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Sample records for terns sterna paradisaea

  1. Coupled solar-magnetic orientation during leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea), and humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) long-distance migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, T. W.; Holdaway, R. N.; Zerbini, A.; Andriolo, A.; Clapham, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    Determining how animals perform long-distance animal migration remains one of the most enduring and fundamental mysteries of behavioural ecology. It is widely accepted that navigation relative to a reference datum is a fundamental requirement of long-distance return migration between seasonal habitats, and significant experimental research has documented a variety of viable orientation and navigation cues. However, relatively few investigations have attempted to reconcile experimentally determined orientation and navigation capacities of animals with empirical remotely sensed animal track data, leaving most theories of navigation and orientation untested. Here we show, using basic hypothesis testing, that leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea), and humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) migration paths are non-randomly distributed in magnetic coordinate space, with local peaks in magnetic coordinate distributions equal to fractional multiples of the angular obliquity of Earth’s axis of rotation. Time series analysis of humpback whale migratory behaviours, including migration initiation, changes in course, and migratory stop-overs, further demonstrate coupling of magnetic and celestial orientation cues during long-distance migration. These unexpected and highly novel results indicate that diverse taxa integrate magnetic and celestial orientation cues during long-distance migration. These results are compatible with a 'map and compass' orientation and navigation system. Humpback whale migration track geometries further indicate a map and compass orientation system is used. Several humpback whale tracks include highly directional segments (Mercator latitude vs. longitude r2>0.99) exceeding 2000 km in length, despite exposure to variable strength (c. 0-1 km/hr) surface cross-currents. Humpback whales appear to be able to compensate for surface current drift. The remarkable directional

  2. Arctic and Aleutian terns, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Baird (1980) has recently reported on the ecology of Arctic terns (Sterna paradisaea) and Aleutian terns (Sterna aleutica) from 4 areas of mainland Alaska. However,...

  3. Ashtabula Breakwater Common Tern (Sterna Hirundo) Nesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Breakwater Common Tern (Sterna Hirundo) Nesting By Thomas J. Fredette, Richard J. Ruby , Paul Bijhouwer, Burton C. Suedel, Michael Guilfoyle, Marleen...young terns. This analysis used worst- case conditions, which are most likely to occur during the fall or winter, and thus there should be relatively...from falling over the edge. Figure 8. Gull roosting deterrent spikes on fence post caps. ERDC TN-EWN-16-1 May 2016 9 Tern decoys purchased

  4. Prey capture success and chick diet of Damara terns Sterna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding terns are affected by a variety of environmental conditions. We studied prey capture success of Damara terns Sterna balaenarum in relation to six variables at two breeding colonies in southern Namibia: tidal phase, wind speed, water clarity, cloud cover, water depth and locality. Damara terns dived most ...

  5. Biomonitoring and assessment of environmental contaminants in breeding common terns (Sterna hirundo) of the St. Lawrence River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goals of this study were to determine the nature and extent of environmental contaminant burdens in the Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) population of the St....

  6. No evidence of extra-pair paternity in a colonial seabird, the common tern (Sterna hirundo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griggio, M.; Matessi, Giuliano; Marin, G.

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of extra-pair paternity and egg dumping was investigated in a colony of common terns (Sterna hirundo), a colonial seabird, in the Venetian lagoon. Ten families were sampled and multilocus DNA fingerprinting analysis was performed. No indication of extra-pair paternity or egg dumping...... was found in any of the families. The results are discussed in the light of life-history strategies, the benefits of coloniality and the evolution of adoption behaviour in the species....

  7. Food preferences of the common tern, sterna hirundo (Linnaeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of capitellid worms in the guts, a known indicator of excess nutrient enrichment, showed that S. hirundo utilized the Panbros lagoon fish resource in feeding, and the roosting ground was under much stress. The study stressed the importance of complementing conservation efforts for common terns with ...

  8. Hematology and absence of hemoparasites in breeding common terns (Sterna hirundo) from Cape Cod, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorello, Christine V; Nisbet, Ian C T; Hatch, Jeremy J; Corsiglia, Carolyn; Pokras, Mark A

    2009-09-01

    In June and July 1995, 98 breeding common terns (Sterna hirundo) were captured, weighed, and bled as a part of ongoing research on the population health and reproductive biology of this species of special concern. Packed cell volume, total and differential white blood cell counts, and blood smears were obtained. Blood smears from 75 terns were examined. No hemoparasites were found. There were some significant differences among hematologic parameters in birds from different islands, and between birds nesting earlier versus later in the season, but there were no significant differences associated with body mass, sex, or age. The absence of hemoparasites in the blood smears of these terns is noteworthy, especially because other studies of seabirds (including Charadriiformes) have revealed low prevalences of hematozoa.

  9. Foraging Habitat and Chick Diets of Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii, Breeding on Country Island, Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Rock

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Breeding seabirds are threatened by human activities that affect nesting and foraging habitat. In Canada, one of the seabirds most at risk of extirpation is the Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii. Although critical nesting habitat has been identified for the Roseate Tern in Canada, its foraging locations and the diet of its chicks are unknown. Therefore, our goal was to determine the foraging locations and diet of chicks of Roseate Tern breeding on Country Island, Nova Scotia, which is one of Canada's two main breeding colonies. In 2003 and 2004, we radio-tracked the Roseate Tern by plane to locate foraging areas and conducted feeding watches to determine the diet of chicks. Roseate Tern foraged approximately 7 km from the breeding colony over shallow water < 5 m deep. In both years, sand lance, Ammodytes spp., was the most common prey item delivered to chicks, followed by hake, Urophycis spp. Our results are consistent with previous work at colonies in the northeastern United States, suggesting that throughout its range, this species may be restricted in both habitat use and prey selection. The reliance on a specific habitat type and narrow range of prey species makes the Roseate Tern generally susceptible to habitat perturbations and reductions in the availability of prey.

  10. Presence of persistent organic pollutants in a breeding common tern (Sterna hirundo) population in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acampora, Heidi; White, Philip; Lyashevska, Olga; O'Connor, Ian

    2017-05-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are chemical compounds of environmental concern due to their toxic, persistent nature and their ability to bio-accumulate in biological tissue. Seabirds, for often being at the top of the food web, have been used as monitors of environmental pollutants. Adverse effects caused by POPs have been reported in common terns (Sterna hirundo) since the 1970s. Egg shell thinning, embryo and hatchling deformities have been reported for this species. Environmental legislation, such as the Oslo-Paris Convention (OSPAR), has agreed on the monitoring of concentration of POPs in common terns. This study set out to investigate contemporary concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in common terns breeding in Ireland, along with congener profiles. Investigation was conducted in live (n = 15) and dead birds (n = 20) to test for the efficiency of different methodologies using preen oil and feathers versus liver and preen gland. Mean concentrations of POPs followed the order: PCB (36.48 ng/g ww feather) > PAH (30.01 ng/g ww feather) > OCP (13.36 ng/g ww feather) > BFR (1.98 ng/g ww feather) in live birds; and PAH (46.65 ng/g ww preen gland) > PCB (44.11 ng/g ww preen gland) > OCP (15.15 ng/g ww liver) > BFR (5.07 ng/g ww liver) in dead birds. Comparison of contaminant results with toxicity pre-established levels concluded that this population of common terns in Ireland is not at risk of anomalies caused by POPs. However, some levels are higher in comparison to the ones established by OSPAR's EcoQO and must be monitored periodically.

  11. Serum immunoglobulin G levels in very old common terns Sterna hirundo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apanius, V; Nisbet, I C T

    2003-07-01

    The evolutionary theory of aging predicts that self-maintenance functions, such as immunity, will be selectively maintained in old age when extrinsic sources of mortality are low relative to intrinsic sources. Long-lived seabirds may provide an animal model for testing this prediction. We measured serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels across the lifespan, especially the oldest individuals, of a wild breeding population of the common tern (Sterna hirundo) in 1999 and 2002. Our analysis indicated that IgG levels do not show the typical increase late in life observed in mammals, but showed an age-independent response to environmental conditions. Power analysis indicated that Sample sizes were sufficient to detect a minimum difference of 23% in IgG level in the very oldest cohort. These data, and other studies of this species, support the hypothesis that long-lived species sustain self-maintenance functions, even at the end of their lifespan.

  12. Post-fledging brood and care division in the roseate tern (Sterna dougallii)

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    Watson, M.J.; Spendelow, J.A.; Hatch, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Extended post-fledging parental care is an important aspect of parental care in birds, although little studied due to logistic difficulties. Commonly, the brood is split physically (brood division) and/or preferential care is given to a subset of the brood by one parent or the other (care division). Among gulls and tern (Laridae), males and females generally share parental activities during the pre-fledging period, but the allocation of parental care after fledging is little documented. This study examined the behaviour of male and female roseate terns (Sterna dougallii) during the late chick-rearing and early post-fledging periods, and in particular the amount of feeds and the time spent in attendance given to individual chicks/fledglings. Pre-fledging parental care was biparental in all cases. Post-fledging parental care was dependent on the number of fledglings in the brood. Males and females continued biparental care in clutches with one surviving fledgling, while in two-fledgling clutches, males fed the A-fledgling while females fed the B-fledgling. Overall, there was no difference in attendance, only in feeds. This division of care may be influenced by the male only being certain of the paternity of the A-chick but not by chick sex. ?? 2011 Japan Ethological Society and Springer.

  13. Oxidative stress response of Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) to mercury and selenium bioaccumulation in liver, kidney, and brain

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    Hoffman, David J.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Adelsbach, Terrence L.; Stebbins, Katherine R.

    2011-01-01

    Bioindicators of oxidative stress were examined in prebreeding and breeding adult and chick Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) and in prebreeding adult Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) in San Francisco Bay, California. Highest total mercury (THg) concentrations (mean±standard error;μg/g dry wt) in liver (17.7±1.7), kidney (20.5±1.9), and brain (3.0±0.3) occurred in breeding adult Forster's terns. The THg concentrations in liver were significantly correlated with hepatic depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increased oxidized glutathione (GSSG):GSH ratio, and decreased hepatic gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity in adults of both tern species. Prefledging Forster's tern chicks with one-fourth the hepatic THg concentration of breeding adults exhibited effects similar to adults. Total mercury-related renal GSSG increased in adults and chicks. In brains of prebreeding adults, THg was correlated with a small increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) activity, suggestive of a compensatory response. Brain THg concentrations were highest in breeding adult Forster's terns and brain tissue exhibited increased lipid peroxidation as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, loss of protein bound thiols (PBSH), and decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes, GSSG reductase (GSSGrd), and G-6-PDH. In brains of Forster's tern chicks there was a decrease in total reduced thiols and PBSH. Multiple indicator responses also pointed to greater oxidative stress in breeding Forster's terns relative to prebreeding terns, attributable to the physiological stress of reproduction. Some biondicators also were related to age and species, including thiol concentrations. Enzymes GGT, G-6-PDH, and GSSGred activities were related to species. Our results indicate that THg concentrations induced oxidative stress in terns, and suggest that histopathological, immunological, and behavioral effects may occur in terns as reported in other species.

  14. Modeling colony site dynamics: A case study of gull-billed terns (Sterna nilotica) in coastal Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.; Nichols, J.D.; Eyler, T.B.; Stotts, D.B.; Truitt, B.R.

    1998-01-01

    We developed a Markov process model for colony-site dynamics of Gull-billed Terns (Sterna nilotica). From 1993 through 1996, we monitored breeding numbers of Gull-billed Terns and their frequent colony associates, Common Terns (Sterna hirundo) and Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger), at colony sites along 80 km of the barrier island region of coastal Virginia. We also monitored flooding events and renesting. We developed the model for colony survival, extinction, and recolonization at potential colony sites over the four-year period. We then used data on annual site occupation by Gull-billed Terns to estimate model parameters and tested for differences between nesting substrates (barrier island vs. shellpile). Results revealed a dynamic system but provided no evidence that the dynamics were Markovian, i.e. the probability that a site was occupied in one year was not influenced by whether it had been occupied in the previous year. Nor did colony-level reproductive success the previous season seem to affect the probability of site occupancy. Site survival and recolonization rates were similar, and the estimated overall annual probability of a site being occupied was 0.59. Of the 25 sites that were used during the four-year period, 16 were used in one or two years only, and only three were used in all four years. Flooding and renesting were frequent in both habitat types in all years. The frequent flooding of nests on shellpiles argues for more effective management; augmentation with shell and sand to increase elevations as little as 20 cm could have reduced flooding at a number of sites. The low colonysite fidelity that we observed suggests that an effective management approach would be to provide a large number of sand and/or shellpile sites for use by nesting terns. Sites not used in one year may still be used in subsequent years.

  15. Habitat selection by Forster's Terns (Sterna forsteri) at multiple spatial scales in an urbanized estuary: The importance of salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluso-Demers, Jill; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Takekawa, John Y.; Peterson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The highly urbanized San Francisco Bay Estuary, California, USA, is currently undergoing large-scale habitat restoration, and several thousand hectares of former salt evaporation ponds are being converted to tidal marsh. To identify potential effects of this habitat restoration on breeding waterbirds, habitat selection of radiotagged Forster's Terns (Sterna forsteri) was examined at multiple spatial scales during the pre-breeding and breeding seasons of 2005 and 2006. At each spatial scale, habitat selection ratios were calculated by season, year, and sex. Forster's Terns selected salt pond habitats at most spatial scales and demonstrated the importance of salt ponds for foraging and roosting. Salinity influenced the types of salt pond habitats that were selected. Specifically, Forster's Terns strongly selected lower salinity salt ponds (0.5–30 g/L) and generally avoided higher salinity salt ponds (≥31 g/L). Forster's Terns typically used tidal marsh and managed marsh habitats in proportion to their availability, avoided upland and tidal flat habitats, and strongly avoided open bay habitats. Salt ponds provide important habitat for breeding waterbirds, and restoration efforts to convert former salt ponds to tidal marsh may reduce the availability of preferred breeding and foraging areas.

  16. Living with gulls : Trading off food and predation in the sandwich tern Sterna sandvicensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienen, Eric Willem Maria

    2006-01-01

    Halverwege de vorige eeuw broedde driekwart van de Europese populatie van de grote stern Sterna sandvicensis langs de Nederlandse kust. Na een lekkage van gifstoffen in de Nederlandse en Duitse kustwateren liep het aantal broedparen dramatisch terug; van 35 duizend in de jaren vijftig naar slechts

  17. Colony site selection and abandonment by least terns Sterna antillarum in New Jersey, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotliar, Natasha B.; Burger, Joanna

    1986-01-01

    To develop habitat and management procedures to protect declining populations of least terns, colony site selection and abandonment by this species was investigated at 26 sites in New Jersey. Multivariate analysis was used to compare (1) colony sites to adjacent unused areas, (2) those located on beaches to dredge spoil sites and (3) abandoned to occupied colony sites.

  18. Variations in growth of roseate tern (Sterna dougallii) chicks: II. Early growth as an index of parental quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, I.C.T.; Spendelow, J.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Zingo, J.M.; Gough, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    We measured growth of Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) chicks at a colony in Connecticut in 10 successive years. Data on body mass during the first three to four days of life were fitted to a quadratic regression model, yielding three parameters of early growth for each of 1,551 chicks: mass at hatching (Mo), linear growth (a) and quadratic growth (b). First chicks in each brood (A-chicks) exceeded second chicks (B-chicks) in each of the three growth parameters; A-chicks from broods of two grew faster than single chicks during the first three days. Mo depended on egg mass, hatch order, hatch date, and year. The linear coefficient (a) depended on hatch date, hatch order, and year, but not on egg mass or Mo. The quadratic coefficient (b) depended on a, hatch date, Mo, and hatch order. Subsequent growth and survival of chicks were predicted well by these parameters of early growth, with b contributing more to these predictions than Mo or a. After controlling for effects of early growth, none of the other variables measured (hatch date, egg mass, parental age, hatch interval between chicks, mass difference between chicks, female-female pairing, or trapping) contributed significantly to explaining later growth and survival. Year effects were substantial in only two of the 10 years of study. Individual pairs were consistent in performance (as indexed by chick growth) in successive years. These results suggest that growth and survival of Roseate Tern chicks are determined primarily by parental quality; much of the information about parental quality is expressed by the time the eggs are laid, and most of it is expressed by the time the chicks are three days old.

  19. Organochlorine and PBDE concentrations in relation to cytochrome P450 activity in livers of Forster’s Terns (Sterna forsteri) and Caspian Terns (Hydroprogne caspia), in San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Adelsbach, Terrence L.; Melancon, Mark J.; Stebbins, Katie R.; Hoffman, David J.

    2010-01-01

    We measured halogenated organic contaminants (HOCs) [polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT)] and P450 [e.g., ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD)] stress in livers from Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia) adults and Forster’s tern (Sterna forsteri) adults and chicks in San Francisco Bay (SFB). Penta BDEs and tetra PBDEs composed 46–66% of ∑PBDE in terns. PCB homologues di, tri, penta, hexa, and hepta composed 93–95% of ∑PCBs and p′p-DDE composed 82–98% of all ∑DDTs. We found similar concentrations of ∑PBDEs [mean micrograms per gram wet weight (ww) ± standard error = 0.4 ± 0.1], ∑PCBs (5.9 ± 1.6), and ∑DDTs (0.6 ± 0.1) among species, sexes, and regions. However, concentrations were higher in Forster’s tern adults than chicks (∑PBDEs = 0.4 ± 0.1 and 0.1 ± 0.1; ∑PCBs = 7.08 ± 2.4 and 2.4 ± 1.4; ∑DDTs = 0.5 ± 0.1 and 0.1 ± 0.1; respectively), and there was a nonsignificant trend of elevated ∑PBDEs and ∑PCBs for adult Forster’s terns in the Central South Bay and Lower South Bay portions of SFB. Combined Forster’s tern and Caspian tern ∑DDTs bioaccumulated similarly to selenium, but not mercury, and there was a nonsignificant but positive trend for ∑PBDEs and ∑PCBs bioaccumulation with mercury. P450 protein activity was higher in adult Forster’s terns than Caspian terns, higher in Central South Bay than in Lower South Bay, and higher in adult Forster’s terns than in chicks.

  20. The type locality of the South American Tern, Sterna hirundinacea (Aves: Charadriiformes: Sternidae, with designation of a lectotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio J. Carlos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The type locality of the South American Tern, Sterna hirundinacea, has long been considered to be the state of Santa Catarina in South Brazil. This conclusion was probably based on two syntypes, from the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle in Paris, France, one from Laguna and the other from an unspecified locality. The latter was probably shot on the coast of Rio de Janeiro. A recent molecular study has shown that Brazilian and Patagonian populations of S. hirundinacea are not completely panmictic, though genetic differentiation between them is low. No data from the Falkland Islands and Pacific coast populations have been available for comparison. If future analysis shows that Pacific and/or Falkland/Malvinas populations are genetically isolated from the Brazil-Patagonian ones, the name S. hirundinacea would apply only to birds from the latter populations. Given that the two syntypes were collected at two widely spaced localities, doubts exist as to the precise locality where one syntype was taken, and to clear up uncertainties, a lectotype of S. hirundinacea is herein designated.

  1. Reproductive success of South American terns (Sterna hirundinacea from Cardos Islands, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A.A. Fracasso

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sterna hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831 is a migratory seabird that breeds in the Pacific Coast (from Peru to Chile and along the Atlantic coast of South America from Espírito Santo (Brazil to Terra del Fuego (Argentina. This paper describes the reproductive success of South American Terns on Cardos Island, Florianopolis, Brazil in the breeding seasons of 2003, 2005 and 2006. The colony was formed in mid-May in 2003 and early April in other years, with the total number of nests ranging from 1,852 in 2006 to 2,486 in 2005. Hatching success was estimated at 76.39% in 2006, 62.73% in 2003 and 41.1% in 2005, the lowest value that could be attributed to predation by hawks Caracara plancus, lizards Tupinambis merianae and black vulture Coragyps atratus. The chicks hatched in July in 2003, and in June 2005 and 2006, and fledging success was 50.94%, 35.96 and 53.47% respectively. Cardos Island has been constantly used as a breeding site by South American Terns, and therefore represents an important area for conservation of this species. This success could be attributed to low pressure of Kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus, the main predator of seabirds along the Brazilian coast.Sterna hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831 é uma ave migratória que nidifica na costa do Pacífico (do Peru ao Chile e ao longo do Atlântico Sul do Espírito Santo (Brasil até a Terra do Fogo (Argentina. Este trabalho descreve o sucesso reprodutivo do trinta-réis do bico-vermelho na ilha dos Cardos, Florianópolis, Brasil, durante as temporadas reprodutivas de 2003, 2005 e 2006. A formação da colônia ocorreu em maio de 2003 e inicio de abril nos outros anos, com um total de ninhos variando entre 1.852 em 2006 a 2.486 em 2005. O sucesso de incubação foi estimado em 76,39% (2006, 62,73% (2003 e 41,1% em 2005, sendo que os menores valores puderam ser atribuídos a predação dos gaviões Caracara plancus, lagartos Tupinambis merianae e urubus Coragyps atratus. As primeiras eclosões foram

  2. Chemometric comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl residues and toxicologically active polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in the eggs of Forster's Terns (Sterna fosteri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ted R.; Stalling, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The separation and characterization of complex mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is approached from the perspective of a problem in chemometrics. A technique for quantitative determination of PCB congeners is described as well as an enrichment technique designed to isolate only those congener residues which induce mixed aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase enzyme activity. A congener-specific procedure is utilized for the determination of PCBs in whichn-alkyl trichloroacetates are used as retention index marker compounds. Retention indices are reproducible in the range of ±0.05 to ±0.7 depending on the specific congener. A laboratory data base system developed to aid in the editing and quantitation of data generated from capillary gas chromatography was employed to quantitate chromatographic data. Data base management was provided by computer programs written in VAX-DSM (Digital Standard MUMPS) for the VAX-DEC (Digital Equipment Corp.) family of computers.In the chemometric evaluation of these complex chromatographic profiles, data are viewed from a single analysis as a point in multi-dimensional space. Principal Components Analysis was used to obtain a representation of the data in a lower dimensional space. Two-and three-dimensional proections based on sample scores from the principal components models were used to visualize the behavior of Aroclor® mixtures. These models can be used to determine if new sample profiles may be represented by Aroclor profiles. Concentrations of individual congeners of a given chlorine substitution may be summed to form homologue concentration. However, the use of homologue concentrations in classification studies with environmental samples can lead to erroneous conclusions about sample similarity. Chemometric applications are discussed for evaluation of Aroclor mixture analysis and compositional description of environmental residues of PCBs in eggs of Forster's terns (Sterna fosteri) collected from colonies near Lake Poygan

  3. Avian radioecology on a nuclear power station site. Final report. Occurrence and effects of chronic, low-level oil contamination in a population of sooty terns (Sterna fuscata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, M.J.

    1978-07-05

    Records from 45,219 Sooty Terns (Sterna fuscata) captured for banding and examined for presence of oil on plumage were assessed for occurrence and effects of chronic, low-level oil contamination. Occurrence of oiled plumage averaged 2.6% for all years between 1962 and 1977, and ranged from 0.2% to 12.0% within years. Incidence of oiling increased significantly from the 1960's to the 1970's, and was far higher in 1970 than any other year. Oil was most frequently found on posterior, ventral plumage suggesting contact is made when Sooty Terns dip to the sea surface when foraging. A paired comparison shows that return rates were not significantly different between birds with and without detectable oil on plumage. Weights of oiled birds did not differ from controls, and no demonstrable effect of oiling on nesting was found. Sooty Terns are less susceptible to oil pollution than most other seabirds. Food is caught at or above the surface by contact dipping, and landing on the water is rare. (The report contains nothing about radioecology).

  4. The use of decoys to attract Least Terns (Sterna antillarum) to abandoned colony sites in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotliar, Natasha B.; Burger, Joanna

    1984-01-01

    The number of Least Tern colony sites in New Jersey has declined in recent years. Decoys were used at two recently abandoned Least Tern colony sites in New Jersey to encourage nesting. The sites were chosen because of their apparent suitability as colony sites and the relative ease of protecting them from human disturbance and predators. Least Terns were observed flying over and landing at both sites, although nesting occurred at only one site. The effect of decoys was statically significant at the colony site used for nesting. At this site, 44.5% of the landings occurred in the plot containing decoys and only 10.6% o the landings were in the control plot. Nesting was initiated among the decoys. These results indicate that decoys can be used to attract Least Terns to abandoned colony sites and may be useful for managing Least Terns and other colonial nesting birds.

  5. Environmental contaminants in piping plover, least tern, and common tern eggs from coastal Maine: 2003 nesting season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Maine's coastal islands and beaches provide important nesting habitat for piping plover (Charadrius melodus), least tern (Sterna antillarum), and common tern (Sterna...

  6. Environmental contaminants in tern eggs from Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge and Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the 2005 breeding season, six non-viable common tern (Sterna hirundo) and three roseate tern (Sterna dougallii) eggs were collected from Monomoy National...

  7. Temporal variation on the diet of the South American Tern (Sterna hirundinacea, Charadriiformes: Laridae on its wintering grounds Variación temporal en la dieta del Gaviotín Sudamericano (Sterna hirundinacea, Charadriiformes: Laridae en los sitios de invernada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATILDE ALFARO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The diet of the South American Tern (Sterna hirundinacea and its seasonal variation during the 2005 and 2006 non-reproductive seasons in the Uruguayan Atlantic coast was analyzed. Diet was assessed by the analysis of pellets collected in the Rocha lagoon sandbar, a major tern roosting area in Uruguay, aiming to analyze the hypothesis that terns feed mainly on the Argentine Anchovy (Engraulis anchoita during the wintering period. A total of 844 pellets were collected, 442 in 2005 and 402 in 2006. Diet was composed of fish (88 %, insects (9 % and crustaceans (3 %. The main fish species consumed was the Argentine Anchovy (77.7 %, followed by Marini's Anchovy (Anchoa marinii (7.9 % and the Striped Weakfish (Cynoscion guatucupa (3.6 %. Insects and crustaceans were the main items in two of the groups of pellets collected during the study period. Despite this temporal variation in the diet, the Argentine Anchovy was the main prey item consumed during both seasons. These results support the hypothesis that South American Terns strongly depend on anchovies as trophic resource.En este trabajo se analizó la dieta del Gaviotín Sudamericano (Sterna hirundinacea y su variación estacional durante las temporadas no reproductivas de 2005 y 2006 en la costa atlántica uruguaya. La dieta fue estudiada por medio del análisis de bolos colectados en la barra de la laguna de Rocha, una importante zona de descanso para la especie en Uruguay, con el propósito de analizar la hipótesis de que el gaviotín se alimenta principalmente de Anchoíta Argentina (Engraulis anchoita durante el período de invernada. Un total de 844 bolos fueron colectados, 442 en 2005 y 402 en 2006. La dieta estuvo compuesta por peces (88 %, insectos (9 % y crustáceos (3 %. La principal presa consumida fue la Anchoíta Argentina (77.7 %, seguida de la Anchoa (Anchoa marinii (7.9 % y la Pescadilla de Red (Cynoscion guatucupa (3.6 %. Los insectos y los crustáceos fueron el ítem principal en

  8. California Least Tern Breeding Survey 1992 Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1992, approximately 2,106 pairs of the endangered California Least Tern (Sterna antillarum browni) nested at 38 sites along the coast of California, from the San...

  9. California Least Tern Breeding Survey 1996 Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1996, 3330-3392 pairs of the endangered California least tern (Sterna antillarum browni) nested at 35 sites along the coast of California. This 29% increase in...

  10. California Least Tern Breeding Survey 1994 Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1994, a minimum of approximately 2,792 pairs of the endangered California least tern (Sterna antillarum browni) nested at 36 sites along the coast of California....

  11. Contaminant assessment of common terns in the Gulf of Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2001, developmental abnormalities and low productivity were reported in common tern (Sterna hirundo) chicks from three islands on the Maine coast - Stratton...

  12. The California Least Tern Source Population at the Proposed Alameda National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The California Least Tern, Sterna antillarum browni, is one of five recognized subspecies of S. antillarum that breed in North and Central America. California Least...

  13. Contaminants in Interior Least Tern and Snowy Plover Eggs from Quivira National Wildlife Refuge in 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Four flooded or abandoned eggs of interior least terns (Sterna anti11arum) and four flooded or abandoned eggs of snowy plovers (Charadrium aiexandrinus) that nested...

  14. Chlordane exposure to interior least terns nesting along the Kansas River, Kansas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The federally endangered interior least tern (Sterna antillarum) has been known to nest on sandbars along the Kansas River, KS since 1996. Documented concentrations...

  15. Contaminants in Interior Least Tern Eggs from Quivira National Wildlife Refuge, Kansas, in 1990 and 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Flooded or abandoned eggs of interior least terns (Sterna antillarum) nesting at Quivira National Wildlife Refuge in central Kansas were collected in 1990 and 1991....

  16. A Markov model for planning and permitting offshore wind energy: A case study of radio-tracked terns in the Gulf of Maine, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranmer, Alexana; Smetzer, Jennifer R; Welch, Linda; Baker, Erin

    2017-05-15

    Quantifying and managing the potential adverse wildlife impacts of offshore wind energy is critical for developing offshore wind energy in a sustainable and timely manner, but poses a significant challenge, particularly for small marine birds that are difficult to monitor. We developed a discrete-time Markov model of seabird movement around a colony site parameterized by automated radio telemetry data from common terns (Sterna hirundo) and Arctic terns (S. paradisaea), and derived impact functions that estimate the probability of collision fatality as a function of the distance and bearing of wind turbines from a colony. Our purpose was to develop and demonstrate a new, flexible tool that can be used for specific management and wind-energy planning applications when adequate data are available, rather than inform wind-energy development at this site. We demonstrate how the tool can be used 1) in marine spatial planning exercises to quantitatively identify setback distances under development scenarios given a risk threshold, 2) to examine the ecological and technical trade-offs of development alternatives to facilitate negotiation between objectives, and 3) in the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process to estimate collision fatality under alternative scenarios. We discuss model limitations and data needs, and highlight opportunities for future model extension and development. We present a highly flexible tool for wind energy planning that can be easily extended to other central place foragers and data sources, and can be updated and improved as new monitoring data arises. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Foraging decisions of sandwich terns in the presence of kleptoparasitising gulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienen, EWM; Brenninkmeijer, A

    We studied prey selection of Sandwich Terns (Sterna sandvicensis) in the presence of kleptoparasitising Black-headed Gulls (Larus ridibundus) on Griend, Dutch Wadden Sea, from 1992 to 1998. Most often, gulls robbed larger sandeels rather than herring from terns. Provided that one parent attends the

  18. A Proposal for the Management of Piping Plovers and Least Terns at Parker River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The piping plover (Charadrius melodus) and least tern (Sterna antillarum) are two native North American bird species that have traditionally used the beach of Parker...

  19. Conservation of Sooty Terns on Wake Atoll Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Ascension Island. Atlantic Seabirds 1:159-168. Robertson, W. B. 1964. The terns of the Dry Tortugas. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum 8:1-94 Saliva...and F. A. Roberts. 1999. The population status of Sooty Terns Sterna fuscata on Ascension Island. Atlantic Seabirds 1:159-168. Ricklefs, R. E...bacteria in seawater. Microbial Ecology 10:69-77. Nelson, J. B. 1978. The Sulidae: gannets and boobies. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, U. K

  20. First breeding records for Damara Terns and density of other ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Damara Tern Sterna balaenarum is a small coastal-nesting seabird that breeds in the Namib Desert, with a stronghold in Namibia. About 125 pairs are known from scattered localities in South Africa, and there are suggestions that it breeds in the northern end of the Namib in Angola. During a three-day survey in ...

  1. Renesting of Common Terns in the life history perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, P. H.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, H.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Replacement clutches may increase the annual reproductive output of individuals and the population, but cause additional effort and may have fitness consequences. Whether longevity and lifetime reproductive success are affected by renesting is unknown. In an individual-based long-term study (1992?2009) we investigated Common Terns Sterna hirundo breeding at the colony site ?Banter See? on the German North Sea coast and marked with transponders. This approach allowed us to ...

  2. Risk assessment of bioaccumulation in the food webs of two marine AMOEBE species: common tern and harbor seal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed RH; Mensink BJWG; Vethaak AD; Luttik R; Rijksinstituut voor Kust en Zee; ACT; RIKZ

    1995-01-01

    A model has been developed for calculating Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPCs) in water for chemicals accumulating in food webs of sea birds and mammals. Calculations are carried out for two marine AMOEBE species: common tern (Sterna hirundo) and harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and five

  3. Selenium bioaccumulation and body condition in shorebirds and terns breeding in San Francisco Bay, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated Se bioaccumulation in four waterbird species (n = 206 birds) that breed within San Francisco Bay, California, USA: American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia). Selenium concentrations were variable and influenced by several factors, including species, region, reproductive stage, age, and sex. Adult Se concentrations (μg/g dry wt) in livers ranged from 3.07 to 48.70 in avocets (geometric mean ± standard error, 7.92 ± 0.64), 2.28 to 41.10 in stilts (5.29 ± 0.38), 3.73 to 14.50 in Forster's terns (7.13 ± 0.38), and 4.77 to 14.40 in Caspian terns (6.73 ± 0.78). Avocets had higher Se concentrations in the North Bay compared to the South Bay, whereas stilt Se concentrations were similar between these regions and Forster's terns had lower Se concentrations in the North Bay compared to the South Bay. Female avocets had higher Se concentrations than male avocets, but this was not the case for stilts and Forster's terns. Of the factors assessed, reproductive stage had the most consistent effect among species. Prebreeding birds tended to have higher liver Se concentrations than breeding birds, but this trend was statistically significant only for Forster's terns. Forster's tern chicks had lower Se concentrations than Forster's tern adults, whereas avocet and stilt adults and chicks were similar. Additionally, body condition was negatively related to liver Se concentrations in Forster's tern adults but not in avocet, stilt, or Caspian tern adults and chicks. These variable results illustrate the complexity of Se bioaccumulation and highlight the need to sample multiple species and examine several factors to assess the impact of Se on wildlife.

  4. MA Common Tern Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The official State census period for common terns was June 1-10. The survey was conducted on June 4 by Biologist Healey, Biotech Springfield, and Maintenance...

  5. Variations in growth of roseate tern chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, I.C.T.; Spendelow, J.A.; Hatfield, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    We measured growth parameters of Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) chicks at two contrasting colonies: Bird Island, Massachusetts, and Falkner Island, Connecticut, from 1987 through 1990. Differences in growth parameters among individual chicks are used to explore differences in parental performance, whereas differences in average growth parameters among colonies and years are used to explore differences in average environmental conditions. Chicks were marked at hatching and weighed at one- or two-day intervals. For each chick that survived to fledging, we calculated two measures of growth: linear growth rate and asymptotic mass. There were no significant differences between growth parameters of first-hatched chicks in broods of one and two. Both measures of growth were significantly lower and more variable for second-hatched chicks than for first-hatched chicks. Both measures were significantly positively related to egg mass and negatively related to hatch date. After controlling for these variables, differences between colonies and among years were relatively small and inconsistent. Mean survival of second-hatched chicks was positively correlated with the mean growth rate of survivors across colonies and years. These findings are consistent with a general hypothesis that growth of chicks reflects individual parental performance and parental quality.

  6. Gender identification of Caspian Terns using external morphology and discriminant function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Takekawa, John Y.; Bluso, J.D.; Yee, J.L.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2008-01-01

    Caspian Tern (Sterna caspia) plumage characteristics are sexually monochromatic and gender cannot easily be distinguished in the field without extensive behavioral observations. We assessed sexual size dimorphism and developed a discriminant function to assign gender in Caspian Terns based on external morphology. We collected and measured Caspian Terns in San Francisco Bay, California, and confirmed their gender based on necropsy and genetic analysis. Of the eight morphological measurements we examined, only bill depth at the gonys and head plus bill length differed between males and females with males being larger than females. A discriminant function using both bill depth at the gonys and head plus bill length accurately assigned gender of 83% of terns for which gender was known. We improved the accuracy of our discriminant function to 90% by excluding individuals that had less than a 75% posterior probability of correctly being assigned to gender. Caspian Terns showed little sexual size dimorphism in many morphometries, but our results indicate they can be reliably assigned to gender in the field using two morphological measurements.

  7. California least tern recovery plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sterna albifrons browni - life history requirements, populations, habitat, food, threats, and conservation measures are discussed to avoid the loss of the species....

  8. Premature feather loss among common tern chicks in Ontario: the return of an enigmatic developmental anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Arnold

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In July 2014, we observed premature feather loss (PFL among non-sibling, common tern Sterna hirundo chicks between two and four weeks of age at Gull Island in northern Lake Ontario, Canada. Rarely observed in wild birds, to our knowledge PFL has not been recorded in terns since 1974, despite the subsequent banding of hundreds of thousands of tern chicks across North America alone. The prevalence, 5% of chicks (9/167, and extent of feather loss we report is more extreme than in previous reports for common terns but was not accompanied by other aberrant developmental or physical deformities. Complete feather loss from all body areas (wing, tail, head and body occurred over a period of a few days but all affected chicks appeared vigorous and quickly began to grow replacement feathers. All but one chick (recovered dead and submitted for post-mortem most likely fledged 10–20 days after normal fledging age. We found no evidence of feather dystrophy or concurrent developmental abnormalities unusual among affected chicks. Thus, the PFL we observed among common terns in 2014 was largely of unknown origin. There was striking temporal association between the onset of PFL and persistent strong southwesterly winds that caused extensive mixing of near-shore surface water with cool, deep lake waters. One hypothesis is that PFL may have been caused by unidentified pathogens or toxins welling up from these deep waters along the shoreline but current data are insufficient to test this. PFL was not observed among common terns at Gull Island in 2015, although we did observe similar feather loss in a herring gull Larus argentatus chick in that year. Comparison with sporadic records of PFL in other seabirds suggests that PFL may be a rare, but non-specific, response to a range of potential stressors. PFL is now known for gulls, penguins and terns.

  9. Population Census of a Large Common Tern Colony with a Small Unmanned Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, Dominique; Craik, Shawn R.; Bird, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) may be useful for conducting high-precision, low-disturbance waterbird surveys, but limited data exist on their effectiveness. We evaluated the capacity of a small UAS to census a large (>6,000 nests) coastal Common tern (Sterna hirundo) colony of which ground surveys are particularly disruptive and time-consuming. We compared aerial photographic tern counts to ground nest counts in 45 plots (5-m radius) throughout the colony at three intervals over a nine-day period in order to identify sources of variation and establish a coefficient to estimate nest numbers from UAS surveys. We also compared a full colony ground count to full counts from two UAS surveys conducted the following day. Finally, we compared colony disturbance levels over the course of UAS flights to matched control periods. Linear regressions between aerial and ground counts in plots had very strong correlations in all three comparison periods (R2 = 0.972–0.989, P < 0.001) and regression coefficients ranged from 0.928–0.977 terns/nest. Full colony aerial counts were 93.6% and 94.0%, respectively, of the ground count. Varying visibility of terns with ground cover, weather conditions and image quality, and changing nest attendance rates throughout incubation were likely sources of variation in aerial detection rates. Optimally timed UAS surveys of Common tern colonies following our method should yield population estimates in the 93–96% range of ground counts. Although the terns were initially disturbed by the UAS flying overhead, they rapidly habituated to it. Overall, we found no evidence of sustained disturbance to the colony by the UAS. We encourage colonial waterbird researchers and managers to consider taking advantage of this burgeoning technology. PMID:25874997

  10. High within-individual variation in total mercury concentration in seabird feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Alexander L; Diamond, Antony W

    2008-11-01

    To our knowledge, no rigorous assessment of the variation in mercury concentrations within individual seabirds has been made using multiple body feathers. We analyzed five feathers from individual Arctic terns (Sterna paradisaea Pontoppidan), common terns (Sterna hirundo L.), and Leach's storm-petrels (Oceanodroma leucorhoa Veillot) and found levels of within-individual variability higher than population or time-series variation. Using a randomization procedure, we found a large range of possible mercury concentrations if only one feather per individual had been sampled. Researchers should report within-individual variability in future studies.

  11. Gulf of Maine Tern Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tern populations were reduced in the last quarter of the nineteenth century, when gunners found a market for the wings and whole skins of gulls and terns in the...

  12. Challenges and prospects of population genetic studies in terns (Charadriiformes, Aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia J. Faria

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available about the population structure of communally nesting terns (Sternidae and skimmers (Rynchopidae throughout the world. In order to fill this gap, a survey of molecular markers was carried out for six species of terns (Anous stolidus, Sterna hirundinacea, S. fuscata, S. superciliaris, Thalasseus maximus and Phaetusa simplex and one species of skimmer (Rynchops niger. First, we describe the results of the construction of genomic DNA libraries and document problems encountered during this procedure. Secondly, we tested the cross-amplification of 18 microsatellite loci previously described for related species (the number of polymorphic loci ranged from three to seven. Thirdly, we tested the usefulness of mtDNA (control region, ND2, Cytochrome b and ATPase 6/8 for phylogeographic studies in this group of birds. The occurrence of nuclear copies of the mitochondrial control region is reported. Nucleotide divergence in the mtDNA genes analyzed ranged from 0.0 to 0.006. Despite the difficulties associated with the selection of variable markers in this group of seabirds, we were able to select polymorphic markers for each species tested and we anticipate these results will help the development of genetic studies concerning important biological questions in terns.

  13. Habitat comparisons and productivity in nesting common terns on the mid-Atlantic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.; Smith, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    Nesting Common Terns (Sterna hirundo) were studied at a number of barrier beaches and small islands of tidal salt marsh in New Jersey and the Eastern Shore of Maryland-Virginina from 1980 through 1982. Data were collected on clutch sizes, nest spacing, and nesting success. The principal null hypothesis tested was that no difference in reproductive success exists between beach and marsh habitats. Nests were monitored from egg-laying in mid-May until mid-July when young fledged. Clutch sizes varied among colonies and across years but no systematic effect of year, habitat, or colony size on mean clutch size per colony was detected. Analyses of nest productivity (estimated using both the Mayfield method and using a colony average) failed to reveal significant effects of habitat or colony size but showed a stronger year effect. Storm tide flooding and egg chick disappearance (presumably predation by Herring Gulls Larus argentatus and Laughing Gulls L. atricilla nesting nearby) accounted for most nest failures. Losses due to both these mortality factors were unpredictable from year to year. Nest spacing in salt marsh colonies was much closer than it was on barrier beaches. In mixed-species colonies with Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger), distances between tern and skimmer nests were also much smaller in marsh colonies than they were on beaches. The limited amount of wrack (windrows of dead, matted vegetation) preferred by marsh-nesting terns probably explains these spacing differences. Several lines of evidence suggest that terns prefer beaches to marshes for nesting, however, the uncertainty of predation and flooding may often obscure any intrinsic differences in habitat quality. Long-term field studies are essential for testing hypotheses related to differential fitness of individuals among habitats.

  14. California Least Tern Breeding Survey 1995 Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sterna antillarum browni) nested at 37 sites along the coast of California. This 7% decrease in breeding population size from 1994 brings to an end the trend since...

  15. Egg turning behavior and incubation temperature in Forster’s terns in relation to mercury contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gregory T.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Shaffer, Scott A.

    2018-01-01

    Egg turning behavior is an important determinant of egg hatchability, but it remains relatively understudied. Here, we examined egg turning rates and egg temperatures in Forster’s terns (Sterna forsteri). We used artificial eggs containing a data logger with a 3-D accelerometer, a magnetometer, and a temperature thermistor to monitor parental incubation behavior of 131 tern nests. Overall, adults turned their eggs an average (±SD) of 3.8 ± 0.8 turns h-1, which is nearly two times higher than that of other seabirds. Egg turning rates increased with nest initiation date. We also examined egg turning rates and egg temperatures in relation to egg mercury contamination. Mercury contamination has been shown to be associated with reduced egg hatchability, and we hypothesized that mercury may decrease egg hatchability via altered egg turning behavior by parents. Despite the high variability in egg turning rates among individuals, the rate of egg turning was not related to mercury concentrations in sibling eggs. These findings highlight the need for further study concerning the potential determinants of egg turning behavior.

  16. Response of roseate tern to a shoreline protection project on Falkner Island, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, C.J.; Spendelow, J.A.; Guilfoyle, Michael P.; Fischer, Richard A.; Pashley, David N.; Lott, Casey A.

    2007-01-01

    Construction was initiated following the 2000 tern breeding season for Phase 1 of a planned two-phase ?Shoreline Protection and Erosion Control Project? at the Falkner Island Unit of the USFWS Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge located in Long Island Sound off the coast of Guilford, CT. When the Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) and federally endangered Roseate Tern (S. dougallii) arrived in spring 2001, they encountered several major habitat changes from what had existed in previous years. These changes included: a rock revetment covering most of the former nesting habitat on the beach from the northwestern section around the northern tip and covering about 60% of the eastern side; an elevated 60- ? 4-m shelf covering the beach and lower bank of the southwestern section; and about 2,000 sq m of devegetated areas on top of the island on the northeast side above the revetment, and about one-third of the southern half of the island. The southwest shelf was created by bulldozing and compacting extra construction fill and in situ materials. This shelf differed in internal structure from the main revetment on the north and eastern sections of the island because it lacked the deep internal crevices of the revetment. The deep internal crevices were created from the large stones and boulders (up to 2 tons) used in the construction of the main revetment. Small rock and gravel was used to fill the crevices to within 3 feet (0.9 m) of the surface of the revetment. Because half-buried tires and nest boxes for the six Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) sub-colony areas were deployed in similar patterns on the remaining beach, and nest boxes were placed on the newly elevated shelf areas several meters above previous locations on the now-covered beach areas, the distribution of Roseate Tern nests did not change much from 2000 to 2001. However, the movements of Roseate Tern chicks ? in many cases led by their parents towards traditional hiding places ? into the labyrinth of

  17. Predation on common tern eggs by the yellow-legged gull at the Ebro Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Hernández-Matías

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ebro Delta holds a large seabird community, including a common tern (Sterna hirundo local population of 3,085 pairs in 2000 which breeds scattered in several colonies. At El Canalot colony, 1,178 (1999 and 1,156 pairs (2000 of this species bred distributed in 32 and 38 sub-colonies respectively. These sub-colonies varied in size from 1 to 223 pairs and were placed near the main breeding colonies of yellow-legged gulls (Larus cachinnans and Audouin´s gulls (L. audouinii, which are potential egg-predators of terns. We studied egg predation during 1999 (6 sub-colonies and 2000 (27 sub-colonies. Overall, we found that 10.6% of the nests in 1999 and 16.7% in 2000 suffered partial or total egg predation, being total in 81.1% of the predatory events. Predation was significantly higher in small sub-colonies (< 11 pairs: 49.4% in 1999 and 75.5% in 2000. Only attacks from yellow-legged gulls were observed, and defence behaviour of terns was significantly more frequent against this gull species (40.5 hours of observation, suggesting that in most cases the egg predation recorded was due to this species. Probability of egg predation was significantly and negatively correlated with distance to the nearest yellow-legged gull sub-colony, although this relationship was no more significant after adjustment for sub-colony size. On the other hand, distance to the nearest Audouin´s gull sub-colony did not show any effect. Our results suggest that the impact of large gulls (at least yellow-legged gulls upon smaller seabirds breeding in the area might be important, especially when they are breeding in small sub-colonies. Further studies are needed to analyse the general impact of large gulls upon the breeding populations of other colonial bird species in the area.

  18. Gulf of Maine Tern Management Plan 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following management plan provides an outline of the tasks proposed to restore tern numbers to levels approximating those reached during the last period of...

  19. Evaluation of Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia) and snowy plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus) nesting on modified islands at the Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, California—2016 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, C. Alex; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Strong, Cheryl; Trachtenbarg, David; Shore, Crystal A.

    2017-05-08

    attraction measures were successful in establishing Caspian tern breeding colonies at Ponds A16 and SF2 of DENWR. The success of 2015 continued in 2016, the second year of the study. In 2016, Caspian terns nested on two of the five islands modified for Caspian terns (one island in Pond A16 and one island in Pond SF2). Caspian terns initiated at least 317 nests, fledged at least 158 chicks, and had a breeding success rate of 0.50 fledged chicks per breeding pair. This represents a 42 percent increase in nests initiated, a 9 percent decrease in the number of fledged chicks, and a 36 percent decrease in the number of chicks fledged per breeding pair in 2016 compared to 2015. Although overall productivity decreased from 2015, these results indicate that the Caspian tern breeding population on modified islands of the DENWR is increasing relative to 2015, the first year of the effort, and relative to years prior to 2015 when no breeding colonies of Caspian terns existed in Ponds A16 or SF2. These results indicate the effectiveness of social attraction measures in helping to establish tern nesting colonies in San Francisco Bay. Conversely, for the second year in a row, snowy plovers did not attempt to nest on any island in Ponds A16 and SF2. Social attraction measures similar to those used in this study, but targeting other colonial species such as Forster’s terns (Sterna forsteri) and American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), may help to establish waterbird breeding colonies at wetlands enhanced as part of the SBSP Restoration Project.

  20. Ocean control of the breeding regime of the sooty tern in the southwest Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquemet, S.; Le Corre, M.; Quartly, G. D.

    2007-01-01

    Food availability, which is often seasonal, is regarded as a key factor in the breeding success of seabirds. In oceanic tropical areas, the resources are mostly patchy and ephemeral at the surface, and the seasonality is less marked than at higher latitudes. Such a situation influences greatly the breeding strategies of the oceanic seabird species. We conducted a comparative study of the breeding phenology of the sooty tern ( Sterna fuscata) in relation to the local and regional oceanographic conditions around the four major colonies (Europa, Juan de Nova, Lys and Bird Islands) of the southwest Indian Ocean. Over the 1997-2003 period, around all the studied locations, the sea-surface temperature (SST) and the chlorophyll concentration in the Mozambique Channel and the Seychelles area showed clear seasonal differences related to the southern climate and the monsoon phenomena. The breeding activity is synchronized at each studied colony, but the timings are very different. Seasonal reproduction occurs in austral winter at Europa and Bird Island and in austral summer at Juan de Nova; at Lys Island the reproduction is non-seasonal. For the seasonal colonies, there is a large monthly change in SST just before the beginning of reproduction, which is a proxy indicating the annual phytoplankton bloom. This variation is accompanied by the development of oceanic features such as fronts that favour aggregation of prey, and may also play an important role in the presence of schools of surface tuna, which are very important for the foraging success of sooty terns. Conversely, around Lys Island the seasonal variations of the marine environment do not lead to pronounced development of oceanic structures, and consequently, the longer-lasting phytoplankton bloom could explain the non-seasonal breeding regime there. Further studies will help discern the advantages and disadvantages of seasonal and non-seasonal reproduction regime in response to unpredictable fluctuations of the

  1. Migration and breeding biology of Arctic terns in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egevang, Carsten

    , the study produced the first estimates of the key prey species of the Arctic tern in Greenland. Although zooplankton and various fish species were present in the chick diet of terns breeding in Disko Bay, Capelin (Mallotus villosus) was the single most important prey species found in all age groups...... (Sandøen) in high-Arctic Northeast Greenland. The level of knowledge of the Arctic tern in Greenland before 2002 was to a large extent poor, with aspects of its biology being completely unknown in the Greenland population. This thesis presents novel findings for the Arctic tern, both on an international...... by the distribution of breeding Arctic terns as suggested by Egevang et al. (2004). Included in the thesis are furthermore results with an appeal to the Greenland management agencies. Along with estimates of the Arctic tern population size at the two most important Arctic tern colonies in West Greenland and East...

  2. Migration and breeding biology of arctic terns in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egevang, Carsten

    , the study produced the first estimates of the key prey species of the Arctic tern in Greenland. Although zooplankton and various fish species were present in the chick diet of terns breeding in Disko Bay, Capelin (Mallotus villosus) was the single most important prey species found in all age groups...... (Sandøen) in high-Arctic Northeast Greenland. The level of knowledge of the Arctic tern in Greenland before 2002 was to a large extent poor, with aspects of its biology being completely unknown in the Greenland population. This thesis presents novel findings for the Arctic tern, both on an international...... by the distribution of breeding Arctic terns as suggested by Egevang et al. (2004). Included in the thesis are furthermore results with an appeal to the Greenland management agencies. Along with estimates of the Arctic tern population size at the two most important Arctic tern colonies in West Greenland and East...

  3. Maternal steroids and contaminants in common tern eggs: A mechanism of endocrine disruption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, J.B.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Schwabl, H.

    2001-01-01

    We looked for evidence for the hypothesis that exposure of female birds to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) results in alteration of blood steroid hormone concentrations and alters subsequent hormone transfer of steroids to eggs. Eggs of three-egg clutches were collected from a PCB-exposed common tern (Sterna hirundo) colony (Ram Island, Buzzards Bay, MA, USA) and from a relatively clean colony (Bodkin Island, Chesapeake Bay, MD, USA), and were analyzed for concentrations of organochlorine contaminants and steroid hormones (17β-estradiol, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone and androstenedione). There was no relationship between total PCBs and steroid concentrations considering all eggs together, considering eggs of different laying order or considering differences between sequentially laid eggs in a clutch. Similarly, concentrations of di- and tri-chlorinated biphenyls and steroids in eggs were not related. The concentrations of PCBs, mercury and selenium were below estimated thresholds for toxicity to embryos. Maternal steroids, except estradiol, were present in yolk of all eggs, with increasing concentrations in the second and third eggs laid. Our data provided no evidence for a maternal toxicological event that might alter the amount of maternal steroid hormone transferred to eggs.

  4. Population Status of Arctic, Common and Roseate Terns in the Gulf of Maine with Observations of five Downeast colonies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The populations of Arctic Terns, Common Terns and Roseate Terns have declined between 30-40% over the past decade. This report outlines the findings of a tern census...

  5. Combined impacts of Black-crowned Night-Heron predation/disturbance and various management activities on Roseate Tern productivity in 2003, and testing of a video surveillance system for recording the diurnal and nocturnal behavior of terns and night-herons at Falkner Island, Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge, Connecticut, in 2004: Report to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge, Westbrook, Connecticut and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 5 Regional Office, Hadley, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendelow, J.A.; Kuter, M.

    2004-01-01

    Falkner Island (FICT), a unit of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge (SBMNWR) since 1985, is located in Long Island Sound 5 km south of Guilford, CT. For more than three decades it has been the site of the only large breeding colony in Connecticut of the federally endangered Northwest Atlantic population of Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) and the state's largest colony of Common Terns (S. hirundo). Both species have been studied at this site since 1978 as part of the Falkner Island Tern Project (FITP), and since 1987 also as part of a regional Cooperative Roseate Tern Metapopulation Dynamics and Ecology Project (CRTMP), both coordinated by Dr. Jeffrey A. Spendelow of the U.S. Geological Survey's Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (USGS-PWRC). From 1997-2002 the Roseate Tern breeding population at this site declined by more than 50% from about 150 to about 70 nesting pairs, mostly as a result of the nocturnal predation and disturbance of tern chicks and eggs by Black-crowned Night-Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax). Here we report the results of research done with the goal of improving management of nocturnal predators and developing new practices/structures to reduce losses of tern eggs and chicks so as to prevent the abandonment of this site by Roseate Terns. Notification of release of the USGS 'Quick Response Funds' (QRF) that were to be used to support the part of this study entitled 'Nocturnal behavior/interactions of endangered Roseate Terns and Black-crowned Night-Herons', and final approval of the Study Plan for this research did not occur until after the breeding season in 2003 was well underway. As a result, some work will need to be completed during the 2004 field season. There are two major objectives of this study. The first is to collect basic information (a) on the nocturnal behavior and interactions of Roseate (and Common) Terns with predatory Black-crowned Night-Herons, and (b) on how the behavior of the

  6. Migration and breeding biology of Arctic terns in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egevang, Carsten

    (Sandøen) in high-Arctic Northeast Greenland. The level of knowledge of the Arctic tern in Greenland before 2002 was to a large extent poor, with aspects of its biology being completely unknown in the Greenland population. This thesis presents novel findings for the Arctic tern, both on an international...... scale and on a national scale. The study on Arctic tern migration (Manus I) – the longest annual migration ever recorded in any animal – is a study with an international appeal. The study documented how Greenland and Iceland breeding terns conduct the roundtrip migration to the Weddell Sea in Antarctica...

  7. Contribution of research to management and recovery of the roseate tern: review of a twelve-year project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, I.C.T.; Spendelow, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Northwest Atlantic population of the Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) is largely confined to a small breeding area along the northeast coast of the USA between 40? and 42?N. This population was listed as endangered in the USA in 1987 because it was dangerously concentrated into a few breeding sites (85% on two islands in the 1980s). The nesting population in the area from Long Island, New York to Cape Cod, Massachusetts has been studied intensively since 1987, in conjunction with a program of management of the breeding colonies. This paper summarizes the results of the research program and discusses the extent to which it has contributed to effective management. The regional population now numbers about 4,000 breeding pairs and has been increasing slowly since 1987, except between 1991 and 1992 when it declined by about 17%. This decline was probably caused by Hurricane `Bob' in August 1991. Roseate Terns have specialized foraging habits and are concentrated into a small number of foraging areas near the nesting colonies. The historically important breeding sites were taken over by large gulls between 1930 and 1972. Many of the terns moved to less suitable sites near the mainland, where they are subject to predation by mainland-based predators. Despite this, Roseate Terns breed with high success at many sites. The sex-ratio is skewed towards females; about 12% of nests are attended by female-female pairs. The annual adult survival rate (0.83) is unusually low for a seabird. Most mortality occurs away from the breeding grounds, but the winter quarters remained unknown until one roost site was found in Brazil in 1995-1997. A major management goal has been to restore former colony-sites by eliminating nesting gulls, but the success of some of these projects has been questionable because they may have attracted birds to sites with higher levels of predation. Although the research has yielded important information about the biology and demography of the species, it

  8. Habitat use and reproductive success of western snowy plovers at new nesting areas created for California least terns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Abby N.; Collier, Christine L.

    2000-01-01

    The Pacific coast population of western snowy plovers (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus) was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in 1993 and its decline is primarily attributed to habitat loss. In southern California, snowy plovers typically nest in association with federally endangered California least terns (Sterna antillarum browni). Since least terns were afforded protection under the ESA, the creation of nesting habitat from dredged materials has been a popular component of habitat restoration to partially compensate for wetland loss in this region. We had a unique opportunity to monitor habitat use and reproductive success at newly created habitats associated with the restoration of Batiquitos Lagoon, San Diego County, California from 1994 to 1998. We also compared hatch and fledge rates and habitat characteristics of snowy plovers nesting at new nesting areas at Batiquitos Lagoon to a nearby natural beach and a dredged-material area created in the 1970s. The number of nesting attempts by snowy plovers increased from 5 in 1994 to a high of 38 in 1997, and plovers nested on 4 of the 5 created areas. Fledge rates at Batiquitos Lagoon varied annually and declined after the initial colonization in 1995. Fledge rate in 1995 was higher at the newly created area than at the older dredged-material and natural beach areas in any other year. Nests on the created areas at Batiquitos Lagoon were surrounded by less vegetative cover, less debris, and shorter vegetation than nests at the older dredged-material and natural beach areas. Nonbreeding snowy plovers used created habitats within the lagoon, and more plovers used the lagoon and its adjacent beach during fall than winter. Predation pressure and habitat quality were important factors determining use and reproductive success on created areas at Batiquitos Lagoon.

  9. Arctic Tern Homing Experiment Petit Manan Island, Maine 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose the author’s work and trip to this island was to conduct homing experiments with Arctic Terns, to determine if this is a suitable species for...

  10. An Investigation of Black Tern Reproductive Success in Vermont 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The black tern is a colonial nesting marsh bird which has been declining significantly in numbers throughout its range, and in particular in the Northeast. In...

  11. Developing and Testing TernCOLONY 1.0: An Individual-based Model of Least Tern Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    vary daily due to operations for hydropower production, flood control, and other purposes (Lott and Wiley 2012), TernCOLONY simulates Least Tern...ways:  From field measurements of sandbar nesting habitat.  By creating simulated habitat datasets in ArcGIS . Lott and Wiley (2012) describe...among years This pattern is addressed by reporting simulated nest mortality by cause ( flooding ; predators; human disturbance, which is via ORVs in

  12. Australia's TERN: Advancing Ecosystem Data Management in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinn, S. R.; Christensen, R.; Guru, S.

    2013-12-01

    Globally, there is a consistent movement towards more open, collaborative and transparent science, where the publication and citation of data is considered standard practice. Australia's Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) is a national research infrastructure investment designed to support the ecosystem science community through all stages of the data lifecycle. TERN has developed and implemented a comprehensive network of ';hard' and ';soft' infrastructure that enables Australia's ecosystem scientists to collect, publish, store, share, discover and re-use data in ways not previously possible. The aim of this poster is to demonstrate how TERN has successfully delivered infrastructure that is enabling a significant cultural and practical shift in Australia's ecosystem science community towards consistent approaches for data collection, meta-data, data licensing, and data publishing. TERN enables multiple disciplines, within the ecosystem sciences to more effectively and efficiently collect, store and publish their data. A critical part of TERN's approach has been to build on existing data collection activities, networks and skilled people to enable further coordination and collaboration to build each data collection facility and coordinate data publishing. Data collection in TERN is through discipline based facilities, covering long term collection of: (1) systematic plot based measurements of vegetation structure, composition and faunal biodiversity; (2) instrumented towers making systematic measurements of solar, water and gas fluxes; and (3) satellite and airborne maps of biophysical properties of vegetation, soils and the atmosphere. Several other facilities collect and integrate environmental data to produce national products for fauna and vegetation surveys, soils and coastal data, as well as integrated or synthesised products for modelling applications. Data management, publishing and sharing in TERN are implemented through a tailored data

  13. Test for age-specificity in survival of the common tern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, I.C.T.; Cam, E.

    2002-01-01

    Much effort in life-history theory has been addressed to the dependence of life-history traits on age, especially the phenomenon of senescence and its evolution. Although senescent declines in survival are well documented in humans and in domestic and laboratory animals, evidence for their occurrence and importance in wild animal species remains limited and equivocal. Several recent papers have suggested that methodological issues may contribute to this problem, and have encouraged investigators to improve sampling designs and to analyse their data using recently developed approaches to modelling of capture-mark-recapture data. Here we report on a three-year, two-site, mark-recapture study of known-aged common terns (Sterna hirundo) in the north-eastern USA. The study was nested within a long-term ecological study in which large numbers of chicks had been banded in each year for > 25 years. We used a range of models to test the hypothesis of an influence of age on survival probability. We also tested for a possible influence of sex on survival. The cross-sectional design of the study (one year's parameter estimates) avoided the possible confounding of effects of age and time. The study was conducted at a time when one of the study sites was being colonized and numbers were increasing rapidly. We detected two-way movements between the sites and estimated movement probabilities in the year for which they could be modelled. We also obtained limited data on emigration from our study area to more distant sites. We found no evidence that survival depended on either sex or age, except that survival was lower among the youngest birds (ages 2-3 years). Despite the large number of birds included in the study (1599 known-aged birds, 2367 total), confidence limits on estimates of survival probability were wide, especially for the oldest age-classes, so that a slight decline in survival late in life could not have been detected. In addition, the cross-sectional design of this

  14. Egg morphology of Swift Terns in South Africa | Gaglio | Ostrich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphology of Swift Tern Thalasseus bergii bergii eggs was examined on Robben Island, South Africa. A recently formed colony was found abandoned en masse, probably following human disturbance, and 146 freshly laid eggs were collected. The mean ± SD nest density was 7 ± 2.5 nests m-2 and 3% of nests contained ...

  15. Migration flyway of the Mediterranean breeding Lesser Crested Tern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Lesser Crested Tern Thalasseus bengalensis emigratus breeding population in the Mediterranean is found exclusively in Libya, on the two coastal islands of Gara and Elba and one wetland on the mainland coast at Benghazi. In order to improve knowledge of the species migration to wintering quarters in West Africa, ...

  16. Det Kandriska språket : Rösternas uttryck i Mare Kandres roman Aliide, Aliide

    OpenAIRE

    Stjernfeldt, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    I Mare Kandres genombrottsroman Aliide, Aliide (1991) lyfts ofta det starka inifrånperspektivet fram som ett karakteristiskt stildrag, även om romanen berättas utifrån tredje person. Denna stilistiska undersökning analyserar rösternas uttryck i syfte att erbjuda en mer detaljerad och djupgående förståelse för Kandres komplexa berättarteknik, och fokuserar huvudsakligen på att klarlägga ett systematiskt mönster över hur Kandre låter huvudkaraktären Aliide komma till tals. Analysen genomförs me...

  17. Evidence of heavy metal accumulations in sooty terns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoneburner, D.L.; Patty, P.C.; Robertson, W.B.

    1980-03-01

    Research report: Sooty terns nesting at Dry Tortugas, Fla., were analyzed to determine levels of heavy metal bioaccumulation. Tissues, feces, and eggs were analyzed by neutron activation techniques. The highest levels of mercury were found in eggs, feathers, and blood; of cadmium in kidney and bone; and of selenium in kidney, liver, and feathers. The concentrations of metals found in the eggs indicate that they are being transmitted to succeeding generations. (29 references, 1 table)

  18. Camouflage and Clutch Survival in Plovers and Terns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Kupán, Krisztina; Eyster, Harold N.; Rojas-Abreu, Wendoly; Cruz-López, Medardo; Serrano-Meneses, Martín Alejandro; Küpper, Clemens

    2016-09-01

    Animals achieve camouflage through a variety of mechanisms, of which background matching and disruptive coloration are likely the most common. Although many studies have investigated camouflage mechanisms using artificial stimuli and in lab experiments, less work has addressed camouflage in the wild. Here we examine egg camouflage in clutches laid by ground-nesting Snowy Plovers Charadrius nivosus and Least Terns Sternula antillarum breeding in mixed aggregations at Bahía de Ceuta, Sinaloa, Mexico. We obtained digital images of clutches laid by both species. We then calibrated the images and used custom computer software and edge detection algorithms to quantify measures related to three potential camouflage mechanisms: pattern complexity matching, disruptive effects and background color matching. Based on our image analyses, Snowy Plover clutches, in general, appeared to be more camouflaged than Least Tern clutches. Snowy Plover clutches also survived better than Least Tern clutches. Unexpectedly, variation in clutch survival was not explained by any measure of egg camouflage in either species. We conclude that measures of egg camouflage are poor predictors of clutch survival in this population. The behavior of the incubating parents may also affect clutch predation. Determining the significance of egg camouflage requires further testing using visual models and behavioral experiments.

  19. Camouflage and Clutch Survival in Plovers and Terns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Kupán, Krisztina; Eyster, Harold N; Rojas-Abreu, Wendoly; Cruz-López, Medardo; Serrano-Meneses, Martín Alejandro; Küpper, Clemens

    2016-09-12

    Animals achieve camouflage through a variety of mechanisms, of which background matching and disruptive coloration are likely the most common. Although many studies have investigated camouflage mechanisms using artificial stimuli and in lab experiments, less work has addressed camouflage in the wild. Here we examine egg camouflage in clutches laid by ground-nesting Snowy Plovers Charadrius nivosus and Least Terns Sternula antillarum breeding in mixed aggregations at Bahía de Ceuta, Sinaloa, Mexico. We obtained digital images of clutches laid by both species. We then calibrated the images and used custom computer software and edge detection algorithms to quantify measures related to three potential camouflage mechanisms: pattern complexity matching, disruptive effects and background color matching. Based on our image analyses, Snowy Plover clutches, in general, appeared to be more camouflaged than Least Tern clutches. Snowy Plover clutches also survived better than Least Tern clutches. Unexpectedly, variation in clutch survival was not explained by any measure of egg camouflage in either species. We conclude that measures of egg camouflage are poor predictors of clutch survival in this population. The behavior of the incubating parents may also affect clutch predation. Determining the significance of egg camouflage requires further testing using visual models and behavioral experiments.

  20. Mercury in bird eggs from coastal Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Maine's coastal islands and beaches provide important nesting habitat for piping plover (Charadrius melodus), least tern (Sterna antillarum), common tern (Sterna...

  1. Reproductive Dynamics of Sterna hirundinacea Lesson, 1831 in Ilha dos Cardos, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Augusto Alves Fracasso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we intend to describe the reproductive dynamics of Sterna hirundinacea in an island from South Brazil. We studied the reproductive biology of this species in its natural environment and provide data on their growth, survival, and reproductive success in Ilha dos Cardos, Santa Catarina, South Brazil. Samplings were carried out daily on the island throughout the reproductive seasons of 2003, 2005, and 2006 and the different stages of development of the chicks were characterized according to age, length of the beak, and plumage characteristics. We provide a basic equation Lm=167.91 (1-e-0.062t--0.23 to determine the approximate age of individuals using their body mass. The main cause of chick mortality on the island was natural (63.17% in 2003, 81.41% in 2005, and 79.96% in 2006, whereas predation contributed to mortality in a proportion of 38.83% in 2003, 18.59% in 2005, and 20.04% in 2006. The absence in the area of the chicks’ main predator, Kelp gull (Larus dominicanus, the large number of chicks that reached the final stages of development, and their reproductive success demonstrate that Ilha dos Cardos is an important breeding site for the species in southern Brazil.

  2. Local Black Tern (Chlidonias Niger) population trends in relation to nest platform provisioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinbergen, J.M.; Heemskerk, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    The population of Black Terns in The Netherlands strongly declined in the period from 1950 to 1980. In recent years numbers have been more stable. The supply of artificial nest platforms has successfully attracted breeding Black Terns, and 80% now breed on platforms. In this paper we describe the

  3. Annual recapture and survival rates of two non-breeding adult populations of Roseate Terns Stema dougallii captured on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and estimates of their population sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, P.; Minton, C.D.T.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Hines, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Capture-recapture data from two disparate breeding populations of Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) captured together as non-breeding individuals from 2002 to 2007 in the southern Great Barrier Reef. Australia were analyzed for both survival rate and recapture rate. The average annual survival rate for the birds from the Asian population (S. d. bangsi) (0.901) is higher than that of the other population of unknown breeding origin (0.819). There was large variability in survival in both populations among years, but the average survival rate of 0.85 is similar to estimates for the same species in North America. The Cormack-Jolly-Seber models used in program MARK to estimate survival rates also produced estimated of recapture probabilities and population sizes. These estimates of population size were 29,000 for S. D. bangsi and 8,300 for the study area and much larger than the documented numbers in the likely breeding areas, suggesting that many breeding sites are currently unknown.

  4. Endangered Roseate Tern Breeding and Staging Habitat Management and Enhancement Progress Report FY13-FY14

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goals of this project are to enhance and protect roseate tern breeding and staging habitat to increase productivity, and improve survival of fledglings and...

  5. First report and breeding record of the Chinese Crested Tern Thalasseus bernsteini on the Korean Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Kyu Song

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Crested Tern Thalasseus bernsteini is a critically endangered species (as designated by the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. This report expands the known breeding grounds of these birds eastward. An individual of the Chinese Crested Tern was first observed at an uninhabited island of Jeollanam-do in Korea on April 28, 2016. On May 9, 2016 five Chinese Crested Terns (consisting of 2 breeding pairs and a single bird were observed. Nests from the breeding pairs were found, at a distance of 0.6 m from each other; each pair was observed incubating one egg in the nest. To our knowledge, this is the easternmost record of breeding grounds for the Chinese Crested Tern.

  6. Black Tern Survey and Other Marsh Bird Monitoring Activities in Vermont 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As part of ongoing research into the status of Vermont's marsh birds, this is a report on a statewide census of the black tern nesting population that happened in...

  7. The Breeding Biology and Population Dynamics of the Black Tern in Western New York

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The black tern is currently considered a migratory non-game bird of management concern by the US Fish and Wildlife Service Off ice of Migratory Bird Management and...

  8. Migration and breeding biology of Arctic terns in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egevang, Carsten

    and back. Although the sheer distance (71,000 km on average) travelled by the birds is interesting, the study furthermore showed how the terns depend on high-productive at-sea areas during their massive migration. On the southbound migration, the birds would stop for almost a month (25 days on average......) in the central part of the North Atlantic Ocean before continuing south. Close to Equator (~10º N) a divide in the migration path way occurred: seven birds migrated along the coast of Africa, while four birds crossed the Atlantic Ocean to follow the coast of South America. The northbound migration from...... it is often mentioned in the literature that the species willingly relays, this study is the first where the reproductive response of experimentally manipulated breeding pairs is monitored. We found that approximately half (53.3 %) of the affected birds would produce a replacement clutch when the eggs were...

  9. Foraging ecology of least terns and piping plovers nesting on Central Platte River sandpits and sandbars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfy, Mark H.; Anteau, Michael J.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Stucker, Jennifer H.

    2012-01-01

    Federally listed least terns (Sternula antillarum) and piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) nest on riverine sandbars on many major midcontinent river systems. On the Central Platte River, availability of sandbar habitat is limited, and both species nest on excavated sandpits in the river's floodplain. However, the extent to which sandpit-nesting birds use riverine habitats for foraging is unknown. We evaluated use of foraging habitats by least terns and piping plovers by collecting data on movements, behavior, foraging habitat, and productivity. We radiomarked 16 piping plovers and 23 least terns in 2009-2010 and monitored their movements using a network of fixed telemetry dataloggers. Piping plovers were detected primarily by the datalogger located in their nesting sandpit, whereas least terns were more frequently detected on dataloggers outside of the nesting sandpit. Telemetry data and behavioral observations showed that least terns tended to concentrate at the Kearney Canal Diversion Gates, where forage fish were apparently readily available. Fish sampling data suggested that forage fish were more abundant in riverine than in sandpit habitats, and behavioral observations showed that least terns foraged more frequently in riverine than in sandpit habitats. Piping plovers tended to forage in wet substrates along sandpit shorelines, but also used dry substrates and sandpit interior habitats. The greater mobility of least terns makes a wider range of potential foraging habitats available during brood rearing, making them able to exploit concentrations of fish outside the nesting colony. Thus, our data suggest that different spatial scales should be considered in managing nesting and foraging habitat complexes for piping plovers and least terns.

  10. Selection of nest-site habitat by interior least terns in relation to sandbar construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfy, Mark H.; Stucker, Jennifer H.; Buhl, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    Federally endangered interior least terns (Sternula antillarum) nest on bare or sparsely vegetated sandbars on midcontinent river systems. Loss of nesting habitat has been implicated as a cause of population declines, and managing these habitats is a major initiative in population recovery. One such initiative involves construction of mid-channel sandbars on the Missouri River, where natural sandbar habitat has declined in quantity and quality since the late 1990s. We evaluated nest-site habitat selection by least terns on constructed and natural sandbars by comparing vegetation, substrate, and debris variables at nest sites (n = 798) and random points (n = 1,113) in bare or sparsely vegetated habitats. Our logistic regression models revealed that a broader suite of habitat features was important in nest-site selection on constructed than on natural sandbars. Odds ratios for habitat variables indicated that avoidance of habitat features was the dominant nest-site selection process on both sandbar types, with nesting terns being attracted to nest-site habitat features (gravel and debris) and avoiding vegetation only on constructed sandbars, and avoiding silt and leaf litter on both sandbar types. Despite the seemingly uniform nature of these habitats, our results suggest that a complex suite of habitat features influences nest-site choice by least terns. However, nest-site selection in this social, colonially nesting species may be influenced by other factors, including spatial arrangement of bare sand habitat, proximity to other least terns, and prior habitat occupancy by piping plovers (Charadrius melodus). We found that nest-site selection was sensitive to subtle variation in habitat features, suggesting that rigor in maintaining habitat condition will be necessary in managing sandbars for the benefit of least terns. Further, management strategies that reduce habitat features that are avoided by least terns may be the most beneficial to nesting least terns.

  11. Accuracy of the Missouri River Least Tern and Piping Plover Monitoring Program: considerations for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Terry L.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Anteau, Michael J.; Stucker, Jennifer H.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Roche, Erin A.; Wiltermuth, Mark T.; Buhl, Thomas K.; Dovichin, Colin M.

    2013-01-01

    The upper Missouri River system provides nesting and foraging habitat for federally endangered least terns (Sternula antillarum; hereafter “terns”) and threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus; hereafter “plovers”). These species are the subject of substantial management interest on the Missouri River for several reasons. First, ecosystem recovery is a goal for management agencies that seek to maintain or restore natural functions and native biological communities for the Missouri River system. Terns and plovers are recognized as important ecosystem components that are linked with the river’s ecological functions. Second, although both species breed beyond the Missouri River system, the Missouri River is one of the principal breeding areas in the Northern Great Plains; thus, the river system is a focal area for recovery actions targeted at regional population goals. Third, a Biological Opinion for Missouri River operations established annual productivity goals for terns and plovers, and the recovery plan for each species established annual population goals. Meeting these goals is a key motivation in management decision making and implementation with regard to both species. A myriad of conservation and management interests necessitate understanding numbers, distribution, and productivity of terns and plovers on the Missouri River system. To this end, a Tern and Plover Monitoring Program (TPMP) was implemented by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (hereafter “Corps”) in 1986, and has since provided annual estimates of tern and plover numbers and productivity for five Missouri River reservoirs and four river reaches (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1993). The TPMP has served as the primary source of information about the status of terns and plovers on the Missouri River, and TPMP data have been used for a wide variety of purposes. In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) was tasked by the Corps to

  12. Reprodução de Sterna hirundinacea Lesson e S. eurygnatha Saunders (Aves, Laridae, no litoral de Santa Catarina, Brasil Reproduction of Sterna hirundinacea Lesson and S. eurygnatha Saunders, along Santa Catarina coast, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Olinto Branco

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available On the Brazilian coast, those species nest sympatrically, from the islands of Espírito Santo State to Santa Catarina State. From 1999 to 2002 a sampling program was implanted with the objectives of studying the breeding of S. hirundinacea and S. eurygnatha along Santa Catarina coast. The size of colonies in number of couples, reproduction strategy, length, width, weight and the volume of the eggs, as well as bill length and weight of the nestlings were determined. S. hirundinacea youth weight/length relationship was estimated and the reproductive success of the terns colonies was also determined.

  13. Diversity and abundance of water birds in a subarctic lake during three decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Klemetsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The numbers of divers, ducks, gulls, terns and waders in the 15 km2 oligotrophic lake Takvatn, North Norway were estimated six times during 1983-2012. Systematic mapping surveys were done by boat within the first week after ice-break in June. Twenty-one species were observed over the years and 12 were regarded as breeding on the lake. Red-breasted merganser Mergus serrator was the dominant diving bird, with estimated minimum number of pairs varying from 15 to 39 among years. Black-throated diver Gavia arctica (1-3 pairs, tufted duck Aythya fuligula (2-15 pairs and common scoter Melanitta nigra (1-5 pairs bred regularly, while velvet scoter Melanitta fusca (1-2 and goldeneye Bucephala clangula (2-4 were found in some years and mallard Anas platyrhynchos (1 pair and wigeon Anas penelope (1 pair in one year. Common gull Larus canus (6-30 pairs and arctic tern Sterna paradisaea (2-35 pairs bred in all years. Common sandpiper Tringa hypoleucos (3-9 pairs and redshank Tringa totanus (1-4 pairs were regular waders. Density variations of mergansers, gulls and terns are possibly related to density variations of three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus, their dominant fish prey. The water birds are important links in the food web of the lake.

  14. Temporal variability of marine debris deposition at Tern Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustin, Alyssa E; Merrifield, Mark A; Potemra, James T; Morishige, Carey

    2015-12-15

    A twenty-two year record of marine debris collected on Tern Island is used to characterize the temporal variability of debris deposition at a coral atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Debris deposition tends to be episodic, without a significant relationship to local forcing processes associated with winds, sea level, waves, and proximity to the Subtropical Convergence Zone. The General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment is used to estimate likely debris pathways for Tern Island. The majority of modeled arrivals come from the northeast following prevailing trade winds and surface currents, with trajectories indicating the importance of the convergence zone, or garbage patch, in the North Pacific High region. Although debris deposition does not generally exhibit a significant seasonal cycle, some debris types contain considerable 3 cycle/yr variability that is coherent with wind and surface pressure over a broad region north of Tern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Attendance of scavenging seabirds at trawler discards off Galicia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Valeiras

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of scavenger seabirds at fishing trawlers was studied off Galicia, Spain. A total of 9,368 seabirds of 23 species were recorded during 92 fishing operations in 1998 and 1999. The most common species were the yellow-legged and lesser black-backed gull (Larus cachinnans and L. fuscus, Sabine´s gull (L. sabini, the northern gannet (Morus bassanus, the great shearwater (Puffinus gravis, sooty shearwater (P. griseus, the Manx and Balearic shearwater (P. puffinus and P. mauretanicus, the great skua (Catharacta skua and terns (mainly Sterna hirundo and S. paradisaea. Other species occurred in small numbers: Leach´s petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa, the storm petrel (Hydrobates pelagicus, the little shearwater (Puffinus assimilis, Cory´s shearwater (Calonectris diomedea, the parasitic skua (Stercorarius parasiticus, the pomarine skua (S. pomarinus, the black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus, the glaucous gull (L. hyperboreus, the kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla, the sandwich tern (Sterna sandvicensis, the black tern (Chlidonias niger, the guillemot (Uria aalge and the little auk (Alle alle. The maximum number of seabirds recorded at a haul was 320. The maximum number of a particular species ranged from 120 great shearwaters to 250 yellow-legged/lesser black-backed gulls during a single haul. The differences in ship-follower species abundance are related to migratory movements but fisheries could also have a strong influence at a smaller scale on the distribution of seabirds off Galicia. The degree to which seabirds rely on fishery discards as food was not quantified, but may be important for several species.

  16. Black Terns Chlidonias niger and their dietary problems in Dutch wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beintema, Albert J.; van der Winden, Jan; Baarspul, Teun; de Krijger, Jan Pieter; van Oers, Kees; Keller, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Black Terns Chlidonias niger have shown a decrease of well over 90% as a breeding bird in The Netherlands during the twentieth century. Two hypotheses have been put forward for this decline: the disappearance of the floating plant Water Soldier Stratiotes aloides, which used to be the favourite

  17. Idiosyncratic migrations of Black Terns (Chlidonias niger) : Diversity in routes and stopovers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Winden, Jan; Fijn, Ruben C.; van Horssen, Peter W.; Gerritsen-Davidse, Debby; Piersma, Theunis

    By 2013, six of 27 Black Terns (Chlidonias niger) from four Dutch colonies that had received light level geolocators in 2010-2011 had been recaptured. All six recovered individuals migrated to West Africa, but whereas one individual flew there nonstop, the others made stops of varying length en

  18. [Von den Restgütern zu den Sowchosen in Estland 1939-1953. Dokumentensammlung] / Olev Liivik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liivik, Olev, 1975-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Von den Restgütern zu den Sowchosen in Estland 1939-1953 : Dokumentensammlung / Hrsg. von David Feest, Karsten Brüggemann. Berlin : Lit Verlag, 2010. (Schriften der Baltischen historischen Kommission ; Bd. 15)

  19. Concentrations of elements in eggs of least terns and piping plovers from the Missouri River, North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Selenium concentrations were slightly elevated in unsuccessful eggs of interior least terns and piping plovers from nesting areas along the Missouri River in North...

  20. Metal and organic residues in addled eggs of least terns and piping plovers in the Platte Valley of Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The concentration of most residues detected in eggs of least terns and piping plovers nesting in the Platte River valley are not a cause for alarm. However, selenium...

  1. Risk assessment of bioaccumulation in the food webs of two marine AMOEBE species: common tern and harbor seal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed RH; Mensink BJWG; Vethaak AD; Luttik R; ACT; RIKZ

    1995-01-01

    Een model is ontwikkeld voor de berekening van Maximaal Toelaatbare Risiconiveau's (MTR's) in water voor stoffen die accumuleren in voedselketens van zeevogels en zeezoogdieren. Berekeningen zijn uitgevoerd voor twee zoutwater AMOEBE soorten: visdief (Sterna hirundo) en zeehond (Phoca

  2. Top-down and bottom-up interactions influence fledging success at North America’s largest colony of Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collar, Stefanie; Roby, Daniel D.; Lyons, Donald E.

    2017-01-01

    Our study investigated the influence of bottom-up and top-down drivers on the declining fledging success at a once thriving breeding colony of Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia). Situated at the mouth of the Columbia River, OR, East Sand Island (ESI) is home to the largest Caspian tern breeding colony in North America. Since 2001, the decline in fledging success of Caspian terns at ESI has been associated with a significant increase in average river discharge during May and June. During the years 2001–2011, the abundance of forage fish available to terns in the estuary was inversely related to river discharge. This relationship also apparently affected the reliance of nest predators on the tern colony as a food source, resulting in increased disturbance and decreased fledging success at the tern colony in years of higher river discharge. There was a significant longitudinal increase in disturbance rates by bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) during June for terns nesting at the ESI colony, and eagle disturbance rates were positively associated with May river discharge. We also found a significant increase in kleptoparasitism rates of terns by hybrid glaucous-winged/western gulls (Larus glaucescens x Larus occidentalis) since 2001, and Caspian tern fledging success at ESI decreased with increasing average annual rates of gull kleptoparasitism. Our results support the hypothesis that the decline in Caspian tern fledging success at this large estuarine colony was primarily driven by the interaction of bottom-up and top-down factors, influencing tern fledging success through the food supply and triggering potential predators to identify the tern breeding colony as an alternative source of prey.

  3. Sooty tern (Onychoprion fuscatus) survival, oil spills, shrimp fisheries, and hurricanes

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ryan M.; Bass Jr, Oron L.; Pimm, Stuart L.

    2017-01-01

    Migratory seabirds face threats from climate change and a variety of anthropogenic disturbances. Although most seabird research has focused on the ecology of individuals at the colony, technological advances now allow researchers to track seabird movements at sea and during migration. We combined telemetry data on Onychoprion fuscatus (sooty terns) with a long-term capture-mark-recapture dataset from the Dry Tortugas National Park to map the movements at sea for this species, calculate estima...

  4. Objectives, priorities, reliable knowledge, and science-based management of Missouri River interior least terns and piping plovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfy, Mark; Anteau, Michael J.; Shaffer, Terry; Sovada, Marsha; Stucker, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Supporting recovery of federally listed interior least tern (Sternula antillarum athalassos; tern) and piping plover (Charadrius melodus; plover) populations is a desirable goal in management of the Missouri River ecosystem. Many tools are implemented in support of this goal, including habitat management, annual monitoring, directed research, and threat mitigation. Similarly, many types of data can be used to make management decisions, evaluate system responses, and prioritize research and monitoring. The ecological importance of Missouri River recovery and the conservation status of terns and plovers place a premium on efficient and effective resource use. Efficiency is improved when a single data source informs multiple high-priority decisions, whereas effectiveness is improved when decisions are informed by reliable knowledge. Seldom will a single study design be optimal for addressing all data needs, making prioritization of needs essential. Data collection motivated by well-articulated objectives and priorities has many advantages over studies in which questions and priorities are determined retrospectively. Research and monitoring for terns and plovers have generated a wealth of data that can be interpreted in a variety of ways. The validity and strength of conclusions from analyses of these data is dependent on compatibility between the study design and the question being asked. We consider issues related to collection and interpretation of biological data, and discuss their utility for enhancing the role of science in management of Missouri River terns and plovers. A team of USGS scientists at Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center has been conducting tern and plover research on the Missouri River since 2005. The team has had many discussions about the importance of setting objectives, identifying priorities, and obtaining reliable information to answer pertinent questions about tern and plover management on this river system. The objectives of this

  5. Mercury concentrations in seabird tissues from Machias Seal Island, New Brunswick, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Alexander L., E-mail: abond@mun.ca [Atlantic Cooperative Wildlife Ecology Research Network, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada); Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada); Diamond, Antony W. [Atlantic Cooperative Wildlife Ecology Research Network, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada); Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Mercury is a pervasive environmental contaminant, the anthropogenic portion of which is increasing globally, and in northeastern North America in particular. Seabirds frequently are used as indicators of the marine environment, including mercury contamination. We analysed paired samples for total mercury (Hg) concentrations in feathers and blood from adult and chick, albumen, and lipid-free yolk of seven seabirds breeding on Machias Seal Island, New Brunswick, Canada - Arctic Tern (Sterna paradisaea), Atlantic Puffin (Fratercula arctica), Common Eider (Somateria mollissima), Common Murre (Uria aalge), Common Tern (Sterna hirundo), Leach's Storm-petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa), and Razorbill (Alca torda). We also used stable-isotope ratios of carbon ({delta}{sup 13}C), and nitrogen ({delta}{sup 15}N) to evaluate the relationship between carbon source and trophic position and mercury. We found high Hg concentrations across tissue types in Leach's Storm-petrels, and Razorbills, with lower concentrations in other species, the lowest being in Common Eiders. Storm-petrels prey on mesopelagic fish that accumulate mercury, and Razorbills feed on larger, older fish that bioaccumulate heavy metals. Biomagnification of Hg, or the increase in Hg concentration with trophic position as measured by {delta}{sup 15}N, was significant and greater in albumen than other tissues, whereas in other tissues, {delta}{sup 15}N explained little of the overall variation in Hg concentration. Hg concentrations in egg components are higher on Machias Seal Island than other sites globally and in the Gulf of Maine region, but only for some species. Further detailed investigations are required to determine the cause of this trend.

  6. Mass mortality attributed to acanthocephaliasis at a Gull-billed Tern (Gelochelidon nilotica) colony in coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Robert T.; Goodenough, Katharine S.; De La Cruz, Susan; Nevins, HannahRose M.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Bodenstein, Barbara; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Collins, Brian; Beck, Jessie; Sadowski, Matthew; Takekawa, John Y.

    2017-01-01

    From 12 May 2013 to 29 May 2013, the Gull-billed Tern (Gelochelidon nilotica) colony at the San Diego Bay National Wildlife Refuge, California, experienced a mass die-off of at least 92 adults, representing 71–92% of the breeding population on the US west coast. Cause of death was determined to be peritonitis due to perforations of the intestine by a large quantity of acanthocephala (Profilicolis [=Polymorphus] altmani). This is a unique report of P. altmani infecting G. nilotica, and a report of a great impact to a tern population in southern California. Mole crabs (Emerita analoga), the intermediate host for P. altmani and a major component of the Gull-billed Tern diet in San Diego, were found in the stomachs of necropsied terns along with cystacanths, and are the presumed source of the parasite infection. The tern's dietary reliance upon mole crabs likely amplified parasite transmission and infection. We suggest additional research to determine factors that influence parasite infection of intermediate and definitive hosts, particularly mole crabs, given that they are a vital resource for migrating birds within the coastal zone.

  7. Water level dynamics in wetlands and nesting success of Black Terns in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, A.T.; Servello, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Black Tern (Chlidonias niger) nests in freshwater wetlands that are prone to water level fluctuations, and nest losses to flooding are common. We examined temporal patterns in water levels at six sites with Black Tern colonies in Maine and determined probabilities of flood events and associated nest loss at Douglas Pond, the location of the largest breeding colony. Daily precipitation data from weather stations and water flow data from a flow gauge below Douglas Pond were obtained for 1960-1999. Information on nest losses from three floods at Douglas Pond in 1997-1999 were used to characterize small (6% nest loss), medium (56% nest loss) and large (94% nest loss) flood events, and we calculated probabilities of these three levels of flooding occurring at Douglas Pond using historic water levels data. Water levels generally decreased gradually during the nesting season at colony sites, except at Douglas Pond where water levels fluctuated substantially in response to rain events. Annual probabilities of small, medium, and large flood events were 68%, 35%, and 13% for nests initiated during 23 May-12 July, with similar probabilities for early (23 May-12 June) and late (13 June-12 July) periods. An index of potential nest loss indicated that medium floods at Douglas Pond had the greatest potential effect on nest success because they occurred relatively frequently and inundated large proportions of nests. Nest losses at other colonies were estimated to be approximately 30% of those at Douglas Pond. Nest losses to flooding appear to be common for the Black Tern in Maine and related to spring precipitation patterns, but ultimate effects on breeding productivity are uncertain.

  8. Anatomical variations of the sternal angle and anomalies of adult human sterna from the Galloway osteological collection at Makerere University Anatomy Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirum, Gonzaga Gonza; Munabi, Ian; Kukiriza, John; Tumusiime, Gerald; Kange, Mesach; Ibingira, Charles; Buwembo, William

    2017-03-29

    Anatomical variations of the sternal angle and anomalies of the sternum are unique happenings of major clinical significance.It is known that misplaced sternal angles may lead to inaccurate counting of ribs and create challenges with intercostal nerve blocks and needle thoracostomies. Sternal foramina may pose a great hazard during sternal puncture, due to inadvertent cardiac or great vessel injury. These sternal variations and anomalies are rarely reported among Africans. The aim of this study was to determine the anatomical variations of the sternal angle and anomalies of the sternum among adult dry human sterna at the Galloway osteological collection, Makerere University, Uganda. This was a descriptive cross sectional study in which quantitative and qualitative data were collected. The study examined 85 adult human sterna at the Department of Anatomy, Makerere University. Univariate and bivariate analyses were done using SPSS 21.0 for windows. Over 40% (36/85) of the specimens had variations in size, location and fusion of the sternal angle. There was no significant difference in the mean size of the sternal angle in males at 163.40 (SD 6.7) compared with 165.00 (SD 6.4) in females (p=0.481). Of the 85 specimens examined, only 21 (24.7%) had a xiphoid process. The most frequent sternal anomalies were bifid xiphoid process 42.9% (9/21) and sternal foramen 12.9% (11/85). Sternal variations and anomalies are prevalent in the Galloway osteological collection and there is need for increased awareness of these findings as they may determine the accuracy of clinical and other procedures in the thoracic region.

  9. Sooty tern (Onychoprion fuscatus survival, oil spills, shrimp fisheries, and hurricanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M. Huang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Migratory seabirds face threats from climate change and a variety of anthropogenic disturbances. Although most seabird research has focused on the ecology of individuals at the colony, technological advances now allow researchers to track seabird movements at sea and during migration. We combined telemetry data on Onychoprion fuscatus (sooty terns with a long-term capture-mark-recapture dataset from the Dry Tortugas National Park to map the movements at sea for this species, calculate estimates of mortality, and investigate the impact of hurricanes on a migratory seabird. Included in the latter analysis is information on the locations of recovered bands from deceased individuals wrecked by tropical storms. We present the first known map of sooty tern migration in the Atlantic Ocean. Our results indicate that the birds had minor overlaps with areas affected by the major 2010 oil spill and a major shrimp fishery. Indices of hurricane strength and occurrence are positively correlated with annual mortality and indices of numbers of wrecked birds. As climate change may lead to an increase in severity and frequency of major hurricanes, this may pose a long-term problem for this colony.

  10. Sooty tern (Onychoprion fuscatus) survival, oil spills, shrimp fisheries, and hurricanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ryan M; Bass, Oron L; Pimm, Stuart L

    2017-01-01

    Migratory seabirds face threats from climate change and a variety of anthropogenic disturbances. Although most seabird research has focused on the ecology of individuals at the colony, technological advances now allow researchers to track seabird movements at sea and during migration. We combined telemetry data on Onychoprion fuscatus (sooty terns) with a long-term capture-mark-recapture dataset from the Dry Tortugas National Park to map the movements at sea for this species, calculate estimates of mortality, and investigate the impact of hurricanes on a migratory seabird. Included in the latter analysis is information on the locations of recovered bands from deceased individuals wrecked by tropical storms. We present the first known map of sooty tern migration in the Atlantic Ocean. Our results indicate that the birds had minor overlaps with areas affected by the major 2010 oil spill and a major shrimp fishery. Indices of hurricane strength and occurrence are positively correlated with annual mortality and indices of numbers of wrecked birds. As climate change may lead to an increase in severity and frequency of major hurricanes, this may pose a long-term problem for this colony.

  11. Breeding biology and relation of pollutants to black skimmers and gull-billed terns in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, Lawrence J.; Stafford, Charles J.

    1980-01-01

    The breeding biology and relation of pollutants to black skimmers (Ryn chops niger) and gull-billed terns (Gelochelidon nilotica) were investigated in South Carolina from 1969 through 1975. With few exceptions, the two species nested together in colonies located on barrier islands. We located 10 colonies, 7 of which were on the Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge (Cape Romain); references were located that described nesting on seven other islands in South Carolina that no longer support colonies. Gull-billed terns nested from early May through July; the skimmers started later (late May) but also continued later (early September). Both species nested in areas subject to tidal flooding, and the two species persisted in nesting in several colonies despite intense predation by rats and gulls. Estimated reproductive success varied greatly from year to year and colony to colony; success in most colonies seemed low, particularly for the gull-billed tern. Residues of organochlorine pollutants in several eggs seemed of sufficient magnitude to induce adverse effects on reproductivity and eggshell thickness: however, the overall effect of organochlorines appeared negligible. Maximum numbers of nests located in a single year were 790 for the skimmer and 340 for the gull-billed tern: the total breeding population in South Carolina is unknown. Although nesting islands at Cape Romain and Deveaux Bank are sanctuaries for nesting birds, both species will continue to lose nesting habitat as additional sea islands are developed and inhabited by man.

  12. The Migration Matrix: Marine Vertebrate Movements in Magnetic Coordinate Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, T. W.; Holdaway, R. N.; Clapham, P. J.; Zerbini, A. N.; Andriolo, A.; Hays, G. C.; Egevang, C.; Domeier, M. L.; Lucas, N.

    2011-12-01

    Determining how vertebrates navigate during their long-distance migrations remains one of the most enduring and fundamental challenges of behavioral ecology. It is widely accepted that spatial orientation relative to a reference datum is a fundamental requirement of long-distance return migration between seasonal habitats, and a variety of viable positional and directional orientation cues, including the sun, stars, and magnetic field, have been documented experimentally. However, a fundamental question remains unanswered: Are empirically observed migratory movements compatible with modern theoretical frameworks of spatial orientation? To address this question, we analysed leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea), humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), and great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) track maps, frequency distribution diagrams and time-series plots of animal locations in spherical magnetic coordinate space. Our analyses indicates that, although individual migration tracks are spatially and temporally distinct, vertebrate movements are non-randomly distributed in all three spherical magnetic coordinates (i.e. intensity, inclination, and declination). Stop-over locations, migratory destinations, and re-orientation points occur at similar magnetic coordinate locations, relative to tagging areas, in all four species, suggesting that a common system of magnetic orientation likely informs the navigational behaviors of these phylogenetically diverse taxa. Although our analyses demonstrate that the experiment-derived 'magnetic map' goal orientation theoretical framework of animal navigation is compatible with remotely-sensed migration track data, they also indicate that magnetic information is complemented by spatially and temporally contingent celestial stimuli during navigation.

  13. Small high-definition video cameras as a tool to resight uniquely marked Interior Least Terns (Sternula antillarum athalassos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, Dustin L.; Roche, Erin; Dovichin, Colin M.

    2017-01-01

    Many bird species of conservation concern have behavioral or morphological traits that make it difficult for researchers to determine if the birds have been uniquely marked. Those traits can also increase the difficulty for researchers to decipher those markers. As a result, it is a priority for field biologists to develop time- and cost-efficient methods to resight uniquely marked individuals, especially when efforts are spread across multiple States and study areas. The Interior Least Tern (Sternula antillarum athalassos) is one such difficult-to-resight species; its tendency to mob perceived threats, such as observing researchers, makes resighting marked individuals difficult without physical recapture. During 2015, uniquely marked adult Interior Least Terns were resighted and identified by small, inexpensive, high-definition portable video cameras deployed for 29-min periods adjacent to nests. Interior Least Tern individuals were uniquely identified 84% (n = 277) of the time. This method also provided the ability to link individually marked adults to a specific nest, which can aid in generational studies and understanding heritability for difficult-to-resight species. Mark-recapture studies on such species may be prone to sparse encounter data that can result in imprecise or biased demographic estimates and ultimately flawed inferences. High-definition video cameras may prove to be a robust method for generating reliable demographic estimates.

  14. Juvenile survival in a tropical population of roseate terns: Interannual variation and effect of tick parasitism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticelli, David; Ramos, Jaime A.; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.; Spendelow, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Many demographic studies on long-lived seabirds have focused on the estimation of adult survival, but much less is known about survival during the early years of life, especially in tropical species. We report analyses of a capture–recapture dataset of 685 roseate terns ringed as fledglings and adults between 1998 and 2005 on Aride Island, Seychelles, and recaptured/resighted at the same colony site over a 5 yr (2002 to 2006) period. A multistate model was used to estimate survival for different age classes, including juvenile (first-year) birds returning as non-breeding prospectors. The effect of infestation by parasites (ticks) on survival was also examined. Overall, the estimated return of first-year individuals to the natal colony was very variable, ranging from 2 to 22%. Conditioned on survival, the probability of returning from Age 2 yr onwards increased to 70%. Survival rates were best modeled as time-specific, with estimates varying from 0.02 to 1.00 (mean 0.69) in first-year birds with a marked negative effect of tick infestation. In older birds (minimum age of 2 yr), the annual estimates fell between 0.69 and 0.86 (mean 0.77). Using a components of variance approach for estimation of year-to-year variation, we found high temporal variability for first-year individuals (coefficient of variation [CV] = 65%) compared to much less variation in the survival rate of older birds (CV = 9%). These findings agree with the life-history prediction that demographic rates of juveniles are usually lower and more variable than those of older individuals. Our results are also consistent with the predicted negative effect of tick parasitism on juvenile survival. Compared with data from other roseate tern populations, survival over the first 2 yr (Age 0 to 2 yr) was 18 to 40% higher in this study, suggesting that a high ‘young’ survival rate may be an important demographic trait in this tropical population to compensate for the low annual reproductive success. Our

  15. An analysis of the response of Sooty Tern eggs to sonic boom overpressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Carina; Garrelick, Joel; Bowles, Ann

    2002-01-01

    It has been proposed that sonic booms caused a mass hatching failure of Sooty Terns in the Dry Tortugas in Florida by cracking the eggshells. This paper investigates this possibility analytically, complementing previous empirical studies. The sonic boom is represented as a plane-wave excitation with an N-wave time signature. Two models for the egg are employed. The first model, intended to provide insight, consists of a spherical shell, with the embryo represented as a rigid, concentric sphere and the albumen as an acoustic fluid filling the intervening volume. The substrate is modeled as a doubling of the incident pressure. The second, numerical model includes the egg-shape geometry and air sac. More importantly, the substrate is modeled as a rigid boundary of infinite extent with acoustic diffraction included. The peak shell stress, embryo acceleration, and reactive force are predicted as a function of the peak sonic boom overpressure and compared with damage criteria from the literature. The predicted peak sonic boom overpressure necessary for egg damage is much higher than documented sonic boom overpressures, even for extraordinary operational conditions. Therefore, as with previous empirical studies, it is concluded that it is unlikely that sonic boom overpressures damage avian eggs.

  16. Consequences of least tern (Sternula antillarum) microhabitat nest-site selection on natural and mechanically constructed sandbars in the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucker, Jennifer H.; Buhl, Deborah A.; Sherfy, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Nest-habitat selection in colonial species has rarely been assessed at multiple spatial scales to evaluate its fitness consequences. Management for the federally endangered U.S. Interior population of Least Terns (Sternula antillarum) has focused on maintenance of breeding habitats, including mechanical construction of sandbars from dredged material. Least Terns are attracted to large areas of unvegetated substrate, yet small-scale habitat features are thought to trigger selection for nesting. We evaluated nest-scale habitat selection to determine (1) whether selection differs between constructed and natural sandbars and (2) the subsequent consequences of habitat selection on nest success. During 2006–2008, we examined 869 Least Tern nest sites on constructed and natural sandbars in the Missouri River for evidence of microhabitat selection at the nest in relation to habitat within the surrounding 3-m area. Least Tern nest sites had coarser and larger substrate materials at the nest, more debris, and less vegetation than the surrounding area. Nests in constructed habitats had a greater percentage of coarse substrates and less vegetation or debris than nests in naturally created habitats. Apparent nest success was 1.8× greater on constructed than on natural sandbars. Nest success was best predicted by models with two spatial scales of predictors, including substrates (nest) and vegetation and debris (nest or surrounding area). Our results indicate that Least Terns select nest microhabitat characteristics that are associated with wind- and water-scoured habitats, and that nest success increases when these habitats are selected.

  17. Reproductive ecology of interior least tern and piping plover in relation to Platte River hydrology and sandbar dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Jason M; Baasch, David M; Smith, Chadwin B; Werbylo, Kevin L

    2017-05-01

    Investigations of breeding ecology of interior least tern ( Sternula antillarum athalassos ) and piping plover ( Charadrius melodus ) in the Platte River basin in Nebraska, USA, have embraced the idea that these species are physiologically adapted to begin nesting concurrent with the cessation of spring floods. Low use and productivity on contemporary Platte River sandbars have been attributed to anthropomorphically driven changes in basin hydrology and channel morphology or to unusually late annual runoff events. We examined distributions of least tern and piping plover nest initiation dates in relation to the hydrology of the historical central Platte River (CPR) and contemporary CPR and lower Platte River (LPR). We also developed an emergent sandbar habitat model to evaluate the potential for reproductive success given observed hydrology, stage-discharge relationships, and sandbar height distributions. We found the timing of the late-spring rise to be spatially and temporally consistent, typically occurring in mid-June. However, piping plover nest initiation peaks in May and least tern nest initiation peaks in early June; both of which occur before the late spring rise. In neither case does there appear to be an adaptation to begin nesting concurrent with the cessation of spring floods. As a consequence, there are many years when no successful reproduction is possible because emergent sandbar habitat is inundated after most nests have been initiated, and there is little potential for successful renesting. The frequency of nest inundation, in turn, severely limits the potential for maintenance of stable species subpopulations on Platte River sandbars. Why then did these species expand into and persist in a basin where the hydrology is not ideally suited to their reproductive ecology? We hypothesize the availability and use of alternative off-channel nesting habitats, like sandpits, may allow for the maintenance of stable species subpopulations in the Platte River

  18. Heavy metal residues in Sooty Tern tissues from the Gulf of Mexico and north central Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoneburner, D.L.; Harrison, C.S.

    1981-05-01

    The comparison of mean cadmium, mercury, and selenium concentrations in the eggs, feathers, and body tissues of breeding sooty tern from Dry Tortugas, Fla., and Lisianski Island, Ha., supports the hypothesis that a physiological mechanism exists that functions in the detoxification of heavy metals. The data, collected from two geographically isolated populations of the pelagic bird, indicate that the mechanism responds in a uniform manner to widely different environmental levels of heavy metals. The mechanism may have evolved in response to natural fluxes of metal concentrations in the marine ecosystem and not in response to recent injections of metal-laden industrial wastes.

  19. Nutritional stress affects corticosterone deposition in feathers of Caspian tern chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Allison G. L.; Kitaysky, Alexander S.; Lyons, Donald E.; Roby, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    Stressful environmental conditions affect the adrenocortical function of developing animals, which can have consequences for their fitness. Discovery of the avian stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) in feathers has the potential to broaden the application of endocrine research in ecological and evolutionary studies of wild birds by providing a long-term measure of CORT secretion. Mechanisms of CORT deposition in feathers are not well known and few studies have related feather CORT to circulating plasma CORT during feather growth. Our objective was to experimentally test the validity of using feather CORT as a measure of CORT secretion in developing birds experiencing nutritional stress. Caspian tern Hydroprogne caspia chicks were fed ad libitum or restricted (35% less than ad libitum) diets for four weeks. We measured CORT in feathers from these chicks to examine the relationship between feather CORT concentrations and nutritional limitation, circulating plasma CORT, and feather development. We found that feather CORT was higher in controls fed ad libitum than in restricted individuals, despite higher levels of plasma CORT in restricted chicks compared to controls. Feather mass and growth rates were strongly and positively related to feather CORT concentrations in both treatments. This is the first experimental study to show that feather CORT concentrations can be lower in response to nutritional stress, even when plasma CORT concentrations are elevated. Our results indicate that CORT deposition in feathers may be confounded when feather mass and growth rates are compromised by nutritional stress. We conclude that feather CORT can be used for assessing nutritional stress in growing birds, but the direction of response depends on how strongly stress affects feather development.

  20. Effects of polyhalogenated hydrocarbons and related contaminants on common tern reproduction: Integration of (bio)chemical and ecological responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murk, A.J. [Agricultural Univ., Wageningen (Netherlands); Boudewijn, T.J.; Dirksen, S. [Bureau Waardenburg, Culemborg (Netherlands); Bosveld, A.T.C. [Univ. of Utrecht (Netherlands); Rossaert, G.; Ysebaert, T.; Meire, P. [Inst. for Nature Management, Hasselt (Belgium); Meininger, P.L.

    1995-12-31

    An integrated ecotoxicological study was made to establish the possible effects of polyhalogenated hydrocarbons (PHAHs) on common tern (Stema hirundo) reproduction. In eight Dutch or Belgian colonies, breeding biology and food choice were determined. In all colonies 15 second eggs from three-egg clutches were collected for artificial incubation and (bio)chemical analysis. Results from these analyses were combined with biological data from the remaining eggs of the clutches. A relationship was found between yolksac mono-ortho PCB levels and main food species (fish or insects) of the adult terns before egg-laying. Colony average breeding data differed only slightly, and were difficult to relate to PHAH levels. When the colonies were grouped after yolksac PHAH-patterns and main food species, significant differences in average egg laying date, egg laying period, incubation period, egg volume and chick weight could be related to differences in yolksac PHAH and retinoid levels, and hepatic EROD activity. The data from all colonies also were used as one dataset and correlated with the (bio)chemical parameters. In summary there were significant correlations or clear trends between yolksac PHAHs or hepatic EROD-activity and prolonged egg laying and incubation period, and smaller eggs and chicks. Lower yolksac retinoid and plasma thyroid hormone levels, and a higher ratio of plasma retinol over yolksac retinoids correlated with longer egg laying and incubation periods, and smaller chicks and eggs (only with thyroid hormone).

  1. Use of a nesting platform by Gull-billed Terns and Black Skimmers at the Salton Sea, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Kathy C.; Ricca, Mark A.; Miles, A. Keith; Schoneman, Christian

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, we constructed an elevated nesting platform at the Salton Sea, California, and monitored its use by Gull-billed Terns and Black Skimmers over three subsequent breeding seasons. Black Skimmers were the first to colonize the platform with a total of five nests in 2006. In 2007 Gull-billed Terns colonized the platform with a total of 28 nests and the number of Black Skimmer nests increased to 20. Neither species nested on the platform in 2008. Low success for both species was probably influenced by at least two factors. First, when both species nested on the platform, nest densities were higher than is typical of their colonies on larger, earthen islands, and colony success may have been reduced by overcrowding. Second, lack of access to water may have reduced chicks' ability to thermoregulate effectively in the hot environment of the Salton Sea. Refinements to the size, design, and location of artificial nesting habitats are necessary to enhance productivity of colonial groundnesting birds at the Salton Sea successfully.

  2. EFFECT OF THE BASIS THERAPY ON THE CONNECTIVE TISSUE TERN-OVER LEVEL IN CHILDREN WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Ryabova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease and it belongs to the widely spread allergies among children. The inflammation leads to the disorder in the exchange reactions within the main substance of the connective tissue. This research analyzes peculiarities of the tern-over in lisomal enzymes — α-mannosidase, β-mannosidase and sialic acids against the backdrop of different types of the basis therapy of bronchial asthma in children in the outpatient conditions. They basic group of patients was made up of 27 children, undergoing a combined basic therapy. The patients of second group (n = 43 were administered the inhalant glucocorticosteroids. The third group (n = 38 ho did not receive any basis therapy. The control group included 30 healthy children. The results of the investigations showed that the adequate basic therapy of bronchial asthma in children have a favorable effect on the connective tissue biopolymers tern over.Key words: bronchial asthma, basis therapy, inhalant glucocorticosteroids, connective tissue, α-mannosidase, β-mannosidase, sialic acids children.

  3. Human harvest, climate change and their synergistic effects drove the Chinese Crested Tern to the brink of extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuihua Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Synergistic effect refers to simultaneous actions of separate factors which have a greater total effect than the sum of the individual factor effects. However, there has been a limited knowledge on how synergistic effects occur and individual roles of different drivers are not often considered. Therefore, it becomes quite challenging to manage multiple threatening processes simultaneously in order to mitigate biodiversity loss. In this regard, our hypothesis is, if the traits actually play different roles in the synergistic interaction, conservation efforts could be made more effectively. To understand the synergistic effect and test our hypothesis, we examined the processes associated with the endangerment of critically endangered Chinese Crested Tern (Thalasseus bernsteini, whose total population number was estimated no more than 50. Through monitoring of breeding colonies and investigations into causative factors, combined with other data on human activities, we found that widespread human harvest of seabird eggs and increasing frequency of typhoons are the major factors that threatened the Chinese Crested Tern. Furthermore, 28 percent of breeding failures were due to the synergistic effects in which egg harvest-induced renestings suffered the higher frequent typhoons. In such combined interactions, the egg harvest has clearly served as a proximal factor for the population decline, and the superimposition of enhanced typhoon activity further accelerated the species toward imminent extinction. Our findings suggest that species endangerment, on one hand, should be treated as a synergistic process, while conservation efforts, on the other hand, should focus principally on combatting the threat that triggers synergistic effects.

  4. The function of female and male ornaments in the Inca Tern: evidence for links between ornament expression and both adult condition and reproductive performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velando, A.; Lessells, C.M.; Marquez, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Inca Terns Larosterna inca are medium-size seabirds that breed along the Peruvian and Chilean coast. They are monogamous and both sexes incubate and contribute to chick provisioning. The sexes are similar in appearance and have elaborate ornaments, including a long white moustache of feathers and

  5. 77 FR 59959 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ..., enhancement of survival or propagation, or interstate commerce. Our regulations regarding implementation of... Dakota; interior least tern (Sterna antillarum) and red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) within... occidentalis) Lesser long-nosed bat (Leptonycteris curasoae yerbabuenae) Loach minnow (Tiaroga cobitis...

  6. Modeling the effects of river flow on population dynamics of piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) and least terns (Sternula antillarum) nesting on the Missouri River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buenau, Kate E.; Hiller, Tim L.; Tyre, Andrew J.

    2014-10-01

    Humans make extensive use of rivers and floodplains for economic benefits including agriculture, hydropower, commerce and recreation. Economic development of floodplains subsequently requires control of river levels to avoid flood damage. This process began in the Missouri River basin in the 1890s with the construction of a series of hydropower dams in Montana and escalated to new levels with the approval of the Pick-Sloan plan in the 1944 Flood Control Act. Maximizing these human uses of the river led to changes in and losses of hydrological and ecological processes, ultimately resulting in the federal listing of three fish and wildlife species under the Endangered Species Act: the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhyncus albus; 1983), the piping plover (Charadrius melodus; 1984), and the interior population of least tern (Sternula antillarum; 1985). The listing of terns and plovers did not affect river management until the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) proposed to modify the governing document of the Missouri River Mainstem System, the Master Manual, a process which was completed in 2003. Although there was little disagreement over the habitat conditions that terns and plovers used for nesting, there was substantial disagreement over the amount of habitat necessary for terns and plovers to meet population recovery goals. Answering this question requires forecasting species-specific population responses to dynamic habitat affected by both human actions (reservoir management and habitat restoration) and natural variability in precipitation. Piping plovers and least terns nest along the Missouri River from Fort Peck, Montana to just north of Sioux City, Iowa (Figure 1). Both species prefer to nest on sand and fine gravel substrates with no or sparse vegetation cover (Prindiville Gaines and Ryan, 1988; Sherfy et al., 2012), such as riverine sandbars (emergent sandbar habitat; ESH). Piping plovers also nest on reservoir shorelines that lack vegetation cover

  7. Geolocation Reveals Year-Round at-Sea Distribution and Activity of a Superabundant Tropical Seabird, the Sooty Tern Onychoprion fuscatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Jaeger

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Migration is a fundamental aspect of the ecology and evolutionary history of many animals, driven by seasonal changes in resource availability and habitat structure. Seabird migration has been investigated extensively in highly seasonal temperate and polar environments. By contrast, the relationships between migration and seasonal environmental changes have rarely been studied in tropical marine habitats. The sooty tern Onychoprion fuscatus is the most abundant tropical seabirds, and has been ranked as the most important tropical species in terms of its annual estimated consumption of marine resources. We used global location sensing (GLS loggers to describe for the first time the year-round at-sea distribution and activity patterns of sooty terns from a large breeding colony in the western Indian Ocean (Bird Island, Seychelles. While breeding, they foraged within 1,074 ± 274 km of the colony. After breeding, birds undertook an extensive post-breeding migration throughout the Indian Ocean; average distances traveled exceeded 50,000 km per individual. Sooty terns used mainly four distinct core oceanic areas during the non-breeding period; in the Bay of Bengal (A, northeast to an area straddling the Chagos-Laccadive plateau (B, southeast to an area on each side of the 90 East Ridge (C and southwest to an area around Comoros (D. Individuals exhibited a high degree of fidelity to these core areas in successive years. We also established that they performed an unusual behavior for a non-Procellariiformes seabird; most individuals undertook a 1-month pre-laying exodus, during which they foraged in a specific area c. 2,000 km to the south-east of the colony. Year-round at-sea activity of sooty terns revealed that they spent only 3.72% of their time in contact with seawater, so indicating that they must sleep in flight. Activity parameters exhibited seasonal (breeding vs. non-breeding periods and daily variations; they notably never land on the water

  8. Adjustment of the annual cycle to climatic change in a long-lived migratory bird specie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. MØLLER

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has advanced the phenology of many organisms. Migratory animals face particular problems because climate change in the breeding and the wintering range may be asynchronous, preventing rapid response to changing conditions. Advancement in timing of spring migration may have carry-over effects to other parts of the annual cycle, simply because advancement of one event in the annual cycle also advances subsequent events, gradually causing a general shift in the timing of the entire annual cycle. Such a phenotypic shift could generate accumulating effects over the years for individuals, but also across generations. Here we test this novel hypothesis of phenotypic response to climate change by using long-term data on the Arctic tern Sterna paradisaea. Mean breeding date advanced by almost three weeks during the last 70 years. Annual arrival date at the breeding grounds during a period of 47 years was predicted by environmental conditions in the winter quarters in the Southern Ocean near the Antarctic and by mean breeding date the previous year. Annual mean breeding date was only marginally determined by timing of arrival the current year, but to a larger extent by arrival date and breeding date the previous year. Learning affected arrival date as shown by a positive correlation between arrival date in year (i + 1 relative to breeding date in year (i and the selective advantage of early breeding in year (i. This provides a mechanism for changes in arrival date being adjusted to changing environmental conditions. This study suggests that adaptation to changing climatic conditions can be achieved through learning from year to year

  9. Mercury bioaccumulation and biomagnification in a small Arctic polynya ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayden, Meredith G., E-mail: meredith.clayden@gmail.com [Canadian Rivers Institute and Biology Department, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); Arsenault, Lilianne M. [Canadian Rivers Institute and Biology Department, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada); Department of Biology, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada); Kidd, Karen A. [Canadian Rivers Institute and Biology Department, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); O' Driscoll, Nelson J. [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada); Mallory, Mark L. [Department of Biology, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Recurring polynyas are important areas of biological productivity and feeding grounds for seabirds and mammals in the Arctic marine environment. In this study, we examined food web structure (using carbon and nitrogen isotopes, δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N) and mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation and biomagnification in a small recurring polynya ecosystem near Nasaruvaalik Island (Nunavut, Canada). Methyl Hg (MeHg) concentrations increased by more than 50-fold from copepods (Calanus hyperboreus) to Arctic terns (Sterna paradisaea), the abundant predators at this site. The biomagnification of MeHg through members of the food web – using the slope of log MeHg versus δ{sup 15}N – was 0.157 from copepods (C. hyperboreus) to fish. This slope was higher (0.267) when seabird chicks were included in the analyses. Collectively, our results indicate that MeHg biomagnification is occurring in this small polynya and that its trophic transfer is at the lower end of the range of estimates from other Arctic marine ecosystems. In addition, we measured Hg concentrations in some poorly studied members of Arctic marine food webs [e.g. Arctic alligatorfish (Ulcina olrikii) and jellyfish, Medusozoa], and found that MeHg concentrations in jellyfish were lower than expected given their trophic position. Overall, these findings provide fundamental information about food web structure and mercury contamination in a small Arctic polynya, which will inform future research in such ecosystems and provide a baseline against which to assess changes over time resulting from environmental disturbance. - Highlights: • Polynyas are recurring sites of open water in polar marine areas • Mercury (Hg) biomagnification was studied in a small polynya near Nasaruvaalik Island, NU, Canada • Hg biomagnification estimates for invertebrates to fish were low compared to other Arctic systems • Factors underlying this result are unknown but may relate to primary productivity in small polynyas.

  10. Mercury bioaccumulation and biomagnification in a small Arctic polynya ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayden, Meredith G; Arsenault, Lilianne M; Kidd, Karen A; O'Driscoll, Nelson J; Mallory, Mark L

    2015-03-15

    Recurring polynyas are important areas of biological productivity and feeding grounds for seabirds and mammals in the Arctic marine environment. In this study, we examined food web structure (using carbon and nitrogen isotopes, δ(13)C and δ(15)N) and mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation and biomagnification in a small recurring polynya ecosystem near Nasaruvaalik Island (Nunavut, Canada). Methyl Hg (MeHg) concentrations increased by more than 50-fold from copepods (Calanus hyperboreus) to Arctic terns (Sterna paradisaea), the abundant predators at this site. The biomagnification of MeHg through members of the food web - using the slope of log MeHg versus δ(15)N - was 0.157 from copepods (C. hyperboreus) to fish. This slope was higher (0.267) when seabird chicks were included in the analyses. Collectively, our results indicate that MeHg biomagnification is occurring in this small polynya and that its trophic transfer is at the lower end of the range of estimates from other Arctic marine ecosystems. In addition, we measured Hg concentrations in some poorly studied members of Arctic marine food webs [e.g. Arctic alligatorfish (Ulcina olrikii) and jellyfish, Medusozoa], and found that MeHg concentrations in jellyfish were lower than expected given their trophic position. Overall, these findings provide fundamental information about food web structure and mercury contamination in a small Arctic polynya, which will inform future research in such ecosystems and provide a baseline against which to assess changes over time resulting from environmental disturbance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of organochlorine and PAHs residues in terns eggs from two natural protected areas in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallarino, Adriana; Rendon von Osten, Jaime

    2017-03-15

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are dispersed all over the world while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are released into the environment from pyrogenic and petrogenic sources and are not very mobile or persistent. The aim of this study was to identify POPs and PAHs from eggs of Least and Sooty Terns nesting in two protected marine areas with different anthropogenic impacts in the southern Gulf of Mexico. ΣHCHs were higher in Terminos in 2010 and higher in Alacranes in 2011. ΣDienes and ΣDDTs were higher in 2011 in both study sites. ΣEndosulfan was higher in Terminos than in Alacranes in both years. ΣDienes, ΣDDT and ΣHeptachlor were the highest in both species both years. Acenaphtylene and Fluoranthene were higher in Terminos while Pyrene was higher in Alacranes. No differences were present within species between years. In 2011 PAHs in eggs could have reflected the BP oil spill input. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimates of numbers of kelp gulls and Kerguelen and Antarctic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four species are regular breeders at the islands: Subantarctic skua Catharacta antarctica, kelp gull Larus dominicanus, Antarctic tern Sterna vittata and Kerguelen tern S. virgata. The latter three species currently each have populations of below 150 breeding pairs at the islands. Kelp gull numbers appear to be relatively ...

  13. Great Knot Calidris tenuirostris at Lutembe Bay, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lutembe bay is a sheltered shallow bay on the northern shores of Lake Victoria near. Entebbe International Airport with scattered mud islands often covered by water hyacinth. It has many Palaearctic migrants, particularly huge congregations of gulls and terns. Interesting species such as Caspian Tern Sterna caspia, ...

  14. Effects of the construction of Scroby Sands offshore wind farm on the prey base of Little tern Sternula albifrons at its most important UK colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrow, Martin R; Gilroy, James J; Skeate, Eleanor R; Tomlinson, Mark L

    2011-08-01

    Despite widespread interest in the impacts of wind farms upon birds, few researchers have examined the potential for indirect or trophic (predator-prey) effects. Using surface trawls, we monitored prey abundance before and after construction of a 30 turbine offshore wind farm sited close to an internationally important colony of Little terns. Observations confirmed that young-of-the-year clupeids dominated chick diet, which trawl samples suggested were mainly herring. Multivariate modelling indicated a significant reduction in herring abundance from 2004 onwards that could not be explained by environmental factors. Intensely noisy monopile installation during the winter spawning period was suggested to be responsible. Reduced prey abundance corresponded with a significant decline in Little tern foraging success. Unprecedented egg abandonment and lack of chick hatching tentatively suggested a colony-scale response in some years. We urge a precautionary approach to the timing and duration of pile-driving activity supported with long-term targeted monitoring of sensitive receptors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Deformities, PCBs, and TCDD-equivalents in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) of the Upper Great Lakes 1986–1991: Testing a cause-effect hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, James P.; Kurita-Matsuba, Hiroko; Auman, Heidi J.; Ludwig, Matthew E.; Summer, Cheryl L.; Giesy, John P.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Jones, Paul D.

    1996-01-01

    Deformities have been reported in many species of colonial waterbirds from several localities on the Laurentian Great Lakes. The hypothesis that deformities were caused by either polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or contaminants measured as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs) is tested in this review of available data on concentrations of contaminants in eggs and observed deformities in embryos and chicks of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) between 1986 and 1991. Hatched chicks, live and dead eggs retrieved from 37 colonies in the upper Great Lakes were assessed for gross anatomical deformities. Rates of embryo death from seven regions of the upper Great Lakes were measured annually between 1986–1991. Half the embryos found dead in eggs were deformed. Nineteen types of abnormalities or deformities were observed. Subcutaneous edema in cormorants and gastroschisis in terns were the most common abnormalities in live or dead eggs. One of ten crossed-billed cormorant embryos survived to hatch. No bill-deformed terns hatched, although tern embryos had a greater rate of crossed-bills than cormorants. The suite of deformities and abnormalities found was similar to that produced in chickens by exposure to planar polychlorinated biphenyl (pPCB) and dioxin congeners. Hatching and deformity rates were correlated with concentrations ofpPCBs and TCDD-EQs. Planar PCB congeners that contributed most of the TCDD-EQs were present at concentrations sufficient to cause the observed effects. TCDD-EQs measured by H4IIE rat hepatoma cell 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) bioassay were highly correlated with deformity rates observed in cormorant chicks, live and dead eggs, and egg death rates. Similar correlations of TCDD-EQs with deformity rates were found in hatched tern chicks, dead eggs, and egg death rates, but not in live eggs. TCDD-EQs were more highly correlated to deformity and embryo death rates

  16. The Lessons of the Living Dead: Marcel's Journey from Balbec to Douville-Féterne in Proust's Cities of the Plain: Part Two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Warren

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing the narrative of Marcel's journey by the "little train" from Balbec to Douville-Féterne the essay engages with the Proust criticism of Georges Poulet, Paul de Man, and Julia Kristeva to support Hayden White's claim that "it is legitimate to read Proust's narrative as an allegory of figuration itself." Like the Madeleine episode, this one serves as a point from which retrospection and prospection radiate. Central to the discussion is the description of Verdurins' dinner party guests as they stand ready to board the train on the platform at Graincourt: their vivacity, compared to a sort of extinction, suggests a chiasmus between life and death, past and present, experience and reading, and phenomenon and figuration that enriches and integrates Poulet's phenomenological glosses, de Man's rhetorical analysis, and the Kristevan approach to Proust's text. In close proximity to the Verdurins' guests, Marcel is struck chiefly by their remoteness, their pastness, their distance: the figural and phenomenal instability of space and time finally converge in Marcel himself as Proust effects a biblical joke.

  17. The Influence of Spring Flood Water Levels on the Distribution and Numbers of Terns (On the Example of the Lower Desna River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atamas’ N. S.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Пойменные водоемы нижней Десны образуют подходящие гнездовые стации для черной (Chlidonias niger и белокрылой крачки (Chlidonias leucoptera, а в русловой части на песчаных островах и косах гнездятся речная (Sterna hirundo и малая крачки (Sterna albifrons. С помощью анализа спутниковых снимков Landsat 8 установлена степень затопления поймы в условиях крайне высокого и крайне низкого половодья в 2013 и 2014 гг. В условиях высокого половодья значительно снижается количество колоний и гнездовых пар речной и малой крачек в связи с поздним обнажением из-под воды гнездовых биотопов в русловой части реки. В условиях низкого половодья площади песчаных островов и кос значительно возрастают за счет превращения многих отмелей во временные песчаные острова. Это приводит к росту численности колоний и гнездовых пар малой крачки. Черная крачка в условиях раннего схода воды и сухой поймы резко снижает свою численность, белокрылая крачка исчезает с гнездования.

  18. Life Tracks Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynildson, Inga

    Presented are descriptions of and information about various endangered species in Wisconsin. They include: the timber wolf (Canis lupus lycaon); Forester's tern (Sterna forsteri); the Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis); Higgins' eye pearly mussel (Lampsilis higginsii); the piping plover (Charadrius melodus); the osprey (Pandion haliaetus); the…

  19. The influence of early age at breeding on reproductive parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002–2006), early-age (2–5 years) Roseate Terns Sterna dougallii nested in more concealed sites than older-age (6–7 years) birds, possibly because of a relatively lower competitive ability. Fledging success and breeding productivity were ...

  20. Telomere length reflects reproductive effort indicated by corticosterone levels in a long-lived seabird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauch, Christina; Riechert, Juliane; Verhulst, Simon; Becker, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length (TL) is a candidate biomarker of ageing and phenotypic quality, but little is known of the (physiological) causes of TL variation. We previously showed that individual common terns Sterna hirundo with high reproductive success had short telomeres independent of age, and this pattern

  1. Better the devil you know

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebke, Maren; Becker, Peter H; Colchero, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    In a monogamous species two partners contribute to the breeding process. We study pair formation as well as the effect of pair bond length and age on breeding performance, incorporating individual heterogeneity, based on a high quality dataset of a long-lived seabird, the common tern (Sterna...... the partner chosen at the beginning of the breeding career....

  2. accounting for food requirements of seabirds in fisheries management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa, four of the seabirds that feed mainly on sardine Sardinops sagax and anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus have an unfavourable conservation status or a small population: African penguin Spheniscus demersus, Cape gannet Morus capensis, Cape cormorant Phalacrocorax capensis and swift tern Sterna bergii.

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 303 ... Vol 20, No 2 (2012), Food and Feeding Habits of the Guppy, Poecilia reticulata, from Drainage Canal Systems in Lagos, Southwestern Nigeria, Abstract PDF. MO Lawal, CA Edokpayi, AO Osibona. Vol 9, No 1 (2006), Food preferences of the common tern, sterna hirundo (Linnaeus, 1758) at the Densu ...

  4. Udvikling i ynglebestanden af Fjordterner i Danmark 1970-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Thomas; Jørgensen, Hans Erik

    2013-01-01

    of declines in these areas are generally unknown. However, there are indications that for some of the former key localities, declining numbers were related to increasing occurrence of red fox Vulpes vulpes. In recent years, Common Terns have bred in fairly high numbers and with high success on small islets......Summary Population development of Common Tern Sterna hirundo in Denmark, 1970-2012 The Common Tern is an Annex I species on the EU Birds Directive. It is designated as a breeding species for 30 of the Danish SPAs. Knowledge about breeding occurrence of terns has been collected mainly in projects...... and the locality and atlas projects organized by the Danish Ornithological Society. Some localities have been followed on an almost annual basis by volunteers and/or by national or regional authorities. The Ministry of Environment initiated a national monitoring programme that ensured visits to a large number...

  5. Utilização do planejamento experimental no estudo do efeito da composição de misturas de bentonitas na reologia de fluidos de perfuração. Parte II: composições ternárias Experimental design applied to the study of composition effect of bentonite on the rheology of drilling fluids. Part II: ternary compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. A. Campos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi utilizar o planejamento experimental para avaliar o efeito da composição de misturas ternárias de bentonitas na reologia de fluidos de perfuração de poços de petróleo. Por meio do planejamento foram determinadas as proporções dos componentes nas misturas ternárias das argilas e então ajustados modelos de regressão relacionando viscosidade aparente, viscosidade plástica e volume de filtrado com a proporção de cada argila. A aplicação da modelagem de misturas, incluindo composições ternárias, aliada a metodologia de superfícies de resposta e otimização matemática e gráfica permitiu delimitar uma gama de composições de argilas que favorece a melhoria das propriedades reológicas e de filtração dos fluidos estudados.The purpose of this work was to study of composition effect of ternary bentonite mixtures on the rheology of drilling fluids. Through the experimental design were defined the components proportions in the ternary clays mixtures and then adjusted regression models relating apparent and plastic viscosities and water loss, with the proportion of each clay. The application of mixture experimental design, include ternary composition, response surface methodology, graphic and mathematical optimization allowed to delimit a strip of compositions that favors the improvement of the rheological properties of the drilling fluids.

  6. Misturas binárias e ternárias de gorduras hidrogenadas e óleo de soja Binary and ternary blends of hydrogenated fats and soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilka Sumiyoshi SIMÕES

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Na formulação de produtos gordurosos, é comum a mistura de óleos e gorduras, para se alcançar as especificações do produto final. As interações que ocorrem entre os triacilgliceróis nas misturas promovem alterações nas propriedades físicas das gorduras. Comparado às técnicas tradicionais, os experimentos planejados poupam tempo e recursos, identificam pontos ótimos verdadeiros, e permitem que os efeitos das variáveis individuais ou interações entre elas sejam determinados. O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar interações que ocorrem em misturas binárias e ternárias de duas gorduras hidrogenadas (FATGILL PF38 e FATGILL PF42 e um óleo de soja, analisando suas propriedades físicas e químicas. Foram elaboradas 10 misturas, representadas por 3 amostras individuais, 3 misturas binárias e 4 misturas ternárias. As amostras foram analisadas quanto aos ácidos graxos, índices de iodo e saponificação, pontos de amolecimento e fusão, viscosidade cinemática, dureza e consistência. Aplicou-se, para algumas respostas, um modelo de regressão múltipla do tipo cúbico especial. A análise dos resultados indicou que as interações entre os três componentes não foram significativas. A dureza dependeu apenas da gordura hidrogenada FATGILL PF42. Por outro lado, a viscosidade foi dependente dos três componentes, enquanto os pontos de fusão e amolecimento foram decorrentes das gorduras hidrogenadas. Os coeficientes negativos para a propriedade de dureza demonstraram um efeito antagônico, característico das interações eutéticas entre gorduras. Estabeleceram-se, ainda, diagramas triangulares, onde foram indicadas curvas de nível. Um modelo perfeito de mistura foi evidenciado para a viscosidade e pontos de amolecimento e de fusão.In the formulation of fat products, it is an usual practice the blending of oils and fats, to meet final product specifications. Alterations in fat mixtures properties are advanced by triacylglycerols

  7. Telomere length reflects phenotypic quality and costs of reproduction in a long-lived seabird

    OpenAIRE

    Bauch, Christina; Peter H. Becker; Verhulst, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Telomere length is associated with cellular senescence, lifestyle and ageing. Short telomeres indicate poor health in humans and reduced life expectancy in several bird species, but little is known about telomeres in relation to phenotypic quality in wild animals. We investigated telomere lengths in erythrocytes of known-age common terns (Sterna hirundo), a migratory seabird, in relation to arrival date and reproductive performance. Cross-sectional data revealed that, independent of age, indi...

  8. Detailed Project Report. Liza Jackson Park. Shoreline Erosion Control at Fort Walton Beach, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    Forster ’s tern Sterna forsteri gannet Morus bassanus great blue heron Ardea herodias great egret Casmerodius albus greater scaup Aythya marila greater... Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus); however, the brown pelican is the only frequent user of the study area. - .L a~P° r , .;ther species... Atlantic Rldlt’y turtle (Lepidochelys kempii), and leather back turtle (Dermochelys cori. a) •.- 12. . . . . ." - .-., .u. .d -,-’-, " ,." a= ,/, "i ". T

  9. Supplemental Environmental Assessment to the U.S. Air Force February 1995 Environmental Assessment for the California Spaceport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    threespine stickleback and tidewater goby), an amphibian (California red-legged frog), 3 birds (American peregrine falcon, California brown pelican, and...Branchinecta lynchi T Reptiles and Amphibians California red-legged frog Rana aurora draytonii T Birds California least tern Sterna antillarum browni E...middens (refuse heaps), stone tools, village sites, stone quarries, and temporary encampments. In 2008, a close to full imprint of a Miocene

  10. Influência da relação estequiométrica resina/endurecedor em propriedades mecânicas de compósitos ternários hierárquicos resina - epóxi/tecido de fibra de carbono/nanotubos de carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kássio André Lacerda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A produção de materiais que apresentem alto desempenho em suas aplicações exige avanços tecnológicos e científicos. Os elevados valores de resistência à tração e módulo de elasticidade, aliados à flexibilidade, baixa densidade e alta razão de aspecto, fazem dos nanotubos de carbono excepcionais candidatos para reforçar compósitos poliméricos. Preparamos por laminação sistemas compósitos ternários à base de resina epóxi/tecidos de fibra de carbono (para os binários, acrescendo nanotubos de carbono para os sistemas ternários. Os parâmetros estequiométricos do sistema epoxídico (valor de Phr e concentração de nanotubos de carbono empregado nos sistemas compósitos tiveram avaliadas suas morfologias (MEV, propriedades térmicas (TG e mecânicas (ASTM D790. Embora o sistema epoxídico com Phr 10,0 tenha apresentado uma maior estabilidade térmica, os compósitos ternários produzidos a partir do sistema com Phr 26,6 mostraram valores de tensão máxima e módulo de elasticidade até 8 vezes maiores que aqueles produzidos com o sistema Phr 10. A adição de nanotubos de carbono aos compósitos com Phr 26,6 resultou em ganhos adicionais de aproximadamente 38 e 15% na tensão máxima e no módulo de elasticidade, respectivamente. Esses resultados revelaram a limitação nos métodos de integralização de nanoestruturas a sistemas compósitos, onde as dispersões estão limitadas a uma série de fatores inerentes a interação química e/ou física durante a fabricação dos compósitos nanoestruturados.

  11. Emission of particulate matter from ternary blends consisting of biodiesel, ethanol and vegetable oil: a comparison with conventional dieselEmissão de material particulado por misturas ternárias compostas de biodiesel, etanol e óleo vegetal: uma comparação com o óleo diesel convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Daniel de Melo Innocentini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to quantify the particulate matter emission from ternary blends comprehending biodiesel, ethanol and vegetable oil in a Diesel cycle engine, and an identical engine working with petrol diesel as control. To compare the fuels’ emissions, the particulate matter from the engine’s exhaust was collected, using a fiberglass circular filter paper, which was coupled by means of a steel flange at the end of the exhaust pipe. The results with ternary blends showed expressive reduction of particulate matter level exhausted by the engine, in its maximum load. We can conclude that the utilization of ternary blends, with the methods and conditions of this experiment, was efficient to reduce the emission of particulate matter contained in the exhaust gases of Diesel cycle engine.O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a emissão de material particulado de misturas ternárias compostas de biodiesel, etanol e óleo vegetal em um motor de ciclo Diesel, tendo como testemunha um motor idêntico funcionando com óleo diesel de petróleo. Para a comparação da emissão dos dois combustíveis, foi realizada a coleta de material particulado proveniente dos escapamentos dos motores com um filtro circular confeccionado de fibra de vidro, que foi acoplado com um flange de aço, no final da tubulação de escape. Os resultados obtidos com a utilização das misturas ternárias de biocombustíveis indicaram uma redução expressiva no nível de material particulado emitido pelo motor em sua carga máxima. Pode-se concluir que a utilização das misturas ternárias, nas condições e métodos de realização do experimento, foi eficiente na redução de emissão de material particulado presente nos gases de exaustão do motor de ciclo Diesel.

  12. Roseate Tern - Avian Average Annual Abundance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data represent predicted number of individuals of each listed seabird species per standardized survey segment (15 minute travel time at 10 knots = approx. 2.5...

  13. Caspian Tern Range - CWHR [ds604

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  14. Characterization and Monitoring Data for Evaluating Constructed Emergent Sandbar Habitat in the Missouri River Mainstem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duberstein, Corey A.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2008-11-06

    Emergent sandbar habitat (ESH) in the Missouri River Mainstem System is a critical habitat element for several federally listed bird species: the endangered interior least tern (Sterna antillarum) and the threatened Northern Great Plains piping plover (Charadrius melodus). The Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) provides the primary operational management of the Missouri River and is responsible under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) to take actions within its authorities to conserve listed species. To comply with the 2000 USFWS BiOp and the 2003 amended USFWS BiOp, the Corps has created habitats below Gavins Point Dam using mechanical means. Initial monitoring indicates that constructed sandbars provide suitable habitat features for nesting and foraging least terns and piping plovers. Terns and plovers are using constructed sandbars and successfully reproducing at or above levels stipulated in the BiOp. However, whether such positive impacts will persist cannot yet be adequately assessed at this time.

  15. Tern Island Orthoimagery Service, Tern Island HI, 2014, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This service displays a licensed dataset from DigitalGlobe, Inc. USDA-NRCS-National Geospatial Center of Excellence acquired this dataset from the NOAA-Pacific...

  16. Does small-scale vertical distribution of juvenile schooling fish affect prey availability to surface-feeding seabirds in the Wadden Sea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dänhardt, Andreas; Becker, Peter H.

    2011-02-01

    Food availability is a key variable influencing breeding performance and demography of marine top predators. Due to methodological problems, proportionality between fish abundance and availability is often assumed without being explicitly tested. More specifically, better breeding performance of surface-feeding seabirds at times of large prey stocks suggests that prey availability is also a function of prey abundance. Using vertically resolved stow net sampling we tested whether local abundance and length composition of pelagic fish are reliable predictors of the availability of these fish to surface-feeding Common Terns ( Sterna hirundo) breeding in the German Wadden Sea. Prey fish were found to concentrate below the maximum diving depth of the terns. Individuals caught close to the surface were in most cases smaller than conspecifics caught at greater depth. Correlations between fish abundance within and out of reach of the terns appeared to be both species- and site-specific rather than driven by overall fish abundance. Vertical distribution patterns of the terns' main prey fish could be explained as anti-predator behavior, reducing prey availability to the terns. In 2007, when breeding performance was much better than in 2006, herring and whiting were much more abundant, suggesting that overall prey abundance may also increase prey availability in habitats other than those represented by the stow net sampling.

  17. Mercury in birds of San Francisco Bay-Delta, California: trophic pathways, bioaccumulation, and ecotoxicological risk to avian reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Heinz, Gary; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Takekawa, John Y.; Miles, A. Keith; Adelsbach, Terrence L.; Herzog, Mark P.; Bluso-Demers, Jill D.; Demers, Scott A.; Herring, Garth; Hoffman, David J.; Hartman, Christopher A.; Willacker, James J.; Suchanek, Thomas H.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.; Maurer, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    San Francisco Bay Estuary in northern California has a legacy of mercury contamination, which could reduce the health and reproductive success of waterbirds in the estuary. The goal of this study was to use an integrated field and laboratory approach to evaluate the risks of mercury exposure to birds in the estuary. We examined mercury bioaccumulation, and other contaminants of concern, in five waterbird species that depend heavily on San Francisco Bay Estuary for foraging and breeding habitat: American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), Forster’s terns (Sterna forsteri), Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia), and surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata). These species have different foraging habitats and diets that represent three distinct foraging guilds within the estuary’s food web. In this report, we provide an integrated synthesis of the primary findings from this study and results are synthesized from 54 peer-reviewed publications generated to date with other unpublished results.

  18. Central European parasitic flatworms of the family Renicolidae Dollfus, 1939 (Trematoda: Plagiorchiida): molecular and comparative morphological analysis rejects the synonymization of Renicola pinguis complex suggested by Odening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneberg, Petr; Sitko, Jiljí; Bizos, Jiří; Horne, Elizabeth C

    2016-10-01

    The Renicolidae are digenean parasites of piscivorous and molluscivorous birds. Although they exhibit few morphological autapomorphies and are highly variable, the numerous suggested re-classifications within the family have never been supported by any molecular analyses. We address the possible synonymization of species within the Renicola pinguis complex suggested previously by Odening. We provide and analyse sequences of two nuclear (ITS2, 28S rDNA) and two mitochondrial (CO1, ND1) DNA loci of central European species of the Renicolidae, namely Renicola lari, Renicola pinguis and Renicola sternae sp. n., and we also provide first sequences of Renicola sloanei. The combined molecular and comparative morphological analysis confirms the previously questioned validity of the three Renicola spp. of highly similar morphology, which display strict niche separation in terms of host specificity and selectivity. We identify two previously unreported clades within the genus Renicola; however, only one of them is supported by the analysis of adult worms. We also provide comparative measurements of the three examined closely related central European renicolids, and describe the newly proposed tern-specialized species Renicola sternae sp. n., which was previously repeatedly misidentified as Renicola paraquinta. Based on the extensive dataset collected in 1962-2015, we update the host spectrum of Renicolidae parasitizing central European birds (Renicola bretensis, R. lari, Renicola mediovitellata, R. pinguis, Renicola secunda and R. sternae sp. n.) and discuss their host-specific prevalence and intensity of infections.

  19. Propriedades de blendas ternárias de polipropileno

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Tedesco

    2007-01-01

    Os copolímeros heterofásicos ou blendas de reator formam um sistema bastante complexo constituído de um copolímero randômico de eteno-propeno (EPR), um copolímero de eteno-propeno com diferentes teores e seqüência de propeno, gerando uma fase rica em PE (co-PE), e homopolímero de propileno (PP). Estudaram-se três copolímeros heterofásicos com EPR de diferentes composições e teores diferentes do co-PE. Os copolímeros heterofásicos foram misturados com homopolímero de propileno (PP), com peso m...

  20. Characterising physical habitat at the reach scale: River Tern, Shropshire

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Gemma

    2006-01-01

    Characterisation of the complex geomorphological and ecological structure of river channels into workable units of instream habitat is a key step in enabling the assessment of habitat for river management purposes. The research presented in this thesis uses a range of methodological approaches at a variety of spatial scales in order to improve the conceptual basis of habitat characterisation at the reach and sub-reach scale. An appraisal of published works is used in conjunction with an ext...

  1. 1991 Piping Plover and Least Tern Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The piping plover (Charadrius melodus) , a North. American beach nesting bird, has been declining in numbers for decades. Although a number of factors are...

  2. Vocal activity as a low cost and scalable index of seabird colony size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borker, Abraham L; McKown, Matthew W; Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Tershy, Bernie R; Croll, Donald A

    2014-08-01

    Although wildlife conservation actions have increased globally in number and complexity, the lack of scalable, cost-effective monitoring methods limits adaptive management and the evaluation of conservation efficacy. Automated sensors and computer-aided analyses provide a scalable and increasingly cost-effective tool for conservation monitoring. A key assumption of automated acoustic monitoring of birds is that measures of acoustic activity at colony sites are correlated with the relative abundance of nesting birds. We tested this assumption for nesting Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) in San Francisco Bay for 2 breeding seasons. Sensors recorded ambient sound at 7 colonies that had 15-111 nests in 2009 and 2010. Colonies were spaced at least 250 m apart and ranged from 36 to 2,571 m(2) . We used spectrogram cross-correlation to automate the detection of tern calls from recordings. We calculated mean seasonal call rate and compared it with mean active nest count at each colony. Acoustic activity explained 71% of the variation in nest abundance between breeding sites and 88% of the change in colony size between years. These results validate a primary assumption of acoustic indices; that is, for terns, acoustic activity is correlated to relative abundance, a fundamental step toward designing rigorous and scalable acoustic monitoring programs to measure the effectiveness of conservation actions for colonial birds and other acoustically active wildlife. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Mercury exposure may influence fluctuating asymmetry in waterbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Ackerman, Joshua T

    2017-06-01

    Variation in avian bilateral symmetry can be an indicator of developmental instability in response to a variety of stressors, including environmental contaminants. The authors used composite measures of fluctuating asymmetry to examine the influence of mercury concentrations in 2 tissues on fluctuating asymmetry within 4 waterbird species. Fluctuating asymmetry increased with mercury concentrations in whole blood and breast feathers of Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), a species with elevated mercury concentrations. Specifically, fluctuating asymmetry in rectrix feather 1 was the most strongly correlated structural variable of those tested (wing chord, tarsus, primary feather 10, rectrix feather 6) with mercury concentrations in Forster's terns. However, for American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia), the authors found no relationship between fluctuating asymmetry and either whole-blood or breast feather mercury concentrations, even though these species had moderate to elevated mercury exposure. The results indicate that mercury contamination may act as an environmental stressor during development and feather growth and contribute to fluctuating asymmetry of some species of highly contaminated waterbirds. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1599-1605. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  4. A non-invasive technique to bleed incubating birds without trapping: A blood-sucking bug in a hollow egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, P.H.; Voigt, C.C.; Arnold, J.M.; Nagel, R.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a non-invasive technique to obtain blood samples from incubating birds without trapping and handling. A larval instar of the blood-sucking bug Dipetalogaster maximus (Heteroptera) was put in a hollowed artificial egg which was placed in a common tern Sterna hirundo) nest. A gauze-covered hole in the egg allowed the bug to draw blood from the brood patch of breeding adults. We successfully collected 68 blood samples of sufficient amount (median=187 ??l). The daily success rate was highest during the early breeding season and averaged 34% for all trials. We could not detect any visible response by the incubating bird to the sting of the bug. This technique allows for non-invasive blood collection from bird species of various sizes without disturbance. ?? Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2005.

  5. Weights, hematology and serum chemistry of seven species of free-ranging tropical pelagic seabirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.

    1996-01-01

    I established reference values for weight, hematology, and serum chemistry for seven species of free-ranging Hawaiian tropical pelagic seabirds comprising three orders (Procellariiformes, Pelecaniformes, Charadriiformes) and six families (Procellariidae, Phaethontidae, Diomedeidae, Sulidae, Fregatidae, and Laridae). Species examined included 84 Hawaiian darkrumped petrels (Pterodoma phaeopygia), 90 wedge-tailed shearwaters (Puffinus pacificus), 151 Laysan albatrosses (Diomedea immutabilis), 69 red-footed boobies (Sula sula), 154 red-tailed tropicbirds (Phaeton rubricauda), 90 great frigatebirds (Fregata minor), and 72 sooty terns (Sterna fuscata). Hematocrit, total plasma solids, total and differential white cell counts, serum glucose, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase and creatinine phosphokinase were analyzed. Among and within species, hematology and chemistry values varied with age, sex, season, and island of collection. Despite this variation, order-wide trends were observed.

  6. Nest-site selection and hatching success of waterbirds in coastal Virginia: some results of habitat manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, R.A.; Erwin, R.M.; Portera, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    Rising sea levels in the mid-Atlantic region pose a long-term threat to marshes and their avian inhabitants. The Gull-billed Tern (Sterna nilotica), Common Tern (S. hirundo), Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger), and American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus), species of concern in Virginia, nest on low shelly perimeters of salt marsh islands on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. Marsh shellpiles are free of mammalian predators, but subject to frequent floods that reduce reproductive success. In an attempt to examine nest-site selection, enhance habitat, and improve hatching success, small (2 ? 2 m) plots on five island shellpiles were experimentally elevated, and nest-site selection and hatching success were monitored from 1 May to 1 August, 2002. In addition, location, elevation, and nesting performance of all other nests in the colonies were also monitored. No species selected the elevated experimental plots preferentially over adjacent control plots at any of the sites. When all nests were considered, Common Tern nests were located significantly lower than were random point elevations at two sites, as they tended to concentrate on low-lying wrack. At two other sites, however, Common Tern nests were significantly higher than were random points. Gull-billed Terns and American Oystercatchers showed a weak preference for higher elevations on bare shell at most sites. Hatching success was not improved on elevated plots, despite the protection they provided from flooding. Because of a 7 June flood, when 47% of all nests flooded, hatching success for all species was low. Nest elevation had the strongest impact on a nest's probability of hatching, followed by nest-initiation date. Predation rates were high at small colonies, and Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres) depredated 90% of early Gull-billed Tern nests at one shellpile. The importance of nest elevation and flooding on hatching success demonstrates the potential for management of certain waterbird nesting sites

  7. Telomere length reflects reproductive effort indicated by corticosterone levels in a long-lived seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Christina; Riechert, Juliane; Verhulst, Simon; Becker, Peter H

    2016-11-01

    Telomere length (TL) is a candidate biomarker of ageing and phenotypic quality, but little is known of the (physiological) causes of TL variation. We previously showed that individual common terns Sterna hirundo with high reproductive success had short telomeres independent of age, and this pattern was particularly strong in the longer telomeres of the within-individual TL distribution. To test whether this relation can be attributed to effects of reproductive effort, we investigated baseline corticosterone in relation to reproductive success (number of fledglings) and TL. In this context, we assume that variation in baseline corticosterone can be interpreted as index of energy expenditure and allostatic load. Males with higher corticosterone levels during incubation, compared between and within individuals, achieved higher reproductive success and had shorter telomeres. The effect on telomeres was more pronounced in corticosterone measured later in incubation and in the longer telomeres of the within-individual TL distribution. Female corticosterone level during incubation was neither related to reproductive success nor to TL. That we observed these effects only in males mirrors different parental roles during reproduction in the common tern, where males do most of the chick provisioning. The negative association between reproductive success and TL suggests individual differences in reproductive effort as reflected in, or mediated by, baseline corticosterone. We see this result as a promising step towards unravelling the physiological causes of variation in TL and the costs of reproduction. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Development of virtual bait stations to control Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in environmentally sensitive habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Vetter, Richard S; Rust, Michael K

    2010-10-01

    A novel bait station referred to as a virtual bait station was developed and tested against field populations of the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), at White Beach, Camp Pendleton, in Oceanside, CA. White Beach is a nesting habitat for an endangered seabird, the California least tern (Sterna antillarum browni Mearns). The beach is heavily infested with Argentine ants, one of the threats for the California least tern chicks. Conventional pest control strategies are prohibited because of the existence of the protected bird species and the site's proximity to the ocean. The bait station consisted of a polyvinyl chloride pipe that was treated on the inside with fipronil insecticide at low concentrations to obtain delayed toxicity against ants. The pipe was provisioned with an inverted bottle of 25% sucrose solution, then capped, and buried in the sand. Foraging ants crossed the treated surface to consume the sucrose solution. The delayed toxicity of fipronil deposits allowed the ants to continue foraging on the sucrose solution and to interact with their nestmates, killing them within 3-5 d after exposure. Further modification of the bait station design minimized the accumulation of dead ants in the sucrose solution, significantly improving the longevity and efficacy of the bait station. The virtual bait station exploits the foraging behavior of the ants and provides a low impact approach to control ants in environmentally sensitive habitats. It excluded all insects except ants, required only milligram quantities of toxicant, and eliminated the problem of formulating toxicants into aqueous sugar baits.

  9. Otimização de propriedades mecânicas de misturas ternárias de polipropileno (PP/borracha de etileno-propileno-dieno (EPDM/pó de pneus (SRT sob tração e impacto usando a metodologia da superfície de resposta (MSR Optimization of mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP/ethylene-propylene-diene monomer rubber (EPDM/scrap rubber tire (SRT ternary mixtures under tensile and impact using the response surface methodology (RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helson M. da Costa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A metodologia da superfície de resposta (MSR é uma coleção de técnicas estatísticas e matemáticas para desenvolver, melhorar e otimizar processos. Neste estudo, a técnica MSR foi aplicada na investigação do comportamento mecânico de diferentes misturas ternárias de PP/EPDM/SRT. Após a mistura apropriada em uma extrusora de dupla rosca co-rotante e a moldagem por injeção, as propriedades mecânicas (resistência à tração e a resistência ao impacto foram determinadas e usadas como variáveis de resposta. A microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV foi usada para investigar a morfologia das diferentes misturas e interpretar os resultados. Com ferramentas estatísticas específicas, um número mínimo de experimentos permitiu o desenvolvimento de um modelo de superfície de resposta e a otimização das concentrações dos componentes de acordo com o desempenho mecânico. Valores elevados de resistência ao impacto são alcançados (>80 J.m-1 quando, de acordo com as condições experimentais estudadas, a mistura física de PP/EPDM/SRT mantém as proporções de EPDM e SRT em torno de 25%.The response surface methodology (RSM is a collection of statistical and mathematical techniques for developing, improving and optimizing processes. In this study, RSM technique was applied to the investigation of the mechanical behavior of different PP/EPDM/SRT ternary mixtures. After appropriate processing in a co-rotating twin extruder and injection molding, the mechanical properties, such as tensile strength and impact strength, were determined and used as response variables. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used for investigating the morphology of the different blends and to interpret the results. With specific statistical tools, a minimum number of experiments allowed the response surface model to be developed and the concentrations of the components to be optimized according to the mechanical performance. High values of impact

  10. Fitness prospects: effects of age, sex and recruitment age on reproductive value in a long-lived seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Rebke, Maren; Becker, Peter H; Bouwhuis, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive value is an integrated measure of survival and reproduction fundamental to understanding life-history evolution and population dynamics, but little is known about intraspecific variation in reproductive value and factors explaining such variation, if any. By applying generalized additive mixed models to longitudinal individual-based data of the common tern Sterna hirundo, we estimated age-specific annual survival probability, breeding probability and reproductive performance, based on which we calculated age-specific reproductive values. We investigated effects of sex and recruitment age (RA) on each trait. We found age effects on all traits, with survival and breeding probability declining with age, while reproductive performance first improved with age before levelling off. We only found a very small, marginally significant, sex effect on survival probability, but evidence for decreasing age-specific breeding probability and reproductive performance with RA. As a result, males had slightly lower age-specific reproductive values than females, while birds of both sexes that recruited at the earliest ages of 2 and 3 years (i.e. 54% of the tern population) had somewhat higher fitness prospects than birds recruiting at later ages. While the RA effects on breeding probability and reproductive performance were statistically significant, these effects were not large enough to translate to significant effects on reproductive value. Age-specific reproductive values provided evidence for senescence, which came with fitness costs in a range of 17-21% for the sex-RA groups. Our study suggests that intraspecific variation in reproductive value may exist, but that, in the common tern, the differences are small. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  11. Are arrival date and body mass after spring migration influenced by large-scale environmental factors in a migratory seabird?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lesley eSzostek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the timing of migratory events have been observed recently in many migratory species, most likely in response to climatic change. In the common tern Sterna hirundo we examined such changes in spring arrival date and body mass based on a 19 year individual-based longitudinal data from a transponder marked colony from 1994 - 2012. Although no long-term trend was observed in either trait, strong inter-annual and age-specific variation in arrival date and mass was evident. We investigated whether environmental factors such as (i global climate phenomena North Atlantic and Southern Oscillation Indices NAOI and SOI, or (ii local factors, such as food abundance in the wintering and breeding area, represented by fish stock or marine primary productivity, could explain this variation. We found that 2-year-old birds on their first spring migration advanced arrival relative to spring NAOI and delayed arrival relative to sprat Sprattus sprattus abundance. The arrival date of 3-year-olds also advanced in relation to NAOI and delayed in relation to winter SOI. In contrast, adults delayed arrival with NAOI and advanced relative to SOI. Within age groups, earlier annual arrival coincided with higher mass, indicating that a fast and/or early migration did not come at a cost to body condition. Changes in arrival mass relative to environmental covariates were found only in 2-year-olds on their first spring migration: in these birds arrival mass was positively related to herring Clupea harengus and sprat abundance in the breeding area as well as spring NAOI and negatively related to SOI. In conclusion, traits related to migration of common terns were linked with environmental conditions, but showed no long-term trends over the past two decades. Age-related differences were marked, suggesting that common terns might be subject to differing environmental constraints or respond differently to conditions during their annual cycle depending on age.

  12. Telomere attrition and growth : A life-history framework and case study in common terns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, O.; Verhulst, S.; Bauch, C.; Bouwhuis, S.

    The relationship between growth and age-specific telomere length, as a proxy of somatic state, is increasingly investigated, but observed patterns vary and a predictive framework is lacking. We outline expectations based on the assumption that telomere maintenance is costly and argue that individual

  13. Tern Island - French Frigate Shoal - Locations of Marine Debris Removal by NOAA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset corresponds to Figure 5-1 in DRAFT TECHNICAL SUPPORT DOCUMENT TO THE PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT FOR THE FWS - HAWAIIAN ISLANDS NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE:...

  14. The Dnieper River Aquatic System Radioactive Contamination; Long-tern Natural Attenuation And Remediation History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitsekhovych, Oleg; Laptev, Genadiy; Kanivets, Vladimir; Konoplev, Alexey

    2013-04-01

    Near 27 year passed after the Chernobyl Accident, and the experience gained to study radionuclide behavior in the aquatic systems and to mitigate water contamination are still pose of interest for scientists, society and regulatory austerities. There are different aspects of radionuclide transport in the environment were studied since the Chernobyl fallout in 1986 covered the river catchments, wetlands, river, lakes/reservoirs and reached the Black Sea. The monitoring time series data set and also data on the radionuclides behavior studies in the water bodies (river, lakes and the Black Sea) are available now in Ukraine and other affected countries. Its causation analyses, considering the main geochemical, physical and chemical and hydrological process, governing by radionuclide mobility and transport on the way from the initially contaminated catchments, through the river-reservoir hydrological system to the Black Sea can help in better understanding of the main factors governing be the radionuclide behavior in the environment. Radionuclide washout and its hydrological transport are determined speciation of radionuclides as well as soil types and hydrological mode and also geochemistry and landscape conditions at the affected areas. Mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides are determined by ratio of radionuclide chemical forms in fallout and site-specific environmental characteristics determining rates of leaching, fixation/remobilization as well as sorption-desorption of mobile fraction (its solid-liquid distribution). In many cases the natural attenuation processes governing by the above mentioned processes supported by water flow transportation and sedimentation played the key role in self-rehabilitation of the aquatic ecosystems. The models developed during post-Chernobyl decade and process parameters studies can help in monitoring and remediation programs planed for Fukusima Daichi affected watersheds areas as well. Some most important monitoring data collection results and experience gained during post-Chernobyl decades at the Dnieper River aquatic system are presented (catchments, river and reservoirs). This experience show that only information on radionuclide deposition levels is not enough for accurate predictions on radionuclide wash-out and transport in the hydrological systems. Data on speciation in fallout, rates of transformation processes and site-specific environmental characteristics determining these rates are needed. Information on radionuclide chemical forms, their transformation in other words mobility and bioavailability should be taken into account when rehabilitation and decontamination strategies are developed on local or regional scale. Number of inadequate water protection measures carried out during initial post-accidental period took place because lack of preparedness, data and decision making support tools were in use, Environmental radiation monitoring network has not been developed and huge impact of social stressing and inadequate risk perception took place. Many experimental data, models developed and experience for safe management at the contaminated watersheds and water bodies can be useful and in particular those, who dealing with consequences of Fucusima accident 2011. The paper gives extended overview and describes experience of authors in justification and evaluation of the remedial actions applied after Chernobyl accident with focus on most important lessons learned and potentially utilized in future.

  15. Long-term studies on productivity of Roseate Terns and Lesser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hatching success of both species was positively correlated, but there was no correlation for productivity, which suggests that stochastic variation in short-term food availability affected both species differently. Our results indicate that food shortage is the main factor explaining the breeding success of both species on Aride; ...

  16. Long-tern monitoring in the Netherlands suggests that lichens respond to global warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herk, van C.M.; Aptroot, A.; Dobben, van H.F.

    2002-01-01

    There is evidence to suggest that part of the recent changes in the lichen flora of the Netherlands is attributable to an increase in temperature. Changes which have occurred over the last 22 years were studied in detail, and were subjected to a statistical treatment by comparing the change of

  17. Great Lakes Contaminant Impacts Study: Residue analysis report on selected PCB Isomers in common tern eggs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The status of environmental contamination and its possible effects on living resources in the St. Lawrence River and Niagara River ecosystems has been the subject of...

  18. 75 FR 17153 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Review of Roseate Tern

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... be supported by documentation such as maps, bibliographic references, methods used to gather and... information; clarification. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), are clarifying a prior... must receive your comments or information on or before June 4, 2010. However, we will continue to...

  19. Waterbirds (other than Laridae nesting in the middle section of Laguna Cuyutlán, Colima, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Mellink

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Laguna de Cuyutlán, in the state of Colima, Mexico, is the only large coastal wetland in a span of roughly 1150 km. Despite this, the study of its birds has been largely neglected. Between 2003 and 2006 we assessed the waterbirds nesting in the middle portion of Laguna Cuyutlán, a large tropical coastal lagoon, through field visits. We documented the nesting of 15 species of non-Laridae waterbirds: Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus, Tricolored Egret (Egretta tricolor, Snowy Egret (Egretta thula, Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea, Great Egret (Ardea alba, Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis, Black-crowned Nightheron (Nycticorax nycticorax, Yellow-crowned Night-heron (Nyctanassa violacea, Green Heron (Butorides virescens, Roseate Spoonbill (Platalea ajaja, White Ibis (Eudocimus albus, Black-bellied Whistling-duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis, Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris, Snowy Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus, and Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus. These add to six species of Laridae known to nest in that area: Laughing Gulls (Larus atricilla, Royal Terns (Thalasseus maximus, Gull-billed Terns (Gelochelidon nilotica, Forster’s Terns (S. forsteri, Least Terns (Sternula antillarum, and Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger, and to at least 57 species using it during the non-breeding season. With such bird assemblages, Laguna Cuyutlán is an important site for waterbirds, which should be given conservation status. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (1: 391-397. Epub 2008 March 31.Durante la prospección de la parte media de la Laguna Cuyutlán, una gran laguna costera en Colima, México, entre 2003 y 2006, documentamos la anidación de 15 especies de aves acuáticas que no pertenecer a la familia Laridae: Phalacrocorax brasilianus, Egretta tricolor, Egretta thula, Egretta caerulea, Ardea alba, Bubulcus ibis, Nycticorax nycticorax, Nyctanassa violacea, Butorides virescens, Platalea ajaja, Eudocimus albus, Dendrocygna autumnalis, Rallus longirostris

  20. Unintended consequences of management actions in salt pond restoration: cascading effects in trophic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y; Ackerman, Joshua T; Brand, L Arriana; Graham, Tanya R; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Herzog, Mark P; Topping, Brent R; Shellenbarger, Gregory G; Kuwabara, James S; Mruz, Eric; Piotter, Sara L; Athearn, Nicole D

    2015-01-01

    Salt evaporation ponds have played an important role as habitat for migratory waterbirds across the world, however, efforts to restore and manage these habitats to maximize their conservation value has proven to be challenging. For example, salinity reduction has been a goal for restoring and managing former salt evaporation ponds to support waterbirds in the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Here, we describe a case study of unexpected consequences of a low-dissolved oxygen (DO) event on trophic interactions in a salt pond system following management actions to reduce salinity concentrations. We document the ramifications of an anoxic event in water quality including salinity, DO, and temperature, and in the response of the biota including prey fish biomass, numerical response by California Gulls (Larus californicus), and chick survival of Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri). Management actions intended to protect receiving waters resulted in decreased DO concentrations that collapsed to zero for ≥ 4 consecutive days, resulting in an extensive fish kill. DO depletion likely resulted from an algal bloom that arose following transition of the pond system from high to low salinity as respiration and decomposition outpaced photosynthetic production. We measured a ≥ 6-fold increase in biomass of fish dropped on the levee by foraging avian predators compared with weeks prior to and following the low-DO event. California Gulls rapidly responded to the availability of aerobically-stressed and vulnerable fish and increased in abundance by two orders of magnitude. Mark-recapture analysis of 254 Forster's Tern chicks indicated that their survival declined substantially following the increase in gull abundance. Thus, management actions to reduce salinity concentrations resulted in cascading effects in trophic interactions that serves as a cautionary tale illustrating the importance of understanding the interaction of water quality

  1. Unintended consequences of management actions in salt pond restoration: cascading effects in trophic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Brand, Arriana; Graham, Tanya R.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark; Topping, Brent R.; Shellenbarger, Gregory; Kuwabara, James S.; Mruz, Eric; Piotter, Sara L.; Athearn, Nicole D.

    2015-01-01

    Salt evaporation ponds have played an important role as habitat for migratory waterbirds across the world, however, efforts to restore and manage these habitats to maximize their conservation value has proven to be challenging. For example, salinity reduction has been a goal for restoring and managing former salt evaporation ponds to support waterbirds in the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Here, we describe a case study of unexpected consequences of a low-dissolved oxygen (DO) event on trophic interactions in a salt pond system following management actions to reduce salinity concentrations. We document the ramifications of an anoxic event in water quality including salinity, DO, and temperature, and in the response of the biota including prey fish biomass, numerical response by California Gulls (Larus californicus), and chick survival of Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri). Management actions intended to protect receiving waters resulted in decreased DO concentrations that collapsed to zero for ≥ 4 consecutive days, resulting in an extensive fish kill. DO depletion likely resulted from an algal bloom that arose following transition of the pond system from high to low salinity as respiration and decomposition outpaced photosynthetic production. We measured a ≥ 6-fold increase in biomass of fish dropped on the levee by foraging avian predators compared with weeks prior to and following the low-DO event. California Gulls rapidly responded to the availability of aerobically-stressed and vulnerable fish and increased in abundance by two orders of magnitude. Mark-recapture analysis of 254 Forster's Tern chicks indicated that their survival declined substantially following the increase in gull abundance. Thus, management actions to reduce salinity concentrations resulted in cascading effects in trophic interactions that serves as a cautionary tale illustrating the importance of understanding the interaction of water quality

  2. Unintended consequences of management actions in salt pond restoration: cascading effects in trophic interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Y Takekawa

    Full Text Available Salt evaporation ponds have played an important role as habitat for migratory waterbirds across the world, however, efforts to restore and manage these habitats to maximize their conservation value has proven to be challenging. For example, salinity reduction has been a goal for restoring and managing former salt evaporation ponds to support waterbirds in the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Here, we describe a case study of unexpected consequences of a low-dissolved oxygen (DO event on trophic interactions in a salt pond system following management actions to reduce salinity concentrations. We document the ramifications of an anoxic event in water quality including salinity, DO, and temperature, and in the response of the biota including prey fish biomass, numerical response by California Gulls (Larus californicus, and chick survival of Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri. Management actions intended to protect receiving waters resulted in decreased DO concentrations that collapsed to zero for ≥ 4 consecutive days, resulting in an extensive fish kill. DO depletion likely resulted from an algal bloom that arose following transition of the pond system from high to low salinity as respiration and decomposition outpaced photosynthetic production. We measured a ≥ 6-fold increase in biomass of fish dropped on the levee by foraging avian predators compared with weeks prior to and following the low-DO event. California Gulls rapidly responded to the availability of aerobically-stressed and vulnerable fish and increased in abundance by two orders of magnitude. Mark-recapture analysis of 254 Forster's Tern chicks indicated that their survival declined substantially following the increase in gull abundance. Thus, management actions to reduce salinity concentrations resulted in cascading effects in trophic interactions that serves as a cautionary tale illustrating the importance of understanding the interaction

  3. Bird mercury concentrations change rapidly as chicks age: Toxicological risk is highest at hatching and fledging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2011-01-01

    Toxicological risk of methylmercury exposure to juvenile birds is complex due to the highly transient nature of mercury concentrations as chicks age. We examined total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in blood, liver, kidney, muscle, and feathers of 111 Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri), 69 black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and 43 American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) chicks as they aged from hatching through postfledging at wetlands that had either low or high mercury contamination in San Francisco Bay, California. For each waterbird species, internal tissue, and wetland, total mercury and methylmercury concentrations changed rapidly as chicks aged and exhibited a quadratic, U-shaped pattern from hatching through postfledging. Mercury concentrations were highest immediately after hatching, due to maternally deposited mercury in eggs, then rapidly declined as chicks aged and diluted their mercury body burden through growth in size and mercury depuration into growing feathers. Mercury concentrations then increased during fledging when mass gain and feather growth slowed, while chicks continued to acquire dietary mercury. In contrast to mercury in internal tissues, mercury concentrations in chick feathers were highly variable and declined linearly with age. For 58 recaptured Forster's tern chicks, the proportional change in blood mercury concentration was negatively related to the proportional change in body mass, but not to the amount of feathers or wing length. Thus, mercury concentrations declined more in chicks that gained more mass between sampling events. The U-shaped pattern of mercury concentrations from hatching to fledging indicates that juvenile birds may be at highest risk to methylmercury toxicity shortly after hatching when maternally deposited mercury concentrations are still high and again after fledging when opportunities for mass dilution and mercury excretion into feathers are limited.

  4. Male-biased sex allocation in ageing parents; a longitudinal study in a long-lived seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedder, Oscar; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Benito, María M; Becker, Peter H

    2016-08-01

    Optimal sex allocation is frequency-dependent, but senescence may cause behaviour at old age to be suboptimal. We investigated whether sex allocation changes with parental age, using 16 years of data comprising more than 2500 molecularly sexed offspring of more than 600 known-age parents in common terns (Sterna hirundo), slightly sexually size-dimorphic seabirds. We decomposed parental age effects into within-individual change and sex allocation-associated selective (dis)appearance. Individual parents did not differ consistently in sex allocation, but offspring sex ratios at fledging changed from female- to male-biased as parents aged. Sex ratios at hatching were not related to parental age, suggesting sons to outperform daughters after hatching in broods of old parents. Our results call for the integration of sex allocation theory with theory on ageing and demography, as a change in sex allocation with age per se will cause the age structure of a population to affect the frequency-dependent benefits and the age-specific strength of selection on sex allocation. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Telomere length reflects phenotypic quality and costs of reproduction in a long-lived seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Christina; Becker, Peter H; Verhulst, Simon

    2013-02-07

    Telomere length is associated with cellular senescence, lifestyle and ageing. Short telomeres indicate poor health in humans and reduced life expectancy in several bird species, but little is known about telomeres in relation to phenotypic quality in wild animals. We investigated telomere lengths in erythrocytes of known-age common terns (Sterna hirundo), a migratory seabird, in relation to arrival date and reproductive performance. Cross-sectional data revealed that, independent of age, individuals with short telomeres performed better: they arrived and reproduced earlier in the season and had more chicks in the nest. The latter effect was stronger the older the brood and stronger in males, which do most of the chick provisioning. Longitudinal data confirmed this pattern: compared with birds that lost their brood, birds that raised chicks beyond the 10th nestling day experienced higher telomere attrition from one year to the next. However, more detailed analysis revealed that the least and most successful individuals lost the fewest base pairs compared with birds with intermediate success. Our results suggest that reproductive success is achieved at the expense of telomeres, but that individual heterogeneity in susceptibility to such detrimental effects is important, as indicated by low telomere loss in the most successful birds.

  6. Abundance and breeding distribution of seabirds in the northern part of the Danco Coast, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana A. Juáres

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Seabird abundances and breeding distribution have the potential to serve as ecological indicators. The western Antarctic Peninsula is one of the three sites in the world with the greatest increases in local temperature during the last 50 years. The aim of this study was to monitor the distribution and abundance of breeding populations of seabirds in the northern sector of the Danco Coast, north-west of the Antarctic Peninsula, during the breeding season 2010/11. The birds were the Wilson′s storm petrel (Oceanites oceanicus, South Polar skua (Stercorarius maccormicki, kelp gull (Larus dominicanus, Antarctic tern (Sterna vittata, snowy sheathbill (Chionis alba, chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica, southern giant petrel (Macronectes giganteus, gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua, Cape petrel (Daption capense and Antarctic shag (Phalacrocorax bransfieldensis. Annual breeding population growth increased in pygoscelids, southern giant petrel and sheathbill, and for the remaining species, breeding population trends were stable. Given that seabird populations can provide valuable information on the conditions of their feeding and nesting environments, this study highlights the need to maintain basics monitoring studies.

  7. Immigrants are attracted by local pre-breeders and recruits in a seabird colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostek, K Lesley; Schaub, Michael; Becker, Peter H

    2014-09-01

    Immigration is a major demographic factor shaping population dynamics. However, due to methodological difficulties, the extent of immigration and factors affecting immigration are insufficiently studied. This is also true for seabird colonies. We estimated annual immigration based on a long-term study of a colony of common terns Sterna hirundo marked with transponders, using a Bayesian integrated population model that links colony size and productivity with individual life histories. Strong annual fluctuations in the number of immigrants were found. To identify whether colony-specific covariates influenced immigration, we related the number of immigrants to various proxy variables for breeding site quality, specifically colony size, productivity, number of local subadults and local recruits. Numbers of local recruits and local subadults showed strong positive correlations with number of immigrants. We found that variation in immigration rate had strongly contributed to variation in colony growth rate, more so than variation in local recruitment or adult survival. Collectively, results suggest that immigration strongly affects colony growth rate, that the driving force behind immigration is natal dispersal and that immigrants were attracted by local recruits. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  8. Mercury and selenium contamination in waterbird eggs and risk to avian reproduction at Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, Christopher A.; Isanhart, John P.; Herring, Garth; Vaughn, Sharon; Cavitt, John F.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Browers, Howard; Cline, Chris; Vest, Josh

    2015-01-01

    The wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem are recognized regionally, nationally, and hemispherically for their importance as breeding, wintering, and migratory habitat for diverse groups of waterbirds. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge is the largest freshwater component of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem and provides critical breeding habitat for more than 60 bird species. However, the Great Salt Lake ecosystem also has a history of both mercury and selenium contamination, and this pollution could reduce the health and reproductive success of waterbirds. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of mercury and selenium contamination to birds breeding within Great Salt Lake, especially at Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, and to identify the waterbird species and areas at greatest risk to contamination. We sampled eggs from 33 species of birds breeding within wetlands of Great Salt Lake during 2010 ̶ 2012 and focused on American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), Forster’s terns (Sterna forsteri), white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi), and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) for additional studies of the effects of contaminants on reproduction.

  9. Mercury exposure may suppress baseline corticosterone levels in juvenile birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury exposure has been associated with a wide variety of negative reproductive responses in birds, however few studies have examined the potential for chick impairment via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The HPA axis regulates corticosterone levels during periods of stress. We examined the relationship between baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations and mercury concentrations in down feathers of recently hatched (Sterna forsteri) chicks in San Francisco Bay, California. Baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations were negatively correlated with mercury concentrations in blood of older chicks (decreasing by 81% across the range of observed mercury concentrations) while accounting for positive correlations between corticosterone concentrations and number of fledgling chicks within the colony and chick age. In recently hatched chicks, baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations were weakly negatively correlated with mercury concentrations in down feathers (decreasing by 45% across the range of observed mercury concentrations) while accounting for stronger positive correlations between corticosterone concentrations and colony nest abundance and date. These results indicate that chronic mercury exposure may suppress baseline corticosterone concentrations in tern chicks and suggests that a juvenile bird's ability to respond to stress may be reduced via the downregulation of the HPA axis.

  10. Recent Bayesian stable-isotope mixing models are highly sensitive to variation in discrimination factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Alexander L; Diamond, Antony W

    2011-06-01

    Stable isotopes are now used widely in ecological studies, including diet reconstruction, where quantitative inferences about diet composition are derived from the use of mixing models. Recent Bayesian models (MixSIR, SIAR) allow users to incorporate variability in discrimination factors (delta13C or delta15N), or the amount of change in either delta13C or delta15N between prey and consumer, but to date there has been no systematic assessment of the effect of variation in delta13C or delta15N on model outputs. We used whole blood from Common Terns (Sterna hirundo) and muscle from their common prey items (fish and euphausiids) to build a series of mixing models in SIAR (stable isotope analysis in R) using various discrimination factors from the published literature for marine birds. The estimated proportion of each diet component was affected significantly by delta13C or delta15N. We also use recently published stable-isotope data on the reliance of critically endangered Balearic Shearwaters (Puffinus mauretanicus) on fisheries discards to show that discrimination factor choice can have profound implications for conservation and management actions. It is therefore crucial for researchers wishing to use mixing models to have an accurate estimate of delta13C and delta15N, because quantitative diet estimates can help to direct future research or prioritize conservation and management actions.

  11. [The taxonomy of the Baku virus (BAKV; Reoviridae, Orbivirus) isolated from the birds obligate parasites Argasidae ticks in Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al'khovskiĭ, S V; L'vov, D K; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; Gitel'man, A K; Botikov, A R; Samokhvalov, E I

    2013-01-01

    The Baku virus (BAKV) was originally isolated from the ticks Ornithodoros capensis Neumann, 1901 (Acari: Argasidae) collected from the seagull (Larus argentatus) seating nests on the islands of the Baku archipelago, the Caspian sea. BAKV was assigned to Kemerovo group (KEMV) (Orbivirus, Reoviridae). The BAKV was frequently isolated from the ticks O. coniceps Canestrini, 1980, collected from L. argentatus and tern (Sterna hirundo) nests in Turkmenia and pigeon (Columba livia neglecta) nests in Uzbekistan. In this work, the genome of the BAKV was sequenced using the next-generation sequencing technology. The BAKV Pol protein has 48.6% identity level with the viruses of the Great Island Virus group and at average 41% with non-tick orbiviruses. The BAKV T2 protein level identity with the orbiviruses ranges from 23.7% to 64.8%. The maximum identity level of the T2 protein (64.8%) is observed for the tick-borne viruses of the GIV (KEMV) group. According to the conducted molecular-genetic and phylogenetic analysis, the BAKV is a novel species of the genus Orbivirus. It forms a phylogenetic group distinctly related to the GIV group.

  12. Island characteristics within wetlands influence waterbird nest success and abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Christopher; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Coastal waterbird populations are threatened by habitat loss and degradation from urban and agricultural development and forecasted sea level rise associated with climate change. Remaining wetlands often must be managed to ensure that waterbird habitat needs, and other ecosystem functions, are met. For many waterbirds, the availability of island nesting habitat is important for conserving breeding populations. We used linear mixed models to investigate the influence of pond and island landscape characteristics on nest abundance and nest success of American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) in San Francisco Bay, California, USA, based on a 9-year dataset that included >9,000 nests. Nest abundance and nest success were greatest within ponds and on individual islands located either 4 km from San Francisco Bay. Further, nest abundance was greater within ponds with relatively few islands, and on linear-shaped, highly elongated islands compared to more rounded islands. Nest success was greater on islands located away from the nearest surrounding pond levee. Compared to more rounded islands, linear islands contained more near-water habitat preferred by many nesting waterbirds. Islands located away from pond levees may provide greater protection from terrestrial egg and chick predators. Our results indicate that creating and maintaining a few, relatively small, highly elongated and narrow islands away from mainland levees, in as many wetland ponds as possible would be effective at providing waterbirds with preferred nesting habitat.

  13. Collision and displacement vulnerability among marine birds of the California Current System associated with offshore wind energy infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Josh; Kelsey, Emily C.; Felis, Jonathan J.; Pereksta, David M.

    2016-10-27

    With growing climate change concerns and energy constraints, there is an increasing need for renewable energy sources within the United States and globally. Looking forward, offshore wind-energy infrastructure (OWEI) has the potential to produce a significant proportion of the power needed to reach our Nation’s renewable energy goal. Offshore wind-energy sites can capitalize open areas within Federal waters that have persistent, high winds with large energy production potential. Although there are few locations in the California Current System (CCS) where it would be acceptable to build pile-mounted wind turbines in waters less than 50 m deep, the development of technology able to support deep-water OWEI (>200 m depth) could enable wind-energy production in the CCS. As with all human-use of the marine environment, understanding the potential impacts of wind-energy infrastructure on the marine ecosystem is an integral part of offshore wind-energy research and planning. Herein, we present a comprehensive database to quantify marine bird vulnerability to potential OWEI in the CCS (see https://doi.org/10.5066/F79C6VJ0). These data were used to quantify marine bird vulnerabilities at the population level. For 81 marine bird species present in the CCS, we created three vulnerability indices: Population Vulnerability, Collision Vulnerability, and Displacement Vulnerability. Population Vulnerability was used as a scaling factor to generate two comprehensive indicies: Population Collision Vulnerability (PCV) and Population Displacement Vulnerability (PDV). Within the CCS, pelicans, terns (Forster’s [Sterna forsteri], Caspian [Hydroprogne caspia], Elegant [Thalasseus elegans], and Least Tern [Sternula antillarum]), gulls (Western [Larus occidentalis] and Bonaparte’s Gull [Chroicocephalus philadelphia]), South Polar Skua (Stercorarius maccormicki), and Brandt’s Cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus) had the greatest PCV scores. Brown Pelican (Pelicanus occidentalis

  14. California Least Tern Foraging Ecology in Southern California: A Review of Foraging Behavior Relative to Proposed Dredging Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    single observations indicate that these areas—and likely others— occasionally support large schools of prey fish for CLT and/or are important since...Renamed California Department of Fish and Wildlife on January 1, 2013. ERDC/EL CR-16-3 30 Copper 1987. A study of the breeding biology of the...of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 109:53-70. Cyrus, D. P., and S. J. M. Blaber. 1987b. The influence of turbidity on juvenile marine fishes

  15. Misturas binárias e ternárias de gorduras hidrogenadas e óleo de soja

    OpenAIRE

    Simões,Ilka Sumiyoshi; GIOIELLI, Luiz Antonio; Oliveira, Maricê Nogueira de

    1997-01-01

    Na formulação de produtos gordurosos, é comum a mistura de óleos e gorduras, para se alcançar as especificações do produto final. As interações que ocorrem entre os triacilgliceróis nas misturas promovem alterações nas propriedades físicas das gorduras. Comparado às técnicas tradicionais, os experimentos planejados poupam tempo e recursos, identificam pontos ótimos verdadeiros, e permitem que os efeitos das variáveis individuais ou interações entre elas sejam determinados. O objetivo do traba...

  16. Produktdiffusion in TIMES-Märkten: Innovation, Kompatibilität und Timing bei Netzeffektgütern

    OpenAIRE

    Kölln, Volker

    2011-01-01

    Güter in Hochtechnologiemärkten der Telekommunikation, Informationstechnologie, Multimedia, E-Commerce und Software, den sogenannten TIMES-Märkten, sind im Besonderen von Netzeffekten betroffen. Netzeffekte liegen vor, wenn der Produktnutzen bei einem Gut mit der Anzahl der Konsumenten, die dieses Produkt auch kaufen und nutzen, ansteigt. Somit liegen positive Skaleneffekte auf der Nachfragerseite vor und die Nachfrage nach diesem Gut ist abhängig von der Anzahl der Produktanwender (Netzwerk)...

  17. Riparian Vegetation, Natural Succession, and the Challenge of Maintaining Bare Sandbar Nesting Habitat for Least Terns and Piping Plovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    White Vervain, Switch Grass, Goose Grass, Elongate Bladder Pod , Winged Pigweed Mixed Herb Perennial herbs and grasses in mesic to xeric conditions on...LOWVEG line. Species: Bagpod, Sandspur, Partridge Pea , Cockle-bur, Hogwort, Indian-hemp, Common Crabgrass, Winged Pigweed, Mist Flower, Gumweed Mixed...Crabgrass, Winged Pigweed, Hogwort, Cottonwood, Partridge Pea Willow Thicket Saplings in frequently-flooded to mesic conditions on slopes, low flood

  18. Species differences in the sensitivity of avian embryos to methylmercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Klimstra, J.D.; Stebbins, K.R.; Kondrad, S.L.; Erwin, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    We injected doses of methylmercury into the air cells of eggs of 26 species of birds and examined the dose-response curves of embryo survival. For 23 species we had adequate data to calculate the median lethal concentration (LC50). Based on the dose-response curves and LC50s, we ranked species according to their sensitivity to injected methylmercury. Although the previously published embryotoxic threshold of mercury in game farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) has been used as a default value to protect wild species of birds, we found that, relative to other species, mallard embryos are not very sensitive to injected methylmercury; their LC50 was 1.79 ug/g mercury on a wet-weight basis. Other species we categorized as also exhibiting relatively low sensitivity to injected methylmercury (their LC50s were 1 ug/g mercury or higher) were the hooded merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus), lesser scaup (Aythya affinis), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), and laughing gull (Larus atricilla). Species we categorized as having medium sensitivity (their LC50s were greater than 0.25 ug/g mercury but less than 1 ug/g mercury) were the clapper rail (Rallus longirostris), sandhill crane (Grus canadensis), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), chicken (Gallus gallus), common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula), tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), herring gull (Larus argentatus), common tern (S terna hirundo), royal tern (Sterna maxima), Caspian tern (Sterna caspia), great egret (Ardea alba), brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis), and anhinga (Anhinga anhinga). Species we categorized as exhibiting high sensitivity (their LC50s were less than 0.25 ug/g mercury) were the American kestrel (Falco sparverius), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), white ibis (Eudocimus albus), snowy egret (Egretta thula), and tri-colored heron (Egretta tricolor). For mallards, chickens, and ring-necked pheasants (all species for which we could compare the toxicity of our

  19. Pascagoula Harbor, Mississippi. Feasibility Report on Improvement of the Federal Deep-Draft Navigation Channel. Volume 2. Technical Appendices. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    committed fleet of three 64,000 dwt LNG tankers are used in the determination of AAEB’s for this commodity. Benefits would a’. crue by ol iminating the...American Coot Sooty Tern Snowy Egret American Oystercatcher Least Tern Louisiana Heron Semipalmated Plover Royal Tern Black- crowned Night Heron Piping...Plover Sandwich Tern Yel low- crowned Night Heron Snowy Plover Caspian Tern Least Bittern Wil.son’s Plover Black Tern American Bittern Killdeer Black

  20. Bet-hedging applications for conservation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Case study: Least terns on the Platte River. Least terns are the smallest of the North American terns and are piscivorous. The interior least tern, which nests on bare sandy areas such as sandbars, spoil piles at sand and gravel pits, reservoir shorelines, and saltflats along inland river systems in the United States, was listed ...

  1. Las obligaciones y responsabilidades del empresario en prevenci??n de riesgos laborales = The employer's responsabilities and obligations in terns of labor risk prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Callado Andr??s, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Uno de los aspectos que contempla la Ley 31/1995, de 8 de noviembre, de Prevenci??n de Riesgos Laborales (en adelante, LPRL) es la protecci??n de los trabajadores en materia de seguridad y salud laboral. Lo m??s importante de esta normativa gira en torno al derecho del trabajador a ser protegido en su salud; para ello se impondr??n ciertas obligaciones al empresario, considerado el principal sujeto responsable pero no el ??nico. Los deberes que se precisan en la Ley son la incorporaci??n de ...

  2. Characteristics of California Least Tern Nesting Sites Associated With Breeding Success or Failure, With Special Reference to the Site at the Naval Air Station, Alameda

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Naval Air Station, Alameda, is being closed under the requirements of the Defense Base Realignment and Closure Act of 1990. The purpose of this report is to...

  3. High tides and rising seas: potential effects on estuarine waterbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.; Sanders, G.M.; Prosser, D.J.; Cahoon, D.R.; Greenberg, Russell; Maldonado, Jesus; Droege, Sam; McDonald, M.V.

    2006-01-01

    Coastal waterbirds are vulnerable to water-level changes especially under predictions of accelerating sea-level rise and increased storm frequency in the next century. Tidal and wind-driven fluctuations in water levels affecting marshes, their invertebrate communities, and their dependent waterbirds are manifested in daily, monthly, seasonal, annual, and supra-annual (e.g., decadal or 18.6-yr) periodicities. Superimposed on these cyclic patterns is a long-term (50?80 yr) increase in relative sea-level rise that varies from about 2?4 + mm/yr along the Atlantic coastline. At five study sites selected on marsh islands from Cape Cod, Massachusetts to coastal Virginia, we monitored marsh elevation changes and flooding, tide variations over time, and waterbird use. We found from longterm marsh core data that marsh elevations at three of five sites may not be sufficient to maintain pace with current sea-level rise. Results of the short-term (3?4 yr) measures using surface elevation tables suggest a more dramatic difference, with marsh elevation change at four of five sites falling below relative sea-level rise. In addition, we have found a significant increase (in three of four cases) in the rate of surface marsh flooding in New Jersey and Virginia over the past 70?80 yr during May?July when waterbirds are nesting on or near the marsh surface. Short-term, immediate effects of flooding will jeopardize annual fecundity of many species of concern to federal and state agencies, most notably American Black Duck (Anas rubripes), Nelson?s Sharp-tailed Sparrow (Ammodramus nelsoni), Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrow (A. caudacutus), Seaside Sparrow (A. maritima), Coastal Plain Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza georgiana nigrescens), Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis), Forster?s Tern (Sterna forsteri), Gull-billed Tern (S. nilotica), Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger), and American Oystercatcher (Haemotopus palliatus). Forster?s Terns are probably most at risk given the large proportion of their

  4. Age-dependent trait variation: the relative contribution of within-individual change, selective appearance and disappearance in a long-lived seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Vedder, Oscar; Becker, Peter H; Bouwhuis, Sandra

    2015-05-01

    Within populations, the expression of phenotypic traits typically varies with age. Such age-dependent trait variation can be caused by within-individual change (improvement, senescence, terminal effects) and/or selective (dis)appearance of certain phenotypes among older age classes. In this study, we applied two methods (decomposition and mixed modelling) to attribute age-dependent variation in seven phenological and reproductive traits to within-individual change and selective (dis)appearance, in a long-lived seabird, the common tern (Sterna hirundo). At the population level, all traits, except the probability to breed, improved with age (i.e. phenology advanced and reproductive output increased). Both methods identified within-individual change as the main responsible process, and, within individuals, performance improved until age 6-13, before levelling off. In contrast, within individuals, breeding probability decreased to age 10, then levelled off. Effects of selective appearance and disappearance were small, but showed that longer-lived individuals had a higher breeding probability and bred earlier and that younger recruits performed better throughout life than older recruits in terms of both phenology and reproductive performance. In the year prior to death, individuals advanced reproduction, suggesting terminal investment. The decomposition method attributed more age-dependent trait variation to selective disappearance than the mixed-modelling method: 14-36% versus 0-8%, respectively, which we identify to be due to covariance between rates of within-individual change and selective (dis)appearance leading to biased results from the decomposition method. We conclude that the decomposition method is ideal for visualizing processes underlying population change in performance from one age class to the next, but that a mixed-modelling method is required to investigate the significance and relative contribution of age effects. Considerable variation in the

  5. Distribution and Abundance of the Interior Population of the Least Tern (Sternula Antillarum), 2005; A Review of the First Complete Range-Wide Survey in the Context of Historic and Ongoing Monitoring Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Arkan - sas; David Oliver of the Corps’ Vicksburg District and Hubert Hervey for the “Lower” Red River in Arkansas and Louisiana downstream of Index...same year (see the methods section for how survey data were treated for this report’s presentation of historic data). Historic data from the Arkan - sas...at minimum, the full 308 river miles of the Arkansas River in Arkan - sas is covered by annual surveys. Long-term data from Corps monitoring programs

  6. Osmotic dehydration of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas in ternary solutions Desidratação osmótica de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas em soluções ternárias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Colato Antonio

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the osmotic dehydration of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas using hypertonic sucrose solutions, with or without NaCl, at three different concentrations, at 40 °C. Highest water losses were obtained when the mixture of sucrose and NaCl was used. The addition of NaCl to osmotic solutions increases the driving force of the process and it is verified that the osmotic dehydration process is mainly influenced by changes in NaCl concentration, but the positive effect of the salt-sucrose interaction on soluble solids also determined the decrease of solid gain when solutes were at maximum concentrations. Mass transfer kinetics were modeled according to Peleg, Fick and Page's equations, which presented good fittings of the experimental data. Peleg's equation and Page's model presented the best fitting and showed excellent predictive capacity for water loss and salt gain data. The effective diffusivity determined using Fick's Second Law applied to slice geometry was found to be in the range from 3.82 x 10-11 to 7.46 x 10-11 m²/s for water loss and from 1.18 x 10-10 to 3.38 x 10-11 m²/s for solid gain.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a desidratação osmótica da batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas utilizando soluções hipertônicas de sacarose e/ou NaCl, em três concentrações diferentes a 40 °C. As perdas de água mais elevadas foram obtidas quando se utilizou a mistura de sacarose e NaCl. A adição do NaCl às soluções osmóticas aumenta a força motriz do processo. Verifica-se que o processo de desidratação osmótica é principalmente influenciado pela mudança da concentração de NaCl, mas o efeito positivo da interação do sal com a sacarose também determinou a diminuição do ganho de sólidos quando os solutos estavam em concentrações máximas. As cinéticas de transferência de massa foram modeladas de acordo com as Equações de Peleg, de Fick e de Page, e apresentaram bons ajustes aos dados experimentais. A Equação de Peleg e o modelo da Page apresentaram os melhores ajustes e mostraram uma excelente capacidade de predição para dados de ganho de sólidos e de perda de água. A difusividade efetiva foi determinada utilizando-se a Segunda Lei de Fick aplicada à geometria de placa plana, encontrando valores de 3,82 x 10-11 a 7,46 x 10-11 m²/s para a perda de água, e de 1,18 x 10-10 a 3,38 x 10-11 m²/s para o ganho de sólidos.

  7. Comparison of the transcriptpmes of long-tern label retaining-cells and C cells microdissected from mammary epithelium: an initial study to character potential stem/progenitor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammary stem cells (MaSC) account for the cell lineage of mammary epithelia and provide for mammary growth, development and tissue homeostasis. The presence of MaSC was clearly demonstrated by the generation of an entire mammary gland from a single cell implanted into epithelium-ablated mammary fat...

  8. Environmental Assessment for Selected Capital Improvement Plan (CIP) Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    including stars and wings, opening and fenestration patterns, and landscaping. Cold War-era buildings 373, 374, 355, 741, 744 (built in 1961, 1965, 1966...tern, least tern, glossy ibis, great egret, yellow- crowned night-heron, peregrine falcon, bald eagle, and Harper’s fimbristylis. The canebrake

  9. Optoacoustic Spectroscopy to Detect Hydrazine Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    Such a wheel could, for exdi’Iple, be lade by deposilinq or photo-etchinq a metallic film pat- tern onto a fusel sIlica disc. Oscillatory devi :es...iiade by depositinq or photo-etchinq a metallic film pat- tern onto a fusel sIlica disc. Oscillatory devi ces, such as a tuning-fork chopper or a

  10. Tinless Solder Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1937-06-24

    tin solder. 4. By soldering coated thin (.015*) plates of tin- plate, terne-plate and galvanised iron with this mixture, the tensile strength in...9700 lbs/ln2 Average 9500 lbs/ln2 •The plates used In this test were tin-plate. Tests on bright annealed, terne-plate, brass and galvanised ...plates (tin-plate, terne- plate and galvanised iron) had coatings, it was impossible to use emery oloth OB them to completely remove the rust or

  11. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Mississippi: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for gulls and terns in Mississippi. Vector points in this data set represent bird nesting sites. Species...

  12. Alabama ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns...

  13. Southeast Alaska ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls, and terns in Southeast Alaska. Points in this...

  14. North Slope, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls and terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and waterfowl for the North Slope of Alaska....

  15. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation of Avian Predation on Salmonid Smolts in the Lower and Mid-Columbia River, 2008 Draft Season Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roby, Daniel D. [USGS - Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University; Collis, Ken [Real Time Research, Inc.; Lyons, Donald E. [USGS - Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Oregon State University

    2009-07-08

    This report describes investigations into predation by piscivorous colonial waterbirds on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) from throughout the Columbia River basin during 2008. East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary again supported the largest known breeding colony of Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) in the world (approximately 10,700 breeding pairs) and the largest breeding colony of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) in western North America (approximately 10,950 breeding pairs). The Caspian tern colony increased from 2007, but not significantly so, while the double-crested cormorant colony experienced a significant decline (20%) from 2007. Average cormorant nesting success in 2008, however, was down only slightly from 2007, suggesting that food supply during the 2008 nesting season was not the principal cause of the decline in cormorant colony size. Total consumption of juvenile salmonids by East Sand Island Caspian terns in 2008 was approximately 6.7 million smolts (95% c.i. = 5.8-7.5 million). Caspian terns nesting on East Sand Island continued to rely primarily on marine forage fishes as a food supply. Based on smolt PIT tag recoveries on the East Sand Island Caspian tern colony, predation rates were highest on steelhead in 2008; minimum predation rates on steelhead smolts detected passing Bonneville Dam averaged 8.3% for wild smolts and 10.7% for hatchery-raised smolts. In 2007, total smolt consumption by East Sand Island double-crested cormorants was about 9.2 million juvenile salmonids (95% c.i. = 4.4-14.0 million), similar to or greater than that of East Sand Island Caspian terns during that year (5.5 million juvenile salmonids; 95% c.i. = 4.8-6.2 million). The numbers of smolt PIT tags recovered on the cormorant colony in 2008 were roughly proportional to the relative availability of PIT-tagged salmonids released in the Basin, suggesting that cormorant predation on salmonid smolts in the estuary was less selective than tern

  16. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula,...

  17. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for alcids, diving birds, gulls, terns, pelagic birds, and shorebirds in Central California. Vector points...

  18. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northern California: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for alcids, diving birds, gulls, terns, passerines, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds, and...

  19. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, and gulls/terns in Northwest...

  20. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for pelagic birds, shorebirds, wading birds, waterfowl, gulls, terns, and passerine birds in Guam and the...

  1. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: NESTS (Nest Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska....

  2. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska....

  3. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for alcids, diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds,...

  4. Appendix V, The breeding biology of marine birds associated with Chiniak Bay, Kodiak Island, 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Ten island breeding colonies of seabirds were censused and studied in varying degrees in the inner portions of Chiniak Bay while two tern colonies were monitored on...

  5. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, passerine birds, and gulls and terns in the...

  6. 76 FR 65527 - Habitat Conservation Plan/Natural Community Conservation Plan for Yolo County, CA: Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... life of this Plan and have some likelihood to occur within the plan area. The Plan is currently...), mountain plover (Charadrius montanus), black tern (Chlidonias niger), western yellow-billed cuckoo...

  7. North Slope, Alaska ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for waterfowl, seabirds, gulls and terns for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector points in this data set...

  8. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northern California: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seabirds, diving birds, gulls, terns, and shorebirds in Northern California. Vector points in this data...

  9. Columbia River ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns in...

  10. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting seabirds (alcids, pelagic birds), gulls, terns, diving birds, and raptors in the Bristol Bay...

  11. Contaminant investigations at Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge including an assessment of confined animal feeding operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Samples of water, benthic sediment, fish and interior least tern eggs, taken from various locations on the refuge between 1990-2001, indicate a relatively low risk...

  12. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting and roosting gulls, terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and T/E species in Southern California. Vector...

  13. Virginia ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, raptors, diving birds, passerine birds, and gulls and terns in Virginia....

  14. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: North Carolina: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, raptors, diving birds, passerine birds, and gulls and terns in North...

  15. Hawaii ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for endangered waterbirds and passerine birds, migratory shorebirds and waterfowl, gulls and terns,...

  16. Marsh Bird Monitoring Activities in Vermont 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As part of ongoing research into the status of Vermont's marsh birds, a statewide census of the black tern nesting population was undertaken again in the year 2000....

  17. Avian Influenza in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... terns and shorebirds or waterfowl such as ducks, geese and swans. These wild birds are often viewed ... human health. FAO and OIE are concerned with issues affecting animals, food and agriculture. Top of Page ...

  18. Animal Control Plan : Parker River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A number of ground nesting bird species inhabit Parker River National Wildlife Refuge, including least and common terns, piping plovers, and black ducks. Predation...

  19. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula,...

  20. 1980 migratory bird report, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the breeding bald eagle population, the peregrine falcon breeding population, the waterfowl banding report, the Aleutian and arctic tern...

  1. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, seabirds, raptors, gulls, and terns in Puget Sound...

  2. American Samoa ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seabirds, wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, and gulls and terns in American Samoa. Vector polygons...

  3. 40 CFR 420.127 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Galvanizing, terne coating, and other coatings—(1) Strip, sheet, and miscellaneous products. Subpart L...) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) (b) Galvanizing and other coatings—(1) Wire products and...

  4. Breeding biology and feeding habits of seabirds of Sitkalidak Strait, 1977-1978: Annual report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Breeding chronology for all bird species was essentially the same for 1977 and 1978. The number of breeding kittiwakes, gulls and terns of both species declined in...

  5. A preliminary survey of contaminants in fish and sediment from the Arkansas River in the vicinity of Tulsa, Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Small fish, representative of prey taken by interior least terns, did not appear to be contaminated by organochlorine pesticides or PCBs. Likewise, concentrations of...

  6. Measurements of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA) and pH (on total scale) and other variables collected from water column (discrete) observations using Nondispersive infrared (NDIR) method, Gran titration method, Radiometer pHC2401-7 combination electrode and other instruments from R/V Ocean Researcher I in the East China Sea during the cruise ORI-1086 (EXPOCODE 21OR20140820) from 2014-08-20 to 2014-08-31 (NCEI Accession 0162291)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This cruise is a part of the Long-tern Observation and Research in the East China Sea by Institute of Marine Environmental Chemistry and Ecology National Taiwan...

  7. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for shorebirds, diving birds, raptors, waterfowl, wading birds, terns, and gulls for the Upper Coast of...

  8. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds, and...

  9. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds, and...

  10. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds,...

  11. Estudo da desidratação osmótica de tomate em soluções ternárias pela metodologia de superfície de resposta Study of osmotic dehydration of tomato in ternary solutions through response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Valeriano Tonon

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a influência da temperatura (20 - 40 °C, da composição da solução (0% NaCl/65% sacarose - 10% NaCl/55% sacarose e do nível de agitação (0 - 1000 rpm, na desidratação osmótica de metades de tomate. O processo foi realizado em um tanque encamisado conectado a um banho termostático, sendo a agitação da solução osmótica promovida por um agitador mecânico e medida por um tacômetro digital. Os resultados foram analisados por metodologia de superfície de resposta, de acordo com um planejamento experimental fatorial 2³ completo. A perda de água, o ganho de sal e de sacarose e a atividade de água final dos produtos foram influenciados positivamente pela temperatura e pelo aumento do teor de sal na solução. A agitação influenciou somente a perda de água, indicando que, neste caso, a transferência de massa não é governada apenas por um mecanismo interno de difusão. A proximidade do equilíbrio atingida em cada ensaio foi verificada pela relação entre as atividades de água da solução e das amostras. As amostras processadas em soluções com maior quantidade de sal foram as que se apresentaram mais distantes do equilíbrio, após 3 h de processo.The objective of this work was to study the influence of temperature (20 - 40 °C, solution composition (0% NaCl/65% sucrose - 10% NaCl/55% sucrose and agitation level (0 - 1000 rpm, on the osmotic dehydration of tomato's halves. The process was carried out in a jacketed tank connected to a thermostatic bath, and osmotic solution agitation was promoted by a mechanical stirrer and measured by a digital tachometer. Results were analyzed through response surface methodology, according to a 2³ factorial experimental design. Water loss, salt and sucrose gain and final water activity of the product were positively influenced by temperature and by increasing salt content on the solution. Agitation influenced only on water loss, indicating that in this case, mass transfer is not governed only by a diffusion internal mechanism. Equilibrium proximity reached in each test was verified through the relationship between solution and samples water activities. The samples processed in solutions with higher salt content seemed to be more distant of equilibrium, after 3 hours of process.

  12. Intruder Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    field coneonenti in the ground-frane in ter-s of j- P... cvcan ’Se ochieved. That result is given in (;.!J-a, b, c) of Ref. !.Tt is re,)eato𔃻 Selo ,: in...steps would leed to tern~s wit’, increasinrjr hipher or ’er veriation with and the ratio 4i). The latter r-tio approaches unity ~ ~ ( a )Ib’)race as

  13. Specific safety measures for emergency lanes and shoulders of motorways : a proposal for motorways' authorities in the framework of the European research project Safety Standards for Road Design and Redesign SAFESTAR, Workpackage 1.1.

    OpenAIRE

    Braimaister, L.

    1999-01-01

    This workpackage is one of seven workpackages of the European SAFESTAR project, launched by DG VII. Directing on safety standards and recommendations for the Trans-European Roadway Network (TERN), the workpackage considered safety measures on emergency lanes (stopping strips), which are inherent facilities of the TERN-motorways. Giving space for emergency stops and making the carriageway of a motorway safer, the emergency lane contains its own additional elements of accident risk. Multiple-ve...

  14. Levels of personality - an outline of theoretical connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesvang, Jan

    Manuskriptet er i hovedsagen en oversættelse af et tidligere udkast til artiklen: Personlighedens niveauer (Tønnesvang, 2005). Manuskriptet foreligger i læsbar form og påtænkes videreudviklet i tilknytning til STERNA-projektets progression...

  15. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation of Avian Predation on Salmonid Smolts in the Lower and Mid-Columbia River, 2006 Final Season Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roby, Daniel D. [USGS - Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Oregon State University; Collis, Ken [Real Time Research, Inc.; Lyons, Donald E. [USGS - Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Oregon State University

    2009-06-18

    This study investigates predation by piscivorous waterbirds on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) from throughout the Columbia River Basin. During 2006, study objectives in the Columbia River estuary, work funded by the Bonneville Power Administration, were to (1) monitor and evaluate previous management initiatives to reduce Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia) predation on juvenile salmonids (smolts); (2) measure the impact of double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) predation on smolt survival, and assess potential management options to reduce cormorant predation; and (3) monitor large colonies of other piscivorous waterbirds in the estuary (i.e., glaucous-winged/western gulls [Larus glaucescens/occidentalis]) to determine the potential impacts on smolt survival. Study objectives on the mid-Columbia River, work funded by the Walla Walla District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, were to (1) measure the impact of predation by Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants on smolt survival; and (2) monitor large nesting colonies of other piscivorous waterbirds (i.e., California gulls [L. californicus], ring-billed gulls [L. delawarensis], American white pelicans [Pelecanus erythrorhynchos]) on the mid-Columbia River to determine the potential for significant impacts on smolt survival. Our efforts to evaluate system-wide losses of juvenile salmonids to avian predation indicated that Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants were responsible for the vast majority of smolt losses to avian predators in the Columbia Basin, with most losses occurring in the Columbia River estuary. In 2006, East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary supported the largest known breeding colonies of Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants in the world. The Caspian tern colony on East Sand Island consisted of about 9,200 breeding pairs in 2006, up slightly (but not significantly so) from the estimate of colony size in 2005 (8,820 pairs). There has not been a

  16. Effect of fusion status of sternum in stature estimation - A study from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrakanth, H V; Kanchan, Tanuj; Krishan, Kewal

    2015-11-01

    Forensic anthropologists examine and identify skeletal, dismembered and commingled remains in a legal context to establish the biological profile of the deceased. Stature estimation is one of the important parameters in establishing the biological profile. The present study is planned to derive regression models for stature estimation from sternal measurements. Various factors are likely to affect stature estimation in forensic investigations. Since, none of the previous researchers have studied the effect of fusion status on stature estimation from sternum and its segments, the present study attempts to find if the fusion status of the sternum affect its reliability and accuracy in stature estimation. The sample of the present study consisted of 117 sterna that were obtained from autopsied bodies. Five measurements i.e. Length of manubrium (M), length of mesosternum (B), combined length of manusbrium and mesosternum and the (M + B), width at first sternabrae (S1) and width of 3rd sternabrae (S3) were taken on the autopsied sterna. The sterna were classified as fused (both manubriosternal and xiphisternal joints were fused), partly fused (only one of the manubriosternal or xiphisternal joints was fused) and not fused (both manubriosternal and xiphisternal joints were not fused). Regression models were derived using statistical methods. All the sternal measurements show a positive however, a weak correlation with stature. Thus, it can be concluded that the accuracy and reliability of stature estimation from sternum and its segments is quite low in practical situations. Among the sterna classified based on the fusion status, the length measurements of completely fused sterna show significant correlation with the stature. None of the other sternal measurements on the non-fused or partly fused sterna show statistically significant correlation with stature. The present study concludes that the fusion status of the sternum is likely to affect the reliability and

  17. Environmental contaminants in the food chain, NWS Seal Beach and Seal Beach NWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Byron, E.R. [CH2M Hill, Sacramento, CA (United States); Freas, K.E. [CH2M Hill, San Jose, CA (United States); Casados, E.M.; Kidwell, J.J. [Naval Facilities Engineering Command, San Diego, CA (United States). SW Division

    1994-12-31

    The authors conducted a study to determine whether environmental contaminants occurred in fish and invertebrates at concentrations that could be harmful to birds feeding in the estuarine salt marsh at Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), which is part of Naval Weapons Station (NWS) Seal Beach. Management of the refuge is focused primarily on endangered species, especially the light-footed clapper rail and the California least tern. Important food-chain organisms taken by rails (e.g., crabs and snails) and least terns (small fish) were sampled and analyzed for inorganic and organic contaminants that might be related to Navy activities at the Station. Results indicated that those contaminants are not likely to have lethal effects on rails or terns, although some chemicals (including cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, zinc and DDE) occurred at elevated concentrations in portions of the marsh. Possible sublethal effects also were evaluated and will be discussed.

  18. Pesca associada entre golfinhos e aves marinhas Feeding associations between dolphin and sea birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emygdio L. A. Monteiro-Filho

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Along ten years of study of a common dolphin from the brazilian coast, Sotalia brasiliensis Van Beneden, 1874, I could see some occasions of feeding associations of this dolphin with five species of birds, Sula leucogaster (Boddaert, 1783, Fregata magnificens Mathews, 1914, Sterna hirundinacea Lesson, 1831, Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823 and Phalacrocorax olivaceus Humboldt, 1895. The commonest association observed was between the dolphin and S. leucogaster, and in all the associations was characterized the commensalism, with advantaged to the birds.

  19. Final Environmental Assessment for the Installation of a Range Safety Lighting System at Avon Park Air Force Range, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    ATV All-terrain Vehicle CEQ Council on Environmental Quality CFR Code of Federal Regulations CGP Construction General Permit CZMA Coastal...Construction General Permit [ CGP ]). In addition, the Air Force requires Best Management Practices be in place, regardless of the size of the...Sterna antillarum N T Mammals Florida panther Puma concolor coryi E E Florida black bear Ursus americanus floridans N T Reptiles and Amphibians

  20. Sternal foramina: incidence in Greek population, anatomy and clinical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, George; Tzika, Maria; Anastasopoulos, Nikolaos; Kitsoulis, Panagiotis; Sofidis, George; Natsis, Konstantinos

    2015-09-01

    Sternal foramina represent developmental defects in the sternum, which occur due to incomplete fusion of the sternal ossification centers. Sternal foramina have been correlated with several clinical implications and constitute a subject of interest for the forensic practice. The aim of this study is to define their incidence in Greek population. The presence of midline foramen was studied in 60 dried, adult sterna derived from the Anatomy Department of Medical School of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Measurements were made with a 0.01-mm accuracy caliber and photographic documentation was obtained. Additionally, computed tomography scanning of the sterna was performed. Sternal foramina were found in 11 subjects, resulting in an incidence of 18.3% over the total population. In 27.3% of the subjects with sternal foramen, a single sternal foramen was observed in the body of the sternum, while in 45.5% of the sterna presenting sternal foramina, multiple xiphoidal foramina were noticed. In two specimens, association of xiphoidal foramina with sternal cleft was documented. Sternal foramina are variant quite common in the population, with distinct imaging pattern and awareness of their existence is important for the physician.

  1. Investigation of the intestinal spherocrystals of different Cephalobaenida (Pentastomida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, G; Böckeler, W

    1994-01-01

    The midgut cells of cephalobaenid pentastomids contain spherocrystals varying in size and appearance between the genera. Iron was detected in the vicinity of the crystals in all three genera, being considerably fainter in Reighardia sternae than in the other species. Ultrastructurally a distinct lamination of the spherocrystals was evident, being faint in R. sternae but clearly expressed in Raillietiella hemidactyli and Cephalobaena tetrapoda. According to the species, their diameter ranged from 1.3 to 6.25 microns. The size and number of the crystals were highest in R. hemidactyli and lowest in R. sternae. The inclusions were formed in the endoplasmic reticulum and migrated toward the cellular apex, accumulating there and being expelled into the midgut lumen. As determined by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, calcium turned out to be the main component of the crystals. Furthermore, small amounts of chlorine and iron could be traced in the crystals. The relevance of the crystals is regarded as a kind of storage excretion such as that present in many other arthropods.

  2. Electronic Commerce auf lokalen Märkten

    OpenAIRE

    Schwickert, Axel C.; Lüders, René

    1999-01-01

    eCommerce, versteht man es als Business-to-Consumer-Beziehung, sollte nicht lediglich unter dem Gesichtspunkt des globalen Handels betrachtet werden. Besonders Markttransaktionen von privaten Haushalten bzgl. Konsumgütern bzw. Gütern des täglichen Bedarfs finden vorwiegend auf lokalen und physischen Märkten statt. Die Bundesbürger verwenden z. B. einen großen Teil ihres verfügbaren Einkommens zum Kauf von Lebensmitteln oder Kleidung, die sie in Kaufhäusern, Supermärkten oder im selbständigen ...

  3. A framework for creating pattern languages for enterprise architecture

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kotzé, P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available . The next two sections discuss the pattern templates and pattern collections in more detail. 2.2 Pattern Forms and Templates All patterns in the same language should have the same format [2]. A pattern form or template is a structure describing... are discovered and not invented. There are basically two ways in which pat- tern collections can be discovered or formed [24]: through crafting/creating new pat- terns and through searching/harvesting patterns from existing pattern libraries or through...

  4. Ex ante economic evaluation of technologies for managing postharvest physiological disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently there has been much progress in the development of technologies that use bio-markers to detect and manage post-harvest physiological disorders for apples in long-tern storage. Such technologies have the capacity to alleviate fruit loss by allowing storage operators to more effectively mark...

  5. Synoptic weather conditions during BOBMEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    RSMC), New Delhi analy- sis and forecast charts at various levels and daily analysis of National Centre for Medium Range. Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF) for 925, 850,. 500 and 200hPa level. Weekly mean flow pat- terns at 850hPa are included ...

  6. Use of response surface design in the optimization of starter cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... size are necessary for optimized rhamnolipid production. Verification of the model prediction using experiments showed maximum rhamnolipid yield of 6.97 g/L. The pat- tern of rhamnolipid production was found to be growth- associated type and rhamnolipid surfactant reduced the surface tension of water ...

  7. Structured Hernia Training - A pilot Project.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... adequate knowledge and determined by self-assessment. skill to do so. This improvement approached significance and if a one sided test had been used would have reached. Table 2. Self and Preceptor Evaluations of Technique using a 5-point Rating Scale. (p= 0.33) tern !If. I S~ecific Surgical Tech1 n incision,. ~t of ski.

  8. 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maha S. Zaki

    2011-12-28

    Dec 28, 2011 ... proved to be positive for MECP2 mutations identifying one patient with skewed inactivation pat- tern. У 2012 Ain ... mal birth and apparently normal psychomotor development during the first 6–18 ..... Distribution of the identified pathogenic mutations along the coding sequence of MECP2 gene. Diagramatic ...

  9. Teilzeitväter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hipp, Lena; Molitor, Friederike; Leschke, Janine

    2017-01-01

    In der aktuellen Debatte um eine verbesserte Vereinbarkeit von Familie und Beruf geht es zunehmend auch um kürzere Arbeitszeiten von Vätern. Trotz eines leichten Anstiegs teilzeitarbeitender Männer in den letzten Jahren hat sich die sozialwissenschaftliche Forschung bislang vornehmlich mit...

  10. Role of Neurotensin in Radiation-Induced Hypothermia in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    nula. Dental aciy4ic was wed to secure the caunuua. Animals were allowed mance decrement (22). Furthermore, concentrationsofhis- to recover for I week...S. H. SmDoc. Neurotensin-con- ! T. S. V resINA . Implieations of bioamines in the X-ray-indued tern- taining cell bodies, fibers, and nere terminals in

  11. Selected mineral and heavy metal concentrations in blood and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Fatty tissues and bones had the highest values of metal accumulation, especially Sr, and ... Zn) and three toxic metals (Al, Pb and Sr) in whole blood, brain, heart, kidney, liver, bone, body fat and muscle samples ..... tern feathers in New York and relationship of field levels to adverse effects in the laboratory. Environ. Toxicol ...

  12. NJP VOLUME 42 NO 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2015-01-06

    Jan 6, 2015 ... Suleiman SH, Eltaybe NH, Gamer. NH, Abdallha FA et al. Paediatric. Gastrointestinal endoscopy: ex- perience in a Sudanese university hospital. East Mediterr Health J. 2009;15:1027-1031. 9. El-Mouzan, MI, Abdullah AM, Al. -Sanie AM, Al-Khalifah SI. Pat- tern ofgastroesophageal reflux in children.

  13. 76 FR 58649 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Van Rossem...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... questioned (CBD 2009, p. 4), information in the scientific literature indicates that some authors have... mensural (measurement) data, geographic representation of specimens from western North America, especially... literature is not consistent regarding the distinctiveness of van Rossem's gull-billed tern. The Service is...

  14. Contextual snowflake modelling for pattern warehouse logical design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    forms would help for designers to design well-robust, reliable and efficient pattern warehouse. 2. Literature survey. Ilaria et al (2003) has shown for the first time that the concept of pattern is a good candidate for generic representation. They discussed the main issue related to pattern handling and pat- tern representation.

  15. Master Environmental Plan for Fort Devens, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    arbutus Geraniaceae Geranium maculatum Wild geranium Gramineae Panicum spp. Panic grass Poa annua Spear grass Pos pratensis Bluegrass Iridaceae Iris...delawarensis Ring-billed gull Vu Chlidonias niger Black tern Tr Alcedinidae Megaceryle alcyon Belted kingfisher N, SRc, Tc* Motacillidae Anthus spinoletta

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to ... Tree, Anthony J. Vol 86, No 1-2 (2015) - Articles The status of the Damara Tern in the Eastern Cape, South Africa § Abstract. ISSN: 0030-6525. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  17. Palynostratigraphy of Permian succession from Binja Block, South ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Palynological investigations are carried out on approximately 538.00-m thick Gondwana strata from borehole SKB-1, Binja Block, South Karanpura Coalfield in Jharkhand. Based on the distribution pat- tern of age marker palynotaxa, two distinct palynoassemblages are identified. Palynoassemblage-I in the lithologically ...

  18. The case of cholera preparedness, response and prevention in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-07

    Oct 7, 2011 ... terns conducive to the outbreak of cholera, a history of labour migration, lack of adequate sanitation in informal ..... in terms of performing an educational and knowledge-dissem- inating function. Public health authorities are .... patterns of cholera in Mexico, 1991-1996. Int. J. Epidemiol. 29 (40). 764-772.

  19. Black-footed albatross contamination due to global and local contamination

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study was initiated due to the high levels of PCBs (2300 ppm in soil, 660ppb in sediment, 40ppb groundwater) and lead (2800 ppm soil) found on Tern Island in...

  20. 7. Goburdhun.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... These incentives include reduction in corporate tax, exemption from custom duties from equipment and raw ... Unless Mauritius proves to be innovative enough to take full advantage of the. African Growth and Opportunity Act ... terns can certainly hinder economic growth. Furthermore recent world events.

  1. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Many migrating species are intermediate hosts of trematode parasites of birds, such as like Prosthogonimus. During mass emergence of these species, aquatic birds such as sandpipers, terns, gulls and herons feed on them. This predation forms an important link in the transfer of Metacercatiae and cysts of the parasite.

  2. unusual breeding by seabirds at marion island during 1997/98

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1997/98, breeding at subantarctic Marion Island was exceptionally good for five species of seabirds capable of foraging over wide areas and for a tern. The number of king penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus chicks surviving to the start of spring in 1997 was considerably more than previously recorded. Greater numbers of ...

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14300-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e) Influenza A virus (A/sooty tern/We... 32 9.1 (Q8IRJ8) RecName: Full=THO complex protein 7; &AE014296_45(A...id:none) Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 chromo... 32 5.4 CY005719_1( CY005719 |pid:non

  4. Relationship between body composition and homeothermy in neonates of precocial and semiprecocial birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, GH; Ricklefs, RE

    We dissected carcasses of neonates belonging to ducks and geese (Anatidae; 8 species), shorebirds (Charadriidae and Scolopacidae; 12 species), gulls and terns (Laridae; 3 species), and nonanseriform water birds (Podicipedidae and Rallidae; 2 species) ranging in yolk-free lean wet body mass from 2.5

  5. Bet-hedging applications for conservation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 27; Issue 4. Bet-hedging applications for ... We review the theoretical rationale of bet-hedging and suggest applications for conservation management of least terns in Nebraska and grizzly bears in the northern Rocky Mountains of the United States. The risk of extinction for ...

  6. Polemics and Synthesis: Ernst Mayr and Evolutionary Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    during his life that spanned a century, Ernst Mayr (1904-2005) made outstanding contributions to our understanding of the pat- tern and process of evolution. An ornithologist and systematist by training, Mayr embraced Darwinism and championed the cause of evolutionary biology throughout his long and highly productive.

  7. A review of birds in Uganda: records updating the Uganda Atlas and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is the first update of the Ugandan avifauna since the publication of the Bird. Atlas of Uganda .... main migration of Black Terns is along the West coast of Africa to wintering areas in. Namibia. Fischer's ... similar to that in which the species occurs in neighbouring Kenya, so its discovery was not so surprising.

  8. Attitudes ofprivate general practitioners towards health care in South

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-19

    Aug 19, 2017 ... There have been call for le s fragmemation of the health care delivery y tern in outh Am a. 10. How would you feel about the public ror health en>ices being inregrated (e.g. a ingle health departmenr which included all national, prO\\>incial rural and 10 al authoritie )?. Strongly agree. Agree. Neutral. Di agree.

  9. Lexicography, Terminography and Copyright

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Language practitioners are positioned between the highly technical rules of copyright law on the one hand and ... used in other standards, in general and technical texts, and in. ternUnology databases ... (Wright .... sive right of making and of authorizing the translation of their works through_ out the term of protection of their ...

  10. A helping hand: artificial nest site provisioning increases breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common white terns Gygis alba lay a single egg balanced on rocks or branches and consequently are at risk of low nesting success. A novel technique of hollowing out coconut husks and providing artificial nest sites was developed on Cousine Island, Seychelles. Our study aimed to critically assess whether common white ...

  11. Sequence Classification: 890642 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tern instead of the wild-type bipolar pattern; Bud14p || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/41629669 ... ...in bud-site selection, Bud14p-Glc7p complex functions as a cortical regulator of dynein; diploid mutants display a random budding pat

  12. Environmental Assessment for Slope Stabilization Projects at Fort MacArthur, San Pedro, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Scientific Name) Common Name (Scientific Name) Black-footed Albatross (Pheobastria nigripes) Spotted Owl (occidentalis ssp.) Black Turnstone (Arenaria...Marine Aquarium, located just south of the wetland. The wetland is a known feeding habitat of the California Least Tern (USAF 2009b), which is not a

  13. Review of Kenya bird records 2011–2014

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L: 2 Olbainita swamp, Kampi ya Moto 28 August 2011 (BF, NH); 20+ Bunyala rice scheme 17 Aug 2013 (MO); 1 Nairobi racecourse 22 Jun 2013 (NH). Inland records have been rare. Grey-headed Gull Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus. L: 1 Nairobi NP 11 Feb 2014 (BF, MD) was the first record for the park. Whiskered Tern ...

  14. Status, biometrics, moult and possible relationships of the South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The breeding population of Roseate Terns in southern Africa was estimated to be 250–260 pairs in 2000. Adult birds caught during ... The two series wing moult of adults begins in the austral winter and lasts through summer; three feather series may be present in the primary remiges of immature birds. Evidence at present ...

  15. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL PATTERN OF PROSTATIC DISEASES lN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Pathology, Bayero University, Kano; Department of Pathology, University of //orin,. K wara* and Department of Pathology, University of Harm Teaching Hospital, Kwara **, Nigeria. Objective: This is a laboratory-based retro- spective study of the histopathological pat- tern of prostatic lesions seen at Jos Univer-.

  16. A shallow-diving seabird predator as an indicator of prey availability in southern California waters: A longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, M. H.; Whitcombe, C. D.

    2015-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the Elegant Tern (Thalasseus elegans), a plunge-diving predator, is an indicator of changes in the prey community in southern California coastal waters. Shannon diversity (H‧) of the tern's diet determined from dropped fish collected variously at the three nesting sites for 18 years over a 21-year interval (1993-2013) showed no significant change in diet diversity. Based on a species-accumulation curve, total diet species represented about 70% of an extrapolated asymptotic richness. Abundance patterns of five prey species making up > 75% of prey numbers for all years were compared with abundance patterns of the same species in independent surveys obtained from zooplankton tows, bottom trawls and power-plant entrapments. Three of the five species - northern anchovy, kelp pipefish and California lizardfish - showed significant, positive correlations between diet and survey abundances. Even though the tern's diet has been dominated by anchovy and pipefish, its diet is still broad, with prey taxa representing > 75% of the 42 species groups making up the California shelf fish fauna. Altogether, our results support the hypothesis that the Elegant Tern, with its flexible diet, is a qualitative indicator, a sentinel, of changes in the prey communities in southern California coastal waters.

  17. Disparate Vitamin D Activity in the Prostate of Men with African Ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    University (Nashville, Tennessee, USA). Criteria for inclusion were self-declared race data, >500 mg of benign frozen prostatectomy specimen, serum...apical recycling pathway of epithelial cells. Nat Commun. 2016;7:11550. 52. Ternes SB, Rowling MJ. Vitamin D transport proteins megalin and disabled -2

  18. The structure of molten ZnCl2: A new analysis of some old data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sin Qr. Qr dr. (2). For neutrons the scattering length of a particular atom can often be altered by changing the isotopic composition of that atom. By measuring the diffraction pat- terns for a sufficient number of isotope variants of the same sample, the set of total diffraction patterns, D(Q), can be inverted in principle to produce a ...

  19. Allocation of optimal distributed generation using GA for minimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distributed generation (DG) is one of the viable options for mitigation of problems of load growth, overloading of lines, quality of supply and reliability in tern extending equipment maintenance intervals and to reduce line losses. However, the line loss reduction is the obvious parameter easily expressible in terms of ...

  20. Progesterone Only Contraception

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    workers often set bad examples by bottle feeding their own childreq. The health and fertility implications of breast feeding pat- terns in developing countries have received much attention in recent years. Prompted in part by the perceived increasing popularity of artificial feeding during the 1970s and by re- ported declines in ...

  1. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cook, T.R.. Vol 86, No 3 (2015) - Articles Egg morphology of Swift Terns in South Africa Abstract. ISSN: 0030-6525. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER ...

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis, characterization and luminescent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    methods, hydrothermal synthesis allows excellent control over particle size, shape, distribution and crystallinity of the material. Synthesis is conducted in a ... terns were recorded on Tecnai G2 S-twin transmission elec- tron microscope with field emission gun operating at 200 kV. Samples for TEM measurements were ...

  3. Konsumentscheidungen bei Vertrauenseigenschaften: Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel des Kaufes von ökologischen Lebensmitteln in Deutschland und Dänemark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2001-01-01

    Beim Kauf von Gütern mit Vertrauenseigenschaften ist eine glaubwürdige Information zentral. Im Beitrag wird der Kauf von ökologischen Lebensmitteln in Deutschland unf Dänemark verglichen, zwei Ländern, in denen die Kennzeichnung ökologischer Produkte unterschiedlich gelöst worden ist. Es zeigt sich...

  4. 40 CFR 420.122 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... best practicable control technology currently available. (a) Galvanizing, terne coating, and other... shall apply only to galvanizing operations which discharge wastewaters from the chromate rinse step. 2 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) (b) Galvanizing and other coatings—(1) Wire products and fasteners...

  5. 40 CFR 420.123 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... best available technology economically achievable. (a) Galvanizing, terne coating and other coatings—(1... 0.0000501 1 The limitations for hexavalent chromium shall be applicable only to galvanizing operations which discharge wastewater from the chromate rinse step. (2) (b) Galvanizing and other coatings—(1...

  6. 40 CFR 420.124 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subject to this subpart shall not exceed the standards set forth below. (a) Galvanizing, terne coating and... hexavalent chromium shall be applicable only to galvanizing operations which discharge wastewaters from the chromate rinse step. 2 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) (b) Galvanizing and other coatings—(1) Wire...

  7. 40 CFR 420.126 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Galvanizing, terne coatings and other coatings—(1) Strip, sheet, and miscellaneous products. Subpart L... chromium shall be applicable only to galvanizing operations which discharge wastewaters from the chromate rinse step. (2) (b) Galvanizing and other coatings—(1) Wire products and fasteners. Subpart L Pollutant...

  8. 40 CFR 420.125 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for existing sources. (a) Galvanizing, terne coating and other coatings—(1) Strip, sheet, and... limitations for hexavalent chromium shall be applicable only to galvanizing operations which discharge wastewaters from the chromate rinse step. (2) (b) Galvanizing and other coatings—(1) Wire products and...

  9. Challenge and Response, Strategies for Survival in a Rapidly Changing Forest Products Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Schuler; Craig Adair; Paul Winistorfer

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. has long been the world's largest market for wood and wood products, fueled by its demand for wood-frame housing. But forest product markets are changing, both in terns of where the products originate (domestically or abroad),and what products are being produced and consumed.

  10. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ac- tivities such as farming very close to water bodies lead to environ- mental degradation with its associated effects. The study was aimed at assessing the effect of land degradation on the flow pat- tern of the Nasia River. To achieve this, rainfall data, vegetation maps, infiltration data, information on Nasia soils and a semi-.

  11. Effective doses associated with the common hybrid scans performed in nuclear medicine to adult patients; Dosis efectivas asociadas a las exploraciones hibridas habituales en medicina nuclear realizadas a pacientes adultos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho Lopez, C.; Garcia Martinez, M. T.; Martin Vidal, J. F.; Falgas Lacuela, M.; Vercher Conejero, J. L.

    2011-07-01

    The main objective of this paper is to outline the effective dose (E) that can be taught in hybrid SPECT-CT scans and PET-CT performed more common in adult patients. E is expressed as the Natural Radiation Equivalent Time (TERN) and consider, for each scan, the percentage of the total dose due to TC.

  12. SHPOLSKII SPECTROFLUORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS IN BIOTA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ARIESE, F; GOOIJER, C; Velthorst, N.H.; Hofstraat, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The applicability of high-resolution Shpol'skii spectrofluorimetry to the direct analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tern and mussel samples was investigated. The sensitivity of the measurements suffered considerably from the large amounts of interfering (e.g., fatty components)

  13. Communication Satellites, 1958-1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-31

    are used practical with a simple stretching of the Intelsat IV/IV-A design. with these bands also. The nations with the largest traffic vol- so...8217ommun1,11iCationIs: Intelsat and Global Pat- Pelton. J . N. and W. W. Wu. "Thie C’lalleii’.e of .s! N1 entur\\ Sat- terns? Spatice C omnimnnit

  14. Motion of Charged Particles in Electromagnetic Fields and Special ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CLASSROOM. 4. System Requirements. Since the software developed was coded in Java, the pro- grams are expected to be platform independent. The users need J ava2 or higher to be installed on their ma- chines. Java2 is available for free from Sun 1,1icrosys- terns. Since the graphics can be demanding on the sys-.

  15. Missouri River Emergent Sandbar Habitat Monitoring Plan - A Conceptual Framework for Adaptive Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfy, Mark H.; Stucker, Jennifer H.; Anteau, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Habitat conditions are one of the most important factors determining distribution and productivity of least terns (Sternula antillarum) and piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) in the upper Missouri River system (Ziewitz and others, 1992; Kruse and others, 2002). Habitat conditions are known to change within and among seasons in response to variation in river flows, weather conditions, and management actions targeted at providing for the needs of terns and plovers. Although these principles are generally agreed upon, there is little empirical information available on the quantity and quality of tern and plover habitats in this system, particularly with reference to the major life history events that must be supported (egg laying, incubation, and brood rearing). Habitat requirements for these events are composed of two major categories: nesting and foraging habitat. In the case of piping plovers, these two requirements must occur on the same area because plover chicks are constrained to foraging near nesting sites prior to fledging (Knetter and others, 2002; Haffner, 2005). In contrast, least terns chicks are fed by the adults, allowing food procurement for broods to occur outside the immediate nesting area; however, food resources must be close enough to nesting locations to minimize foraging time. The complexity and dynamics of the upper Missouri River system introduce considerable uncertainty into how best to manage tern and plover habitats, and how best to evaluate the effectiveness of this management. An extensive program of habitat monitoring will be needed to address this complexity and support the management of least terns and piping plovers under the Missouri River Recovery Program. These needs are being addressed, in part, through a program of habitat creation and management targeted at improving quality and quantity of habitats for terns and plovers. Given the momentum of these projects and their associated costs, it is imperative that the capacity be

  16. Especies nuevas de abejas de Cuba y La Española (Hymenoptera: Colletidae, Megachilidae, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Genaro

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran cinco especies nuevas de abejas antillanas: Collectes granpiedrensis n. sp. (Cuba (Colletidae; Osmia (Diceratosmia stangei n. sp. (República Dominicana; Coelioxys (Cyrtocoelioxys alayoi n. sp. (Cuba; C. (Boreocoelioxys sannicolarensis n. sp. (Cuba (Megachilidae y Triepeolus nisibonensis n. sp. (República Dominicana (ApidaeFive new species of Antillean bees are described and illustrated: Colletes granpiedrensis n. sp. (Cuba (Colletidae is charaterized as follows: Head and mesosoma black, legs and metasoma brown. Dense brown hairs on head and mesosoma; white on frons and metasomal terga. Clypeus, frons and mesosoma with large punctures, lesser on vertex and metasoma. Malar space more wide than long. Male and female slightly similar, except in the apical margin of clypeus, supraclipeal area, and color of the pubescence on legs and sterna; Osmia (Diceratosmia stangei n. sp. (Dominican Republic (Megachilidae is charaterized as follows: Dark metallic green, metasoma black with metallic green reflections. Pubescence light; body with large, closed punctures. Female with violet reflections in tergum III and mandible tridentate; Coelioxys (Cyrtocoelioxys alayoi n. sp. (Cuba (Megachilidae is charaterized as follows: Female black, except basal area of mandibles, tegula, legs, lateral area of tergum I and sterna, reddish brown. Posterior margin of scutellum rounded. Apex of tergum VI with spine curved up. Sternum VI fringed with short, closed setae, and the apex with short spine; Coelioxys (Boreocoelioxys sannicolarensis n. sp. (Cuba (Megachilidae is charaterized as follows: Black, except antenna and tegula brown; legs and sterna reddish brown. Clypeal margin straight in profile. Gradular grooves on metasomal terga II and III distinct medially. Fovea on metasomal tergum II of male deep and short, and Triepeolus nisibonensis n. sp. (Dominican Republic (Apidae is charaterized as follows: Dorsal pubescence (short and dense on mesosoma

  17. Reprodução das aves marinhas nas ilhas costeiras de Santa Catarina, Brasil Reproduction of the seabirds in Santa Catarina's coastal islands, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Olinto Branco

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies involving the reproduction of seabirds in the Santa Catarina coast are scarce. From 1996 to 2002 a sampling program was implanted with the objectives of identifying the ranches, the species and to study some aspects of their reproductive cycle. Five species: Sula leucogaster Boddaert, 1783; Fregata magnificens Matheus, 1914; Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823; Sterna hirundinacea Lesson, 1831; S. eurygnatha Sauders, 1876, breed in the islands of Santa Catarina, with the largest intensity in the period of May to December. The size of the colonies varied in function of the species and of the reproduction area.

  18. Fort Peck Dam/Fort Peck Lake Master Plan with Integrated Programmatic Environmental Assessment, Missouri River, Montana: Update of Design Memorandum MFP-105D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Flammulated owl Otus jlammeolus G4 S3B Forster’s tetn Sterna forsteri G5 S2B Grasshopper span·ow Ammodramus G5 S3B savannarum Greater sage grouse...1991 rebmetpeS fo sa( 000,824,851$ tsoC tcejorP D A M A N D E M B A N K M E N T llifhtrae dellor dna ciluardyH lliF fo epyT sdray cibuc...With the discovery of gold in such locations as Gold Creek and Grasshopper Creek, and the development of boom towns at Virginia City and Helena

  19. Rencontres de Moriond EW 2012: Addressing symmetry breaking and mass hierarchy

    CERN Multimedia

    Pauline Gagnon

    2012-01-01

    Last Friday at the Moriond conference in La Thuile in Italy, Lisa Randall from Harvard University reminded the audience how all fields are related: electroweak symmetry breaking must take into account flavour physics for example. Every good model should address this intrinsic connection.   Despite many expectations, no signs for supersymmetry (SUSY) of any type has been found to date. So Lisa Randall worked with Csaba Csaki and John Terning to explore alternatives and developed a version of supersymmetry built on the Minimal Composite Supersymmetry Standard Model (MCSSM) that Csaki, Shirman, and Terning had developed, incorporating a strongly interacting theory with compositeness that addresses among other things the fact that the top quark is so much heavier than all other quarks. Randall and collaborators showed that this model, when supersymmetry is incorporated, naturally accommodates both a Higgs boson around 125 GeV and a light stop, the supersymmetric partner to the top quark. &a...

  20. Effects of CNS Manipulations on Seizures Induced by Monomethylhydrazine Administration in the Cat: Spinal Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    cortical distribution (Howe and Sterman, 1972), both pat- terns appear to be associated with the suppression of peripheral motor excitability ( Hongo et al...sensorimotor cortical EEG patterns correlate with central suppressive or inhibitory processes ( Hongo et al., 1963; Roth et al., 1967; Wyrwicka and...electro- encephalographic study. Exp. Neurol. 63: 420-435. Hongo , T. K., Kubota, K. and Shimazu, H. (1963). EEG spindle and depression of gamma motor

  1. Tangible computer programming: Exploring the use of emerging technology in classrooms and science museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Michael S.

    In considering ways to improve the use of digital technology in educational settings, it is helpful to look beyond desktop computers and conventional modes of interaction and consider the flood of emerging technologies that already play a prominent role in the everyday lives of children. In this dissertation, I will present a research project that builds on tangible user interface (TUI) technology to support computer programming and robotics activities in education settings. In particular, I will describe the design and implementation of a novel tangible computer programming language called Tern. I will also describe an evaluation of Tern's use in both formal and informal educational settings--as part of an interactive exhibit on robotics and computer programming called Robot Park on display at the Boston Museum of Science; and as part of a curriculum unit piloted in several kindergarten classrooms in the greater Boston area. In both cases, Tern allows children to create simple computer programs to control a robot. However, rather than using a keyboard or mouse to write programs on a computer screen, children instead use Tern to construct physical algorithmic structures using a collection of interlocking wooden blocks. The goal of this work is not to propose that tangible programming languages are general purpose tools that should replace existing graphical programming languages; rather, I will present evidence to support the argument that tangible programming begins to make sense when one considers the contexts and constraints of specific educational settings. Moreover, in these settings tangible languages can compensate for some of the shortcomings of graphical and text-based systems that have limited their use.

  2. JPRS Report Science & Technology USSR: Life Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-09

    Allogenic Tumors Extracts on Development, in Calves, of Experimental Infection by Bovine Leukemia Virus [R. A. Kukayn, L. I. Nagayeva, et al...indirect immunofluorescence revealed a variegated pat- tern of respiratory viruses ( parainfluenza , respiratory- syncytial, influenza B, adenovirus...USSR Academy of Sciences] [Abstract] Transgenic mice (3 with bovine growth hor- mone genome and 4 with fragments of DNA of adeno- virus SSA7) and

  3. Status Report on Speech Research. A Report on the Status and Progress of Studies on the Nature of Speech, Instrumentation for Its Investigation, and Practical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    influenced by articulatory interference of the type involved in tongue twisters as well as by the factors producing higher-level slips of the tongue . However...consonant pattern and an ABAB (li/-/E/-/il-/E/) vowel pat- tern in the well-known tongue twister cited above. Our CV nonsense test syll- ables were...presented auditorily to subjects in this tongue twister format, four syllables at a time, such that the consonant pattern of presentation was ABBA and the

  4. Convergent Diversity and Trait Composition in Temporary Streams and Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-19

    susceptible to losses in biodiversity than their terrestrial coun- terparts (Dudgeon et al. 2006). Therefore, pat- terns in trait similarity and beta diversity...Additionally, beta diversity—both ‘turnover’ and ‘variation’ beta (Anderson et al. 2011)—may be a more in- formative measure of the effects of...locations and turnover beta diversity measures change in community structure along a particular gra- dient. Thus, characterizing and comparing the

  5. Environmental Impact Study of The Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River, Minnesota River Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    COMPOSITAE (Continued) IGrindelia qurrs Curlycup-gumweed Helianthus occidentczlisI Wes tern sunflower Heli- anthus petiolarus Petioled sunflower P He iopsis he...dichotomiftorm Spreading witch grass P Pania= virgatwn Switch grass P Phalaris arundinacea Canary grass Poa palustris Fowl meadow-grass P Poa pratensis Blue grass...Herbs Yellow jewelweed. Impatiens pillida Kentucky bluegrass Poa Nettle Urtica procera pratensis Sweet cicely 03z:ohiza sp. I A-44 Table 3. Vegetation of

  6. U.S. Air Force Environmental Assessment, Steam Decentralization Project, Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    antillarum Least Tern E E Tyto alba Barn Owl SS2 Vireo atricapillus Black-Capped Vireo E Mammals Marmota monax Woodchuck SS2 Reptiles Phrynosoma...Occurring on Tinker AFB 1 Common Name Scientific Name State Rank American White Pelican Pelecanus erythrorhynchos S3N Barn Owl Tyto alba SS2...pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), barn owl (Tyto alba), burrowing owl (Athene 14 cunicularia), migrant loggerhead shrike (Lanis ludovicianus

  7. Immunotherapeutic Strategies in Breast Cancer:Preclinical and Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Lanzavec- chia A, Alber G. Ligation of CD40 on dendritic cells triggers production of high levels of interleukin-12 and enhances T cell stimulatory... seeded on three-dimen- sional matrices of collagen I, form extracellular matrix-rich pat- terned networks that surround clusters of tumor cells; however...Investigational supply 15.41 Formulation and Storage Montanide ISA-51 or Montanide ISA-51 VG is an oil -based adjuvant product similar to Incomplete

  8. Langfristige Diversifikationseffekte an den internationalen Immobilienaktienmärkten

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, Felix

    2009-01-01

    Durch ihre Standortgebundenheit unterliegen Immobilien im Gegensatz zu anderen Vermögensgütern verstärkt lokalen, regionalen sowie nationalen Einflüssen und Risiken Daher ist aus portfoliotheoretischen Gesichtspunkten gerade bei Immobilieninvestitionen eine internationale Diversifikation der Risiken anzustreben. Sowohl für den institutionellen als auch für den privaten Anleger wirft die globale Ausrichtung eines Immobilienportfolios allerdings die Frage auf, über welche Märkte langfristig die...

  9. Garrison Dam/Lake Sakakawea Master Plan with Integrated Programmatic Environmental Assessment, Missouri River, Montana: Update of Design Memorandum MGR-107D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-14

    earthworms) Hirudinea (leeches) Arthropoda Crustacea Anostraca (fairy shrimp) Conchostraca (clam shrimp) Cladocera (water fleas ) Copepoda...courtship, the terns will mate . Eggs are laid in a nest bowl that is a shallow scrape in the sand, soil, or pebbles. The eggs are laid at a rate of...2007 2-75 INSECTS Flea beetle species Altica nancyae S2/G? Range grasses Dakota skipper Hesperia dacotae S2/G2 Tall grass and mid-grass prairie

  10. ONR (Office of Naval Research) Far East Scientific Information Bulletin. Volume 13, Number 4, October-December 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    Levitated Vehicles by Super- Harima Heavy Industries presented "Of conducting Magnets." This prototype sys- Present and Future Space Structures, Their tern...Steel Co., Ltd. The Sumitomo Bank, Ltd. Nippon Yakin Kogyo Co., Ltd.* The Taiyo Kobe Bank, Ltd. Kanto Special Steel Works, Ltd.* Ishikawajima - Harima ... Heavy Industries Co., Ltd.* Kubota, Ltd. Toshiba Corp. Pacific Metals Co., Ltd. NEC Corp. Yodogawa Steel Works, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. Showa Denko K.K

  11. PENGARUH SENI RUPA ISLAM TERHADAP PERKEMBANGAN SENI LUKIS MODERN DI EROPA

    OpenAIRE

    Iswahyudi Iswahyudi

    2016-01-01

    Ada dugaan kuat, bahwa percikan-percikan ckspmi x n i rupa Islam dapat menjadi inrpirasi para perupa modern. Pengaruh ini mulai tern, kclib Islam masuk di Andalusia, Spanyol pada tahun 711 M. Setelah melewati mas perangsalib pada abad XI - XII, seni Islam krpengaruh kembali mclalui masa renairsns dan herlanjul sampai masa modern. BerdasarLan pengalaman dcngan memiliki xni Huik yang kncmakan gereja. mab seni rupa modern yang bcrkembang di Empa telah mcnyngkat harkat para ncru...

  12. Pengaruh Seni Rupa Islam terhadap Perkembangan Seni Lukis Modern di Eropa

    OpenAIRE

    Iswahyudi, Iswahyudi

    1997-01-01

    Ada dugaan kuat, bahwa percikan-percikan ckspmi x n i rupa Islam dapatmenjadi inrpirasi para Perupa modern. Pengaruh ini mulai tern, kclib Islam masuk diAndalusia, Spanyol pada tahun 711 M. Setelah melewati mas perangsalib pada abad XI - XII, seni Islam krpengaruh kembali mclalui masa renairsns dan herlanjul sampaimasa modern.BerdasarLan pengalaman dcngan memiliki xni Huik yang kncmakan gereja.mab seni rupa modern yang bcrkembang di Empa telah mcnyngkat harkat parancruru untuk men~enhuiia ti ...

  13. Population dynamics of Hawaiian seabird colonies vulnerable to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Jeff S.; Reynolds, Michelle H.; Seavy, Nathaniel E.; Krause, Crystal M.

    2012-01-01

    Globally, seabirds are vulnerable to anthropogenic threats both at sea and on land. Seabirds typically nest colonially and show strong fidelity to natal colonies, and such colonies on low-lying islands may be threatened by sea-level rise. We used French Frigate Shoals, the largest atoll in the Hawaiian Archipelago, as a case study to explore the population dynamics of seabird colonies and the potential effects sea-level rise may have on these rookeries. We compiled historic observations, a 30-year time series of seabird population abundance, lidar-derived elevations, and aerial imagery of all the islands of French Frigate Shoals. To estimate the population dynamics of 8 species of breeding seabirds on Tern Island from 1980 to 2009, we used a Gompertz model with a Bayesian approach to infer population growth rates, density dependence, process variation, and observation error. All species increased in abundance, in a pattern that provided evidence of density dependence. Great Frigatebirds (Fregata minor), Masked Boobies (Sula dactylatra), Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda), Spectacled Terns (Onychoprion lunatus), and White Terns (Gygis alba) are likely at carrying capacity. Density dependence may exacerbate the effects of sea-level rise on seabirds because populations near carrying capacity on an island will be more negatively affected than populations with room for growth. We projected 12% of French Frigate Shoals will be inundated if sea level rises 1 m and 28% if sea level rises 2 m. Spectacled Terns and shrub-nesting species are especially vulnerable to sea-level rise, but seawalls and habitat restoration may mitigate the effects of sea-level rise. Losses of seabird nesting habitat may be substantial in the Hawaiian Islands by 2100 if sea levels rise 2 m. Restoration of higher-elevation seabird colonies represent a more enduring conservation solution for Pacific seabirds.

  14. Precision Control and Maneuvering of the Phoenix Autonomous Underwater Vehicle for Entering a Recovery Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Southeast. *1(1 4 North (x world) (ft] 4 12-, actual r y path 10 p Iann ed ecov path re~cove tube 4 2 0 -- 2 . -4 -6 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 l.ast ->(y~world...tern, software development using the UVW. S 0 • • • • • • • North (x woorld) Ifi] (f) 12 actual r path -- 10 p lann ecove ppath .. recover tite - -- 8

  15. Evaluation of Insecticides, Repellents, and Other Approaches to the Control of Coastal Stand Flies, Culicoides spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    studies on species composition, seasonal inci- dence, and relative abundance of adult Culicoidee, and spatial and temporal pat- terns of larval abundance... CLASIFICATION OF TIS PAGE (When Dote We 84 015 15I 223 SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE 1Ih Doe ae.4 Block 20: ankeetown. Culicoides furena is the dominant...o.......... 9B. Population Dynamics ................................... .... 12 1. Adult species Composition and Seasonal Abundance

  16. Bilder auf der virtuellen Landkarte

    OpenAIRE

    Bove, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Ob Standorte von Kirchen in Deutschland, Schlössern und Rittergütern in Sachsen oder Mühlen in Brandenburg, ob hausnummerngenauer Nachweis von Wohnhäusern in der Dresdner Neustadt oder der Sammlungsorte von Kunstwerken – seit Sommer 2007 können die geografischen Bezüge der Aufnahmen aus der Bilddatenbank der Deutschen Fotothek komfortabel und übersichtlich auf Karten- und Satellitenbildern dargestellt werden.

  17. Economics | Page 6 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les perspectives économiques des pays industrialisés étant plutôt ternes, la croissance mondiale sera désormais tributaire du commerce avec les pays en ... Le 28e ouvrage de la collection Canada Among Nations revient sur la crise financière mondiale de 2008 et examine son impact au Canada ainsi que le rôle que le ...

  18. Strukturstudie "BWShare" - Gemeinschaftliche Nutzung von Ressourcen: Chancen und Herausforderungen der Sharing Economy für die etablierte Wirtschaft in Baden-Württemberg

    OpenAIRE

    Spindler, Helge; Martinetz, Simone; Friz, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Car Sharing, Wohnungs-Sharing, Tauschbörsen etc. prägen aktuell stark das Bild einer "Wirtschaft des Teilens" von Gütern und Dienstleistungen in der Öffentlichkeit. Kommerzialisierte digitale Vermittlungsplattformen erfahren großen Zuspruch von Konsumenten und viel mediale Aufmerksamkeit. "Sharing" als gemeinschaftliche Nutzung unausgelasteter Ressourcen von Privatpersonen und Unternehmen im Sinne von "Nutzen statt Besitzen" zu begreifen, eröffnet auch etablierten Wirtschaftszweigen eventuell...

  19. Metabolic Effects of Infection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    about the tions of glucagon, insulin, glucocorticoids , cate- mechanisms that regulate the rates of lipid re- cholamines, and growth hormone increase...from an acute period of fever may be followed energy-generating responses during infection. In by diuresis in early convalescence, contrast, several...common in infections of the central nervous sys- The adrenal glucocorticoid hormones serve a tern and may occur during severe generalized central but

  20. Adult Attachment Style, Hardiness, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Maddi, S. R. (2004). Hardiness: An operationalization of existential cour- age. Journal of Humanistic Psychology , 44, 279–298. doi: 10.1177...but not challenge, predict positive mood. These results suggest that more secure attachment style and psychological hardiness serve as resilience...S. (1978). Pat- terns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hill- sdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Ainsworth, M. D. S., & Wittig, B. A

  1. Truckee Meadows (Reno-Sparks Metropolitan Area) Nevada: Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    and the bald eagle. There are also numerous passeriforms (perching birds ), woodpeckers, hummingbirds, swifts, owls, gulls, terns and the double...preservation, and fish habitat improvements. These enhancement measures contribute to two Federal programs: the Migratory Bird Conservation Act and the...crowned night heron, great blue heron, long-billed marsh wren, red-winged blackbirds, and sora and Virginia rails. FWS lists four birds occurring in

  2. Estimating KC-137 Aircraft Ownership Costs in the Brazilian Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    voadas pelo esquad~o, 1996 por ano (soma de todlas as aeronaves) Consumno de combustivel por hora Consumno de 6Ieo por hora Consumo de outros...Manutengdo 2.2.1.1 Materiais de Aeronaves Este parece ser urn item dificil. Ele inclui o custo de materials de consumo e pegas usados regularmente...itens, repar~veis, consumo , ferramentas, etc. Ser6 que o suprirnento do Parque tern como fornecer este apanhado geral? Se for necess~rio (e possivel

  3. Characterization and Monitoring Data for Evaluating Constructed Emergent Sandbar Habitat in the Missouri River Mainstem 2004-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duberstein, Corey A.

    2011-04-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) provides the primary operational management of the Missouri River Main Stem Reservoir System. Management of the Missouri River has generally reduced peak river flows that form and maintain emergent sandbar habitat. Emergent sandbars provide non-vegetated nesting habitat for the endangered interior least tern (Sternula antillarum athalassos) and the threatened Northern Great Plains piping plover (Charadrius melodus). Since 2000, piping plover nesting habitat within the Gavins Point Reach, Garrison Reach, Lake Oahe, and Lake Sakakawea has fledged the majority of piping plovers produced along the Missouri River system. Habitats within Lewis and Clark Lake have also recently become important plover production areas. Mechanical construction of emergent sandbar habitat (ESH) within some of these reaches within the Missouri River began in 2004. Through 2009, 11 sandbar complexes had been constructed (10 in Gavins Point Reach, 1 in Lewis and Clarke Lake) totaling about 543 ac of piping plover and interior least tern nesting habitat. ESH Construction has resulted in a net gain of tern and plover nesting habitat. Both terns and plovers successfully nest and fledge young on constructed sandbars, and constructed habitats were preferred over natural habitats. Natural processes may limit the viability of constructed sandbars as nesting habitat. Continued research is needed to identify if changes in constructed sandbar engineering and management increase the length of time constructed habitats effectively function as nesting habitat. However, the transfer of information from researchers to planners through technical research reports may not be timely enough to effectively foster the feedback mechanisms of an adaptive management strategy.

  4. Assessment of the seabird community of the Mozambique Channel and its potential use as an indicator of tuna abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Corre, Matthieu; Jaquemet, Sébastien

    2005-05-01

    Tropical seabirds are known to associate with aggregations of surface dwelling predators, like tunas when feeding. Some species are even regarded as near obligate commensals of tunas. As food is one of the main factors that shape breeding strategies and determine breeding success of seabirds, it is of interest to test the hypothesis that variations in tuna abundance may have effects on foraging success and thus on breeding parameters of tropical seabirds. The Mozambique Channel is appropriate for such a study because relative tuna abundance is assessed annually (through fishery catches) and seabird populations are abundant. A regional synopsis shows that at least 3.034 million pairs of seabirds breed on islands of the Mozambique Channel, 99.3% being sooty terns. This super-abundant seabird is strongly associated with tuna and marine mammals when feeding. More than 99% of the sooty tern population of the Mozambique Channel breeds at three remote coralline islands, namely Juan de Nova (66%), Europa (25%) and Glorieuses (9%). Various breeding parameters (breeding population size, breeding time, growth rate of the chicks, daily food intake, diet) are studied at these three sites in order to investigate their relation to the marine environment (including tuna abundance). A preliminary estimate is made of the quantity of food eaten by the sooty tern population.

  5. Mercury bioaccumulation and risk to three waterbird foraging guilds is influenced by foraging ecology and breeding stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; de la Cruz, S.E.W.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated mercury (Hg) in five waterbird species representing three foraging guilds in San Francisco Bay, CA. Fish-eating birds (Forster's and Caspian terns) had the highest Hg concentrations in thier tissues, but concentrations in an invertebrate-foraging shorebird (black-necked stilt) were also elevated. Foraging habitat was important for Hg exposure as illustrated by within-guild differences, where species more associated with marshes and salt ponds had higher concentrations than those more associated with open-bay and tidal mudflats. Importantly, Hg concentrations increased with time spent in the estuary. Surf scoter concentrations tripled over six months, whereas Forster's terns showed an up to 5-fold increase between estuary arrival and breeding. Breeding waterbirds were at elevated risk of Hg-induced reproductive impairment, particularly Forster's terns, in which 48% of breeding birds were at high risk due to their Hg??levels. Our results highlight the importance of habitat and exposure timing, in addition to trophic position, on waterbird Hg bioaccumulation and risk.

  6. Mercury bioaccumulation and risk to three waterbird foraging guilds is influenced by foraging ecology and breeding stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A., E-mail: ceagles-smith@usgs.go [U.S. Geological Survey, Western Ecological Research Center, Davis Field Station, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Ackerman, Joshua T. [U.S. Geological Survey, Western Ecological Research Center, Davis Field Station, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); De La Cruz, Susan E.W.; Takekawa, John Y. [U.S. Geological Survey, Western Ecological Research Center, San Francisco Bay Estuary Field Station, 505 Azuar Drive, Vallejo, CA 94592 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    We evaluated mercury (Hg) in five waterbird species representing three foraging guilds in San Francisco Bay, CA. Fish-eating birds (Forster's and Caspian terns) had the highest Hg concentrations in thier tissues, but concentrations in an invertebrate-foraging shorebird (black-necked stilt) were also elevated. Foraging habitat was important for Hg exposure as illustrated by within-guild differences, where species more associated with marshes and salt ponds had higher concentrations than those more associated with open-bay and tidal mudflats. Importantly, Hg concentrations increased with time spent in the estuary. Surf scoter concentrations tripled over six months, whereas Forster's terns showed an up to 5-fold increase between estuary arrival and breeding. Breeding waterbirds were at elevated risk of Hg-induced reproductive impairment, particularly Forster's terns, in which 48% of breeding birds were at high risk due to their Hg levels. Our results highlight the importance of habitat and exposure timing, in addition to trophic position, on waterbird Hg bioaccumulation and risk. - The influence of foraging habitat, trophic position, and exposure timing on mercury bioaccumulation and risk to reproduction is evaluated in three waterbird guilds.

  7. Regional Lymphotropic Therapy in Combination with Low Level Laser Therapy for Treating Multi-Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Dogorova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the growing incidence of Multi-Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB in newly identified patients, novel multimodality treatment methods are needed, aimed at reducing the time to sputum conversion and cavity healing, which would be applicable in MDR cases. Our experimental treatment consisted of the following: 1 chemotherapy based on the drug sensitivity profile, 2 local laser irradiation therapy for 25 days, and lymphotropic administration of isoniazid (to subcutaneous tissue in alternating locations: underarm area; fifth intercostal space along the sterna border; subclavian area where the first rib meets the sternum in a daily dose of 10mg/kg 5 times a week. This treatment was significantly more effective in newly detected destructive MDR-TB versus the standard Category IV regimen for MDR-TB in terms of reduced time for sputum culture conversion and cavity healing, estimated to be 6 months after initiation of treatment.

  8. ANÁLISE TERMODINÂMICA DA DESTERPENAÇÃO DO ÓLEO DA CASCA DE LARANJA COM CO2 SUPERCRÍTICO A PARTIR DE UMA MISTURA SINTÉTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio A.B. VIEIRA DE MELO

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available O projeto do processo de desterpenação do óleo da casca de laranja com CO2 supercrítico exige o bom conhecimento do comportamento de fases da mistura envolvida. Neste trabalho, faz-se uma análise termodinâmica preliminar desse processo, calculando-se a seletividade a partir da modelagem do equilíbrio líquido-vapor (ELV para o sistema CO2-limoneno-linalol, com base em dados ternários medidos recentemente. Utilizou-se uma modificação da equação de Peng-Robinson e, com dados binários de ELV, avaliou-se a sua capacidade preditiva considerando-se 2 aspectos: a predição do equilíbrio a uma certa temperatura usando-se os parâmetros estimados em outra temperatura e a predição do comportamento de fases do sistema ternário com os parâmetros estimados dos sistemas binários. Foram determinados também os parâmetros de interação entre limoneno e linalol a partir dos dados experimentais do ternário.Process design for supercritical CO2 deterpenation of orange peel oil requires accurate knowledge of phase behavior. This work is focused on modeling high-pressure vapor-liquid equilibrium for the ternary system CO2-limonene-linalool, owing to do a preliminary thermodynamics analysis of this process based on calculated selectivity values. A modification of Peng-Robinson equation of state was adopted to regress binary interaction parameters from experimental VLE data and its capacity for temperature extrapolating calculations was investigated. A comparison of ternary VLE obtained from the respective binary systems and that calculated using additionally ternary informations was done.

  9. Legacy and contemporary persistent organic pollutants in North Pacific albatross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwani, Suhash; Henry, Robert W; Rhee, Alexandra; Kappes, Michelle A; Croll, Donald A; Petreas, Myrto; Park, June-Soo

    2011-11-01

    Here we report the first measurements of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE 47, 99, and 153) alongside 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 28 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the plasma of albatross from breeding colonies distributed across a large spatial east-west gradient in the North Pacific Ocean. North Pacific albatross are wide-ranging, top-level consumers that forage in pelagic regions of the North Pacific Ocean, making them an ideal sentinel species for detection and distribution of marine contaminants. Our work on contaminant burdens in albatross tissue provides information on transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to the remote North Pacific and serves as a proxy for regional environmental quality. We sampled black-footed (Phoebastria nigripes; n = 20) and Laysan albatross (P. immutabilis; n = 19) nesting on Tern Island, Hawaii, USA, and Laysan albatross (n = 16) nesting on Guadalupe Island, Mexico. Our results indicate that North Pacific albatross are highly exposed to both PCBs and OCPs, with levels ranging from 8.8 to 86.9 ng/ml wet weight and 7.4 to 162.3 ng/ml wet weight, respectively. A strong significant gradient exists between Laysan albatross breeding in the Eastern Pacific, having approximately 1.5-fold and 2.5-fold higher levels for PCBs and OCPs, respectively, compared to those from the Central Pacific. Interspecies levels of contaminants within the same breeding site also showed high variation, with Tern black-footed albatross having approximately threefold higher levels of both PCBs and OCPs than Tern Laysan albatross. Surprisingly, while PBDEs are known to travel long distances and bioaccumulate in wildlife of high trophic status, we detected these three PBDE congeners only at trace levels ranging from not detectable (ND) to 0.74 ng/ml wet weight in these albatross. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  10. The phosphorus content of fluvial suspended sediment in three lowland groundwater-dominated catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantine, Deborah J.; Walling, Desmond E.; Collins, Adrian L.; Leeks, Graham J. L.

    2008-07-01

    SummaryThis paper reports an investigation of the phosphorus (P) content of fluvial suspended sediment samples collected from three lowland groundwater-dominated agricultural catchments in the UK. In-stream trap samplers were installed at a total of 21 locations in the catchments of the Rivers Frome and Piddle in Dorset and in the Upper Tern in Shropshire, UK. Time-integrated suspended sediment samples ( n = 187) were collected at regular intervals over a period of 22 months and analysed for total phosphorus (TP), inorganic phosphorus (IP), organic phosphorus (OP) and algal available phosphorus (AAP). TP concentrations varied between sampling sites in the Rivers Frome and Piddle, allowing key P inputs to be identified, while fractionation of P assisted in identifying the nature of these inputs. There was also significant variation in both the TP concentration and the concentration of individual fractions between the Frome and Piddle catchments and the Upper Tern. These contrasts were attributed to the differing underlying geologies, since the Frome and Piddle are underlain predominantly by chalk, whilst the Upper Tern is underlain by sandstone, and also to the different soil types present. The TP content of suspended sediment collected from the Frome catchment showed a statistically significant relationship with specific surface area, but this relationship was not found for the remaining catchments. Temporal variation in P concentrations at both the seasonal and event scale was also investigated. Seasonal variations were noted for TP concentrations and for the concentrations of IP, OP and AAP in all the study catchments, but no consistent seasonal patterns were discernible. Maximum and minimum concentrations of the individual fractions occurred during different months in each of the study catchments, suggesting that different controls operated in the individual catchments. Short-term temporal variations in TP concentrations were documented for two high flow events

  11. Analysis of Long-Term Diet Changes in Tropical Seabirds Using Naturally Occurring Stable Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilchis, I.; Ballance, L.

    2010-12-01

    A clear understanding of ecosystem response to past environmental changes will provide more accurate interpretations of current ecosystem trends. With this mindset, we investigated the effects of the 1976/77 regime shift in the Pacific Ocean on a tropical pelagic community of apex predators. Using study skins from museum collections from 1960 to 2006, we measured stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes for a suite of ecologically and phylogenetically diverse seabirds from the eastern Pacific warm pool. In this region, seabirds generally forage by depending on subsurface predators to drive prey to the surface or by associating with oceanographic features that increase productivity or aggregate prey in space and time. We found that annual δ15N means from Sooty Terns’ (Onychoprion fuscatus) feathers decreased by 2.98‰, while all other species did not show any significant trends over the study period. Annual δ13C means from feathers of Sooty Terns, Wedge-tailed Shearwaters (Puffinus pacificus), Red-footed Boobies (Sula sula) and Juan Fernandez Petrels (Petrodroma externa) decreased by an average of 1.02‰, at rates between 0.01 and 0.02 δ13C‰ per year-1. Our results do not suggest a response of the seabird community to the 1976/77 regime shift. Instead, they are consistent with a trophic shift and/or change in foraging area for Sooty Terns and a long-term decrease in feather δ13C for the eastern Pacific warm pool seabird community. This long-term decrease in feather δ13C is most likely due to the Suess effect and less likely due to a decline in primary productivity of the system. We hypothesize that a deepening trend in thermocline depth in the eastern Pacific warm pool affected Sooty Terns more than other species in the subsurface predator-dependent guild that depend less on smaller subsurface predators like skipjack tuna.

  12. Penetration Study: Behavioral Aspects of Decisions under Uncertainty during Weapon System Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    R1 How DCAA Uses Risk Analysis In Planning and Programming Audits DESCRIPTIVE NOTE: The Internal Auditor June, 1979 Neuman, Frederick...By employing risk analysis, DCAA has been able to optimize the use of limited auditor resources in meeting its audit responsibilities. Not only are we...conceotual cost model to ne =cve~oned. Ent-ocy is a ieasire of information in a sistem . Tre tern -eferS to (U) 161i IR E~R.C;T CCUhWEmTATIO?4 PAGE ~ ~ ~~ C

  13. Cooperative Networked Control of Dynamical Peer-to-Peer Vehicle Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-28

    and practical benefits . First, it can be used to identify new classes of infinite state systems for whuich the model chccking prol,cm is provably...layer where each icle acts as an antenna and several nodes collaborat:e to provide many of the same benefits including diversity, range extensin, and...Specifying and proving properties of timodec f/O aultlolliata in the TIOA toolkit. In Fourth ACAI -ISEEE I7),tern,ationd Conference on P1rtul, HdeIhods a

  14. Der Nürnberger Prozeß und Täterinnenforschung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Ziegeldorf

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Auf der Grundlage der Quellenpublikation des Nürnberger Prozesses gegen die Hauptkriegsverbrecher wird die Frage nach der Relevanz dieses Materials für die Täterinnenforschung aufgeworfen. Entgegen dem allgemeinen Ansatz wird nicht für einen direkten Vergleich zwischen männlichen und weiblichen Tätern plädiert, sondern nach neuen Zugängen und Ansätzen gefragt. Damit wird Gewalt nicht als ausschließlich männlich begriffen.

  15. America’s Response to International Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-02

    8217 - it~-’’ir-altsrr4r:m. Can not tZ allcLJed t= conMtinu--. Thm:ra ccnz~~n~u: am rMn: LIe n1t an: tha teror doe tet en internaitn anal order and must be...betueen different countries, and border controls are dimini-hing. particularly in We--tern Europe : and, most important, in an ame when weapons of mass...people of the United States, but their a "" activities are global. More than 85% of the world’s terrorist acts occur in Western Europe , Latin America, and

  16. Discovering Structure in High-Dimensional Data Through Correlation Explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-08

    Intelligent systems should be able to learn robust and general pat- terns in the face of rich inputs even in the absence of labels to define what is important...Machine Intelligence , IEEE Transactions on, 35(8):1798–1828, 2013. [27] Geoffrey E Hinton and Ruslan R Salakhutdinov. Reducing the dimensionality of data...Sinoquet, Nevin L Zhang, Tengfei Liu, Philippe Leray, et al. A survey on latent tree models and applications. J. Artif . Intell. Res.(JAIR), 47:157–203

  17. Organizing as becoming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs; Schulze, Pernille

    -terns of institutionalization. Variation occurs in terms of two different discourses, creating dif-ferent types of legitimacy, and is explained by combining an institutional approach and the becoming perspective based on the notion of timespace, thus bridging realism and social con-structivism. Theoretically, the paper points...... to how realism and social constructivism can be bridged by focusing timespace within a qualitative methodology. Practically, the paper lends more support to new public governance than to the prevailing discourse of new public man-agement....

  18. Experimental Crack Sealing in Asphaltic Concrete Pavements. Thule Air Base. Greenland, 8-24 August 1960

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-07-01

    snow in t-he snrin- enter t’ c pavenent1 cr cks and tern- to hasten t!a S and de~ radation of the surface- o-f’ the O.-afost subat.,e. At the tilme...1!4 .4 .. 4k; u u 4- - *0 4~ 0 443 -P 4 O 0 $ 4> 4’ 0 (D $4 r. 4) U)4a 43c to 0D 0. - rf Ho CU 𔃺 * t o0 1. 0 ( U %D 0 c lt’ i* m* H i .o t’ 0* co* 0

  19. La réalité de l'aviculture villageoise au Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kounta, AOS.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Village poultry production reality in Mali. The social and economical importance of poultry in Mali, must incite the political and administrative responsibles of years 1992 to 2045 to set up a policy of poultry preservation which will be mainly based on zoosanitary improvement. Avian products should be of first use in the fight against a lack of protein in our country. Their consumption will qualitatively and quantitatively improved the feeding ration of our populations in conformity with the policy of food self sufficiency in a poor country, in tern of pasture and water in the case of Mali.

  20. Biochemical Systematics and Population Genetic Structure of Anopheles Pseudopunctipennis, Vector of Malaria in Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Salud , Arica, Chile; Centro de Investigation de Paludismo, Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico Abstract. An electrophoretic survey of 42 populations of...screened using three different buffers: the lithium buffer systemls (LiOH, pH 8.5), the morpholine buffer sys- ternI (morph, pH 6.1), and the Tris...citrate buffer system*O (TCss, pH 6.7). Of the 45 enzyme systems tested, 25 showed good allelic resolution, including 33 putative loci (Table 2). For

  1. Installation Restoration Program. Phase 1: Records Search, Beale AFB, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-25

    soils are shallow to moderately deep, medium textured , and are gravelly and rocky formed from "greenstone". The soils occur in a complex pat- tern...of pest control agents currently in use or storage. Some herbicides were stor-ed and applied by the Pavement and Grounds Shop (Building 2565) prior to...sludge 4-22 5,, S• ii0a • .- U 0 . S S4-2C- j "\\ -. a. a ’i. %i• drying beds and a 3 million gallon polishing pond. During the summer period, a portion of

  2. Grazing and soil erosion in dehesas of SW Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnabel, S.; Gomez Gutierrez, A.; Lavado Contador, J. L.

    2009-07-01

    Water erosion and its relation to livestock grazing in semi-arid to dry sub humid Mediterranean rangelands with a disperse tree cover is analyzed, based on a variety of studies carried out since 1990 in Extremadure, Spain. The dominant factors of sheet wash are rainfall intensity and soil surface cover, the latter being controlled by rainfall amounts and livestock density. The discontinuous valley bottom gullies present a complex relationship with catchment hydrology. giving the high temporal variability of sediment losses, the influence of livestock on gully erosion is difficult to determine with short-tern studied. (Author) 4 refs.

  3. Ecosystem-based management objectives for the North Sea: riding the forage fish rollercoaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickey-Collas, Mark; Engelhard, Georg H.; Rindorf, Anna

    2014-01-01

    of fisheries on FF will have economic consequences for all fleets in the North Sea. The predators that are vulnerable to the depletion of FF are Sandwich terns, great skua and common guillemots, and to a lesser extent, marine mammals. Comparative evaluations of management strategies are required to consider...... whether maintaining the reserves of prey biomass or a more integral approach of monitoring mortality rates across the trophic system is more robust under the ecosystem approach. In terms of trophic energy transfer, stability, and resilience of the ecosystem, FF should be considered as both a sized...

  4. Pattern of species succession of soft-bottom macrofauna in the estuaries of Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harkantra, S.N.; Rodrigues, N.R.

    t terns has to be tested by manipulative exper i ments 5,7,8 . Similarly, e arly succession of grazer Amphipoda, U. platydactyla and later by deposit feeder Echiurida, Th a lassema sp. at site M1 can be explained by tolerance and facilitative mo d... to be ascertained from the long - term moni toring of the macr o benthos. Manipulative experiments are needed to understand the species interactions and infl u- ence of biotic factors. Based on our study, we designate C. a n nandalei , M. casta , U...

  5. A Discussion of Issues in Need of Resolution: Toward a Specification of the Decision Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    that unique. When we talk about the behavior of nations in ordinary (as opposed to theoretical) language terns we constantly make reference to telco ...would essentially involve the 15 HflMMftr - .. —-.-■■ iSte^MMtW^äU — -" - ■•-𔃻- -■■ -^—-^ Illlllll^l ■■ ■—pp. immwmm comparison of...conceptualized there are essentially two types of communication linkages that must be dealt with: 1) the linkage between the national decision

  6. Ein Multiagentensystem zur Verhandlungsautomatisierung in elektronischen Märkten

    OpenAIRE

    Vetter, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Der elektronische Handel von Sachgütern über das Internet (E-Commerce) gewinnt für Unternehmen und Konsumenten immer mehr an Bedeutung. Für einen effektiven Ablauf sollten möglichst viele Phasen der Geschäftstransaktionen durch IT-Systeme unterstützt oder automatisiert werden. Heutzutage beinhalten jedoch nur wenige E-Commerce-Anwendungen die wichtige Verhandlungsphase. Es fehlt die Möglichkeit zu komplexen Verhandlungen über mehrere Vertragsattribute zwischen vielen Teilnehmern. Eine geeigne...

  7. Innovating a business model for services with storytelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Morten

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the notion of business models has been able to innovate the way companies create new business opportunities. However, because business models most often constitute on a complex interplay of several actors, there is a need to be able to explore the nature of a business model....... This paper will propose to describe a business model by means of storytelling. In addition the paper will introduce the concept of archetypes of business models with the aim to seek a pat- tern in the light of the numerous business models available. Two cases will illustrate and dis- cuss storytelling...

  8. Familial patterns in disorders of attention and impulse control

    OpenAIRE

    Stadler, Christina; Holtmann, Martin; Claus, Dieter; Büttner, Gerhard; Berger, Nicole; Maier, Joachim; Poustka, Fritz; Schmeck, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-Hyperaktivitätsstörungen (ADHS), persistieren bei 30-50 % der Fälle bis ins Erwachsenenalter. Wenn bei Eltern von Kindern mit einer ADHS-Diagnose ähnliche Aufmerksamkeits- und Impulskontrollprobleme gegeben sind, kann dies therapeutische Maßnahmen deutlich beeinträchtigen. In der vorliegenden Studie wurde (1) untersucht, bei wie vielen Müttern und Vätern von Kindern mit einer ADHS-Diagnose in der Kindheit selbst eine klinisch relevante ADHS-Symptomatik vorlag, (2) ...

  9. Biological Opinion Compliance Report and Permit Activity Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    contract. For the purpose of this specification, environmental pollution is defined as the presence of chemical, physical , or biological elements or agents...Colony site selection by least terns: physical attributes of sites. Colonial Waterbirds 6:205-213. Goossen, J. P. 1990. Piping plover research and...ACMT.MT1S01. -San~~a." cuanica StaveA!vt~o602 -Rie. Aciiy-2t 02- tsland Vi.cCraFc e C-tc) C. vensc04- Isand Be - S - sc.-eý Lig~ -7ns railed. 05 - C&O

  10. Experimental-Series Parameters for the Decay of Multigroup Beta and Gamma Spectra from 0.1 to 1000 Seconds After a Fission Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-01

    incident on 235U (case 25T), as well as for our cases 28F and 49F. The same authors (ref. 13) have performed a least-squares analysis of the decay...Uncertainty deduced from least-squares analysis of benchmark measure- ments. 28 **7_ AFWL-TR-78-4 From the above considerations, we estimate that our...producad many 2 improvemaets ir. , soue of the& very large improvemen-,, espacially in the 4- and 5-tern fits. Some of these triggered ir4provements in

  11. Pilotage stable d’un planeur en utilisant une logique non monotone

    OpenAIRE

    Vilchis, José-Luis; Siegel, Pierre; Doncescu, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    National audience; Le pilotage d'un avion à différentes étapes de vol est un problème de logique non monotone. Parce que les règles de pilotage peuvent changer en fonction des circonstances ex-ternes, telles que les perturbations atmosphériques ou les situations de sécurité ou d'urgence du pilote. Nous présen-tons une méthodologie pour mener un vol stable prenant en compte des facteurs d'incertitude et de contradiction des informations.

  12. Experiment list: SRX043990 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available : Snyder LIN-15B GFP L3 rep2 extraction2 seq1 aliquote 2 source_name=Snyder_LIN-15B_GFP_L3_rep2 extraction2_... strain. The LIN-15B::EGFP fusion protein is expressed in the correct lin-15B spatio-temporal expression pat...tern. This strain was used for ChIP-seq experiments to map the in vivo binding si...unc119(ed3);wgIs184(lin-15B::TY1 EGFP FLAG;unc119) || Sex=Hermaphrodite http://db

  13. Handcrafted physical syntax elements for illiterate children: initial concepts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available , C. Smart moves- why learning is not all in your head. 2005, Great River Books. [4] Horn, M.S. and Jacob, R.J.K. Tangible programming in the classroom with tern. In CHI '07 extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems, ACM Press..., Basic Books, 1993. [9] Reed, S.K. Transfer on trial: Intelligence, Cognition and Instruction. In Singley, K. and Anderson, J.R. eds. The Transfer of Cognitive Skill, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1989, 39. [10] Smith, A. C. Using...

  14. Zum Selbstverständnis von Frauen im Konzentrationslager

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Silke

    2002-01-01

    Silke Schäfer beschreibt die Lagergeschichte des Frauen-KZ Ravensbrück. Hierbei bildet vor allem die Erschließung und Ordnung der Prozessakten der sieben Hamburger Ravensbrück-Prozesse eine solide Grundlage für weitere Arbeiten, insbesondere in Bezug auf die medizinischen Verbrechen und die im Frauen-KZ Ravensbrück verantwortlichen Personen. Gerade bei der Sammlung biographischer Details zu Tätern und Täterinnen richtete sich der Augenmerk auf die Ahndung von Schuld durch die Justiz. Die Arbe...

  15. Herstellung und Charakterisierung von ZnO1-xSx-Dünnschichten : Dotierung mit Wasserstoff und Einsatz in ZnO1-xSx/GaN-Heterostruktur-Leuchtdioden

    OpenAIRE

    Kronenberger, Achim

    2013-01-01

    Das ternäre Materialsystem ZnO1-xSx ist für den Einsatz als Cd-freie Pufferschicht in Solarzellen, für Halbleiter-Heterostrukturen (z.B. Leuchtdioden) oder als Bandkanten-Filter interessant, da sich die energetische Lage von Valenzband-Maximum und Leitungsband-Minimum und somit ebenfalls die Energie der Bandlücke durch die Komposition beeinflussen lassen. Zusätzlich eignet es sich aufgrund der damit einhergehenden Veränderung der elektrischen und phononischen Eigenschaften als Modelsystem für...

  16. Boekbesprekings/Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Venter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Enoch and Qumran origins: New light on a forgotten connection The life of a Galilean Shaman: Jesus of Nazareth in anthropological perspectiveDarwin’s nemesis: Phillip Johnson and the intelligent design movementThe new perspective on Paul: Collected essaysSlavery in Early ChristianityBiblische Gestalten bei den Kirchenvätern: Adam (Biblische Gestalten bei den KirchenväternLutheran questions, Lutheran answers: Exploring Christian faithBethlehem besieged: Stories of hope in times of troubleNaar een nieuwe kerkenraad (Apeldoornse Studies, no 48“Stärker als Männer und tapferer als Ritter”: Pilgerinnen in Spätantike und MittelalterThe end of wisdom: A reappraisal of the historical and canonical function of EcclesiastesVerzameld Werk, deel I: De aard van de theologie (Besorgd door Dr D van KeulenAugustinus – Belydenisse: Getuienis oor ’n lewe in GodLiefde is die grootste: Oor erotiek en seksualiteit

  17. Combining Methods to Describe Important Marine Habitats for Top Predators: Application to Identify Biological Hotspots in Tropical Waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Thiers

    Full Text Available In tropical waters resources are usually scarce and patchy, and predatory species generally show specific adaptations for foraging. Tropical seabirds often forage in association with sub-surface predators that create feeding opportunities by bringing prey close to the surface, and the birds often aggregate in large multispecific flocks. Here we hypothesize that frigatebirds, a tropical seabird adapted to foraging with low energetic costs, could be a good predictor of the distribution of their associated predatory species, including other seabirds (e.g. boobies, terns and subsurface predators (e.g., dolphins, tunas. To test this hypothesis, we compared distribution patterns of marine predators in the Mozambique Channel based on a long-term dataset of both vessel- and aerial surveys, as well as tracking data of frigatebirds. By developing species distribution models (SDMs, we identified key marine areas for tropical predators in relation to contemporaneous oceanographic features to investigate multi-species spatial overlap areas and identify predator hotspots in the Mozambique Channel. SDMs reasonably matched observed patterns and both static (e.g. bathymetry and dynamic (e.g. Chlorophyll a concentration and sea surface temperature factors were important explaining predator distribution patterns. We found that the distribution of frigatebirds included the distributions of the associated species. The central part of the channel appeared to be the best habitat for the four groups of species considered in this study (frigatebirds, brown terns, boobies and sub-surface predators.

  18. Plasma metabolite levels predict bird growth rates: A field test of model predictive ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Noelia; Masero, José A; Villegas, Auxiliadora; Abad-Gómez, José María; Sánchez-Guzmán, Juan M

    2011-09-01

    Bird growth rates are usually derived from nonlinear relationships between age and some morphological structure, but this procedure may be limited by several factors. To date, nothing is known about the capacity of plasma metabolite profiling to predict chick growth rates. Based on laboratory-trials, we here develop predictive logistic models of body mass, and tarsus and wing length growth rates in Gull-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica chicks from measurements of plasma metabolite levels at different developmental stages. The predictive model obtained during the fastest growth period (at the age of 12 days) explained 65-68% of the chicks' growth rates, with fasting triglyceride level explaining most of the variation in growth rate. At the end of pre-fledging period, β-hydroxybutyrate level was also a good predictor of growth rates. Finally, we carried out a field test to check the predictive capacity of the models in two colonies of wild Gull-billed Tern, comparing field-measured and model-predicted growth rates between groups. Both, measured and predicted growth rates, matched statistically. Plasma metabolite levels can thus be applied in comparative studies of chick growth rates when semi-precocial birds can be captured only once. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Plasticidade de glândulas tegumentares abdominais em Monoeca xanthopyga Harter-Marques, Cunha & Moure (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Tapinotaspidini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Gonçalves dos Santos

    2004-06-01

    material was studied using light and scanning electron microscopy and histochemistry. Males and females just emerged and at nesting period show tegumentar glands on terga III to VII, however differ on the type and location. On sterna of a just emerged female tegumentar glands were not detected, while those in nesting period present glands at sterna IV to VI. In males, the tegumentar glands show on sterna IV to VI. The histochemical analysis of the tegumentar glands of males and females suggest predominance of lipid-nature products, possibly involved in the communication related to the sexual behavior.

  20. Coastal waterbirds of El Chorro and Majahuas, Jalisco, México, during the non-breeding season, 1995-1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Hernández-Vázquez

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied how waterbirds used two small estuaries during the non-breeding season of 1995-1996. These estuaries, El Chorro and Majahuas, were located in the middle of a large span of non-wetland habitat along the Pacific coast of México. Whereas El Chorro was basically a large and open waterbody, Majahuas was a long and narrow corridor flanked by mangroves. The two estuaries had 77 species throughout our study, but shared only 58, due to differences in their habitat. Seabirds comprised 66% of all the birds; grebes, ducks and rails 16%; shorebirds 12% and herons and egrets 5%. During late winter and early spring a very reduced number of migratory species accounted for the dominance of seabirds. Sterna hirundo and Phalacrocorax brasilianus accounted for 40 and 33%, respectively, of all the seabirds. Opening or closure of the estuary mouth at El Chorro affected the bird communities at both sites, by exposing or inundating a large mudflat in that estuary. Overall, however, time of the year was more important in the composition of the bird assemblages. Both estuaries should be considered as a single unit.Durante la estación no reproductiva de 1995-1996 estudiamos las aves acuáticas de los estuarios El Chorro y Majahuas, Jalisco, México. El Chorro es un cuerpo de agua más abierto, mientras que Majahuas está formado por canales rodeados por manglares. Registramos 77 especies de aves. Las aves marinas comprendieron el 66%, los patos y similares el 16%, las aves playeras el 12% y las garzas el 5%. Sterna hirundo y Phalacrocorax brasilianus representaron el 40 y 33%, respectivamente, del total de aves marinas. El que la bocabarra de El Chorro estuviera abierta o cerrada influyó en la concentración de aves en los dos esteros, debido a la exposición o inundación de áreas lodosas y arenosas. A pesar de las diferencias entre los dos estuarios, la época del año fue más importante en la composición de las comunidades de aves. Ambos esteros deben

  1. Trophic ecology drives contaminant concentrations within a tropical seabird community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiano, Manrico; Bustamante, Paco; Eulaers, Igor; Malarvannan, Govindan; Mendez-Fernandez, Paula; Churlaud, Carine; Blévin, Pierre; Hauselmann, Antoine; Covaci, Adrian; Eens, Marcel; Costantini, David; Chastel, Olivier

    2017-08-01

    To support environmental management programs, there is an urgent need to know about the presence and understand the dynamics of major contaminants in seabird communities of key marine ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the concentrations and trophodynamics of trace elements in six seabird species and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in three seabird species breeding on Grand Connétable Island (French Guiana), an area where the increase in human population and mining activities has raised concerns in recent years. Red blood cell Hg concentrations in adults were the highest in Magnificent frigatebirds Fregata magnificens (median: 5.6 μg g -1 dw; range: 3.8-7.8 μg g -1 dw) and lowest in Sooty terns Onychoprion fuscatus (median: 0.9 μg g -1 dw; range: 0.6-1.1 μg g -1 dw). Among POPs, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) was the most abundant compound in plasma of Cayenne terns Thalasseus sandvicensis (median: 1100 pg g -1 ww; range: 160 ± 5100 pg g -1 ww), while polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were the most abundant compound class in plasma of Magnificent frigatebirds (median: 640 pg g -1 ww; range 330 ± 2700 pg g -1 ww). While low intensity of POP exposure does not appear to pose a health threat to this seabird community, Hg concentration in several adults Laughing gulls Leucophaeus atricilla and Royal terns Thalasseus maximus, and in all Magnificent frigatebirds was similar or higher than that of high contaminated seabird populations. Furthermore, nestling red blood cells also contained Hg concentrations of concern, and further studies should investigate its potential health impact in this seabird community. Differences in adult trophic ecology of the six species explained interspecific variation in exposure to trace element and POPs, while nestling trophic ecology provides indications about the diverse feeding strategies adopted by the six species, with the consequent variation in exposure to contaminants. Copyright

  2. Ferramenta para tomada de decisão considerando a interação dos sistemas de produção e o meio ambiente Decision-making tool considering the interaction of the production systems and the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio A. Barrella

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Diagramas ternários são apresentados como ferramenta gráfica no auxílio da contabilidade ambiental e tomada de decisões ambientais baseadas na análise emergética. Além de inquestionáveis vantagens da interpretação gráfica sobre análise de tabelas, o uso dos diagramas ternários, largamente empregados para a avaliação da físico-química de diagrama de fases para sistemas de três componentes, permite o uso das propriedades do diagrama de fases para avaliação da dependência dos sistemas sobre entradas renováveis e não-renováveis e a avaliação do suporte ambiental para diluição e redução de emissões dos processos e da eficiência dos sistemas. A imediata visualização dos dados da contabilidade emergética permite a comparação de processos e sistemas com e sem serviços dos ecossistemas, para avaliar melhorias e acompanhamento do desempenho dos sistemas ao longo do tempo. Com a objetividade dos diagramas ternários, aspectos como a interação entre sistemas e a interação entre sistemas e meio ambiente podem ser prontamente reconhecidos e avaliados.Ternary diagrams are presented as graphic tools to assist environmental accounting and environmental decision-making based on emergy analysis. Besides the unquestionable advantages of graphic interpretation over table analysis, the use of ternary diagrams, widely used for physical chemistry evaluation of three components systems, or three components phase diagrams, permits the use of phase diagrams properties to assess the dependence of the system upon renewable and non renewable inputs, the environmental support for dilution and abatement of process emissions and the system efficiency. The prompt visualization of the emergy accounting data makes possible to compare processes and systems with and without ecosystem services, to evaluate improvements and to follow the system performance over time. With the aim of ternary diagrams, aspects such as the interaction between

  3. USO DA EQUAÇÃO DE ESTADO DE PENG-ROBINSON COM REGRA DE MISTURA DEPENDENTE DA COMPOSIÇÃO NA PREDIÇÃO DO EQUILÍBRIO DE FASES DO SISTEMA TERNÁRIO CO2-LIMONENO-CITRAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Lopes de OLIVEIRA

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Dados de equilíbrio de fases a pressões elevadas dos sistemas binários CO2-Limoneno e CO2-Citral e do sistema ternário CO2-Limoneno-Citral foram coletados da literatura e usados na modelagem termodinâmica que emprega a equação de estado de PENG-ROBINSON [1] com: 1 Regra de mistura clássica; 2 Regra de mistura dependente da composição de STRYJEK & VERA [2]. Os parâmetros de interação binária entre CO2-Limoneno e CO2-Citral foram obtidos pelo ajuste dos modelos a dados experimentais, fazendo uso de dois programas computacionais, os quais envolvem a minimização de uma função objetivo, pelo método Simplex de NELDER & MEAD (3, que foi escrita em termos dos desvios relativos entre os pontos experimentais e os calculados pelos modelos. O equilíbrio de fases do sistema ternário foi calculado utilizando-se os parâmetros de interação binária ajustados previamente e considerando parâmetros nulos entre os componentes Limoneno e Citral. A análise dos resultados indica, para as condições supercríticas, que os dois modelos foram capazes de predizer qualitativamente o sistema ternário, fornecendo resultados compatíveis, em ordem de grandeza, com os valores experimentais.Phase equilibrium data at high pressures for CO2-Limonene and CO2-Citral binary systems and for CO2-Limonene-Citral ternary systems were collected from literature and employed in a thermodynamic modelling that uses the PENG-ROBINSON equation of state with: (1 classical mixture rule; (2 STRYJEK & VERA composition dependant mixture rule. The binary interaction parameters for the CO2-Limonene and CO2-Citral systems were obtained by fitting the models to the experimental data using two computational programmes that involved the minimisation of an objective function by the simplex method as suggested by NELDER & MEAD, written as a function of the deviation between experimental and calculated data. The phase equilibrium for the ternary systems was calculated using the

  4. Manejo de un sitio de anidación para la conservación de Sternula antillarum (Charadriiformes: Laridae en Baja California Sur, México Nesting site management for Sternula antillarum (Charadriiformes: Laridae conservation in Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Amador

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El gallito marino menor (Sternula antillarum es una especie sujeta a protección especial, que anida en colonias pequeñas en hábitats costeros. Las mareas altas son un problema para la anidación de S. antillarum en Baja California Sur, pues causan la inundación de algunas colonias. Para reducir el impacto potencial del flujo de marea alta sobre los nidos, se elevó 20 cm el nivel del suelo por medio de una plataforma elevada construida con llantas de desecho rellenas y cubiertas de arena. La ocupación de este sitio por S. antillarum se monitoreó durante las temporadas reproductivas de 1990, y de 2002 a 2005. Las mareas altas no afectaron los nidos establecidos sobre la plataforma y la densidad de nidos sobre ella fue mayor que la que hubo en el terreno natural de la planicie costera adyacente. Este método de manejo del hábitat de anidación de S. antillarum es una buena alternativa en los sitios con riesgo por flujo de marea.The Least Tern (Sternula antillarum is a threatened seabird species that breeds in small colonies on coastal habitats. High tides constitute a problem for their reproduction in Baja California Sur, since they cause flooding of some colonies. To reduce the potential impact of high tides on the nests, the level of the ground was elevated by 20 cm, through an elevated platform that was built by using discarded tires filled and covered with sand. The occupation of this site by Least Terns was monitored during the breeding seasons of 1990 and from 2002 to 2005. High tides did not affect the nests established on the platform and density of nests on this platform was higher than on the natural adjacent mudflat area. This nesting habitat management method for the Least Tern is an appropriate alternative for those sites affected by high tides.

  5. Estimating exposure of piscivorous birds and sport fish to mercury in California lakes using prey fish monitoring: a predictive tool for managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Hartman, C. Alex; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Davison, Jay; Ichikawa, Gary; Bonnema, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    Numerous water bodies in California are listed under the Clean Water Act as being impaired due to mercury (Hg) contamination. The Surface Water Ambient Monitoring Program (SWAMP), via the Bioaccumulation Oversight Group (BOG), has recently completed statewide surveys of contaminants in sport fish tissue from more than 250 lakes and rivers in California and throughout coastal waters. This effort focused on human health issues but did not include beneficial uses by wildlife. Many piscivorous birds such as grebes, terns, cormorants, and mergansers eat fish smaller than those that were sampled by BOG, and sport fish Hg concentrations are not always indicative of wildlife exposure to Hg; therefore, the BOG surveys could not address whether wildlife were at risk due to Hg-induced reproductive impairment in these lakes.

  6. Research and Development in Support of the Surface Chemistry Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    rmquu the., andt firim w4h ot her ["or Ivpisadaw ihlaity firf’r. sor’uw to) inuw. and sri repeatedl on cvnn"Iwnl nt snaijoisre-Po war lit inclisded in...gnous~ control of sen"o tern- j 22) Fiva 0ý E, . PaaV reat.,¶~ 1970. 44. 4.3 perrituze and a truly inert rpference c~n the SAW sensor will (213) Sri ...tape or an IBM W6fK format floppy disk. All requests should he ic-ompanied by *he ". lank medium de-sired. A printed copy of the source code is sl~ed

  7. Curr ent Status of the Przewalski’s Horse Populations Reintroduced to Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarkhuu Enkhtur

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1992 the reintroduction program of the Przewalski’s horses in Mongolia was initiated, and totally 84 individuals of Przewalski’s horses were brought to the Hustai National Park between 1992 and 2000. At the same time another reintroduction program of the Przewalski’s horses was started, and 87 individuals were released in the Ta hiin T al (Bijiin Gol area in the semi-desert ecosystem of Southwestern Mongolia. Recently , in the Khomyn Tal ar ea of We s tern Mongolia transferred 24 individuals of Przewalski’s horses from zoos (the reintroduction program was started in 2004. All captive Przewalski’s horses were released into the wild (in 1994 in Hustai, and 1996 in Tah iin T al, and the populations of horses are gradually increasing in both sites. In this work, the results of analyses on the population dynamics of Przewalski’ s horses, reintroduced in these two sites are discussed.

  8. Der Nürnberger Prozeß und Täterinnenforschung The Nuremberg War Trials and Research on Female Perpetrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Ziegeldorf

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Auf der Grundlage der Quellenpublikation des Nürnberger Prozesses gegen die Hauptkriegsverbrecher wird die Frage nach der Relevanz dieses Materials für die Täterinnenforschung aufgeworfen. Entgegen dem allgemeinen Ansatz wird nicht für einen direkten Vergleich zwischen männlichen und weiblichen Tätern plädiert, sondern nach neuen Zugängen und Ansätzen gefragt. Damit wird Gewalt nicht als ausschließlich männlich begriffen.On the basis of the sources available from the Nuremberg war trials this study raises the question of the relevance of this material for gender-related studies on perpetrators. It does not content itself with a direct comparison of male and female criminals, but suggests new approaches, thereby avoiding to view violence as a male dominion.

  9. Equilibrio liquido-liquido em sistemas contendo hidrocarbonetos aromaticos, alifaticos e sulfolano

    OpenAIRE

    Rilvia Saraiva de Santiago

    2005-01-01

    Resumo: Uma etapa importante dentro dos processos na indústria petroquímica utiliza o solvente sulfolano na recuperação de hidrocarbonetos aromáticos de alta pureza. Estes compostos aromáticos são separados dos hidrocarbonetos alifáticos por meio da extração com solvente, já que a destilação é inviável. Dados experimentais do equilíbrio líquido-líquido multicomponente são essenciais para o projeto, a operação e a otimização dos processos de extração. Para sistemas ternários envolvendo hidroca...

  10. Seabird Colonies in Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.; Falk, K.

    colonies in Greenland is compiled in a database maintained by NERI-AE. This report presents data on distribution, population numbers and population trends of 19 species of breeding colonial seabirds in western Greenland. Distributions are depicted on maps in Fig. 18-39. It is apparent that the major...... and range on the basis of the present material, due to too few and incomparable surveys. Only the Brünnich's guillemot is adequately studied to make conclusions on population trends (Kampp et al. 1994). However, our impressions of trends are given in Tab. 5. Species with decreasing populations are common...... eider, Brünnich's guillemot and Arctic tern, while at least great cormorant and great black-backed gull have shown range expansions and probably also population increases in recent years. The most important areas to breeding colonial seabirds are indicated on Fig. 40. Fig. 41 shows coastlines where...

  11. Fukushima. A preliminary assessment in July 2011; Fukushima. Eine vorlaeufige Bilanz im Juli 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, Rolf

    2011-07-01

    Four months after the reactor accidents in Fukushima Daiichi a preliminary assessment of the accident sequence vents is performed based on the available incomplete information. The following topics are discussed: initiating events and accident sequences, radioactive materials release and dispersion, fundamentals on radiation exposure following the accident in the nuclear power plant Fukushima Daiichi, contamination of food stuff, fission product release into the Pacific Ocean, source tern and external radiation exposure in the first year, preliminary radiological assessment, radiological situation throughout the different accident phases (radioactive cloud and fallout, late phase), estimation of radiation exposure in the first year due to decay of short-lived radionuclides based on the state end of July 2011, comparison of the reactor accidents in Chernobyl and Fukushima Daiichi.

  12. Operation IVY, Pacific Proving Grounds, November 1952. Project 11.5. Radiobiological Studies at Eniwetok before and after Mike Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    1953-06-01

    8 0.3 2 Urchin and 0 0.2 2 4 4 4 1 0.3 0.02 3 sand dollar Cucumber 0 0.02 0.1 2 0.08 0.08 0.3 1 0.6 0.5 Crustacean 0 0.04 0.03 0.5 0.08 2 0.6 1...is to locality. Compari- son with 1949 findings at Eniwetok shows mutual tendencies toward high activities in samples of hydroids, sponges...Terns are not scavengers and do not eat refuse. The food of the shore birds is composed mostly of insects and small crustaceans found on the beaches

  13. Egg size and laying order of snowy egrets, great egrets, and black-crowned night-herons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Frederick, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    The nesting biology of the family Ardeidae (bitterns, herons, and egrets) has been intensively studied (e.g., Owen 1960, Milstein et al. 1970, Werschkul 1979), but egg size in relation to laying order bas not received attention. The last egg laid in gull and tern clutches is generally smaller than preceding eggs (e.g., Parsons 1970, Nisbet 1978). The relative size of the final egg in a clutch decreases with increased body size among bird species and this relationship may be correlated with an increased brood-reduction strategy (Slagsvold et al. 1984). Relative egg size could be an important component to brood reduction, because egg size can affect subsequent survival of young (Parsons 1970, Nisbet 1978, Lundberg and Vaisanen 1979).

  14. Barriers to movement: Modelling energetic costs of avoiding marine wind farms amongst breeding seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masden, Elizabeth A; Haydon, Daniel T; Fox, Anthony D; Furness, Robert W

    2010-07-01

    Proposals for wind farms in areas of known importance for breeding seabirds highlight the need to understand the impacts of these structures. Using an energetic modelling approach, we examine the effects of wind farms as barriers to movement on seabirds of differing morphology. Additional costs, expressed in relation to typical daily energetic expenditures, were highest per unit flight for seabirds with high wing loadings, such as cormorants. Taking species-specific differences into account, costs were relatively higher in terns, due to the high daily frequency of foraging flights. For all species, costs of extra flight to avoid a wind farm appear much less than those imposed by low food abundance or adverse weather, although such costs will be additive to these. We conclude that adopting a species-specific approach is essential when assessing the impacts of wind farms on breeding seabird populations, to fully anticipate the effects of avoidance flights. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The genome of an influenza virus from a pilot whale: relation to influenza viruses of gulls and marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Marco; Lange, Jeannette; Kanrai, Pumaree; Pleschka, Stephan; Scholtissek, Christoph; Krumbholz, Andi; Platzer, Matthias; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Zell, Roland

    2014-06-01

    Influenza virus A/whale/Maine/328B/1984 (H13N2) was isolated from a diseased pilot whale. Since only a partial sequence was available, its complete genome was sequenced and compared to the sequences of subtype H13 influenza viruses from shorebirds and various influenza viruses of marine mammals. The data reveal a rare genotype constellation with all gene segments derived of an influenza virus adapted to gulls, terns and waders. In contrast, the phylogenetic trees indicate that the majority of influenza viruses isolated from marine mammals derived from influenza viruses adapted to geese and ducks. We conclude that A/whale/Maine/328B/1984 is the first record of an infection of a marine mammal from a gull-origin influenza virus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Rezension zu: Hildegard Maria Nickel, Andreas Heilmann, Hasko Hüning, Max Lill: Geschlechterpolitik in Krisenzeiten. Eine Fallstudie im Bankensektor. Berlin: edition sigma 2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Schulze

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Am Beispiel der LandesBank Berlin zeigen die Autor/-innen konkrete Auswirkungen der Bankenkrise auf in Unternehmen agierende betriebliche Akteur/-innen. Inwiefern diese eigene Handlungsspielräume entwickeln (können und welche Kontinuitäten betriebliche Vergeschlechtlichungsprozesse aufweisen, belegt die Studie eindrücklich. Der mit dem Wandel von Erwerbsarbeit verknüpfte Eigensinn zeigt sich in den Vorstellungen von Zuständigkeiten der weiblichen Angestellten und in den veränderten Antworten auf Work-Life-Balance-Fragen ─ bei jungen männlichen Angestellten und bei älteren Führungskräften, die jungen Vätern einen Mentalitätswandel unterstellen. So könnten sich neue Kollektivierungen jenseits von Geschlecht bilden, insofern an geteilte Interessen in Krisensituationen angeknüpft werden würde.

  17. Raman mapping in the elucidation of solid salt eutectic and near eutectic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.; Kerridge, D. H.

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of the different components of solidified eutectic or near-eutectic salt mixtures (eutectics) was examined by use of Raman microscope mapping of the structures formed when these melts were slowly cooled. Seven binary and one ternary system were investigated. In most cases...... the component crystallized phases consisted of roughly rounded areas of about 0.5-5 mum across, the areas alternating in all directions across the sections. These three-dimensional structures may best be described by the terns 'conglomerate.' The size of these areas depended on the cooling rate...... and the composition. When unidirectional cooling was applied it was possible for the system (KCl-Na2SO4, 60:40 mol/mol) to observe lamellar arrangements of the component phases, in an arrangement closely similar to what is frequently found among metallic or ceramic eutectics. Each area, conglomerate or lamellar, did...

  18. Cosmological dark turbulence and scaling relations in self-gravitating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamichi, A.; Morikawa, M.

    Many scaling relations have been observed for self-gravitating systems (SGS) in the universe. We explore a consistent understanding of them from a simple principle based on the proposal that the collision-less dark matter (DM) fluid terns into a turbulent state, i.e. dark turbulence, after crossing the caustic surface in the non-linear stage. After deriving Kolmogorov scaling laws from Navier-Stokes and Jeans equations by the method used in solving the Smoluchowski coagulation equation, we apply this to several observations such as the scale-dependent velocity dispersion, mass-luminosity ratio, and mass-angular momentum relation. They all point the concordant value for the constant energy flow per mass: 0.3 cm2/s3, which may be understood as the speed of the hierarchical coalescence process in the cosmic structure formation.

  19. Late Onset of Prescription Drug Abuse or Dependence Among Older Adults: Implications for Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Lay

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Prescription drug abuse and dependence is an increasing concern for older adults. This article describes issues specific to older adults with late onset abuse or dependence on prescription sedatives and/or opiates.The older adult with late onset should not be viewed as having the same issues as individuals who have a life pat- tern of drug and alcohol abuse/dependence.A chart review of older adults in a treatment program contrasts late onset prescription dependence clients (n=12 and early onset addiction clients (n=104 and outlines differences and similarities between the two samples. Social workers need to understand the specific and changing needs of older adults as they relate to assessment and treatment of drug abuse and dependence.

  20. Investigation of Lithium Sulfur Dioxide (Li/SO2) Battery Safety Hazards -- Chemical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    i - .M -4 M- V C.)) 0 0 0 CrUd -" E- -4Dt L) to 0 .- 4 0 0 C 0 D0 4%D I) CU n o C .4.4 C 0%l n . o V f f 00 20 0 1. Z44 0 U 4 00 1-4~~ ~ M -4 o I n o...trum of Li2S204. The four powder patterns are tabulated in Table 7. The X-ray pat- terns of all four cathodes are essentially identical except for...variations in the relative intensities of some lines. The data clearly show that the same product is present in all the cathodes. The powder pattern also

  1. Nonlinear wave breaking in self-gravitating viscoelastic quantum fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Aniruddha, E-mail: anibabun@gmail.com [Center for Plasma Studies, Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700 032 (India); Roychoudhury, Rajkumar, E-mail: rajdaju@rediffmail.com [Advanced Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Phenomena, 1175 Survey Park, Kolkata 700075 (India); Department of Mathematics, Bethune College, Kolkata 700006 (India); Bhar, Radhaballav [Center for Plasma Studies, Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700 032 (India); Khan, Manoranjan, E-mail: mkhan.ju@gmail.com [Center for Plasma Studies, Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700 032 (India)

    2017-02-12

    The stability of a viscoelastic self-gravitating quantum fluid has been studied. Symmetry breaking instability of solitary wave has been observed through ‘viscosity modified Ostrovsky equation’ in weak gravity limit. In presence of strong gravitational field, the solitary wave breaks into shock waves. Response to a Gaussian perturbation, the system produces quasi-periodic short waves, which in terns predicts the existence of gravito-acoustic quasi-periodic short waves in lower solar corona region. Stability analysis of this dynamical system predicts gravity has the most prominent effect on the phase portraits, therefore, on the stability of the system. The non-existence of chaotic solution has also been observed at long wavelength perturbation through index value theorem. - Highlights: • In weak gravitational field, viscoelastic quantum fluid exhibits symmetry breaking instability. • Gaussian perturbation produces quasi-periodic gravito-acoustic waves into the system. • There exists no chaotic state of the system against long wavelength perturbations.

  2. Designing a Sustainable Future through Creation of North America’s only International Wildlife Refuge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Zarull

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2001, the Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge was established based on the principles of conservation and sustainability. The refuge has grown from 49.1 ha in 2001 to over 2,300 ha in 2010. Agreement on a compelling vision for a sustainable future was necessary to rally stakeholders and move them forward together. Project examples include: lake sturgeon and common tern restoration; soft shoreline engineering; ecotourism; sustainable redevelopment of a brownfield; and indicator reporting. Key success factors include: a consensus long-term vision; a multi-stakeholder process that achieves cooperative learning; strong coupling of monitoring/research programs with management; implementing actions consistent with adaptive management; measuring and celebrating successes; quantifying benefits; building capacity; and developing the next generation of sustainability practitioners and entrepreneurs.

  3. Automatic Detection and Recognition of the First Arrival Phase of Seismic Event Signals Contaminated by Noise. The Curious Case of the Missing Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-29

    8217 ’ S7P 4K O ll $W,’ %. 1 M ifi 0 9. 19, 5 ,6. *.’, .l , 1-aa6 EVUTn -I W ’, I r . ) S4R 11E 4T Z-1 .2 , AA A a~r .19.)LU .-- *lT; Fiue1.TeRns fApiue n...34MODIFIED ,DAT SLP S rS 3 C=IFI.EJ 3..WE 1OERTION f i ll 2 4 1- 1 1 S (I1 S ELSE Al -3(11 ..,, Im IF Figure 20. Examples to Graphically Illustrate... calculO t es Liesg toot statistic C- for U amolute valu* at two aravo of data, x111, I a1,H d C- y(II, I=IN. The threeno d, k, whic hmt b9 le a t he

  4. Vie et langage dans la jungle

    OpenAIRE

    Chevalier, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    N° 1011, 16-30 mars 2010 Daniel L. everettLe monde ignoré des indiens pirahâsFlammarion, 358 pages. Traduction d’un original anglais, publié par Pantheon Books en 2008, sous un titre plus significatif, à la limite du fantastique et de la magie : Don’t sleep. There are Snakes. Life and Language in the Amazonian Jungle. Le titre français est plus terne, mais s’inscrit sur une couverture étrange, vivement colorée et significative : à l’avers, une végétation foisonnante, de l’eau, envahissante et...

  5. Extending a prototype knowledge and object based image analysis model to coarser spatial resolution imagery: an example from the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Laurence L.

    2012-01-01

    A prototype knowledge- and object-based image analysis model was developed to inventory and map least tern and piping plover habitat on the Missouri River, USA. The model has been used to inventory the state of sandbars annually for 4 segments of the Missouri River since 2006 using QuickBird imagery. Interpretation of the state of sandbars is difficult when images for the segment are acquired at different river stages and different states of vegetation phenology and canopy cover. Concurrent QuickBird and RapidEye images were classified using the model and the spatial correspondence of classes in the land cover and sandbar maps were analysed for the spatial extent of the images and at nest locations for both bird species. Omission and commission errors were low for unvegetated land cover classes used for nesting by both bird species and for land cover types with continuous vegetation cover and water. Errors were larger for land cover classes characterized by a mixture of sand and vegetation. Sandbar classification decisions are made using information on land cover class proportions and disagreement between sandbar classes was resolved using fuzzy membership possibilities. Regression analysis of area for a paired sample of 47 sandbars indicated an average positive bias, 1.15 ha, for RapidEye that did not vary with sandbar size. RapidEye has potential to reduce temporal uncertainty about least tern and piping plover habitat but would not be suitable for mapping sandbar erosion, and characterization of sandbar shapes or vegetation patches at fine spatial resolution.

  6. Extending a prototype knowledge- and object-based image analysis model to coarser spatial resolution imagery: an example from the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Laurence L.

    2012-01-01

    A prototype knowledge- and object-based image analysis model was developed to inventory and map least tern and piping plover habitat on the Missouri River, USA. The model has been used to inventory the state of sandbars annually for 4 segments of the Missouri River since 2006 using QuickBird imagery. Interpretation of the state of sandbars is difficult when images for the segment are acquired at different river stages and different states of vegetation phenology and canopy cover. Concurrent QuickBird and RapidEye images were classified using the model and the spatial correspondence of classes in the land cover and sandbar maps were analysed for the spatial extent of the images and at nest locations for both bird species. Omission and commission errors were low for unvegetated land cover classes used for nesting by both bird species and for land cover types with continuous vegetation cover and water. Errors were larger for land cover classes characterized by a mixture of sand and vegetation. Sandbar classification decisions are made using information on land cover class proportions and disagreement between sandbar classes was resolved using fuzzy membership possibilities. Regression analysis of area for a paired sample of 47 sandbars indicated an average positive bias, 1.15 ha, for RapidEye that did not vary with sandbar size. RapidEye has potential to reduce temporal uncertainty about least tern and piping plover habitat but would not be suitable for mapping sandbar erosion, and characterization of sandbar shapes or vegetation patches at fine spatial resolution.

  7. Classification of Birds and Bats Using Flight Tracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullinan, Valerie I.; Matzner, Shari; Duberstein, Corey A.

    2015-05-01

    Classification of birds and bats that use areas targeted for offshore wind farm development and the inference of their behavior is essential to evaluating the potential effects of development. The current approach to assessing the number and distribution of birds at sea involves transect surveys using trained individuals in boats or airplanes or using high-resolution imagery. These approaches are costly and have safety concerns. Based on a limited annotated library extracted from a single-camera thermal video, we provide a framework for building models that classify birds and bats and their associated behaviors. As an example, we developed a discriminant model for theoretical flight paths and applied it to data (N = 64 tracks) extracted from 5-min video clips. The agreement between model- and observer-classified path types was initially only 41%, but it increased to 73% when small-scale jitter was censored and path types were combined. Classification of 46 tracks of bats, swallows, gulls, and terns on average was 82% accurate, based on a jackknife cross-validation. Model classification of bats and terns (N = 4 and 2, respectively) was 94% and 91% correct, respectively; however, the variance associated with the tracks from these targets is poorly estimated. Model classification of gulls and swallows (N ≥ 18) was on average 73% and 85% correct, respectively. The models developed here should be considered preliminary because they are based on a small data set both in terms of the numbers of species and the identified flight tracks. Future classification models would be greatly improved by including a measure of distance between the camera and the target.

  8. Pelagic cephalopods in the western Indian Ocean: New information from diets of top predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Frédéric; Potier, Michel; Jaquemet, Sébastien; Romanov, Evgeny; Sabatié, Richard; Cherel, Yves

    2013-10-01

    Using a combination of diverse large predatory fishes and one seabird, we collected information on the cephalopod fauna of the western Indian Ocean. We analyzed the stomach contents of 35 fishes representing ten families (Xiphiidae, Istiophoridae, Scombridae, Carangidae, Coryphaenidae, Alepisauridae, Dasyatidae, Carcharhinidae, Alopiidae and Sphyrnidae) and of the sooty tern Onychoprion fuscata of the Mozambique Channel from 2000 to 2010. Both fresh and accumulated beaks were used for identifying cephalopod prey. Cephalopods were important prey for twelve predators; swordfish Xiphias gladius had the highest cephalopod proportion; sooty tern (O. fuscata) and bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) had high proportions too. We recovered 23 cephalopod families and identified 38 species. Ten species from four Teuthida families (Ommastrephidae, Onychoteuthidae, Histioteuthidae and Ancistrocheiridae) and two Octopoda families (Argonautidae and Bolitaenidae) occurred very frequently in the stomach contents, while Sepiida were rare. Ommastrephidae were the most cephalopod food sources: the purpleback flying squid Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis was the most prevalent prey by far, Ornithoteuthis volatilis was important for eleven predators and few but large specimens of the neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii were recovered in the stomachs of swordfish in the Indian South Subtropical Gyre province only. Predators' groups were identified based on cephalopod prey composition, on depth in which they forage, and on prey size. Surface predators' diets were characterized by lower cephalopod diversity but greater average numbers of cephalopod prey, whereas the deep-dwelling predators (swordfish and bigeye tuna) preyed on larger specimens than surface predators (O. fuscata or yellowfin tunas Thunnus albacares). Our findings emphasized the usefulness of a community of marine predators to gain valuable information on the biology and the distribution of the cephalopod forage fauna that are

  9. Surface cracking in resistance seam welding of coated steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adonyi, Y.; Kimchi, M.

    1994-12-31

    In this experimental work, the focus was on the understanding the electrode-wheel/coated steel surface phenomena by building operational lobes and by correlating the weld quality with static-and dynamic-contact-resistance variation during welding. Conventional AC, DC, and electrode-wire resistance-seam weldability of printed zinc-coated and hot-dipped tin-coated steel was performed in this work, as compared with traditional lead-tin (terne) coating used as reference material. Variables included steel substrate type, welding equipment type, electrode-wheel cleaning practice, and electrode-wire geometry. Optic and electron microscopy were used for the evaluation of specimens extracted from longitudinal cross-sections of representative welds. The size and morphology of surface cracks was characterized and correlated with variations in the above-mentioned parameters. It was found that the tin-coated (unpainted) steel sheet had a superior all-together performance to the zinc-coated steel and terne-coated steel, both in terms of wider weldability lobes and lesser surface cracking. The extent of surface cracking was greatly reduced by using the electrode-wire seam welding process using a longitudinally grooved wire profile, which also widened the corresponding weldability lobes. It was also found that the extent of cracking depended on the electrode knurl geometry, substrate type, and the presence of conductive paint applied on top of the metallic coating. An attempt was made to characterize the specific mechanisms governing the LME phenomenon for the lead-, zinc and tin-based coating systems and to assess the potential for crack propagation in the welds. The dynamic contact resistance was found to be a good measure of the welding process stability and an indicator of defect formation. It was found that the ratio between the static and dynamic contact resistances of the tin-coated sheet was considerably lower than similar ratios for bare and zinc-coated sheet.

  10. Pharmaceuticals, hormones, personal-care products, and other organic wastewater contaminants in water resources: Recent research activities of the U.S. Geological Survey's toxic substances hydrology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focazio, Michael J.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Buxton, Herbert T.

    2003-01-01

    Recent decades have brought increasing concerns for potential contamination of water resources that could inadvertently result during production, use, and disposal of the numerous chemicals offering improvements in industry, agriculture, medical treatment, and even common household products. Increasing knowledge of the environmental occurrence or toxicological behavior of these contaminants from various studies in Europe, United States, and elsewhere has resulted in increased concern for potential adverse environmental and human health effects (Daughton and Ternes, 1999). Ecologists and public health experts often have incomplete understandings of the toxicological significance of many of these contaminants, particularly long-term, low-level exposure and when they occur in mixtures with other contaminants (Daughton and Ternes, 1999; Kümmerer, 2001). In addition, these ‘emerging contaminants’ are not typically monitored or assessed in ambient water resources. The need to understand the processes controlling the transport and fate of these contaminants in the environment, and the lack of knowledge of the significance of long-term exposures have increased the need to study environmental occurrence down to trace (nanogram per liter) levels. Furthermore, the possibility that mixtures of environmental contaminants may interact synergistically or antagonistically has increased the need to characterize the types of mixtures that are found in our waters. The U.S. Geological Survey’s Toxic Substances Hydrology Program (Toxics Program) is developing information and tools on emerging water-quality issues that will be used to design and improve water-quality monitoring and assessment programs of the USGS and others, and for proactive decision-making by industry, regulators, the research community, and the public (http://toxics.usgs.gov/regional/emc.html). This research on emerging water-quality issues includes a combination of laboratory work to develop new analytical

  11. Lunar Surface Operations with Dual Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horz, Friedrich; Lofgren, Gary E.; Eppler, Dean E.; Ming, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Lunar Electric Rovers (LER) are currently being developed that are substantially more capable than the Apollo vehicle (LRN ,"). Unlike the LRV, the new LERs provide a pressurized cabin that serves as short-sleeve environment for the crew of two, including sleeping accommodations and other provisions that allow for long tern stays, possibly up to 60 days, on the hear surface, without the need to replenish consumables from some outside source, such as a lander or outpost. As a consequence, significantly larger regions may be explored in the future and traverse distances may be measured in a few hundred kilometers (1, 2). However, crew safety remains an overriding concern, and methods other than "walk back", the major operational constraint of all Apollo traverses, must be implemented to assure -at any time- the safe return of the crew to the lander or outpost. This then causes current Constellation plans to envision long-tern traverses to be conducted with 2 LERs exclusively, each carrying a crew of two: in case one rover fails, the other will rescue the stranded crew and return all 4 astronauts in a single LER to base camp. Recent Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) analog field tests simulated a continuous 14 day traverse (3), covering some 135 km, and included a rescue operation that transferred the crew and diverse consumables from one LER to another these successful tests add substantial realism to the development of long-term, dual rover operations. The simultaneous utilization of 2 LERs is of course totally unlike Apollo and raises interesting issues regarding science productivity and mission operations, the thrust of this note.

  12. Keeping it regular: Development of thermoregulation in four tropical seabird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Lorinda A; Downs, Colleen T; Brown, Mark

    2017-02-01

    The thermoregulatory capacity of a species can determine which climatic niche it occupies. Its development in avian chicks is influenced by numerous factors. Furthermore, it is suggested that altricial chicks develop their thermoregulatory capacity post-hatching, while precocial chicks develop aspects of this in the egg. We investigated the development of thermoregulation of four co-occurring seabird species in the Seychelles; namely white, ground-nesting white-tailed tropicbirds (Phaethon lepturus) and tree-nesting fairy terns (Gygis alba); and dark plumaged, tree-nesting lesser noddies (Anous tenuirostris) and ground- and tree-nesting brown noddies (A. stolidus). White-tailed tropicbirds have semi-altricial chicks, while the remaining species have semi-precocial chicks. Cloacal temperatures (T b ) were measured at five day intervals from newly hatched chicks and compared over time, and with adult T b s. Initial T b s of all chicks, except fairy terns, were lower than those taken when chicks were older. Brooding cessation generally coincided with feather development, as did an increase in T b. Mean chick T b was significantly lower than mean adult T b for all species, but only white-tailed tropicbird and brown noddy chicks in tree nests differed significantly from mean adult T b when chick T b at five day intervals were considered. There was a significant interactive effect of nest site and age on brown noddy chick T b, but chick colour did not have a significant effect on T b . However, brown noddy chicks on dune crests maintained a constant T b sooner than chicks in tree nests. Our results demonstrate that tropical seabird species have a more delayed onset of thermoregulatory capabilities when compared with those in temperate environments, perhaps as nest sites are less thermally challenging. Nest microhabitats and behavioural thermoregulation, are likely more important during early chick development for these species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  13. [Adult Stature Estimation by Multiple Parameters of Body Torso Segment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, R Q; Wang, T; Shi, Q; Xiao, B; Ma, K J; Chen, X

    2017-06-01

    To promote the further research on body stature estimation and the innovative applications based on the distances between the anatomical landmarks on body torso surface. A specification for the collection of distances between the anatomical landmarks on body torso surface was established. The data of 933 cases of adult population in Yangtze River Delta region were collected. Multiple linear regression method was used to statistical analyse and establish the regression equation of stature estimation. A regression equation about 5 variables including gender ( x ₁), cervical vertebrae-coccyx line ( x ₂), sterna-pubis line ( x ₃), distance between acromion and iliospinale anterius ( x ₄) and shoulder breadth ( x ₅), and stature ( y ) was established, y =105.406+5.414 x ₁+0.436 x ₂+0.286 x ₃+0.225 x ₄+ 0.193 x ₅. The method is suitable for the rapid, simple and accurate estimation of stature for the forensic experts.

  14. A Novel Glass Polyalkenoate Cement for Fixation and Stabilisation of the Ribcage, Post Sternotomy Surgery: An ex-Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel M.F. Alhalawani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the use of gallium (Ga based glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs as a possible alternative adhesive in sternal fixation, post sternotomy surgery. The glass series consists of a Control (CaO–ZnO–SiO2, and LGa-1 and LGa-2 which contain Ga at the expense of zinc (Zn in 0.08 mol% increments. The additions of Ga resulted in increased working time (75 s to 137 s and setting time (113 to 254 s. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR analysis indicated that this was a direct result of increased unreacted poly(acrylic acid (PAA and the reduction of crosslink formation during cement maturation. LGa samples (0.16 wt % Ga resulted in an altered ion release profile, particularly for 30 days analysis, with maximum Ca2+, Zn2+, Si4+ and Ga3+ ions released into the distilled water. The additions of Ga resulted in increased roughness and decreased contact angles during cement maturation. The presence of Ga has a positive effect on the compressive strength of the samples with strengths increasing over 10 MPa at 7 days analysis compared to the 1 day results. The additions of Ga had relatively no effect on the flexural strength. Tensile testing of bovine sterna proved that the LGa samples (0.16 wt % Ga are comparable to the Control samples.

  15. Two continents and two names for a Neotropical colletid bee species (Hymenoptera: Colletidae: Neopasiphaeinae: Hoplocolletes ventralis (Friese, 1924

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A.B. Almeida

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Neopasiphaeine bees (Apoidea: Colletidae are known for their Amphinotic distribution in the Australian and Neotropical regions. Affinities between colletid taxa in Australia and South America have been speculated for decades, and have been confirmed by recent phylogenetic hypotheses that indicate a biogeographic scenario compatible with a trans-Antarctic biotic connection during the Paleogene. No neopasiphaeine species occurs on both sides of the Pacific Ocean, but the Neotropical species Hoplocolletes ventralis (Friese, 1924 was described as an Australian taxon due to an error in the specimen labels. This mistake was recognized by CD Michener 50 years ago. We herein report that the same labeling problem also happened with Dasycolletes chalceus Friese, 1924, which remained as a tentatively placed species in the Australian genus Leioproctus until now. Moreover, Dasycolletes chalceus is interpreted as a synonym of Hoplocolletes ventralis. We also provide a revised diagnosis for Hoplocolletes, describe the male of H. ventralis in detail for the first time, including a comparative study of its genitalia and associated sterna.

  16. Pulse-driven magnetoimpedance sensor detection of cardiac magnetic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Nakayama

    Full Text Available This study sought to establish a convenient method for detecting biomagnetic activity in the heart. Electrical activity of the heart simultaneously induces a magnetic field. Detection of this magnetic activity will enable non-contact, noninvasive evaluation to be made. We improved the sensitivity of a pulse-driven magnetoimpedance (PMI sensor, which is used as an electric compass in mobile phones and as a motion sensor of the operation handle in computer games, toward a pico-Tesla (pT level, and measured magnetic fields on the surface of the thoracic wall in humans. The changes in magnetic field detected by this sensor synchronized with the electric activity of the electrocardiogram (ECG. The shape of the magnetic wave was largely altered by shifting the sensor position within 20 mm in parallel and/or perpendicular to the thoracic wall. The magnetic activity was maximal in the 4th intercostals near the center of the sterna. Furthermore, averaging the magnetic activity at 15 mm in the distance between the thoracic wall and the sensor demonstrated magnetic waves mimicking the P wave and QRS complex. The present study shows the application of PMI sensor in detecting cardiac magnetic activity in several healthy subjects, and suggests future applications of this technology in medicine and biology.

  17. SAPHO syndrome in the differential diagnosis of metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer Francés, Miguel Ángel; Lafaurie Acevedo, Alejandro; Tormo Ferrero, Vicente; Cardenal Macia, Rafael; Andreu Martínez, Francisco José

    2016-01-01

    SAPHO syndrome was proposed in the late 80s in order to group different osteoarticular manifestations with specific radiological findings such as the hyperostosis of the front part of the chest wall. Prevalence, etiology and pathogenesis of the disease are unknown, while diagnosis is made both clinically and by the specific gammagraphic image of «bull horn» in the sternoclavicular joint. The following case of a 64-year-old woman diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the right breast pT1N0Mx is reported. When studying the extent of the disease, a gammagraphic image of diffuse blast injury in the sterna manubrium was evidenced, which allowed the suspicion of Paget's disease or metastatic injury. Study was completed with a chest CT in which manubrium sclerosis was evidenced, suggesting metástasis. Res ults of the studies pointed out SAPHO syndrome as the most likely diagnostic option. The low tumor stage of the patient prompted the idea of possible alternative diagnoses. A deeper knowledge of this clinical condition may be crucial to avoid mistakes when classifying a subject in more advanced tumor stages, and consequently, to prevent the use of more aggressive chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of the ventral body wall in the human embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K; Hikspoors, Jill P J M; Mommen, Greet; Köhler, S Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H

    2015-11-01

    Migratory failure of somitic cells is the commonest explanation for ventral body wall defects. However, the embryo increases ~ 25-fold in volume in the period that the ventral body wall forms, so that differential growth may, instead, account for the observed changes in topography. Human embryos between 4 and 10 weeks of development were studied, using amira reconstruction and cinema 4D remodeling software for visualization. Initially, vertebrae and ribs had formed medially, and primordia of sternum and hypaxial flank muscle primordium laterally in the body wall at Carnegie Stage (CS)15 (5.5 weeks). The next week, ribs and muscle primordium expanded in ventrolateral direction only. At CS18 (6.5 weeks), separate intercostal and abdominal wall muscles differentiated, and ribs, sterna, and muscles began to expand ventromedially and caudally, with the bilateral sternal bars fusing in the midline after CS20 (7 weeks) and the rectus muscles reaching the umbilicus at CS23 (8 weeks). The near-constant absolute distance between both rectus muscles and approximately fivefold decline of this distance relative to body circumference between 6 and 10 weeks identified dorsoventral growth in the dorsal body wall as determinant of the 'closure' of the ventral body wall. Concomitant with the straightening of the embryonic body axis after the 6th week, the abdominal muscles expanded ventrally and caudally to form the infraumbilical body wall. Our data, therefore, show that the ventral body wall is formed by differential dorsoventral growth in the dorsal part of the body. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  19. Sexual Dimorphism of Pupae and Adults of the Cocoa Pod Borer, Conopomorpha cramerella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, Francisco J.; Virdiana, Ike; Navies, Maisin; Pava-Ripoll, Monica; Hebbar, Prakash

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the main distinguishing characteristics of female and male pupae and adults of cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Two pairs of tubercles present on the sterna of segments IX and X of the female pupae are useful in differentiating female from male pupae. The female genital opening is located anterior to the first pair of tubercles and forms a plateau in which the center has a light brown longitudinal depression that indicates the female genital opening. The male genital opening is a conspicuous, brown, longitudinal slit located between the two pairs of tubercles. The sex of the adult moth can be determined by examining the ventrocaudal segments of the abdomen. The last segment of the female abdomen is white, compressed laterally and at the tip, and the hairy anal papillae can be seen. In the male, the ventrocaudal end of the abdomen is black and robust. This information will be useful for laboratory and field diagnosis and while working on sex ratios of this important pest of cocoa. PMID:21861656

  20. Genetic identification for prey birds of the Endangered peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang-Hyun; Oh, Hong-Shik

    2018-03-01

    To reveal the dietary ecology of the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), we conducted a molecular analysis for mitochondrial genes (COI and CYTB) to identify the prey species collected from a feeding place found on Sasu Island, South Korea. The results from noninvasive genetic analysis showed that the sequences obtained came from nine species of birds (Cuculus canorus, Eurystomus orientalis, Limosa limosa, Microscelis amaurotis, Oriolus chinensis, Phasianus colchicus, Sterna hirundo, Streptopelia orientalis, and Turdus pallidus). Five of the species (C. canorus, M. amaurotis, S. hirundo, S. orientalis, and T. pallidus) had previously been observed on this island, but the other four species (E. orientalis, L. limosa, O. chinensis, and P. colchicus) were newly identified as present. No mtDNA sequences of land animals such as amphibians, reptiles, and mammals were found in the dietary remains, suggesting that the peregrine falcon preys mostly on other birds rather than on other animals inhabiting Sasu Island. This island has rich avian diversity and abundant animal populations and therefore supplies sufficient dietary resources for the peregrine falcon. Our findings suggested that a DNA-based molecular method may be useful to identify the prey species of these birds and may be valuable in future studies of the Endangered peregrine falcon.

  1. Thirty-eighth supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Burt L.; Banks, Richard C.; Fitzpatrick, John W.; Howell, Thomas R.; Johnson, Ned K.; Ouellet, Henri; Remsen, J.V.; Storer, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    This fourth supplement after the 6th edition (1983) of the AOU "Check-list of North American Birds" consists of changes adopted by the Committee on Classification and Nomenclature between 1 March 1989 and 1 March 1991. The changes fall into eight categories: (1) five species (Ixobrychus sinensis, Porphyrula flavirostris, Sterna bergii, Streptopelia orientalis, and Ficedula narcissina) are added to the main list because of new distributional information; (2) six species (Pterodroma cervicalis, Ortalis wagleri, Lophornis brachylopha, Corvus sinaloae, Cinclocerthia gutturalis, and Loxops caeruleirostris) are added to the list because of the splitting of species previously in the list; (3) one extinct species (Dysmorodrepanis munroi) is added to the list because of re-identification of the unique type; (4) one scientific name (Speotyto cunicularia) is changed because of generic splitting; (5) one scientific name (Phalacrocorax brasilianus) is changed for nomenclature reasons, accompanied by a change in English name; (6) the spelling of one scientific name (Neocrex colombianus) is corrected; (7) to other English names are changed or corrected; and (8) one sequencing change is made. No new distributional information is included except as noted above (i.e. minor changes of distribution of distributional records within North America are not included). The twelve additions bring the number of species recognized as occurring within the Check-list area (main list) to 1957.

  2. An early Late Triassic long-necked reptile with a bony pectoral shield and gracile appendages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Dzik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Several partially articulated specimens and numerous isolated bones of Ozimek volans gen. et sp. nov., from the late Carnian lacustrine deposits exposed at Krasiejów in southern Poland, enable a reconstruction of most of the skeleton. The unique character of the animal is its enlarged plate-like coracoids presumably fused with sterna. Other aspects of the skeleton seem to be comparable to those of the only known specimen of Sharovipteryx mirabilis from the latest Middle Triassic of Kyrgyzstan, which supports interpretation of both forms as protorosaurians. One may expect that the pectoral girdle of S. mirabilis, probably covered by the rock matrix in its only specimen, was similar to that of O. volans gen. et sp. nov. The Krasiejów material shows sharp teeth, low crescent scapula, three sacrals in a generalized pelvis (two of the sacrals being in contact with the ilium and curved robust metatarsal of the fifth digit in the pes, which are unknown in Sharovipteryx. Other traits are plesiomorphic and, except for the pelvic girdle and extreme elongation of appendages, do not allow to identify any close connection of the sharovipterygids within the Triassic protorosaurians.

  3. Intercomparison of Terrestrial Laser Scanning Instruments for Assessing Forested Ecosystems: A Brisbane Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armston, J.; Newnham, G.; Strahler, A. H.; Schaaf, C.; Danson, M.; Gaulton, R.; Zhang, Z.; Disney, M.; Sparrow, B.; Phinn, S. R.; Schaefer, M.; Burt, A.; Counter, S.; Erb, A.; Goodwin, N.; Hancock, S.; Howe, G.; Johansen, K.; Li, Z.; Lollback, G.; Martel, J.; Muir, J.; Paynter, I.; Saenz, E.; Scarth, P.; Tindall, D.; Walker, L.; Witte, C.; Woodgate, W.; Wu, S.

    2013-12-01

    During 28th July - 3rd August, 2013, an international group of researchers brought five terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) to long-term monitoring plots in three eucalyptus-dominated woodland sites near Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, to acquire scans at common locations for calibration and intercomparison.They included: DWEL - a dual-wavelength full-waveform laser scanner (Boston U., U. Massachusetts Lowell, U. Massachusetts Boston, USA) SALCA - a dual-wavelength full-waveform laser scanner (U. Salford, UK) CBL - a canopy biomass lidar, a small ultraportable low-cost multiple discrete return scanner (U. Massachusetts Boston, USA) Riegl VZ400 - a survey-grade commercial waveform scanner (Queensland Government and TERN, U. Queensland, Australia) FARO Focus 3D - a lightweight commercial phase-shift ranging laser scanner (U. Southern Queensland) Two plots were scanned at Karawatha Forest Park, a Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) Supersite, and one plot at D'Aguilar National Park. At each 50 x 100 m plot, a center scan point was surrounded by four scan points located 25 m away in a cross pattern allowing for 3-D reconstructions of scan sites in the form of point clouds. At several center points, multiple instrument configurations (i.e. different beam divergence, angular resolution, pulse rate) were acquired to test the impact of instrument specifications on separation of woody and non-woody materials and estimation of vegetation structure parameters. Three-dimensional Photopoint photographic panoramas were also acquired, providing reconstructions of stems in the form of point clouds using photogrammetric correlation methods. Calibrated reflectance targets were also scanned to compare instrument geometric and radiometric performance. Ancillary data included hemispherical photos, TRAC LAI/clumping measurements, spectra of leaves, bark, litter, and other target components. Wet and dry leaf weights determined water content. Planned intercomparison topics and

  4. Feeding associations between Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis (Van Bénèden, 1864) and seabirds in the Lagamar estuary, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M C O; Oshima, J E F; Pacífico, E S; Silva, E

    2010-02-01

    The main objective of the present study was to describe the characteristics regarding interactions between Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis and seabirds in feeding associations in two distinct areas of the Lagamar estuary, Brazil. Boat-based surveys directed towards photo-identification studies of S. guianensis were conducted in the Cananéia Estuary (CE) (25 degrees 01' S and 47 degrees 55' W) from July 2004 to March 2008, as well as in the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC) (25 degrees 24' S and 48 degrees 24' W) from April 2006 to February 2008. On all occasions when seabirds were observed engaging in multi-species feeding associations with S. guianensis, data on species involved and their numbers were gathered. From 435 observed groups of S. guianensis in the CE, 38 (8.7%) involved interactions with seabirds. In the PEC, from the 286 observed groups, 32 (11.2%) involved the mentioned interactions. The following seabirds were observed in feeding associations with S. guianensis: Fregata magnificens, Sula leucogaster, Phalacrocorax brasilianus, and Sterna sp. In the CE, S. leucogaster was more commonly observed in feeding associations with Guiana dolphins (chi2 = 22.84; d.f. = 3, p seabird species (chi2 = 5.78; d.f.=3, p = 0.1223). In the CE, feeding associations were significantly more frequent in inner waters (subset A0; chi2 = 9.52; d.f. = 2, p seabird species. Seasonality in feeding associations was also observed in the PEC (chi2 = 4.76; d.f. = 1, p seabird species. Water transparency, prey and seabird abundance and distribution, cetacean group size, and the life cycle of prey and seabirds are listed as the main factors addressing multi-species feeding associations in the Lagamar estuary.

  5. Development of the ventral body wall in the human embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K; Hikspoors, Jill P J M; Mommen, Greet; Köhler, S Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H

    2015-01-01

    Migratory failure of somitic cells is the commonest explanation for ventral body wall defects. However, the embryo increases ∼ 25-fold in volume in the period that the ventral body wall forms, so that differential growth may, instead, account for the observed changes in topography. Human embryos between 4 and 10 weeks of development were studied, using amira® reconstruction and cinema 4D® remodeling software for visualization. Initially, vertebrae and ribs had formed medially, and primordia of sternum and hypaxial flank muscle primordium laterally in the body wall at Carnegie Stage (CS)15 (5.5 weeks). The next week, ribs and muscle primordium expanded in ventrolateral direction only. At CS18 (6.5 weeks), separate intercostal and abdominal wall muscles differentiated, and ribs, sterna, and muscles began to expand ventromedially and caudally, with the bilateral sternal bars fusing in the midline after CS20 (7 weeks) and the rectus muscles reaching the umbilicus at CS23 (8 weeks). The near-constant absolute distance between both rectus muscles and approximately fivefold decline of this distance relative to body circumference between 6 and 10 weeks identified dorsoventral growth in the dorsal body wall as determinant of the ‘closure’ of the ventral body wall. Concomitant with the straightening of the embryonic body axis after the 6th week, the abdominal muscles expanded ventrally and caudally to form the infraumbilical body wall. Our data, therefore, show that the ventral body wall is formed by differential dorsoventral growth in the dorsal part of the body. PMID:26467243

  6. Micromanager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Bronwyn

    2004-09-01

    George Latour considers himself a good leader. As CEO of Retronics, George has a mandate to grow revenues with an eye toward taking the software-engineering firm public by 2006. At the behest of the chairman of the board, he has hired a new marketing director, Shelley Stern--"a thoroughbred" who, the chairman insists, just needs a little training in the business. George does his best to bring his new hire up to speed. He has Shelley sit in on developers' meetings, has her accompany the sales force on client calls, and even has the CFO explain the company's cash flow situation to her. He also takes pains to help her correctly position marketing and press materials. But Shelley never seems to really take the bit. In fact, Shelley considers George's hands-on management style oppressive, and she's dreadfully unhappy. What George sees as efforts to bring her up to speed, like making her go on those sales calls when she has other work to do, she views as signs that he doesn't trust her judgment. What's more, Shelley is spread too thin. Yet when she asks for help--if not additional staff, at least an outside contractor--George asks for a list of everything she's working on and tells her he'll help her prioritize. In this fictional case, a he-said, she-said debate erupts over competing management styles. Four commentators--Jim Goodnight, the CEO of SAS Institute; Mark Goulston, a psychiatrist and the senior vice president at Sherwood Partners; J. Michael Lawrie, the CEO of Siebel Systems; and Craig Chappelow, the senior manager of assessment and development resources at the Center for Creative Leadership--offer their perspectives on the problem and how to solve it.

  7. Base-line investigations of birds in relation to an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev, and results from the year of construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Clausager, I.; Krag Petersen, I.

    2003-04-15

    The present report presents the base-line investigations of birds conducted during August 1999-April 2001 in relation to construction of an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev, 14 km west-south-west of Blaevandshuk, in the Danish North Sea. The report also presents data collected during the period September 2001-April 2002, when construction of the wind farm was in progress. The wind farm will consist of 80 wind turbines, each of 2 MW, and cover an area of c. 20 km{sup 2}. The eastern part of the North Sea constitutes major staging and wintering grounds for huge numbers of water- and seabirds. The area is also known to be an important site for migrating birds, which especially in autumn pass in large numbers. As Denmark has obligations to protect and maintain the bird populations it was laid down in the approval for erection of the wind farm that the impact on birds should be investigated. According to the 1% criteria defined in the Ramsar Convention, the eastern part of the North Sea including the wind farm area is of international importance to divers, Common Tern, and Sandwich Tern. A number of other species, e.g. Common Eider, Common Scoter, Guillemot and Razorbill, are present in the area in significant numbers as well, though these numbers do not make up 1% of the populations. Detailed distributions of birds in the area around and at Horns Rev were virtually unknown until initiation of this project. Previous bird counts in this area have been carried out almost exclusively from the coast and detailed knowledge exists concerning the numbers of roosting at and migrating birds from the westernmost point of Jutland, Blaevandshuk. To describe the numbers and distributions of birds staging and wintering in the Horns Rev area, bird investigations were initiated in 1999 by using standardised transect counts from aircraft. Up to April 2002, 18 aerial counts have been carried out over an area of c. 1,700 km{sup 2} centred on the Horns Rev project area. (au)

  8. A Conceptual Framework to Enhance the Interoperability of Observatories among Countries, Continents and the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loescher, H.; Fundamental Instrument Unit

    2013-05-01

    Ecological research addresses challenges relating to the dynamics of the planet, such as changes in climate, biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and services, carbon and energy cycles, natural and human-induced hazards, and adaptation and mitigation strategies that involve many science and engineering disciplines and cross national boundaries. Because of the global nature of these challenges, greater international collaboration is required for knowledge sharing and technology deployment to advance earth science investigations and enhance societal benefits. For example, the Working Group on Biodiversity Preservation and Ecosystem Services (PCAST 2011) noted the scale and complexity of the physical and human resources needed to address these challenges. Many of the most pressing ecological research questions require global-scale data and global scale solutions (Suresh 2012), e.g., interdisciplinary data access from data centers managing ecological resources and hazards, drought, heat islands, carbon cycle, or data used to forecast the rate of spread of invasive species or zoonotic diseases. Variability and change at one location or in one region may well result from the superposition of global processes coupled together with regional and local modes of variability. For example, we know the El Niño-Southern Oscillation large-scale modes of variability in the coupled terrestrial-aquatic-atmospheric systems' correlation with variability in regional rainfall and ecosystem functions. It is therefore a high priority of government and non-government organizations to develop the necessary large scale, world-class research infrastructures for environmental research—and the framework by which these data can be shared, discovered, and utilized by a broad user community of scientists and policymakers, alike. Given that there are many, albeit nascent, efforts to build new environmental observatories/networks globally (e.g., EU-ICOS, EU-Lifewatch, AU-TERN, China-CERN, GEOSS

  9. Utilização do planejamento experimental em rede simplex no estudo de resíduo de rocha ornamental como filler para obtenção de máxima compacidade Use of simplex lattice experimental design in the study of ornamental rock waste as filler to obtain maximum compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Destefani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de agregados industrializados vem crescendo ao longo dos anos para atender a grande demanda da construção civil devido ao crescimento econômico do país. O objetivo deste trabalho foi utilizar o planejamento experimental em Rede Simplex para avaliar o efeito da adição do resíduo de rocha ornamental como filler na composição de misturas ternárias (brita 0, pó de pedra e resíduo, que levem a máxima compacidade (densidade seca aparente máxima. Foram tomados dezesseis pontos experimentais, cujos teores dos materiais utilizados variaram de 0 a 100%. O modelo em rede simplex cúbico completo apresentou melhor ajuste aos resultados experimentais, o qual resulta em respostas estatisticamente mais adequadas para as composições estudadas. A superfície de resposta gerada indicou que a densidade seca aparente máxima de 2,0 g/cm³ foi obtida para a composição ternária: 63% de brita 0/17% de pó de pedra/20% de resíduo de rocha ornamental. Portanto, o uso de resíduo de rocha ornamental como filler em agregados para a construção civil pode ser uma alternativa viável para deposição final deste abundante resíduo de forma ambientalmente correta.The use of industrial aggregates has grown over the years to meet the great demand of the civil construction due to the country's economical growth. The aim of this work was to use the experimental design in Simplex Lattice to evaluate the effect of the addition of ornamental rock waste as filler in the composition of ternary mixtures (crushed rock 0, stone powder, rock waste, leading to maximum compaction (maximum apparent dry density. Sixteen experimental points were taken, whose contents of the used materials ranged from 0 to 100%. The complete cubic simplex model showed to best fit to the experimental results, which results in more statistically appropriated responses to the studied compositions. The response surface generated indicated that the maximum apparent dry density (2

  10. Contrasted structuring effects of mesoscale features on the seabird community in the Mozambique Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquemet, S.; Ternon, J. F.; Kaehler, S.; Thiebot, J. B.; Dyer, B.; Bemanaja, E.; Marteau, C.; Le Corre, M.

    2014-02-01

    The Mozambique Channel (western Indian Ocean) is a dynamic environment characterised by strong mesoscale features, which influence all biological components of the pelagic ecosystem. We investigated the distribution, abundance and feeding behaviour of seabirds in the Mozambique Channel in relation to physical and biological environmental variables, with a specific interest in mesoscale features. Seabird censuses were conducted in summer and winter during 7 cruises in the southern and northern Mozambique Channel. Tropical species accounted for 49% of the 37 species identified and 97% of the individuals, and species from the sub-Antarctic region constituted 30% of the identifications. The typically tropical sooty tern (Onychoprion fuscata) was the dominant species during all cruises, and overall accounted for 74% of the species observations and 85% of counted birds. Outputs of Generalised Linear Models at the scale of the Mozambique Channel suggested that higher densities of flying and feeding birds occurred in areas with lower sea surface temperatures and lower surface chlorophyll a concentrations. Most of the flocks of feeding birds did not associate with surface schools of fish or marine mammals, but when they did, these flocks were larger, especially when associated with tuna. While tropical species seemed to favour cyclonic eddies, frontal and divergence zones, non-tropical species were more frequently recorded over shelf waters. Sooty terns foraged preferentially in cyclonic eddies where zooplankton, micronekton and tuna schools were abundant. Among other major tropical species, frigatebirds (Fregata spp.) predominated in frontal zones between eddies, where tuna schools also frequently occurred and where geostrophic currents were the strongest. Red-footed boobies (Sula sula) concentrated in divergence zones characterised by low sea level anomalies, low geostrophic currents, and high zooplankton biomass close to the surface. Our results highlight the importance

  11. Ambiguidade métrica no Presto da Sonata para violino solo BWV 1001 de J. S. Bach: apontamentos para uma performance historicamente informada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Fiaminghi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A tradição interpretativa do séc. XIX consagrou ao Presto da Sonata I a violino solo senza basso, BWV 1001, de Bach, uma concepção de moto perpetuo que enfatiza a virtuosidade, a igualdade e a velocidade da performance, tendo como parâmetro as peças idiomáticas violinísticas de bravura, como moto perpetuo de Paganini. Esta concepção afeta diretamente a estrutura métrica da peça e o sentido rítmico a ela associada. Apesar de a fórmula de compasso indicar claramente uma métrica ternária (3/8, a tradição interpretativa herdada do séc. XIX concebe este movimento prioritariamente em uma métrica binária (6/16 em uma interminável sequência de semicolcheias. Exceções à métrica binária ocorrem quando as ligaduras originalmente marcadas duas a duas são respeitadas, o que consequentemente gera na narrativa rítmica um sentido polimétrico exógeno ao ideal estético do séc. XVIII. Além disso, o senso de movimento contínuo e igualdade rítmica presentes em um moto perpetuo do séc. XIX nega as preceptivas de um discurso retoricamente regrado que prioriza contrastes produzidos pela articulação de vozes em textura polifônica implícita, oculta na escrita das sequências de semicolcheias. Joel Lester (1999, por sua vez, defende que não há neste movimento preponderância métrica entre binário e ternário, e que qualquer opção de interpretação tomada é incapaz de impor-se à outra. Divergindo desta prerrogativa, acreditamos que, ao se superar uma análise estruturalista e adentrar-se em questões hermenêuticas (o mundo do texto e fenomenológicas (dança/gesto e tradições rítmico/interpretativas, pode-se trazer nova luz a este ícone do repertório violinístico para construção de uma performance historicamente informada ao violino e arco modernos.

  12. Die Säuglingsflasche. Dinghistorische Perspektiven auf Familienbeziehungen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und in Schweden (1950–1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Limper

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Between 1950 and 1980 children were increasingly raised with bottle-feeding products in the Federal Republic of Germany. There were plenty of products on offer and the marketing strategies of the food production companies were intricate. This cannot, however, have been the sole reason for the increasing use of the baby bottle. The bottle will be analysed using a History of Things approach: how did it enter the family and how did it change the relations between mothers, fathers and infants? For mothers, the baby bottle promised greater freedom in organising their everyday lives; fathers were able to redefine their masculinity by feeding the baby themselves. In Sweden, care for infants and small children as well as the responsibilities of men in child-rearing were addressed and demanded earlier than in the Federal Republic of Germany. In both countries, it can be observed that the baby bottle – among other factors – played a key role in shaping the family during the 20th century. In both countries, this was a controversial affair. Zwischen 1950 und 1980 wurden Säuglinge in der Bundesrepublik zunehmend mit Flaschenmilch ernährt. Die Produktpalette war groß, und die Werbestrategien der Nahrungsmittelhersteller waren ausgeklügelt. Dies allein kann jedoch nicht der Grund für die steigende Nutzung der Säuglingsflasche gewesen sein. Sie wird hier mit einer explizit dinghistorischen Perspektive untersucht: Wie kam sie in die Familie, und wie veränderte sie die Beziehungen von Müttern, Vätern und Säuglingen? Müttern versprach die Säuglingsflasche mehr Freiheiten in der Gestaltung ihres Alltags; Vätern ermöglichte sie es, ihre Männlichkeit neu zu definieren, indem die Väter ihre Kinder selbst fütterten. Eher als in der Bundesrepublik wurde in Schweden die Versorgung von Kleinkindern diskutiert und eine stärkere Mitverantwortung der Männer für die Familie gefordert. Für beide Länder lässt sich beobachten, dass die S

  13. Modeling metapopulation dynamics for single species of seabirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, P.A.; Downer, R.; McCullough, D.R.; Barrett, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    Seabirds share many characteristics setting them apart from other birds. Importantly, they breed more or less obligatorily in local clusters of colonies that can move regularly from site to site, and they routinely exchange breeders. The properties of such metapopulations have only recently begun to be examined, often with models that are occupancy-based (using only colony presence or absence data) and deterministic (using single, empirically determined values for each of several population biology parameters). Some recent models are now frequency-based (using actual population sizes at each site), as well as stochastic (randomly varying critical parameters between biologically realistic limits), yielding better estimates of the behavior of future populations. Using two such models designed to quantify relative risks of population changes under different future scenarios (RAMAS/stage and RAMAS/space), we have examined probable future populations dynamics for three hypothetical seabirds -- an albatross, a cormorant, and a tern. With real parameters and ranges of values we alternatively modelled each species with and without density dependence, as well as with their numbers in a single, large colony, or in many smaller ones, distributed evenly or lognormally. We produced a series of species-typical lines for different population risks over the 50 years we simulated. We call these curves Instantaneous Threat Assessments (ITAs), and their shapes mirror the varying life history characteristics of our three species. We also demonstrated (by a process known as sensitivity analysis) that the most important parameters determining future population fates of all three species were correlation of mean growth rate among colonies; dispersal rate of present and future breeders; subadult survivorship; and the number of subpopulations (=colonies) - in roughly that descending order of importance. In addition, density dependence was found to markedly alter ITA line shape and position

  14. Age and gender related differences in aortic blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traberg, Marie Sand; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian

    2012-01-01

    is to investigate the blood flow pat- terns within a group of healthy volunteers (4 females, 7 males) aged 23 to 76 years to identify changes and differences related to age and gender. The healthy volunteers were categorized by gender (male/female) and age (below/above 35 years). Subject-specific flow and geometry...... data were acquired using the research interface on a medical ultrasound scanner and segmentation of 3D magnetic resonance angiography respectively. The largest average diameter was among the elderly males (19.7 (± 1.33) mm) and smallest among the young females (12.4 (± 0.605) mm). The highest peak...... systolic velocity was in the young female group (1.02 (± 0.336) m/s) and lowest in the elderly male group (0.836 (± 0.127) m/s). A geometrical change with age was observed as the AA becomes more bended with age. This also affects the blood flow velocity patterns, which are markedly different from young...

  15. Survival in extreme environment by "preserve-expand-specialize" strategy: lessons from comparative genomics of an anhydrobiotic midge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Oleg; Sugimoto, Manabu; Novikova, Nataliya; Sychev, Vladimir; Okuda, Takashi; Kikawada, Takahiro

    2012-07-01

    Anhydrobiotic chironomid larvae of Polypedilum vanderplanki (Diptera) can withstand prolonged complete desiccation as well as other external stresses including ionizing radiation. Recent experiments showed that this insect is able to survive long-tern exposure to real outer space. At the same time, we found that dehydration causes alterations in chromatin structure and a severe fragmentation of nuclear DNA in the cells of the larvae despite successful anhydrobiosis. Analysis of several remote populations of the chironomid in Africa that desiccation-related DNA damage might be a driving genetic force for rapid radiation within the species. First results of ongoing genome project suggest that origin and evolution of anhydrobiosis in this single insect species related to rapid duplication of the genes, coding late embryogenesis abundant proteins (LEA) and other molecular agents directly involved in desiccation resistance in the cells. Analysis of genome-wide mRNA expression profiles in the larvae subjected to desiccation shows that joint-activity of large multiple-genes coding regions in the genome involved in control of anhydrobiosis-related molecular adaptations in the chironomid.

  16. Threatened and Endangered Species Survey for Patrick Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddy, Donna M.; Stolen, Eric D.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Larson, Vickie L.; Hall, Patrice; Hensley, Melissa A.

    1997-01-01

    characteristic of species that occur in the Indian River Lagoon system. Twenty-five species of waterbirds were observed during quarterly surveys on PAFB, including five species listed as species of special concern by the state of Florida: Snowy Egret (Egretta thula), Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea), Tricolored Heron (Egretta tricolo4, White Ibis (Eudocimus albus), and Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis). The Golf Course was used extensively by almost all species of waterbirds on PAFB. Twenty-two species of shorebirds were observed on PAFB. Although no listed species were observed, the potential exists for several protected species of shorebirds to use the beach at PAFB during some parts of the year. The Airfield runways and associated grass areas were important sites at PAFB for loafing and feeding for some shorebirds. Surveys of rooftop nesting by Least Terns (Stema antillarum) on PAFB found a large colony on a rooftop in the PAFB Industrial Area. This colony produced some independent young. Two rooftop Least Tern colonies reported from previous years were inactive during 1996. A small number of Black Skimmers (Rhynchops nigee attempted to nest at the Least Ten colony but were unsuccessful. Surveys for the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) revealed burrows and tortoises only at the Waste Study Site; five burrows and three tortoises were observed. No Florida scrub lizards (Sceloporus woodi), eastern indigo snakes (Drymarchon corais couperl), or diamondback terrapins (Malademys terrapin terrapin) were observed. American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) were observed on the Golf Course and using ditches, ponds, and areas along the Banana River. The amount of dune habitat could be expanded by not mowing areas adjacent to the dunes to allow dune species to colonize and expand. Planting dune species as part of the beach renourishment project will also increase this habitat. Exotic plants dominate several areas on the base and are used by threatened, endangered, and

  17. Fully populated VCM or the hidden parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kermarrec G.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Least-squares estimates are trustworthy with minimal variance if the correct stochastic model is used. Due to computational burden, diagonal models that neglect correlations are preferred to describe the elevation dependency of the variance of GPS observations. In this contribution, an improved stochastic model based on a parametric function to take correlations between GPS phase observations into account is presented. Built on an adapted and flexible Mátern function accounting for spatiotemporal variabilities, its parameters can be fixed thanks to Maximum Likelihood Estimation or chosen apriori to model turbulent tropospheric refractivity fluctuations. In this contribution, we will show in which cases and under which conditions corresponding fully populated variance covariance matrices (VCM replace the estimation of a tropospheric parameter. For this equivalence “augmented functional versus augmented stochastic model” to hold, the VCM should be made sufficiently largewhich corresponds to computing small batches of observations. A case study with observations from a medium baseline of 80 km divided into batches of 600 s shows improvement of up to 100 mm for the 3Drms when fully populated VCM are used compared with an elevation dependent diagonal model. It confirms the strong potential of such matrices to improve the least-squares solution, particularly when ambiguities are let float.

  18. Identification of the biomarkers for the prediction of efficacy in first-line chemotherapy of metastatic colorectal cancer patients using SELDI-TOF-MS and artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Tan, Chun-Wen; Shen, Hong; Yu, Jie-Kai; Fang, Xue-Feng; Jiang, Wen-Zhi; Zheng, Shu

    2012-01-01

    For patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, both FOLFOX regimen and FOLFIRI regimen are considered as first-line choices. There are no clinically useful markers that could predict the response to these regimens respectively. We aimed at identifying serum protein patterns which could predict the efficacy of chemotherapy. Serum from 70 patients diagnosed as metastatic colorectal cancer before first-line chemotherapy were collected and analyzed for protein patterns using ANN analysis of SELDI-TOF-MS. Among the 70 cases, 44 patients received FOLFOX chemotherapy, while the other 26 patients received FOLFIRI chemotherapy. After four cycles of the treatment, RECIST criteria were used to define the responders (R) and non-responders (NR). A potential predicting pattern consisting of 6 biomarkers was identified in the patients receiving FOLFOX chemotherapy. Using this predicting pattern, the responders could be separated from the non-responders with a sensitivity of 92.9% and a specificity of 81.3%. Another potential predicting pattern that consisted of 7 bio-markers was identified in the patients who have received FOLFIRI chemotherapy. The sensitivity and the specificity of this predicting pattern were 92.3% and 92.3% respectively. Two potential pat-terns for the prediction of efficacy of FOLFOX or FOLFIRI chemotherapy were established in this preliminary study.

  19. A Comprehensive Survey of Pelagic Megafauna: Their Distribution, Densities, and Taxonomic Richness in the Tropical Southwest Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Laran

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and density of pelagic megafauna (marine mammals, seabirds, elasmobranches, and sea turtles are important indicators of marine biodiversity, reflecting the condition of the underlying ecosystems. A dedicated aerial survey was conducted in the tropical Southwest Indian Ocean to map their distribution, the taxonomic diversity, and to estimate their densities to serve as a baseline for the area. This large survey across three ecological sub-regions revealed contrasting spatial distributions: maps of taxonomic richness of marine mammals and seabirds revealed different “hotspots” in the area. Densities were estimated for eight cetacean taxa with small and large Delphininae, or small Globicephalinae dominating, and for seven seabird taxa, with terns and noddies dominating. At the community level, the Southwest Indian Ocean megafauna was structured by the marine environment with strong differences between the Mozambique Channel and the Mascarene Islands, or between shelf and slope/oceanic habitats. Our results illustrate how multi-taxa aerial surveys are relevant and cost-effective monitoring tools for marine megafauna, allowing a community-wide approach.

  20. Constructal theory of design in engineering and nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bejan Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a brief introduction to an engineering theory on the origin and generation of geometric form in all flow systems: the animate, the in animate and the engineered. The theory is named constructal, and is based on the thought that it is natural for cur rents to construct for them selves in time paths of greater flow access. It is shown that this process of flow path optimization can be reasoned on the basis of principle: the maximization of global performance subject to finite-size constraints. One example is the generation of tree-shaped flow pat terns, as paths of least resistance between one point (source, sink and an infinity of points (area, volume, as in the circulatory, respiratory and nervous systems. Another is the generation of regular spacing's in heat generating volumes, such as swarms of honey - bees. The optimized tree-flow geometries ac count for allometric laws, e. g., the relation ship between the total tube contact area and the body size, the proportionality between metabolic rate and body size raised to the power 3/4, the proportionality between breathing and heart beating times and body size raised to the power 1/4, and the proportionality between the cruising speed of flying bodies (in sects, birds, air planes and body mass raised to the power 1/6. The optimized flow structures constitute robust designs, and robustness improves as the complexity of the system increases. Flow architectures that are more efficient look more natural.

  1. Monitoring of Space and Earth electromagnetic environment by MAGDAS project: Collaboration with IKIR - Introduction to ICSWSE/MAGDAS project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikawa Akimasa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For study of coupling processes in the Solar-Terrestrial System, International Center for Space Weather Science and Education (ICSWSE, Kyushu University has developed a real time magnetic data acquisition system (the MAGDAS project around the world. The number of observational sites is increasing every year with the collaboration of host countries. Now at this time, the MAGDAS Project has installed 78 real time magnetometers – so it is the largest magnetometer array in the world. The history of global observation at Kyushu University is over 30 years and number of developed observational sites is over 140. Especially, Collaboration between IKIR is extended back to 1990's. Now a time, we are operating Flux-gate magnetometer and FM-CW Radar. It is one of most important collaboration for space weather monitoring. By using MAGDAS data, ICSWSE produces many types of space weather index, such as EE-index (for monitoring long tern and shot term variation of equatorial electrojet, Pc5 index (for monitoring solar-wind velocity and high energy electron flux, Sq-index (for monitoring global change of ionospheric low and middle latitudinal current system, and Pc3 index (for monitoring of plasma density variation at low latitudes. In this report, we will introduce recent development of MAGDAS/ICSWSE Indexes project and topics for new open policy for MAGDAS data will be also discussed.

  2. Tracking overwintering areas of fish-eating birds to identify mercury exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Raphael A; Kyser, T Kurt; Friesen, Vicki L; Campbell, Linda M

    2015-01-20

    Migration patterns are believed to greatly influence concentrations of contaminants in birds due to accumulation in spatially and temporally distinct ecosystems. Two species of fish-eating birds, the Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) and the Caspian Tern (Hydroprogne caspia) breeding in Lake Ontario were chosen to measure the impact of overwintering location on mercury concentrations ([Hg]). We characterized (1) overwintering areas using stable isotopes of hydrogen (δ(2)H) and band recoveries, and (2) overwintering habitats by combining information from stable isotopes of sulfur (δ(34)S), carbon (δ(13)C), nitrogen (δ(15)N), and δ(2)H in feathers grown during the winter. Overall, overwintering location had a significant effect on [Hg]. Both species showed high [Hg] in (13)C-rich habitats. In situ production of Hg (e.g., through sulfate reducing bacteria in sediments) and allochthonous import could explain high [Hg] in birds visiting (13)C-rich habitats. Higher [Hg] were found in birds with high δ(2)H, suggesting that Hg is more bioavailable in southern overwintering locations. Hotspot maps informed that higher [Hg] in birds were found at the limit of their southeastern overwintering range. Mercury concentrations in winter feathers were positively related to predicted spatial pattern of [Hg] in fish using the National Descriptive Model of Mercury in Fish (NDMMF) based on bird spatial assignment (using δ(2)H). This study indicates that the overwintering location greatly influences [Hg].

  3. Data policy for data sets from various sources: recent developments in the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, A. T.; Kutsch, W. L.; Lavric, J. V.; Juurola, E.

    2016-12-01

    Fluxnet is facing a transition from single PI and project engagement to a cooperation of infrastructures such as ICOS, Ameriflux, NEON, Chinaflux or TERN. Each of these infrastructures has developed its own data life cycle, data license and data policy which will have implications on future cooperation within Fluxnet and other global data integration efforts such as e.g. SOCAt in the ocean community. This presentation will introduce into the recent developments of the ICOS data policy and show perspectives for future cooperation in global networks. The challenge in developing the ICOS data policy has been to find the best compromise between optimized access for users and sufficient visibility and acknowledgement of data providers. ICOS data will be provided under the Creative Commons 4.0 BY license. ICOS data will be provided through the ICOS Carbon Portal. Data usage will be absolutely unrestricted. Data have only to be attributed as ICOS data. With the attribution ICOS will provide a persistent identifier (pid, sometimes also nominated as digial object identifier, doi) that will direct to a landing page where data provider and if necessary also funding organisations are identified. In cooperation with other environmental research infrastructures in the framework of the European cluster project ENVRIplus and the Research Data Alliance (RDA) the ICOS Carbon Portal is currently developing a data citation system. This includes developing recommendations for data citation of integrated data sets from different sources.

  4. Radionuclides as tracer for submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) research at Dapeng Bay in Southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun-Chen; Su, Chih-Chieh

    2017-04-01

    Conventionally, river is the most important source for delivering nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon, and trace elements into the ocean. The issues of land-sea interaction by rivers have been long-tern concerned and studied, on contrary, the pathway and impact through submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is still unclear and the relevant researches need to be strengthened. The research site, Dapeng Bay, is located at Pingtung County in Southern Taiwan. Dapeng Bay is an bag-shape lagoon with a sand spit serving as the single outlet of the bay. The longshore currents transport sediments which delivered by Donggang and Linbian Rivers deposited at the nearshore and eventually form the semi-enclosed shallow bay. In the Dapeng Bay, there is no river poured into the lagoon and the main sources of freshwater are rainwater, domestic wastewater and fish ponds etc. The tidal driven water exchange between lagoon and ocean is through the sand spit outlet. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the weighting and seasonal change between SGD and riverine input in the Dapeng Bay. The radium isotopes, 223Ra (11.4d), 224Ra (3.7d), 226Ra (1600y), 228Ra (5.7y), were used as tracers for assessing SGD and riverine inputs. Samples were collected by using MnO2-coated fibers for radium isotopes adsorption.

  5. Mediegenre, identifikation og reception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Frandsen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available I artiklen sætter forfatterne fokus på forholdet mellem personer, der ser på personer i tv. Udgangspunktet er receptionsanalysen og den motiva- tion for tv-sening, der er forbundet med, at tv-seere relaterer sig til og identificerer sig med personer, der optræder på tv (tv-værter, medvir- kende osv.. Med afsæt i en funktionsorienteret definition af genrebe- grebet (forskellige genrer etablerer forskellige forventninger, indlevel- ser osv. hos modtageren gennemgår forfatterne forskellige teoretiske positioner, der hver især byder på forskellige forestillinger om forholdet (medie-tekst og modtageren. Det drejer sig om psykosemiotik,kogniti- onsteori, parasocial interaktionsteori, mikrosociologisk medieteori og spilteori, som alle har et mere eller mindre eksplicit bud på, hvordan medie og modtagere etablerer relationer som en central del af medie- brugerens motivationer og oplevelser. De forskellige teorier om identi- fikation danner ifølge forfatterne et kontinuum, spændende fra teorier om den stærke indlevelse til den mere overfladiske indlevelse. Forfat- terne advokerer for en mere nuanceret brug af begrebet identifikation, til forskel fra en generel brug af begrebet, som ikke medreflekterer de forskellige teoridannelsers forskellige syn på f.eks. magtforholdet mel- lem medie og modtager, og som derfor kan have store konsekvenser for analysens resultater.

  6. Coastal vertebrate exposure to predicted habitat changes due to sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Elizabeth A.; Nibbelink, Nathan P.; Alexander, Clark R.; Barrett, Kyle; Mengak, Lara F.; Guy, Rachel; Moore, Clinton; Cooper, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) may degrade habitat for coastal vertebrates in the Southeastern United States, but it is unclear which groups or species will be most exposed to habitat changes. We assessed 28 coastal Georgia vertebrate species for their exposure to potential habitat changes due to SLR using output from the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model and information on the species’ fundamental niches. We assessed forecasted habitat change up to the year 2100 using three structural habitat metrics: total area, patch size, and habitat permanence. Almost all of the species (n = 24) experienced negative habitat changes due to SLR as measured by at least one of the metrics. Salt marsh and ocean beach habitats experienced the most change (out of 16 categorical land cover types) across the three metrics and species that used salt marsh extensively (rails and marsh sparrows) were ranked highest for exposure to habitat changes. Species that nested on ocean beaches (Diamondback Terrapins, shorebirds, and terns) were also ranked highly, but their use of other foraging habitats reduced their overall exposure. Future studies on potential effects of SLR on vertebrates in southeastern coastal ecosystems should focus on the relative importance of different habitat types to these species’ foraging and nesting requirements. Our straightforward prioritization approach is applicable to other coastal systems and can provide insight to managers on which species to focus resources, what components of their habitats need to be protected, and which locations in the study area will provide habitat refuges in the face of SLR.

  7. Monitoring of Space and Earth electromagnetic environment by MAGDAS project: Collaboration with IKIR - Introduction to ICSWSE/MAGDAS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Akimasa; Fujimoto, Akiko; Ikeda, Akihiro; Uozumi, Teiji; Abe, Shuji

    2017-10-01

    For study of coupling processes in the Solar-Terrestrial System, International Center for Space Weather Science and Education (ICSWSE), Kyushu University has developed a real time magnetic data acquisition system (the MAGDAS project) around the world. The number of observational sites is increasing every year with the collaboration of host countries. Now at this time, the MAGDAS Project has installed 78 real time magnetometers - so it is the largest magnetometer array in the world. The history of global observation at Kyushu University is over 30 years and number of developed observational sites is over 140. Especially, Collaboration between IKIR is extended back to 1990's. Now a time, we are operating Flux-gate magnetometer and FM-CW Radar. It is one of most important collaboration for space weather monitoring. By using MAGDAS data, ICSWSE produces many types of space weather index, such as EE-index (for monitoring long tern and shot term variation of equatorial electrojet), Pc5 index (for monitoring solar-wind velocity and high energy electron flux), Sq-index (for monitoring global change of ionospheric low and middle latitudinal current system), and Pc3 index (for monitoring of plasma density variation at low latitudes). In this report, we will introduce recent development of MAGDAS/ICSWSE Indexes project and topics for new open policy for MAGDAS data will be also discussed.

  8. Statistical Analysis of the Reflectivity of a Heliostats Field. Application to the CR S Heliostats Field of the Plataforma Solar de Almeria; Analisis Estadistico de la Reflectividad de un Campo de Heliostatos CRS de la Plataforma Solar de Almeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Reche, J.

    2003-07-01

    Reflectivity measuring in a heliostats field of a solar central tower is a task that should performed periodically. The reflectivity of the field is a value that should be known to evaluate the system, moreover it plays an important role in several simulation codes which are useful for the daily operation of the system. When the size of the heliostats field increases (terns of heliostats) it is necessary to find a method, due to operability reasons, that allows us to offer a reflectivity value measuring only in fe facets guaranteeing that the statistical error of this value is within a reasonable range. In this report a statistical analysis of the reflectivity in a heliostats field is presented. The analysis was particularized for the CRS heliostats field of the Plataforma Solar de Almeria. The results of the present study allow us to guarantee a reflectivity value of the heliostats field with a statistical error below 1% measuring only 12 facets (instead of the 1116 facets that compose the field). (Author) 6 refs.

  9. Avian Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River: 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roby, Daniel D.; Craig, David P.; Collis, Ken; Adamany, Stephanie L.

    1998-09-01

    The authors initiated a field study in 1997 to assess the impacts of fish-eating colonial waterbirds (i.e., terns, cormorants, and gulls) on the survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River. Here the authors present results from the 1998 breeding season, the second field season of work on this project. The research objectives in 1998 were to: (1) determine the location, size, nesting chronology, nesting success, and population trajectories of breeding colonies of fish-eating birds in the lower Columbia River; (2) determine diet composition of fish-eating birds, including taxonomic composition and energy content of various prey types; (3) estimate forage fish consumption rates, with special emphasis on juvenile salmonids, by breeding adults and their young; (4) determine the relative vulnerabilit2048 different groups of juvenile salmonids to bird predation; (5) identify foraging range, foraging strategies, and habitat utilization by piscivorous waterbirds; and (6) test the feasibility of various alternative methods for managing avian predation on juvenile salmonids and develop recommendations to reduce avian predation, if warranted by the results.

  10. Miljøundersøgelser ved Maarmorilik 1997

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, P.; Riget, F.; Asmund, G.

    Produktionen i bly-zink minevirksomheden i Maarmorilik ophørte i 1990. Miljøtilstanden i området er siden blevet undersøgt årligt ved indsamling og analyse for bly og zink i havvand samt lav og dyr fra området. Denne rapport præsenterer resulta-terne af de undersøgelser, som blev udført i 1997. I...... forhold til tidligere år var undersøgelserne i 1997 af mindre omfang, idet nogle elementer i det undersøgelsesprogram, som er planlagt udført efter minens lukning, ikke udføres hvert år. Spredning af bly og zink med støv fra minevirksomheden er undersøgt ved at indsamle og analysere lavarten Cetraria...... nivalis i området ved Maarmorilik. Der blev i 1997 dels indsamlet og analyseret naturligt forekommende lav i området og dels lav, som i 1996 var blevet transplanteret (flyttet) fra en uforurenet lokalitet til flere lokaliteter ved Maarmorilik. Metalkoncentrationerne i det transplanterede lav var i de...

  11. Influência de solventes orgânicos na adsorção de linalol e decanal em sílica gel Influence of organic solvents on adsorption of linalool and decanal on silica gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Régia Cornélio

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência de solventes orgânicos (etanol, propanol e acetato de etila na isoterma de adsorção de uma solução-modelo do óleo essencial de laranja em sílica-gel. A solução-modelo constituiu-se de compostos oxigenados (linalol e decanal dissolvidos em d-limoneno (solvente. A influência da temperatura no processo de adsorção foi determinada para sistemas ternário (d-limoneno + linalol + decanal à temperatura de 298,15 K. Para o composto oxigenado decanal, os solventes que mais influenciaram no processo de adsorção foram o etanol e o acetato de etila; já para o linalol, todos os solventes estudados tiveram influência sobre o processo.The influence of organic solvents (ethanol, propanol and ethyl acetate on the isotherm of adsorption of model solutions of orange essential oil on silica gel was investigated. The model solution consisted of oxygenated compounds (linalool and decanal dissolved in d-limoneno. The influence of temperature on the process of adsorption was determined by ternary systems (d-limoneno + linalool + decanal at the temperature of 298,15 K . For the oxygenated compound decanal, the solvents that showed greater influence on the process of adsorption were ethanol and ethyl acetate, and for linalool all of the solvents studied were shown to influence the process.

  12. Taonga: grandchildren the treasures of grandparents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalahi, Halaevalu F Ofahengaue; Taiapa, Julia T T; Ware, Felicity

    2013-01-01

    Terns in a multi-ethnic sample of 125 depressed women seeking treatment for depression. Forty-six African American, 36 Caucasian Americans, and 43 Latina women were recruited and interviewed about their beliefs about their illness and their help-seeking. Results indicated that Latinas were significantly more likely than Caucasian Americans to believe that their illness was caused by traditional reasons (e.g., energy imbalance). African Americans were more likely to use spiritual resources (e.g., prayer, church) to deal with their problems than Caucasian Americans or Latinas. Caucasian Americans were more likely to use lay help (e.g., self care, friends and relatives) than Latinas. No ethnic differences in stigma for depressive illness were found. However, the belief in psychological or magico-religious-supernatural causes was associated with increased stigma, but medical and traditional causes were not. Traditional and magic-religious-supernatural causes of illness were associated with using general health care, while psychological and medicinal causes were associated with seeking spiritual care. Additional research is needed to help us to understand how beliefs about the causes of illness and attitudes towards various sources of care interact to influence help-seeking practices.

  13. The token economy in the National Health Service: possibilities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presly, A S; Black, D; Gray, A; Hartie, A; Seymour, E

    1976-04-01

    The effects after 1 year of the introduction of a token economy system into a long-term male psychiatric ward of 45 mainly schizophrenic patients are described. The main objectives were (1) to define the limits of such programmes in "average" National Health Service conditions, where additional resources in staff, finance, and facilities are very limited and (2) to introduce the principles and techniques of behaviour modification to nursing staff. The programme succeeded in reducing social withdrawal and apathy and in increasing self-care skills and involvement in constructive activity. There was no change in the level of socially embarrassing behaviour. The major limitation affecting the maintenance of the programme was found to be the rapid turnover and unpredictable changes in nursing staff. It was concluded that such programmes are feasible with very little in the way of increased resources, and that such efforts will continue to be necessary in view of the existing large numbers of long-tern patients and the slow but significant accumulation of new patients.

  14. Effect of Advanced Trauma Life Support program on medical interns' performance in simulated trauma patient management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi Koorosh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Since appropriate and time-table methods in trauma care have an important impact on patients’ outcome, we evaluated the effect of Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS program on medical interns' performance in simulated trauma patient management. Methods: A descriptive and analytical study before and after the training was conducted on 24 randomly se-lected undergraduate medical interns from Imam Reza Hos-pital in Mashhad, Iran. On the first day, we assessed in-terns' clinical knowledge and their practical skill performance in confronting simulated trauma patients. After 2 days of ATLS training, we performed the same study and evaluated their score again on the fourth day. The two findings, pre-and post- ATLS periods, were compared through SPSS ver-sion 15.0 software. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Our findings showed that interns’ ability in all the three tasks improved after the training course. On the fourth day after training, there was a statistically significant increase in interns' clinical knowledge of ATLS procedures, the sequence of procedures and skill performance in trauma situations (P<0.001, P=0.016 and P=0.01 respectively. Conclusion: ATLS course has an important role in increasing clinical knowledge and practical skill performance of trauma care in medical interns. Key words: Advanced Trauma Life Support Care; Knowledge; Inservice training; Wounds and injuries

  15. Un estudio transcultural de personalidad: Puerto Rico e Inglaterra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybil B. G. Eysenck

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available 536 hombres y 558 mujeres en Puerto Rico completaron la versión de 101 ítems del Cuestionario de Personalidad de Eysenck para Adultos, traducido en Español. Indices de comparación factorial para todos los factores fueron lo suficientemente a altos para considerar que eran esencialmente idénticos a aquellos originalmente obtenidos en Inglaterra. Fue necesario substituir algunos íterns para lograr una clave de corrección viable. El cuestionario final de 89 ítems dio suficiente confiabilidad para Extroversión, Neurotícismo y Disimulación, con una puntuación un poco más baja (pero con una confiabilidad aceptable para Psicotismo. Las diferencias entre los sexos en la muestra puertorriqueña fueron en la dirección esperada; y los varones sacaron puntuaciones más altas que las mujeres en P y E pero más bajas en N y D. Comparaciones transculturales mostraron a los varones puertorriqueños sacando puntuaciones más altas que los varones británicos en E, N YD pero las mujeres puertorriqueñas sacaron puntuaciones más altas que las mujeres británicas s610 en la Escala de Disimulación con una leve tendencia a ser más extrovertidas que las mujeres británicas

  16. Seabird assemblages observed during the BROKE-West survey of the Antarctic coastline (30°E-80°E), January - March 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woehler, Eric J.; Raymond, Ben; Boyle, Adrian; Stafford, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    Seabird surveys in January - March 2006 of a poorly known area of the Southern Ocean adjacent to the East Antarctic coast identified six seabird communities, several of which were comparable to seabird communities identified both in adjacent sectors of the Antarctic, and elsewhere in the Southern Ocean. These results support previous proposals that the Southern Ocean seabird community is characterised by an ice-associated assemblage and an open-water assemblage, with the species composition of the assemblages reflecting local (Antarctic-resident) breeding species, and the migratory routes and feeding areas of distant-breeding taxa, respectively. Physical environmental covariates such as sea-ice cover, distance to continental shelf and time of year influenced the distribution and abundance of seabirds observed, but the roles of these factors in the observed spatial and temporal patterns in seabird assemblages was confounded by the duration of the survey. Occurrence of a number of seabird taxa exhibited significant correlations with krill densities at one or two spatial scales, but only three taxa (Arctic tern, snow petrel and dark shearwaters, i.e. sooty and short-tailed shearwaters) showed significant correlations at a range of spatial scales. Dark shearwater abundances showed correlations with krill densities across the range of spatial scales examined.

  17. Energy report 2001; Energie electrique en France 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    Provisional results of power flows on the French power system in 2001: net generation; national consumption; physical exchanges with foreign countries (total of instantaneous exchange balances measured by metering on each interconnection lines); adjusted consumption (values adjusted for climatic contingencies and leap years); electrical energy balance in France in 2003; noteworthy data for the year 2001 (these values reflect all of the flows on the RTE network, as well as generation auto-consumed by the industrial consumers connected to this network); electricity market: contractual exchanges with foreign countries, base load blocks exchanged between balance responsible entities; power facilities (situation on 2001/12/31); main facilities connected to the RTE network during the year: transmission facilities - at 400 kV, commissioning of a substation (Villechetive) to supply the high-speed train (TGV) in the South-East and of a 2. line Gaudiere-Baixas in the South-West; at 225 kV, commissioning of 5 substations (Crolles, Nimes, Loges, Ternes, Thiot) and of about 70 km of new or replaced circuit, including 24% underground; generation facilities - connection to the RTE network of some 15 cogeneration units representing a capacity of about 400 MW, including an installed capacity of 180 MW in the Paris area and a 90 MW in Northern France.

  18. The thermodynamic properties of solutions and phase equilibria in the water-2-butanol-sodium chloride system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veryaeva, E. S.; Bogachev, A. G.; Shishin, D. I.; Voskov, A. L.; Igumnov, S. N.; Mamontov, M. N.; Uspenskaya, I. A.

    2012-06-01

    Fragments of the phase diagram of the H2O-2-C4H9OH-NaCl system were studied experimentally at 298 and 313 K. The thermodynamic properties of sodium chloride in three-component solutions with ionic strengths up to 1.9 mol/kg and alcohol content in the solvent 4.97 and 10 wt % were measured at 298 and 323 K by the electromotive force method with ion-selective electrodes. The eNRTL (electrolyte Non-Random Two-Liquids) model parameters correctly describing the results of electrochemical measurements of the partial properties of NaCl and phase equilibria in the water-2-butanol-sodium chloride ternary system and binary subsystems constituting it were determined. The isothermal sections of the phase diagram of the H2O-2-C4H9OH-NaCl system were calculated using the method of convex hulls implemented in the TernAPI package.

  19. GLYCOSIDASES IN HUMAN BLOOD PLASMA AND URINE. MOLECULAR FORMS AND ACTIVITY LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Seyed Yazdani

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available The isoe lect r i c f ocusing p a t terns and pH activity cur ves of f i ve glycosidas e e nzymes i n blood plasma and ur i ne were s t ud i e d . This s tudy demons trated the presence o f a sing le molecular f onn in a -glucosidase and of two mole cul a r fonns of the enzymes H-a ce t yl-B-D-gluco sarni nidase, Na c e t y l -•p-D-g a l a c t o s amin i ua s e and S-glucuronidase i n both plasma and urine . B-Galactosidase existed as a s i ng le major molecular f orm i n p l asma and a t l e a st t wo molecular forms in urine. Spe cific activity of each~ le n zyme was determined in p lasma and urine The validity o f taking the ratio between two e n zvrne activities as an index for scr een .l.ng of fr ene t ic di s e a s e is discussed.

  20. Social stereotypes in realities of modern society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. K. Kolisnyk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author analyzes the social stereotypes as a stable emotional image of the nowadays social reality. It is a kind of the common and effective ways to use the manipulation technology to impact on society. This kind of interaction could made a transformation of social identities, spreading different forms of intolerance, creating phantom world. Making the analysis of this phenomenon of social reality is a real way to reduce social risks and unforeseen conflicts in society. It is noted that stereotypical thinking making perception of reality in some special way, offering of tern an illusion of reality, instead of an objective information. Subjects of social interactions should recognize and consciously abandon them in favor of perception of reality in its undistorted not limited form of social stereotypes that goes beyond the usual concepts or contradict them. However, this phenomenon is ambivalent  and not only has a negative side. The positive expression of stereotypical thinking is that it simplifies the processes of learning and creativity, allowing extensive use of existing knowledge, which is actually a complex set of stereotypes.

  1. Oriana: the voice and the silences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Rosúa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Commentators did their best to bury the late Oriana Fallaci’s ideas and books written since the 11 S under tons of praises to her previous works, and under deep silence or global discrediting her denunciation of Islamic fundamentalism and of terrorist blackmail and all its forms of getting a grip on Europe. Obituary notices avoided carefully the analysis of facts and data brought forward by Oriana in her three last books: The rage and the pride. The power of the reason and Oriana Fallaci’s inter- view with herself. The Apocalypse. But the italian journalist, who past away on 15th Sep- tember 2006, denounced substantiated facts, true dangers and a real collusion of wes- tern sectors-venal, corrupt, fainthearted and ignorant-with the strategy of penetration and manipulation of public opinion of an islamic movement who is the enemy of democracies, Civil Rights, freedom and the western systems of open society.Key words: Oriana Fallaci, Islamic fundamentalism, Defence freedom, Denun- ciation fear, Europe ́s surrender, Terrorism, Western censorship. 

  2. Exposure assessment of veterinary medicines in aquatic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Chris; Boxall, Alistair; Fenner, Kathrin; Kolpin, Dana W.; Silberhorn, Eric; Staveley, Jane

    2008-01-01

    The release of veterinary medicines into the aquatic environment may occur through direct or indirect pathways. An example of direct release is the use of medicines in aquaculture (Armstrong et al. 2005; Davies et al. 1998), where chemicals used to treat fish are added directly to water. Indirect releases, in which medicines make their way to water through transport from other matrices, include the application of animal manure to land or direct excretion of residues onto pasture land, from which the therapeutic chemicals may be transported into the aquatic environment (Jørgensen and Halling-Sørensen 2000; Boxall et al. 2003, 2004). Veterinary medicines used to treat companion animals may also be transported into the aquatic environment through disposal of unused medicines, veterinary waste, or animal carcasses (Daughton and Ternes 1999, Boxall et al. 2004). The potential for a veterinary medicine to be released to the aquatic environment will be determined by several different criteria, including the method of treatment, agriculture or aquaculture practices, environmental conditions, and the properties of the veterinary medicine.

  3. Avian Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River: 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collis, Ken; Adamany, Stephanie; Roby, Daniel D.; Craig, David P.; Lyons, Donald E.

    2000-04-01

    The authors initiated a field study in 1997 to assess the impacts of fish-eating colonial waterbirds (i.e., terns, cormorants, and gulls) on the survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River. Here the authors present results from the 1998 breeding season, the second field season of work on this project. The research objectives in 1998 were to: (1) determine the location, size, nesting chronology, nesting success, and population trajectories of breeding colonies of fish-eating birds in the lower Columbia River; (2) determine diet composition of fish-eating birds, including taxonomic composition and energy content of various prey types; (3) estimate forage fish consumption rates, with special emphasis on juvenile salmonids, by breeding adults and their young; (4) determine the relative vulnerability of different groups of juvenile salmonids to bird predation; (5) identify foraging range, foraging strategies, and habitat utilization by piscivorous waterbirds; and (6) test the feasibility of various alternative methods for managing avian predation on juvenile salmonids and develop recommendations to reduce avian predation, if warranted by the results.

  4. Sal de iodônio aumenta a resistência coesiva de uma resina adesiva experimental na presença de solvente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda B. Leal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o efeito da concentração de solvente na resistência coesiva de um adesivo experimental contendo um derivado do difeniliodônio. Uma blenda monomérica baseada em Bis-GMA, TEGDMA e HEMA foi utilizada como resina adesiva modelo. Foram avaliados dois sistemas de fotoiniciação: um sistema bináriocanforquinona (CQ e etil 4-dimetilamino benzoato (EDAB] e um sistema ternário [CQ, EDAB e hexafluorfosfato de difeniliodônio (DPI]. Nestas resinas foram adicionadas diferentes concentrações de etanol, 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40% e teste de resistência coesiva foi utilizado para investigar o efeito deste solvente sobre as propriedades do material. A presença de solvente reduziu a resistência coesiva do polímero, independentemente do sistema de fotoiniciação utilizado. Além disso, o uso do sal de iodônio no sistema de fotoiniciação aumentou a resistência coesiva quando comparado com o sistema binário, e independentemente da concentração de solvente, a resistência coesiva dos polímeros contendo difeniliodônio foi superior à do sistema binário de fotoiniciação.

  5. Yolk formation in some Charadriiform birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudybush, T.E.; Grau, C.R.; Petersen, M.R.; Ainley, D.G.; Hirsch, K.V.; Gilman, A.P.; Patten, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    By counting and measuring the major ova of breeding birds at autopsy and combining these data with time intervals between ovipositions, rough estimates have been made of the time required to form yolk in some non-captive birds (King 1973). Direct studies have been made in domestic fowl (Gallus gallus var. domesticus; Gilbert 1972), turkeys (Meleagris galloparvo; Bacon and Cherms 1968), and Common quail (Coturnix coturnix; Bacon and Koontz 1971), by feeding the birds a capsule containing dye each day, and counting dye rings in the yolks after the eggs have been hardcooked. Recently developed methods of fixing and staining eggs have revealed differences in yolk deposited during day and night, thus permitting another estimation of the number of days during which yolk was deposited, and without direct contact with the female (Grau 1976). In eggs from chickens and quail that have been fed dyes, yolk that stained darkly with dichromate was shown to be deposited during the active daytime feeding periods, while pale-staining yolk was deposited during the night. Thus, pairs of light and dark rings, which together take a day to be deposited, may be counted to estimate time of yolk formation.In the present study we have applied the yolk ring method of estimating the number of days during which the bulk of the yolk is deposited around the central white core (Grau 1976) to the eggs of some shorebirds, gulls, terns and alcids.

  6. Characterization, Expression, and Functional Analysis of a Novel NAC Gene Associated with Resistance to Verticillium Wilt and Abiotic Stress in Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weina; Yuan, Youlu; Yang, Can; Geng, Shuaipeng; Sun, Quan; Long, Lu; Cai, Chaowei; Chu, Zongyan; Liu, Xin; Wang, Guanghao; Du, Xiongming; Miao, Chen; Zhang, Xiao; Cai, Yingfan

    2016-12-07

    Elucidating the mechanism of resistance to biotic and abiotic stress is of great importance in cotton. In this study, a gene containing the NAC domain, designated GbNAC1, was identified from Gossypium barbadense L. Homologous sequence alignment indicated that GbNAC1 belongs to the TERN subgroup. GbNAC1 protein localized to the cell nucleus. GbNAC1 was expressed in roots, stems, and leaves, and was especially highly expressed in vascular bundles. Functional analysis showed that cotton resistance to Verticillium wilt was reduced when the GbNAC1 gene was silenced using the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) method. GbNAC1-overexpressing Arabidopsis showed enhanced resistance to Verticillium dahliae compared to wild-type. Thus, GbNAC1 is involved in the positive regulation of resistance to Verticillium wilt. In addition, analysis of GbNAC1-overexpressing Arabidopsis under different stress treatments indicated that it is involved in plant growth, development, and response to various abiotic stresses (ABA, mannitol, and NaCl). This suggests that GbNAC1 plays an important role in resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses in cotton. This study provides a foundation for further study of the function of NAC genes in cotton and other plants. Copyright © 2016 Wang et al.

  7. Water quality and avian inputs as sources of isotopic variability in aquatic macrophytes and macroinvertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Sebastian-Gonzalez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Different factors can affect the isotopic values of aquatic organisms. Nevertheless, water quality may be very important for aquatic organisms because they directly depend on it. In this article, we aimed to investigate if variations in the chemical and biological water characteristics affect the stable isotope values of aquatic organisms. We also wished to discuss alternative sources of isotopic variability. We analysed the water chemical characteristics, the input of extra nitrates from bird guano, and the δ15N and δ13C values for the macroinvertebrates and macrophytes present in freshwater irrigation ponds. Variability in the values of the analysed stable isotopes was high, even for the same species in different ponds. Water conductivity, nitrates, ammonium, organic nitrogen concentrations and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand directly correlated with the isotopic values. Besides, the input of extra nitrates from Larids’ (gulls and terns guano might also increase the δ15N values at the ponds which these birds most intensively use. Nevertheless, the high δ15N values are difficult to explain in terms of water characteristics and excrements inputs and only general processes of denitrification could explain these values. Longer water residence times could cause extremely enriched isotopic values in both DIC (Dissolved Inorganic Carbon and dissolved nitrates. This study shows different sources of isotopic variability which can prove useful to interpret stable isotopes studies.

  8. The value and vulnerability of small estuarine islands for conserving metapopulations of breeding waterbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.; Hatfield, J.S.; Wilmers, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Compelling arguments for preserving large habitat 'islands' have been made for a number of animal groups, but most commonly for terrestrial birds. We argue that, for many species of waterbirds nesting in coastal estuaries, maintaining numerous small islands may be a more effective management strategy than maintaining larger islands or reserves. In this study, the number of great white heron Ardea herodias nests over a 5-year period (1986-91) was negatively correlated with island area in the Florida Keys, USA. Nest densities were highest in the 210 ha island size range and lowest for islands larger than 100 ha. These small islands also attract nesting black skimmers Rynchops niger, brown pelicans Pelecanus occidentalis, and several species of terns and gulls. Small estuarine islands are vulnerable to sea level rise, erosion from watercraft, and, for dredge material islands, lack of sufficient maintenance because of competing needs for beach nourishment. Managers need to enforce more buffering and protection of these islands and argue for more dredged material allocations in some areas.

  9. 18 month observational study on efficacy of intraarticular hyaluronic acid (Hylan G-F 20 injections under ultrasound guidance in hip osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Padalino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and the tolerability of viscosupplementation (VS with hyaluronic acid (Hylan GF 20 in a cohort of 36 patients affected by hip osteoarthritis through a 18 months follow-up. Methods: Viscosupplementation was performed with an anteriorsagittal approach, under ultrasound guidance. 36 patients were administered hyaluronic acid intraarticularly in the hip, with a unique injection of Hylan G-F20, which could be repeated after at least 3 months. Treatment efficacy was assessed by functional index WOMAC, pain evaluation on a visual analogue scale and NSAID consumption. All such parameters were recorded at the time of the first injection and then 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months later. Results: Statistically significant reduction of all parameters was observed three months after the injection, and was still maintained at the timepoints 6, 9, 12 and 18 months. No local side effects have been observed, nor systemic complications. Conclusions: Our data show that viscosupplementation is a promising approach for hip osteoarthritis, providing beneficial effects in a long-tern follow up. Yet, the topic deserves further and wider studies, so to define the number of injections to administer and suggest a fit interval between subsequent injections.

  10. Laser effects on electrophysiological measures of vision: the data and their implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeisser, Elmar T.

    1992-05-01

    Since laser exposure in humans is usually limited to accident cases, precise definition of its effects on visual function is difficult to come by. To determine more precisely these effects and at what exposure levels they occur, animal models are required. This immediately poses the problem of how to appropriately ask the animal what it can see. Under the assumption that the visual system of lower primates is sufficiently similar to our own, electrophysiological techniques allow us to trace the production of neuroelectric currents in the visual nervous system, and thus to make conclusions of function based on signal analysis. These techniques (pattern and luminance electroretinograms, and visual evoked potentials) are useful especially in delineating short-term effects (seconds). Since these signals are 'large-scale' responses, their specificity can be set only by precisely delineating the stimuli used to evoke them, a variant of the GIGO (garbage in, garbage out) rule. The results, while obtainable in no other way, are therefore limited. Long-tern effects (chronic alterations in visual function) can also be demonstrated with these techniques. This paper reviews both the techniques and the questions to which these techniques have been applied for laser exposure energies ranging from long-term low-level exposures to acute lesion-level exposures in the primate model.

  11. Acquisition of compounds in Estonian and Russian: Frequency, productivity, transparency and simplicity effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reili Argus

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the early phases of acquisition of noun compounds in two typologically different languages – Estonian and Russian. Longitudinal data on three Russian and two Estonian typically-developing monolingual children and their caregivers was analysed and compared in relation to first emergence, the development of different compound types, productivity, frequency, simplicity and transparency of compounds, and also to the impact of morphological wealth in the input on the output. Although the frequency of compounds is somewhat different in the two languages being observed, the first compounds emerge in the speech of Estonian and Russian children almost at the same age and quite early, at the end of the second year of life. In both Estonian and Russian, children first acquire productive pat- terns in both languages, Estonian and Russian, respectively. Factors such as simplicity and frequency are intertwined in the acquisition process. Simple structures occur at the same time as frequent ones but it cannot just be assumed that simplicity is a stronger factor influencing the choice of first noun compounds than frequency. Frequency effects are not straightforward: there are differences in the individual usage of compounds by the caregivers, and the frequency of compounds in child-directed speech does not always seem to be reflected in the speech of the children. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa9.02

  12. Research on Hydrodynamic Force Enhancement and Water Environment Protection Measures of Dachan Bay, Shenzhen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the research purpose of protection of water environmental quality in Dachan Bay Area in Shenzhen City, especially in National Development Zone in Qianhai Area, this paper establishes a horizontal two-dimensional water quality model of Dachan Bay and its branches by the use of WQ Module of Delft 3D. And this paper respectively simulates distribution of water quality in full high flow year, normal flow year and low flow year before and after the implementation of protection measures, predicts the effect of the water environment protection measures and focuses on the analysis of two kinds of hydrodynamic force enhancement pat-terns, that is, “water replenishing in dead zones” and “pollution discharge at back doors”, and finally recommends water environment protection measures with the core of “pollution discharge at back gates” by taking full advantage of natural dynamic, thus obtaining a better effect than that of the traditional “water replenishing in dead zones”.

  13. Einfluss des Internets auf das Informations-, Einkaufs- und Verkehrsverhalten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerlich, Mark R.; Schiffner, Felix; Vogt, Walter

    Mit Daten aus eigenen Erhebungen können das einkaufsbezogene Informations- und Einkaufsverhalten im Zusammenhang mit den verkehrlichen Aspekten (Distanzen, Verkehrsmittel, Wegekopplungen) dargestellt werden. Die Differenzierung in die drei Produktkategorien des täglichen, mittelfristigen und des langfristigen Bedarfs berücksichtigt in erster Linie die Wertigkeit eines Gutes, die seine Erwerbshäufigkeit unmittelbar bestimmt. Der Einsatz moderner IKT wie das Internet eröffnet dem Endverbraucher neue Möglichkeiten bei Information und Einkauf. Die verkehrliche Relevanz von Online-Shopping wird deutlich, wenn man berücksichtigt, dass im Mittel rund 17% aller Online-Einkäufe, die die Probanden durchgeführt haben, Einkäufe in Ladengeschäften ersetzen. Dies gilt in verstärktem Maße für Online-Informationen: etwa die Hälfte hätte alternativ im stationären Einzelhandel stattgefunden. Da der Erwerb von Gütern des täglichen Bedarfs häufig nahräumlich und in relevantem Anteil nicht-motorisiert erfolgen kann, sind in diesem Segment - im Gegensatz zum mittel- und langfristigen Bedarf - nur geringe Substitutionseffekte zu beobachten.

  14. Identification of powdery mildew resistance genes in Polish common oat (Avena sativa L. cultivars using host-pathogen tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Okoń

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to characterize and identify powdery mildew resistance genes in Polish common oat cultivars using host-pathogen tests. A differential set of six Blumeria graminis f.sp. avenae isolates virulent or avirulent to four cultivars and one line that has known resistance to powdery mildew were used. Among the investigated cultivars, only four of them (13.3% had resistance patterns similar to genotypes belonging to the differential set. The resistance of OMR group 1 was found in the cultivar ‘Dragon’, while that of OMR2 in the cultivar ‘Skrzat’. The cultivars ‘Deresz’ and ‘Hetman’ showed a resistance pattern that corresponded with OMR group 3. The resistance corresponding to OMR4 was not found, which suggests that until now this gene has not been used in Polish oat breeding programmes. The cultivar ‘Canyon’ had a different pat- tern of resistance than the genotypes that have already known OMR genes, which indicates that the resistance of this cultivar is determined by a new gene or a combination of known genes.

  15. Burst-suppression pattern in the electroencephalogram of newborns and infants. Its clinical expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cervantes Blanco Jorge Mauricio

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Burst-suppression pattern in the electroencephalogram (EEG is associated with severe brain damage and has a bad prognosis in 85% of the cases. Objectives. To identify the prevalence of the EEG burst-suppression pattern (BSP in fullterm newborns and infants, determine its etiol- ogy, clinical features and course. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted. Between January 2008 and December 2012, 4,891 EEGs were reviewed. The EEGs of newborns and infants (< 3 months of age with BSP were selected. Results. 11 cases identified with burst suppression pattern. The overall prevalence of which was 3.5%; 8.1% among the newborns and 1.2% among infants. Seizures were the main reason for doing an EEG in the newborn period in 7 patients and after day 28 in three. The clinical manifestations were abnormal level of consciousness (n=8, hypotonia (n=2, and spasticity (n=6. The main causes were hypoxic ischemic injury, stroke and kernicterus. There were two cases of early infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Two patients died before the third month of age; 8 survived an average of 13 months. All had epilepsy, neurologic retardation and disability. Two patients had persistent EEG burst-suppression pattern; 1 and 3 months after the neonatal period respectively; 7 had focal spikes and an asymmetric pattern. Conclusions. Electroencephalographic burst-suppression pat- tern predicts a severe neurologic injury in fullterm newborns and infants.

  16. GAMBARAN PERKEMBANGAN ANTIBODI TERHADAP KOMPONEN PROTEIN CACING MIKROFILARIA MALAYI DARI TRANSMIGRAN DI SULAWESI TENGGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basundari Sri Utami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The immune response to microfilarial antigen in malayan filariasis was found more prominent in ami-crofilaremic individuals than in the micro filaremics. It has been shown that in amicrofilaremic individuals antibody plays a role in reducing micro filaremiae. The targets antigens of antibody (IgG were shown to be protein components of microfilariae with molecular weight of 75, 70 and 25 Kd. This prospective study was aimed at detecting IgG against microfilariae in transmigrats, who had settled into an filarial endemic area. Sera of 10 individuals at 8, 13, 26, 39 and 52 moths after settling, were examined by ELISA and Wes­tern Blott against microfilaria of B. malayi. Four out of 10 transmigrants showed IgG that recognized the protein components of 77, 70 and 31 Kd and were shown at 39, 52 and 8 months after settling respectively, The IgG against components of 77 and 70 Kd were revealed later than the one against 31 Kd.

  17. CT findings of transfusional hemosiderosis in patients with chronic renal failure : clinical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Tae Joon; Lee, Hae Kyung; Hong, Hyun Sook; Kim, Gun Woo; Kim, Hyung Hwan; Choi, Gyo Chang; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin [Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether there is any correlation between the CT features of hemosiderosis and clinical findings in patients with chronic renal failure who have received multiple blood transfusion. Among chronic renal failure patients who had undergone long-tern dialysis and received multiple blood transfusions, CT findings in 16 cases in which increased liver attenuation was seen on images obtained for other purpose, were analyzed by three radiologic specialists. The attenuation values of liver, spleen and pancreas compared with that of back muscle were correlated with the amount and duration of transfusion, and blood ferritin level. There is no correlation between the CT features of hemosiderosis and clinical findings. In patients with chronic renal failure and no clinical symptoms, the status of iron overload was relatively easily detected on CT. Close observation of CT findings is thus thought to prevent significant permanent functional deformity of organs in patients with chronic renal failure who have received multiple blood transfusions. (author). 14 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  18. Vaterschaft nach der Scheidung – Die Perspektive der Väter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Matzner

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Während man in Deutschland die Situation von allein erziehenden Müttern gut erforscht hat, wandte man sich den von ihren Kindern getrennt lebenden Vätern nur äußerst selten zu. Dies ist mehr als erstaunlich, wenn man sich die in die Millionen gehende Zahl betroffener Väter und Kinder vor Augen führt. Allein im Jahr 2000 wurden 95.000 Ehepaare mit minderjährigen Kindern (146.000 geschieden. Bei Gerhard Amendts empirischer Studie handelt es sich um die erste deutschsprachige, als Buch erschienene wissenschaftliche Veröffentlichung zum Thema „Scheidungsväter“. Amendt beantwortet aus der Perspektive der Väter folgende Fragen: Wie sprechen Väter über ihre Scheidung und wie gehen sie mit den Scheidungsfolgen um? Wie verbringen sie die Zeit mit ihren Kindern? Warum brechen manche von ihnen den Kontakt zu den Kindern ab? Der neue Zugang zum Thema Scheidung bzw. Trennung über die Person des Vaters war längst überfällig und bringt neue Perspektiven und Erkenntnisse in die wissenschaftliche Debatte.

  19. Gene Diversity of Trichomonas Vaginalis Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Valadkhani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomonas vaginalis is protozoan parasite responsible for trichomoniasis and is more common in high-risk behavior group such as prostitute individuals. Interest in trichomoni­asis is due to increase one's susceptibility to viruses such as herpes, human papillomavirus and HIV. The aim of this study was to find genotypic differences between the isolates.Methods: Forty isolates from prisoners' women in Tehran province were used in this study. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD technique was used to determine genetic differ­ences among isolates and was correlated with patient's records. By each primer the banding pat­tern size of each isolates was scored (bp, genetic differences were studied, and the genealogical tree was constructed by using NTSYS software program and UPGMA method.Results: The least number of bands were seen by using primer OPD8 and the most by using OPD3. Results showed no significant difference in isolates from different geographical areas in Iran. By using primer OPD1 specific amplified fragment with length 1300 base pair were found in only 8 isolates. All these isolates were belonged to addicted women; however, six belonged to asymptomatic patients and two to symptomatic ones.Conclusion: There was not much genetic diversity in T vaginalis isolates from three different geo­graphical areas.

  20. Patterns of bird migration phenology in South Africa suggest northern hemisphere climate as the most consistent driver of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussière, Elsa M S; Underhill, Les G; Altwegg, Res

    2015-06-01

    Current knowledge of phenological shifts in Palearctic bird migration is largely based on data collected on migrants at their breeding grounds; little is known about the phenology of these birds at their nonbreeding grounds, and even less about that of intra-African migrants. Because climate change patterns are not uniform across the globe, we can expect regional disparities in bird phenological responses. It is also likely that they vary across species, as species show differences in the strength of affinities they have with particular habitats and environments. Here, we examine the arrival and departure of nine Palearctic and seven intra-African migratory species in the central Highveld of South Africa, where the former spend their nonbreeding season and the latter their breeding season. Using novel analytical methods based on bird atlas data, we show phenological shifts in migration of five species - red-backed shrike, spotted flycatcher, common sandpiper, white-winged tern (Palearctic migrants), and diederik cuckoo (intra-African migrant) - between two atlas periods: 1987-1991 and 2007-2012. During this time period, Palearctic migrants advanced their departure from their South African nonbreeding grounds. This trend was mainly driven by waterbirds. No consistent changes were observed for intra-African migrants. Our results suggest that the most consistent drivers of migration phenological shifts act in the northern hemisphere, probably at the breeding grounds. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Native and European haplotypes of Phragmites Australis (common reed) in the central Platte River, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, D.L.; Galatowitsch, S.M.; Larson, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Phragmites australis (common reed) is known to have occurred along the Platte River historically, but recent rapid increases in both distribution and density have begun to impact habitat for migrating sandhill cranes and nesting piping plovers and least terns. Invasiveness in Phragmites has been associated with the incursion of a European genotype (haplotype M) in other areas; determining the genotype of Phragmites along the central Platte River has implications for proper management of the river system. In 2008 we sampled Phragmites patches along the central Platte River from Lexington to Chapman, NE, stratified by bridge segments, to determine the current distribution of haplotype E (native) and haplotype M genotypes. In addition, we did a retrospective analysis of historical Phragmites collections from the central Platte watershed (1902-2006) at the Bessey Herbarium. Fresh tissue from the 2008 survey and dried tissue from the herbarium specimens were classified as haplotype M or E using the restriction fragment length polymorphism procedure. The European haplotype was predominant in the 2008 samples: only 14 Phragmites shoots were identified as native haplotype E; 224 were non-native haplotype M. The retrospective analysis revealed primarily native haplotype individuals. Only collections made in Lancaster County, near Lincoln, NE, were haplotype M, and the earliest of these was collected in 1973. ?? 2011 Copyright by the Center for Great Plains Studies, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

  2. Validation of quantitative analysis method for triamcinolone in ternary complexes by UV-Vis spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE DARLOS A. AQUINO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Triamcinolone (TRI, a drug widely used in the treatment of ocular inflammatory diseases, is practically insoluble in water, which limits its use in eye drops. Cyclodextrins (CDs have been used to increase the solubility or dissolution rate of drugs. The purpose of the present study was to validate a UV-Vis spectrophotometric method for quantitative analysis of TRI in inclusion complexes with beta-cyclodextrin (B-CD associated with triethanolamine (TEA (ternary complex. The proposed analytical method was validated with respect to the parameters established by the Brazilian regulatory National Agency of Sanitary Monitoring (ANVISA. The analytical measurements of absorbance were made at 242nm, at room temperature, in a 1-cm path-length cuvette. The precision and accuracy studies were performed at five concentration levels (4, 8, 12, 18 and 20μg.mL-1. The B-CD associated with TEA did not provoke any alteration in the photochemical behavior of TRI. The results for the measured analytical parameters showed the success of the method. The standard curve was linear (r2 > 0.999 in the concentration range from 2 to 24 μg.mL-1. The method achieved good precision levels in the inter-day (relative standard deviation-RSD <3.4% and reproducibility (RSD <3.8% tests. The accuracy was about 80% and the pH changes introduced in the robustness study did not reveal any relevant interference at any of the studied concentrations. The experimental results demonstrate a simple, rapid and affordable UV-Vis spectrophotometric method that could be applied to the quantitation of TRI in this ternary complex. Keywords: Validation. Triamcinolone. Beta-cyclodextrin. UV- Vis spectrophotometry. Ternary complexes. RESUMO Validação de método de análise quantitativa para a triancinolona a partir de complexo ternário por espectrofotometria de UV-Vis A triancinolona (TRI é um fármaco amplamente utilizado no tratamento de doenças inflamatórias do globo ocular e

  3. On the Frontier: Analytical Chemistry and the Occurrence of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    While environmental scientists focused on industrial and agricultural pollutants (e.g. PCBs, volatile organics, dioxins, benzene, DDT) in the 1970’s and 1980’s, overlooked was the subtle connection between personal human activities, such as drug consumption, and the subsequent release of anthropogenic drugs and drug metabolites into the natural environment. There was evidence of this possible connection nearly 30 years ago when Garrison et al. (1976) reported the detection of clofibric acid (the bioactive metabolite from a series of serum triglyceride-lowering drugs) in a groundwater reservoir that had been recharged with treated wastewater.(Garrison et al. 1976) A year later Hignite and Azarnoff (1977) reported finding aspirin, caffeine, and nicotine in wastewater effluent, and then Watts et al. (1983) reported the presence of three pharmaceuticals (erythromycin, tetracycline, and theophylline), bisphenol A and other suspected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in a river water sample.(Hignite and Azarnoff, 1977; Watts et al. 1983) Following those three journal articles there, nothing was published for nearly a decade regarding the drug-human-environmental connection. Renewed interest in the subject was reported by Daughton and Ternes’s seminal and authoritative work published in 1999.(Daughton and Ternes, 1999) Since the 1999 publication of Daughton and Ternes’s, the number of publications from the scientific community regarding the human drug c

  4. Temperature, Heat Flow and Dynamics of The Lithosphere: The East European Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khristoforova, N.

    The experimental study of temperature and heat flow anomalies was made on the East European platform and adjacent regions. Temperature measurements were made on 360 structures in 1230 deep boreholes which had steady-state temperature regime. Research results convince us that there is the spatial periodical pattern of terrestrial heat flow. The detailed analysis of temperature and heat flow maps and profiles shows the periodical structure of the field but not its fluctuational inhomogeneity. Maps of this sort can be used to identify the geometry of asthenosphere convection flows. The most realistic numerical experiments to date have been conducted. The experimental geothermic data assumes that there are sets of convection cells in the upper mantle. Be- sides, the peculiarities of the heat flow and temperature distribution may be explained by the existence of hexagonal convection cells in the asthenosphere. The cellular pat- tern of heat flow where large maxima of a certain form are closely connected with heat flow minima should be specially emphasized. The variation of terrestrial heat flow is closely related to recent vertical crustal movements. An adequate simplified mathe- matical model is suggested to describe this dependence, and the calculated heat flows are remarkably consistent with the experimental ones.

  5. Evidence of Long Range Dependence and Self-similarity in Urban Traffic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Gautam S [ORNL; Helmy, Ahmed [University of Florida, Gainesville; Hui, Pan [Hong Kong University of Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Transportation simulation technologies should accurately model traffic demand, distribution, and assignment parame- ters for urban environment simulation. These three param- eters significantly impact transportation engineering bench- mark process, are also critical in realizing realistic traffic modeling situations. In this paper, we model and charac- terize traffic density distribution of thousands of locations around the world. The traffic densities are generated from millions of images collected over several years and processed using computer vision techniques. The resulting traffic den- sity distribution time series are then analyzed. It is found using the goodness-of-fit test that the traffic density dis- tributions follows heavy-tail models such as Log-gamma, Log-logistic, and Weibull in over 90% of analyzed locations. Moreover, a heavy-tail gives rise to long-range dependence and self-similarity, which we studied by estimating the Hurst exponent (H). Our analysis based on seven different Hurst estimators strongly indicate that the traffic distribution pat- terns are stochastically self-similar (0.5 H 1.0). We believe this is an important finding that will influence the design and development of the next generation traffic simu- lation techniques and also aid in accurately modeling traffic engineering of urban systems. In addition, it shall provide a much needed input for the development of smart cities.

  6. Pharmacophagy in green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae: Chrysopa spp.?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. Aldrich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae are voracious predators of aphids and other small, soft-bodied insects and mites. Earlier, we identified (1R,2S,5R,8R-iridodial from wild males of the goldeneyed lacewing, Chrysopa oculata Say, which is released from thousands of microscopic dermal glands on the abdominal sterna. Iridodial-baited traps attract C. oculata and other Chrysopa spp. males into traps, while females come to the vicinity of, but do not usually enter traps. Despite their healthy appearance and normal fertility, laboratory-reared C. oculata males do not produce iridodial. Surprisingly, goldeneyed lacewing males caught alive in iridodial-baited traps attempt to eat the lure and, in Asia, males of other Chrysopa species reportedly eat the native plant, Actinidia polygama (Siebold & Zucc. Maxim. (Actinidiaceae to obtain the monoterpenoid, neomatatabiol. These observations suggest that Chrysopa males must sequester exogenous natural iridoids in order to produce iridodial; we investigated this phenomenon in laboratory feeding studies. Lacewing adult males fed various monoterpenes reduced carbonyls to alcohols and saturated double bonds, but did not convert these compounds to iridodial. Only males fed the common aphid sex pheromone component, (1R,4aS,7S,7aR-nepetalactol, produced (1R,2S,5R,8R-iridodial. Furthermore, although C. oculata males fed the second common aphid sex pheromone component, (4aS,7S,7aR-nepetalactone, did not produce iridodial, they did convert ∼75% of this compound to the corresponding dihydronepetalactone, and wild C. oculata males collected in early spring contained traces of this dihydronepetalactone. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that Chrysopa males feed on oviparae (the late-season pheromone producing stage of aphids to obtain nepetalactol as a precursor to iridodial. In the spring, however, wild C. oculata males produce less iridodial than do males collected later in the season. Therefore

  7. Hartley and Itokawa: small comet and asteroid with similar morphologies and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2011-10-01

    at the convex bulge, from the antipodean side (Fig. 5). The smaller rocky asteroid Itokawa (0.5 km long, Fig. 2) is surprisingly similar in shape and structure to the icy core of Hart ley. It is also bent and rich in cross-cutting lineations o 4 direct ions marked by small holes-craters. But here they are ext inct and lack of gas -dust jets. One sees a transition from a volat ile rich comet core to an ext inct mostly rocky mass - asteroid. In both cases (comet core and as teroid) in the middle develops a smooth "wais t". The bulged convex and antipodal concave segments -hemispheres in rotating bodies require somewhat different densities of composing them masses to equilibrate angular momentum of two halves (compare with the Ea rth's hemis pheres : the eas tern continental "granitic" and wes tern Pacific "bas altic"). The near-IR images of two asteroids (Fig.6-7) confirm this. The concave and convex s ides are co mpos itionally d ifferent. In the Eros ' cas e the concave s ide is rich er in pyroxene, thus denser.

  8. Cinética de secagem da polpa cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum pré desidratada por imersão-impregnação Kinetic drying of cupuaçu pulp (Theobroma grandiflorum pre-dehydrated by immersion-impregnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luty Gomezcaceres Perez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A desidratação osmótica é uma operação unitária importante para transformar os frutos perecíveis em novos produtos com valor agregado e com maior vida de prateleira. A aplicação dos modelos matemáticos confiáveis permite prever o comportamento dos diversos fenômenos que ocorrem durante o processo de secagem, o que implica na redução do custo operacional. A polpa do cupuaçu é comumente usada para preparar sucos e sorvetes, mas durante a safra é produzida em grande quantidade, que muitas vezes, é descartada devido ao custo de produção ser mais alto do que o da comercialização. O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar o efeito da solução binária e da ternária na taxa da secagem por convecção e avaliar a adequação dos modelos matemáticos na descrição das curvas da secagem do cupuaçu. No experimento, a pré-desidratação foi feita com solução binária (sacarose a 40 ºBrix e ternária (80% de sacarose/20% de cloreto de sódio, durante três horas em temperatura ambiente, seguida pela secagem convencional na estufa (ar circulante a 65 ºC, até peso constante. Os dados experimentais foram ajustados utilizando os modelos de Page e Midilli, Kucuk e Yapar. A solução binária usada na pré-secagem reduziu o tempo da subseqüente secagem convencional. Com variação de 99,64 a 99,77% no coeficiente de determinação (R², o modelo de Page apresentou o melhor ajuste aos dados experimentais.The osmotic dehydration is an important unitary operation to transform the perishable fruits in new products with added value and longer shelf life. The application of reliable mathematical models allows prediction the behavior of various phenomena that occur during the drying process, which implies in reduction of operating cost. The cupuaçu pulp is commonly used to prepare juices and ice creams, but during the crop it is produced in large quantity, which is often discarded because of the cost of production is higher than the

  9. Environmental conditions and biological community of the Penzhina and Talovka hypertidal estuary (northwest Kamchatka) in the ice-free season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, M. V.; Gorin, S. L.; Romanenko, F. A.; Lepskaya, E. V.; Polyakova, A. A.; Galyamov, R. A.; Esin, E. V.

    2017-07-01

    New data on the abiotic conditions; species composition; abundance, distribution, and migrations of fauna; and feeding interactions in an estuary ecosystem were obtained during expeditions in the mouths of Penzhina and Talovka rivers (northwest Kamchatka). It is revealed that in the ice-free season, the hydrological regime of the estuary is determined by seasonal fluctuations of river runoff, as well as fortnightly and daily variation of tides. The estuary is characterized by hypertidal fluctuations (up to 10-12 m); strong reverse flows (up to 1.0-1.5 m/s), considerable tidal variations in salinity (from 0 to 6-9‰ at the river boundary and from 6-8 to 14-16‰ at the offshore boundary), and high water turbidity (up to 1 000 NTU or more). Based on the spatial structure of the community, three ecological zones with mobile boundaries are distinguished: freshwater (salinity 0-0.1‰), estuarine (0-12.3‰), and neritic (11.2-18.9‰). High turbidity prevents the development of phytoplankton in the estuarine zone (EZ), and the local benthic community is significantly depleted due to the desalination and wide spread of aleuritic silts. Neritic copepods and nektobenthic brackish- water crustaceans generate the maximum abundance and biomass here. The species that have adapted to the local extreme hydrologic conditions dominate and form the basis of the estuarine food chain. Dominant among the EZ vertebrates are such groups as anadromous fishes (smelts, pacific salmons, charrs, and sticklebacks); waterfowl (terns, kittiwakes, cormorants, fulmars, puffins, guillemots, auklets, and wadepipers); and predatory marine mammals (larga, ringed seal, bearded seal, and white whale). The total abundance and biomass of these animals are much higher in the pelagic EZ in comparison to neighboring zones.

  10. Structural characteristics of children and adolescents at the time of the Chornobyl nuclear power plant accident residing in the most intensively contaminated territories of Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunko, N V; Korotkova, N V; Omelyanets, N I

    2016-12-01

    Appraisal of trends in structure of characteristics in population of radiologically contaminated territo ries (RCT) born in 1968-1986 (children and adolescents at the time of the ChNPP accident).Study Object. Persons born since 1968 till 1986 i.e. children and adolescents at the time of the ChNPP accident, who lived on the most intensively contaminated territories of Ukraine (Ivankiv and Poliske regions of Kyiv oblast and Narodichi and Ovruch regions of Zhytomyr oblast) within 1986-2011. The State Service of Statistics of Ukraine was a principal information base of the study. Specifically the statistical report forms R 11 «Distribution of residential population by gender and age in yearly intervals at a turn of the year» and A 1 «General totals of natural population development» were retrieved. Survey was conducted for the period of 1986-2012. Mathematical, statistical, demographic and software technological methods were applied. Summarization of statistical data on population size, both with its gender and age pat terns in the most intensively contaminated territories of Ukraine, namely in Ivankiv and Poliske regions of Kyiv oblast and Narodichi and Ovruch regions of Zhytomyr oblast resulted in conclusion of 27,200 people living there who were born in 1968-1986. They are a critical group of the ChNPP accident survivors. At the beginning of 1987 the male generations of the same age were present in more even manner (4.53-5.82 %%) vs. females (3.04 6.02 %%). No significant change both in gender and year of birth was found in 2012 vs. 1987. Change in gender proportion in surveyed population within 1986 2011 requires some more precise evaluation. N. V. Gunko, N. V. Korotkova, N. I. Omelyanets.

  11. Genetically diverse herpesviruses in South American Atlantic coast seabirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Niemeyer

    Full Text Available Different herpesviruses have been associated with respiratory and enteric disease and mortality among seabirds and waterfowl. In 2011, a respiratory disease outbreak affected 58.3% (98/168 of the Magellanic penguins undergoing rehabilitation due to an oil spill off the southern Brazilian coast. Etiology was attributed to a novel herpesvirus identified by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and molecular studies with partial DNA sequencing. Since migration, rehabilitation and translocation may facilitate the spread of pathogens between populations and trigger the onset of clinical disease in animals with latent infections, investigation of herpesvirus occurrence in asymptomatic seabirds was performed. Samples from free-ranging seabirds were collected in Argentinian Patagonia (Magellanic penguins and the Abrolhos Archipelago in Brazil (Brown boobies, Masked boobies, Red-billed tropicbirds, White-tailed tropicbirds and South American tern. Furthermore, asymptomatic seabirds housed at the facility where the outbreak occurred were also sampled. In total, 354 samples from eight seabird species were analyzed by PCR for herpesvirus. Four different sequences of herpesviruses were identified, one in Yellow-nosed Albatross, one in Boobies and Tropicbirds and two in Magellanic penguins. Magellanic penguin herpesvirus 1 was identified during the penguin outbreak at the rehabilitation facility in Brazil, while Magellanic penguin herpesvirus 2 was recovered from free-ranging penguins at four reproduction sites in Argentina. Phylogenic analysis of the herpesviruses sequences tentatively identified suggested that the one found in Suliformes and the one associated with the outbreak are related to sequences of viruses that have previously caused seabird die-offs. These findings reinforce the necessity for seabird disease surveillance programs overall, and particularly highlight the importance of quarantine, good hygiene, stress management and

  12. Genetically diverse herpesviruses in South American Atlantic coast seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Claudia; Favero, Cíntia Maria; Shivaprasad, H L; Uhart, Marcela; Musso, Cesar Meyer; Rago, María Virginia; Silva-Filho, Rodolfo Pinho; Canabarro, Paula Lima; Craig, María Isabel; Olivera, Valeria; Pereda, Ariel; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2017-01-01

    Different herpesviruses have been associated with respiratory and enteric disease and mortality among seabirds and waterfowl. In 2011, a respiratory disease outbreak affected 58.3% (98/168) of the Magellanic penguins undergoing rehabilitation due to an oil spill off the southern Brazilian coast. Etiology was attributed to a novel herpesvirus identified by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and molecular studies with partial DNA sequencing. Since migration, rehabilitation and translocation may facilitate the spread of pathogens between populations and trigger the onset of clinical disease in animals with latent infections, investigation of herpesvirus occurrence in asymptomatic seabirds was performed. Samples from free-ranging seabirds were collected in Argentinian Patagonia (Magellanic penguins) and the Abrolhos Archipelago in Brazil (Brown boobies, Masked boobies, Red-billed tropicbirds, White-tailed tropicbirds and South American tern). Furthermore, asymptomatic seabirds housed at the facility where the outbreak occurred were also sampled. In total, 354 samples from eight seabird species were analyzed by PCR for herpesvirus. Four different sequences of herpesviruses were identified, one in Yellow-nosed Albatross, one in Boobies and Tropicbirds and two in Magellanic penguins. Magellanic penguin herpesvirus 1 was identified during the penguin outbreak at the rehabilitation facility in Brazil, while Magellanic penguin herpesvirus 2 was recovered from free-ranging penguins at four reproduction sites in Argentina. Phylogenic analysis of the herpesviruses sequences tentatively identified suggested that the one found in Suliformes and the one associated with the outbreak are related to sequences of viruses that have previously caused seabird die-offs. These findings reinforce the necessity for seabird disease surveillance programs overall, and particularly highlight the importance of quarantine, good hygiene, stress management and pre

  13. Efficacy of a manual method according to the fascial distortion model in the treatment of contracted («frozen» shoulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fink

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available «Frozen shoulder» is a common problem and difficult to treat. The present prospective randomised single-blind controlled trial evaluates the efficacy of the fascial distortion model according to Typaldos as a remedy for the «frozen shoulder». Material and methods. A total of 60 patients were randomised to receive either the FDM-guided treatment (FDM, n = 30 or a «conventional» manual therapy (MT, n=30. The primary endpoint for the treatment effect was the shoulder mobility, and secondary endpoints were pain (measured on a VAS, raw force and function as expressed by the Constant-Murley and DASH scores. Results. Before therapy groups were well comparable in terms of all outcome parameters. All endpoints showed a substantial and significant improvement in both treatment groups. Improvement was significantly more marked in the FDM group as compared to the MT group, and the effect occurred significantly faster. During posttreatment observation, there was no further improvement and the achieved benefit in mobility in the FDM group decreased. However, the abduction ability of 15,2±37,2° continued to be substantially better than in control patients (124.1±38.6°, p <0,01, and the ultimate improvement in abduction was 59.4° (64% more than baseline as opposed to 25.9° (27% in controls. Secondary outcome parameters (raw force, functional handicap, and pain showed a significant improvement in both groups but a significantly better result in patients treated according to FDM guidelines. However, patients in this group experienced pain during the treatment more frequently (21/27 vs. 10/27, P < 0,01 . Conclusion. «Frozen shoulder» treatment according to the FDM is an effective modality with swift onset of action and acceptable side effects that is superior to conventional manual therapy. Long-tern effects, and modes of action need to be investigated.

  14. ESTUDO DA SELETIVIDADE CAPACIDADE EM SISTEMAS SÓLIDO-GÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. SOUZA

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available A solubilidade de compostos pesados em fase gasosa contendo um componente supercrítico (equilíbrio sólido-gás foi analisada, adotando-se a equação de estado de Peng-Robinson para representar os sistemas sólido-gás estudados. A modelagem foi aplicada para vários sistemas binários (monossólido/monossolvente e multissólido/multissolvente. Para cada sistema, fez-se a estimação dos parâmetros pertinentes, os parâmetros de interação binária, obtidos por regressão não linear a partir dos dados experimentais de equilíbrio sólido-gás correspondentes. Tendo como base os dados binários, foi realizada uma análise de seletividade/ capacidade de sistemas do tipo 2 sólidos-1solvente, comparando-os com dados experimentais, e fez-se a comparação com os sistemas ternários experimentais.The solubility of heavy compounds in gaseous phase containing a supercritical component (solid-gas equilibrium was analised. It was adopted the state equation of Peng-Robinson, to represent the solid-gas systems considered. The model was applied to several cases ranging from binary systems (mono-solid/mono-solvent to multi-solid/multi-solvent systems. For each system, it was done the estimation of pertinent parameters, the binary interaction parameters, obtained by non-linear regression from experimental data of correspondent solid-gas equilibrium. Using the results obtained from binary systems, predictions of selectivity/capacity for ternary systems like 2 solids-1 solvent were accomplished, and then a comparison with experimental data of ternary systems was achieved.

  15. Reforma educativa y educación en medios como agentes de cambio en Hong Kong Education Reform as an Agent of Change: The Development of Media Literacy in Hong Kong during the Last Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.K. Cheung

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de su novedad como área de estudios, la educación mediática en Hong Kong ha sido exitosa. Este texto demuestra cómo la reforma educativa ha sido un factor importante para el desarrollo de la educación mediática en la última década. Las tres principales fuerzas de cambio en esta reforma han sido el énfasis en la educación cívica desde el retorno de Hong Kong a la soberanía china; la introducción de las tecnologías de la información (TIC y la reciente revisión de los programas de estudio. El autor pretende además iniciar una investigación encaminada a descubrir si hay patrones comunes y propios de desarrollo e implementación de la educación mediática en las distintas sociedades asiáticas o si éstas siguen un patrón occidental. Although media education is a comparatively new area of studies in Hong Kong, it is already flourishing. Why? This contribution identifies the education reform as an important factor in encouraging the development of media education in the last decade, and the three major driving forces of this reform have been: the emphasis on civic education since Hong Kong’s return to China sovereignty, the introduction of information technology (ICT, and the recent review of the curriculum. The author also aims to find out whether the patterns used in media education development are their own Asian models or, on the contrary, they follow Wes tern patterns.

  16. High Efficiency, Low Cost Solar Cells Manufactured Using 'Silicon Ink' on Thin Crystalline Silicon Wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, H.

    2011-03-01

    Reported are the development and demonstration of a 17% efficient 25mm x 25mm crystalline Silicon solar cell and a 16% efficient 125mm x 125mm crystalline Silicon solar cell, both produced by Ink-jet printing Silicon Ink on a thin crystalline Silicon wafer. To achieve these objectives, processing approaches were developed to print the Silicon Ink in a predetermined pattern to form a high efficiency selective emitter, remove the solvents in the Silicon Ink and fuse the deposited particle Silicon films. Additionally, standard solar cell manufacturing equipment with slightly modified processes were used to complete the fabrication of the Silicon Ink high efficiency solar cells. Also reported are the development and demonstration of a 18.5% efficient 125mm x 125mm monocrystalline Silicon cell, and a 17% efficient 125mm x 125mm multicrystalline Silicon cell, by utilizing high throughput Ink-jet and screen printing technologies. To achieve these objectives, Innovalight developed new high throughput processing tools to print and fuse both p and n type particle Silicon Inks in a predetermined pat-tern applied either on the front or the back of the cell. Additionally, a customized Ink-jet and screen printing systems, coupled with customized substrate handling solution, customized printing algorithms, and a customized ink drying process, in combination with a purchased turn-key line, were used to complete the high efficiency solar cells. This development work delivered a process capable of high volume producing 18.5% efficient crystalline Silicon solar cells and enabled the Innovalight to commercialize its technology by the summer of 2010.

  17. Entre as leis e as normas: Éticas corporativas e práticas profissionais na segurança pública e na Justiça Criminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Kant de Lima

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Várias etnografias sobre a práticas policiais e judi­ciais em perspectiva comparada (Brasil, Argentina, EUA revelam padrões de ética policial e judicial orientadores do comportamento da polícia e da Justiça no Brasil. Esses padrões não são confor­mados pela lei ou por qualquer tipo de norma institucional explícita, como protocolos. São, em vez disso, tornados explícitos apenas quando têm lugar situações ruidosas envolvendo agen­tes dessas instituições. A discussão desenvolvida neste artigo lança luz sobre as relações entre a aplicação desses padrões éticos e a ausência de discretion e accountability nos níveis da polícia e do Sistema de Justiça Criminal. Several ethnographic studies into policing and judicial practices from a comparative perspective (Brazil, Argenti­na, USA have revealed policing and judicial patterns that guide the behavior of the police and courts in Brazil. These patterns are not established by law or any other kind of ex­plicit institutional rule, such as protocols. They are, instead, made explicit only when exposed in troubled situations involving agents of those institutions. The discussion de­veloped in the article Between Laws and Standards: Corporate Ethics and Professional Practices in Pub­lic Security and in the Criminal Justice sheds light on relations between the application of these ethical pat­terns and the lack of discretion and accountability in the spheres of the police and the Criminal Justice System. Keywords: police and judicial ethics, accountability versus blaming, institutional management of conflicts, anthropology of law, comparative method

  18. Local and interannual variations in mercury and cadmium in eggs of eight seabird species of the Sinaloa coast, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyca, Juan P; Castillo-Guerrero, J Alfredo; García-Hernández, Jaqueline; Fernández, Guillermo; Betancourt-Lozano, Miguel

    2016-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in eggs of 8 seabird species inhabiting 5 coastal ecosystems in Sinaloa, México were determined during 2 breeding seasons (2012 and 2013): blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii), brown booby (Sula leucogaster), double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), magnificent frigatebird (Fregata magnificens), brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis), royal tern (Thalasseus maximus), laughing gull (Leucophaeus atricilla), and Heermann's gull (Larus heermanni). The interspecific differences found in the concentrations of both metals were attributed to the diet and foraging ecology of the species. The highest Hg concentrations were detected in piscivorous species (brown pelican, 0.42 µg/g; brown booby, 0.31 µg/g; blue-footed booby, 0.26 µg/g; and double-crested cormorant, 0.23 µg/g); whereas species with more varied diets presented the highest Cd concentrations (Heermann's gull, 0.31 µg/g; laughing gull, 0.27 µg/g; and magnificent frigatebird, 0.27 µg/g). Cadmium concentrations were significantly greater in 2013 than 2012 for most species, and brown pelican and laughing gull also had higher Hg concentrations in 2013 in Santa María Bay, suggesting a relationship as a result of the changes either in oceanographic conditions or in continental runoff. Mercury concentrations in brown pelican and Cd concentrations in Heermann's gull and laughing gull were above threshold levels for adverse effects on reproduction and survival. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2330-2338. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  19. Mineralogy of Eolian Sands at Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, C. N.; Vaniman, D. T.; Blake, D. F.; Bristow, T. F.; Rampe, E. B.; Ming, D. W.; Chipera, S. J.; Morris, R. V.; Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity has been exploring outcrop and regolith in Gale crater since August 6, 2012. During this exploration, the mission has collected 10 samples for mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), using the CheMin instrument. The CheMin (Chemistry and Mineralogy) instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity uses a CCD detector and a Co-anode tube source to acquire both mineralogy (from the pat-tern of Co diffraction) and chemical information (from energies of fluoresced X-rays). A detailed description of CheMin is provided in [1]. As part of the rover checkout after landing, the first sample selected for analysis was an eolian sand deposit (the Rocknest "sand shadow"). This sample was selected in part to characterize unconsolidated eolian regolith, but primarily to prove performance of the scoop collection system on the rover. The focus of the mission after Rocknest was on the consolidated sediments of Gale crater, so all of the nine subsequent samples were collected by drilling into bedrock com-posed of lithified sedimentary materials, including mudstone and sandstone. No scoop samples have been collected since Rocknest, but at the time this abstract was written the mission stands poised to use the scoop again, to collect active dune sands from the Bagnold dune field. Several abstracts at this conference outline the Bagnold dune campaign and summarize preliminary results from analyses on approach to the Namib dune sampling site. In this abstract we review the mineralogy of Rocknest, contrast that with the mineralogy of local sediments, and anticipate what will be learned by XRD analysis of Bagnold dune sands.

  20. Fragmentos de um periódico perdido: a Sentinela do Serro e o sentido da "republicanização" (1830-1832 Pieces of a disappeared newspaper: the Sentinela do Serro and the meanings of "republicanization" (1830-1832

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdei Lopes de Araujo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir da atuação do jovem Teófilo Ottoni, no contexto das disputas que levaram à abdicação do imperador Pedro I, tentamos caracterizar certos traços da linguagem e cultura políticas vigentes no período. A Sentinela do Serro, periódico editado por Ottoni entre 1830 e 1832, e hoje desaparecido, teve destacada atuação na luta pela republicanização da vida política. Neste artigo analisamos fragmentos da Sentinela transcritos em outros jornais do período e os confrontamos com as interpretações consolidadas por Ottoni em sua autobiografia política publicada em 1860. Por fim, argumentamos pela necessidade de matizar a classificação política ternária (exaltados, moderados, conservadores geralmente utilizada para caracterizar esse momento, apontando para as limitações dessa abordagem normativa para a compreensão da especificidade da experiência republicana vivenciada por Ottoni e seus correligionários.Studying the young politician Teofilo Ottoni, this paper characterizes some aspects of Brazilian political culture and languages in the 1830's. The Sentinela do Serro, a newspaper edited by Ottoni between 1830 and 1832, and nowadays disappeared, played an important role in the disputes to republicanize Brazilian political life. Here we analysis some Sentinela's fragments published in different contemporary newspapers in order to confront them with interpretations made by Ottoni when he published his autobiography in 1860. Finally, we argue to the necessity of revise the triadic political definition (radicals, moderates, conservatives generally applied to categorize this moment. This normative approach limits the understanding of some fundamental aspects of the republican experience made by Ottoni and his supporters.