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Sample records for ternary complex tc

  1. 99mTc-HYNIC-derivatized ternary ligand complexes for 99mTc-labeled polypeptides with low in vivo protein binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Masahiro; Arano, Yasushi; Mukai, Takahiro; Fujioka, Yasushi; Ogawa, Kazuma; Uehara, Tomoya; Saga, Tsuneo; Konishi, Junji; Saji, Hideo

    2001-01-01

    6-Hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (HYNIC) is a representative agent used to prepare technetium-99m ( 99m Tc)-labeled polypeptides with tricine as a coligand. However, 99m Tc-HYNIC-labeled polypeptides show delayed elimination rates of the radioactivity not only from the blood but also from nontarget tissues such as the liver and kidney. In this study, a preformed chelate of tetrafluorophenol (TFP) active ester of [ 99m Tc](HYNIC)(tricine)(benzoylpyridine: BP) ternary complex was synthesized to prepare 99m Tc-labeled polypeptides with higher stability against exchange reactions with proteins in plasma and lysosomes using the Fab fragment of a monoclonal antibody and galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (NGA) as model polypeptides. When incubated in plasma, [ 99m Tc](HYNIC-Fab)(tricine)(BP) showed significant reduction of the radioactivity in high molecular weight fractions compared with [ 99m Tc](HYNIC-Fab)(tricine) 2. When injected into mice, [ 99m Tc](HYNIC-NGA)(tricine)(BP) was metabolized to [ 99m Tc](HYNIC-lysine)(tricine)(BP) in the liver with no radioactivity detected in protein-bound fractions in contrast to the observations with [ 99m Tc](HYNIC-NGA)(tricine) 2. In addition, [ 99m Tc](HYNIC-NGA)(tricine)(BP) showed significantly faster elimination rates of the radioactivity from the liver as compared with [ 99m Tc](HYNIC-NGA)(tricine) 2. Similar results were observed with 99m Tc-labeled Fab fragments where [ 99m Tc](HYNIC-Fab)(tricine)(BP) exhibited significantly faster elimination rates of the radioactivity not only from the blood but also from the kidney. These findings indicated that conjugation of [ 99m Tc](HYNIC)(tricine)(BP) ternary ligand complex to polypeptides accelerated elimination rates of the radioactivity from the blood and nontarget tissues due to low binding of the [ 99m Tc](HYNIC)(tricine)(BP) complex with proteins in the blood and in the lysosomes. Such characteristics would render the TFP active ester of [ 99m Tc](HYNIC)(tricine)(BP) complex

  2. Ternary complex formation at mineral/solution interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leckie, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    Adsorption of trace concentrations of radionuclides and heavy metals from aqueous solution is dependent on pH, absorbent and adsorbate concentration, and speciation of the metal in solution. In particular, complexation of metal ions by organic and inorganic ligands can dramatically alter adsorption behavior compared to ligand-free systems. The presence of complexing ligands can cause the formation of ''metal like'' or ''ligand like'' ternary surface complexes depending on whether adsorption of the ternary complex increases or decreases with increasing pH, respectively. Examples of ternary surface complexes behaving ''metal like'' include uranyl-EDTA surface complexes on goethite, neptunyl-EDTA surface complexes on hematite and neptunyl-humic surface complexes on gibbsite. Examples of ''ligand like'' ternary surface complexes include uranyl-carbonato and neptunyl-carbonato surface complexes on iron oxides. The effects of complex solutions and multimineralic systems are discussed. (authors). 39 refs., 16 figs., 8 tabs

  3. Modification of both d33 and TC in a potassium-sodium niobate ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Wu, Jiagang; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo

    2015-12-28

    In this work, we simultaneously achieved a giant d33 and a high TC in a lead-free piezoelectric ternary system of (1-x-y)K0.48Na0.52NbO3-xBiFeO3-yBi0.5Na0.5ZrO3 {(1-x-y)KNN-xBF-yBNZ}. Owing to the rhombohedral-orthorhombic-tetragonal (R-O-T) phase coexistence and the enhanced dielectric and ferroelectric properties, the ceramics with a composition of (x = 0.006, y = 0.04) show a giant d33 of ∼428 pC N(-1) together with a TC of ∼318 °C, thereby proving that the design of ternary systems is an effective way to achieve both high d33 and high TC in KNN-based materials. In addition, a good thermal stability for piezoelectricity was also observed in these ceramics (e.g., d33 > 390 pC N(-1), T ≤ 300 °C). This is the first time such a good comprehensive performance in potassium-sodium niobate materials has been obtained. As a result, we believe that this type of material system with both giant d33 and high TC is a promising candidate for high-temperature piezoelectric devices.

  4. Prediction of high-Tc conventional superconductivity in the ternary lithium borohydride system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokail, Christian; von der Linden, Wolfgang; Boeri, Lilia

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the superconducting ternary lithium borohydride phase diagram at pressures of 0 and 200 GPa using methods for evolutionary crystal structure prediction and linear-response calculations for the electron-phonon coupling. Our calculations show that the ground state phase at ambient pressure, LiBH4, stays in the P n m a space group and remains a wide band-gap insulator at all pressures investigated. Other phases along the 1 :1 :x Li:B:H line are also insulating. However, a full search of the ternary phase diagram at 200 GPa revealed a metallic Li2BH6 phase, which is thermodynamically stable down to 100 GPa. This superhydride phase, crystallizing in a F m 3 ¯m space group, is characterized by sixfold hydrogen-coordinated boron atoms occupying the fcc sites of the unit cell. Due to strong hydrogen-boron bonding this phase displays a critical temperature of ˜100 K between 100 and 200 GPa. Our investigations confirm that ternary compounds used in hydrogen-storage applications should exhibit high-Tc conventional superconductivity in diamond anvil cell experiments, and suggest a viable route to optimize the superconducting behavior of high-pressure hydrides, exploiting metallic covalent bonds.

  5. Quantifying the energetics of cooperativity in a ternary protein complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter S; Schuck, Peter; Sundberg, Eric J

    2002-01-01

    and mathematical modeling to describe the energetics of cooperativity in a trimolecular protein complex. As a model system for quantifying cooperativity, we studied the ternary complex formed by the simultaneous interaction of a superantigen with major histocompatibility complex and T cell receptor, for which...... a structural model is available. This system exhibits positive and negative cooperativity, as well as augmentation of the temperature dependence of binding kinetics upon the cooperative interaction of individual protein components in the complex. Our experimental and theoretical analysis may be applicable...... to other systems involving cooperativity....

  6. Using Tc-Re chemical analogy to synthesize and identify new 99mTc complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambino, D.; Kremer, C.; Cartesio, S.; Leon, A.; Kremer, E.

    1989-01-01

    The strong chemical resemblance between Tc and Re is applied to design and evaluate experiments with 99m Tc complexes. A combination of spectrophotometric and electrophoretic techniques allows to propose the formula [TcO 2 (amine) 2 ] + for compounds prepared by reduction of 99m TcO 4 - with Zn (solid phase) in presence of several (bidentate) amines. (author) 10 refs.; 2 figs.; 4 tabs

  7. Tc Chemistry in HLW: Role of Organic Complexants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, Nancy S.; Conradsen, Steven D.

    2003-01-01

    Tc complexation with organic compounds in tank waste plays a significant role in the redox chemistry of Tc and the partitioning of Tc between the supernatant and sludge components in waste tanks. These processes need to be understood so that strategies to effectively remove Tc from high-level nuclear waste prior to waste immobilization can be developed and so that long-term consequences of Tc remaining in residual waste after sludge removal can be evaluated. Only limited data on the stability of Tc-organic complexes exists and even less thermodynamic data on which to develop predictive models of Tc chemical behavior is available. To meet these challenges we are conducting a research program to study to develop thermodynamic data on Tc-organic complexation over a wide range of chemical conditions. We will attempt to characterize Tc-speciation in actual tank waste using state-of-the-art analytical organic chemistry, separations, and speciation techniques to validate our model. On the basis of such studies we will develop credible model of Tc chemistry in HLW that will allow prediction of Tc speciation in tank waste and Tc behavior during waste pretreatment processing and in waste tank residuals

  8. 99mTc-EDTA and 99mTc-DTPA complexes as hydrological tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, J.; Borroto, J.; Nazco, J.; Perez, E.; Gamboa, R.; Cruz, J.

    2002-01-01

    The [ 99m Tc-DTPA] 2- and [ 99m Tc-EDTA] 1- were evaluated as radiotracers for short time hydrological studies. Their complex stability after labelling with 9.25 GBq of 99m Tc, the behaviour against pH variations, from 5 to 9, in simulated solutions and in natural river waters and the sorption of these compounds on the river sediments, were tested in laboratory experiments. Finally field double tracing experiments were carried out for each of labelling complexes and Rhodamine WT. From recovery calculations not losses of the 99m Tc activity were observed. The shape of the RTD curves of the [ 99m Tc-DTPA] 2- and [ 99m Tc-EDTA] 1 were quite similar to the Rhodamine Wt ones. May be concluded that both complexes behaved conservatively on the studied environmental conditions. (author)

  9. Formation of a Tc(III)-adenosine diphosphate complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, J.; Kremer, C.; Kremer, E.

    1995-01-01

    A 99 Tc-ADP complex was prepared when KTcO 4 was reduced in aqueous medium by SnCl 2 , Na 2 S 2 O 4 , NaBH 4 or Zn in the presence of ADP in excess. The resulting solution was studied by chromatography and spectrophotometry. Electrochemical reduction and substitution on [Tc III (tu) 6 ] 3+ were investigated as alternative synthetic routes. The anionic Tc-ADP complex was isolated as a solid. Cerimetric titrations confirmed the oxidation state +3 for the central atom. IR and 1 H-NMR data showed that the purine base is bonded to the Tc central atom but not the ribose moiety. No oxo groups seemed to be directly bonded to the Tc atom. The complex is rather stable in neutral solutions. However, it decomposes to pertechnetate and TcO 2 at extreme pH values. (author). 16 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Binding orientation and interaction of bile salt in its ternary complex with pancreatic lipase-colipase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Neshatul; Prakash Prabhu, N

    2018-05-23

    The interfacial activity of pancreatic lipases (PL) depends on the presence of colipase and bile salt. The activity of PL is inhibited by micellar concentrations of bile salt which can be restored by the addition of colipase. Though the formation of 1:1:1 tertiary complex by lipase-colipase-bile salt micelle is well accepted, the residue-level interactions between lipase-colipase and bile salt are yet to be clearly understood. Molecular dynamic simulations of lipase-colipase complex, lipase and colipase were performed in the presence of a model bile salt, sodium taurocholate (NaTC), at its near-CMC and supra-micellar concentrations. From the interactions obtained from the molecular dynamic simulations, the ternary complex was modelled and compared with earlier reports. The analysis suggested that a micelle of NaTC consisting of nine monomers was formed at the concave groove between lipase and colipase chain and it mainly interacted with the fourth finger of colipase. This complex was mainly stabilized by van der Waals interactions. Interestingly, the C-terminal domain of lipase which holds the colipase did not show any significant role in formation or stabilization of NaTC micelle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ternary complex formation of lanthanides and radiolanthanides with phosphate and serum proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumaier, B.; Roesch, F.

    1999-01-01

    Radioyttrium was recently reported to form ternary complexes with phosphate and serum proteins in blood. In the present work it was investigated whether the trivalent radiolanthanides react in a chemically similar way. In systematic binding studies using gel filtration a ternary complex formation between different lanthanides, phosphate and serum proteins could be identified. The tendency to build a ternary compound of the type Ln III - phosphate - serum protein, however, is dependent on the ionic radii of the lanthanides. Whereas the light and transition lanthanides have a strong inclination to build a ternary complex, this tendency is weaker for the heavier ones. Taking into account the high content of phosphate in human blood, the corresponding ternary complexes of radiolanthanides represent an important transport form of these elements in blood. This finding may contribute to an understanding of the nuclear medical observation on the biodistribution of radiolanthanides. The heavy radiolanthanides can be classified as bone seeking metals, whereas the light and transition lanthanide elements accumulate mainly in the liver and the spleen. For the lighter radiolanthanides the corresponding ternary complexes thus represent an important transport form in blood. This physicochemical form of lanthanides mainly results in reticulo endothelial accumulation; on the other hand, the lower tendency of heavier lanthanides leads to preferential skeletal deposition. (orig.)

  12. Structural and thermal characterization of ternary complexes of piroxicam and alanine with transition metals: Uranyl binary and ternary complexes of piroxicam. Spectroscopic characterization and properties of metal complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Gehad G.

    2005-12-01

    Ternary Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and UO 2(II) complexes with piroxicam (Pir) drug (H 2L 1) and dl-alanine (Ala) (HL 2) and also the binary UO 2(II) complex with Pir were studied. The structures of the complexes were elucidated using elemental, IR, molar conductance, magnetic moment, diffused reflectance and thermal analyses. The UO 2(II) binary complex was isolated in 1:2 ratio with the formula [UO 2(H 2L) 2](NO 3) 2. The ternary complexes were isolated in 1:1:1 (M:H 2L 1:L 2) ratios. The solid complexes were isolated in the general formulae [M(H 2L)(L 2)(Cl) n(H 2O) m]· yH 2O (M = Fe(III) ( n = 2, m = 0, y = 1), Co(II) ( n = 1, m = 1, y = 2) and Ni(II) ( n = 1, m = 1, y = 0)); [M(H 2L)(L 2)](X) z· yH 2O (M = Cu(II) (X = AcO, z = 1, y = 0), Zn(II) (X = AcO, z = 1, y = 3) and UO 2(II) (X = NO 3, z = 1, y = 2)). Pir behaves as a neutral bidentate ligand coordinated to the metal ions via the pyridine-N and carbonyl-O groups, while Ala behaves as a uninegatively bidentate ligand coordinated to the metal ions via the deprotonated carboxylate-O and amino-N. The magnetic and reflectance spectral data show that the complexes have octahedral geometry except Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes have tetrahedral structures. The thermal decomposition of the complexes was discussed in relation to structure, and the thermodynamic parameters of the decomposition stages were evaluated.

  13. Crystallization, data collection and processing of the chymotrypsin–BTCI–trypsin ternary complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteves, Gisele Ferreira; Teles, Rozeni Chagas Lima; Cavalcante, Nayara Silva; Neves, David; Ventura, Manuel Mateus [Laboratório de Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, 70910-900 Brasília-DF (Brazil); Barbosa, João Alexandre Ribeiro Gonçalves, E-mail: joao@lnls.br [Center for Structural Molecular Biology (CeBiME), Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), CP 6192, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Freitas, Sonia Maria de, E-mail: joao@lnls.br [Laboratório de Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, 70910-900 Brasília-DF (Brazil)

    2007-12-01

    A ternary complex of the proteinase inhibitor (BTCI) with trypsin and chymotrypsin was crystallized and its crystal structure was solved by molecular replacement. A ternary complex of the black-eyed pea trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor (BTCI) with trypsin and chymotrypsin was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with 0.1 M HEPES pH 7.5, 10%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 6000 and 5%(v/v) 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol as precipitant. BTCI is a small protein with 83 amino-acid residues isolated from Vigna unguiculata seeds and is able to inhibit trypsin and chymotrypsin simultaneously by forming a stable ternary complex. X-ray data were collected from a single crystal of the trypsin–BTCI–chymotrypsin ternary complex to 2.7 Å resolution under cryogenic conditions. The structure of the ternary complex was solved by molecular replacement using the crystal structures of the BTCI–trypsin binary complex (PDB code) and chymotrypsin (PDB code) as search models.

  14. Crystallization, data collection and processing of the chymotrypsin–BTCI–trypsin ternary complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, Gisele Ferreira; Teles, Rozeni Chagas Lima; Cavalcante, Nayara Silva; Neves, David; Ventura, Manuel Mateus; Barbosa, João Alexandre Ribeiro Gonçalves; Freitas, Sonia Maria de

    2007-01-01

    A ternary complex of the proteinase inhibitor (BTCI) with trypsin and chymotrypsin was crystallized and its crystal structure was solved by molecular replacement. A ternary complex of the black-eyed pea trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor (BTCI) with trypsin and chymotrypsin was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with 0.1 M HEPES pH 7.5, 10%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 6000 and 5%(v/v) 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol as precipitant. BTCI is a small protein with 83 amino-acid residues isolated from Vigna unguiculata seeds and is able to inhibit trypsin and chymotrypsin simultaneously by forming a stable ternary complex. X-ray data were collected from a single crystal of the trypsin–BTCI–chymotrypsin ternary complex to 2.7 Å resolution under cryogenic conditions. The structure of the ternary complex was solved by molecular replacement using the crystal structures of the BTCI–trypsin binary complex (PDB code) and chymotrypsin (PDB code) as search models

  15. Uses of Tc99m complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubiatowicz, D.O.; Bolles, T.F.

    1978-01-01

    The invention deals with the use of a complex of the radioactive metastable isotope Tcsup(99m) together with water-soluble mercaptane for the preparation of a parenterally administered renal diagnostic agent. (VJ/orig.) [de

  16. Investigation of the extraction equilibrium of ternary ionassociation complex of thallium(III) with iodo-nitro-tetrazolium chlorid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, A.; Dimitrov, A.

    1976-01-01

    The extraction equilibrium of the ternary ion-association complex of iodo-nitro-tetrazolium [3-(4-iodophenyl)2-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyltetrazolium chloride] with the chlorocomplex of thallium(III) is investigated radiochemically. The molar ratio of the ion-associate is found to be 1:1, the association constant has a value of 3.2x10 3 in aqueous solution and the distribution constant is 8.9. The extraction constant which gives a quantitative characterization of the equilibrium is 2.3x10 4 . From the investigation performed it can be concluded that a quite satisfactory extraction of thallium(III) by means of iodo-nitro-tetrazole in benzene can be carried out. The extraction constant has a relatively high value which allows to use this system conveniently for the extraction-photometric determination of thallium(III). (T.C.)

  17. Monitoring ligand-dependent assembly of receptor ternary complexes in live cells by BRETFect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotnoir-White, David; El Ezzy, Mohamed; Boulay, Pierre-Luc; Rozendaal, Marieke; Bouvier, Michel; Gagnon, Etienne; Mader, Sylvie

    2018-03-13

    There is currently an unmet need for versatile techniques to monitor the assembly and dynamics of ternary complexes in live cells. Here we describe bioluminescence resonance energy transfer with fluorescence enhancement by combined transfer (BRETFect), a high-throughput technique that enables robust spectrometric detection of ternary protein complexes based on increased energy transfer from a luciferase to a fluorescent acceptor in the presence of a fluorescent intermediate. Its unique donor-intermediate-acceptor relay system is designed so that the acceptor can receive energy either directly from the donor or indirectly via the intermediate in a combined transfer, taking advantage of the entire luciferase emission spectrum. BRETFect was used to study the ligand-dependent cofactor interaction properties of the estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ, which form homo- or heterodimers whose distinctive regulatory properties are difficult to dissect using traditional methods. BRETFect uncovered the relative capacities of hetero- vs. homodimers to recruit receptor-specific cofactors and regulatory proteins, and to interact with common cofactors in the presence of receptor-specific ligands. BRETFect was also used to follow the assembly of ternary complexes between the V2R vasopressin receptor and two different intracellular effectors, illustrating its use for dissection of ternary protein-protein interactions engaged by G protein-coupled receptors. Our results indicate that BRETFect represents a powerful and versatile technique to monitor the dynamics of ternary interactions within multimeric complexes in live cells.

  18. Cyclodextrin based ternary system of modafinil: Effect of trimethyl chitosan and polyvinylpyrrolidone as complexing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Parth; Agrawal, Y K; Sarvaiya, Jayrajsinh

    2016-03-01

    Modafinil is an approved drug for the treatment of narcolepsy and have a strong market presence in many countries. The drug is widely consumed for off-label uses and currently listed as a restricted drug. Modafinil has very low water solubility. To enhance the aqueous solubility of modafinil by the formation of a ternary complex with Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and two hydrophilic polymers was the main objective of the present study. Pyrrolidone (PVP K30) and a water soluble chitosan derivative, trimethyl chitosan (TMC) were studied by solution state and solid state characterization methods for their discriminatory efficiency in solubility enhancement of modafinil. Phase solubility study depicted the highest complexation efficiency (2.22) of cyclodextrin derivative in the presence of TMC compared to the same in the presence of PVP K30 (0.08) and in the absence of any polymer (0.92). FT-IR analysis of binary and ternary complex expressed comparable contribution of both polymers in formation of inclusion complex. The thermal behaviour of binary and ternary complex, involving individual polymers disclosed the influence of TMC on polymorphism of the drug. DSC study revealed efficiency of TMC to prevent conversion of metastable polymorphic form to stable polymorphic form. Ternary complex, involving TMC enhanced water solubility of the drug 1.5 times more compared to the binary complex of the drug whereas PVP K30 reduced the Solubility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Formation and characterization of zein-propylene glycol alginate-surfactant ternary complexes: Effect of surfactant type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Sun, Cuixia; Wei, Yang; Zhan, Xinyu; Mao, Like; Gao, Yanxiang

    2018-08-30

    In this study, zein, propylene glycol alginate (PGA) and surfactant ternary complexes were fabricated by antisolvent co-precipitation method. Two types of surfactants (rhamnolipid and lecithin) were applied to generate zein-PGA-rhamnolipid (Z-P-R) and zein-PGA-lecithin (Z-P-L) ternary complexes, respectively. Results showed that the surfactant types significantly affected the properties of ternary complexes. The formation of ternary complexes was mainly due to the non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, electrostatic interaction and hydrophobic interactions among zein, PGA and surfactants. Moreover, the thermal stability of ternary complexes was enhanced with increasing the levels of both surfactants. Notably, ternary complex dispersions exhibited better stability against pH from 2 to 8. Furthermore, a compact network structure was observed in Z-P-R ternary complex, while Z-P-L ternary complex remained the spherical structure. These findings would provide new insights into the development of novel delivery system and expand the options, when zein-based complexes were utilized under different environment conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of U(VI)-carbonato ternary complexes on hematite: EXAFS and electrophoretic mobility measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, John R.; Reitmeyer, Rebecca; Lenhart, John J.; Davis, James A.

    2000-01-01

    We have measured U(VI) adsorption on hematite using EXAFS spectroscopy and electrophoresis under conditions relevant to surface waters and aquifers (0.01 to 10 μM dissolved uranium concentrations, in equilibrium with air, pH 4.5 to 8.5). Both techniques suggest the existence of anionic U(VI)-carbonato ternary complexes. Fits to EXAFS spectra indicate that U(VI) is simultaneously coordinated to surface FeO6 octahedra and carbonate (or bicarbonate) ligands in bidentate fashions, leading to the conclusion that the ternary complexes have an inner-sphere metal bridging (hematite-U(VI)-carbonato) structure. Greater than or equal to 50% of adsorbed U(VI) was comprised of monomeric hematite-U(VI)-carbonato ternary complexes, even at pH 4.5. Multimeric U(VI) species were observed at pH ≥ 6.5 and aqueous U(VI) concentrations approximately an order of magnitude more dilute than the solubility of crystalline β-UO2(OH)2. Based on structural constraints, these complexes were interpreted as dimeric hematite-U(VI)-carbonato ternary complexes. These results suggest that Fe-oxide-U(VI)-carbonato complexes are likely to be important transport-limiting species in oxic aquifers throughout a wide range of pH values.

  1. Preparation of 99mTc-thiourea complex as a precursor for Tc(III) labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, A.; Teran, M.; Molina, S.; Leon, A.; Kremer, C.; Gambino, D.; Kremer, E.

    1996-01-01

    Ligand exchange is one of the possible synthetic routes to obtain 99m Tc coordination compounds. However, the success of this route depends on the availability of good precursors. The objective of this work is the preparation of the complex [ 99m Tc (tu) 6 ] 3+ (tu = thiourea), as a potential precursor for 99m Tc(III) coordination compounds. The preparation was successfully performed in acidic conditions, the excess of tu serving as reducing agent. At pH values higher than 3, the compound becomes unstable and on addition of polydentate ligands new Tc(III) complexes are formed. With edta, the complex 99m Tc(III)-edta was obtained in high yield. (author). 13 refs., 3 tabs

  2. Comparative study of binary and ternary complexes of some rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhijani, S.D.; Sangal, S.P.

    1978-01-01

    Modified form of Irving and Rossotti's pH titration technique has been used to evaluate and compare the stability constants of the binary and ternary complexes of Sc(III), Y(III), La(III), Pr(III), Nd(III) and Sm(III) at 30 0 at an ionic strength of 0.2M NaClO 4 . For the study of ternary complexes, nitrilotriacetic acid has been used as a primary ligand and polyhydroxy phenols i.e. pyrocatechol (PYC), pyrogallol (PYG) and gallic acid (GA) as secondary ligands. The stability constants of the binary complexes were found to be more than those of the corresponding ternary complexes which can reasonably be explained on the basis of electrostatic force between primary complex (metal in the case of binary complex) and secondary ligand, and space available to accommodate the secondary ligand. The stability decreases with the increase in ionic radii, i.e. Sc(III)>Y(III)>Sm(III)>Nd(III)>Pr(III)>La(III). In terms of secondary ligand, it follows the order PYC>GA>PYG. Rare earths form only 1:1 binary complex, and 1:1:1 mixed ligand complex in all the cases. (author)

  3. Photocytotoxic ternary copper(II) complexes of histamine Schiff base ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ARC

    complexes 1 and 2 (7.5 μM) using SC pUC19 DNA (0.2 μg, 30 μM b.p.) in the presence of. 1 mM glutathione (GSH) as a reducing agent: lane-1, DNA control; lane-2, DNA + GSH; lane-3, DNA + 1 + GSH; lane-4, DNA + 2 + GSH. Figure S10. Cell viability plot showing the photocytotoxicity of complex 1 in HeLa cells on.

  4. Transport of /sup 99m/Tc complexes through the blood-brain barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loberg, M.D.; Corder, E.H.; Fields, A.T.; Callery, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    Thirteen /sup 99m/Tc complexes have been synthesized and used to determine the relationships between protein binding, lipophilicity and membrane transport. The lipophilicity of the /sup 99m/Tc complexes was altered by adding substituents to either IDA, EDTA, DTPA or oxine; membrane transport was estimated using the brain uptake index (BUI) method. The BUI of the /sup 99m/Tc complexes was found to vary directly with lipophilicity and inversely with protein binding. These results demonstrated that /sup 99m/Tc-oxine derivatives are better suited for use in the development of intracellular tracers than are the /sup 99m/Tc derivatives of aminopolycarboxylates

  5. Regular Functions with Values in Ternary Number System on the Complex Clifford Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Eun Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We define a new modified basis i^ which is an association of two bases, e1 and e2. We give an expression of the form z=x0+ i ^z0-, where x0 is a real number and z0- is a complex number on three-dimensional real skew field. And we research the properties of regular functions with values in ternary field and reduced quaternions by Clifford analysis.

  6. Preparation and Evaluation of Taste Masked Famotidine Formulation Using Drug/β-cyclodextrin/Polymer Ternary Complexation Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Ashok R.; Vavia, Pradeep R.

    2008-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to evaluate potential of ternary complexation (comprising of drug, cyclodextrin and polymer) as an approach for taste masking. For this purpose famotidine with property of bitter taste was selected as a model drug. Improvement in taste masking capability of cyclodextrin towards famotidine was evaluated by formulating a ternary complex including hydrophilic polymer hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC 5 cps) as the third component. Phase solubility analy...

  7. Photophysical study of blue-light excitable ternary Eu(III) complexes and their encapsulation into polystyrene nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Räsänen, Markus, E-mail: mpvras@utu.fi [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland); Takalo, Harri [DHR Finland Oy, Innotrac Diagnostics, Biolinja 12, FIN-20750 Turku (Finland); Soukka, Tero [Department of Biochemistry/Biotechnology, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland); Haapakka, Keijo; Kankare, Jouko [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland)

    2015-04-15

    In this work, 14 ternary Eu(III) complexes were studied by means of spectroscopy. The studied Eu(III) complexes consisted of Lewis bases (4′-(4-diethylaminophenyl)-2,2′:6′,2″-terpyridine (L{sup 8}) or 1,10-phenanthroline (L{sup 9})) and differently substituted β-diketones. The ternary complexes with L{sup 8} show the excitation peak at 405 nm and the quantum yield even 76%. The brightest ternary complex at the 405 nm excitation was Eu(L{sup 3}){sub 3}L{sup 8} while Eu(L{sup 7}){sub 3}L{sup 8} (HL{sup 3}=4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(2-thienyl)-1,3-butanedione, HL{sup 7}=1-(9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl)-4,4,5,5,5-pentafluoro-1,3-pentanedione) was found to be the brightest at the ligand-centred excitation maximum. The ternary complexes were studied mainly in toluene as the model environment for the polystyrene nanoparticle cavities. The complexes were successfully loaded into the polystyrene nanoparticles enabling their bioanalytical application in aqueous environment. The encapsulation of the complexes preserved, or even enhanced, their good photophysical features. - Highlights: • Ternary Eu{sup 3+} complexes with some β-diketone and substituted terpyridine were studied. • Ternary complexes with substituted terpyridine showed blue-light excitability. • Ternary complexes were successfully loaded into the polystyrene nanoparticles. • Encapsulation of the complexes preserved their good photophysical features.

  8. Tuning of "antenna effect" of Eu(III) in ternary systems in aqueous medium through binding with protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorai, Shyamal Kr; Samanta, Swarna Kamal; Mukherjee, Manini; Saha Sardar, Pinki; Ghosh, Sanjib

    2013-02-04

    A simple ternary system containing a protein [human serum albumin (HSA)/bovine serum albumin (BSA)], tetracycline hydrochloride (TC), and Eu(III) in suitable aqueous buffer medium at physiological pH (= 7.2) has been shown to exhibit highly efficient "antenna effect" compared to the binary complex of TC with Eu(III) (Eu(3)TC). The ternary system containing E. coli alkaline phosphatase (AP), TC, and Eu(III), however, shows a slight enhancement of Eu(III) emission, although the binding constant of AP with TC is 2 orders of magnitude greater than with BSA/HSA. The enhanced emission of bound TC in the binary systems containing proteins and TC gets quenched in the ternary systems containing HSA/BSA, showing the efficient energy transfer (ET) from TC to Eu(III). Steady state and time-resolved emission studies of each component in all the ternary systems in H(2)O and in D(2)O medium reveal that Eu(III) is very well protected from the O-H oscillator in the ternary system containing HSA/BSA compared to that containing AP. The docking studies locating the binding site of TC in the proteins suggest that TC binds near the surface of AP. In the case of HSA/BSA, TC resides in the interior of the protein resulting in a large shielding effect of Eu(III). The rotational correlation time (θ(c)) determined from the anisotropy decay of bound TC in the complexes and the accessible surface area (ASA) of the ligand in the complexes obtained from the docking studies also support the contention that Eu(3)TC is more exposed to solvent in the case of the ternary system consisting of AP, TC, and Eu(III). The calculated radiative lifetime and the sensitization efficiency ratio of Eu(III) in all the systems clearly demonstrate the protein mediated tuning of "antenna effect" in Eu(III).

  9. Ternary uranium(VI) carbonato humate complex studied by cryo-TRLFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steudtner, R.; Sachs, S.; Schmeide, K.; Brendler, V.; Bernhard, G.

    2011-01-01

    The complex formation of U(VI) with humic acid (HA) in the presence of carbonate was studied by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at low temperature (cryo-TRLFS) at pH 8.5. In the presence of HA, a decrease of the luminescence intensity of U(VI) and no shift of the emission band maxima in comparison to the luminescence spectrum of the UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 4- complex, the dominating U(VI) species under the applied experimental conditions in the absence of HA, was observed. The formation of a ternary U(VI) carbonato humate complex of the type UO 2 (CO 3 ) 2 HA(II) 4- starting from UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 4- was concluded from the luminescence data. For this complex a complex stability constant of log K=2.83 ± 0.17 was determined. Slope analysis resulted in a slope of 1.12 ± 0.11, which verifies the postulated complexation reaction. The results agree very well with literature data. Speciation calculations show that the formation of the ternary U(VI) carbonato humate complex can significantly influence the U(VI) speciation under environmental conditions. (orig.)

  10. Ternary uranium(VI) carbonato humate complex studied by cryo-TRLFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steudtner, R.; Sachs, S.; Schmeide, K.; Brendler, V.; Bernhard, G. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Radiochemistry

    2011-07-01

    The complex formation of U(VI) with humic acid (HA) in the presence of carbonate was studied by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at low temperature (cryo-TRLFS) at pH 8.5. In the presence of HA, a decrease of the luminescence intensity of U(VI) and no shift of the emission band maxima in comparison to the luminescence spectrum of the UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 4-} complex, the dominating U(VI) species under the applied experimental conditions in the absence of HA, was observed. The formation of a ternary U(VI) carbonato humate complex of the type UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}HA(II){sup 4-} starting from UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 4-} was concluded from the luminescence data. For this complex a complex stability constant of log K=2.83 {+-} 0.17 was determined. Slope analysis resulted in a slope of 1.12 {+-} 0.11, which verifies the postulated complexation reaction. The results agree very well with literature data. Speciation calculations show that the formation of the ternary U(VI) carbonato humate complex can significantly influence the U(VI) speciation under environmental conditions. (orig.)

  11. Synthesis, radiochromatography and biodistribution of sup(99m)Tc-dimethylphosphinoethane (DMPE) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelberger, P.; Wagner-Loeffler, M.; Hruby, E.; Dudczak, R.

    1985-01-01

    The title complex were prepared from no-carrier-added sup(99m)Tc-TcOsub(4)sup(-) and the air-sensitive reducing ligand DMPE under argon in ethanol-water. At acidic pH [Tc(III)Clsub(2) dmpesub(2)]sup(+) was formed, while alkaline pH led to the formation of 95% yield in less than 1 hour, otherwise the [Tc(V)Osub(2)dmpesub(2)]sup(+) intermediate was present. Electrophoresis demonstrated the unit positive charge and reversed-phase ion-pair HPLC provided separation and identification of sup(99m)Tc-products by direct comparison with known sup(99m)Tc-complexes. In rats the sup(99m)Tc-complexes were excrated by kidneys and liver and reached high heart/blood but only low heart/lung and heart/liver ratios. In dogs satisfactory myocardial scintigrams were obtained in spite of high liver activity. (author)

  12. Novel siRNA delivery system using a ternary polymer complex with strong silencing effect and no cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yukinobu; Shiokawa, Yumi; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Kurosaki, Tomoaki; Aki, Keisei; Nakagawa, Hiroo; Muro, Takahiro; Kitahara, Takashi; Higuchi, Norihide; Sasaki, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    We developed a novel small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery system using a ternary complex with polyethyleneimine (PEI) and γ-polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA), which showed silencing effect and no cytotoxicity. The binary complexes of siRNA with PEI were approximately 73-102 nm in particle size and 45-52 mV in ζ-potential. The silencing effect of siRNA/PEI complexes increased with an increase of PEI, and siRNA/PEI complexes with a charge ratio greater than 16 showed significant luciferase knockdown in a mouse colon carcinoma cell line regularly expressing luciferase (Colon26/Luc cells). However, strong cytotoxicity and blood agglutination were observed in the siRNA/Lipofectamine complex and siRNA/PEI16 complex. Recharging cationic complexes with an anionic compound was reported to be a promising method for overcoming these toxicities. We therefore prepared ternary complexes of siRNA with PEI (charge ratio 16) by the addition of γ-PGA to reduce cytotoxicity and deliver siRNA. As expected, the cytotoxicity of the ternary complexes decreased with an increase of γ-PGA content, which decreased the ζ-potential of the complexes. A strong silencing effect comparable to siRNA/Lipofectamine complex was discovered in ternary complexes including γ-PGA with an anionic surface charge. The high incorporation of ternary complexes into Colon26/Luc cells was confirmed with fluorescence microcopy. Having achieved knockdown of an exogenously transfected gene, the ability of the complex to mediate knockdown of an endogenous housekeeping gene, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), was assessed in B16-F10 cells. The ternary complex (siRNA/PEI16/γ-PGA12 complex) exhibited a significant GAPDH knockdown effect. Thus, we developed a useful siRNA delivery system.

  13. Spectroscopic Characterization of Aqua [ fac-Tc(CO)3]+ Complexes at High Ionic Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sayandev; Hall, Gabriel B; Engelhard, Mark H; Du, Yingge; Washton, Nancy M; Lukens, Wayne W; Lee, Sungsik; Pearce, Carolyn I; Levitskaia, Tatiana G

    2018-06-05

    Understanding fundamental Tc chemistry is important to both the remediation of nuclear waste and the reprocessing of nuclear fuel; however, current knowledge of the electronic structure and spectral signatures of low-valent Tc compounds significantly lags behind the remainder of the d-block elements. In particular, identification and treatment of Tc speciation in legacy nuclear waste is challenging due to the lack of reference data especially for Tc compounds in the less common oxidation states (I-VI). In an effort to establish a spectroscopic library corresponding to the relevant conditions of extremely high ionic strength typical for the legacy nuclear waste, compounds with the general formula of [ fac-Tc(CO) 3 (OH 2 ) 3- n (OH) n ] 1- n (where n = 0-3) were examined by a range of spectroscopic techniques including 99 Tc/ 13 C NMR, IR, XPS, and XAS. In the series of monomeric aqua species, stepwise hydrolysis results in the increase of the Tc metal center electron density and corresponding progressive decrease of the Tc-C bond distances, Tc electron binding energies, and carbonyl stretching frequencies in the order [ fac-Tc(CO) 3 (OH 2 ) 3 ] + > [ fac-Tc(CO) 3 (OH 2 ) 2 (OH)] > [ fac-Tc(CO) 3 (OH 2 )(OH) 2 ] - . These results correlate with established trends of the 99 Tc upfield chemical shift and carbonyl 13 C downfield chemical shift. The lone exception is [ fac-Tc(CO) 3 (OH)] 4 which exhibits a comparatively low electron density at the metal center attributed to the μ 3 -bridging nature of the - OH ligands causing less σ-donation and no π-donation. This work also reports the first observations of these compounds by XPS and [ fac-Tc(CO) 3 Cl 3 ] 2- by XAS. The unique and distinguishable spectral features of the aqua [ fac-Tc(CO) 3 ] + complexes lay the foundation for their identification in the complex aqueous matrixes.

  14. The Noah's Ark experiment: species dependent biodistributions of cationic 99mTc complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, Edward; Ketring, A.R.; Libson, Karen; Vanderheyden, J.-L.; Hirth, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    The time dependent biodistributions of three related 99m Tc complexes of 1, 2-bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane (DMPE) were evaluated in several animal species including humans: trans-[ 99m Tc v (DMPE) 2 O 2 ] + , trans-[ 99m Tc III (DMPE) 2 Cl 2 ] + and [ 99m Tc I (DMPE) 3 ] + . Imaging studies were performed in 10 animal species to evaluate these complexes as myocardial perfusion imaging agents. Animal models adequately predict the uninteresting behaviour of the Tc(V) cation in humans, predict to only a very limited extent the behaviour of the Tc(III) cation in humans and totally fail to predict the behaviour of the Tc(I) cation in humans. (U.K.)

  15. Ternary WD40 repeat-containing protein complexes: evolution, composition and roles in plant immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimi C. Miller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants, like mammals, rely on their innate immune system to perceive and discriminate among the majority of their microbial pathogens. Unlike mammals, plants respond to this molecular dialogue by unleashing a complex chemical arsenal of defense metabolites to resist or evade pathogen infection. In basal or non-host resistance, plants utilize signal transduction pathways to detect non-self, damaged-self and altered-self-associated molecular patterns and translate these danger signals into largely inducible chemical defenses. The WD40 repeat (WDR-containing proteins Gβ and TTG1 are constituents of two independent ternary protein complexes functioning at opposite ends of a plant immune signaling pathway. Gβ and TTG1 are also encoded by single-copy genes that are ubiquitous in higher plants, implying the limited diversity and functional conservation of their respective complexes. In this review, we summarize what is currently known about the evolutionary history of these WDR-containing ternary complexes, their repertoire and combinatorial interactions, and their downstream effectors and pathways in plant defense.

  16. Crystal Structures of Murine Carnitine Acetyltransferase in Ternary Complexes with Its Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao,Y.; Jogl, G.; Tong, L.

    2006-01-01

    Carnitine acyltransferases catalyze the reversible exchange of acyl groups between coenzyme A (CoA) and carnitine. They have important roles in many cellular processes, especially the oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in the mitochondria for energy production, and are attractive targets for drug discovery against diabetes and obesity. To help define in molecular detail the catalytic mechanism of these enzymes, we report here the high resolution crystal structure of wild-type murine carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT) in a ternary complex with its substrates acetyl-CoA and carnitine, and the structure of the S554A/M564G double mutant in a ternary complex with the substrates CoA and hexanoylcarnitine. Detailed analyses suggest that these structures may be good mimics for the Michaelis complexes for the forward and reverse reactions of the enzyme, representing the first time that such complexes of CrAT have been studied in molecular detail. The structural information provides significant new insights into the catalytic mechanism of CrAT and possibly carnitine acyltransferases in general.

  17. 99mTc complexes of benzimidazole and benzoxazole ligands and their biodistribution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothari, K.; Manju, S.; Pillai, M.R.A.; Rath, N.; Dash, K.C.; Sarma, H.D.

    1997-01-01

    Complexation studies of 2 (2' -hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole (HPBI) and 2(2' -pyridyl)benzoxazole (PBO) with 99m Tc were carried out. The complexes were characterised by TLC, paper electrophoresis and solvent extraction. The ligand HPBI forms complex in high yield (>90%). Biodistribution studies carried out with 99m Tc-HPBI complex in Swiss Albino mice showed rapid clearance of the complex from blood and excretion of the activity through hepatobiliary system. (author). 2 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  18. Ternary catalyst-olefin-hydroperoxide complexes and their contribution to epoxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svitych, R.B.; Rzhevskaya, N.N.; Buchachenko, A.L.; Yablonskij, O.P.; Petukhov, A.A.; Belyaev, V.A.

    1976-01-01

    Electron and NMR spectroscopy have been used for studying the complex formation of catalysts (Mo 5+ , Mn 2+ , Co 2+ ) in double and triple systems: metal-olefin and metal-olefin-hydroperoxide. It has been established that ions of metals form complexes with olefins in the first sphere. The formation has been proved of ternary complexes metal-olefin-hydroperoxide. The structure of the complexes has been proposed with olefins in the first and hydroperoxide in the second sphere of the metal ion. The structure explains known kinetic regularities of epoxydation and the mechanism of the formation of final products, oxide and alcohol. It has been shown that the best catalysts for epoxydation of olefins with hydroperoxides must be the compounds of the metals with an electron state of ion d 0 [ru

  19. Usefulness of L,L-ethylenedicysteine - 99mTc complex (EC-99mTc) for the kidney investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surma, M.J.; Wiewiora, J.; Kapuscinksi, J.; Liniecki, J.

    1992-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of own EC- 99m Tc complex for the kidney function examination, the renoscintigraphy with EC- 99m Tc and clearance determinations were performed. During renoscintigraphy the kidney images were of superb quality, with overlaying organs (liver, spleen) not visualized. Renograms showed typical shapes, their TMAX and T1/2 values being insignificantly different from the obtained with other radiopharmaceuticals, used in renoscintigraphy (MAG 3 , hippuran). Very strict correlations were found between values of EC- 99m Tc and OIH- 131 I clearances (r=0.91) and excretion rate constants (r=0.92) of both radiopharmaceuticals. The correlation enabled formulation of an equation by which ERPF could be established from EC- 99m Tc clearance: ERPF OIH =1.245 x Cl EC +51.52. On the basis of this equation a lower boundary of the normal EC- 99m Tc clearance was established; it amounts to 300 ml/min/1.73 m 2 . (author). 17 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  20. Evaluation of hyaluronic acid-combined ternary complexes for serum-resistant and targeted gene delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Woong-Gil; Jeong, Gyeong-Won; Nah, Jae-Woon

    2018-04-19

    Branched polyethylenimine (bPEI) was well known as high transfection agent, which has many amine group. However, utilization of bPEI was limited due to high toxicity. To solve these problems, bPEI was introduced to low molecular weight water-soluble chitosan (LMWSC) with coupling agent. In addition, hyaluronic acid (HA), one of natural anion polymer, was introduced to binary complex of pDNA/bPEI-grafted LMWSC (LMPEI) to target the specific cancer cell and impart the serum resistant. Ternary complexes of pDNA/LMPEI/HA were prepared by electrostatic charge interaction and their binding affinity and DNase protection assay were conducted by gel retardation assay. Particle size of ternary complexes showed that had each 482 ± 245.4 (pDNA/LMPEI2%/HA, 1:16:1, w/w/w) and 410 ± 78.5 nm (pDNA/LMPEI4%/HA, 1:16:2, w/w/w). Moreover, to demonstrate serum-resistant effect of ternary complexes, particle size of them was measured according to incubated time (0-10 h) under serum condition. Transfection assay of ternary complexes showed that their transfection efficiency in CD44-receptor overexpressed HCT116 cell was higher than CD44-receptor negative CT26 cell. Additionally, intracellular uptake of ternary complexes with propidium iodide (PI)-labeled pDNA was observed to confirm targeting effect and cellular internalization by fluorescence microscopy. These results suggest that ternary complexes are superb gene carrier with excellent serum-resistant and high gene transfection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Trapping and partial characterization of an adduct postulated to be the covalent catalytic ternary complex of thymidylate synthetase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, F.; Moore, M.A.; Dunlap, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    The proposed mechanism of action of thymidylate synthetase envisages the formation of a covalent ternary complex of the enzyme via the active site cysteine with dUMP and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate (CH 2 H 4 folate). The authors recent success in using trichloroacetic acid to trap the covalent enzyme-FdUMP binary and ternary (enzyme-FdUMP-CH 2 H 4 folate) complexes led to the use of this technique in attempts to trap the transient covalent catalytic ternary complex. Experiments performed with [2-C 14 ]dUMP and 3 H-CH 2 H 4 folate show that both these ligands remained bound to the enzyme after trichloroacetic acid precipitation. The trapped covalent catalytic ternary complex was subjected to CNBr fragmentation, and the peptides were fractionated by HPLC. The isolated active-site peptide was shown to retain the two ligands and was subjected to a limited sequence analysis by the dansyl-Edman procedure. The inhibitory ternary complex formed with 14 C-FdUMP and 3 H-CH 2 4 folate served as a control. The active-site peptides isolated from the CNBr treated inhibitory ternary complex and the catalytic complex exhibited identical sequences for the first four N-terminal residues, Ala-Leu-Pro-Pro, and the fifth residue was found to be associated with the labeled ligands. Sequence analysis of the active site peptide derived from the carboxymethylated enzyme confirmed this sequence and the 5th residue was shown to be Cm-Cys

  2. Trapping and partial characterization of an adduct postulated to be the covalent catalytic ternary complex of thymidylate synthetase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, F.; Moore, M.A.; Dunlap, R.B.

    1986-05-01

    The proposed mechanism of action of thymidylate synthetase envisages the formation of a covalent ternary complex of the enzyme via the active site cysteine with dUMP and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate (CH/sub 2/H/sub 4/folate). The authors recent success in using trichloroacetic acid to trap the covalent enzyme-FdUMP binary and ternary (enzyme-FdUMP-CH/sub 2/H/sub 4/folate) complexes led to the use of this technique in attempts to trap the transient covalent catalytic ternary complex. Experiments performed with (2-C/sup 14/)dUMP and /sup 3/H-CH/sub 2/H/sub 4/folate show that both these ligands remained bound to the enzyme after trichloroacetic acid precipitation. The trapped covalent catalytic ternary complex was subjected to CNBr fragmentation, and the peptides were fractionated by HPLC. The isolated active-site peptide was shown to retain the two ligands and was subjected to a limited sequence analysis by the dansyl-Edman procedure. The inhibitory ternary complex formed with /sup 14/C-FdUMP and /sup 3/H-CH/sub 2/ /sub 4/folate served as a control. The active-site peptides isolated from the CNBr treated inhibitory ternary complex and the catalytic complex exhibited identical sequences for the first four N-terminal residues, Ala-Leu-Pro-Pro, and the fifth residue was found to be associated with the labeled ligands. Sequence analysis of the active site peptide derived from the carboxymethylated enzyme confirmed this sequence and the 5th residue was shown to be Cm-Cys.

  3. Photoluminescent nano-sized ternary and quaternary complexes of thorium(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranwal, B.P.; Jain, A.K.; Varma, A.; Singh, A.K.; Fatma, T.

    2011-01-01

    Some ternary and quaternary complexes of thorium(IV) with the general formula [Th(OOCCH 3 ) 2-n (SB) n (OOCC 15 H 31 ) 2 ] (HSB=Schiff bases and n=1 or 2) have been synthesized by the stepwise substitutions of acetate ions from thorium(IV) acetate, first with straight chain carboxylic acid and then with Schiff bases. The complexes are characterized by elemental analyses, spectral (electronic, infrared, 1 H NMR, FAB mass, photoluminescence and powder XRD) and TEM studies. Conductance measurements indicated non-conducting behaviour of the complexes. Structural parameters from powder XRD data for complexes 5 and 6 which indicate poorly crystalline nano-sized triclinic particles. Electronic absorption spectra of the complexes showed π → π * and n → π * charge transfer transitions. All complexes displayed fluorescence and a correlation was sought between luminescence spectra of complexes in solution at room temperature. On the basis of physico-chemical studies, coordination number 8 was assigned for thorium(IV) in the complexes. The morphology and microstructure of the complexes were examined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the selected area electron diffraction (SAED). (orig.)

  4. Imaging of Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy with Bivalent (99m)Tc-Hydroxamamide Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iikuni, Shimpei; Ono, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Kenji; Yoshimura, Masashi; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Okamoto, Yoko; Ihara, Masafumi; Saji, Hideo

    2016-05-16

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), characterized by the deposition of amyloid aggregates in the walls of cerebral vasculature, is a major factor in intracerebral hemorrhage and vascular cognitive impairment and is also associated closely with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We previously reported (99m)Tc-hydroxamamide ((99m)Tc-Ham) complexes with a bivalent amyloid ligand showing high binding affinity for β-amyloid peptide (Aβ(1-42)) aggregates present frequently in the form in AD. In this article, we applied them to CAA-specific imaging probes, and evaluated their utility for CAA-specific imaging. In vitro inhibition assay using Aβ(1-40) aggregates deposited mainly in CAA and a brain uptake study were performed for (99m)Tc-Ham complexes, and all (99m)Tc-Ham complexes with an amyloid ligand showed binding affinity for Aβ(1-40) aggregates and very low brain uptake. In vitro autoradiography of human CAA brain sections and ex vivo autoradiography of Tg2576 mice were carried out for bivalent (99m)Tc-Ham complexes ([(99m)Tc]SB2A and [(99m)Tc]BT2B), and they displayed excellent labeling of Aβ depositions in human CAA brain sections and high affinity and selectivity to CAA in transgenic mice. These results may offer new possibilities for the development of clinically useful CAA-specific imaging probes based on the (99m)Tc-Ham complex.

  5. Preparation and chemical studies on Tc(III) complexes containing polyaminocarboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, R.; Kremer, C.; Chiozzone, R.; Torres, J.; Rivero, M.; Kremer, E.; Leon, A.

    1998-01-01

    Tc(III)-edta (edta = ethylenediaminetetraacetate), Tc(III)-dtpa (dtpa = diethylenetriaminepentaacetate) and Tc(III)-mebrofenin (mebrofenin = 3-bromo-2,4,6-trimethylacetanilideiminodiacetate) complexes were prepared by ligand substitution reactions on hexakis(thiourea)technetium(III) cation with the polycarboxylates. By a combination of different techniques (UV-Vis, IR and 1 H-NMR spectroscopy, Tc elemental analyses and cerimetric titrations) it was concluded that 1:1 complexes are formed with edta and dtpa while mebrofening adopts a 2:1 (ligand to metal) stoichiometry. Complementary, molecular mechanics calculations were performed to analyze the spatial arrangement of the molecules. The stability of the Tc(III) complexes was studied in aqueous solution by paper chromatography, paper electrophoresis and cyclic voltammetry. The chelates are rather stable, in particular when compared with the precursor. (orig.)

  6. Synthesis of several tetraaza macrocyclic amine ligands and the biodistribution of their Tc-complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketring, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    Several macrocyclic tetraaza ligands were synthesized and their /sup 99m/Tc-complexes prepared. The biological distribution of these complexes was examined to determine their possible utility as radiodiagnostic agents. The simplest of the macrocyclic tetraaza ligands studied, cyclam, forms a very stable cationic complex with Tc when pertechnetate is reduced with stannous ion in an aqueous solution of the ligand. When injected intravenously into mice Tc-cyclam was excreted predominantly by the urinary system. Derivatives of cyclam which were synthesized contained aromatic or aliphatic substituents and formed more lipophilic complexes with Tc. The complexes were formed in high yield as determined by paper chromatography, thin layer chromatography, electrophoresis and/or high performance liquid chromatography. Relative lipophilicities were determined for the complexes by octanol-to-water extractions. Animal studies using mice indicated there was an inverse relationship between the octanol-to-water extraction ratio and urinary excretion. Two of the complexes having relatively high octanol-to-water extraction ratios were significantly excreted by the hepatobiliary system with localization in the gall bladder. The complex having the highest octanol-to-water ratio was not excreted significantly by the hepatobiliary system, but cleared very slowly from the blood and localized in the liver, lungs, spleen and to some extent the heart. Derivatization of cyclam can be performed without greatly reducing its ability to complex Tc but greatly influencing the biological distribution of its Tc complex. This indicates that there is a potential for preparing radiodiagnostic agents using macrocyclic tetraaza ligands

  7. Technetium(I) complexes Tc(CO)3BrL2 (L = phosphine, pyridine, isocyanide)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, B.; Findeisen, M.; Olk, B.; Schmidt, K.

    1988-01-01

    Technetium pentacarbonyl bromide reacts with π-acceptor ligands L (L = phosphine, pyridine, isocyanide) to form disubstituted compounds of the type Tc(CO) 3 BrL 2 . The stereochemistry of the complexes was established by infrared and 1 H-NMR measurement. Chemical shifts and the half-widths of the 99 Tc-NMR signals are discussed. (author)

  8. Affinity for a malignant tumor and organs of sup(99m)Tc-citrate complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, A; Sanada, S; Hiraki, T [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Paramedicine; Hisada, K; Nakazawa, N

    1976-12-01

    In order to investigate the tumor affinity of sup(99m)Tc-citrate complex, it was synthesized in three different ways. By (1) reducing sup(99m)TcO/sub 4//sup -/ with FeCl/sub 3//sup -/ ascorbic acid in 0.15 M sodium citrate, (2) reducing sup(99m)TcO/sub 4//sup -/ with SnCl/sub 2/ solution in 0.15 M sodium citrate, and (3) reducing sup(99m)TcO/sub 4//sup -/ with NaBH/sub 4/ in 0.45 sodium citrate. It was presumed from thinlayer chromatography that the sup(99m)Tc-citrate complexes synthesized in three ways were chemically different. These sup(99m)Tc-citrate complexes were injected intravenously into the rats subcutaneously transplanted with Yoshida sarcoma. These rats were sacrificed at one hour and three hours after injection. The radioactivity of the tumor, blood, muscle, liver, kidney, spleen and urine was measured by well-type scintillation counter. The retention values in these organs and the excretion rates in the urine were calculated. sup(99m)Tc-citrate complex synthesized by reducing sup(99m)TcO/sub 4//sup -/ with SnCl/sub 2/ solution had very strong affinity for the malignant tumor but the other two sup(99m)Tc-citrate complexes had no affinity to the malignant tumor. Excretion rates (% dose) of sup(99m)Tc-citrate complexes in one hour were from 65% to 75%.

  9. Polarographic and potentiometric studies on some binary and ternary complex systems of dioxouranium(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janarthanam, M.; Sivasankar, B.; Rengaraj, K.; Nair, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    The relative coordinating abilities of donor sites in the potentially tridentate ligands viz., asparagine, glutamine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid towards uranyl ion have been investigated by polarographic and pH-metric techniques. The metal ion forms 1:2 complexes under polarographic conditions. However, only 1:1 complex is observed under pH-metric conditions, where 1:2 complexes do not proceed due to extensive hydrolysis of the metal ion. The relative variations of ΔE 1/2 with pH and ligand concentration supported by conductometric titration data indicate that the primary amino groups in the amino acids are not involved in coordination with uranyl ion. Further, the amide groups in asparagine and glutamine also do not participate in coordination thus rendering these ligands unidentate. In aspartic and glutamic acid complexes, seven- and eight- membered chelate rings are formed involving two terminal carboxyl groups. The mixed ligand complex equilibria of uranyl ion involving aspartic acid/glutamic acid as primary ligands (A) and maleic acid, malonic acid, succinic acid and lactic acid as secondary ligands (B) have also been studied by computer based numerical evaluation of pH titration data. The concentration profiles have indicated the favorability of the formation of ternary complexes in general as reflected in the Δlog K values. (author). 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. Synthesis and properties of dioxo Tc(V) cationic complexes with nitrogen containing ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambino, D.; Kremer, C.; Savio, E.; Leon, A.; Kremer, E.

    1990-01-01

    A series of Tc(V) cationic complexes was synthesized by electrochemical reduction of TcO 4 - . The electrolysis was performed in aqueous media containing amines as ligands: ethylenediamine (en), diethylenetriamine (dien), triethylenetetramine (trien) and 1,3-diaminopropane (1,3-dap). The combination of different techniques allows to propose the general formula [TcO 2 (amine) 2 ] + for these compounds. Electrodeposition of TcO 2 was a competitive reaction. The UV spectra were compared with those for other Tc(V) amine complexes. The presence of two peaks could be verified. Preliminary studies showed that kinetic stability decreased in the sequence en, 1,3-dap, trien, dien. The decomposition rate increased when the pH was lowered. (author) 16 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  11. Preparation and bioevaluation of 99mTc-carbonyl complex of guanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigdem Ichedef; Serap Teksoez; Kamile Senocak; Eser Ucar; Ayfer Yurt Kilcar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare radiolabeled guanine with 99m Tc(CO) 3 + core. For this purpose, guanine has been radiolabeled with 99m Tc(CO) 3 + core. Quality control study of radiolabeled guanine molecule with 99m Tc(CO) 3 + core was performed by thin layer radio chromatography (TLRC) and high performance liquid radio chromatography (HPLRC). The results showed that the radiolabeling yield was quite high (94 ± 3%). Beside that 99m Tc(CO) 3 -Gua complex has showed good in vitro stability during the 24 h period. Radiopharmaceutical potential of this complex was evaluated in Wistar Albino Rats. It was concluded that 99m Tc(CO) 3 -Gua could be used as a nucleotide radiopharmaceutical for in vivo applications. (author)

  12. The role of Glu259 in Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu in ternary complex formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nautrup Pedersen, Gitte; Rattenborg, Thomas; Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde

    1998-01-01

    Determination of the crystal structure of the ternary complex formed between elongation factor Tu:GTP and aminoacylated tRNA revealed three regions of interaction between elongation factor Tu and tRNA. The structure indicates that the conserved glutamic acid at position 271 in Thermus aquaticus EF-Tu...... could be involved in the binding of the 3' CCA-Phe end of the aminoacylated tRNA. Therefore, the corresponding residue, Glu259, of Escherichia coli EF-Tu was mutated into alanine, aspartic acid, glutamine and tyrosine, in order to substantiate the crystallographic structural evidence and to obtain...... of interaction with tRNA, while mutation to tyrosine abolished completely the interaction with tRNA. Finally, mutation to glutamine resulted in an elongation factor Tu variant behaving like the wild type. In conclusion, the environment around the site binding the CCA-Phe end of the tRNA is very restricted...

  13. Lys and Arg in UBI: A specific site for a stable Tc-99m complex?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melendez-Alafort, Laura; Ramirez, Flor de Maria; Ferro-Flores, Guillermina; Murphy, Consuelo Arteaga de; Pedraza-Lopez, Martha; Hnatowich, Donald J.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to help establish if ubiquicidin peptide 29-41 fragment (UBI) contains a specific site for 99m Tc labeling by a new direct method under alkaline conditions. Since this peptide does not have cysteine residues, it is possible that neighboring arginine and lysine in the peptide amino acid sequence (Thr-Gly-Arg-Ala-Lys-Arg-Arg-Met-Gln-Tyr-Asn-Arg-Arg) could be a specific coordination site to form a stable 99m Tc-UBI complex. Following direct labeling, the in vitro stability of 99m Tc-UBI was compared to UBI radiolabeled by one indirect method using HYNIC/tricine and HYNIC/tricine/EDDA. Radiochemical purity of 99m Tc-UBI averaged 97% compared to 88% for 99m Tc-HYNIC-UBI/tricine and 98% for 99m Tc-HYNIC-UBI/tricine/EDDA. Both 99m Tc-HYNIC-UBI (tricine or EDDA) and 99m Tc-UBI showed stability in human serum and solutions of cysteine. 99m Tc-UBI radiochemical purity 24 h after dilution in 0.9% NaCl was greater than 90% at pH 9 and greater than 95% at pH 6.5. Under one set of experimental conditions, in vitro binding to bacteria of 99m Tc-UBI was 35% and identical to that of 99m Tc-HYNIC-UBI/tricine and 99m Tc-HYNIC-UBI/tricine/EDDA at 32% and 31% respectively. The biodistribution of 99m Tc-UBI in mice showed a rapid renal clearance. To help identify the site(s) of 99m Tc binding following direct labeling, molecular mechanics and quantum-mechanical calculations were performed which showed that the amine groups of Arg 7 and Lys are the most probable site. The calculations show that these groups can form a square pyramid with two water molecules for the Tc cation (dxysp 3 ). It will be necessary to isolate and characterize the 99 Tc(V)(O)-UBI . (H 2 O) n complex to confirm these results

  14. Model of a ternary complex between activated factor VII, tissue factor and factor IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-wen W; Pellequer, Jean-Luc; Schved, Jean-François; Giansily-Blaizot, Muriel

    2002-07-01

    Upon binding to tissue factor, FVIIa triggers coagulation by activating vitamin K-dependent zymogens, factor IX (FIX) and factor X (FX). To understand recognition mechanisms in the initiation step of the coagulation cascade, we present a three-dimensional model of the ternary complex between FVIIa:TF:FIX. This model was built using a full-space search algorithm in combination with computational graphics. With the known crystallographic complex FVIIa:TF kept fixed, the FIX docking was performed first with FIX Gla-EGF1 domains, followed by the FIX protease/EGF2 domains. Because the FIXa crystal structure lacks electron density for the Gla domain, we constructed a chimeric FIX molecule that contains the Gla-EGF1 domains of FVIIa and the EGF2-protease domains of FIXa. The FVIIa:TF:FIX complex has been extensively challenged against experimental data including site-directed mutagenesis, inhibitory peptide data, haemophilia B database mutations, inhibitor antibodies and a novel exosite binding inhibitor peptide. This FVIIa:TF:FIX complex provides a powerful tool to study the regulation of FVIIa production and presents new avenues for developing therapeutic inhibitory compounds of FVIIa:TF:substrate complex.

  15. Highly photoluminescent europium tetraphenylimidodiphosphinate ternary complexes with heteroaromatic co-ligands. Solution and solid state studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietraszkiewicz, Marek, E-mail: mpietraszkiewicz@ichf.edu.pl [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Pietraszkiewicz, Oksana; Karpiuk, Jerzy; Majka, Alina [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Dutkiewicz, Grzegorz; Borowiak, Teresa [Adam Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Crystallography, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznań (Poland); Kaczmarek, Anna M. [L3–Luminescent Lanthanide Lab, f-element coordination chemistry, Ghent University, Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Krijgslaan 281, Building S3, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Van Deun, Rik, E-mail: rik.vandeun@ugent.be [L3–Luminescent Lanthanide Lab, f-element coordination chemistry, Ghent University, Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Krijgslaan 281, Building S3, 9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2016-02-15

    Tetraphenylimidodiphosphinate (tpip) forms neutral 3:1 complexes with lanthanide ions. These complexes can accommodate one ancillary planar heterocyclic ligand to complement their coordination sphere of Eu{sup 3+} to coordination number 8. Several co-ligands were tested to form new complexes: 1,10-phenanthroline, bathophenanthroline, 2,4,6-tris(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine, dipyrido[3,2-f:2′,3′-h]quinoxaline and 2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine. The addition of heterocyclic N,N-bidentate co-ligands to the coordination sphere results in a dramatic (by a factor of 45–50) luminescence enhancement of the parent Eu(tpip){sub 3}. The solid-state measurements confirmed that the ancillary ligands strongly increased the photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of the investigated complexes. - Highlights: • We have disovered highly photoluminescent ternary Eu(III) complexes. • They consist of Eu(III) tetraphenylimidodiphosphinate, and planar heterocyclic ligands. • The increase in photoluminescence quantum yields in solution is enhanced up to 50 times in solution. • The solid-state photoluminescence exceeds 80% at room temperature.

  16. Highly photoluminescent europium tetraphenylimidodiphosphinate ternary complexes with heteroaromatic co-ligands. Solution and solid state studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietraszkiewicz, Marek; Pietraszkiewicz, Oksana; Karpiuk, Jerzy; Majka, Alina; Dutkiewicz, Grzegorz; Borowiak, Teresa; Kaczmarek, Anna M.; Van Deun, Rik

    2016-01-01

    Tetraphenylimidodiphosphinate (tpip) forms neutral 3:1 complexes with lanthanide ions. These complexes can accommodate one ancillary planar heterocyclic ligand to complement their coordination sphere of Eu 3+ to coordination number 8. Several co-ligands were tested to form new complexes: 1,10-phenanthroline, bathophenanthroline, 2,4,6-tris(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine, dipyrido[3,2-f:2′,3′-h]quinoxaline and 2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine. The addition of heterocyclic N,N-bidentate co-ligands to the coordination sphere results in a dramatic (by a factor of 45–50) luminescence enhancement of the parent Eu(tpip) 3 . The solid-state measurements confirmed that the ancillary ligands strongly increased the photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of the investigated complexes. - Highlights: • We have disovered highly photoluminescent ternary Eu(III) complexes. • They consist of Eu(III) tetraphenylimidodiphosphinate, and planar heterocyclic ligands. • The increase in photoluminescence quantum yields in solution is enhanced up to 50 times in solution. • The solid-state photoluminescence exceeds 80% at room temperature.

  17. Photoluminescent behaviors of several kinds of europium ternary complexes doped in PMMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.-G.; Lee, Yong-Ill; Park, Seongtae; Jang, Kiwan; Kim, Sang Su

    2004-01-01

    Four kinds of europium ternary complexes; Eu(DBM) 3 phen, Eu(DBM) 3 (DB-bpy), Eu(DBM) 3 (DN-bpy) and Eu(DBM) 3 biq (DBM, phen, DB-bpy, DN-bpy and biq refer to Dibenzoylmethane, 1,10-phenanthroline, 4,4'-Di-tert-butyl-2,2'-dipyridyl, 4,4'-Dinonyl-2,2'-dipyridyl and 2,2'-Biquinoline, respectively), were doped in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix. The luminescence properties of the composites were investigated by emission spectroscopy and lifetime measurements. It was found that the composites formed by the three complexes, Eu(DBM) 3 phen, Eu(DBM) 3 (DB-bpy), and Eu(DBM) 3 (DN-bpy), exhibit strong luminescence and similar emission spectral characteristics to Eu(III). Whereas, Eu(DBM) 3 biq shows large differences in its luminescence spectrum compared to those of other complexes. The luminescence was very weak and broad. The emission spectral features of Eu(III) in the Eu(DBM) 3 biq/PMMA systems change with the molar ratios of the complex and PMMA. The lifetime of 5 D 0 level of Eu(III) in Eu(DBM) 3 biq/PMMA systems is shorter than those in the other systems. The luminescence intensity of Eu(III) in Eu(DBM) 3 biq/PMMA systems decreases gradually when exposed to UV-light while the broad emission band becomes stronger

  18. New insight into the ternary complexes of uranyl carbonate in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccia, M R; Matara-Aho, M; Reeves, B; Roques, J; Solari, P L; Monfort, M; Moulin, C; Den Auwer, C

    2017-11-01

    Uranium is naturally present in seawater at trace levels and may in some cases be present at higher concentrations, due to anthropogenic nuclear activities. Understanding uranium speciation in seawater is thus essential for predicting and controlling its behavior in this specific environmental compartment and consequently, its possible impact on living organisms. The carbonato calcic complex Ca 2 UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 was previously identified as the main uranium species in natural seawater, together with CaUO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 2- . In this work, we further investigate the role of the alkaline earth cation in the structure of the ternary uranyl-carbonate complexes. For this purpose, artificial seawater, free of Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ , using Sr 2+ as a spectroscopic probe was prepared. Combining TRLIF and EXAFS spectroscopy, together with DFT and theoretical thermodynamic calculations, evidence for the presence of Sr alkaline earth counter ion in the complex structure can be asserted. Furthermore, data suggest that when Ca 2+ is replaced by Sr 2+ , SrUO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 2- is the main complex in solution and it occurs with the presence of at least one monodentate carbonate in the uranyl coordination sphere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Insight into the structures and stabilities of Tc and Re DMSA complexes: A computational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco González, Alejandro; Hernández Valdés, Daniel; García Fleitas, Ariel; Rodríguez Riera, Zalua; Jáuregui Haza, Ulises

    2016-01-01

    Meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is used in nuclear medicine as ligand for preparation of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic and therapy. DMSA has been the subject of numerous investigations during the past three decades and new and significant information of the chemistry and pharmacology of DMSA complexes have emerged. In comparison to other ligands, the structure of some DMSA complexes is unclear up today. The structures and applications of DMSA complexes are strictly dependent on the chemical conditions of their preparation, especially pH and the ratio of components. A computational study of M-DMSA (M = Tc, Re) complexes has been performed using density functional theory. Different isomers for M(V) and M(III) complexes were study. The pH influence over ligand structures was taken into account and the solvent effect was evaluated using an implicit solvation model. The fully optimized complex syn-endo Re(V)-DMSA shows a geometry similar to the X-ray data and was used to validate the methodology. Moreover, new alternative structures for the renal agent 99mTc(III)-DMSA were proposed and computationally studied. For two complex structures, a larger stability respect to that proposed in the literature was obtained. Furthermore, Tc(V)-DMSA complexes are more stable than the Tc(III)-DMSA proposed structures. In general, Re complexes are more stables than the corresponding Tc ones. (author)

  20. Role of Ca2+ in the binding mechanism of EHDP-Tc complex to bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langevelde, A. van; Huisman, C.M.; Driessen, O.M.J.; Pauwels, E.K.J.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments are described testing the hypothesis that 99m-Tc-EHDP complex travels to bone as a unit and dissociates at the bone binding site because of the high affinity of EHDP for hydroxyapatite after which technetium binds separately. The results indicate that technetium is not dissociated from EHDP in binding to hydroxyapatite, but the EHDP-Tc-ligand stays intact. It is postulated that calcium plays an important role in bone-labelling with EHDP-Tc complex and that in fact the EHDP-Ca-Tc complex is the binding agent. Only by assuming the presence of this agent could the action of magnesium-ions or of excess calcium-ions be explained. (Auth./C.F.)

  1. Characterization of the ternary Usher syndrome SANS/ush2a/whirlin protein complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorusch, Nasrin; Bauß, Katharina; Plutniok, Janet; Samanta, Ananya; Knapp, Barbara; Nagel-Wolfrum, Kerstin; Wolfrum, Uwe

    2017-03-15

    The Usher syndrome (USH) is the most common form of inherited deaf-blindness, accompanied by vestibular dysfunction. Due to the heterogeneous manifestation of the clinical symptoms, three USH types (USH1-3) and additional atypical forms are distinguished. USH1 and USH2 proteins have been shown to function together in multiprotein networks in photoreceptor cells and hair cells. Mutations in USH proteins are considered to disrupt distinct USH protein networks and finally lead to the development of USH.To get novel insights into the molecular pathomechanisms underlying USH, we further characterize the periciliary USH protein network in photoreceptor cells. We show the direct interaction between the scaffold protein SANS (USH1G) and the transmembrane adhesion protein ush2a and that both assemble into a ternary USH1/USH2 complex together with the PDZ-domain protein whirlin (USH2D) via mutual interactions. Immunohistochemistry and proximity ligation assays demonstrate co-localization of complex partners and complex formation, respectively, in the periciliary region, the inner segment and at the synapses of rodent and human photoreceptor cells. Protein-protein interaction assays and co-expression of complex partners reveal that pathogenic mutations in USH1G severely affect formation of the SANS/ush2a/whirlin complex. Translational read-through drug treatment, targeting the c.728C > A (p.S243X) nonsense mutation, restored SANS scaffold function. We conclude that USH1 and USH2 proteins function together in higher order protein complexes. The maintenance of USH1/USH2 protein complexes depends on multiple USH1/USH2 protein interactions, which are disrupted by pathogenic mutations in USH1G protein SANS. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Elongation factor Ts directly facilitates the formation and disassembly of the Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu·GTP·aminoacyl-tRNA ternary complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Benjamin J; Altman, Roger B; Ferrao, Ryan; Alejo, Jose L; Kaur, Navdep; Kanji, Joshua; Blanchard, Scott C

    2013-05-10

    Aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) enters the ribosome in a ternary complex with the G-protein elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and GTP. EF-Tu·GTP·aa-tRNA ternary complex formation and decay rates are accelerated in the presence of the nucleotide exchange factor elongation factor Ts (EF-Ts). EF-Ts directly facilitates the formation and disassociation of ternary complex. This system demonstrates a novel function of EF-Ts. Aminoacyl-tRNA enters the translating ribosome in a ternary complex with elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and GTP. Here, we describe bulk steady state and pre-steady state fluorescence methods that enabled us to quantitatively explore the kinetic features of Escherichia coli ternary complex formation and decay. The data obtained suggest that both processes are controlled by a nucleotide-dependent, rate-determining conformational change in EF-Tu. Unexpectedly, we found that this conformational change is accelerated by elongation factor Ts (EF-Ts), the guanosine nucleotide exchange factor for EF-Tu. Notably, EF-Ts attenuates the affinity of EF-Tu for GTP and destabilizes ternary complex in the presence of non-hydrolyzable GTP analogs. These results suggest that EF-Ts serves an unanticipated role in the cell of actively regulating the abundance and stability of ternary complex in a manner that contributes to rapid and faithful protein synthesis.

  3. New bisaminoethanethiol (BAT) ligands which form two interconvertible Tc-99m complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oya, Shunichi; Kung, Mei-Ping; Frederick, Dana; Kung, Hank F

    1995-08-01

    Most commonly used radiopharmaceuticals in diagnostic nuclear medicine are labeled with Tc-99m. This is due to its superior physical characteristics (T{sub (1(2))} = 6 h and gamma energy 140 KeV) and convenient availability from the {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99mm}Tc generator. In an attempt to fine tune the properties of Tc-99m complexes, the synthesis and radiolabeling of two novel N{sub 2}S{sub 2} ligands, N,-2-mercaptobenzyl-N'-(1-oxo-2-mercapto-2-methyl)propyl ethylenediamine,8, and N,-2-methylthiobenzyl-N'-(1-oxo-2-mercapto-2-methyl)propyl ethylenediamine, 11, with an ionizable SH or unionizable SMe group, respectively, for the formation of complexes with Tc{sup v}O center cores, have been examined. Both ligands initially formed one apparently stable, lipophilic and neutral complex (HPLC, Rt = 7 min, reverse-phase column, acetonitrile: buffer, pH 7.0; (55(45)); V/V; partition coefficient between 1-octanol and buffer of 410 and 335, respectively) with [{sup 99m}Tc]pertechnetate in the presence of stannous chloride. After treatment with a reducing agent, NaCNBH{sub 3}, the initial [{sup 99m}Tc]8 and 11 complexes were reduced; the reduced complexes were less lipophilic (shorter retention time, Rt = 5 min, on the same reversed phase HPLC). However, only the oxidized form showed sufficient stability. The reduced forms of both [{sup 99m}Tc]8 and 11 were readily and completely converted back to the oxidized forms by a stream of air. Biodistribution studies in rats demonstrated that the [{sup 99m}Tc]8 (oxidized form) penetrated the blood-brain barrier (0.67% dose/organ at 2 min postinjection), but washed out from the brain quickly (0.29% dose/organ at 30 min postinjection). On the contrary, [{sup 99m}Tc]11 (oxidized form) did not show any brain uptake (0.03% dose/organ at 2 min postinjection), despite its higher lipophilicity. The disparity between these two Tc-99m complexes may be related to the relative instability of [{sup 99m}Tc]11 (oxidized form) by the introduction of the

  4. New bisaminoethanethiol (BAT) ligands which form two interconvertible Tc-99m complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, Shunichi; Kung, Mei-Ping; Frederick, Dana; Kung, Hank F.

    1995-01-01

    Most commonly used radiopharmaceuticals in diagnostic nuclear medicine are labeled with Tc-99m. This is due to its superior physical characteristics (T (1(2)) = 6 h and gamma energy 140 KeV) and convenient availability from the 99 Mo/ 99mm Tc generator. In an attempt to fine tune the properties of Tc-99m complexes, the synthesis and radiolabeling of two novel N 2 S 2 ligands, N,-2-mercaptobenzyl-N'-(1-oxo-2-mercapto-2-methyl)propyl ethylenediamine,8, and N,-2-methylthiobenzyl-N'-(1-oxo-2-mercapto-2-methyl)propyl ethylenediamine, 11, with an ionizable SH or unionizable SMe group, respectively, for the formation of complexes with Tc v O center cores, have been examined. Both ligands initially formed one apparently stable, lipophilic and neutral complex (HPLC, Rt = 7 min, reverse-phase column, acetonitrile: buffer, pH 7.0; (55(45)); V/V; partition coefficient between 1-octanol and buffer of 410 and 335, respectively) with [ 99m Tc]pertechnetate in the presence of stannous chloride. After treatment with a reducing agent, NaCNBH 3 , the initial [ 99m Tc]8 and 11 complexes were reduced; the reduced complexes were less lipophilic (shorter retention time, Rt = 5 min, on the same reversed phase HPLC). However, only the oxidized form showed sufficient stability. The reduced forms of both [ 99m Tc]8 and 11 were readily and completely converted back to the oxidized forms by a stream of air. Biodistribution studies in rats demonstrated that the [ 99m Tc]8 (oxidized form) penetrated the blood-brain barrier (0.67% dose/organ at 2 min postinjection), but washed out from the brain quickly (0.29% dose/organ at 30 min postinjection). On the contrary, [ 99m Tc]11 (oxidized form) did not show any brain uptake (0.03% dose/organ at 2 min postinjection), despite its higher lipophilicity. The disparity between these two Tc-99m complexes may be related to the relative instability of [ 99m Tc]11 (oxidized form) by the introduction of the unionizable methylated thiol group as one of the donor

  5. 99mTc complexes of 1,3-propanedithiol derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alagui, A.; Apparu, M.; Vidal, M.; Mathieu, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The labelling of 1,3-n alkylpropanedithiols and of 15-(1,3-dimercapto 2-propyl)pentadecanoic acid by 99m Tc was performed by an exchange reaction with the hexachlorotechnetate ion 99m TcCl 6 2- and by reduction of 99m TcO 4 - with Sn(II) in the presence of the ligand. The biological distribution of the exotechnetium complexes obtained by the latter method in mouse does not reveal a high tropism of these labelling compounds in relation to a particular tissue. (author) 14 refs.; 2 tabs

  6. Study of technetium behaviour in radiopharmaceuticals. Characterization of sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate, sup(99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinate, sup(99m)Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate complexes and sup(99m)Tc-colloidal rhenium sulphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saccavini, J.-C.

    1980-12-01

    The chemistry of technetium in extremely dilute solution was approached through the study of three complexing agents and a colloid. By the application of high-performance chromatographic techniques to the analysis of (Tc-pyro), (Tc-DTPA), (Tc-DMSA) complexes it was possible to isolate one or more chelates from a single complexing agent. Addition of pertechnetates to a solution of sodium pyrophosphates and stannous chloride at neutral pH leads to the formation of two complexes, both highly osteotropic. By the use of sup(117m)Sn it was shown that tin employed as reducing agent enters into the composition of one of the two complexes, either of which may be obtained preferentially by varying the (Sn)/(pyro) ratio. With technetium at acid pH (2.5) DMSA gives one or more chelates according to the concentration of the reagents present. DTPA with technetium at neutral pH gives a single complex for which a structure is proposed. The addition of calcium, indispensable for DTPA injection, leads to the appearance of a second bimetallic complex in very much smaller proportions than the first. The size distribution of some colloids was studied by ultrafiltration and permeation on gel. The preparation of colloidal rhenium sulphide and the technetium labelling conditions needed to obtain a very fine colloid were developed. The behaviour of technetium in the presence of colloidal rhenium sulphide and tin pyrophosphate was followed by sup(99m)Tc - sup(186)Re and sup(99m)Tc - sup(117m)Sn double-labelling tests. One reduced technetium fraction associates with the hydrolysed tin, the other follows the rhenium sulphide [fr

  7. Stopped Flow Kinetics of MnII Catalysed Periodate Oxidation of 2, 3- dimethylaniline - Evaluation of Stability Constant of the Ternary Intermediate Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh Dutt Kaushik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The formation of ternary intermediate unstable complex during the oxidation of aromatic amines by periodate ion catalysed by MnII has been proposed in case of some anilines. This paper is the first report on stopped-flow kinetic study and evaluation of stability constant of ternary complex forming in the MnII - catalysed periodate oxidation of 2, 3-dimethylaniline (D in acetone-water medium. Stop-flow spectrophotometric method was used to study the ternary complex formation and to determine its stability constant. The stop-flow trace shows the reaction to occur in two steps. The first step, which is presumably the formation of ternary complex, is relatively fast while the second stage is relatively quite slow. The stability constant evaluated for D - MnII - IO4- ternary complex by determining  equilibrium absorbance is (2.2 ± 1.0 × 105. Kinetics of ternary complex formation was defined by the rate law(A  under pseudo first order conditions. ln{[C2]eq / ( [C2]eq -[C2]} = kobs . t (A where, kobs is the pseudo first order rate constant, [C2] is concentration of ternary complex at given time t, and [C2]eq is the equilibrium concentration of ternary complex. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 3rd October 2014; Revised: 4th December 2014; Accepted: 15th December 2014How to Cite: Kaushik, R.D., Agarwal, R., Tyagi, P., Singh, O., Singh, J. (2015. Stopped Flow Kinetics of MnII Catalysed Periodate Oxidation of 2,3-dimethylaniline - Evaluation of Stability Constant of the Ternary Intermediate Complex. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (1: 78-87. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.1.7621.78-87Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.1.7621.78-87

  8. Determination for Enterobacter cloacae based on a europium ternary complex labeled DNA probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hui; Niu, Cheng-Gang; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Ruan, Min; Qin, Pin-Zhu; Liu, Jing

    2011-11-01

    The fast detection and accurate diagnosis of the prevalent pathogenic bacteria is very important for the treatment of disease. Nowadays, fluorescence techniques are important tools for diagnosis. A two-probe tandem DNA hybridization assay was designed for the detection of Enterobacter cloacae based on time-resolved fluorescence. In this work, the authors synthesized a novel europium ternary complex Eu(TTA) 3(5-NH 2-phen) with intense luminescence, high fluorescence quantum yield and long lifetime before. We developed a method based on this europium complex for the specific detection of original extracted DNA from E. cloacae. In the hybridization assay format, the reporter probe was labeled with Eu(TTA) 3(5-NH 2-phen) on the 5'-terminus, and the capture probe capture probe was covalent immobilized on the surface of the glutaraldehyde treated glass slides. The original extracted DNA of samples was directly used without any DNA purification and amplification. The detection was conducted by monitoring the fluorescence intensity from the glass surface after DNA hybridization. The detection limit of the DNA was 5 × 10 -10 mol L -1. The results of the present work proved that this new approach was easy to operate with high sensitivity and specificity. It could be conducted as a powerful tool for the detection of pathogen microorganisms in the environment.

  9. Spectroscopic identification of binary and ternary surface complexes of Np(V) on gibbsite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gückel, Katharina; Rossberg, André; Müller, Katharina; Brendler, Vinzenz; Bernhard, Gert; Foerstendorf, Harald

    2013-12-17

    For the first time, detailed molecular information on the Np(V) sorption species on amorphous Al(OH)3 and crystalline gibbsite was obtained by in situ time-resolved Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier-Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The results consistently demonstrate the formation of mononuclear inner sphere complexes of the NpO2(+) ion irrespective of the prevailing atmospheric condition. The impact of the presence of atmospheric equivalent added carbonate on the speciation in solution and on the surfaces becomes evident from vibrational data. While the 1:1 aqueous carbonato species (NpO2CO3(-)) was found to become predominant in the circumneutral pH range, it is most likely that this species is sorbed onto the gibbsite surface as a ternary inner sphere surface complex where the NpO2(+) moiety is directly coordinated to the functional groups of the gibbsite's surface. These findings are corroborated by results obtained from EXAFS spectroscopy providing further evidence for a bidentate coordination of the Np(V) ion on amorphous Al(OH)3. The identification of the Np(V) surface species on gibbsite constitutes a basic finding for a comprehensive description of the dissemination of neptunium in groundwater systems.

  10. Studies on Ternary Complex Formation of U(VI)-salicylate by Using Time-resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Wan Sik; Cho, H. R.; Park, K. K.; Kim, W. H.; Jung, E. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Organic ligands containing carboxylic and phenolic functional groups naturally occur in groundwater environment, particularly in forms of polyelectrolytes such as humic and fulvic acids, from microbial degradation of biomass, e.g., plant and animal tissues. These ligands play important roles in dissolution and migration of actinide radionuclide species since they can form stable ternary actinide complexes with common inorganic ions like hydroxides and carbonates. Therefore, model ternary complexes of lanthanides and actinides have been targets of studies to understand their chemical behaviors under near-neutral pH groundwater conditions. Previous model carboxylic ligands include phthalates, maleic acids, or alpha- substituted carboxylic acids. However, majority of previous studies investigated binary systems or used potentiometric titration method that requires high ligand concentration in mM levels. Recently, highly sensitive time-resolved laserinduced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) has been used to investigate lower concentration (e.g., a few {mu}M levels) reactions of binary complexes between of ligands and metal ions. This technique provides information regarding electronic structures and complexation constants as well as fluorescence quenching mechanism. In the present study, we studied the U(VI)-OH-salicylate (SA) ternary complex formation at higher pH (> 4) via TRLF spectrum and UV-Vis absorbance measurement. Preliminary studies show that the fluorescence (FL) intensity of hydroxouranyl species at pH 4.5 decreases as SA concentration elevates in aqueous solution. Fluorescence quenching mechanism by SA is suggested based on FL intensity (I) and lifetime (tau) measurement via TRLFS

  11. Sup(99m)Tc-Sn-pyrophosphate complex. A stable, lyophilized radiopharmaceutical for skeletal scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvoric, J; Jovanovic, V; Bzenic, J [Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Stefanovic, Lj; Selir, Z [Institute for Tuberculosis and Pectoral Diseases, Radioisotope Applications, Sremska Kamenica (Yugoslavia)

    1978-01-01

    After a systematic investigation of the different phosphate polymers, viz. hexametaphosphate, tripolyphosphate, meta- and diphosphonate, pyrophosphate (Na/sub 4/P/sub 2/O/sub 7/) was selected for sceletal scintigraphy. A procedure has been developed for obtaining a sup(99m)Tc-labelled Sn(II): PyP complex by addition of a sterile, apyrogenic pertechnetate solution from a sup(99m)Tc-generator to a lyophilized solution of Sn(II)-tetrasodium phosphate. ''Kit'' composition was determined on the basis of biodynamic data obtained when the Sn/pyrophosphate ratio, pH and other parameters were varied. In vivo distribution of different sup(99m)Tc-Sn-pyrophosphate complexes permitted the selection of the most suitable complex for sceletal scanning. The investigated complex is being successfully applied in human scintigraphy of bones in the Laboratory for Radioisotope Applications of the Institute for Tubercolosis and Pectoral Diseases in Sremska Kamenica.

  12. Study on effect of L-arginine on solubility and dissolution of Zaltoprofen: Preparation and characterization of binary and ternary cyclodextrin inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherje, Atul P.; Patel, Forum; Murahari, Manikanta; Suvarna, Vasanti; Patel, Kavitkumar

    2018-02-01

    The present study demonstrated the binary and ternary complexes of Zaltoprofen (ZPF) with β-CD and HP-β-CD. The products were characterized using solubility, in vitro dissolution, and DSC studies. The mode of interaction of guest and host was revealed through 1H NMR and FT-IR studies. A significant increase was noticed in the stability constant (Kc) and complexation efficiency (CE) of β-CD and HP-β-CD due to addition of L-Arg in ternary complexes. The ternary complexes showed greater increase in solubility and dissolution of ZPF than binary complexes. Thus, ternary system of ZPF could be an innovative approach for its solubility and dissolution enhancement.

  13. Comparative analysis of the ternary complex factors Elk-1, SAP-1a and SAP-2 (ERP/NET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, M A; Rogers, A E; Treisman, R

    1995-06-01

    A transcription factor ternary complex composed of Serum Response Factor (SRF) and Ternary Complex Factor (TCF) mediates the response of the c-fos Serum Response Element (SRE) to growth factors and mitogens. Three Ets domain proteins, Elk-1, SAP-1 and ERP/NET, have been reported to have the properties of TCF. Here we compare Elk-1 and SAP-1a with the human ERP/NET homologue SAP-2. All three TCF RNAs are ubiquitously expressed at similar relative levels. All three proteins contain conserved regions that interact with SRF and the c-fos SRE with comparable efficiency, but in vitro complex formation by SAP-2 is strongly inhibited by its C-terminal sequences. Similarly, only Elk-1 and SAP-1a efficiently bind the c-fos SRE in vivo; ternary complex formation by SAP-2 is weak and is substantially unaffected by serum stimulation or v-ras co-expression. All three TCFs contain C-terminal transcriptional activation domains that are phosphorylated following growth factor stimulation. Activation requires conserved S/T-P motifs found in all the TCF family members. Each TCF activation domain can be phosphorylated in vitro by partially purified ERK2, and ERK activation in vivo is sufficient to potentiate transcriptional activation.

  14. Preparation and photoluminescence enhancement in terbium(III ternary complexes with β-diketone and monodentate auxiliary ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devender Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of new solid ternary complexes of terbium(III ion based on β-diketone ligand acetylacetone (acac and monodentate auxiliary ligands (aqua/urea/triphenylphosphineoxide/pyridine-N-oxide had been prepared. The structural characterizations of synthesized ternary compounds were studied by means of elemental analysis, infrared (IR, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectral techniques. The optical characteristics were investigated with absorption as well as photoluminescence spectroscopy. Thermal behavior of compounds was examined by TGA/DTA analysis and all metal complexes were found to have good thermal stability. The luminescence decay time of complexes were also calculated by monitoring at emission wavelength corresponding to 5D4 → 7F5 transition. A comparative inspection of the luminescent behavior of prepared ternary compounds was performed in order to determine the function of auxiliary ligands in the enhancement of luminescence intensity produced by central terbium(III ion. The color coordinates values suggested that compounds showed bright green emission in visible region in electromagnetic spectrum. Complexes producing green light could play a significant role in the fabrication of efficient light conversion molecular devices for display purposes and lightning systems.

  15. Inclusion complex formation of ternary system: Fluoroscein-p-sulfonato calix[4]arene-Cu(2+) by cooperative binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawhale, Sharadchandra; Jadhav, Ankita; Rathod, Nilesh; Malkhede, Dipalee; Chaudhari, Gajanan

    2015-09-05

    The aqueous solution of fluorescein-para sulfonato calix[4]arene-metal ion complex has been studied based on absorption, fluorescence, (1)H NMR and FTIR spectroscopic results. It was found that the fluorescence intensity quenched regularly upon addition of pSCX4 and metal ion. The quenching constants and binding constants were determined for pSCX4-FL and pSCX4-FL-Cu(2+) systems. 1:1 stoichiometry is obtained for pSCX4-Cu(2+) system by continuous variation method. The NMR and IR results indicates the interaction among FL, pSCX4 and Cu(2+). The combined results demonstrate the cooperative binding to design the complex for ternary system. The life time for binary and ternary system has been studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of the non-pertechnetate species in Hanford waste tanks, Tc(I) carbonyl complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukens, Wayne W.; Shuh, David K.; Schroeder, Norman C.; Ashley, Kenneth R.

    2003-10-16

    Immobilization of the high-level nuclear waste stored at the Hanford Reservation has been complicated by the presence of soluble, lower-valent technetium species. Previous work by Schroeder and Blanchard has shown that these species cannot be removed by ion-exchange and are difficult to oxidize. The Tc-K edge XANES spectra of the species in Tanks SY-101 and SY-103 were reported by Blanchard, but they could not be assigned to any known technetium complex. We report that the XANES spectra are most likely those of Tc(I) carbonyl species, especially fac-Tc(CO){sub 3}(gluconate){sup 2-}. This is further supported by EXAFS and {sup 99}Tc-NMR studies in nonradioactive simulants of these tank wastes.

  17. Host-Guest Interaction of Cucurbit[8]uril with N-(3-Aminopropyl)cyclohexylamine: Cyclohexyl Encapsulation Triggered Ternary Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yu; Wang, Chuan-Zeng; Tian, Mengkui; Tao, Zhu; Ni, Xin-Long; Prior, Timothy J; Redshaw, Carl

    2018-01-15

    The host-guest interaction of a series of cyclohexyl-appended guests with cucurbit[8]uril (Q[8]) was studied by ¹H NMR spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and X-ray crystallography. The X-ray structure revealed that two cycloalkane moieties can be simultaneously encapsulated in the hydrophobic cavity of the Q[8] host to form a ternary complex for the first time.

  18. Host-Guest Interaction of Cucurbit[8]uril with N-(3-Aminopropylcyclohexylamine: Cyclohexyl Encapsulation Triggered Ternary Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The host-guest interaction of a series of cyclohexyl-appended guests with cucurbit[8]uril (Q[8] was studied by 1H NMR spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC, and X-ray crystallography. The X-ray structure revealed that two cycloalkane moieties can be simultaneously encapsulated in the hydrophobic cavity of the Q[8] host to form a ternary complex for the first time.

  19. Some new protonated ternary complexes of rare-earths with CDTA/DTPA and keto-glutaric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, S.P.; Chaturvedi, G.K.; Sharma, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Potentiometric evidences have been cited for the formation of 1:1:1, M(III)-CDTA/DTPA-H 2 KGA ternary complexes in the solution equilibria (where M(III)=LA(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Gd(III) or Dy(III); CDTA=1,2-diaminocyclohexanetetra-acetic acid; DTPA=diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid and H 2 KGA= β-ketoglutaric acid). Indications have been cited for the formation of protonated mixed ligand complexes at low pH as intermediate products, which undergo deprotonation at comparatively high pH forming 1:1:1, ternary species. The formation constants (log Ksub(MLL')) for the protonated ternary species, formed by simultaneous addition of both the ligands to metal ion and their deprotonation constants - log Ksub(A)sup(H) have been evaluated. The following order in the relative stabilities of the resulting complexes in terms of metal ions, La(III) < Pr(III) < Nd(III) < Gd(III) < Dy(III), has been observed. (author)

  20. Elongation Factor Ts Directly Facilitates the Formation and Disassembly of the Escherichia coli Elongation Factor Tu·GTP·Aminoacyl-tRNA Ternary Complex*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Benjamin J.; Altman, Roger B.; Ferrao, Ryan; Alejo, Jose L.; Kaur, Navdep; Kanji, Joshua; Blanchard, Scott C.

    2013-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA enters the translating ribosome in a ternary complex with elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and GTP. Here, we describe bulk steady state and pre-steady state fluorescence methods that enabled us to quantitatively explore the kinetic features of Escherichia coli ternary complex formation and decay. The data obtained suggest that both processes are controlled by a nucleotide-dependent, rate-determining conformational change in EF-Tu. Unexpectedly, we found that this conformational change is accelerated by elongation factor Ts (EF-Ts), the guanosine nucleotide exchange factor for EF-Tu. Notably, EF-Ts attenuates the affinity of EF-Tu for GTP and destabilizes ternary complex in the presence of non-hydrolyzable GTP analogs. These results suggest that EF-Ts serves an unanticipated role in the cell of actively regulating the abundance and stability of ternary complex in a manner that contributes to rapid and faithful protein synthesis. PMID:23539628

  1. Potentiometric studies on ternary complexes involving some divalent transition metal ions, gallic acid and biologically abundant aliphatic dicarboxylic acids in aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelatty Mohamed Radalla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Formation of binary and ternary complexes of the divalent transition metal ions, Cu2+, Ni2+, Co2+ and Zn2+ with gallic acid and the biologically important aliphatic dicarboxylic acids (adipic, succinic, malic, malonic, maleic, tartaric and oxalic acids were investigated by means of the potentiometric technique at 25 °C and I = 0.10 mol dm−3 NaNO3. The acid-base properties of the ligands were investigated and discussed. The acidity constants of gallic acid and aliphatic dicarboxylic acids were determined and used for determining the stability constants of the binary and ternary complexes formed in the aqueous medium under the above experimental conditions. The formation of the different 1:1 and 1:2 binary complexes and 1:1:1 ternary complexes are inferred from the corresponding potentiometric pH-metric titration curves. The ternary complex formation was found to occur in a stepwise manner. The stability constants of these binary and ternary systems were calculated. The values of Δ log K, percentage of relative stabilization (%R.S. and log X were evaluated and discussed. The concentration distribution of the various complex species formed in solution was evaluated and discussed. The mode of chelation of ternary complexes formed was ascertained by conductivity measurements.

  2. Spectroscopic evidence for ternary surface complexes in the lead(II)-malonic acid-hematite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, J.J.; Bargar, J.R.; Davis, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) measurements, we examined the sorption of Pb(II) to hematite in the presence of malonic acid. Pb LIII-edge EXAFS measurements performed in the presence of malonate indicate the presence of both Fe and C neighbors, suggesting that a major fraction of surface-bound malonate is bonded to adsorbed Pb(II). In the absence of Pb(II), ATR-FTIR measurements of sorbed malonate suggest the formation of more than one malonate surface complex. The dissimilarity of the IR spectrum of malonate sorbed on hematite to those for aqueous malonate suggest at least one of the sorbed malonate species is directly coordinated to surface Fe atoms in an inner-sphere mode. In the presence of Pb, little change is seen in the IR spectrum for sorbed malonate, indicating that geometry of malonate as it coordinates to sorbed Pb(II) adions is similar to the geometry of malonate as it coordinates to Fe in the hematite surface. Fits of the raw EXAFS spectra collected from pH 4 to pH 8 result in average Pb-C distances of 2.98 to 3.14 A??, suggesting the presence of both four- and six-membered Pb-malonate rings. The IR results are consistent with this interpretation. Thus, our results suggest that malonate binds to sorbed Pb(II) adions, forming ternary metal-bridging surface complexes. ?? 2001 Academic Press.

  3. sup(99m)Tc-unithiol complex, a new radiopharmaceutical for kidney scintigraphy. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darte, L.; Oginski, M.; Persson, R.B.R.

    1979-01-01

    Labeling of 2,3-dimercaptopropane sodiumsulphonate (Unithiol) with sup(99m)Tc resulted in essentially three components in the GCS profile: the top zone, a low-molecular Complex A and a high-molecular Complex B. In the presence of tin metal a fourth component, Complex C, could be distinguished. Complex A was relatively independent of pH, the proportion of Complex B increased with increasing pH. Methods were developed for preparing, with over 80% labelling efficiency, either Complex A or Complex B, each having high stability in the preparation vials and in human blood. (orig.) [de

  4. Genotoxic effect of radio marked lymphocytes using Tc-99m complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedraza L, M.; Ferro F, G.; Mendiola C, M.T.; Morales R, P.

    1997-01-01

    The genotoxic effect of radio marked lymphocytes was evaluated using 99m -Tc-HMPAO and 99m -Tc- gentisic acid complexes. With the results of this work it is pretended to contribute to the knowledge of genetic and structural damages that provokes the radiation in the marked lymphocytes. The d, 1-HMPAO was synthesized in laboratory with a yielding of 30 %. The radiochemical purity of the complexes was greater than 85%. Mouse lymphocytes obtained of sanguineous volumes 2 ml were used. The radio marked efficiency of cells was 19.6 ± 6.4% and 25.6 ± 5.8% for 99m Tc-HMPAO and 99m Tc gentisic acid respectively. The genotoxic effect was evaluated using the technique of Unicellular Electrophoresis in Micro gel (Comet assay). The results showed that both 99m Tc complexes produce genotoxicity due to their capacity to penetrate cells, therefore the Auger and M internal conversion electrons place all their energy obtaining doses of Gray order. (Author)

  5. Synthesis, characterization and biodistribution of technetium complexes (99Tc/99mTc) with 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-hexose oximes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmetz, H.J.

    1993-05-01

    In the present work, the synthesis and isolation of isomeric complexes of technetium ( 99 Tc/ 99m Tc) with the 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-hexoses D-glucose aminoxime, D-galactose aminoxime and D-mannose aminoxime, the characterization of the complexes as 99 Tc compounds, and bio-distribution studies on the analogous 99m Tc complexes have been untertaken. As a first step, the free ligands were synthesized and identified using elemental analysis, infra-red and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and FAB mass spectroscopy. In the bio-distribution studies on the 99m Tc complexes of D-glucose aminoxime and of D-galactose aminoxime in NMRI mice, significant short-term accumulation of 99m Tc activity in heart muscle could be detected, which may be attributed to a biochemical transport mechanism. Uptake in the lungs and the liver was found, but a more significant uptake was observed in the kidneys, where the complexes were rapidly secreted in proportion to their concentration in the blood plasma. (orig./BBR) [de

  6. Defining and Assessing Chinese Syntactic Complexity via TC-Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiaona

    2016-01-01

    The triad dimensions of complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF) has been widely used for assessing second language performance and development. Unlike accuracy and fluency, the construct of Chinese syntactic complexity has not been comprehensibly conceptualized or operationalized. Moreover, not tailored to the typological differences such as the…

  7. Bone-seeking /sup 99m/Tc complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, G.; McAfee, J.G.

    1977-01-01

    A bone-seeking, technetium-99m-tin-phosphonate complex effective as a skeletal-imaging agent has been found particularly useful for diagnostic purposes. Skeletal tissue concentrations or technetium-99m obtained with the complex compare favorably to other bone-seeking radionuclides

  8. Synthesis, radiochromatography and biodistribution of Tc99m-hexakis-(methoxyisonitrile)-technetium(I) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelberger, P.; Zbiral, E.

    1987-09-01

    Following previous experience with Tc-99m-hexakis(t-butyl-isonitrile)-technetium(I) (Tc99m-tBiN) synthetic routes to the new ligands a) 1-methoxypropyl-2-isonitrile (MPiN) and b) 2-methoxy-2-methylpropyl-1-isonitrile(MiBiN) were developed via dehydration of the corresponding formamides. Formamide (a) was prepared from the available amine (a) while formamide (b) was synthesised by a difficult 5 step sequence starting from tert.2,2,2-trichlorobutanol. Product MPiN and MiBiN was purified by vacuum distillation and characterized by elemental analysis, IR- and NMR-spectra. A labeling method was developed based on earlier work with Tc99m-tBiN :the pure isonitrile ligand in ethanolic/aqueous solution was complexed at elevated temperature with reduced Tc-99m formed in situ with dithionite at alkaline pH. The whole reaction mixture was subjected to preparative HPLC leading to identification by UV-absorption and isolation of pure n.c.a. Tc99m-MPiN (A) and Tc99m-MiBiN (B) free of unreacted ligand. Work-up of the isolated peak resulted in an injectable product (overall radiochemical yield ∼80% within ∼40 min total preparation time) which was further controlled by TLC (radiochemical purity >97%, in vitro stability >6 hrs). Biodistribution in mice compared to identical data obtained with Tc99m-tBiN revealed somewhat higher heart uptake, slightly lower lung but significantly lower liver activity and renders these new Tc99m-compounds highly promising for myocardinal perfusion studies in man. 11 refs., 5 figs. (Author)

  9. A neutral lipophilic complex of sup(99m)Tc with a multidentate amine oxime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troutner, D.E.; Volkert, W.A.; Hoffman, T.J.; Holmes, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Propylene amine oxime, 3,3'-(1,3-propanediyldiimino)bis(3-methyl-2-butanone)dioxime, (PnAO) forms a neutral lipophilic complex with sup(99m)Tc in >95% yield at room temperature at pH 5-10. The complex can be prepared with generator produced sup(99m)Tc using 10 -5 M SnC 4 H 4 O 6 as the reducing agent at ligand concentrations as low as 3 x 10 -5 M. It is stable in saline solutions for as long as 24 h. [Sup(99m)Tc]PnAO may be useful as an imaging agent which passively diffuses across the blood brain barrier. (author)

  10. Validation of quantitative analysis method for triamcinolone in ternary complexes by UV-Vis spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE DARLOS A. AQUINO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Triamcinolone (TRI, a drug widely used in the treatment of ocular inflammatory diseases, is practically insoluble in water, which limits its use in eye drops. Cyclodextrins (CDs have been used to increase the solubility or dissolution rate of drugs. The purpose of the present study was to validate a UV-Vis spectrophotometric method for quantitative analysis of TRI in inclusion complexes with beta-cyclodextrin (B-CD associated with triethanolamine (TEA (ternary complex. The proposed analytical method was validated with respect to the parameters established by the Brazilian regulatory National Agency of Sanitary Monitoring (ANVISA. The analytical measurements of absorbance were made at 242nm, at room temperature, in a 1-cm path-length cuvette. The precision and accuracy studies were performed at five concentration levels (4, 8, 12, 18 and 20μg.mL-1. The B-CD associated with TEA did not provoke any alteration in the photochemical behavior of TRI. The results for the measured analytical parameters showed the success of the method. The standard curve was linear (r2 > 0.999 in the concentration range from 2 to 24 μg.mL-1. The method achieved good precision levels in the inter-day (relative standard deviation-RSD <3.4% and reproducibility (RSD <3.8% tests. The accuracy was about 80% and the pH changes introduced in the robustness study did not reveal any relevant interference at any of the studied concentrations. The experimental results demonstrate a simple, rapid and affordable UV-Vis spectrophotometric method that could be applied to the quantitation of TRI in this ternary complex. Keywords: Validation. Triamcinolone. Beta-cyclodextrin. UV- Vis spectrophotometry. Ternary complexes. RESUMO Validação de método de análise quantitativa para a triancinolona a partir de complexo ternário por espectrofotometria de UV-Vis A triancinolona (TRI é um fármaco amplamente utilizado no tratamento de doenças inflamatórias do globo ocular e

  11. Preparation and biological evaluation of cyclopentadienyl-based 99mTc-complexes [(Cp-R)99mTc(CO)3] mimicking benzamides for malignant melanoma targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peindy N'Dongo, Harmel W.; Raposinho, Paula D.; Fernandes, Celia; Santos, Isabel; Can, Daniel; Schmutz, Paul; Spingler, Bernhard; Alberto, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The biological evaluation of half-sandwich 99m Tc-complexes that surrogate iodobenzamide with a high affinity for melanin tumor tissue is described. We have synthesized via retro Diels-Alder reaction two models of 99m Tc complexes which possess the piano stool [Cp 99m Tc(CO) 3 ] motif instead of a phenyl ring as in the original iodobenzamide 123 I-N-(N-benzylpiperidin-4-yl)-2-iodobenzamide (2-IBP) and N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-4-iodobenzamide (BZA). Diels-Alder products - (HCp-CONHR) 2 (, R=2-diethylaminoethyl; , R=benzylpiperidin-4-yl) were prepared and reacted with fac-[ 99m Tc(H 2 O) 3 (CO) 3 )] + 1 in water to produce the corresponding 99m Tc complexes [() 99m Tc(CO) 3 )] and [() 99m Tc(CO) 3 )] . The structures of the 99m Tc complexes on the no-carrier-added level have been confirmed by chromatographic comparison with the corresponding rhenium complexes and , macroscopically characterized by IR, NMR, ESI-MS and X-ray crystallography for [triclinic, P-1, a=7.3518(1) A, b=8.0309(2) A, c=17.5536(3) A, α=99.1260(5) o , β=90.4215(14) o , γ=117.0187(11) o ]. The radioconjugate showed good in vitro stability. In murine melanoma B16F1 cells, significant cellular uptake (43.9% of the total applied activity) was attained after 4 h at 37 deg. C with about 50% of the cell-associated radioactivity being internalized in the cells (22% of the applied activity). Furthermore, in melanoma-bearing C57BL6 mice, tumor uptake values of 3.39±0.50 %ID g -1 and 3.21±0.26 %ID g -1 at 1 and 4 h postinjection, respectively, were observed indicating a good retention of in the tumor.

  12. Structural characterization and bioavailability of ternary nanoparticles consisting of amylose, α-linoleic acid and β-lactoglobulin complexed with naringin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tao; Wang, Ke; Liu, Fangfang; Ye, Ran; Zhu, Xiao; Zhuang, Haining; Xu, Zhimin

    2017-06-01

    Naringin is a bioflavonoid that is rich in citrus plants and possesses enormous health benefits. However, the use of naringin as a nutraceutical is significantly limited by its low bioavailability. In this study, a novel water-soluble ternary nanoparticle material consisting of amylose, α-linoleic acid and β-lactoglobulin was developed to encapsulate naringin to improve its bioavailability. The physicochemical characteristics of the ternary nanoparticle-naringin inclusion complex were analysed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and particle size distribution. The results confirmed the formation of the ternary nanoparticle-naringin inclusion complex. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) and loading content (LC) of the ternary nanoparticle-naringin inclusion complex were 78.73±4.17% and 14.51±3.43%, respectively. In addition, the results of the ternary nanoparticle-naringin inclusion complex in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) demonstrated that naringin can be gradually released from the complex. In conclusion, ternary nanoparticles are considered promising carriers to effectively improve the bioavailability of naringin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ternary iron(II) complex with an emissive imidazopyridine arm from Schiff base cyclizations and its oxidative DNA cleavage activity

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Arindam; Dhar, Shanta; Nethaji, Munirathinam; Chakravarty, Akhil R

    2005-01-01

    The ternary iron(II) complex [Fe(L')(L")] $(PF_6)_3(1)$ as a synthetic model for the bleomycins, where L' and L" are formed from metal-mediated cyclizations of N,N -(2-hydroxypropane-1,3-diyl)bis(pyridine-2-aldimine)(L), is synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. In the six-coordinate iron(II) complex, ligands L' and L" show tetradentate and bidentate chelating modes of bonding. Ligand L' is formed from an intramolecular attack of the alcoholic OH group of L to o...

  14. An engineered genetic selection for ternary protein complexes inspired by a natural three-component hitchhiker mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeon-Cheol; Portnoff, Alyse D; Rocco, Mark A; DeLisa, Matthew P

    2014-12-22

    The bacterial twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway is well known to translocate correctly folded monomeric and dimeric proteins across the tightly sealed cytoplasmic membrane. We identified a naturally occurring heterotrimer, the Escherichia coli aldehyde oxidoreductase PaoABC, that is co-translocated by the Tat translocase according to a ternary "hitchhiker" mechanism. Specifically, the PaoB and PaoC subunits, each devoid of export signals, are escorted to the periplasm in a piggyback fashion by the Tat signal peptide-containing subunit PaoA. Moreover, export of PaoA was blocked when either PaoB or PaoC was absent, revealing a surprising interdependence for export that is not seen for classical secretory proteins. Inspired by this observation, we created a bacterial three-hybrid selection system that links the formation of ternary protein complexes with antibiotic resistance. As proof-of-concept, a bispecific antibody was employed as an adaptor that physically crosslinked one antigen fused to a Tat export signal with a second antigen fused to TEM-1 β-lactamase (Bla). The resulting non-covalent heterotrimer was exported in a Tat-dependent manner, delivering Bla to the periplasm where it hydrolyzed β-lactam antibiotics. Collectively, these results highlight the remarkable flexibility of the Tat system and its potential for studying and engineering ternary protein interactions in living bacteria.

  15. Malachite green mediates homodimerization of antibody VL domains to form a fluorescent ternary complex with singular symmetric interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szent-Gyorgyi, Chris; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Andreko, Susan; Dempsey, Alison; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Capek, Sara; Waggoner, Alan; Wilson, Ian A.; Bruchez, Marcel P.

    2013-01-01

    We report that a symmetric small molecule ligand mediates the assembly of antibody light chain variable domains (VLs) into a correspondent symmetric ternary complex with novel interfaces. The L5* Fluorogen Activating Protein (FAP) is a VL domain that binds malachite green dye (MG) to activate intense fluorescence. Crystallography of liganded L5* reveals a 2:1 protein:ligand complex with inclusive C2 symmetry, where MG is almost entirely encapsulated between an antiparallel arrangement of the two VL domains. Unliganded L5* VL domains crystallize as a similar antiparallel VL/VL homodimer. The complementarity determining regions (CDRs) are spatially oriented to form novel VL/VL and VL/ligand interfaces that tightly constrain a propeller conformer of MG. Binding equilibrium analysis suggests highly cooperative assembly to form a very stable VL/MG/VL complex, such that MG behaves as a strong chemical inducer of dimerization. Fusion of two VL domains into a single protein tightens MG binding over 1,000-fold to low picomolar affinity without altering the large binding enthalpy, suggesting that bonding interactions with ligand and restriction of domain movements make independent contributions to binding. Fluorescence activation of a symmetrical fluorogen provides a selection mechanism for the isolation and directed evolution of ternary complexes where unnatural symmetric binding interfaces are favored over canonical antibody interfaces. As exemplified by L5*, these self-reporting complexes may be useful as modulators of protein association or as high affinity protein tags and capture reagents. PMID:23978698

  16. Nitriles form mixed-coligand complexes with 99mTc-HYNIC-Peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guozheng; Wescott, Charles; Sato, Aaron; Wang Yi; Liu Ning; Zhang Yumin; Rusckowski, Mary; Hnatowich, Donald J.

    2002-01-01

    Using a 12-amino acid peptide conjugated with HYNIC as a model, we investigated nitriles as possible coligands for labeling with 99m Tc. After the preparation of the 99m Tc labeled HYNIC-peptide using tricine as coligand, the addition of acetonitile was found by reverse phase HPLC to block further coligand exchange with ethylenediamine diacetic acid (EDDA) at room temperature. The addition of this nitrile changed the pharmacokinetics of the 99m Tc labeled peptide in normal mice towards faster clearance and significant differences in accumulation in most tissues sampled. By replacing acetonitrile with cyanoacetate, a nitrile not present in the HPLC eluant, it was possible to show the existence of a new, more hydrophilic, species by reverse phase HPLC. We conclude that nitriles can act as coligands for HYNIC-conjugated peptides labeled with 99m Tc and tricine. Furthermore, the presence of acetonitrile during Sep-Pak or HPLC purification may inadvertently generate a mixed tricine/acetonitile coligand 99m Tc-HYNIC-peptide complex

  17. Ternary complex of plasmid DNA with NLS-Mu-Mu protein and cationic niosome for biocompatible and efficient gene delivery: a comparative study with protamine and lipofectamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematollahi, Mohammad Hadi; Torkzadeh-Mahanai, Masoud; Pardakhty, Abbas; Ebrahimi Meimand, Hossein Ali; Asadikaram, Gholamreza

    2017-10-28

    Non-viral gene delivery methods are considered due to safety and simplicity in human gene therapy. Since the use of cationic peptide and niosome represent a promising approach for gene delivery purposes we used recombinant fusion protein and cationic niosome as a gene carrier. A multi-domain fusion protein including nuclear localization motif (NLS) and two DNA-binding (Mu) domains, namely NLS-Mu-Mu (NMM) has been designed, cloned and expressed in E. coli DE3 strain. Afterward, the interested protein was purified by affinity chromatography. Binary vectors based on protein/DNA and ternary vectors based on protein/DNA/niosome were prepared. Protamine was used as a control. DNA condensing properties of NMM and protamine were evaluated by various experiments. Furthermore, we examined cytotoxicity, hemolysis and transfection potential of the binary and ternary complexes in HEK293T and MCF-7 cell lines. Protamine and Lipofectamine™2000 were used as positive controls, correspondingly. The recombinant NMM was expressed and purified successfully and DNA was condensed efficiently at charge ratios that were not harmful to cells. Peptidoplexes showed transfection efficiency (TE) but ternary complexes had higher TE. Additionally, NMM ternary complex was more efficient compared to protamine ternary vectors. Our results showed that niosomal ternary vector of NMM is a promising non-viral gene carrier to achieve an effective and safe carrier system for gene therapy.

  18. Contribution to the study of pertechnetate (sup(99m)Tc) stannous citrate - citric acid complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmes, E.-P.

    1978-03-01

    Pertechnetate/citric acid/stannous citrate complexation carried out from a lyophilisate of stannous citrate in citric medium at pH5 leads to the formation of separable compounds. These compounds are tin-free technetium citrates. Similar results have been described in the case of complexation reactions with glycolic, thioglycolic and thiomalic acids and with other carboxylates such as dimercaptosuccinic acid. These processes include the reduction of Tcsup(VIII) by Snsup(II) in the presence of thiomalic acid under conditions similar to our own: stannous thiomalate in thiomalic medium to which is added the pertechnetate solution producing Tc-thiomalate complexes variable with the reaction pH. Also worth considering is the possible complexation between pertechnetate and the same acid in the absence of reducing ion, following a special procedure (heating). The complexes described here contain the oxotechnetium bond (terminal oxygen-technetium) and a strong probability exists in favour of dimerisation. Their stability, for a reaction in acid solution: pH 5.0/5.5, becomes satisfactory if: the solution is concentrated enough; bubbling by an inert gas is carried out; room temperature is not exceeded. The development takes place through a partial reoxidation characterised by colour change. An original interaction between reduced states of Tc and citric acid may be claimed with certainty under our experimental conditions. The difficulty then lies in the passage to the tracer stage when the isotope sup(99m)Tc is used [fr

  19. Influence of a {sup 99m}TcN core on the biological and physicochemical behavior of {sup 99m}Tc complexes of L,L-EC and L,L-ECD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangera, Kennedy O; Vanbilloen, Hubert P.; Bellande, Emmanuel; Pasqualini, Roberto; Verbruggen, Alfons M

    1996-11-01

    {sup 99m}Tc-nitrido complexes of L,L-ethylene dicysteine ({sup 99m}TcN-L,L-EC) and {sup 99m}TcN-L,L-ethylene dicysteine diethylester ({sup 99m}TcN-L,L-ECD) were prepared and their characteristics compared to those of the respective {sup 99m}Tc-oxo complexes. {sup 99m}TcN-L,L-EC and {sup 99m}TcO-L,L-EC migrate to similar extents during electrophoresis at pH 12, but, at pH 6, {sup 99m}TcN-L,L-EC migrates further than {sup 99m}TcO-L,L-EC. Renal excretion of {sup 99m}TcN-L,L-EC is inferior to that of {sup 99m}TcO-L,L-EC, indicating that the TcN-glycine sequence has lower affinity for the renal tubular system. Both {sup 99m}TcO-L,L-ECD and {sup 99m}TcN-L,L-ECD are neutral, but {sup 99m}TcN-L,L-ECD is hydrophilic and shows minimal brain uptake in both mice and the baboon.

  20. The synthesis and structural characterization of the technetium nitrosyl complexes [TcCl(NO)(SC5H4N)(PPh3)2] and [Tc(NO)(SC5H4N)2(PPh3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Terrence L.; Mahmood, Ashfaq; Muller, Peter; Davison, Alan; Storm-Blanchard, Shannon; Jones, Alun G.

    2011-01-01

    The reaction of the Tc(I) complex [Tc(NO)Cl2(HOMe)(PPh3)2] with stoichiometric amounts of 2-mercatopyridine and a proton scavenger yields [Tc(NO)Cl(Spy)(PPh3)2] or [Tc(NO)(Spy)2(PPh3)], depending upon quantities of ligands employed. These two complexes have been structurally characterized. The small bite angles of the bidentate mercaptopyridine ligands cause significant deviation from octahedral coordination geometry. PMID:23750048

  1. Synthesis, Structure Elucidation, and Redox Properties of (superscript 99)Tc Complexes of Lacunary Wells-Dawson Polyoxometalates: Insights into Molecular (superscript 99)Tc-Metal Oxide Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, Donna; Burton-Pye, Benjamin P.; Howell, Robertha C.; Mbomekalle, Israel M.; Lukens, Wayne W. Jr.; Bian, Fang; Mausolf, Edward; Poineau, Frederic; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.; Francesconi, Lynn C.

    2011-01-01

    The isotope 99 Tc (β max , 293.7; half-life, 2.1 x 10 5 years) is an abundant product of uranium-235 fission in nuclear reactors and is present throughout the radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Understanding and controlling the extensive redox chemistry of 99 Tc is important in identifying tunable strategies to separate 99 Tc from spent fuel and from waste tanks and, once separated, to identify and develop an appropriately stable waste form for 99 Tc. Polyoxometalates (POMs), nanometer-sized models for metal oxide solid-state materials, are used in this study to provide a molecular level understanding of the speciation and redox chemistry of incorporated 99 Tc. In this study, 99 Tc complexes of the (α 2 -P 2 W 17 O 61 ) 10- and (α 1 -P 2 W 17 O 61 ) 10- isomers were prepared. Ethylene glycol was used as a 'transfer ligand' to minimize the formation of TcO 2 · xH 2 O. The solution structures, formulations, and purity of TcVO(α 1 /α 2 -P 2 W 17 O 61 ) 7- were determined by multinuclear NMR. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of the complexes is in agreement with the formulation and structures determined from 31 P and 183 W NMR. Preliminary electrochemistry results are consistent with the EXAFS results, showing a facile reduction of the TcVO(α 1 -P 2 W 17 O 61 ) 7- species compared to the TcVO(α 2 -P 2 W 17 O 61 ) 7- analog. The α 1 defect is unique in that a basic oxygen atom is positioned toward the α 1 site, and the Tc V O center appears to form a dative metal-metal bond with a framework W site. These attributes may lead to the assistance of protonation events that facilitate reduction. Electrochemistry comparison shows that the ReV analogs are about 200 mV more difficult to reduce in accordance with periodic trends.

  2. Synthesis, structure elucidation and redox properties of 99Tc complexes of lacunary Wells Dawson polyoxometalates: insights into molecular 99Tc - metal oxide interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, Donna; Burton-Pye, Benjamin P.; Howell, Robertha C.; Mbomekalle, Israel M.; Lukens, Wayne W. Jr; Bian, Fang; Mausolf, Edward; Poineau, Frederic; Czerwinski, Kenneth R; Francesconi, Lynn C.

    2011-01-01

    The isotope 99 Tc (β max : 250 keV, half-life: 2 x 10 5 year) is an abundant product of uranium-235 fission in nuclear reactors and is present throughout the radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at Hanford and Savannah River. Understanding and controlling the extensive redox chemistry of 99 Tc is important to identify tunable strategies to separate 99 Tc from spent fuel and from waste tanks and once separated, to identify and develop an appropriately stable waste-form for 99 Tc. Polyoxometalates (POMs), nanometer sized models for metal oxide solid-state materials, are used in this study to provide a molecular level understanding of the speciation and redox chemistry of incorporated 99 Tc. In this study, 99 Tc complexes of the (α 2 -P 2 W 17 O 61 ) 10- and (α 1 -P 2 W 17 O 61 ) 10- isomers were prepared. Ethylene glycol was used as a 'transfer ligand' to minimize the formation of TcO 2 · xH 2 O. The solution structures, formulations, and purity of Tc V O(α 1 /α 2 -P 2 W 17 O 61 ) 7- were determined by multinuclear NMR. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of the complexes are in agreement with the formulation and structures determined from 31 P and 183 W NMR. Preliminary electrochemistry results are consistent with the EXAFS results, showing a facile reduction of the Tc V O(α 1 -P 2 W 17 O 61 ) 7- species compared to the Tc V O(α 2 -P 2 W 17 O 61 ) 7- analog. The α 1 -defect is unique in that a basic oxygen atom is positioned toward the α 1 -site and the Tc V O center appears to form a dative metal-metal bond with a framework W site. These attributes may lead to the assistance of protonation events that facilitate reduction. Electrochemistry comparison shows that the Re V analogs are about 200 mV more difficult to reduce in accordance with periodic trends.

  3. Genotoxic effect of radio marked lymphocytes using Tc-99m complexes; Efecto genotoxico del radiomarcado de linfocitos empleando complejos de Tc-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedraza L, M.; Ferro F, G.; Mendiola C, M.T.; Morales R, P. [Instituto nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The genotoxic effect of radio marked lymphocytes was evaluated using {sup 99m}-Tc-HMPAO and {sup 99m}-Tc- gentisic acid complexes. With the results of this work it is pretended to contribute to the knowledge of genetic and structural damages that provokes the radiation in the marked lymphocytes. The d, 1-HMPAO was synthesized in laboratory with a yielding of 30 %. The radiochemical purity of the complexes was greater than 85%. Mouse lymphocytes obtained of sanguineous volumes 2 ml were used. The radio marked efficiency of cells was 19.6 {+-} 6.4% and 25.6 {+-} 5.8% for {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and {sup 99m} Tc gentisic acid respectively. The genotoxic effect was evaluated using the technique of Unicellular Electrophoresis in Micro gel (Comet assay). The results showed that both {sup 99m} Tc complexes produce genotoxicity due to their capacity to penetrate cells, therefore the Auger and M internal conversion electrons place all their energy obtaining doses of Gray order. (Author)

  4. Neutral and stereospecific Tc-99m complexes: [99mTc]N-benzyl-3,4-di-(N-2-mercaptoethyl)-amino-pyrrolidines (P-BAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Zhiping; Ploessl, Karl; Kung Meiping; Mu Mu; Kung, Hank F.

    1999-01-01

    Technetium-99m-labeled radiopharmaceuticals are currently the most commonly used agents in nuclear medicine. To prepare binding site-specific small molecules containing a Tc-99m complexing core, it is important to consider a ligand system, which selectively forms only one stereoisomer. A novel series of bisaminoethanethiol (BAT) derivatives as a model system were prepared. Stereoisomers of N-benzyl-3,4-di-(N-2-mercaptoethyl)-amino pyrrolidines (P-BAT): (3R,4R)-P-BAT (R,R-4) and (3,4)meso-P-BAT (8), the trans and meso isomer, respectively, as a chelating group were prepared successfully. The desired Tc-99m P-BAT complexes were obtained by using Sn(II)/glucoheptonate as the reducing agent for [ 99m Tc]pertechnetate. As predicted, after complexation with [ 99m Tc]Tc v O, the trans isomer, (3R,4R)-P-BAT (R,R-4), showed only one isomer; whereas the corresponding meso isomer, (3,4)meso-P-BAT (8), produced two distinctive complexes isolated readily by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The [ 99m Tc](R,S)meso-P-BAT (8) isomers showed a different lipophilicity (partition coefficient [P.C.]=54.3 and 55.4 for peak A and peak B, respectively), as compared with that of the corresponding [ 99m Tc](3R,4R)-P-BAT (R,R-4), trans isomer ( P.C.=163). Results of the biodistribution study in rats of these isomers show different heart and brain uptake, suggesting that the intrinsic differences in biodistribution are due to structural and stereospecific factors. Examples in this report confirm that it is possible to design stereospecific Tc-99m complexes based on the bisaminoethanethiol (N 2 S 2 , BAT) ligand system. Consideration on stereoselectivity of site-specific agents labeled with Tc-99m is likely an essential requirement on developing binding-site specific radiopharmaceuticals

  5. Novel 99mTc(III)-azide complexes [99mTc(N3)(CDO)(CDOH)2B-R] (CDOH2 = cyclohexanedione dioxime) as potential radiotracers for heart imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Min; Zheng, Yumin; Avcibasi, Ugur; Liu, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In this study, novel 99m Tc(III)-azide complexes [ 99m Tc(N 3 )(CDO)(CDOH) 2 B-R] ( 99m Tc-ISboroxime-N 3 : R = IS; 99m Tc-MPboroxime-N 3 : R = MP; 99m Tc-PAboroxime-N 3 : R = PA; 99m Tc-PYboroxime-N 3 : R = PY; and 99m Tc-Uboroxime-N 3 : R = 5U) were evaluated as heart imaging agents. Methods: Complexes [ 99m Tc(N 3 )(CDO)(CDOH) 2 B-R] (R = IS, MP, PA, PY and 5U) were prepared by ligand exchange between NaN 3 and [ 99m TcCl(CDO)(CDOH) 2 B-R]. Biodistribution and imaging studies were carried out in Sprague–Dawley rats. Image quantification was performed to compare their initial heart uptake and myocardial retention. Results: 99m Tc-ISboroxime-N 3 , 99m Tc-PYboroxime-N 3 and 99m Tc-Uboroxime-N 3 were prepared with high RCP (93–98%) while the RCP of 99m Tc-MPboroxime-N 3 and 99m Tc-PAboroxime-N 3 was 80–85%. The myocardial retention curves of 99m Tc-ISboroxime-N 3 , 99m Tc-PYboroxime-N 3 and 99m Tc-Uboroxime-N 3 were best fitted to the bi-exponential decay function. The half-time of the fast component was 1.6 ± 0.4 min for 99m Tc-ISboroxime-N 3 , 0.7 ± 0.1 min for 99m Tc-PYboroxime-N 3 and 0.9 ± 0.4 min for 99m Tc-Uboroxime-N 3 . The 2-min heart uptake from biodistribution studies followed the ranking order of 99m Tc-ISboroxime-N 3 (3.60 ± 0.68%ID/g) > 99m Tc-PYboroxime-N 3 (2.35 ± 0.37%ID/g) ≫ 99m Tc-Uboroxime-N 3 (1.29 ± 0.06%ID/g). 99m Tc-ISboroxime-N 3 had the highest 2-min heart uptake among 99m Tc radiotracers revaluated in SD rats. High quality SPECT images were obtained with the right and left ventricular walls being clearly delineated. The best image acquisition window was 0–5 min for 99m Tc-ISboroxime-N 3 . Conclusion: Both azide coligand and boronate caps had significant impact on the heart uptake and myocardial retention of complexes [ 99m Tc(N 3 )(CDO)(CDOH) 2 B-R]. Among the radiotracers evaluated in SD rats, 99m Tc-ISboroxime-N 3 has the highest initial heart uptake with the heart retention comparable to that of 99m Tc

  6. Synthesis quality control and biodistribution of technetium-99m triamcinolone (99mTc-TA) complex: An inflammation tracer agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizvii, Faheem Askari; Naqvi, Syed Ali Raza; Mehdi, Muhammad; Roohi, Samina; Zahoor, Ameer Fawad; Khan, Zulfiqar Ali; Sohaib, Muhammad; Rasheed, Rashid

    2017-01-01

    In present study synthesis of 99m Tc-triamcinolone acetonide ( 99m Tc-TA) complex and its stability using set of quality control parameters such as ligand concentration, reducing agent concentration, pH, temperature and reaction time was assessed. 99m Tc-TA complex was characterized in terms of percent (%) yield, stability in saline and serum using chromatographic procedures. Radiochemically the 99m Tc-TA complex was found quite stable in saline and serum. After 30 min of reaction the complex showed maximum radiochemical yield of 96.32% which decreased to 96.25 % after 4 h incubation period. In serum, the % yield of radiochemical was remained same up to 2 h which decreased to 93.5% at 24 h time point. Normal biodistribution pattern in Sprague-Dawley rats revealed liver, stomach and kidneys as areas of high 99m Tc-TA complex uptake (8.44 ±1.32, 8.75 ± 1.03 and 12.67 ± 1.21%, respectively) at 1 h post injection time point. Scintigraphy of 99m Tc-TA in rabbits showed similar eco as observed in biodistribution study. Based on the promising results obtained in context of in vitro and in vivo stability and biodistribution, 99m Tc-TA complex could be further studied to identify the inflammation based diseases

  7. DFT and EXAFS, mutually enhancing tools for structure elucidation of Tc complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breynaert, E.; Bruggeman, C.; Maes, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The redox-sensitive fission product technetium-99 (Tc) is of great interest in nuclear waste disposal studies because of its potential for contaminating the geosphere due to its very long half-life (2.13 x 10 5 year) and high mobility under oxidising conditions, where technetium forms pertechnetate (TcO 4 - ). Under suitable reducing conditions, e.g. in the presence of an iron(II) containing solid phase which can act as an electron donor, the solubility can be limited by the reduction of pertechnetate followed by the formation of a surface precipitate [1]. However, by association with mobile humic substances (HS) or other associating/complexing species, the solubility of reduced Tc species may be drastically enhanced [2]. The elucidation of the identity and geometrical structure of the species causing this enhanced solubility often remains a difficult issue. Extended X-Ray Absorption Fluorescence Spectroscopy/ X-Ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (EXAFS/XANES) analysis can be very helpful to determine the molecular surroundings of reduced Tc organic complexes of Tc(IV) colloid-HS-associations. The interpretation of the EXAFS spectra is however not a straightforward process due to the possibly strong influence of multiple scattering paths on the spectra. Contrary to single scattering analysis which can be easily performed on the experimental EXAFS spectra, multiple scattering analysis can only be done, based on good approximations of the possible geometrical structures of the species under consideration. It has been shown that the Density Functional Theory (DFT) can be used to perform geometry optimizations of technetium species and therefore can be utilized to predict the structure of technetium complexes [3]. The success and computational effort needed for such structure predictions are however highly dependant on the quality of the initial structure from which the geometry optimization is started. Single scattering analysis of

  8. 99mTcN-gatifloxacin dithiocarbamate complex. A novel multi-drug-resistance Streptococcus pneumoniae (MRSP) infaction radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Qaiser Shah; Mohammad Rafiullah Khan

    2011-01-01

    Gatifloxacin (GTN) was derivatized to its dithiocarbamate derivative and its radiolabeling with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) using the [ 99m Tc≡N] 2+ core was investigated. The appropriateness of the 99m TcN - gatifloxacin dithiocarbamate ( 99m TcN - GTND) complex as a potential multi-drug-resistance Streptococcus pneumoniae (MRSP) infection radiotracer was evaluated in terms of stability in saline, serum, in vitro binding with MRSP and biodistribution in artificially MRSP infected Male Wistar Rats (MWR). In saline the 99m TcN - GTND complex showed more than 90% labeling yield up to 4 h with a maximum yield of 98.25 ± 0.20%, after reconstitution. In serum the 99m TcN - GTND complex showed stability up to 16 h of incubation with the appearance of insignificant 15.95% undesirable side products. The 99m TcN - GTND complex demonstrated saturated in vitro binding with MRSP with a maximum value of 75.50 ± 1.00% (at 90 min). In MWR model of group A, almost six times higher uptake of the labeled GTND was monitored in the muscle of MWR infected with live MRSP as compared to the inflamed and normal muscles. Based on the higher labeling yield in saline, in vitro stability in serum, saturated in vitro binding with live MRSP and promising biodistribution in MWR model we recommend 99m TcN - gatifloxacin dithiocarbamate complex as a potential MRSP infection radiotracer. (author)

  9. Radiochemical synthesis and tissue distribution of Tc-99m-labeled 7α-substituted estradiol complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaddan, Marc B.; Wuest, Frank R.; Jonson, Stephanie; Syhre, Rosemarie; Welch, Michael J.; Spies, Hartmut; Katzenellenbogen, John A.

    2000-01-01

    The diagnosis and staging of breast cancer could be improved by the development of radiopharmaceutical imaging agents that provide a noninvasive determination of the estrogen receptor (ER) status of tumor cells. Agents labeled with 99m Tc would be especially valuable in this regard. In attempting to achieve this goal, we synthesized four 99m Tc-labeled 7α-substituted estradiol complexes. One complex utilizes the 3+1 mixed ligand design to introduce the Tc metal, whereas the other three took advantage of the cyclopentadienyltricarbonylmetal (CpTM) design. The Tc moieties were attached to the 7α position of estradiol with a hexyl tether, a monoether tether, or a polyether tether. The corresponding rhenium compounds have binding affinities for the ER of 20-45% compared with estradiol. Radiochemical yields of the 99m Tc-labeled compounds ranged from approximately 15% for the CpT-Tc complexes to 95% for the 3+1 inorganic complex. Tissue distribution studies in immature female rats showed low nonreceptor-mediated uptake in the target organs and high uptake in nontarget organs such as the liver and fat. These complexes represent the first time that estradiol has been labeled at the 7α position with 99m Tc and provide a further refinement of our understanding of ligand structure-binding affinity correlations for the ER

  10. Low Levels of the 150-kD Insulin -Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 Ternary complex in Patients with Anorexia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, René K; Hangaard, Jørgen; Hagen, Claus

    2003-01-01

    women with AN at the time of diagnosis and after partial weight recovery and in 6 healthy age-matched women serving as controls. RESULTS: Patients with AN had low levels of ALS and IGFBP-3 contained in the 150-kD ternary complex and in the non-150-kD fraction. Following partial weight recovery, the 150......-kD IGFBP-3 ternary complex was fully normalized, despite only partial normalization of serum GH and IGF-I levels. Patients with AN did not present with IGFBP-3 proteolysis different from controls. CONCLUSION: The present data indicate a pivotal role of the nutritional status in the regulation...

  11. Monoanionic 99mTc-tricarbonyl-aminopolycarboxylate complexes with uncharged pendant groups: Radiosynthesis and evaluation as potential renal tubular tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipowska, Malgorzata; Klenc, Jeffrey; Jarkas, Nashwa; Marzilli, Luigi G.; Taylor, Andrew T.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: 99m Tc(CO) 3 -nitrilotriacetic acid, 99m Tc(CO) 3 (NTA), is a new renal tubular agent with pharmacokinetic properties comparable to those of 131 I-OIH but the clearance of 99m Tc(CO) 3 (NTA) and 131 I-OIH is still less than the clearance of PAH, the gold standard for the measurement of effective renal plasma flow. At physiological pH, dianionic 99m Tc(CO) 3 (NTA) has a mononegative inner metal-coordination sphere and a mononegative uncoordinated carboxyl group. To evaluate alternate synthetic approaches, we assessed the importance of an uncoordinated carboxyl group, long considered essential for tubular transport, by evaluating the pharmacokinetics of three analogs with the 99m Tc(CO) 3 (NTA) metal-coordination sphere but with uncharged pendant groups. Methods: 99m Tc(CO) 3 complexes with N-(2-acetamido)iminodiacetic acid (ADA), N-(2-hydroxyethyl)iminodiacetic acid (HDA) and N-(fluoroethyl)iminodiacetic acid (FEDA) were prepared using a tricarbonyl kit and isolated by HPLC. The pharmacokinetics were evaluated in Sprague–Dawley rats, with 131 I-OIH as an internal control; urine was analyzed for metabolites. Plasma protein binding and erythrocyte uptake were determined from the 10 min blood samples. Re(CO) 3 (FEDA), the analog of 99m Tc(CO) 3 (FEDA), was prepared and characterized. Results: 99m Tc(CO) 3 (ADA), 99m Tc(CO) 3 (HDA) and 99m Tc(CO) 3 (FEDA) were efficiently prepared as a single species with high radiochemical purities (>99%). These new monoanionic 99m Tc(CO) 3 tracers with uncharged dangling groups all showed rapid blood clearance and high specificity for renal excretion. Activity in the urine, as a percent of 131 I-OIH at 10 and 60 min, was 96% and 99% for ADA, 96% and 100% for HDA, and 100% and 99% for FEDA, respectively. Each new tracer was excreted unchanged in the urine. The Re(CO) 3 (FEDA) structure adds compelling evidence that such 99m Tc(CO) 3 (NTA) analogs have metal-coordination spheres identical to that of 99m Tc(CO) 3 (NTA

  12. Radiocharacterization of the 99mTc-rufloxacin complex and biological evaluation in Staphylococcus aureus infected rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Qaiser Shah; Muhammad Rafiullah Khan

    2011-01-01

    99m Tc-rufloxacin ( 99m Tc-RUN) complex was prepared by reaction of different amounts of reduced sodium pertechnetate with different amount of Rufloxacin (RUN) antibiotic for the in vivo scintigraphic localization of the Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infectious foci in Male Wister Rats (MWR) model. The 99m Tc-RUN complex was radiochemically and biologically characterized in terms of radiochemical stability in saline, serum, in vitro binding with S. aureus and biodistribution in artificially infected with S. aureus MWR. The 99m Tc-RUN complex showed stability more than 90% up to 240 min in normal saline with a maximum stability value of 98.10 ± 0.18% at 30 min after reconstitution. At 37 deg C the complex showed in vitro permanence in serum up to 16 h with 13.90% side products during incubation. The 99m Tc-RUN complex showed saturated in vitro binding with S. aureus at different intervals with a maximum uptake value of 71.50%. Infected to normal muscle, infected to inflamed and inflamed to normal muscles ratios were approximately 6.04, 4.31 and 1.40. Based on the stability of the complex in saline, serum, in vitro binding with S. aureus and biodistribution results, the 99m Tc-RUN complex is recommended for in vivo scintigraphic localization of the S. aureus in vivo infectious foci in human. (author)

  13. Spectral and theoretical study on complexation of sulfamethoxazole with β- and HPβ-cyclodextrins in binary and ternary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Beena; Suliman, FakhrEldin O.; Al-Hajri, Aalia; Al Bishri, Nahed Surur S.; Al-Rwashda, Nathir

    2018-02-01

    The inclusion complexes of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) with β-cyclodextrin (βCD) and (2-hydroxypropyl) β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) were prepared. Fluorescence spectroscopy and electrospray mass spectrometry, ESI-MS, were used to investigate and characterize the inclusion complexation of SMX with cyclodextrins in solutions. Whereas in the solid state the complexes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Raman techniques. Enhanced twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT), emission as well as local excited (LE) bands were observed upon addition of HPβCD indicate that SMX enters deeper into the cyclodextrins cavity. The stoichiometries and association constants of these complexes have been determined by monitoring the fluorescence data. The effect of presence of ternary components like arginine and cysteine on the complexation efficiency of SMX with cyclodextrins was investigated. Molecular Dynamic simulations were also performed to shed an atomistic insight into the complexation mechanism. The results obtained showed that complexes of SMX with both cyclodextrins are stabilized in aqueous media by strong hydrogen bonding interactions.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of technetium(III) complexes with nitrogen heterocycles by O atom transfer from oxotechnetium(V) cores. Crystal structures of mer-[Cl3(pic)3Tc] and mer-[Cl3(pic)(PMe2Ph)2Tc] (pic = 4-picoline). Electrochemical parameters fore the reduction of TcII, TcIII, and TcIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jun; Yamano, Akahito; Clarke, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    The combination of pyridine ligands, (OCl 4 Tc) - , and O atom acceptors of different cone angles, such as PMe 2 Ph or PPh 3 , results in Tc III complexes that vary in the coordination of the phosphine ligand. The compounds mer[Cl 3 (4-picoline) 3 Tc] and mer-(Cl 3 (4-picoline)(PMe 2 Ph) 2 Tc) have been obtained in good yield and have been characterized spectroscopically and by single-crystal x-ray diffraction. The crystal structure data are reported. Linear correlations of technetium reduction potentials in DMF with electrochemical ligand additivity parameters (E L 's) have been obtained for the Tc II,I , Tc III,II , and Tc IV,III couples. The slope and intercept (S M , I M ) pairs for each technetium oxidation-reduction couple, respectively, are (1.39, -2.07), (1.29, -0.91), and (1.00, 0.65). 32 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Gold nanoparticles interacting with β-cyclodextrin-phenylethylamine inclusion complex: a ternary system for photothermal drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierpe, Rodrigo; Lang, Erika; Jara, Paul; Guerrero, Ariel R; Chornik, Boris; Kogan, Marcelo J; Yutronic, Nicolás

    2015-07-22

    We report the synthesis of a 1:1 β-cyclodextrin-phenylethylamine (βCD-PhEA) inclusion complex (IC) and the adhesion of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) onto microcrystals of this complex, which forms a ternary system. The formation of the IC was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction and NMR analyses ((1)H and ROESY). The stability constant of the IC (760 M(-1)) was determined using the phase solubility method. The adhesion of AuNPs was obtained using the magnetron sputtering technique, and the presence of AuNPs was confirmed using UV-vis spectroscopy (surface plasmon resonance effect), which showed an absorbance at 533 nm. The powder X-ray diffractograms of βCD-PhEA were similar to those of the crystals decorated with AuNPs. A comparison of the one- and two-dimensional NMR spectra of the IC with and without AuNPs suggests partial displacement of the guest to the outside of the βCD due to attraction toward AuNPs, a characteristic tropism effect. The size, morphology, and distribution of the AuNPs were analyzed using TEM and SEM. The average size of the AuNPs was 14 nm. Changes in the IR and Raman spectra were attributed to the formation of the complex and to the specific interactions of this group with the AuNPs. Laser irradiation assays show that the ternary system βCD-PhEA-AuNPs in solution enables the release of the guest.

  16. Evaluation of radiochemical purity and stability of 99mTc-HSA complex in fluid for peritoneal dialysis in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciniak, M.; Przedlacki, J.; Baczynski, D.; Wankowicz, Z.

    1996-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) labeled with 131 I or 99m Tc was adopted in isotopic diagnostics for evaluation of volume and dynamics of vascular system. Because of high doses absorbed by patient's body due to long half-life period and high energy of 131 I application of 99m Tc (low energy, short half-life) to HSA labelling would be useful. Condition for applying of 99m Tc-HSA in monitoring of peritoneal dialysis kinetics is complex stability during four-hour period in peritoneal dialysis conditions. Evaluation of stability of 99m Tc-HSA complex in period from 30 minutes to 4 hours after complex preparation was done by means of paper radiochromatography and column chromatography. Additionally, separation of the complex after one- and four-hour incubations with solutions for peritoneal dialysis was done. The studies carried out proved stability of the complex during 4-hour period after preparation and incubation with solutions for peritoneal dialysis. 99m Tc-HSA complex content was above 98% at all time intervals. The result obtained point out possibility of replacing of albumin labeled with 131 I by albumin labeled with 99m Tc

  17. Formation of binary and ternary complexes of mercaptobenzimidazoles with lanthanides in presence of aminopolycarboxylic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seshi Reddy, P; Manwal, D D; Chandra Pal, A V [Osmania Univ., Hyderabad (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-05-01

    The formation constants of 1:1 and 1:2 binary Ln (III)-2-mercaptomethylbenzimidazole (MMB), Ln (III)-2-mercapto-ethylbenzimidazole (MEB) and 1:1:1 ternary [Ln (III)-A-MMB], [Ln (III)-A-MEB] chelates [where Ln(III) = Pr, Nd, Gd, Dy and Y; A = iminodiacetic acid (IMDA), hydroxyethyliminodiacetic acid (HIMDA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)] have been determined pH-metrically in 50% (v/v) aqueous ethanol medium at 30 degC and I = 0.1 M (NaClO{sub 4}). The ligands MMB and MEB coordinates as secondary ligands in presence of IMDA, HIMDA and NTA with metal ions. (author). 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Comparative study of tricarbonilic complexes of 99mTC in the diagnosis of fungal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, Leticia Gabriela; Teran, Mariella Adriana; Reyes, Ana Laura

    2017-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Clinical-epidemiological studies show that the incidence of fungal infections has experienced a substantial increase in the last years. Our working group focused on the radioactive labelling of commercially available antifungal agents and their evaluation as potential specific tracer agents for fungal infections (Curr Radiopharm, 2014, 7( 2), 144-150). Objective: Optimization of various antifungal agents labelling using 99m Tc tricarbonyl complexes and their subsequent evaluation in vitro and in vivo as radiotracers in the detection, through scintigraphic images, of fungal infections. Methodology: Complexes were obtained by substitution of the precursor triaquotricarboniltechnetium (I) with the antifungals: Caspofungin, amphotericin b, Voriconazole and Fluconazole[2]. The physicochemical evaluation of the complexes was performed by the analysis of the stability in milieu, stability in plasma, lipophilicity, plasma protein binding and binding to yeasts. The biological evaluation of the complexes was carried out according to the protocol 070510 approved by the Commission of Animal Experimentation (University of the Republic, Uruguay). The model used consisted of CD1 mice (n=4 per group), females of 8-10 weeks with a weight of 22 ± 2 g. The groups studied were: G0=healthy animals, G1=sterile inflammation, G2=infection by C.albicans and G3=infection by A.niger. The lesions were induced by inoculation of 100μL of the agents in the left hind thigh. Once the lesions were developed, the complexes were administered iv (37MBq,1mCi in 0.1mL) and biodistribution studies were performed at various post-injection times. In addition, images were acquired in a preclinical image system for animals for 60 min, 40 mm ROR, 5-pinhole collimator, 80 x 80 pixel array. Results: All the complexes were obtained with a radiochemical purity higher to 90,0% and were stable more than 4 hours post substitution. Plasma stability, Log P, Protein binding and C

  19. Ternary superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgi, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    Ternary superconductors constitute a class of superconducting compounds with exceptional properties such as high transition temperatures (≅ 15.2 K), extremely high critical fields (H c2 >60 Tesla), and the coexistence of superconductivity and long-range magnetic order. This has generated great interest in the scientific community and resulted in a large number of experimental and theoretical investigations in which many new ternary compounds have been discovered. A review of some of the properties of these ternary compounds is presented with particular emphasis on the ternary molybdenum chalcogenides and the ternary rare earth transition metal tetraborides. The effect of partial substitution of a second metal atom to form pseudoternary compounds is examined as well as some of the proposed correlations between the superconducting transition temperature and the structural and electronic properties of the ternary superconductors

  20. Synthesis, characteristics and luminescent properties of a new Tb(III) ternary complex applied in near UV-based LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Naiqun; Li, Liping; Yang, Yamin; Zhang, Aiqin; Jia, Husheng; Liu, Xuguang; Xu, Bingshe

    2015-11-01

    A novel Tb(III) ternary complex, Tb(p-BBA)3UA, was synthesized with 4-benzoylbenzoic acid (p-BBA) as primary ligand and undecylenic acid (UA) as reactive ligand. Tb(III) complex exhibits high thermal stability and wide and strong excitation bands from 310 nm to 400 nm when monitored at 543 nm, which matches well with the 365 nm UV chip. The complex displays Tb(III) characteristic peaks at 488, 543, 584 and 619 nm under the excitation of 365 nm UV-light. The intramolecular energy transfer process was also discussed. Meanwhile, the complex has longer fluorescence lifetime (1.317 ms) and higher quantum yield (44.8%). When used in LED with 365 nm UV chip (power efficiency is 17.3 lm/W), the complex still maintained its qualified luminescent performance. All the results indicate that Tb(p-BBA)3UA can be applied as a green component for fabrication of near UV-based white LED.

  1. Comparison of Escherichia coli tRNAPhe in the free state, in the ternary complex and in the ribosomal A and P sites by chemical probing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douthwaite, S; Garrett, R A; Wagner, R

    1983-01-01

    tRNAPheE.coli was modified at accessible guanosine, cytidine, and adenosine residues using the chemical modification method described by Peattie and Gilbert [Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 77, 4679-4689 (1980)]. Modification characteristics of the tRNA in the free state, in the ternary complex...

  2. Potentiometric studies on some ternary complexes of Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III) and Ho(III) with cyclohexanediaminetetraacetic acid as primary ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marathe, D.G.; Munshi, K.N.

    1983-01-01

    The formation constants of the ternary complexes of neodymium(III), samarium(III), gadlonium(III) and holmium(III) with cyclohexanediaminetetraacetic acid (CyDTA) as primary ligand and dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN), dihydroxynaphthalene-6-sulphonic acid (DHNSA) and cateechol-3,5-disulphonic acid (CDSA) as secondary ligands have been investigated by potentiometric titration technique. The secondary ligands have been investigated by potentiometric titration technique. The values of formation constants of 1:1:1 ternary chelates are reported at three different temperatures, and at a fixed ionic strength, μ = 0.1 M (NaClO 4 ). (author)

  3. Radiosynthesis and biodistribution of 99mTcN-Garenoxacin dithiocarbamate complex a potential infection imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Qaiser Shah; Aakif Ullah Khan; Muhammad Rafiullah Khan

    2011-01-01

    Garenoxacin (GXN) was modified to its dithiocarbamate followed by radiolabeling with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) through [ 99m Tc-N] 2+ core. The suitability of the 99m TcN-Garenoxacin dithiocarbamate (GXND) complex as a potential multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MDRSA) and penicillin-resistant Streptococci (PRSC) infection radiotracer was assessed in artificially infected rats (AFRT). The radiolabeled complex was investigated for its radiochemical purity (RCP), permanence in serum using HPLC and TLC methods. In vitro binding with MDRSA and PRSC was performed at 37 deg C. The 99m TcN-GXND showed maximum RCP of 98.00 ± 0.22% and remained more than 90% stable up to 4 h. The 99m TcN-GXND showed saturated in vitro binding with living MDRSA and PRSC, respectively. The complex showed normal biodistribution in healthy rats (HRT), however in AFRT, seven fold uptakes was observed in infected muscle as compared to inflamed and normal muscles. Based on the high RCP, stability in serum, better in vitro binding with bacteria, biodistribution behavior and the target to non-target (infected to inflamed muscle) ratio, we recommend the 99m TcN-GXND complex for in vivo investigation of MDRSA and PRSC infection in human. (author)

  4. Ternary iron(II) complex with an emissive imidazopyridine arm from Schiff base cyclizations and its oxidative DNA cleavage activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arindam; Dhar, Shanta; Nethaji, Munirathinam; Chakravarty, Akhil R

    2005-01-21

    The ternary iron(II) complex [Fe(L')(L")](PF6)3(1) as a synthetic model for the bleomycins, where L' and L" are formed from metal-mediated cyclizations of N,N'-(2-hydroxypropane-1,3-diyl)bis(pyridine-2-aldimine)(L), is synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. In the six-coordinate iron(ii) complex, ligands L' and L" show tetradentate and bidentate chelating modes of bonding. Ligand L' is formed from an intramolecular attack of the alcoholic OH group of L to one imine moiety leading to the formation of a stereochemically constrained five-membered ring. Ligand L" which is formed from an intermolecular reaction involving one imine moiety of L and pyridine-2-carbaldehyde has an emissive cationic imidazopyridine pendant arm. The complex binds to double-stranded DNA in the minor groove giving a Kapp value of 4.1 x 10(5) M(-1) and displays oxidative cleavage of supercoiled DNA in the presence of H2O2 following a hydroxyl radical pathway. The complex also shows photo-induced DNA cleavage activity on UV light exposure involving formation of singlet oxygen as the reactive species.

  5. Ternary copper(II) complex: NCI60 screening, toxicity studies, and evaluation of efficacy in xenograft models of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Tai-Lin; Abdul Aziz, Norazlin; Mohd Kornain, Noor-Kaslina; Samiulla, D. S.; Lo, Kwok-Wai; Ng, Chew-Hee

    2018-01-01

    Copper(II) ternary complex, [Cu(phen)(C-dmg)(H2O)]NO3 was evaluated against a panel of cell lines, tested for in vivo efficacy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma xenograft models as well as for toxicity in NOD scid gamma mice. The Cu(II) complex displayed broad spectrum cytotoxicity against multiple cancer types, including lung, colon, central nervous system, melanoma, ovarian, and prostate cancer cell lines in the NCI-60 panel. The Cu(II) complex did not cause significant induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A and 1A enzymes but moderately inhibited CYP isoforms 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2B6, 2C8 and 3A4. The complex significantly inhibited tumor growth in nasopharyngeal carcinoma xenograft bearing mice models at doses which were well tolerated without causing significant or permanent toxic side effects. However, higher doses which resulted in better inhibition of tumor growth also resulted in toxicity. PMID:29329342

  6. Development of a formulation for the preparation of 99m Tc-Ida-bis-Biotin complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez B, L.C.

    2000-01-01

    The radiopharmaceuticals of diagnostic use incorporate the radioisotope to an organic or inorganic molecule which goes selectively to the interest organ, to an a physiologic or metabolic process of the body with a simple and quantitatively interpretable kinetics. The 99m Tc occupies 80% from total of the studies realized in the world by the optimum combination of physical half-life (6 h), radionuclide quantity (ng) and high energy emission which allows to obtain results with the greatest information. Actually, in Nuclear Medicine, the research strategies are directed to the use of 'premarkers systems' based in the antibody administration, separated from radionuclide through the use of the avidin/biotin system. According to these considerations it was developed the 99m Tc-IDA-bis-Biotine complex as a new radiopharmaceutical which improves the diagnostic image of infectious core and tumorals. The IDA-biotin compound was synthesised and characterized by its melting point, IR spectroscopy, NMR, MS, UV and High-resolution liquid chromatography (HRLC). With base in an experimental factorial design those variables were established which influence in the radiochemical purity of the radiopharmaceutical which allowed to determine the reaction conditions, pH 9 at environmental temperature (22 Celsius degrees) and the optimum concentrations of the formulation components. IDA-biotine 1.0 mg, stannous chloride 0.1 mg and gluconate 15 mg as weak binding linking were realized to the lyophilized product quality control tests like: stability and radiochemical purity. The analytical techniques used UV spectrophotometry and HRLC were validated. The studies of biodistribution of the 99m Tc-Ida-bis-biotin complex were realized in healthy laboratory animals, showing stability 'In vivo' with renal purification. (Author)

  7. Potentiometric studies on the complexes of tetracycline (TC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) with some metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghandour, M.A.; Azab, H.A.; Hassan, A.; Ali, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The interaction of Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Pb(II), Al(III), and UO 2 (II) ions with tetracycline (TC) were studied by potentiometric pH titrations. The formation constants of the different binary complexes formed in such systems have been determined at 25±0.1 deg C and μ=0.1 moll -1 (NaNO 3 ). Potentiometric pH equilibrium measurements have been made under the same conditions for the interaction of oxytetracycline (OTC) and Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), and UO 2 (II). The formation of (1:1) binary complexes are inferred from the potentiometric pH titration curves. The protonation constants of TC and OTC were also determined under the same conditions and refined (ESAB2M computer program). The transition metal stability constants are consistent with the Irving-Williams series. (authors)

  8. Effector region of the translation elongation factor EF-Tu.GTP complex stabilizes an orthoester acid intermediate structure of aminoacyl-tRNA in a ternary complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, C; Limmer, S; Zeidler, W; Sprinzl, M

    1994-01-01

    tRNA(Val) from Escherichia coli was aminoacylated with [1-13C]valine and its complex with Thermus thermophilus elongation factor EF-Tu.GTP was analyzed by 13C NMR spectroscopy. The results suggest that the aminoacyl residue of the valyl-tRNA in ternary complex with bacterial EF-Tu and GTP is not attached to tRNA by a regular ester bond to either a 2'- or 3'-hydroxyl group; instead, an intermediate orthoester acid structure with covalent linkage to both vicinal hydroxyls of the terminal adenosine-76 is formed. Mutation of arginine-59 located in the effector region of EF-Tu, a conserved residue in protein elongation factors and the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins), abolishes the stabilization of the orthoester acid structure of aminoacyl-tRNA. PMID:8183898

  9. Ternary fission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the energy minimization of all possible ternary breakups of a heavy radioactive nucleus. Further, within the TCM we have analysed the competition between different geometries as well as different positioning of the fragments. Also, an attempt was made to calculate the mass distribution of ternary fission process within the ...

  10. Effects of Ligands on a Ternary Hydroxo Complex Formation with Eu(III) in a Aqueous Solution: Comparison of a Pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate with a Phthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, K. K.; Cho, H. R.; Kim, W. H.; Jung, E. C.

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of a radionuclide with ligands in a groundwater influences its migration through a hydrogeological system due to a change in the characteristics of a dissolution and a sorption. Actinide ions are classified as a hard acid and strongly interact with ligands having an oxygen donor atom of a hard base such as a hydroxide, carbonate and carboxylate. These ligands reveal a large ionic bonding character. A number of experimental results on a binary complex formation of actinides have been reported. However, actinides may easily form a ternary complex by interacting simultaneously with two different ligands, since an ionic bonding does not restrict the spatial orientation of a ligand. In previous studies, a ternary hydroxo complex formation was investigated by using pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate (PDA) or phthalate as an organic ligand and Eu(III) as an analogue of an actinide(III) ion. Although these organic ligands equally contain two carboxylate groups that interact with an Eu(III) ion, their stabilities reveal big differences. PDA is a tridentate ligand forming two 5-membered chelates, while phthalate is a bidentate ligand forming a 7-membered chelate. The latter reveals a lower stability than the former due to an angle strain. This is one of the reasons for the lower stability of the Eu(III)-phthalate than that of the Eu(III)- PDA. The difference in the stabilities of binary complexes, EuL + (L=organic ligand), influences the stabilities of the ternary hydroxo complexes, Eu(OH)L. The coordination of a phenylic or pyridine ligand can greatly enhance the fluorescence of an Eu(III) ion due to the high absorbance of a ligand by a π → π * transition and the transfer of this energy to an Eu(III) ion. These fluorescence characteristics in a binary complex system could be changed in a ternary complex. In this study, the effect of a ligand on the stability of a ternary hydroxo complex is reported by comparing the stabilities of Eu-PDA with Eu-phthalate systems

  11. Thin-layer chromatography of ternary complexes of group-IIIA metals with 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone and 2,2'-bipyridyl on cellulose layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, H E; Saitoh, K; Suzuki, N [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1980-11-11

    Normal phase thin-layer chromatographic behaviour of several ternary complexes of group-IIIA metals with 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) and 2,2'bipyridyl (bpy) has been investigated on cellulose layer. The ternary complexes of lanthanide metals show higher mutual separability than the complexes with TTA alone. Mutual separation of TTA complexes with La(III), Ce(III), Eu(III) or Y(III), Sc(III), Th(IV), and U(VI) has been successfully achieved by two-dimensional TLC, primarily with carbon tetrachloride-benzene (75:25) containing 0.02M TTA, and secondary with carbon tetrachloride-hexane (35:65) containing both 0.02M TTA and 0.02M bpy.

  12. Inner-sphere, outer-sphere and ternary surface complexes: a TRLFS study of the sorption process of europium(III) onto smectite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpf, Th.; Fanghaenel, Th.; Bauer, A.; Kim, J.I.

    2002-01-01

    The surface sorption process of Eu(III) onto smectite was investigated by TRLFS in the trace concentration range. With increasing pH the formation of an inner-sphere Eu(III) surface complex was observed. The differences in the spectra and the fluorescence emission lifetimes of the surface sorbed Eu(III) in presence and absence of carbonate indicate the formation of ternary clay/Eu(III)/carbonate complexes /1/. (orig.)

  13. Complexes of technetium-99m with tetrapeptides, a new class of 99mTc-labelled agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanbilloen, Hubert P.; Bormans, Guy M.; Roo, Michel J. de; Verbruggen, Alfons M.

    1995-01-01

    Tetrapeptides are a class of N4-tetraligands that can efficiently bind 99m Tc. In fact, tetrapeptides can be considered as derivatives of mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) in which the mercaptoacetyl moiety is replaced by a more stable and easier to handle aminoacyl group. Direct labelling of tetrapeptides with 99m Tc in alkaline medium (pH ≥ 11) in the presence of stannous ions gave a high yield (>95%) of one or two (probably isomeric) radiochemical species. Exchange labelling at different pH values in the presence of stannous tartrate resulted in lower yields of the same 99m Tc-labelled products as those formed during direct labelling. In addition, other radiochemical species were formed of which one was characterized as an oxotechnetium-complex with the cyclisized tetrapeptide. Tetrapeptides with a chiral centre in the first amino acid yield upon labelling with 99m Tc two radiochemical species, probably the two diastereomers with an oxotechnetium core respectively syn and anti with respect to the substituent on the amino acid. Only one diastereomer was observed when the chiral carbon atom is located in the second or third amino acid. Electrophoresis indicated that these new 99m Tc-labelled complexes are neutral in acidic medium and negatively charged in neutral and alkaline conditions. This correlates with a complex in which an oxotechnetium(V) group is bound to the ligand through three deprotonated nitrogen atoms of the amide functions and the free electron pair of the amine nitrogen atom. Biodistribution in mice showed for all studied 99m Tc-labelled tetrapeptides a rapid clearance from the blood mainly by the renal system. The presence of a methyl substituent in the tetrapeptide increased the urinary excretion. 99m Tc-labelledl -glycylalanylglycylglycine showed in mice a urinary excretion comparable to that of 99m Tc-MAG3. Further rise of lipophilicity by introduction of a dimethyl, isopropyl or isobutyryl group leads to increased hepatobiliary handling. It

  14. Trialkylphosphine-stabilized copper(I) gallium(III) phenylchalcogenolate complexes: crystal structures and generation of ternary semiconductors by thermolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Oliver; Krautscheid, Harald

    2012-06-18

    A series of organometallic trialkylphosphine-stabilized copper gallium phenylchalcogenolate complexes [(R(3)P)(m)Cu(n)Me(2-x)Ga(EPh)(n+x+1)] (R = Me, Et, (i)Pr, (t)Bu; E = S, Se, Te; x = 0, 1) has been prepared and structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction. From their molecular structures three groups of compounds can be distinguished: ionic compounds, ring systems, and cage structures. All these complexes contain one gallium atom bound to one or two methyl groups, whereas the number of copper atoms, and therefore the nuclearity of the complexes, is variable and depends mainly on size and amount of phosphine ligand used in synthesis. The Ga-E bonds are relatively rigid, in contrast to flexible Cu-E bonds. The lengths of the latter are controlled by the coordination number and steric influences. The Ga-E bond lengths depend systematically on the number of methyl groups bound to the gallium atom, with somewhat shorter bonds in monomethyl compounds compared to dimethyl compounds. Quantum chemical computations reproduce this trend and show furthermore that the rotation of one phenyl group around the Ga-E bond is a low energy process with two distinct minima, corresponding to two different conformations found experimentally. Mixtures of different types of chalcogen atoms on molecular scale are possible, and then ligand exchange reactions in solution lead to mixed site occupation. In thermogravimetric studies the complexes were converted into the ternary semiconductors CuGaE(2). The thermolysis reaction is completed at temperatures between 250 and 400 °C, typically with lower temperatures for the heavier chalcogens. Because of significant release of Me(3)Ga during the thermolysis process, and especially in case of copper excess in the precursor complexes, binary copper chalcogenides are obtained as additional thermolysis products. Quaternary semiconductors can be obtained from mixed chalcogen precursors.

  15. Simultaneous determination of Hg(II)-Ag(I)-Cd(II) by conductometric titration using the formation of ternary complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashida, Ichiro; Yoshida, Hitoshi; Taga, Mitsuhiko; Hikime, Seiichiro

    1979-01-01

    A conductometric determination of Hg(II), Ag(I) and Cd(II) was carried out by using the insoluble ternary complex formation of the metal ions with iodide ion in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline (phen). Recommended procedure is as follows; An aliquot of sample solution containing (14 -- 29) mg of Hg(II), (8 -- 16) mg of Ag(I), and (9 -- 17) mg of Cd(II) transfered into a 100 ml beaker. Add to acetate buffer and stoichiometric amounts of phen (40% ethanol-water solution). Amounts of nitrate ion which was estimated separately by other titration with 0.1 M Ag(phen) 2 complex (40% ethanol-water solution) are adjusted in the range of (4.0 -- 6.0) mM. The sample solution is titrated with 0.1 M KI standard solution at the rate of 0.20 ml/min or less. The titration curve showed three end-points corresponding to the formation of (1) Hg(phen) 2 I 2 , (2) Ag(phen)I, and (3) Cd(phen) 2 I 2 . The relative standard deviation was less than 0.8%, when the pH value was controlled at 4.0 -- 4.5 (acetate buffer) and the nitrate concentration was adjusted in the range of (4.0 -- 6.0)mM. The effect of diverse ions on the determination was also investigated in detail. (author)

  16. In vitro and in vivo siRNA delivery to hepatocyte utilizing ternary complexation of lactosylated dendrimer/cyclodextrin conjugates, siRNA and low-molecular-weight sacran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yuya; Higashi, Taishi; Motoyama, Keiichi; Jono, Hirofumi; Ando, Yukio; Arima, Hidetoshi

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we newly developed the ternary complexes consisting of lactosylated dendrimer (generation 3)/α-cyclodextrin conjugate (Lac-α-CDE), siRNA and the anionic polysaccharide sacrans, and evaluated their utility as siRNA transfer carriers. Three kinds of the low-molecular-weight sacrans, i.e. sacran (100) (Mw 44,889Da), sacran (1000) (Mw 943,692Da) and sacran (10,000) (Mw 1,488,281Da) were used. Lac-α-CDE/siRNA/sacran ternary complexes were prepared by adding the low-molecular-weight sacrans to the Lac-α-CDE/siRNA binary complex solution. Cellular uptake of the ternary complex with sacran (100) was higher than that of the binary complex or the other ternary complexes with sacran (1000) and sacran (10,000) in HepG2 cells. Additionally, the ternary complex possessed high serum resistance and endosomal escaping ability in HepG2 cells. High liver levels of siRNA and Lac-α-CDE were observed after the intravenous administration of the ternary complex rather than that of the binary complex. Moreover, intravenous administration of the ternary complex (siRNA 5mg/kg) induced the significant RNAi effect in the liver of mice with negligible change of blood chemistry values. Therefore, a ternary complexation of the Lac-α-CDE/siRNA binary complex with sacran is useful as a hepatocyte-specific siRNA delivery system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Syntheses and radiolabeling of cysteine-oximes and pharmacological behaviour of their 99mTc complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothari, Kanchan; Banerjee, Sharmila; Sarma, H.D.; Pillai, M.R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Synthesis of two novel ligands using 2-oximino-butan-3-one and L-ethyl cysteinate is described. The synthetic procedure involved the formation of Schiff's base by the condensation of the amino group of L-ethyl cysteinate with the carbonyl group of 2-oximino-butan-3-one to provide the ligand I, N'(butan-2-enyl-3-oximino)ethyl cysteinate, followed by reduction of the Schiff's base with sodium borohydride to ligand II, N'(3-oximinobutyl)ethyl cysteinate. The ligands were characterised by NMR spectroscopy. Complexation studies with 99m Tc were carried out using stannous tartrate as the reducing agent. The complexes were characterised by paper chromatography, thin layer chromatography and paper electrophoresis techniques. The complexes are formed in high yields when the reactions were carried out at pH 7-9. The 99m Tc complex with ligand I is formed instantaneously while the 99m Tc complex with ligand II is formed at a slower rate. The complexes were found to be neutral but the lipophilicity of the complex with ligand I was higher than that of the complex of ligand II. The stability of the complex with ligand I was relatively poor as compared to that of the complex with ligand II. Biodistribution studies of the 99m Tc complexes of ligand I and II showed rapid blood clearance with hepatobiliary uptake. Renal excretion of the complex of ligand II was more than that observed for the complex of ligand I. The complexes did not show significant uptake in brain in spite of their favourable properties such as neutrality, lipophilicity and structural similarity with both ECD and HMPAO

  18. Synthesis of 99mTcN-clinafloxacin Dithiocarbamate Complex and Comparative Radiobiological Evaluation in Staphylococcus aureus Infected Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Syed Qaiser; Khan, Mohammad Rafiullah

    2014-01-01

    Clinafloxacin dithiocarbamate (CNND) preparation and radiolabeling through [ 99m Tc ≡ N] 2+ core with the gamma (γ) emitter ( 99m Tc) was assessed. The potentiality of the 99m Tc V ≡ N-CNND complex was investigated as perspective a Staphylococcus aureus (S.a.) in vivo infection radiotracer in terms of radiochemical stability in normal saline (n.s.), human serum (h.s.), binding efficacy with live and heat killed S.a. and biodistribution in female nude mice model (FNMD). More than 90% stability was observed in n.s. for 4 h with the highest yield of 98.70 ± 0.26% at 30 min after reconstitution. In h.s., the 99m Tc V ≡ N-CNND complex was found stable up to 16 h with 15.35% side products. Maximum in vitro binding (68.75 ± 0.80%, 90 min) with S.a. was observed after 90 min of incubation. In FNMD, (infected with live strain) approximately six-fold higher uptakes was noted in the infected to inflamed and normal muscles. The higher stability in n.s., h.s., higher S.a. (live) up take with specific and targeted in vivo distribution confirmed potentiality of the 99m Tc V ≡ N-CNND complex as perspective S.a.in vivo infection radiotracer

  19. Investigations on the structures of sup(99m)Tc and 113Sn pyrophosphate complexes and of sup(99m)Tc and 113Sn ethane hydroxy diphosphate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohloch, M.

    1980-01-01

    The complex formation of double labelling of bivalent 113 Sn and reduced, quadrovalent sup(99m)Tc with pyrophosphate (PPi) or ethane hydroxy diphosphorate (EHDP) has been investigated by means of in vivo distribution in the rat. The molar rates of sup(99m)Tc and 113 Sn to PPi resp. EHDP, as well as the pH-value and the initial concentration is varied. Furthermore, both elements were oxidized with H 2 O 2 in the alkaline medium. Four typical sup(99m)Tc and two typical 113 Sn in-vivo distribution patterns can be differentiated: 1. Pertechnetate, characterized by a strong enrichment in the stomach, forms when all Sn-II has been oxidized to Sn-IV in the preparation. 2. One bone-seeking 113 Sn-II PPi (EHDP) complex and a sup(99m)Tc-IV PPi (EHDP) complex each, which are formed at least equimolar ratio of Sn to PPi (EHDP) and suffiently high concentration of PPi (EHDP) in the physiological pH-value. 3. A non-bone-seeking sup(99m)Tc-IV compound, which is enriched in the kidneys instead, is formed in the weakly alkaline medium or at low PPi (EHDP) concentration. This is probably monomeric technetium dioxide dihydrate. 4. A sup(99m)Tc as well as a Sn colloid is formed at deficient ligand concentration (PPi or EHDP to Sn). The chemical composition of the complexes is discussed the possible reaction courses are illustrated in the following diagrams. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Characterization of a new Tc (V) - glucosazine complex by UV - VIS and IR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganzerli Valentini, M.T.; Stella, R.; Maggi, L.

    1989-01-01

    A new radiopharmaceutical is proposed for brain and heart functional and radiodiagnostic studies. A Tc complex containing the glucose molecule and chelating groups that do not alter the basic chemical features of the molecule has been prepared. The ligand is formed by the combination of one hydrazine molecule with two sugar molecules and is the first product of the D-glucose-hydrazine reaction that in aqueous basic medium may proceed up to hydrazone and in acid medium up to osazone. These transformations are observed at pH>5 through the UV absorption peaks at 274 and 224 nm, and at pH 1 . UV absorption spectra of the complex, dissolved in water as well as in acetonitrile, have been recorded: the characteristic single peak at 274 nm and at 276 nm respectively for the two solvents is unaffected by the presence of free ligand, due to the quasi null absorption in this spectral region. Molar extinction coefficient is found equal to 20850 L.mol 1 .cm 1 in solutions whose Tc concentration was in the range 2x10 5 -5x10 4 M and the ligand 10 2 - 10 1 M. The IR absorption spectrum has a C=N stretching band at 1620 cm 1 which means that the acyclic form of the azine is predominant; other large and strong bands refer to OH stretching at 3300 cm 1 , to C-O stretching at 1020 cm 1 and to C-N stretching (typical of the cyclic form) at 1080 cm 1 . (author)

  1. Monoanionic 99mTc-tricarbonyl-aminopolycarboxylate complexes with uncharged pendant groups: Radiosynthesis and evaluation as potential renal tubular tracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowska, Malgorzata; Klenc, Jeffrey; Jarkas, Nashwa; Marzilli, Luigi G; Taylor, Andrew T

    2017-04-01

    99m Tc(CO) 3 -nitrilotriacetic acid, 99m Tc(CO) 3 (NTA), is a new renal tubular agent with pharmacokinetic properties comparable to those of 131 I-OIH but the clearance of 99m Tc(CO) 3 (NTA) and 131 I-OIH is still less than the clearance of PAH, the gold standard for the measurement of effective renal plasma flow. At physiological pH, dianionic 99m Tc(CO) 3 (NTA) has a mononegative inner metal-coordination sphere and a mononegative uncoordinated carboxyl group. To evaluate alternate synthetic approaches, we assessed the importance of an uncoordinated carboxyl group, long considered essential for tubular transport, by evaluating the pharmacokinetics of three analogs with the 99m Tc(CO) 3 (NTA) metal-coordination sphere but with uncharged pendant groups. 99m Tc(CO) 3 complexes with N-(2-acetamido)iminodiacetic acid (ADA), N-(2-hydroxyethyl)iminodiacetic acid (HDA) and N-(fluoroethyl)iminodiacetic acid (FEDA) were prepared using a tricarbonyl kit and isolated by HPLC. The pharmacokinetics were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats, with 131 I-OIH as an internal control; urine was analyzed for metabolites. Plasma protein binding and erythrocyte uptake were determined from the 10min blood samples. Re(CO) 3 (FEDA), the analog of 99m Tc(CO) 3 (FEDA), was prepared and characterized. 99m Tc(CO) 3 (ADA), 99m Tc(CO) 3 (HDA) and 99m Tc(CO) 3 (FEDA) were efficiently prepared as a single species with high radiochemical purities (>99%). These new monoanionic 99m Tc(CO) 3 tracers with uncharged dangling groups all showed rapid blood clearance and high specificity for renal excretion. Activity in the urine, as a percent of 131 I-OIH at 10 and 60min, was 96% and 99% for ADA, 96% and 100% for HDA, and 100% and 99% for FEDA, respectively. Each new tracer was excreted unchanged in the urine. The Re(CO) 3 (FEDA) structure adds compelling evidence that such 99m Tc(CO) 3 (NTA) analogs have metal-coordination spheres identical to that of 99m Tc(CO) 3 (NTA). New tracers lacking the negatively

  2. Hydrogen-Bonding Capability of a Templating Difluorotoluene Nucleotide Residue in an RB69 DNA Polymerase Ternary Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Shuangluo; Konigsberg, William H.; Wang, Jimin (Yale)

    2011-08-29

    Results obtained using 2,4-difluorotoluene nucleobase (dF) as a nonpolar thymine isostere by Kool and colleagues challenged the Watson-Crick dogma that hydrogen bonds between complementary bases are an absolute requirement for accurate DNA replication. Here, we report crystal structure of an RB69 DNA polymerase L561A/S565G/Y567A triple mutant ternary complex with a templating dF opposite dTTP at 1.8 {angstrom}-resolution. In this structure, direct hydrogen bonds were observed between: (i) dF and the incoming dTTP, (ii) dF and residue G568 of the polymerase, and (iii) dF and ordered water molecules surrounding the nascent base pair. Therefore, this structure provides evidence that a templating dF can form novel hydrogen bonds with the incoming dTTP and with the enzyme that differ from those formed with a templating dT.

  3. Synthesis, characterization, and near-infrared luminescent properties of the ternary thulium complex covalently bonded to mesoporous MCM-41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Jing; Song Shuyan; Xing Yan; Zhang Hongjie; Li Zhefeng; Sun Lining; Guo Xianmin; Fan Weiqiang

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structure of a ternary Tm(DBM) 3 phen complex (DBM=dibenzoylmethane; phen=1, 10-phenanthroline) and the synthesis of hybrid mesoporous material in which the complex covalently bonded to mesoporous MCM-41 are reported. Crystal data: Tm(DBM) 3 phen C 59 H 47 N 2 O 7 Tm, monoclinic, P21/c, a=19.3216(12) A, b=10.6691(7) A, c=23.0165(15) A, α=90 deg., β=91.6330(10) deg., γ=90 deg., V=4742.8(5) A 3 , Z=4. The properties of the Tm(DBM) 3 phen complex and the corresponding hybrid mesoporous material [Tm(DBM) 3 phen-MCM-41] have been studied. The results reveal that the Tm(DBM) 3 phen complex is successfully covalently bonded to MCM-41. Both Tm(DBM) 3 phen complex and Tm(DBM) 3 phen-MCM-41 display typical near-infrared (NIR) luminescence upon excitation at the maximum absorption of the ligands, which contributes to the efficient energy transfer from the ligands to the Tm 3+ ion, an antenna effect. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) centered at 1474 nm in the emission spectrum of Tm(DBM) 3 phen-MCM-41 is 110 nm, which is the potential candidate of broadening amplification band from C band (1530-1560 nm) to S + band (1450-1480 nm) in optical area. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure of Tm(DBM) 3 phen complex (DBM=dibenzoylmethane; phen=1, 10-phenanthroline). The complex is successfully covalently bonded to MCM-41 (Tm(DBM) 3 phen-MCM-41). After ligand-mediated excitation, the emission spectrum of Tm(DBM) 3 phen-MCM-41 shows the bands 802 and 1474 nm. The FWHM of the 1474-nm band for Tm(DBM) 3 phen-MCM-41 is 110 nm, such a broad spectrum enables a wide gain bandwidth for optical amplification

  4. Synthesis, structural characterization, in vitro antimicrobial and anticancer activity studies of ternary metal complexes containing glycine amino acid and the anti-inflammatory drug lornoxicam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Walaa H.; Mohamed, Gehad G.; El-Dessouky, Maher M. I.

    2015-02-01

    Mixed ligand complexes were synthesized using lornoxicam (LOR) as the primary ligand and glycine amino acid (HGly) as the secondary ligand. They were characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis, mass, 1H NMR, ESR spectral studies, TG-DTG, X-ray powder diffraction and physical analytical studies. From the molar conductance, magnetic moment and electronic spectral data of the synthesized complexes, general formulae of [M(LOR)2(Gly)]·Xn·yH2O where M = Cr(III) (X = Cl, n = 2, y = 3), Mn(II) (X = Cl, n = 1, y = 1), Co(II) (X = BF4, n = 1, y = 0), Ni(II) (X = Cl, n = 1, y = 0), Cu(II) (X = BF4, n = 1, y = 2) and Zn(II) (X = BF4, n = 1, y = 2) and (M = Fe(II) (X = BF4, n = 1, y = 1) and Fe(III) (X = Cl, n = 2, y = 1) with an octahedral structure were proposed. Thermal analyses show that the complexes lose water molecules of hydration initially and subsequently expel anionic parts and organic ligands in continuous steps. The kinetic parameters namely E, ΔH∗, ΔS∗ and ΔG∗ illustrate the spontaneous association of the metal and ligands in the formation of the complexes. The antimicrobial efficiency of the LOR and HGly ligands and the ternary complexes were examined by in vitro method against various pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains. The metal complexes were found to possess efficient antimicrobial properties compared to lornoxicam and most of these complexes could turn out to be excellent models for the design of effective antibiotic drug substances. Also, the two ligands, in comparison to ternary metal complexes are screened for their anticancer activity against breastic cancer cell line. The results showed that the metal complexes be more active than the parent LOR and glycine free ligands except Cr(III) ternary complex which was found to be inactive.

  5. Synthesis and biodistribution of a novel 99mTc nitrido dithiocarbamate complex containing aromatic group for cerebral imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Junbo; Lin Xiao; Ren Jialei; Liu Jing; Wang Xuebin

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the N-benzyl dithiocarbamate (BZDTC) was synthesized and radiolabeled with [ 99m TcN] 2+ intermediate to form the bis(N-benzyl dithiocarbamato) nitrido technetium-99m complex [ 99m TcN(BZDTC) 2 ]. The radiochemical purity of the complex was over 90% by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). It was stable over 6 h at room temperature. The partition coefficient and electrophoresis results indicated that this complex was lipophilic and neutral. Biodistribution in mice showed that the complex accumulated in the brain with high uptake. The brain uptake (ID%/g) was 1.87, 1.21 and 0.85 and the brain/blood ratio was 0.75, 1.55 and 1.12 at 5, 30 and 60 min post-injection, respectively. These results suggest that this complex could be a potential brain perfusion imaging agent.

  6. Ternary polyplex micelles with PEG shells and intermediate barrier to complexed DNA cores for efficient systemic gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junjie; Chen, Qixian; Zha, Zengshi; Li, Hui; Toh, Kazuko; Dirisala, Anjaneyulu; Matsumoto, Yu; Osada, Kensuke; Kataoka, Kazunori; Ge, Zhishen

    2015-07-10

    Simultaneous achievement of prolonged retention in blood circulation and efficient gene transfection activity in target tissues has always been a major challenge hindering in vivo applications of nonviral gene vectors via systemic administration. Herein, we constructed novel rod-shaped ternary polyplex micelles (TPMs) via complexation between the mixed block copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly{N'-[N-(2-aminoethyl)-2-aminoethyl]aspartamide} (PEG-b-PAsp(DET)) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-b-PAsp(DET) (PNIPAM-b-PAsp(DET)) and plasmid DNA (pDNA) at room temperature, exhibiting distinct temperature-responsive formation of a hydrophobic intermediate layer between PEG shells and pDNA cores through facile temperature increase from room temperature to body temperature (~37 °C). As compared with binary polyplex micelles of PEG-b-PAsp(DET) (BPMs), TPMs were confirmed to condense pDNA into a more compact structure, which achieved enhanced tolerability to nuclease digestion and strong counter polyanion exchange. In vitro gene transfection results demonstrated TPMs exhibiting enhanced gene transfection efficiency due to efficient cellular uptake and endosomal escape. Moreover, in vivo performance evaluation after intravenous injection confirmed that TPMs achieved significantly prolonged blood circulation, high tumor accumulation, and promoted gene expression in tumor tissue. Moreover, TPMs loading therapeutic pDNA encoding an anti-angiogenic protein remarkably suppressed tumor growth following intravenous injection into H22 tumor-bearing mice. These results suggest TPMs with PEG shells and facilely engineered intermediate barrier to inner complexed pDNA have great potentials as systemic nonviral gene vectors for cancer gene therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ternary fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagemans, C.

    1991-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1946, light (charged) particle accompanied fission (ternary fission) has been extensively studied, for spontaneous as well as for induced fission reactions. The reason for this interest was twofold: the ternary particles being emitted in space and time close to the scission point were expected to supply information on the scission point configuration and the ternary fission process was an important source of helium, tritium, and hydrogen production in nuclear reactors, for which data were requested by the nuclear industry. Significant experimental progress has been realized with the advent of high-resolution detectors, powerful multiparameter data acquisition systems, and intense neutron and photon beams. As far as theory is concerned, the trajectory calculations (in which scission point parameters are deduced from the experimental observations) have been very much improved. An attempt was made to explain ternary particle emission in terms of a Plateau-Rayleigh hydrodynamical instability of a relatively long cylindrical neck or cylindrical nucleus. New results have also been obtained on the so-called open-quotes trueclose quotes ternary fission (fission in three about-equal fragments). The spontaneous emission of charged particles has also clearly been demonstrated in recent years. This chapter discusses the main characteristics of ternary fission, theoretical models, light particle emission probabilities, the dependence of the emission probabilities on experimental variables, light particle energy distributions, light particle angular distributions, correlations between light particle accompanied fission observables, open-quotes trueclose quotes ternary fission, and spontaneous emission of heavy ions. 143 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs

  8. Enzyme-like catalysis via ternary complex mechanism: alkoxy-bridged dinuclear cobalt complex mediates chemoselective O-esterification over N-amidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yukiko; Santoro, Stefano; Azuma, Yuki; Himo, Fahmi; Ohshima, Takashi; Mashima, Kazushi

    2013-04-24

    Hydroxy group-selective acylation in the presence of more nucleophilic amines was achieved using acetates of first-row late transition metals, such as Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, and Zn. Among them, cobalt(II) acetate was the best catalyst in terms of reactivity and selectivity. The combination of an octanuclear cobalt carboxylate cluster [Co4(OCOR)6O]2 (2a: R = CF3, 2b: R = CH3, 2c: R = (t)Bu) with nitrogen-containing ligands, such as 2,2'-bipyridine, provided an efficient catalytic system for transesterification, in which an alkoxide-bridged dinuclear complex, Co2(OCO(t)Bu)2(bpy)2(μ2-OCH2-C6H4-4-CH3)2 (10), was successfully isolated as a key intermediate. Kinetic studies and density functional theory calculations revealed Michaelis-Menten behavior of the complex 10 through an ordered ternary complex mechanism similar to dinuclear metallo-enzymes, suggesting the formation of alkoxides followed by coordination of the ester.

  9. The structure of the ternary Eg5–ADP–ispinesib complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talapatra, S. K., E-mail: s.talapatra@beatson.gla.ac.uk; Schüttelkopf, A. W., E-mail: s.talapatra@beatson.gla.ac.uk; Kozielski, F. [The Beatson Institute for Cancer Research, Garscube Estate, Switchback Road, Bearsden, Glasgow G61 1BD, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-01

    The complex between the motor protein Eg5 and the phase II clinical candidate ispinesib provides insights into the mechanism of action of this important class of inhibitors. The human kinesin Eg5 is responsible for bipolar spindle formation during early mitosis. Inhibition of Eg5 triggers the formation of monoastral spindles, leading to mitotic arrest that eventually causes apoptosis. There is increasing evidence that Eg5 constitutes a potential drug target for the development of cancer chemotherapeutics. The most advanced Eg5-targeting agent is ispinesib, which exhibits potent antitumour activity and is currently in multiple phase II clinical trials. In this study, the crystal structure of the Eg5 motor domain in complex with ispinesib, supported by kinetic and thermodynamic binding data, is reported. Ispinesib occupies the same induced-fit pocket in Eg5 as other allosteric inhibitors, making extensive hydrophobic interactions with the protein. The data for the Eg5–ADP–ispinesib complex suffered from pseudo-merohedral twinning and revealed translational noncrystallographic symmetry, leading to challenges in data processing, space-group assignment and structure solution as well as in refinement. These complications may explain the lack of available structural information for this important agent and its analogues. The present structure represents the best interpretation of these data based on extensive data-reduction, structure-solution and refinement trials.

  10. Influence of the chelator structures on the stability of Re and Tc Tricarbonyl complexes: a computational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández Valdés, Daniel; Rodríguez Riera, Zalua; Jáuregui Haza, Ulises; Díaz García, Alicia; Benoist, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The development of novel radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine based on the M(CO)3 (M = Tc, Re) complexes has attracted great attention1. The versatility of this core and the easy production of the fac-[M(CO)3(H 2 O) 3 ]+ precursor could explain this interest2,3. The main characteristics of these tricarbonyl complexes are a high substitution stability of the three CO ligands and a corresponding lability of the coordinated water molecules, yielding, via easy exchange of a variety of mono-, bi-, and tridentate ligands, complexes of very high kinetic stability. A computational study of different tricarbonyl complexes for Re(I) and Tc(I) has been performed using density functional theory. The solvent effect was simulated using the polarizable continuum model. The fully optimized complexes show geometries that compare favorably with the X-ray data. These structures were used as a starting point to investigate the relative stability of tricarbonyl complexes with various tridentate ligands. They comprise an iminodiacetic acid unit for tridentate coordination to the fac-[M(CO) 3 ]+ moiety (M = Re, Tc), an aromatic ring system bearing a functional group (NO 2 -, NH 2 - and Cl-) as linking site model, and a tethering moiety (methylene, ethylene, propylene butylene or pentylene bridge) between the linking and coordinating sites. In general, Re complexes are more stables than the corresponding Tc complexes. Furthermore, the NH2 functional group, medium length in the carbon chain and meta substitution increase the stability of the complexes. The correlation of these results with the available experimental4 data on these systems allows bringing some understanding of the chemistry of tricarbonyl complexes. (author)

  11. Physicochemical and biological study of a renal scintigraphy agent: the DMSA - 99mTc complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laroche, Dominique

    1979-01-01

    This research thesis deals with the study of the dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) marked with 99m Tc, a recently developed scintigraphy agent used for the kidney isotopic exploration. The author notably studied the relationships between the physicochemical properties of solutions of dimercaptosuccinic acid marked with 99m Tc and the biological distribution of 99m Tc in order to reach a better understanding of the biological mechanism which results in technetium fixation to the kidney

  12. Synthesis of the 99mTc(CO)3-trovafloxacin dithiocarbamate complex and biological characterization in artificially methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infected rats model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Qaiser Shah; Muhammad Rafiullah Khan

    2011-01-01

    Synthesis of the 99m Tc(CO) 3 -trovafloxacin dithiocarbamate ( 99m Tc(CO) 3 -TVND) complex and biological characterization in artificially Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infected rats model was assessed. The suitability of the complex was evaluated and compared with 99m TcN-TVND, in terms of radiochemical immovability in saline, in vitro permanence in serum, in vitro binding with S. aureus and biodistribution in Male Sprague-Dawley rats (MSDR). After 30 min of the reconstitution both the complexes showed maximum radiochemical stabilities in saline and remain more than 90% stable up to 120 min. However the 99m Tc(CO) 3 -TVND showed to some extent higher stability than 99m TcN-TVND complex. In serum 1.75% less de-tagging was observed than 99m TcN-TVND complex. Both the complexes showed saturated in vitro binding with S. aureus and no significant difference were observed between the uptakes. Six fold uptakes were noted in the infected muscle as compared to the inflamed and normal muscles of the MDSR. The uptake of the 99m Tc(CO) 3 -TVND in infected muscle of the MSDR was 2.25% high as compared to the 99m TcN-TVND complex. Based on radiochemical stabilities in saline, serum, in vitro binding with MRSA and significantly higher uptake in the infected muscle, we recommend both the complexes for in vivo investigation of the MRSA infection in human. (author)

  13. Radiosynthesis and biodistribution of 99mTc-tricarbonyl complex of temafloxacin dithiocarbamate. A potential Streptococci pneumoniae infection radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Qaiser Shah; Muhammad Rafiullah Khan

    2011-01-01

    In the current investigation the complexation of derivatized temafloxacin with 99m Tc using [ 99m Tc(CO) 3 (H 2 O) 3 ] + precursor was assessed. The tricarbonyl complex of the temafloxacin dithiocarbamate ( 99m Tc(CO) 3 -TAND) was characterized in terms of radiochemical purity (RCP) yield in saline, in vitro radiochemical stability in serum, in vitro binding with Streptococci pneumoniae and biodistribution in male Wister rats (MWR) artificially infected with living and heat killed Streptococci pneumoniae. The 99m Tc(CO) 3 -TAND complex showed 98.10 ± 15% RCP value at 30 min of the reconstitution and remained more than 90% stable up to 120 min in normal saline at room temperature. In serum a stable behavior with the appearance of 15.30% unwanted side product up to 16 h of incubation was observed. A saturated in vitro binding with Streptococci pneumoniae was observed. The complex showed almost six times higher uptake in the infected muscle as compared to the inflamed and normal muscles of the MWR infected with living Streptococci pneumoniae. Insignificant difference in the uptake of the tracer in the infected, inflamed and normal muscles of the MWR infected with heat killed Streptococci pneumoniae was noted. Based on the elevated RCP in saline, in vitro stability in serum at 37 deg C, saturated in vitro binding with pathogens and better biodistribution behavior with higher accumulation of the tracer in target organs confirmed the suitability of the 99m Tc(CO) 3 -TAND complex as promising infection radiotracer. (author)

  14. Ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, D.N.; Hubberstey, P.; Barker, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the experimental and theoretical studies carried out on multicomponent alkali metal systems. Solid-liquid phase equilibria studies are mainly concerned with the systems Na-K-Rb and Na-K-Cs, and data on the liquidus temperatures in these systems are presented. The thermodynamic properties of the ternary Na-K-Cs eutectic system have been determined experimentally, and the enthalpy, heat capacity and excess functions of the alloy are given. An analysis of calculational methods used in determining thermodynamic functions of ternary liquid metals systems is described. Finally, data are tabulated for the density, compressibility, saturated vapour pressure, viscosity and thermal conductivity of the ternary Na-K-Cs eutectic system. (UK)

  15. Synthesis characterization and biological evaluation of a novel mixed ligand 99mTc complex as potential brain imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, A.; Manta, E.; Leon, A.; Papadopoulos, M.; Pirmettis, Y.; Raptopoulou, C.; Chiotellis, E.; Leon, E.; Mallo, L.

    1998-01-01

    One approach in the design of neutral oxotechnetium complexes is based on the simultaneous substitution of a tridentate dianionic ligand and a monodentate monoanionic coligand on a [Tc(V)O] +3 precursor. Following this ''mixed ligand'' concept, a novel 99m Tc complex with N,N-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)-N'N'-diethylethylenediamine as ligand and 1-octanethiol as coligand is prepared and evaluated as potential brain radiopharmaceutical. Preparation of the complex at tracer level was accomplished by using 99m Tc-glucoheptonate as precursor. The substitution was optimized and a coligand/ligand ratio of 5 was selected. Under this conditions the labeling yield was over 80% and a major product (with radiochemical purity > 80%) was isolated by HPLC methods and used for biological evaluation. Chemical characterization at carrier level was developed using the corresponding rhenium complex as structural model. The Re complex was also prepared by substitution method and isolated as a crystalline product. The crystals were characterized by UV-vis and IR spectra and elemental analysis. Results were consistent with the expected ReOLC structure. X ray crystallographic study demonstrated that the complex adopts a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry. The basal plane is defined by the SS atoms of the ligand and the oxo group, while the N of the ligand and the S of the colligand occupy the two apical positions. All sulphur atoms underwent ionization leading to the formation of a neutral compound. 99 Tc complex was also prepared. Although it was not isolated due to the small amount of reagents employed, the HPLC profile was identical to the one observed for the rhenium complex suggesting the same chemical structure. Biodistribution in mice demonstrated early brain uptake, fast blood clearance, excretion through hepatobiliary system and a brain/blood ratio that increased significantly with time. (author)

  16. Resveratrol upregulates Egr-1 expression and activity involving extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and ternary complex factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rössler, Oliver G.; Glatzel, Daniel; Thiel, Gerald, E-mail: gerald.thiel@uks.eu

    2015-03-01

    Many intracellular functions have been attributed to resveratrol, a polyphenolic phytoalexin found in grapes and in other plants. Here, we show that resveratrol induces the expression of the transcription factor Egr-1 in human embryonic kidney cells. Using a chromosomally embedded Egr-1-responsive reporter gene, we show that the Egr-1 activity was significantly elevated in resveratrol-treated cells, indicating that the newly synthesized Egr-1 protein was biologically active. Stimulus-transcription coupling leading to the resveratrol-induced upregulation of Egr-1 expression and activity requires the protein kinases Raf and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase ERK, while MAP kinase phosphatase-1 functions as a nuclear shut-off device that interrupts the signaling cascade connecting resveratrol stimulation with enhanced Egr-1 expression. On the transcriptional level, Elk-1, a key transcriptional regulator of serum response element-driven gene transcription, connects the intracellular signaling cascade elicited by resveratrol with transcription of the Egr-1 gene. These data were corroborated by the observation that stimulation of the cells with resveratrol increased the transcriptional activation potential of Elk-1. The SRE as well as the GC-rich DNA binding site of Egr-1 function as resveratrol-responsive elements. Thus, resveratrol regulates gene transcription via activation of the stimulus-regulated protein kinases Raf and ERK and the stimulus-responsive transcription factors TCF and Egr-1. - Highlights: • The plant polyphenol resveratrol upregulates Egr-1 expression and activity. • The stimulation of Egr-1 requires the protein kinases ERK and Raf. • Resveratrol treatment upregulates the transcriptional activation potential of Elk-1. • Resveratrol-induced stimulation of Egr-1 requires ternary complex factors. • Two distinct resveratrol-responsive elements were identified.

  17. Resveratrol upregulates Egr-1 expression and activity involving extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and ternary complex factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rössler, Oliver G.; Glatzel, Daniel; Thiel, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Many intracellular functions have been attributed to resveratrol, a polyphenolic phytoalexin found in grapes and in other plants. Here, we show that resveratrol induces the expression of the transcription factor Egr-1 in human embryonic kidney cells. Using a chromosomally embedded Egr-1-responsive reporter gene, we show that the Egr-1 activity was significantly elevated in resveratrol-treated cells, indicating that the newly synthesized Egr-1 protein was biologically active. Stimulus-transcription coupling leading to the resveratrol-induced upregulation of Egr-1 expression and activity requires the protein kinases Raf and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase ERK, while MAP kinase phosphatase-1 functions as a nuclear shut-off device that interrupts the signaling cascade connecting resveratrol stimulation with enhanced Egr-1 expression. On the transcriptional level, Elk-1, a key transcriptional regulator of serum response element-driven gene transcription, connects the intracellular signaling cascade elicited by resveratrol with transcription of the Egr-1 gene. These data were corroborated by the observation that stimulation of the cells with resveratrol increased the transcriptional activation potential of Elk-1. The SRE as well as the GC-rich DNA binding site of Egr-1 function as resveratrol-responsive elements. Thus, resveratrol regulates gene transcription via activation of the stimulus-regulated protein kinases Raf and ERK and the stimulus-responsive transcription factors TCF and Egr-1. - Highlights: • The plant polyphenol resveratrol upregulates Egr-1 expression and activity. • The stimulation of Egr-1 requires the protein kinases ERK and Raf. • Resveratrol treatment upregulates the transcriptional activation potential of Elk-1. • Resveratrol-induced stimulation of Egr-1 requires ternary complex factors. • Two distinct resveratrol-responsive elements were identified

  18. Combining NMR and small angle X-ray and neutron scattering in the structural analysis of a ternary protein-RNA complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, Janosch; Wang, Iren; Sonntag, Miriam; Gabel, Frank; Sattler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Many processes in the regulation of gene expression and signaling involve the formation of protein complexes involving multi-domain proteins. Individual domains that mediate protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions are typically connected by flexible linkers, which contribute to conformational dynamics and enable the formation of complexes with distinct binding partners. Solution techniques are therefore required for structural analysis and to characterize potential conformational dynamics. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) provides such information but often only sparse data are obtained with increasing molecular weight of the complexes. It is therefore beneficial to combine NMR data with additional structural restraints from complementary solution techniques. Small angle X-ray/neutron scattering (SAXS/SANS) data can be efficiently combined with NMR-derived information, either for validation or by providing additional restraints for structural analysis. Here, we show that the combination of SAXS and SANS data can help to refine structural models obtained from data-driven docking using HADDOCK based on sparse NMR data. The approach is demonstrated with the ternary protein-protein-RNA complex involving two RNA recognition motif (RRM) domains of Sex-lethal, the N-terminal cold shock domain of Upstream-to-N-Ras, and msl-2 mRNA. Based on chemical shift perturbations we have mapped protein-protein and protein-RNA interfaces and complemented this NMR-derived information with SAXS data, as well as SANS measurements on subunit-selectively deuterated samples of the ternary complex. Our results show that, while the use of SAXS data is beneficial, the additional combination with contrast variation in SANS data resolves remaining ambiguities and improves the docking based on chemical shift perturbations of the ternary protein-RNA complex.

  19. Combining NMR and small angle X-ray and neutron scattering in the structural analysis of a ternary protein-RNA complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, Janosch; Wang, Iren; Sonntag, Miriam [Institute of Structural Biology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen (Germany); Gabel, Frank [Extremophiles and Large Molecular Assemblies Group (ELMA), Institut de Biologie Structurale (IBS) CEA-CNRS-UJF (France); Sattler, Michael, E-mail: sattler@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Institute of Structural Biology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Many processes in the regulation of gene expression and signaling involve the formation of protein complexes involving multi-domain proteins. Individual domains that mediate protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions are typically connected by flexible linkers, which contribute to conformational dynamics and enable the formation of complexes with distinct binding partners. Solution techniques are therefore required for structural analysis and to characterize potential conformational dynamics. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) provides such information but often only sparse data are obtained with increasing molecular weight of the complexes. It is therefore beneficial to combine NMR data with additional structural restraints from complementary solution techniques. Small angle X-ray/neutron scattering (SAXS/SANS) data can be efficiently combined with NMR-derived information, either for validation or by providing additional restraints for structural analysis. Here, we show that the combination of SAXS and SANS data can help to refine structural models obtained from data-driven docking using HADDOCK based on sparse NMR data. The approach is demonstrated with the ternary protein-protein-RNA complex involving two RNA recognition motif (RRM) domains of Sex-lethal, the N-terminal cold shock domain of Upstream-to-N-Ras, and msl-2 mRNA. Based on chemical shift perturbations we have mapped protein-protein and protein-RNA interfaces and complemented this NMR-derived information with SAXS data, as well as SANS measurements on subunit-selectively deuterated samples of the ternary complex. Our results show that, while the use of SAXS data is beneficial, the additional combination with contrast variation in SANS data resolves remaining ambiguities and improves the docking based on chemical shift perturbations of the ternary protein-RNA complex.

  20. Synthesis, structure and luminescence properties of binary and ternary complexes of lanthanide (Eu{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+}) with salicylic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Chen-Qi; Yan, Tian-Lu; Wang, Yi-Ting; Ye, Zi-Jun; Xu, Cun-Jin, E-mail: cjxu@hznu.edu.cn; Zhou, Wen-Jun

    2017-04-15

    A series of binary and ternary complexes of lanthanide (Eu{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+}) with salicylic acid (Hsal) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) were synthesized, and characterized by element analysis, coordination titration analysis, IR, UV and TG-DTA. Their compositions were (NH{sub 4})[Ln(sal){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] (Ln=Eu (1), Sm (2), Tb (3)) and (NH{sub 4})[Ln(sal){sub 4}(phen){sub 2}] (Ln=Eu (4), Sm (5), Tb (6)), respectively. In particular, the ternary complex of Eu{sup 3+}, 4, was characterized by X-ray diffraction, and luminescence intensities of binary and ternary complexes were compared. In case of Eu{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} complexes, ternary complexes emitted stronger luminescence than corresponding binary complexes of salicylic acid and Ln{sup 3+}. On the other hand, the ternary Tb{sup 3+} complex had weaker luminescence than the binary complex because of back energy transfer from Tb{sup 3+} to phen. The CIE coordinates of 1–6 were calculated as (0.65, 0.35), (0.52, 0.48), (0.33, 0.59), (0.67, 0.33), (0.62, 0.38) and (0.36, 0.58), respectively, which enable these complexes to be promising candidates for red, green, or yellow component in OLEDs.

  1. Biological evaluation of 99mTC cis-Pt iminoacetic acid complexes as tumour imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awaluddin, A.; Jacobs, J.J.; Bourne, D.W.; Maddalena, D.J.; Wilson, J.G.; Boyd, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    The biodistributions of three new 99m Tc labelled cis-platinum bifunctional tumour imaging agents were examined in mice bearing a certain type of sarcoma between 15 minutes and 24 hours post injection. The three complexes were excreted primarily via the renal pathway into the urine but at quite different rates. All complexes had some affinity for the tumour, but complexes III had the greatest, with tumour to blood and tumour to muscle rates at 24 hours in excess of 10:1 and 18:1. Biodistribution results were calculated using Tiscon Program. Suggesting that the three complexes may be useful as tumour imaging agents. (M.E.L.) [es

  2. 99mTc(CO)3-tosufloxacin dithiocarbamate complexation and radiobiological evaluation in male Wister rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Qaiser Shah; Muhammad Rafiullah Khan

    2011-01-01

    In the current investigation tosufloxacin (TSN) was derivatized to its dithiocarbamate (TSND) derivative and its radiolabeling with technetium-99m using [ 99m Tc(CO) 3 (H 2 O) 3 ] + precursor. The labeled TSND ( 99m Tc(CO) 3 -TSND) was radiochemically characterized in saline and serum and biologically its in vitro binding with Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) and biodistribution in male Wister rats (MWR) artificially infected with live and heat killed P. mirabilis. Radiochemically a stable radio-tricarbonyl TSND complex was observed with a maximum stability of 98.15 ± 0.32% and it remained more than 90% up to 4 h after reconstitution. The stability decreased to 91.00 ± 0.30% from 98.15 ± 0.32% within 4 h. In serum at 37 deg C the growth of some unwanted side product decreased the stability by 15.65% within 16 h. The complex showed saturated in vitro binding with P. mirabilis up to 78.50% (90 min). In MWR infected with live P. mirabilis the percent (%) uptake of the complex in blood, liver, spleen, stomach, intestines and kidneys were almost similar to the MWR infected with heat killed. However, the % accumulation of the complex in the infected muscle was six times higher than in the inflamed and normal muscle in MWR infected with live P. mirabilis. On the basis of immovability of the 99m Tc(CO) 3 -TSND complex in normal saline, in vitro permanence in serum, saturated in vitro binding with P. mirabilis and six fold uptake in the infected muscle of the MWR infected with live P. mirabilis as compared to the normal muscle, the suitability of the 99m Tc(CO) 3 -TSND complex is established as a promising infection radiotracer. (author)

  3. Thiolato-technetium complexes. 5. Synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical properties of bis(o-phenylenebis(dimethylarsine))technetium(II) and -technetium(III) complexes with thiolato ligands. Single-crystal structural analyses of trans-[Tc(SCH3)2(DIARS)2]PF6 and trans-[Tc(SC6H5)2(DIARS)2]0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Takumi; Heineman, W.R.; Deutsch, E.; Kirchhoff, J.R.; Heeg, M.J.; Stuckey, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Three different thiols have been brought into reaction with trans-[Tc(OH)(O)(DIARS) 2 ] 2+ to produce initially the Tc(II) complex, [Tc(SR) 2 (DIARS) 2 ] 0 , which can be oxidized to the Tc(III) complex, [Tc(SR) 2 (DIARS) 2 ] + (DIARS = o-phenylenebis(dimethylarsine)). In the case of SR = SCH 3 and SCH 2 C 6 H 5 , the Tc(II) and Tc(III) products were found to be in the trans geometry, while for SR = SC 6 H 5 , both cis and trans isomers were generated. Two of the complexes were structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction. trans-[Tc(SCH 3 ) 2 (DIARS) 2 ]PF 6 , chemical formula TcAs 4 S 2 PF 6 C 22 H 38 , crystallizes in the monoclinic space group. The Tc atom occupies an inversion center. Representative elemental analyses, FAB mass spectra, and visible-UV spectra are reported. Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical measurements were taken on trans-[Tc(SCH 3 ) 2 (DIARS) 2 ] + , trans-[Tc(SCH 2 C 6 H 5 ) 2 (DIARS) 2 ] + , and cis-[Tc(SC 6 H 5 ) 2 (DIARS) 2 ] + , which exhibit a reversible Tc(III/II) redox couple in the range -0.32 to -0.47 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Another redox couple is present in the range -1.22 to -1.70 V; this is ascribed to Tc(II/I) and is reversible only for SR = SCH 2 C 6 H 5 at 20C. At room temperature, chemically irreversible couples are exhibited at ca. +1.0 V for Tc(IV/III)

  4. A comparative study of three ternary complexes prepared in different mixing orders of siRNA/redox-responsive hyperbranched poly (amido amine/hyaluronic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen CJ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Jun Chen,1 Zhi-Xia Zhao,1 Jian-Cheng Wang,1 En-Yu Zhao,1 Ling-Yan Gao,1 Shu-Feng Zhou,2 Xiao-Yan Liu,1 Wan-Liang Lu,1 Qiang Zhang11State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Peking University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: In this study, a novel redox-responsive hyperbranched poly(amido amine (named PCD was synthesized and used as a cationic polymer to form a ternary complex with small interfering RNA (siRNA and hyaluronic acid (HA for siRNA delivery. Here, it is hypothesized that different mixing orders result in different assembly structures, which may affect the siRNA delivery efficiency. To investigate the effects of mixing orders on siRNA delivery efficiency in two human breast cancer cell lines, three ternary complexes with different mixing orders of siRNA/PCD/HA were prepared and characterized: mixing order I (initially prepared siRNA/PCD binary complex further coated by negatively charged HA, mixing order II (initially prepared HA/PCD binary complex further incubated with siRNA, and mixing order III (initially prepared siRNA/HA mixture further electrostatically compacted by positively charged PCD. With an optimized siRNA/PCD/HA charge ratio of 1/20/16, the particle sizes and zeta potentials of these ternary complexes were 124.8 nm and 27.3 mV (mixing order I, 147.5 nm and 29.9 mV (mixing order II, and 128.8 nm and 19.4 mV (mixing order III. Also, the effects on stability, cellular uptake, and gene silencing efficiency of siRNA formulated in ternary complexes with different mixing orders were investigated. The results showed that mixing orders I and III displayed better siRNA transfection and protection than mixing order II in human breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. More interesting, at the siRNA/PCD/HA charge ratio of 1/20/16, the

  5. An unexpected phosphate binding site in Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase: Crystal structures of apo, holo and ternary complex of Cryptosporidium parvum enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay Debasish

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The structure, function and reaction mechanism of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH have been extensively studied. Based on these studies, three anion binding sites have been identified, one 'Ps' site (for binding the C-3 phosphate of the substrate and two sites, 'Pi' and 'new Pi', for inorganic phosphate. According to the original flip-flop model, the substrate phosphate group switches from the 'Pi' to the 'Ps' site during the multistep reaction. In light of the discovery of the 'new Pi' site, a modified flip-flop mechanism, in which the C-3 phosphate of the substrate binds to the 'new Pi' site and flips to the 'Ps' site before the hydride transfer, was proposed. An alternative model based on a number of structures of B. stearothermophilus GAPDH ternary complexes (non-covalent and thioacyl intermediate proposes that in the ternary Michaelis complex the C-3 phosphate binds to the 'Ps' site and flips from the 'Ps' to the 'new Pi' site during or after the redox step. Results We determined the crystal structure of Cryptosporidium parvum GAPDH in the apo and holo (enzyme + NAD state and the structure of the ternary enzyme-cofactor-substrate complex using an active site mutant enzyme. The C. parvum GAPDH complex was prepared by pre-incubating the enzyme with substrate and cofactor, thereby allowing free movement of the protein structure and substrate molecules during their initial encounter. Sulfate and phosphate ions were excluded from purification and crystallization steps. The quality of the electron density map at 2Å resolution allowed unambiguous positioning of the substrate. In three subunits of the homotetramer the C-3 phosphate group of the non-covalently bound substrate is in the 'new Pi' site. A concomitant movement of the phosphate binding loop is observed in these three subunits. In the fourth subunit the C-3 phosphate occupies an unexpected site not seen before and the phosphate binding loop remains in

  6. In vivo gene transfer using pDNA/chitosan/chondroitin sulfate ternary complexes: influence of chondroitin sulfate on the stability of freeze-dried complexes and transgene expression in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Kenji; Kishimoto, Satoko; Ishihara, Masayuki; Koyama, Yoshiyuki; Mazda, Osam; Sato, Toshinori

    2013-02-01

    Chitosan has been investigated as a promising nonviral vector. However, several problems still remain, such as a relatively low transfection efficiency and instability under physiological conditions. We previously demonstrated that a chondroitin sulfate (CS) coating enhanced the transfection efficiency and physicochemical stability of plasmid DNA (pDNA)/chitosan complexes in vitro. In the present study, the effects of coating pDNA/chitosan complexes with CS on the stability in freeze-dry rehydration processes and gene expression in vivo were investigated. Freeze-drying storage at -20 °C, 4 °C, or room temperature, freezing storage at -20 °C, or liquid storage at 4 °C or room temperature, were examined for preservation conditions of pDNA/chitosan/CS ternary complexes by a gel retardation assay, measurements of sizes and zeta potentials, and a luciferase assay. Moreover, to determine the transfection efficiency of the ternary complexes in vivo, suicide gene therapy was carried out in Huh-7-implanted mice using herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase coding pDNA and ganciclovir. The freeze-dried pDNA/chitosan/CS ternary complexes showed sufficient cell transfection ability in vitro and in vivo. In addition, ternary complexes were associated with a significant suppression of tumor growth and a histopathologically high anti-tumor effect by intratumoral injection to tumor-bearing mice. The CS coating enhanced the preservation stability of the pDNA/chitosan complexes after freeze-drying-rehydration and their transgene expression in vivo. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Fluorometric determination of aluminium (III) and cadmium (II) by solvent extraction of the ternary complex composed of metal ion, 8-hydroxy-5-quinolinesulfonic acid, and methyltrioctylammonium ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Yukihiro; Kataoka, Masamitsu; Kambara, Tomihito

    1982-01-01

    A fluorometric micro determination of aluminium (III) and cadmium (II) using the formation of metal-8-hydroxy-5-quinolinesulfonic acid-capriquat (methyltrioctylammonium) ternary complex is described. These complexes are easily extracted into chloroform phase and the extract emits a strong fluorescence. Spectra of aluminium (III) and cadmium (II) ternary complexes have the excitation maximum at 396 nm and 400 nm, and emission maximum at 501 nm and 524 nm, respectively. Fluorescence intensity of the aluminium (III) and cadmium (II) ternary complexes extracted into chloroform showed the constant and maximum values in the pH range of aqueous phase from 5.3 to 8.5 and 8.1 to 8.5, respectively. The calibration curves for aluminium (III) and cadmium (II) show good proportionality int the concentration range from 0.5 to 5.0 and 1.0 to 50.0 μg, respectively. The relative standard deviation observed with four measurements was found to be 1.8% for 0.5 μg of aluminium (III) and 1.1% for 10.0 μg of cadmium (II). The effect of diverse ions is studied and a 25-fold amount of Cu(II), Ni(II), Fe(II), Fe(III) in weight gave errors, however, the interferences were easily eliminated by the addition of appropriate masking agent. In the determination of cadmium (II), an equal amount of Co(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Fe(III) and twice amount of Al(III) gave negative errors, however, the interference of Fe(III) and Al(III) were also eliminated as above. (author)

  8. Differential cytotoxicity induced by the Titanium(IV)Salan complex Tc52 in G2-phase independent of DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesch, Theresa; Schuhwerk, Harald; Wyrsch, Philippe; Immel, Timo; Dirks, Wilhelm; Bürkle, Alexander; Huhn, Thomas; Beneke, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy is one of the major treatment modalities for cancer. Metal-based compounds such as derivatives of cisplatin are in the front line of therapy against a subset of cancers, but their use is restricted by severe side-effects and the induction of resistance in treated tumors. Subsequent research focused on development of cytotoxic metal-complexes without cross-resistance to cisplatin and reduced side-effects. This led to the discovery of first-generation titanium(IV)salan complexes, which reached clinical trials but lacked efficacy. New-generation titanium (IV)salan-complexes show promising anti-tumor activity in mice, but their molecular mechanism of cytotoxicity is completely unknown. Four different human cell lines were analyzed in their responses to a toxic (Tc52) and a structurally highly related but non-toxic (Tc53) titanium(IV)salan complex. Viability assays were used to reveal a suitable treatment range, flow-cytometry analysis was performed to monitor the impact of dosage and treatment time on cell-cycle distribution and cell death. Potential DNA strand break induction and crosslinking was investigated by immunostaining of damage markers as well as automated fluorometric analysis of DNA unwinding. Changes in nuclear morphology were analyzed by DAPI staining. Acidic beta-galactosidase activity together with morphological changes was monitored to detect cellular senescence. Western blotting was used to analyze induction of pro-apoptotic markers such as activated caspase7 and cleavage of PARP1, and general stress kinase p38. Here we show that the titanium(IV)salan Tc52 is effective in inducing cell death in the lower micromolar range. Surprisingly, Tc52 does not target DNA contrary to expectations deduced from the reported activity of other titanium complexes. Instead, Tc52 application interferes with progression from G2-phase into mitosis and induces apoptotic cell death in tested tumor cells. Contrarily, human fibroblasts undergo senescence in a

  9. Synthesis, biological evaluation and biodistribution of the 99mTc-Garenoxacin complex in artificially infected rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Qaiser Shah; Aakif Ullah Khan; Muhammad Rafiullah Khan

    2011-01-01

    The labeling of garenoxacin (GXN) with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) using different concentrations of GXN, sodium pertechnetate (Na 99m TcO 4 ), stannous chloride dihydrate (SnCl 2 · 2H 2 O) at different pH was investigated and evaluated in terms of in-vitro stability in saline, serum, binding with multi-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MDRSA) and penicillin-resistant Streptococci (PRSC) and its biodistribution in artificially MDRSA and PRSC infected rats. 99m Tc-GXN complex with 97.45 ± 0.18% radiochemical stability was prepared by mixing 3 mg of GXN with 3 mCi of Na 99m TcO 4 in the presence of 150 μL of SnCl 2 · 2H 2 O (1 μg/μL in 0.01 N HCl) at a pH 5.6. The radiochemical stability of the complex was evaluated in normal saline up to 240 min of reconstitution. It was observed that the complex showed maximum RCP values after 30 min of the reconstitution and remained more than 90% up to 240 min. The complex showed radiochemical stability in normal saline at 37 deg C up to 16 h with a 17.80% de-tagging. The complex showed saturated in-vitro binding with living MDRSA and PRSC as compared to the insignificant binding with heat killed MDRSA and PRSC. Biodistribution behavior of the complex was assessed in artificially infected with living and heat killed MDRSA and PRSC rats. It was observed that the accumulation of the complex in the infected (live MDRSA and PRSC) tissue of the rats was almost five fold than in the inflamed and normal tissue. The high radiochemical stability in normal saline at room temperature, promising in-vitro stability in serum at 37 deg C, saturated in-vitro binding with living MDRSA and PRSC, specific biodistribution behavior and high infected (target) to normal (non-target) tissue and low inflamed (non-target) to normal (non-target) tissue ratios we recommend 99m Tc-GXN complex for in-vivo localization of infection caused by MDRSA and PRSC effective stains. (author)

  10. Modulation of in vivo distribution through chelator: Synthesis and evaluation of a 2-nitroimidazole-dipicolylamine-(99m)Tc(CO)3 complex for detecting tumor hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, Madhava B; Mittal, Sweety; Sarma, Haladhar D; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have clearly demonstrated strong correlation between in vivo distribution and blood clearance of radiopharmaceuticals for the detection of hypoxia. Present study describes an attempt to improve the in vivo distribution of a previously reported 2-nitroimidazole-(99m)Tc(CO)3 complex by tuning its blood clearance pattern through structural modification of the ligand. Herein, a 2-nitroimidazole-dipicolylamine ligand (2-nitroimidazole-DPA) was synthesized in a two-step procedure and radiolabeled with (99m)Tc(CO)3 core. Subsequently, the complex was evaluated in Swiss mice bearing fibrosarcoma tumor. As intended by its design, 2-nitroimidazole-DPA-(99m)Tc(CO)3 complex was more lipophilic than previously reported 2-nitroimidazole-DETA-(99m)Tc(CO)3 complex (DETA-diethylenetriamine) and showed slower blood clearance. Consequently it showed higher tumor uptake than 2-nitroimidazole-DETA-(99m)Tc(CO)3 complex. Significantly, despite structural modifications, other parameters such as the tumor to blood ratio and tumor to muscle ratio of the 2-nitroimidazole-DPA-(99m)Tc(CO)3 complex remained comparable to that of 2-nitroimidazole-DETA-(99m)Tc(CO)3 complex. Present study demonstrates the feasibility of structural modifications for improving in vivo tumor uptake of hypoxia detecting radiopharmaceuticals. This might encourage researchers to improve suboptimal properties of a potential radiopharmaceuticals rather than ignoring it altogether. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spectrophotometric Study of Ternary Complex Forming Systems of Some Lanthanide Metal Ions with Eriochrome Cyanine R in Presence of Cetylpyridinium Bromide for Microdetermination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Dhepe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of coordination compounds of lanthanide elements has received a great attention due to growing applications in science and technology. Number of chromogenic reagents form water soluble colored complexes with lanthanides. Eriochrome cyanine R (ECR a member of triphenylmethane type of dye has been reported to form green colored complexes with lanthanides and has been used for microdetermination of these metal ions. Addition of cationic surfactant, Cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB, a cationic surfactant sensitizes the color reactions of Gd(III, Tb(III, Dy(III, Ho(III and Lu(III with ECR. Formation of water soluble, highly colored ternary complexes with a considerable bathochromic shift of about 50 nm in presence of surfactant has been observed. Optimum reaction conditions and other analytical parameters were also evaluated. Stoichiometric ratio 1:3:3 of Ln: ECR: CPB are responsible for the observed rise in molar absorptivity and sensitivity. Beer’s law was obeyed between 0.50 to 13.00 ppm. Effective photometric range and molar absorptivity of these ternary complexes have been calculated. Effect of some common interfering ions on determination of these lanthanide metal ions was studied. A simple, rapid and highly sensitive spectrophotometeric method has been proposed for the determination of metal ions understudy.

  12. ESR study of /sup 99/Tc(II) complex formed by reduction of ammonium pertechnetate with ascorbic acid in concentrated hydrochloric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, T; Tsuchihashi, N; Ogata, T

    1987-07-30

    Paramagnetic /sup 99/Tc complex formed by the reduction of ammonium pertechnetate by ascorbic acid with excess sodium nitrite in concentrated hydrochloric acid was investigated by ESR technique. This complex had total electron spin S=1/2 and the obtained ESR parameters are 2.032, 2.043; and 264, 108 gauss, respectively. It was concluded that the formed species was low spin /sup 99/Tc(II) complex. (author) 13 refs.

  13. A ternary-complex of a suicide gene, a RAGE-binding peptide, and polyethylenimine as a gene delivery system with anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic dual effects in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunji; Oh, Jungju; Lee, Dahee; Lee, Jaewon; Tan, Xiaonan; Kim, Minkyung; Kim, Gyeungyun; Piao, Chunxian; Lee, Minhyung

    2018-04-13

    The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is involved in tumor angiogenesis. Inhibition of RAGE might be an effective anti-angiogenic therapy for cancer. In this study, a cationic RAGE-binding peptide (RBP) was produced as an antagonist of RAGE, and a ternary-complex consisting of RBP, polyethylenimine (2 kDa, PEI2k), and a suicide gene (pHSVtk) was developed as a gene delivery system with dual functions: the anti-tumor effect of pHSVtk and anti-angiogenic effect of RBP. As an antagonist of RAGE, RBP decreased the secretion of vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in activated macrophages and reduced the tube-formation of endothelial cells in vitro. In in vitro transfection assays, the RBP/PEI2k/plasmid DNA (pDNA) ternary-complex had higher transfection efficiency than the PEI2k/pDNA binary-complex. In an intracranial glioblastoma animal model, the RBP/PEI2k/pHSVtk ternary-complex reduced α-smooth muscle actin expression, suggesting that the complex has an anti-angiogenic effect. In addition, the ternary-complex had higher pHSVtk delivery efficiency than the PEI2k/pHSVtk and PEI25k/pHSVtk binary-complexes in an animal model. As a result, the ternary-complex induced apoptosis and reduced tumor volume more effectively than the PEI2k/pHSVtk and PEI25k/pHSVtk binary-complexes. In conclusion, due to its dual anti-tumor and anti-angiogenesis effects, the RBP/PEI2k/pHSVtk ternary-complex might be an efficient gene delivery system for the treatment of glioblastoma. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Labelling and Organ Distrbution Characterisics of 99mTc Galacturonate Complex Using Dithionite as Reducing Agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Hilli, A.M.; Mirza, K.S.; Al Noori, T.H.J.

    2000-01-01

    The labelling conditions of 99m T c-galacturonate complex using dithionite as reducing agent for periechnetate have been described. GCS-method has been applied for radiochemical determination of the labelled complex. At a constant amount of the ligand (50mg) in the preparation, high labelling of 99m Tc -galacturonate complex was obtained in the presence of the reducing agent. The effect of pH on the labelling yield have show that labelling occurs only at near neutral to slightly alkaline pH. The organ distribution results of 99m Tc -galacturonate complex as a function of the reducing agent concentration was achieved in rats. On using 8mg of dithionite as reducing agent,the activity uptake in the kindneys was significantly low, while in the bones was higher, but decreased after 1 hr. of injection. This,however is due to the instability of the labelled complex releasing pertechnetate which was evident by the increase of activity in the stomach. The organ distribution picture of the complex has been reversed by increasing the concentration of dithionite(16 mg) in the preparation,where the activity uptake in the kidnys was increased to higher level and in the bones was decreased.The activity in the stomach was rather low indicating a more stable complex towards oxidation or decomposition

  15. Detection of DNA via the fluorescence quenching of Mn-doped ZnSe D-dots/doxorubicin/DNA ternary complexes system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xue; Niu, Lu; Su, Xingguang

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript reports a method for the detection of double-stranded DNA, based on Mn:ZnSe d-dots and intercalating agent doxorubicin (DOX). DOX can quench the photoluminescence (PL) of Mn:ZnSe d-dots through photoinduced electron transfer process, after binding with Mn:ZnSe d-dots. The addition of DNA can result in the formation of the Mn:ZnSe d-dots-DOX-DNA ternary complexes, the fluorescence of the Mn:ZnSe d-dots-DOX complexes would be further quenched by the addition of DNA, thus allowing the detection of DNA. The formation mechanism of the Mn:ZnSe d-dots-DOX-DNA ternary complexes was studied in detail in this paper. Under optimal conditions, the quenched fluorescence intensity of Mn:ZnSe d-dots-DOX system are perfectly described by Stern-Volmer equation with the concentration of hsDNA ranging from 0.006 μg mL(-1) to 6.4 μg mL(-1). The detection limit (S/N = 3) for hsDNA is 0.5 ng mL(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied to the detection of DNA in synthetic samples and the results were satisfactory.

  16. The labeling of white blood cells with 99mTc and 111In complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadizad, T.; Najafi, R.

    1993-01-01

    Leukocytes have been labelled with a variety of gamma emitters and labelled (mixed) leukocytes are used clinically to detect and localize sites of abscess in the abdominal area and inflammatory processes surrounding grafts, ulcerative colitis and study of leukocyte kinetics. In this project we used 99m Tc-Sn-Pyp, 99m Tc-Hexamethyl propenylamine oxine, 111 In-Tropolone and 111 In-Oxine Sulfate for the labelling of leukocytes. All the in vitro and in vivo tests have been done to get an optimum condition for injection

  17. Superconducting state parameters of ternary metallic glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    to binary metallic glasses. They are of interest since third element can modify the physical properties of binary metallic glasses and can also be used as a probe to study the host. ..... conducting nature in the present case. When we. Figure 6. Variation of transition temperature (TC) with valance (Z) of ternary metallic glasses.

  18. Radiosynthesis and biological evaluation of the 99mTc-tricarbonyl moxifloxacin dithiocarbamate complex as a potential Staphylococcus aureus infection radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Syed Qaiser; Khan, Muhammad Rafiullah

    2011-01-01

    In the present investigation, radiosynthesis of the 99m Tc-tricarbonyl moxifloxacin dithiocarbamate complex ( 99m Tc(CO) 3 -MXND) and its biological evaluation in male Wister rats (MWR) artificially infected with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was assessed. The 99m Tc(CO) 3 -MXND complex was radiochemically examined in terms of stability in saline and in serum and biologically its in-vitro binding with S. aureus and percent absorption in MWR models. Radiochemically the 99m Tc(CO) 3 -MXND complex showed more than 90% stability in saline up to 240 min and in serum 14.95% undesirable species was appeared within 16 h. In-vitro the 99m Tc(CO) 3 -MXND complex showed saturated binding with S. aureus. In MWR artificially infected with live S. aureus the complex showed about six fold higher uptakes in the infected muscle as compared to the normal muscle. However, insignificant change in the uptake of 99m Tc(CO) 3 -MXND complex in the infected and inflamed or normal muscle was observed in the MWR infected with heat killed S. aureus. The 99m Tc(CO) 3 -MXND complex disappeared from the circulatory system and appeared in the urinary system within 60-90 min followed by excretion through normal route of urinary system. Based on the elevated and stable radiochemical succumb in saline, serum, saturated in-vitro binding with S. aureus and higher accumulation in the target organ of the MWR, we recommend the 99m Tc(CO) 3 -MXND complex for radio-localization of the infection induced by S. aureus in human.

  19. Histopathological Effects of the Yen-Tc Toxin Complex from Yersinia entomophaga MH96 (Enterobacteriaceae) on the Costelytra zealandica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Larval Midgut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hares, Michelle C.; Jones, Sandra A.; Harper, Lincoln A.; Vernon, James R.; Harland, Duane P.; Jackson, Trevor A.; Hurst, Mark R. H.

    2012-01-01

    Yersinia entomophaga MH96, which was originally isolated from the New Zealand grass grub, Costelytra zealandica, produces an orally active proteinaceous toxin complex (Yen-Tc), and this toxin is responsible for mortality in a range of insect species, mainly within the Coleoptera and Lepidoptera. The genes encoding Yen-Tc are members of the toxin complex (Tc) family, with orthologs identified in several other bacterial species. As the mechanism of Yen-Tc activity remains unknown, a histopathological examination of C. zealandica larvae was undertaken in conjunction with cultured cells to identify the effects of Yen-Tc and to distinguish the contributions that its individual subunit components make upon intoxication. A progressive series of events that led to the deterioration of the midgut epithelium was observed. Additionally, experiments using a cell culture assay system were carried out to determine the cellular effects of intoxication on cells after topical application and the transient expression of Yen-Tc and its individual components. While observations were broadly consistent with those previously reported for other Tc family members, some differences were noted. In particular, the distinct stepwise disintegration of the midgut shared features associated with both apoptosis and necrotic programmed cell death pathways. Second, we observed, for the first time, a contribution of toxicity from two chitinases associated with the Yen-Tc complex. Our findings were suggestive of the activities encoded within the subunit components of Yen-Tc targeting different sites along putative programmed cell death pathways. Given the observed broad host range for Yen-Tc, these targeted loci are likely to be widely shared among insects. PMID:22544254

  20. Synthesis of novel '4+1' Tc(III)/Re(III) mixed-ligand complexes with dendritically modified ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gniazdowska, E.; Kuenstler, J.U.; Stephan, H.; Pietzsch, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Coordination chemistry of technetium and rhenium attracts a considerable interest due to the nuclear medicine applications of their radionuclides. Inert, so-called '3+1' or '4+1' technetium/rhenium mixed-ligand complexes open a new way to application of 99 mTc/ 188 Re labeled compounds in tumor diagnosis and therapy. In the presented paper, authors describe the synthesis and study of novel 99 mTc/ 188 Re complexes with dendritically functionalized tetradentate (tripodal chelator 2,2',2''-nitrilotris(ethanethiol), NS 3 and carboxyl group-bearing ligand, NS 3 (COOH) 3 ) and monodentate (dendritically modified isocyanide, CN-R(COOMe) 3 and isocyanide-modified peptide, CN-GGY) ligands. To verify the identity of the prepared n.c.a. complexes, non-radioactive analogous '4+1' Re compounds were synthesized. The experimental data show that a dendritic modification of the tetradentate/monodentate ligands changes the complex lipophilicity and does not influence its stability

  1. Ternary complexes of folate-PEG-appended dendrimer (G4)/α-cyclodextrin conjugate, siRNA and low-molecular-weight polysaccharide sacran as a novel tumor-selective siRNA delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Ayumu; Higashi, Taishi; Motoyama, Keiichi; Arima, Hidetoshi

    2017-06-01

    We previously developed a tumor-selective siRNA carrier by preparing polyamidoamine dendrimer (generation 4, G4) conjugates with α-cyclodextrin and folate-polyethylene glycol (Fol-PαC (G4)). In the present study, we developed ternary complexes of Fol-PαC (G4)/siRNA with low-molecular-weight-sacrans to achieve more effective siRNA transfer activity. Among the different molecular-weight sacrans, i.e. sacran 100, 1000 and 10,000 (MW 44,889Da, 943,692Da and 1,488,281Da, respectively), sacran 100 significantly increased the cellular uptake and the RNAi effects of Fol-PαC (G4)/siRNA binary complex with negligible cytotoxicity in KB cells (folate receptor-α positive cells). In addition, the ζ-potential and particle size of Fol-PαC (G4)/siRNA complex were decreased by the ternary complexation with sacran 100. Importantly, the in vivo RNAi effect of the ternary complex after the intravenous administration to tumor-bearing BALB/c mice was significantly higher than that of the binary complex. In conclusion, Fol-PαC (G4)/siRNA/sacran 100 ternary complex has a potential as a novel tumor-selective siRNA delivery system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis, characterization, DNA-binding study and anticancer properties of ternary metal(II) complexes of edda and an intercalating ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chew Hee; Kong, King Chow; Von, Sze Tin; Balraj, Pauline; Jensen, Paul; Thirthagiri, Eswary; Hamada, Hirokazu; Chikira, Makoto

    2008-01-28

    A series of ternary metal(ii) complexes {M(phen)(edda); 1a (Cu), 1b (Co), 1c (Zn), 1d (Ni); H(2)edda = N,N(')-ethylenediaminediacetic acid} of N,N'-ethylene-bridged diglycine and 1,10-phenanthroline were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, UV-visible spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurement. The interaction of these complexes with DNA was investigated using CD and EPR spectroscopy. MTT assay results of 1a-1c , screened on MCF-7 cancer cell lines, show that synergy between the metal and ligands results in significant enhancement of their antiproliferative properties. Preliminary results from apoptosis and cell cycle analyses with flow cytometry are reported. seems to be able to induce cell cycle arrest at G(0)/G(1). The crystal structure of 1a is also included.

  3. Comparative evaluation of three diphosphonates: in vitro adsorption (C-14 labeled) and in vivo osteogenic uptake (Tc-99m complexed)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, M.D.; Ferguson, D.L.; Tofe, A.J.; Bevan, J.A.; Michaels, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    We have investigated the in vitro adsorption of three C-14-labeled diphosphonates on calcium phosphate. The three are 1-hydroxy[1- 14 C]ethylidene diphosphonate (C-14 HEDP), [ 14 C]methylenediphosphonate (C-14 MDP), and hydroxy[ 14 C]-methylenediphosphonate (C-14 HMDP). All three adsorbed significantly more, per mole of calcium, on amorphous calcium phosphate than on crystalline hydroxyapatite. Among the three diphosphonates, C-14 HMDP adsorbed-on both amorphous and crystalline calcium phosphate-to a greater degree than did the other two bone-seeking agents. Moreover, when HMDP was complexed with Sn(II) and Tc-99m, it produced a significantly higher uptake of Tc-99m, per mg of calcium, in an isolated in vivo site of osteogenesis. The mechanisms of adsorption are discussed relative to the hydroxyl group on the diphosphonate, to the solubility of the calcium salts of the diphosphonates, and to the form of the calcium phosphate. These studies form a working rationale for the clinically observed high contrast obtained with Tc-99m HMDP between normal bone and soft tissue, and between normal and abnormal bone

  4. Comparative study of tricarbonilic complexes of {sup 99m}TC in the diagnosis of fungal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández, Leticia Gabriela; Teran, Mariella Adriana [Facultad de Quimica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Reyes, Ana Laura [Cudim, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2017-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Clinical-epidemiological studies show that the incidence of fungal infections has experienced a substantial increase in the last years. Our working group focused on the radioactive labelling of commercially available antifungal agents and their evaluation as potential specific tracer agents for fungal infections (Curr Radiopharm, 2014, 7( 2), 144-150). Objective: Optimization of various antifungal agents labelling using {sup 99m}Tc tricarbonyl complexes and their subsequent evaluation in vitro and in vivo as radiotracers in the detection, through scintigraphic images, of fungal infections. Methodology: Complexes were obtained by substitution of the precursor triaquotricarboniltechnetium (I) with the antifungals: Caspofungin, amphotericin b, Voriconazole and Fluconazole[2]. The physicochemical evaluation of the complexes was performed by the analysis of the stability in milieu, stability in plasma, lipophilicity, plasma protein binding and binding to yeasts. The biological evaluation of the complexes was carried out according to the protocol 070510 approved by the Commission of Animal Experimentation (University of the Republic, Uruguay). The model used consisted of CD1 mice (n=4 per group), females of 8-10 weeks with a weight of 22 ± 2 g. The groups studied were: G0=healthy animals, G1=sterile inflammation, G2=infection by C.albicans and G3=infection by A.niger. The lesions were induced by inoculation of 100μL of the agents in the left hind thigh. Once the lesions were developed, the complexes were administered iv (37MBq,1mCi in 0.1mL) and biodistribution studies were performed at various post-injection times. In addition, images were acquired in a preclinical image system for animals for 60 min, 40 mm ROR, 5-pinhole collimator, 80 x 80 pixel array. Results: All the complexes were obtained with a radiochemical purity higher to 90,0% and were stable more than 4 hours post substitution. Plasma stability, Log P, Protein binding and C

  5. Sorption of trivalent lanthanides and actinides onto montmorillonite: Macroscopic, thermodynamic and structural evidence for ternary hydroxo and carbonato surface complexes on multiple sorption sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, M Marques; Scheinost, A C; Baeyens, B

    2016-08-01

    The credibility of long-term safety assessments of radioactive waste repositories may be greatly enhanced by a molecular level understanding of the sorption processes onto individual minerals present in the near- and far-fields. In this study we couple macroscopic sorption experiments to surface complexation modelling and spectroscopic investigations, including extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopies (TRLFS), to elucidate the uptake mechanism of trivalent lanthanides and actinides (Ln/An(III)) by montmorillonite in the absence and presence of dissolved carbonate. Based on the experimental sorption isotherms for the carbonate-free system, the previously developed 2 site protolysis non electrostatic surface complexation and cation exchange (2SPNE SC/CE) model needed to be complemented with an additional surface complexation reaction onto weak sites. The fitting of sorption isotherms in the presence of carbonate required refinement of the previously published model by reducing the strong site capacity and by adding the formation of Ln/An(III)-carbonato complexes both on strong and weak sites. EXAFS spectra of selected Am samples and TRLFS spectra of selected Cm samples corroborate the model assumptions by showing the existence of different surface complexation sites and evidencing the formation of Ln/An(III) carbonate surface complexes. In the absence of carbonate and at low loadings, Ln/An(III) form strong inner-sphere complexes through binding to three Al(O,OH)6 octahedra, most likely by occupying vacant sites in the octahedral layers of montmorillonite, which are exposed on {010} and {110} edge faces. At higher loadings, Ln/An(III) binds to only one Al octahedron, forming a weaker, edge-sharing surface complex. In the presence of carbonate, we identified a ternary mono- or dicarbonato Ln/An(III) complex binding directly to one Al(O,OH)6 octahedron, revealing that type-A ternary complexes form with the one

  6. Mixed-ligand complexes of technetium-III. Synthesis and characterization of [bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane]tetrakis(trimethylphosphite)tech netium(I) hexafluorophosphate, [Tc(DPPE)(TMP)4]PF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abram, U.; Beyer, R.; Muenze, R.; Stach, J.; Kaden, L.; Lorenz, B.; Findeisen, M.

    1989-01-01

    The diamagnetic technetium(I) complex [Tc(DPPE)(TMP) 4 ]PF 6 was prepared from [Tc(N 2 )H(DPPE) 2 ] and characterized by elemental analysis. 1 H- and 99 Tc-NMR spectroscopy and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. [Tc(DPPE)(TMP) 4 ]PF 6 is a prototype compound for technetium complexes with mixed phosphine-phosphite coordination spheres. (author)

  7. Dose to the metaphyseal growth complexes in children undergoing /sup 99m/Tc-EHDP bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.R.; Gelfand, M.J.; Kerelakes, J.G.; Ascoli, F.A.; Maxon, H.R.; Saenger, E.L.; Feller, P.A.; Sodd, V.J.; Paras, P.

    1978-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of radionuclides in children may differ greatly from that accepted for adults. Following injection of a bone-seeking agent (/sup 99m/Tc-EHDP), radioactivity in the metaphyseal growth complexes of the distal femur and proximal tibia was quantitated in a series of children 4 to 16 years of age, using a gamma camera/computer system. The dose to the growth plate was found to range from 0.8 to 4.7 rads when adjusted to an administered activity of 200 μci/kg, compared to approximately 0.6 rad to the adult skeleton for a corresponding study

  8. A simple method for the preparation of difficult 99mTc complexes using surface adsorbed stannous ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddalena, D.J.; Snowdon, G.M.; Pojer, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    A simple new technique where stannous tin is adsorbed on the inner surface of plastic tubing and used to reduce ( 99m Tc) pertechnetate prior to labelling radiopharmaceuticals, has been evaluated, using some lipophillic and metal containing ligands. Complexes formed using the technique had good labelling efficiency and behaved the same in rat biodistribution studies as those prepared using conventional labelling methods. The labelling efficiency of the ligands was not related to their lipophillicity suggesting that this technique may be useful for labelling lipophillic and other difficult ligands such as those containing metals, which are incompatible with free stannous ions in solution. (M.E.L.) [es

  9. An unexpected phosphate binding site in Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase: Crystal structures of apo, holo and ternary complex of Cryptosporidium parvum enzyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, William J; Senkovich, Olga; Chattopadhyay, Debasish; (UAB)

    2009-06-08

    The structure, function and reaction mechanism of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) have been extensively studied. Based on these studies, three anion binding sites have been identified, one 'Ps' site (for binding the C-3 phosphate of the substrate) and two sites, 'Pi' and 'new Pi', for inorganic phosphate. According to the original flip-flop model, the substrate phosphate group switches from the 'Pi' to the 'Ps' site during the multistep reaction. In light of the discovery of the 'new Pi' site, a modified flip-flop mechanism, in which the C-3 phosphate of the substrate binds to the 'new Pi' site and flips to the 'Ps' site before the hydride transfer, was proposed. An alternative model based on a number of structures of B. stearothermophilus GAPDH ternary complexes (non-covalent and thioacyl intermediate) proposes that in the ternary Michaelis complex the C-3 phosphate binds to the 'Ps' site and flips from the 'Ps' to the 'new Pi' site during or after the redox step. We determined the crystal structure of Cryptosporidium parvum GAPDH in the apo and holo (enzyme + NAD) state and the structure of the ternary enzyme-cofactor-substrate complex using an active site mutant enzyme. The C. parvum GAPDH complex was prepared by pre-incubating the enzyme with substrate and cofactor, thereby allowing free movement of the protein structure and substrate molecules during their initial encounter. Sulfate and phosphate ions were excluded from purification and crystallization steps. The quality of the electron density map at 2{angstrom} resolution allowed unambiguous positioning of the substrate. In three subunits of the homotetramer the C-3 phosphate group of the non-covalently bound substrate is in the 'new Pi' site. A concomitant movement of the phosphate binding loop is observed in these three subunits. In the fourth subunit the C-3 phosphate

  10. Breast tumor targeting with {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-PR81 complex as a new biologic radiopharmaceutical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salouti, Mojtaba [Department of Medical Physics, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rajabi, Hossein [Department of Medical Physics, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: hrajabi@modares.ac.ir; Babaei, Mohammad Hossein [Department of Radioisotope, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rasaee, Mohammad Javad [Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Human epithelial mucin, MUC1, is commonly overexpressed in adenocarcinoma that includes more than 80% of breast cancers. The PR81 is a murine anti-MUC1 monoclonal antibody (MAb) that was prepared against the human breast cancer. We developed an indirect method for labeling of this antibody with {sup 99m}Tc in order to use the new preparation in immunoscintigraphy studies of BALB/c mice bearing breast tumors. The {sup 99m}Tc-PR81 complex was prepared using the HYNIC as a chelator and tricine as a coligand. The labeling efficiency determined by instant thin-layer chromatography (ITLC) was 89.2%{+-}4.7%, and radiocolloides measured by cellulose nitrate electrophoresis were 3.4%{+-}0.9%. The in vitro stability of labeled product was determined at room temperature by ITLC and in human serum by gel filtration chromatography - 88.3%{+-}4.6% and 79.8%{+-}5.7% over 24 h, respectively. The integrity of labeled MAb was checked by means of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and no significant fragmentation was seen. The results of cell binding studies showed that both labeled and unlabeled PR81 were able to compete for binding to MCF 7 cells. Biodistribution studies performed in female BALB/c mice with breast tumor xenografts at 4, 16 and 24 h after the {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-PR81 injection demonstrated a specific localization of the compound at the site of tumors and minimum accumulation in non target organs. The tumor imaging was performed in BALB/c mice with breast xenograft tumors at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32 and 36 h after the complex injection. The tumors were visualized with high sensitivity after 8 h. The findings showed that the new radiopharmaceutical is a promising candidate for radioimmunoscintigraphy of the human breast cancer.

  11. Breast tumor targeting with 99mTc-HYNIC-PR81 complex as a new biologic radiopharmaceutical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salouti, Mojtaba; Rajabi, Hossein; Babaei, Mohammad Hossein; Rasaee, Mohammad Javad

    2008-01-01

    Human epithelial mucin, MUC1, is commonly overexpressed in adenocarcinoma that includes more than 80% of breast cancers. The PR81 is a murine anti-MUC1 monoclonal antibody (MAb) that was prepared against the human breast cancer. We developed an indirect method for labeling of this antibody with 99m Tc in order to use the new preparation in immunoscintigraphy studies of BALB/c mice bearing breast tumors. The 99m Tc-PR81 complex was prepared using the HYNIC as a chelator and tricine as a coligand. The labeling efficiency determined by instant thin-layer chromatography (ITLC) was 89.2%±4.7%, and radiocolloides measured by cellulose nitrate electrophoresis were 3.4%±0.9%. The in vitro stability of labeled product was determined at room temperature by ITLC and in human serum by gel filtration chromatography - 88.3%±4.6% and 79.8%±5.7% over 24 h, respectively. The integrity of labeled MAb was checked by means of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and no significant fragmentation was seen. The results of cell binding studies showed that both labeled and unlabeled PR81 were able to compete for binding to MCF 7 cells. Biodistribution studies performed in female BALB/c mice with breast tumor xenografts at 4, 16 and 24 h after the 99m Tc-HYNIC-PR81 injection demonstrated a specific localization of the compound at the site of tumors and minimum accumulation in non target organs. The tumor imaging was performed in BALB/c mice with breast xenograft tumors at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32 and 36 h after the complex injection. The tumors were visualized with high sensitivity after 8 h. The findings showed that the new radiopharmaceutical is a promising candidate for radioimmunoscintigraphy of the human breast cancer

  12. Sol-gel approach to the novel organic-inorganic hybrid composite films with ternary europium complex covalently bonded with silica matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Dewen; Yang Yongsheng; Jiang Bingzheng

    2006-01-01

    Novel organic-inorganic hybrid composite films with ternary lanthanide complex covalently bonded with silica matrix were prepared in situ via co-ordination of N-(3-propyltriethoxysilane)-4-carboxyphthalimide (TAT) and 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) with europium ion (Eu 3+ ) during a sol-gel approach and characterized by the means of spectrofluorimeter, phosphorimeter and infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR). The resulting transparent films showed improved photophysical properties, i.e. increased luminescence intensity and longer luminescence lifetime, compared with the corresponding binary composite films without Phen. All the results revealed that the intense luminescence of the composite film was attributed to the efficient energy transfer from ligands, especially Phen, to chelated Eu 3+ and the reduced non-radiation through the rigid silica matrix and 'site isolation'

  13. Bacillus cereus Fnr binds a [4Fe-4S] cluster and forms a ternary complex with ResD and PlcR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esbelin Julia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillus cereus is a facultative anaerobe that causes diarrheal disease in humans. Diarrheal syndrome may result from the secretion of various virulence factors including hemolysin BL and nonhemolytic enterotoxin Nhe. Expression of genes encoding Hbl and Nhe is regulated by the two redox systems, ResDE and Fnr, and the virulence regulator PlcR. B. cereus Fnr is a member of the Crp/Fnr family of iron-sulfur (Fe-S proteins. Only its apo-form has so far been studied. A major goal in deciphering the Fnr-dependent regulation of enterotoxin genes is thus to obtain and characterize holoFnr. Results Fnr has been subjected to in vitro Fe-S cluster reconstitution under anoxic conditions. UV-visible and EPR spectroscopic analyses together with the chemical estimation of the iron content indicated that Fnr binds one [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster per monomer. Atmospheric O2 causes disassembly of the Fe-S cluster, which exhibited a half-life of 15 min in air. Holo- and apoFnr have similar affinities for the nhe and hbl promoter regions, while holoFnr has a higher affinity for fnr promoter region than apoFnr. Both the apo- and holo-form of Fnr interact with ResD and PlcR to form a ternary complex. Conclusions Overall, this work shows that incorporation of the [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster is not required for DNA binding of Fnr to promoter regions of hbl and nhe enterotoxin genes or for the formation of a ternary complex with ResD and PlcR. This points to some new unusual properties of Fnr that may have physiological relevance in the redox regulation of enterotoxin gene regulation.

  14. Colloid, adhesive and release properties of nanoparticular ternary complexes between cationic and anionic polysaccharides and basic proteins like bone morphogenetic protein BMP-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, R; Vehlow, D; Urban, B; Grab, A L; Cavalcanti-Adam, E A; Alt, V; Müller, M

    2017-03-01

    Herein we describe an interfacial local drug delivery system for bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) based on coatings of polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) nanoparticles (NP). The application horizon is the functionalization of bone substituting materials (BSM) used for the therapy of systemic bone diseases. Nanoparticular ternary complexes of cationic and anionic polysaccharides and BMP-2 or two further model proteins, respectively, were prepared in dependence of the molar mixing ratio, pH value and of the cationic polysaccharide. As further proteins chymotrypsin (CHY) and papain (PAP) were selected, which served as model proteins for BMP-2 due to similar isoelectric points and molecular weights. As charged polysaccharides ethylenediamine modified cellulose (EDAC) and trimethylammonium modified cellulose (PQ10) were combined with cellulose sulphatesulfate (CS). Mixing diluted cationic and anionic polysaccharide and protein solutions according to a slight either anionic or cationic excess charge colloidal ternary dispersions formed, which were cast onto germanium model substrates by water evaporation. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) demonstrated, that these dispersions were colloidally stable for at least one week. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) showed, that the cast protein loaded PEC NP coatings were irreversibly adhesive at the model substrate in contact to HEPES buffer and solely CHY, PAP and BMP-2 were released within long-term time scale. Advantageously, out of the three proteins BMP-2 showed the smallest initial burst and the slowest release kinetics and around 25% of the initial BMP-2 content were released within 14days. Released BMP-2 showed significant activity in the myoblast cells indicating the ability to regulate the formation of new bone. Therefore, BMP-2 loaded PEC NP are suggested as novel promising tool for the functionalization of BSM used for the therapy of systemic bone diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of low-valence actinide phosphide tellurides and ternary selenium-halide iridium complexes; Synthese und Charakterisierung niedervalenter Actinoidphosphidtelluride und ternaerer Selen-Halogenid-Komplexe des Iridiums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolze, Karoline

    2016-04-07

    The thesis on the synthesis and characterization of low-valence actinide phosphide tellurides and ternary selenium-halide iridium complexes includes two parts: a description of the experimental synthesis of UPTe and U2PTe2O and ThPTe and the synthesis of selenium-chloride iridium complexes and selenium-bromide iridium complexes. The characterization included X-ray diffraction and phase studies.

  16. 99mTc-DMSA complex preparation. The effect of pH and tin(II) chloride amount on reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkovsky, I.; Stanik, R.

    2010-01-01

    Labelling of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) with technetium-99m was reinvestigated. Dependence of the 99m Tc-DMSA complex formation on the molar ratio of DMSA:reducing agent (SnCl 2 · 2H 2 O) and pH was studied. Five different types of 99m Tc-DMSA complexes were determined. Especially three different complexes were established in the clinically used and prepared DMSA kit labelled with 99m Tc under alkaline condition. This radiopharmaceutical is used as imaging agent of the primary medullary carcinoma in the thyroid gland and different metastasis types. The existence of all complexes was observed by paper chromatography, paper electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography. (author)

  17. Direct elution of sup(99m)Tc complexes from neutron irradiation produced 99Mo incorporated in a MoCl2-MoBr2 mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganzerli Valentini, M.T.; Stella, R.; Genova, N.

    1987-01-01

    A novel type of sup(99m)Tc generator, enabling radiopharmaceutical preparation without reductant addition, was prepared and tested. Neutron activated product 99 Mo, in the form of dichloride cluster, was incorporated into inactive molybdenum dichloride-dibromide mixture (MCB) that was left to settle over an activated alumina layer. Direct elution with aqueous ligands such as salicylate or iminodiacetate derivatives in the pH range 6.5-7.5 yielded chemically stable sup(99m)Tc complexes accompanied by small amounts of secondary products (mostly sup(99m)TcO - 4 ). Pentavalent oxidation state in the salicylate complex and tervalent in the iminodiacetate (IDA) and in the N-(2,6-dimethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl) iminodiacetate (HIDA) complexes were assigned to the element after comparison with reference complexes. The anion exchange version of reverse-phase HPLC was used to resolve the eluted product mixture. (author)

  18. Efficient preparation of {sup 99m}Tc(III) '4+1' mixed-ligand complexes for peptide labeling with high specific activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunstler, Jens-Uwe [Biotectid GmbH, Deutscher Platz 5c, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Seidel, Gesine [Institute of Radiopharmacy, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510 119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Pietzsch, Hans-Jurgen, E-mail: h.j.pietzsch@fzd.d [Institute of Radiopharmacy, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510 119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    An improved labeling procedure for peptides attached to organometallic {sup 99m}Tc(III) '4+1' mixed-ligand complexes in which the radiometal is coordinated by a tripodal tetradentate chelator 2,2',2''-nitrilotriethanethiol (NS{sub 3}) and a monodentate isocyanide ligand is presented. The labeling procedure was evaluated by the synthesis of [{sup 99m}Tc(NS{sub 3})(L2-RGD)]. The containing radiopharmaceutically interesting RGD-peptide cyclo[Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Tyr-Lys] was modified with 4-isocyanobutanoic acid (L2) as linker conjugated to N{sup 6}-Lys to get the monodentate ligand L2-RGD. The structural identity of the {sup 99m}Tc-conjugate was confirmed by comparison to a Re reference compound. The Tc- and Re-conjugates had matching retention times under identical HPLC conditions. The {sup 99m}Tc-labeling was performed in a novel one-step procedure using the eluate of a {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator, NS{sub 3}, the isocyanide modified peptide, SnCl{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}EDTA, mannitol and ascorbic acid in the reaction mixture. Using optimized reagents it is possible to label 50 nmol peptide with {sup 99m}Tc within 60 min at room temperature with a radiochemical yield higher than 95% and a specific activity of {approx}20 GBq/{mu}mol.

  19. Solid phase reduction of 99mTcO4radical with zinc: a method for the preparation of difficult 99mTc complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, C.; Leon, A.; Gambino, D.; Cartesio, S.; Ures, C.; Savio, E.; Campos, E.; Kremer, E.

    1989-01-01

    Two groups of compounds: aminoacids (glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, lysine) and amines (ethylenediamine, diethylenetriamine, o-phenantroline, o-phenylenediamine) have been labelled with 99m Tc by means of a solid phase reduction using fine powdered zinc as reducing agent. In all cases radiochemical purity in excess of 90% was obtained, with no evidence of colloid formation. Labelling yields were variable depending on the ligand used. The results show that the method presented allows labelling some molecules with 99m Tc for which the use of conventional techniques are not feasible. (author)

  20. Thermodynamic description of Tc(iv) solubility and carbonate complexation in alkaline NaHCO3-Na2CO3-NaCl systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, A; Yalçıntaş, E; Gaona, X; Polly, R; Dardenne, K; Prüßmann, T; Rothe, J; Altmaier, M; Geckeis, H

    2018-03-28

    The solubility of 99 Tc(iv) was investigated in dilute to concentrated carbonate solutions (0.01 M ≤ C tot ≤ 1.0 M, with C tot = [HCO 3 - ] + [CO 3 2- ]) under systematic variation of ionic strength (I = 0.3-5.0 M NaHCO 3 -Na 2 CO 3 -NaCl-NaOH) and pH m (-log[H + ] = 8.5-14.5). Strongly reducing conditions (pe + pH m ≈ 2) were set with Sn(ii). Carbonate enhances the solubility of Tc(iv) in alkaline conditions by up to 3.5 log 10 -units compared to carbonate-free systems. Solvent extraction and XANES confirmed that Tc was kept as +IV during the timeframe of the experiments (≤ 650 days). Solid phase characterization performed by XAFS, XRD, SEM-EDS, chemical analysis and TG-DTA confirmed that TcO 2 ·0.6H 2 O(am) controls the solubility of Tc(iv) under the conditions investigated. Slope analysis of the solubility data in combination with solid/aqueous phase characterization and DFT calculations indicate the predominance of the species Tc(OH) 3 CO 3 - at pH m ≤ 11 and C tot ≥ 0.01 M, for which thermodynamic and activity models are derived. Solubility data obtained above pH m ≈ 11 indicates the formation of previously unreported Tc(iv)-carbonate species, possibly Tc(OH) 4 CO 3 2- , although the likely formation of additional complexes prevents deriving a thermodynamic model valid for this pH m -region. This work provides the most comprehensive thermodynamic dataset available for the system Tc 4+ -Na + -Cl - -OH - -HCO 3 - -CO 3 2- -H 2 O(l) valid under a range of conditions relevant for nuclear waste disposal.

  1. A study on nitroimidazole-99mTc(CO)3 complexes as hypoxia marker: Some observations towards possible improvement in in vivo efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallia, Madhava B.; Subramanian, Suresh; Mathur, Anupam; Sarma, H.D.; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Hypoxia plays a negative role in the clinical management of cancer. Detection of hypoxic status of a cancer is important for selecting patients for hypoxia directed therapy. Though [ 18 F]fluoromisonidazole ([ 18 F]FMISO), a PET radiopharmaceutical, is presently being used in the clinic for the detection of hypoxia, considering the logistical advantages of 99m Tc and wider availability of SPECT scanners, a radiopharmaceutical based on this isotope may find wider applicability. Methods: Nine nitroimidazole (2-, 4- and 5-nitroimidazole) ligands were synthesized and radiolabeled using [ 99m Tc(CO) 3 (H 2 O) 3 ] + precursor to obtain a group of complexes possessing different single electron reduction potential (SERP), overall charge and lipophilicity, the three attributes which decide the efficacy of the complex to detect hypoxic cells in vivo. The nitroimidazole- 99m Tc(CO) 3 complexes as well as [ 18 F]FMISO were evaluated in fibrosarcoma tumor bearing mice. Results: The 99m Tc(CO) 3 complexes of nitroimidazole iminodiacetic acid (IDA) showed better tumor uptake and retention than nitroimidazole diethylenetriamine (DETA) and nitroimidazole aminoethylglycine (AEG) complexes. Tumor uptake observed with [ 18 F]FMISO was higher than any of the nitroimidazole-IDA- 99m Tc(CO) 3 complexes. However, [ 18 F]FMISO clearance from tumor was found to be faster compared to 2-nitroimidazole-IDA- 99m Tc(CO) 3 complex. Observed tumor uptake and retention of the radiotracers evaluated could be correlated to its blood clearance pattern and SERP. Conclusions: Results of the present study indicated that uptake of the radiotracer in tumor is closely associated with its rate of clearance from blood. The study also indicated that along with SERP, clearance of radiotracer from blood (net effect of charge and lipophilicity) is a critical factor which decides the in vivo efficacy of the hypoxia detecting radiopharmaceutical

  2. Extractive spectrophotometric determination of molybdenum in steels and nickel base high-temperature alloys as a ternary complex with hydroxylamine hydrochloride and 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, M.R.P.; Kumar, P.V.S.; Shyamsundar, J.P.; Anjaneyulu, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The red coloured, ternary complex formed by molybdenum(VI) with hydroxylamine hydrchloride and 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR), on heating for 20 minutes in a hot water bath at pH 6-8, can be extracted with a mixture of n-butanol and benzene (4:1). This complex exhibits absorption maximum at 530nm with a molar absorptivity of 2.8x10 4 lit. mol -1 cm -1 and obeys Beer's law upto 4.5μg/ml of Mo(VI). The composition of the complex is found to be 1:1:1, for Mo(VI): hydroxylamine hydrochloride: PAR. Large amounts of tartaric acid and 2, 2-diamino-cyclohexane tetra acetic acid (CyDTA) can be tolerated in this method. The extraction becomes highly selective in presence of CyDTA (3ml of 5x10 -2 M) and interference of ions like Fe(III)(5mg), Pb(II)(4mg), Zn(II)(2mg), Cu(II)(4mg), Mn(II)(3mg), Ni(II)(4mg), Sn(II)(3mg), Cr(VI)(2mg) and Bi(III)(0.5mg) can be effectively supressed in the determination of 10-45μg of molybdenum. The method can be successfully applied for the determination of molybdenum in steels and nickel base high temperature alloys. (author). 2 tabs., 8 refs

  3. BFCA for labeling with the M(CO)3 precursor (M = Re, 99mTc) : cysteine toward a tridentate complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Young Don; Choi, Ok Ja; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Choi, Sang Mu; Park, Sang Hyun; Park, Kyung Bae; Choi, Sun Ju

    2004-01-01

    Organometallic complexes of techneutium in its low oxidation states received little attention till the development of very stable water-soluble organometallic Tc(I) complexes using monodentate isonitrile ligands. The Tc(I) oxidation state is pratically advantegeous because of the kinetic inertness inherent in its low-spin d 6 configuration and good stability in aqueous media. That is, Tc(I) or Re(I) tricarbonyl complexes are ideal candidates for the radiolabeling of biomolecules which M(CO) 3 core allows the high efficient labelling with the retention of the biological affinity. To be used as a BFCA, it should possess not only both a strong metal-binding moiety and a group that binds to a biomolecules, but also the metal complex should maintain the high stability in vitro and in vivo. In this investigation, to estimate the usefulness of thiol modified L-cysteine as a new BFCA with M(CO)3 precursor for the conjugation to biomolecules while maintaining high stability, their non-carrier added and macroscopic level complexes of L-cycteine (L 1 ), S-methyl L-cysteine (L 2 ), L-methionine (L 3 ), and S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine (L 4 ) were prepared for the evaluation of radiolabelling efficiency with 99m Tc(CO) 3 and macroscopic characteristics. Furthermore, in order to study in vivo pharmacokinetics, scintigraphic imaging scans using gamma camera were acquired after intravenous administration of each 99m Tc(CO) 3 complex and biodistribution study on 99m Tc(CO) 3 -L 4 was implemented using ICR mice

  4. A study of the complexation of [99mTcO2+] by 2,4-dioxo-1,5,8,12-tetraazacyclotetradecane, 2-oxo-1,5,8,12-tetraazacyclotetradecane and their methylated derivatives in position 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riche, F.; Vidal, M.; Pasqualini, R.; Duatti, A.

    1992-01-01

    The kinetics of complexation of TcO 2 + by 2,4-dioxo-1,5,8,12-tetraazacyclotetradecane, 2-oxo-1,5,8,12-tetraazacyclotetradecane and their methylated derivatives were studied by reducing 99m TcO 4 - with stannous tartrate. The charges of the complexes obtained were studied by electrophoresis; equilibration studies of the complexes with cyclam and a comparative study of the complexation kinetics have served to demonstrate the remarkable kinetic stability of [1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-TcO 2 + ] and [2-oxo-1,5,8,12-tetraazacyclotetradecane-TcO 2 + ]. (author)

  5. Preparation and assessment of [99mTc]technetium aquacarbonyl complexes with 1,2-diaminoethane-N-substituted ligands for tumor detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radin, Adriano

    2010-01-01

    Over least 15 years the complex [[ 99m Tc](H 2 0) 3 (CO) 3 ] + has been used as an intermediary to obtain technetium radiopharmaceuticals for applications in cardiology, neurology and oncology. Two important characteristics of this molecule are: the facility for obtaining that compound from aqueous solutions and the easiness of substituting H 2 O molecules by atoms of other ligand molecules. In this project we prepared new complexes [[ 99m Tc](CMN S001-3 )(H 2 O)(CO) 3 ] + , where (CMNS001) = N-[(4-methoxy) benzyl]-1,2-diaminoethane, (CMNS003) = N,N'-bis-[(4-methoxy)benzyl]-1,2-diaminoethane, and assessed the uptake of these complexes in murine melanoma cancer cell B16F10 and breast cells MCF-7 and MDA-MD-231, and compared with [[ 99m ](MIBI) 6 ] + uptake. In vitro uptake for both new technetium complex reached values close to 5%, for all cell lines, whereas the [[ 99m Tc](MIBI) 6 ] + uptake was close to 1 %. The assessment of subcellular distribution showed high accumulation of the new complex in the membrane fraction, for MDAMB-231, while for B16F10 accumulation occurred both in membrane and cytoplasm; the concentration of [[ 99m Tc](MIBI) 6 ] + was mainly in the cytoplasm portion. Biodistribution study in mice allowed to observe the capture of up to 1.6% of the administered dose per gram of tumor tissue for the complex [[ 99m Tc](CMNS001)(H 2 O)(CO) 3 ] + , whereas other organs such as heart, lung and muscle, showed uptake of about 5.6%, 6.4% and 2%, respectively. The complexes in this work showed a high rate of uptake in vitro, but was not reproduced in vivo model, which can be related to low concentration of the complexes inside the cells and reduced vascularity of tumor tissue, with lower intake of complex through the blood system. (author)

  6. Synthesis of technetium-99m labeled clinafloxacin (99mTc-CNN) complex and biological evaluation as a potential Staphylococcus aureus infection imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Qaiser Shah; Muhammad Rafiullah Khan

    2011-01-01

    In the present study synthesis of the 99m Tc-CNN complex and its efficacy as a prospective Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infection imaging agent was assessed. The 99m Tc-CNN complex was characterized in terms of stability in saline, serum, in vitro binding with S. aureus and in vivo percent absorption in male Wister rats (MWR) infected with live and heat killed S. aureus. Radiochemically the 99m Tc-CNN complex showed stable behavior in saline and serum at different intervals. At 30 min after reconstitution the complex showed maximum radiochemical purity (RCP) yield of 97.55 ± 0.22%. The RCP yield decreased to 90.50 ± 0.18% within 240 min. In serum, 18.15% unwanted side product was appeared within 16 h of the incubation. In vitro saturated binding with S. aureus was observed at different intervals with a 62.00% maximum at 90 min. Normal percent in vivo uptake was observed in MWR artificially infected with live S. aureus with a five times higher in the infected muscle as compared to the inflamed and normal muscles. No difference in the percent uptake of the complex in MWR infected with heat killed S. aureus in the infected, inflamed and normal muscles were observed. Based on the promising in vitro and in vivo radiochemical and biological characteristics, we recommend the 99m Tc-CNN complex for in vivo localization of the S. aureus infectious foci. (author)

  7. The DNA binding site specificity and antiproliferative property of ternary Pt(II) and Zn(II) complexes of phenanthroline and N,N'-ethylenediaminediacetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yusuke; Taruno, Yoko; Sugimoto, Masashi; Kitamura, Yusuke; Seng, Hoi Ling; Kong, Siew Ming; Ng, Chew Hee; Chikira, Makoto

    2013-03-14

    The binding site specificity of the ternary complexes, [M(II)(phen)(edda)] (M(II) = Pt(2+) and Zn(2+); phen = 1,10-phenanthroline; edda = N,N'-ethylenediaminediacetic acid), for the self-complementary oligonucleotides (ODNs), ds(C(1)G(2)C(3)G(4)A(5)A(6)T(7)T(8)C(9)G(10)C(11)G(12))(2) (ODN1) and ds(C(1)G(2)C(3)G(4)T(5)A(6)T(7)A(8)C(9)G(10)C(11)G(12))(2) (ODN2), was studied by NMR measurements. The results indicated that [Pt(ii)(phen)(edda)] was partially intercalated between C(3)/G(10) and G(4)/C(9) base pairs of ODN1 and ODN2 in the major grooves, whereas [Zn(II)(phen)(edda)] was bound specifically to the TATA region of ODN2 in the minor groove and to the terminal G(2)/C(11) base pair of ODN1 in the major groove. The preference for the TATA sequence over the AATT sequence in the binding of [Zn(phen)(edda)] was attributed to the wider minor groove width of the TATA sequence. The bindings of the complexes to ct-DNA were also studied by UV, CD, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Additionally, the antiproliferative property of [Pt(II)(phen)(edda)] towards MCF7 breast cancer cells and normal MCF10-A cells was compared with that of [Zn(II)(phen)(edda)].

  8. Studies of labelling conditions for gentamicin with sup(99m)Tc. Complexation with ruthexium. Establishment of pharmacokinetics parameters through compartmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, O.G. de.

    1988-01-01

    Gentamicin sulphate is an aminoglycoside antibiotic type specifically used for treatment of infections produced by Gram-negative bacterias but at the other hand it presents ototoxic reactions as a serious side effect. The main purpose of labelling gentamicin with sup(99m)Tc was to obtain a radioactive tracer to carry out biological studies and compartmental analysis of this antibiotic. The optimal labelling conditions of gentamicin sulphate with sup(99m)Tc, using sodium pertechnetate solution eluted from a sup(99)Mo- sup(99m)Tc generator, were stablished by testing different masses of antibiotic, and reduction agent (SnCl sub(2).2H sub(2)O), and also different reaction time and final labelling PH. The same labelling procedure was used with Re (amonium perrenate) in order to obtain some semi-quantitative approximations of the chemical structure of the complex formed, since Re and Tc present similar chemical characteristics. In this way it is possible to suggest the role that the groups NH2 and C-O bonding of the gentamicin play in the complexation process. From the studies of the biological uptake of sup(99m)Tc-gentamicin sulphate in rats, the kidneys showed the highest affinity for the antibiotic. The maximum uptake was observed in 180 to 240 minutes followed by a decrease of it afterwards. For the dose and time used, no significative uptake by the auricular region was detected. Curve of plasma decay of sup(99m)Tc-gentamicin was obtained, and from the exponentials of each beanch of this curve respective half-lives were calculated. Furthermore the apparent volume of distribution was determined, and with the residual radioactivity in the body, the biological half-life and total clearance were obtained. The distribution of sup(99m)Tc-gentamicin in rats was set in a bi-compartments in addition to a retention one for the 24 hours time interval studied. (author)

  9. Chromatographic characterization of 99mTc-EHDP complexes by HPLC and GPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groot, G.J. de.

    1991-01-01

    Technetium-99m is a radioactive element and can be used in medical diagnostics. There are several technetium-99m complexes all having a specific preference for different organs. The aim of this thesis is to contribute to the identification of these complexes by analyzing them by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the gel permeation chromatography (GPC) separation method. The first method separates with respect to the charge, the second one separates with respect to the size of the complexes. The HPLC method makes it possible to study the changes in the composition of the complex as a function of time. This kind of study is described in this thesis. Another part of this thesis describes the realization of a automated separation system. The advantages of the system compared to commercial available systems is that this system is less expensive and better suitable for measuring radioactive signals with a low intensity. (R.B.). 142 refs.; 30 figs.; 9 tabs

  10. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of a novel "3 + 1" mixed ligand 99mTc complex having an aliphatic thiol as coligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, A; Papadopoulos, M; Leon, E; Mallo, L; Pirmettis, Y; Manta, E; Raptopoulou, C; Chiotellis, E; Leon, A

    2001-03-01

    A novel "3 + 1" mixed ligand 99mTc complex with N,N-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)-N'N'-diethyl-ethilenediamine as ligand and 1-octanethiol as coligand was prepared and evaluated as potential brain radiopharmaceutical. Preparation at tracer level was accomplished by substitution, using 99mTc-glucoheptonate as precursor and a coligand/ligand ratio of 5. Under these conditions the labeling yield was over 80% and a major product with radiochemical purity >80% was isolated by HPLC methods and used for biological evaluation. Chemical characterization at carrier level was developed using the corresponding rhenium and 99gTc complexes. Results were consistent with the expected "3 + 1" structure and X-ray diffraction study demonstrated that the complex adopted a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry. All sulphur atoms underwent ionization leading to the formation of a neutral compound. Biodistribution in mice demonstrated early brain uptake, fast blood clearance and excretion through hepatobiliary system. Although brain/blood ratio increased significantly with time, this novel 99mTc complex did not exhibit ideal properties as brain perfusion radiopharmaceutical since brain uptake was too low.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of a novel ''3+1'' mixed ligand 99mTc complex having an aliphatic thiol as coligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, A.; Papadopoulos, M.; Leon, E.; Mallo, L.; Pirmettis, Y.; Manta, E.; Raptopoulou, C.; Chiotellis, E.; Leon, A.

    2001-01-01

    A novel ''3+1'' mixed ligand 99m Tc complex with N,N-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)-N'N'-diethyl-ethilenediamine as ligand and 1-octanethiol as coligand was prepared and evaluated as potential brain radiopharmaceutical. Preparation at tracer level was accomplished by substitution, using 99m Tc-glucoheptonate as precursor and a coligand/ligand ratio of 5. Under these conditions the labeling yield was over 80% and a major product with radiochemical purity >80% was isolated by HPLC methods and used for biological evaluation. Chemical characterization at carrier level was developed using the corresponding rhenium and 99g Tc complexes. Results were consistent with the expected ''3+1'' structure and X-ray diffraction study demonstrated that the complex adopted a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry. All sulphur atoms underwent ionization leading to the formation of a neutral compound. Biodistribution in mice demonstrated early brain uptake, fast blood clearance and excretion through hepatobiliary system. Although brain/blood ratio increased significantly with time, this novel 99m Tc complex did not exhibit ideal properties as brain perfusion radiopharmaceutical since brain uptake was too low

  12. Synthesis of 99mTcV ≡ N-Pazufloxacin dithiocarbamate complex and biological evaluation in Wister rats artificially infected with Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Qaiser Shah; Muhammad Rafiullah Khan

    2011-01-01

    99m Tc ≡ N-Pazufloxacin dithiocarbamate ( 99m Tc ≡ N-PZN) complex was synthesized through the [ 99m Tc ≡ N] 2+ core and its aptness was radiochemically and biologically evaluated in terms of radiochemical purity (RCP) in saline, in vitro stability in serum, in vitro bacterial uptake and percent in vivo uptake in male Wister rats (MWR) artificially infected with alive and heat killed Escherichia coli (E. coli). The 99m Tc ≡ N-PZN complex showed more than 90% RCP up to 4 h after reconstitution in normal saline at room temperature with a maximum RCP value of 98.40 ± 0.28% (at 30 min). At 37 deg C in serum the complex showed stable behaviour up to 4 h with the appearance of 15.95% undesirable by products within 16 h of the incubation. The complex showed saturated in vitro binding with E. coli with a maximum uptake of 74.25 ± 0.50% (at 90 min). Normal biodistribution behaviour was noted with a sixfold higher accumulation in the muscle of the MWR, artificially infected with live E. coli as compared to the MWR infected with heat killed E. coli, inflamed and normal muscle. The high RCP in saline, elevated in vitro stability in serum, saturated in vitro binding with E. coli and the sixfold higher accumulation in the infected (live) muscle of the MWR as compared to the inflamed and normal muscle, recognized the aptness of the 99m Tc ≡ N-PZND complex as a prospective E. coli in vivo infection radiotracer. (author)

  13. Characterization of a Novel 99mTc-Carbonyl Complex as a Functional Probe of MDR1 P-Glycoprotein Transport Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Dyszlewski

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance (MDR mediated by overexpression of MDR1 P-glycoprotein (Pgp is one of the best characterized barriers to chemotherapy in cancer patients. Furthermore, the protective function of Pgp-mediated efflux of xenobiotics in various organs has a profound effect on the bioavailability of drugs in general. Thus, there is an expanding requirement to noninvasively interrogate Pgp transport activity in vivo. We herein report the Pgp recognition properties of a novel 99mTc(I-tricarbonyl complex, [99mTc(CO3(MIBI3] + (Tc-CO-MIBI. Tc-CO-MIBI showed 60-fold higher accumulation in drug-sensitive KB 3–1 cells compared to colchicine-selected drug-resistant KB 8-5 cells. In KB 8-5 cells, tracer enhancement was observed with the potent MDR modulator LY335979 (EC50 = 62 nM. Similar behavior was observed using drug-sensitive MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells and MCF-7/MDR1 stable transfectants, confirming that Tc-CO-MIBI is specifically excluded by overexpression of MDR1 Pgp. By comparison, net accumulation in control H69 lung tumor cells was 9-fold higher than in MDR-associated protein (MRP1-expressing H69AR cells, indicating only modest transport by MRP1. Biodistribution analysis following tail vein injection of Tc-CO-MIBI showed delayed liver clearance as well as enhanced brain uptake and retention in mdr1a/1b(−/− gene deleted mice versus wild-type mice, directly demonstrating that Tc-CO-MIBI is a functional probe of Pgp transport activity in vivo.

  14. Synthesis, structure, theoretical studies and luminescent properties of a ternary erbium(III) complex with acetylacetone and bathophenanthroline ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martín-Ramos, Pablo [CEMDRX, Department of Physics, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Advanced Materials Laboratory, ETSIIAA, Universidad de Valladolid, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34004 Palencia (Spain); Silva, Pedro S. Pereira, E-mail: psidonio@pollux.fis.uc.pt [CEMDRX, Department of Physics, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Chamorro-Posada, Pedro [Higher Technical School of Telecommunications Engineering, Universidad de Valladolid, Campus Miguel Delibes, Paseo Belén 15, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Silva, Manuela Ramos [CEMDRX, Department of Physics, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Milne, Bruce F. [Centre for Computational Physics, Department of Physics, Universidade de Coimbra, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Donostia International Physics Centre, Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Nogueira, Fernando [Centre for Computational Physics, Department of Physics, Universidade de Coimbra, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Martín-Gil, Jesús [Advanced Materials Laboratory, ETSIIAA, Universidad de Valladolid, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34004 Palencia (Spain)

    2015-06-15

    A novel erbium(III) complex with acetylacetone (Hacac) and bathophenanthroline (4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline, bath) ligands, formulated as [Er(acac){sub 3}(bath)], has been characterized by elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, absorption and emission spectroscopies. In the theoretical part of this study, semi-empirical quantum chemistry methods using AM1, PM3, PM6 and PM7 models have been employed to predict the structure of the complex, calculate the geometric and crystallographic parameters, and make comparisons with spectroscopic data using INDO/S-CI calculations. Real-time time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) has also been used to calculate the optical absorption spectrum of the complex in the gas phase. - Highlights: • Synthesis and structure of a new erbium(III) β-diketonate complex. • TDDFT used for the first time to calculate the optical absorption spectrum. • Complex show strong near-infrared luminescence at 1.53 µm due to antenna effect.

  15. Synthesis, structure, theoretical studies and luminescent properties of a ternary erbium(III) complex with acetylacetone and bathophenanthroline ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín-Ramos, Pablo; Silva, Pedro S. Pereira; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro; Silva, Manuela Ramos; Milne, Bruce F.; Nogueira, Fernando; Martín-Gil, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    A novel erbium(III) complex with acetylacetone (Hacac) and bathophenanthroline (4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline, bath) ligands, formulated as [Er(acac) 3 (bath)], has been characterized by elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, absorption and emission spectroscopies. In the theoretical part of this study, semi-empirical quantum chemistry methods using AM1, PM3, PM6 and PM7 models have been employed to predict the structure of the complex, calculate the geometric and crystallographic parameters, and make comparisons with spectroscopic data using INDO/S-CI calculations. Real-time time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) has also been used to calculate the optical absorption spectrum of the complex in the gas phase. - Highlights: • Synthesis and structure of a new erbium(III) β-diketonate complex. • TDDFT used for the first time to calculate the optical absorption spectrum. • Complex show strong near-infrared luminescence at 1.53 µm due to antenna effect

  16. Crystal structures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase in ternary complex with substrate and inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Manchi C.M.; Kuppan, Gokulan; Shetty, Nishant D.; Owen, Joshua L.; Ioerger, Thomas R.; Sacchettini, James C. (TAM)

    2009-12-01

    S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) is a ubiquitous enzyme that plays a central role in methylation-based processes by maintaining the intracellular balance between S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) and S-adenosylmethionine. We report the first prokaryotic crystal structure of SAHH, from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), in complex with adenosine (ADO) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. Structures of complexes with three inhibitors are also reported: 3{prime}-keto aristeromycin (ARI), 2-fluoroadenosine, and 3-deazaadenosine. The ARI complex is the first reported structure of SAHH complexed with this inhibitor, and confirms the oxidation of the 3{prime} hydroxyl to a planar keto group, consistent with its prediction as a mechanism-based inhibitor. We demonstrate the in vivo enzyme inhibition activity of the three inhibitors and also show that 2-fluoradenosine has bactericidal activity. While most of the residues lining the ADO-binding pocket are identical between Mtb and human SAHH, less is known about the binding mode of the homocysteine (HCY) appendage of the full substrate. We report the 2.0 {angstrom} resolution structure of the complex of SAHH cocrystallized with SAH. The most striking change in the structure is that binding of HCY forces a rotation of His363 around the backbone to flip out of contact with the 5{prime} hydroxyl of the ADO and opens access to a nearby channel that leads to the surface. This complex suggests that His363 acts as a switch that opens up to permit binding of substrate, then closes down after release of the cleaved HCY. Differences in the entrance to this access channel between human and Mtb SAHH are identified.

  17. Rate constants for a mechanism including intermediates in the interconversion of ternary complexes by horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekhar, V.C.; Plapp, B.V.

    1990-01-01

    Transient kinetic data for partial reactions of alcohol dehydrogenase and simulations of progress curves have led to estimates of rate constants for the following mechanism, at pH 8.0 and 25 degrees C: E in equilibrium E-NAD+ in equilibrium *E-NAD+ in equilibrium E-NAD(+)-RCH2OH in equilibrium E-NAD+-RCH2O- in equilibrium *E-NADH-RCHO in equilibrium E-NADH-RCHO in equilibrium E-NADH in equilibrium E. Previous results show that the E-NAD+ complex isomerizes with a forward rate constant of 620 s-1. The enzyme-NAD(+)-alcohol complex has a pK value of 7.2 and loses a proton rapidly (greater than 1000 s-1). The transient oxidation of ethanol is 2-fold faster in D 2 O, and proton inventory results suggest that the transition state has a charge of -0.3 on the substrate oxygen. Rate constants for hydride ion transfer in the forward or reverse reactions were similar for short-chain aliphatic substrates (400-600 s-1). A small deuterium isotope effect for transient oxidation of longer chain alcohols is apparently due to the isomerization of the E-NAD+ complex. The transient reduction of aliphatic aldehydes showed no primary deuterium isotope effect; thus, an isomerization of the E-NADH-aldehyde complex is postulated, as isomerization of the E-NADH complex was too fast to be detected. The estimated microscopic rate constants show that the observed transient reactions are controlled by multiple steps

  18. Study on synthesis, kit formulation and chemical kinetics of dissociation of 99mTc labeled PnAO biotin complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afshan, A.; Jafri, S.R.A.; Maecke, H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: A bifunctional ligand of PnAO-biotin has recently been synthesized, with a better percentage yield of 63% in the presence of newly developed coupling agent 0-(7-azabenzotriazol-1-yl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyluronium hexaflorophos phate (HATU). Then lyophilized kit with 150μg of PnAObiotin has been developed and labeled with high specific activity of technetium-99m (2500-3000MBq) to get maximum radiochemical purity of 99mTc-PnAO-biotin complex i.e. > 97%. The association of avidin and streptavidin is among the strongest known non-covalent protein ligand interaction Ka 1015 M-1 and 1013 M-1 respectively. We measured the dissociation rate constant of PnAO-biotin from avidin and streptavidin challenged with excess of cold biotin. For the separation of bound and free-labeled biotin we employed ultrafilteration technique. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the non-covalent binding between 99mTc-PnAO-biotin with avidin and 99mTc-PnAO-biotin with streptavidin is more than 99%. Both biotin-binding proteins exhibited a faster initial phase and the rate of dissociation of 99mTc-PnAO-biotin with avidin is found to be 8.2x10-8 at 250C and 2.6x10-7 at 370C while the rate of dissociation 99mTc-PnAO-biotin from streptavidin is found to be 6x10-7 at 250C and 1.06x10-6 at 370C. The in-vitro study of the kinetics of dissociation exhibits the strong interaction of 99mTc-PnAO-biotin complex with both proteins, which suggests that this bifunctional PnAO-biotin ligand can be used for tumor localization with monoclonal antibodies to achieve high tumor to non-tumor ratio. (author)

  19. A neutron scattering study of the ternary complex EF-Tu.GTP-valyl-tRNAVal1A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Österberg, R.; Elias, P.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1986-01-01

    The complex formation between elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), GTP, and valyl-tRNAVal1A has been investigated in a hepes buffer of "pH" 7.4 and 0.2 M ionic strength using the small-angle neutron scattering method at concentrations of D2O where EF-Tu (42% D2O) and tRNA (71% D2O) are successively...

  20. The acid-labile subunit of the ternary insulin-like growth factor complex in cirrhosis: relation to liver dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Juul, A; Becker, U

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: In the circulation, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is bound in a trimeric complex of 150 kDa with IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and the acid-labile subunit (ALS). Whereas circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 are reported to be low in patients with chronic liver failure, the leve...... with significant relations to liver dysfunction and other components of the IGF complex. A small hepatic extraction was found in controls, which suggests extrahepatic production of ALS. Future studies should focus on organ-specific removal of ALS.......BACKGROUND/AIMS: In the circulation, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is bound in a trimeric complex of 150 kDa with IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and the acid-labile subunit (ALS). Whereas circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 are reported to be low in patients with chronic liver failure, the level...... of ALS has not been described in relation to hepatic dysfunction. The aim of the present study was therefore to measure circulating and hepatic venous concentrations of ALS in relation to hepatic function and the IGF axis. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with cirrhosis (Child class A/B/C:5/10/10) and 30...

  1. Binary and ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Conditions for thermodynamical equilibrium in binary and ternary systems are considered. Main types of binary and ternary system phase diagrams are sequently constructed on the basis of general regularities on the character of transition from one equilibria to others. New statements on equilibrium line direction in the diagram triple points and their isothermal cross sections are developed. New represenations on equilibria in case of monovariant curve minimum and maximum on three-phase equilibrium formation in ternary system are introduced

  2. Determination of separate kidney clearance by means of the Tc-DTPA complex and the scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepsz, A.; Dobbeleir, A.; Erbsmann, F.

    1975-01-01

    A new quantitative method to determine the separate kidney is described. This method is based on the use of the Tc-DTPA complex administered in a single intraveinous injection, a scintillation camera and continuous computerized data recording for 20 minutes at 20 sec. intervals. By definition the slope of the kidney radioactivity curve, divided by the corresponding plasma concentration, represents at each instant the glomerular clearance of the kidney. This only applies before the 3rd minute following the intraveinous tracer injection, when the filtered radioactivity has not yet left the kidney area. Between the 60th and 180th sec., 6 clearance values may be determined for each kidney. For each 20-sec. time interval the renal activity increase per minute is divided by the plasma concentration during the same interval and the average of these values is taken as the glomerular clearance figure. Some results have been analysed. The test could end 3 min. after the intraveinous injection. Continuation of the recording for 20 min. gives a complete dynamic picture of the kidney function [fr

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of a {sup 99m}Tc-MAMA-propyl-thymidine complex as a potential probe for in vivo visualization of tumor cell proliferation with SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celen, Sofie [Laboratory for Radiopharmacy, K.U. Leuven, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Groot, Tjibbe de [Radiopharmacy, U.Z. Gasthuisberg K.U. Leuven, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Balzarini, Jan [Rega Institute for Medical Research, K.U. Leuven, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Vunckx, Kathleen [Nuclear Medicine, U.Z. Gasthuisberg K.U. Leuven, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Terwinghe, Christelle [Radiopharmacy, U.Z. Gasthuisberg K.U. Leuven, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Vermaelen, Peter [Nuclear Medicine, U.Z. Gasthuisberg K.U. Leuven, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Van Berckelaer, Lizette [Rega Institute for Medical Research, K.U. Leuven, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Vanbilloen, Hubert [Radiopharmacy, U.Z. Gasthuisberg K.U. Leuven, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Nuyts, Johan [Nuclear Medicine, U.Z. Gasthuisberg K.U. Leuven, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Mortelmans, Luc [Nuclear Medicine, U.Z. Gasthuisberg K.U. Leuven, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Verbruggen, Alfons [Laboratory for Radiopharmacy, K.U. Leuven, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Bormans, Guy [Laboratory for Radiopharmacy, K.U. Leuven, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium)]. E-mail: guy.bormans@pharm.kuleuven.be

    2007-04-15

    Introduction: Cytosolic thymidine kinase (TK1) catalyzes phosphorylation of thymidine to its monophosphate. TK1 activity is closely related with DNA synthesis, and thymidine analogs derivatized with bulky carboranylalkyl groups at the N-3 position were reported to be good substrates for TK1. Accordingly, we have synthesized {sup 99m}Tc-MAMA-propyl-thymidine and evaluated it as a potential tumor tracer. Methods: The bis(S-trityl)-protected MAMA-propyl-thymidine precursor (3-N-[S-trityl-2-mercaptoethyl]-N-[N'-(S-trityl-2-mercaptoethyl) amidoacetyl] -aminopropyl-thymidine) was prepared in three steps, and its structure was confirmed with {sup 1}H NMR and mass spectrometry. Deprotection of the thiols and labeling with {sup 99m}Tc were done in a two-step, one-pot procedure, yielding {sup 99m}Tc-MAMA-propyl-thymidine, which was analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography, radio-LC-MS analysis (ESI+) and electrophoresis, and its log P was determined. The biodistribution in normal mice was evaluated, and its biodistribution in a radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumor mouse was compared with that of 3'-deoxy-3'-[{sup 18}F] fluorothymidine [{sup 18}F]FLT. Results: {sup 99m}Tc-MAMA-propyl-thymidine was obtained with a radiochemical yield of 70%. Electrophoresis indicated that the complex is uncharged, and its log P was 1.0. The molecular ion mass of the Tc complex was 589 Da, which is compatible with the hypothesized N{sub 2}S{sub 2}-oxotechnetium structure. Tissue distribution showed fast clearance from plasma primarily by the hepatobiliary pathway. Whole-body planar imaging after injection of {sup 99m}Tc-MAMA-propyl-thymidine in an RIF tumor-bearing mouse showed high uptake in the liver and the intestines. No uptake was observed in the tumor, in contrast to the clear uptake observed for [{sup 18}F] FLT visualized with {mu}PET. Conclusions: Although it has been reported that TK1 accepts large substituents at the N-3 position of the thymine ring

  4. Combined study of 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT and computerized electroencephalographic topography (CET) in patients with medically refractory complex partial epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, M.; Botelho, M.M.; Fonseca, A.T.; Peter, J.P.; Pimentel, T.; Vieira, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    For successful surgery for drug-resistant partial epilepsy the site of the seizure focus needs to be known exactly. The purpose of this study was to compare the evaluation of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) (localization and degree of disturbances) by 99m Tc-hexamethylpropylene-amineoxime (HMPAO) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with computerized electroencephalographic topography (CET) and transmission computed X-ray tomography (CT) in partial epilepsy. The study included 20 patients with medically refractory complex partial seizures. Of the 20 patients included, 15 were studied interictally, four ictally and one in both states, interictally and ictally. 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT detected rCBF changes in 95% of the patients. Interictal studies demonstrated focal areas of hypoperfusion in 93% of the patients. Ictal studies demonstrated an area of hyperperfusion in all patients. Blood flow disturbances in deeper structures of the brain, such as basal ganglia, could be detected. The areas with abnormal 99m Tc-HMPAO uptake were concordant, in localization, with CET in 85% of the patients. Abnormal data with CT scans were found in only 45% of the patients. Focal lesions were found in 20% of the patients by CT scans. 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT combined with CET may be a useful screening procedure prior to referral for invasive diagnostic procedures in future management of patients with medically refractory complex partial seizures. (author)

  5. Mispairs with Watson-Crick base-pair geometry observed in ternary complexes of an RB69 DNA polymerase variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shuangluo; Konigsberg, William H

    2014-04-01

    Recent structures of DNA polymerase complexes with dGMPCPP/dT and dCTP/dA mispairs at the insertion site have shown that they adopt Watson-Crick geometry in the presence of Mn(2+) indicating that the tautomeric or ionization state of the base has changed. To see whether the tautomeric or ionization state of base-pair could be affected by its microenvironment, we determined 10 structures of an RB69 DNA polymerase quadruple mutant with dG/dT or dT/dG mispairs at position n-1 to n-5 of the Primer/Template duplex. Different shapes of the mispairs, including Watson-Crick geometry, have been observed, strongly suggesting that the local environment of base-pairs plays an important role in their tautomeric or ionization states. © 2014 The Protein Society.

  6. Brain Tumour Scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-Pertechnetate, {sup 99m}Tc-Fe(II) Complex and {sup 131}I-Labelled Macroaggregated Albumin - Comparison of Results; La Scintigraphie des Tumeurs Cerebrales a l'Aide de Pertechnetate Marque au {sup 99m}Tc, de Complexe {sup 99m}Tc-Fe-II et de Macroagregats d'Albumine Marques au {sup 131}I. Comparaison des Resultats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, J. P.; Dietz, H.; Schmidt, K. J.; Doerr, F.; Brod, K. H.; Wolf, R. [Institut de Radiologie Clinique et Clinique de Neurochirurgie, Universite de Mayence, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1969-05-15

    {sup 99m}Tc, in the form of pertechnetate, has now gained its place in brain scintigraphy. The present authors and many others have found its diagnostic value equal to that of substances labelled with mercury or iodine. Using {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate as the basis of their work, the authors attempted to extend isotopic diagnosis by two methods, namely: intra-arterial introduction of macroaggregated albumin; and intravenous injection of a new substance, the {sup 99m}Tc-Fe(II) complex. Following their publication in 1966 of the results obtained with the first method, the authors now present an account of their experiments carried out on over 100 patients with brain tumours. Compared with scintigraphy involving intravenous injection of {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate, this new method gives supplementary information which is often of considerable help in clinical neuroradiological diagnosis of these patients. The findings in a majority of cases were confirmed by operation or by autopsy. The method made it possible for the first time to use scintigraphy to visualize the arterial network of the brain. In view of the ease with which brain scintigraphy can be performed after intravenous injection, and also of our experience with the {sup 99m}Tc-Fe(II) complex in kidney scintigraphy and the evidence of a brief report in the United States literature, the authors decided to try out this substance in the detection of brain tumours. Their first results showed it to be incontestably superior to all others previously applied intravenously. It has the indubitable advantages of {sup 99m}Tc as regards the irradiation dose to the patient and gives an exceptionally precise delineation of the invasive cerebral processes due to a rapid fall in blood concentration. A combination of these two new scintigraphic methods would thus seem to open up new possibilities and greatly enhance the field of application of radioisotopes in the clinical study of brain diseases. The paper contains material

  7. The acid-labile subunit of human ternary insulin-like growth factor binding protein complex in serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Møller, S; Mosfeldt-Laursen, E

    1998-01-01

    Circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is predominantly bound in the trimeric complex comprised of IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and acid-labile subunit (ALS). Circulating concentrations of IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and ALS are believed to reflect the GH secretory status, but the clinical use...... of ALS determination is not known. We therefore, determined the: 1) hepatosplanchnic release of ALS by liver vein catheterization (n=30); 2) 24-h diurnal variation of ALS (n=8); 3) normal age-related ranges of circulating ALS (n=1158); 4) diagnostic value of ALS in 108 patients with childhood-onset GH...... in adults; and 4) ALS levels were below -2 SD in 57 of 79 GHD patients (sensitivity 72%) and above 2 SD in 22 of 29 patients with normal GH response (specificity 76%), which was similar, compared with the diagnostic utility of IGF-I and IGFBP-3. Finally, our findings indicate that hepatic ALS production...

  8. Effects of complex hydrodynamic processes on the horizontal and vertical distribution of Tc-99 in the Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olbert, Agnieszka I.; Hartnett, Michael; Dabrowski, Tomasz; Kelleher, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The increased discharge of Tc-99 from the Sellafield plant following the commissioning of the Enhance Actinide Removal Plant in 1994 was reflected in higher Tc-99 activity concentrations over much of the Irish Sea. The presence of this radionuclide in the marine environment is of concern not only because of its long half life but also high bio-concentration factor in commercially valuable species, such Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) and common lobster (Homarus gammarus). Accurate predictions of the transport, and spatial and temporal distributions of Tc-99 in the Irish Sea have important environmental and commercial implications. In this study, transport of the Tc-99 material was simulated in order to develop an increased understanding of long-term horizontal and vertical distributions. In particular, impact of seasonal hydrodynamic features such as the summer stratification on the surface-to-bottom Tc-99 ratio was of interest. Also, material retention mechanisms within the western Irish Sea were explored and flushing rates under various release conditions and meteorological forcing were estimated. The results show that highest vertical gradients are observed between June and July in the deepest regions of the North Channel and the western Irish Sea where radionuclide-rich saline-poor water overlays radionuclide-poor saline-rich Atlantic water masses. Strong correlation between top-to-bottom ratio of Tc-99 and strength of stratification was found. Flushing studies demonstrate that as the stratification intensifies, residence times within the western Irish Sea increase. In stratified waters of the gyre Tc-99 material is flushed out from the upper layer much quicker than from the bottom zone. The research also shows that in the gyre the biologically active upper layers above the thermocline are likely to contain higher concentrations than the near-bed region. Long-term horizontal and vertical distributions as determined in this study provide a basis for

  9. Effects of complex hydrodynamic processes on the horizontal and vertical distribution of Tc-99 in the Irish Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olbert, Agnieszka I., E-mail: indiana.olbert@nuigalway.ie [Civil Engineering Department, Environmental Change Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Hartnett, Michael; Dabrowski, Tomasz [Civil Engineering Department, Environmental Change Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Kelleher, Kevin [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, 3 Clonskeagh Square, Clonskeagh Road, Dublin 14 (Ireland)

    2010-12-01

    The increased discharge of Tc-99 from the Sellafield plant following the commissioning of the Enhance Actinide Removal Plant in 1994 was reflected in higher Tc-99 activity concentrations over much of the Irish Sea. The presence of this radionuclide in the marine environment is of concern not only because of its long half life but also high bio-concentration factor in commercially valuable species, such Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) and common lobster (Homarus gammarus). Accurate predictions of the transport, and spatial and temporal distributions of Tc-99 in the Irish Sea have important environmental and commercial implications. In this study, transport of the Tc-99 material was simulated in order to develop an increased understanding of long-term horizontal and vertical distributions. In particular, impact of seasonal hydrodynamic features such as the summer stratification on the surface-to-bottom Tc-99 ratio was of interest. Also, material retention mechanisms within the western Irish Sea were explored and flushing rates under various release conditions and meteorological forcing were estimated. The results show that highest vertical gradients are observed between June and July in the deepest regions of the North Channel and the western Irish Sea where radionuclide-rich saline-poor water overlays radionuclide-poor saline-rich Atlantic water masses. Strong correlation between top-to-bottom ratio of Tc-99 and strength of stratification was found. Flushing studies demonstrate that as the stratification intensifies, residence times within the western Irish Sea increase. In stratified waters of the gyre Tc-99 material is flushed out from the upper layer much quicker than from the bottom zone. The research also shows that in the gyre the biologically active upper layers above the thermocline are likely to contain higher concentrations than the near-bed region. Long-term horizontal and vertical distributions as determined in this study provide a basis for

  10. Structural analysis of ternary actinyl(V/VI) sorption complexes on gibbsite. A combined quantum chemical and spectroscopic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueckel, Katharina

    2013-10-08

    For the safety assessment of high-level nuclear waste repositories, it is mandatory to know the transportation paths of contaminants, e.g. actinyl ions, in the geological barrier. The most attention needs to be focused on the transport in aquifers, because water contamination, depending on retention and migration processes of radionuclides in the geosphere, is of primary environmental concern. The migration behavior of actinides in ground water is mainly controlled by aquatic speciations and sorption processes at water-mineral interfaces. Hence, the investigation of complexspecies in aqueous solutions and at mineral surfaces becomes essential for the safety assessment in the near and far field of nuclear repositories. For deep ground repositories, clay and clay minerals are considered as possible host rocks, because they show a low permeability and are expected to have a high retention capacity towards actinyl ions. But the complexity of naturally occurring minerals in particular their surface often hampers the unequivocal interpretation of results obtained from sorption experiments. The use of model phases only showing one particular functional group at the surfaces with a well defined surface topology is an appropriate approach for the understanding of the basic sorption processes. Aluminum oxide and hydroxides are of special interest because they represent main components in clays and clay minerals. In particular, gibbsite is widely used as a model system because it represents not only the most common crystalline aluminum hydroxide but also a ubiquitous weathering product of alumosilicates. Furthermore, the elemental structural unit of gibbsite, that is the Al(OH)6 octahedron, occurs ubiquitously as part of the structure of common clay minerals like kaolinite. In the present study, the sorption processes of U(VI) and Np(V) on gibbsite were studied under consideration of the aqueous speciation.

  11. The Synthesis and X-ray Structural Characterization of mer and fac isomers of the Technetium(I) Nitrosyl Complex [TcCl(2)(NO)(PNPpr)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, T L; Mahmood, A; Refosco, F; Tisato, F; Müller, P; Jones, A G

    2009-08-01

    The nitrosyl complex H[TcNOCl(4)] reacts with the tridentate ligand bis[(2-diphenylphosphino)propyl]amine (PNPpr) to yield a mixture of the mer or fac isomers of [TcCl(2)(NO)(PNPpr)]. In acetonitrile, where the ligand is freely soluble, reaction occurs at room temperature to yield mostly the mer isomer with the linear nitrosyl ligand cis to the amine ligand; and the phosphine ligands arranged in a mutually trans orientation. The reaction in methanol requires reflux to dissolve the lipophilic ligand and generates the fac isomer of [TcCl2(NO)(PNPpr)] as the major product, with the tridentate ligand in a facial arrangement, leaving the chlorides and nitrosyl ligand in the remaining facial sites. The steric bulk of the tridentate ligand's diphenylphophino- moieties results in a significant distortion from octahedral geometry, with the P-Tc-P bond angle expanded to 99.48(4)°. The infrared spectra display absorptions from these nitrosyl ligands in the 1700 and 1800 cm(-1) regions for the fac and mer isomers respectively. The ESI(+) mass spectra each display the parent ion at 647 m/z.

  12. Potentiometric studies on the complexes of tetracycline (TC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) with some metal ions. Potentiometrische Untersuchungen der Komplexe von Tetracyclin (TC) und Oxytetracyclin (OTC) mit einigen Metall-Ionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghandour, M A; Azab, H A; Hassan, A; Ali, A M [Assiut Univ. (Egypt)

    1992-01-01

    The interaction of Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Pb(II), Al(III), and UO[sub 2](II) ions with tetracycline (TC) were studied by potentiometric pH titrations. The formation constants of the different binary complexes formed in such systems have been determined at 25[+-]0.1 deg C and [mu]=0.1 moll[sup -1] (NaNO[sub 3]). Potentiometric pH equilibrium measurements have been made under the same conditions for the interaction of oxytetracycline (OTC) and Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), and UO[sub 2](II). The formation of (1:1) binary complexes are inferred from the potentiometric pH titration curves. The protonation constants of TC and OTC were also determined under the same conditions and refined (ESAB2M computer program). The transition metal stability constants are consistent with the Irving-Williams series. (authors).

  13. [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1: a novel technetium-99m complex as a dopamine transporter imaging agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiping, Kung [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Stevenson, D A [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Ploessl, K [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Meegalla, S K [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Beckwith, A [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Essman, W D [Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Mu, M [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Lucki, I [Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); [Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Kung, H F [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); [Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Technetium-99m is the most commonly used radionuclide in routine nuclear medicine imaging procedures. Development of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled receptor-specific imaging agents for studying the central nervous system is potentially useful for evaluation of brain function in normal and disease states. A novel {sup 99m}Tc-labeled tropane derivative, [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1, which is useful as a potential CNS dopamine transporter imaging agent, was evaluated and characterized. After i.v. injection into rats, [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 displayed specific brain uptake in the rat striatal region (striatum-cerebellum/cerebellum ratio 1.8 at 60 min), where dopamine neurons are concentrated. The specific striatal uptake could be blocked by pretreating rats with a dose of competing dopamine transporter ligand, {beta}-CIT (or RTI-55, i.v., 1 mg/kg). However, the specific striatal uptake of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 was not affected by co-injection of excess free ligand (TRODAT-1, up to 200 {mu}g per rat) or by pretreating the rats with haloperidol (i.v., 1 mg/kg). The specific uptake in striatal regions of rats that had prior 6-hydroxydopamine lesion in the substantia nigra area showed a dramatic reduction. The radioactive material recovered from the rat striatal homogenates at 60 min after i.v. injection of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 showed primarily the original compound (>95%), a good indication of in vivo stability in brain tissue. Similar and comparable organ distribution patterns and brain regional uptakes of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 were obtained for male and female rats. (orig./AJ). With 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. [99mTc[TRODAT-1: a novel technetium-99m complex as a dopamine transporter imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung Meiping; Stevenson, D.A.; Ploessl, K.; Meegalla, S.K.; Beckwith, A.; Essman, W.D.; Mu, M.; Lucki, I.; Kung, H.F.

    1997-01-01

    Technetium-99m is the most commonly used radionuclide in routine nuclear medicine imaging procedures. Development of 99m Tc-labeled receptor-specific imaging agents for studying the central nervous system is potentially useful for evaluation of brain function in normal and disease states. A novel 99m Tc-labeled tropane derivative, [ 99m Tc[TRODAT-1, which is useful as a potential CNS dopamine transporter imaging agent, was evaluated and characterized. After i.v. injection into rats, [ 99m Tc[TRODAT-1 displayed specific brain uptake in the rat striatal region (striatum-cerebellum/cerebellum ratio 1.8 at 60 min), where dopamine neurons are concentrated. The specific striatal uptake could be blocked by pretreating rats with a dose of competing dopamine transporter ligand, β-CIT (or RTI-55, i.v., 1 mg/kg). However, the specific striatal uptake of [ 99m Tc[TRODAT-1 was not affected by co-injection of excess free ligand (TRODAT-1, up to 200 μg per rat) or by pretreating the rats with haloperidol (i.v., 1 mg/kg). The specific uptake in striatal regions of rats that had prior 6-hydroxydopamine lesion in the substantia nigra area showed a dramatic reduction. The radioactive material recovered from the rat striatal homogenates at 60 min after i.v. injection of [ 99m Tc[TRODAT-1 showed primarily the original compound (>95%), a good indication of in vivo stability in brain tissue. Similar and comparable organ distribution patterns and brain regional uptakes of [ 99m Tc[TRODAT-1 were obtained for male and female rats. (orig./AJ). With 4 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Synthesis and characterization of ligands and bifunctional chelating agents by modification of cysteine for complexation studies with 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, M.R.A.; Kothari, K.; Banerjee, S.; Samuel, G.; Suresh, M.; Sarma, H.D.

    1998-01-01

    The synthesis of four novel ligands using the amino-acid cysteine and its ethyl carboxylate derivative is described. The synthetic method involves a two-step procedure, wherein the intermediate Schiff base formed by the condensation of the amino group of the cysteine substrate and salicylaldehyde is reduced to give the target ligands. The intermediates and the final products are characterised by high resolution NMR spectroscopy. Complexation studies of the ligands with 99m Tc are standardised using stannous tartrate as the reducing agent at varying reaction conditions. The complexes are characterised using standard quality control techniques such as TLC, paper electrophoresis and PC. Lipophilicities of the complexes are estimated by solvent extraction into chloroform. Substantial changes in net charge and lipophilicity in the 99m Tc complexes are observed on substituting the carboxylic acid residue in ligand I and II with the ethyl carboxylate groups (ligands III and IV). All the ligands formed complexes in high yield. While the complexes of ligand I and II are observed to be hydrophilic in nature and are not extractable into CHCl 3 , ligands III and IV gave neutral and lipophilic complexes. Though the distribution ratios of the complexes of ligands III and IV in CHCl 3 /saline system are observed to be very high, considerable differences in lipophilicities are also observed as evidenced by the difference in their respective extractabilities in chloroform. On storage, the complex of ligand III exhibit a tendency to get converted to a hydrophilic and non-extractable species. The bio-distribution of the complexes of ligands I and II showed that they have predominantly renal clearances whereas the complexes of ligands III and IV exhibited a significant hepatobiliary uptake and did not show much uptake in brain in spite of its favourable properties such as neutrality, lipophilicity and conversion into a hydrophilic species. (author)

  16. Ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Shay, J L; Pamplin, B R

    2013-01-01

    Ternary Chalcopyrite Semiconductors: Growth, Electronic Properties, and Applications covers the developments of work in the I-III-VI2 and II-IV-V2 ternary chalcopyrite compounds. This book is composed of eight chapters that focus on the crystal growth, characterization, and applications of these compounds to optical communications systems. After briefly dealing with the status of ternary chalcopyrite compounds, this book goes on describing the crystal growth of II-IV-V2 and I-III-VI2 single crystals. Chapters 3 and 4 examine the energy band structure of these semiconductor compounds, illustrat

  17. Fusel Alcohols Regulate Translation Initiation by Inhibiting eIF2B to Reduce Ternary Complex in a Mechanism That May Involve Altering the Integrity and Dynamics of the eIF2B Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Eleanor J.; Campbell, Susan G.; Griffiths, Christian D.; Reid, Peter J.; Slaven, John W.; Harrison, Richard J.; Sims, Paul F.G.; Pavitt, Graham D.; Delneri, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Recycling of eIF2-GDP to the GTP-bound form constitutes a core essential, regulated step in eukaryotic translation. This reaction is mediated by eIF2B, a heteropentameric factor with important links to human disease. eIF2 in the GTP-bound form binds to methionyl initiator tRNA to form a ternary complex, and the levels of this ternary complex can be a critical determinant of the rate of protein synthesis. Here we show that eIF2B serves as the target for translation inhibition by various fusel alcohols in yeast. Fusel alcohols are endpoint metabolites from amino acid catabolism, which signal nitrogen scarcity. We show that the inhibition of eIF2B leads to reduced ternary complex levels and that different eIF2B subunit mutants alter fusel alcohol sensitivity. A DNA tiling array strategy was developed that overcame difficulties in the identification of these mutants where the phenotypic distinctions were too subtle for classical complementation cloning. Fusel alcohols also lead to eIF2α dephosphorylation in a Sit4p-dependent manner. In yeast, eIF2B occupies a large cytoplasmic body where guanine nucleotide exchange on eIF2 can occur and be regulated. Fusel alcohols impact on both the movement and dynamics of this 2B body. Overall, these results confirm that the guanine nucleotide exchange factor, eIF2B, is targeted by fusel alcohols. Moreover, they highlight a potential connection between the movement or integrity of the 2B body and eIF2B regulation. PMID:20444979

  18. Synthesis, bioevaluation and gamma scintigraphy of 99mTc-N-2-(furylmethyl iminodiacetic acid) complex as a new renal radiopharmaceutical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanad, M.H.; Talaat, H.M.; Ibrahim, A.A.

    2018-01-01

    A ligand of N-2-(furylmethyl iminodiacetic acid) (FMIDA) has been easily labeled by a tetradentate chelating agent of [ 99m Tc]. Factors like a stannous chloride solution as a reducing agent (100 μg), substrate amount (100 μg), pH (7), in vitro stability (8 h) and temperature (37 °C) have been systematically studied to optimize high radiochemical yield (98.0%). The radiochemical conversion was calculated on thin-layer chromatography, paper electrophoresis, and high performance liquid chromatography. Biodistribution study showed that this complex was removed from the kidneys and bladder path way during 1 h post injection. Therefore, [ 99m Tc]FMIDA may be used as renal function radiotracer. (author)

  19. Tc: chemistry and radiopharmaceuticals: a prospectus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulip, T.H.

    1987-01-01

    The recent explosion in technetium chemistry evident in this symposium promises to continue unabated. As in the past, radiopharmaceutical applications will lead to new Tc chemistry. In this lecture the author will discuss those areas which appear most fertile based on chemical and radiopharmaceutical criteria. Among these will be new organometallic Tc chemistry (e.g., Tc(CNR) 6 cations), Tc complexes as metabolic tracers (e.g., Tc-analogs to FDG), and peptide-based Tc chelators (e.g., Tc-metallothionein)

  20. In situ spectroscopic evidence for neptunium(V)-carbonate inner-sphere and outer-sphere ternary surface complexes on hematite surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yuji; Moran, P B; Honeyman, B D; Davis, J A

    2007-06-01

    Np(V) surface speciation on hematite surfaces at pH 7-9 under pC2 = 10(-3.45) atm was investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). In situ XAS analyses suggest that bis-carbonato inner-sphere and tris-carbonato outer-sphere ternary surface species coexist at the hematite-water interface at pH 7-8.8, and the fraction of outer-sphere species gradually increases from 27 to 54% with increasing pH from 7 to 8.8. The results suggest that the heretofore unknown Np(V)-carbonato ternary surface species may be important in predicting the fate and transport of Np(V) in the subsurface environment down gradient of high-level nuclear waste respositories.

  1. Yersinia pestis insecticidal-like toxin complex (Tc family proteins: characterization of expression, subcellular localization, and potential role in infection of the flea vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinner Justin L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxin complex (Tc family proteins were first identified as insecticidal toxins in Photorhabdus luminescens and have since been found in a wide range of bacteria. The genome of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic plague, contains a locus that encodes the Tc protein homologues YitA, YitB, YitC, and YipA and YipB. Previous microarray data indicate that the Tc genes are highly upregulated by Y. pestis while in the flea vector; however, their role in the infection of fleas and pathogenesis in the mammalian host is unclear. Results We show that the Tc proteins YitA and YipA are highly produced by Y. pestis while in the flea but not during growth in brain heart infusion (BHI broth at the same temperature. Over-production of the LysR-type regulator YitR from an exogenous plasmid increased YitA and YipA synthesis in broth culture. The increase in production of YitA and YipA correlated with the yitR copy number and was temperature-dependent. Although highly synthesized in fleas, deletion of the Tc proteins did not alter survival of Y. pestis in the flea or prevent blockage of the proventriculus. Furthermore, YipA was found to undergo post-translational processing and YipA and YitA are localized to the outer membrane of Y. pestis. YitA was also detected by immunofluorescence microscopy on the surface of Y. pestis. Both YitA and YipA are produced maximally at low temperature but persist for several hours after transfer to 37°C. Conclusions Y. pestis Tc proteins are highly expressed in the flea but are not essential for Y. pestis to stably infect or produce a transmissible infection in the flea. However, YitA and YipA localize to the outer membrane and YitA is exposed on the surface, indicating that at least YitA is present on the surface when Y. pestis is transmitted into the mammalian host from the flea.

  2. 2-Phenylbenzothiazole conjugated with cyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl [CpM(CO)3] (M = Re, (99m)Tc) complexes as potential imaging probes for β-amyloid plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jianhua; Cui, Mengchao; Dai, Jiapei; Liu, Boli

    2015-04-14

    Technetium-99m-labeled cyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl complexes conjugated with the 2-phenylbenzothiazole binding motif were synthesized. The rhenium surrogates , , and were demonstrated to have moderate to high affinities for Aβ1-42 aggregates with Ki values of 142, 76, 64 and 24 nM, respectively. During the fluorescence staining of brain sections of transgenic mice and patients with Alzheimer's disease, these rhenium complexes demonstrated perfect and intense labeling of Aβ plaques. Moreover, in in vitro autoradiography, (99m)Tc-labeled complexes clearly detected β-amyloid plaques on sections of brain tissue from transgenic mice, which confirmed the sufficient affinity of these tracers for Aβ plaques. However, these compounds did not show desirable properties in vivo, especially showing poor brain uptake (below 0.5% ID g(-1)), which will hinder the further development of these tracers as brain imaging agents. Nonetheless, it is encouraging that these (99m)Tc-labeled complexes designed by a conjugate approach displayed sufficient affinities for Aβ plaques.

  3. Formation of ternary CaUO2(CO3)3(2-) and Ca2UO2(CO3)3(aq) complexes under neutral to weakly alkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Yeop; Yun, Jong-Il

    2013-07-21

    The chemical behavior of ternary Ca-UO2-CO3 complexes was investigated by using time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) in combination with EDTA complexation at pH 7-9. A novel TRLFS revealed two distinct fluorescence lifetimes of 12.7 ± 0.2 ns and 29.2 ± 0.4 ns for uranyl complexes which were formed increasingly dependent upon the calcium ion concentration, even though nearly indistinguishable fluorescence peak shapes and positions were measured for both Ca-UO2-CO3 complexes. For identifying the stoichiometric number of complexed calcium ions, slope analysis in terms of relative fluorescence intensity versus calcium concentration was employed in a combination with the complexation reaction of CaEDTA(2-) by adding EDTA. The formation of CaUO2(CO3)3(2-) and Ca2UO2(CO3)3(aq) was identified under given conditions and their formation constants were determined at I = 0.1 M Na/HClO4 medium, and extrapolated to infinitely dilute solution using specific ion interaction theory (SIT). As a result, the formation constants for CaUO2(CO3)3(2-) and Ca2UO2(CO3)3(aq) were found to be log β113(0) = 27.27 ± 0.14 and log β213(0) = 29.81 ± 0.19, respectively, providing that the ternary Ca-UO2-CO3 complexes were predominant uranium(vi) species at neutral to weakly alkaline pH in the presence of Ca(2+) and CO3(2-) ions.

  4. Plasma clearance of sup(99m)Tc-N/2,4-dimethyl-acetanilido/iminodiacetate complex as a measure of parenchymal liver damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studniarek, M.; Durski, K.; Liniecki, J.; Akademia Medyczna, Lodz

    1983-01-01

    Fifty-two patients were studied with various diseases affecting liver parenchyma. Any disorders of bile transport were excluded on the basis of dynamic liver scintigraphy using intravenously injected N/2,4-dimethyl acetanilid/iminodiacetate sup(99m)Tc complex (HEPIDA). The activity concentration of sup(99m)Tc-HEPIDA in plasma was measured from 5 through 60 min post injection. Clearance of the substance (Clsub(B)) was calculated from blood plasma disappearance curves and compared with results of 13 laboratory tests used conventionally for assessment of damage of the liver and its functional capacity; age and body weight was also included in the analysis. Statistical relations were studied using linear regression analysis of two variables, multiple regression analysis as well as multidimensional analysis of variance. It was demonstrated that sup(99m)Tc-HEPIDA clearance is a simple, accurate and repeatable measure of liver parenchyma damage. In males, values of Clsub(B) above 245 ml min - 1 /1.73 m 2 exclude hepatic damage with high probability; values below 195 ml min - 1 /1.73 m 2 indicate evident impairment of liver parenchyma function. (orig.) [de

  5. Somatostatin analogues labelled with 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenaus, E.; Crudo, J.; Edreira, M.; Viaggi, M.; De Castiglia, S.G.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the biological and radiochemical behaviour of two somatostatin analogues, the RC-160 and Tyr3Octreotide(TOC) peptides when labelling with 99m Tc by two methods: direct and indirect using S-benzoyl- mercaptoacetyl triglycine (MAG-3) and hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC) as chelating agents. RC-160 was labelled with 125I (30% labelling yield) in order to examine its receptor specificity and to study the biodistribution in normal animals. A total binding of 30% and a non specific binding lower than 10% was obtained. On the other hand, the RC-160 was labelled with 99m Tc by a direct method (70% labelling yield), using sodium ascorbate and dithionite in order to reduce the peptide and 99m Tc, respectively. The synthesis of RC-160 with S-benzoyl MAG-3 and TOC with HYNIC, for labelling with 99m Tc are also described. The conjugates were prepared on a small scale and labelled with the radionuclide using tricine as co-ligands for HYNIC conjugates. Chromatographic studies were performed using HPLC system and radiochemical purities higher than 75% and 95% were obtained respectively. Biodistributions studies in normal Wistar rats were performed and results were correlated with chromatographic and protein binding properties. Lower lipophilicity of the labelled conjugates resulted in a higher renal excretion. HYNIC-TOC complex showed promising results when labelling with 99m Tc using tricine as co-ligand although higher stability should be found for ternary co-ligands compared to tricine. (author)

  6. Somatostatine analogs marked with 99m-TC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenaus, E; Crudo, J; Edreira, M; Castiglia, S.G. de

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the biological and radiochemical behaviour of two somatostatin analogues, the RC-160 and Tyr 3 Octreotide(TOC) peptides when labeling with 99m Tc by an indirect method using S-Benzoyl- mercaptoacetyl triglycine (MAG3) and hydrazino nicotinamide (HYNIC) as chelating agents. The synthesis of RC160 with S-Benzoyl MAG3 and TOC with HYNIC, for labeling with 99m Tc are also described. The conjugates were prepared on a small scale and labeled with the radionuclide using tricine as coligands for HYNIC conjugates. Chromatographic studies were performed using an HPLC system and radiochemical purities higher than 75% and 95% were obtained respectively. Biodistributions studies in normal Wistar rats were performed and results were correlated with chromatographic and protein binding properties. Lower lipophilicity of the labeled conjugates resulted in a higher renal excretion. HYNIC-TOC complex showed promising results when labeling with 99m Tc using tricine as coligand although higher stability should be found for ternary coligands compared to tricine (Au)

  7. ⁹⁹mTc pyrene derivative complex causes double-strand breaks in dsDNA mainly through cluster-mediated indirect effect in aqueous solution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ju Chung

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy for cancer patients works by ionizing damage to nuclear DNA, primarily by creating double-strand breaks (DSB. A major shortcoming of traditional radiation therapy is the set of side effect associated with its long-range interaction with nearby tissues. Low-energy Auger electrons have the advantage of an extremely short effective range, minimizing damage to healthy tissue. Consequently, the isotope ⁹⁹mTc, an Auger electron source, is currently being studied for its beneficial potential in cancer treatment. We examined the dose effect of a pyrene derivative ⁹⁹mTc complex on plasmid DNA by using gel electrophoresis in both aqueous and methanol solutions. In aqueous solutions, the average yield per decay for double-strand breaks is 0.011±0.005 at low dose range, decreasing to 0.0005±0.0003 in the presence of 1 M dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO. The apparent yield per decay for single-strand breaks (SSB is 0.04±0.02, decreasing to approximately a fifth with 1 M DMSO. In methanol, the average yield per decay of DSB is 0.54±0.06 and drops to undetectable levels in 2 M DMSO. The SSB yield per decay is 7.2±0.2, changing to 0.4±0.2 in the presence of 2 M DMSO. The 95% decrease in the yield of DSB in DMSO indicates that the main mechanism for DSB formation is through indirect effect, possibly by cooperative binding or clustering of intercalators. In the presence of non-radioactive ligands at a near saturation concentration, where radioactive Tc compounds do not form large clusters, the yield of SSB stays the same while the yield of DSB decreases to the value in DMSO. DSBs generated by ⁹⁹mTc conjugated to intercalators are primarily caused by indirect effects through clustering.

  8. ⁹⁹mTc pyrene derivative complex causes double-strand breaks in dsDNA mainly through cluster-mediated indirect effect in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wei-Ju; Cui, Yujia; Huang, Feng-Yun J; Tu, Tzu-Hui; Yang, Tzu-Sen; Lo, Jem-Mau; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Hsu, Ian C

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy for cancer patients works by ionizing damage to nuclear DNA, primarily by creating double-strand breaks (DSB). A major shortcoming of traditional radiation therapy is the set of side effect associated with its long-range interaction with nearby tissues. Low-energy Auger electrons have the advantage of an extremely short effective range, minimizing damage to healthy tissue. Consequently, the isotope ⁹⁹mTc, an Auger electron source, is currently being studied for its beneficial potential in cancer treatment. We examined the dose effect of a pyrene derivative ⁹⁹mTc complex on plasmid DNA by using gel electrophoresis in both aqueous and methanol solutions. In aqueous solutions, the average yield per decay for double-strand breaks is 0.011±0.005 at low dose range, decreasing to 0.0005±0.0003 in the presence of 1 M dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The apparent yield per decay for single-strand breaks (SSB) is 0.04±0.02, decreasing to approximately a fifth with 1 M DMSO. In methanol, the average yield per decay of DSB is 0.54±0.06 and drops to undetectable levels in 2 M DMSO. The SSB yield per decay is 7.2±0.2, changing to 0.4±0.2 in the presence of 2 M DMSO. The 95% decrease in the yield of DSB in DMSO indicates that the main mechanism for DSB formation is through indirect effect, possibly by cooperative binding or clustering of intercalators. In the presence of non-radioactive ligands at a near saturation concentration, where radioactive Tc compounds do not form large clusters, the yield of SSB stays the same while the yield of DSB decreases to the value in DMSO. DSBs generated by ⁹⁹mTc conjugated to intercalators are primarily caused by indirect effects through clustering.

  9. Anion exchange chromatography of 99mTc(Sn)-EHDP complexes: determination of the charge of the components and influence of pH and ligand concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huigen, Y.M.; Diender, M.; Gelsema, W.J.; De Ligny, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    The components of a 99m Tc(Sn)-EHDP complex mixture were separated by means of normal pressure and high-pressure anion exchange chromatography. Precautions were taken to prevent the dissociation of the complexes during chromatography. The charges of the components were determined according to the methods of Wilson and Pinkerton (1985) and Russell and Bischoff (1985). The values of the charges obtained with the two methods are not in agreement. Russell and Bischoff's method, in which a reference ion is used, must be preferred. However, even with this method the accuracy of the data obtained is probably limited, due to the difficulty of making corrections for activity coefficients of highly-charge ions at the rather high electrolyte concentrations that must be used in the ion exchange method. So, we think that it is only warranted to conclude that the mean charge of the components of 99m Tc(Sn)-EHDP is about -6 at pH 7, and that the charges of the individual components are in the range of -4 to -9. The influence of pH and ligand concentration in the reaction mixture was determined with high pressure anion exchange chromatography. It was found that a decrease in the pH of the reaction mixture favours the production of complexes with a long retention time, which leads to a slightly higher mean charge. The ligand concentration of the reaction mixture scarcely influenced the relative concentrations of the components. (author)

  10. Crystallization features of ternary reversible reciprocal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomashik, V.N.; Shcherbak, L.P.; Fejchuk, P.I.; Grytsiv, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    Some features of the primary crystallization of phases in ternary reversible reciprocal system are considered and discussed. The diagonal join CdTe-GeSe of the CdTe + GeSe = CdSe + GeTe ternary reciprocal system is studied to show that the features in primary and secondary heating and cooling curves in such systems under fully equilibrium conditions are not reproduced upon consecutive heating and cooling sessions, because of the existence of different amounts of the reagents and the reaction products in the mixture; the temperatures of each transformation lie in a range. Those who experimentally investigate other ternary and more complex reversible reciprocal systems should take this fact into account [ru

  11. Electrolytic 99TcO4- reduction at inert electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, C.; Gambino, D.; Leon, A.; Kremer, E.

    1990-01-01

    Electrolytic pertechnetate reduction at inert electrodes was studied as an alternative procedure for synthesizing Tc complexes. Pertechnetate reduction was carried out in aqueous media using different aminated ligands (en, dien, trien and 1,3-dap) forming [TcO 2 (amine) 2 ] + type complexes. Simultaneously with synthesis of the desired Tc complex, TcO 2 was electrodeposited onto the cathode. Conversion of TcO 4 - to Tc complex and TcO 2 was studied as a function of several variables (kind and concentration of supporting electrolyte, ligand concentration, pH, current and electrolysis time). (author) 9 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

  12. Direct elution of sup(99m)Tc complexes from neutron irradiation produced /sup 99/Mo incorporated in a MoCl/sub 2/-MoBr/sub 2/ mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganzerli Valentini, M.T.; Stella, R.; Genova, N.

    1987-01-01

    A novel type of sup(99m)Tc generator, enabling radiopharmaceutical preparation without reductant addition, was prepared and tested. Neutron activated product /sup 99/Mo, in the form of dichloride cluster, was incorporated into inactive molybdenum dichloride-dibromide mixture (MCB) that was left to settle over an activated alumina layer. Direct elution with aqueous ligands such as salicylate or iminodiacetate derivatives in the pH range 6.5-7.5 yielded chemically stable sup(99m)Tc complexes accompanied by small amounts of secondary products (mostly sup(99m)TcO/sup -//sub 4/). Pentavalent oxidation state in the salicylate complex and tervalent in the iminodiacetate (IDA) and in the N-(2,6-dimethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl) iminodiacetate (HIDA) complexes were assigned to the element after comparison with reference complexes. The anion exchange version of reverse-phase HPLC was used to resolve the eluted product mixture.

  13. Synthesis and in vivo testing of a bromobutyl substituted 1,2-dithia-5,9-diazacycloundecane: a versatile precursor for new sup 99m Tc-bis(aminoethanethiol) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhut, M.; Brandau, W.; Missfeldt, M. (Heidelberg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Radiologisches Zentrum)

    1989-01-01

    7-(4'Bromobutyl)-3,3,11,11-tetramethyl-1,2-dithia-5,9-diazacycloundecane (6) an intermediate for the preparation of new {sup 99m}Tc-bis(aminoethanethiol) complexes ({sup 99m}Tc-BAT) was synthesized from the corresponding 7-(4'-phenoxybutyl) derivative (5) by ether cleavage with HBr/AcOH. To demonstrate its versatility as an alkylating agent, 6 was reacted with the amines piperidine, morpholine, NH{sub 3} and 1-phenyl-1,3,8-triazaspiro(4,5)decan-4-one, yielding the corresponding N-alkylated amines. Mild ring opening affording the BAT-ligands was achieved by reductive cleavage of the disulphide bonds with threo-2,3-dihydroxy-1,4-dimercaptobutane. The {sup 99m}Tc-BAT complexes prepared by the tin-reduction method proved to be stable under in vitro conditions. With the exception of the 7-(4'-aminobutyl) substituted one, the {sup 99m}Tc-BAT complexes revealed octanol-buffer partition coefficients (P) of log P > 1 at physiological pH. The complexes proved to be neutral and the amount of ultrafiltrable {sup 99m}Tc-BAT complex varied between 8-18%. In contrast to the good in vitro characteristics, the brain uptake values in CD-1 mice were comparably low. (author).

  14. Scavenging of Tc(V) formed by I.T. in 95mTcO4- solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianoz, E.; Colin, M.; Kosinski, M.

    1988-01-01

    The chemical effects of the I.T. of 95m Tc in 95m TcO 4 - have been studied in chelating ligand solutions. At high pH and at high concentration of 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane and 1,4-dithia-8, 11-diazacyclotetradecane, the retention of 95g Tc is about 20% and the unretained 95g Tc appears preponderantly (ca. 73%) as [TcO 2 L] + complexes. In glucoheptonate solution, the 95g Tc retention remains practically the same (22%) but the unretained 95g Tc is found in high proportion (73%) as [TcObis(glucoheptonate)] - . The added ligands are very good scavengers for 95g Tc(V). A comparison is made between 95g Tc species formed by the I.T. in 95m TcO 4 - and 99m Tc species resulting from the chemical reduction of 99m TcO 4 - . (orig.)

  15. Formation, stability and structural characterization of ternary MgUO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 2-} and Mg{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}(aq) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun-Yeop; Yun, Jong-Il [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering; Vespa, Marika; Gaona, Xavier; Dardenne, Kathy; Rothe, Joerg; Rabung, Thomas; Altmaier, Marcus [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Nuclear Waste Disposal

    2017-06-01

    The formation of ternary Mg-UO{sub 2}-CO{sub 3} complexes under weakly alkaline pH conditions was investigated by time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and compared to Ca-UO{sub 2}-CO{sub 3} complexes. The presence of two different Mg-UO{sub 2}-C{sub 3} complexes was identified by means of two distinct fluorescence lifetimes of 17±2 ns and 51±2 ns derived from the multi-exponential decay of the fluorescence signal. Slope analysis in terms of fluorescence intensity coupled with fluorescence intensity factor as a function of log [Mg(II)] was conducted for the identification of the Mg-UO{sub 2}-CO{sub 3} complexes forming. For the first time, the formation of both MgUO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 2-} and Mg{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}(aq) species was confirmed and the corresponding equilibrium constants were determined as log β {sub 113}=25.8±0.3 and β {sub 213}=27.1±0.6, respectively. Complementarily, fundamental structural information for both Ca-UO{sub 2}-CO{sub 3} and Mg-UO{sub 2}-CO{sub 3} complexes was gained by extended EXAFS revealing very similar structures between these two species, except for the clearly shorter U-Mg distance (3.83 Aa) compared with U-Ca distance (4.15 Aa). These results confirmed the inner-sphere character of the Ca/Mg-UO{sub 2}-CO{sub 3} complexes. The formation constants determined for MgUO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 2-} and Mg{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}(aq) species indicate that ternary Mg-UO{sub 2}-CO{sub 3} complexes contribute to the relevant uranium species in carbonate saturated solutions under neutral to weakly alkaline pH conditions in the presence of Mg(II) ions, which will induce notable influences on the U(VI) chemical species under seawater conditions.

  16. A Three-dimensional Topological Model of Ternary Phase Diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Yingxue; Bao, Hong

    2017-01-01

    In order to obtain a visualization of the complex internal structure of ternary phase diagram, the paper realized a three-dimensional topology model of ternary phase diagram with the designed data structure and improved algorithm, under the guidance of relevant theories of computer graphics. The purpose of the model is mainly to analyze the relationship between each phase region of a ternary phase diagram. The model not only obtain isothermal section graph at any temperature, but also extract a particular phase region in which users are interested. (paper)

  17. Cross-talk between Integrin α6β4 and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Receptor (IGF1R) through Direct α6β4 Binding to IGF1 and Subsequent α6β4-IGF1-IGF1R Ternary Complex Formation in Anchorage-independent Conditions*

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Masaaki; Ieguchi, Katsuaki; Davari, Parastoo; Yamaji, Satoshi; Taniguchi, Yukimasa; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Takada, Yoko K.; Takada, Yoshikazu

    2012-01-01

    Background: Integrin αvβ3-extracellular matrix interaction and/or αvβ3 binding to insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1; and integrin-IGF1-IGF1 receptor ternary complex formation) is critical for IGF signaling.

  18. Crystal structures of palladium(II) ternary complexes of 5-x-2-aminobenzoic acid with 1,10-phenanthroline and their interaction with calf thymus DNA (where X=Cl, Br and I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Okabe, Nobuo; Odoko, Mamiko

    2005-10-01

    The crystal structures of a series of three palladium(II) ternary complexes of 5-halogeno-2-aminobenzoic acid (5-X-AB, where X=Cl, Br and I) with 1,10-phenanthroline [Pd(5-Cl-AB)(phen)] (1), [Pd(5-Br-AB)(phen)] (2) and [Pd(5-I-AB)(phen)] (3) have been determined, and their coordination geometries and the crystal architecture characterized. All of the complexes are an isostructure in which each Pd(II) atom has basically similar square planar coordination geometry. The substitute halogen group at 5-position of AB plays an important role in producing the coordination bonds of the carboxylate and amino groups in which the carboxylate O atom and the amino N atom act as the negative monodentate ligand atoms. The coordination bond distances of O-Pd increase in the order 1<2<3, while those of N-Pd decrease in the same order. The binding of the complexes to the calf thymus DNA has also been studied by the fluorescence method. Each of the complexes shows high binding propensity to DNA which can be reflected as the relative order 1<2<3.

  19. Ternary complexes of Zn(II) and Cu(II) with 1-((2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-yl)methylene)-4-phenylthiosemicarbazide in the presence of heterocyclic bases as auxiliary ligands: Synthesis, spectroscopic and structural characterization and antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarkish, Mohammad; Akbari, Alireza; Sedaghat, Tahereh; Simpson, Jim

    2018-03-01

    The new ternary complexes, ZnLL‧ [L = 1-((2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-yl)methylene)-4-phenylthiosemicarbazide and L‧ = imidazole (1), 2, 2‧-bipyridine (2) and 2-methyimidazole (3)], Zn2L2L‧ [L‧ = 4, 4‧-bipy (4)] and CuLL‧ [L‧ = 2, 2‧-bipy (5)] have been synthesized by the reaction of a metal(II) acetate salt with the thiosemicarbazone and in presence of heterocyclic bases as auxiliary ligands. The synthesized compounds were investigated by elemental analysis and IR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR spectroscopy and complex 5 was structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. The results indicate the thiosemicarbazone doubly deprotonated and coordinates to metal through the thiolate sulfur, imine nitrogen and phenolic oxygen atoms. The nitrogen atom(s) of the auxiliary ligand complete the coordination sphere. Complex 4 is binuclear with 4, 4‧-bipy acting as a bridging ligand. The structure of 5 is a distorted square pyramid with one of the bipyridine nitrogen atoms in the apical position. This compound creates an inversion dimer in solid state by intermolecular hydrogen bonds of Nsbnd H⋯S type. The in vitro antibacterial activity of the synthesized compounds were evaluated against Gram-positive (B. subtilis and S. aureus) and Gram-negative (P. aeruginosa) bacteria and is compared to that of standard antibacterial drugs. All complexes exhibit good inhibitory effects and are significantly more effective than the parent ligand.

  20. Synthesis, investigation and spectroscopic characterization of piroxicam ternary complexes of Fe(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) with glycine and DL-phenylalanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Gehad G.; El-Gamel, Nadia E. A.

    2004-11-01

    The ternary piroxicam (Pir; 4-hydroxy-2-methyl- N-(2-pyridyl)-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide 1,1-dioxide) complexes of Fe(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) with various amino acids (AA) such as glycine (Gly) or DL-phenylalanine (PhA) were prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance, IR, UV-Vis, magnetic moment, diffuse reflectance and X-ray powder diffraction. The UV-Vis spectra of Pir and the effect of metal chelation on the different interligand transitions are discussed in detailed manner. IR and UV-Vis spectra confirm that Pir behaves as a neutral bidentate ligand coordinated to the metal ions via the pyridine- N and carbonyl group of the amide moiety. Gly molecule acted as a uninegatively monodentate ligand and coordinate to the metal ions through its carboxylic group, in addition PhA acted as a uninegatively bidentate ligand and coordinate to the metal ions through its carboxylic and amino groups. All the chelates have octahedral geometrical structures while Cu(II)- and Zn(II)-ternary chelates with PhA have square planar geometrical structures. The molar conductance data reveal that most of these chelates are non electrolytes, while Fe(III)-Pir-Gly, Co(II)-, Ni(II)-, Cu(II)- and Zn(II)-Pir-PhA cheletes were 1:1 electrolytes. X-ray powder diffraction is used as a new tool to estimate the crystallinity of chelates as well as to elucidate their geometrical structures.

  1. A new BATO complex 99mTcCl(4-MCDO)3MeB for myocardial imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongfeng; Liu Jing; Chen Huawei; Liu Boli

    1995-01-01

    A new neutral complex has been synthesized and evaluated for potential use in myocardial perfusion imaging. It has intrinsic affinity for the blood clearance. The uptake of heart, lung and blood in mice at 2 min separately are 1.12, 2.48 and 6.66% ID. The complex formation is rapid, simple and highly yielded (≥93%). This process is easy to kit formation

  2. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of a novel ''3+1'' mixed ligand {sup 99m}Tc complex having an aliphatic thiol as coligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, A. E-mail: arey@bilbo.edu.uy; Papadopoulos, M.; Leon, E.; Mallo, L.; Pirmettis, Y.; Manta, E.; Raptopoulou, C.; Chiotellis, E.; Leon, A

    2001-03-01

    A novel ''3+1'' mixed ligand {sup 99m}Tc complex with N,N-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)-N'N'-diethyl-ethilenediamine as ligand and 1-octanethiol as coligand was prepared and evaluated as potential brain radiopharmaceutical. Preparation at tracer level was accomplished by substitution, using {sup 99m}Tc-glucoheptonate as precursor and a coligand/ligand ratio of 5. Under these conditions the labeling yield was over 80% and a major product with radiochemical purity >80% was isolated by HPLC methods and used for biological evaluation. Chemical characterization at carrier level was developed using the corresponding rhenium and {sup 99g}Tc complexes. Results were consistent with the expected ''3+1'' structure and X-ray diffraction study demonstrated that the complex adopted a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry. All sulphur atoms underwent ionization leading to the formation of a neutral compound. Biodistribution in mice demonstrated early brain uptake, fast blood clearance and excretion through hepatobiliary system. Although brain/blood ratio increased significantly with time, this novel {sup 99m}Tc complex did not exhibit ideal properties as brain perfusion radiopharmaceutical since brain uptake was too low.

  3. Kinetic study of lithium-cadmium ternary amalgam decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordova, M.H.; Andrade, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of metals, which form stable lithium phase in binary alloys, on the formation of intermetallic species in ternary amalgams and their effect on thermal decomposition in contact with water is analyzed. Cd is selected as ternary metal, based on general experimental selection criteria. Cd (Hg) binary amalgams are prepared by direct contact Cd-Hg, whereas Li is formed by electrolysis of Li OH aq using a liquid Cd (Hg) cathodic well. The decomposition kinetic of Li C(Hg) in contact with 0.6 M Li OH is studied in function of ageing and temperature, and these results are compared with the binary amalgam Li (Hg) decomposition. The decomposition rate is constant during one hour for binary and ternary systems. Ageing does not affect the binary systems but increases the decomposition activation energy of ternary systems. A reaction mechanism that considers an intermetallic specie participating in the activated complex is proposed and a kinetic law is suggested. (author)

  4. Association of non-traumatic complex regional pain syndrome with adenocarcinoma lung on 99mTc-MDP bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damle, Nishikant A.; Tripathi, Madhavi; Singhal, Abhinav; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Praveen Kumar; Kandasamy, Devasenathipathi; Jana, Manisha

    2012-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is usually associated with trauma. Rarely, it may be seen in association with malignancies. We present here the bone scan and X-ray findings in the case of a 56-year-male-patient with adenocarcinoma lung who also had non-traumatic CRPS without involvement of the stellate ganglion. The case highlights the fact that spontaneous development of reflex sympathetic dystrophy may be associated with a neoplastic etiology. (author)

  5. The adsorption of 99mTc(Sn)-diphosphonate complexes on tri-calciumphosphate: the influence of preparation conditions, ligand-type, incubation media and adsorption conditions. The reversibility of the adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huigen, Y.M.; Krips, H.J.; Hulleman, S.; Gelsema, W.J.; Ligny, C.L. de

    1990-01-01

    The influence of several variables on the adsorption of 99m Tc(Sn)-diphosphate complexes on tricalciumphosphate was determined. The composition of the incubation medium influenced the percentage adsorption: with Hank's balanced salt solution (a medium frequently used for bone cell cultures) and Tris buffer lower percentage adsorption was obtained than with physiological saline as the incubation medium. The influence of addition to the incubation medium of some ions and natural species, some of which occur in bone fluid, is very specific. Addition of Sn(II) or Mg(II) (a component of HBSS) reduces the amount of adsorption. Addition of Ca(II) and Al(III) had no effect. Addition of sodium-citrate and MDP to the medium and an increase of the pH of the medium decreased the percentage adsorption. The ligand that was used in the preparation of the complex mixture influences the percentage adsorption considerably. The Sn(II) concentration used during the preparation of the 99m Tc(Sn)-MDP and 99m Tc(Sn)-MHDP complexes showed no definite influence on the percentage adsorption. The pH and ligand concentration, used in the preparation, however, did effect the percentage adsorption. It was concluded that the 99m Tc(Sn)-disphosphonate mixtures are part reversibly and part irreversibly bound to tri-calcium-phosphate. (author)

  6. Preparation and assessment of [{sup 99m}Tc]technetium aquacarbonyl complexes with 1,2-diaminoethane-N-substituted ligands for tumor detection; Preparo e avaliacao de complexos de [{sup 99m}Tc]tecnecio aquacarbonil com ligantes 1,2-diaminoetano-N-substituidos para deteccao de tumores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radin, Adriano

    2010-07-01

    Over least 15 years the complex [[{sup 99m}Tc](H{sub 2}0){sub 3}(CO){sub 3}]{sup +} has been used as an intermediary to obtain technetium radiopharmaceuticals for applications in cardiology, neurology and oncology. Two important characteristics of this molecule are: the facility for obtaining that compound from aqueous solutions and the easiness of substituting H{sub 2}O molecules by atoms of other ligand molecules. In this project we prepared new complexes [[{sup 99m}Tc](CMN{sup S001-3})(H{sub 2}O)(CO){sub 3}]{sup +}, where (CMNS001) = N-[(4-methoxy) benzyl]-1,2-diaminoethane, (CMNS003) = N,N'-bis-[(4-methoxy)benzyl]-1,2-diaminoethane, and assessed the uptake of these complexes in murine melanoma cancer cell B16F10 and breast cells MCF-7 and MDA-MD-231, and compared with [[{sup 99m}](MIBI){sub 6}]{sup +} uptake. In vitro uptake for both new technetium complex reached values close to 5%, for all cell lines, whereas the [[{sup 99m}Tc](MIBI){sub 6}]{sup +} uptake was close to 1 %. The assessment of subcellular distribution showed high accumulation of the new complex in the membrane fraction, for MDAMB-231, while for B16F10 accumulation occurred both in membrane and cytoplasm; the concentration of [[{sup 99m}Tc](MIBI){sub 6}]{sup +} was mainly in the cytoplasm portion. Biodistribution study in mice allowed to observe the capture of up to 1.6% of the administered dose per gram of tumor tissue for the complex [[{sup 99m}Tc](CMNS001)(H{sub 2}O)(CO){sub 3}]{sup +}, whereas other organs such as heart, lung and muscle, showed uptake of about 5.6%, 6.4% and 2%, respectively. The complexes in this work showed a high rate of uptake in vitro, but was not reproduced in vivo model, which can be related to low concentration of the complexes inside the cells and reduced vascularity of tumor tissue, with lower intake of complex through the blood system. (author)

  7. Factors affecting nucleolytic efficiency of some ternary metal complexes with DNA binding and recognition domains. Crystal and molecular structure of Zn(phen)(edda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Hoi-Ling; Ong, Han-Kiat Alan; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd; Yamin, Bohari M; Tiekink, Edward R T; Tan, Kong Wai; Maah, Mohd Jamil; Caracelli, Ignez; Ng, Chew Hee

    2008-11-01

    The binding selectivity of the M(phen)(edda) (M=Cu, Co, Ni, Zn; phen=1,10-phenanthroline, edda=ethylenediaminediacetic acid) complexes towards ds(CG)(6), ds(AT)(6) and ds(CGCGAATTCGCG) B-form oligonucleotide duplexes were studied by CD spectroscopy and molecular modeling. The binding mode is intercalation and there is selectivity towards AT-sequence and stacking preference for A/A parallel or diagonal adjacent base steps in their intercalation. The nucleolytic properties of these complexes were investigated and the factors affecting the extent of cleavage were determined to be: concentration of complex, the nature of metal(II) ion, type of buffer, pH of buffer, incubation time, incubation temperature, and the presence of hydrogen peroxide or ascorbic acid as exogenous reagents. The fluorescence property of these complexes and its origin were also investigated. The crystal structure of the Zn(phen)(edda) complex is reported in which the zinc atom displays a distorted trans-N(4)O(2) octahedral geometry; the crystal packing features double layers of complex molecules held together by extensive hydrogen bonding that inter-digitate with adjacent double layers via pi...pi interactions between 1,10-phenanthroline residues. The structure is compared with that of the recently described copper(II) analogue and, with the latter, included in molecular modeling.

  8. Country report: United Kingdom. Bifunctional bisphosphonate complexes with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re for the diagnosis and therapy of bone metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Martin de Rosales, Rafael; Blower, P.J., E-mail: rafael.torres@kcl.ac.uk, E-mail: philip.blower@kcl.ac.uk [Division of Imaging Sciences, King' s College London, 4th Floor, Lambeth Wing, St. Thomas Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    1,1-Bisphosphonates (BPs) are a family of compounds extensively used in the management of disorders of bone metabolism.{sup 1} They accumulate in areas of high bone metabolism, such as bone metastases, and consequently have been receiving increasing attention as molecular imaging probes and pain palliation treatments.{sup 2} Imaging bone metastases with BPs using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or planar scintigraphy is one of the most often-performed clinical imaging procedures. Beta-emitting analogues capable of producing a therapeutic effect have also been developed.{sup 3} In particular, the rhenium compounds {sup 186/188}Re-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonate ({sup 186/188}Re-HEDP) have shown promise as palliative agents for bone metastases in recent clinical trials.{sup 4} The radiochemicals consist of a complex of a BP (e.g. methylene diphosphonate, MDP) with gamma- ({sup 99m}Tc) or beta- ({sup 186/186}Re) emitters.

  9. THE UNCOVERING OF A NOVEL REGULATORY MECHANISM FOR PLD2: FORMATION OF A TERNARY COMPLEX WITH PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE PTP1B AND GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-BOUND PROTEIN GRB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Jeff; Lopez, Isabel; Miller, Mill; Gomez-Cambronero, Julian

    2011-01-01

    The regulation of PLD2 activation is poorly understood at present. Transient transfection of COS-7 with a mycPLD2 construct results in elevated levels of PLD2 enzymatic activity and tyrosyl phosphorylation. To investigate whether this phosphorylation affects PLD2 enzymatic activity, anti-myc immunoprecipitates were treated with recombinant protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B. Surprisingly, lipase activity and PY levels both increased over a range of PTP1B concentrations. These increases occurred in parallel to a measurable PTP1B-associated phosphatase activity. Inhibitor studies demonstrated that an EGF-receptor type kinase is involved in phosphorylation. In a COS-7 cell line created in the laboratory that stably expressed myc-PLD2, PTP1B induced a robust (>6-fold) augmentation of myc-PLD2 phosphotyrosine content. The addition of growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) to cell extracts also elevated PY levels of myc-PLD (>10-fold). Systematic co-immunoprecipitation-immunoblotting experiments pointed at a physical association between PLD2, Grb2 and PTP1B in both physiological conditions and in overexpressed cells. This is the first report of a demonstration of the mammalian isoform PLD2 existing in a ternary complex with a protein tyrosine phosphatase, PTP1b, and the docking protein Grb2 which greatly enhances tyrosyl phosphorylation of the lipase. PMID:15896299

  10. Study on the ternary mixed ligand complex of palladium(II)-aminophylline-fluorescein sodium by resonance Rayleigh scattering, second-order scattering and frequency doubling scattering spectrum and its analytical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peili; Liu, Shaopu; Liu, Zhongfang; Hu, Xiaoli

    2011-01-01

    The interaction between palladium(II)-aminophylline and fluorescein sodium was investigated by resonance Rayleigh scattering, second-order scattering and frequency doubling scattering spectrum. In pH 4.4 Britton-Robinson (BR) buffer medium, aminophylline (Ami) reacted with palladium(II) to form chelate cation([Pd(Ami)]2+), which further reacted with fluorescein sodium (FS) to form ternary mixed ligand complex [Pd(Ami)(FS)2]. As a result, resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS), second-order scattering (SOS) and frequency doubling scattering spectrum (FDS) were enhanced. The maximum scattering wavelengths of [Pd(Ami)(FS)2] were located at 300 nm (RRS), 650 nm (SOS) and 304 nm (FDS). The scattering intensities were proportional to the Ami concentration in a certain range and the detection limits were 7.3 ng mL(-1) (RRS), 32.9 ng mL(-1) (SOS) and 79.1 ng mL(-1) (FDS), respectively. Based on it, the new simple, rapid, and sensitive scattering methods have been proposed to determine Ami in urine and serum samples. Moreover, the formation mechanism of [Pd(Ami)(FS)2] and the reasons for enhancement of RRS were fully discussed. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. New ternary superconducting germanides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschalkov, V. V.; Muttik, I. G.; Samarin, N. A.; Seropegin, Yu. D.; Rudometkina, M. V.

    1991-12-01

    We have studied the structure, electrical and magnetic properties of new ternary compounds with germanium and transition metals of IV and V groups (Ti 0.7V 0.3Ge 3, Hf 2V 3Ge, Zr 32-36V 32-36Ge 30-32, Hf 2Nb 3Ge 4, HfVGe, Zr 15-17V 39-40Ge 44-45, Hf 10.8-21.7V 36.0-42.8). The homogeneity fields for all new phases are determined. Resistivity (T) and magnetic susceptibility χ(T) are investigated at T=4.2…300 K. Two new superconductors have been found - Zr 32-36V 32-36Ge 30-32 and HfVGe with T c=4.7 K and 5.7 K, respectively.

  12. Model for competitive binary and ternary ion-molecule reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, E.

    1985-01-01

    A mechanism by which competitive binary and ternary ion-molecule reactions can occur is proposed. Calculations are undertaken for the specific system CH3(+) + NH3 + He which has been studied in the laboratory by Smith and Adams (1978), and the potential surface of which has been studied theoretically by Nobes and Radom (1983). It is shown that a potential-energy barrier in the exit channel prevents the rapid dissociation of collision complexes with large amounts of angular momentum and thereby allows collisional stabilization of the complexes. The calculated ternary-reaction rate coefficient is in good agreement with the experimental value, but a plot of the effective two-body rate coefficient of the ternary channel vs helium density does not quite show the observed saturation. 21 references

  13. Properties of the manganese(II) binding site in ternary complexes of Mnter dot ADP and Mnter dot ATP with chloroplast coupling factor 1: Magnetic field dependence of solvent sup 1 H and sup 2 H NMR relaxation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddy, A.E.; Frasch, W.D.; Sharp, R.R. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA))

    1989-05-02

    The influence of the binding of ADP and ATP on the high-affinity Mn(II) binding site of chloroplast coupling factor 1 (CF{sub 1}) was studied by analysis of field-dependent solvent proton and deuteron spin-lattice relaxation data. In order to characterize metal-nucleotide complexes of CF{sub 1} under conditions similar to those of the NMR experiments, the enzyme was analyzed for bound nucleotides and Mn(II) after incubation with AdN and MnCl{sub 2} and removal of labile ligands by extensive gel filtration chromatography. In the field-dependent NMR experiments, the Mn(II) binding site of CF{sub 1} was studied for three mole ratios of added Mn(II) to CF{sub 1}, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5, in the presence of an excess of either ADP or ATP. The results were extrapolated to zero Mn(II) concentration to characterize the environment of the first Mn(II) binding site of Cf{sub 1}. In the presence of both adenine nucleotides, pronounced changes in the Mn(II) environment relative to that in Mn(II)-CF{sub 1} were evident; the local relaxation rate maxima were more pronounced and shifted to higher field strengths, and the relaxation rate per bound Mn(II) increased at all field strengths. Analysis of the data revealed that the number of exchangeable water molecules liganded to bound Mn(II) increased from one in the binary Mn(II)-CF{sub 1} complex to three and two in the ternary Mn(II)-ADP-CF{sub 1} and Mn(II)-ATP-CF{sub 1} complexes, respectively; these results suggest that a water ligand to bound Mn(II) in the Mn(II)-ADP-CF{sub 1} complex is replaced by the {gamma}-phosphate of ATP in the Mn(II)-ATP-CF{sub 1} complex. A binding model is presented to account for these observations.

  14. Experimental and Computational Studies of the Macrocyclic Effect of an Auxiliary Ligand on Electron and Proton Transfers Within Ternary Copper(II)-Histidine Complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Tao; Lam, Corey; Ng, Dominic C.; Orlova, G.; Laskin, Julia; Fang, De-Cai; Chu, Ivan K.

    2009-01-01

    The dissociation of [Cu II (L)His] -2+ complexes [L = diethylenetriamine (dien) or 1,4,7-triazacyclononane (9-aneN 3 )] bears a strong resemblance to the previously reported behavior of [Cu II (L)GGH] -2+ complexes. We have used low energy collision-induced dissociation experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level to study the macrocyclic effect of the auxiliary ligands on the formation of His -+ from prototypical [Cu II (L)His] -2+ systems. DFT revealed that the relative energy barriers of the same electron transfer (ET) dissociation pathways of [Cu II (9-aneN 3 )His] -2+ and [Cu II (dien)His] -2+ are very similar, with the ET reactions of [Cu II (9-aneN 3 )His] -2+ leading to the generation of two distinct His -+ species; in contrast, the proton transfer (PT) dissociation pathways of [Cu II (9-aneN 3 )His] -2+ and [Cu II (dien)His] -2+ differ considerably. The PT reactions of [Cu II (9-aneN 3 )His] -2+ are associated with substantially higher barriers (>13 kcal/mol) than those of [Cu II (dien)His] -2+ . Thus, the sterically encumbered auxiliary 9-aneN3 ligand facilitates ET reactions while moderating PT reactions, allowing the formation of hitherto non-observable histidine radical cations.

  15. Dynamic studies of H-Ras•GTPγS interactions with nucleotide exchange factor Sos reveal a transient ternary complex formation in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Uybach; Vajpai, Navratna; Embrey, Kevin J; Golovanov, Alexander P

    2016-07-14

    The cycling between GDP- and GTP- bound forms of the Ras protein is partly regulated by the binding of Sos. The structural/dynamic behavior of the complex formed between activated Sos and Ras at the point of the functional cycle where the nucleotide exchange is completed has not been described to date. Here we show that solution NMR spectra of H-Ras∙GTPγS mixed with a functional fragment of Sos (Sos(Cat)) at a 2:1 ratio are consistent with the formation of a rather dynamic assembly. H-Ras∙GTPγS binding was in fast exchange on the NMR timescale and retained a significant degree of molecular tumbling independent of Sos(Cat), while Sos(Cat) also tumbled largely independently of H-Ras. Estimates of apparent molecular weight from both NMR data and SEC-MALS revealed that, at most, only one H-Ras∙GTPγS molecule appears stably bound to Sos. The weak transient interaction between Sos and the second H-Ras∙GTPγS may provide a necessary mechanism for complex dissociation upon the completion of the native GDP → GTP exchange reaction, but also explains measurable GTP → GTP exchange activity of Sos routinely observed in in vitro assays that use fluorescently-labelled analogs of GTP. Overall, the data presents the first dynamic snapshot of Ras functional cycle as controlled by Sos.

  16. Tc(V)-DMS tumour imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, K.; Yomoda, I.; Yokoyama, A.; Endo, K.; Torizuka, K.

    1986-01-01

    The data obtained by the authors provide good evidence of Tc(V)-DMS as a stable, large-molecular-size Tc-complex or polynuclear Tc-complex, comparable to Tc-cit and Ga-cit. A role for this polynuclear configuration in the generation of Tc-species with affinity for neoplastic cells was demonstrated using the dilution method as a promoter of Tc(V)-DMS dissociation. The concurrent Ehrlich ascites tumour cell uptake studies with TLC analysis revealed the chromatographically detected changes well traced by the biological cell utilization. The biological implications of dilution as one of the factors regulating radiopharmaceutical delivery to the tumour cell tissue were better demonstrated in the biodistribution studies carried out with Erhlich ascites-bearing mice. If, on the basis of the present data, the authors may take their postulate one step further, a more dissociated Tc-species, defined speculatively as TcO/sub 4//sup 3-/, might constitute an active Tc- species within the cell interacting with some tumour-specific substance or site. Research to find evidence of its presence is currently in progress

  17. Comparative binding characteristics of Tc-CPI, Tc-TBI, and Tc-MIBI in cultured heart cells: Correlation with biochemical analysis and animal images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piwnica-Worms, D.; Kronauge, J.F.; Holman, B.L.; Davison, A.; Jones, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    Hexakis (isonitrile)technetium (I) complexes are a new class of cationic, lipophilic myocaridal perfusion imaging agents. To better understand their cellular mechanisms of uptake and washout, chick heart cells grown in culture were used as a model myocardial system. Tc-MIBI showed uptake to a plateau at a rate similar to Tc-CPI (t1/2 = 4.1 +- 0.7 minutes); however, the plateau was 63% greater. Tc-TBI uptake approached a plateau 900% greater than Tc-CPI binding. Heart cell studies showed washout of Tc-CPI>Tc-TBI>Tc-MIBI, which correlated with kinetic analysis of rabbit myocardial images. Biochemical in vitro analysis in human plasma demonstrated 75% enzymatic ester hydrolysis of Tc-CPI by 3 minutes, but no hydrolysis of Tc-TBI and Tc-MIBI. The results suggest that metabolism of the ester function of Tc-CPI following myocardial uptake may in part account for the more rapid cellular washout rates of Tc-CPI compared with Tc-TBI and Tc-MIBI

  18. lemmingA encodes the Apc11 subunit of the APC/C in Drosophila melanogaster that forms a ternary complex with the E2-C type ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, Vihar and Morula/Apc2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Olga

    2012-03-01

    being conserved among Drosophila species, the LmgB protein is not required for viability or fertility. Conclusions Our work provides insight into the subunit structure of the Drosophila APC/C with implications for its function. Based on the presented data, we suggest that the Lmg/Apc11 subunit recruits the E2-C type ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, Vihar, to the APC/C together with Mr/Apc2 by forming a ternary complex.

  19. Soil-to-plant transfer of 99mTc: how to determine Tc-species in uptake and transport processes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krijger, G. C.; Van Elswijk, D. A.; Wolterbeek, H. Th.

    1995-01-01

    Selective extraction, filtration and capillary electrophoresis were used to recognize problems dealing with complexation, oxidation and ligand-exchange processes during collection and analysis of Tc-species in xylem exudates, while 99m Tc-citrate was used as a marker complex. Relatively unstable Tc-species were synthesized in xylem exudates. Oxidation of relative unstable Tc-species during the collection of xylem exudates was suggested, requiring new, better procedures to recognize Tc-species representative for the plant interior. (author)

  20. Adiabatic pipelining: a key to ternary computing with quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pečar, P.; Ramšak, A.; Zimic, N.; Mraz, M.; Lebar Bajec, I.

    2008-12-01

    The quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots, was introduced by Lent in the mid-1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multi-valued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi-valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turned out, even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and the application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We present here a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more, the ternary QCAs presented here are sizewise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve towards their faster adoption.

  1. Adiabatic pipelining: a key to ternary computing with quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecar, P; Zimic, N; Mraz, M; Lebar Bajec, I; Ramsak, A

    2008-01-01

    The quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots, was introduced by Lent in the mid-1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multi-valued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi-valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turned out, even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and the application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We present here a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more, the ternary QCAs presented here are sizewise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve towards their faster adoption.

  2. Adiabatic pipelining: a key to ternary computing with quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pečar, P; Ramšak, A; Zimic, N; Mraz, M; Lebar Bajec, I

    2008-12-10

    The quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots, was introduced by Lent in the mid-1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multi-valued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi-valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turned out, even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and the application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We present here a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more, the ternary QCAs presented here are sizewise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve towards their faster adoption.

  3. Ternary Weighted Function and Beurling Ternary Banach Algebra l1ω(S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dehghanian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Let S be a ternary semigroup. In this paper, we introduce our notation and prove some elementary properties of a ternary weight function ω on S. Also, we make ternary weighted algebra l1ω(S and show that l1ω(S is a ternary Banach algebra.

  4. Structural insights into the dual strategy of recognition by peptidoglycan recognition protein, PGRP-S: structure of the ternary complex of PGRP-S with lipopolysaccharide and stearic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Sharma

    Full Text Available Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs are part of the innate immune system. The 19 kDa Short PGRP (PGRP-S is one of the four mammalian PGRPs. The concentration of PGRP-S in camel (CPGRP-S has been shown to increase considerably during mastitis. The structure of CPGRP-S consists of four protein molecules designated as A, B, C and D forming stable intermolecular contacts, A-B and C-D. The A-B and C-D interfaces are located on the opposite sides of the same monomer leading to the the formation of a linear chain with alternating A-B and C-D contacts. Two ligand binding sites, one at C-D contact and another at A-B contact have been observed. CPGRP-S binds to the components of bacterial cell wall molecules such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS, lipoteichoic acid (LTA, and peptidoglycan (PGN from both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. It also binds to fatty acids including mycolic acid of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb. Previous structural studies of binary complexes of CPGRP-S with LPS and stearic acid (SA have shown that LPS binds to CPGRP-S at C-D contact (Site-1 while SA binds to it at the A-B contact (Site-2. The binding studies using surface plasmon resonance showed that LPS and SA bound to CPGRP-S in the presence of each other. The structure determination of the ternary complex showed that LPS and SA bound to CPGRP-S at Site-1 and Site-2 respectively. LPS formed 13 hydrogen bonds and 159 van der Waals contacts (distances ≤4.2 Å while SA formed 56 van der Waals contacts. The ELISA test showed that increased levels of productions of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ due to LPS and SA decreased considerably upon the addition of CPGRP-S.

  5. Synthesis of macrocyclic polyamines; complexation of basic [{sup 99m}TcO{sub 2}{sup +}] and biodistribution of complexed forms; Synthese de polyamines macrocycliques. Complexation du coeur [{sup 99m}TcO{sub 2}{sup +}] et biodistribution des complexes formes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riche, F.; Vidal, M. [Universite Joseph Fourier, 38 - Grenoble (France); Mathieu, J.P.; Fagret, D.; Comet, M. [Universite Joseph Fourier, 38 - La Tronche (France). Faculte de Medecine; Pasqualini, R. [CIS bio international, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1996-01-01

    The synthesis of macrocyclic polyamines is described, as well as their complexation with technetium via pertechnetole ligands. Several pertechnetole reducing agents were studied, as well as their method of complexation with polyamines and their charge and lipophilicity. Their biodistribution in the mouse and the dog has been studied by scintiscanning which provides evidence of their excellence as hepatobiliary tracers. (UK).

  6. High-performance ternary blend polymer solar cells involving both energy transfer and hole relay processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Luyao; Chen, Wei; Xu, Tao; Yu, Luping

    2015-06-04

    The integration of multiple materials with complementary absorptions into a single junction device is regarded as an efficient way to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs). However, because of increased complexity with one more component, only limited high-performance ternary systems have been demonstrated previously. Here we report an efficient ternary blend OSC with a PCE of 9.2%. We show that the third component can reduce surface trap densities in the ternary blend. Detailed studies unravel that the improved performance results from synergistic effects of enlarged open circuit voltage, suppressed trap-assisted recombination, enhanced light absorption, increased hole extraction, efficient energy transfer and better morphology. The working mechanism and high device performance demonstrate new insights and design guidelines for high-performance ternary blend solar cells and suggest that ternary structure is a promising platform to boost the efficiency of OSCs.

  7. Equilibrium studies of ternary systems containing some selected transition metal ions, triazoles and aromatic carboxylic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Mohamed Magdy; Radalla, Abd-Elatty; Qasem, Fatma; Khaled, Rehab [Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef (Egypt)

    2014-01-15

    Solution equilibria of the binary and ternary complex systems of the divalent transition metal ions Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+} with 1,2,4-triazole (TRZ), 3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (TRZSH), and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (TRZAM) and aromatic carboxylic acids (phthalic, anthranilic, salicylic, and 5-sulfosalicylic acid) have been studied pH-metrically at (25.0±0.1) .deg. C, and a constant ionic strength I=1x10{sup -1} mol L{sup -1} NaNO{sub 3} in an aqueous medium. The potentiometric titration curves show that binary and ternary complexes of these ligands are formed in solution. The stability constants of the different binary and ternary complexes formed were calculated on the basis of computer analysis of the titration data. The relative stability of the different ternary complex species is expressed in terms of Δ log K values, log X and R. S.% parameters. The effect of temperature of the medium on both the proton-ligand equilibria for TRZAM and phthalic acid and their metal-ligand equilibria with Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+} has been studied along with the corresponding thermodynamic parameters. The complexation behavior of ternary complexes is ascertained using conductivity measurements. In addition, the formation of ternary complexes in solution has been confirmed by using UV-visible spectrophotometry.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of technetium(III) complexes containing 2,2'-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline. X-ray crystal structures of cis (Cl),trans(P)-[TcCl2(P(CH3)2C6H5)2(bpy)]B(C6H5)4, cis (Cl),trans(P)-[TcCl2(P(CH3)2C6H5)2(phen)]B(C6H5)4, and cis (Cl),trans(P)-[TcCl2(P(CH3CH2)(C6H5)2)2(bpy)]SO3CF3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, B.E.; Ho, D.M.; Deutsch, E.

    1989-01-01

    Technetium(III) complexes of the general formula cis(Cl),trans(P)-[TcCl 2 (P) 2 L] + , where (P) is dimethylphenylphosphine (PMe 2 Ph) or ethyldiphenylphosphine (PEtPh 2 ) and L is 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine (Me 2 bpy), or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), have been synthesized and characterized. They are prepared by L substitution onto, with concomitant displacement of one chloride and one phosphine ligand from, the mer-TcCl 3 (P) 3 starting material in refluxing ethanol. Analysis of these complexes by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (in the positive ion mode) provides fingerprint mass spectra that exhibit peaks assigned to the molecular ion M + as well as peaks assigned to M + minus one or more monodentate ligands. Results of single-crystal x-ray structure determinations of cis(Cl),trans(P)-[TcCl 2 (PMe 2 Ph) 2 (bpy)]BPh 4 (A), cis(Cl),trans(P)-[TcCl 2- (PMe 2 Ph) 2 (phen)]BPh 4 (B), and cis(Cl),trans(P)-[TcCl 2 (PEtPh 2 ) 2 (bpy)]SO 3 CF 3 (C), with formula weights of 921.62, 945.64, and 903.65, respectively are reported. 26 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  9. On the interaction of granite with Tc(IV) and Tc(VII) in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, T.E.; Cui, Daquing

    1991-10-01

    The behaviour of technetium in granite-groundwater systems under reducing conditions was investigated. The anion TcO 4 - was reduced to Tc(IV) and simultaneously precipitated as TcO 2 xnH 2 O on the granite surfaces. The electron sources are assumed to be iron oxides and/or iron containing minerals in the granite. The technetium concentration in ground water under repository conditions may be predicted assuming TcO 2 xnH 2 O as the solid phase and TcO(OH) 2 0 and TcO 4 - as the predominant aqueous complexes using a formation constant for TcO(OH) 2 0 of log K = -8.16 and a standard reduction potential E 0 for the reaction TcO 4 - + 3e - + 4H + = TcO 2 xnH 2 O of 0.738 V. The surface related distribution ratio K a for TcO(OH) 2 0 between Stripa granite and ground water is approximately 1 cm based on geometrical surface area. (au)

  10. Cyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl complexes of 99mTc for the in vivo imaging of the serotonin 5-HT 1a receptor in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidi, Mouldi; Trabelsi, Adel; MEKNI, Abdelkader; Kretzschmar, M.; Sefert, S.; Bergmann, R.; Pietzsch, H.-J.

    2005-01-01

    The present interest in the 5-HT 1a receptor is due to its implicated role in several major neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression, eating disorders and anxiety. For the diagnosis of these pathophysiological processes it is important to have radioligands in hand able to specifically bind on the 5-HT 1a receptor in order to allow brain imaging. due to the optimal radiation properties of 99mTc there is a considerable interest in the development of 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals for imaging serotonergic CNS receptors using single-photon emission tomography (SPET). Here we introduce two cyclopentadienyl technitium tricarbonyl conjugates of piperidine derivatives which show high accumulation of radioactivity in brain areas rich in 5-HT 1a receptors

  11. True ternary fission in 310126X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banupriya, B.; Vijayaraghavan, K.R.; Balasubramaniam, M.

    2015-01-01

    All possible combinations are minimized by the two dimensional minimization process and minimized with respect to neutron numbers and proton numbers of the fragments. Potential energy is low and Q - value is high at true ternary fission region. It shows that true ternary mode is the dominant mode in the ternary fission of superheavy nuclei. Also, the results show that the fragments with neutron magic numbers are the dominant one in the ternary fission of superheavy nuclei whereas the fragments with proton magic numbers are the dominant one in the ternary fission of heavy nuclei

  12. Chemical form of tumor-tropic 99mTc-DL-homocysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, A.; Okada, S.

    1989-01-01

    Analyses of the chemical forms of 99m Tc-complexes provide important information for the development of a new tumor-tropic 99m Tc-labeled radiopharmaceutical. We attempted to determine the chemical form of 99m Tc-DL-homocysteine ( 99m Tc-Hcy) which was previously reported to be tumor-tropic. By analyzing the functional residues of Hcy in the 99m Tc-Hcy molecule, it was estimated that the sulfhydryl and amino residues participated in the chelate formation. Gel filtration analysis of 99m Tc-Hcy indicated that its molecular size was bigger than that of 99m Tc-penicillamine monomer. The analysis also indicated that 99m Tc-Hcy complex seemed to be a relatively small oligomer. Although an uncertainty remains on the valency of Tc in 99m Tc-Hcy molecule and the accurate molecular size of this complex, its putative chemical form is described. (author)

  13. sup(99m)Tc-2-mercaptopropionylglycine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saji, Hideo; Odori, Teruo; Morita, Rikushi; Yokoyama, Akira; Tanaka, Hisashi.

    1979-01-01

    Labeling of 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (2-MPG) with sup(99m)Tc, was studied and its chemical characteristics were examined. Further, biliary excretion behavior of this complex was comparatively estimated in mice, rats and rabbits. sup(99m)Tc-2-MPG was rapidly excreted in large quantities into the bile in mice and rats: within 1 hr after injection, 51% of the injected dose was recovered from the bile in rats. On the other hand, the ligand exchange reaction between this complex and penicillamine indicates that a low hydrolyzed sup(99m)Tc species is coordinated with 2-MPG. These results suggest that a low hydrolyzed sup(99m)Tc state is an effective feature in biliary excretion behavior of sup(99m)Tc compounds. Another interesting in vivo behavior of sup(99m)Tc-2-MPG is the difference observed in mice and rabbits: in mice, very high sup(99m)Tc activity is concentrated in the gallbladder and the clearance from tissues other than the gallbladder is rapid, whereas in rabbits, although a rapid and high excretion into the gallbladder is observed, a considerable high sup(99m)Tc activity is retained in the liver and the kidney. One reason for this different in vivo behavior is the low stability of this complex at high dilution: a big animal has the large dilution volume which lead to higher decomposition estimated by the higher liver and kidney retention or the lower bile excretion. In conclusion, studies carried on sup(99m)Tc-2-MPG showed a good biliary excretion behavior but an in vivo unstableness in big animals. (author)

  14. Chemistry of /sup 99m/Tc labeling kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G.; Richards, P.

    1976-01-01

    Problems have been reported with the use of kit-produced /sup 99m/Tc radiopharmaceuticals. This study was undertaken to understand the chemistry involved in various stannous kit systems. The relation between Tc, tin, and the ligands used to complex the reduced Tc was investigated. It is concluded that for reliable performance, stannous kits should be prepared so that most of the tin is kept in the usable (reducing) form; a solution would be to use minimum tin and a large excess of complexing agent. Oxidation of the Tc complex to free pertechnetate is not a major problem in most kit systems. 5 figures

  15. Solubility of AnO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O(am) in carbonate solution and formation of ternary An(IV) hydroxide-carbonate complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neck, V.; Altmaier, M. [Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Fanghaenel, Th. [Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, Im Neuenheimer Feld 253, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The solubility of amorphous An(IV) hydroxides or hydrous oxides is studied with Th(IV) as a redox-stable surrogate for the other tetravalent actinides at I = 0.1 - 4 M (NaHCO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-NaOHNaCl) and 22 deg. C. Several series of closed system experiments at total carbonate concentrations of C{sub tot} = [HCO{sub 3}{sup -}] + [CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}] = 0.02 and 0.1 M in the range pH{sub c} = 8 - 13 and in Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-NaOH mixtures are performed with Th(IV) and additionally with Pu(IV). In our recent study with Th(IV) at I = 0.5 M [1], the simultaneous evaluation of solubility data at widely varied pH and carbonate concentrations has shown that Th(OH)(CO{sub 3}){sub 4}{sup 5-}, Th(OH){sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup 2-} and Th(OH){sub 4}(CO{sub 3}){sup 2-} are the most important ternary complexes. The present results at I = 0.1 - 4 M are used to describe the ionic strength dependence of the equilibrium constants log K{sub s,1yz} = log K{sub sp} + log {beta}{sub 1yz} for the reactions An(OH){sub 4}(am) + z CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} {r_reversible} An(OH){sub y}(CO{sub 3}){sub z}{sup 4-y-2z} + (4-y) OH{sup -}. Using the evaluated ion interaction (SIT) coefficients, available solubility data for U(IV), Np(IV) and Pu(IV) in wide ranges of pH, carbonate concentration and ionic strength, in particular apparently conflicting literature data for Np(IV) [2, 3] and Pu(IV) [2, 4], can be described with a consistent set of equilibrium constants. The predominant complexes An(OH){sub y}(CO{sub 3}){sub z}{sup 4-y-2z} and their formation constants log {beta}{sup 0}{sub 1yz} show pronounced analogies and systematic tendencies in the series Th(IV)-U(IV)-Np(IV)-Pu(IV). [1] Altmaier, M., Neck, V., Mueller, R., Fanghaenel, Th., Radiochim. Acta 93 (2005), in press.; [2] Rai, D., Hess, N.J., Felmy, A.R., Moore, D.A., Yui, M., Vitorge, P., a) Radiochim. Acta 84 (1999), 159, b) Radiochim. Acta 86 (1999), 89.; [3] Kitamura, A., Kohara, Y., J. Nucl

  16. Structure-property relationships of new bismuth and lead oxide based perovskite ternary solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Akansha

    Two new bismuth and lead oxide based perovskite ternary solid solutions, namely xBi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3-yPbZrO3-zPbTiO3 [xBZT-yPZ-zPT] and xBi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3-yBi(Zn 1/2Ti1/2)O3-zPbTiO3 [xBMT-yBZT-zPT] have been developed and their structural and electrical properties have been determined. Various characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, calorimetery, electron microscopy, dielectric and piezoelectric measurements have been performed to determine the details of the phase diagram, crystal structure, and domain structure. The selection of these materials is based on the hypothesis that the presence of BZT-PT (Case I ferroelectric (FE)) will increase the transition temperature of MPB systems BMT-PT (Case II FE), and PZ-PT (Case III FE), and subsequently a MPB will be observed in the ternary phase diagrams. The Case I, II, and III classification has been outlined by Stringer et al., is on the basis of the transition temperatures (TC) behavior with composition in the Bi and Pb oxide based binary systems. Several pseudobinary lines have been investigated across the xBZT-yPZ-zPT ternary phase diagram which exhibit varied TC behavior with composition, showing both Case I- and Case III-like TC trends in different regions. A MPB between rhombohedral to tetragonal phases has been located on a pseudobinary line 0.1BZT-0.9[xPT-(1-x)PZ]. Compositions near MPB exhibit mainly soft PZT-like properties with the TC around 60°C lower than the unmodified PZT near its MPB. Electrical properties are reported for the MPB composition, TC = 325°C, Pr = 35 microC/cm2, d33 = 300 pC/N and kP =0.45. Rhombohedral compositions show diffuse phase transition with small frequency dispersion, similar to relaxors. Two transition peaks in the permittivity as well as in the latent heat has been observed in some compositions near the BZT-PT binary. This leads to the speculation for the existence of miscibility gap in the solid solutions in these regions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM

  17. High-performance ternary blend polymer solar cells involving both energy transfer and hole relay processes

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Luyao; Chen, Wei; Xu, Tao; Yu, Luping

    2015-01-01

    The integration of multiple materials with complementary absorptions into a single junction device is regarded as an efficient way to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs). However, because of increased complexity with one more component, only limited high-performance ternary systems have been demonstrated previously. Here we report an efficient ternary blend OSC with a PCE of 9.2%. We show that the third component can reduce surface trap densities in the...

  18. Some new ternary linear codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Daskalov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Let an $[n,k,d]_q$ code be a linear code of length $n$, dimension $k$ and minimum Hamming distance $d$ over $GF(q$. One of the most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with optimal minimum distances. In this paper 22 new ternary linear codes are presented. Two of them are optimal. All new codes improve the respective lower bounds in [11].

  19. Expedient multi-step synthesis of organometallic complexes of Tc and Re in high effective specific activity. A new platform for the production of molecular imaging and therapy agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causey, Patrick W; Besanger, Travis R; Schaffer, Paul; Valliant, John F

    2008-09-15

    For over thirty years, instant labeling kits which involve no purification steps have been the only method used to prepare (99m)Tc radiopharmaceuticals for clinical studies. To address the limitations imposed by instant kits, which is hindering the development of molecularly targeted Tc- and Re-based imaging and therapy agents, a new strategy for the rapid multistep synthesis and purification of organometallic technetium-based molecular probes and corresponding rhenium-based therapeutic analogues was developed. Beginning with MO4(-) (M = (99m)Tc, (186/188)Re), the carbonyl precursor [M(CO)3(H2O)3](+) was synthesized in 3 min in quantitative yield in a microwave reactor. A dipicolyl ligand was added and the chelate complex was formed in high yield in 2 min using microwave heating at 150 degrees C. This was followed by a new purification strategy to remove unlabeled ligand which entailed using a copper resin/C18 solid phase extraction protocol giving the desired product in greater than 78% decay corrected yield (dcy). Conversion to the corresponding succinimidyl active ester was achieved following a 5 min microwave irradiation at 120 degrees C and C18 solid phase extraction purification in 60% dcy. A series of amides were prepared subsequently by microwave heating at 120 degrees C for 5 min producing the desired targets in greater than 86% dcy. The reported method represents a move away from traditional instant kits toward more versatile platform synthesis and purification technologies that are better suited for producing modern molecular imaging and therapy agents.

  20. 99mTc labelled cationic lipophilic complexes in malignant and benign tumors: the role of SPET and pinhole-SPET in breast cancer, differentiated thyroid carcinoma and hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillaci, O.; Spanu, A.; Madeddu, G.

    2005-01-01

    Single photon emission tomography (SPET) represents an indispensable diagnostic tool in nuclear medicine. Due to better contrast resolution, cross sectional and 3D images, SPET plays a useful complementary tool to bidimensional planar scintigraphy in certain clinical conditions, while representing the procedure of choice in others. However, high resolution SPET with pinhole collimator (P-SPET) can improve conventional SPET sensitivity with parallel hole collimators. This review summarized data on the employment of conventional SPET and P-SPET in breast cancer, differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and hyperparathyroidism patients, using the cationic lipophilic complexes ( 99m Tc )metoxy isobutyl isonitrile (sestaMIBI) and ( 99m Tc )tetrofosmin as oncotropic radiotracers. In breast cancer patients, SPET with these radiotracers can play an important complementary role to planar scintimammography in detecting primary tumors, especially when non palpable and small in size, whereas SPET and particularly P-SPET represents the procedure of choice in preoperative axillary lymph node status evaluation in which planar is almost always irrelevant. In DTC follow-up patients, SPET and P-SPET with cationic lipophilic radiotracers are indicated in both locoregional and distant metastasis detection, especially in patients with high Tg serum levels and negative radioiodine scanning in whom these procedures represent a reliable alternative to diagnostic 131 I scanning. Moreover, the combined use of ( 99m Tc)tetrofosmin P-SPET and US can identify recurrences and lymph node metastases in the neck, both fixing and non fixing iodine, down staged or negative at 131 I scanning. SPET can also be a useful complementary tool to planar parathyroid scintigraphy in the detection and localization of small and ectopic parathyroid adenomas in the neck or mediastinum, while neck P-SPET seems to also significantly increase planer sensitivity in hyperplastic glands. SPET and P-SPET are indicated in

  1. Electronic structure of ternary hydrides based on light elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orgaz, E. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: orgaz@eros.pquim.unam.mx; Membrillo, A. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Castaneda, R. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Aburto, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-12-08

    Ternary hydrides based on light elements are interesting owing to the high available energy density. In this work we focused into the electronic structure of a series of known systems having the general formula AMH{sub 4}(A=Li,Na,M=B,Al). We computed the energy bands and the total and partial density of states using the linear-augmented plane waves method. In this report, we discuss the chemical bonding in this series of complex hydrides.

  2. Ternary scandium and transition metals germanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, B.Ya.

    1992-01-01

    Brief review of data on phase diagram of ternary Sc-Me-Ge systems (Me-d - , f-transition element) is given. Isothermal sections at 870 and 1070 K of 17 ternary systems are plotted. Compositions and their structural characteristics are presented. Variability of crystal structure is typical for ternary scandium germanides: 70 compounds with the studied structure belong to 23 structural types. Ternary germanides isostructural to types of Sm 4 Ge 4 , ZrCrSi 2 , ZrNiAl, ScCeSi, TiNiSi U 4 Re 7 Si 6 145 compounds from 70 under investigation are mostly formed in studied systems

  3. Ternary oxide nanostructures and methods of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stanislaus S [Stony Brook, NY; Park, Tae-Jin [Port Jefferson, NY

    2009-09-08

    A single crystalline ternary nanostructure having the formula A.sub.xB.sub.yO.sub.z, wherein x ranges from 0.25 to 24, and y ranges from 1.5 to 40, and wherein A and B are independently selected from the group consisting of Ag, Al, As, Au, B, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, F, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hf, Ho, I, In, Ir, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, Os, P, Pb, Pd, Pr, Pt, Rb, Re, Rh, Ru, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Tb, Tc, Te, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, W, Y, Yb, and Zn, wherein the nanostructure is at least 95% free of defects and/or dislocations.

  4. NiS and MoS2 nanosheet co-modified graphitic C3N4 ternary heterostructure for high efficient visible light photodegradation of antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuejun; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Xinyi; Xu, Guangqing; Wang, Dongmei; Lv, Jun; Zheng, Zhixiang; Wu, Yucheng

    2018-01-05

    The development of efficient solar driven catalytic system for the degradation of antibiotics has become increasingly important in environmental protection and remediation. Non-noble-metal NiS and MoS 2 nanosheet co-modified graphitic C 3 N 4 ternary heterostructure has been synthesized via a facile combination of hydrothermal and ultrasound method, and the ternary heterostructure has been utilized for photocatalytic degradation of antibiotic agents. The antibiotics of ciprofloxacin (CIP) and tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) were photodegraded by the hybrid under the visible light. The optimal photodegradation rate of the ternary heterostructure reaches about 96% after 2h irradiation, which is 2.1 times higher than that of pure g-C 3 N 4 for TC degradation. The photocatalytic degradation rates of the ternary heterostructure for both CIP and TC obey the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The enhanced visible light adsorption and charge separation efficiency contribute to the photocatalytic performance of the ternary heterostructure. This work provides new insights and pathways by which efficient degradation of antibiotics can be achieved and will stimulate further studies in this important field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An evaporation-based model of thermal neutron induced ternary fission of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestone, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    Ternary fission probabilities for thermal neutron induced fission of plutonium are analyzed within the framework of an evaporation-based model where the complexity of time-varying potentials, associated with the neck collapse, are included in a simplistic fashion. If the nuclear temperature at scission and the fission-neck-collapse time are assumed to be ~ 1.2 MeV and ~ 10 -22 s, respectively, then calculated relative probabilities of ternary-fission light-charged-particle emission follow the trends seen in the experimental data. The ability of this model to reproduce ternary fission probabilities spanning seven orders of magnitude for a wide range of light-particle charges and masses implies that ternary fission is caused by the coupling of an evaporation-like process with the rapid re-arrangement of the nuclear fluid following scission. (author)

  6. Electrolytic 99mTcO4- reduction: a different pathway to obtain 99mTc-labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savio, E.; Kremer, C.; Gambino, D.; Kremer, E.; Leon, A.

    1991-01-01

    Electrolytic reduction of 99m TcO 4 - at inert electrodes to obtain 99m Tc cationic complexes and in vitro stability of labelled compounds were studied. Amines were used as neutral N-donor ligands and a systematic analysis of various parameters involved in the reduction process was performed. Usefulness of electrolytic reduction was proved as an alternative 99m Tc-labelling method. Its most important advantages are: production of complexes with a high radiochemical purity, negligible presence of red-hyd- 99m Tc, lack of foreign materials, simplicity of development and possibility of further applications. (author)

  7. Investigation of itraconazole ternary amorphous solid dispersions based on povidone and Carbopol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan; Meckel, Jordan; Zhang, Feng

    2017-08-30

    We investigate a ternary system that consists of itraconazole (ITZ) and two polymers: povidone K12 and Carbopol 907. The interactions between these two polymers and their effects on the properties of ternary ITZ amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) are studied. These two polymers can form a water-insoluble complex in acidic aqueous media. The critical pH is determined to be 4.17. The weight percentage of Carbopol 907 in the interpolymer complex range from 59 to 70%, depending on the initial ratios between these two polymers in the starting solutions. This complexation is driven by a negative enthalpy change from the H-bonding between the two polymers and a positive entropy change from the freed water molecules. Due to the slow precipitation of the interpolymer complex in aqueous media, the attempt to prepare ternary ASD using solvent-controlled coprecipitation is not successful. Melt extrusion is identified to be the only viable method to prepare this ternary ASD. We find that interpolymer complex-based ASDs are physically less stable and demonstrate the poorest drug-release properties when compared to individual polymer-based binary ASDs. This study illustrates that the too strong interaction between polymers in ternary ASDs is detrimental to their performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Preparation of meloxicam-β-cyclodextrin-polyethylene glycol 6000 ternary system: characterization, in vitro and in vivo bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radia, Ourezki; Rogalska, Ewa; Moulay-Hassane, Guermouche

    2012-01-01

    Ternary complexes of meloxicam (ML), a poorly water-soluble anti-inflammatory drug, with β-cyclodextrin (βCD) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 were prepared from an equimolar (ML-βCD) and 10% of PEG. Characterization of the ternary complex was carried out by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry. The solubility of ML increased as a function of increasing the concentration of βCD and PEG 6000. Ternary system increased significantly ML solubility in water. Ternary complexes improved drug release compared with ML and ML-βCD. The oral bioavailability of ML-βCD-PEG was investigated by administration to rat and compared with ML and ML-βCD. The results confirmed that the oral bioavailability of ML was significantly improved by complexation with βCD in the presence of PEG.

  9. Preparation and characterization of the tetrabutylammonium salts of the tetrahalooxotechnetates(V), [TcOCl4]- and [TcOBr4]-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preetz, W.; Peters, G.

    1980-01-01

    The treatment of (TBA)TcO 4 with conc. HCl or HBr at room temperature yields (TBA) [TcOCl 4 ] or (TBA) [TcOBr 4 ], which are nearly insoluble in acidic aqueous solutions, but well soluble in organic solvents. The vibrational spectra indicate C 4 sub(v) symmetry for the complex ions. (TBA) [TcOBr 4 ] shows an unusual resonance Raman effect, as the progression of overtones runs with the B 1 TcCl 4 stretching vibration instead of the symmetric A 1 mode. The coupling of B 1 with the first overtone of νTcO gives more intense difference than combination bands. (orig.)

  10. Cohesion energy calculations for ternary ionic novel crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez P, G.; Cabrera, E.; Mijangos, R.R.; Valdez, E.; Duarte, C.

    2001-01-01

    The present work calculates the value of the link energy of a crystalline ternary structure newly formed by alkali halides. The ternary structure prepared with different concentrations of KCl x KBrRbCl 2 maintains a very good miscibility and stability. The calculation is based on the use of a generalization of the Vegard law (which generally is valid for binary compounds) for calculating the values of the lattice constant and the repulsive m exponent. The value of the lattice parameter given by X-ray diffractometry agrees with the close approximation of the calculated value of the method used. It also compares the value of energy cohesion obtained by the Born expression with more complex approximations. (Author)

  11. Motor cortex stimulation(MCS) for intractable complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type II: PSM analysis of Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. A.; Son, B. C.; Yoo, I. R.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, E. N.; Park, Y. H.; Lee, S. Y.; Sohn, H. S.; Chung, S. K. [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    We had experienced a patient with intractable CRPS in whom statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of cerebral perfusion explained the mechanism of pain control by MCS. A 43-year-old man presented spontaneous severe burning pain in his left hand and forearm and allodynia over the left arm and left hemibody. After the electrodes for neuromodulation therapy were inserted in the central sulcus, the baseline and stimulation brain perfusion SPECT using Tc-99m ECD were obtained within two days. The differences between the baseline and stimulation SPECT images, estimated at every voxel using t-statistics using SPM-99 software, were considered significant at a threshold of uncorrected P values less than 0.01. Among several areas significantly activated following pain relief with MCS, ipsilateral pyramidal tract in the cerebral peduncle might be related to the mechanism of pain control with MCS through efferent motor pathway. The result suggested that corticospinal neurons themselves or motor cortex efferent pathway maintained by the presence of intact corticospinal neurons could play an important role in producing pain control after MCS. This study would helpful in understanding of neurophysiology.

  12. Motor cortex stimulation(MCS) for intractable complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type II: PSM analysis of Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y. A.; Son, B. C.; Yoo, I. R.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, E. N.; Park, Y. H.; Lee, S. Y.; Sohn, H. S.; Chung, S. K.

    2001-01-01

    We had experienced a patient with intractable CRPS in whom statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of cerebral perfusion explained the mechanism of pain control by MCS. A 43-year-old man presented spontaneous severe burning pain in his left hand and forearm and allodynia over the left arm and left hemibody. After the electrodes for neuromodulation therapy were inserted in the central sulcus, the baseline and stimulation brain perfusion SPECT using Tc-99m ECD were obtained within two days. The differences between the baseline and stimulation SPECT images, estimated at every voxel using t-statistics using SPM-99 software, were considered significant at a threshold of uncorrected P values less than 0.01. Among several areas significantly activated following pain relief with MCS, ipsilateral pyramidal tract in the cerebral peduncle might be related to the mechanism of pain control with MCS through efferent motor pathway. The result suggested that corticospinal neurons themselves or motor cortex efferent pathway maintained by the presence of intact corticospinal neurons could play an important role in producing pain control after MCS. This study would helpful in understanding of neurophysiology

  13. High-Efficient Circuits for Ternary Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Faghih Mirzaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New ternary adders, which are fundamental components of ternary addition, are presented in this paper. They are on the basis of a logic style which mostly generates binary signals. Therefore, static power dissipation reaches its minimum extent. Extensive different analyses are carried out to examine how efficient the new designs are. For instance, the ternary ripple adder constructed by the proposed ternary half and full adders consumes 2.33 μW less power than the one implemented by the previous adder cells. It is almost twice faster as well. Due to their unique superior characteristics for ternary circuitry, carbon nanotube field-effect transistors are used to form the novel circuits, which are entirely suitable for practical applications.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and biodistribution of new [sup 99m]Tc Oxo and nitrido complexes of unsaturated tetradentate (N[sub 2]S[sub 2]) ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulais, Y.; Gantet, P.; Tafani, J.A.M.; Vende, D.; Guiraud, R. (Faculte de Medecine Toulouse-Purpan, Toulouse (France). Lab. de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire); Cros, G.; Darbieu, M.H. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Toulouse (France). Lab. de Chimie de Coordination); Pasqualini, R. (Cis-Bio International, Gif-sur-Yvette (France))

    1993-04-01

    Three unsaturated Schiff base tetradentate (N[sub 2]S[sub 2] or N[sub 2]SO) ligands were synthesized and characterized. Oxo and nitrido 99m-technetium complexes were obtained with these ligands. The nitrido complexes were formed using a new easy method available as a kit. When injected into rats and mice, these lipophilic complexes were able to cross blood-brain barrier but brain perfusion imaging could not be performed due to the insufficient uptake and retention time. (author).

  15. Photocleavage of DNA by copper (II) complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The chemistry of ternary and binary copper(II) complexes showing efficient visible lightinduced DNA cleavage activity is summarized in this article. The role of the metal in photo-induced DNA cleavage reactions is explored by designing complex molecules having a variety of ligands. Ternary copper(II) complexes with amino ...

  16. Fac–mer equilibria of coordinated iminodiacetate (ida ) in ternary Cu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Keywords. Fac–mer equilibria; CuII-iminodiacetate-imidazole/benzimidazole ternary complexes; stability constants. 1. Introduction. Mixed ligand complexes of transition metal ions with amino acids, peptides or their derivatives or analogues, and heterocyclic N-bases can serve as model compounds of bioinorganic interests ...

  17. Description of the ternary system Cu-Ge-Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogguy, M.; Carcaly, C.; Rivet, J.; Flahaut, J.

    1977-01-01

    The Cu-Ge-Te ternary system has been studied by DTA and by crystallographic and metallographic analysis. The existence of a ternary compound Cu 2 GeTe 3 is demonstrated; this compound has a ternary incongruent melting point at 500 0 C. This ternary compound has a superstructure of a zinc blende type. The study shows the existence of five ternary eutectics. Two liquid-liquid miscibility gaps exist: the first is situated entirely in the ternary system; the second gives a monotectic region within the ternary system. (Auth.)

  18. Development and application of high strength ternary boride base cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Ken-ichi

    2006-01-01

    Reaction boronizing sintering is a novel strategy to form a ternary boride coexisting with a metal matrix in a cermet during liquid phase sintering. This new sintering technique has successfully developed world first ternary boride base cermets with excellent mechanical properties such as Mo 2 FeB 2 , Mo 2 NiB 2 and WCoB base ones. In these cermets Mo 2 FeB 2 and Mo 2 NiB 2 base ones consist of a tetragonal M 3 B 2 (M: metal)-type complex boride as a hard phase and a transition metal base matrix. The cermets have already been applied to wear resistant applications such as injection molding machine parts, can making tools, and hot copper extruding dies, etc. This paper focuses on the characteristics, effects of the additional elements on the mechanical properties and structure, and practical applications of the ternary boride base cermets. - Graphical abstract: TRS and hardness of Ni-5B-51Mo-17.5Cr and Ni-5B-51Mo-12.5Cr-5V-xMn mass% cermets as functions of Mn content (Fig. 17)

  19. Study on the solid state chemistry of ternary uranium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Toshiyuki

    1988-03-01

    With the increase of burnup of uranium oxide fuels, various kinds of fission products are formed, and the oxygen atoms combined with the consumed heavy atoms are freed. The solid state chemical and/or thermodynamic properties of these elements at high temperatures are complex, and have not been well clarified. In the present report, an approach was taken that the chemical interactions between UO 2 and these fission products can be regarded as causing overlapped effects of composing ternary uranium oxides, and formation reactions and phase behavior were studied for several ternary uranium oxides with typical fission product elements such as alkaline earth metals and rare earth elements. Precise determination methods for the composition of ternary uranium oxides were developed. The estimated accuracies for x and y values in M y U 1-y O 2+x were ± 0.006 and ± 0.004, respectively. The thermodynamic properties and the lattice parameters of the phases in the Ca-U-O and Pr-U-O systems were discussed in relation to the composition determined by the methods. Crystal structure analyses of cadmium monouranates were made with X-ray diffraction method. (author) 197 refs

  20. Realizing Ternary Logic in FPGAs for SWL DSP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayeb Din

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently SWL (Short Word Length DSP (Digital Signal Processing applications has been proposed to overcome multiplier complexity that is evident in most of the digital applications. These SWL applications have been processed through sigma-delta modulation as a key element. For such applications, adder design plays vital role and can impact upon the chip area and its performance. In this paper, a ternary approach for adder tree has been proposed instead of binary that can accommodate more data with less chip-area at the cost of extra pin. The proposed ternary adder tree has been designed and developed in Quartus-II using three different design strategies namely T-gate (Ternary gate, LUT (Look Up Table and algebraic equations. Through rigorous simulation it was found that T-gate technique results in superior performance, an average of 23.5 and 33% improvement compared to the same adder structure based on Boolean Algebraic Equation and LUT, respectively. The proposed adder design would benefit the efficient implementation of SWL applications.

  1. Accumulation of 99Tc in duckweed Lemna minor L. as a function of growth rate and 99Tc concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattink, J.; Wolterbeek, H.Th.

    2001-01-01

    This study focuses on the question of whether short-term studies can be used to forecast the accumulation of the long-lived fission product 99 Tc in duckweed, Lemna minor L., grown in the field; in other words, are the accumulation parameters independent of changing growth rates typical of natural populations of duckweed. Two processes determine the 99 Tc accumulation: (i) uptake and release of 99 TcO 4 - , characterised by a concentration factor, K d , and (ii) first-order reduction and complexation of Tc VII , characterised by k red . At various 99 Tc concentrations, the growth, total Tc and TcO 4 - accumulation were monitored over 10 days; parameters were fitted and compared with earlier results. Both K d and k red turn out to be independent of time, concentration and growth rate up to a concentration of 10 -6 mol l -1 99 TcO 4 - . Concentrations above this level result in toxic effects. The Tc accumulation in field populations of duckweed at Tc concentrations which generally occur in the environment can be forecasted by using the results from short-term experiments

  2. All-optical symmetric ternary logic gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2010-09-01

    Symmetric ternary number (radix=3) has three logical states (1¯, 0, 1). It is very much useful in carry free arithmetical operation. Beside this, the logical operation using this type of number system is also effective in high speed computation and communication in multi-valued logic. In this literature all-optical circuits for three basic symmetrical ternary logical operations (inversion, MIN and MAX) are proposed and described. Numerical simulation verifies the theoretical model. In this present scheme the different ternary logical states are represented by different polarized state of light. Terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch has been used categorically in this manuscript.

  3. Performance Estimation for Lowpass Ternary Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenton Steele

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Ternary filters have tap values limited to −1, 0, or +1. This restriction in tap values greatly simplifies the multipliers required by the filter, making ternary filters very well suited to hardware implementations. Because they incorporate coarse quantisation, their performance is typically limited by tap quantisation error. This paper derives formulae for estimating the achievable performance of lowpass ternary filters, thereby allowing the number of computationally intensive design iterations to be reduced. Motivated by practical communications systems requirements, the performance measure which is used is the worst-case stopband attenuation.

  4. Studies of the Tc oxidation states in humic acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bo; Liu Dejun; Yao Jun

    2010-01-01

    The oxidation state is an important aspect of the speciation of Tc in groundwater that contained organic substances due to it control the precipitation, complexation, sorption and colloid formation behavior of the Tc under HWL geological disposal conditions. In present work, the oxidation states of Tc were investigated using the LaCl 3 coagulation method and solution extraction method in aqueous solutions in which the humic acid concentration range is from 0 to 20 mg L -1 and the Tc (Ⅶ) concentration range is about 10 -8 mol l -1 . The radiocounting of 99 Tc was determined using liquid scintillation spectrometry. The humic acid will influence the radiocounting ratio of 99 Tc apparently, however, the quenching effect can be restrained once keep the volume of the cocktail to about twenty times of the sample volume. The LaCl 3 coagulation methods were carried out for the investigation of Tc oxidation states in humic acid aqueous systems at about pH 8. The tetraphenylarsonium chloride (IPA)-chloroform extraction method was used also simultaneously to investigation the concentrations of Tc (Ⅳ) and Tc (Ⅶ) for the availability of the LaCl 3 precipitation method, and the experimental results demonstrate that tetravalent technetium and pertechnetate concentrations are well agreement with the LaCl 3 precipitation method. These two experimental results demonstrated that Tc (Ⅶ) is very stable in the Tc (Ⅶ)-humic acid system during a 350 days experimental period, and the Tc (Ⅳ) concentrations are very lower, that is indicate that there didn't oxidizing reactions between the Fluka humic acid and Tc (Ⅶ) in aqueous solutions under anaerobic conditions. That is means the presence of humic acids even in anaerobic groundwater is disadvantage for the retardance of radionuclides. (authors)

  5. Studies of Tc oxidation states in humic acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bo; Liu Dejun; Yao Jun

    2011-01-01

    The oxidation state of Tc is an important aspect of the speciation in groundwater which contained organic substances due to it control the precipitation, complexation, sorption and colloid formation behavior of the Tc under HWL geological disposal conditions. In present work, the oxidation states of Tc were investigated using the LaCl 3 coagulation method and solution extraction method in aqueous solutions in which the humic acid concentration range is from 0 to 20 mg/L and the Tc (VII) concentration is about 10 -8 mol/L. The radiocounting of 99 Tc was determined using liquid scintillation spectrometry. The humic acid will influence the radiocounting ratio of 99 Tc apparently, however, the quenching effect can be restrained once keep the volume of the cocktail to about twenty times of the sample volume. The LaCl 3 coagulation method was carried out for the investigation of Tc oxidation states in humic acid aqueous systems at about pH 8. The tetraphenylarsonium chloride (TPA)-chloroform extraction method was used also simultaneously to investigation the concentrations of Tc (IV) and Tc (VII) for the availability of the LaCl 3 precipitation method, and the experimental results demonstrate that tetravalent technetium and pertechnetate concentration are well agreement with the LaCl 3 precipitation method. These two experimental results demonstrated that Tc (VII) is very stable in the Tc (VII)-humic acid system during a 350 days experimental period, and the Tc (IV) concentrations are very lower, that is indicate that there didn't oxidizing reactions between the Fluka humic acid and Tc (VII) in aqueous solutions under anaerobic conditions. That means the presence of humic acids even in anaerobic groundwater is disadvantage for the retardance of radionuclides. (authors)

  6. 99mTc renal tubular function agents: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshima, D.; Fritzberg, A.R.; Taylor, A. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Orthoiodohippuric (OIH) acid labeled with 131I is a widely used renal radiopharmaceutical agent and has been the standard radiopharmaceutical agent for the measurement of effective renal plasma flow (EPRF). Limitations to the routine clinical use of 131I OIH are related to the suboptimal imaging properties of the 131I radionuclide and its relatively high radiation dose. 123I has been substituted for 131I; however, its high cost and short shelf-life have limited its widespread use. Recent work has centered on the development of a new 99mTc renal tubular function agent, which would use the optimal radionuclidic properties and availability of 99mTc and combine the clinical information provided by OIH. The search for a suitable 99mTc renal tubular function agent has focused on the diamide dithiolate (N2S2), the paraaminohippuric iminodiacetic acid (PAHIDA), and the triamide mercaptide (N3S) donor ligand systems. To date, the most promising 99mTc tubular function agent is the N3S complex: 99mTc mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc MAG3). Studies in animal models in diuresis, dehydration, acid or base imbalance, ischemia, and renal artery stenosis demonstrate that 99mTc MAG3 behaves similarly to 131I OIH. A simple kit formulation is available that yields the 99mTc MAG3 complex in high radiochemical purity. Studies in normal subjects and patients indicate that 99mTc MAG3 is an excellent 99mTc renal tubular agent, but its plasma clearance is only 50% to 60% that of OIH. In an effort to develop an improved 99mTc renal tubular function agent, changes have been made in the core N3S donor ligand system, but to date no agent has been synthesized that is clinically superior to 99mTc MAG3. 61 references

  7. Construction of RGO/CdIn2S4/g-C3N4 ternary hybrid with enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of tetracycline hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Peng; Jiang, Deli; Ju, Lixin; Jing, Junjie; Chen, Min

    2018-03-01

    Although RGO shows great advantage in promoting charge separation and transfer of semiconductor, construction of an efficient RGO-incorporated photocatalyst is still challenging. Herein, RGO was employed to construct novel RGO/CdIn2S4/g-C3N4 (donated as RGO/CIS/CN) ternary photocatalyst by a facile hydrothermal method for the degradation of tetracycline hydrochloride (TC). The RGO/CIS/CN ternary photocatalyst showed significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of TC as compared to the binary CIS/CN, CIS/CN, and CN/RGO. The photoluminescence and photocurrent response results indicate that this enhanced photocatalytic activity can be mainly ascribed to the improved charge separation and transfer efficiency. Based on the radical trapping and electron spin resonance results, the superoxide radicals and holes are proposed to play an important role in the degradation of TC over RGO/CIS/CN ternary photocatalyst. This work paves new opportunities for the synthesis of RGO-incorporated ternary photocatalyst as an efficient photocatalyst for the degradation of organic contaminant.

  8. Susceptibility of ternary aluminum alloys to cracking during solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jiangwei; Kou, Sindo

    2017-01-01

    The crack susceptibility map of a ternary Al alloy system provides useful information about which alloy compositions are most susceptible to cracking and thus should be avoided by using a filler metal with a significantly different composition. In the present study the crack susceptibility maps of ternary Al alloy systems were calculated based on the maximum |dT/d(f S ) 1/2 | as an index for the crack susceptibility, where T is temperature and f S fraction solid. Due to the complexity associated with ternary alloy solidification, commercial thermodynamic software Pandat and Al database PanAluminum, instead of analytical equations, were used to calculate f S as a function of T and hence the maximum |dT/d(f S ) 1/2 | for ternary Al-Mg-Si, Al-Cu-Mg and Al-Cu-Si alloy systems. A crack susceptibility map covering 121 alloy compositions was constructed for each of the three ternary alloy systems at each of the following three levels of back diffusion: no back diffusion, back diffusion under a 100 °C/s cooling rate, and back diffusion under 20° C/s. The location of the region of high crack susceptibility, which is the most important part of the map, was shown in each of the nine calculated maps. These locations were compared with those observed in crack susceptibility tests by previous investigators. With back diffusion considered, either under 20 or 100 °C/s, the agreement between the calculated and observed maps was good especially for Al-Mg-Si and Al-Cu-Mg. Thus, the maximum |dT/d(f S ) 1/2 | can be used as a crack susceptibility index to construct crack susceptibility maps for ternary Al alloys and to evaluate the effect of back diffusion on their crack susceptibility. - Graphical abstract: The crack susceptibility map of a ternary alloy system indicates the composition range most susceptible to cracking, which should be avoided in welding or casting. The crack susceptibility maps of ternary Al alloy systems Al-Mg-Si, Al-Cu-Mg and Al-Cu-Si were calculated based

  9. Ternary networks reliability and Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Gertsbakh, Ilya; Vaisman, Radislav

    2014-01-01

    Ternary means “based on three”. This book deals with reliability investigations of  networks whose components subject to failures can be in three states –up, down and middle (mid), contrary to traditionally considered networks  having only binary (up/down) components. Extending binary case to ternary allows to consider more realistic and flexible models for communication, flow and supply networks.

  10. Carriers of the Complex Allele HFE c.[187C>G;340+4T>C] Have Increased Risk of Iron Overload in São Miguel Island Population (Azores, Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Claudia C; Gomes, Cidália T; De Fez, Laura; Bulhões, Sara; Brilhante, Maria José; Pereirinha, Tânia; Cabral, Rita; Rego, Ana Catarina; Fraga, Cristina; Miguel, António G; Brasil, Gracinda; Macedo, Paula; Mota-Vieira, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Iron overload is associated with acquired and genetic conditions, the most common being hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) type-I, caused by HFE mutations. Here, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study of 41 patients from the São Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal), six belonging to a family with HH type-I pseudodominant inheritance, and 35 unrelated individuals fulfilling the biochemical criteria of iron overload compatible with HH type-I. For this purpose, we analyzed the most common HFE mutations- c.845G>A [p.Cys282Tyr], c.187C>G [p.His63Asp], and c.193A>T [p.Ser65Cys]. Results revealed that the family's HH pseudodominant pattern is due to consanguineous marriage of HFE-c.845G>A carriers, and to marriage with a genetically unrelated spouse that is a -c.187G carrier. Regarding unrelated patients, six were homozygous for c.845A, and three were c.845A/c.187G compound heterozygous. We then performed sequencing of HFE exons 2, 4, 5 and their intron-flanking regions. No other mutations were observed, but we identified the -c.340+4C [IVS2+4C] splice variant in 26 (74.3%) patients. Functionally, the c.340+4C may generate alternative splicing by HFE exon 2 skipping and consequently, a protein missing the α1-domain essential for HFE/ transferrin receptor-1 interactions. Finally, we investigated HFE mutations configuration with iron overload by determining haplotypes and genotypic profiles. Results evidenced that carriers of HFE-c.187G allele also carry -c.340+4C, suggesting in-cis configuration. This data is corroborated by the association analysis where carriers of the complex allele HFE-c.[187C>G;340+4T>C] have an increased iron overload risk (RR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.40-2.94, poverload because they will produce two altered proteins--the p.63Asp [c.187G], and the protein lacking 88 amino acids encoded by exon 2. In summary, we provide evidence that the complex allele HFE-c.[187C>G;340+4T>C] has a role, as genetic predisposition factor, on iron overload in the S

  11. Technetium and rhenium complexes with modified fatty acid ligands 4. Evaluation of two new classes of 99mTc-labelled fatty acids as potential tracers for myocardial metabolism imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heintz, A.; Kropp, J.; Deussen, A.; Jung, C.M.; Spies, H.

    2002-01-01

    99m Tc-labelled fatty acids were synthesized according to the '3+1' mixed-ligand approach and investigated as potential tracers for myocardial SPECT diagnostics on the model of the isolated guinea pig heart. The results indicate a low but specific myocardial uptake of the 99m Tc fatty acid derivatives subject to chain length and structure. (orig.)

  12. Pressure and high-Tc superconductivity in sulfur hydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor'kov, Lev P; Kresin, Vladimir Z

    2016-05-11

    The paper discusses fundamentals of record-TC superconductivity discovered under high pressure in sulfur hydride. The rapid increase of TC with pressure in the vicinity of Pcr ≈ 123GPa is interpreted as the fingerprint of a first-order structural transition. Based on the cubic symmetry of the high-TC phase, it is argued that the lower-TC phase has a different periodicity, possibly related to an instability with a commensurate structural vector. In addition to the acoustic branches, the phonon spectrum of H3S contains hydrogen modes with much higher frequencies. Because of the complex spectrum, usual methods of calculating TC are here inapplicable. A modified approach is formulated and shown to provide realistic values for TC and to determine the relative contributions of optical and acoustic branches. The isotope effect (change of TC upon Deuterium for Hydrogen substitution) originates from high frequency phonons and differs in the two phases. The decrease of TC following its maximum in the high-TC phase is a sign of intermixing with pairing at hole-like pockets which arise in the energy spectrum of the cubic phase at the structural transition. On-pockets pairing leads to the appearance of a second gap and is remarkable for its non-adiabatic regime: hydrogen mode frequencies are comparable to the Fermi energy.

  13. Paramagnetic centers in ternary coordinated oxygen in beryllium aluminosilicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaginina, L.A.; Zatsepin, A.F.; Dmitriev, I.A.

    1988-01-01

    Glasses of the composition 3BeO-Al 2 O 3 -6SiO 2 containing a homogenizing additive of MgF 2 were synthesized. The ESR spectra of x-ray and gamma irradiated specimens were determined. A complex ESR spectrum arose in the original glass. The ESR spectrum of the gamma-irradiated polycrystalline Be 2 SiO 4 glass was almost identical to the crystallized glass. It was shown that the presence of beryllium atoms in the composition of silicate glasses created the conditions for the formation of structural fragments with ternary coordinated oxygen

  14. Ternary system of dihydroartemisinin with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and lecithin: simultaneous enhancement of drug solubility and stability in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Li, Haiyan; Gu, Jingkai; Guo, Tao; Yang, Shuo; Guo, Zhen; Zhang, Xueju; Zhu, Weifeng; Zhang, Jiwen

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to simultaneously improve the solubility and stability of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in aqueous solutions by a ternary cyclodextrin system comprised of DHA, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and a third auxiliary substance. Solubility and phase solubility studies were carried out to evaluate the solubilizing efficiency of HP-β-CD in association with various auxiliary substances. Then, the solid binary (DHA-HP-β-CD or DHA-lecithin) and ternary systems were prepared and characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and power X-ray diffraction (PXRD). The effect of the ternary system on the solubility, dissolution and stability of DHA in aqueous solutions was also investigated. As a result, the soybean lecithin was found to be the most promising third component in terms of solubility enhancement. For the solid characterization, the disappearance of the drug crystallinity indicated the formation of new solid phases, implicating the formation of the ternary system. The dissolution rate of the solid ternary system was much faster than that of the drug alone and binary systems. Importantly, compared with binary systems, the ternary system showed a significant improvement in the stability of DHA in Hank's balanced salt solutions (pH 7.4). The solubility and stability of DHA in aqueous solutions were simultaneously enhanced by the ternary system, which might be attributed to the possible formation of a ternary complex. For the ternary interactions, results of molecular docking studies further indicated that the lecithin covered the top of the wide rim of HP-β-CD and surrounded around the peroxide bridging of DHA, providing the possibility for the ternary complex formation. In summary, the ternary system prepared in our study, with simultaneous enhancement of DHA solubility and stability in aqueous solutions, might have an important pharmaceutical potential in the development of a better

  15. Chemistry of bifunctional photoprobes. 3 -- Correlation between the efficiency of CH insertion by photolabile chelating agents and lifetimes of singlet nitrenes by flash photolysis: First example of photochemical attachment of 99mTc-complex with human serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandurangi, R.S.; Lusiak, P.; Kuntz, R.R.; Volkert, W.A.; Rogowski, J.; Platz, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    Systematic functionalization of perfluoroaryl azides with chelating agents capable of complexing transition metals produces a new class of bifunctional photolabile chelating agents (BFPCAs). The strategy is shield the azide functionality from the electronic and steric influence of the electron-rich metal Pd through ester and amide bridges raised CH insertion efficiency to unprecedented levels (>92%) in a model solvent (cyclohexane). In contrast, perfluoroaryl azides attached to chelating agents via hydrazones show no significant CH insertion in cyclohexane upon photolysis. Measurements of the lifetimes of the singlet nitrenes derived from these agents by flash photolysis techniques correlate well with the efficiency of CH insertion by demonstrating longer lifetimes (10--50 times) for singlet nitrenes derived from azidotetrafluorinated esters and amides compared with the related hydrazones, which failed to yield significant CH insertion. A representative BFPCA 12 is chelated to diagnostic radionuclide 99m Tc and covalently attached to human serum albumin via photochemical activation extending the favorable bimolecular insertion characteristics of BFPCA to tracer level concentrations in buffer conditions. Flash photolysis experiments correlate singlet nitrene lifetimes with the efficiency of intermolecular insertion reactions. This work provides new photo-cross-linking technology, useful in radiodiagnostics and radiotherapy in nuclear medicine

  16. The ternary sorption system U(VI)-phosphate-silica explained by spectroscopy and thermodynamic modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerstendorf, Harald; Stockmann, Madlen; Heim, Karsten; Mueller, Katharina; Brendler, Vinzenz [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Surface Processes; Comarmond, M.J.; Payne, T.E. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights (Australia); Steudtner, Robin [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology

    2017-06-01

    Spectroscopic data of sorption processes potentially provide direct impact on Surface Complexation Modelling (SCM) approaches. Based on spectroscopic data of the ternary sorption system U(VI)/phosphate/silica strongly suggesting the formation of a precipitate as the predominant surface process, SCM calculations accurately reproduced results from classical batch experiments.

  17. The ternary sorption system U(VI)-phosphate-silica explained by spectroscopy and thermodynamic modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerstendorf, Harald; Stockmann, Madlen; Heim, Karsten; Mueller, Katharina; Brendler, Vinzenz; Steudtner, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Spectroscopic data of sorption processes potentially provide direct impact on Surface Complexation Modelling (SCM) approaches. Based on spectroscopic data of the ternary sorption system U(VI)/phosphate/silica strongly suggesting the formation of a precipitate as the predominant surface process, SCM calculations accurately reproduced results from classical batch experiments.

  18. Liquid demixing and microstructure formation in ternary Al-Sn-Cu alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirkovic, D.; Groebner, J. [Clausthal University of Technology, Institute of Metallurgy, Robert-Koch-Strasse 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Schmid-Fetzer, R. [Clausthal University of Technology, Institute of Metallurgy, Robert-Koch-Strasse 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)], E-mail: schmid-fetzer@tu-clausthal.de

    2008-07-25

    The complex features of the Al-Sn-Cu phase diagram, dominated by ternary liquid demixing, are revealed by a combination of thermodynamic modeling and experimental studies. Nine ternary alloys were selected to cover all essential features involving the liquidus surface and the invariant solidification reactions. These were analyzed by differential thermal analysis as well as microstructural and local chemical analysis of solidified microstructures. Three different monotectic invariant reactions occur in this system. Small changes in alloy composition may produce distinctly different microstructures with primary crystallization and secondary demixing or vice versa.

  19. Triamide mercaptide (N/sub 3/S) ligands for Tc-99m as potential Tc-99m renal function agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzberg, A.R.; Kasina, S.; Johnson, D.L.; Eshima, D.

    1985-01-01

    A number of diamide dimercaptide (N/sub 2/S/sub 2/) complexes of Tc-99m have shown potential as renal tubular function radiopharmaceuticals that could replace radioiodinated hippurate (OIH). Evaluation of such ligands suggested that maximum efficiency for tubular secretion and specificity resulted from addition of a carboxylate group. However, such derivatives resulted in chelate ring stereoisomers that were differently transported by the renal tubular system. The problem of stereoisomers was obviated by replacing one sulfur with an effectively planar amido nitrogen. Groups on the nitrogen then result in diastereomers only when an additional asymetric center is present. A series of triamide mercaptide compounds have been synthesized to evaluate this class as ligands for Tc-99m. One of the simplest of the series, mercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycine (MAG/sub 3/), formed a single Tc-99m product in high yield as determined by HPLC. Preliminary results with pmr and ms of the Tc-99 complex indicate a structure consistent with a 1:1 metal to ligand ratio and monooxo technetium group. Biological evaluation of Tc-99m MAG/sub 3/ showed high renal specificity and rate of excretion exceeding OIH in several species including humans. Members of the N/sub 3/S series studied include mercaptoacetylglycylglycyl-amino acids. In some cases with second asymmetric centers, two components were seen on HPLC. In mice several dianionic Tc-99m complexes were excreted faster than OIH, Tc-99m MAG/sub 2/-ala, -asn, and -gln. Trianionic Tc-99m MAG/sub 2/-asp and -glu were excreted more slowly, and Tc-99m MAG/sub 2/-phe showed hepatobiliary excretion. Triamide mercaptides represent a new ligand class for Tc-99m

  20. Atomic-scale properties of Ni-based FCC ternary, and quaternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamm, Artur; Aabloo, Alvo; Klintenberg, Mattias; Stocks, Malcolm; Caro, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize some atomic-scale properties of Ni-based FCC multicomponent alloys. For this purpose, we use Monte Carlo method combined with density functional theory calculations to study short-range order (SRO), atomic displacements, electronic density of states, and magnetic moments in equimolar ternary NiCrCo, and quaternary NiCrCoFe alloys. According to our study, the salient features for the ternary alloy are a negative SRO parameter between Ni–Cr and a positive between Cr–Cr pairs as well as a weakly magnetic state. For the quaternary alloy we predict negative SRO parameter for Ni–Cr and Ni–Fe pairs and positive for Cr–Cr and Fe–Fe pairs. Atomic displacements for both ternary and quaternary alloys are negligible. In contrast to the ternary, the quaternary alloy shows a complex magnetic structure. The electronic structure of the ternary and quaternary alloys shows differences near the Fermi energy between a random solid solution and the predicted structure with SRO. Despite that, the calculated EXAFS spectra does not show enough contrast to discriminate between random and ordered structures. The predicted SRO has an impact on point-defect energetics, electron–phonon coupling and thermodynamic functions and thus, SRO should not be neglected when studying properties of these two alloys

  1. Effect of milking efficiency on Tc-99 content of Tc-99m derived from Tc-99m generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnyman, J.

    1983-01-01

    Tc-99m obtained by separation from its parent Mo-99 always contains Tc-99 produced by decay of Tc-99m and Mo-99. Factors effecting the Tc-99/Tc-99m ratios are discussed. An HPLC method has been developed to measure the 99 TcO 4- content of sodium pertechnetate from generators with a detection limit of 0.9 ng Tc-99 for a 500 μl/ aliquot of TcO 4- -99m. First eluates of 10 chromatograph-ic generators gave Tc-99/Tc-99m ratios ranging from 3.5-46 ng Tc/mCi Tc-99m measured at the time of milking. The measurements indicate that Tc-99/Tc-99m ratios high enough to cause adverse labelling effects could be found in 'instant pertechnetate' and in the first eluate from Tc-99m generators for the activities normally used in radiopharmaceutical production

  2. Synthesis and structural characterization of ternary Cu (II) complexes of glycine with 2,2'-bipyridine and 2,2'-dipyridylamine. The DNA-binding studies and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mervat S; Shoukry, Azza A; Ali, Ayat G

    2012-02-01

    In this study two new complexes [Cu(bpy)(Gly)Cl]·2H(2)O (1) and [Cu(dpa)(Gly)Cl]·2H(2)O (2) (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine; dpa=2,2'-dipyridylamine, Gly=glycine) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, TGA, UV-vis and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The binding properties of the complexes with CT-DNA were investigated by electronic absorption spectra. The intrinsic binding constants (K(b)) calculated from UV-vis absorption studies were 1.84 × 10(3) M(-1) and 3.1 × 10(3) M(-1) for complexes 1 and 2 respectively. Thermal denaturation has been systematically studied by spectrophotometric method and the calculated ΔT(m) was nearly 5 °C for each complex. All the results suggest that the interaction modes between the complexes and CT-DNA were electrostatic and/or groove binding. The redox behavior of the two complexes was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Both complexes, in presence and absence of CT-DNA show a quasi-reversible wave corresponding to Cu(II)/Cu(I) redox couple. The change in E(1/2), ΔE and I(pc)/I(pa) ascertain the interaction of complexes 1 and 2 with CT-DNA. Further insight into the binding of complexes with CT-DNA has been made by gel electrophoresis, where the binding of complexes is confirmed through decreasing the mobility and intensity of DNA bands. In addition, the antitumor activity of the complexes was tested on two cancer cell lines; the breast cancer (MCF7) and the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG2), as well as one normal cell line; the human normal melanocytes (HFB4). The results showed that complex 1 was more potent antitumor agent than complex 2. The in-vitro antimicrobial activity of the two complexes was carried out using the disc diffusion method against different species of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The activity data showed that complex 2 was more active in inhibiting the growth of the tested organisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Technetium and rhenium complexes with modified fatty acid ligands 4. Evaluation of two new classes of {sup 99m}Tc-labelled fatty acids as potential tracers for myocardial metabolism imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, A.; Kropp, J.; Deussen, A. [TU Dresden, Medizinische Fakultaet Carl Gustav Carus (Germany); Jung, C.M.; Spies, H.

    2002-01-01

    {sup 99m}Tc-labelled fatty acids were synthesized according to the '3+1' mixed-ligand approach and investigated as potential tracers for myocardial SPECT diagnostics on the model of the isolated guinea pig heart. The results indicate a low but specific myocardial uptake of the {sup 99m}Tc fatty acid derivatives subject to chain length and structure. (orig.)

  4. Comparing consideration of the biological behaviour of [sup(99m)Tc(DMPE)2Cl2]+ and [sup(99m)Tc(DMPE)3]+ in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syhre, R.; Seifert, S.; Muenze, R.; Jander, R.; Kretschmar, M.

    1984-01-01

    The myotropic [sup(99m)Tc(DMPE) 3 ] + -complex was prepared by alakaline reduction of pertechnetate in an excess of DMPE and under absence of air with a radiochemical purity of > 95% and compared with the [sup(99m)TcCl 2 (DMPE) 2 ] + -complex concerning the tissue distribution and biokinetics. The tissue distribution corresponds nearly to the Tc(III)-complex with the exception of rather increased activity of the lungs. Tc(I)-DMPE is more lipophilic and stronger bound to human serum albumin than the Tc(III)-DMPE-complex. The biological half-lifes of the distribution phase of Tc(I)-DMPE are longer than the corresponding half-lifes determined for Tc(III)-DMPE. Target/nontarget ratios similar to 201 Tl are nearly achieved for Tc(III)-DMPE in the first 20 minutes after injection. The Tc(I)-DMPE-complex does not reach comparable heart/liver ratios within the first two hours after injection, the necessary heart/blood ratios only after 20-30 minutes. Both compounds are not stable in vivo. (orig.) [de

  5. The ternary system nickel-boron-silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugscheider, E.; Reimann, H.; Knotek, O.

    1975-01-01

    The ternary system Nickel-Boron-Silicon was established at 850 0 C by means of X-ray diffraction, metallographic and micro-hardness examinations. The well known binary nickel borides and silicides resp. were confirmed. In the boron-silicon system two binary phases, SiBsub(4-x) with x approximately 0.7 and SiB 6 were found the latter in equilibrium with the β-rhombohedral boron. Confirming the two ternary silicon borides a greater homogeneity range was found for Ni 6 Si 2 B, the phase Nisub(4,6)Si 2 B published by Uraz and Rundqvist can better be described by the formula Nisub(4.29)Si 2 Bsub(1.43). In relation to further investigations we measured melting temperatures in ternary Ni-10 B-Si alloys by differential thermoanalysis. (author)

  6. Ternary fission induced by polarized neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gönnenwein Friedrich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ternary fission of (e,e U- and Pu- isotopes induced by cold polarized neutrons discloses some new facets of the process. In the so-called ROT effect shifts in the angular distributions of ternary particles relative to the fission fragments show up. In the so-called TRI effect an asymmetry in the emission of ternary particles relative to a plane formed by the fragment momentum and the spin of the neutron appear. The two effects are shown to be linked to the components of angular momentum perpendicular and parallel to the fission axis at the saddle point of fission. Based on theoretical models the spectroscopic properties of the collective transitional states at the saddle point are inferred from experiment.

  7. Superconductivity in Ternary Rare-Earth Transition Metal Silicides and Germanides with the SCANDIUM(5) COBALT(4) SILICON(10)-TYPE Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Linda Sue

    A systematic study of the superconducting and normal state properties of some ternary rare earth transition metal silicides and germanides of the Sc(,5)Co(,4)Si(,10) -type is reported in this work. Low temperature heat capacity measurements indicate the presence of a complicated phonon density of states in these structurally complex compounds. A better description of the phonon spectrum of the high T(,c) materials, Sc(,5)Rh(,4)Si(,10), Sc(,5)Ir(,4)Si(,10), and Y(,5)Os(,4)Ge(,10), given by a model proposed by Junod et al.('1), is presented and discussed. The large values of (DELTA)C/(gamma)(,n)T(,c) and the electron-phonon coupling constant for these high T(,c) compounds indicate that they are strong-coupled superconductors. Relative to other ternary superconductors, many of these materials have large Debye temperatures. The BSC theory does not seem to afford an adequate description of the supercon- ducting state in these compounds. DC electrical resistivity measurements on these compounds show resistivity behaviors deviating from those exhibited by simple metals. The (rho)(T) data for Y(,5)Ir(,4)Si(,10), Lu(,5)Rh(,4)Si(,10), Lu(,5)Ir(,4)Si(,10), and Y(,5)Os(,4)Ge(,10), indicate the presence of anomalies. Static molar magnetic susceptibility measurements performed on these compounds indicate (1) a small effective magnetic moment of 0.26(mu)(,B) on the Co atom and (2) anomalous behaviors in the Lu(,5)Rh(,4)Si(,10), Lu(,5)Ir(,4)Si(,10), Y(,5)Ir(,4)Si(,10), Lu(,5)Ir(,4)Ge(,10), and Y(,5)Rh(,4)Ge(,10) data. It is suggested that the same mechanism, namely, the forma- tion of a charge- or spin-density wave, is causing the anomalous behaviors in both the resistivity and susceptibility data. Lastly, upper critical magnetic field measurements were performed on Sc(,5)Co(,4)Si(,10), Sc(,5)Rh(,4)Si(,10), Sc(,5)Ir(,4)Si(,10), Lu(,5)Rh(,4)Si(,10), Lu(,5)Ir(,4)Si(,10), and Y(,5)Os(,4)Ge(,10). Relative to the other five samples, Y(,5)Os(,4)Ge(,10) exhibits very high values for (-d

  8. Photocleavage of DNA by copper(II) complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The chemistry of ternary and binary copper(II) complexes showing efficient visible lightinduced DNA cleavage activity is summarized in this article. The role of the metal in photo-induced DNA cleavage reactions is explored by designing complex molecules having a variety of ligands. Ternary copper(II) complexes with amino ...

  9. True ternary fission of 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayaraghavan, K.R.; Balasubramaniam, M.; Oertzen, W. von

    2014-01-01

    Splitting of heavy radioactive nucleus into three fragments is known as ternary fission. If the size of the fragments are almost equal it is referred to as true ternary fission. Recently, Yu. V. Pyatkov et al observed/reported the experimental observation of true ternary fission in 252 Cf. In this work, the possibilities of different true ternary fission modes of 252 Cf through potential energy surface (PES) calculations based on three cluster model (TCM) are discussed. In TCM a condition on the mass numbers of the fission fragments is implied as A 1 ≥ A 2 ≥ A 3 in order to avoid repetition of combinations. Due to this condition, the values of Z 3 vary from 0 to 36 and Z 2 vary from 16 to 51. Of the different pairs having similar (Z 2 , Z 3 ) with different potential energy, a pair possessing minimum potential energy is chosen. Thus identified favourable combinations are plotted. For the PES calculations the arrangement of the fragments is considered in the order of A 1 +A 2 +A 3 . i.e. the heavy and the lightest fragments are kept at the ends. It is seen that the deepest minimum in the PES occurs for Z 3 =2 labelled as (Z 2 ; 2) indicating He accompanied breakup as the most favourable one. Of which, the breakup with Z 2 around 46 to 48 is the least (shown by dashed (Z 1 = 50) and dotted (Z 1 = 52) lines indicating a constant Z 1 value). The other notable minima in the PES are labelled and they correspond to the (Z 2 , Z 3 ) pairs viz., (20, 20), (28, 20), (28, 28) and (32, 32). Of these four minima, the first three are associated with the magic numbers 20 and 28. For Z 3 =20, there are two minimums at (20,20) and (28,20) among them (28,20) is the lowest minimum through which the minimum-path passes, and it is the ternary decay observed by Yu. V. Pyatkov et al. The fourth minima is the most interesting due to the fact that it corresponds to true ternary fission mode with Z 2 =32, Z 3 =32 and Z 1 =34. The minimum potential energy path also goes through this true

  10. A Josephson ternary associative memory cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisue, M.; Suzuki, K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a three-valued content addressable memory cell using a Josephson complementary ternary logic circuit named as JCTL. The memory cell proposed here can perform three operations of searching, writing and reading in ternary logic system. The principle of the memory circuit is illustrated in detail by using the threshold-characteristics of the JCTL. In order to investigate how a high performance operation can be achieved, computer simulations have been made. Simulation results show that the cycle time of memory operation is 120psec, power consumption is about 0.5 μW/cell and tolerances of writing and reading operation are +-15% and +-24%, respectively

  11. Phenolic aminocarboxylate chelates of 99mTc as hepatobiliary agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, F C; Maddalena, D J; Wilson, J G; Bautovich, G J

    1986-01-01

    A series of alkyl- and halogen-substituted derivatives of ethylenediamine di[o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid] (EDDHA) and N,N'-bis[2-hydroxybenzyl] ethylenediamine N,N'-diacetic acid (HBED) were complexed with 99mTc and their biodistribution was determined in rats. All complexes displayed substantial hepatobiliary excretion; of each series, 99mTc-Br-EDDHA and 99mTc-di-Cl-HBED had the maximum amount in the gastrointestinal tract. Scintigraphic studies of 99mTc-Cl-EDDHA in dogs revealed prompt imaging of the liver followed by imaging of the gall bladder as the complex was excreted into the bile.

  12. Phenolic aminocarboxylate chelates of sup(99m)Tc as hepatobiliary agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, F.C.; Maddalena, D.J.; Wilson, J.G.; Bautovich, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    A series of alkyl- and halogen-substituted derivatives of ethylenediamine di[omicron-hydroxyphenylacetic acid] (EDDHA) and N,N'-bis[2-hydroxybenzyl] ethylenediamine N,N'-diacetic acid (HBED) were complexed with sup(99m)Tc and their biodistribution was determined in rats. All complexes displayed substantial hepatobiliary excretion; of each series, sup(99m)Tc-Br-EDDHA and sup(99m)Tc-di-Cl-HBED had the maximum amount in the gastrointestinal tract. Scintigraphic studies of sup(99m)Tc-Cl-EDDHA in dogs revealed prompt imaging of the liver followed by imaging of the gall bladder as the complex was excreted into the bile. (author)

  13. Sup(99m)Tc compounds for diagnostic purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cifka, J.; Budsky, F.

    1980-01-01

    The applications of sup(99m)Tc in nuclear medicine are discussed, such as sodium pertechnetate in thyroid and brain scintigraphy, complex compounds in lungs and liver diao.nosis. Technetium generators are classified according to the method of separating sup(99m)Tc from 99 Mo. Adsorption generators are used, molybdate-99 is adsorbed on an Al 2 O 3 -packed column while pertechnetate-99m is eluted with 0.9% NaCl solution. Also used is continuous pertechnetate-99m extraction with methyl ethyl ketone from 0.5 M potassium molybdate and 2.5 M of potassium carbonate. The manufacture is described of kits for sup(99m)Tc radiopharmaceuticals preparation, eg., Diagos I, a gluconate complex, a lyophilisate for sup(99m)Tc-sodium pyrophosphate injections, a diagnostic kit for lung scintiscanning. (H.S.)

  14. Ternary-fragmentation-driving potential energies of 252Cf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikraj, C.; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2017-12-01

    Within the framework of a simple macroscopic model, the ternary-fragmentation-driving potential energies of 252Cf are studied. In this work, all possible ternary-fragment combinations of 252Cf are generated by the use of atomic mass evaluation-2016 (AME2016) data and these combinations are minimized by using a two-dimensional minimization approach. This minimization process can be done in two ways: (i) with respect to proton numbers (Z1, Z2, Z3) and (ii) with respect to neutron numbers (N1, N2, N3) of the ternary fragments. In this paper, the driving potential energies for the ternary breakup of 252Cf are presented for both the spherical and deformed as well as the proton-minimized and neutron-minimized ternary fragments. From the proton-minimized spherical ternary fragments, we have obtained different possible ternary configurations with a minimum driving potential, in particular, the experimental expectation of Sn + Ni + Ca ternary fragmentation. However, the neutron-minimized ternary fragments exhibit a driving potential minimum in the true-ternary-fission (TTF) region as well. Further, the Q -value energy systematics of the neutron-minimized ternary fragments show larger values for the TTF fragments. From this, we have concluded that the TTF region fragments with the least driving potential and high Q values have a strong possibility in the ternary fragmentation of 252Cf. Further, the role of ground-state deformations (β2, β3, β4, and β6) in the ternary breakup of 252Cf is also studied. The deformed ternary fragmentation, which involves Z3=12 -19 fragments, possesses the driving potential minimum due to the larger oblate deformations. We also found that the ground-state deformations, particularly β2, strongly influence the driving potential energies and play a major role in determining the most probable fragment combinations in the ternary breakup of 252Cf.

  15. 93Tc and sup(93m)Tc gamma spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podkopaev, Yu.N.; Zarubin, P.P.; Kobelev, V.F.; Padalko, V.Yu.; Khrisanfov, Yu.V.

    1977-01-01

    The sup(93,93m)Tc decay was studied. The spectra of γ-rays accompanying the decay of this nuclide were studied. 93 Tc and sup(93m)Tc were obtained in the (dn)-reaction on 92 Mo. To ensure a more reliable identification of γ-rays, the isotopic composition of the targets, the bombardment time, the energy of the bombarding deuterons (5-12 MeV) and the spectrum processing program were varied. The energies and relative intensities of the γ-rays of the 93 Tc and sup(93m)Tc decay are listed in tables together with data of other investigatxons. The results obtained largely confirm the known data. Four new transitions were added in the sup(93m)Tc spectrum namely 1046.8, 2011.8, 2182.0, and 2861.5 keV. The 2739.0 keV transition was eliminated from the 93 Tc spectrum. The appropriate changes and additions were made in the 93 Tc decay scheme, and three new levels were introduced: 2479.0, 2821.7, and 3025.8 keV. The values of log ft of some levels of 93 Tc were estimated

  16. Expanding the knowledge of the geographic distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi TcII and TcV/TcVI genotypes in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdirene Dos Santos Lima

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi infection is a complex sylvatic enzooty involving a wide range of animal species. Six discrete typing units (DTUs of T. cruzi, named TcI to TcVI, are currently recognized. One unanswered question concerning the epidemiology of T. cruzi is the distribution pattern of TcII and hybrid DTUs in nature, including their virtual absence in the Brazilian Amazon, the current endemic area of Chagas disease in Brazil. Herein, we characterized biological samples that were collected in previous epizootiological studies carried out in the Amazon Basin in Brazil. We performed T. cruzi genotyping using four polymorphic genes to identify T. cruzi DTUs: mini-exon, 1f8, histone 3 and gp72. This analysis was conducted in the following biological samples: (i two T. cruzi isolates obtained by culturing of stools from the triatomine species Rhodnius picttipes and (ii five serum samples from dogs in which trypomastigotes were observed during fresh blood examination. We report for the first time the presence of TcII and hybrid DTUs (TcV/TcVI in the Amazon region in mixed infections with TcI. Furthermore, sequencing of the constitutive gene, gp72, demonstrated diversity in TcII even within the same forest fragment. These data show that TcII is distributed in the five main Brazilian biomes and is likely more prevalent than currently described. It is very probable that there is no biological or ecological barrier to the transmission and establishment of any DTU in any biome in Brazil.

  17. Stability of Naturally Relevant Ternary Phases in the Cu–Sn–S system in Contact with an Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Giaccherini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A relevant research effort is devoted to the synthesis and characterization of phases belonging to the ternary system Cu–Sn–S, mainly for their possible applications in semiconductor technology. Among all ternary phases, kuramite, Cu3SnS4, mohite, Cu2SnS3, and Cu4Sn7S16 have attracted the highest interest. Numerous studies were carried out claiming for the description of new phases in the ternary compositional field. In this study, we revise the existing literature on this ternary system, with a special focus on the phases stable in a temperature range at 25 °C. The only two ternary phases observed in nature are mohite and kuramite. Their occurrence is described as very rare. A numerical modelling of the stable solid phases in contact with a water solution was underwent to define stability relationships of the relevant phases of the system. The numerical modelling of the Eh-pH diagrams was carried out through the phreeqc software with the lnll.dat thermodynamic database. Owing to the complexity of this task, the subsystems Cu–O–H, Sn–O–H, Cu–S–O–H and Sn–S–O–H were firstly considered. The first Pourbaix diagram for the two naturally relevant ternary phases is then proposed.

  18. Intramolecular stacking interactions in ternary copper(II) complexes formed by a heteroaromatic amine and 9-[2-(2-phosphonoethoxy)ethyl]adenine, a relative of the antiviral nucleotide analogue 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fernández-Botello, A.; Holý, Antonín; Moreno, V.; Sigel, H.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 98, - (2004), s. 2114-2124 ISSN 0162-0134 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC D20.002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : adenine nucleotide analogues * intramolecular equilibria * isomeric complexes Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.225, year: 2004

  19. Indacenodithienothiophene-Based Ternary Organic Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparini, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.gasparini@fau.de [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (I-MEET), Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); García-Rodríguez, Amaranda [Macromolecular Chemistry Group (buwmakro), Institute for Polymer Technology, BergischeUniversität Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Prosa, Mario [Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Bologna (Italy); Bayseç, Şebnem; Palma-Cando, Alex [Macromolecular Chemistry Group (buwmakro), Institute for Polymer Technology, BergischeUniversität Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Katsouras, Athanasios; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos [Department of Materials Science Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina (Greece); Pagona, Georgia; Gregoriou, Vasilis G. [Advent Technologies SA, Patras Science Park, Patra (Greece); National Hellenic Research Foundation (NHRF), Athens (Greece); Chochos, Christos L. [Department of Materials Science Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina (Greece); Advent Technologies SA, Patras Science Park, Patra (Greece); Allard, Sybille; Scherf, Ulrich [Macromolecular Chemistry Group (buwmakro), Institute for Polymer Technology, BergischeUniversität Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Brabec, Christoph J. [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (I-MEET), Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research (ZAE Bayern), Erlangen (Germany); Ameri, Tayebeh, E-mail: nicola.gasparini@fau.de [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (I-MEET), Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-01-13

    One of the key aspects to achieve high efficiency in ternary bulk-hetorojunction solar cells is the physical and chemical compatibility between the donor materials. Here, we report the synthesis of a novel conjugated polymer (P1) containing alternating pyridyl[2,1,3]thiadiazole between two different donor fragments, dithienosilole and indacenodithienothiophene (IDTT), used as a sensitizer in a host system of indacenodithieno[3,2-b]thiophene,2,3-bis(3-(octyloxy)phenyl)quinoxaline (PIDTTQ) and [6,6]-phenyl C{sub 70} butyric acid methyl ester (PC{sub 71}BM). We found that the use of the same IDTT unit in the host and guest materials does not lead to significant changes in the morphology of the ternary blend compared to the host binary. With the complementary use of optoelectronic characterizations, we found that the ternary cells suffer from a lower mobility-lifetime (μτ) product, adversely impacting the fill factor. However, the significant light harvesting in the near infrared region improvement, compensating the transport losses, results in an overall power conversion efficiency enhancement of ~7% for ternary blends as compared to the PIDTTQ:PC{sub 71}BM devices.

  20. Self-triggered coordination with ternary controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Frasca, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    This paper regards coordination of networked systems with ternary controllers. We develop a hybrid coordination system which implements a self-triggered communication policy, based on polling the neighbors upon need. We prove that the proposed scheme ensures finite-time convergence to a neighborhood

  1. Ternary gradient metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong; Rosi, Nathaniel L

    2017-09-08

    Gradient MOFs contain directional gradients of either structure or functionality. We have successfully prepared two ternary gradient MOFs based on bMOF-100 analogues, namely bMOF-100/102/106 and bMOF-110/100/102, via cascade ligand exchange reactions. The cubic unit cell parameter discrepancy within an individual ternary gradient MOF crystal is as large as ∼1 nm, demonstrating the impressive compatibility and flexibility of the component MOF materials. Because of the presence of a continuum of unit cells, the pore diameters within individual crystals also change in a gradient fashion from ∼2.5 nm to ∼3.0 nm for bMOF-100/102/106, and from ∼2.2 nm to ∼2.7 nm for bMOF-110/100/102, indicating significant porosity gradients. Like previously reported binary gradient MOFs, the composition of the ternary gradient MOFs can be easily controlled by adjusting the reaction conditions. Finally, X-ray diffraction and microspectrophotometry were used to analyse fractured gradient MOF crystals by comparing unit cell parameters and absorbance spectra at different locations, thus revealing the profile of heterogeneity (i.e. gradient distribution of properties) and further confirming the formation of ternary gradient MOFs.

  2. TERNARY ALLOYS OF URANIUM, COLUMBIUM, AND ZIRCONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, F.G.

    1960-08-01

    Ternary alloys of uranium are described which are useful as neutron- reflecting materials in a fast neutron reactor. They are especially resistant to corrosion caused by oxidative processes of gascous or aqueous origin and comprise uranium as the predominant metal with zirconiunn and niobium wherein the total content of the minor alloying elements is between 2 and 8% by weight.

  3. Does Science Also Prefer a Ternary Pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogliani, L.; Klein, D. J.; Balaban, A. T.

    2006-01-01

    Through the importance of the number three in our culture and the strange preference for a ternary pattern of our nature one can perceive how and why number theory degraded to numerology. The strong preference of our minds for simple patterns can be read as the key to understanding not only the development of numerology, but also why scientists…

  4. Angular distribution in ternary cold fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delion, D.S.; J.W. Goethe Univ., Frankfurt; Sandulescu, A.; J.W. Goethe Univ., Frankfurt; Greiner, W.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the spontaneous ternary cold fission of 252 Cf, accompanied by 4 He, 10 Be and 14 C. The light cluster decays from the first resonant eigenstate in the Coulomb potential plus a harmonic oscillator potential. We have shown that the angular distribution of the emitted light particle is strongly connected with its deformation and the equatorial distance. (author)

  5. A ternary logic model for recurrent neuromime networks with delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangartner, R D; Cull, P

    1995-07-01

    In contrast to popular recurrent artificial neural network (RANN) models, biological neural networks have unsymmetric structures and incorporate significant delays as a result of axonal propagation. Consequently, biologically inspired neural network models are more accurately described by nonlinear differential-delay equations rather than nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs), and the standard techniques for studying the dynamics of RANNs are wholly inadequate for these models. This paper develops a ternary-logic based method for analyzing these networks. Key to the technique is the realization that a nonzero delay produces a bounded stability region. This result significantly simplifies the construction of sufficient conditions for characterizing the network equilibria. If the network gain is large enough, each equilibrium can be classified as either asymptotically stable or unstable. To illustrate the analysis technique, the swim central pattern generator (CPG) of the sea slug Tritonia diomedea is examined. For wide range of reasonable parameter values, the ternary analysis shows that none of the network equilibria are stable, and thus the network must oscillate. The results show that complex synaptic dynamics are not necessary for pattern generation.

  6. Design of a novel quantum reversible ternary up-counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshmand, Pouran; Haghparast, Majid

    2015-08-01

    Reversible logic has been recently considered as an interesting and important issue in designing combinational and sequential circuits. The combination of reversible logic and multi-valued logic can improve power dissipation, time and space utilization rate of designed circuits. Only few works have been reported about sequential reversible circuits and almost there are no paper exhibited about quantum ternary reversible counter. In this paper, first we designed 2-qutrit and 3-qutrit quantum reversible ternary up-counters using quantum ternary reversible T-flip-flop and quantum reversible ternary gates. Then we proposed generalized quantum reversible ternary n-qutrit up-counter. We also introduced a new approach for designing any type of n-qutrit ternary and reversible counter. According to the results, we can conclude that applying second approach quantum reversible ternary up-counter is better than the others.

  7. INFLUENCE OF NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC LIGANDS ON THE STABILITY AND MOBILITY OF REDUCED TC(IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathalie A. Wall; Baohua Gu

    2012-12-20

    The primary objectives were (1) to quantify the interactions of organic ligands with Tc(IV) through the generation of thermodynamic (complexation) and kinetic parameters needed to assess and predict the mobility of reduced Tc(IV) at DOE contaminated sites; and (2) to determine the impact of organic ligands on the mobility and fate of reduced Tc(IV) under field geochemical conditions.

  8. Impeding 99Tc(IV) mobility in novel waste forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mal-Soon; Um, Wooyong; Wang, Guohui; Kruger, Albert A.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Rousseau, Roger; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Technetium (99Tc) is an abundant, long-lived radioactive fission product whose mobility in the subsurface is largely governed by its oxidation state. Tc immobilization is crucial for radioactive waste management and environmental remediation. Tc(IV) incorporation in spinels has been proposed as a novel method to increase Tc retention in glass waste forms during vitrification. However, experiments under high-temperature and oxic conditions show reoxidation of Tc(IV) to volatile pertechnetate, Tc(VII). Here we examine this problem with ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and propose that, at elevated temperatures, doping with first row transition metal can significantly enhance Tc retention in magnetite in the order Co>Zn>Ni. Experiments with doped spinels at 700 °C provide quantitative confirmation of the theoretical predictions in the same order. This work highlights the power of modern, state-of-the-art simulations to provide essential insights and generate theory-inspired design criteria of complex materials at elevated temperatures. PMID:27357121

  9. Technetium labeling of monoclonal antibodies with functionalized BATOs. 1. TcCl(DMG)3PITC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, K E; Wen, M D; Nowotnik, D P; Malley, M F; Gougoutas, J Z; Nunn, A D; Eckelman, W C

    1991-01-01

    BATO (boronic acid adduct of technetium dioximes) complexes, TcCl(dioxime)3BR, were prepared in which the boron substituent (R) was the protein-reactive m-phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC). The 99TcCl(dioxime)3PITC complexes [dioxime = dimethylglyoxime (DMG) or cyclohexanedione dioxime (CDO)] were prepared from 99Tc(dioxime)3(mu-OH)SnCl3 and characterized. The X-ray crystal structure of 99TcCl(DMG)3PITC was determined. The 99mTc complexes were prepared from 99mTcO4- in a process using a freeze-dried kit, either in a one-step procedure or via 99mTcCl(dioxime)3. Initial labeling studies with 99mTcCl(dioxime)3PITC were performed on glycine and polylysine and, subsequently, on mouse IgG and the B72.3 monoclonal antibody. Covalent attachment of 99mTcCl(DMG)3PITC to B72.3 was demonstrated by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. B72.3 labeled with 99mTcCl(DMG)3PITC displayed high binding to a TAG 72 affinity column and had a distribution in normal mice similar to that reported for iodine-labeled B72.3.

  10. Rapid radiochemical methods for preparation of sup(99m)Tc labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimhan, D.V.S.; Banodkar, S.M.; Kothari, K.; Mani, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    Several inorganic and organic compounds incorporating sup( 99 m)Tc are being extensively used for imaging various body organs. The preparation of these sup( 99 m)Tc compounds with the necessary purity requirements is carried out by controlled reduction of sup( 99 m)Tc-pertechnetate using Sn(II) ions as the reducing agent followed by complexation with various active ingredients. The authors here present procedures developed at Radiopharmaceuticals Section of BARC for preparing sup( 99 m)Tc-diphosphonate, sup( 99 m)Tc-glucoheptonate, sup( 99 m)Tc-albumin microspheres and sup( 99 m)Tc-phytate with high radiochemical purity. The paper also describes procedures for the preparation of freeze-dried kits for single step preparation of these compounds. The paper also describes the authors' experience with various analytical procedures for the determination of radiochemical purity of these preparations. (author)

  11. Spectroscopic Properties of Tc(I) Tricarbonyl Species Relevant to the Hanford Tank Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Andersen, Amity [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chatterjee, Sayandev [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hall, Gabriel B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Walter, Eric D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Washton, Nancy M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-04

    Technetium-99 (Tc) exists predominately in soluble forms in the liquid supernatant and salt cake fractions of the nuclear tank waste stored at the U.S. DOE Hanford Site. In the strongly alkaline environments prevalent in the tank waste, its dominant chemical form is pertechnetate (TcO4-, oxidation state +7). However, attempts to remove Tc from the Hanford tank waste using ion-exchange processes specific to TcO4- only met with limited success, particularly processing tank waste samples containing elevated concentrations of organic complexants. This suggests that a significant fraction of the soluble Tc can be present as non-pertechnetate low-valent Tc (oxidation state < +7) (non-pertechnetate). The chemical identities of these non-pertechnetate species are poorly understood. Previous analysis of the SY-101 and SY-103 tank waste samples provided strong evidence that non-pertechnetate can be comprised of [Tc(CO)3]+ complexes containing Tc in oxidation state +1 (Lukens et al. 2004). During the last two years, our team has expanded this work and demonstrated that high-ionic-strength solutions typifying tank waste supernatants promote oxidative stability of the [Tc(CO)3]+ species (Rapko et al. 2013; Levitskaia et al. 2014). It also was observed that high-ionic-strength alkaline matrices stabilize Tc(VI) and potentially Tc(IV) oxidation states, particularly in presence organic chelators, suggesting that the relevant Tc compounds can serve as important redox intermediates facilitating the reduction of Tc(VII) to Tc(I). Designing strategies for effective Tc processing, including separation and immobilization, necessitates understanding the molecular structure of these non-pertechnetate species and their identification in the actual tank waste samples. To-date, only limited information exists regarding the nature and characterization of the Tc(I), Tc(IV), and Tc(VI) species. One objective of this project is to

  12. A new method for 99mTc-labelling of proteins, leucocytes and platelets for nuclear medicine application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundrehagen, E.

    1984-01-01

    A reduced state of 99mTc was obtained by concentrated hydrocloric acid treatment of the 99mTc(VII)/0.15 M NaCl eluate from 99Mo/99mTc generators. Non-acidic reduced state of 99mTc in dry NaCl deposit was obtained by vacuum evaporation of concentrated HCl and water. A monitored vacuum evaporator built for this purpose is presented, as well as methods of formation of various 99mTc-protein and 99mTc-polypeptide complexes. After careful protein precipation or anionic adsorption of pertechnetate and 99mTc-gentisic acid complexes, high radiochemical purities of labelled proteins were demonstrated by gel chromatography studies, radioimmunological methods, radioaffinity testing studies and ampholyte displacement radiochromatography. Preparative methods for 99mTc-plasmin (at pH=2), 99mTc-secretin (at pH=3) and 99mTc-IgG (at pH=4) are presented. The role and the limitations of 99mTc-plasmin for diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis were investigated in experimentally induced jugular vein thrombosis in rabbits. The in vivo distribution of intravenously injected 99mTc-secretin was found to be in correspondance with that of unlabelled secretin. Labelling of platelets and leucoytes from human blood with 99mTc was carried out at pH=7.2. Data for a remarkable high stability of the labelled cells are presented

  13. Accumulation of {sup 99}Tc in duckweed Lemna minor L. as a function of growth rate and {sup 99}Tc concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattink, J. E-mail: jhattink@hotmail.com; Wolterbeek, H.Th

    2001-07-01

    This study focuses on the question of whether short-term studies can be used to forecast the accumulation of the long-lived fission product {sup 99}Tc in duckweed, Lemna minor L., grown in the field; in other words, are the accumulation parameters independent of changing growth rates typical of natural populations of duckweed. Two processes determine the {sup 99}Tc accumulation: (i) uptake and release of {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}, characterised by a concentration factor, K{sub d}, and (ii) first-order reduction and complexation of Tc{sup VII}, characterised by k{sub red}. At various {sup 99}Tc concentrations, the growth, total Tc and TcO{sub 4}{sup -} accumulation were monitored over 10 days; parameters were fitted and compared with earlier results. Both K{sub d} and k{sub red} turn out to be independent of time, concentration and growth rate up to a concentration of 10{sup -6} mol l{sup -1} {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}. Concentrations above this level result in toxic effects. The Tc accumulation in field populations of duckweed at Tc concentrations which generally occur in the environment can be forecasted by using the results from short-term experiments.

  14. Technetium-aspirin molecule complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shahawy, A.S.; Mahfouz, R.M.; Aly, A.A.M.; El-Zohry, M.

    1993-01-01

    Technetium-aspirin and technetium-aspirin-like molecule complexes were prepared. The structure of N-acetylanthranilic acid (NAA) has been decided through CNDO calculations. The ionization potential and electron affinity of the NAA molecule as well as the charge densities were calculated. The electronic absorption spectra of Tc(V)-Asp and Tc(V)-ATS complexes have two characteristic absorption bands at 450 and 600 nm, but the Tc(V)-NAA spectrum has one characteristic band at 450 nm. As a comparative study, Mo-ATS complex was prepared and its electronic absorption spectrum is comparable with the Tc-ATS complex spectrum. (author)

  15. Protein-mediated efficient synergistic "antenna effect" in a ternary system in D₂O medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorai, Shyamal Kr; Samanta, Swarna Kamal; Mukherjee, Manini; Ghosh, Sanjib

    2012-08-16

    A ternary system consisting of a protein, catechin (either + or - epimer), and Tb(III) in suitable aqueous buffer medium at physiological pH (= 6.8) has been shown to exhibit highly efficient "antenna effect". Steady state and time-resolved emission studies of each component in the binary complexes (protein with Tb(III) and (+)- or (-)-catechin with Tb(III)) and the ternary systems along with the molecular docking studies reveal that the efficient sensitization could be ascribed to the effective shielding of microenvironment of Tb(III) from O-H oscillator and increased Tb-C (+/-) interaction in the ternary systems in aqueous medium. The ternary system exhibits protein-mediated efficient antenna effect in D(2)O medium due to synergistic ET from both the lowest ππ* triplet state of Trp residue in protein and that of catechin apart from protection of the Tb(III) environment from matrix vibration. The simple system consisting of (+)- or (-)-catechin and Tb(III) in D(2)O buffer at pH 6.8 has been prescribed to be a useful biosensor.

  16. Alternative solution model for the ternary carbonate system CaCO3 - MgCO3 - FeCO3 - I. A ternary Bragg-Williams ordering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwiggen, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    The minerals of the ternary carbonate system CaCO3 - MgCO3 - FeCO3 represent a complex series of solid solutions and ordering states. An understanding of those complexities requires a solution model that can both duplicate the subsolidus phase relationships and generate correct values for the activities. Such a solution model must account for the changes in the total energy of the system resulting from a change in the ordering state of the individual constituents. Various ordering models have been applied to binary carbonate systems, but no attempts have previously been made to model the ordering in the ternary system. This study derives a new set of equations that allow for the equilibrium degree of order to be calculated for a system involving three cations mixing on two sites, as in the case of the ternary carbonates. The method is based on the Bragg-Williams approach. From the degree of order, the mole fractions of the three cations in each of the two sites can be determined. Once the site occupancies have been established, a Margules-type mixing model can be used to determine the free energy of mixing in the solid solution and therefore the activities of the various components. ?? 1993 Springer-Verlag.

  17. The ternary system nickel-nobium-carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadelmaier, H.H.; Fiedler, M.L.

    1975-01-01

    The ternary system nickel-niobium-carbon was studied by metallographic and X-ray diffraction methods to produce a liquidus projection and an isothermal section at 1,100 0 C. The liquidus projection is dominated by a wide field of primary NbC that extends far into the nickel corner of the composition triangle. Only one ternary compound is observed in this system, an eta-carbide formed in a peritectoid reaction. It has a narrow homogeneity range at Ni 2 Nb 4 C, and its lattice constant in alloys quenched from 1,100 0 C varies between 11.659 and 11.667 A. No eta-carbide Ni 3 Nb 3 C or Ni 6 Nb 6 could be detected. (orig.) [de

  18. The rabbit biodistribution of a therapeutic dose of zoledronic acid labeled with Tc-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asikoglu, Makbule; Gamze Durak, Funda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to label a therapeutic dose of zoledronic acid (ZOL) with Tc-99m, evaluate its in vitro stability and compare its biodistribution to 99m Tc-methylene biphosphonate ( 99m Tc-MDP) in normal rabbits. Preparation of 0.50 mg of 99m Tc-ZOL was carried out by the reduction of 99m Tc-pertechnetate in the presence of stannous chloride. The radiolabeling efficiency was found to be greater than 99%. The labeled complex was stable at least up to 6 h at room temperature determined by paper chromatography. 99m Tc-ZOL and 99m Tc-MDP were administered intravenously to the rabbits for scintigraphic studies. Between 99m Tc-ZOL and 99m Tc-MDP, there were no significant differences in the ratios of femur/BG and lumbar vertebrae/BG, whereas epiphysis/BG and the kidney/BG ratios of 99m Tc-MDP were higher than 99m Tc-ZOL at the static studies.

  19. Artificial Lipid Membrane Permeability Method for Predicting Intestinal Drug Transport: Probing the Determining Step in the Oral Absorption of Sulfadiazine; Influence of the Formation of Binary and Ternary Complexes with Cyclodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delrivo, Alicia; Aloisio, Carolina; Longhi, Marcela R; Granero, Gladys

    2018-04-01

    We propose an in vitro permeability assay by using a modified lipid membrane to predict the in vivo intestinal passive permeability of drugs. Two conditions were tested, one with a gradient pH (pH 5.5 donor/pH 7.4 receptor) and the other with an iso-pH 7.4. The predictability of the method was established by correlating the obtained apparent intestinal permeability coefficients (P app ) and the oral dose fraction absorbed in humans (f a ) of 16 drugs with different absorption properties. The P app values correlated well with the absorption rates under the two conditions, and the method showed high predictability and good reproducibility. On the other hand, with this method, we successfully predicted the transport characteristics of oral sulfadiazine (SDZ). Also, the tradeoff between the increase in the solubility of SDZ by its complex formation with cyclodextrins and/or aminoacids and its oral permeability was assessed. Results suggest that SDZ is transported through the gastrointestinal epithelium by passive diffusion in a pH-dependent manner. These results support the classification of SDZ as a high/low borderline permeability compound and are in agreement with the Biopharmaceutics Classification Systems (BCS). This conclusion is consistent with the in vivo pharmacokinetic properties of SDZ.

  20. Interaction of Zn(II) with hematite nanoparticles and microparticles: Part 2. ATR-FTIR and EXAFS study of the aqueous Zn(II)/oxalate/hematite ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Juyoung; Trainor, Thomas P; Farges, François; Brown, Gordon E

    2009-05-19

    Sorption of Zn(II) to hematite nanoparticles (HN) (av diam=10.5 nm) and microparticles (HM) (av diam=550 nm) was studied in the presence of oxalate anions (Ox2-(aq)) in aqueous solutions as a function of total Zn(II)(aq) to total Ox2-(aq) concentration ratio (R=[Zn(II)(aq)]tot/[Ox2-(aq)]tot) at pH 5.5. Zn(II) uptake is similar in extent for both the Zn(II)/Ox/HN and Zn(II)/Ox/HM ternary systems and the Zn(II)/HN binary system at [Zn(II)(aq)](tot)system than for the Zn(II)/Ox/HM ternary and the Zn(II)/HN and Zn(II)/HM binary systems at [Zn(II)(aq)]tot>4 mM. In contrast, Zn(II) uptake for the Zn(II)/HM binary system is a factor of 2 greater than that for the Zn(II)/Ox/HM and Zn(II)/Ox/HN ternary systems and the Zn(II)/HN binary system at [Zn(II)(aq)]totternary system at both R values examined (0.16 and 0.68), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) results are consistent with the presence of inner-sphere oxalate complexes and outer-sphere ZnOx(aq) complexes, and/or type A ternary complexes. In addition, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopic results suggest that type A ternary surface complexes (i.e., >O2-Zn-Ox) are present. In the Zn(II)/Ox/HN ternary system at R=0.15, ATR-FTIR results indicate the presence of inner-sphere oxalate and outer-sphere ZnOx(aq) complexes; the EXAFS results provide no evidence for inner-sphere Zn(II) complexes or type A ternary complexes. In contrast, ATR-FTIR results for the Zn/Ox/HN sample with R = 0.68 are consistent with a ZnOx(s)-like surface precipitate and possibly type B ternary surface complexes (i.e., >O2-Ox-Zn). EXAFS results are also consistent with the presence of ZnOx(s)-like precipitates. We ascribe the observed increase of Zn(II)(aq) uptake in the Zn(II)/Ox/HN ternary system at [Zn(II)(aq)]tot>or=4 mM relative to the Zn(II)/Ox/HM ternary system to formation of a ZnOx(s)-like precipitate at the hematite nanoparticle/water interface.

  1. Equilibrium study for ternary mixtures of biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doungsri, S.; Sookkumnerd, T.; Wongkoblap, A.; Nuchitprasittichai, A.

    2017-11-01

    The liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data for the ternary mixtures of methanol + fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) + palm oil and FAME + palm oil + glycerol at various temperatures from 35 to 55°C, the tie lines and binodial curves were also investigated and plotted in the equilibrium curve. The experimental results showed that the binodial curves of methanol + FAME + palm oil depended significantly with temperature while the binodial curves of FAME + palm oil + glycerol illustrated insignificant change with temperatures. The interaction parameters between liquid pair obtained for NRTL (Nonrandom Two-Liquid) and UNIQUAC (Universal Quasi-Chemical Theory) models from the experimental data were also investigated. It was found that the correlated parameters of UNIQUAC model for system of FAME + palm oil + glycerol, denoted as a13 and a31, were 580.42K and -123.69K, respectively, while those for system of methanol + FAME + palm oil, denoted as a42 and a24, were 71.48 K and 965.57K, respectively. The ternary LLE data reported here would be beneficial for engineers and scientists to use for prediction of yield and purity of biodiesel for the production. The UNIQUAC model agreed well with the experimental data of ternary mixtures of biodiesel.

  2. Design of ternary clocked adiabatic static random access memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pengjun; Mei Fengna

    2011-01-01

    Based on multi-valued logic, adiabatic circuits and the structure of ternary static random access memory (SRAM), a design scheme of a novel ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM is presented. The scheme adopts bootstrapped NMOS transistors, and an address decoder, a storage cell and a sense amplifier are charged and discharged in the adiabatic way, so the charges stored in the large switch capacitance of word lines, bit lines and the address decoder can be effectively restored to achieve energy recovery during reading and writing of ternary signals. The PSPICE simulation results indicate that the ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM has a correct logic function and low power consumption. Compared with ternary conventional SRAM, the average power consumption of the ternary adiabatic SRAM saves up to 68% in the same conditions. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  3. Design of ternary clocked adiabatic static random access memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengjun, Wang; Fengna, Mei

    2011-10-01

    Based on multi-valued logic, adiabatic circuits and the structure of ternary static random access memory (SRAM), a design scheme of a novel ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM is presented. The scheme adopts bootstrapped NMOS transistors, and an address decoder, a storage cell and a sense amplifier are charged and discharged in the adiabatic way, so the charges stored in the large switch capacitance of word lines, bit lines and the address decoder can be effectively restored to achieve energy recovery during reading and writing of ternary signals. The PSPICE simulation results indicate that the ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM has a correct logic function and low power consumption. Compared with ternary conventional SRAM, the average power consumption of the ternary adiabatic SRAM saves up to 68% in the same conditions.

  4. Complexes of technetium with pyrophosphate, etidronate, and medronate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.D.; Cash, A.G.

    1979-01-01

    The reduction of [ 99 Tc]pertechnetate was studied as a function of pH in complexing media of pyrophosphate, methylene diphosphonate (MDP), and ethane-1, hydroxy-1, and 1-diphosphonate (HEDP). Test (sampled d-c) and normal-pulse polarography were used to study the reduction of pertechnetate, and normal-pulse polarography (sweeping in the anodic direction) to study the reoxidation of the products. Below pH 6 TcO 4 - was reduced to Tc(III), which could be reoxidized to Tc(IV). Above pH 10, TcO 4 - was reduced in two steps to Tc(V) and Tc(IV), each of which could be reoxidized to TcO 4 - . Between pH 6 and 10 the results differed according to the ligand present. In pyrophosphate and MDP, TcO 4 - was reduced in two steps to Tc(IV) and Tc(III); Tc(III) could be reoxidized in two steps to Tc(IV) and TcO 4 - . In HEDP, on the other hand, TcO 4 - was reduced in two steps to Tc(V) and Tc(III), and could be reoxidized to Tc(IV) and TcO 4 - . Additional waves were observed; they apparently led to unstable products

  5. Ternary q-Virasoro-Witt Hom-Nambu-Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammar, F; Makhlouf, A; Silvestrov, S

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we construct ternary q-Virasoro-Witt algebras which q-deform the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras constructed by Curtright, Fairlie and Zachos using su(1, 1) enveloping algebra techniques. The ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras constructed by Curtright, Fairlie and Zachos depend on a parameter and are not Nambu-Lie algebras for all but finitely many values of this parameter. For the parameter values for which the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras are Nambu-Lie, the corresponding ternary q-Virasoro-Witt algebras constructed in this paper are also Hom-Nambu-Lie because they are obtained from the ternary Nambu-Lie algebras using the composition method. For other parameter values this composition method does not yield a Hom-Nambu-Lie algebra structure for q-Virasoro-Witt algebras. We show however, using a different construction, that the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras of Curtright, Fairlie and Zachos, as well as the general ternary q-Virasoro-Witt algebras we construct, carry a structure of the ternary Hom-Nambu-Lie algebra for all values of the involved parameters.

  6. Description of light charged particle emission in ternary fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, A. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Kuklin, S. N.; Scheid, W.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the motion of three fragments starting from the scission point of ternary system. In the alpha-accompanied ternary fission the initial conditions are not the free parameters and determined by minimization of potential energy at scission point. In the trajectory calculations the angular distribution and mean value of the kinetic energy of the alpha-particles are well described in the spontaneous ternary fission of 252 Cf. In the Be- and C-accompanied ternary fission we found that the emission of the third particle occurs from one of the heavy fragments after their separation. (authors)

  7. Role of ternary fission in synthesis of bypassed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramarovskij, Ya.M.; Chechev, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    A possible influence of ternary fission with escape of neutron-enriched light charged particles on the synthesis of bypassed nuclides is considered. It is shown that this concept cannot give explanation of bypassed isotope concentrations, but it can make some contribution, if the probability of ternary fission for superheavy nuclei grows sharply with Z 2 /A parameter. The account of β-delayed fission contributes to the shift of ternary fission fragments into the region of neutron-deficient isotopes. Consistent consideration of the ternary fission role in the nucleosynthesis is possible only with an important accumulation of experimental and theoretical data on this process, particularly for the nuclei with Z > 100

  8. Fusibility diagram of ternary system with incongruently melting double compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutsyk, V.I.; Vorob'eva, V.P.; Sumkina, O.G.

    1989-01-01

    Temperature calculation and properties of ternary eutectics and concentration coordinates of ternary peritectics accoriding to the linear model of initial crystallization surfaces as an element of the expert system for simulating fusibility diagrams of ternary systems is considered. It is shown that the calculated and experimental data on coordinates of ternary nonvariant points in the systems NaCl-PbCl 2 -CdCl 2 , PbCl 2 -CaCl 2 -UCl 4 , CaF 2 -NaF-CsF and UCl 3 -CaCl 2 -ThCl 4 are in good agreement

  9. Ternary superconductor ''NbTiTa'' for high field superfluid magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInturff, A.D.; Carson, J.; Larbalestier, D.; Lee, P.; McKinnel, J.; Kanithi, H.; McDonald, W.; O'Larey, P.

    1990-06-01

    The possibility exists to obtain a higher 'Hc 2 ' upper critical field in the NbTi system which is normally limited by a spin-orbit coupling term. The introduction of scattering reduces this coupling. The spin-orbit scattering rate is proportional to Z 4 and therefore leads logically to the introduction of a high atomic number element which is more or less similar with respect to all of the other properties, i.e., Tc. Previous studies have shown Tantalum to be an excellent choice. The present work represents an attempt to obtain a high current density, high field ternary magnet conductor (Jc (10T, 2K, ρeff = 10 -12 Ω-cm)) > 2000A/mm 2 . This goal was met, but the conductor was clearly not optimized

  10. Availability of {sup 99}Tc in undisturbed soil cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denys, Sebastien; Echevarria, Guillaume E-mail: guillaume.echevarria@ensaia.inpl-nancy.fr; Florentin, Louis; Leclerc-Cessac, Elisabeth; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2003-07-01

    Models for safety assessment of radioactive waste repositories need accurate values of the soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides. In oxidizing environments, {sup 99}Tc is expected to occur as pertechnetate ({sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). Due to its high mobility, leaching of this element in the field might be important, potentially affecting the reliability of estimated transfer parameters of {sup 99}Tc as measured in closed experimental systems such as hydroponics or pot experiments. The aim of this experiment was to measure the leaching of {sup 99}Tc in undisturbed irrigated soil cores under cultivation as well as plant uptake and to study the possible competition between the two transfer pathways. Undisturbed soil cores (50x50 cm) were sampled from a Rendzic Leptosol (R), a colluvial Fluvic Cambisol (F) and a Dystric Cambisol (D) using PVC tubes (three cores sampled per soil type). Each core was equipped with a leachate collector at the bottom, allowing the monitoring of {sup 99}Tc leaching through the cores. Cores were placed in a greenhouse and maize (Zea mays L., cv. DEA, Pioneer[reg]) was sown. After 135 d, maize was harvested and radioactivity determined in both plant and water samples. Results showed that during the growing period, leaching of {sup 99}Tc was limited, due to the high evapotranspiration rate of maize. After harvest, leaching of {sup 99}Tc went on because of the absence of evapotranspiration. Effective uptake (EU) of {sup 99}Tc in leaves and grains was calculated. EU reached 70% of the input in the leaves and was not significantly different among soils. These results confirmed those obtained from pot experiments, even though leaching was allowed to occur in close-to-reality hydraulical conditions. As a consequence, it was concluded that pot experiments are an adequate surrogate for more complex 'close-to-reality' experimental systems for measuring transfer factors.

  11. Availability of 99Tc in undisturbed soil cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denys, Sebastien; Echevarria, Guillaume; Florentin, Louis; Leclerc-Cessac, Elisabeth; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2003-01-01

    Models for safety assessment of radioactive waste repositories need accurate values of the soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides. In oxidizing environments, 99 Tc is expected to occur as pertechnetate ( 99 TcO 4 - ). Due to its high mobility, leaching of this element in the field might be important, potentially affecting the reliability of estimated transfer parameters of 99 Tc as measured in closed experimental systems such as hydroponics or pot experiments. The aim of this experiment was to measure the leaching of 99 Tc in undisturbed irrigated soil cores under cultivation as well as plant uptake and to study the possible competition between the two transfer pathways. Undisturbed soil cores (50x50 cm) were sampled from a Rendzic Leptosol (R), a colluvial Fluvic Cambisol (F) and a Dystric Cambisol (D) using PVC tubes (three cores sampled per soil type). Each core was equipped with a leachate collector at the bottom, allowing the monitoring of 99 Tc leaching through the cores. Cores were placed in a greenhouse and maize (Zea mays L., cv. DEA, Pioneer[reg]) was sown. After 135 d, maize was harvested and radioactivity determined in both plant and water samples. Results showed that during the growing period, leaching of 99 Tc was limited, due to the high evapotranspiration rate of maize. After harvest, leaching of 99 Tc went on because of the absence of evapotranspiration. Effective uptake (EU) of 99 Tc in leaves and grains was calculated. EU reached 70% of the input in the leaves and was not significantly different among soils. These results confirmed those obtained from pot experiments, even though leaching was allowed to occur in close-to-reality hydraulical conditions. As a consequence, it was concluded that pot experiments are an adequate surrogate for more complex 'close-to-reality' experimental systems for measuring transfer factors

  12. Presentation of test cases TC-2A, TC-2B, TC-2C, TC-2D - Twodimensional, incompressible, wall flows with separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheel Larsen, Poul

    1988-01-01

    The four test cases comprise the backfacing step at high Re-number (TC-2A) and low Re-number (TC-2B), a low Re-number boundary layer flow past a thin obstacle, fence-on-wall (TC-2C), and a high Re-number developed channel flow past a squareobstacle (TC-2D). Geometry, test conditions and available...

  13. Theoretical prediction and experimental confirmation of unusual ternary ordered semiconductor compounds in Sr-Pb-S system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shiqiang; Zhao, Li-Dong; Chen, Chang-Qiang; Dravid, Vinayak P; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Wolverton, Christopher M

    2014-01-29

    We examine the thermodynamics of phase separation and ordering in the ternary Ca(x)Pb(1-x)S and Sr(x)Pb(1-x)S systems by density-functional theory combined with a cluster expansion and Monte Carlo simulations. Similar to most other ternary III-V or IV-VI semiconductor alloys, we find that bulk phase separation is thermodynamically preferred for PbS-CaS. However, we predict the surprising existence of stable, ordered ternary compounds in the PbS-SrS system. These phases are previously unreported ordered rocksalt-based compounds: SrPb3S4, SrPbS2, and Sr3PbS4. The stability of these predicted ordered phases is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy observations and band gap measurements. We believe this work paves the way for a combined theory-experiment approach to decipher complex phase relations in multicomponent chalcogenide systems.

  14. Crystal chemistry and magnetic properties of ternary rare earth sulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plug, C.M.; Rijksuniversiteit Leiden

    1977-01-01

    The results of magnetic measurements on two groups of ternary rare earth sulphides are described, the MLnS 2 (M=Li, Na, K) type of compounds and the series Ln 2 ZrS 5 , where Ln denotes one of the rare earths. None of these compounds is metallic, excluding the possibility of RKKY-interaction. In chapter II a survey of the relevant theory on magnetic properties and crystal field splitting is given. In spite of the similarity in chemical properties of the rare earths, the crystal chemistry of their compounds is rather complex. This is due to the lanthanide contraction. The third chapter deals with the description and classification of the numerous crystal structures of both ternary and binary rare earth sulphides that have been observed. Rather simple relations between various structures are presented using a new method of structure classification. The magnetic interactions expected to be based on superexchange via the anions, which is usually very structure dependent. Experiments to study the crystallographic ordering, applying both X-ray and electron diffraction methods and the results of the magnetic measurements on the compounds MLnS 2 are reported in chapter IV. The compounds Ln 2 ZrS 5 are candidates for a systematic study of the variation of the magnetic properties along the rare earth series. The results of magnetic measurements on these compounds are presented in chapter V, combined with the results of specific heat measurements. Also the magnetic structure of two representatives, Tb 2 ZrS 5 and Dy 2 ZrS 5 , determined by neutron diffraction experiments below the ordering temperature, is reported

  15. Synthesis and evaluation of 99mTc serotonin for central nervous system (CNS) receptor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geetha, R.; Ghodke, A.S.; Sachdev, S.S.; Sivaprasad, N.

    2001-01-01

    Serotonin was directly radiolabelled with 99m Tc. The complex was not very stable. Therefore, a conjugate of serotonin, cDTPAA (cyclic anhydride of diethylene triamine penta acetic acid) was prepared and characterised using IR. It was then radiolabelled with 99m Tc using stannous chloride as the reducing agent. The radiochemical purity as determined by paper chromatography was more than 80%. (author)

  16. Novel Tc-99m radiotracers for brain imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Boschi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel class of Tc-99m complexes able to cross the blood brain barrier has been investigated and described here. These compounds are formed by reacting the bis-substituted nitrido precusors [99mTc(N(PS2] (PS = phosphino-thiol ligand with triethylborane (BEt3 under strictly anhydrous conditions and using non-aqueous solvents. The molecular structure of these tracers was not fully established, but preliminary experimental evidence suggests that they result from the interaction of the Lewis base [99mTc(N(PS2] with the Lewis acid BEt3, which leads to the formation of the novel -B-Nº Tc- adduct. After purification and recovery in a physiological solution, the new borane-nitrido Tc-99m derivatives were injected in rats for evaluating their in vivo biological behavior. Results showed a significant accumulation in brain tissue, thus indicating that these complexes are capable of penetrating the intact blood brain barrier. Uptake in the central nervous system was confirmed by imaging the distribution of activity on the integrated living animal using a YAP(SSPECT small animal scanner.Uma nova classe de complexos de Tc-99m capazes de atravessar a barreira hemato-encefálica foi investigada e descrita neste trabalho. Estes compostos são formados reagindo os precursores bissubstituídos do nitrido [99mTc(N(PS2] (PS = phosphino-tiol ligante com trietillborano (BEt3 sob restritas condições anidras e usando solventes não aquosos. A estrutura molecular desses traçadores não foi totalmente estabelecida, mas evidências experimentais preliminares sugerem que eles resultam da interação da base de Lewis [99mTc(N(PS2] com o ácido de Lewis BEt3, levando a formação do novo aducto -B-Nº Tc-. Após purificação e recuperação em uma solução fisiológica, os novos derivados borano-nitrido-Tc-99m foram injetados em ratos para avaliação de seu comportamento biológico in vivo. Os resultados mostraram uma acumulação significativa no tecido cerebral

  17. Photocytotoxic ternary copper(II) complexes of histamine Schiff base ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    energy visible light to display cytotoxicity in the cancer cells, while remaining ... have recently developed a new strategy to increase the. ∗. For correspondence .... temperature using an automated Bruker SMART APEX. CCD diffractometer ...

  18. Ternary Complexes of some Divalent Metal Ions with Potentially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    -aminobutyric acid.7–9 Calcium and magnesium are essential mineral nutrients for life.10,11 In animals and plants different cell types maintain different concentrations of magne- sium.12–16 The Lewis acidity of the Zn2+ ion, flexibility of its.

  19. Ternary complexes of cobalt cysteinylglycine with histidylserine and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Cobalt(II); dipeptides; 1H and C13 NMR; DNA binding; DNA hydrolytic cleavage; kinetics. 1. Introduction. Nucleic acids are also chemically altered through strand scission of their polymeric backbones. This form of nucleic acid modification, which is funda- mental to genetic engineering and biotechnology; can occur through ...

  20. Neutron Damage and MAX Phase Ternary Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsoum, Michael [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hoffman, Elizabeth [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Sindelar, Robert [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Garcua-Duaz, Brenda [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kohse, Gordon [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-06-17

    The Demands of Gen IV nuclear power plants for long service life under neutron radiation at high temperature are severe. Advanced materials that would withstand high temperatures (up to 1000+ C) to high doses in a neutron field would be ideal for reactor internal structures and would add to the long service life and reliability of the reactors. The objective of this work is to investigate the response of a new class of machinable, conductive, layered, ternary transition metal carbides and nitrides - the so-called MAX phases - to low and moderate neutron dose levels.

  1. Neutron Damage and MAX Phase Ternary Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsoum, Michael; Hoffman, Elizabeth; Sindelar, Robert; Garcua-Diaz, Brenda; Kohse, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    The Demands of Gen IV nuclear power plants for long service life under neutron radiation at high temperature are severe. Advanced materials that would withstand high temperatures (up to 1000+ C) to high doses in a neutron field would be ideal for reactor internal structures and would add to the long service life and reliability of the reactors. The objective of this work is to investigate the response of a new class of machinable, conductive, layered, ternary transition metal carbides and nitrides - the so-called MAX phases - to low and moderate neutron dose levels.

  2. Embedding complete ternary tree in hypercubes using AVL trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Choudum; I. Raman (Indhumathi)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractA complete ternary tree is a tree in which every non-leaf vertex has exactly three children. We prove that a complete ternary tree of height h, TTh, is embeddable in a hypercube of dimension . This result coincides with the result of [2]. However, in this paper, the embedding utilizes

  3. Thermodynamic modeling of the Ti-Al-Cr ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Leyi; Qiu Aitao; Liu Lanjie; Jiang Ming; Lu Xionggang; Li Chonghe

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The full experimental results of the Ti-Al-Cr ternary system and its sub-binary systems are reviewed and analysed in detail. → Based on the latest thermodynamic assessments of the Ti-Al, Ti-Cr and Al-Cr systems and the ternary experimental data in literature, the thermodynamic parameters of the Ti-Al-Cr ternary system are fully assessed by the Calphad method. → The transformation of disorder to order (bcc a 2 to B2) and the new ternary compound L 12T i 25 Cr 8 Al 67 are considered in this work. - Abstract: The Ti-Al-Cr ternary system is one of the most important systems to studying the titanium alloys. Some experimental data of this ternary system are available and a few partial thermodynamic assessments are reported. However, no full thermodynamic descriptions were published. In this study, the previous work on the Ti-Al-Cr system and its related binary systems are reviewed. Based on the thermodynamic descriptions of the Ti-Al, Ti-Cr and Al-Cr systems and the ternary experimental data in literature, the Ti-Al-Cr ternary system is assessed by means of the Calphad method. Several isothermal sections from 1073 K to 1573 K and some invariant reactions are calculated, which are in good agreement with the most of the experimental results.

  4. Density-Driven segregation in Binary and Ternary Granular Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windows-Yule, Kit; Parker, David

    2015-01-01

    We present a first experimental study of density-induced segregation within a three-dimensional, vibrofluidised, ternary granular system. Using Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT), we study the steady-state particle distributions achieved by binary and ternary granular beds under a variety of

  5. Calculation of ternary interdiffusion coefficients using a single diffusion couple

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Jiří; Rothová, Věra

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 5 (2016), s. 305-314 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : diffusion * interdiffusion * ternary alloys * ternary diffusion coefficients Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.366, year: 2016

  6. A high-speed interconnect network using ternary logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Long, S. I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a high-speed interconnect network (ICN) for a multiprocessor system using ternary logic. By using ternary logic and a fast point-to-point communication technique called STARI (Self-Timed At Receiver's Input), the communication between...

  7. Enhanced 99 Tc retention in glass waste form using Tc(IV)-incorporated Fe minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong; Luksic, Steven A.; Wang, Guohui; Saslow, Sarah; Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Bowden, Mark E.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2017-11-01

    Technetium (99Tc) immobilization by doping into iron oxide mineral phases may alleviate the problems with Tc volatility during vitrification of nuclear waste. Reduced Tc, Tc(IV), substitutes for Fe(III) in the crystal structure by a process of Tc reduction from Tc(VII) to Tc(IV) followed by co-precipitation of Fe oxide minerals. Two Tc-incorporated Fe minerals (Tc-goethite and Tc-magnetite/maghemite) were prepared and tested for Tc retention in glass melt samples at temperatures between 600 – 1,000 oC. After being cooled, the solid glass specimens prepared at different temperatures were analyzed for Tc oxidation state using Tc K-edge XANES. In most samples, Tc was partially oxidized from Tc(IV) to Tc(VII) as the melt temperature increased. However, Tc retention in glass melt samples prepared using Tc-incorporated Fe minerals were moderately higher than in glass prepared using KTcO4 because of limited and delayed Tc volatilization.

  8. Electrolytic formation of technetium complexes with π-acceptor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerda, F.; Kremer, C.; Gambino, D.; Kremer, E.

    1994-01-01

    Electrolytic reduction of pertechnetate was performed in aqueous solution containing π-acceptor ligands. Cyanide and 1,10-phenanthroline were the selected ligands. In both cases, electrolyses produced a cathodic TcO 2 deposit and soluble Tc complexes. When cyanide was the ligand, the complexes formed were [Tc(CN) 6 ] 5- and [TcO 2 (CN) 4 ] 3- . When working with the amine, [Tc(phen) 3 ] 2+ and another positively charged species were found after reaction. Results are compared with previous studies with amines, and the usefulness of the electrolytic route to obtain Tc complexes is evaluated. (author) 11 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  9. Solving the Ternary Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata Logic Gate Problem by Means of Adiabatic Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecar, Primoz; Mraz, Miha; Zimic, Nikolaj; Janez, Miha; Lebar Bajec, Iztok

    2008-06-01

    Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) are one of the most promising alternative platforms of the future. Recent years have witnessed the development of basic logic structures as well as more complex processing structures, however most in the realm of binary logic. On the grounds that future platforms should not disregard the advantages of multi-valued logic, Lebar Bajec et al. were the first to show that quantum-dot cellular automata can be used for the implementation of ternary logic as well. In their study the ternary AND and OR logic functions proved to be the most troublesome primitive to implement. This research presents a revised solution that is based on adiabatic switching.

  10. Carbonation of ternary cementitious concrete systems containing fly ash and silica fume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eehab Ahmed Badreldin Khalil

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbonation is quite a complex physical negative effect phenomenon on concrete especially in the ones containing ternary blends of Portland Cement, fly ash, and silica fume. Nine selected concrete mixtures were prepared with various water to cementitious materials’ ratios and various cementitious contents. The concrete mixtures were adapted in such a way to have the same workability and air content. The fresh concrete properties were kept near identical in slump, air content, and unit weight. The variation was in the hardened concrete mechanical properties of compression and tension strength. The carbonation phenomenon was studied for these mixes showing at which mixes of ternary cementitious content heavy carbonation attacks maybe produced. The main components of such mixes that do affect the carbonation process with time were presented.

  11. Symmetric weak ternary quantum homomorphic encryption schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuqi; She, Kun; Luo, Qingbin; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Chao

    2016-03-01

    Based on a ternary quantum logic circuit, four symmetric weak ternary quantum homomorphic encryption (QHE) schemes were proposed. First, for a one-qutrit rotation gate, a QHE scheme was constructed. Second, in view of the synthesis of a general 3 × 3 unitary transformation, another one-qutrit QHE scheme was proposed. Third, according to the one-qutrit scheme, the two-qutrit QHE scheme about generalized controlled X (GCX(m,n)) gate was constructed and further generalized to the n-qutrit unitary matrix case. Finally, the security of these schemes was analyzed in two respects. It can be concluded that the attacker can correctly guess the encryption key with a maximum probability pk = 1/33n, thus it can better protect the privacy of users’ data. Moreover, these schemes can be well integrated into the future quantum remote server architecture, and thus the computational security of the users’ private quantum information can be well protected in a distributed computing environment.

  12. Nanoscratching of nylon 66-based ternary nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasari, Aravind; Yu Zhongzhen; Mai Yiuwing

    2007-01-01

    The nanoscratch behavior of nylon 66/SEBS-g-MA/clay ternary nanocomposites produced by different blending protocols with contrasting microstructures is studied by using atomic force and transmission electron microscopy. A standard diamond Berkovich indenter is used for scratching and a low load of 1 mN, along with a low sliding velocity of 1 μm s -1 , are employed for this purpose. It is shown that in order to resist penetration it is more important to have exfoliated clay in the continuous nylon matrix during nanoscratching than to have the clay in the dispersed soft rubber domains. The results obtained also explain the preferred usage of ternary nanocomposites compared to binary nanocomposites, particularly nylon 66/exfoliated clay nanocomposites. This research extends current basic knowledge and provides new insights on the nature of nanoscale processes that occur during nanoscratching of polymer nanocomposites. Critical questions are raised on the relationships between the penetration depth and material deformation and damage left behind the moving indenter

  13. Irregular Homogeneity Domains in Ternary Intermetallic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Joubert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ternary intermetallic A–B–C systems sometimes have unexpected behaviors. The present paper examines situations in which there is a tendency to simultaneously form the compounds ABx, ACx and BCx with the same crystal structure. This causes irregular shapes of the phase homogeneity domains and, from a structural point of view, a complete reversal of site occupancies for the B atom when crossing the homogeneity domain. This work reviews previous studies done in the systems Fe–Nb–Zr, Hf–Mo–Re, Hf–Re–W, Mo–Re–Zr, Re–W–Zr, Cr–Mn–Si, Cr–Mo–Re, and Mo–Ni–Re, and involving the topologically close-packed Laves, χ and σ phases. These systems have been studied using ternary isothermal section determination, DFT calculations, site occupancy measurement using joint X-ray, and neutron diffraction Rietveld refinement. Conclusions are drawn concerning this phenomenon. The paper also reports new experimental or calculated data on Co–Cr–Re and Fe–Nb–Zr systems.

  14. Plasmonic spectral tunability of conductive ternary nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassavetis, S.; Patsalas, P., E-mail: ppats@physics.auth.gr [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Bellas, D. V.; Lidorikis, E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Abadias, G. [Institut Pprime, Département Physique et Mécanique des Matériaux, Université de Poitiers-CNRS-ENSMA, 86962 Chasseneuil-Futuroscope (France)

    2016-06-27

    Conductive binary transition metal nitrides, such as TiN and ZrN, have emerged as a category of promising alternative plasmonic materials. In this work, we show that ternary transition metal nitrides such as Ti{sub x}Ta{sub 1−x}N, Ti{sub x}Zr{sub 1−x}N, Ti{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N, and Zr{sub x}Ta{sub 1−x}N share the important plasmonic features with their binary counterparts, while having the additional asset of the exceptional spectral tunability in the entire visible (400–700 nm) and UVA (315–400 nm) spectral ranges depending on their net valence electrons. In particular, we demonstrate that such ternary nitrides can exhibit maximum field enhancement factors comparable with gold in the aforementioned broadband range. We also critically evaluate the structural features that affect the quality factor of the plasmon resonance and we provide rules of thumb for the selection and growth of materials for nitride plasmonics.

  15. High-Tc superconductor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    There has been much speculation about new products and business opportunities which high-Tc superconductors might make possible. However, with the exception of one Japanese survey, there have not been any recognized forecasts suggesting a timeframe and relative economic impact for proposed high-Tc products. The purpose of this survey is to provide definitive projections of the timetable for high-Tc product development, based on the combined forecasts of the leading U.S. superconductivity experts. The FTS panel of experts on high-Tc superconductor applications, representing both business and research, forecast the commercialization and economic impact for 28 classes of electronic, magnetic, communications, instrumentation, transportation, industrial, and power generation products. In most cases, forecasts predict the occurrence of developments within a 90% statistical confidence limit of 2-to-3 years. The report provides background information on the 28 application areas, as well as other information useful for strategic planners. The panel also forecast high-Tc research spending, markets, and international competitiveness, and provide insight into how the industry will evolve

  16. GASIFICATION TEST RUN TC06

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services, Inc.

    2003-08-01

    This report discusses test campaign TC06 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC06. Test run TC06 was started on July 4, 2001, and completed on September 24, 2001, with an interruption in service between July 25, 2001, and August 19, 2001, due to a filter element failure in the PCD caused by abnormal operating conditions while tuning the main air compressor. The reactor temperature was varied between 1,725 and 1,825 F at pressures from 190 to 230 psig. In TC06, 1,214 hours of solid circulation and 1,025 hours of coal feed were attained with 797 hours of coal feed after the filter element failure. Both reactor and PCD operations were stable during the test run with a stable baseline pressure drop. Due to its length and stability, the TC06 test run provided valuable data necessary to analyze long-term reactor operations and to identify necessary modifications to improve equipment and process performance as well as progressing the goal of many thousands of hours of filter element exposure.

  17. Effects of Chain Length and Degree of Unsaturation of Fatty Acids on Structure and in Vitro Digestibility of Starch-Protein-Fatty Acid Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Mengge; Chao, Chen; Yu, Jinglin; Copeland, Les; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Shujun

    2018-02-28

    The effects of chain length and degree of unsaturation of fatty acids (FAs) on structure and in vitro digestibility of starch-protein-FA complexes were investigated in model systems. Studies with the rapid visco analyzer (RVA) showed that the formation of ternary complex resulted in higher viscosities than those of binary complex during the cooling and holding stages. The results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Raman, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the structural differences for ternary complexes were much less than those for binary complexes. Starch-protein-FA complexes presented lower in vitro enzymatic digestibility compared with starch-FAs complexes. We conclude that shorter chain and lower unsaturation FAs favor the formation of ternary complexes but decrease the thermal stability of these complexes. FAs had a smaller effect on the ordered structures of ternary complexes than on those of binary complexes and little effect on enzymatic digestibility of both binary and ternary complexes.

  18. Tensiometric investigation of the interaction and phase separation in a polymer mixture–ionic surfactant ternary system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAROSLAV M. KATONA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The interaction and phase separation in a ternary mixture composed of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC, and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS were investigated by tensiometry. Surface tension measurements of binary mixtures (0.7 % HPMC and 0.00–2.00 % SDS and of ternary mixtures (0.7 % HPMC, 0.3 % NaCMC, and 0.00–2.00 % SDS were performed. The measurements indicated interaction between HPMC and SDS, which resulted in HPMC–SDS complex formation. The critical association concentration, CAC, and polymer saturation point, PSP, were determined. Phase separation of ternary HPMC/SDS/NaCMC mixtures occurs at SDS concentration > CAC, i.e., when the HPMC–SDS complex is formed. The volume of the coacervate increases with increasing SDS concentration, and at SDS concentrations > 1.00 %, the coacervate vanishes. The surface tensions (s of ternary HPMC/SDS/NaCMC mixtures in the pre-coacervation region and at the onset of the coacervation region are similar to the σ of the corresponding binary HPMC–SDS mixtures, while in the coacervation and post coacervation region, they are close to the s of the corresponding SDS solutions

  19. Anionic solid lipid nanoparticles supported on protamine/DNA complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Jiesheng; Liu Chunxi; Chen Zhijin; Zhang Na; Wang Aihua

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to design novel anionic ternary nanoparticles for gene delivery. These ternary nanoparticles were equipped with protamine/DNA binary complexes (150-200 nm) as the support, and the anionic formation was achieved by absorption of anionic solid lipid nanoparticles (≤20 nm) onto the surface of the binary complexes. The small solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were prepared by a modified film dispersion-ultrasonication method, and adsorption of the anionic SLNs onto the binary complexes was typically carried out in water via electrostatic interaction. The formulated ternary nanoparticles were found to be relatively uniform in size (257.7 ± 10.6 nm) with a 'bumpy' surface, and the surface charge inversion from 19.28 ± 1.14 mV to -17.16 ± 1.92 mV could be considered as evidence of the formation of the ternary nanoparticles. The fluorescence intensity measurements from three batches of the ternary nanoparticles gave a mean adsorption efficiency of 96.75 ± 1.13%. Circular dichroism spectra analysis showed that the protamine/DNA complexes had been coated by small SLNs, and that the anionic ternary nanoparticles formed did not disturb the construction of the binary complexes. SYBR Green I analysis suggested that the ternary nanoparticles could protect the DNA from nuclease degradation, and cell viability assay results showed that they exhibit lower cytotoxicity to A549 cells compared with the binary complexes and lipofectamine. The transfection efficiency of the ternary nanoparticles was better than that of naked DNA and the binary complexes, and almost equal to that of lipofectamine/DNA complexes, as revealed by inversion fluorescence microscope observation. These results indicated that the anionic ternary nanoparticles could facilitate gene transfer in cultured cells, and might alleviate the drawbacks of the conventional cationic vector/DNA complexes for gene delivery in vivo

  20. The influence of stereoisomerism on the pharmacokinetics of Tc radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, L.; Taylor, A. [Atlanta, Emory Univ. School of Medicine, GA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Marzilli, L.G. [Atlanta, Emory Univ. School of Medicine, GA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1998-12-01

    The influence of stereoisomerism on the pharmacokinetics of Tc mono-oxo complexes is reviewed. Tc(V) mono-oxo complexes formed with N/S ligands have four donor groups from the ligands in an equatorial plane; the oxo ligand coordinates in an axial position. Stereoisomerism in Tc(V) mono-oxo complexes can be centered within the ligand (carbon atom in the chelate ring of ligating nitrogen of amine donors) or at the Tc. The metal center becomes chiral when an equatorial ligand has a head and a tail (i.e. the two ends of the ligand differ). All types of stereocenter can produce significantly different pharmacokinetic profiles for individual isomers. Thus, biological evaluation of separated stereoisomers is necessary to identify the optimal stereochemical configuration, particularly for radiopharmaceuticals targeted to receptor molecules with low specificity. Because of inter species variation, there is ultimately no substitute for human testing. Although it is possible that the increase in nonspecific binding of agents incorporating L- vs D-amino acids may more than offset any increased receptor binding, much more information is needed. Stereochemical factors can also lead to unpredictable differences in coordination geometry and thermodynamic preference of a single isomer; thus chemical characterization of stereo-isomers continues to be an important component of radiopharmaceutical development.

  1. Renal imaging with a new agent sup(99m)Tc-d1-DMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, A.

    1980-01-01

    By using sup(99m)-Tc-d1 DMS labeled with 99 m-Tc using stannous chloride and prepared with freeze-dried d1-DMS containing a 3:1 molar ratio of DMS and Sn +2 the effect of stereochemical factor of DMS on kidney affinity, renal images, blood clearance, urinary excretion was studied in experimental animals and two normal volunteers and 75 patients. The comparation revealed a quite similar formation of complex II from d1-DMS to that from the meso-form, judge from its absorption spectra and absorption behavior into the gel. The stereochemical difference of DMS is not a critical factor for the formation of the sup(99m)-Tc-DMS complex with high affinity for the kidney, although it is believed that the renal accumulation of Tc-complex will depend greatly on chemical configuration of the complex. (APR)

  2. Critical temperatures Tc estimated by Josephson-junction array model of layered high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, C.; Shenoy, S.R.; Bishop, A.R.

    1994-11-01

    We model high T c superconductors (HTS) by quantum capacitive Josephson junction arrays (JJA), with Angstrom-scale parameters, to obtain an estimate of Tc trends. The basic idea is as follows. Number (or change) and phase are conjugate variables, with the uncertainty products obeying ΔN · Δ Θ > 1. Thus, in HTS, global phase coherence is opposed by charging-energy induced quantum phase fluctuations, especially across Josephson-coupled CuO 2 planes. These have separation d 1 and effective interplanar dielectric constant ε, e.g. from Y atoms in YBaCuO. Decreasing the interplane charging energy E 0 perpendicular to ∼ d 1 /ε, raises Tc. In Section 1, we motivate a modelling of HTS phase excitations by a quantum capacitive 3D JJA model, with XY planar phases. Section 2 gives a physical picture of the HTS transition, relating the complex layered HTS structure to a simpler ''intermediate level'' quantum 3D JJA/XY model. Section 3 sets up a path integral (3+1)D model that reduces to a previously studied anisotropic 3D XY/JJA model, with constants renormalized in some way, by the capacitance. Postponing a detailed analysis to elsewhere, we make a heuristic estimate for the reduction of the previous Tc, by the charging energy. (author). 30 refs, 8 figs

  3. Technetium electrochemistry. 7. Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical studies on technetium(III) and -(II) complexes containing polypyridyl ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, B.E.; Deutsch, E.

    1991-01-01

    The redox properties of a series of technetium(III/II) complexes of the general formula cis(X), trans(P)-[Tc III/II X 2 (PR w R') 2 L] 10+ , where X = Cl or Br, PR 2 R' = dimethylphenylphosphine or ethyldiphenylphosphine, and L = 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine (Me 2 bpy), or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), were investigated in 0.1 M TEAP/acetonitrile by cyclic voltammetry at a platinum-disk electrode. These complexes exhibit diffusion-controlled, 1-equiv Tc(IV)/Tc(III) redox couples and also Tc(III)/Tc(II) redox couples. Spectropotentiostatic experiments on three complexes of this class in 0.5 M TEAP/DMF confirm the 1-equiv character of the Tc(III)/Tc(II) couple. The electrochemical behavior of Tc(II) complexes of the general formula trans(P)-[TcX(PR 2 R') 2 terpy] + , terpy = 2,2':6',2 double-prime-terpyridine, was also investigated under the same conditions as above. These complexes exhibit diffusion-controlled, 1-equiv Tc(III)/Tc(II) redox couples and Tc(II)/Tc(I) redox couples. Spectropotentiostatic experiments on trans(P)-[TcCl(PMe 2 Ph) 2 terpy] + confirm the 1-equiv character of the Tc(III)/Tc(II) couple but show that the Tc(II)/Tc(I) couple is not reversible on the spectropotentiostatic time scale

  4. Facile Synthesis of Ternary Boron Carbonitride Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Lijie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, a novel and facile approach for the synthesis of ternary boron carbonitride (B–C–N nanotubes was reported. Growth occurred by heating simple starting materials of boron powder, zinc oxide powder, and ethanol absolute at 1150 °C under a mixture gas flow of nitrogen and hydrogen. As substrate, commercial stainless steel foil with a typical thickness of 0.05 mm played an additional role of catalyst during the growth of nanotubes. The nanotubes were characterized by SEM, TEM, EDX, and EELS. The results indicate that the synthesized B–C–N nanotubes exhibit a bamboo-like morphology and B, C, and N elements are homogeneously distributed in the nanotubes. A catalyzed vapor–liquid–solid (VLS mechanism was proposed for the growth of the nanotubes.

  5. Ternary particle yields in 249Cf(nth,f)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsekhanovich, I.; Büyükmumcu, Z.; Davi, M.; Denschlag, H. O.; Gönnenwein, F.; Boulyga, S. F.

    2003-03-01

    An experiment measuring ternary particle yields in 249Cf(nth,f) was carried out at the high flux reactor of the Institut Laue-Langevin using the Lohengrin recoil mass separator. Parameters of energy distributions were determined for 27 ternary particles up to 30Mg and their yields were calculated. The yields of 17 further ternary particles were estimated on the basis of the systematics developed. The heaviest particles observed in the experiment are 37Si and 37S; their possible origin is discussed.

  6. Ternary particle yields in 249Cf(nth,f)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsekhanovich, I.; Bueyuekmumcu, Z.; Davi, M.; Denschlag, H.O.; Goennenwein, F.; Boulyga, S.F.

    2003-01-01

    An experiment measuring ternary particle yields in 249 Cf(n th ,f) was carried out at the high flux reactor of the Institut Laue-Langevin using the Lohengrin recoil mass separator. Parameters of energy distributions were determined for 27 ternary particles up to 30 Mg and their yields were calculated. The yields of 17 further ternary particles were estimated on the basis of the systematics developed. The heaviest particles observed in the experiment are 37 Si and 37 S; their possible origin is discussed

  7. Development of more efficacious Tc-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceutical mixtures. Progress report, May 1, 1981-April 30, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heineman, W.R.; Deutsch, E.A.

    1981-12-01

    The objectives of this year's research were to develop a method for rapidly determining TcO 4 - in 99 Mo//sup 99m/Tc generator eluates, to improve the ability to chromatographically determine individual Tc-HEDP complexes in radiopharmaceuticals, and to investigate the effects of TcO 4 - concentration and electrochemical reduction on the types and relative amounts of Tc-HEDP complexes present in a radiopharmaceutical formulation. A rapid and sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the quantitative determination of pertechnetate (TcO 4 - ) was developed. This HPLC-based analysis may be of considerable utility in assessing the history and function of 99 MO/sup 99m/Tc generators as well as in the routine analysis of reduced technetium radiopharmaceuticals for the presence of undesired TcO 4 - . Encouraging results were obtained on a dimethyl amine column using aqueous (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 as the mobile phase. The preparation of Tc(NaBH 4 ) HEDP radiopharmaceutical analogues using varying concentrations of total TcO 4 - shows a dramatic effect in the number and distribution of Tc-HEDP complexes over a TcO 4 - concentration range of 10 -2 to 10 -8 M. These results suggest that total TcO 4 - concentration is an important parameter to be considered in the preparation of a specific Tc-HEDP complex to improve skeletal imaging. The preparation of Tc(electrode) HEDP radiopharmaceutical analogues by using electrochemical reduction was explored. The resulting solutions contain Tc-HEDP complexes that are tentatively identified as being the same complexes formed by NaBH 4 reduction, although the relative concentrations of these complexes are quite different with the two modes of reduction. Thus, electrochemical reduction shows promise as a viable route to the preparation of specific Tc-HEDP complexes for improved skeletal imaging

  8. Tc-99m imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weininger, J.; Trumper, J.

    1984-01-01

    A wide range of pharmaceuticals for labeling with Tc-99m, developed by the Soreq Radiopharmaceuticals Department, is described. Details of the production and quality control of 13 kits are given, as well as the range of results required for consistently high quality imaging agents

  9. Scintigraphic findings on 99mTc-MDP, 99mTc-sestamibi and 99mTc-HMPAO images in Gaucher's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, G.; Molea, N.; La Civita, L.; Porciello, G.; Lazzeri, E.; Ferri, C.

    1996-01-01

    We report here on the use of the lipophilic cationic complex technetium-99m sestamibi ( 99m Tc-MIBI), employed as an indicator of increased cellular density and metabolic activity, to evaluate Gaucher cell infiltrates in the bone marrow; 99m Tc-hexametazime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO) was also employed, as a pure indicator of lipidic infiltration in the bone marrow. A 67-year-old patient with known type 1 Gaucher's disease presented with a painful left hip and knee and difficulty in gait subsequent to traumatic fracture of the left femoral neck that had required implant of a fixation screw-plaque. Bone scan with 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate revealed reduced uptake at the distal metaphyseal-epiphyseal femoral region. In addition, whole-body maps and spot-view acquisitions of the thighs and legs were recorded at both 30 min and 2.5 h after the injection of 99m Tc-MIBI: the scintigraphic pattern clearly showed increased uptake at several sites involved by Gaucher deposits in the bone marrow (both knees, with variable intensity in different areas), matching the bone changes detected by conventional x-ray. The target to non-target ratios slowly decreased with time, from an average value of 2.25 in the early scan to an average value of 2 in the delayed scan. The lipid-soluble agent 99m Tc-HMPAO exhibited a superimposable scintigraphic pattern of accumulation at the involved sites, though with lower target to non-target ratios (1.27-1.48). The results obtained in this patient suggest a potential role of 99m Tc-MIBI in the scintigraphic evaluation of Gaucher's lipid deposits in the bone marrow. If the results are confirmed in other patients, this radiopharmaceutical would offer clear advantages over 133 Xe because of its wider availability and greater practicality (i.v. administration of 99m Tc-MIBI versus inhalation of 133 Xe, and use of a single gamma camera instead of two as with 133 Xe). (orig.). With 3 figs

  10. Tc7, a Tc1-hitch hiking transposon in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    OpenAIRE

    Rezsohazy, R; van Luenen, H G; Durbin, R M; Plasterk, R H

    1997-01-01

    We have found a novel transposon in the genome of Caenorhabditis elegans. Tc7 is a 921 bp element, made up of two 345 bp inverted repeats separated by a unique, internal sequence. Tc7 does not contain an open reading frame. The outer 38 bp of the inverted repeat show 36 matches with the outer 38 bp of Tc1. This region of Tc1 contains the Tc1-transposase binding site. Furthermore, Tc7 is flanked by TA dinucleotides, just like Tc1, which presumably correspond to the target duplication generated...

  11. [99m Tc (CNCH2COO-)6]-5: preliminary evaluation as tracer for studies of renal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdera, E.S.; Lopes L, J.J.; Balter, H.; Leon, E.; Oliver, P.; Tagle, R.

    1992-01-01

    The preliminary results for obtaining [ 99m Tc (CNCH 2 COO - )6] -5 are described. This complex is prepared by chemical hydrolysis of resultant molecule from carboethoxi methyl isonitrile labelling with Na 99m Tc O 4 and the yield of these reactions is determined by RP-HPLC. The radiopharmaceutical behaviour in dogs are made, confirming the attributes of [ 99m Tc (CNCH 2 COO - )6] 5 as radiodiagnosis for renal function studies. (C.G.C.)

  12. Speeds of sound and isothermal compressibility of ternary liquid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thermo-acoustics Research Lab, Department of Chemistry, University of Allahabad,. Allahabad 211 002, India ... compressibility data of these industrially important organic compounds of ternary and higher liquid ... distillation. Densities and ...

  13. Positron annihilation lifetime study of interfaces in ternary polymer blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meghala, D; Ramya, P; Pasang, T; Raj, J M; Ranganathaiah, C; Williams, J F

    2013-01-01

    A new method based on positron lifetime spectroscopy is developed to characterize individual interfaces in ternary polymer blends and hence determine the composition dependent miscibility level. The method owes its origin to the Kirkwood-Risemann-Zimm (KRZ) model for the evaluation of the hydrodynamic interaction parameters (α ij ) which was used successfully for a binary blend with a single interface. The model was revised for the present work for ternary polymer blends to account for three interfaces. The efficacy of this method is shown for two ternary blends namely poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly (ethylene-co-vinylacetate)/poly(vinyl chloride) (SAN/EVA/PVC) and polycaprolactone /poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(vinyl chloride) (PCL/SAN/PVC) at different compositions. An effective hydrodynamic interaction parameter, α eff , was introduced to predict the overall miscibility of ternary blends.

  14. Synthesis and formulation of 99m Tc-ECD radiopharmaceutical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocampo G, B.E.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty which uses radioactive compounds (radionuclides) for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. 99m Tc is the more common radionuclide used in many studies in nuclear medicine because its advantages: it has a photopeak of 140 KeV and a half-life of 6 hours; it can be eluted from a Molybdenum 99 generator, so radiopharmaceuticals can be prepared on site. Ethyl cysteine dimer (ECD) labelled with reduced Technetium 99m has been purposed recently as a promising radiopharmaceutical for brain perfusion imaging 99m Tc-ECD is a lipophilic neutral complex which cross the brain blood barrier and show high brain uptake. The objective of this work was synthesize and to design a freeze dried formulation for the instant preparation of 99m Tc-ECD complex useful for brain perfusion imaging. We obtained a freeze dried stable formulation for the preparation of 99m Tc-ECD kit with a radiochemical purity higher than 90 %, which fulfills with the quality control of radiopharmaceuticals. Furthermore, we developed analytic techniques for the determination of the different chemical compounds into the lyophilized kit. (Author)

  15. TEXTURE-AWARE DENSE IMAGE MATCHING USING TERNARY CENSUS TRANSFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Textureless and geometric discontinuities are major problems in state-of-the-art dense image matching methods, as they can cause visually significant noise and the loss of sharp features. Binary census transform is one of the best matching cost methods but in textureless areas, where the intensity values are similar, it suffers from small random noises. Global optimization for disparity computation is inherently sensitive to parameter tuning in complex urban scenes, and must compromise between smoothness and discontinuities. The aim of this study is to provide a method to overcome these issues in dense image matching, by extending the industry proven Semi-Global Matching through 1 developing a ternary census transform, which takes three outputs in a single order comparison and encodes the results in two bits rather than one, and also 2 by using texture-information to self-tune the parameters, which both preserves sharp edges and enforces smoothness when necessary. Experimental results using various datasets from different platforms have shown that the visual qualities of the triangulated point clouds in urban areas can be largely improved by these proposed methods.

  16. The role of In in III-nitride ternary semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    Redondo cubero, A

    This proposal aims to study the role of In in the outstanding efficiency of luminescent devices based on group III-nitride ternary semiconductors. To study the microscopic environments of In in GaInN and AlInN, Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) experiments will be performed using the PAC-probes $^{111m}$Cd($^{111}$Cd), $^{115}$Cd($^{115}$In) and $^{117}$Cd($^{117}$In). Temperature dependent PAC measurements using the $^{111}$In($^{111}$Cd) probe indicated that In in GaN and AlN forms a complex with a defect, possibly a nitrogen vacancy (V$_{N}$), which is stable up to high temperatures and might be involved in the luminescence mechanisms. Analysing these results two questions arose: \\\\ \\\\1. Does the fact that the actual measurement is performed with the daughter nucleus $^{111}$Cd (being an acceptor) influence the probe-defect interaction? This question can be answered by performing measurements with the complementary probe $^{117}$Cd($^{117}$In). \\\\ \\\\ 2. What is the significance of $\\textit{a...

  17. Ternary choices in repeated games and border collision bifurcations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dal Forno, Arianna; Gardini, Laura; Merlone, Ugo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We extend a model of binary choices with externalities to include more alternatives. ► Introducing one more option affects the complexity of the dynamics. ► We find bifurcation structures which where impossible to observe in binary choices. ► A ternary choice cannot simply be considered as a binary choice plus one. - Abstract: Several recent contributions formalize and analyze binary choices games with externalities as those described by Schelling. Nevertheless, in the real world choices are not always binary, and players have often to decide among more than two alternatives. These kinds of interactions are examined in game theory where, starting from the well known rock-paper-scissor game, several other kinds of strategic interactions involving more than two choices are examined. In this paper we investigate how the dynamics evolve introducing one more option in binary choice games with externalities. The dynamics we obtain are always in a stable regime, that is, the structurally stable dynamics are only attracting cycles, but of any possible positive integer as period. We show that, depending on the structure of the game, the dynamics can be quite different from those existing when considering binary choices. The bifurcation structure, due to border collisions, is explained, showing the existence of so-called big-bang bifurcation points.

  18. Effects of magnetic atoms on the properties of ternary superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlap, B.D.; Shenoy, G.K.

    1980-01-01

    Until recently it has been commonly accepted that small impurities of magnetic atoms were severely detrimental to superconductivity, and that superconductivity and long-range magnetic ordering could not occur in the same materials. In known binary and pseudo-binary compounds, this is still the case. However, many recent experiments on ternary superconductors have shown that the effects of magnetism are considerably more complex. In some cases, the addition of magnetic atoms has been found to enhance superconducting properties by increasing the superconducting critical field, without significantly lowering the transition temperature. In many cases, compounds will show both superconducting and long range magnetic ordering transitions. The destruction of superconductivity by ferromagnetic ordering and the coexistence of superconductivity with antiferromagnetic ordering is now well established. Hyperfine interaction measurements have played a significant role in the investigations of these materials, including measurement of the magnitude of the exchange interaction between rare-earth spin and conduction electron spin, elucidation of the mechanism for critical field enhancement, specification of crystalline field ground states, and studies of the nature of magnetic ordering

  19. Multistate Memristive Tantalum Oxide Devices for Ternary Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wonjoo; Chattopadhyay, Anupam; Siemon, Anne; Linn, Eike; Waser, Rainer; Rana, Vikas

    2016-11-01

    Redox-based resistive switching random access memory (ReRAM) offers excellent properties to implement future non-volatile memory arrays. Recently, the capability of two-state ReRAMs to implement Boolean logic functionality gained wide interest. Here, we report on seven-states Tantalum Oxide Devices, which enable the realization of an intrinsic modular arithmetic using a ternary number system. Modular arithmetic, a fundamental system for operating on numbers within the limit of a modulus, is known to mathematicians since the days of Euclid and finds applications in diverse areas ranging from e-commerce to musical notations. We demonstrate that multistate devices not only reduce the storage area consumption drastically, but also enable novel in-memory operations, such as computing using high-radix number systems, which could not be implemented using two-state devices. The use of high radix number system reduces the computational complexity by reducing the number of needed digits. Thus the number of calculation operations in an addition and the number of logic devices can be reduced.

  20. Phenolic aminocarboxylate chelates of sup(99m)Tc as hepatobiliary agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, F.C.; Maddalena, D.J.; Wilson, J.G.; Bautovich, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    A series of alkyl- and halogen-substituted derivatives of ethylenediamine di(omicron-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) (EDDHA) and N,N'-bis(2-hydroxybenzyl) ethylenediamine N,N'-diacetic acid (HBED) were complexed with sup(99m)Tc and their biodistribution was determined in rats. All complexes displayed substantial hepatobiliary excretion; of each series, sup(99m)Tc-Br-EDDHA and sup(99m)Tc-di-Cl-HBED had the maximum amount in the gastrointestinal tract. Scintigraphic studies of sup(99m)Tc-Cl-EDDHA in dogs revealed prompt imaging of the liver followed by imaging of the gall bladder as the complex was excreted into the bile.

  1. Tricolore. A flexible color scale for ternary compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2018-01-01

    tricolore is an R library providing a flexible color scale for the visualization of three-part/ternary compositions. Its main functionality is to color-code any ternary composition as a mixture of three primary colours and to draw a suitable color-key. tricolore flexibly adapts to different...... visualisation challenges via - discrete and continuous color support - support for unbalanced compositional data via centering - support for data with very narrow range via scaling - hue, chroma and lightness options...

  2. Analytical determination of distillation boundaries for ternary azeotropic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Marcilla Gomis, Antonio; Reyes Labarta, Juan Antonio; Velasco, Raúl; Serrano Cayuelas, María Dolores; Olaya López, María del Mar

    2009-01-01

    A new straight forward algorithm to calculate distillation boundaries in ternary azeotropic systems has been developed. The proposed method allows, using cubic splines, the calculation of distillation trajectories and the calculation of that corresponding to the searched distillation boundaries. The algorithm is applied to 4 ternary liquid-vapour systems to test its validity. Vicepresidency of Research (University of Alicante) and Generalitat Valenciana (GV/2007/125)

  3. Enhanced99Tc retention in glass waste form using Tc(IV)-incorporated Fe minerals

    OpenAIRE

    Um, W; Luksic, SA; Wang, G; Saslow, S; Kim, DS; Schweiger, MJ; Soderquist, CZ; Bowden, ME; Lukens, WW; Kruger, AA

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 Elsevier B.V. Technetium ( 99 Tc) immobilization by doping into iron oxide mineral phases may alleviate the problems with Tc volatility during vitrification of nuclear waste. Because reduced Tc, Tc(IV), substitutes for Fe(III) in the crystal structure by a process of Tc reduction from Tc(VII) to Tc(IV) followed by co-precipitation of Fe oxide minerals, two Tc-incorporated Fe minerals (Tc-goethite and Tc-magnetite/maghemite) were prepared and tested for Tc retention in glass melt sample...

  4. Study of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA biodistribution in experimental animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Thais O.M. de; Silva, Natanael G. da; Colturato, Maria T.; Felgueiras, Carlos F.; Mengatti, Jair; Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Matsuda, Margareth M.N.; Araújo, Elaine B. de, E-mail: thais.castrom@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia

    2017-11-01

    {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA, succimer ({sup 99m}Tc), is a radiopharmaceutical commonly used in nuclear medicine for renal function evaluation by imaging. In order to achieve adequate labeling of the product with good radiochemical yield and standardized biological distribution, the interval of 185 - 3700 MBq should be kept in a maximum volume of 3 mL for product labeling. Moreover, one should avoid exposing the reconstituted solution to oxygen and using the product after four hours post labeling. The aim of the study was to quantify and evaluate the influence of different DMSA complexes on biological distribution of the radiopharmaceutical in experimental animals, taking in account variations in the labeling parameters. Radiochemical purity was determined by paper and thin layer chromatography using both acetone/Whatman 3MM, 0.9% NaCl/TLC-SG and n-propanol/ H{sub 2}O/acetic acid (4:3:1 V/V/V)/TLC-SG systems respectively for quantification of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} - and {sup 99m}TcO{sub 2} plus some {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA complexes. The labeling activity did not significantly affect the extent of the main complex generation. The presence of oxygen and the concentration of {sup 99}Tc did not markedly change the percentage of the radiochemical impurities in the preparation. Radiochemical purity tests of the DMSA-{sup 99m}Tc based on IPEN-CNEN DMSA-TEC reagent and on another producer's reagent showed similar results. Although the routine method used by IPEN-CNEN to determine the radiochemical yield of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA was not able to discriminate among {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA complexes, the renal uptake and the kidney to liver plus spleen uptake ratio in rats met the official compendia criteria for the radiopharmaceutical. (author)

  5. Study of "9"9"mTc-DMSA biodistribution in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Thais O.M. de; Silva, Natanael G. da; Colturato, Maria T.; Felgueiras, Carlos F.; Mengatti, Jair; Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Matsuda, Margareth M.N.; Araújo, Elaine B. de

    2017-01-01

    "9"9"mTc-DMSA, succimer ("9"9"mTc), is a radiopharmaceutical commonly used in nuclear medicine for renal function evaluation by imaging. In order to achieve adequate labeling of the product with good radiochemical yield and standardized biological distribution, the interval of 185 - 3700 MBq should be kept in a maximum volume of 3 mL for product labeling. Moreover, one should avoid exposing the reconstituted solution to oxygen and using the product after four hours post labeling. The aim of the study was to quantify and evaluate the influence of different DMSA complexes on biological distribution of the radiopharmaceutical in experimental animals, taking in account variations in the labeling parameters. Radiochemical purity was determined by paper and thin layer chromatography using both acetone/Whatman 3MM, 0.9% NaCl/TLC-SG and n-propanol/ H_2O/acetic acid (4:3:1 V/V/V)/TLC-SG systems respectively for quantification of "9"9"mTcO_4 - and "9"9"mTcO_2 plus some "9"9"mTc-DMSA complexes. The labeling activity did not significantly affect the extent of the main complex generation. The presence of oxygen and the concentration of "9"9Tc did not markedly change the percentage of the radiochemical impurities in the preparation. Radiochemical purity tests of the DMSA-"9"9"mTc based on IPEN-CNEN DMSA-TEC reagent and on another producer's reagent showed similar results. Although the routine method used by IPEN-CNEN to determine the radiochemical yield of "9"9"mTc-DMSA was not able to discriminate among "9"9"mTc-DMSA complexes, the renal uptake and the kidney to liver plus spleen uptake ratio in rats met the official compendia criteria for the radiopharmaceutical. (author)

  6. Charge distribution in the ternary fragmentation of {sup 252}Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthil Kannan, M.T.; Balasubramaniam, M. [Bharathiar University, Department of Physics, Coimbatore (India)

    2017-08-15

    We present here, for the first time, a study on ternary fragmentation charge distribution of {sup 252}Cf using the convolution integral method and the statistical theory. The charge distribution for all possible charge combinations of a ternary breakup are grouped as a bin containing different mass partitions. Different bins corresponding to various third fragments with mass numbers from A{sub 3} = 16 to 84 are identified with the available experimental masses. The corresponding potential energy surfaces are calculated using the three cluster model for the two arrangements A{sub 1} + A{sub 2} + A{sub 3} and A{sub 1} + A{sub 3} + A{sub 2}. The ternary fragmentation yield values are calculated for the ternary combination from each bin possessing minimum potential energy. The yields of the resulting ternary combinations as a function of the charge numbers of the three fragments are analyzed for both the arrangements. The calculations are carried out at different excitation energies of the parent nucleus. For each excitation energy the temperature of the three fragments are iteratively computed conserving the total energy. The distribution of fragment temperatures corresponding to different excitation energies for some fixed third fragments are discussed. The presence of the closed shell nucleus Sn in the favourable ternary fragmentation is highlighted. (orig.)

  7. Impact of ternary blends of biodiesel on diesel engine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pongamia and waste cooking oils are the main non edible oils for biodiesel production in India. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the fuel properties and investigate the impact on engine performance using Pongamia and waste cooking biodiesel and their ternary blend with diesel. The investigation of the fuel properties shows that Pongamia biodiesel and waste cooking biodiesel have poor cold flow property. This will lead to starting problem in the engine operation. To overcome this problem the ternary blends of diesel, waste cooking biodiesel and Pongamia biodiesel are prepared. The cloud and pour point for ternary blend, (WCB20:PB20:D60 were found to be 7 °C and 6.5 °C which are comparable to cloud and pour point of diesel 6 °C and 5 °C, respectively. The result of the test showed that brake specific fuel consumption for Pongamia biodiesel and waste cooking biodiesel is higher than ternary blend, (WCB20:PB20:D60 due to their lower energy content. The brake thermal efficiency of ternary blend and diesel is comparable while the Pongamia and waste cooking biodiesel have low efficiency. The result of investigation showed that ternary blend can be developed as alternate fuel.

  8. Skeletal affinity of Tc(V)-DMS is bone cell mediated and pH dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi-Suzuki, Kazuko; Konno, Aya; Ueda, Mayumi; Fukuda, Yoko; Nishio, Saori; Hashimoto, Kazuyuki; Saji, Hideo

    2004-03-01

    In spite of recent advances in bone cellular and molecular biology, there is still a poor correlation between these parameters and data obtained from bone scintigraphy. Diphosphonate derivatives radiolabelled with technetium-99m (Tc-BPs) have long been recognised as bone-seeking agents with an affinity for areas of active mineralisation. However, during clinical trials with a pH-sensitive tumour agent, the pentavalent technetium complex of dimercaptosuccinic acid [Tc(V)-DMS] showed a noticeable osteotropic character only in bone pathologies (bone metastases, Paget's diseases) and lacked accumulation in normal mature bone. To decipher the osteotropic character of Tc(V)-DMS, a study at the cellular level was considered necessary. Moreover, to learn more about the role of Tc bone agents, acid-base regulation by bone tissue or cells was studied. First, biological parameters in body fluid were measured under systemic acidosis, induced by glucose administration, in normal and Ehrlich ascites tumour (EAT)-bearing mice. Then, in vivo biodistribution studies using Tc(V)-DMS or a conventional Tc-BP agent were carried out. The effect of glucose-mediated acidification on the skeletal distribution of the Tc agents in the mice provided valuable hints regarding the differential mediation of bone cells in skeletal tissue affinity for the agents. Thereafter, in vitro studies on osteoblast and osteoclast cells were performed and the comparative affinity of Tc(V)-DMS and Tc-BP was screened under diverse acidification conditions. Moreover, studies were also carried out on acid-base parameters related to the cellular uptake mechanism. Very specific pH-sensitive Tc(V)-DMS accumulation only in the osteoclastic system was detected, and use of Tc(V)-DMS in the differential detection of osteoblastic and osteoclastic metastases is discussed.

  9. Studies on the porphine labeled with 99mTc-pertechnetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ai-Yih Wang; Jiunn-Liang Lin; Wen-Chieh Lin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research is to use acetylacetonate as a 99m Tc chelating agent label with porphyrin and evaluate its radiochemical and biological characteristics. Stannous chloride was used as a reductant to determine the chemical and biological characterization of 99m Tc-complexes from labeling porphine (4',4'',4'''-(2lH,23H-Porphine-5,10,15,20-terayl)tetrakis-(benzoic acid), TPPB) with 99m Tc-pertechnetate. Instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC), size exclusion chromatography (SEC), paper electrophoresis, and UV/Vis spectrophotometry were used to evaluate chemical characterization. Finally, biodistribution and liver function tests were applied to evaluate biological characteristics. The results of this study show that the labeling efficiency of 99m Tc(acac)-TPPB was nearly 100% when using acetylacetone (acac) as a conjugator. Three major 99m Tc(acac)-TPPB complexes were separated by SEC, and all of them were hydrophilic. The UV-Vis spectra of 99m Tc(acac)-TPPB complexes closely resembled those of the TPPB, but the wave lengths of their peaks changed 430, 521, 556, 591 and 647 nm after complexation. The biodistribution study selected the liver as the target organ. The 99m Tc(acac)-TPPB complex may cause short-term liver injury. However, this injury can be repaired, and the reagent is quickly metabolized. Hence, the toxicity of the 99m Tc(acac)-TPPB complex is within an acceptable range, and making it a promising liver imaging agent. (author)

  10. Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficient estimation for ternary systems: an ideal ternary alcohol system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allie-Ebrahim, Tariq; Zhu, Qingyu; Bräuer, Pierre; Moggridge, Geoff D; D'Agostino, Carmine

    2017-06-21

    The Maxwell-Stefan model is a popular diffusion model originally developed to model diffusion of gases, which can be considered thermodynamically ideal mixtures, although its application has been extended to model diffusion in non-ideal liquid mixtures as well. A drawback of the model is that it requires the Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficients, which are not based on measurable quantities but they have to be estimated. As a result, numerous estimation methods, such as the Darken model, have been proposed to estimate these diffusion coefficients. However, the Darken model was derived, and is only well defined, for binary systems. This model has been extended to ternary systems according to two proposed forms, one by R. Krishna and J. M. van Baten, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2005, 44, 6939-6947 and the other by X. Liu, T. J. H. Vlugt and A. Bardow, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2011, 50, 10350-10358. In this paper, the two forms have been analysed against the ideal ternary system of methanol/butan-1-ol/propan-1-ol and using experimental values of self-diffusion coefficients. In particular, using pulsed gradient stimulated echo nuclear magnetic resonance (PGSTE-NMR) we have measured the self-diffusion coefficients in various methanol/butan-1-ol/propan-1-ol mixtures. The experimental values of self-diffusion coefficients were then used as the input data required for the Darken model. The predictions of the two proposed multicomponent forms of this model were then compared to experimental values of mutual diffusion coefficients for the ideal alcohol ternary system. This experimental-based approach showed that the Liu's model gives better predictions compared to that of Krishna and van Baten, although it was only accurate to within 26%. Nonetheless, the multicomponent Darken model in conjunction with self-diffusion measurements from PGSTE-NMR represents an attractive method for a rapid estimation of mutual diffusion in multicomponent systems, especially when compared to exhaustive

  11. Analysis of accumulation of 99mTc-octreotide and 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-octreotide in the rat kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopecky, Martin; Semecky, Vladimir; Trejtnar, Frantisek; Laznicek, Milan; Laznickova, Alice; Nachtigal, Petr; Decristoforo, Clemens; Mather, Stephen J; Mäcke, Helmut R

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare renal handling and distribution of (99m)Tc-octreotide and (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr(3)-octreotide (HYNIC-TOC) in rats. In kidney perfusion experiments, the renal clearance value of (99m)Tc-octreotide was three times lower than that of (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC. The predominant renal excretion of (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC was associated with a high and long-term renal accumulation up to 48 hrs. Microautoradiographic results indicated that (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC was retained mainly in the renal medulla within the cells of the collecting ducts and in the surrounding tissue. Lower positivity was found in the proximal and distal tubular cells. We conclude that the mechanism of renal accumulation of somatostatin analogues renal accumulation is complex and that proximal tubular reabsorption is probably not the main mechanism for uptake of (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC in the kidneys. The presence of the somatostatin receptors, differences in the tonicity level within kidneys and other possible mechanisms could participate in their renal accumulation.

  12. Analysis of accumulation of 99mTc-octreotide and 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-octreotide in the rat kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecky, Martin; Semecky, Vladimir; Trejtnar, Frantisek; Laznicek, Milan; Laznickova, Alice; Nachtigal, Petr; Decristoforo, Clemens; Mather, Stephen J.; Maecke, Helmut R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare renal handling and distribution of 99m Tc-octreotide and 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr 3 -octreotide (HYNIC-TOC) in rats. In kidney perfusion experiments, the renal clearance value of 99m Tc-octreotide was three times lower than that of 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC. The predominant renal excretion of 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC was associated with a high and long-term renal accumulation up to 48 hrs. Microautoradiographic results indicated that 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC was retained mainly in the renal medulla within the cells of the collecting ducts and in the surrounding tissue. Lower positivity was found in the proximal and distal tubular cells. We conclude that the mechanism of renal accumulation of somatostatin analogues renal accumulation is complex and that proximal tubular reabsorption is probably not the main mechanism for uptake of 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC in the kidneys. The presence of the somatostatin receptors, differences in the tonicity level within kidneys and other possible mechanisms could participate in their renal accumulation

  13. A modified Tc-99m-phytate colloid for liver-spleen imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.A.; Kaplan, M.L.; Ahnberg, D.S.; Cole, C.N.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a comparison of the in vivo biologic properties of sup(99m)Tc-stannous phytate and sup(99m)Tc-stannous phytate precipitated in vitro by the addition of calcium ion, undertaken because of an interest in increasing the splenic uptake of sup(99m)Tc-phytate to a level similar to that obtained with sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid, are reported. It was found that: (1) The similarity in the organ distribution values of sup(99m)Tc-phytate and sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid is species related (rodents) and decreased splenic uptake of the phytate colloid is found in other primates and man. (2) The gamma scintillation camera with computer region of interest capability is an extremely useful technique for studying the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of radiodiagnostic agents in primates, where the cost of the animals prohibits the use of the sequential sacrifice technique. (3) The addition of calcium ion to the sup(99m)Tc-phytate complex produces an in vitro colloid with a particle size and biologic distribution very similar to that obtained with sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid. (U.K.)

  14. In Vitro Evaluation of Tc-99m Radiopharmaceuticals for Gastric Emptying Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkan Ertay

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gastrointestinal motility and functional motility disorders causing either delayed or accelerated gastric emptying (GE may result in similar symptoms including nausea, vomiting, early satiety, fullness, bloating, and abdominal discomfort or pain. Hence, it is important to evaluate patients for both rapid and delayed GE in the same test. The gold standard technique to measure GE is scintigraphy by radiolabeled test meals. The aim of this study was to test alternative Tc-99m agents to label eggs as the solid meal and compare to Tc-99m sulfur colloid (SC for gastric emptying studies. Methods: In search of alternative agents for gastric emptying studies, we mixed and fried eggs with four different particulate compounds (Tc-99m labeled SC, tin colloid, nanocolloid and MAA, as well as with free pertechnetate and Tc-99m DTPA. We then measured the stability of these compounds in simulated gastric juice. Results: Our experiments demonstrated that in addition to Tc-99m sulfur colloid;Tc-99m MAA, Tc-99m nanocolloid and Tc-99m tin colloid also appear to make stable complexes with eggs in acidic environment. Conclusion: Therefore, these agents may be used for gastric emptying studies which could be more practical in routine conditions.

  15. Labeling and stability of radiolabeled antibody fragments by a direct 99mTc-labeling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, K.Y.; Nedelman, M.A.; Tam, S.H.; Wilson, E.; Daddona, P.E.

    1992-01-01

    The in vitro labeling and stability of 99m Tc-labeled antibody Fab' fragments prepared by a direct labeling technique were evaluated. Eight antibody fragments derived from murine IgG1 (N = 5), IgG2a (N = 2) and IgG3 (N = 1) isotypes were labeled with a preformed 99m Tc-D-glucarate complex. No loss of radioactivity incorporation was observed for all the 99m Tc-labeled antibody fragments after 24 h incubation at 37 o C. 99m Tc-labeled antibody fragments (IgG1, N = 2; IgG2a, n = 2; IgG3, N = 1) were stable upon challenge with DTPA, EDTA or acidic pH. Using the affinity chromatography technique, two of the 99m Tc-labeled antibody fragments displayed no loss of immunoreactivity after prolonged incubation in phosphate buffer up to 24 h at 37 o C. Bonding between 99m Tc and antibody fragments was elucidated by challenging with a diamide ditholate (N 2 S 2 ) compound. The Fab' with IgG2a isotype displayed tighter binding to 99m Tc in comparison to Fab' from IgG1 and IgG3 isotype in N 2 S 2 challenge and incubation with human plasma. The in vivo biodistribution of five 99m Tc-labeled fragments were evaluated in normal mice. (Author)

  16. Neutron spin echo studies of the effects of temperature and pressure in a ternary microemulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Kawabata, Y; Seto, H; Takeda, T; Komura, S; Schwahn, D

    2002-01-01

    In order to clarify the self-assembling mechanisms in complex fluids involving amphiphiles, we have investigated dynamic features of amphiphilic membranes and droplets at high temperature and at high pressure in a ternary microemulsion, consisting of AOT, water, and n-decane. A high-pressure cell for neutron spin echo (NSE) experiments has been improved, and the static and dynamic features of droplets are observed in detail by means of small angle neutron scattering and NSE. It is found that the size fluctuation and the diffusion of droplets are enhanced by increasing temperature, while they are suppressed by increasing pressure. (orig.)

  17. Synthesis and characterization of the ternary telluroargentate K4[Ag18Te11

    KAUST Repository

    Davaasuren, Bambar

    2014-10-19

    The ternary potassium telluroargentate(I), K4[Ag18Te11], was prepared by solvothermal synthesis in ethylenediamine at 160 °C. It crystallizes in the cubic space group Fm3¯ m (no. 225) with the cell parameter a = 18.6589(6) Å. The crystal structure can be described as a [Ag18Te11]4- three-dimensional anionic framework with the voids accommodating potassium cations. Chemical bonding analysis reveals polar covalent Ag-Te bonds and considerable Ag-Ag interactions, which support the complex anionic character of the structure. The compound is thermally stable up to 450 °C in an inert atmosphere.

  18. Altered [99mTc]Tc-MDP biodistribution from neutron activation sourced 99Mo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeter, Sandor; Szweda, Roman; Patterson, Judy; Grigoryan, Marine

    2018-01-01

    Given potential worldwide shortages of fission sourced 99 Mo/ 99m Tc medical isotopes there is increasing interest in alternate production strategies. A neutron activated 99 Mo source was utilized in a single center phase III open label study comparing 99m Tc, as 99m Tc Methylene Diphosphonate ([ 99m Tc]Tc-MDP), obtained from solvent generator separation of neutron activation produced 99 Mo, versus nuclear reactor produced 99 Mo (e.g., fission sourced) in oncology patients for which an [ 99m Tc]Tc-MDP bone scan would normally have been indicated. Despite the investigational [ 99m Tc]Tc-MDP passing all standard, and above standard of care, quality assurance tests, which would normally be sufficient to allow human administration, there was altered biodistribution which could lead to erroneous clinical interpretation. The cause of the altered biodistribution remains unknown and requires further research.

  19. Binary and ternary photofission of thorium 232

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titterton, E W; Brinkley, T A

    1950-05-01

    Work by Titterton and Goward (1949) has shown that uranium undergoes photofission into three charged fragments. Experiments have been conducted to determine whether a similar process takes place in the photofission of thorium. Some difficulties were encountered in loading plates with /sup 232/Th atoms, but this was finally accomplished by means of a technique described in detail. Plates loaded by this method were irradiated with a continuous spectrum of ..gamma.. rays of maximum energy 24 MeV from the (Atomic Energy Research Establishment) Synchrotron. Three irradiations, of 100, 150, and 180 r, were made and the resulting plates showed a fission density of 2.5 x 10/sup 4//cc at the 150 r level. In an examination involving 2500 binary photofissions, 5 cases of ternary fission involving the emission of a long range light fragment, probably an ..cap alpha..-particle, were observed. These events are described. A number-range curve was determined for the photofission tracks and is compared with a similar curve for tracks formed by the slow neutron fission of /sup 235/U in a D/sub 1/ emulsion under conditions of similar emulsion sensitivity. It appears that the energy release in the photofission of /sup 232/Th is smaller than that in the slow neutron fission of /sup 235/U. The data indicate that 124 MeV is the mean kinetic energy released in the photofission of /sup 232/Th.

  20. Anisotropy in the ternary cold fission

    CERN Document Server

    Delion, D S; Greiner, W

    2003-01-01

    We describe the spontaneous ternary cold fission of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf, accompanied by sup 4 He, sup 1 sup 0 Be and sup 1 sup 4 C within a stationary scattering formalism. We show that the light cluster should be born in the neck region. It decays from the first resonant eigenstate in the Coulomb plus harmonic oscillator potential, centred in this region and eccentric with respect to the symmetry axis. This description gives a simple answer to the question why the averaged values in the energy spectra of emitted clusters are close to each other, in spite of different Coulomb barriers. We have shown that the angular distribution of the emitted light particle is strongly connected with its deformation and the equatorial distance. Experimental angular distributions can be explained by the spherical shapes of emitted clusters, except for a deformed sup 1 sup 0 Be. We also predicted some dependences of half-lives for such tri-nuclear systems upon potential parameters.

  1. Structure-activity studies on 99mTc phenolic aminocarboxyllic acid hepatobiliary agente

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddalena, D.J.; Wilson, J.G.; Snowdon, G.M.

    1987-01-01

    Biodistributions of a series of eight 99m Tc hydroxybenzylsarcosine (HBS) complexes were carried out in rats and their urinary and hepatobiliary excretion compared with their lipophilicities, the influence of substituent on the phenyl ring and plasma protein binding ability. The charge on the complexes was determined by electrophoresis at varying pH values. The HBS derivatives formed anionic complexes with 99m Tc that excreted mainly via the urinary route. An increase in the lipophilicity of the complexes by substitution of halogens onto the phenyl ring led to an increase in serum protein binding and a decrease in the urinary output but hat no direct effect on hepatobiliary output. (Author) [es

  2. Synthesis and animal experiment of 99mTc-labeled hepatobiliary imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xirui; Chen Shaoliang; Chen Guohui; Xu Qinfeng

    1993-01-01

    Six new compounds based on the principle of isosterism and hybridization had been synthesized. Methobrofenin was prepared by reduction of nitro mesitylene, followed by bromination and acylation with nitrilotriacetic acid. The 99m Tc-complexes of these compounds were prepared by stannous chloride reduction of sodium pertechnetate in aqueous solution. These labeled compounds, being similar to 99m Tc-mebrofenin, all were quick in the uptake by the liver cells, rapidly cleared off from the blood in mice, and had higher cumulative hepatobiliary excretion rates than Tc-99m-EHIDA

  3. 99mTc-labeling and molecular modeling of short dipeptide glycyl-L-proline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanik, R.; Benkovsky, I.

    2011-01-01

    Glycyl-L-proline (Gly-l-Pro) is the main degradation product of collagen and is a good diagnostic tool in various pathological conditions. The aim of this work was to prepare dipeptide Gly-L-Pro labeled with 99m Tc. Complex preparation was carried out under alkaline reaction conditions and its stability was assessed 10 and 120 min after preparation. The formation of two types of complex compounds was observed. High-performance liquid chromatography, paper electrophoresis, paper chromatography and thin layer chromatography were employed to monitor the formation of different complexes. Molecular modeling (semi-empirical method) was used to design their structure and composition. First complex cI with formula [TcO(Gly-L-Pro)] -1 is unstable. After 120 min cI is completely transformed to complex cII with formula Tc(Gly-L-Pro) 3 . (author)

  4. Pharmaceutical design and pharmacological characterization of Tc99m [99mTc] labelled somatostatin and gastrin analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guggenberg, E. von

    2004-10-01

    The development of regulatory peptide analogues radiolabelled with 99m Tc is of great interest for nuclear medicine applications, as 99m Tc shows very favourable imaging characteristics, such as low radiation burden to the patient, optimal image quality in SPECT, one-day-acquisition-protocol, availability on demand and cost effectiveness. In this work the principles of pharmaceutical design and preclinical pharmacological characterization of regulatory peptide analogues labelled with 99m Tc with possible application in tumour diagnosis are described. [ 99m Tc-EDDA-HYNIC0,Tyr3]octreotide ( 99m Tc-EDDA-HYNIC-TOC) is a promising new radiopharmaceutical with the potential to replace [ 111 In-DTPA0]octreotide in receptor scintigraphy of somatostatin receptor-positive tumours. Radiolabelling at high labelling yields and high specific activities could be obtained applying a coligand exchange labelling approach from tricine for EDDA under optimized conditions of pH, EDDA and stannous ion concentration. The resulting complex was characterized via HPLC, receptor binding and LC-MS. For the development of a freeze-dried kit formulation with long shelf-life, high stability of the final preparation and retained biological activity, the addition of bulking agent, the pH of the freeze-drying solution and the content of stannous chloride were of major importance. Different methods of radiochemical purity testing were evaluated to guarantee high quality of the preparation in a clinical setting, forming the basis for a further clinical evaluation of this promising new radiopharmaceutical. Radiolabelling of [D-Glu1]minigastrin (MG) with 99m Tc was studied applying two different labelling approaches. HYNIC-MG could be labelled using tricine and EDDA as coligands; and (Nalpha-His)Ac-MG was used as tridentate ligand for the 99m Tc carbonyl core. Stability experiments by HPLC analysis in PBS, serum, histidine- and cysteine-solutions as well as rat liver and kidney homogenates, receptor

  5. Synthesis of 99mTc-aroylhydrazinocarbo-nylmethyliminodiacetic acids and their animal study, hepatobiliary pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yong; Zhou Xirui; Chen Shaoliang; Chen Guohui

    1994-01-01

    Based on the structure specificity of a new compound isonicotinoylhydrazino-carbonylmethyliminodiacetic acid, nine similar derivatives were synthesized by esterification of aromatic acids, followed by hydrazinolysis, and acylation with nitrilotriacetic acid. The 99m Tc-complexes of these compounds were prepared by stannous chloride reduction of sodium pertechnetate in aqueous solution at pH 6 ∼ 7. The experimental results in mice and rabbits showed that the 99m Tc-complexes all exhibited varying degrees in the uptake by the liver cells, cleared off from the blood and excreted into the biliary tract. The hepatobiliary specificity of 99m Tc-2-methoxy-5-bromobenzoylhydrazinocarbonylmethyliminodiacetic acid was the best among them. It is concluded preliminarily that the aroylhydrazinocarbonylmethyliminodiacetic acids provide to be a fruitful source for 99m Tc-labeledhepatobiliary radiopharmaceuticals

  6. Labelling of bilirubin with /sup 99m/Tc and pharmacokinetic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaempfer, I.; Schneider, G.; Blottner, A.; Deckart, H.; Staedtisches Klinikum Berlin-Buch

    1982-01-01

    The yield of the bilirubin labelling with /sup 99m/Tc amounted to 97%. The labelled complex has been stable for 24 hours with the pH range 2-7.5. As evidenced in animal experiments the labelled bilirubin is probably subjected to natural degradation processes. Side effects could not be noticed. A disadvantage seems to be the slow transfer of /sup 99m/Tc-bilirubin from the hepatic cell to the biliary capillary

  7. Constitution of the ternary system Cr–Ni–Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krendelsberger, Natalja; Weitzer, Franz; Du, Yong; Schuster, Julius C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Reaction scheme and liquidus surface for Cr-Ni-Ti are given. •In the ternary the C14-type Laves phase coexists with the liquid phase. •Two ternary eutectics are identified. -- Abstract: The nature of solid–liquid phase equilibria in the ternary system Cr–Ni–Ti was investigated using electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis. Literature data on solid state phase equilibria are confirmed. The Cr 2 Ti Laves phase modifications coexisting with Ni–Ti phases are clarified to be hexagonal C14-type and cubic C15-type. The C14-type Laves phase γCr 2 Ti is found to coexist with the liquid phase. It forms in the pseudobinary peritectic reaction p max1 from L + β(Cr,Ti) at 1389 °C. On further cooling γCr 2 Ti + NiTi solidify at 1202 °C in the pseudobinary eutectic e max2 . In the Cr-rich part of the system ternary eutectics occur at 1216 °C (E 1 : L = Ni 3 Ti + (Ni) + β(Cr,Ti)) and 1100 °C (E 2 : L = NiTi + Ni 3 Ti + β(Cr,Ti)), respectively. No ternary eutectic is found in the Ti-rich part. Rather the eutectic trough ends in the binary eutectic L = NiTi 2 + β(Ti)

  8. Ternary fission of spontaneously fissile uranium isomers excited by neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarenko, V.E.; Molchanov, Y.D.; Otroshchenko, G.A.; Yan'kov, G.B.

    1989-01-01

    Spontaneously fissile isomers (SFI) of uranium were excited in the reactions 236,238 U(n,n') at an average neutron energy 4.5 MeV. A pulsed electrostatic accelerator and time analysis of the fission events were used. Fission fragments were detected by the scintillation method, and long-range particles from fission were detected by an ionization method. The relative probability of fission of nuclei through a spontaneously fissile isomeric state was measured: (1.30±0.01)·10 -4 ( 236 U) and (1.48±0.02)·10 -4 ( 238 U). Half-lives of the isomers were determined: 121±2 nsec (the SFI 236 U) and 267±13 nsec (the SFI 238 U). In study of the ternary fission of spontaneously fissile isotopes of uranium it was established that the probability of the process amounts to one ternary fission per 163±44 binary fissions of the SFI 236 U and one ternary fission per 49±14 binary fissions of the SFI 238 U. The substantial increase of the probability of ternary fission of SFI of uranium in comparison with the case of ternary fission of nuclei which are not in an isomeric state may be related to a special nucleon configuration of the fissile isomers of uranium

  9. 99mTc-Hynic-minigastrin 1: a promising radiopharmaceutical for imaging gastrin/CCK-positive tumors: preclinical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guggenberg, E. von; Decristoforo, C.; Behe, M.; Behr, T.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Gastrin/CCK receptors are over expressed in a number of tumors such as MW and SCLC. Therefore gastrin analogues binding to the CCK-B receptor are. promising peptides for Nuclear Medicine imaging. Recently minigastrin 1 has been labeled with 131 I, 111 In and 90 Y (Behr et al 1999). HYNIC as bifunctional chelator has shown favorable properties for 99m Tc-labeling of small peptides. The aim of this study was the preparation, 99m Tc-labeling and evaluation in vitro and in vivo of HYNIC-minigastrin 1. HYNIC-minigastrin 1 was prepared by coupling protected HYNIC to minigastrin immobilized on a resin, followed by TFA cleavage and HPLC purification. The peptide was characterized by RP-HPLC and MS. 99m Tc-labeling was performed using different coligands, such as tricine, EDDA, tricine ternary ligand systems. In vitro stability was tested in plasma and towards cystein, plasma protein binding was determined. Receptor binding assays using a CCK-B receptor positive cellline (AR42J) were performed and biodistribution in normal Wistar rats was studied with a gamma camera followed by dissection. At specific activities >1 Ci/μmol HYNIC-minigastrin 1 could be labeled with yields >95 % only using tricine as coligand. Other coligands or addition of a ternary ligand failed to give reasonable labeling yields. Two isomers of 99m Tc-tricine-HYNIC-minigastrin 1 were observed. At higher temperature quantitative yields of a stable isomer with high hydrophilicity, low protein binding and low intestinal excretion in rat biodistribution studies was obtained. Overall biodistribution in rats was similar to 111 In-DTPA-minigastrin 1 with rapid renal excretion and high kidney retention. 99m Tc-Tricine-HYNIC-minigastrin could be displaced by unlabelled Minigastrin from AR4-2J cell-membranes. A gastrin derivative could be labeled at high specific activities with 99m Tc showing isomerism dependent on labeling conditions. 99m Tc-labelled HYNIC-minigastrin 1 shows promising in vitro and in

  10. Hydrogen-induced room-temperature plasticity in TC4 and TC21 alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Baoguo; Jin, Yongyue; Hong, Chuanshi

    2017-01-01

    In order to reveal the effect of hydrogen on the room-temperature plasticity of the titanium alloys TC4 and TC21, compression tests have been carried out at room temperature. Results show that an appropriate amount of hydrogen can improve the room-temperature plasticity of both the TC4 and TC21...... alloys. The ultimate compression strain of the TC4 alloy containing a hydrogen concentration of 0.5 wt.% increases by 39% compared to the untreated material. For the TC21 alloy the ultimate compression strain is increased by 33% at a hydrogen concentration of 0.6 wt.%. The main reason for the improvement...... of hydrogen-induced room-temperature plasticity of the TC4 and TC21 alloys is discussed....

  11. Microbial reduction of 99Tc (as TcO4-) in anaerobic alkaline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khizhnyak, T.; Simonoff, M.; Sergeant, C.; Simonoff, G.; Medvedeva-Lyalikova, N.N.

    2003-01-01

    The ability of bacteria to reduce pertechnetate in alkaline conditions was investigated using halophilic bacteria isolated from soda-lakes environments. Anaerobic halophilic bacteria were able to reduce as much as 0.25 mM pertechnetate, whereas no reduction took place without bacteria or in the presence of heat-killed bacteria. The results obtained showed reduction of Tc(VII)O 4 - to the Tc(V) and Tc(IV) at pH 10 in the carbonate-bicarbonate medium. About 57% of the total technetium was determined to be Tc(IV), 1-3% as a Tc(V) and 17-20% as a Tc(VII) after 1-3 days of incubation with bacteria. The microbial reduction of Tc(VII) in alkaline conditions has been suggested as a potential mechanism for the removal of Tc from contaminated environments or waste streams. (author)

  12. Testing the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals: application to 99mTc-HMPAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Ben Ali, S.; Darsin, D.; Rizzo, N.; Lours, S.; De Beco, V.; Dumont, A.; Goudou-Sinha, C.; Izembart, M.; Jourdain, J.R.; Lemercier, V.; Linsker, S.; Moati, F.; Piketty, M.L.; Schlageter, M.H.; Moretti, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    The low stability of 99m Tc-HMPAO imposes to carry out the quality testing within the 15 minutes following the preparation. This study has the aim of comparing different methods of radiochemical purity determination (RP) of this radiopharmaceutical in order to validate a fast, reproducible, feasible technique, capable of separating the primary lipophilic 99m Tc-HMPAO (I) of impurities: hydrophilic secondary complex (II), TcO 4 - , reduced and halyards Tc. The reference technique associating two thin-layer chromatographies (TLC), 'C1' and 'C2', has been compared with a TLC 'W' technique and with liquid-liquid extraction 'E' technique: C1 - stationary phase, ITLC Silica gel/mobile phase, Butanone-2; C2 - stationary phase, ITLC Silica gel/mobile phase, 0.9% NaCl; W - stationary phase, Papier Whatman n o 1/mobile phase, Ether; E - extraction with ethyls acetate /0.9% NaCl (1/1 v/v). The 'C1' chromatography allows isolating the reduced Tc and the complex II, the 'C2' chromatography does the same with TcO 4 - but it requires too long techniques (20 min.). The 'W' and 'E' techniques are rapid, reproducible and allow to separate the complex I from the other impurities without discrimination. However, as their results depend upon the deposited quantity of sampling, an optimization and standardization of the techniques are necessary. A forth technique by chromatography on Sep-Pak column is to be evaluated

  13. Thymidine kinase enzyme selective imaging radiopharmaceutical. {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-Ganciclovir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gedik, B.; Teksoez, S.; Ichedef, C.; Kilcar, A.Y.; Medine, E.I.; Ucar, E. [Ege Univ., Bornova, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Applications

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study is to radiolabel Ganciclovir, known as having selective antiviral properties against thymidine kinase, with technetium tricarbonylcore ({sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}{sup +}) and to investigate the biological behavior of this complex in vitro and in vivo. Commercially provided Ganciclovir (GCV) was radiolabeled with {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}{sup +}. Initially, optimum radiolabeling conditions were determined by analyzing factors such as temperature, pH and time. Quality control of the radiolabeled compound was performed. The radiolabeling yield was found to be 97%. The {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-GCV complex also displayed good in vitro stability during the 24 h period. In vitro cell uptake studies showed that the {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-GCV complex is highly uptaken in A-549, PC-3, HeLa cell lines according to the control group {sup 99m}Tc(I)-tricarbonyl core. The knowledge gained from in vivo and in vitro studies of {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-GCV could contribute to the development of a new HSV1-tk gene imaging agent. (orig.)

  14. Ternary systems Sr-{Ni,Cu}-Si: Phase equilibria and crystal structure of ternary phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, Navida; Melnychenko-Koblyuk, Nataliya; Grytsiv, Andriy; Rogl, Peter; Giester, Gerald; Wosik, Jaroslaw; Nauer, Gerhard E.

    2010-01-01

    Phase relations were established in the Sr-poor part of the ternary systems Sr-Ni-Si (900 deg. C) and Sr-Cu-Si (800 deg. C) by light optical microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction on as cast and annealed alloys. Two new ternary compounds SrNiSi 3 (BaNiSn 3 -type) and SrNi 9-x Si 4+x (own-type) were found in the Sr-Ni-Si system along with previously reported Sr(Ni x Si 1-x ) 2 (AlB 2 -type). The crystal structure of SrNi 9-x Si 4+x (own-type, x=2.7, a=0.78998(3), c=1.1337(2) nm; space group P4/nbm) was determined from X-ray single crystal counter to be a low symmetry derivative of the cubic, parent NaZn 13 -type. At higher Si-content X-ray Rietveld refinements reveal the formation of a vacant site (□) corresponding to a formula SrNi 5.5 Si 6.5 □ 1.0 . Phase equilibria in the Sr-Cu-Si system are characterized by the compounds SrCu 2-x Si 2+x (ThCr 2 Si 2 -type), Sr(Cu x Si 1-x ) 2 (AlB 2 -type), SrCu 9-x Si 4+x (0≤x≤1.0; CeNi 8.5 Si 4.5 -type) and SrCu 13-x Si x (4≤x≤1.8; NaZn 13 -type). The latter two structure types appear within a continuous solid solution. Neither a type-I nor a type-IX clathrate compound was encountered in the Sr-{Cu,Ni}-Si systems. Structural details are furthermore given for about 14 new ternary compounds from related alloy systems with Ba. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure of SrNi 9-x Si 4+x (own-type, x=2.7, a=0.78998(3), c=1.1337(2) nm; space group P4/nbm) was determined from X-ray single crystal counter to be a low symmetry derivative of the cubic, parent NaZn 13 -type and is related to CeNi 8.5 Si 4.5 -type.

  15. Superconductivity in the W-Tc and W2C-Tc systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgi, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    A series of compositions in the W-Tc, W 2 C-Re and W 2 C-Tc systems were prepared and examined for superconductivity. The crystal structure, lattice parameters and superconducting transition temperatures of the W 2 C-Tc are reported for the first time. Similar measurements were made on the W-Tc and W 2 C-Re systems and the results compared with previous published results for these systems. 7 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Collective and tracer diffusion kinetics in the ternary random alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belova, I.V.; Murch, G.E.; Allnatt, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, collective and tracer diffusion kinetics is addressed for the ternary random alloy. A formal solution from the self-consistent theory of Moleko et al (Moleko L K, Allnatt A R and Allnatt E L 1989 Phil. Mag. A 59 141) is derived for collective diffusion and compared with the corresponding solution for the binary random alloy. Tracer diffusion in the ternary alloy is treated from the perspective of a special case of the quaternary random alloy. Results from Monte Carlo calculations for tracer and collective correlation factors (for the bcc ternary random alloy) are found to be in excellent agreement with this self-consistent theory but in only semi-quantitative agreement with the earlier theory of Manning (Manning J R 1971 Phys. Rev. B 4 1111). (author)

  17. Constitutional studies of the molybdenum-ruthenium-palladium ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, L.A.; Pratt, J.N.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental and computational study has been made of phase equilibria in the Mo-Ru-Pd ternary system. The constitution of annealed binary and ternary alloys was investigated using optical and electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and SEM phase analysis techniques. Limited thermodynamic measurements were made using the ZrO 2 solid electrolyte e.m.f. method. The data obtained from the various techniques were used to construct a ternary isothermal section at 1473 K. The experimentally determined section is compared with a calculated section for the same temperature, computed using thermodynamic coefficients derived solely from binary system information. Lattice parameters are reported for the b.c.c., f.c.c. and c.p.h. solid solutions and for the σ phase. (orig.)

  18. Thermal decomposition of cesium-ethylene-ternary graphite intercalation compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, R.; Oishi, Y.; Arii, T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the thermal decomposition of air-stable Cs-ethylene-ternary graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) is discussed. The air stability of Cs-GICs is improved remarkably after the absorption of ethylene into their interlayer nanospace, because the ethylene molecules oligomerize and block the movement of Cs atoms. In addition, the evaporation of Cs atoms from the Cs-ethylene-ternary GICs is observed above 400 o C under a N 2 atmosphere of 100 Pa by ion attachment mass spectrometry. Although the results indicate that Cs-ethylene-ternary GICs remain stable up to approximately 400 o C, their thermal stability is not very high as compared to that of Cs-GICs.

  19. α-ternary decay of Cf isotopes, statistical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Jayesh George; Santhosh, K.P.

    2017-01-01

    The process of splitting a heavier nucleus to three simultaneous fragments is termed as ternary fission and compared to usual binary fission, it is a rare process. Depending on the nature of third particle either it is called light charged particle (LCP) accompanying fission if it is light or true ternary fission if all three fragments have nearly same mass distributions. After experimental observations in early seventies, initially with a slow pace, now theoretical studies in ternary fission has turned to a hot topic in nuclear decay studies especially in past one decade. Mean while various models have been developed, existing being modified and seeking for new with a hope that it can beam a little more light to the profound nature of nuclear interaction. In this study a statistical method, level density formulation, has been employed

  20. Completed Local Ternary Pattern for Rotation Invariant Texture Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha H. Rassem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the two texture descriptors, the completed modeling of Local Binary Pattern (CLBP and the Completed Local Binary Count (CLBC, have achieved a remarkable accuracy for invariant rotation texture classification, they inherit some Local Binary Pattern (LBP drawbacks. The LBP is sensitive to noise, and different patterns of LBP may be classified into the same class that reduces its discriminating property. Although, the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP is proposed to be more robust to noise than LBP, however, the latter’s weakness may appear with the LTP as well as with LBP. In this paper, a novel completed modeling of the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP operator is proposed to overcome both LBP drawbacks, and an associated completed Local Ternary Pattern (CLTP scheme is developed for rotation invariant texture classification. The experimental results using four different texture databases show that the proposed CLTP achieved an impressive classification accuracy as compared to the CLBP and CLBC descriptors.

  1. The partially alternating ternary sum in an associative dialgebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremner, Murray R; Sanchez-Ortega, Juana

    2010-01-01

    The alternating ternary sum in an associative algebra, abc - acb - bac + bca + cab - cba, gives rise to the partially alternating ternary sum in an associative dialgebra with products dashv and vdash by making the argument a the center of each term. We use computer algebra to determine the polynomial identities in degree ≤9 satisfied by this new trilinear operation. In degrees 3 and 5, these identities define a new variety of partially alternating ternary algebras. We show that there is a 49-dimensional space of multilinear identities in degree 7, and we find equivalent nonlinear identities. We use the representation theory of the symmetric group to show that there are no new identities in degree 9.

  2. New ternary hydride formation in U-Ti-H system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takuya; Kayano, Hideo; Yamawaki, Michio.

    1991-01-01

    Hydrogen absorption properties of two titanium-rich uranium alloys, UTi 2 and UTi 4 , were studied in order to prepare and identify the recently found ternary hydride. They slowly reacted with hydrogen of the initial pressure of 10 5 Pa at 873K to form the ternary hydride. The hydrogenated specimen mainly consisted of the pursued ternary hydride but contained also U(or UO 2 ), TiH x , and some transient phases. X-ray powder diffraction and Electron Probe Micro Analysis proved that it was the UTi 2 H x with the expected MgCu 2 structure, though all the X-ray peaks were broad probably because of inhomogeneity. This compound had extremely high resistance to powdering on its formation, which showed high potential utilities for a non-powdering tritium storage system or for other purposes. (author)

  3. Evaluation of 99mTc(CO)5I as a potential lung perfusion agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miroslavov, Alexander E.; Gorshkov, Nikolay I.; Lumpov, Alexander L.; Yalfimov, Anatoly N.; Suglobov, Dmitrii N.; Ellis, Beverley L.; Braddock, Rattana; Smith, Anne-Marie; Prescott, Mary C.; Lawson, Richard S.; Sharma, Harbans L.

    2009-01-01

    distribution studies with 99m Tc-MAA showed 100% lung uptake. Conclusion: 99m Tc(CO) 5 I was synthesized with a high radiochemical purity and showed a high accumulation in the lungs. Further work on the mechanism and optimization of lung uptake of 99m Tc-pentacarbonyl complexes is warranted

  4. Tc-99m labeled Sparfloxacin: A specific infection imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.K.; Verma, J.; Bhatnagar, A.; Ali, A.

    2003-01-01

    Radiolabeled antibiotics are being used for the specific diagnosis of infection by exploiting their specific binding properties to the bacterial component, thereby making it possible to differentiate infection from sterile lesions. A new radiopharmaceutical, Tc-99m Sparfloxacin has been developed for infection imaging. Sparfloxacin is a quinolone based broad-spectrum antibiotic, which is more potent than Ciprofloxacin. Radiolabeling of Sparfloxacin with Tc-99m was standardized using direct labeling protocol. Labeling efficiency, in-vitro and in-vivo stability, blood kinetics and organ distribution studies (in balb/c mice and New Zealand White Rabbits at different time interval up to 24hrs) were carried out. Biological activity of Sparfloxacin after its labeling with Tc-99m was evaluated with S.aureus using Peptone water (DIFCO) as media. Turpentine oil (100 μl) in left thigh and S.aureus (100μl of 3x10 7 cells) in right thigh were injected intramuscularly to create sterile and infective inflammation respectively in six New Zealand white rabbits. The localization kinetics of the radiolabeled complex were studied in the animal model by injecting 70-75MBq of Tc-99m Sparfloxacin intravenously in the ear of rabbit and the images were taken with a Gamma-camera (ECIL) at different post-injection time intervals. Standardized protocol produced >95% labeled complex. About 8% of tracer leached out at 24 hrs when incubated in serum at 37 0 C, confirming high stability of the complex. Blood clearance in rabbit revealed biphasic pattern and 50% of the complex clears from the blood within 5 min. Biodistribution studies in balb/c mice showed hepatobiliary route of excretion. Presence of insignificant amount of tracer at 24 hrs in the stomach confirmed high in vivo stability of the complex. Imaging in rabbits showed significant concentration of tracer in lesions with infection. Typical imaging patterns revealed initial accumulation of radiotracer in both sterile inflammatory

  5. Equilibrium phase diagram of the Ag-Au-Pb ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassam, S.; Bahari, Z.

    2005-01-01

    The phase diagram of the ternary system Ag-Au-Pb has been established using differential thermal analysis and X-ray powder diffraction analysis. Four vertical sections were studied: X Pb = 0.40, X Au /X Pb = 1/3, X Ag /X Au = 4/1 and X Ag /X Au = 1/1. Two ternary transitory peritectics and one ternary eutectic were characterized. A schematic representation of the ternary equilibria is given

  6. Modelling of volumetric properties of binary and ternary mixtures by CEOS, CEOS/GE and empirical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOJAN D. DJORDJEVIC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Although many cubic equations of state coupled with van der Waals-one fluid mixing rules including temperature dependent interaction parameters are sufficient for representing phase equilibria and excess properties (excess molar enthalpy HE, excess molar volume VE, etc., difficulties appear in the correlation and prediction of thermodynamic properties of complex mixtures at various temperature and pressure ranges. Great progress has been made by a new approach based on CEOS/GE models. This paper reviews the last six-year of progress achieved in modelling of the volumetric properties for complex binary and ternary systems of non-electrolytes by the CEOS and CEOS/GE approaches. In addition, the vdW1 and TCBT models were used to estimate the excess molar volume VE of ternary systems methanol + chloroform + benzene and 1-propanol + chloroform + benzene, as well as the corresponding binaries methanol + chloroform, chloroform + benzene, 1-propanol + chloroform and 1-propanol + benzene at 288.15–313.15 K and atmospheric pressure. Also, prediction of VE for both ternaries by empirical models (Radojković, Kohler, Jackob–Fitzner, Colinet, Tsao–Smith, Toop, Scatchard, Rastogi was performed.

  7. The development and characterization of Tc-99m mecaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Eshima, D.

    1990-01-01

    I-131 orth-iodohippuric (OIH) acid is a widely used renal radiopharmaceutical but it is limited due to the suboptimal imaging properties of the I-131 radionuclide and the relatively high radiation dose. Recent work has focused on the development of Tc-99m renal tubular function agents which would utilize the optimal radionuclidic properties and availability of Tc-99m, provide comparable clinical information to that obtained with OIH and allow the evaluation of renal perfusion. The triamide mercaptide (N 3 S) donor ligand