zhu, Yong-Guan


    In real environment, it is unlikely that contaminants exist singly; environmental contamination with chemical mixtures is a norm. However, the impacts of chemical mixtures on environmental quality and ecosystem health have been overlooked in the past. Among the complex interactions between different contaminants, their relationship with the rise of antibiotic resistance (AR) is an emerging environmental concern. In this paper, we review recent progresses on how chemicals or chemical mixtures promote AR. We propose that, through co-selection, agents causing stress to bacteria may induce AR. The mechanisms for chemical mixtures to promote AR are also discussed. We also propose that, mechanistic understanding of co-selection of chemical mixtures for AR should be a future research priority in environmental health research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Multi-temperature mixture of fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruggeri Tommaso


    Full Text Available We present a survey on some recent results concerning the different models of a mixture of compressible fluids. In particular we discuss the most realistic case of a mixture when each constituent has its own temperature (MT and we first compare the solutions of this model with the one with a unique common temperature (ST . In the case of Eulerian fluids it will be shown that the corresponding (ST differential system is a principal subsystem of the (MT one. Global behavior of smooth solutions for large time for both systems will also be discussed through the application of the Shizuta-Kawashima condition. Then we introduce the concept of the average temperature of mixture based upon the consideration that the internal energy of the mixture is the same as in the case of a single-temperature mixture. As a consequence, it is shown that the entropy of the mixture reaches a local maximum in equilibrium. Through the procedure of Maxwellian iteration a new constitutive equation for non-equilibrium temperatures of constituents is obtained in a classical limit, together with the Fick's law for the diffusion flux. Finally, to justify the Maxwellian iteration, we present for dissipative fluids a possible approach of a classical theory of mixture with multi-temperature and we prove that the differences of temperatures between the constituents imply the existence of a new dynamical pressure even if the fluids have a zero bulk viscosity.

  8. On the mixture model for multiphase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manninen, M.; Taivassalo, V. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Nuclear Energy; Kallio, S. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)


    Numerical flow simulation utilising a full multiphase model is impractical for a suspension possessing wide distributions in the particle size or density. Various approximations are usually made to simplify the computational task. In the simplest approach, the suspension is represented by a homogeneous single-phase system and the influence of the particles is taken into account in the values of the physical properties. This study concentrates on the derivation and closing of the model equations. The validity of the mixture model is also carefully analysed. Starting from the continuity and momentum equations written for each phase in a multiphase system, the field equations for the mixture are derived. The mixture equations largely resemble those for a single-phase flow but are represented in terms of the mixture density and velocity. The volume fraction for each dispersed phase is solved from a phase continuity equation. Various approaches applied in closing the mixture model equations are reviewed. An algebraic equation is derived for the velocity of a dispersed phase relative to the continuous phase. Simplifications made in calculating the relative velocity restrict the applicability of the mixture model to cases in which the particles reach the terminal velocity in a short time period compared to the characteristic time scale of the flow of the mixture. (75 refs.)

  9. Principles and practice of mixtures toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mumtaz, Moiz


    ... accurate predictions for the adverse effects of mixtures has been limited by the difficulty of acquiring data for all the possible combinations of dose and time that exist even in simple mixtures. Such predictions are also compromised by our use of single-agent toxicity studies since most "realworld" exposures are to mixtures. This has resulted in a variety of approaches (models, protocols, techniques, etc.) to address these issues. These are described in detail in the two dozen chapters of this book along with ca...

  10. Quantitative characterization of microstructure of asphalt mixtures (United States)


    The microstructure of the fine aggregate matrix has a significant influence on the : mechanical properties and evolution of damage in an asphalt mixture. However, very little : work has been done to define and quantitatively characterize the microstr...

  11. Concrete pavement mixture design and analysis (MDA). (United States)


    A guide specification and commentary have been prepared that lay out current state-of-the art thinking with respect to materials and : mixture selection, proportioning, and acceptance. These documents take into account the different environments, pra...

  12. A Gaussian mixture ensemble transform filter


    Reich, Sebastian


    We generalize the popular ensemble Kalman filter to an ensemble transform filter where the prior distribution can take the form of a Gaussian mixture or a Gaussian kernel density estimator. The design of the filter is based on a continuous formulation of the Bayesian filter analysis step. We call the new filter algorithm the ensemble Gaussian mixture filter (EGMF). The EGMF is implemented for three simple test problems (Brownian dynamics in one dimension, Langevin dynamics in two dimensions, ...

  13. Hierarchical mixtures of naive Bayes classifiers


    Wiering, M.A.


    Naive Bayes classifiers tend to perform very well on a large number of problem domains, although their representation power is quite limited compared to more sophisticated machine learning algorithms. In this pa- per we study combining multiple naive Bayes classifiers by using the hierar- chical mixtures of experts system. This system, which we call hierarchical mixtures of naive Bayes classifiers, is compared to a simple naive Bayes classifier and to using bagging and boosting for combining ...

  14. Using Big Data Analytics to Address Mixtures Exposure (United States)

    The assessment of chemical mixtures is a complex issue for regulators and health scientists. We propose that assessing chemical co-occurrence patterns and prevalence rates is a relatively simple yet powerful approach in characterizing environmental mixtures and mixtures exposure...

  15. Exact Fit of Simple Finite Mixture Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Tasche


    Full Text Available How to forecast next year’s portfolio-wide credit default rate based on last year’s default observations and the current score distribution? A classical approach to this problem consists of fitting a mixture of the conditional score distributions observed last year to the current score distribution. This is a special (simple case of a finite mixture model where the mixture components are fixed and only the weights of the components are estimated. The optimum weights provide a forecast of next year’s portfolio-wide default rate. We point out that the maximum-likelihood (ML approach to fitting the mixture distribution not only gives an optimum but even an exact fit if we allow the mixture components to vary but keep their density ratio fixed. From this observation we can conclude that the standard default rate forecast based on last year’s conditional default rates will always be located between last year’s portfolio-wide default rate and the ML forecast for next year. As an application example, cost quantification is then discussed. We also discuss how the mixture model based estimation methods can be used to forecast total loss. This involves the reinterpretation of an individual classification problem as a collective quantification problem.

  16. Toxicity evaluation of PAH mixtures using Microtox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompkins, J.; Guthrie, E.; Pfaender, F. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are produced from both natural and anthropogenic combustion processes. PAHs are known to be toxic and carcinogenic, are prevalent at many hazardous waste sites, and pose a potential risk to both ecological and human health. To date, few researchers have assessed the toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures. The toxicity of chrysene, anthracene, pyrene, phenanthrene, fluoranthrene, acenaphthene, fluorene, and naphthalene were evaluated using Microtox, and acute toxicity assay that uses bioluminescent bacteria, Photobacterium phosphoreum, to measure toxicity. In this study, the toxicities of 2, 3, and 4 ring PAHs were determined for individual compounds. Synergistic or additive effects of PAH mixtures was assessed by comparing the toxicity of mixtures with that of pure compounds. Each PAH or mixture was evaluated at their respective water solubility concentrations, For individual PAHs tested, the toxicity of PAHs is inversely related to water solubility. Mixtures of two and three PAHs with disparate water solubilities resulted in synergistic interactions. Antagonistic interactions, a decrease in toxicity, were observed for mixtures of similar water solubilities.

  17. Thermodiffusion in multicomponent n-alkane mixtures. (United States)

    Galliero, Guillaume; Bataller, Henri; Bazile, Jean-Patrick; Diaz, Joseph; Croccolo, Fabrizio; Hoang, Hai; Vermorel, Romain; Artola, Pierre-Arnaud; Rousseau, Bernard; Vesovic, Velisa; Bou-Ali, M Mounir; Ortiz de Zárate, José M; Xu, Shenghua; Zhang, Ke; Montel, François; Verga, Antonio; Minster, Olivier


    Compositional grading within a mixture has a strong impact on the evaluation of the pre-exploitation distribution of hydrocarbons in underground layers and sediments. Thermodiffusion, which leads to a partial diffusive separation of species in a mixture due to the geothermal gradient, is thought to play an important role in determining the distribution of species in a reservoir. However, despite recent progress, thermodiffusion is still difficult to measure and model in multicomponent mixtures. In this work, we report on experimental investigations of the thermodiffusion of multicomponent n-alkane mixtures at pressure above 30 MPa. The experiments have been conducted in space onboard the Shi Jian 10 spacecraft so as to isolate the studied phenomena from convection. For the two exploitable cells, containing a ternary liquid mixture and a condensate gas, measurements have shown that the lightest and heaviest species had a tendency to migrate, relatively to the rest of the species, to the hot and cold region, respectively. These trends have been confirmed by molecular dynamics simulations. The measured condensate gas data have been used to quantify the influence of thermodiffusion on the initial fluid distribution of an idealised one dimension reservoir. The results obtained indicate that thermodiffusion tends to noticeably counteract the influence of gravitational segregation on the vertical distribution of species, which could result in an unstable fluid column. This confirms that, in oil and gas reservoirs, the availability of thermodiffusion data for multicomponent mixtures is crucial for a correct evaluation of the initial state fluid distribution.

  18. Influence of foundry dust on moulding mixtures quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pribulová


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to observe the effect of the addition of the dust from the moulding plant on the quality parameters of the moulding mixtures and determine tolerable content in the moulding mixture. Three types of moulding mixtures were used in experiments: mixture prepared from new quartz sand and bentonite, mixture which is recycled in the experimental foundry and mixture came from the small foundry. To these moulding mixture was added the dust from moulding plant in the range 0 – 10%. Influence of dust addition on the compression strength, splitting strength and permeability was observed in all three kinds of mixtures.

  19. Rheological properties of cold recycled mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Gillinger


    Full Text Available The paper presents some of the results of research focused on cold recycled mixtures properties. Within the study, eight mixtures with a different amount of reclaimed asphalt, bitumen emulsion and cement were evaluated. The results of static creep, complex modulus and fatigue conducted on trapezoidal specimens are discussed in the paper. The static creep modulus and the complex modulus were investigated at temperatures 27 ºC, 11 ºC and 0 ºC. These temperatures represent temperatures of asphalt layer with a thickness in the range from 20 to 25 cm for summer, spring/ autumn and winter in Slovakia. In addition fatigue was investigated at the temperature of 27 ºC. It was found that the binder combination plays an important role in rheological performance of cold recycled mixtures. However, at different contents of reclaimed asphalt, the effect of bitumen emulsion was different. This can be observable particularly when analyzing the results of the fatigue test. The mixtures with a higher amount of cement were better in terms of the fatigue life. The investigated mixtures in general were little sensitive to the change of loading frequency which simulates the traffic speed.

  20. Coal-water mixture fuel burner (United States)

    Brown, T.D.; Reehl, D.P.; Walbert, G.F.


    The present invention represents an improvement over the prior art by providing a rotating cup burner arrangement for use with a coal-water mixture fuel which applies a thin, uniform sheet of fuel onto the inner surface of the rotating cup, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel on the inner surface of the cup, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge from the rotating cup, and further atomizes the fuel as it enters the combustion chamber by subjecting it to the high shear force of a high velocity air flow. Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide for improved combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel. It is another object of the present invention to provide an arrangement for introducing a coal-water mixture fuel into a combustion chamber in a manner which provides improved flame control and stability, more efficient combustion of the hydrocarbon fuel, and continuous, reliable burner operation. Yet another object of the present invention is to provide for the continuous, sustained combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel without the need for a secondary combustion source such as natural gas or a liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Still another object of the present invention is to provide a burner arrangement capable of accommodating a coal-water mixture fuel having a wide range of rheological and combustion characteristics in providing for its efficient combustion. 7 figs.

  1. Relativistic mixtures of charged and uncharged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, Gilberto M. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba (Brazil)


    Mixtures of relativistic gases within the framework of Boltzmann equation are analyzed. Three systems are considered. The first one refers to a mixture of uncharged particles by using Grad’s moment method, where the relativistic mixture is characterized by the moments of the distribution functions: particle four-flows, energy-momentum tensors, and third-order moment tensors. In the second Fick’s law for a mixture of relativistic gases of non-disparate rest masses in a Schwarzschild metric are derived from an extension of Marle and McCormack model equations applied to a relativistic truncated Grad’s distribution function, where it is shown the dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the gravitational potential. The third one consists in the derivation of the relativistic laws of Ohm and Fourier for a binary mixtures of electrons with protons and electrons with photons subjected to external electromagnetic fields and in presence of gravitational fields by using the Anderson and Witting model of the Boltzmann equation.

  2. A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures (United States)

    Costa Reis, Martina; Wang, Yongqi; Bono Maurizio Sacchi Bassi, Adalberto


    A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures is formulated. The intermolecular interactions among the constituents of the mixture are accounted for through additional freedom degrees to each constituent of the mixture. Balance equations for polar reacting continuum mixtures are accordingly formulated and a proper set of constitutive equations is derived with basis in the Müller-Liu formulation of the second law of thermodynamics. Moreover, the non-equilibrium and equilibrium responses of the reacting mixture are investigated in detail by emphasizing the inner and reactive structures of the medium. From the balance laws and constitutive relations, the effects of molecular structure of constituents upon the fluid flow are studied. It is also demonstrated that the local thermodynamic equilibrium state can be reached without imposing that the set of independent constitutive variables is time independent, neither spatially homogeneous nor null. The resulting constitutive relations presented throughout this work are of relevance to many practical applications, such as swelling of clays, developing of bio and polymeric membranes, and use of electrorheological fluids in industrial processes. The first author acknowledges financial support from National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) and German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).

  3. Chemical Mixtures Health Risk Assessment: Overview of Exposure Assessment, Whole Mixtures Assessments; Basic Concepts (United States)

    This problems-based, half-day, introductory workshop focuses on methods to assess health risks posed by exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment. Chemical mixtures health risk assessment methods continue to be developed and evolve to address concerns over health risks f...

  4. GLIMMIX : Software for estimating mixtures and mixtures of generalized linear models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedel, M


    GLIMMIX is a commercial WINDOWS-based computer program that implements the EM algorithm (Dempster, Laird and Rubin 1977) for the estimation of finite mixtures and mixtures of generalized linear models. The program allows for the specification of a number of distributions in the exponential family,

  5. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics model for phase separating fluid mixtures. II. Diffusion in a binary mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thieulot, C; Janssen, LPBM; Espanol, P

    A previously formulated smoothed particle hydrodynamics model for a phase separating mixture is tested for the case when viscous processes are negligible and only mass and energy diffusive processes take place. We restrict ourselves to the case of a binary mixture that can exhibit liquid-liquid

  6. DCMDN: Deep Convolutional Mixture Density Network (United States)

    D'Isanto, Antonio; Polsterer, Kai Lars


    Deep Convolutional Mixture Density Network (DCMDN) estimates probabilistic photometric redshift directly from multi-band imaging data by combining a version of a deep convolutional network with a mixture density network. The estimates are expressed as Gaussian mixture models representing the probability density functions (PDFs) in the redshift space. In addition to the traditional scores, the continuous ranked probability score (CRPS) and the probability integral transform (PIT) are applied as performance criteria. DCMDN is able to predict redshift PDFs independently from the type of source, e.g. galaxies, quasars or stars and renders pre-classification of objects and feature extraction unnecessary; the method is extremely general and allows the solving of any kind of probabilistic regression problems based on imaging data, such as estimating metallicity or star formation rate in galaxies.

  7. Modelling Placebo Response via Infinite Mixtures (United States)

    Petkova, Eva


    Non-specific treatment response, also known as placebo response, is ubiquitous in the treatment of mental illness, particularly in treating depression. The study of placebo effect is complicated because the factors that constitute non-specific treatment effects are latent and not directly observed. A flexible infinite mixture model is introduced to model these nonspecific treatment effects. The infinite mixture model stipulates that the non-specific treatment effects are continuous and this is contrasted with a finite mixture model that is based on the assumption that the non-specific treatment effects are discrete. Data from a depression clinical trial is used to illustrate the model and to study the evolution of the placebo effect over the course of treatment. PMID:21804745


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Mareček


    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The aim of this study was evaluation of microbial quality in raw materials (honey, pollen and evaluation of microbial quality in honey mixture with pollen (2.91 % and 3.85 % and also dynamics of microbial groups in honey mixtures with pollen after 14 days storage at the room temperature (approximately 25 °C and in cold store (8 °C. We used dilution plating method for testing of samples. Detections of total plate microbial count (aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, sporulating bacteria, coliform bacteria, Bifidobacterium sp., Lactobacillus sp. and microscopic fungi were performed. In general, counts of microorganisms decreased in honey mixture with pollen compared to raw pollen and these counts increased compared to natural honey. Total plate count was 5.37 log KTJ.g-1 in pollen; 1.36 log KTJ.g-1 in honey; 2.97 log KTJ.g-1 in honey mixture with 2.91 % pollen and 2.04 log KTJ.g-1 in honey mixture with 3.85 % pollen. Coliform bacteria were detected in pollen (1.77 log KTJ.g-1. Then, we found coliform bacteria in one sample of honey mixtures with pollen (2.91 % - 1.00 log KTJ.g-1.Bifidobacterium species were detected only in raw pollen. We did not findLactobacillus sp. in any of the samples. Microscopic fungi were detected on two cultivating media. Yeasts were present in pollen sample (average 5.39 log KTJ.g-1, honey mixture with 2.91 % pollen (average 2.51 log KTJ.g-1 and honey mixture with 3.85 % pollen (average 1.58 log KTJ.g-1. Filamentous microscopic fungi were detectable in pollen (average 3.38 log KTJ.g-1, in honey (only on one medium: 1.00 log KTJ.g-1, in honey mixture with 2.91 % pollen (average 1.15 log KTJ.g-1 and in honey mixture with 3.85 % pollen (1.71 %. Raw pollen contained microscopic fungi as Absidiasp., Mucor sp., Alternaria sp. andEmericella nidulans. Honey mixture with 2.91 % pollen after storage (14 days contained lower microbial counts when compared with the sample

  9. Two-Microphone Separation of Speech Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Wang, DeLiang; Larsen, Jan


    the recorded mixtures be known in advance. In many real-world applications, these limitations are too restrictive. We propose a novel method for underdetermined blind source separation using an instantaneous mixing model which assumes closely spaced microphones. Two source separation techniques have been...... combined, independent component analysis (ICA) and binary time–frequency (T–F) masking. By estimating binary masks from the outputs of an ICA algorithm, it is possible in an iterative way to extract basis speech signals from a convolutive mixture. The basis signals are afterwards improved by grouping...... similar signals. Using two microphones, we can separate, in principle, an arbitrary number of mixed speech signals. We show separation results for mixtures with as many as seven speech signals under instantaneous conditions. We also show that the proposed method is applicable to segregate speech signals...

  10. Boiler derating for coal-water mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horney, F.A.; Nolte, F.S.


    The authors demonstrated a method for approximating the derating required when converting an oil or natural gas fired unit to a coal-water mixture. If the results show that a retrofit to coal-water mixture appears economically reasonable, then a more detailed analysis should be made by the boiler manufacturer whose methods are more precise than the methods of this paper. The expense of having the boiler manufacturer make a precise analysis can be avoided if the results of the analysis of this paper show conversion not to be viable.

  11. Flows and chemical reactions in homogeneous mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Prud'homme, Roger


    Flows with chemical reactions can occur in various fields such as combustion, process engineering, aeronautics, the atmospheric environment and aquatics. The examples of application chosen in this book mainly concern homogeneous reactive mixtures that can occur in propellers within the fields of process engineering and combustion: - propagation of sound and monodimensional flows in nozzles, which may include disequilibria of the internal modes of the energy of molecules; - ideal chemical reactors, stabilization of their steady operation points in the homogeneous case of a perfect mixture and c

  12. Thermophysical Properties of Fluids and Fluid Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengers, Jan V.; Anisimov, Mikhail A.


    The major goal of the project was to study the effect of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties and phase behavior of fluids and fluid mixtures. Long-range fluctuations appear because of the presence of critical phase transitions. A global theory of critical fluctuations was developed and applied to represent thermodynamic properties and transport properties of molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. In the second phase of the project, the theory was extended to deal with critical fluctuations in complex fluids such as polymer solutions and electrolyte solutions. The theoretical predictions have been confirmed by computer simulations and by light-scattering experiments. Fluctuations in fluids in nonequilibrium states have also been investigated.

  13. in Binary Liquid Mixtures of Ethyl benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Babu


    Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity is measured at 2MHz frequency in the binary mixtures of Ethyl Benzoate with 1-Propanol, 1-Butanol, 1-Pentanol and theoretical values of ultrasonic velocity have been evaluated at 303K using Nomoto's relation, Impedance relation, Ideal mixture relation, Junjie's method and free length theory. Theoretical values are compared with the experimental values and the validity of the theories is checked by applying the chi-square test for goodness of fit and by calculating the average percentage error (APE. A good agreement has been found between experimental and Nomoto’s ultrasonic velocity.

  14. MixtureTree annotator: a program for automatic colorization and visual annotation of MixtureTree.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chuan Chen

    Full Text Available The MixtureTree Annotator, written in JAVA, allows the user to automatically color any phylogenetic tree in Newick format generated from any phylogeny reconstruction program and output the Nexus file. By providing the ability to automatically color the tree by sequence name, the MixtureTree Annotator provides a unique advantage over any other programs which perform a similar function. In addition, the MixtureTree Annotator is the only package that can efficiently annotate the output produced by MixtureTree with mutation information and coalescent time information. In order to visualize the resulting output file, a modified version of FigTree is used. Certain popular methods, which lack good built-in visualization tools, for example, MEGA, Mesquite, PHY-FI, TreeView, treeGraph and Geneious, may give results with human errors due to either manually adding colors to each node or with other limitations, for example only using color based on a number, such as branch length, or by taxonomy. In addition to allowing the user to automatically color any given Newick tree by sequence name, the MixtureTree Annotator is the only method that allows the user to automatically annotate the resulting tree created by the MixtureTree program. The MixtureTree Annotator is fast and easy-to-use, while still allowing the user full control over the coloring and annotating process.

  15. Meso Mechanical Analysis of AC Mixture Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldekidan, M.F.; Huurman, M.; Vaccari, E.; Poot, M.


    Ongoing research into performance modeling of Asphalt Concrete (AC) mixtures using meso mechanics approaches is being undertaken at Delft University of Technology (TUD). The approach has already been successfully employed for evaluating the long term performance of porous asphalt concrete. The work

  16. Predicting diffusivities in dense fluid mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this work the Enskog solution of the Boltzmann equation, as corrected by Speedy, together with the Weeks-Chandler-Andersen (WCA perturbation theory of liquids is employed in correlating and predicting self-diffusivities of dense fluids. Afterwards this theory is used to estimate mutual diffusion coefficients of solutes at infinite dilution in sub and supercritical solvents. We have also investigated the behavior of Fick diffusion coefficients in the proximity of a binary vapor-liquid critical point since this subject is of great interest for extraction purposes. The approach presented here, which makes use of a density and temperature dependent hard-sphere diameter, is shown to be excellent for predicting diffusivities in dense pure fluids and fluid mixtures. The calculations involved highly nonideal mixtures as well as systems with high molecular asymmetry. The predicted diffusivities are in good agreement with the experimental data for the pure and binary systems. The methodology proposed here makes only use of pure component information and density of mixtures. The simple algebraic relations are proposed without any binary adjustable parameters and can be readily used for estimating diffusivities in multicomponent mixtures.

  17. Pool Boiling of Hydrocarbon Mixtures on Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boee, R.


    In maritime transport of liquefied natural gas (LNG) there is a risk of spilling cryogenic liquid onto water. The present doctoral thesis discusses transient boiling experiments in which liquid hydrocarbons were poured onto water and left to boil off. Composition changes during boiling are believed to be connected with the initiation of rapid phase transition in LNG spilled on water. 64 experimental runs were carried out, 14 using pure liquid methane, 36 using methane-ethane, and 14 using methane-propane binary mixtures of different composition. The water surface was open to the atmosphere and covered an area of 200 cm{sup 2} at 25 - 40{sup o}C. The heat flux was obtained by monitoring the change of mass vs time. The void fraction in the boiling layer was measured with a gamma densitometer, and a method for adapting this measurement concept to the case of a boiling cryogenic liquid mixture is suggested. Significant differences in the boil-off characteristics between pure methane and binary mixtures revealed by previous studies are confirmed. Pure methane is in film boiling, whereas the mixtures appear to enter the transitional boiling regime with only small amounts of the second component added. The results indicate that the common assumption that LNG will be in film boiling on water because of the high temperature difference, may be questioned. Comparison with previous work shows that at this small scale the results are influenced by the experimental apparatus and procedures. 66 refs., 76 figs., 28 tabs.

  18. Two-microphone Separation of Speech Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    of Speech Mixtures," 2006, submited for journal publication. See also, [2] Michael Syskind Pedersen, DeLiang Wang, Jan Larsen and Ulrik Kjems: "Overcomplete Blind Source Separation by Combining ICA and Binary Time-Frequency Masking," in proceedings of IEEE International workshop on Machine Learning...

  19. The Coffee-Milk Mixture Problem Revisited (United States)

    Marion, Charles F.


    This analysis of a problem that is frequently posed at professional development workshops, in print, and on the Web--the coffee-milk mixture riddle--illustrates the timeless advice of George Pólya's masterpiece on problem solving in mathematics, "How to Solve It." In his book, Pólya recommends that problems previously solved and put…

  20. Spectrometric mixture analysis: An unexpected wrinkle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The spectrometric analysis of a mixture of two chemically and spectroscopically similar compounds is illustrated for the simultaneous spectrometric determination of caffeine and theobromine, the primary stimulants in coffee and tea, based on their ultraviolet absorbances. Their analysis indicates that such measurements ...

  1. Modelling interactions in grass-clover mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nassiri Mahallati, M.


    The study described in this thesis focuses on a quantitative understanding of the complex interactions in binary mixtures of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) under cutting. The first part of the study describes the dynamics of growth, production

  2. Meso Mechanical Analysis of AC Mixture Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldekidan, M.F.; Huurman, M.; Vaccari, E.; Poot, M.

    Ongoing research into performance modeling of Asphalt Concrete (AC) mixtures using meso mechanics approaches is being undertaken at Delft University of Technology (TUD). The approach has already been successfully employed for evaluating the long term performance of porous asphalt concrete. The work

  3. Quantification of complex mixtures by NMR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Velzen, van E.; Jacobs, D.M.


    NMR has firmly established itself as an analytical tool that can quantify analyte concentrations in complex mixtures in a rapid, cost-effective, accurate and precise manner. Here, the technological advances with respect to instrumentation, sample preparation, data acquisition and data processing

  4. Spectrometric mixture analysis: An unexpected wrinkle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    communication, we will consider an analysis based on external calibration measurements. Started as an effort to ... In the present communication, we will compare the use of a minimally determined and an overde- termined ..... For a quick visual check of the mixture spectra, we plotted the absorbances of those solutions that.

  5. Multilevel Growth Mixture Models for Classifying Groups (United States)

    Palardy, Gregory J.; Vermunt, Jeroen K.


    This article introduces a multilevel growth mixture model (MGMM) for classifying both the individuals and the groups they are nested in. Nine variations of the general model are described that differ in terms of categorical and continuous latent variable specification within and between groups. An application in the context of school effectiveness…

  6. Mixture model analysis of complex samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedel, M; ter Hofstede, F; Steenkamp, JBEM


    We investigate the effects of a complex sampling design on the estimation of mixture models. An approximate or pseudo likelihood approach is proposed to obtain consistent estimates of class-specific parameters when the sample arises from such a complex design. The effects of ignoring the sample

  7. Bayesian mixture models for partially verified data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostoulas, Polychronis; Browne, William J.; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose


    Bayesian mixture models can be used to discriminate between the distributions of continuous test responses for different infection stages. These models are particularly useful in case of chronic infections with a long latent period, like Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection...

  8. A Skew-Normal Mixture Regression Model (United States)

    Liu, Min; Lin, Tsung-I


    A challenge associated with traditional mixture regression models (MRMs), which rest on the assumption of normally distributed errors, is determining the number of unobserved groups. Specifically, even slight deviations from normality can lead to the detection of spurious classes. The current work aims to (a) examine how sensitive the commonly…

  9. Advances in Chemical Mixtures Risk Methods (United States)

    This presentation is an overview of emerging issues for dose addition in chemical mixtures risk assessment. It is intended to give the participants a perspective of recent developments in methods for dose addition. The workshop abstract is as follows:This problems-based, half-day...

  10. Mixtures of -distributions for finance and forecasting


    Giacomini, Raffaella; Gottschling, Andreas; Haefke, Christian; White, Halbert


    Mixtures of t-distributions for finance and forecasting correspondance: Corresponding author. Department of Economics, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK. Tel.: +43159991181; fax: +43159991312. (Giacomini, Raffaella) (Giacomini, Raffaella) (Gottschling, Andreas) (Haefke, Christian) (White, Halbert) Department of Eco...

  11. Concrete mixture characterization. Cementitious barriers partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Protiere, Yannick [SIMCO Technologies, Inc., Quebec (Canada)


    This report summarizes the characterization study performed on two concrete mixtures used for radioactive waste storage. Both mixtures were prepared with approximately 425 kg of binder. The testing protocol mostly focused on determining the transport properties of the mixtures; volume of permeable voids (porosity), diffusion coefficients, and water permeability were evaluated. Tests were performed after different curing durations. In order to obtain data on the statistical distribution of transport properties, the measurements after 2 years of curing were performed on 10+ samples. Overall, both mixtures exhibited very low tortuosities and permeabilities, a direct consequence of their low water-to-binder ratio and the use of supplementary cementitious materials. The data generated on 2-year old samples showed that porosity, tortuosity and permeability follow a normal distribution. Chloride ponding tests were also performed on test samples. They showed limited chloride ingress, in line with measured transport properties. These test results also showed that both materials react differently with chloride, a consequence of the differences in the binder chemical compositions.

  12. Model structure selection in convolutive mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrholm, Mads; Makeig, Scott; Hansen, Lars Kai


    The CICAAR algorithm (convolutive independent component analysis with an auto-regressive inverse model) allows separation of white (i.i.d) source signals from convolutive mixtures. We introduce a source color model as a simple extension to the CICAAR which allows for a more parsimoneous...

  13. Model structure selection in convolutive mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrholm, Mads; Makeig, S.; Hansen, Lars Kai


    The CICAAR algorithm (convolutive independent component analysis with an auto-regressive inverse model) allows separation of white (i.i.d) source signals from convolutive mixtures. We introduce a source color model as a simple extension to the CICAAR which allows for a more parsimonious...

  14. Two-microphone separation of speech mixtures. (United States)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Wang, DeLiang; Larsen, Jan; Kjems, Ulrik


    Separation of speech mixtures, often referred to as the cocktail party problem, has been studied for decades. In many source separation tasks, the separation method is limited by the assumption of at least as many sensors as sources. Further, many methods require that the number of signals within the recorded mixtures be known in advance. In many real-world applications, these limitations are too restrictive. We propose a novel method for underdetermined blind source separation using an instantaneous mixing model which assumes closely spaced microphones. Two source separation techniques have been combined, independent component analysis (ICA) and binary time - frequency (T-F) masking. By estimating binary masks from the outputs of an ICA algorithm, it is possible in an iterative way to extract basis speech signals from a convolutive mixture. The basis signals are afterwards improved by grouping similar signals. Using two microphones, we can separate, in principle, an arbitrary number of mixed speech signals. We show separation results for mixtures with as many as seven speech signals under instantaneous conditions. We also show that the proposed method is applicable to segregate speech signals under reverberant conditions, and we compare our proposed method to another state-of-the-art algorithm. The number of source signals is not assumed to be known in advance and it is possible to maintain the extracted signals as stereo signals.

  15. Wind Integration into Various Generation Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddaloni, J.D.; Rowe, A.M.; Kooten, van G.C.


    A load balance model is used to quantify the economic and environmental effects of integrating wind power into three typical generation mixtures. System operating costs over a specified period are minimized by controlling the operating schedule of the existing power generating facilities for a range

  16. Self-assembly models for lipid mixtures (United States)

    Singh, Divya; Porcar, Lionel; Butler, Paul; Perez-Salas, Ursula


    Solutions of mixed long and short (detergent-like) phospholipids referred to as ``bicelle'' mixtures in the literature, are known to form a variety of different morphologies based on their total lipid composition and temperature in a complex phase diagram. Some of these morphologies have been found to orient in a magnetic field, and consequently bicelle mixtures are widely used to study the structure of soluble as well as membrane embedded proteins using NMR. In this work, we report on the low temperature phase of the DMPC and DHPC bicelle mixture, where there is agreement on the discoid structures but where molecular packing models are still being contested. The most widely accepted packing arrangement, first proposed by Vold and Prosser had the lipids completely segregated in the disk: DHPC in the rim and DMPC in the disk. Using data from small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments, we show how radius of the planar domain of the disks is governed by the effective molar ratio qeff of lipids in aggregate and not the molar ratio q (q = [DMPC]/[DHPC] ) as has been understood previously. We propose a new quantitative (packing) model and show that in this self assembly scheme, qeff is the real determinant of disk sizes. Based on qeff , a master equation can then scale the radii of disks from mixtures with varying q and total lipid concentration.

  17. Toxicology of chemical mixtures: International perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, V.J.; Cassee, F.R.; Groten, J.P.


    This paper reviews major activities outside the United States on human health issues related to chemical mixtures. In Europe an international study group on combination effects has been formed and has started by defining synergism and antagonism. Successful research programs in Europe include the

  18. Modeling text with generalizable Gaussian mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Kolenda, Thomas


    We apply and discuss generalizable Gaussian mixture (GGM) models for text mining. The model automatically adapts model complexity for a given text representation. We show that the generalizability of these models depends on the dimensionality of the representation and the sample size. We discuss...

  19. Membrane potential in multi-ionic mixtures. (United States)

    Lanteri, Y; Szymczyk, A; Fievet, P


    The membrane potential arising through charged porous membranes separating electrolyte mixtures at identical hydrostatic pressures but different concentrations was investigated theoretically by means of the steric, electric, and dielectric exclusion (SEDE) model. Transport phenomena were described through the Nernst-Planck formalism, while ion partitioning at the membrane/solution interfaces was accounted for by means of modified Donnan equations including steric and dielectric effects. The high concentration limit of the membrane potential depends on the mixture composition and the pore size as well. A specific feature of membrane potential in multi-ionic systems is the dependence at high concentration on the effective dielectric constant of the solution confined inside pores. Indeed, the effective dielectric constant inside pores does not affect the high concentration limit of the membrane potential in the case of single salt solutions. The low concentration limit of the membrane potential is independent of the mixture composition, the effective dielectric constant inside pores, and the pore radius, but it is ruled by counterions with the highest charge number. The membrane potential measured at high salt concentration with single salt solutions and electrolyte mixtures could be used to determine the pore size and the effective dielectric constant inside pores, respectively. This may constitute an alternative way for membrane characterization with the advantage of avoiding the need for additional rejection rate measurements.

  20. 21 CFR 82.6 - Certifiable mixtures. (United States)


    ... and cosmetics, if: (1) Each coal-tar color used as an ingredient in mixing such batch is from a... mixture is harmless and suitable for use therein; and (3) No diluent (except resins, natural gum, pectin... provisions of this part, for use only in drugs and cosmetics, if: (1) Each coal-tar color used as an...

  1. Immunomodulatory Activity Of Saponin Mixture Isolated From ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An attempt has been made to assess the immunomodulatory activity of purified saponin mixture (PSM) isolated from the fruits of Lagenaria siceraria at three dose levels ranging from 50-150 mg/kg body weight in mice using haemagglutination antibody (HA) titre, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and carbon clearance ...

  2. Anion exchange in ionic liquid mixtures. (United States)

    Cha, Seoncheol; Kim, Doseok


    Advantage of ionic liquids as designer solvents can be maximized by mixing different ionic liquids (ILs) for a possibility of continuous tunability of material properties. The property of these mixed ILs would be determined by their microscopic conformation between cations and anions. The mixtures of two ILs having 1-butyl-3-methylimidaolium cations and different anions were investigated by IR and NMR spectroscopy, utilizing that the vibrational frequencies of the C-H stretching and bending modes of the most acidic proton in the imidazolium ring of the cation and the NMR chemical shift for the corresponding proton were clearly distinct between the ILs having different anions. The IR absorption spectra of the IL mixtures at different concentrations were well-matched to weighted sums of the two spectra of the pure ILs. In contrast, the two distinct peaks in the NMR spectra of the pure ILs coalesced into a single peak, which shifted continuously following the relative portion of two different ILs in the mixture. IR spectroscopy in the optical frequency range seems to take the instantaneous snapshot of the cation-anion interaction, while NMR spectroscopy in the radio-frequency (∼500 MHz) range samples over a much longer timescale, enough for the cation to interact with different anion species in the mixture.

  3. Magnetohydrodynamics for a multicomponent ionic mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvati, G.A.Q.; Suttorp, L.G.


    The magnetohydrodynamical equations for a multi-component magnetized ionic mixture are used to derive the spectrum of collective modes for small wavenumbers. The results are compared with those from formal kinetic theory, which is based on the microscopic balance equations and a projection-operator

  4. Experiments with Mixtures Designs, Models, and the Analysis of Mixture Data

    CERN Document Server

    Cornell, John A


    The most comprehensive, single-volume guide to conducting experiments with mixtures"If one is involved, or heavily interested, in experiments on mixtures of ingredients, one must obtain this book. It is, as was the first edition, the definitive work."-Short Book Reviews (Publication of the International Statistical Institute)"The text contains many examples with worked solutions and with its extensive coverage of the subject matter will prove invaluable to those in the industrial and educational sectors whose work involves the design and analysis of mixture experiments."-Journal of the Royal S

  5. Removing hydrogen sulphide from a gas mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christy, J.G.


    This invention relates, in particular, to removing hydrogen sulfide from a gas mixture in which the molar ratio of carbon dioxide to hydrogen sulfide is very large, for example between 20 and 45. Examples of such mixtures include natural gas or gas produced by coal gasification. According to the invention, the gas mixture is contacted in a main absorber at an elevated temperature with lean and regenerable aqueous absorbent to obtain a purified gas mixture and a loaded absorbent. The loaded absorbent is introduced into a separation vessel at a reduced pressure, and flash-off gas and partially regenerated absorbent are removed from the vessel. Hydrogen sulfide is removed from the flash-off gas to obtain a lean gas, and the removed hydrogen sulfide is converted into elemental sulfur. The partially regenerated absorbent is introduced into a regenerator to obtain lean absorbent for use in the first step, and a regenerator off-gas including hydrogen sulfide. The regenerator off-gas is supplied to a sulfur recovery plant to obtain elemental sulfur and a SO{sub 2}-containing off-gas. This off-gas is treated in a converter to obtain a reduced off-gas. At least part of the lean gas obtained in a previous step is mixed with the reduced plant off-gas, and the remainder is mixed with the plant off-gas. Hydrogen sulfide is removed from the mixture of reduced off-gas and lean gas to obtain substantially hydrogen sulfide-free off-gas; the removed hydrogen sulfide is converted into elemental sulfur. The absorbent used in this process includes a chemical absorbent, such as an amine, and a physical absorbent, such as sulfolane. 1 fig.

  6. Thermodynamic modeling of CO2 mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Martin Gamel

    Knowledge of the thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria of mixtures containing carbon dioxide (CO2) is important in several industrial processes such as enhanced oil recovery, carbon capture and storage, and supercritical extractions, where CO2 is used as a solvent. Despite this importance......, accurate predictions of the thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria of mixtures containing CO2 are challenging with classical models such as the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equation of state (EoS). This is believed to be due to the fact, that CO2 has a large quadrupole moment which the classical models...... complicated due to parameter identifiability issues. In an attempt to quantify and illustrate these issues, the uncertainties in the pure compound parameters of CO2 were investigated using qCPA as well as different CPA approaches. The approaches employ between three and five parameters. The uncertainties...

  7. Removing hydrogen sulphide from a gas mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baar, J.F. Van; Lith, W.J. Van.


    A process is provided for selectively removing hydrogen sulfide from a gas mixture containing hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide, such as natural gas or a reduced off-gas from the Claus process. The process comprises contacting the gas mixture with a liquid absorbent composition including an aminopyridine, such as 4-dimethylaminopyridine. The absorbent composition suitably contains between 1 and 2 moles of aminopyridine per liter of physical solvent (such as sulfolane). Contacting is carried out at 20-80{degree}C and at approximately atmospheric pressure, usually in countercurrent fashion in a gas/liquid contacting column. The rich absorbent composition laden with hydrogen sulfide is regenerated by heating the solution and/or stripping the composition with an inert gas such as steam. Experiments are described to illustrate the process of the invention. 2 tabs.

  8. Supervised and Unsupervised Classification Using Mixture Models (United States)

    Girard, S.; Saracco, J.


    This chapter is dedicated to model-based supervised and unsupervised classification. Probability distributions are defined over possible labels as well as over the observations given the labels. To this end, the basic tools are the mixture models. This methodology yields a posterior distribution over the labels given the observations which allows to quantify the uncertainty of the classification. The role of Gaussian mixture models is emphasized leading to Linear Discriminant Analysis and Quadratic Discriminant Analysis methods. Some links with Fisher Discriminant Analysis and logistic regression are also established. The Expectation-Maximization algorithm is introduced and compared to the K-means clustering method. The methods are illustrated both on simulated datasets as well as on real datasets using the R software.

  9. Sum of Bernoulli Mixtures: Beyond Conditional Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehan Bae


    Full Text Available We consider the distribution of the sum of Bernoulli mixtures under a general dependence structure. The level of dependence is measured in terms of a limiting conditional correlation between two of the Bernoulli random variables. The conditioning event is that the mixing random variable is larger than a threshold and the limit is with respect to the threshold tending to one. The large-sample distribution of the empirical frequency and its use in approximating the risk measures, value at risk and conditional tail expectation, are presented for a new class of models which we call double mixtures. Several illustrative examples with a Beta mixing distribution, are given. As well, some data from the area of credit risk are fit with the models, and comparisons are made between the new models and also the classical Beta-binomial model.

  10. Endocrine activity of mycotoxins and mycotoxin mixtures. (United States)

    Demaegdt, Heidi; Daminet, Britt; Evrard, Annick; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Muller, Marc; Pussemier, Luc; Callebaut, Alfons; Vandermeiren, Karine


    Reporter gene assays incorporating nuclear receptors (estrogen, androgen, thyroid β and PPARγ2) have been implemented to assess the endocrine activity of 13 mycotoxins and their mixtures. As expected, zearalenone and its metabolites α-zearalenol and β- zearalenol turned out to have the strongest estrogenic potency (EC50 8,7 10-10 ± 0,8; 3,1 10-11 ± 0,5 and 1,3 10-8 ± 0,3 M respectively). The metabolite of deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol also had estrogenic activity (EC50 3,8 10-7 ± 1,1 M). Furthermore, most of the mycotoxins (and their mixtures) showed anti-androgenic effects (15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol and α-zearalenol with potencies within one order of magnitude of that of the reference compound flutamide). In particular, deoxynivalenol and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol acted as antagonists for the PPARy2 receptor. When testing mixtures of mycotoxins on the same cell systems, we showed that most of the mixtures reacted as predicted by the concentration addition (CA) theory. Generally, the CA was within the 95% confidence interval of the observed ones, only minor deviations were detected. Although these reporter gene tests cannot be directly extrapolated in vivo, they can be the basis for further research. Especially the additive effects of ZEN and its metabolites are of importance and could have repercussions in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nitrocarburizing in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.


    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammonia-propene-hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  12. Nitrocarburising in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.


    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammoniapropene- hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  13. Mixture-model-based signal denoising


    Samé, Allou; Oukhellou, Latifa; Côme, Etienne; Aknin, Patrice


    International audience; This paper proposes a new signal denoising methodology for dealing with asymmetrical noises. The adopted strategy is based on a regression model where the noise is supposed to be additive and distributed following a mixture of Gaussian densities. The parameters estimation is performed using a Generalized EM (GEM) algorithm. Experimental studies on simulated and real signals in the context of a diagnosis application in the railway domain reveal that the proposed approac...

  14. Heating Techniques for Asphalt/Aggregate Mixtures. (United States)


    gravel, and rock, as well as materials that require both crushing and screening, such as limestone and granite. In no case may the aggregate particles...the aggregate surfaces and the cementing action of the bitumen. PLANT-MIX HOT-LAID BITUMINOUS SURFACES Hot-mix bituminous concrete is Composed of...well-graded mineral aggre- gates, mineral filler , and bituminous material (AC or tar, depending on the 4 desired mixture). The hot-mix method of

  15. Lattice model for water-solute mixtures. (United States)

    Furlan, A P; Almarza, N G; Barbosa, M C


    A lattice model for the study of mixtures of associating liquids is proposed. Solvent and solute are modeled by adapting the associating lattice gas (ALG) model. The nature of interaction of solute/solvent is controlled by tuning the energy interactions between the patches of ALG model. We have studied three set of parameters, resulting in, hydrophilic, inert, and hydrophobic interactions. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations were carried out, and the behavior of pure components and the excess properties of the mixtures have been studied. The pure components, water (solvent) and solute, have quite similar phase diagrams, presenting gas, low density liquid, and high density liquid phases. In the case of solute, the regions of coexistence are substantially reduced when compared with both the water and the standard ALG models. A numerical procedure has been developed in order to attain series of results at constant pressure from simulations of the lattice gas model in the grand canonical ensemble. The excess properties of the mixtures, volume and enthalpy as the function of the solute fraction, have been studied for different interaction parameters of the model. Our model is able to reproduce qualitatively well the excess volume and enthalpy for different aqueous solutions. For the hydrophilic case, we show that the model is able to reproduce the excess volume and enthalpy of mixtures of small alcohols and amines. The inert case reproduces the behavior of large alcohols such as propanol, butanol, and pentanol. For the last case (hydrophobic), the excess properties reproduce the behavior of ionic liquids in aqueous solution.

  16. Mixture risk assessment: a case study of Monsanto experiences. (United States)

    Nair, R S; Dudek, B R; Grothe, D R; Johannsen, F R; Lamb, I C; Martens, M A; Sherman, J H; Stevens, M W


    Monsanto employs several pragmatic approaches for evaluating the toxicity of mixtures. These approaches are similar to those recommended by many national and international agencies. When conducting hazard and risk assessments, priority is always given to using data collected directly on the mixture of concern. To provide an example of the first tier of evaluation, actual data on acute respiratory irritation studies on mixtures were evaluated to determine whether the principle of additivity was applicable to the mixture evaluated. If actual data on the mixture are unavailable, extrapolation across similar mixtures is considered. Because many formulations are quite similar in composition, the toxicity data from one mixture can be extended to a closely related mixture in a scientifically justifiable manner. An example of a family of products where such extrapolations have been made is presented to exemplify this second approach. Lastly, if data on similar mixtures are unavailable, data on component fractions are used to predict the toxicity of the mixture. In this third approach, process knowledge and scientific judgement are used to determine how the known toxicological properties of the individual fractions affect toxicity of the mixture. Three examples of plant effluents where toxicological data on fractions were used to predict the toxicity of the mixture are discussed. The results of the analysis are used to discuss the predictive value of each of the above mentioned toxicological approaches for evaluating chemical mixtures.

  17. Robustifying Bayesian nonparametric mixtures for count data. (United States)

    Canale, Antonio; Prünster, Igor


    Our motivating application stems from surveys of natural populations and is characterized by large spatial heterogeneity in the counts, which makes parametric approaches to modeling local animal abundance too restrictive. We adopt a Bayesian nonparametric approach based on mixture models and innovate with respect to popular Dirichlet process mixture of Poisson kernels by increasing the model flexibility at the level both of the kernel and the nonparametric mixing measure. This allows to derive accurate and robust estimates of the distribution of local animal abundance and of the corresponding clusters. The application and a simulation study for different scenarios yield also some general methodological implications. Adding flexibility solely at the level of the mixing measure does not improve inferences, since its impact is severely limited by the rigidity of the Poisson kernel with considerable consequences in terms of bias. However, once a kernel more flexible than the Poisson is chosen, inferences can be robustified by choosing a prior more general than the Dirichlet process. Therefore, to improve the performance of Bayesian nonparametric mixtures for count data one has to enrich the model simultaneously at both levels, the kernel and the mixing measure. © 2016, The International Biometric Society.

  18. Bridging environmental mixtures and toxic effects. (United States)

    Allan, Sarah E; Smith, Brian W; Tanguay, Robert L; Anderson, Kim A


    Biological Response Indicator Devices Gauging Environmental Stressors (BRIDGES) is a bioanalytical tool that combines passive sampling with the embryonic zebrafish developmental toxicity bioassay to provide a quantitative measure of the toxicity of bioavailable complex mixtures. Passive sampling devices (PSDs), which sequester and concentrate bioavailable organic contaminants from the environment, were deployed in the Willamette and Columbia Rivers within and outside of the Portland Harbor Superfund site in Portland, OR, USA. Six sampling events were conducted in the summer and fall of 2009 and 2010. Passive sampling device extracts were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds and screened for 1,201 chemicals of concern using deconvolution-reporting software. The developmental toxicity of the extracts was analyzed using the embryonic zebrafish bioassay. The BRIDGES tool provided site-specific, temporally resolved information about environmental contaminant mixtures and their toxicity. Multivariate modeling approaches were applied to paired chemical and toxic effects data sets to help unravel chemistry-toxicity associations. Modeling elucidated spatial and temporal trends in PAH concentrations and the toxicity of the samples and identified a subset of PAH analytes that were the most highly correlated with observed toxicity. Although the present study highlights the complexity of discerning specific bioactive compounds in complex mixtures, it demonstrates methods for associating toxic effects with chemical characteristics of environmental samples. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  19. Shear of ordinary and elongated granular mixtures (United States)

    Hensley, Alexander; Kern, Matthew; Marschall, Theodore; Teitel, Stephen; Franklin, Scott


    We present an experimental and computational study of a mixture of discs and moderate aspect-ratio ellipses under two-dimensional annular planar Couette shear. Experimental particles are cut from acrylic sheet, are essentially incompressible, and constrained in the thin gap between two concentric cylinders. The annular radius of curvature is much larger than the particles, and so the experiment is quasi-2d and allows for arbitrarily large pure-shear strains. Synchronized video cameras and software identify all particles and track them as they move from the field of view of one camera to another. We are particularly interested in the global and local properties as the mixture ratio of discs to ellipses varies. Global quantities include average shear rate and distribution of particle species as functions of height, while locally we investigate the orientation of the ellipses and non-affine events that can be characterized as shear transformational zones or possess a quadrupole signature observed previously in systems of purely circular particles. Discrete Element Method simulations on mixtures of circles and spherocylinders extend the study to the dynamics of the force network and energy dissipated as the system evolves. Supported by NSF CBET #1243571 and PRF #51438-UR10.

  20. Optimization of fruit punch using mixture design. (United States)

    Kumar, S Bharath; Ravi, R; Saraswathi, G


    A highly acceptable dehydrated fruit punch was developed with selected fruits, namely lemon, orange, and mango, using a mixture design and optimization technique. The fruit juices were freeze dried, powdered, and used in the reconstitution studies. Fruit punches were prepared according to the experimental design combinations (total 10) based on a mixture design and then subjected to sensory evaluation for acceptability. Response surfaces of sensory attributes were also generated as a function of fruit juices. Analysis of data revealed that the fruit punch prepared using 66% of mango, 33% of orange, and 1% of lemon had highly desirable sensory scores for color (6.00), body (5.92), sweetness (5.68), and pleasantness (5.94). The aroma pattern of individual as well as combinations of fruit juices were also analyzed by electronic nose. The electronic nose could discriminate the aroma patterns of individual as well as fruit juice combinations by mixture design. The results provide information on the sensory quality of best fruit punch formulations liked by the consumer panel based on lemon, orange, and mango.

  1. Spatially explicit dynamic N-mixture models (United States)

    Zhao, Qing; Royle, Andy; Boomer, G. Scott


    Knowledge of demographic parameters such as survival, reproduction, emigration, and immigration is essential to understand metapopulation dynamics. Traditionally the estimation of these demographic parameters requires intensive data from marked animals. The development of dynamic N-mixture models makes it possible to estimate demographic parameters from count data of unmarked animals, but the original dynamic N-mixture model does not distinguish emigration and immigration from survival and reproduction, limiting its ability to explain important metapopulation processes such as movement among local populations. In this study we developed a spatially explicit dynamic N-mixture model that estimates survival, reproduction, emigration, local population size, and detection probability from count data under the assumption that movement only occurs among adjacent habitat patches. Simulation studies showed that the inference of our model depends on detection probability, local population size, and the implementation of robust sampling design. Our model provides reliable estimates of survival, reproduction, and emigration when detection probability is high, regardless of local population size or the type of sampling design. When detection probability is low, however, our model only provides reliable estimates of survival, reproduction, and emigration when local population size is moderate to high and robust sampling design is used. A sensitivity analysis showed that our model is robust against the violation of the assumption that movement only occurs among adjacent habitat patches, suggesting wide applications of this model. Our model can be used to improve our understanding of metapopulation dynamics based on count data that are relatively easy to collect in many systems.

  2. Physical Compatibility of Propofol-Sufentanil Mixtures. (United States)

    Zbytovská, Jarmila; Gallusová, Jana; Vidlářová, Lucie; Procházková, Kamila; Šimek, Jan; Štěpánek, František


    Combined infusions of propofol and sufentanil preparations are frequently used in clinical practice to induce anesthesia and analgesia. However, the stability of propofol emulsions can be affected by dilution with another preparation, sometimes leading to particle coalescence and enlargement. Such unwanted effects can lead to fat embolism syndrome after intravenous application. This study describes the physical stability of 5 commercially available propofol preparations mixed with sufentanil citrate solutions. Two common markers of emulsion stability were used in this study; namely, the zeta potential and size distribution of the emulsion droplets. Both were measured using dynamic light scattering. The data for the pure propofol preparations and their mixtures with sufentanil citrate solution were compared. The absolute value of zeta potential decreased in 4 of the 5 propofol preparations after they had been mixed with sufentanil citrate. This effect indicates a lowering of repulsive interactions between the emulsion droplets. Although this phenomenon tends to cause agglomeration, none of the studied mixtures displayed a substantial increase in droplet size within 24 hours of blending. However, our long-term stability study revealed the instability of some of the propofol-sufentanil samples. Two of the 5 studied mixtures displayed a continual increase in particle size. The same 2 preparations showed the greatest reductions in the absolute value of zeta potential, thereby confirming the correlation of both measurement methods. The increase in particle size was more distinct in the samples stored at higher temperatures and with higher sufentanil concentrations. To ensure the microbial stability of an emulsion infusion preparation, clinical regulations require that such preparations should be applied to patients within 12 hours of opening. In this respect, we can confirm that during this period, none of the studied propofol-sufentanil mixtures displayed any physical

  3. Mixture Density Mercer Kernels: A Method to Learn Kernels (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents a method of generating Mercer Kernels from an ensemble of probabilistic mixture models, where each mixture model is generated from a Bayesian...

  4. Performance evaluation of Louisiana superpave mixtures : tech summary. (United States)


    The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the fundamental engineering : properties and mixture performance of Superpave hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixtures : in Louisiana through laboratory mechanistic tests, aggregate gradation analysis, and...

  5. REFLEAK: NIST Leak/Recharge Simulation Program for Refrigerant Mixtures (United States)

    SRD 73 NIST REFLEAK: NIST Leak/Recharge Simulation Program for Refrigerant Mixtures (PC database for purchase)   REFLEAK estimates composition changes of zeotropic mixtures in leak and recharge processes.

  6. Investigation of a Gamma model for mixture STR samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Susanne; Bøttcher, Susanne Gammelgaard; Lauritzen, Steffen L.

    The behaviour of PCR Amplification Kit, when used for mixture STR samples, is investigated. A model based on the Gamma distribution is fitted to the amplifier output for constructed mixtures, and the assumptions of the model is evaluated via residual analysis.......The behaviour of PCR Amplification Kit, when used for mixture STR samples, is investigated. A model based on the Gamma distribution is fitted to the amplifier output for constructed mixtures, and the assumptions of the model is evaluated via residual analysis....

  7. Perfect posterior simulation for mixture and hidden Marko models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Kasper Klitgaard; Breyer, Laird A.; Roberts, Gareth O.


    In this paper we present an application of the read-once coupling from the past algorithm to problems in Bayesian inference for latent statistical models. We describe a method for perfect simulation from the posterior distribution of the unknown mixture weights in a mixture model. Our method...... is extended to a more general mixture problem, where unknown parameters exist for the mixture components, and to a hidden Markov model....

  8. A Convex Hull Formulation for the Design of Optimal Mixtures


    Jonuzaj, S; Adjiman, CS


    The design of mixtures plays an important role in improving process and product performance but is challenging because it requires finding the optimal number, identities and compositions of mixture components and using nonlinear property models. To address this, a general modeling framework for mixture design problems is presented. It integrates Generalized Disjunctive Programming (GDP) into Computer-Aided Mixture/blend Design via Hull Reformulation (HR). The design methodology is applied suc...

  9. Optimal (Solvent) Mixture Design through a Decomposition Based CAMD methodology


    Achenie, L.; Arunprakash T. Karunanithi; Gani, Rafiqul


    Computer Aided Molecular/Mixture design (CAMD) is one of the most promising techniques for solvent design and selection. A decomposition based CAMD methodology has been formulated where the mixture design problem is solved as a series of molecular and mixture design sub-problems. This approach is able to overcome most of the difficulties associated with the solution of mixture design problems. The new methodology has been illustrated with the help of a case study involving the design of solve...

  10. Effect of Fibers on Mixture Design of Stone Matrix Asphalt


    Yanping Sheng; Haibin Li; Ping Guo; Guijuan Zhao; Huaxin Chen; Rui Xiong


    Lignin fibers typically influence the mixture performance of stone matrix asphalt (SMA), such as strength, stability, durability, noise level, rutting resistance, fatigue life, and water sensitivity. However, limited studies were conducted to analyze the influence of fibers on the percent voids in mineral aggregate in bituminous mixture (VMA) during the mixture design. This study analyzed the effect of different fibers and fiber contents on the VMA in SMA mixture design. A surface-dry conditi...

  11. Lessons learned in managing alfalfa-grass mixtures (United States)

    Grass-alfalfa mixtures have a number of benefits that make them attractive to producers. However, they can be problematic to establish and maintain. Research programs have made progress in understanding the benefits and challenges of alfalfa-grass mixtures. Mixtures may have greater winter survival ...

  12. 21 CFR 864.8625 - Hematology quality control mixture. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hematology quality control mixture. 864.8625 Section 864.8625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... quality control mixture. (a) Identification. A hematology quality control mixture is a device used to...

  13. Mixture Rasch Models with Joint Maximum Likelihood Estimation (United States)

    Willse, John T.


    This research provides a demonstration of the utility of mixture Rasch models. Specifically, a model capable of estimating a mixture partial credit model using joint maximum likelihood is presented. Like the partial credit model, the mixture partial credit model has the beneficial feature of being appropriate for analysis of assessment data…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerian Cerempei


    Full Text Available The article investigates phase stability of ethanol-gasoline mixtures depending on their composition, water concentration in ethanol and ethanol-gasoline mixture and temperature. There have been determined the perfect functioning conditions of spark ignition engines fueled with ethanol-gasoline mixtures.

  15. Stability Studies of a Mixture of Paracetamol and Ascorbic Acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the effect of the temperature of water used for the preparation of paracetamol and ascorbic acid mixture on its stability, as well as to assess the influence of humidity on the stability of single components and their mixtures. Methods: The stability of the mixtures in aqueous medium was evaluated with ...

  16. Potential therapeutic roles for antibody mixtures. (United States)

    Raju, T Shantha; Strohl, William R


    With the enormous success of recombinant monoclonal antibodies (rMAbs) as human therapeutics, there are increasing efforts underway to explore new molecular entities that mimic rMAbs to replicate this huge success. In addition to naked intact rMAbs, antibody drug conjugates (ADCs), FAb and F(ab')2 fragments and also Fc fusion proteins have been developed and/or marketed as human therapeutics to treat different human diseases, including life-threatening diseases such as cancer. Several hundreds more intact rMAbs, ADCs, FAb, F(ab')2 fragments and Fc fusion proteins are currently undergoing human clinical trials. In addition to these molecules, new type of antibody fragments such as single-chain Fvs (scFvs), VH, scFv-Fc, scFv-CH, scFAb, scFv-zipper, diabodies, bispecific antibodies and similar types of constructs are also being investigated to be developed as human monotherapeutics. Further, there are quite a few current examples of combinations of biologics being developed. For example, currently, several biopharmaceutical companies are developing combinations of antibody mixtures as human therapeutics. Accordingly, the question posed here is whether it is time to consider the possibility of developing a broader range of combinations of therapeutic biologics. Combinations of small organic molecules have been successfully used as therapeutics for many years to treat many diseases, so the context of using polypharmacology to treat human diseases is not novel. For the past several decades, intravenous immunoglobulins have successfully been used in treating various autoimmune diseases. In this context, several biotechnology companies are exploring the use of combinations of antibody mixtures as human therapeutics. This editorial discusses these current efforts and the potential future role of antibody mixtures as human therapeutics.

  17. Physical properties of gasoline/methanol mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eccleston, B.H.; Cox, F.W.


    Experimental work was done to relate selected physical properties of gasoline/methanol solutions, containing contaminant levels of water, to compositional and physical properties of the blending gasoline. Water tolerance, octane number, vapor pressure, and distillation data are presented for eight gasolines and for their methanol solutions at methanol levels up to 20 wt-pct. The water tolerances of these fuels were strongly dependent upon temperature, methanol concentration, and gasoline composition. To cover a wider range of compositional effects, water tolerance measurements were made at selected methanol levels on a variety of individual hydrocarbons, refinery stocks, and gasolines selected for specific compositional characteristics. These selections provided a sufficient range of property variation for the data to permit useful water-tolerance/gasoline composition correlations. The results presented in this report supplement and expand published data on water tolerances of gasoline/methanol mixtures. It is shown that an estimate can be made of the water tolerance of a gasoline/methanol mixture when the composition of the gasoline is known in sufficient detail. Portions of the D-86 distillation curves of gasoline/methanol mixtures can be estimated from a knowledge of the base gasoline distillation curves. In the region of 5 to 20 pct methanol content, vapor pressures can be estimated from those of the gasolines. The blending octane numbers resulting from the study agree well with previously published values. The referenced material and their associated bibliographies are intended to serve as a source of information regarding previous work on methanol and methanol/gasoline solutions for use as automotive fuel.

  18. An equiratio mixture model for non-additive components : a case study for aspartame/acesulfame-K mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schifferstein, H.N.J.


    The Equiratio Mixture Model predicts the psychophysical function for an equiratio mixture type on the basis of the psychophysical functions for the unmixed components. The model reliably estimates the sweetness of mixtures of sugars and sugar-alchohols, but is unable to predict intensity for

  19. Some properties of explosive mixtures containing peroxides Part I. Relative performance and detonation of mixtures with triacetone triperoxide. (United States)

    Zeman, Svatopluk; Trzciński, Waldemar A; Matyás, Robert


    This study concerns mixtures of triacetone triperoxide (3,3,6,6,9,9-hexamethyl-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexoxonane, TATP) and ammonium nitrate (AN) with added water (W), as the case may be, and dry mixtures of TATP with urea nitrate (UN). Relative performances (RP) of the mixtures and their individual components, relative to TNT, were determined by means of ballistic mortar. The detonation energies, E0, and detonation velocities, D, were calculated for the mixtures studied by means of the thermodynamic code CHEETAH. Relationships have been found and are discussed between the RP and the E0 values related to unit volume of gaseous products of detonation of these mixtures. These relationships together with those between RP and oxygen balance values of the mixtures studied indicate different types of participation of AN and UN in the explosive decomposition of the respective mixtures. Dry TATP/UN mixtures exhibit lower RP than analogous mixtures TATP/AN containing up to 25% of water. Depending on the water content, the TATP/AN mixtures possess higher detonability values than the ANFO explosives. A semi-logarithmic relationship between the D values and oxygen coefficients has been derived for all the mixtures studied at the charge density of 1000 kg m(-3). Among the mixtures studied, this relationship distinguishes several samples of the type of "tertiary explosives" as well as samples that approach "high explosives" in their performances and detonation velocities.

  20. Flows and chemical reactions in heterogeneous mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Prud'homme, Roger


    This book - a sequel of previous publications 'Flows and Chemical Reactions' and 'Chemical Reactions in Flows and Homogeneous Mixtures' - is devoted to flows with chemical reactions in heterogeneous environments.  Heterogeneous media in this volume include interfaces and lines. They may be the site of radiation. Each type of flow is the subject of a chapter in this volume. We consider first, in Chapter 1, the question of the generation of environments biphasic individuals: dusty gas, mist, bubble flow.  Chapter 2 is devoted to the study at the mesoscopic scale: particle-fluid exchange of mom

  1. Pycnonuclear reaction rates for binary ionic mixtures (United States)

    Ichimaru, S.; Ogata, S.; Van Horn, H. M.


    Through a combination of compositional scaling arguments and examinations of Monte Carlo simulation results for the interparticle separations in binary-ionic mixture (BIM) solids, we have derived parameterized expressions for the BIM pycnonuclear rates as generalizations of those in one-component solids obtained previously by Salpeter and Van Horn and by Ogata et al. We have thereby discovered a catalyzing effect of the heavier elements, which enhances the rates of reactions among the lighter elements when the charge ratio exceeds a critical value of approximately 2.3.

  2. Gaussian mixture model of heart rate variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Costa

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV is an important measure of sympathetic and parasympathetic functions of the autonomic nervous system and a key indicator of cardiovascular condition. This paper proposes a novel method to investigate HRV, namely by modelling it as a linear combination of Gaussians. Results show that three Gaussians are enough to describe the stationary statistics of heart variability and to provide a straightforward interpretation of the HRV power spectrum. Comparisons have been made also with synthetic data generated from different physiologically based models showing the plausibility of the Gaussian mixture parameters.

  3. Dirichlet-vMF Mixture Model


    Li, Shaohua


    This document is about the multi-document Von-Mises-Fisher mixture model with a Dirichlet prior, referred to as VMFMix. VMFMix is analogous to Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) in that they can capture the co-occurrence patterns acorss multiple documents. The difference is that in VMFMix, the topic-word distribution is defined on a continuous n-dimensional hypersphere. Hence VMFMix is used to derive topic embeddings, i.e., representative vectors, from multiple sets of embedding vectors. An ef...

  4. Exact Asymptotics of Bivariate Scale Mixture Distributions


    Hashorva, Enkelejd


    Let (RU_1, R U_2) be a given bivariate scale mixture random vector, with R>0 being independent of the bivariate random vector (U_1,U_2). In this paper we derive exact asymptotic expansions of the tail probability P{RU_1> x, RU_2> ax}, a \\in (0,1] as x tends infintiy assuming that R has distribution function in the Gumbel max-domain of attraction and (U_1,U_2) has a specific tail behaviour around some absorbing point. As a special case of our results we retrieve the exact asymptotic behaviour ...

  5. Conditional Density Approximations with Mixtures of Polynomials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varando, Gherardo; López-Cruz, Pedro L.; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre


    Mixtures of polynomials (MoPs) are a non-parametric density estimation technique especially designed for hybrid Bayesian networks with continuous and discrete variables. Algorithms to learn one- and multi-dimensional (marginal) MoPs from data have recently been proposed. In this paper we introduce...... two methods for learning MoP approximations of conditional densities from data. Both approaches are based on learning MoP approximations of the joint density and the marginal density of the conditioning variables, but they differ as to how the MoP approximation of the quotient of the two densities...

  6. Modeling of Complex Mixtures: JP-8 Toxicokinetics (United States)


    assessment, which in turn will facilitate the identification of “ bad actors” in the mixture. Identification of potential toxic components and their mode...Competitive metabolic inhibition max 1 x x x x tot m x x V cRAM cK c K =  + +    • Identification of “ bad actors” • Delivered dose predictions...implanted osmotic pump that delivers a constant rate of chemical over a period of time. A total of 157 male rats will be used resulting in euthanasia

  7. Optimal (Solvent) Mixture Design through a Decomposition Based CAMD methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achenie, L.; Karunanithi, Arunprakash T.; Gani, Rafiqul


    Computer Aided Molecular/Mixture design (CAMD) is one of the most promising techniques for solvent design and selection. A decomposition based CAMD methodology has been formulated where the mixture design problem is solved as a series of molecular and mixture design sub-problems. This approach is...... is able to overcome most of the difficulties associated with the solution of mixture design problems. The new methodology has been illustrated with the help of a case study involving the design of solvent-anti solvent binary mixtures for crystallization of Ibuprofen....

  8. Investigation of Adding Proportion of RAP in Recycled Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao He


    Full Text Available According to the relationship between gradation and proportion of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP and design gradation of recycled mixture, the authors discussed the influence of proportion of RAP on gradation adjustment of recycled mixture. And then, recycled mixture with 0%, 30%, 50%, 70% of RAP were made, and Influence of proportion of RAP on high and low temperature performance, water stability and anti-aging performance of recycled mixture were discussed. The results and analysis indicate that gradation of recycled mixture would not be adjusted to aiming gradation if proportion of RAP was too big. With the increase of proportion of RAP, high temperature performance and anti-aging performance of recycled mixture enhanced, but low temperature performance and water stability decayed sharply. In practical application, reasonable proportion of RAP should be determined according to gradation, performance demand and economy of recycled mixture.

  9. Health and environmental effects of complex chemical mixtures: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the Department of Energy supports a broad long-term research program on human health and environmental effects from potential exposure to energy-related complex chemical mixtures. The program seeks basic mechanistic data on the effects of complex mixtures at the cellular, molecular, and whole animal levels to aid in predicting human health effects and seeks ecological data on biological and physical transformations in the mixtures, concentrations of the mixtures in various compartments of the environment, and potential routes for human exposure to these mixtures (e.g., food chain). On June 17-18, 1985, OHER held its First Annual Technical Meeting on the Complex Chemical Mixtures Program in Chicago, IL. The primary purpose of the meeting was to enable principal investigators to report the research status and accomplishments of ongoing complex chemical mixture studies supported by OHER. To help focus future research directions round table discussions were conducted.

  10. Thermodynamics of organic mixtures containing amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)]. E-mail:; Mozo, Ismael [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Fuente, Isaias Garcia de la [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Cobos, Jose Carlos [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)


    Binary mixtures containing pyridine (PY), or 2-methylpyridine (2MPY) or 3-methylpyridine (3MPY) or 4-methylpyridine (4MPY) and an organic solvent as benzene, toluene, alkane, or 1-alkanol are investigated in the framework of DISQUAC. The corresponding interaction parameters are reported. The model describes accurately a whole set of thermodynamic properties: vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE), solid-liquid equilibria (SLE), molar excess Gibbs energies (G{sup E}), molar excess enthalpies (H{sup E}), molar excess heat capacities at constant pressure (C{sub P}{sup E}) and the concentration-concentration structure factor (S{sub CC}(0)). It is remarkable that DISQUAC correctly predicts the W-shaped curve of the C{sub P}{sup E} of the pyridine + n-hexadecane system. The model can be applied successfully to mixtures with strong positive or negative deviations from the Raoult's law. DISQUAC improves the theoretical results from UNIFAC (Dortmund version). The replacement of pyridine by a methylpyridine leads to a weakening of the amine-amine interactions, ascribed to the steric effect caused by the methyl group attached to the aromatic ring. This explains that for a given solvent (alkane, 1-alkanol) H{sup E}(pyridine)>H{sup E}(methylpyridine)

  11. Dielectric study on mixtures of ionic liquids. (United States)

    Thoms, E; Sippel, P; Reuter, D; Weiß, M; Loidl, A; Krohns, S


    Ionic liquids are promising candidates for electrolytes in energy-storage systems. We demonstrate that mixing two ionic liquids allows to precisely tune their physical properties, like the dc conductivity. Moreover, these mixtures enable the gradual modification of the fragility parameter, which is believed to be a measure of the complexity of the energy landscape in supercooled liquids. The physical origin of this index is still under debate; therefore, mixing ionic liquids can provide further insights. From the chemical point of view, tuning ionic liquids via mixing is an easy and thus an economic way. For this study, we performed detailed investigations by broadband dielectric spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry on two mixing series of ionic liquids. One series combines an imidazole based with a pyridine based ionic liquid and the other two different anions in an imidazole based ionic liquid. The analysis of the glass-transition temperatures and the thorough evaluations of the measured dielectric permittivity and conductivity spectra reveal that the dynamics in mixtures of ionic liquids are well defined by the fractions of their parent compounds.

  12. Rutting performance of cold bituminous emulsion mixtures (United States)

    Arshad, Ahmad Kamil; Ali, Noor Azilatom; Shaffie, Ekarizan; Hashim, Wardati; Rahman, Zanariah Abd


    Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mixture (CBEM) is an environmentally friendly alternative to hot mix asphalt (HMA) for road surfacing, due to its low energy requirements. However, CBEM has generally been perceived to be less superior in performance, compared to HMA. This paper details a laboratory study on the rutting performance of CBEM. The main objective of this study is to determine the Marshall properties of CBEM and to evaluate the rutting performance. The effect of cement in CBEM was also evaluated in this study. The specimens were prepared using Marshall Mix Design Method and rutting performance was evaluated using the Asphalt Pavement Analyzer (APA). Marshall Properties were analysed to confirm compliance with the PWD Malaysia's specification requirements. The rutting performance for specimens with cement was also found to perform better than specimens without cement. It can be concluded that Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mixtures (CBEM) with cement is a viable alternative to Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) as their Marshall Properties and performance obtained from this study meets the requirements of the specifications. It is recommended that further study be conducted on CBEM for other performance criteria such as moisture susceptibility and fatigue.

  13. Fermion pairing in Bose-Fermi mixtures (United States)

    Matera, F.


    An effective interaction between fermions in a Bose-Fermi mixture is derived. It is induced by density fluctuations of the bosonic background. The contributions from states containing both one and two virtual phonons are taken into account self-consistently. The time dependence of the effective interaction has been removed by assuming that the velocity of the fermions at the Fermi surface is much larger than the sound velocity in the Bose gas. This assumption is more appropriate for the actual experimental situations than the usual approximation of neglecting retardation effects. The effective interaction turns out to be attractive and, as a consequence, can give rise to a superconducting phase in the Fermi component of the mixture. The fermions are considered in only one magnetic state, so that pairing can be effective only in odd-l channels. It has been found that the onset of the superconducting phase can occur at temperatures (>100 nK) of the same order of magnitude as the Fermi temperature (˜300 nK), and the energy gap in the excitation spectrum is a small fraction (˜1%) of the Fermi energy.

  14. Equilibrium study for ternary mixtures of biodiesel (United States)

    Doungsri, S.; Sookkumnerd, T.; Wongkoblap, A.; Nuchitprasittichai, A.


    The liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data for the ternary mixtures of methanol + fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) + palm oil and FAME + palm oil + glycerol at various temperatures from 35 to 55°C, the tie lines and binodial curves were also investigated and plotted in the equilibrium curve. The experimental results showed that the binodial curves of methanol + FAME + palm oil depended significantly with temperature while the binodial curves of FAME + palm oil + glycerol illustrated insignificant change with temperatures. The interaction parameters between liquid pair obtained for NRTL (Nonrandom Two-Liquid) and UNIQUAC (Universal Quasi-Chemical Theory) models from the experimental data were also investigated. It was found that the correlated parameters of UNIQUAC model for system of FAME + palm oil + glycerol, denoted as a13 and a31, were 580.42K and -123.69K, respectively, while those for system of methanol + FAME + palm oil, denoted as a42 and a24, were 71.48 K and 965.57K, respectively. The ternary LLE data reported here would be beneficial for engineers and scientists to use for prediction of yield and purity of biodiesel for the production. The UNIQUAC model agreed well with the experimental data of ternary mixtures of biodiesel.

  15. Developmental Exposure to an Environmental PCB Mixture ... (United States)

    Developmental PCB exposure impairs hearing and induces brainstem audiogenic seizures in adult offspring. The degree to which this enhanced susceptibility to seizure is manifest in other brain regions has not been examined. Thus, electrical kindling of the amygdala was used to evaluate the effect of developmental exposure to an environmentally relevant PCB mixture on seizure susceptibility in the rat. Female Long-Evans rats were dosed orally with 0 or 6 mg/kg/day of the PCB mixture dissolved in corn oil vehicle during the perinatal period. On postnatal day (PND) 21, pups were weaned, and two males from each litter were randomly selected for the kindling study. As adults, the male rats were implanted bilaterally with electrodes in the basolateral amygdala. For each animal, afterdischarge (AD) thresholds in the amygdala were determined on the first day of testing followed by once daily stimulation at a standard 200 µA stimulus intensity until three stage 5 generalized seizures (GS) ensued. Developmental PCB exposure did not affect the AD threshold or total cumulative AD duration, but PCB exposure did increase the latency to behavioral manifestations of seizure propagation. PCB exposed animals required significantly more stimulations to reach stage 2 seizures compared to control animals, indicating an attenuated focal (amygdala) excitability. A delay in kindling progression from a focally stimulated limbic site stands in contrast to our previous finding of increase

  16. Bioavailability of genotoxic mixtures in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordelon, N.; Washburn, K.; He, L.Y.; Donnelly, K.C. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Veterinary Anatomy and Public Health


    Contaminated media at Superfund sites typically consist of complex mixtures of organic and inorganic chemicals which are difficult to characterize, both analytically and toxicologically. The current EPA approach to risk assessment uses solvent extraction to remove chemicals from the soil as a basis for estimating risk to the human population. However, contaminants that can be recovered with a solvent extract may not represent the mixture of chemicals that are available for human exposure. A procedure using an aqueous extraction was investigated to provide a more realistic estimate of what chemicals are bioavailable. A study was conducted with two soil types: creosote-contaminated sandy soil and coal tar-contaminated clay soil spiked with benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P], and trinitrotoluene (TNT). Samples were extracted with hexane:acetone and water titrated to pH2 and pH7. HPLC analysis demonstrated up to 35% and 29% recovery of contaminants using the aqueous extracts. The estimated cancer risk for the aqueous extract was one order of magnitude less than that for solvent extracts. Analysis using the Salmonella/microsome assay demonstrated that solvent extracts were genotoxic (133 revertants/mg) with metabolic activation while aqueous extracts of clay soil were not genotoxic. Sandy soil showed genotoxicity both with and without metabolic activation. These results suggest that solvent extraction techniques may overestimate the concentration of contaminants that are available for human exposure and, hence, the risk associated with the presence of the contaminants in soil.

  17. Concrete pavement mixture design and analysis (MDA) : effect of aggregate systems on concrete mixture properties. (United States)


    For years, specifications have focused on the water to cement ratio (w/cm) and strength of concrete, despite the majority of the volume : of a concrete mixture consisting of aggregate. An aggregate distribution of roughly 60% coarse aggregate and 40%...

  18. Modeling phase equilibria for acid gas mixtures using the CPA equation of state. Part II: Binary mixtures with CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht


    In Part I of this series of articles, the study of H2S mixtures has been presented with CPA. In this study the phase behavior of CO2 containing mixtures is modeled. Binary mixtures with water, alcohols, glycols and hydrocarbons are investigated. Both phase equilibria (vapor–liquid and liquid......–liquid) and densities are considered for the mixtures involved. Different approaches for modeling pure CO2 and mixtures are compared. CO2 is modeled as non self-associating fluid, or as self-associating component having two, three and four association sites. Moreover, when mixtures of CO2 with polar compounds (water...... for binary mixtures of CO2 and water or alcohols when the solvation between CO2 and the polar compound is explicitly accounted for, whereas the model is less satisfactory when CO2 is treated as self-associating compound....

  19. Analytical processing of binary mixture information by olfactory bulb glomeruli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max L Fletcher

    Full Text Available Odors are rarely composed of a single compound, but rather contain a large and complex variety of chemical components. Often, these mixtures are perceived as having unique qualities that can be quite different than the combination of their components. In many cases, a majority of the components of a mixture cannot be individually identified. This synthetic processing of odor information suggests that individual component representations of the mixture must interact somewhere along the olfactory pathway. The anatomical nature of sensory neuron input into segregated glomeruli with the bulb suggests that initial input of odor information into the bulb is analytic. However, a large network of interneurons within the olfactory bulb could allow for mixture interactions via mechanisms such as lateral inhibition. Currently in mammals, it is unclear if postsynaptic mitral/tufted cell glomerular mixture responses reflect the analytical mixture input, or provide the initial basis for synthetic processing with the olfactory system. To address this, olfactory bulb glomerular binary mixture representations were compared to representations of each component using transgenic mice expressing the calcium indicator G-CaMP2 in olfactory bulb mitral/tufted cells. Overall, dorsal surface mixture representations showed little mixture interaction and often appeared as a simple combination of the component representations. Based on this, it is concluded that dorsal surface glomerular mixture representations remain largely analytical with nearly all component information preserved.

  20. Cluster counting in helium based gas mixtures (United States)

    Cataldi, G.; Grancagnolo, F.; Spagnolo, S.


    The statistical advantages deriving from counting primary ionization, as opposed to the conventional energy loss measurement, are extensively discussed. A primary ionization counting method is proposed for a "traditional", cylindrical, single sense wire cell drift chamber, which makes use of a helium based gas mixture. Its conceptual feasibility is proven by means of a simple Monte Carlo simulation. A counting algorithm is developed and tested on the simulation output. A definition of the parameters of the read-out and of the digitizing electronics is given, assuming the described counting algorithm applied to a general detector design, in order to have a complete and realistic planning of a cluster counting measurement. Finally, some interesting results from a beam test, performed according to the described parameters, on primary ionization measurements and on {π}/{μ} separation are shown.

  1. Structure of cholesterol/ceramide monolayer mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffer, L.; Solomonov, I.; Weygand, M.J.


    The structure of monolayers of cholesterol/ ceramide mixtures was investigated using grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, immunofluorescence, and atomic force microscopy techniques. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements showed the existence of a crystalline mixed phase of the two...... that in uncompressed ceramide monolayers, the highly crystalline phase coexists with a disordered loosely packed phase. In contrast, no disordered phase coexists with the new crystalline mixed phase. We conclude that the new mixed phase represents a stable homogeneous arrangement of cholesterol with ceramide...... components within a range of compositions of cholesterol/ ceramide between 100: 0 and 67: 33. The mixed phase coexists with the ceramide crystalline phase in the range of compositions between 50: 50 and 30: 70; between 30: 70 and 0: 100 only the highly crystalline phase of ceramide was detected. The latter...

  2. A Fast Incremental Gaussian Mixture Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Coimbra Pinto

    Full Text Available This work builds upon previous efforts in online incremental learning, namely the Incremental Gaussian Mixture Network (IGMN. The IGMN is capable of learning from data streams in a single-pass by improving its model after analyzing each data point and discarding it thereafter. Nevertheless, it suffers from the scalability point-of-view, due to its asymptotic time complexity of O(NKD3 for N data points, K Gaussian components and D dimensions, rendering it inadequate for high-dimensional data. In this work, we manage to reduce this complexity to O(NKD2 by deriving formulas for working directly with precision matrices instead of covariance matrices. The final result is a much faster and scalable algorithm which can be applied to high dimensional tasks. This is confirmed by applying the modified algorithm to high-dimensional classification datasets.

  3. Periodic Spinodal Decomposition in Solid Binary Mixtures (United States)

    Onuki, A.


    Phase separation is studied when the temperature is made to oscillate around a critical value near a second-order phase transition. In such a case the structure factor is calculated for a one-component system with conserved order parameter using a computational method of Langer, Bar-on and Miller. The structure factor tends to a periodic function when the average of the oscillating temperature is higher than a new critical value which is lower than the equilibrium critical temperature. However, its maximum grows without limit when the average temperature is lowered below the critical value. This is a new type of phase transition where the fluctuations are much enhanced above the thermal level. Besides solid binary mixtures the results of this paper are applicable to uniaxial ferromagnets under strong ultra-sounds in which the spin component along the easy axis is conserved.

  4. Phase equilibrium measurements on nine binary mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilding, W.V. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Giles, N.F.; Wilson, L.C. [Wiltec Research Co. Inc., Provo, UT (United States)


    Phase equilibrium measurements have been performed on nine binary mixtures. The PTx method was used to obtain vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the following systems at two temperatures each: (aminoethyl)piperazine + diethylenetriamine; 2-butoxyethyl acetate + 2-butoxyethanol; 2-methyl-2-propanol + 2-methylbutane; 2-methyl-2-propanol + 2-methyl-2-butene; methacrylonitrile + methanol; 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane + hydrogen chloride; 2-(hexyloxy)ethanol + ethylene glycol; butane + ammonia; propionaldehyde + butane. Equilibrium vapor and liquid phase compositions were derived form the PTx data using the Soave equation of state to represent the vapor phase and the Wilson or the NRTL activity coefficient model to represent the liquid phase. A large immiscibility region exists in the butane + ammonia system at 0 C. Therefore, separate vapor-liquid-liquid equilibrium measurements were performed on this system to more precisely determine the miscibility limits and the composition of the vapor phase in equilibrium with the two liquid phases.

  5. [Lattice structure antacids and antacid mixtures]. (United States)

    Miederer, S E; Schmidt, C


    In the last years the importance of the evaluation of antacid compounds according to their neutralizing capacity decreased. Clinical investigations have shown that antacid mixtures of aluminum-magnesium hydroxide healed gastric an duodenal ulcers (neutralizing capacity 100-150 mmol/day) as well as H2 receptor antagonists and better than a placebo. By this the necessary daily dosage could be reduced essentially. This paper presents studies showing that lattice like structured antacids (e.g. Magaldrate) healed gastric and duodenal ulcers (neutralizing capacity 100-350 mmol/day) as well as Ranitidine (150 mg b.d.). Maintenance therapy should be evaluated critically because sufficient data are not available and mineral metabolism is changed significantly by extremely small dosages of aluminium-magnesium hydroxide antacids even in patients with normal kidney function.

  6. Quantum-coherent mixtures of causal relations (United States)

    MacLean, Jean-Philippe W.; Ried, Katja; Spekkens, Robert W.; Resch, Kevin J.


    Understanding the causal influences that hold among parts of a system is critical both to explaining that system's natural behaviour and to controlling it through targeted interventions. In a quantum world, understanding causal relations is equally important, but the set of possibilities is far richer. The two basic ways in which a pair of time-ordered quantum systems may be causally related are by a cause-effect mechanism or by a common-cause acting on both. Here we show a coherent mixture of these two possibilities. We realize this nonclassical causal relation in a quantum optics experiment and derive a set of criteria for witnessing the coherence based on a quantum version of Berkson's effect, whereby two independent causes can become correlated on observation of their common effect. The interplay of causality and quantum theory lies at the heart of challenging foundational puzzles, including Bell's theorem and the search for quantum gravity. PMID:28485394

  7. Bioavailability and variability of biphasic insulin mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søeborg, Tue; Rasmussen, Christian Hove; Mosekilde, Erik


    Absorption of subcutaneously administered insulin is associated with considerable variability. Some of this variability was quantitatively explained for both soluble insulin and insulin suspensions in a recent contribution to this journal (Søeborg et al., 2009). In the present article......, the absorption kinetics for mixtures of insulins is described. This requires that the bioavailability of the different insulins is considered. A short review of insulin bioavailability and a description of the subcutaneous depot thus precede the presentation of possible mechanisms associated with subcutaneous...... insulin degradation. Soluble insulins are assumed to be degraded enzymatically in the subcutaneous tissue. Suspended insulin crystals form condensed heaps that are assumed to be degraded from their surface by invading macrophages. It is demonstrated how the shape of the heaps affects the absorption...

  8. Amplification of DNA mixtures - Missing data approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Mogensen, Helle Smidt


    This paper presents a model for the interpretation of results of STR typing of DNA mixtures based on a multivariate normal distribution of peak areas. From previous analyses of controlled experiments with mixed DNA samples, we exploit the linear relationship between peak heights and peak areas...... DNA samples, it is only possible to observe the cumulative peak heights and areas. Complying with this latent structure, we use the EM-algorithm to impute the missing variables based on a compound symmetry model. That is the measurements are subject to intra- and inter-loci correlations not depending...... on the actual alleles of the DNA profiles. Due to factorization of the likelihood, properties of the normal distribution and use of auxiliary variables, an ordinary implementation of the EM-algorithm solves the missing data problem. We estimate the parameters in the model based on a training data set. In order...

  9. Urea and deuterium mixtures at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, M., E-mail:; Husband, R. J.; Frantzana, A. D.; Loveday, J. S. [Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions and School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh, Erskine Williamson Building, Peter Guthrie Tait Road, The King’s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3FD (United Kingdom); Bull, C. L. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxford Harwell, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Klotz, S. [IMPMC, CNRS UMR 7590, Université P and M Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France)


    Urea, like many network forming compounds, has long been known to form inclusion (guest-host) compounds. Unlike other network formers like water, urea is not known to form such inclusion compounds with simple molecules like hydrogen. Such compounds if they existed would be of interest both for the fundamental insight they provide into molecular bonding and as potential gas storage systems. Urea has been proposed as a potential hydrogen storage material [T. A. Strobel et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 478, 97 (2009)]. Here, we report the results of high-pressure neutron diffraction studies of urea and D{sub 2} mixtures that indicate no inclusion compound forms up to 3.7 GPa.

  10. Nuclear fuel alloys or mixtures and method of making thereof (United States)

    Mariani, Robert Dominick; Porter, Douglas Lloyd


    Nuclear fuel alloys or mixtures and methods of making nuclear fuel mixtures are provided. Pseudo-binary actinide-M fuel mixtures form alloys and exhibit: body-centered cubic solid phases at low temperatures; high solidus temperatures; and/or minimal or no reaction or inter-diffusion with steel and other cladding materials. Methods described herein through metallurgical and thermodynamics advancements guide the selection of amounts of fuel mixture components by use of phase diagrams. Weight percentages for components of a metallic additive to an actinide fuel are selected in a solid phase region of an isothermal phase diagram taken at a temperature below an upper temperature limit for the resulting fuel mixture in reactor use. Fuel mixtures include uranium-molybdenum-tungsten, uranium-molybdenum-tantalum, molybdenum-titanium-zirconium, and uranium-molybdenum-titanium systems.

  11. Dietary relevant mixtures of phytoestrogens inhibit adipocyte differentiation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Specht, Ina Olmer; Boberg, Julie


    Phytoestrogens (PEs) are naturally occurring plant components, with the ability to induce biological responses in vertebrates by mimicking or modulating the action of endogenous hormones.Single isoflavones have been shown to affect adipocyte differentiation, but knowledge on the effect of dietary...... relevant mixtures of PEs, including for instance lignans, is lacking. In the current study dietary relevant mixtures of isoflavones and their metabolites, lignans and their metabolites, coumestrol, and a mixture containing all of them, were examined for effects on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, as well...... as tested for their PPARγ activating abilities. The results showed that mixtures of isoflavonoid parent compounds and metabolites, respectively, a mixture of lignan metabolites, as well as coumestrol concentration-dependently inhibited adipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, a mixture of isoflavonoid parent...

  12. Residual-based model diagnosis methods for mixture cure models. (United States)

    Peng, Yingwei; Taylor, Jeremy M G


    Model diagnosis, an important issue in statistical modeling, has not yet been addressed adequately for cure models. We focus on mixture cure models in this work and propose some residual-based methods to examine the fit of the mixture cure model, particularly the fit of the latency part of the mixture cure model. The new methods extend the classical residual-based methods to the mixture cure model. Numerical work shows that the proposed methods are capable of detecting lack-of-fit of a mixture cure model, particularly in the latency part, such as outliers, improper covariate functional form, or nonproportionality in hazards if the proportional hazards assumption is employed in the latency part. The methods are illustrated with two real data sets that were previously analyzed with mixture cure models. © 2016, The International Biometric Society.

  13. Determination of thermal conductivity in foundry mould mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Solenički


    Full Text Available For a thorough understanding of the behaviour of foundry mould mixtures, a good knowledge of thermal properties of mould materials is needed. Laboratory determination of thermal conductivity of mould mixtures enables a better control over scabbing defects which are a major problem in green sand mould mixtures. A special instrument has been designed for that purpose and it is described in this work.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Al-Shalout


    Full Text Available This study deals with the durability of asphalt concrete, including the effects of different gradations, compaction temperatures and immersion time on the durability potential of mixtures. The specific objectives of this study are: to investigate the effect of compaction temperature on the mechanical properties of asphalt concrete mixtures; investigate the effect of bitumen content and different aggregate gradations on the durability potential of bituminous mixtures.

  15. Temperature Coefficients of the Refractive Index for Complex Hydrocarbon Mixtures (United States)

    Wen, Qing; Shen, Jun; Gieleciak, Rafal; Michaelian, Kirk H.; Rohling, Jurandir H.; Astrath, Nelson G. C.; Baesso, Mauro L.


    Temperature coefficients of the refractive index () in the to temperature interval for hydrocarbon mixtures containing as many as 14 compounds were investigated in this work. The measured of the mixtures were compared with calculations based on the values for each compound and their concentrations. Differences of about 1 % between measured and calculated values were observed for all mixtures. The additivity of for these hydrocarbons enables preparation of surrogate fuels that are formulated to have properties like those of specific diesel fuels.

  16. Microheterogeneity in CH3OH/CD3OH mixture (United States)

    Wrzeszcz, Władysław; Mazurek, Sylwester; Szostak, Roman; Tomza, Paweł; Czarnecki, Mirosław A.


    Recently, we demonstrated the presence of microheterogeneity in binary mixtures of unlike alcohols. [RSC Adv. 2016, 6, 37195-37202] The aim of this work was examination if this phenomenon occurs also in the mixture of very similar alcohols like CH3OH and CD3OH. Theoretical calculations suggest that the isotopic substitution in methyl group influences properties of the OH group. Hence, one can expect that this effect may lead to partial separation of CH3OH and CD3OH at a molecular level and it contributes to deviation from the ideal mixture. This work evidences that CH3OH/CD3OH mixture also deviates from the ideal one, but the extent of this deviation is much smaller as compared with the mixtures of other alcohols. It is of particular note that this deviation results mainly from the difference between the CH3 and CD3 groups, while the contribution from the OH groups is small. The structure of CH3OH/CD3OH mixture at a molecular level is similar to the structure of binary mixtures of other alcohols. The mixture is composed of the homoclusters of both alcohols and the mixed clusters. The homoclusters existing in the mixture are similar to those present in bulk alcohols. The highest population of the heteroclusters and the largest deviation from the ideal mixture were observed at equimolar mixture. Both the experimental and theoretical results reveal that in CH3OH/CD3OH mixture dominate the cyclic tetramers and larger clusters, while the population of the linear clusters is negligible. Though the extent and strength of hydrogen bonding in both alcohols are the same, the position and intensity of the 2ν(OH) band for CH3OH and CD3OH are different. We propose possible explanation of this observation.

  17. Plastic Bottles Waste Utilization as Modifier for Asphalt Mixture Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hakeem


    Full Text Available Plastic Bottles was used as the polymeric waste to investigate performance of asphalt mixture Aggregates obtained from Margalla, Burhan and Karak quarries. 12 samples were prepared for conventional asphalt mixtures and 48 samples were prepared for PB modified asphalt mixture of each quarries at various proportions of PB waste. The PB used for modification according to wet process are 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% by weight of Optimum Bitumen Content (OBC. OBC of 4.2 % was concluded for conventional asphalt mixtures. The stability and flow values of the conventional and modified Asphalt Mixture were compared. The average Stability of the modified Margalla asphalt mixtures when 15% PB was used was much higher as compared to conventional asphalt mixtures. But when PB was used beyond 15%, the Marshall stability showed a decreasing trend for Margalla aggregates, increasing trend for Karak aggregates and decreasing trend for Burhan aggregates. This decline in stability is attributed to a decline in interlocking of aggregates due to lubricating effect. The corresponding flow for the Modified asphalt mixtures first showed a decreasing trend for Margalla aggregates at 15% PB modification but beyond 15%, an increasing trend in flow as compared to conventional asphalt mixtures The decrease in flow or increase in Marshall Stability is attributed to improvement in interlocking and decline in flow or stability is attributed to a decline in interlocking offered by binder and PB coated aggregate particles in modified asphalt.

  18. Use of multiline cultivars and cultivar mixtures for disease management. (United States)

    Mundt, C C


    The usefulness of mixtures (multiline cultivars and cultivar mixtures) for disease management has been well demonstrated for rusts and powdery mildews of small grain crops. Such mixtures are more useful under some epidemiological conditions than under others, and experimental methodology, especially problems of scale, may be crucial in evaluating the potential efficacy of mixtures on disease. There are now examples of mixtures providing both low and high degrees of disease control for a wide range of pathosystems, including crops with large plants, and pathogens that demonstrate low host specificity, or are splash dispersed, soilborne, or insect vectored. Though most analyses of pathogen evolution in mixtures consider static costs of virulence to be the main mechanism countering selection for pathogen complexity, many other potential mechanisms need to be investigated. Agronomic and marketing considerations must be carefully evaluated when implementing mixture approaches to crop management. Practical difficulties associated with mixtures have often been overestimated, however, and mixtures will likely play an increasingly important role as we develop more sustainable agricultural systems.

  19. Tutorial for mixture-process experiments with an industrial application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Abreu Dal Bello


    Full Text Available This article presents a tutorial on mixture-process experiments and a case study of a chemical compound used in the delay mechanism for starting a rocket engine. The compound consists in a three-component mixture. Besides the mixture components, two process variables are considered. For the model selection, the use of an information criterion showed to be efficient in the case under study. A linear regression model was fitted. Through the developed model, the optimal proportions of the mixture components and the levels of the process variables were determined.

  20. Gas Mixtures for Welding with Micro-Jet Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Węgrzyn T.


    Full Text Available Welding with micro-jet cooling after was tested only for MIG and MAG processes. For micro-jet gases was tested only argon, helium and nitrogen. A paper presents a piece of information about gas mixtures for micro-jet cooling after in welding. There are put down information about gas mixtures that could be chosen both for MAG welding and for micro-jet process. There were given main information about influence of various micro-jet gas mixtures on metallographic structure of steel welds. Mechanical properties of weld was presented in terms of various gas mixtures selection for micro-jet cooling.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Nowadays, large amounts of waste materials are being produced in the world. One of the waste materials is plastic bottle. Generating disposable plastic bottles is becoming a major problem in many countries. Using waste plastic as a secondary material in construction projects would be a solution to overcome the crisis of producing large amount of waste plastics in one hand and improving the structure’s characteristics such as resistance against cracking on the other hand. This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding plastic bottles in road pavement. Marshall properties as well as specific gravity of asphalt mixture containing different percentages of plastic bottles were evaluated. Besides, Optimum Asphalt Content (OAC was calculated for each percentages of plastic bottles used in the mix. The stiffness and fatigue characteristics of mixture were assessed at OAC value. Results showed that the stability and flow values of asphalt mixture increased by adding waste crushed plastic bottle into the asphalt mixture. Further, it was shown that the bulk specific gravity and stiffness of mixtures increased by adding lower amount of plastic bottles; however, adding higher amounts of plastic resulted in lower specific gravity and mix stiffness. In addition, it was concluded that the mixtures containing waste plastic bottles have lower OAC values compared to the conventional mixture, and this may reduce the amount of asphalt binder can be used in road construction projects. Besides, the mixtures containing waste plastic showed significantly greater fatigue resistance than the conventional mixture.

  2. The oolitization rate determination of bentonite moulding mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Miksovsky


    Full Text Available Bentonite mixtures belong and will always belong among the most widespread sand mixtures for the “green sand” technology of castings production. This technology’s essential advantage is bentonite mixtures application reversibility in the closed circulation after composition modifications and circulation losses replenishment. After the casting of a mould, the surrounding sand mixture is strained by the solidifying casting heat and bentonite degradation occurs. In case of appropriate conditions the oolitization occurs. This phenomenon is specific only for bentonite-bonded mixtures. The oolitization of opening material silica grains brings a number of negative as well as positive features with it. It is not only a technological problem but economical and ecological as well because for minimization of mixture regeneration with a help of new sand it is necessary to know bentonite mixtures quality control tools even in term of the oolitization rate. This paper deals with the description of undemanding physical method of the oolitization rate evaluation with a help of powder density assessment and its examination with actual sand mixtures which were obtained from the Czech Republic foundry plants. There are foundry plants of heavier weight castings and in one case there was an operation where bentonite mixtures regeneration was applied. Moreover, the oolitization effect on metal penetration in test castings was verified.

  3. mixsmsn: Fitting Finite Mixture of Scale Mixture of Skew-Normal Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Oliveira Prates


    Full Text Available We present the R package mixsmsn, which implements routines for maximum likeli- hood estimation (via an expectation maximization EM-type algorithm in finite mixture models with components belonging to the class of scale mixtures of the skew-normal distribution, which we call the FMSMSN models. Both univariate and multivariate re- sponses are considered. It is possible to fix the number of components of the mixture to be fitted, but there exists an option that transfers this responsibility to an automated procedure, through the analysis of several models choice criteria. Plotting routines to generate histograms, plug-in densities and contour plots using the fitted models output are also available. The precision of the EM estimates can be evaluated through their esti- mated standard deviations, which can be obtained by the provision of an approximation of the associated information matrix for each particular model in the FMSMSN family. A function to generate artificial samples from several elements of the family is also supplied. Finally, two real data sets are analyzed in order to show the usefulness of the package.

  4. Measurements of metal adsorption in oxide-clay mixtures: ``Competitive-additivity`` among mixture components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, V.S. [Environmental and Earth Sciences Inst., McLean, VA (United States); Siegel, M.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kooner, Z.S. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Geology


    An important question concerning the transport of radionuclides from nuclear waste repositories is whether the adsorption of metals by rocks and soils can be predicted from the properties of the constituent minerals. Attempts by previous researchers to use sorption models based on linear adsorption or weighted ``sorptive additivity`` have met with limited success. In this study, a ``competitive-additivity`` model based on surface complexation theory was used to model the ph-dependent adsorption of lead by goethite/Ca-montmorillonite mixtures using complexation constants obtained from single sorbent systems. Measurements of lead adsorption by goethite, Ca-montmorillonite, and goethite-Ca-montmorillonite mixtures (and similar studies of copper and zinc adsorption) demonstrate that the two adsorbents compete for adsorption of the metals over wide ranges of pH and concentrations of adsorbents and metals. The adsorption behaviors of the mixtures are determined by the relative concentrations of the two adsorbents and their respective affinities for the adsorbate metal. Particle-particle interactions such as heterocoagulation of the oxide and clay do not appear to be significant for the majority of the adsorption sites in this system.

  5. Paleomagnetic field reconstruction from mixtures of titanomagnetites (United States)

    Berndt, Thomas; Ramalho, Ricardo S.; Valdez-Grijalva, Miguel A.; Muxworthy, Adrian R.


    Stepwise thermal demagnetization and alternating field (AF) demagnetization are commonly used in paleomagnetic studies to isolate remanent magnetic components of different origins. The magnetically hardest, i.e. highest unblocking temperature/peak field component is often interpreted as the primary magnetization and magnetically softer components as subsequent remagnetizations due to geological events posterior to the formation of the rock, such as reheating or formation of new magnetic minerals. The correct interpretation of the sequence of the geological events such as tectonic rotations from paleomagnetic data often relies on correctly attributing the observed magnetic directions to the remanence carriers and acquisition mechanisms. Using a numerical model to simulate remanence acquisition and stepwise thermal and AF demagnetization experiments, we show that the presence of mixtures of different magnetic minerals, such as magnetite and titanomagnetites of varying titanium-content can have very significant effects on Zijderveld plots. In thermal demagnetization experiments a spurious third component at intermediate temperatures or a continuous curvature may arise from an overlap of the primary remanence with a subsequent thermal or viscous remagnetization carried by small-grained iron-rich magnetite and large-grained titanium-rich titanomagnetite. AF demagnetization plots of magnetic mixtures are even more complex: primary and secondary remanences carried by different minerals may appear as either three or four components in Zijderveld plots. During alternating field demagnetization the highest coercivity component is not necessarily equivalent to the primary remanence and does not necessarily correspond to the highest temperature component in an analogous thermal demagnetization experiment, i.e., the primary remanence direction cannot be recovered. The effects are shown to be due to the different responsiveness of magnetite and titanomagnetites towards viscous

  6. Porous concrete mixtures for pervious urban pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro, J.


    Full Text Available The present study aimed to analyze the hydraulic and mechanical behaviour of a series of roller-compacted, laboratory porous concrete mixtures. The mix design variables examined were the actual void ratio in the hardened concrete and the water/cement ratio. From these results the better dosages from the mechanical and hydraulical behaviour point of view were determined. One of the designs developed was found to exhibit excellent hydraulic capacity and 20% greater strength than the mixtures recommended in the literature. Moreover, concrete with an actual void ratio of only 14% was observed to meet permeability requirements. Maximum flexural strength of concretes with different w/c ratios was achieved with a cement paste content of 250 l/m3. Relationships were found between the void ratio and both 28-day concrete permeability and flexural strength. Finally, the doses exhibiting the best mechanical and hydraulic performance were identified.El trabajo realizado en este estudio consistió en analizar el comportamiento de diferentes dosificaciones de mezclas de hormigón poroso, fabricadas en laboratorio y compactadas con rodillo pesado para simular las condiciones de terreno. Las variables consideradas para el diseño de las mezclas fueron el porcentaje real de huecos en el hormigón endurecido y la razón agua/cemento. A partir de estos resultados se determinaron las dosificaciones que presentan mejor comportamiento desde el punto de vista mecánico e hidráulico. Los resultados muestran que existe una dosificación de hormigón poroso, distinta a las encontradas actualmente en la literatura internacional, que permite obtener resistencias hasta 20% más altas, manteniendo todavía una excelente capacidad hidráulica. Se determinó que una permeabilidad suficiente se puede obtener con un porcentaje real de huecos de 14%, y que agregar pasta de cemento en una proporción de 250 l/m3 permite maximizar la resistencia a flexotracción de hormigones que

  7. Complex contaminant mixtures in multistressor Appalachian riverscapes. (United States)

    Merriam, Eric R; Petty, J Todd; Strager, Michael P; Maxwell, Aaron E; Ziemkiewicz, Paul F


    Runoff from watersheds altered by mountaintop mining in the Appalachian region (USA) is known to pollute headwater streams, yet regional-scale assessments of water quality have focused on salinization and selenium. The authors conducted a comprehensive survey of inorganic contaminants found in 170 stream segments distributed across a spectrum of historic and contemporary human land use. Principal component analysis identified 3 important dimensions of variation in water chemistry that were significantly correlated with contemporary surface mining (principal component 1: elevated dominant ions, sulfate, alkalinity, and selenium), coal geology and legacy mines (principal component 2: elevated trace metals), and residential development (principal component 3: elevated sodium and chloride). The combination of these 3 dominant sources of pollutants produced a complex stream-to-stream patchwork of contaminant mixtures. Seventy-five percent of headwater streams (catchments  5 km(2) ) were classified as having reference chemistries, and chemistries indicative of combined mining and development contaminants accounted for 47% of larger streams (compared with 26% of headwater streams). Extreme degradation of larger streams can be attributed to accumulation of contaminants from multiple human land use activities that include contemporary mountaintop mining, underground mining, abandoned mines, and untreated domestic wastewater. Consequently, water quality improvements in this region will require a multicontaminant remediation approach. © 2015 SETAC.

  8. Electrical properties of methane hydrate + sediment mixtures (United States)

    Du Frane, Wyatt L.; Stern, Laura A.; Weitemeyer, Karen A.; Constable, Steven; Roberts, Jeffery J.


    As part of our DOE-funded proposal to characterize gas hydrate in the Gulf of Mexico using marine electromagnetic methods, a collaboration between SIO, LLNL, and USGS with the goal of measuring the electrical properties of lab-created methane (CH4) hydrate and sediment mixtures was formed. We examined samples with known characteristics to better relate electrical properties measured in the field to specific gas hydrate concentration and distribution patterns. Here we discuss first-ever electrical conductivity (σ) measurements on unmixed CH4 hydrate (Du Frane et al., 2011): 6 x 10-5 S/m at 5 °C, which is ~5 orders of magnitude lower than seawater. This difference allows electromagnetic (EM) techniques to distinguish highly resistive gas hydrate deposits from conductive water saturated sediments in EM field surveys. More recently, we performed measurements on CH4 hydrate mixed with sediment and we also discuss those initial findings here. Our results on samples free of liquid water are important for predicting conductivity of sediments with pores highly saturated with gas hydrate, and are an essential starting point for comprehensive mixing models.

  9. On protein abundance distributions in complex mixtures. (United States)

    Koziol, Ja; Griffin, Nm; Long, F; Li, Y; Latterich, M; Schnitzer, Je


    Mass spectrometry, an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ionized atoms or molecules, dates back more than 100 years, and has both qualitative and quantitative uses for determining chemical and structural information. Quantitative proteomic mass spectrometry on biological samples focuses on identifying the proteins present in the samples, and establishing the relative abundances of those proteins. Such protein inventories create the opportunity to discover novel biomarkers and disease targets. We have previously introduced a normalized, label-free method for quantification of protein abundances under a shotgun proteomics platform (Griffin et al., 2010). The introduction of this method for quantifying and comparing protein levels leads naturally to the issue of modeling protein abundances in individual samples. We here report that protein abundance levels from two recent proteomics experiments conducted by the authors can be adequately represented by Sichel distributions. Mathematically, Sichel distributions are mixtures of Poisson distributions with a rather complex mixing distribution, and have been previously and successfully applied to linguistics and species abundance data. The Sichel model can provide a direct measure of the heterogeneity of protein abundances, and can reveal protein abundance differences that simpler models fail to show.

  10. Probabilistic drought classification using gamma mixture models (United States)

    Mallya, Ganeshchandra; Tripathi, Shivam; Govindaraju, Rao S.


    Drought severity is commonly reported using drought classes obtained by assigning pre-defined thresholds on drought indices. Current drought classification methods ignore modeling uncertainties and provide discrete drought classification. However, the users of drought classification are often interested in knowing inherent uncertainties in classification so that they can make informed decisions. Recent studies have used hidden Markov models (HMM) for quantifying uncertainties in drought classification. The HMM method conceptualizes drought classes as distinct hydrological states that are not observed (hidden) but affect observed hydrological variables. The number of drought classes or hidden states in the model is pre-specified, which can sometimes result in model over-specification problem. This study proposes an alternate method for probabilistic drought classification where the number of states in the model is determined by the data. The proposed method adapts Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) methodology of drought classification by employing gamma mixture model (Gamma-MM) in a Bayesian framework. The method alleviates the problem of choosing a suitable distribution for fitting data in SPI analysis, quantifies modeling uncertainties, and propagates them for probabilistic drought classification. The method is tested on rainfall data over India. Comparison of the results with standard SPI show important differences particularly when SPI assumptions on data distribution are violated. Further, the new method is simpler and more parsimonious than HMM based drought classification method and can be a viable alternative for probabilistic drought classification.

  11. Electrical Breakdown in a Martian Gas Mixture (United States)

    Buhler, C. R.; Calle, C. I.; Nelson, E.


    The high probability for dust interactions during Martian dust storms and dust devils combined with the cold, dry climate of Mars most likely result in airborne dust that is highly charged. On Earth, potential gradients up to 5 kV/m have been recorded and in some cases resulted in lightning. Although the Martian atmosphere is not conducive to lightning generation, it is widely believed that electrical discharge in the form of a corona occurs. In order to understand the breakdown of gases, Paschen measurements are taken which relate the minimum potential required to spark across a gap between two electrodes. The minimum potential is plotted versus the pressure-distance value for electrodes of a given geometry. For most gases, the potential decreases as the pressure decreases. For CO2, the minimum in the curve happens to be at Mars atmospheric pressures (5-7 mm Hg) for many distances and geometries. However, a very small amount (mixing gases radically changes the curve, as noted by Leach. Here, we present the first experimental results of a Paschen curve for a Mars gas mixture compared with 100% pure CO2.

  12. Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández, J.; Volpato, G.


    Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantanamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products

  13. Mechanistic and Economical Characteristics of Asphalt Rubber Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mena I. Souliman


    Full Text Available Load associated fatigue cracking is one of the major distress types occurring in flexible pavement systems. Flexural bending beam fatigue laboratory test has been used for several decades and is considered to be an integral part of the new superpave advanced characterization procedure. One of the most significant solutions to prolong the fatigue life for an asphaltic mixture is to utilize flexible materials as rubber. A laboratory testing program was performed on a conventional and Asphalt Rubber- (AR- gap-graded mixtures to investigate the impact of added rubber on the mechanical, mechanistic, and economical attributes of asphaltic mixtures. Strain controlled fatigue tests were conducted according to American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO procedures. The results from the beam fatigue tests indicated that the AR-gap-graded mixtures would have much longer fatigue life compared with the reference (conventional mixtures. In addition, a mechanistic analysis using 3D-Move software coupled with a cost analysis study based on the fatigue performance on the two mixtures was performed. Overall, analysis showed that AR modified asphalt mixtures exhibited significantly lower cost of pavement per 1000 cycles of fatigue life per mile compared to conventional HMA mixture.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DUINEVELD, C. A. A.; Smilde, A. K.; Doornbos, D. A.


    Although there are several methods for the construction of a design for process variables and mixture variables, there are not very many methods which are suitable to combine mixture and process variables in one design. Some of the methods which are feasible will be shown. These methods will be

  15. Phase and viscosity behaviour of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cisneros, Sergio; Garcia, J.; Fernandez, J.


    , mainly as a function of the molecular asymmetry. This also has a profound effect in the mixture transport properties. Thus, in this work the general aspects of phase and viscosity behaviour linked to the type of asymmetry found in refrigerant-lubricant mixtures are discussed in the context of phase...

  16. Different Approaches to Covariate Inclusion in the Mixture Rasch Model (United States)

    Li, Tongyun; Jiao, Hong; Macready, George B.


    The present study investigates different approaches to adding covariates and the impact in fitting mixture item response theory models. Mixture item response theory models serve as an important methodology for tackling several psychometric issues in test development, including the detection of latent differential item functioning. A Monte Carlo…

  17. Evaluating Mixture Modeling for Clustering: Recommendations and Cautions (United States)

    Steinley, Douglas; Brusco, Michael J.


    This article provides a large-scale investigation into several of the properties of mixture-model clustering techniques (also referred to as latent class cluster analysis, latent profile analysis, model-based clustering, probabilistic clustering, Bayesian classification, unsupervised learning, and finite mixture models; see Vermunt & Magdison,…

  18. Using Mixture of Gaussians to Compare Approaches to Signal Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kaare Brandt


    is an example of how such different approaches to separation can be compared using Mixtures of Gaussians as a prior distribution. This not only illuminates some interesting properties of Maximum Likelihood and Energy Based Models, but is also an example of how Mixtures of Gaussians can serve as a both flexible...

  19. A Multilevel Mixture IRT Model with an Application to DIF (United States)

    Cho, Sun-Joo; Cohen, Allan S.


    Mixture item response theory models have been suggested as a potentially useful methodology for identifying latent groups formed along secondary, possibly nuisance dimensions. In this article, we describe a multilevel mixture item response theory (IRT) model (MMixIRTM) that allows for the possibility that this nuisance dimensionality may function…

  20. Finite Gaussian Mixture Approximations to Analytically Intractable Density Kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia; Richard, Jean-Francois

    The objective of the paper is that of constructing finite Gaussian mixture approximations to analytically intractable density kernels. The proposed method is adaptive in that terms are added one at the time and the mixture is fully re-optimized at each step using a distance measure that approxima...

  1. Phase Behavior of Mixtures of Ionic Liquids and Organic Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens; Ellegaard, Martin Dela; O’Connell, J.P.


    A corresponding-states form of the generalized van der Waals equation, previously developed for mixtures of an ionic liquid and a supercritical solute, is here extended to mixtures including an ionic liquid and a solvent (water or organic). Group contributions to characteristic parameters...

  2. Binary mixtures of carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether as alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data were predicted for the binary mixture of carbon dioxide (CO2) and dimethyl ether (DME) at ten temperatures ranging from 273.15 to 386.56 K and pressure upto 7.9 MPa to observe this mixture's potential of COP enhancement and capacity modulation as a working fluid in a refrigeration ...

  3. Mixture including hydrogen and hydrocarbon having pressure-temperature stability (United States)

    Mao, Wendy L. (Inventor); Mao, Ho-Kwang (Inventor)


    The invention relates to a method of storing hydrogen that employs a mixture of hydrogen and a hydrocarbon that can both be used as fuel. In one embodiment, the method involves maintaining a mixture including hydrogen and a hydrocarbon in the solid state at ambient pressure and a temperature in excess of about 10 K.

  4. Effect of stirring on the safety of flammable liquid mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaw, Horng-Jang, E-mail: [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, 91 Hsueh-Shih Rd., Taichung, Taiwan (China); Gerbaud, Vincent [Universite de Toulouse, LGC (Laboratoire de Genie Chimique), CNRS, INP, UPS, BP 84234, 4 allees Emile Monso, F-31432 Toulouse Cedex (France); Chen, Chan-Cheng [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, 2 Jhuoyue Rd., Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Shu, Chi-Min [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, 123 University Rd., Sec. 3, Douliou, Yunlin, Taiwan (China)


    Flash point is the most important variable employed to characterize fire and explosion hazard of liquids. The models developed for predicting the flash point of partially miscible mixtures in the literature to date are all based on the assumption of liquid-liquid equilibrium. In real-world environments, however, the liquid-liquid equilibrium assumption does not always hold, such as the collection or accumulation of waste solvents without stirring, where complete stirring for a period of time is usually used to ensure the liquid phases being in equilibrium. This study investigated the effect of stirring on the flash-point behavior of binary partially miscible mixtures. Two series of partially miscible binary mixtures were employed to elucidate the effect of stirring. The first series was aqueous-organic mixtures, including water + 1-butanol, water + 2-butanol, water + isobutanol, water + 1-pentanol, and water + octane; the second series was the mixtures of two flammable solvents, which included methanol + decane, methanol + 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, and methanol + octane. Results reveal that for binary aqueous-organic solutions the flash-point values of unstirred mixtures were located between those of the completely stirred mixtures and those of the flammable component. Therefore, risk assessment could be done based on the flammable component flash-point value. However, for the assurance of safety, it is suggested to completely stir those mixtures before handling to reduce the risk.

  5. 46 CFR 154.1735 - Methyl acetylene-propadiene mixture. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methyl acetylene-propadiene mixture. 154.1735 Section... CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Special Design and Operating Requirements § 154.1735 Methyl acetylene-propadiene mixture. (a) The composition of the methyl...

  6. Polymer mixtures in confined geometries: Model systems to explore ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    While binary (A,B) symmetric polymer mixtures in = 3 dimensions have an unmixing critical point that belongs to the 3 Ising universality class and crosses over to mean field behavior for very long chains, the critical behavior of mixtures confined into thin film geometry falls in the 2 Ising class irrespective of chain length.

  7. Effect of hydrofluoric acid on acid decomposition mixtures for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of hydrofluoric acid on acid decomposition mixtures for determining iron and other metallic elements in green vegetables. ... Therefore, the inclusion of HF in the acid decomposition mixtures would ensure total and precise estimation of Fe in plant materials, but not critical for analysis of Mn, Mg, Cu, Zn and Ca.

  8. Research note : Miscibility behaviour of binary mixtures of benzyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Miscibility of binary mixtures of benzyl benzoate and liquid paraffin as functions of temperature and composition has been determined using phase separation method. The binary mixtures demonstrated a critical (upper) solution temperature of 35 °C at 101325 Nm-2 with a mixing gap. A tie-line drawn at 28 °C across the ...

  9. Effect of stirring on the safety of flammable liquid mixtures. (United States)

    Liaw, Horng-Jang; Gerbaud, Vincent; Chen, Chan-Cheng; Shu, Chi-Min


    Flash point is the most important variable employed to characterize fire and explosion hazard of liquids. The models developed for predicting the flash point of partially miscible mixtures in the literature to date are all based on the assumption of liquid-liquid equilibrium. In real-world environments, however, the liquid-liquid equilibrium assumption does not always hold, such as the collection or accumulation of waste solvents without stirring, where complete stirring for a period of time is usually used to ensure the liquid phases being in equilibrium. This study investigated the effect of stirring on the flash-point behavior of binary partially miscible mixtures. Two series of partially miscible binary mixtures were employed to elucidate the effect of stirring. The first series was aqueous-organic mixtures, including water+1-butanol, water+2-butanol, water+isobutanol, water+1-pentanol, and water+octane; the second series was the mixtures of two flammable solvents, which included methanol+decane, methanol+2,2,4-trimethylpentane, and methanol+octane. Results reveal that for binary aqueous-organic solutions the flash-point values of unstirred mixtures were located between those of the completely stirred mixtures and those of the flammable component. Therefore, risk assessment could be done based on the flammable component flash-point value. However, for the assurance of safety, it is suggested to completely stir those mixtures before handling to reduce the risk. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Microwave dielectric characterization of binary mixture of formamide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dielectric relaxation measurements of formamide (FMD)–,- dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) solvent mixtures have been carried out over the entire concentration range using time domain reflectometry technique at 25, 35 and 45° C in thefrequency range of 10 MHz to 20 GHz. The mixtures exhibit a principle dispersion of ...

  11. Modeling adsorption of binary and ternary mixtures on microporous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monsalvo, Matias Alfonso; Shapiro, Alexander


    The goal of this work is to analyze the adsorption of binary and ternary mixtures on the basis of the multicomponent potential theory of adsorption (MPTA). In the MPTA, the adsorbate is considered as a segregated mixture in the external potential field emitted by the solid adsorbent. This makes i...

  12. Quantitative measurement of mixtures by terahertz time-domain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... absorption coefficients of the components in each mixture were linearly proportional to their concentrations in the mixture. The results from analysis were in agreement with actual values with a relative error of less than 7%. The quantitative method will help in the detection of illegal drugs, poisons and dangerous materials ...

  13. Ternary mixtures of alkyltriphenylphosphonium bromides (C12 TPB ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    chemical applications. Mixed systems may be less expensive and provide better performances1–4 that arises from judicial choice of different surfactant mixtures to induce synergistic behaviour and/or to provide different performances in a single formula- tion. Under this backdrop, binary mixtures of con- ventional and ...

  14. excess molar volumes, and refractive index of binary mixtures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    product of biodiesel and used in many wide industrial applications. Glycerol can be obtained by ... binary mixtures of glycerol + water and glycerol + methanol covering the whole composition range and at 298.15 K .... 114 the mixture. Excess molar volumes on mixing of the binary systems were fitted to Redlich–. Kister [12 ...

  15. Compacted sand-bentonite mixtures for hydraulic containment liners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanit Chalermyanont


    Full Text Available Sand is a pervious material in nature. Mixing sand with appropriate bentonite contents yields sandbentonite mixtures having low hydraulic conductivity that can be used as hydraulic containment liners. In this study, compaction tests were conducted to determine the optimum water content and maximum dry unit weight of compacted sand-bentonite mixtures. Direct shear and hydraulic conductivity tests were conducted to assess the shear strength parameters and hydraulic conductivity of compacted sand-bentonite mixtures. Test results indicate that hydraulic conductivity of mixtures decreases about four orders of magnitude when mixed with 5% bentonite or more. Mixing sand with bentonite, however, results in a decreased shear strength of the mixtures due to the swell of bentonite when soaked with water. For the mixtures with bentonite content varying from 0 to 9%, the hydraulic conductivity of the mixtures decreases from 3.60×10-5 to 4.13×10-9 cm/s; while the corresponding friction angle and swell ranges from 49 to 22 degrees and 0.85 to 10.32%, respectively. In addition, the compacted sand-bentonite mixture with 3% bentonite content could achieve low hydraulic conductivity of 1×10-7 cm/s which is a regular requirement for hydraulic containment liners, while still having relatively high shear strength.

  16. Polymer mixtures in confined geometries: Model systems to explore ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. While binary (A,B) symmetric polymer mixtures in d = 3 dimensions have an unmixing critical point that belongs to the 3d Ising universality class and crosses over to mean field behavior for very long chains, the critical behavior of mixtures confined into thin film geometry falls in the 2d Ising class irrespective of chain ...

  17. Toxicity assessment of organic contaminants: evaluation of mixture effects in model industrial mixtures using 2n full factorial design. (United States)

    Parvez, Shahid; Venkataraman, Chandra; Mukherji, Suparna


    Toxic organic chemicals present in industrial effluents were screened to design mixtures for examining the significant main and interaction effects among mixture components. A set of five four-component mixtures was selected by examining effluents from organic chemical, textile-dye, pulp-paper and petroleum refinery industries. The screening was based on their discharge, solubility, toxicity and volatility. A 2(n) full factorial approach was used in designing the mixtures, containing components at two dose levels, EC(10)(-) and EC(40)(+). Each mixture resulted in 16 combinations. Mixture toxicity was measured using the Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition assay. The main effects and binary, ternary and quaternary interaction effects were determined and the significance of effects was evaluated using normal order score and multifactor ANOVA. The organic chemicals retained after screening included, acetaldehyde, aniline, n-butanol, p-cresol, catechol, ethylbenzene, naphthalene, phenol, 1,2,4 trimethylbenzene and o-xylene. In all mixtures, the magnitude of main effects was more significant than the interaction effects. The trend in the main effect of components in any mixture was affected by the trends in the physico-chemical properties of the components, i.e., partition coefficient, molecular size and polarity. In some mixtures, a component with significantly higher concentration and significantly lower toxicity was found to depict a relatively high main effect, as observed for acetaldehyde in mixture I and n-butanol in mixture III. Normal order score approach failed to identify the significant interaction effects that could be identified using multifactor ANOVA. In general, the binary interactions were more significant than the ternary and quaternary interactions.

  18. High density thermite mixture for shaped charge ordnance disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Elshenawy


    Full Text Available The effect of thermite mixture based on aluminum and ferric oxides for ammunition neutralization has been studied and tested. Thermochemical calculations have been carried out for different percentage of Al using Chemical Equilibrium Code to expect the highest performance thermite mixture used for shaped charge ordnance disposal. Densities and enthalpy of different formulations have been calculated and demonstrated. The optimized thermite formulation has been prepared experimentally using cold iso-static pressing technique, which exhibited relatively high density and high burning rate thermite mixture. The produced green product compacted powder mixture was tested against small caliber shaped charge bomblet for neutralization. Theoretical and experimental results showed that the prepared thermite mixture containing 33% of aluminum as a fuel with ferric oxide can be successfully used for shaped charge ordnance disposal.

  19. Combustion of soybean oil and diesel mixtures for heating purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Adriana Correa; Sanz, Jose Francisco [European University Miguel de Cervantes, Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail:; Hernandez, Salvador; Navas, Luis Manuel; Rodriguez, Elena; Ruiz, Gonzalo [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Agricultural and Forest Engineering; San Jose, Julio [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Energetic Engineering; Gomez, Jaime [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Communications and Signal Theory and Telematics Engineering


    Using blends of vegetable oils with petroleum derivates for heating purposes has several advantages over other energy application for vegetable oils. This paper presents the results of an investigation by use of soybean oil and diesel mixture as fuel for producing heat in conventional diesel installation. The paper is set out as follows: properties characterization of soybean oil as fuel and of diesel oil, as well as the mixture of both; selection of the mixture according to their physical chemical properties and how they adapt to conventional combustion installation; experimentation with the selected mixture, allowing the main combustion parameters to be measured; processing the collected data, values of combustion, efficiency and reduction of emissions. Conclusions show that the use of soybean oil and diesel mixture for producing heat energy in conventional equipment is feasible and beneficial for reduction emissions. (author)

  20. Effects of Mixing on Hopper Sedimentation in Clearing Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Saremi, Sina


    Hopper sedimentation is the result of precipitation of typically fine sediment from a homogenous, high-concentration mixture, which is not completely deficient of turbulence. If hopper sedimentation or loading is accomplished through a single-inflow system, or if the irregularity of the inflow...... concentrations is pronounced or simply terminated, then the hopper mixture will clear. Whereas turbulent mixing is redundant, when the mixture is homogeneous, it may take an active role when the mixture is clearing. The role of turbulence on hopper sedimentation has been the focus of several studies......, and a common perception of turbulence (or at least of mixing) is that it delays sedimentation. Existing measurements of sedimentation rates in a closed-flume experiment, engineered to provide input to a hopper sedimentation model, revealed that turbulence in a clearing mixture is not necessarily associated...

  1. Blind Source Separation for Convolutive Mixtures with Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIREI, B. S.


    Full Text Available Blind source separation of convolutive mixtures is used as a preprocessing stage in many applications. The aim is to extract individual signals from their mixtures. In enclosed spaces, due to reverberation, audio signal mixtures are considered to be convolutive ones. Time domain algorithms (as neural network based blind source separation are not suitable for signal recovery from convolutive mixtures, thus the need of frequency domain or subband processing arise. We propose a subband approach: first the mixtures are split to several subbands, next time-domain blind source separation is carried out in each subband, finally the recovered sources are recomposed from the subbands. The major drawback of the subband approach is the unknown order of the recovered sources. Regardless of this undesired phenomenon the subband approach is faster and more stable than the simple time domain algorithm.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason M. Keith


    This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter, natural gas mass flow sensor, and an exhaust temperature sensor. Finally, the engine was interfaced with a control system for pilot injection of DME. The engine testing is currently in progress. In addition, a one-pass process to form DME from natural gas was simulated with chemical processing software. Natural gas is reformed to synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), converted into methanol, and finally to DME in three steps. Of additional benefit to the internal combustion engine, the offgas from the pilot process can be mixed with the main natural gas charge and is expected to improve engine performance. Furthermore, a one-pass pilot facility was constructed to produce 3.7 liters/hour (0.98 gallons/hour) DME from methanol in order to characterize the effluent DME solution and determine suitability for engine use. Successful production of DME led to an economic estimate of completing a full natural gas-to-DME pilot process. Additional experimental work in constructing a synthesis gas to methanol reactor is in progress. The overall recommendation from this work is that natural gas to DME is not a suitable pathway to improved natural gas engine performance. The major reasons are difficulties in handling DME for pilot injection and the large capital costs associated with DME production from natural gas.

  3. Stochastic radiative transfer model for mixture of discontinuous vegetation canopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabanov, Nikolay V. [Department of Geography, Boston University, 675 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)]. E-mail:; Huang, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Environmental Sciences Department, P.O. Box 5000, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Knjazikhin, Y. [Department of Geography, Boston University, 675 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Dickinson, R.E. [School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Myneni, Ranga B. [Department of Geography, Boston University, 675 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)


    Modeling of the radiation regime of a mixture of vegetation species is a fundamental problem of the Earth's land remote sensing and climate applications. The major existing approaches, including the linear mixture model and the turbid medium (TM) mixture radiative transfer model, provide only an approximate solution to this problem. In this study, we developed the stochastic mixture radiative transfer (SMRT) model, a mathematically exact tool to evaluate radiation regime in a natural canopy with spatially varying optical properties, that is, canopy, which exhibits a structured mixture of vegetation species and gaps. The model solves for the radiation quantities, direct input to the remote sensing/climate applications: mean radiation fluxes over whole mixture and over individual species. The canopy structure is parameterized in the SMRT model in terms of two stochastic moments: the probability of finding species and the conditional pair-correlation of species. The second moment is responsible for the 3D radiation effects, namely, radiation streaming through gaps without interaction with vegetation and variation of the radiation fluxes between different species. We performed analytical and numerical analysis of the radiation effects, simulated with the SMRT model for the three cases of canopy structure: (a) non-ordered mixture of species and gaps (TM); (b) ordered mixture of species without gaps; and (c) ordered mixture of species with gaps. The analysis indicates that the variation of radiation fluxes between different species is proportional to the variation of species optical properties (leaf albedo, density of foliage, etc.) Gaps introduce significant disturbance to the radiation regime in the canopy as their optical properties constitute major contrast to those of any vegetation species. The SMRT model resolves deficiencies of the major existing mixture models: ignorance of species radiation coupling via multiple scattering of photons (the linear mixture

  4. Forensic identification of an individual in complex DNA mixtures. (United States)

    Voskoboinik, Lev; Darvasi, Ariel


    The identification of a suspect in a complex DNA mixture typed with standard short tandem repeat (STR) kits has proved difficult. In the current study we present the theoretical framework of a method aimed to resolve this problem in forensic cases. The method suggests genotyping a specially designed panel of 1000-3000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), each with a relatively low (DNA mixture will carry this particular set only if the one individual is represented in the DNA mixture. The efficiency of the method is evaluated by estimating the probability that a random man will not be excluded (RMNE) from the mixture. When this probability, P(RMNE), is low, one can conclude that the suspect's DNA is present in the DNA mixture. Essentially, a P(RMNE)DNA mixture and when contributors or suspects come from different populations. We have also found that the method can accurately identify the number of contributors to the mixture, something that in some instances has significant forensic value on its own. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Improved gas mixtures for gas-filled particle detectors (United States)

    Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Maxey, D.V.; Carter, J.G.

    Improved binary and tertiary gas mixture for gas-filled particle detectors are provided. The components are chosen on the basis of the principle that the first component is one gas or mixture of two gases having a large electron scattering cross section at energies of about 0.5 eV and higher, and the second component is a gas (Ar) having a very small cross section at and below about 0.5 eV; whereby fast electrons in the gaseous mixture are slowed into the energy range of about 0.5 eV where the cross section for the mixture is small and hence the electron mean free path is large. The reduction in both the cross section and the electron energy results in an increase in the drift velocity of the electrons in the gas mixtures over that for the separate components for a range of E/P (pressure-reduced electron field) values. Several gas mixtures are provided that provide faster response in gas-filled detectors for convenient E/P ranges as compared with conventional gas mixtures.

  6. A Study on The Mixture of Exponentiated-Weibull Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Tawfik Elshahat


    Full Text Available Mixtures of measures or distributions occur frequently in the theory and applications of probability and statistics. In the simplest case it may, for example, be reasonable to assume that one is dealing with the mixture in given proportions of a finite number of normal populations with different means or variances. The mixture parameter may also be denumerable infinite, as in the theory of sums of a random number of random variables, or continuous, as in the compound Poisson distribution. The use of finite mixture distributions, to control for unobserved heterogeneity, has become increasingly popular among those estimating dynamic discrete choice models. One of the barriers to using mixture models is that parameters that could previously be estimated in stages must now be estimated jointly: using mixture distributions destroys any additive reparability of the log likelihood function. In this thesis, the maximum likelihood estimators have been obtained for the parameters of the mixture of exponentiated Weibull distribution when sample is available from censoring scheme. The maximum likelihood estimators of the parameters and the asymptotic variance covariance matrix have been also obtained. A numerical illustration for these new results is given.

  7. Complex mixture discrimination and the role of contaminants. (United States)

    Lovitz, A M; Sloan, A M; Rennaker, R L; Wilson, D A


    Rats were trained in a 2-alternative odor choice task to discriminate between a 10-component odor mixture and the same mixture with one component removed and replaced with 1 of 3 concentrations of a different monomolecular odor (contaminant). All stimuli were presented within a training session, thus the rat essentially had to learn to discriminate the 10-component mixture from "not" the 10-component mixture. Rats performed most poorly discriminating the complete mixture from the mixture with one component removed and no contaminant added. As the concentration of the contaminant increased from 10 ppm to a concentration equal to the other components (100 ppm), discrimination improved linearly. In analyses of individual differences, rats that spent more time in the sampling port (sampling and making a decision) were more accurate than rats that spent less time. Together, these results emphasize the balance between perceptual stability and perceptual discrimination expressed by the olfactory system dealing with dynamic mixtures and the robust effects of contamination on those processes. In addition, they provide further support that modification of sampling/decision time is a strategy used by rats to deal with difficult discriminations of complex odors.

  8. Parameters of Solidifying Mixtures Transporting at Underground Ore Mining (United States)

    Golik, Vladimir; Dmitrak, Yury


    The article is devoted to the problem of providing mining enterprises with solidifying filling mixtures at underground mining. The results of analytical studies using the data of foreign and domestic practice of solidifying mixtures delivery to stopes are given. On the basis of experimental practice the parameters of transportation of solidifying filling mixtures are given with an increase in their quality due to the effect of vibration in the pipeline. The mechanism of the delivery process and the procedure for determining the parameters of the forced oscillations of the pipeline, the characteristics of the transporting processes, the rigidity of the elastic elements of pipeline section supports and the magnitude of vibrator' driving force are detailed. It is determined that the quality of solidifying filling mixtures can be increased due to the rational use of technical resources during the transportation of mixtures, and as a result the mixtures are characterized by a more even distribution of the aggregate. The algorithm for calculating the parameters of the pipe vibro-transport of solidifying filling mixtures can be in demand in the design of mineral deposits underground mining technology.

  9. Parameters of Solidifying Mixtures Transporting at Underground Ore Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golik Vladimir


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of providing mining enterprises with solidifying filling mixtures at underground mining. The results of analytical studies using the data of foreign and domestic practice of solidifying mixtures delivery to stopes are given. On the basis of experimental practice the parameters of transportation of solidifying filling mixtures are given with an increase in their quality due to the effect of vibration in the pipeline. The mechanism of the delivery process and the procedure for determining the parameters of the forced oscillations of the pipeline, the characteristics of the transporting processes, the rigidity of the elastic elements of pipeline section supports and the magnitude of vibrator’ driving force are detailed. It is determined that the quality of solidifying filling mixtures can be increased due to the rational use of technical resources during the transportation of mixtures, and as a result the mixtures are characterized by a more even distribution of the aggregate. The algorithm for calculating the parameters of the pipe vibro-transport of solidifying filling mixtures can be in demand in the design of mineral deposits underground mining technology.

  10. Option Pricing with Asymmetric Heteroskedastic Normal Mixture Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rombouts, Jeroen V. K; Stentoft, Lars


    We propose an asymmetric GARCH in mean mixture model and provide a feasible method for option pricing within this general framework by deriving the appropriate risk neutral dynamics. We forecast the out-of-sample prices of a large sample of options on the S&P 500 index from January 2006 to December...... 2011, and compute dollar losses and implied standard deviation losses. We compare our results to those of existing mixture models and other benchmarks like component models and jump models. Using the model confidence set test, the overall dollar root mean squared error of the best performing benchmark...... model is significantly larger than that of the best mixture model....

  11. Genetic mixture of multiple source populations accelerates invasive range expansion. (United States)

    Wagner, Natalie K; Ochocki, Brad M; Crawford, Kerri M; Compagnoni, Aldo; Miller, Tom E X


    A wealth of population genetic studies have documented that many successful biological invasions stem from multiple introductions from genetically distinct source populations. Yet, mechanistic understanding of whether and how genetic mixture promotes invasiveness has lagged behind documentation that such mixture commonly occurs. We conducted a laboratory experiment to test the influence of genetic mixture on the velocity of invasive range expansion. The mechanistic basis for effects of genetic mixture could include evolutionary responses (mixed invasions may harbour greater genetic diversity and thus elevated evolutionary potential) and/or fitness advantages of between-population mating (heterosis). If driven by evolution, positive effects of source population mixture should increase through time, as selection sculpts genetic variation. If driven by heterosis, effects of mixture should peak following first reproductive contact and then dissipate. Using a laboratory model system (beetles spreading through artificial landscapes), we quantified the velocity of range expansion for invasions initiated with one, two, four or six genetic sources over six generations. Our experiment was designed to test predictions corresponding to the evolutionary and heterosis mechanisms, asking whether any effects of genetic mixture occurred in early or later generations of range expansion. We also quantified demography and dispersal for each experimental treatment, since any effects of mixture should be manifest in one or both of these traits. Over six generations, invasions with any amount of genetic mixture (two, four and six sources) spread farther than single-source invasions. Our data suggest that heterosis provided a 'catapult effect', leaving a lasting signature on range expansion even though the benefits of outcrossing were transient. Individual-level trait data indicated that genetic mixture had positive effects on local demography (reduced extinction risk and enhanced

  12. Gas Mixtures for Welding with Micro-Jet Cooling


    Węgrzyn T.


    Welding with micro-jet cooling after was tested only for MIG and MAG processes. For micro-jet gases was tested only argon, helium and nitrogen. A paper presents a piece of information about gas mixtures for micro-jet cooling after in welding. There are put down information about gas mixtures that could be chosen both for MAG welding and for micro-jet process. There were given main information about influence of various micro-jet gas mixtures on metallographic structure of steel welds. Mechani...

  13. Identification and separation of DNA mixtures using peak area information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowell, R.G.; Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt; Mortera, J.

    We show how probabilistic expert systems can be used to analyse forensic identification problems involving DNA mixture traces using quantitative peak area information. Peak area is modelled with conditional Gaussian distributions. The expert system can be used for scertaining whether individuals......, whose profiles have been measured, have contributed to the mixture, but also to predict DNA profiles of unknown contributors by separating the mixture into its individual components. The potential of our methodology is illustrated on case data examples and compared with alternative approaces...

  14. Chemometrics as a tool to analyse complex chemical mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan Henning

    Chemical characterisation of contaminant mixtures is important for environmental forensics and risk assessment. The great challenge in future research lies in develop- ing suitable, rapid, reliable and objective methods for analysis of the composition of complex chemical mixtures. This thesis...... and at the same time must consider a substantial fraction of compounds in the complex mixture. A combination of a) limited sample preparation, b) rapid chemical screening analysis, c) fast and semi-automatic pre-processing, d) compre- hensive multivariate statistical data analysis and e) objective data evaluation...

  15. Ultrasonic velocity and adiabatic compressibility in dioxane-water mixtures (United States)

    Ciupe, A.; Auslaender, D.


    Using a method of diffraction of light on an ultrasonic beam, the velocity of ultrasounds and the adiabatic compressibility in dioxane-water mixtures were determined. The dependence of these quantities on the temperature (in the 15-50 C range) and on the concentration (0-100%) were studied. For each temperature there was found a velocity maximum and a compressibility minimum for a given value of the dioxane concentration. The different behavior of these mixtures is due to intense interactions between the molecules of the two liquids composing the mixture.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Setyo Muntohar


    Full Text Available Understanding characteristics of soil mixtures lead to increasing the confidence level before applying such materials in the field. The outcomes of this study can provide insight into the swelling and the compressibility behavior of soil – bentonite mixtures, between non-swelling materials and swelling materials. A simple swell and compression laboratory test has been conducted for the purposes of this study. The result of this study indicated that the existence of bentonite in the soil mixtures influence the swelling behavior, which follows a hyperbolic curve model. Amount and size of nonswelling fraction affected the swelling and compressibility.

  17. Research of oxyhydrogen gas mixture influence upon diesel engine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrov Evgeni


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results from testing a Volkswagen 1.9 D diesel engine on a test bench to work on gas-diesel cycle with oxyhydrogen gas mixture. Experimental research is done to show the impact of oxyhydrogen gas mixture on engine consumption and environmental indexes such as: fuel and specific fuel consumption; carbon monoxide; carbon dioxide; oxides of nitrogen; smoke emissions. The oxyhydrogen gas mixture delivered to the engine intake manifold with constant flow rate. The results are obtained under research contract № 6524-4/2016.

  18. ``Bicellar'' Lipid Mixtures as used in Biochemical and Biophysical Studies (United States)

    Katsaras, John; Harroun, Thad A.; Pencer, Jeremy; Nieh, Mu-Ping


    Over the past decade “bicellar” lipid mixtures composed of the long-chain dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and the short-chain dihexanoyl PC (DHPC) molecules have emerged as a powerful medium for studying membrane associated, biologically relevant macromolecules and assemblies. Depending on temperature, lipid concentration and composition these lipid mixtures can assume a variety of morphologies, some of them alignable in the presence of a magnetic field. This article will examine the biophysical studies that have elucidated the various morphologies assumed by these lipid mixtures, and their use in the biochemical studies of biomolecules.

  19. Analysis of a Pareto Mixture Distribution for Maritime Surveillance Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham V. Weinberg


    Full Text Available The Pareto distribution has been shown to be an excellent model for X-band high-resolution maritime surveillance radar clutter returns. Given the success of mixture distributions in radar, it is thus of interest to consider the effect of Pareto mixture models. This paper introduces a formulation of a Pareto intensity mixture distribution and investigates coherent multilook radar detector performance using this new clutter model. Clutter parameter estimates are derived from data sets produced by the Defence Science and Technology Organisation's Ingara maritime surveillance radar.

  20. Transport properties of supercritical fluids and their binary mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Luedemann, H D


    The molecular dynamics of the two supercritical fluids most applied in industry and some of their mixtures are characterized by their self-diffusion coefficients D sub i , measured by high pressure high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance with the strengthened glass cell technique. The technical details of the apparatus will be given. The fluids studied are carbon dioxide and ammonia. For CO sub 2 , mixtures with C sub 6 H sub 6 , H sub 2 , CH sub 3 COOH and CH sub 3 OH were investigated. The NH sub 3 mixtures include C sub 6 H sub 6 , (CH sub 3) sub 3 N, CH sub 3 CN and CH sub 3 OH.

  1. Risk management of low air void asphalt concrete mixtures. (United States)


    Various forms of asphalt pavement distress, such as rutting, shoving and bleeding, can be attributed, in many cases, to low air voids in : the mixtures during production and placement. The occurrence of low air void contents during plant production m...

  2. Tools and perspectives for assessing chemical mixtures and multiple stressors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Hans; Ragas, Ad M. J.; Holmstrup, Martin


    moments in time. Within a novel framework for risk assessment of chemical mixtures, the importance of environmental factors on toxicokinetic processes is highlighted. A new paradigm for applying personal characteristics that determine individual exposure and sensitivity in human risk assessment...

  3. Transport Properties of operational gas mixtures used at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Assran, Yasser


    This report summarizes some useful data on the transport characteristics of gas mixtures which are required for detection of charged particles in gas detectors. We try to replace Freon used for RPC detector in the CMS experiment with another gas while maintaining the good properties of the Freon gas mixture unchanged. We try to switch to freonless gas mixture because Freon is not a green gas, it is very expensive and its availability is decreasing. Noble gases like Ar, He, Ne and Xe (with some quenchers like carbon dioxide, methane, ethane and isobutene) are investigated. Transport parameters like drift velocity, diffusion, Townsend coefficient, attachment coefficient and Lorentz angle are computed using Garfield software for different gas mixtures and compared with experimental data.

  4. Pedigree-based relationship inference from complex DNA mixtures. (United States)

    Dørum, Guro; Kaur, Navreet; Gysi, Mario


    We present a general method for analysing DNA mixtures involving relatives that accounts for dropout and drop-in, mutations, silent alleles and population substructure. Whether the aim is to identify the contributors to a mixture who may be related, or to determine the relationship between individuals based on a DNA mixture, both types of problems can be handled by the method and software presented here. We focus on the latter scenario, motivated by non-invasive prenatal paternity testing where the profile of the child is available only in the form of a mixture with the mother's profile. Relationships are represented by pedigrees and can include kinship between more than two individuals. The software is freely available as a graphical user interface in the R package relMix.

  5. 21 CFR 1310.12 - Exempt chemical mixtures. (United States)


    ... § 1310.13 affects the criminal liability for illegal possession, distribution, exportation, or importation of listed chemicals contained in the exempt chemical mixture or the civil liability for unlawful...

  6. Mixture effects of endocrine disrupting compounds in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærstad, Mia Birkhøj; Taxvig, Camilla; Andersen, H. R.


    P>Four different equi-molar mixtures were investigated for additive endocrine disrupting effects in vitro using the concentration addition model. It was found that additive effects on the same molecular target (the androgen receptor; AR) can be predicted for both mixtures of compounds with effect...... on AR could not be predicted under assumption of additivity in our model system. For a mixture containing three azole fungicides (epoxiconazole, propiconazole and tebuconazole), the observed AR antagonistic effects were close to the predicted effect assuming additivity. Azole fungicides are known...... assuming additivity. Overall these and other studies show that weak endocrine disrupting compounds, like parabens and azole fungicides, give rise to combination effects when they occur in mixtures. These combination effects should be taken into account in regulatory risk assessment not to under...

  7. Thermal Properties of Asphalt Mixtures Modified with Conductive Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byong Chol Bai


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the thermal properties of asphalt mixtures modified with conductive fillers used for snow melting and solar harvesting pavements. Two different mixing processes were adopted to mold asphalt mixtures, dry- and wet-mixing, and two conductive fillers were used in this study, graphite and carbon black. The thermal conductivity was compared to investigate the effects of asphalt mixture preparing methods, the quantity, and the distribution of conductive filler on thermal properties. The combination of conductive filler with carbon fiber in asphalt mixture was evaluated. Also, rheological properties of modified asphalt binders with conductive fillers were measured using dynamic shear rheometer and bending beam rheometer at grade-specific temperatures. Based on rheological testing, the conductive fillers improve rutting resistance and decrease thermal cracking resistance. Thermal testing indicated that graphite and carbon black improve the thermal properties of asphalt mixes and the combined conductive fillers are more effective than the single filler.

  8. Polynomial mixture method of solving ordinary differential equations (United States)

    Shahrir, Mohammad Shazri; Nallasamy, Kumaresan; Ratnavelu, Kuru; Kamali, M. Z. M.


    In this paper, a numerical solution of fuzzy quadratic Riccati differential equation is estimated using a proposed new approach that provides mixture of polynomials where iteratively the right mixture will be generated. This mixture provide a generalized formalism of traditional Neural Networks (NN). Previous works have shown reliable results using Runge-Kutta 4th order (RK4). This can be achieved by solving the 1st Order Non-linear Differential Equation (ODE) that is found commonly in Riccati differential equation. Research has shown improved results relatively to the RK4 method. It can be said that Polynomial Mixture Method (PMM) shows promising results with the advantage of continuous estimation and improved accuracy that can be produced over Mabood et al, RK-4, Multi-Agent NN and Neuro Method (NM).

  9. Reducing cement content in concrete mixtures : [research brief]. (United States)


    Concrete mixtures contain crushed rock or gravel, and sand, bound together by Portland cement in combination with supplemental cementitious materials (SCMs), which harden through a chemical reaction with water. Portland cement is the most costly comp...

  10. Properties of sugar-based low-melting mixtures (United States)

    Fischer, Veronika; Kunz, Werner


    Physico-chemical properties of ternary sugar-based low-melting mixtures were determined. Choline chloride, urea and glucose or sorbitol, serving as sugars, were blended in various compositions. The refractive index, density, viscosity, decomposition temperatures and glass transition temperatures were measured. Further, the influence of temperature and water content was investigated. The results show that the mixtures are liquid below room temperature and the viscosity and density are dependent on the temperature and composition. Moreover, the viscosity decreases with increasing water content. These mixtures are biodegradable, low toxic, non-volatile, non-reactive with water and can be accomplished with low-cost materials. In consideration of these advantages and a melting point below room temperature, these low-melting mixtures can be a good alternative to ionic liquids as well as environmentally unfriendly and toxic solvents.

  11. Null distribution of multiple correlation coefficient under mixture normal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hydar Ali


    correlation coefficient, R2, when a sample is drawn from a mixture of two multivariate Gaussian populations. The moments of 1−R2 and inverse Mellin transform have been used to derive the density of R2.

  12. Translated Poisson Mixture Model for Stratification Learning (PREPRINT)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haro, Gloria; Randal, Gregory; Sapiro, Guillermo


    .... The basic idea relies on modeling the high dimensional sample points as a process of Translated Poisson mixtures, with regularizing restrictions, leading to a model which includes the presence of noise...

  13. Gas mixture studies for streamer operated Resistive Plate Chambers (United States)

    Paoloni, A.; Longhin, A.; Mengucci, A.; Pupilli, F.; Ventura, M.


    Resistive Plate Chambers operated in streamer mode are interesting detectors in neutrino and astro-particle physics applications (like OPERA and ARGO experiments). Such experiments are typically characterized by large area apparatuses with no stringent requirements on detector aging and rate capabilities. In this paper, results of cosmic ray tests performed on a RPC prototype using different gas mixtures are presented, the principal aim being the optimization of the TetraFluoroPropene concentration in Argon-based mixtures. The introduction of TetraFluoroPropene, besides its low Global Warming Power, is helpful because it simplifies safety requirements allowing to remove also isobutane from the mixture. Results obtained with mixtures containing SF6, CF4, CO2, N2 and He are also shown, presented both in terms of detectors properties (efficiency, multiple-streamer probability and time resolution) and in terms of streamer characteristics.

  14. Reduced Immunogenicity of DNA Vaccine Plasmids in Mixtures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sedegah, M; Charoenvit, Y; Minh, L; Belmonte, M; Majam, V. F; Abot, S; Ganeshan, H; Kumar, S; Bacon, D. J; Stowers, A; Narum, D. L; Carucci, D. J; Rogers, W. O


    We measured the ability of nine DNA vaccine plasmids encoding candidate malaria vaccine antigens to induce antibodies and interferon-gamma responses when delivered alone or in a mixture containing all nine plasmids...

  15. Measurement of mixtures of melamine using THz ray (United States)

    Cui, Ye; Mu, Kaijun; Wang, Xinke; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Cunlin


    The terahertz spectra of pure melamine and two kinds of its mixtures that mix with polyethylene and milk powder were measured using the terahertz time-domain-spectroscopy (THz-TDS). It was found that there are two absorption peaks at 1.99THz and 2.29THz in all three spectra. The absorption coefficient of the mixture varies with the proportion of melamine in the mixture. Increasing the percentage of melamine in the mixture, the absorption peaks in spectrum get more obvious and sharper. According to the Lambert-Beer law, the absorption coefficient and the proportion of the melamine should followed linear relationship. The experimental data accord to this theory well. Using density functional theory, the vibration of melamine crystal was calculated, which accords to experimental data well. This work provides a method of detecting melamine in milk powders. It is expected that the terahertz spectroscopy technology can be used in food safety and other applications.

  16. On the Stability of a Binary Mixture in Nanostructures (United States)

    Demianov, A. Yu.; Dinariev, O. Yu.


    The problem of stability of a mixture of two liquids between two conductive plates separated by characteristic distances about several nanometers is considered. In this case, an additional term appears in the expression for the Helmholtz energy, which depends on the distance between the plates and also on the dielectric permittivity of the liquids. The thermodynamic properties of such a system differ from those in the bulk of the system. The influence of the additional term is demonstrated by numerical solutions of two problems: 1) computation of the parameters of the mixture between the plates, when there is a thermodynamic equilibrium with the same mixture in the bulk; 2) computation of two states of the mixture that can coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium between the plates.

  17. Developing smarter host mixtures to control plant disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mikaberidze, A; McDonald, B. A; Bonhoeffer, S


    ...) is facilitated by the genetic uniformity underlying modern agroecosystems. One path to sustainable disease control lies in increasing genetic diversity at the field scale by using genetically diverse host mixtures...

  18. Powder XRD investigations on dotriacontane in mixtures: Phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Powder XRD investigations on dotriacontane-decane and dotriacontane-decanol mixtures are made. Phase strength, phase separation and formation of superlattices are discussed. The role of tunnel-like defects is considered.

  19. Translated Poisson Mixture Model for Stratification Learning (PREPRINT) (United States)


    unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Translated Poisson Mixture Model for Stratification Learning Gloria Haro Dept. Teoria ...stratification learning. We show experi- ments with synthetic and real data in Section 5, including comparisons with critical literature, and finally

  20. Co-pyrolysis of wood biomass and synthetic polymers mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharypov, V.I.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Kuznetsov, B.N.; Baryshnikov, S.V. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology SB RAS, K. Marx Str., Krasnoyarsk 660049 (Russian Federation); Cebolla, V.L. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain); Weber, J.V.; Collura, S.; Finqueneisel, G.; Zimny, T. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Applications, Universite de Metz, IUT, rue V. Demange, 57500 Saint Avold (France)


    The pyrolysis in a hydrogen atmosphere of pine wood and synthetic polymers (polyethylene and polypropylene) mixtures was studied in a rotating autoclave. The effects of reaction temperature, wood/polymers mixture composition and catalysts, on the mixtures conversion into liquids and gases were established and discussed. The used catalysts were pyrrhotite and haematite materials activated by mechanochemical treatment. In the co-liquefaction processes the interaction between fragments of wood and polymers thermal decomposition took place. This results in non-additive increase of the wood/polymers conversion degree by 10-15wt.% and of the yield of distillate fractions by 14-19wt.%. Iron ore materials were found catalytically active in the process of hydropyrolysis of wood/polymers mixtures. By using these catalysts a significant increase of the distillable liquids amounts (by 14-21wt.%) and a sharp decrease of olefins and cycloparaffins content (by approximately two to three times) were observed. (author)

  1. Recycled tires as coarse aggregate in concrete pavement mixtures. (United States)


    The reuse potential of tire chips as coarse aggregates in pavement concrete was examined in this research by : investigating the effects of low- and high-volume tire chips on fresh and hardened concrete properties. One concrete : control mixture was ...

  2. Mixtures Equation Pilot Program to Reduce Animal Testing (United States)

    EPA is announcing the start of a pilot program to evaluate the usefulness and acceptability of a mathematical tool (the GHS Mixtures Equation), which is used in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS).

  3. Synthesis and analysis of processes with electrolyte mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj; Gani, Rafiqul; Rasmussen, Peter


    A computer aided system for synthesis, design and simulation of crystallization and fractional crystallization processes with electrolyte mixtures is presented. The synthesis methodology is based on the use of computed solubility diagrams for the corresponding electrolyte systems....

  4. Independent components in spectroscopic analysis of complex mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Kraskov, Alexander; Mushtakova, Svetlana P; 10.1016/j.chemolab.2010.05.023


    We applied two methods of "blind" spectral decomposition (MILCA and SNICA) to quantitative and qualitative analysis of UV absorption spectra of several non-trivial mixture types. Both methods use the concept of statistical independence and aim at the reconstruction of minimally dependent components from a linear mixture. We examined mixtures of major ecotoxicants (aromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons), amino acids and complex mixtures of vitamins in a veterinary drug. Both MICLA and SNICA were able to recover concentrations and individual spectra with minimal errors comparable with instrumental noise. In most cases their performance was similar to or better than that of other chemometric methods such as MCR-ALS, SIMPLISMA, RADICAL, JADE and FastICA. These results suggest that the ICA methods used in this study are suitable for real life applications.

  5. Ignition Delay Times of Kerosene(Jet-A)/Air Mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhukov, V P; Starikovskii, A Yu


    Ignition of Jet-A/air mixtures was studied behind reflected shock waves. Heating of shock tube at temperature of 150 C was used to prepare a homogeneous fuel mixture. Ignition delay times were measured from OH emission at 309 nm and from absorption of He-Ne laser radiation at 3.3922 micrometers. The conditions behind shock waves were calculated by one-dimensional shock wave theory from initial conditions T1, P1, mixture composition and incident shock wave velocity. The ignition delay times were obtained at two fixed pressures 10, 20 atm for lean, stoichiometric and rich mixtures (ER=0.5, 1, 2) at an overall temperature range of 1040-1380 K.

  6. Determination of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the mixture


    Bodiroga Milanka; Ognjanović Jasminka


    Iodometric and permanganometric titrations were used for determination of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the mixture. Two procedures were described and compared. Titrations could be done in only one vessel, in the same reaction mixture, when iodometric titration of peracetic acid was continued after the permanganometric titration of H2O2, (procedure A). Peracetic acid and H2O2, as oxidizing agents, reacted with potassium iodide in an acid medium, evolving iodine. This reaction...

  7. SANS studies of critical phenomena in ternary mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Bulavyn, L A; Hohryakov, A; Garamus, V; Avdeev, M; Almasy, L


    Critical behaviour of a quasi-binary liquid mixture is investigated by small-angle neutron scattering. Analysis of the changes of the critical parameters, caused by addition of a small amount of electrolyte into the binary mixture 3-methylpyridine-heavy water, shows that the third component does not change the 3D Ising-type behaviour of the system; a crossover towards the mean-field behaviour is not observed. (orig.)

  8. High density thermite mixture for shaped charge ordnance disposal


    Elshenawy, Tamer; Soliman, Salah; Hawass, Ahmed


    The effect of thermite mixture based on aluminum and ferric oxides for ammunition neutralization has been studied and tested. Thermochemical calculations have been carried out for different percentage of Al using Chemical Equilibrium Code to expect the highest performance thermite mixture used for shaped charge ordnance disposal. Densities and enthalpy of different formulations have been calculated and demonstrated. The optimized thermite formulation has been prepared experimentally using col...

  9. Emission spectra of pyrotechnic mixtures of heat flux simulators (United States)

    Azharonok, V. V.; Kratsko, L. E.; Chubryk, N. I.; Goncharik, S. V.; Miatselskaya, N. S.; Yakshonak, P. P.; Hamayunau, V. I.


    Comprehensive optical spectroscopic studies of the combustion process of solid-state pyrotechnic mixtures based on Mg and Sr(NO3)2 have been carried out. Emission spectra of the mixtures in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared wavelength regions have been studied under various atmospheric conditions taking into account radiation transfer in air along an optical path of observation up to 5 km long.

  10. A quantum-statistical-mechanical extension of Gaussian mixture model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K [Graduate School of Information Sciences, Tohoku University, 6-3-09 Aramaki-aza-aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Tsuda, K [Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Spemannstrasse 38, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)], E-mail:


    We propose an extension of Gaussian mixture models in the statistical-mechanical point of view. The conventional Gaussian mixture models are formulated to divide all points in given data to some kinds of classes. We introduce some quantum states constructed by superposing conventional classes in linear combinations. Our extension can provide a new algorithm in classifications of data by means of linear response formulas in the statistical mechanics.

  11. Comparing bee species responses to chemical mixtures: Common response patterns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Robinson

    Full Text Available Pollinators in agricultural landscapes can be exposed to mixtures of pesticides and environmental pollutants. Existing mixture toxicity modelling approaches, such as the models of concentration addition and independent action and the mechanistic DEBtox framework have been previously shown as valuable tools for understanding and ultimately predicting joint toxicity. Here we apply these mixture models to investigate the potential to interpret the effects of semi-chronic binary mixture exposure for three bee species: Apis mellifera, Bombus terrestris and Osmia bicornis within potentiation and mixture toxicity experiments. In the potentiation studies, the effect of the insecticide dimethoate with added propiconazole fungicide and neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin with added tau-fluvalinate pyrethroid acaricide showed no difference in toxicity compared to the single chemical alone. Clothianidin toxicity showed a small scale, but temporally conserved increase in exposure conducted in the presence of propiconazole, particularly for B. terrestris and O. bicornis, the latter showing a near three-fold increase in clothianidin toxicity in the presence of propiconazole. In the mixture toxicity studies, the dominant response patterns were of additivity, however, binary mixtures of clothianidin and dimethoate in A. mellifera, B. terrestris and male O. bicornis there was evidence of a predominant antagonistic interaction. Given the ubiquitous nature of exposures to multiple chemicals, there is an urgent need to consider mixture effects in pollinator risk assessments. Our analyses suggest that current models, particularly those that utilise time-series data, such as DEBtox, can be used to identify additivity as the dominant response pattern and also those examples of interactions, even when small-scale, that may need to be taken into account during risk assessment.

  12. Excess molar volumes and viscosities of binary mixtures of some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    TvT. (10). In the present study the value of the reduced volume for the liquids and their mixtures ν~ was determined from α values of the mixtures using the (6). Table 5 shows the data4,14,36–38 used in the application of the. Flory model. The excess function (∂Vm. E /∂T)p was computed by analytical differentiation of (3) at ...

  13. Dealing with Label Switching in Mixture Models Under Genuine Multimodality


    Grün, Bettina; Leisch, Friedrich


    The fitting of finite mixture models is an ill-defined estimation problem as completely different parameterizations can induce similar mixture distributions. This leads to multiple modes in the likelihood which is a problem for frequentist maximum likelihood estimation, and complicates statistical inference of Markov chain Monte Carlo draws in Bayesian estimation. For the analysis of the posterior density of these draws a suitable separation into different modes is desirable. In addition, a u...

  14. Depletion of a fuel mixture in gas turbine engine chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samoylov, I.B.; Murashov, A.F.; Ozerov, Ye.A.; Sokolov, Ye.G.


    The process of the depletion of fuel mixture in combustion booster chambers of gas turbine engines with continuous injection of air to the combustion zone is examined. A conclusion based on the experiment finds that one of the basic kinetic factors which affect the depletion process is the chemical activity of the products of combustion of the rich mixtures. This activity is due to the CO and H/sub 2/ content in these products.

  15. Bonus-Malus System Using Finite Mixture Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed MohammadPour


    Full Text Available There is a vast literature on Bonus-Malus System (BMS, in which a policyholders responsible for positive claims will be penalised by a malus and the policyholders who had no claim will be rewarded by a bonus. In this paper, we present an optimal BMS using finite mixture models.  We conduct a numerical study to compare the new model with the current BMS that use finite mixture models.

  16. Hydroxyl radical yields from reactions of terpene mixtures with ozone. (United States)

    Forester, C D; Wells, J R


    Chamber studies were conducted to quantify hydroxyl radical (OH·) yields and to determine whether water vapor affected OH· formation in the reactions of ozone (O(3)) with a single terpene, two-component terpene mixtures, and a commercial pine oil cleaning product (POC). Solid-phase microextraction fibers (SPME) were used for sampling the terpenes and the 2-butanone formation from the hydroxyl reaction with 2-butanol as a measure of OH· yields. Analyses were performed using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The individual terpenes' OH· yields from α-terpineol, limonene, and α-pinene were 64 ± 8%, 64 ± 6%, and 76 ± 6%, respectively. OH· yields were also measured from two-component mixtures of these terpenes. In each mixture that contained α-terpineol, the overall OH· yield was lower than the modeled OH· yields of the individual components that comprised the reaction mixture. Reactions of a commercial POC with O(3) were also studied to determine how the individual terpenes react in a complex mixture system, and an OH· formation yield of 51 ± 6% was measured. Relative humidity did not have a significant effect on the OH· formation in the mixtures studied here. The data presented here demonstrate that mixtures may react differently than the sum of their individual components. By investigating the chemistry of mixtures of chemicals in contrast to the chemistry of individual compounds, a better assessment can be made of the overall impact cleaning products have on indoor environments. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Theoretical Prediction of Ultrasonic Velocity in Binary Liquid Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik. Babu


    Full Text Available Theoretical values of ultrasonic velocity in the binary mixtures of chlorobenzene with benzene have been evaluated at different temperatures from 303.15 K-323.15 K using Nomoto's relation, ideal mixture relation, Junjie's method, collision factor theory and free length theory. Theoretical values were compared with the experimental values and the validity of the theories was checked by applying the chi-square test for goodness of fit and by calculating the average percentage error (APE.

  18. Theoretical Prediction of Ultrasonic Velocity in Organic Liquid Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uvarani


    Full Text Available Theoretical values of ultrasonic velocity in the binary mixtures of cyclohexanone with 2-propanol and 2-methyl-2-propanol have been evaluated at 303 K using Nomoto’s relation, collision factor theory, free length theory, ideal mixture relation, Junjie’s method. Theoretical values are compared with the experimental values and the validity of the theories are checked by applying the chi-square test for goodness of fit and by calculating the average percentage error (APE.

  19. Extending Growth Mixture Models Using Continuous Non-Elliptical Distributions


    Wei, Yuhong; Tang, Yang; Shireman, Emilie; McNicholas, Paul D.; Steinley, Douglas L.


    Growth mixture models (GMMs) incorporate both conventional random effects growth modeling and latent trajectory classes as in finite mixture modeling; therefore, they offer a way to handle the unobserved heterogeneity between subjects in their development. GMMs with Gaussian random effects dominate the literature. When the data are asymmetric and/or have heavier tails, more than one latent class is required to capture the observed variable distribution. Therefore, a GMM with continuous non-el...

  20. Characterization of HMA mixtures containing recycled asphalt pavement modified with crumb rubber asphalt. (United States)


    The main objective of this study is to characterize the laboratory performance of conventional HMA mixtures and mixtures containing high RAP content and waste tire crumb rubber/additives through their fundamental engineering properties. These mixture...

  1. [Analysis of benzodiazepine derivative mixture by gas-liquid chromatography]. (United States)

    Zevzikovas, Andrejus; Kiliuviene, Guoda; Ivanauskas, Liudas; Dirse, Vidmantas


    The analysis of mixture of benzodiazepine derivates (chlordiazepoxide, flunitrazepam, medazepam, nitrazepam, oxazepam and tetrazepam) by gas--liquid chromatography (GLC) in purpose to separate and identify these psychotropic drugs in mixture is presented in this article. The experiment was carried out in vitro, accommodating this method for identification and separation of drugs, isolated from biological objects (blood and urine). Referring to data of annual reports of chemical investigations (1) above-mentioned psychotropic drugs are very frequent among drug intoxication. In most cases they are detected in the mixture of the same or different pharmacological group, and this causes difficulty for separation and identification. The analysis of the mixture was carried out by GLC, which is widely used in practice of forensic-chemical examination. Adsorbents and stationery phases were changed; the conditions and parameters of chromatography were modified, in purpose totally separate preparations in the mixture. For the separation and identification of all three preparation the column packed with Inerton Super with stationary phase 3% OV-17 is suitable. The column temperature-290 degrees C. The mixture of these drugs was excreted from body fluids (blood and urine) in vitro and investigated by GLC under these conditions. The results of investigation were similar.

  2. a Two-Component Fluid Mixture of the Hard Spherocylinders (United States)

    Moradi, M.; Khordad, R.

    We study a classical fluid mixture of nonspherical molecules. The components of the mixture are two kinds of the hard spherocylinders with different shape anisotropies L/D. Two different approaches are used to calculate the direct correlation functions (DCF) of this kind of fluids. First, we use a formalism based on the weighted density functional theory (WDFT), introduced by Chamoux and Perera [ J. Chem. Phys. 104, 1493 (1996)]. Second, we describe a general approach solving the Percus-Yevick (PY) and the hypernetted chain integral equation numerically for the fluid mixtures of hard nonspherical particles. In the second approach, the pair, total, and DCF of binary molecular fluid mixtures can be calculated simultaneously whereas in the WDFT, the pair and the total correlation functions are calculated indirectly. The obtained correlation functions are compared using these two methods. The pressure of the fluid mixture is also calculated using the Fourier zero components of the DCFs and compared with the Monte Carlo simulation. Finally, the large and small shape anisotropy, are considered and the results are compared with the binary fluid mixture of hard ellipsoids and hard spheres. The results are fairly in agreement.

  3. Modeling abundance using multinomial N-mixture models (United States)

    Royle, Andy


    Multinomial N-mixture models are a generalization of the binomial N-mixture models described in Chapter 6 to allow for more complex and informative sampling protocols beyond simple counts. Many commonly used protocols such as multiple observer sampling, removal sampling, and capture-recapture produce a multivariate count frequency that has a multinomial distribution and for which multinomial N-mixture models can be developed. Such protocols typically result in more precise estimates than binomial mixture models because they provide direct information about parameters of the observation process. We demonstrate the analysis of these models in BUGS using several distinct formulations that afford great flexibility in the types of models that can be developed, and we demonstrate likelihood analysis using the unmarked package. Spatially stratified capture-recapture models are one class of models that fall into the multinomial N-mixture framework, and we discuss analysis of stratified versions of classical models such as model Mb, Mh and other classes of models that are only possible to describe within the multinomial N-mixture framework.

  4. Studies of Particle Packings in Mixtures of Pharmaceutical Excipients (United States)

    Bentham, Craig; Dutt, Meenakshi; Hancock, Bruno; Elliott, James


    Pharmaceutical powder blends used to generate tablets are complex multicomponent mixtures of the drug powder and excipients which facilitate the delivery of the required drug. The individual constituents of these blends can be noncohesive and cohesive powders. We study the geometric and mechanical characteristics of idealized mixtures of excipient particle packings, for a small but representative number of dry noncohesive particles, generated via gravitational compaction followed by uniaxial compaction. We discuss particle packings in 2- and 3- component mixtures of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) & lactose and MCC, starch & lactose, respectively. We have computed the evolution of the force and stress distributions in monodisperse and polydisperse mixtures comprised of equal parts of each excipient; comparisons are made with results for particles packings of pure blends of MCC and lactose. We also compute the stress-strain relations for these mixtures. In order to obtain insight into details of the particle packings, we calculate the coordination number, packing fraction, radial distribution functions and contact angle distributions for the various mixtures. The numerical experiments have been performed on spheroidal idealizations of the excipient grains using Discrete Element Method simulations (Dutt et al., 2004 to be published).

  5. Wavelength and energy dependent absorption of unconventional fuel mixtures (United States)

    Khan, N.; Saleem, Z.; Mirza, A. A.


    Economic considerations of laser induced ignition over the normal electrical ignition of direct injected Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) engines has motivated automobile industry to go for extensive research on basic characteristics of leaner unconventional fuel mixtures to evaluate practical possibility of switching over to the emerging technologies. This paper briefly reviews the ongoing research activities on minimum ignition energy and power requirements of natural gas fuels and reports results of present laser air/CNG mixture absorption coefficient study. This study was arranged to determine the thermo-optical characteristics of high air/fuel ratio mixtures using laser techniques. We measured the absorption coefficient using four lasers of multiple wavelengths over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. The absorption coefficient of mixture was found to vary significantly over change of mixture temperature and probe laser wavelengths. The absorption coefficients of air/CNG mixtures were measured using 20 watts CW/pulsed CO2 laser at 10.6μm, Pulsed Nd:Yag laser at 1.06μm, 532 nm (2nd harmonic) and 4 mW CW HeNe laser at 645 nm and 580 nm for temperatures varying from 290 to 1000K using optical transmission loss technique.

  6. Global concentration additivity and prediction of mixture toxicities, taking nitrobenzene derivatives as an example. (United States)

    Li, Tong; Liu, Shu-Shen; Qu, Rui; Liu, Hai-Ling


    The toxicity of a mixture depends not only on the mixture concentration level but also on the mixture ratio. For a multiple-component mixture (MCM) system with a definite chemical composition, the mixture toxicity can be predicted only if the global concentration additivity (GCA) is validated. The so-called GCA means that the toxicity of any mixture in the MCM system is the concentration additive, regardless of what its mixture ratio and concentration level. However, many mixture toxicity reports have usually employed one mixture ratio (such as the EC50 ratio), the equivalent effect concentration ratio (EECR) design, to specify several mixtures. EECR mixtures cannot simulate the concentration diversity and mixture ratio diversity of mixtures in the real environment, and it is impossible to validate the GCA. Therefore, in this paper, the uniform design ray (UD-Ray) was used to select nine mixture ratios (rays) in the mixture system of five nitrobenzene derivatives (NBDs). The representative UD-Ray mixtures can effectively and rationally describe the diversity in the NBD mixture system. The toxicities of the mixtures to Vibrio qinghaiensis sp.-Q67 were determined by the microplate toxicity analysis (MTA). For each UD-Ray mixture, the concentration addition (CA) model was used to validate whether the mixture toxicity is additive. All of the UD-Ray mixtures of five NBDs are global concentration additive. Afterwards, the CA is employed to predict the toxicities of the external mixtures from three EECR mixture rays with the NOEC, EC30, and EC70 ratios. The predictive toxicities are in good agreement with the experimental toxicities, which testifies to the predictability of the mixture toxicity of the NBDs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Application of Thermodynamic Databases to the Evaluation of Surface Tensions of Molten Alloys, Salt Mixtures and Oxide Mixtures


    Tanaka, Toshihiro; Iida, Takamichi; Hack, Klaus; Hara, Shigeta


    The authors discuss the application of thermodynamic solution databases, which have been constructed so far to calculate thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams, to the evaluation of surface tensions of molten alloys, salt mixtures and oxide mixtures. In particular, the relationship between the excess Gibbs energy in the bulk phase and that in the "surface phase" which are used in Butler's equation for surface tension was derived for molten ionic solutions as well as molten alloys. In thi...

  8. PhD Dissertation Proposal - Introduction to Dark Mix Concept: Gamma Measurements of Capsule Mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meaney, Kevin Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Presentation slides: Intro to Inertial Confinement Fusion; Types of Mixture in ICF capsules; Previous mixture experiments; Dark Mix Concept; Measuring Dark Mix with Gamma Cherenkov Detector; Dissertation Outline.

  9. Heat transfer degradation during condensation of non-azeotropic mixtures (United States)

    Azzolin, M.; Berto, A.; Bortolin, S.; Del, D., Col


    International organizations call for a reduction of the HFCs production and utilizations in the next years. Binary or ternary blends of hydroflourocarbons (HFCs) and hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs) are emerging as possible substitutes for high Global Warming Potential (GWP) fluids currently employed in some refrigeration and air-conditioning applications. In some cases, these mixtures are non-azeotropic and thus, during phase-change at constant pressure, they present a temperature glide that, for some blends, can be higher than 10 K. Such temperature variation during phase change could lead to a better matching between the refrigerant and the water temperature profiles in a condenser, thus reducing the exergy losses associated with the heat transfer process. Nevertheless, the additional mass transfer resistance which occurs during the phase change of zeotropic mixtures leads to a heat transfer degradation. Therefore, the design of a condenser working with a zeotropic mixture poses the problem of how to extend the correlations developed for pure fluids to the case of condensation of mixtures. Experimental data taken are very helpful in the assessment of design procedures. In the present paper, heat transfer coefficients have been measured during condensation of zeotropic mixtures of HFC and HFO fluids. Tests have been carried out in the test rig available at the Two Phase Heat Transfer Lab of University of Padova. During the condensation tests, the heat is subtracted from the mixture by using cold water and the heat transfer coefficient is obtained from the measurement of the heat flux on the water side, the direct measurements of the wall temperature and saturation temperature. Tests have been performed at 40°C mean saturation temperature. The present experimental database is used to assess predictive correlations for condensation of mixtures, providing valuable information on the applicability of available models.

  10. Treatment of synthetic textile wastewater containing dye mixtures with microcosms. (United States)

    Yaseen, Dina A; Scholz, Miklas


    The aim was to assess the ability of microcosms (laboratory-scale shallow ponds) as a post polishing stage for the remediation of artificial textile wastewater comprising two commercial dyes (basic red 46 (BR46) and reactive blue 198 (RB198)) as a mixture. The objectives were to evaluate the impact of Lemna minor L. (common duckweed) on the water quality outflows; the elimination of dye mixtures, organic matter, and nutrients; and the impact of synthetic textile wastewater comprising dye mixtures on the L. minor plant growth. Three mixtures were prepared providing a total dye concentration of 10 mg/l. Findings showed that the planted simulated ponds possess a significant (p < 0.05) potential for improving the outflow characteristics and eliminate dyes, ammonium-nitrogen (NH 4 -N), and nitrate-nitrogen (NO 3 -N) in all mixtures compared with the corresponding unplanted ponds. The removal of mixed dyes in planted ponds was mainly due to phyto-transformation and adsorption of BR46 with complete aromatic amine mineralisation. For ponds containing 2 mg/l of RB198 and 8 mg/l of BR46, removals were around 53%, which was significantly higher than those for other mixtures: 5 mg/l of RB198 and 5 mg/l of BR46 and 8 mg/l of RB198 and 2 mg/l of BR46 achieved only 41 and 26% removals, respectively. Dye mixtures stopped the growth of L. minor, and the presence of artificial wastewater reduced their development.

  11. Low Mach number fluctuating hydrodynamics of multispecies liquid mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donev, Aleksandar, E-mail:; Bhattacharjee, Amit Kumar [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10012 (United States); Nonaka, Andy; Bell, John B. [Center for Computational Science and Engineering, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Garcia, Alejandro L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Jose State University, San Jose, California 95192 (United States)


    We develop a low Mach number formulation of the hydrodynamic equations describing transport of mass and momentum in a multispecies mixture of incompressible miscible liquids at specified temperature and pressure, which generalizes our prior work on ideal mixtures of ideal gases [Balakrishnan et al., “Fluctuating hydrodynamics of multispecies nonreactive mixtures,” Phys. Rev. E 89 013017 (2014)] and binary liquid mixtures [Donev et al., “Low mach number fluctuating hydrodynamics of diffusively mixing fluids,” Commun. Appl. Math. Comput. Sci. 9(1), 47-105 (2014)]. In this formulation, we combine and extend a number of existing descriptions of multispecies transport available in the literature. The formulation applies to non-ideal mixtures of arbitrary number of species, without the need to single out a “solvent” species, and includes contributions to the diffusive mass flux due to gradients of composition, temperature, and pressure. Momentum transport and advective mass transport are handled using a low Mach number approach that eliminates fast sound waves (pressure fluctuations) from the full compressible system of equations and leads to a quasi-incompressible formulation. Thermal fluctuations are included in our fluctuating hydrodynamics description following the principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We extend the semi-implicit staggered-grid finite-volume numerical method developed in our prior work on binary liquid mixtures [Nonaka et al., “Low mach number fluctuating hydrodynamics of binary liquid mixtures,” (2015)] and use it to study the development of giant nonequilibrium concentration fluctuations in a ternary mixture subjected to a steady concentration gradient. We also numerically study the development of diffusion-driven gravitational instabilities in a ternary mixture and compare our numerical results to recent experimental measurements [Carballido-Landeira et al., “Mixed-mode instability of a

  12. A Statistical Approach to Optimizing Concrete Mixture Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsad Ahmad


    Full Text Available A step-by-step statistical approach is proposed to obtain optimum proportioning of concrete mixtures using the data obtained through a statistically planned experimental program. The utility of the proposed approach for optimizing the design of concrete mixture is illustrated considering a typical case in which trial mixtures were considered according to a full factorial experiment design involving three factors and their three levels (33. A total of 27 concrete mixtures with three replicates (81 specimens were considered by varying the levels of key factors affecting compressive strength of concrete, namely, water/cementitious materials ratio (0.38, 0.43, and 0.48, cementitious materials content (350, 375, and 400 kg/m3, and fine/total aggregate ratio (0.35, 0.40, and 0.45. The experimental data were utilized to carry out analysis of variance (ANOVA and to develop a polynomial regression model for compressive strength in terms of the three design factors considered in this study. The developed statistical model was used to show how optimization of concrete mixtures can be carried out with different possible options.

  13. Nonequilibrium dynamics of mixtures of active and passive colloidal particles (United States)

    Wittkowski, Raphael; Stenhammar, Joakim; Cates, Michael E.


    We develop a mesoscopic field theory for the collective nonequilibrium dynamics of multicomponent mixtures of interacting active (i.e., motile) and passive (i.e., nonmotile) colloidal particles with isometric shape in two spatial dimensions. By a stability analysis of the field theory, we obtain equations for the spinodal that describes the onset of a motility-induced instability leading to cluster formation in such mixtures. The prediction for the spinodal is found to be in good agreement with particle-resolved computer simulations. Furthermore, we show that in active-passive mixtures the spinodal instability can be of two different types. One type is associated with a stationary bifurcation and occurs also in one-component active systems, whereas the other type is associated with a Hopf bifurcation and can occur only in active-passive mixtures. Remarkably, the Hopf bifurcation leads to moving clusters. This explains recent results from simulations of active-passive particle mixtures, where moving clusters and interfaces that are not seen in the corresponding one-component systems have been observed.

  14. Computations of fluid mixtures including solid carbon at chemical equilibrium (United States)

    Bourasseau, Emeric


    One of the key points of the understanding of detonation phenomena is the determination of equation of state of the detonation products mixture. Concerning carbon rich explosives, detonation products mixtures are composed of solid carbon nano-clusters immersed in a high density fluid phase. The study of such systems where both chemical and phase equilibriums occur simultaneously represents an important challenge and molecular simulation methods appear to be one of the more promising way to obtain some answers. In this talk, the Reaction Ensemble Monte Carlo (RxMC) method will be presented. This method allows the system to reach the chemical equilibrium of a mixture driven by a set of linearly independent chemical equations. Applied to detonation product mixtures, it allows the calculation of the chemical composition of the mixture and its thermodynamic properties. Moreover, an original model has been proposed to take explicitly into account a solid carbon meso-particle in thermodynamic and chemical equilibrium with the fluid. Finally our simulations show that the intrinsic inhomogeneous nature of the system (i.e. the fact that the solid phase is immersed in the fluid phase) has an important impact on the thermodynamic properties, and as a consequence must be taken into account.

  15. [Content uniformity of warfarin-containing mixtures and tablets]. (United States)

    Franc, Aleš; Muselík, Jan; Máslová, Radka; Hadrabová, Jana


    This experimental study describes the method of direct compression of powder mixtures composed of warfarinum sodium salt. Warfarinum is a drug with a narrow therapeutics index. The aim of this study is to find a suitable composition and a process of preparing tablets with the best uniformity. The content uniformity is very important for the safety of the therapy. This study links up with the already published article including the results of content uniformity of mixtures and tablets prepared by direct compression. These mixtures contain fillers with different density and distribution size of the particles (excipients with digger particles were used in this experiment). The study is focused on the influence of magnesium stearate, which was added at the beginning of the homogenization or after the mixing of the other components. In addition to content uniformity and physical characteristics of the tablets, the study also evaluated the uniformity and physical characteristics of the mixtures. In this experimental study it has been found out that content uniformity is influenced by the total time of homogenization and the addition of magnesium stearate and much less by the distribution size of the particles of excipients in the mixtures. The appropriate selection of process parameters is important for obtaining tablets respecting the strict criterion of Bergum distribution. This distribution is a part of the GMP by the evaluation of the content uniformity in the U.S.

  16. Coarse-Grained Modeling of Colloid-Nanoparticle Mixtures (United States)

    Denton, Alan R.; Chung, Jun Kyung


    Colloid-nanoparticle mixtures have attracted much recent attention for their rich phase behavior. The potential to independently vary size and charge ratios greatly expands the possibilities for tuning interparticle interactions and stabilizing unusual phases. Experiments have begun to explore the self-assembly and stability of colloid-nanoparticle mixtures, which are characterized by extreme size and charge asymmetries. In modeling such complex soft materials, coarse-grained methods often prove essential to surmount computational challenges posed by multiple length and time scales. We describe a hierarchical approach to modeling effective interactions in ultra-polydisperse mixtures. Using a sequential coarse-graining procedure, we show that a mixture of charged colloids and nanoparticles can be mapped onto a one-component model of pseudo-colloids interacting via a Yukawa effective pair potential and a one-body volume energy, which contributes to the free energy of the system. Nanoparticles are found to enhance electrostatic screening and to modify the volume energy. Taking the effective interactions as input to simulations and perturbation theory, we calculate structural properties and explore phase stability of highly asymmetric charged colloid-nanoparticle mixtures. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-1106331

  17. Blessing of Dimensionality: Recovering Mixture Data via Dictionary Pursuit. (United States)

    Liu, Guangcan; Liu, Qingshan; Li, Ping


    This paper studies the problem of recovering the authentic samples that lie on a union of multiple subspaces from their corrupted observations. Due to the high-dimensional and massive nature of today's data-driven community, it is arguable that the target matrix (i.e., authentic sample matrix) to recover is often low-rank. In this case, the recently established Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) method already provides us a convenient way to solve the problem of recovering mixture data. However, in general, RPCA is not good enough because the incoherent condition assumed by RPCA is not so consistent with the mixture structure of multiple subspaces. Namely, when the subspace number grows, the row-coherence of data keeps heightening and, accordingly, RPCA degrades. To overcome the challenges arising from mixture data, we suggest to consider LRR in this paper. We elucidate that LRR can well handle mixture data, as long as its dictionary is configured appropriately. More precisely, we mathematically prove that LRR can weaken the dependence on the row-coherence, provided that the dictionary is well-conditioned and has a rank of not too high. In particular, if the dictionary itself is sufficiently low-rank, then the dependence on the row-coherence can be completely removed. These provide some elementary principles for dictionary learning and naturally lead to a practical algorithm for recovering mixture data. Our experiments on randomly generated matrices and real motion sequences show promising results.


    Kobayashi, Kiyoshi; Kaito, Kiyoyuki; Fujiwara, Eigo; Mori, Hisashi; Yamamoto, Shingo; Fujioka, Yoshiyuki; Yamada, Masaru

    On the pavement in snowy regions, water spray is carried out as a snow removal activity in winter. Therefore in most cases, pavement surface is in water-soaked condition, and it causes the occurrence of a lot of potholes. Usually, for the potholes, urgent repair is immediately conducted using patching mixtures. However under these circumstances, the patching mixture falls away soon due to the constraint in the construction works. Consequently, as for the maintenance in snowy regions, it is important to develop the optimal repair method or patching mixture material for such regions. In order to provide the basic investigation of this issue, this study statistically evaluates the durability of the patching mixtures of potholes. Concretely, the occurrence process of potholes are modeled by the Weibull hazard model, and the durability performance of the patching mixtures is veried by estimating the hazard model based on the inspection data of actual potholes on the national road in snowy regions and monitoring data after repairing them.

  19. A statistical approach to optimizing concrete mixture design. (United States)

    Ahmad, Shamsad; Alghamdi, Saeid A


    A step-by-step statistical approach is proposed to obtain optimum proportioning of concrete mixtures using the data obtained through a statistically planned experimental program. The utility of the proposed approach for optimizing the design of concrete mixture is illustrated considering a typical case in which trial mixtures were considered according to a full factorial experiment design involving three factors and their three levels (3(3)). A total of 27 concrete mixtures with three replicates (81 specimens) were considered by varying the levels of key factors affecting compressive strength of concrete, namely, water/cementitious materials ratio (0.38, 0.43, and 0.48), cementitious materials content (350, 375, and 400 kg/m(3)), and fine/total aggregate ratio (0.35, 0.40, and 0.45). The experimental data were utilized to carry out analysis of variance (ANOVA) and to develop a polynomial regression model for compressive strength in terms of the three design factors considered in this study. The developed statistical model was used to show how optimization of concrete mixtures can be carried out with different possible options.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Asphalt is commonly used as a binder in the construction of highways and runways, due to its good viscoelastic properties, natural asphalt cement does not have sufficient strength to resist sudden stresses of excessive loading or stress from low and high temperatures. Therefore, modification of asphalt is necessary in order to improve its material temperature sensitivity, adhesion, durability, oxidation and aging resistance. The property of base asphalt and polymer modified asphalt binders and mixtures has been characterized using the conventional tests and dynamic creep tests. It has been found that, the addition of Acrylate Styrene Acrylonhrtilrei (ASA polymer content has magnificent influence on the properties of the asphalt binders and mixtures. The temperature susceptibility of modified asphalt binders was reduced compared with base asphalt binder as the penetration increase and softening point decrease. The reduction in penetration was up to 69%, while the improvement in softening point was up to 19%. Moreover, it was approved from the storage stability test that, the ASA polymer has a great compatibility with asphalt binder up to 5% ASA. In addition, it was observe reduction in permanent deformation of modified asphalt mixtures with increase of modifier up to 5% ASA, which lead to better resistance to rutting at high temperatures, and the reduction was up to 36%. As a result, the modification of asphalt binder and mixture with ASA polymer can be considered a proper alternative technique to improve the properties of asphalt binder and mixture and 5% ASA was the optimum content of the modifier.

  1. In Vitro Digestibility of Rapeseed and Bovine Whey Protein Mixtures. (United States)

    Joehnke, Marcel Skejovic; Rehder, Alina; Sørensen, Susanne; Bjergegaard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Jens Christian; Markedal, Keld Ejdrup


    Partial replacement of animal protein sources with plant proteins is highly relevant for the food industry, but potential effects on protein digestibility need to be established. In this study, the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of four protein sources and their mixtures (50:50 w/w ratio) was investigated using a transient pepsin hydrolysis (1 h) followed by pancreatin (1 h). The protein sources consisted of napin-rich rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) protein concentrates (RPCs; RP1, RP2) prepared in pilot scale and major bovine whey proteins (WPs; α-LA, alpha-lactalbumin; β-LG, beta-lactoglobulin). IVPD of individual protein sources was higher for WPs compared to RPCs. The RP2/β-LG mixture resulted in an unexpected high IVPD equivalent to β-LG protein alone. Protein mixtures containing RP1 showed a new IVPD response type due to the negative influence of a high trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) level. Improved IVPD of RP1 alone and in protein mixtures was obtained by lowering the TIA level using dithiothreitol (DTT). These results showed that napin-rich protein products prepared by appropriate processing can be combined with specific WPs in mixtures to improve the IVPD.

  2. The use of gaseous fuels mixtures for SI engines propulsion (United States)

    Flekiewicz, M.; Kubica, G.


    Paper presents results of SI engine tests, carried on for different gaseous fuels. Carried out analysis made it possible to define correlation between fuel composition and engine operating parameters. Tests covered various gaseous mixtures: of methane and hydrogen and LPG with DME featuring different shares. The first group, considered as low carbon content fuels can be characterized by low CO2 emissions. Flammability of hydrogen added in those mixtures realizes the function of combustion process activator. That is why hydrogen addition improves the energy conversion by about 3%. The second group of fuels is constituted by LPG and DME mixtures. DME mixes perfectly with LPG, and differently than in case of other hydrocarbon fuels consists also of oxygen makes the stoichiometric mixture less oxygen demanding. In case of this fuel an improvement in engine volumetric and overall engine efficiency has been noticed, when compared to LPG. For the 11% DME share in the mixture an improvement of 2% in the efficiency has been noticed. During the tests standard CNG/LPG feeding systems have been used, what underlines utility value of the research. The stand tests results have been followed by combustion process simulation including exhaust forming and charge exchange.

  3. Reduced immunogenicity of DNA vaccine plasmids in mixtures. (United States)

    Sedegah, M; Charoenvit, Y; Minh, L; Belmonte, M; Majam, V F; Abot, S; Ganeshan, H; Kumar, S; Bacon, D J; Stowers, A; Narum, D L; Carucci, D J; Rogers, W O


    We measured the ability of nine DNA vaccine plasmids encoding candidate malaria vaccine antigens to induce antibodies and interferon-gamma responses when delivered alone or in a mixture containing all nine plasmids. We further examined the possible immunosuppressive effect of individual plasmids, by assessing a series of mixtures in which each of the nine vaccine plasmids was replaced with a control plasmid. Given alone, each of the vaccine plasmids induced significant antibody titers and, in the four cases for which appropriate assays were available, IFN-gamma responses. Significant suppression or complete abrogation of responses were seen when the plasmids were pooled in a nine-plasmid cocktail and injected in a single site. Removal of single genes from the mixture frequently reduced the observed suppression. Boosting with recombinant poxvirus increased the antibody response in animals primed with either a single gene or the mixture, but, even after boosting, responses were higher in animals primed with single plasmids than in those primed with the nine-plasmid mixture. Boosting did not overcome the suppressive effect of mixing for IFN-gamma responses. Interactions between components in a multiplasmid DNA vaccine may limit the ability to use plasmid pools alone to induce responses against multiple targets simultaneously.

  4. Exposure to metals mixtures: Genomic alterations of infectious ... (United States)

    Exposure to toxic metals can have harmful health effects, particularly in children. Although studies have investigated the individual effects toxic metals have on gene expression and health outcomes, there are no studies assessing the effect of metal mixtures on gene expression profiles. Here, we assessed the mixture effect of six toxic metals (arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, and lead) on gene expression profiles in children in Detroit, Michigan. As part of the Mechanistic Indicators of Childhood Asthma (MICA) cross sectional study, we assessed metal exposure in 131 children in Detroit using fingernail metals levels. A metals mixture score was calculated and compared to gene expression profiles across the population adjusting for age and race. There were 145 unique genes that were significantly differentially expressed when comparing children exposed to low and high levels of the metals mixture. Of the genes differentially expressed, 107 (74%) had increased expression while 38 (26%) had decreased expression. The main biological function associated with multiple metals was infectious disease. Within that group, genes were associated with infection of respiratory tract (P metals mixtures may activate gene networks related to infectious disease response. This abstract does not necessarily reflect the views or policie

  5. Thermal Conductivity of Compacted Bentonite and Bentonite-Sand Mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Jin; Lee, Jae Owan; Kwon, Sang Ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    For the Kyungju bentonite which is considered as a candidate material for the buffer and backfill in the high-level waste repository, the thermal conductivities of compacted bentonite and a bentonite-sand mixture were measured. The thermal conductivities of the compacted bentonite with a dry density of 1.2 to 1.8 Mg/m{sup 3}and the bentonite-sand mixture with a dry density of 1.6 and 1.8 Mg/m{sup 3} were measured within the gravimetric water content range of 10wt% to 20wt% and the sand fraction range of 10 to 30wt%. The thermal conductivity of compacted bentonite and a bentonite-sand mixture increases with increasing dry density and sand weight fraction in the case of constant water weight fraction, and increases with increasing water weight fraction and sand weight fraction in the case of constant dry density. The empirical correlations to describe the thermal conductivity of compacted bentonite and a bentonite-sand mixture as a function of water fraction at each dry density were suggested. These correlations can predict the thermal conductivities of bentonite and a bentonite-sand mixture with a difference below 10%.

  6. Laboratory Mix Design of Asphalt Mixture Containing Reclaimed Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Lo Presti


    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the production of asphalt test specimens in the laboratory containing reclaimed asphalt. The mixtures considered were stone mastic asphalt concrete mixtures containing up to 30% of reclaimed asphalt. Specimens were compacted to the reference density obtained from the Marshall mix design. Gyration compaction method was used for preparing specimens for the experimental programme, while coring and cutting methods and X-ray computed tomography (CT were used to investigate the change in properties within the specimens and to validate the selected methodology. The study concluded that gyratory compaction is suitable to produce homogeneous test specimens also for mixtures containing high amount of reclaimed asphalt. Nevertheless, preliminary trials for each material are mandatory, as well as final coring and trimming of the specimens due to side effects.

  7. Refractometry for quality control of anesthetic drug mixtures. (United States)

    Stabenow, Jennifer M; Maske, Mindy L; Vogler, George A


    Injectable anesthetic drugs used in rodents are often mixed and further diluted to increase the convenience and accuracy of dosing. We evaluated clinical refractometry as a simple and rapid method of quality control and mixing error detection of rodent anesthetic or analgesic mixtures. Dilutions of ketamine, xylazine, acepromazine, and buprenorphine were prepared with reagent-grade water to produce at least 4 concentration levels. The refraction of each concentration then was measured with a clinical refractometer and plotted against the percentage of stock concentration. The resulting graphs were linear and could be used to determine the concentration of single-drug dilutions or to predict the refraction of drug mixtures. We conclude that refractometry can be used to assess the concentration of dilutions of single drugs and can verify the mixing accuracy of drug combinations when the components of the mixture are known and fall within the detection range of the instrument.

  8. Composition measurements of binary mixture droplets by rainbow refractometry. (United States)

    Wilms, J; Weigand, B


    So far, refractive index measurements by rainbow refractometry have been used to determine the temperature of single droplets and ensembles of droplets. Rainbow refractometry is, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, applied to measure composition histories of evaporating, binary mixture droplets. An evaluation method is presented that makes use of Airy theory and the simultaneous size measurement by Mie scattering imaging. The method further includes an empirical correction function for a certain diameter and refractive index range. The measurement uncertainty was investigated by numerical simulations with Lorenz-Mie theory. For the experiments, an optical levitation setup was used allowing for long measurement periods. Temperature measurements of single-component droplets at different temperature levels are shown to demonstrate the accuracy of rainbow refractometry. Measurements of size and composition histories of binary mixture droplets are presented for two different mixtures. Experimental results show good agreement with numerical results using a rapid-mixing model.

  9. Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures (United States)

    Wyman, Charles E.


    A method for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process.

  10. Cluster formation and percolation in ethanol-water mixtures (United States)

    Gereben, Orsolya; Pusztai, László


    Results of systematic molecular dynamics studies of ethanol-water mixtures, over the entire concentration range, were reported previously that agree with experimental X-ray diffraction data. These simulated systems are analyzed in this work to examine cluster formation and percolation, using four different hydrogen bond definitions. Percolation analyses revealed that each mixture (even the one containing 80 mol% ethanol) is above the 3D percolation threshold, with fractal dimensions, df, between 2.6 and 2.9, depending on concentration. Monotype water cluster formation was also studied in the mixtures: 3D water percolation can be found in systems with less than 40 mol% ethanol, with fractal dimensions between 2.53 and 2.84. These observations can be put in parallel with experimental data on some thermodynamic quantities, such as the excess partial molar enthalpy and entropy.

  11. Singlet oxygen reactivity in water-rich solvent mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sousa


    Full Text Available The 3-methylindole (3MI oxygenation sensitized by psoralen (PSO has been investigated in 100%, 20% and 5% O2-saturated water/dioxane (H2O/Dx mixtures. The lowering of the ¹O2* chemical rate when water (k chem∆3MI = 1.4 × 109 M-1 s-1 is replaced by deuterated water (k chem∆3MI = 1.9 × 108 M-1 s-1 suggests that hydrogen abstraction is involved in the rate determining step. A high dependence of the chemical rate constant on water concentration in H2O/Dx mixtures was found showing that water molecules are absolutely essential for the success of the 3MI substrate oxidation by ¹O2* in water-rich solvent mixtures.

  12. Detecting Housing Submarkets using Unsupervised Learning of Finite Mixture Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ntantamis, Christos

    framework. The global form of heterogeneity is incorporated in a Hedonic Price Index model that encompasses a nonlinear function of the geographical coordinates of each dwelling. The local form of heterogeneity is subsequently modeled as a Finite Mixture Model for the residuals of the Hedonic Index....... The identified mixtures are considered as the different spatial housing submarkets. The main advantage of the approach is that submarkets are recovered by the housing prices data compared to submarkets imposed by administrative or geographical criteria. The Finite Mixture Model is estimated using the Figueiredo......The problem of modeling housing prices has attracted considerable attention due to its importance in terms of households' wealth and in terms of public revenues through taxation. One of the main concerns raised in both the theoretical and the empirical literature is the existence of spatial...

  13. Thermal conductivity of disperse insulation materials and their mixtures (United States)

    Geža, V.; Jakovičs, A.; Gendelis, S.; Usiļonoks, I.; Timofejevs, J.


    Development of new, more efficient thermal insulation materials is a key to reduction of heat losses and contribution to greenhouse gas emissions. Two innovative materials developed at Thermeko LLC are Izoprok and Izopearl. This research is devoted to experimental study of thermal insulation properties of both materials as well as their mixture. Results show that mixture of 40% Izoprok and 60% of Izopearl has lower thermal conductivity than pure materials. In this work, material thermal conductivity dependence temperature is also measured. Novel modelling approach is used to model spatial distribution of disperse insulation material. Computational fluid dynamics approach is also used to estimate role of different heat transfer phenomena in such porous mixture. Modelling results show that thermal convection plays small role in heat transfer despite large fraction of air within material pores.

  14. Thermodynamic properties and diffusion of water + methane binary mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvab, I.; Sadus, Richard J., E-mail: [Centre for Molecular Simulation, Swinburne University of Technology, PO Box 218 Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia)


    Thermodynamic and diffusion properties of water + methane mixtures in a single liquid phase are studied using NVT molecular dynamics. An extensive comparison is reported for the thermal pressure coefficient, compressibilities, expansion coefficients, heat capacities, Joule-Thomson coefficient, zero frequency speed of sound, and diffusion coefficient at methane concentrations up to 15% in the temperature range of 298–650 K. The simulations reveal a complex concentration dependence of the thermodynamic properties of water + methane mixtures. The compressibilities, heat capacities, and diffusion coefficients decrease with increasing methane concentration, whereas values of the thermal expansion coefficients and speed of sound increase. Increasing methane concentration considerably retards the self-diffusion of both water and methane in the mixture. These effects are caused by changes in hydrogen bond network, solvation shell structure, and dynamics of water molecules induced by the solvation of methane at constant volume conditions.

  15. Evaluation of cell cytotoxic effect on herbal extracts mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Choi, Bo Ram; Lim, Youn Mook; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)


    Herbal extracts (HE) such as Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Eucommia ulimoides, Plantago asiatica var., Morus alba L., and Ulmus davidiana var., are known to suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. In this study, to evaluate the cell cytotoxicity effect on L929, HaCaT and HMC-1 cell by the HE, the herbs were extracted with distilled water (at 75 .deg. C) and then the HE mixtures were freeze-dried for 5 days and sterilized with {gamma}-rays. The cytotoxicity was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The result showed that the HE mixtures did not significantly affect cell viability and had no toxicity on the cells. These findings indicate that the HE mixtures can be used as a potential therapeutic agent.

  16. Preparation of reminiscent aroma mixture of Japanese soy sauce. (United States)

    Bonkohara, Kaori; Fuji, Maiko; Nakao, Akito; Igura, Noriyuki; Shimoda, Mitsuya


    To prepare an aroma mixture of Japanese soy sauce by fewest components, the aroma concentrate of good sensory attributes was prepared by polyethylene membrane extraction, which could extract only the volatiles with diethyl ether. GC-MS-Olfactometry was done with the aroma concentrate, and 28 odor-active compounds were detected. Application of aroma extract dilution analysis to the separated fraction revealed high flavor dilution factors with respect to acetic acid, 4-hydroxy-2(or5)-ethyl-5(or2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF), 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol), and 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal (methional). A model aroma mixture containing above four odorants showed a good similarity with the aroma of the soy sauce itself. Consequently, the reminiscent aroma mixture of soy sauce was prepared in water. The ratio of acetic acid, HEMF, isoamyl alcohol, and methional was 2500:300:100:1.

  17. Determining the Porosity and Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Binary Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Ward, Anderson L.; Keller, Jason M.


    Gravels and coarse sands make up significant portions of some environmentally important sediments, while the hydraulic properties of the sediments are typically obtained in the laboratory using only the fine fraction (e.g., <2 mm or 4.75 mm). Researchers have found that the content of gravel has significant impacts on the hydraulic properties of the bulk soils. Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the porosity and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of binary mixtures with different fractions of coarse and fine components. We proposed a mixing-coefficient model to estimate the porosity and a power-averaging method to determine the effective particle diameter and further to predict the saturated hydraulic conductivity of binary mixtures. The proposed methods could well estimate the porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity of the binary mixtures for the full range of gravel contents and was successfully applied to two data sets in the literature.

  18. Electrochemical concentration measurements for multianalyte mixtures in simulated electrorefiner salt (United States)

    Rappleye, Devin Spencer

    The development of electroanalytical techniques in multianalyte molten salt mixtures, such as those found in used nuclear fuel electrorefiners, would enable in situ, real-time concentration measurements. Such measurements are beneficial for process monitoring, optimization and control, as well as for international safeguards and nuclear material accountancy. Electroanalytical work in molten salts has been limited to single-analyte mixtures with a few exceptions. This work builds upon the knowledge of molten salt electrochemistry by performing electrochemical measurements on molten eutectic LiCl-KCl salt mixture containing two analytes, developing techniques for quantitatively analyzing the measured signals even with an additional signal from another analyte, correlating signals to concentration and identifying improvements in experimental and analytical methodologies. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  19. Embedded Bernoulli Mixture HMMs for Continuous Handwritten Text Recognition (United States)

    Giménez, Adrià; Juan, Alfons

    Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are now widely used in off-line handwritten text recognition. As in speech recognition, they are usually built from shared, embedded HMMs at symbol level, in which state-conditional probability density functions are modelled with Gaussian mixtures. In contrast to speech recognition, however, it is unclear which kind of real-valued features should be used and, indeed, very different features sets are in use today. In this paper, we propose to by-pass feature extraction and directly fed columns of raw, binary image pixels into embedded Bernoulli mixture HMMs, that is, embedded HMMs in which the emission probabilities are modelled with Bernoulli mixtures. The idea is to ensure that no discriminative information is filtered out during feature extraction, which in some sense is integrated into the recognition model. Good empirical results are reported on the well-known IAM database.

  20. A classification system for tableting behaviors of binary powder mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changquan Calvin Sun


    Full Text Available The ability to predict tableting properties of a powder mixture from individual components is of both fundamental and practical importance to the efficient formulation development of tablet products. A common tableting classification system (TCS of binary powder mixtures facilitates the systematic development of new knowledge in this direction. Based on the dependence of tablet tensile strength on weight fraction in a binary mixture, three main types of tableting behavior are identified. Each type is further divided to arrive at a total of 15 sub-classes. The proposed classification system lays a framework for a better understanding of powder interactions during compaction. Potential applications and limitations of this classification system are discussed.

  1. Inelastic x-ray scattering measurements of liquid waterglycerol mixtures (United States)

    Kajihara, Yukio; Shibata, Nanako; Inui, Masanori; Matsuda, Kazuhiro; Tsutsui, Satoshi


    We have carried out inelastic x-ray scattering measurements on liquid water-glycerol mixtures. The data are analyzed by a damped harmonic oscillator model with two excitations, longitudinal and transverse modes. The sound velocity of the longitudinal mode is almost constant (about 3.1 km/s), being independent of the composition. Thus the strength of 'fast sound' which we define the ratio of this IXS sound velocity to ultrasonic one is largest at pure water and gradually decrease with increasing mole fraction of glycerol. This result indicates that the relaxation phenomena of pure water gradually reduce with increasing the fraction of the solute: the scenario which we proposed for water-monohydric alcohol mixtures hold true for this water-trihydric alcohol mixtures.

  2. Viscosity Measurements and Correlation of the Squalane + CO2 Mixture (United States)

    Tomida, D.; Kumagai, A.; Yokoyama, C.


    Experimental results for the viscosity of squalane + CO2 mixtures are reported. The viscosities were measured using a rolling ball viscometer. The experimental temperatures were 293.15, 313.15, 333.15, and 353.15 K, and pressures were 10.0, 15.0, and 20.0 MPa. The CO2 mole fraction of the mixtures varied from 0 to 0.417. The experimental uncertainties in viscosity were estimated to be within ±3.0%. The viscosity of the mixtures decreased with an increase in the CO2 mole fraction. The experimental data were compared with predictions from the Grunberg-Nissan and McAllister equations, which correlated the experimental data with maximum deviations of 10 and 8.7%, respectively.

  3. Chemical kinetic modeling of component mixtures relevant to gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Dooley, S; Westbrook, C K


    Detailed kinetic models of pyrolysis and combustion of hydrocarbon fuels are nowadays widely used in the design of internal combustion engines and these models are effectively applied to help meet the increasingly stringent environmental and energetic standards. In previous studies by the combustion community, such models not only contributed to the understanding of pure component combustion, but also provided a deeper insight into the combustion behavior of complex mixtures. One of the major challenges in this field is now the definition and the development of appropriate surrogate models able to mimic the actual features of real fuels. Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. Their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. Aside the most commonly used surrogates containing iso-octane and n-heptane only, the so called Primary Reference Fuels (PRF), new mixtures have recently been suggested to extend the reference components in surrogate mixtures to also include alkenes and aromatics. It is generally agreed that, including representative species for all the main classes of hydrocarbons which can be found in real fuels, it is possible to reproduce very effectively in a wide range of operating conditions not just the auto-ignition propensity of gasoline or Diesel fuels, but also their physical properties and their combustion residuals [1]. In this work, the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation is computationally examined. The attention is focused on the autoignition of iso-octane, hexene and their mixtures. Some important issues relevant to the experimental and modeling investigation of such fuels are discussed with the help of rapid compression machine data and calculations. Following the model validation, the behavior of mixtures is discussed on the

  4. Exploring the Fate of Nitrogen Heterocycles in Complex Prebiotic Mixtures (United States)

    Smith, Karen E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Cleaves, Henderson J.; Dworkin, Jason P.; House, Christopher H.


    A long standing question in the field of prebiotic chemistry is the origin of the genetic macromolecules DNA and RNA. DNA and RNA have very complex structures with repeating subunits of nucleotides, which are composed of nucleobases (nitrogen heterocycles) connected to sugar-phosphate. Due to the instability of some nucleobases (e.g. cytosine), difficulty of synthesis and instability of D-ribose, and the likely scarcity of polyphosphates necessary for the modern nucleotides, alternative nucleotides have been proposed for constructing the first genetic material. Thus, we have begun to investigate the chemistry of nitrogen heterocycles in plausible, complex prebiotic mixtures in an effort to identify robust reactions and potential alternative nucleotides. We have taken a complex prebiotic mixture produced by a spark discharge acting on a gas mixture of N2, CO2, CH4, and H2, and reacted it with four nitrogen heterocycles: uracil, 5-hydroxymethyluracil, guanine, and isoxanthopterin (2-amino-4,7-dihydroxypteridine). The products of the reaction between the spark mixture and each nitrogen heterocycle were characterized by liquid chromatography coupled to UV spectroscopy and Orbitrap mass spectrometry. We found that the reaction between the spark mixtUl'e and isoxanthopterin formed one major product, which was a cyanide adduct. 5-hydroxymethyluracil also reacted with the spark mixture to form a cyanide adduct, uracil-5-acetonitrile, which has been synthesized previously by reacting HCN with S-hydroxymethyluracil. Unlike isoxanthopterin, the chromatogram of the 5-hydroxymethyluracil reaction was much more complex with multiple products including spark-modified dimers. Additionally, we observed that HMU readily self-polymerizes in solution to a variety of oligomers consistent with those suggested by Cleaves. Guanine and uracil, the biological nucleobases, did not react with the spark mixture, even at high temperature (100 C). This suggests that there are alternative

  5. Low temperature catalytic combustion of natural gas - hydrogen - air mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newson, E.; Roth, F. von; Hottinger, P.; Truong, T.B. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    The low temperature catalytic combustion of natural gas - air mixtures would allow the development of no-NO{sub x} burners for heating and power applications. Using commercially available catalysts, the room temperature ignition of methane-propane-air mixtures has been shown in laboratory reactors with combustion efficiencies over 95% and maximum temperatures less than 700{sup o}C. After a 500 hour stability test, severe deactivation of both methane and propane oxidation functions was observed. In cooperation with industrial partners, scaleup to 3 kW is being investigated together with startup dynamics and catalyst stability. (author) 3 figs., 3 refs.

  6. Mixture and method for simulating soiling and weathering of surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sleiman, Mohamad; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Destaillats, Hugo; Levinson, Ronnen; Berdahl, Paul; Akbari, Hashem


    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to simulated soiling and weathering of materials. In one aspect, a soiling mixture may include an aqueous suspension of various amounts of salt, soot, dust, and humic acid. In another aspect, a method may include weathering a sample of material in a first exposure of the sample to ultraviolet light, water vapor, and elevated temperatures, depositing a soiling mixture on the sample, and weathering the sample in a second exposure of the sample to ultraviolet light, water vapor, and elevated temperatures.

  7. Moving target detection method based on improved Gaussian mixture model (United States)

    Ma, J. Y.; Jie, F. R.; Hu, Y. J.


    Gaussian Mixture Model is often employed to build background model in background difference methods for moving target detection. This paper puts forward an adaptive moving target detection algorithm based on improved Gaussian Mixture Model. According to the graylevel convergence for each pixel, adaptively choose the number of Gaussian distribution to learn and update background model. Morphological reconstruction method is adopted to eliminate the shadow.. Experiment proved that the proposed method not only has good robustness and detection effect, but also has good adaptability. Even for the special cases when the grayscale changes greatly and so on, the proposed method can also make outstanding performance.

  8. Correcting coal mixture composition using infrared spectra of components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, S.E.; Rus' yanova, N.D.; Bubnovskaya, L.M.; Popov, V.K.; Belyaeva, L.I.; Stepanov, Yu.V. (Khar' kovskii Nauchno-Issledovatel' skii Uglekhimicheskii Institut (USSR))


    Discusses use of infrared spectrometry in optimizing coal mixtures used in coking plants. Infrared spectra characterize chemical structure of organic matter in various types of coal as well as their molecular structure. By using infrared spectrometers, the optimum content of individual coal components in a mixture can be determined, one component can be replaced by another, or optimum composition of individual components under conditions of quality fluctuations is possible. A computerized optimization method is characterized. The method is characterized by high reliability, accuracy and short calculation time.

  9. Inorganic salt mixtures as electrolyte media in fuel cells (United States)

    Angell, Charles Austen (Inventor); Belieres, Jean-Philippe (Inventor); Francis-Gervasio, Dominic (Inventor)


    Fuel cell designs and techniques for converting chemical energy into electrical energy uses a fuel cell are disclosed. The designs and techniques include an anode to receive fuel, a cathode to receive oxygen, and an electrolyte chamber in the fuel cell, including an electrolyte medium, where the electrolyte medium includes an inorganic salt mixture in the fuel cell. The salt mixture includes pre-determined quantities of at least two salts chosen from a group consisting of ammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate, ammonium trifluoroacetate, and ammonium nitrate, to conduct charge from the anode to the cathode. The fuel cell includes an electrical circuit operatively coupled to the fuel cell to transport electrons from the cathode.

  10. Numerical simulation of asphalt mixtures fracture using continuum models (United States)

    Szydłowski, Cezary; Górski, Jarosław; Stienss, Marcin; Smakosz, Łukasz


    The paper considers numerical models of fracture processes of semi-circular asphalt mixture specimens subjected to three-point bending. Parameter calibration of the asphalt mixture constitutive models requires advanced, complex experimental test procedures. The highly non-homogeneous material is numerically modelled by a quasi-continuum model. The computational parameters are averaged data of the components, i.e. asphalt, aggregate and the air voids composing the material. The model directly captures random nature of material parameters and aggregate distribution in specimens. Initial results of the analysis are presented here.

  11. Inhomogeneous atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in cubic lattices. (United States)

    Cramer, M; Eisert, J; Illuminati, F


    We determine the ground state properties of inhomogeneous mixtures of bosons and fermions in cubic lattices and parabolic confining potentials. For finite hopping we determine the domain boundaries between Mott-insulator plateaux and hopping-dominated regions for lattices of arbitrary dimension within mean-field and perturbation theory. The results are compared with a new numerical method that is based on a Gutzwiller variational approach for the bosons and an exact treatment for the fermions. The findings can be applied as a guideline for future experiments with trapped atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in optical lattices.

  12. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Mixtures of Food Colorants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mad Reza Oveisi


    Full Text Available Mixtures of food colorants, containing new coccine , ponceaue 6R and scarlet GN were simultaneously analyzed by spectrophotometry without previous chemical separation. Sixty mixtures of colorants with three-components were evaluated and the spectrograms were smoothed through the use of seven experimental points. The multivariate data consisted of normal, first- and second-derivative absorbance spectra (∆λ=5 nm registered from 300-650 nm . The data obtained from experiments were processed by PLS method and the proposed method was applied satisfactorily for determination of these colorants in two commercial food products.

  13. Density measurements of compressed-liquid dimethyl ether + pentane mixtures. (United States)

    Outcalt, Stephanie L; Lemmon, Eric W


    Compressed-liquid densities of three compositions of the binary mixture dimethyl ether (CAS No. 115-10-6) + pentane (CAS No. 109-66-0) have been measured with a vibrating U-tube densimeter. Measurements were made at temperatures from 270 K to 390 K with pressures from 1.0 MPa to 50 MPa. The overall combined uncertainty (k=2) of the density data is 0.81 kg·m-3. Data presented here have been used to improve a previously formulated Helmholtz energy based mixture model. The newly derived parameters are given.

  14. Microbial comparative pan-genomics using binomial mixture models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussery, David; Snipen, L; Almøy, T


    The size of the core- and pan-genome of bacterial species is a topic of increasing interest due to the growing number of sequenced prokaryote genomes, many from the same species. Attempts to estimate these quantities have been made, using regression methods or mixture models. We extend the latter...... occurring genes in the population. CONCLUSION: Analyzing pan-genomics data with binomial mixture models is a way to handle dependencies between genomes, which we find is always present. A bottleneck in the estimation procedure is the annotation of rarely occurring genes....

  15. Identifying Clusters with Mixture Models that Include Radial Velocity Observations (United States)

    Czarnatowicz, Alexis; Ybarra, Jason E.


    The study of stellar clusters plays an integral role in the study of star formation. We present a cluster mixture model that considers radial velocity data in addition to spatial data. Maximum likelihood estimation through the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm is used for parameter estimation. Our mixture model analysis can be used to distinguish adjacent or overlapping clusters, and estimate properties for each cluster.Work supported by awards from the Virginia Foundation for Independent Colleges (VFIC) Undergraduate Science Research Fellowship and The Research Experience @Bridgewater (TREB).

  16. Pesticide Mixtures Induce Immunotoxicity: Potentiation of Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress


    Rabideau, Christine L


    The three insecticides of interest were lindane (an organochlorine), malathion (an organophosphate) and piperonyl butoxide (PBO; a synergist). Based on minimum cytotoxicity (> LC25), the following concentrations were chosen for the pesticide mixture studies: 70μM lindane (Lind), 50μM malathion (Mal) and 55μM PBO. In the AlamarBlue cytotoxicity assay, individual pesticide and mixtures of malathion/PBO (MP) and malathion/lindane (ML) prompted cytotoxicity with varying intensities (Mal 18.8...

  17. Concrete mixtures with high-workability for ballastless slab tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Smirnova


    Full Text Available The concrete track-supporting layer and the monolithic concrete slab of ballastless track systems are made in-situ. For this reason the concrete mixtures of high workability should be used. Influence of the sand kind, the quartz microfiller fineness and quantity as well as quantity of superplasticizer on workability of fresh concrete and durability of hardened concrete is shown. The compositions of the high-workability concrete mixtures with lower consumption of superplasticizer are developed. The results of the research can be recommended for high performance concrete of ballastless slab track.

  18. Predictors of computer anxiety: a factor mixture model analysis. (United States)

    Marcoulides, George A; Cavus, Hayati; Marcoulides, Laura D; Gunbatar, Mustafa Serkan


    A mixture modeling approach was used to assess the existence of latent classes in terms of the perceptions of individuals toward computer anxiety and subsequently predictors of the identified latent classes were examined. The perceptions of individuals were measured using the Computer Anxiety Scale. Mixture models are ideally suited to represent subpopulations or classes of respondents with common patterns of responses. Using data from a sample of Turkish college students, two classes of respondents were identified and designated as occasionally uncomfortable users and as anxious computerphobic users. Results indicated that the best predictors of the identified classes were variables dealing with past computer experiences.

  19. Asymptotic Limits for Transport in Binary Stochastic Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinja, A. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The Karhunen-Loeve stochastic spectral expansion of a random binary mixture of immiscible fluids in planar geometry is used to explore asymptotic limits of radiation transport in such mixtures. Under appropriate scalings of mixing parameters - correlation length, volume fraction, and material cross sections - and employing multiple- scale expansion of the angular flux, previously established atomic mix and diffusion limits are reproduced. When applied to highly contrasting material properties in the small cor- relation length limit, the methodology yields a nonstandard reflective medium transport equation that merits further investigation. Finally, a hybrid closure is proposed that produces both small and large correlation length limits of the closure condition for the material averaged equations.

  20. Kinetics of the Bicelle to Lamellae Transition in Phospholipid Mixtures (United States)

    Wang, Howard; Nieh, Mu-Ping; Hobbie, Erik K.; Glinka, Charles J.; Katsaras, John


    The kinetics of the bicelle to lamellae transition in phospholipid mixtures of DMPC/DHPC is investigated using time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering. The data suggest that ordering in these mixtures is a multi-stage process, initiated by the coalescence of bicelles into stacked membrane layers, and limited at late time by the coarsening and swelling of stacks and pinning due to defects. The time evolution of the ordering process is quantified via structural scaling of the non-equilibrium structure factor.

  1. Self-compacting concrete mixtures for road BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Tuan My


    Therefore, effective concrete road pavements require self-compacting though non-segregating concrete mixtures to comply with the pre-set values of their properties, namely, bending and compressive strength, corrosion resistance, freeze resistance, etc. Acting in cooperation with Department of Technology of Binders and Concretes of MSUCE, NIIMosstroy developed and examined a self-compacting cast concrete mixture designated for durable monolithic road pavements. The composition in question was generated by adding a multi-component modifier into the mix. The modifier was composed of a hyperplasticiser, active (structureless fine and crystalline silica, and a concrete hardening control agent.

  2. Fitting of Finite Mixture Distributions to Motor Insurance Claims


    P. Sattayatham; T. Talangtam


    Problem statement: The modeling of claims is an important task of actuaries. Our problem is in modelling the actual motor insurance claim data set. In this study, we show that the actual motor insurance claim can be fitted by a finite mixture model. Approach: Firstly, we analyse the actual data set and then we choose the finite mixture Lognormal distributions as our model. The estimated parameters of the model are obtained from the EM algorithm. Then, we use the K-S and A-D test for showing h...

  3. A new efficient mixture screening design for optimization of media. (United States)

    Rispoli, Fred; Shah, Vishal


    Screening ingredients for the optimization of media is an important first step to reduce the many potential ingredients down to the vital few components. In this study, we propose a new method of screening for mixture experiments called the centroid screening design. Comparison of the proposed design with Plackett-Burman, fractional factorial, simplex lattice design, and modified mixture design shows that the centroid screening design is the most efficient of all the designs in terms of the small number of experimental runs needed and for detecting high-order interaction among ingredients. (c) 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2009.

  4. Application of association models to mixtures containing alkanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Ane Søgaard; Eriksen, Daniel Kunisch; Kontogeorgis, Georgios


    . The role of association schemes is investigated in connection with CPA, while for sPC-SAFT emphasisis given on the role of different types of data in the determination of pure compound parameters suitable for mixture calculations. Moreover, the performance of CPA and sPC-SAFT for MEA-containing systems...... is compared.The investigation showed that vapor pressures and liquid densities were not sufficient for obtaining reliable parameters with either CPA or sPC-SAFT, but that at least one other type of information is needed. LLE data for a binary mixture of the associating component with an inert compound is very...

  5. Influencing of foundry bentonite mixtures by binder activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Beňo


    Full Text Available Although new moulding processes for manufacture of high quality castings have been developed and introduced into foundry practice in recent years, the green-sand moulding in bentonite mixture still remains the most widely used technology. Higher utility properties of bentonite binders are achieved through their activation. This contribution is aimed at finding a suitable activating agent. A number of sodium salts and MgO based agents has been chosen. In the framework of the experiment the swelling volume of chosen agents was tested and technological parameters of a bentonite mixture with a binder activated with the studied agents were determined.

  6. Dilute helium mixtures at low temperatures : properties and cooling methods


    Pentti, Elias


    This thesis describes experimental work on dilute mixtures of ³He in 4He, mainly at millikelvin temperatures. The isotopic helium mixture has the unique property of remaining a miscible liquid down to the absolute zero temperature. In the mK regime, it consists of two very different components: perfectly superfluid 4He, and a weakly interacting degenerate Fermi liquid of ³He, predicted by theory to undergo transition to the superfluid state at an extremely low temperature. To discover that tr...

  7. Modeling Phase Equilibria for Acid Gas Mixtures Using the CPA Equation of State. I. Mixtures with H2S

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht


    The Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA) equation of state is applied to a large variety of mixtures containing H2S, which are of interest in the oil and gas industry. Binary H2S mixtures with alkanes, CO2, water, methanol, and glycols are first considered. The interactions of H2S with polar compounds...... (water, methanol, and glycols) are modeled assuming presence or not of cross-association interactions. Such interactions are accounted for using either a combining rule or a cross-solvation energy obtained from spectroscopic data. Using the parameters obtained from the binary systems, one ternary...

  8. Synthesis and characterization of mixture of nanozirconia and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we present the results of our patented (application filed in India) process for synthesizing a mixture of nanozirconia and nanosilica, obtained by the sol–gel method from commercially available zircon flour and hydrofluoric acid at low temperatures (∼ 100°C). Within the scope of this study, 99.2% dissolution of ...

  9. Studies on Molecular Interaction in Ternary Liquid Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uvarani


    Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity for the ternary liquid mixtures of cyclohexanone with 1-propanol and 1-butanol in carbon tetrachloride were measured at 303 K. The acoustical parameters and their excess values were calculated. The trends in the variation of these excess parameters were used to discuss the nature and strength of the interactions present between the component molecules.

  10. Concentration waves in dilute bubble/liquid mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijngaarden, L.; van Wijngaarden, L.; Kapteyn, C.


    In this paper we consider a uniform gas bubble-liquid mixture rising under buoyancy. When the gas volume flux is decreased, while keeping bubble size constant, a smooth transition is formed between the region of lower concentration by volume and the region of initial concentration. This transition

  11. Potential theory of adsorption for associating mixtures: possibilities and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Martin Gamel; Shapiro, Alexander; Kontogeorgis, Georgios


    The applicability of the Multicomponent Potential Theory of Adsorption (MPTA) for prediction of the adsorption equilibrium of several associating binary mixtures on different industrial adsorbents is investigated. In the MPTA the adsorbates are considered to be distributed fluids subject to an ex...

  12. Evaluation of alfalfa-tall fescue mixtures across multiple environments (United States)

    Binary grass-legume mixtures can benefit forage production systems in different ways helping growers cope both with increasing input costs (e.g., N fertilizer, herbicides) and potentially more variable weather. The main objective of this study was to evaluate alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and tall f...

  13. Effect of Waste Plastic as Bitumen Modified in Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mohd Ezree


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to investigate the engineering properties of the asphalt mixtures containing waste plastic at different percentages i.e. 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% by weight of bitumen. The experimental tests performed in the study were stability, tensile strength, resilient modulus and dynamic creep test. Results showed that the mixture with 4% plastic has the highest stability (184kN. However, the stability slightly decreases with the increase of plastic additive. On the other hand, the highest tensile strength among the modified asphaltic concrete is 1049kPa (8% plastic added. The modified asphalt mixture with 8% plastic has the highest resilient modulus, which is 3422 MPa (25°C and 494Mpa (40°C. Where the highest creep modulus recorded is 73.30Mpa at 8% plastic added. It can be concluded that the addition of 8% plastic gave the highest value properties of asphalt mixture. Finally, it can be said that 8% plastic is the optimum value adding.

  14. Quantitative measurement of mixtures by terahertz time–domain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    515. *For correspondence. Quantitative measurement of mixtures by terahertz time–domain spectroscopy. GUIFENG LIU a,b. , ZENGYAN ZHANG a. , SHIHUA MA a. , HONGWEI ZHAO a. ,. XIAOJING MA a and WENFENG WANG a,. * a. Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 ...

  15. Univolatility curves in ternary mixtures: geometry and numerical computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shcherbakova, Nataliya; Rodriguez-Donis, Ivonne; Abildskov, Jens


    We propose a new non-iterative numerical algorithm allowing computation of all univolatility curves in homogeneous ternary mixtures independently of the presence of the azeotropes. The key point is the concept of generalized univolatility curves in the 3D state space, which allows the main...... computational part to be reduced to a simple integration of a system of ordinary differential equations....

  16. Composition dependent non-ideality in aqueous binary mixtures as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We explore the potential energy landscape of structure breaking binary mixtures (SBBM) where two constituents dislike each other, yet remain macroscopically homogeneous at intermediate to high temper- atures. Interestingly, we find that the origin of strong composition dependent non-ideal behaviour lies in its.

  17. Entropy of the Mixture of Sources and Entropy Dimension


    Smieja, Marek; Tabor, Jacek


    We investigate the problem of the entropy of the mixture of sources. There is given an estimation of the entropy and entropy dimension of convex combination of measures. The proof is based on our alternative definition of the entropy based on measures instead of partitions.

  18. Proteins and protein/surfactant mixtures at interfaces in motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerboom, F.J.G.


    The research described in this thesis covers a number of aspects of the relation between surface properties and foaming properties of proteins, low molecular surfactants and mixtures thereof. This work is the result of a question of the industrial partners if it is possible to understand

  19. Vermiremediation of soils contaminated with mixture of petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that E. fetida enhances the degradation and reduction of TPH levels in soils and therefore can be used for cleaning up of soils contaminated with mixture of petroleum products. This is useful in reclaiming mechanic workshop soils for agricultural purposes hence increase in food production. Keywords: ...

  20. Variation of ionic conductivity in a plastic-crystalline mixture (United States)

    Reuter, D.; Geiß, C.; Lunkenheimer, P.; Loidl, A.


    Ionically conducting plastic crystals (PCs) are possible candidates for solid-state electrolytes in energy-storage devices. Interestingly, the admixture of larger molecules to the most prominent molecular PC electrolyte, succinonitrile, was shown to drastically enhance its ionic conductivity. Therefore, binary mixtures seem to be a promising way to tune the conductivity of such solid-state electrolytes. However, to elucidate the general mechanisms of ionic charge transport in plastic crystals and the influence of mixing, a much broader database is needed. In the present work, we investigate mixtures of two well-known plastic-crystalline systems, cyclohexanol and cyclooctanol, to which 1 mol. % of Li ions were added. Applying differential scanning calorimetry and dielectric spectroscopy, we present a thorough investigation of the phase behavior and the ionic and dipolar dynamics of this system. All mixtures reveal plastic-crystalline phases with corresponding orientational glass-transitions. Moreover, their conductivity seems to be dominated by the "revolving-door" mechanism, implying a close coupling between the ionic translational and the molecular reorientational dynamics of the surrounding plastic-crystalline matrix. In contrast to succinonitrile-based mixtures, there is no strong variation of this coupling with the mixing ratio.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    A mixture model approach is developed that simultaneously estimates the posterior membership probabilities of observations to a number of unobservable groups or latent classes, and the parameters of a generalized linear model which relates the observations, distributed according to some member of

  2. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in different gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Knochel, Susanne; Rosenquist, Hanne


    Campylobacter jejuni in fresh chilled chicken meat is known to be a major risk factor for human gastrointestinal disease. In the present study, the survival under chilled conditions of different C. jejuni strains exposed to different gas mixtures usually used for gas packaging of food was examined...

  3. Panicle blast and canopy moisture in rice cultivar mixtures. (United States)

    Zhu, You-Yong; Fang, Hui; Wang, Yun-Yue; Fan, Jin Xiang; Yang, Shi-Sheng; Mew, Twng Wah; Mundt, Christopher C


    ABSTRACT Glutinous rice cultivars were sown after every fourth row of a nonglutinous, hybrid cultivar in an additive design. The glutinous cultivars were 35 to 40 cm taller and substantially more susceptible to blast than was the nonglutinous cultivar. Interplanting of glutinous and nonglutinous rice reduced the incidence and severity of panicle blast on the glutinous cultivars by >90%, and on the nonglutinous cultivar by 30 to 40%. Mixing increased the per unit area yield of glutinous rice by 80 to 90% relative to pure stand, whereas yield of the nonglutinous cultivar was essentially unaffected by mixing. To determine whether the different plant heights and canopy structures may contribute to a microclimate that is less favorable to blast infection, we monitored the moisture status of the glutinous cultivars in pure stand and mixture at 0800 h by measuring relative humidity at the height of the glutinous panicles using a swing psychrometer and by visually estimating the percentage of leaf area covered by dew. Averaged over the two seasons, the number of days of 100% humidity at 0800 h was 20.0 and 2.2 for pure stands and mixtures, respectively. The mean percentage of glutinous leaf area covered by dewwas 84 and 36% for the pure stands and mixtures, respectively. Although other mechanisms also were operative, reduced leaf wetness was likely a substantial contributor to panicle blast control in the mixtures.

  4. Effects of a Carbendazim-Mancozeb Fungicidal Mixture on Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of a Carbendazim-Mancozeb fungicidal mixture on microbial populations and some enzyme activities of three selected soils of Kwara State, Nigeria were studied. The soil dilution method was used to isolate bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes and some functional microbial groups from treated soils. Cultivation and ...

  5. Use of waste plastic in concrete mixture as aggregate replacement. (United States)

    Ismail, Zainab Z; Al-Hashmi, Enas A


    Industrial activities in Iraq are associated with significant amounts of non-biodegradable solid waste, waste plastic being among the most prominent. This study involved 86 experiments and 254 tests to determine the efficiency of reusing waste plastic in the production of concrete. Thirty kilograms of waste plastic of fabriform shapes was used as a partial replacement for sand by 0%, 10%, 15%, and 20% with 800 kg of concrete mixtures. All of the concrete mixtures were tested at room temperature. These tests include performing slump, fresh density, dry density, compressive strength, flexural strength, and toughness indices. Seventy cubes were molded for compressive strength and dry density tests, and 54 prisms were cast for flexural strength and toughness indices tests. Curing ages of 3, 7, 14, and 28 days for the concrete mixtures were applied in this work. The results proved the arrest of the propagation of micro cracks by introducing waste plastic of fabriform shapes to concrete mixtures. This study insures that reusing waste plastic as a sand-substitution aggregate in concrete gives a good approach to reduce the cost of materials and solve some of the solid waste problems posed by plastics.

  6. excess molar volumes, and refractive index of binary mixtures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    mixtures of glycerol + water, and glycerol + methanol at 298.15 K and 303.15 K. Excess molar volumes (VE) have been calculated ... KEY WORDS: Excess molar, Density, Refractive index, Glycerol, Water, Methanol ... Biodiesel, defined as “a substitute for, or a additive to diesel fuel that is derived from the oils and fats of ...

  7. Rayleigh-Brillouin Scattering in Binary-Gas Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Z.; Ubachs, W.M.G.; Marques, W.; van der Water, W.


    Precise measurements are performed on spectral line shapes of spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering in mixtures of the noble gases Ar and Kr, with He. Admixture of a light He atomic fraction results in marked changes of the spectra, although in all experiments He is merely a spectator atom: it

  8. Synergistic effects of ethanolic plant extract mixtures against food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of mixtures of ethanol extracts from semi-desert plants [creosote bush (Larrea tridentata), tarbush (Flourensia cernua) and paddle cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica)] against Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus.

  9. Shock initiation of exothermic reactions in mechanically activated mixtures (United States)

    Ananev, S. Yu; Dolgoborodov, A. Yu; Shiray, A. A.; Yankovsky, B. D.


    Experiments on initiation of chemical transformation in mechanically activated thermit mixtures are described. The initiation was produced by shock loading of compact porous thermit specimens in a semi-enclosed volume by explosion of an HE charge. Energy losses for shock wave passing through the thermit specimens and expansion rate of the field of chemical transformations in a free space were estimated.

  10. Phase diagrams and lipid domains in multicomponent lipid bilayer mixtures. (United States)

    Feigenson, Gerald W


    Understanding the phase behavior of biological membranes is helped by the study of more simple systems. Model membranes that have as few as 3 components exhibit complex phase behavior that can be well described, providing insight for biological membranes. A number of different studies are in agreement on general findings for some compositional phase diagrams, in particular, those that model the outer leaflet of animal cell plasma membranes. These model mixtures include cholesterol, together with one high-melting lipid and one low-melting lipid. An interesting finding is of two categories of such 3-component mixtures, leading to what we term Type I and Type II compositional phase diagrams. The latter have phase regions of macroscopic coexisting domains of [Lalpha+Lbeta+Lo] and of [Lalpha+Lo], with domains resolved under the light microscope. Type I mixtures have the same phase coexistence regions, but the domains seem to be nanoscopic. Type I mixtures are likely to be better models for biological membranes.

  11. Proteomics based compositional analysis of complex cellulase-hemicellulase mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chundawat, Shishir P.; Lipton, Mary S.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Gao, Dahai; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E.


    Efficient deconstruction of cellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars for fuel and chemical production is accomplished by a complex mixture of cellulases, hemicellulases and accessory enzymes (e.g., >50 extracellular proteins). Cellulolytic enzyme mixtures, produced industrially mostly using fungi like Trichoderma reesei, are poorly characterized in terms of their protein composition and its correlation to hydrolytic activity on cellulosic biomass. The secretomes of commercial glycosyl hydrolase producing microbes was explored using a proteomics approach with high-throughput quantification using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Here, we show that proteomics based spectral counting approach is a reasonably accurate and rapid analytical technique that can be used to determine protein composition of complex glycosyl hydrolase mixtures that also correlates with the specific activity of individual enzymes present within the mixture. For example, a strong linear correlation was seen between Avicelase activity and total cellobiohydrolase content. Reliable, quantitative and cheaper analytical methods that provide insight into the cellulosic biomass degrading fungal and bacterial secretomes would lead to further improvements towards commercialization of plant biomass derived fuels and chemicals.

  12. A Mixture Rasch Model with Item Response Time Components (United States)

    Meyer, J. Patrick


    An examinee faced with a test item will engage in solution behavior or rapid-guessing behavior. These qualitatively different test-taking behaviors bias parameter estimates for item response models that do not control for such behavior. A mixture Rasch model with item response time components was proposed and evaluated through application to real…

  13. Beta Regression Finite Mixture Models of Polarization and Priming (United States)

    Smithson, Michael; Merkle, Edgar C.; Verkuilen, Jay


    This paper describes the application of finite-mixture general linear models based on the beta distribution to modeling response styles, polarization, anchoring, and priming effects in probability judgments. These models, in turn, enhance our capacity for explicitly testing models and theories regarding the aforementioned phenomena. The mixture…

  14. Evaluation of Distance Measures Between Gaussian Mixture Models of MFCCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Højvang; Ellis, Dan P. W.; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll


    In music similarity and in the related task of genre classification, a distance measure between Gaussian mixture models is frequently needed. We present a comparison of the Kullback-Leibler distance, the earth movers distance and the normalized L2 distance for this application. Although...

  15. The Semiparametric Normal Variance-Mean Mixture Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Lars


    We discuss the normal vairance-mean mixture model from a semi-parametric point of view, i.e. we let the mixing distribution belong to a non parametric family. The main results are consistency of the non parametric maximum likelihood estimat or in this case, and construction of an asymptotically...

  16. Model Selection Methods for Mixture Dichotomous IRT Models (United States)

    Li, Feiming; Cohen, Allan S.; Kim, Seock-Ho; Cho, Sun-Joo


    This study examines model selection indices for use with dichotomous mixture item response theory (IRT) models. Five indices are considered: Akaike's information coefficient (AIC), Bayesian information coefficient (BIC), deviance information coefficient (DIC), pseudo-Bayes factor (PsBF), and posterior predictive model checks (PPMC). The five…

  17. Detecting Social Desirability Bias Using Factor Mixture Models (United States)

    Leite, Walter L.; Cooper, Lou Ann


    Based on the conceptualization that social desirable bias (SDB) is a discrete event resulting from an interaction between a scale's items, the testing situation, and the respondent's latent trait on a social desirability factor, we present a method that makes use of factor mixture models to identify which examinees are most likely to provide…

  18. Spurious Latent Classes in the Mixture Rasch Model (United States)

    Alexeev, Natalia; Templin, Jonathan; Cohen, Allan S.


    Mixture Rasch models have been used to study a number of psychometric issues such as goodness of fit, response strategy differences, strategy shifts, and multidimensionality. Although these models offer the potential for improving understanding of the latent variables being measured, under some conditions overextraction of latent classes may…

  19. Evaluating Differential Effects Using Regression Interactions and Regression Mixture Models (United States)

    Van Horn, M. Lee; Jaki, Thomas; Masyn, Katherine; Howe, George; Feaster, Daniel J.; Lamont, Andrea E.; George, Melissa R. W.; Kim, Minjung


    Research increasingly emphasizes understanding differential effects. This article focuses on understanding regression mixture models, which are relatively new statistical methods for assessing differential effects by comparing results to using an interactive term in linear regression. The research questions which each model answers, their…

  20. Sparse Gaussian graphical mixture model | Lotsi | Afrika Statistika

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This paper considers the problem of networks reconstruction from heterogeneous data using a Gaussian Graphical Mixture Model (GGMM). It is well known that parameter estimation in this context is challenging due to large numbers of variables coupled with the degenerate nature of the likelihood. We propose as ...

  1. Investigating Individual Differences in Toddler Search with Mixture Models (United States)

    Berthier, Neil E.; Boucher, Kelsea; Weisner, Nina


    Children's performance on cognitive tasks is often described in categorical terms in that a child is described as either passing or failing a test, or knowing or not knowing some concept. We used binomial mixture models to determine whether individual children could be classified as passing or failing two search tasks, the DeLoache model room…

  2. Turbidimetric Estimation of Alcohol Concentration in Aqueous-Alcohol Mixtures (United States)

    Swinehart, William E.; Zimmerman, Bonnie L.; Powell, Kinsey; Moore, Stephen D.; Iordanov, Tzvetelin D.


    A concept of the turbidimetric method for determining the concentration of ethanol in water-ethanol mixtures is described. A closed sample cell containing the analyte was heated to achieve vapor saturation and subsequent condensation. As the condensation occurred, the decrease in percentage transmittance with time due to light scattering was…

  3. The virucidal spectrum of a high concentration alcohol mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Engelenburg, F. A. C.; Terpstra, F. G.; Schuitemaker, H.; Moorer, W. R.


    The virucidal spectrum of a high concentration alcohol mixture (80% ethanol and 5% isopropanol) was determined for a broad series of lipid-enveloped (LE) and non-lipid-enveloped (NLE) viruses covering all relevant blood-borne viruses. LE viruses were represented by human immunodeficiency virus

  4. Extra-terrestrial sprites: laboratory investigations in planetary gas mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Dubrovin; Y. Yair; C. Price; S. Nijdam (Sander); T.T.J. Clevis; E.M. van Veldhuizen; U. Ebert (Ute)


    textabstractWe investigate streamers in gas mixtures representing the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn (H2-He) and Venus (CO2-N2). Streamer diameters, velocities, radiance and overall morphology are investigated with fast ICCD camera images. We confirm experimentally the scaling of streamer diameters

  5. CO2-based mixtures as working fluids for geothermal turbines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Steven Alan; Conboy, Thomas M.; Ames, David E.


    Sandia National Laboratories is investigating advanced Brayton cycles using supercritical working fluids for application to a variety of heat sources, including geothermal, solar, fossil, and nuclear power. This work is centered on the supercritical CO{sub 2} (S-CO{sub 2}) power conversion cycle, which has the potential for high efficiency in the temperature range of interest for these heat sources and is very compact-a feature likely to reduce capital costs. One promising approach is the use of CO{sub 2}-based supercritical fluid mixtures. The introduction of additives to CO{sub 2} alters the equation of state and the critical point of the resultant mixture. A series of tests was carried out using Sandia's supercritical fluid compression loop that confirmed the ability of different additives to increase or lower the critical point of CO{sub 2}. Testing also demonstrated that, above the modified critical point, these mixtures can be compressed in a turbocompressor as a single-phase homogenous mixture. Comparisons of experimental data to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties (REFPROP) Standard Reference Database predictions varied depending on the fluid. Although the pressure, density, and temperature (p, {rho}, T) data for all tested fluids matched fairly well to REFPROP in most regions, the critical temperature was often inaccurate. In these cases, outside literature was found to provide further insight and to qualitatively confirm the validity of experimental findings for the present investigation.

  6. Using particle packing technology for sustainable concrete mixture design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, S.A.A.M.; Walraven, J.C.


    The annual production of Portland cement, estimated at 3.4 billion tons in 2011, is responsible for about 7% of the total worldwide CO2-emission. To reduce this environmental impact it is important to use innovative technologies for the design of concrete structures and mixtures. In this paper, it

  7. Supervised Gaussian mixture model based remote sensing image ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this research is to experiment the use of the parametric Gaussian mixture model multi-class classifier/algorithm for multi-class remote sensing task, implemented in MATLAB. MATLAB is a programming language just like C, C++, and python. In this research, a computer program implemented in MATLAB is ...

  8. Linear kinetic theory and particle transport in stochastic mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomraning, G.C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)


    We consider the formulation of linear transport and kinetic theory describing energy and particle flow in a random mixture of two or more immiscible materials. Following an introduction, we summarize early and fundamental work in this area, and we conclude with a brief discussion of recent results.

  9. Optimization and characterization of liposome formulation by mixture design. (United States)

    Maherani, Behnoush; Arab-tehrany, Elmira; Kheirolomoom, Azadeh; Reshetov, Vadzim; Stebe, Marie José; Linder, Michel


    This study presents the application of the mixture design technique to develop an optimal liposome formulation by using the different lipids in type and percentage (DOPC, POPC and DPPC) in liposome composition. Ten lipid mixtures were generated by the simplex-centroid design technique and liposomes were prepared by the extrusion method. Liposomes were characterized with respect to size, phase transition temperature, ζ-potential, lamellarity, fluidity and efficiency in loading calcein. The results were then applied to estimate the coefficients of mixture design model and to find the optimal lipid composition with improved entrapment efficiency, size, transition temperature, fluidity and ζ-potential of liposomes. The response optimization of experiments was the liposome formulation with DOPC: 46%, POPC: 12% and DPPC: 42%. The optimal liposome formulation had an average diameter of 127.5 nm, a phase-transition temperature of 11.43 °C, a ζ-potential of -7.24 mV, fluidity (1/P)(TMA-DPH)((¬)) value of 2.87 and an encapsulation efficiency of 20.24%. The experimental results of characterization of optimal liposome formulation were in good agreement with those predicted by the mixture design technique.

  10. Application of the mixture design to decolourise effluent textile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 23, 2009 ... on the decolourisation of effluent (cell density fixed at OD600 = 1) was studied using an equilateral triangle diagram and mixture experimental design to assess colour and COD removal during species evolution. With the aid of analysis software. (Minitab 14.0), the formulation of pure culture was optimised ...

  11. Synergistic effects of ethanolic plant extract mixtures against food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 29, 2014 ... The flask was covered with aluminium foil to avoid light exposition. The mixture was refluxed at ... Analytical standard. On the other hand, it was added to a tube assay serie, [Catechin standard, (+)-Catechin 43412 Fluka from Sigma-Aldrich] in distilled water at different concentrations (0, 200, 400, 600, 800 ...

  12. An evaluation of mixture of Moringa ( Moringa oleifera ) leaf and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 56-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the growth performance and nutrient utilization of Clarias gariepinus juveniles fed graded levels of a mixture of Moringa oleifera leaf and kernel meal (1:1) as partial replacement for fishmeal. Triplicates groups of fish (average weight, 8.83±0.04 g) were allotted to four ...

  13. Relaxation in binary mixtures: Non-ideality, heterogeneity and re ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Binary mixtures show many kinds of fascinating dynamical behaviour which has eluded microscopic description till very recently. In this work we show that much of the anomalous behaviour can be explained by building suitable models and carrying out theoretical and simulation studies. Specifically, three well-known ...

  14. Effects of mixtures of dicamba and glyphosate on nontarget plants (United States)

    New technologies are being developed using mixtures of herbicides to manage a broader variety of weeds in multiple herbicide resistant crops such as soybean and cotton. As part of its regulation of pesticides, the US Environmental Protection Agency considers environmental risks,...

  15. Slow rheological mode in glycerol and glycerol–water mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mikkel Hartmann; Gainaru, Catalin; Alba-Simionesco, Christiane


    Glycerol–water mixtures were studied at molar concentrations ranging from xgly = 1 (neat glycerol) to xgly = 0.3 using shear mechanical spectroscopy. We observed a low frequency mode in neat glycerol, similar to what has been reported for monohydroxy alcohols. This mode has no dielectric...

  16. Demixing in a hard rod-plate mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roij, R. van; Mulder, B.


    We argue that the possibility to observe a stable biaxial nematic phase in a binary mixture of prolate and oblate hard particles is seriously limited by the existence of entropydriven demixing. This result follows from a simple Onsager-type density functional theory. An important feature15 the

  17. Superlattice configurations in linear chain hydrocarbon binary mixtures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    *For correspondence. Superlattice configurations in linear chain hydrocarbon binary mixtures – Case of n-C28H58: n-CxH2x+2 (x = 10, 12, 14, 16). P B V PRASAD*, P B SHASHIKANTH** and P NEELIMA. SR Research Laboratory for Studies in Crystallization Phenomena, 10-1-96, Mamillaguda,. Khammam 507 001, India.

  18. Separation of an inulin mixture using cascaded nanofiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, N.V.; Feng, Xiaoxia; Sewalt, J.J.W.; Boom, R.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.


    This paper examines the use of a pilot-scale spiral wound nanofiltration cascade with regard to separation of mono- and disaccharides from a mixture of inulin of different polymer sizes. The choices of the membrane and operational conditions were based on single stage experiments. Two 3-stage

  19. A Boundary Mixture Approach to Violations of Conditional Independence (United States)

    Braeken, Johan


    Conditional independence is a fundamental principle in latent variable modeling and item response theory. Violations of this principle, commonly known as local item dependencies, are put in a test information perspective, and sharp bounds on these violations are defined. A modeling approach is proposed that makes use of a mixture representation of…

  20. Incorporation of turmeric-lime mixture during the preparation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New types of tomato puree products were developed by blanching matured tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) for 1 min, 2 min and 3 min individually with or without addition of the mixture of turmeric and lime during the blanching time. Soluble solid content and pH of the puree products were in therange of 11 - 12.6 Brix ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TBA), lso-Propyl alcohol (IPA) and Toluene (TOL) were prepared at 298k and 1 atm. Subsequently, the densities, mole fractions and refractive indices of the mixtures and their pure components were obtained at 298k. The average molar ...

  2. Comparison of different protein sources in enriched grain mixture for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A triticale/oat grain mixture (2: 1) was enriched with either a commercially available formula or a locally composed supplement in addition to different protein sources (urea, urea plus fish-meal, urea plus cottonseed oilcake, urea plus bitter lupins or bitter lupins only) to be approximately equal in protein content and in vitro ...

  3. Parameter Estimation and Model Selection for Mixtures of Truncated Exponentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Rumí, Rafael


    Bayesian networks with mixtures of truncated exponentials (MTEs) support efficient inference algorithms and provide a flexible way of modeling hybrid domains (domains containing both discrete and continuous variables). On the other hand, estimating an MTE from data has turned out to be a difficult...

  4. Spasmolytic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Mixture from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spasmolytic properties of the aqueous extract of Aframomum melegueta (K Schum) and Citrus aurantifolia (Christm and Panzer) (AMCA) mixture were tested on isolated rat trachea. Inhibition of the contraction was observed the in presence of the AMCA (EC 50 = 1.80 ± 0.48 mg/mL) after a pre contraction of the trachea ...

  5. Aerobic biodegradation of a mixture of chlorinated organics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DCA) and dichloromethane (DCM), in contaminated water microcosms was investigated. The mixture of CAHs investigated was observed to be simultaneously degraded in both microcosms with up to 86.28% CCl4, 44.64% DCM and 52.34% ...

  6. Risk of POP mixtures on the Arctic food chain. (United States)

    Villa, Sara; Migliorati, Sonia; Monti, Gianna Serafina; Holoubek, Ivan; Vighi, Marco


    The exposure of the Arctic ecosystem to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was assessed through a review of literature data. Concentrations of 19 chemicals or congeneric groups were estimated for the highest levels of the Arctic food chain (Arctic cod, ringed seals, and polar bears). The ecotoxicological risk for seals, bears, and bear cubs was estimated by applying the concentration addition (CA) concept. The risk of POP mixtures was very low in seals. By contrast, the risk was 2 orders of magnitude higher than the risk threshold for adult polar bears and even more (3 orders of magnitude above the threshold) for bear cubs fed with contaminated milk. Based on the temporal trends available for many of the chemicals, the temporal trend of the mixture risk for bear cubs was calculated. Relative to the 1980s, a decrease in risk from the POP mixture is evident, mainly because of international control measures. However, the composition of the mixture substantially changes, and the contribution of new POPs (particularly perfluorooctane sulfonate) increases. These results support the effectiveness of control measures, such as those promulgated in the Stockholm Convention, as well as the urgent need for their implementation for new and emerging POPs. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1181-1192. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  7. Formation mechanism of coamorphous drug−amino acid mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Katrine Birgitte Tarp; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Cornett, Claus


    Two coamorphous drug−amino acid systems, indomethacin−tryptophan (Ind−Trp) and furosemide−tryptophan Fur−Trp), were analyzed toward their ease of amorphization and mechanism of coamorphization during ball milling. The two mixtures were compared to the corresponding amorphization of the pure drug...

  8. Determinant of flexible Parametric Estimation of Mixture Cure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 1, 2015 ... Determinant of flexible Parametric Estimation of Mixture Cure. Fraction Model: An Application of Gastric cancer Data. Chukwu, A. U. & Folorunso, S. A *. Department of Statistics, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. *Corresponding Author: Abstract. Cure models are survival models ...

  9. JET experiments with tritium and deuterium–tritium mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horton, L.; Batistoni, P.; Boyer, H.; Challis, C.; Ciric, D.; Donne, A. J. H.; Eriksson, L. G.; Garcia, J.; Garzotti, L.; Gee, S.; Hobirk, J.; Joffrin, E.; Jones, T.; King, D. B.; Knipe, S.; Litaudon, X.; Matthews, G. F.; Monakhov, I.; Murari, A.; Nunes, I.; Riccardo, V.; Sips, A. C. C.; Warren, R.; Weisen, H.; Zastrow, K. D.


    Extensive preparations are now underway for an experiment in the Joint European Torus (JET) using tritium and deuterium–tritium mixtures. The goals of this experiment are described as well as the progress that has been made in developing plasma operational scenarios and physics reference pulses for

  10. Optimization of prebiotics in soybean milk using mixture experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongkarn Kijroongrojana


    Full Text Available A mixture experiment was used to optimize prebiotic mixtures in soybean milk formulation. Inulin (I, galactooligosaccharides(GOS, and isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO were the prebiotic ingredients added (4% w/v to soybean milk. Thirteen formulations of soybean milk were compared using the general descriptive analysis and the growth of probiotics(Bifidobacterium bifidum DSM 20456, Lactobacillus plantarum TISTR 875, and Lactobacillus acidophilus TISTR 1034. There were no significant differences (p>0.05 in all sensory attributes (color, thickness, beany flavor, sweetness, viscosity, sweetness aftertaste among the samples. Various mixtures of the prebiotics had only a slight effect on the soybean milk color and viscosity (p0.05. The soybean milk supplemented with the optimized prebiotic mixture had higher (p<0.05carbohydrates, total soluble solid, total solid content, and viscosity than the control (without prebiotic. However, it had a lower L* value (lightness and a higher a* value (redness than the control (p<0.05.

  11. Comparing State SAT Scores Using a Mixture Modeling Approach (United States)

    Kim, YoungKoung Rachel


    Presented at the national conference for AERA (American Educational Research Association) in April 2009. The large variability of SAT taker population across states makes state-by-state comparisons of the SAT scores challenging. Using a mixture modeling approach, therefore, the current study presents a method of identifying subpopulations in terms…

  12. Statistical Description of Segregation in a Powder Mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan


    In this paper we apply the statistical mechanics of powders to describe a segregated state in a mixture of grains of different sizes. Variation of the density of a packing with depth arising due to changes of particle configurations is studied. The statistical mechanics of powders is generalized...

  13. Comparative effects of Potash Sodium Chloride (PSC) mixture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honey (Mellifica sp) is produced by Apis mellifera africana, widely consumed without prescription or restriction, and has been shown to possess wound healing and antitusive properties. Comparative study of the effects of honey paste and Potash Sodium Chloride (PSC) mixture on the healing of incisional wound on albino ...

  14. Structure and dynamics of confined alcohol-water mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bampoulis, Pantelis; Witteveen, J.P.; Kooij, Ernst S.; Lohse, Detlef; Poelsema, Bene; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.


    The effect of confinement between mica and graphene on the structure and dynamics of alcohol–water mixtures has been studied in situ and in real time at the molecular level by atomic force microscopy (AFM) at room temperature. AFM images reveal that the adsorbed molecules are segregated into faceted

  15. Bayesian Hierarchical Grouping: perceptual grouping as mixture estimation (United States)

    Froyen, Vicky; Feldman, Jacob; Singh, Manish


    We propose a novel framework for perceptual grouping based on the idea of mixture models, called Bayesian Hierarchical Grouping (BHG). In BHG we assume that the configuration of image elements is generated by a mixture of distinct objects, each of which generates image elements according to some generative assumptions. Grouping, in this framework, means estimating the number and the parameters of the mixture components that generated the image, including estimating which image elements are “owned” by which objects. We present a tractable implementation of the framework, based on the hierarchical clustering approach of Heller and Ghahramani (2005). We illustrate it with examples drawn from a number of classical perceptual grouping problems, including dot clustering, contour integration, and part decomposition. Our approach yields an intuitive hierarchical representation of image elements, giving an explicit decomposition of the image into mixture components, along with estimates of the probability of various candidate decompositions. We show that BHG accounts well for a diverse range of empirical data drawn from the literature. Because BHG provides a principled quantification of the plausibility of grouping interpretations over a wide range of grouping problems, we argue that it provides an appealing unifying account of the elusive Gestalt notion of Prägnanz. PMID:26322548

  16. Dielectric studies of binary mixtures of -propyl alcohol and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dielectric constant (') and dielectric loss (") of -propyl alcohol (PA), ethylenediamine (EDA) and their binary mixtures, for different mole fractions of ethylenediamine have been experimentally measured at 11.15 GHz microwave frequency. Values of density (), viscosity () and square refractive index ( n D 2 ) of binary ...

  17. Kelvin Equation for a Non-Ideal Multicomponent Mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan


    The Kelvin equation is generalized by application to a case of a multicomponent non-ideal mixture. Such a generalization is necessary in order to describe the two-phase equilibrium in a capillary medium with respect to both normal and retrograde condensation. The equation obtained is applied...

  18. Efficiency of wastewater treatment by a mixture of sludge and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A combined system using the microalgae from South Africa and the sewage sludge from Algeria has been tested, in order to study the efficiency of wastewater treatment by mixtures of microalgae / activated sludge, five bioreactors were installed with different inoculation rates (microalgae / activated sludge) B1: 100% algae, ...

  19. efficiency of wastewater treatment by a mixture of sludge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H. Khaldi

    Received: 27 April 2017 / Accepted: 15 July 2017 / Published online: 01 September 2017. ABSTRACT. A combined system using the microalgae from South Africa and the sewage sludge from. Algeria has been tested, in order to study the efficiency of wastewater treatment by mixtures of microalgae / activated sludge, five ...

  20. Effect of variety mixtures on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Journal of Food Science 1983; 48: 1252-1254. 14. Kabululu MS, Ojiewo C, Oluoch M and BL Maass Cowpea cultivar mixtures for stable and optimal leaf and seed yields in a maize intercropping system. International Journal of Vegetable Science, 2013; 20(3). DOI: 10.1080/19315260.2013.813889. 15. Malidadi C Cowpea ...

  1. Excess molar volumes, and refractive index of binary mixtures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Excess molar volumes (VE) viscosities and refractive index have been evaluated for binary mixtures of glycerol + water, and glycerol + methanol at 298.15 K and 303.15 K. Excess molar volumes (VE) have been calculated from density. The excess molar volume (VE) results were fitted to the Redlich and Kister type ...

  2. A Simple Refraction Experiment for Probing Diffusion in Ternary Mixtures (United States)

    Coutinho, Cecil A.; Mankidy, Bijith D.; Gupta, Vinay K.


    Diffusion is a fundamental phenomenon that is vital in many chemical processes such as mass transport in living cells, corrosion, and separations. We describe a simple undergraduate-level experiment based on Weiner's Method to probe diffusion in a ternary aqueous mixture of small molecular-weight molecules. As an illustration, the experiment…

  3. Structural transition in alcohol-water binary mixtures: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The strengthening of the hydrogen bonding (H-bond) network as well as transition from the tetrahedral-like water network to the zigzag chain structure of alcohol upon increasing the alcohol concentration in ethanol-water and tertiary butanol (TBA) - water mixtures have been studied by using both steady state and time ...

  4. Universal Three-Body Physics in Ultracold KRb Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wacker, L. J.; Jørgensen, N. B.; Birkmose, Danny Matthiesen


    Ultracold atomic gases have recently become a driving force in few-body physics due to the observation of the Efimov effect. While initially observed in equal mass systems, one expects even richer few-body physics in the mass-imbalanced case. In previous experiments with ultracold mixtures...

  5. Selective Enrichment of Azide-Containing Peptides from Complex Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nessen, Merel A.; Kramer, Gertjan; Back, Jaapwillem; Baskin, Jeremy M.; Smeenk, Linde E. J.; de Koning, Leo J.; van Maarseveen, Jan H.; de Jong, Luitzen; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Hiemstra, Henk; de Koster, Chris G.


    A general method is described to sequester peptides containing azides from complex peptide mixtures, aimed at facilitating mass spectrometric analysis to study different aspects of proteome dynamics. The enrichment method is based on covalent capture of azide-containing peptides by the

  6. Olfactory attractiveness of mixtures of some host plant and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple "Y" shaped olfactometer was used in laboratory studies on the olfactory attractiveness of mixtures in various proportions of industrial analogues of some host plant and conspecific-based semiochemicals, or their combinations with banana rhizome, to the banana weevil. The aim was to identify factors that influence ...

  7. Exploring Azeotropes in a Ternary Mixture | Egbewatt | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Science and Technology ... Distilling the mixture at total reflux, experimental results analyzed by a gasliquid chromatograph were then compared with computer output using a computer programme written by Fletcher based on the ... Key words: Azeotrope, Group contribution method, computer simulation

  8. On the validity of magnetohydrodynamics for ionic mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoolderman, A.J.; Suttorp, L.G.


    The collective mode spectrum of the magnetized ionic mixture consisting of s components is studied by starting from the microscopic balance equations and the fluctuation formulas for the microscopic densities. Apart from a heat mode and s-1 diffusion modes with frequencies of second order in the

  9. Thermal analysis studies of poly(etheretherketone)/hydroxyapatite biocomposite mixtures. (United States)

    Meenan, B J; McClorey, C; Akay, M


    Biocomposite formulations which have the potential to combine the proven mechanical performance of poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK) with the inherent bioactivity of hydroxyapatite (HA), may have a utility as load-bearing materials in a medical implant context. The effect of thermal processing on the relevant properties of the PEEK and/or HA components in any fabricated composite structure is, however, an important consideration for their effective exploitation. This paper reports the results of a detailed thermal characterization study of a series of PEEK/HA mixtures using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC). The TGA analyses show minimal weight loss for all of the mixtures and for a pure PEEK sample up to approximately 530 degrees C. Above this point there is a sharp on-set of decomposition for the PEEK component in each case. The temperature at which this feature occurs varies for each mixture in the approximate range 539-556 degrees C. This observation is supported by the presence of exotherms in the corresponding DSC scans, in the same temperature region, which are also assigned to PEEK decomposition. The temperature at which the degradation on-set occurs is found to decrease with increasing HA contribution. The use of the modulated DSC technique allows a number of important thermal events, not easily identifiable from the data obtained by the conventional method, to be clearly observed. In particular, the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymer can now be accurately determined. Using these thermal analysis data, calculations of the % crystallinity of PEEK in the mixtures have been made and compared with that of a 100% polymer sample. From these studies it is evident that the presence of HA does not adversely affect the degree of crystallinity of the PEEK component in the mixtures of interest over the thermal range studied. Copyright 2000 Kluwer Academic

  10. Enhanced selective extraction of hexane from hexane/soybean oil mixture using binary gas mixtures of carbon dioxide. (United States)

    Eller, Fred J; Taylor, S L; Palmquist, Debra E


    Carbon dioxide (CO2) can effectively separate hexane from a mixture of soybean oil (SBO) and hexane with a slight coextraction of SBO. Previous research demonstrated that CO2 entrained with helium significantly reduced SBO solubility in CO2. In this study, CO2 was mixed with three gases (He, N2, or Ar) (0.5-30 vol %) to decrease SBO solubility while attempting to maintain hexane solubility. The binary gas mixtures (at 25 degrees C and 9.31 MPa) were passed through a 25 wt % hexane/SBO mixture inside a 2.5 m fractionation column. Coextracted SBO was inversely proportional to binary gas concentration, whereas residual hexane in the raffinate was proportional to binary gas concentration. The 10% binary mixture of N2 or Ar was the best compromise to obtain both low residual hexane levels (i.e., 26 ppm) and low SBO coextraction (i.e., only 40 mg). This carry-over of SBO represents a 95% reduction in SBO carry-over compared to neat CO2.

  11. Disentangling the developmental and neurobehavioural effects of perinatal exposure to a chemical mixture found in blood of Arctic populations: differential toxicity of mixture components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, W.; Nakai, J.; Yagminas, A.; Chu, I.; Moir, D. [Health Canada (Canada)


    The current study was designed to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of perinatal exposure to a chemical mixture that is based on relative concentrations of persistent organic pollutants found in the blood of Canadian Arctic populations and contains 14 PCB congeners, 12 organochlorine pesticides and methyl mercury. This study compared the effects of the complete mixture with the effects of three major components of the mixture (the PCB component, the organochlorine pesticide component, and the methyl mercury component). By examining a range of neurobehavioural functions over development we also determine if specific neurobehavioural disturbances produced by the mixture can be attributed to components of the mixture and if neurobehavioural effects produced by components of the mixture are altered by concurrent exposure to other components in the mixture. Ninety-two nulliparious female Sprague-Dawley rats served as subjects.

  12. Analysis of Minor Component Segregation in Ternary Powder Mixtures (United States)

    Asachi, Maryam; Hassanpour, Ali; Ghadiri, Mojtaba; Bayly, Andrew


    In many powder handling operations, inhomogeneity in powder mixtures caused by segregation could have significant adverse impact on the quality as well as economics of the production. Segregation of a minor component of a highly active substance could have serious deleterious effects, an example is the segregation of enzyme granules in detergent powders. In this study, the effects of particle properties and bulk cohesion on the segregation tendency of minor component are analysed. The minor component is made sticky while not adversely affecting the flowability of samples. The segregation extent is evaluated using image processing of the photographic records taken from the front face of the heap after the pouring process. The optimum average sieve cut size of components for which segregation could be reduced is reported. It is also shown that the extent of segregation is significantly reduced by applying a thin layer of liquid to the surfaces of minor component, promoting an ordered mixture.

  13. Fluorescence dynamics in supercooled (acetamide + calcium nitrate) molten mixtures (United States)

    Gazi, Harun Al Rasid; Guchhait, Biswajit; Daschakraborty, Snehasis; Biswas, Ranjit


    Fluorescence dynamics of a polar solute probe in molten (CH3CONH2 + Ca(NO3)2·4.37H2O) mixtures have been measured in order to probe the solute-medium interactions in such complex systems. Steady state and time-resolved measurements bear no signatures of mega-value of the static dielectric constant, strong heterogeneity and extremely slow relaxation times reported in dielectric relaxation experiments for these molten mixtures. Subsequent applications of a semi-molecular theory reveal both the solute-medium dipole-dipole and ion-dipole interactions contribute significantly to the measured Stokes' shifts. Calculated average solvation times in the underdamped and overdamped limits of frictional solvent response agree semi-quantitatively with those from time-resolved measurements.

  14. Learning Mixtures of Polynomials of Conditional Densities from Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L. López-Cruz, Pedro; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Bielza, Concha


    Mixtures of polynomials (MoPs) are a non-parametric density estimation technique for hybrid Bayesian networks with continuous and discrete variables. We propose two methods for learning MoP ap- proximations of conditional densities from data. Both approaches are based on learning MoP approximations......- ods with the approach for learning mixtures of truncated basis functions from data....... of the joint density and the marginal density of the conditioning variables, but they differ as to how the MoP approximation of the quotient of the two densities is found. We illustrate the methods using data sampled from a simple Gaussian Bayesian network. We study and compare the performance of these meth...

  15. Verifying reciprocal relations for experimental diffusion coefficients in multicomponent mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medvedev, Oleg; Shapiro, Alexander


    diffusion coefficients into Onsager coefficients for a non-ideal mixture involves derivatives of the chemical potentials and, thus, should be based on a certain thermodynamic model (cubic equation of state (EoS), an activity coefficient model, etc.). Transformation of the Fickian diffusion coefficients...... into Onsager coefficients and a subsequent symmetry check make it possible to evaluate different thermodynamic models with regard to their possibility of being used for prediction of the transport properties. We performed several checks of this kind for ternary mixtures of hydrocarbons and alcohols, where...... extended sets of experimental data and reliable thermodynamic models were available. The sensitivity of the symmetry property to different thermodynamic parameters of the models was also checked. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  16. Study of quality indices of functional vegetal oil mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina POPOVICI


    Full Text Available Solution of the problem of alimentation structure improvement is related to creation of functional foodstuff with a balanced content of the major nutrient materials enriched in missing micronutrients and, at the same time, being daily products. Multicomponent structure of vegetable oils provides ample opportunities for developing of products preventing deficiency in essential fatty acids, vitamins andother physiologically functional ingredients. Grape-seed oil is of high bioavailability determined by a complex of biologically active substances, bioflavanoids, a group of vitamins, being the most important of them. Physiological effect of grape-seed oil includes anti-cholesterol property preventing cardio-vascular diseases.The thesis covers studies of vegetable oil mixtures made on the basis of sunflower and grape-seed oils. The study covers oxidative stability of vegetable oil mixture, based on determination of intensity of primary and secondary oxidation products formation.

  17. Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles Using Mixture of Allylamine and Polyallylamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Sierra-Ávila


    Full Text Available Copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs with sizes lower than 31 nm were prepared by wet chemical reduction using copper sulfate solution, hydrazine, and mixture of allylamine (AAm and polyallylamine (PAAm as stabilizing agents. The use of AAm/PAAm mixture leads to the formation of Cu and CuO nanoparticles. The resulting nanostructures were characterized by XRD, TGA, and TEM. The average particle diameters were determined by the Debye-Scherrer equation. Analysis by TGA, TEM, GS-MS, and 1HNMR reveals that synthesized NPs with AAm presented a coating with similar characteristics to NPs with PAAm, suggesting that AAm underwent polymerization during the synthesis. The synthesis of NPs using AAm could be a good alternative to reduce production costs.

  18. Phase coexistence in polydisperse athermal polymer-colloidal mixture. (United States)

    Hlushak, S P; Kalyuzhnyi, Yu V; Cummings, P T


    A theoretical scheme developed earlier [Y. V. Kalyuzhnyi et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 443, 243 (2007)] is used to calculate the full phase diagram of polydisperse athermal polymer-colloidal mixture with polydispersity in both colloidal and polymeric components. In the limiting case of bidisperse polymer-colloidal mixture, theoretical results are compared against computer simulation results. We present the cloud and shadow curves, critical binodals, and distribution functions of the coexisting phases and discuss the effects of polydispersity on their behavior. According to our analysis polydispersity extends the region of the phase instability, shifting the critical point to the lower values of the pressure and density. For the high values of the pressure polydispersity causes strong fractionation effects, with the large size colloidal particles preferring the low-density shadow phase and long chain length polymeric particles preferring the high-density shadow phase.

  19. Vortex Lattices in the Bose-Fermi Superfluid Mixture. (United States)

    Jiang, Yuzhu; Qi, Ran; Shi, Zhe-Yu; Zhai, Hui


    In this Letter we show that the vortex lattice structure in the Bose-Fermi superfluid mixture can undergo a sequence of structure transitions when the Fermi superfluid is tuned from the BCS regime to the BEC regime. This is due to the difference in the vortex core structure of a Fermi superfluid in the BCS regime and in the BEC regime. In the BCS regime the vortex core is nearly filled, while the density at the vortex core gradually decreases until it empties out in the BEC regime. Therefore, with the density-density interaction between the Bose and the Fermi superfluids, interaction between the two sets of vortex lattices gets stronger in the BEC regime, which yields the structure transition of vortex lattices. In view of the recent realization of this superfluid mixture and vortices therein, our theoretical predication can be verified experimentally in the near future.


    McGraw, Tim; Vemuri, Baba C.; Yezierski, Bob; Mareci, Thomas


    High angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) permits the computation of water molecule displacement probabilities over the sphere. This probability is often referred to as the orientation distribution function (ODF). In this paper we present a novel model for representing this diffusion ODF namely, a mixture of von Mises-Fisher (vMF) distributions. Our model is compact in that it requires very few parameters to represent complicated ODF geometries which occur specifically in the presence of heterogeneous nerve fiber orientations. We present a Riemannian geometric framework for computing intrinsic distances (in closed-form) and for performing interpolation between ODFs represented by vMF mixtures. We also present closed-form equations for entropy and variance based anisotropy measures that are then computed and illustrated for real HARDI data from a rat brain. PMID:19759891

  1. Option Pricing with Asymmetric Heteroskedastic Normal Mixture Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rombouts, Jeroen V.K.; Stentoft, Lars

    This paper uses asymmetric heteroskedastic normal mixture models to fit return data and to price options. The models can be estimated straightforwardly by maximum likelihood, have high statistical fit when used on S&P 500 index return data, and allow for substantial negative skewness and time....... Overall, the dollar root mean squared error of the best performing benchmark component model is 39% larger than for the mixture model. When considering the recent financial crisis this difference increases to 69%....... varying higher order moments of the risk neutral distribution. When forecasting out-of-sample a large set of index options between 1996 and 2009, substantial improvements are found compared to several benchmark models in terms of dollar losses and the ability to explain the smirk in implied volatilities...


    Roy, Snehashis; Carass, Aaron; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Prince, Jerry L.


    Tissue classification algorithms developed for magnetic resonance images commonly assume a Gaussian model on the statistics of noise in the image. While this is approximately true for voxels having large intensities, it is less true as the underlying intensity becomes smaller. In this paper, the Gaussian model is replaced with a Rician model, which is a better approximation to the observed signal. A new classification algorithm based on a finite mixture model of Rician signals is presented wherein the expectation maximization algorithm is used to find the joint maximum likelihood estimates of the unknown mixture parameters. Improved accuracy of tissue classification is demonstrated on several sample data sets. It is also shown that classification repeatability for the same subject under different MR acquisitions is improved using the new method. PMID:20126426

  3. An integral equation model for warm and hot dense mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Starrett, C E; Daligault, J; Hamel, S


    In Starrett and Saumon [Phys. Rev. E 87, 013104 (2013)] a model for the calculation of electronic and ionic structures of warm and hot dense matter was described and validated. In that model the electronic structure of one "atom" in a plasma is determined using a density functional theory based average-atom (AA) model, and the ionic structure is determined by coupling the AA model to integral equations governing the fluid structure. That model was for plasmas with one nuclear species only. Here we extend it to treat plasmas with many nuclear species, i.e. mixtures, and apply it to a carbon-hydrogen mixture relevant to inertial confinement fusion experiments. Comparison of the predicted electronic and ionic structures with orbital-free and Kohn-Sham molecular dynamics simulations reveals excellent agreement wherever chemical bonding is not significant.

  4. Merging Mixture Components for Cell Population Identification in Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Finak


    Full Text Available We present a framework for the identification of cell subpopulations in flow cytometry data based on merging mixture components using the flowClust methodology. We show that the cluster merging algorithm under our framework improves model fit and provides a better estimate of the number of distinct cell subpopulations than either Gaussian mixture models or flowClust, especially for complicated flow cytometry data distributions. Our framework allows the automated selection of the number of distinct cell subpopulations and we are able to identify cases where the algorithm fails, thus making it suitable for application in a high throughput FCM analysis pipeline. Furthermore, we demonstrate a method for summarizing complex merged cell subpopulations in a simple manner that integrates with the existing flowClust framework and enables downstream data analysis. We demonstrate the performance of our framework on simulated and real FCM data. The software is available in the flowMerge package through the Bioconductor project.

  5. Predicting Development of an Epidemics on Cultivar Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Hanne


    A mathematical model for the development of an epidemic on a plant cultivar mixture illustrates the influence of the infection efficiency, spore production rate, proportion of deposited spores, frequency of autodeposition, and composition of the mixture on the genetic composition of the pathogen...... population and on the long-term rate of disease increase. In the model, the long-term composition of the pathogen population is determined from the long-term rates of disease increase of each pathotype. Alteration of any one of the model parameters may change the long-term composition of the pathogen......), and finally mixing fields instead of plants. A relation was found between the long-term rate of disease increase of a pathotype and its number of virulence genes, and this relation was used for evaluating the different strategies....

  6. Laboratory evaluation of resistance to moisture damage in asphalt mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ebrahim Abu El-Maaty Behiry


    Full Text Available Moisture damage in asphalt mixtures refers to loss in strength and durability due to the presence of water. Egypt road network is showing severe deterioration such as raveling and stripping because the bond between aggregates and asphalt film is broken due to water intrusion. To minimize moisture damage, asphalt mixes are investigated to evaluate the effect of air voids, degree of saturation, media of attack and the conditioning period. Two medias of attack are considered and two anti-stripping additives are used (hydrated lime and Portland cement. The retained Marshall stability and tensile strength ratio are calculated to determine the resistance to moisture damage. The results showed that both lime and cement could increase Marshall stability, resilient modulus, tensile strength and resistance to moisture damage of mixtures especially at higher condition periods. Use of hydrated lime had better results than Portland cement.

  7. Thermodynamics of organic mixtures containing amines. VIII. Systems with quinoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio [G.E.T.E.F., Grupo Especializado en Termodinamica de Equilibrio entre Fases, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail:; Domanska, Urszula; Zawadzki, Maciej [Physical Chemistry Division, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland)


    (Solid + liquid) equilibrium temperatures for mixtures containing quinoline and 1-dodecanol, 1-hexadecanol, or 1-octadecanol have been measured using a dynamic method. (Quinoline + benzene, +alkane, or +1-alkanol) systems were investigated using DISQUAC. The corresponding interaction parameters are reported. The model yields a good representation of molar excess Gibbs free energies, G{sup E}, molar excess enthalpies, H{sup E}, and of the (solid + liquid) equilibria, SLE. Interactional and structural effects were analysed comparing H{sup E} and the molar excess internal energy at constant volume, U{sub V}{sup E}. It was encountered that structural effects are very important in systems involving alkanes or 1-alkanols. Interactions between amine molecules are stronger in mixtures with quinoline than in those containing pyridine, which was ascribed to the higher polarizability of quinoline.

  8. Mixtures of organic and inorganic substrates, particle size and proportion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Raymundo Morales-Maldonado


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to review the mixtures of organic and inorganic materials used in the preparation of a new material, particle size, proportion, and their response in plant. In Mexico, agricultural waste is considered as a pollutant reservoir; however, from another perspective, this represents an industry with great potential. The nutrients ingested by animals represent nutriments available for plants when properly recycled. An option that minimizes the risk of contamination and improves its quality is the production of compost and vermicompost. Both processes are an alternative to organic production. A material by itself does not meet the optimum conditions. Reducing the volume of an organic material increases compaction and compression of roots, affecting the efficiency of irrigation and fertilization, so it is necessary to make mixtures with inorganic materials, that is used in the development of a new material for better growing conditions of the plant.

  9. The photosensitized oxidation of mixture of parabens in aqueous solution. (United States)

    Gryglik, D; Gmurek, M


    The work presents results of studies on the photosensitized oxidation of mixture of five parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, n-butyl-, and benzylparaben) in aqueous solution. Aluminum phthalocyanine chloride tetrasulfonic acid and xenon lamp simulating solar radiation were used as a photosensitizer and a light source, respectively. The purpose was to investigate the influence of inhibitory effect compounds present in the mixture on the reaction rate. The influence of the addition of second photosensitizer on the parabens degradation rate was investigated. The effect of additives: tert-butanol - hydroxyl radical scavenger and sodium azide - singlet oxygen scavenger on reaction course was also determined. The transformation products formed during the photosensitized oxidation process were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. The efficiency of photosensitized oxidation of parabens with natural sunlight irradiation in the central Poland was checked.

  10. Ultrasonic Studies of Molecular Interactions in Organic Binary Liquid Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Thirumaran


    Full Text Available The ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity have been measured for the mixtures of 1-alkanols such as 1-propanol and 1-butanol with N-N dimethylformamide (DMF at 303 K. The experimental data have been used to calculate the acoustical parameters namely adiabatic compressibility (β, free length (Lf, free volume (Vf and internal pressure (πi. The excess values of the above parameters are also evaluated and discussed in the light of molecular interaction existing in the mixtures. It is obvious that there is a formation of hydrogen bonding between DMF and 1-alkanols. Further, the addition of DMF causes dissociation of hydrogen bonded structure of 1-alkanols. The evaluated excess values confirm that the molecular association is more pronounced in system-II comparing to the system-I.

  11. Modeling of active transmembrane transport in a mixture theory framework. (United States)

    Ateshian, Gerard A; Morrison, Barclay; Hung, Clark T


    This study formulates governing equations for active transport across semi-permeable membranes within the framework of the theory of mixtures. In mixture theory, which models the interactions of any number of fluid and solid constituents, a supply term appears in the conservation of linear momentum to describe momentum exchanges among the constituents. In past applications, this momentum supply was used to model frictional interactions only, thereby describing passive transport processes. In this study, it is shown that active transport processes, which impart momentum to solutes or solvent, may also be incorporated in this term. By projecting the equation of conservation of linear momentum along the normal to the membrane, a jump condition is formulated for the mechano-electrochemical potential of fluid constituents which is generally applicable to nonequilibrium processes involving active transport. The resulting relations are simple and easy to use, and address an important need in the membrane transport literature.

  12. Analysis of Minor Component Segregation in Ternary Powder Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asachi Maryam


    Full Text Available In many powder handling operations, inhomogeneity in powder mixtures caused by segregation could have significant adverse impact on the quality as well as economics of the production. Segregation of a minor component of a highly active substance could have serious deleterious effects, an example is the segregation of enzyme granules in detergent powders. In this study, the effects of particle properties and bulk cohesion on the segregation tendency of minor component are analysed. The minor component is made sticky while not adversely affecting the flowability of samples. The segregation extent is evaluated using image processing of the photographic records taken from the front face of the heap after the pouring process. The optimum average sieve cut size of components for which segregation could be reduced is reported. It is also shown that the extent of segregation is significantly reduced by applying a thin layer of liquid to the surfaces of minor component, promoting an ordered mixture.

  13. Ammonia/Hydrogen Mixtures in an SI-Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Christian Sandersen; Bjerre, Andreas; Gøttrup, Morten Piil


    In recent years there has been increasing focus on using metal ammine complexes for ammonia storage. In this paper a fuel system for ammonia fuelled internal combustion engines using metal ammine complexes as ammonia storage is analyzed. The use of ammonia/hydrogen mixtures as an SI-engine fuel...... is investigated in the same context. Ammonia and hydrogen were introduced into the intake manifold of a CFR-engine. Series of experiments with varying excess air ratio and different ammonia to hydrogen ratios was conducted. This showed that a fuel mixture with 10 vol.% hydrogen performs best with respect...... to efficiency and power. A comparison with gasoline was made, which showed efficiencies and power increased due to the possibility of a higher compression ratio. The system analysis showed that it is possible to cover a major part of the necessary heat using the exhaust heat. It is proposed to reduce the high...

  14. FAME Storage Time in an Optimized Natural Antioxidant Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Lopes Coppo


    Full Text Available The study of B100 biodiesel oxidation stability, and its conservation, is extremely important to control its quality, especially regarding storage. Many spices have shown antioxidant effect and are the targets of study. Knowing the oxidation process in greater detail allows a reliable storage period to be stipulated for the biodiesel without its degradation until the time of use. Results have shown that according to the accelerated stove method, the optimal mixture, composed of 100% of oregano extract, can confer a 535-day shelf life to biodiesel without evident oxidation. According to the results obtained by the Rancimat method, the ideal mixture consists of 100% rosemary, resulting in 483 days of storage. The application of the process variable showed that the accelerated stove method was more suitable to determine oxidative stability of biodiesel.

  15. Measuring Sound Speed in Gas Mixtures Using a Photoacoustic Generator (United States)

    Suchenek, Mariusz; Borowski, Tomasz


    We present a new method which allows us to percentage distinction of gas composition with a fast response time. This system uses the speed of sound in a resonant cell along with temperature to determine the gas mixture composition. The gas mixtures contain two gases with an unknown combination. In our experiment, the acoustic waves were excited inside the acoustic longitudinal resonator with the use of a positive feedback. This feedback provides fast tracking of a resonance frequency of the cell and causes fast tracking changes in the speed of sound. The presented method corresponds to the theoretical description of this topic. Two gas mixtures—carbon dioxide and argon mixed with nitrogen—were tested.

  16. Independent Measurement of Ampicillin and Cloxacillin in Mixtures (United States)

    Sabath, Leon D.; Estey, Valerie J.; Finland, Maxwell


    A simplified method of assaying mixtures of ampicillin and cloxacillin is presented. The method consists of cylinder-plate assays of appropriately diluted samples in three assay systems in which: (i) cloxacillin is measured, utilizing agar seeded with a penicillinase-producing Staphylococcus aureus; (ii) ampicillin is measured after the greatest dilution practicable, by use of agar seeded with Sarcina lutea; and (iii) the proportion of activity found in the second assay that remains after treatment with staphylococcal penicillinase is determined on agar seeded with S. lutea. The error was 4% or less when each system was run in quadruplicate, except when there was 10 or more times as much cloxacillin as ampicillin, in which case the greatest error was 12%. Mixtures of methicillin with benzylpenicillin or with ampicillin can also be quantitated by this method. PMID:6035040

  17. Thermoacoustic mixture separation with an axial temperature gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, Drew W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swift, Gregory A [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The theory of thermoacoustic mixture separation is extended to include the effect of a nonzero axial temperature gradient. The analysis yields a new term in the second-order mole flux that is proportional to the temperature gradient and to the square of the volumetric velocity and is independent of the phasing of the wave. Because of this new term, thermoacoustic separation stops at a critical temperature gradient and changes direction above that gradient. For a traveling wave, this gradient is somewhat higher than that predicted by a simple four-step model. An experiment tests the theory for temperature gradients from 0 to 416 K/m in 50-50 He-Ar mixtures.

  18. Quantum Mechanical Stabilization of a Collapsing Bose-Bose Mixture. (United States)

    Petrov, D S


    According to the mean-field theory a condensed Bose-Bose mixture collapses when the interspecies attraction becomes stronger than the geometrical average of the intraspecies repulsions, g_{12}^{2}>g_{11}g_{22}. We show that instead of collapsing such a mixture gets into a dilute liquidlike droplet state stabilized by quantum fluctuations thus providing a direct manifestation of beyond mean-field effects. We study various properties of the droplet and find, in particular, that in a wide range of parameters its excitation spectrum lies entirely above the particle emission threshold. The droplet thus automatically evaporates itself to zero temperature, the property potentially interesting by itself and from the viewpoint of sympathetic cooling of other systems.

  19. Shear viscosity of binary mixtures: The Gay-Berne potential (United States)

    Khordad, R.


    The Gay-Berne (GB) potential model is an interesting and useful model to study the real systems. Using the potential model, we intend to examine the thermodynamical properties of some anisotropic binary mixtures in two different phases, liquid and gas. For this purpose, we apply the integral equation method and solve numerically the Percus-Yevick (PY) integral equation. Then, we obtain the expansion coefficients of correlation functions to calculate the thermodynamical properties. Finally, we compare our results with the available experimental data [e.g., HFC-125 + propane, R-125/143a, methanol + toluene, benzene + methanol, cyclohexane + ethanol, benzene + ethanol, carbon tetrachloride + ethyl acetate, and methanol + ethanol]. The results show that the GB potential model is capable for predicting the thermodynamical properties of binary mixtures with acceptable accuracy.

  20. Lorentz angle measurement for CO sub 2 /isobutane gas mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Hoshina, K; Khalatyan, N; Nitoh, O; Okuno, H; Kato, Y; Kobayashi, M; Kurihara, Y; Kuroiwa, H; Nakamura, Y; Sakieda, K; Suzuki, Y; Watanabe, T


    We have developed a Lorentz angle measurement system for cool gas mixtures in the course of our R and D for a proposed JLC central drift chamber (JLC-CDC). The measurement system is characterized by the use of two laser beams to produce primary electrons and flash ADCs to read their signals simultaneously. With this new system, we have measured Lorentz angles for CO sub 2 /isobutane gas mixtures with different proportions (95 : 5, 90 :10, and 85 : 15), varying drift field from 0.6 to 2.0 kV/cm and magnetic field up to 1.5 T. The results of the measurement are in good agreement with GARFIELD/MAGBOLTZ simulations.