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Sample records for ternary alkali-transition metal

  1. Density functional theory based screening of ternary alkali-transition metal borohydrides: A computational material design project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Jens Strabo; Landis, David; Voss, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    We present a computational screening study of ternary metal borohydrides for reversible hydrogen storage based on density functional theory. We investigate the stability and decomposition of alloys containing 1 alkali metal atom, Li, Na, or K (M1); and 1 alkali, alkaline earth or 3d/4d transition...

  2. Model for H-, D- production by hydrogen backscattering from alkali and alkali/transition-metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiskes, J.R.; Schneider, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    A model for H - , D - production by energetic particles reflecting from metal surfaces is discussed. The model employs the energy and angular distribution data derived from the Marlowe code. The model is applied to particles incident normally upon Cs, Ni, and Cs/Ni surfaces

  3. Superconducting state parameters of ternary metallic glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    to binary metallic glasses. They are of interest since third element can modify the physical properties of binary metallic glasses and can also be used as a probe to study the host. ..... conducting nature in the present case. When we. Figure 6. Variation of transition temperature (TC) with valance (Z) of ternary metallic glasses.

  4. Ternary scandium and transition metals germanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, B.Ya.

    1992-01-01

    Brief review of data on phase diagram of ternary Sc-Me-Ge systems (Me-d - , f-transition element) is given. Isothermal sections at 870 and 1070 K of 17 ternary systems are plotted. Compositions and their structural characteristics are presented. Variability of crystal structure is typical for ternary scandium germanides: 70 compounds with the studied structure belong to 23 structural types. Ternary germanides isostructural to types of Sm 4 Ge 4 , ZrCrSi 2 , ZrNiAl, ScCeSi, TiNiSi U 4 Re 7 Si 6 145 compounds from 70 under investigation are mostly formed in studied systems

  5. Ternary gradient metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong; Rosi, Nathaniel L

    2017-09-08

    Gradient MOFs contain directional gradients of either structure or functionality. We have successfully prepared two ternary gradient MOFs based on bMOF-100 analogues, namely bMOF-100/102/106 and bMOF-110/100/102, via cascade ligand exchange reactions. The cubic unit cell parameter discrepancy within an individual ternary gradient MOF crystal is as large as ∼1 nm, demonstrating the impressive compatibility and flexibility of the component MOF materials. Because of the presence of a continuum of unit cells, the pore diameters within individual crystals also change in a gradient fashion from ∼2.5 nm to ∼3.0 nm for bMOF-100/102/106, and from ∼2.2 nm to ∼2.7 nm for bMOF-110/100/102, indicating significant porosity gradients. Like previously reported binary gradient MOFs, the composition of the ternary gradient MOFs can be easily controlled by adjusting the reaction conditions. Finally, X-ray diffraction and microspectrophotometry were used to analyse fractured gradient MOF crystals by comparing unit cell parameters and absorbance spectra at different locations, thus revealing the profile of heterogeneity (i.e. gradient distribution of properties) and further confirming the formation of ternary gradient MOFs.

  6. Superconductivity of ternary metal compounds prepared at high pressures

    CERN Document Server

    Shirotani, I

    2003-01-01

    Various ternary metal phosphides, arsenides, antimonides, silicides and germanides have been prepared at high temperatures and high pressures. These ternary metal compounds can be classified into four groups: [1] metal-rich compounds MM' sub 4 X sub 2 and [2] MM'X, [3] non-metal-rich compounds MXX' and [4] MM' sub 4 X sub 1 sub 2 (M and M' = metal element; X and X' = non-metal element). We have studied the electrical and magnetic properties of these materials at low temperatures, and found many new superconductors with the superconducting transition temperature (T sub c) of above 10 K. The metal-rich compound ZrRu sub 4 P sub 2 with a tetragonal structure showed the superconducting transition at around 11 K, and had an upper critical field (H sub c sub 2) of 12.2 tesla (T) at 0 K. Ternary equiatomic compounds ZrRuP and ZrRuSi crystallize in two modifications, a hexagonal Fe sub 2 P-type structure [h-ZrRuP(Si)] and an orthorhombic Co sub 2 P-type structure [o-ZrRuP(Si)]. Both h-ZrRuP and h-ZrRuSi have rather h...

  7. Binary and ternary carbides and nitrides of the transition metals and their phase relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holleck, H.

    1981-01-01

    The occurrance and the structure of the binary and ternary transition metal carbides and nitrides are described. Phase diagrams are assessed for most of the binary and ternary systems. Many ternary phase diagrams are published in this report for the first time. (orig.) [de

  8. Halo Formation During Solidification of Refractory Metal Aluminide Ternary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, N.; Feitosa, L. M.; West, G. D.; Dong, H. B.

    2018-02-01

    The evolution of eutectic morphologies following primary solidification has been studied in the refractory metal aluminide (Ta-Al-Fe, Nb-Al-Co, and Nb-Al-Fe) ternary systems. The undercooling accompanying solid growth, as related to the extended solute solubility in the primary and secondary phases can be used to account for the evolution of phase morphologies during ternary eutectic solidification. For small undercooling, the conditions of interfacial equilibrium remain valid, while in the case of significant undercooling when nucleation constraints occur, there is a departure from equilibrium leading to unexpected phases. In Ta-Al-Fe, an extended solubility of Fe in σ was observed, which was consistent with the formation of a halo of μ phase on primary σ. In Nb-Al-Co, a halo of C14 is formed on primary CoAl, but very limited vice versa. However, in the absence of a solidus projection it was not possible to definitively determine the extended solute solubility in the primary phase. In Nb-Al-Fe when nucleation constraints arise, the inability to initiate coupled growth of NbAl3 + C14 leads to the occurrence of a two-phase halo of C14 + Nb2Al, indicating a large undercooling and departure from equilibrium.

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Ternary and Quaternary Alkali Metal Thiophosphates

    KAUST Repository

    Alahmary, Fatimah S.

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing development of nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals such as coherent mid-IR sources focuses on various classes of materials such as ternary and quaternary metal chalcophosphates. In case of thiophosphates, the connection between PS4

  10. Reflectance properties of one-dimensional metal-dielectric ternary photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, G. N., E-mail: gnpandey2009@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Amity Institute of Applied Sciences, AmityUniversity, Noida (U.P.) (India); Kumar, Narendra [Department of Physics (CASH), Modi University of Science and Technology, Lakshmangarh, Sikar, Rajsthan (India); Thapa, Khem B. [Department of Physics, U I E T, ChhatrapatiShahu Ji Maharaj University, Kanpur- (UP) (India); Ojha, S. P. [Department of Physics IIT, Banaras Hindu University (India)

    2016-05-06

    Metallic photonic crystal has a very important application in absorption enhancement in solar cells. It has been found that an ultra-thin metallic layer becomes transparent due to internal scattering of light through the each interface of the dielectric and metal surfaces. The metal has absorption due to their surface plasmon and the plasmon has important parameters for changing optical properties of the metal. We consider ternary metallic-dielectric photonic crystal (MDPC) for having large probabilities to change the optical properties of the MDPC and the photonic crystals may be changed by changing dimensionality, symmetry, lattice parameters, Filling fraction and effective refractive index refractive index contrast. In this present communication, we try to show that the photonic band gap in ternary metal-dielectric photonic crystal can be significantly enlarged when air dielectric constant is considered. All the theoretical analyses are made based on the transfer matrix method together with the Drude model of metal.

  11. Equilibrium studies of ternary systems containing some selected transition metal ions, triazoles and aromatic carboxylic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Mohamed Magdy; Radalla, Abd-Elatty; Qasem, Fatma; Khaled, Rehab [Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef (Egypt)

    2014-01-15

    Solution equilibria of the binary and ternary complex systems of the divalent transition metal ions Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+} with 1,2,4-triazole (TRZ), 3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (TRZSH), and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (TRZAM) and aromatic carboxylic acids (phthalic, anthranilic, salicylic, and 5-sulfosalicylic acid) have been studied pH-metrically at (25.0±0.1) .deg. C, and a constant ionic strength I=1x10{sup -1} mol L{sup -1} NaNO{sub 3} in an aqueous medium. The potentiometric titration curves show that binary and ternary complexes of these ligands are formed in solution. The stability constants of the different binary and ternary complexes formed were calculated on the basis of computer analysis of the titration data. The relative stability of the different ternary complex species is expressed in terms of Δ log K values, log X and R. S.% parameters. The effect of temperature of the medium on both the proton-ligand equilibria for TRZAM and phthalic acid and their metal-ligand equilibria with Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+} has been studied along with the corresponding thermodynamic parameters. The complexation behavior of ternary complexes is ascertained using conductivity measurements. In addition, the formation of ternary complexes in solution has been confirmed by using UV-visible spectrophotometry.

  12. A simple urea-based route to ternary metal oxynitride nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomathi, A.; Reshma, S.; Rao, C.N.R.

    2009-01-01

    Ternary metal oxynitrides are generally prepared by heating the corresponding metal oxides with ammonia for long durations at high temperatures. In order to find a simple route that avoids use of gaseous ammonia, we have employed urea as the nitriding agent. In this method, ternary metal oxynitrides are obtained by heating the corresponding metal carbonates and transition metal oxides with excess urea. By this route, ternary metal oxynitrides of the formulae MTaO 2 N (M=Ca, Sr or Ba), MNbO 2 N (M=Sr or Ba), LaTiO 2 N and SrMoO 3-x N x have been prepared successfully. The oxynitrides so obtained were generally in the form of nanoparticles, and were characterized by various physical techniques. - Graphical abstract: Nanoparticles of ternary metal oxynitrides can be synthesized by means of urea route. Given is the TEM image of the nanoparticles of CaTaO 2 N so obtained and the insets show the SAED pattern and HREM image of the nanoparticles

  13. Ternary Amides Containing Transition Metals for Hydrogen Storage: A Case Study with Alkali Metal Amidozincates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hujun; Richter, Theresia M M; Pistidda, Claudio; Chaudhary, Anna-Lisa; Santoru, Antonio; Gizer, Gökhan; Niewa, Rainer; Chen, Ping; Klassen, Thomas; Dornheim, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The alkali metal amidozincates Li4 [Zn(NH2)4](NH2)2 and K2[Zn(NH2)4] were, to the best of our knowledge, studied for the first time as hydrogen storage media. Compared with the LiNH2-2 LiH system, both Li4 [Zn(NH2)4](NH2)2-12 LiH and K2[Zn(NH2)4]-8 LiH systems showed improved rehydrogenation performance, especially K2[Zn(NH2)4]-8 LiH, which can be fully hydrogenated within 30 s at approximately 230 °C. The absorption properties are stable upon cycling. This work shows that ternary amides containing transition metals have great potential as hydrogen storage materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. A new model for predicting thermodynamic properties of ternary metallic solution from binary components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zheng; Zhang Quanru

    2006-01-01

    A model has been derived to predict thermodynamic properties of ternary metallic systems from those of its three binaries. In the model, the excess Gibbs free energies and the interaction parameter ω 123 for three components of a ternary are expressed as a simple sum of those of the three sub-binaries, and the mole fractions of the components of the ternary are identical with the sub-binaries. This model is greatly simplified compared with the current symmetrical and asymmetrical models. It is able to overcome some shortcomings of the current models, such as the arrangement of the components in the Gibbs triangle, the conversion of mole fractions between ternary and corresponding binaries, and some necessary processes for optimizing the various parameters of these models. Two ternary systems, Mg-Cu-Ni and Cd-Bi-Pb are recalculated to demonstrate the validity and precision of the present model. The calculated results on the Mg-Cu-Ni system are better than those in the literature. New parameters in the Margules equations expressing the excess Gibbs free energies of three binary systems of the Cd-Bi-Pb ternary system are also given

  15. New ternary transition metal borides containing uranium and rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogl, P.; Delong, L.

    1983-01-01

    The new ternary actinide metal diborides U 2 MoB 6 , U 2 ReB 6 , U 2 OsB 6 , URuB 4 and UOsB 4 were prepared and found to crystallize with either the Y 2 ReB 6 or the ThMoB 4 type of structure. LuRuB 4 and LuOsB 4 crystallize with the YCrB 4 type of structure. In a ternary series of solid solutions YRh 3 Bsub(1-x) (0 0 C), boron was found to stabilize a Cu 3 Au type of structure. The superconductivity of the new uranium compounds and of a series of ternary transition metal borides was investigated; no superconductivity was observed for temperatures as low at 1.3-1.5 K. The cubic perovskite or filled Cu 3 Au structure is discussed as a type which is very unfavorable for the occurrence of superconductivity. (Auth.)

  16. A metallic solution model with adjustable parameter for describing ternary thermodynamic properties from its binary constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zheng; Qiu Guanzhou

    2007-01-01

    A metallic solution model with adjustable parameter k has been developed to predict thermodynamic properties of ternary systems from those of its constituent three binaries. In the present model, the excess Gibbs free energy for a ternary mixture is expressed as a weighted probability sum of those of binaries and the k value is determined based on an assumption that the ternary interaction generally strengthens the mixing effects for metallic solutions with weak interaction, making the Gibbs free energy of mixing of the ternary system more negative than that before considering the interaction. This point is never considered in the models currently reported, where the only difference in a geometrical definition of molar values of components is considered that do not involve thermodynamic principles but are completely empirical. The current model describes the results of experiments very well, and by adjusting the k value also agrees with those from models used widely in the literature. Three ternary systems, Mg-Cu-Ni, Zn-In-Cd, and Cd-Bi-Pb are recalculated to demonstrate the method of determining k and the precision of the model. The results of the calculations, especially those in Mg-Cu-Ni system, are better than those predicted by the current models in the literature

  17. Ternary superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgi, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    Ternary superconductors constitute a class of superconducting compounds with exceptional properties such as high transition temperatures (≅ 15.2 K), extremely high critical fields (H c2 >60 Tesla), and the coexistence of superconductivity and long-range magnetic order. This has generated great interest in the scientific community and resulted in a large number of experimental and theoretical investigations in which many new ternary compounds have been discovered. A review of some of the properties of these ternary compounds is presented with particular emphasis on the ternary molybdenum chalcogenides and the ternary rare earth transition metal tetraborides. The effect of partial substitution of a second metal atom to form pseudoternary compounds is examined as well as some of the proposed correlations between the superconducting transition temperature and the structural and electronic properties of the ternary superconductors

  18. Synthesis and characterization of some reduced ternary and quaternary molybdenum oxide phases with strong metal-metal bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lii, K.H.

    1985-10-01

    In the course of our research on reduced ternary and quaternary molybdenum oxides, very interesting compounds with strong metal-metal bonds were discovered. Among these solid-state materials are found discrete cluster arrays and structures with extended metal-metal bonding. Further study in this system has revealed that many new structures exist in this new realm. The synthesis, structures, bonding, and properties of these new oxides, which are briefly summarized in tabular form, are presented in this thesis. 144 refs., 63 figs., 79 tabs

  19. Ternary alkali-metal and transition metal or metalloid acetylides as alkali-metal intercalation electrodes for batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Karoly; Srajer, George; Harkay, Katherine C; Terdik, Joseph Z

    2015-02-10

    Novel intercalation electrode materials including ternary acetylides of chemical formula: A.sub.nMC.sub.2 where A is alkali or alkaline-earth element; M is transition metal or metalloid element; C.sub.2 is reference to the acetylide ion; n is an integer that is 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 when A is alkali element and 0, 1, or 2 when A is alkaline-earth element. The alkali elements are Lithium (Li), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Rubidium (Rb), Cesium (Cs) and Francium (Fr). The alkaline-earth elements are Berilium (Be), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca), Strontium (Sr), Barium (Ba), and Radium (Ra). M is a transition metal that is any element in groups 3 through 12 inclusive on the Periodic Table of Elements (elements 21 (Sc) to element 30 (Zn)). In another exemplary embodiment, M is a metalloid element.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Ternary and Quaternary Alkali Metal Thiophosphates

    KAUST Repository

    Alahmary, Fatimah S.

    2014-05-01

    The ongoing development of nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals such as coherent mid-IR sources focuses on various classes of materials such as ternary and quaternary metal chalcophosphates. In case of thiophosphates, the connection between PS4-tetrahedral building blocks and metals gives rise to a broad structural variety where approximately one third of all known ternary (A/P/S) and quaternary (A/M/P/S) (A = alkali metal, M = metal) structures are acentric and potential nonlinear optical materials. The molten alkali metal polychalcophosphate fluxes are a well-established method for the synthesis of new ternary and quaternary thiophosphate and selenophosphate compounds. It has been a wide field of study and investigation through the last two decades. Here, the flux method is used for the synthesis of new quaternary phases containing Rb, Ag, P and S. Four new alkali metal thiophosphates, Rb4P2S10, RbAg5(PS4), Rb2AgPS4 and Rb3Ag9(PS4)4, have been synthesized successfully from high purity elements and binary starting materials. The new compounds were characterized by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). These compounds show interesting structural variety and physical properties. The crystal structures feature 3D anionic framework built up of PS4 tetrahedral units and charge balanced by Ag and alkali metal cations. All prepared compounds are semiconductors with band gap between 2.3 eV to 2.6 eV and most of them are thermally stable up to 600ºC.

  1. The analysis of fuel constituent redistribution for ternary metallic fuel slug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byoung Oon; Lee, Dong Uk; Kim, Young Kyun; Chang, Jin Wook; Lee, Ki Bok; Kim, Young Il

    2004-02-01

    U-TRU-Zr metallic alloy is being considered as the fuel slug for the proliferation resistance core of KALIMER. The radial fuel constituent migration is a general phenomenon in the metallic alloys. This phenomenon may affect the in-reactor performance of metallic fuel rods, influencing such factors as melting temperature, thermal conductivity, power generation rate, phase boundaries and eutectic melting of the fuel slug. Thus, constituent redistribution modeling is essential when developing a metallic fuel performance code. The constituent migration model adopted in this report was based on the Ishida's model and Hofman's theory. A subroutine program has been made and installed into the MACSIS code to simulate constituent redistribution. The radial profile of Zr redistribution was calculated for the ternary metallic fuel, and compared with the measured data.

  2. Ternary toxicological interactions of insecticides, herbicides, and a heavy metal on the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yanhua [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control/Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Chen, Chen [Key Laboratory of Agro-Product Quality and Safety of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality Standards and Testing Technology for Agro-Products, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Qian, Yongzhong, E-mail: qyzcaas@aliyun.com [Key Laboratory of Agro-Product Quality and Safety of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality Standards and Testing Technology for Agro-Products, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhao, Xueping [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control/Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Wang, Qiang, E-mail: qiangwang2003@vip.sina.com [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control/Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021 (China)

    2015-03-02

    Highlights: • The combined toxicity of insecticides, herbicides, and a heavy metal was examined. • Acute earthworm toxicity assays were conducted in twenty-one ternary mixtures. • Synergism predominated in the majority of the mixtures at low effect levels. • Combination index method could more accurately predict the combined toxicity. - Abstract: The combined toxicities of five insecticides (chlorpyrifos, avermectin, imidacloprid, λ-cyhalothrin, and phoxim), two herbicides (atrazine and butachlor), and a heavy metal (cadmium) have been examined using the acute toxicity test on the earthworm. With a concentration of 2.75 mg/kg being lethal for 50% of the organisms, imidacloprid exhibited the highest acute toxicity toward the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Toxicological interactions of these chemicals in ternary mixtures were studied using the combination-index (CI) equation method. Twenty-one ternary mixtures exhibited various interactive effects, in which 11 combinations showed synergistic effects, four led to dual synergistic/additive behaviors, one exhibited an additive effect, and five showed increasing antagonism within the entire range of effects. The CI method was compared with the classical models of concentration addition and independent action, and it was found that the CI method could accurately predict combined toxicity of the chemicals studied. The predicted synergism in the majority of the mixtures, especially at low-effect levels, might have implications in the real terrestrial environment.

  3. Ternary toxicological interactions of insecticides, herbicides, and a heavy metal on the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yanhua; Chen, Chen; Qian, Yongzhong; Zhao, Xueping; Wang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The combined toxicity of insecticides, herbicides, and a heavy metal was examined. • Acute earthworm toxicity assays were conducted in twenty-one ternary mixtures. • Synergism predominated in the majority of the mixtures at low effect levels. • Combination index method could more accurately predict the combined toxicity. - Abstract: The combined toxicities of five insecticides (chlorpyrifos, avermectin, imidacloprid, λ-cyhalothrin, and phoxim), two herbicides (atrazine and butachlor), and a heavy metal (cadmium) have been examined using the acute toxicity test on the earthworm. With a concentration of 2.75 mg/kg being lethal for 50% of the organisms, imidacloprid exhibited the highest acute toxicity toward the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Toxicological interactions of these chemicals in ternary mixtures were studied using the combination-index (CI) equation method. Twenty-one ternary mixtures exhibited various interactive effects, in which 11 combinations showed synergistic effects, four led to dual synergistic/additive behaviors, one exhibited an additive effect, and five showed increasing antagonism within the entire range of effects. The CI method was compared with the classical models of concentration addition and independent action, and it was found that the CI method could accurately predict combined toxicity of the chemicals studied. The predicted synergism in the majority of the mixtures, especially at low-effect levels, might have implications in the real terrestrial environment

  4. Structural and thermal characterization of ternary complexes of piroxicam and alanine with transition metals: Uranyl binary and ternary complexes of piroxicam. Spectroscopic characterization and properties of metal complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Gehad G.

    2005-12-01

    Ternary Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and UO 2(II) complexes with piroxicam (Pir) drug (H 2L 1) and dl-alanine (Ala) (HL 2) and also the binary UO 2(II) complex with Pir were studied. The structures of the complexes were elucidated using elemental, IR, molar conductance, magnetic moment, diffused reflectance and thermal analyses. The UO 2(II) binary complex was isolated in 1:2 ratio with the formula [UO 2(H 2L) 2](NO 3) 2. The ternary complexes were isolated in 1:1:1 (M:H 2L 1:L 2) ratios. The solid complexes were isolated in the general formulae [M(H 2L)(L 2)(Cl) n(H 2O) m]· yH 2O (M = Fe(III) ( n = 2, m = 0, y = 1), Co(II) ( n = 1, m = 1, y = 2) and Ni(II) ( n = 1, m = 1, y = 0)); [M(H 2L)(L 2)](X) z· yH 2O (M = Cu(II) (X = AcO, z = 1, y = 0), Zn(II) (X = AcO, z = 1, y = 3) and UO 2(II) (X = NO 3, z = 1, y = 2)). Pir behaves as a neutral bidentate ligand coordinated to the metal ions via the pyridine-N and carbonyl-O groups, while Ala behaves as a uninegatively bidentate ligand coordinated to the metal ions via the deprotonated carboxylate-O and amino-N. The magnetic and reflectance spectral data show that the complexes have octahedral geometry except Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes have tetrahedral structures. The thermal decomposition of the complexes was discussed in relation to structure, and the thermodynamic parameters of the decomposition stages were evaluated.

  5. First-principles interatomic potentials for transition-metal aluminides. III. Extension to ternary phase diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widom, Mike; Al-Lehyani, Ibrahim; Moriarty, John A.

    2000-01-01

    Modeling structural and mechanical properties of intermetallic compounds and alloys requires detailed knowledge of their interatomic interactions. The first two papers of this series [Phys. Rev. B 56, 7905 (1997); 58, 8967 (1998)] derived first-principles interatomic potentials for transition-metal (TM) aluminides using generalized pseudopotential theory (GPT). Those papers focused on binary alloys of aluminum with first-row transition metals and assessed the ability of GPT potentials to reproduce and elucidate the alloy phase diagrams of Al-Co and Al-Ni. This paper addresses the phase diagrams of the binary alloy Al-Cu and the ternary systems Al-Co-Cu and Al-Co-Ni, using GPT pair potentials calculated in the limit of vanishing transition-metal concentration. Despite this highly simplifying approximation, we find rough agreement with the known low-temperature phase diagrams, up to 50% total TM concentration provided the Co fraction is below 25%. Full composition-dependent potentials and many-body interactions would be required to correct deficiencies at higher Co concentration. Outside this troublesome region, the experimentally determined stable and metastable phases all lie on or near the convex hull of a scatter plot of energy versus composition. We verify, qualitatively, reported solubility ranges extending binary alloys into the ternary diagram in both Al-Co-Cu and Al-Co-Ni. Finally, we reproduce previously conjectured transition-metal positions in the decagonal quasicrystal phase. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  6. First-principles interatomic potentials for transition-metal aluminides. III. Extension to ternary phase diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Mike; Al-Lehyani, Ibrahim; Moriarty, John A.

    2000-08-01

    Modeling structural and mechanical properties of intermetallic compounds and alloys requires detailed knowledge of their interatomic interactions. The first two papers of this series [Phys. Rev. B 56, 7905 (1997); 58, 8967 (1998)] derived first-principles interatomic potentials for transition-metal (TM) aluminides using generalized pseudopotential theory (GPT). Those papers focused on binary alloys of aluminum with first-row transition metals and assessed the ability of GPT potentials to reproduce and elucidate the alloy phase diagrams of Al-Co and Al-Ni. This paper addresses the phase diagrams of the binary alloy Al-Cu and the ternary systems Al-Co-Cu and Al-Co-Ni, using GPT pair potentials calculated in the limit of vanishing transition-metal concentration. Despite this highly simplifying approximation, we find rough agreement with the known low-temperature phase diagrams, up to 50% total TM concentration provided the Co fraction is below 25%. Full composition-dependent potentials and many-body interactions would be required to correct deficiencies at higher Co concentration. Outside this troublesome region, the experimentally determined stable and metastable phases all lie on or near the convex hull of a scatter plot of energy versus composition. We verify, qualitatively, reported solubility ranges extending binary alloys into the ternary diagram in both Al-Co-Cu and Al-Co-Ni. Finally, we reproduce previously conjectured transition-metal positions in the decagonal quasicrystal phase.

  7. Development of metallic fuel fabrication - A study on the interdiffusion behavior between ternary metallic fuel and cladding materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Soo; Seol, Kyung Won; Shon, In Jin [Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    To study a new ternary metallic fuel for liquid metal reactor, various U-Zr-X alloys have been made by induction melting. The specimens were prepared for thermal stability tests at 630 deg. C upto 5000 hours in order to estimate the decomposition of the lamellar structure. Interdiffusion studies were carried out at 700 deg. C for 200 hours for the diffusion couples assembled with U-Zr-X ternary fuel versus austenitic stainless steel D9 and martensitic stainless steel HT9, respectively, to investigate the fuel-cladding compatibility. The ternary alloy, especially U-Zr-Mo and U-Zr-Nb alloys showed relatively good thermal stability as long as 5000hrs at 630 deg. C. From the composition profiles of the interdiffusion study, Fe penetrated deeper to the fuel side than other cladding elements such as Ni and Cr, whereas U did to the cladding side of fuel elements in the fuel/D9 couples. On the contrary, the reaction layers of Fuel/HT9 couple were thinner than that of Fuel/D9 couples and were less affected by cladding element, which was believed to be due to Zr rich layer between the fuel-cladding interface. HT9 is considered to be superior to D9 and a favorable choice as a cladding material in terms of fuel-cladding compatibility. 21 refs., 24 figs., 7 tabs. (Author)

  8. Synthesis and application of a ternary composite of clay, saw-dust and peanut husks in heavy metal adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungondori, Henry H; Mtetwa, Sandile; Tichagwa, Lilian; Katwire, David M; Nyamukamba, Pardon

    2017-05-01

    The adsorption of a multi-component system of ferrous, chromium, copper, nickel and lead on single, binary and ternary composites was studied. The aim of the study was to investigate whether a ternary composite of clay, peanut husks (PH) and saw-dust (SD) exhibited a higher adsorption capacity than that of a binary system of clay and SD as well as a single component adsorbent of PH alone. The materials were used in their raw state without any chemical modifications. This was done to retain the cost effective aspect of the naturally occurring adsorbents. The adsorption capacities of the ternary composite for the heavy metals Fe 2+ , Cr 3+ , Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ and Pb 2+ were 41.7 mg/g, 40.0 mg/g, 25.5 mg/g, 41.5 mg/g and 39.0 mg/g, respectively. It was found that the ternary composite exhibited excellent and enhanced adsorption capacity compared with both a binary and single adsorbent for the heavy metals Fe 2+ , Ni 2+ and Cr 3+ . Characterization of the ternary composites was done using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Kinetic models and adsorption isotherms were also studied. The pseudo second order kinetic model and the Langmuir adsorption isotherm best described the adsorption mechanisms for the ternary composite towards each of the heavy metal ions.

  9. Asymmetric supercapacitors with metal-like ternary selenides and porous graphene electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan

    2016-04-14

    Asymmetric supercapacitors provide a promising approach to fabricate capacitive energy storage devices with high energy and power densities. In this work, asymmetric supercapacitors with excellent performance have been fabricated using ternary (Ni, Co)0.85Se on carbon fabric as bind-free positive electrode and porous free-standing graphene films as negative electrode. Owing to their metal-like conductivity (~1.67×106 S m−1), significant electrochemical activity, and superhydrophilic nature, our nanostructured ternary nickel cobalt selenides result in a much higher areal capacitance (2.33 F cm−2 at 4 mA cm−2), better rate performance and cycling stability than their binary selenide equivalents, and other ternary oxides and chalcogenides. Those hybrid supercapacitors can afford impressive areal capacitance and stack capacitance of 529.3 mF cm−2 and 6330 mF cm−3 at 1 mA cm−2, respectively. More impressively, our optimized asymmetric device operating at 1.8 V delivers a very high stack energy density of 2.85 mWh cm−3 at a stack power density of 10.76 mW cm−3, as well as 85% capacitance retention after 10,000 continuous charge-discharge cycles. Even at a high stack power density of 1173 mW cm−3, this device still deliveries a stack energy density of 1.19 mWh cm−3, superior to most of the reported supercapacitors.

  10. Composition design and mechanical properties of ternary Cu–Zr–Ti bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Ye; Zeng, Yuqiao; Jing, Lijun; Zhang, Lu; Pi, Jinhong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Newly designed monolithic bulk metallic glasses are of good glass-forming ability. • Cu 50 Zr 44 Ti 6 exhibits excellent plastic deformation up to ∼7.4%. • Copious and intersected shear bans are observed in the fractography of Cu 50 Zr 44 Ti 6 . • Cu 50 Zr 44 Ti 6 has the best plasticity in the ternary Cu–Zr–Ti bulk metallic glasses. - Abstract: The new compositions of ternary Cu–Zr–Ti bulk metallic glasses are predicted by integrating calculation of vacancy formation energy, mixing enthalpy and configuration entropy of the alloys based on thermodynamics of glass formers. The monolithic amorphous rods of 3 mm diameter have been successfully fabricated, and characterized by X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electronic microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy and compression tests. The results show that the designed alloys possess good glass forming ability and excellent mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of the samples can be effectively improved by regulating their composition. The monolithic amorphous rod of Cu 50 Zr 44 Ti 6 exhibits a high fracture strength of 1855 MPa and excellent plastic deformation up to ∼7.4%. The formation and propagation of shear bands in samples are also investigated. The enhancement of plastic deformation is mainly contributed to multiplication and intersection of shear bands

  11. Phase equilibria in M-X-X' and M-Al-X ternary systems (M-transition metal, X,X'-B,C,N,Si) and crystal chemistry of ternary compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, A.I.

    1996-01-01

    The data on phase equilibria in the M-X-X' and M-Al-X ternary systems (M-transition metal of 3 to 8 groups, X-B,C, N, Si) have been considered and summarized. modern oxygen-free advanced ceramics is based on these ternary systems. Phase diagrams of the 130 ternary systems have been discussed, more than two hundred ternary phases forming in these systems have been systematized and described. The typical crystal structures of ternary compounds and phase have been considered, the common and distinctive features of these structures have been analysed. It has been shown that the ternary compounds with octahedral atomic groups XM 6 have a regions of homogeneity. Refs. 240

  12. The ternary post-transition metal carbodiimide SrZn(NCN)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corkett, Alex J.; Konze, Philipp M.; Dronskowski, Richard

    2017-01-01

    SrZn(NCN) 2 , the first example of a ternary post-transition metal carbodiimide, was prepared by a solid-state metathesis reaction. The crystal structure was solved from PXRD data and found to adopt the orthorhombic (Cmcm) BaZnSO structure, a high symmetry modification of that expressed by the oxide analogue SrZnO 2 . Locally, SrZn(NCN) 2 features ZnN 4 tetrahedra and SrN 6 trigonal prisms similar to those in quarternary LiSr 2 M(NCN) 4 (M = Al 3+ and Ga 3+ ) phases, however, the overall topologies are distinct with single chains in the former and double chains in the latter. Electronic structure calculations indicate an indirect bandgap of about 2.95 eV in SrZn(NCN) 2 , slightly lower than the experimentally observed bandgap of 3.4 eV in SrZnO 2 and consistent with a greater degree of covalency. The structural similarities between SrZn(NCN) 2 and oxychalcogenide analogues highlight the pseudochalcogenide character of NCN 2- and suggest that the title compound may serve as a template for accessing novel ternary carbodiimides featuring tetrahedrally coordinated transition metals. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Efficient Bisphenol-A detection based on the ternary metal oxide (TMO) composite by electrochemical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Jahir; Rahman, Mohammed M.; Siddiquey, Iqbal A.; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Hasnat, Mohammad A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Ternary metal oxides (TMO) composites prepared by wet-chemical method. •Highly sensitive and selective Bisphenol A (BPA) sensor by I–V method. •Ultra-low detection limit was obtained by 3N/S. •Real environmental samples were analyzed. •Health care and environmental safety -- Abstract: A facile wet chemical method in basic medium was used to synthesis the ternary metal oxides (TMO; ZnO.CoO.FeO) composites at low temperature. The calcined TMO was characterized by FESEM, EDS, UV/vis., FTIR spectroscopy, EIS, and XRD systematically. Glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified with the TMO using 5% Nafion at room conditions. The resultant electrode was used for selective detection of Bisphenol-A (BPA) using cyclic voltammetry (CV). It was observed that the TMO electrode exhibited an excellent sensitivity (3.28 μAμM −1 cm −2 ), low detection limit (LOD: 1.2 ± 0.1 nM; S/N = 3), higher stability, very good repeatability, and reproducibility. In diagnostic exploration, a linear calibration plot was obtained for a wide range of concentration of BPA (LDR: 0.80 to 7.20 μM; r 2 : 0.99). This method represents an efficient way of sensitive sensor development for the detection of toxic and carcinogenic phenolic compounds.

  14. The ternary post-transition metal carbodiimide SrZn(NCN){sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corkett, Alex J.; Konze, Philipp M. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Dronskowski, Richard [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA-HPC), RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)

    2017-11-17

    SrZn(NCN){sub 2}, the first example of a ternary post-transition metal carbodiimide, was prepared by a solid-state metathesis reaction. The crystal structure was solved from PXRD data and found to adopt the orthorhombic (Cmcm) BaZnSO structure, a high symmetry modification of that expressed by the oxide analogue SrZnO{sub 2}. Locally, SrZn(NCN){sub 2} features ZnN{sub 4} tetrahedra and SrN{sub 6} trigonal prisms similar to those in quarternary LiSr{sub 2}M(NCN){sub 4} (M = Al{sup 3+} and Ga{sup 3+}) phases, however, the overall topologies are distinct with single chains in the former and double chains in the latter. Electronic structure calculations indicate an indirect bandgap of about 2.95 eV in SrZn(NCN){sub 2}, slightly lower than the experimentally observed bandgap of 3.4 eV in SrZnO{sub 2} and consistent with a greater degree of covalency. The structural similarities between SrZn(NCN){sub 2} and oxychalcogenide analogues highlight the pseudochalcogenide character of NCN{sup 2-} and suggest that the title compound may serve as a template for accessing novel ternary carbodiimides featuring tetrahedrally coordinated transition metals. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, D.N.; Hubberstey, P.; Barker, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the experimental and theoretical studies carried out on multicomponent alkali metal systems. Solid-liquid phase equilibria studies are mainly concerned with the systems Na-K-Rb and Na-K-Cs, and data on the liquidus temperatures in these systems are presented. The thermodynamic properties of the ternary Na-K-Cs eutectic system have been determined experimentally, and the enthalpy, heat capacity and excess functions of the alloy are given. An analysis of calculational methods used in determining thermodynamic functions of ternary liquid metals systems is described. Finally, data are tabulated for the density, compressibility, saturated vapour pressure, viscosity and thermal conductivity of the ternary Na-K-Cs eutectic system. (UK)

  16. Study of mixed ternary transition metal ferrites as potential electrodes for supercapacitor applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhamini Bhujun

    Full Text Available Nanocrystallites of three mixed ternary transition metal ferrite (MTTMF were prepared by a facile sol–gel method and adopted as electrode material for supercapacitors. The phase development of the samples was determined using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and thermal gravimetric analysis (TG. X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis revealed the formation of a single-phase spinel ferrite in CuCoFe2O4 (CuCoF, NiCoFe2O4 (NiCoF and NiCuFe2O4 (NiCuF. The surface characteristics and elemental composition of the nanocomposites have been studied by means of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, as well as energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. The electrochemical performance of the nanomaterials was evaluated using a two-electrode configuration by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic technique in 1 M KOH electrolyte and was found to be in the order of: CuCoF > NiCoF > NiCuF. A maximum specific capacitance of 221 Fg−1 was obtained with CuCoF at a scan rate of 5 mV s−1. In addition to an excellent cycling stability, an energy density of 7.9 kW kg−1 was obtained at a current density of 1 Ag−1. The high electrochemical performance of the MTTMF nanocomposites obtained indicates that these materials are promising electrodes for supercapacitors. Keywords: Mixed ternary transition metal ferrite (MTTMF, Nanocomposites, Sol–gel, Cyclic voltammetry, Asymmetric supercapacitor

  17. A combined theoretical and experimental approach of a new ternary metal oxide in molybdate composite for hybrid energy storage capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakshi, M.; Watcharatharapong, T.; Chakraborty, S.; Ahuja, R.

    2018-04-01

    Sustainable energy sources require an efficient energy storage system possessing excellent electrochemical properties. The better understanding of possible crystal configurations and the development of a new ternary metal oxide in molybdate composite as an electrode for hybrid capacitors can lead to an efficient energy storage system. Here, we reported a new ternary metal oxide in molybdate composite [(Mn1/3Co1/3Ni1/3)MoO4] prepared by simple combustion synthesis with an extended voltage window (1.8 V vs. Carbon) resulting in excellent specific capacity 35 C g-1 (58 F g-1) and energy density (50 Wh kg-1 at 500 W kg-1) for a two electrode system in an aqueous NaOH electrolyte. The binding energies measured for Mn, Co, and Ni 2p are consistent with the literature, and with the metal ions being present as M(II), implying that the oxidation states of the transition metals are unchanged. The experimental findings are correlated well through density functional theory based electronic structure calculations. Our reported work on the ternary metal oxide studies (Mn1/3Co1/3Ni1/3)MoO4 suggests that will be an added value to the materials for energy storage.

  18. Glass formation, magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect of ternary Ho–Al–Co bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Huiyan; Li, Ran; Ji, Yunfei; Liu, Fanmao; Luo, Qiang; Zhang, Tao

    2012-01-01

    A ternary Ho–Al–Co system with high glass-forming ability (GFA) was developed and fully glassy rods with diameters up to 1 cm can be produced for the best glass former of Ho 55 Al 27.5 Co 17.5 alloy. The thermal stability and low-temperature magnetic properties of the Ho 55 Al 27.5 Co 17.5 bulk metallic glass (BMG) were studied. The magnetic transition temperature of this alloy is ∼14 K as determined by the thermomagnetic measurement. Two indicators, i.e. isothermal magnetic entropy change (ΔS M ) and the relative cooling power (RCP), were adopted to evaluate the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) of the alloy under a low magnetic field up to 2 T, which can be generated by permanent magnets. The values of |ΔS M | and RCP are 7.98 J kg −1 K −1 and 191.5 J kg −1 , respectively. The Ho 55 Al 27.5 Co 17.5 BMG with good MCE and high GFA provides an attractive candidate for magnetic refrigeration applications, like hydrogen liquefaction and storage. - Highlights: ► A ternary Ho–Al–Co BMG system with high glass-forming ability was developed. ► Fully glassy rods of Ho 55 Al 27.5 Co 17.5 alloy were produced up to 1 cm in diameter. ► The thermal stability and magnetic properties of the BMG were evaluated. ► The BMG exhibits good magnetocaloric effect under a low magnetic field up to 2 T.

  19. Leaching of heavy metals from cementitious composites made of new ternary cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuterasińska-Warwas, Justyna; Król, Anna

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents a comparison of research methods concerning the leaching of harmful substances (selected heavy metal cations ie. Pb, Cu, Zn and Cr) and their degree of immobilization in cement matrices. The new types of ternary cements were used in the study, where a large proportion of cement clinker was replaced by other non-clinker components - industrial wastes, ie. siliceous fly ash from power industry and granulated blast furnace slag from the iron and steel industry. In studied cementitious binders also ground limestone was used, which is a widely available raw material. The aim of research is determining the suitability of new cements for neutralizing harmful substances in the obtained matrices. The application of two research methods in accordance with EN 12457-4 and NEN 7275 intends to reflection of changing environmental conditions whom composite materials may actually undergo during their exploitation or storing on landfills. The results show that cements with high addition of non-clinker components are suitable for stabilization of toxic substances and the obtained cement matrices retain a high degree of immobilization of heavy metals at the level of 99%.

  20. Ultrahigh figure-of-merit for hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride using ternary metal catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lunghao; Ceccato, R.; Raj, R.

    We report further increase in the figure-of-merit (FOM) for hydrogen generation from NaBH 4 than reported in an earlier paper [1], where a sub-nanometer layer of metal catalysts are deposited on carbon nanotube paper (CNT paper) that has been functionalized with polymer-derived silicon carbonitride (SiCN) ceramic film. Ternary, Ru-Pd-Pt, instead of the binary Pd-Pt catalyst used earlier, together with a thinner CNT paper is shown to increase the figure-of-merit by up to a factor of six, putting is above any other known catalyst for hydrogen generation from NaBH 4. The catalysts are prepared by first impregnating the functionalized CNT-paper with solutions of the metal salts, followed by reduction in a sodium borohydride solution. The reaction mechanism and the catalyst efficiency are described in terms of an electric charge transfer, whereby the negative charge on the BH 4 - ion is exchanged with hydrogen via the electronically conducting SiCN/CNT substrate [1].

  1. Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Ternary Metal Oxide Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenyong [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Tang, Jinke [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Dahnovsky, Yuri [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Pikal, Jon M [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Chien, TeYu [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2017-11-03

    In Phase I of this project we investigate quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) based on ternary metal oxide nanowires and study the physical and chemical mechanisms that govern device operation. Our research has the following five objectives: (1) synthesis of ternary metal oxide nanowires, (2) synthesis of QDs and exploration of non-solution based QD deposition methods, (3) physical and electro-optical characterizations of fabricated solar devices, (4) device modeling and first-principle theoretical study of transport physics, and (5) investigation of long-term stability issues of QD sensitized solar cells. In Phase II of this project our first major research goal is to investigate magnetically doped quantum dots and related spin polarization effect, which could improve light absorption and suppress electron relaxation in the QDs. We will utilize both physical and chemical methods to synthesize these doped QDs. We will also study magnetically modified nanowires and introduce spin-polarized transport into QDSSCs, and inspect its impact on forward electron injection and back electron transfer processes. Our second goal is to study novel solid-state electrolytes for QDSSCs. Specifically, we will inspect a new type of polymer electrolytes based on a modified polysulfide redox couple, and examine the effect of their electrical properties on QDSSC performance. These solid-state electrolytes could also be used as filler materials for in situ sample fracturing in STM and enable cross-sectional interface examination of QD/nanowire structures. Our third research goal is to examine the interfacial properties such as energy level alignment at QD/nanowire interfaces using the newly developed Cross-sectional Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy technique for non-cleavable materials. This technique allows a direct probing of band structures and alignment at device interfaces, which could generate important insight into the mechanisms that govern QDSSC operation

  2. Formation, Characteristics and Electrocatalytic Properties of Nanoporous Metals Formed by Dealloying of Ternary-Noble Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Zuniga, Adrian A.

    Nanoporous metals formed by electrochemical dealloying of silver from Ag-Au-Pt alloys, with 77 at.% silver and platinum contents of 1, 2 and 3 at.%, have been studied. The presence of platinum, which is immobile relative to gold, refine the ligament size and stabilized the nanostructure against coarsening, even under experimental conditions that would be expected to promote coarsening (e.g., exposure to high temperature, longer dealloying times). By adding only 1 at.% Pt to the alloy precursor, the ligament/pore size was reduced by 50% with respect to that in nanoporous gold (NPG), which was formed on a Ag-Au alloy with the same silver content as ternary alloys. A further decrease in the ligament size was observed by increasing the platinum content of the precursor; however, most of the improvement occurred with 1 at.% Pt. The adsorbate-induced surface segregation of platinum was also investigated for these nanoporous metals. By exposing freshly-dealloyed nanostructures to moderate temperatures in the presence of air, platinum segregated to the ligament surface; in contrast, in an inert atmosphere (Ar-H 2), platinum mostly reverted to the bulk of the ligaments. This thermally activated process was thermodynamically driven by the interaction between platinum and oxygen; however, at the desorption temperature of oxygen, platinum de-segregated from the surface. Moreover, the co-segregation of platinum and oxygen hindered the thermal coarsening of the ligaments. Finally, the electrocatalytic abilities of these nanostructures were studied towards methanol and ethanol electro-oxidation, in alkaline and acidic media, showing significantly improved response in comparison to that observed in NPG. The synergistic effect between gold and platinum atoms and the smaller feature size of the nanostructures were directly associated with this behaviour. In alkaline electrolyte, the nanostructure formed on the alloy with 1 at.% Pt showed higher catalytic response than the other two

  3. Asymmetric supercapacitors with metal-like ternary selenides and porous graphene electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan; Jiang, Qiu; Zhao, Chao; Beaujuge, Pierre; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2016-01-01

    nanostructured ternary nickel cobalt selenides result in a much higher areal capacitance (2.33 F cm−2 at 4 mA cm−2), better rate performance and cycling stability than their binary selenide equivalents, and other ternary oxides and chalcogenides. Those hybrid

  4. Study of mixed ternary transition metal ferrites as potential electrodes for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhujun, Bhamini; Tan, Michelle T. T.; Shanmugam, Anandan S.

    Nanocrystallites of three mixed ternary transition metal ferrite (MTTMF) were prepared by a facile sol-gel method and adopted as electrode material for supercapacitors. The phase development of the samples was determined using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TG). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the formation of a single-phase spinel ferrite in CuCoFe2O4 (CuCoF), NiCoFe2O4 (NiCoF) and NiCuFe2O4 (NiCuF). The surface characteristics and elemental composition of the nanocomposites have been studied by means of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), as well as energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The electrochemical performance of the nanomaterials was evaluated using a two-electrode configuration by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic technique in 1 M KOH electrolyte and was found to be in the order of: CuCoF > NiCoF > NiCuF. A maximum specific capacitance of 221 Fg-1 was obtained with CuCoF at a scan rate of 5 mV s-1. In addition to an excellent cycling stability, an energy density of 7.9 kW kg-1 was obtained at a current density of 1 Ag-1. The high electrochemical performance of the MTTMF nanocomposites obtained indicates that these materials are promising electrodes for supercapacitors.

  5. Interatomic potential to predict the favored and optimized compositions for ternary Cu-Zr-Hf metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, S. Y.; Cui, Y. Y.; Dai, Y.; Li, J. H.; Liu, B. X.

    2012-01-01

    Under the framework of smoothed and long range second-moment approximation of tight-binding, a realistic interatomic potential was first constructed for the Cu-Zr-Hf ternary metal system. Applying the constructed potential, Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to compare the relative stability of crystalline solid solution versus its disordered counterpart over the entire composition triangle of the system (as a function of alloy composition). Simulations not only reveal that the origin of metallic glass formation but also determine, in the composition triangle, a quadrilateral region, within which metallic glass formation is energetically favored. It is proposed to define the energy differences between the crystalline solid solutions and disordered states as the driving force for amorphization and the corresponding calculations pinpoint an optimized composition locating at an composition of Cu 55 Zr 10 Hf 35 , around which the driving force for metallic glass formation reaches its maximum, suggesting that the ternary Cu-Zr-Hf metallic glasses designed to have the compositions around Cu 55 Zr 10 Hf 35 could be more stable than other alloys in the system. Moreover, for the Cu 55 Zr 10 Hf 35 metallic glass, the Voronoi tessellation calculations reveal some interesting features of its atomic configurations and coordination polyhedra distribution.

  6. Atomistic approach to predict the glass-forming ability in Zr–Cu–Al ternary metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.Y. [Center for Advanced Structural Materials, Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Liu, X.J. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zheng, G.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Niu, X.R. [Center for Advanced Structural Materials, Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Liu, C.T., E-mail: chainliu@cityu.edu.hk [Center for Advanced Structural Materials, Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-04-05

    Highlights: • An atomistic approach has been developed to predict the glass forming ability (GFA) in Zr–Cu–Al ternary alloy system. • Both of the thermodynamic and structure-dependent kinetic effects to glass formation have been taken into account. • The first-principles calculation and molecular dynamics simulation have been performed. • The approach predicts the best glass former in the model Zr–Cu–Al alloy system. • The predicted GFA is consistent with various experimental results. - Abstract: Prediction of composition-dependent glass-forming ability (GFA) remains to be a key scientific challenge in the metallic-glass community, especially in multi-component alloy systems. In the present study, we apply an atomistic approach to predict the trend of GFA effectively in the Zr–Cu–Al ternary alloy system from alloy compositions alone. This approach is derived from the first-principles calculations based on the density-functional theory and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. By considering of both the thermodynamic and atomic-structure induced kinetic effects, the predicted GFA trend from this approach shows an excellent agreement with experimental data available in this alloy system, manifesting its capability of seeking metallic glasses with superior GFA in ternary alloy systems.

  7. Ternary mixed metal Fe-doped NiCo2O4 nanowires as efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kai-Li; Shang, Xiao; Li, Zhen; Dong, Bin; Li, Xiao; Gao, Wen-Kun; Chi, Jing-Qi; Chai, Yong-Ming; Liu, Chen-Guang

    2017-09-01

    Designing mixed metal oxides with unique nanostructures as efficient electrocatalysts for water electrolysis has been an attractive approach for the storage of renewable energies. The ternary mixed metal spinel oxides FexNi1-xCo2O4 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 0.9, 1) have been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal approach and calcination treatment using nickel foam as substrate. Fe/Ni ratios have been proved to affect the nanostructures of FexNi1-xCo2O, which imply different intrinsic activity for oxygen evolution reaction (OER). SEM images show that Fe0.5Ni0.5Co2O4 has the uniform nanowires morphology with about 30 nm of the diameter and 200-300 nm of the length. The OER measurements show that Fe0.5Ni0.5Co2O4 exhibits the better electrocatalytic performances with lower overpotential of 350 mV at J = 10 mA cm-2. In addition, the smaller Tafel slope of 27 mV dec-1 than other samples with different Fe/Ni ratios for Fe0.5Ni0.5Co2O4 is obtained. The improved OER activity of Fe0.5Ni0.5Co2O4 may be attributed to the synergistic effects from ternary mixed metals especially Fe-doping and the uniform nanowires supported on NF. Therefore, synthesizing Fe-doped multi-metal oxides with novel nanostructures may be a promising strategy for excellent OER electrocatalysts and it also provides a facile way for the fabrication of high-activity ternary mixed metal oxides electrocatalysts.

  8. Some reduced ternary and quaternary oxides of molybdenum. A family of compounds with strong metal-metal bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torardi, C.C.; McCarley, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Several new, reduced ternary and quaternary oxides of molybdenum are reported, each containing molybdenum in an average oxidation state 2 sealed in Mo tubes held at 1100 0 C for ca. 7 days. Refinement of the substructure of the new compound Ba 0 62 Mo 4 O 6 was based on an orthorhombic cells, with a = 9.509(2), b = 9.825(2), c = 2.853(1) A, Z = 2 in space group Pbam; weak supercell reflections indicate the true structure has c = 8(2.853) A. The chief structural feature is closely related to that of NaMo 4 O 6 which consists of infinite chains of Mo 6 octahedral clusters fused on opposite edges, bridged on the outer edges by O atoms and crosslinked by Mo-O-Mo bonding to create four-sided tunnels in which the Ba 2+ ions are located. The structure of Ba 1 13 Mo 8 O 16 is triclinic, a = 7.311(1), b = 7.453(1), c = 5.726(1) A, α = 101.49(2), β = 99.60(2), γ = 89.31(2) 0 , Z = 1, space group P1. It is a low-symmetry, metal-metal bonded variant of the hollandite structure, in which two different infinite chains, built up from Mo 4 O 8 2- and Mo 4 O 8 0 26- cluster units, respectively, are interlinked via Mo-O-Mo bridge bonding to create again four-sided tunnels in which the Ba 2+ ions reside. Other compounds prepared and characterized by analyses and x-ray powder diffraction data are Pb/sub x/Mo 4 O 6 (x approx. 0.6), LiZn 2 Mo 3 O 8 , , CaMo 5 O 8 , K 2 Mo 12 O 19 , and Na 2 Mo 12 O 19

  9. Competitive immobilization of Pb in an aqueous ternary-metals system by soluble phosphates with varying pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Ren, Jie; Wang, Mei; Song, Xinlai; Zhang, Chao; Chen, Jiayu; Li, Fasheng; Guo, Guanlin

    2016-09-01

    Chemical immobilization by phosphates has been widely and successfully applied to treat Pb in wastewater and contaminated soils. Pb in wastewaters and soils, however, always coexists with other heavy metals and their competitive reactions with phosphates have not been quantitatively and systematically studied. In this approach, immobilization of Pb, Zn, and Cd by mono-, di-, and tripotassium phosphate (KH2PO4, K2HPO4, and K3PO4) was observed in the single- and ternary-metals solutions. The immobilization rates of the three metals were determined by the residual concentration. The mineral composition and structure of the precipitates were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that competitive reaction occurred in Pb-Zn-Cd ternary system, with immobilization rates decrease of system. The reaction of Pb with three phosphates exhibited intense competitiveness and the phosphates had a stronger affinity for Pb when Cl(-) was added. Pb-phosphate minerals formed by KH2PO4 with the better crystalline characteristics and largest size were very stable with a low dissolution rate (system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Atomistic modeling to investigate the favored composition for metallic glass formation in the Ca-Mg-Ni ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S; Li, J H; An, S M; Li, S N; Liu, B X

    2017-05-17

    A realistic interatomic potential was first constructed for the Ca-Mg-Ni system and then applied to Monte Carlo simulations to predict the favored composition for metallic glass formation in the ternary system. The simulations not only predict a hexagonal composition region, within which the Ca-Mg-Ni metallic glass formation is energetically favored, but also pinpoint an optimized sub-region within which the amorphization driving force, i.e. the energy difference between the solid solution and disordered phase, is larger than that outside. The simulations further reveal that the physical origin of glass formation is the solid solution collapsing when the solute atom exceeds the critical solid solubility. Further structural analysis indicates that the pentagonal bi-pyramids dominate in the optimized sub-region. The large atomic size difference between Ca, Mg and Ni extends the short-range landscape and facilitates the development of a hybridized packing model in the medium-range, and eventually enhancing the glass formation in the system. The predictions are well supported by the experimental observations reported so far, and could be of help for designing the ternary glass formation.

  11. Potentiometric studies on ternary complexes involving some divalent transition metal ions, gallic acid and biologically abundant aliphatic dicarboxylic acids in aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelatty Mohamed Radalla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Formation of binary and ternary complexes of the divalent transition metal ions, Cu2+, Ni2+, Co2+ and Zn2+ with gallic acid and the biologically important aliphatic dicarboxylic acids (adipic, succinic, malic, malonic, maleic, tartaric and oxalic acids were investigated by means of the potentiometric technique at 25 °C and I = 0.10 mol dm−3 NaNO3. The acid-base properties of the ligands were investigated and discussed. The acidity constants of gallic acid and aliphatic dicarboxylic acids were determined and used for determining the stability constants of the binary and ternary complexes formed in the aqueous medium under the above experimental conditions. The formation of the different 1:1 and 1:2 binary complexes and 1:1:1 ternary complexes are inferred from the corresponding potentiometric pH-metric titration curves. The ternary complex formation was found to occur in a stepwise manner. The stability constants of these binary and ternary systems were calculated. The values of Δ log K, percentage of relative stabilization (%R.S. and log X were evaluated and discussed. The concentration distribution of the various complex species formed in solution was evaluated and discussed. The mode of chelation of ternary complexes formed was ascertained by conductivity measurements.

  12. Superconductivity in ternary rare earth transition metal silicides and germanides with the Sc5Co4Si10-type structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    A systematic study of the superconducting and normal state properties of some ternary rare earth transition metal silicides and germanides of the Sc 5 Co 4 Si 10 0-type is reported. Low temperature heat capacity measurements indicate the presence of a complicated phonon density of states in these structurally complex compounds. A better description of the phonon spectrum of the high T/sub c/ materials Sc 5 Rh 4 Si 10 , Sc 5 Ir 4 Si 10 , and Y 5 Os 4 Ge 10 , given by a model proposed by Junod et al., is presented and discussed. The large values of ΔC/γ/sub n/T/sub c/ and the electron-phonon coupling constant for these high T/sub c/ compounds indicate that they are strong-coupled superconductors. Relative to other ternary superconductors, many of these materials have large Debye temperatures. DC electrical resistivity measurements on these compounds show resistivity behavior deviating from those exhibited by simple metals. The rho(T) data for Y 5 Ir 4 Si 10 , Lu 5 Ir 4 Si 10 , and Y 5 Os 4 Ge 10 , indicate the presence of anomalies. Static molar magnetic susceptibility measurements performed on these compounds indicate (1) a small effective magnetic moment of 0.26μ/sub B/ on the Co atom and (2) anomalous behaviors in the Lu 5 Rh 4 Si 10 , Lu 5 Ir 4 Si 10 , Y 5 Ir 4 Si 10 , Lu 5 Ir 4 Ge 10 , and Y 5 Rh 4 Ge 10 data. Lastly, upper critical magnetic field measurements were performed on Sc 5 Co 4 Si 10 , Sc 5 Rh 4 Si 10 , Sc 5 Ir 4 Si 10 , Lu 5 Rh 4 Si 10 , Lu 5 Ir 4 Si 10 , and Y 5 Os 4 Ge 10

  13. Development of Cu-Hf-Al ternary systems and tungsten wire/particle reinforced Cu48Hf43Al9 bulk metallic glass composites for strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joyoung; An, Jihye; Choi-Yim, Haein

    2010-01-01

    Stable bulk glass forming alloys can be developed over a wide range of compositions in Cu-Hf-Al ternary systems starting from the Cu 49 Hf 42 Al 9 bulk metallic glass. Ternary Cu-Hf-Al alloys can be cast directly from the melt into copper molds to form fully amorphous strips with thicknesses of 1 to 6 mm. The maximum critical diameter of the new Cu-Hf-Al ternary alloy was 6 mm. X-ray diffraction patterns were used to confirm the amorphous nature of the ternary Cu-Hf-Al alloys. To increase the toughness of these metallic glasses, we reinforced the Cu 48 Hf 43 Al 9 bulk metallic glass-forming liquid with a 50% volume fraction of tungsten particles and an 80% volume fraction of tungsten wires with diameters of 242.4 μm. Composites with a critical diameter of 7 mm and length 70 mm were synthesized. The structure of the composites was confirmed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties of the composites were studied in compression tests. The thermal stability and the crystallization processes of the Cu-Hf-Al alloys and composites were investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Values of the glass transition temperature (T g ), the crystallization temperature (T x ), and the supercooled liquid region (ΔT = T x - T g ) are given in this paper.

  14. First-principles study on half-metallic ferromagnetic properties of Zn1- x V x Se ternary alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatta, Swati; Tripathi, S. K.; Prakash, Satya

    2017-09-01

    The spin-polarised density functional theory along with self-consistent plane-wave pseudopotential is used to investigate the half-metallic ferromagnetic properties of ternary alloys Zn1- x V x Se. The generalized gradient approximation is used for exchange-correlation potential. The equilibrium lattice constants, bulk modulus, and its derivatives are calculated. The calculated spin-polarised energy-band structures reveal that these alloys are half-metallic for x = 0.375 and 0.50 and nearly half-metallic for other values of x. The estimated direct and indirect bandgaps may be useful for the magneto-optical absorption experiments. It is found that there is strong Zn 4s, Se 4p, and V 3d orbital hybridization in the conduction bands of both the spins, while Se 4p and V 3d orbital hybridization predominates in the valence bands of both the spins. The s, p-d, and p-d orbital hybridization reduces the local magnetic moment of V atoms and small local magnetic moments are produced on Zn and Se atoms which get coupled with V atoms in ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases, respectively. The conduction and valence-band-edge splittings and exchange constants predict the ferromagnetism in these alloys. The conduction band-impurity (s and p-d) exchange interaction is more significant for ferromagnetism in these alloys than the valence band-impurity (p-d) exchange interaction.

  15. Heavy metal ternary halides for room-temperature x-ray and gamma-ray detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhifu; Peters, John A.; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Sebastian, Maria; Wessels, Bruce W.; Im, Jino; Freeman, Arthur J.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2013-09-01

    We report our recent progress on wide bandgap ternary halide compounds CsPbBr3 and CsPbCl3 for room temperature x-ray and gamma-ray detectors. Their bandgaps are measured to be 2.24 eV and 2.86 eV, respectively. The measured mobility-lifetime products of CsPbBr3 are 1.7×10-3, 1.3×10-3 cm2/V, for electron and hole carriers, respectively, comparable to those of CdTe. We measured the room temperature spectral response of CsPbBr3 sample to Ag x-ray radiation. It has a well-resolved spectral response to the 22.4 keV Kα radiation peak and detector efficiency comparable to that of CdZnTe detector at 295 K.

  16. Investigation of Ternary Transition-Metal Nitride Systems by Reactive Cosputtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dover, R.B. Van; Hessen, B.; Werder, D.; Chen, C.-H.; Felder, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    A reactive dc cosputtering technique has been used to evaluate compound formation in bimetallic transition-metal nitride systems. A wide range in M-M’ composition can be studied in a single deposition run, and the method is applicable to nonalloying metal combinations. Using this technique, it was

  17. Thin-layer chromatography of ternary complexes of group-IIIA metals with 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone and 2,2'-bipyridyl on cellulose layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, H E; Saitoh, K; Suzuki, N [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1980-11-11

    Normal phase thin-layer chromatographic behaviour of several ternary complexes of group-IIIA metals with 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) and 2,2'bipyridyl (bpy) has been investigated on cellulose layer. The ternary complexes of lanthanide metals show higher mutual separability than the complexes with TTA alone. Mutual separation of TTA complexes with La(III), Ce(III), Eu(III) or Y(III), Sc(III), Th(IV), and U(VI) has been successfully achieved by two-dimensional TLC, primarily with carbon tetrachloride-benzene (75:25) containing 0.02M TTA, and secondary with carbon tetrachloride-hexane (35:65) containing both 0.02M TTA and 0.02M bpy.

  18. Low temperature synthesis of ternary metal phosphides using plasma for asymmetric supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Hanfeng; Xia, Chuan; Jiang, Qiu; Gandi, Appala; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2017-01-01

    We report a versatile route for the preparation of metal phosphides using PH plasma for supercapacitor applications. The high reactivity of plasma allows rapid and low temperature conversion of hydroxides into monometallic, bimetallic, or even more

  19. Ternary fission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the energy minimization of all possible ternary breakups of a heavy radioactive nucleus. Further, within the TCM we have analysed the competition between different geometries as well as different positioning of the fragments. Also, an attempt was made to calculate the mass distribution of ternary fission process within the ...

  20. Stability and electronic structure of Zr-based ternary metallic glasses and relevant compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, M.; Soda, K.; Sato, H.; Suzuki, T.; Taketomi, T.; Takeuchi, T.; Kato, H.; Mizutani, U.

    2007-01-01

    The electronic structure of the Zr-based metallic glasses has been investigated by theoretical and experimental approaches. One approach is band calculations of the Zr 2 Ni (Zr 66.7 Ni 33.3 ) compound to investigate the electronic structure of the Zr 66.7 Ni 33.3 metallic glass (ΔT x = 0 K) of which the local atomic structure is similar to that of the Zr 2 Ni compound. The other is photoemission spectroscopy of the Zr 50 Cu 35 Al 15 bulk metallic glass (BMG) (ΔT x = 69 K). Here ΔT x = T x - T g where T x and T g are crystallization and glass transition temperature, respectively. Both results and previous ones on the Zr 55 Cu 30 Ni 5 Al 10 BMG indicate that there is a pseudogap at the Fermi level in the electronic structure of these Zr-based metallic glasses, independent of the value of the ΔT x . This implies that the pseudogap at the Fermi level is one of the factors that stabilize the glass phase of Zr-based metallic glasses

  1. Structure and physical properties of ternary uranium transition-metal antimonides U3MSb5 (M = Zr, Hf, Nb)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachuk, Andriy V.; Muirhead, Craig P.T.; Mar, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    The ternary uranium transition-metal antimonides U 3 MSb 5 (M = Zr, Hf, Nb) were prepared by arc-melting reactions followed by annealing at 800 deg. C, or by use of a Sn flux. These compounds extend the previously known series U 3 MSb 5 (M = Ti, V, Cr, Mn) and RE 3 MSb 5 (RE = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm; M = Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb). The crystal structures of U 3 MSb 5 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction data (Pearson symbol hP18, hexagonal, space group P6 3 /mcm, Z = 2; U 3 ZrSb 5 , a = 9.2223(3) A, c = 6.1690(2) A; U 3 HfSb 5 , a = 9.2084(4) A, c = 6.1629(3) A; U 3 NbSb 5 , a = 9.1378(4) A, c 6.0909(6) A). U 3 TaSb 5 has also been identified in microcrystalline form (a = 9.233(3) A, c = 6.142(3) A). Four-probe electrical resistivity measurements on single crystals and dc magnetic susceptibility measurements on powders indicated prominent transitions that are attributed to ferromagnetic ordering. The Curie temperatures, T C , located from ac magnetic susceptibility curves, are 135 K for U 3 ZrSb 5 , 141 K for U 3 HfSb 5 , and 107 K for U 3 NbSb 5

  2. Chemical effects in ion mixing of a ternary system (metal-SiO2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, T.; Nicolet, M.-A.; Sands, T.; Grunthaner, P. J.

    1987-01-01

    The mixing of Ti, Cr, and Ni thin films with SiO2 by low-temperature (- 196-25 C) irradiation with 290 keV Xe has been investigated. Comparison of the morphology of the intermixed region and the dose dependences of net metal transport into SiO2 reveals that long range motion and phase formation probably occur as separate and sequential processes. Kinetic limitations suppress chemical effects in these systems during the initial transport process. Chemical interactions influence the subsequent phase formation.

  3. Low temperature synthesis of ternary metal phosphides using plasma for asymmetric supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Hanfeng

    2017-04-06

    We report a versatile route for the preparation of metal phosphides using PH plasma for supercapacitor applications. The high reactivity of plasma allows rapid and low temperature conversion of hydroxides into monometallic, bimetallic, or even more complex nanostructured phosphides. These same phosphides are much more difficult to synthesize by conventional methods. Further, we present a general strategy for significantly enhancing the electrochemical performance of monometallic phosphides by substituting extrinsic metal atoms. Using NiCoP as a demonstration, we show that the Co substitution into NiP not only effectively alters the electronic structure and improves the intrinsic reactivity and electrical conductivity, but also stabilizes Ni species when used as supercapacitor electrode materials. As a result, the NiCoP nanosheet electrodes achieve high electrochemical activity and good stability in 1 M KOH electrolyte. More importantly, our assembled NiCoP nanoplates//graphene films asymmetric supercapacitor devices can deliver a high energy density of 32.9 Wh kg at a power density of 1301 W kg, along with outstanding cycling performance (83% capacity retention after 5000 cycles at 20 A g). This activity outperforms most of the NiCo-based materials and renders the NiCoP nanoplates a promising candidate for capacitive storage devices.

  4. Comparative study on metal biosorption by two macroalgae in saline waters: single and ternary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Paula; Henriques, Bruno; Teixeira, Ana; Lopes, Cláudia B; Reis, Ana T; Monteiro, Rui J R; Duarte, A C; Pardal, M A; Pereira, E

    2016-06-01

    The biosorption capability of two marine macroalgae (green Ulva lactuca and brown Fucus vesiculosus) was evaluated in the removal of toxic metals (Hg, Cd and Pb) from saline waters, under realistic conditions. Results showed that, independently of the contamination scenario tested, both macroalgae have a remarkable capacity to biosorb Hg and Pb. In single-contaminant systems, by using only c.a. 500 mg of non-pre-treated algae biomass (size macroalgae exhibited a similar selectivity toward the target metals: Hg > Pb> > Cd, although Pb removal by U. lactuca was more inhibited than that achieved by F. vesiculosus. Under the experimental conditions used, none of the macroalgae was effective to remove Cd (maximum removal of 20 %). In all cases, the kinetics of biosorption was mathematically described with success. Globally, it became clear that the studied macroalgae may be part of simple, efficient, and cost-effective water treatment technologies. Nevertheless, Fucus vesiculosus has greater potential, since it always presented higher initial sorption rates and higher removal efficiencies.

  5. Synthesis, structural characterization, in vitro antimicrobial and anticancer activity studies of ternary metal complexes containing glycine amino acid and the anti-inflammatory drug lornoxicam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Walaa H.; Mohamed, Gehad G.; El-Dessouky, Maher M. I.

    2015-02-01

    Mixed ligand complexes were synthesized using lornoxicam (LOR) as the primary ligand and glycine amino acid (HGly) as the secondary ligand. They were characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis, mass, 1H NMR, ESR spectral studies, TG-DTG, X-ray powder diffraction and physical analytical studies. From the molar conductance, magnetic moment and electronic spectral data of the synthesized complexes, general formulae of [M(LOR)2(Gly)]·Xn·yH2O where M = Cr(III) (X = Cl, n = 2, y = 3), Mn(II) (X = Cl, n = 1, y = 1), Co(II) (X = BF4, n = 1, y = 0), Ni(II) (X = Cl, n = 1, y = 0), Cu(II) (X = BF4, n = 1, y = 2) and Zn(II) (X = BF4, n = 1, y = 2) and (M = Fe(II) (X = BF4, n = 1, y = 1) and Fe(III) (X = Cl, n = 2, y = 1) with an octahedral structure were proposed. Thermal analyses show that the complexes lose water molecules of hydration initially and subsequently expel anionic parts and organic ligands in continuous steps. The kinetic parameters namely E, ΔH∗, ΔS∗ and ΔG∗ illustrate the spontaneous association of the metal and ligands in the formation of the complexes. The antimicrobial efficiency of the LOR and HGly ligands and the ternary complexes were examined by in vitro method against various pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains. The metal complexes were found to possess efficient antimicrobial properties compared to lornoxicam and most of these complexes could turn out to be excellent models for the design of effective antibiotic drug substances. Also, the two ligands, in comparison to ternary metal complexes are screened for their anticancer activity against breastic cancer cell line. The results showed that the metal complexes be more active than the parent LOR and glycine free ligands except Cr(III) ternary complex which was found to be inactive.

  6. Ternary fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagemans, C.

    1991-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1946, light (charged) particle accompanied fission (ternary fission) has been extensively studied, for spontaneous as well as for induced fission reactions. The reason for this interest was twofold: the ternary particles being emitted in space and time close to the scission point were expected to supply information on the scission point configuration and the ternary fission process was an important source of helium, tritium, and hydrogen production in nuclear reactors, for which data were requested by the nuclear industry. Significant experimental progress has been realized with the advent of high-resolution detectors, powerful multiparameter data acquisition systems, and intense neutron and photon beams. As far as theory is concerned, the trajectory calculations (in which scission point parameters are deduced from the experimental observations) have been very much improved. An attempt was made to explain ternary particle emission in terms of a Plateau-Rayleigh hydrodynamical instability of a relatively long cylindrical neck or cylindrical nucleus. New results have also been obtained on the so-called open-quotes trueclose quotes ternary fission (fission in three about-equal fragments). The spontaneous emission of charged particles has also clearly been demonstrated in recent years. This chapter discusses the main characteristics of ternary fission, theoretical models, light particle emission probabilities, the dependence of the emission probabilities on experimental variables, light particle energy distributions, light particle angular distributions, correlations between light particle accompanied fission observables, open-quotes trueclose quotes ternary fission, and spontaneous emission of heavy ions. 143 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs

  7. Synthesis and thermal characterization of new ternary chelates of piroxicam and tenoxicam with glycine and DL-phenylalanine and some transition metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, M. A.; El-Dien, F. A. Nour; Mohamed, Gehad G.; El-Gamel, Nadia E. A.

    2006-05-01

    The ternary chelates of piroxicam (Pir) and tenoxicam (Ten) with Fe(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) in the presence of various amino acids such as glycine (Gly) or DL-phenylalanine (PhA) were prepared and characterized with different physicochemical methods. IR spectra confirm that Pir and Ten behave as a neutral bidentate ligand coordinated to the metal ions via the pyridine- N and carbonyl group of the amide moiety. Gly molecule acted as a uninegatively monodentate ligand and coordinate to the metal ions through its deprotonated carboxylic group. In addition, PhA acted as a uninegatively bidentate ligand and coordinate to the metal ions through its deprotonated carboxylic and amino groups. The solid reflectance spectra and magnetic moment measurements confirm that all the chelates have octahedral geometrical structures while Cu(II)- and Zn(II)-ternary chelates with PhA have square planar geometrical structures. Thermal behaviour of the complexes is extensively studied using TG and DTA techniques. TG results show that water molecules (hydrated and coordinated) and anions are removed in the first and second steps while Gly, PhA, Pir and Ten are decomposed in the next and subsequent steps. The pyrolyses of the chelates into different gases are observed in the DTA curves as exo- or endothermic peaks. Also, phase transition states are observed in some chelates. Different thermodynamic parameters are calculated using Coats-Redfern method and the results are interpreted.

  8. Spectrophotometric Study of Ternary Complex Forming Systems of Some Lanthanide Metal Ions with Eriochrome Cyanine R in Presence of Cetylpyridinium Bromide for Microdetermination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Dhepe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of coordination compounds of lanthanide elements has received a great attention due to growing applications in science and technology. Number of chromogenic reagents form water soluble colored complexes with lanthanides. Eriochrome cyanine R (ECR a member of triphenylmethane type of dye has been reported to form green colored complexes with lanthanides and has been used for microdetermination of these metal ions. Addition of cationic surfactant, Cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB, a cationic surfactant sensitizes the color reactions of Gd(III, Tb(III, Dy(III, Ho(III and Lu(III with ECR. Formation of water soluble, highly colored ternary complexes with a considerable bathochromic shift of about 50 nm in presence of surfactant has been observed. Optimum reaction conditions and other analytical parameters were also evaluated. Stoichiometric ratio 1:3:3 of Ln: ECR: CPB are responsible for the observed rise in molar absorptivity and sensitivity. Beer’s law was obeyed between 0.50 to 13.00 ppm. Effective photometric range and molar absorptivity of these ternary complexes have been calculated. Effect of some common interfering ions on determination of these lanthanide metal ions was studied. A simple, rapid and highly sensitive spectrophotometeric method has been proposed for the determination of metal ions understudy.

  9. High performance gas adsorption and separation of natural gas in two microporous metal-organic frameworks with ternary building units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongmei; Zhao, Tingting; Cao, Yu; Yao, Shuo; Li, Guanghua; Huo, Qisheng; Liu, Yunling

    2014-08-14

    Two novel MMOFs, JLU-Liu5 and JLU-Liu6, are based on ternary building units and exhibit high adsorption selectivity for CO2, C2H6 and C3H8 over CH4, which is attributed to steric effects and host-guest interactions. These MMOFs are promising materials for gas adsorption and natural gas purification.

  10. Synthesis, characterization, DNA-binding study and anticancer properties of ternary metal(II) complexes of edda and an intercalating ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chew Hee; Kong, King Chow; Von, Sze Tin; Balraj, Pauline; Jensen, Paul; Thirthagiri, Eswary; Hamada, Hirokazu; Chikira, Makoto

    2008-01-28

    A series of ternary metal(ii) complexes {M(phen)(edda); 1a (Cu), 1b (Co), 1c (Zn), 1d (Ni); H(2)edda = N,N(')-ethylenediaminediacetic acid} of N,N'-ethylene-bridged diglycine and 1,10-phenanthroline were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, UV-visible spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurement. The interaction of these complexes with DNA was investigated using CD and EPR spectroscopy. MTT assay results of 1a-1c , screened on MCF-7 cancer cell lines, show that synergy between the metal and ligands results in significant enhancement of their antiproliferative properties. Preliminary results from apoptosis and cell cycle analyses with flow cytometry are reported. seems to be able to induce cell cycle arrest at G(0)/G(1). The crystal structure of 1a is also included.

  11. Fluorometric determination of aluminium (III) and cadmium (II) by solvent extraction of the ternary complex composed of metal ion, 8-hydroxy-5-quinolinesulfonic acid, and methyltrioctylammonium ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Yukihiro; Kataoka, Masamitsu; Kambara, Tomihito

    1982-01-01

    A fluorometric micro determination of aluminium (III) and cadmium (II) using the formation of metal-8-hydroxy-5-quinolinesulfonic acid-capriquat (methyltrioctylammonium) ternary complex is described. These complexes are easily extracted into chloroform phase and the extract emits a strong fluorescence. Spectra of aluminium (III) and cadmium (II) ternary complexes have the excitation maximum at 396 nm and 400 nm, and emission maximum at 501 nm and 524 nm, respectively. Fluorescence intensity of the aluminium (III) and cadmium (II) ternary complexes extracted into chloroform showed the constant and maximum values in the pH range of aqueous phase from 5.3 to 8.5 and 8.1 to 8.5, respectively. The calibration curves for aluminium (III) and cadmium (II) show good proportionality int the concentration range from 0.5 to 5.0 and 1.0 to 50.0 μg, respectively. The relative standard deviation observed with four measurements was found to be 1.8% for 0.5 μg of aluminium (III) and 1.1% for 10.0 μg of cadmium (II). The effect of diverse ions is studied and a 25-fold amount of Cu(II), Ni(II), Fe(II), Fe(III) in weight gave errors, however, the interferences were easily eliminated by the addition of appropriate masking agent. In the determination of cadmium (II), an equal amount of Co(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Fe(III) and twice amount of Al(III) gave negative errors, however, the interference of Fe(III) and Al(III) were also eliminated as above. (author)

  12. First-principles study on half-metallic ferromagnetic properties of Zn{sub 1-x}V{sub x}Se ternary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatta, Swati; Tripathi, S.K.; Prakash, Satya [Panjab University, Central of Advanced Study in Physics, Department of Physics, Chandigarh (India)

    2017-09-15

    The spin-polarised density functional theory along with self-consistent plane-wave pseudopotential is used to investigate the half-metallic ferromagnetic properties of ternary alloys Zn{sub 1-x}V{sub x}Se. The generalized gradient approximation is used for exchange-correlation potential. The equilibrium lattice constants, bulk modulus, and its derivatives are calculated. The calculated spin-polarised energy-band structures reveal that these alloys are half-metallic for x = 0.375 and 0.50 and nearly half-metallic for other values of x. The estimated direct and indirect bandgaps may be useful for the magneto-optical absorption experiments. It is found that there is strong Zn 4s, Se 4p, and V 3d orbital hybridization in the conduction bands of both the spins, while Se 4p and V 3d orbital hybridization predominates in the valence bands of both the spins. The s, p-d, and p-d orbital hybridization reduces the local magnetic moment of V atoms and small local magnetic moments are produced on Zn and Se atoms which get coupled with V atoms in ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases, respectively. The conduction and valence-band-edge splittings and exchange constants predict the ferromagnetism in these alloys. The conduction band-impurity (s and p-d) exchange interaction is more significant for ferromagnetism in these alloys than the valence band-impurity (p-d) exchange interaction. (orig.)

  13. Characterization of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and refractory metals in binary and ternary silicon-based films using ion beam methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somatri-Bouamrane, R.

    1996-01-01

    Ion beam methods (non Rutherford backscattering, nuclear reactions) have been carried out in order to characterize silicon-based films. The cross sections for the reactions 12 C(α,α), 14 N(α,α), 16 O(α,α), 28 Si(α,α) and 14 N(α,p) have been measured within 2 and 7 MeV. CVD beta SiC films could be analyzed and the interface between silicon carbide and the (100) silicon substrate was studied. The epitaxial growth of the beta SiC film could be modelled by comparing the results obtained with ion beam analysis, infrared spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Moreover, the stoichiometry of low pressure CVD Me-Si-N (Me=Re, W, Ti, Ta) ternary systems was studied. The evolution of the nitrogen content in W-Si-N systems allowed to study their stability with respect to the annealing conditions. (N.T.)

  14. Glass-forming ability and stability of ternary Ni-early transition metal (Ti/Zr/Hf) alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Joysurya [Department of Metallurgy, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Ranganathan, S. [Department of Metallurgy, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)]. E-mail: rangu@met.iisc.ernet.in

    2006-08-15

    Four Ni-bearing Ti, Zr and Hf ternary alloys of nominal composition Zr{sub 41.5}Ti{sub 41.5}Ni{sub 17}, Zr{sub 25}Ti{sub 25}Ni{sub 50}, Zr{sub 41.5}Hf{sub 41.5}Ni{sub 17} and Ti{sub 41.5}Hf{sub 41.5}Ni{sub 17} were rapidly solidified in order to produce ribbons. The Zr-Ti-Ni and Ti-Hf-Ni alloys become amorphous, whereas the Zr-Hf-Ni alloy shows precipitation of a cubic phase. The devitrification of all three alloys was followed and the relative tendency to form nanoquasicrystals and cF96 phases analysed. The relative glass-forming ability of the alloys can be explained by taking into account their atomic size difference. Addition of Ni often leads to quasicrystallisation or quasicrystal-related phases. This can be explained by the atomic radius and heat of mixing of the constituent elements. The phases precipitated at the initial stages of crystallisation indicate the possible presence of Frank-Kasper polyhedral structure in the amorphous alloys. Structural analysis reveals that the Laves and the anti-Laves phases have the same polyhedral structural unit, which is similar to the structural characteristics of glass.

  15. pH-specific hydrothermal assembly of binary and ternary Pb(II)-(O,N-carboxylic acid) metal organic framework compounds: correlation of aqueous solution speciation with variable dimensionality solid-state lattice architecture and spectroscopic signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, C; Perikli, M; Raptopoulou, C P; Terzis, A; Psycharis, V; Mateescu, C; Jakusch, T; Kiss, T; Bertmer, M; Salifoglou, A

    2012-09-03

    Hydrothermal pH-specific reactivity in the binary/ternary systems of Pb(II) with the carboxylic acids N-hydroxyethyl-iminodiacetic acid (Heida), 1,3-diamino-2-hydroxypropane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (Dpot), and 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) afforded the new well-defined crystalline compounds [Pb(Heida)](n)·nH(2)O(1), [Pb(Phen)(Heida)]·4H(2)O(2), and [Pb(3)(NO(3))(Dpot)](n)(3). All compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, solution or/and solid-state NMR, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structures in 1-2 reveal the presence of a Pb(II) center coordinated to one Heida ligand, with 1 exhibiting a two-dimensional (2D) lattice extending to a three-dimensional (3D) one through H-bonding interactions. The concurrent aqueous speciation study of the binary Pb(II)-Heida system projects species complementing the synthetic efforts, thereby lending credence to a global structural speciation strategy in investigating binary/ternary Pb(II)-Heida/Phen systems. The involvement of Phen in 2 projects the significance of nature and reactivity potential of N-aromatic chelators, disrupting the binary lattice in 1 and influencing the nature of the ultimately arising ternary 3D lattice. 3 is a ternary coordination polymer, where Pb(II)-Dpot coordination leads to a 2D metal-organic-framework material with unique architecture. The collective physicochemical properties of 1-3 formulate the salient features of variable dimensionality metal-organic-framework lattices in binary/ternary Pb(II)-(hydroxy-carboxylate) structures, based on which new Pb(II) materials with distinct architecture and spectroscopic signature can be rationally designed and pursued synthetically.

  16. New ternary superconducting germanides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschalkov, V. V.; Muttik, I. G.; Samarin, N. A.; Seropegin, Yu. D.; Rudometkina, M. V.

    1991-12-01

    We have studied the structure, electrical and magnetic properties of new ternary compounds with germanium and transition metals of IV and V groups (Ti 0.7V 0.3Ge 3, Hf 2V 3Ge, Zr 32-36V 32-36Ge 30-32, Hf 2Nb 3Ge 4, HfVGe, Zr 15-17V 39-40Ge 44-45, Hf 10.8-21.7V 36.0-42.8). The homogeneity fields for all new phases are determined. Resistivity (T) and magnetic susceptibility χ(T) are investigated at T=4.2…300 K. Two new superconductors have been found - Zr 32-36V 32-36Ge 30-32 and HfVGe with T c=4.7 K and 5.7 K, respectively.

  17. Large scale simulations of the mechanical properties of layered transition metal ternary compounds for fossil energy power system applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ching, Wai-Yim [Univ. of Missouri, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Advanced materials with applications in extreme conditions such as high temperature, high pressure, and corrosive environments play a critical role in the development of new technologies to significantly improve the performance of different types of power plants. Materials that are currently employed in fossil energy conversion systems are typically the Ni-based alloys and stainless steels that have already reached their ultimate performance limits. Incremental improvements are unlikely to meet the more stringent requirements aimed at increased efficiency and reduce risks while addressing environmental concerns and keeping costs low. Computational studies can lead the way in the search for novel materials or for significant improvements in existing materials that can meet such requirements. Detailed computational studies with sufficient predictive power can provide an atomistic level understanding of the key characteristics that lead to desirable properties. This project focuses on the comprehensive study of a new class of materials called MAX phases, or Mn+1AXn (M = a transition metal, A = Al or other group III, IV, and V elements, X = C or N). The MAX phases are layered transition metal carbides or nitrides with a rare combination of metallic and ceramic properties. Due to their unique structural arrangements and special types of bonding, these thermodynamically stable alloys possess some of the most outstanding properties. We used a genomic approach in screening a large number of potential MAX phases and established a database for 665 viable MAX compounds on the structure, mechanical and electronic properties and investigated the correlations between them. This database if then used as a tool for materials informatics for further exploration of this class of intermetallic compounds.

  18. Superconductivity in Ternary Rare-Earth Transition Metal Silicides and Germanides with the SCANDIUM(5) COBALT(4) SILICON(10)-TYPE Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Linda Sue

    A systematic study of the superconducting and normal state properties of some ternary rare earth transition metal silicides and germanides of the Sc(,5)Co(,4)Si(,10) -type is reported in this work. Low temperature heat capacity measurements indicate the presence of a complicated phonon density of states in these structurally complex compounds. A better description of the phonon spectrum of the high T(,c) materials, Sc(,5)Rh(,4)Si(,10), Sc(,5)Ir(,4)Si(,10), and Y(,5)Os(,4)Ge(,10), given by a model proposed by Junod et al.('1), is presented and discussed. The large values of (DELTA)C/(gamma)(,n)T(,c) and the electron-phonon coupling constant for these high T(,c) compounds indicate that they are strong-coupled superconductors. Relative to other ternary superconductors, many of these materials have large Debye temperatures. The BSC theory does not seem to afford an adequate description of the supercon- ducting state in these compounds. DC electrical resistivity measurements on these compounds show resistivity behaviors deviating from those exhibited by simple metals. The (rho)(T) data for Y(,5)Ir(,4)Si(,10), Lu(,5)Rh(,4)Si(,10), Lu(,5)Ir(,4)Si(,10), and Y(,5)Os(,4)Ge(,10), indicate the presence of anomalies. Static molar magnetic susceptibility measurements performed on these compounds indicate (1) a small effective magnetic moment of 0.26(mu)(,B) on the Co atom and (2) anomalous behaviors in the Lu(,5)Rh(,4)Si(,10), Lu(,5)Ir(,4)Si(,10), Y(,5)Ir(,4)Si(,10), Lu(,5)Ir(,4)Ge(,10), and Y(,5)Rh(,4)Ge(,10) data. It is suggested that the same mechanism, namely, the forma- tion of a charge- or spin-density wave, is causing the anomalous behaviors in both the resistivity and susceptibility data. Lastly, upper critical magnetic field measurements were performed on Sc(,5)Co(,4)Si(,10), Sc(,5)Rh(,4)Si(,10), Sc(,5)Ir(,4)Si(,10), Lu(,5)Rh(,4)Si(,10), Lu(,5)Ir(,4)Si(,10), and Y(,5)Os(,4)Ge(,10). Relative to the other five samples, Y(,5)Os(,4)Ge(,10) exhibits very high values for (-d

  19. Covalent bonding and band-gap formation in ternary transition-metal di-aluminides: Al4MnCo and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajci, M.; Hafner, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we extend our previous study of the electronic structure of and bonding mechanism in transition-metal (TM) di-aluminides to ternary systems. We have studied the character of the bonding in Al 4 MnCo and related TM di-aluminides in the C11 b (MoSi 2 ) and C54 (TiSi 2 ) crystal structures. A peculiar feature of the electronic structure of these TM di-aluminides is the existence of a semiconducting gap at the Fermi level. In our previous work we predicted a gap in Al 2 TM compounds where the TM atoms have eight valence electrons. Here we demonstrate that the semiconducting gap does not disappear if the TM sites are occupied by two different TMs, provided that the electron-per-atom ratio is conserved. Such a replacement substantially increases the class of possibly semiconducting TM di-aluminides. Substitution for 3d TMs of 4d or 5d TMs enhances the width of the gap. From the analysis of the charge density distribution and the crystal orbital overlap population, we conclude that the bonding between atoms has dominantly covalent character. This is confirmed not only by the enhanced charge density halfway between atoms, but also by the clear bonding-antibonding splitting of the electronic states. If the gaps between split states that correspond to all bonding configurations in the crystal have a common overlap at the Fermi level, the intermetallic compound becomes a semiconductor. However, the results of the total-energy calculations suggest that the existence of a band gap does not necessarily imply a stable structure. Strong covalent bonds can exist also in Al-TM structures where no band gap is observed. (author)

  20. Alleviation of Fermi level pinning at metal/n-Ge interface with lattice-matched Si x Ge1‑ x ‑ y Sn y ternary alloy interlayer on Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Akihiro; Nakatsuka, Osamu; Sakashita, Mitsuo; Zaima, Shigeaki

    2018-06-01

    The impact of a silicon germanium tin (Si x Ge1‑ x ‑ y Sn y ) ternary alloy interlayer on the Schottky barrier height (SBH) of metal/Ge contacts with various metal work functions has been investigated. Lattice matching at the Si x Ge1‑ x ‑ y Sn y /Ge heterointerface is a key factor for controlling Fermi level pinning (FLP) at the metal/Ge interface. The Si x Ge1‑ x ‑ y Sn y ternary alloy interlayer having a small lattice mismatch with the Ge substrate can alleviate FLP at the metal/Ge interface significantly. A Si0.11Ge0.86Sn0.03 interlayer increases the slope parameter for the work function dependence of the SBH to 0.4. An ohmic behavior with an SBH below 0.15 eV can be obtained with Zr and Al/Si0.11Ge0.86Sn0.03/n-Ge contacts at room temperature.

  1. Binary and ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Conditions for thermodynamical equilibrium in binary and ternary systems are considered. Main types of binary and ternary system phase diagrams are sequently constructed on the basis of general regularities on the character of transition from one equilibria to others. New statements on equilibrium line direction in the diagram triple points and their isothermal cross sections are developed. New represenations on equilibria in case of monovariant curve minimum and maximum on three-phase equilibrium formation in ternary system are introduced

  2. Ternary complex formation at mineral/solution interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leckie, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    Adsorption of trace concentrations of radionuclides and heavy metals from aqueous solution is dependent on pH, absorbent and adsorbate concentration, and speciation of the metal in solution. In particular, complexation of metal ions by organic and inorganic ligands can dramatically alter adsorption behavior compared to ligand-free systems. The presence of complexing ligands can cause the formation of ''metal like'' or ''ligand like'' ternary surface complexes depending on whether adsorption of the ternary complex increases or decreases with increasing pH, respectively. Examples of ternary surface complexes behaving ''metal like'' include uranyl-EDTA surface complexes on goethite, neptunyl-EDTA surface complexes on hematite and neptunyl-humic surface complexes on gibbsite. Examples of ''ligand like'' ternary surface complexes include uranyl-carbonato and neptunyl-carbonato surface complexes on iron oxides. The effects of complex solutions and multimineralic systems are discussed. (authors). 39 refs., 16 figs., 8 tabs

  3. TERNARY ALLOYS OF URANIUM, COLUMBIUM, AND ZIRCONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, F.G.

    1960-08-01

    Ternary alloys of uranium are described which are useful as neutron- reflecting materials in a fast neutron reactor. They are especially resistant to corrosion caused by oxidative processes of gascous or aqueous origin and comprise uranium as the predominant metal with zirconiunn and niobium wherein the total content of the minor alloying elements is between 2 and 8% by weight.

  4. Ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Shay, J L; Pamplin, B R

    2013-01-01

    Ternary Chalcopyrite Semiconductors: Growth, Electronic Properties, and Applications covers the developments of work in the I-III-VI2 and II-IV-V2 ternary chalcopyrite compounds. This book is composed of eight chapters that focus on the crystal growth, characterization, and applications of these compounds to optical communications systems. After briefly dealing with the status of ternary chalcopyrite compounds, this book goes on describing the crystal growth of II-IV-V2 and I-III-VI2 single crystals. Chapters 3 and 4 examine the energy band structure of these semiconductor compounds, illustrat

  5. Crystal Growth and Characterization of MT2Si2 Ternary Intermetallics (M = U, RE and T = 3d, 4d, 5d Transition Metals)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menovsky, A.A.; Moleman, A.C.; Snel, G.E.; Gortenmulder, T.J.; Palstra, T.T.M.

    1986-01-01

    Bulk single crystals of the ternary intermetallic compounds UT2Si2 (T = Ni, Pd, Pt and Ru), LaT2Si2 (T = Pd and Rh) and LuPd2Si2 have been grown from the melt with a modified “tri-arc” Czochralski method. The as-grown crystals were characterized by X-ray, microprobe and chemical analyses. The

  6. First-principles calculation of the structural and elastic properties of ternary metal nitrides TaxMo1-xN and TaxW1-xN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouamama, Kh.; Djemia, P.; Benhamida, M.

    2015-09-01

    First-principles pseudo-potentials calculations of the mixing enthalpy, of the lattice constants a0 and of the single-crystal elastic constants cij for ternary metal nitrides TaxMe1-xN (Me=Mo or W) alloys considering the cubic B1-rocksalt structure is carried out. For disordered ternary alloys, we employ the virtual crystal approximation VCA in which the alloy pseudopotentials are constructed within a first-principles VCA scheme. The supercell method SC is also used for ordered structures in order to evaluate clustering effects. We find that the mixing enthalpy still remains negative for TaxMe1-xN alloys in the whole composition range which implies these cubic TaxMo1-xN and TaxW1-xN ordered solid solutions are stable. We investigate the effect of Mo and W alloying on the trend of the mechanical properties of TaN. The effective shear elastic constant c44, the Cauchy pressure (c12-c44), and the shear to bulk modulus G/B ratio are used to discuss, respectively, the mechanical stability of the ternary structure and the brittle/ductile behavior in reference to TaN, MeN alloys. We determine the onset transition from the unstable structure to the stable one B1-rocksalt from the elastic stability criteria when alloying MeN with Ta. In a second stage, in the frame of anisotropic elasticity, we estimate by one homogenization method the averaged constants of the polycrystalline TaxMe1-xN alloys considering the special case of an isotropic medium with no crystallographic texture.

  7. Ternary alloy systems. Phase diagrams, crystallographic and thermodynamic data critically evaluated by MSIT registered. Subvol. C. Non-ferrous metal systems. Pt. 4: Selected nuclear materials and engineering systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effenberg, Guenter; Ilyenko, Svitlana; Aldinger, Fritz; Bochvar, Nataliya; Cacciamani, Gabriele

    2007-01-01

    The present volume in the New Series of Landolt-Boernstein provides critically evaluated data on phase diagrams, crystallographic and thermodynamic data of ternary alloy systems. Reliable phase diagrams provide materials scientists and engineers with basic information important for fundamental research, development and optimization of materials. The often conflicting literature data have been critically evaluated by Materials Science International Team, MSIT registered , a team working together since many years, and with expertise in a broad range of methods, materials and applications. All evaluation reports published here have undergone a thorough review process in which the reviewers had access to all the original data. The data for each ternary system are provided in a standard format which includes text, tables and diagrams. The topics presented are literature data, binary systems, solid phases, pseudobinary systems, invariant equilibria, liquidus, solidus, and solvus surfaces, isothermal sections, temperature-composition sections, thermodynamics, materials properties and applications, and miscellanea. Finally, a detailed bibliography of all cited references is provided. In the present volume IV/11C selected non-ferrous-metal systems are considered, especially selected nuclear materials and engineering systems in this Part 4. (orig.)

  8. Kinetic study of lithium-cadmium ternary amalgam decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordova, M.H.; Andrade, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of metals, which form stable lithium phase in binary alloys, on the formation of intermetallic species in ternary amalgams and their effect on thermal decomposition in contact with water is analyzed. Cd is selected as ternary metal, based on general experimental selection criteria. Cd (Hg) binary amalgams are prepared by direct contact Cd-Hg, whereas Li is formed by electrolysis of Li OH aq using a liquid Cd (Hg) cathodic well. The decomposition kinetic of Li C(Hg) in contact with 0.6 M Li OH is studied in function of ageing and temperature, and these results are compared with the binary amalgam Li (Hg) decomposition. The decomposition rate is constant during one hour for binary and ternary systems. Ageing does not affect the binary systems but increases the decomposition activation energy of ternary systems. A reaction mechanism that considers an intermetallic specie participating in the activated complex is proposed and a kinetic law is suggested. (author)

  9. Structural Series in the Ternary A-Mn-As System (A = Alkali Metal): Double-Layer-Type CsMn4As3 and RbMn4As3 and Tunnel-Type KMn4As3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Junichi; Iimura, Soshi; Hosono, Hideo

    2018-04-16

    New manganese arsenides CsMn 4 As 3 , RbMn 4 As 3 , and KMn 4 As 3 were synthesized by solid-state reaction. They consist of edge-sharing MnAs 4 tetrahedra, which are a building block similar to those of Fe-based superconductors. CsMn 4 As 3 and RbMn 4 As 3 adopt the KCu 4 S 3 -type structure (tetragonal P4/ mmm space group, No. 123) with a Mn 4 As 3 double layer, while KMn 4 As 3 has the CaFe 4 As 3 -type structure (orthorhombic Pnma space group, No. 62) with a Mn 4 As 3 tunnel framework. The structural change from CsMn 4 As 3 and RbMn 4 As 3 to KMn 4 As 3 as well as the structural trend of the other ternary A-Mn-As (A = alkali metal) and AE-Mn-As (AE = alkaline-earth metal) compounds is understood as a consequence of reduction of the coordination number around the A and AE sites owing to the decrease of the ionic radius from Cs + to Mg 2+ . Electrical resistivity measurements confirm that the three new phases are Mott insulators with band gaps of 0.52 (CsMn 4 As 3 ), 0.43 (RbMn 4 As 3 ), and 0.31 eV (KMn 4 As 3 ). Magnetic and heat capacity measurements revealed that CsMn 4 As 3 and RbMn 4 As 3 are antiferromagnets without apparent phase transitions below 400 K, which is similar to the magnetism of LaMnAsO and BaMn 2 As 2 , while the existence of the ferromagnetic component was indicated in KMn 4 As 3 with a magnetic transition at 179 K.

  10. Neutron Damage and MAX Phase Ternary Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsoum, Michael [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hoffman, Elizabeth [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Sindelar, Robert [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Garcua-Duaz, Brenda [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kohse, Gordon [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-06-17

    The Demands of Gen IV nuclear power plants for long service life under neutron radiation at high temperature are severe. Advanced materials that would withstand high temperatures (up to 1000+ C) to high doses in a neutron field would be ideal for reactor internal structures and would add to the long service life and reliability of the reactors. The objective of this work is to investigate the response of a new class of machinable, conductive, layered, ternary transition metal carbides and nitrides - the so-called MAX phases - to low and moderate neutron dose levels.

  11. Neutron Damage and MAX Phase Ternary Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsoum, Michael; Hoffman, Elizabeth; Sindelar, Robert; Garcua-Diaz, Brenda; Kohse, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    The Demands of Gen IV nuclear power plants for long service life under neutron radiation at high temperature are severe. Advanced materials that would withstand high temperatures (up to 1000+ C) to high doses in a neutron field would be ideal for reactor internal structures and would add to the long service life and reliability of the reactors. The objective of this work is to investigate the response of a new class of machinable, conductive, layered, ternary transition metal carbides and nitrides - the so-called MAX phases - to low and moderate neutron dose levels.

  12. Plasmonic spectral tunability of conductive ternary nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassavetis, S.; Patsalas, P., E-mail: ppats@physics.auth.gr [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Bellas, D. V.; Lidorikis, E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Abadias, G. [Institut Pprime, Département Physique et Mécanique des Matériaux, Université de Poitiers-CNRS-ENSMA, 86962 Chasseneuil-Futuroscope (France)

    2016-06-27

    Conductive binary transition metal nitrides, such as TiN and ZrN, have emerged as a category of promising alternative plasmonic materials. In this work, we show that ternary transition metal nitrides such as Ti{sub x}Ta{sub 1−x}N, Ti{sub x}Zr{sub 1−x}N, Ti{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N, and Zr{sub x}Ta{sub 1−x}N share the important plasmonic features with their binary counterparts, while having the additional asset of the exceptional spectral tunability in the entire visible (400–700 nm) and UVA (315–400 nm) spectral ranges depending on their net valence electrons. In particular, we demonstrate that such ternary nitrides can exhibit maximum field enhancement factors comparable with gold in the aforementioned broadband range. We also critically evaluate the structural features that affect the quality factor of the plasmon resonance and we provide rules of thumb for the selection and growth of materials for nitride plasmonics.

  13. Factors affecting nucleolytic efficiency of some ternary metal complexes with DNA binding and recognition domains. Crystal and molecular structure of Zn(phen)(edda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Hoi-Ling; Ong, Han-Kiat Alan; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd; Yamin, Bohari M; Tiekink, Edward R T; Tan, Kong Wai; Maah, Mohd Jamil; Caracelli, Ignez; Ng, Chew Hee

    2008-11-01

    The binding selectivity of the M(phen)(edda) (M=Cu, Co, Ni, Zn; phen=1,10-phenanthroline, edda=ethylenediaminediacetic acid) complexes towards ds(CG)(6), ds(AT)(6) and ds(CGCGAATTCGCG) B-form oligonucleotide duplexes were studied by CD spectroscopy and molecular modeling. The binding mode is intercalation and there is selectivity towards AT-sequence and stacking preference for A/A parallel or diagonal adjacent base steps in their intercalation. The nucleolytic properties of these complexes were investigated and the factors affecting the extent of cleavage were determined to be: concentration of complex, the nature of metal(II) ion, type of buffer, pH of buffer, incubation time, incubation temperature, and the presence of hydrogen peroxide or ascorbic acid as exogenous reagents. The fluorescence property of these complexes and its origin were also investigated. The crystal structure of the Zn(phen)(edda) complex is reported in which the zinc atom displays a distorted trans-N(4)O(2) octahedral geometry; the crystal packing features double layers of complex molecules held together by extensive hydrogen bonding that inter-digitate with adjacent double layers via pi...pi interactions between 1,10-phenanthroline residues. The structure is compared with that of the recently described copper(II) analogue and, with the latter, included in molecular modeling.

  14. On new ternary equiatomic scandium transition metal aluminum compounds ScTAl with T = Cr, Ru, Ag, Re, Pt, and Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radzieowski, Mathis; Janka, Oliver [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Benndorf, Christopher [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie; Haverkamp, Sandra [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie; Eckert, Hellmut [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie; University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. of Physics

    2016-08-01

    The new equiatomic scandium transition metal aluminides ScTAl for T = Cr, Ru, Ag, Re, Pt, and Au were obtained by arc-melting of the elements followed by subsequent annealing for crystal growth. The samples were studied by powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The structures of three compounds were refined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer data: ScCrAl, MgZn{sub 2} type, P6{sub 3}/mmc, a = 525.77(3), c = 858.68(5) pm, R{sub 1} = 0.0188, wR{sub 2} = 0.0485, 204 F{sup 2} values, 13 variables, ScPtAl, TiNiSi type, Pnma, a = 642.83(4), b = 428.96(2), c = 754.54(5) pm, R{sub 1} = 0.0326, wR{sub 2} = 0.0458, 448 F{sup 2} values, 20 variables and ScAuAl, HfRhSn type, P anti 62c, a = 722.88(4), c = 724.15(4) pm, R{sub 1} = 0.0316, wR{sub 2} = 0.0653, 512 F{sup 2} values, 18 variables. Phase pure samples of all compounds were furthermore investigated by magnetic susceptibility measurements, and Pauli-paramagnetism but no superconductivity was observed down to 2.1 K for all of them. The local structural features and disordering phenomena have been characterized by {sup 27}Al and {sup 45}Sc magic angle spinning (MAS) and static NMR spectroscopic investigations.

  15. Ternary System with Controlled Structure: A New Strategy toward Efficient Organic Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pei; Wang, Rui; Zhu, Jingshuai; Huang, Wenchao; Chang, Sheng-Yung; Meng, Lei; Sun, Pengyu; Cheng, Hao-Wen; Qin, Meng; Zhu, Chenhui; Zhan, Xiaowei; Yang, Yang

    2018-02-01

    Recently, a new type of active layer with a ternary system has been developed to further enhance the performance of binary system organic photovoltaics (OPV). In the ternary OPV, almost all active layers are formed by simple ternary blend in solution, which eventually leads to the disordered bulk heterojunction (BHJ) structure after a spin-coating process. There are two main restrictions in this disordered BHJ structure to obtain higher performance OPV. One is the isolated second donor or acceptor domains. The other is the invalid metal-semiconductor contact. Herein, the concept and design of donor/acceptor/acceptor ternary OPV with more controlled structure (C-ternary) is reported. The C-ternary OPV is fabricated by a sequential solution process, in which the second acceptor and donor/acceptor binary blend are sequentially spin-coated. After the device optimization, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of all OPV with C-ternary are enhanced by 14-21% relative to those with the simple ternary blend; the best PCEs are 10.7 and 11.0% for fullerene-based and fullerene-free solar cells, respectively. Moreover, the averaged PCE value of 10.4% for fullerene-free solar cell measured in this study is in great agreement with the certified one of 10.32% obtained from Newport Corporation. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Ternary Weighted Function and Beurling Ternary Banach Algebra l1ω(S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dehghanian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Let S be a ternary semigroup. In this paper, we introduce our notation and prove some elementary properties of a ternary weight function ω on S. Also, we make ternary weighted algebra l1ω(S and show that l1ω(S is a ternary Banach algebra.

  17. Constructing ternary polyaniline-graphene-TiO{sub 2} hybrids with enhanced photoelectrochemical performance in photo-generated cathodic protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weiwei, E-mail: vivizhg@yahoo.com [College of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590 (China); State Key Laboratory of Mining Disaster Prevention and Control Co-founded by Shandong Province and the Ministry of Science and Technology, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, 266590 (China); Guo, Hanlin; Sun, Haiqing [College of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590 (China); Zeng, Rongchang [College of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590 (China); State Key Laboratory of Mining Disaster Prevention and Control Co-founded by Shandong Province and the Ministry of Science and Technology, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, 266590 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Ternary polyaniline-graphene-TiO{sub 2} hybrids were synthesized. • Flat band potential shift facilitates electron injection to the coupled metal. • Electrons and holes transfer in the hybrids promotes electron–hole separation. • Synergistic effects of the ternary components make the hybrids photo-chargeable. - Abstract: Ternary polyaniline-graphene-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites were constructed through a stepwise synthetic route. The hybrids exhibit remarkable enhancement in photoelectrochemical performance. The transfer of photo-excited carriers in the ternary composites facilitates the photo-induced electron-hole separation. Meanwhile, the flat band potential shift of the hybrids increases the inner electric field intensity that drives the photo-excited electron migration from the composites to the coupled metal. Furthermore, the ternary hybrids were found firstly to be photo-chargeable, which shows application potentials in photo-generated cathodic protection in dark.

  18. Direct femtosecond observation of charge carrier recombination in ternary semiconductor nanocrystals: The effect of composition and shelling

    KAUST Repository

    Bose, Riya; Ahmed, Ghada H.; Alarousu, Erkki; Parida, Manas R.; Abdelhady, Ahmed L.; Bakr, Osman; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy-metal free ternary semiconductor nanocrystals are emerging as key materials in photoactive applications. However, the relative abundance of intra-bandgap defect states and lack of understanding of their origins within this class

  19. Tetragonal ternary borides: superconductivity, ferromagnetism and the role of scandium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthias, B.T.; Patel, C.K.N.; Barz, H.; Corenzwit, E.; Vandenberg, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The authors report and discuss two discoveries made while studying the condensation phenomena of ternary rhodium borides, MRh 4 B 4 . M is generally a trivalent transition metal, usually a rare earth element RE. An exception is scandium which by itself does not form an isomorphous boride, but in combination with many other elements will do just that. A suprising correlation between ferromagnetic and superconducting transition temperatures has been found. (Auth.)

  20. True ternary fission in 310126X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banupriya, B.; Vijayaraghavan, K.R.; Balasubramaniam, M.

    2015-01-01

    All possible combinations are minimized by the two dimensional minimization process and minimized with respect to neutron numbers and proton numbers of the fragments. Potential energy is low and Q - value is high at true ternary fission region. It shows that true ternary mode is the dominant mode in the ternary fission of superheavy nuclei. Also, the results show that the fragments with neutron magic numbers are the dominant one in the ternary fission of superheavy nuclei whereas the fragments with proton magic numbers are the dominant one in the ternary fission of heavy nuclei

  1. Development and application of high strength ternary boride base cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Ken-ichi

    2006-01-01

    Reaction boronizing sintering is a novel strategy to form a ternary boride coexisting with a metal matrix in a cermet during liquid phase sintering. This new sintering technique has successfully developed world first ternary boride base cermets with excellent mechanical properties such as Mo 2 FeB 2 , Mo 2 NiB 2 and WCoB base ones. In these cermets Mo 2 FeB 2 and Mo 2 NiB 2 base ones consist of a tetragonal M 3 B 2 (M: metal)-type complex boride as a hard phase and a transition metal base matrix. The cermets have already been applied to wear resistant applications such as injection molding machine parts, can making tools, and hot copper extruding dies, etc. This paper focuses on the characteristics, effects of the additional elements on the mechanical properties and structure, and practical applications of the ternary boride base cermets. - Graphical abstract: TRS and hardness of Ni-5B-51Mo-17.5Cr and Ni-5B-51Mo-12.5Cr-5V-xMn mass% cermets as functions of Mn content (Fig. 17)

  2. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Mujin; Wang, Cuiping; Yang, Shuiyuan; Shi, Zhan; Han, Jiajia; Liu, Xingjun

    2017-01-01

    The phase equilibria in the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system are investigated combined with X-ray diffraction, electron probe micro-analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Two isothermal sections of the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system at 1 000 C and 1 100 C are experimentally established. Most of the binary intermetallic compounds, e.g. Zr 7 Ni 10 , ZrNi, ZrNi 5 , Zr 14 Cu 51 , and Zr 2 Cu 9 , show a remarkable ternary solubility. A new ternary compound named τ 3 (Zr 31.1-30.7 . Cu 28.5-40.3 Ni 40.4-29.0 ) is detected at 1 000 C and dissolved at 1 020 C because the nearby large liquid phase field further expands. The newly determined phase equilibria will provide important information for both thermodynamic assessment and alloy design of Zr-based metallic glass.

  3. Some new ternary linear codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Daskalov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Let an $[n,k,d]_q$ code be a linear code of length $n$, dimension $k$ and minimum Hamming distance $d$ over $GF(q$. One of the most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with optimal minimum distances. In this paper 22 new ternary linear codes are presented. Two of them are optimal. All new codes improve the respective lower bounds in [11].

  4. Ternary carbide uranium fuels for advanced reactor design applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, Travis; Anghaie, Samim

    1999-01-01

    Solid-solution mixed uranium/refractory metal carbides such as the pseudo-ternary carbide, (U, Zr, Nb)C, hold significant promise for advanced reactor design applications because of their high thermal conductivity and high melting point (typically greater than 3200 K). Additionally, because of their thermochemical stability in a hot-hydrogen environment, pseudo-ternary carbides have been investigated for potential space nuclear power and propulsion applications. However, their stability with regard to sodium and improved resistance to attack by water over uranium carbide portends their usefulness as a fuel for advanced terrestrial reactors. An investigation into processing techniques was conducted in order to produce a series of (U, Zr, Nb)C samples for characterization and testing. Samples with densities ranging from 91% to 95% of theoretical density were produced by cold pressing and sintering the mixed constituent carbides at temperatures as high as 2650 K. (author)

  5. Experimental Investigation of Ternary Alloys for Fusion Breeding Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, B. William [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chiu, Ing L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-26

    Future fusion power plants based on the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel cycle will be required to breed the T fuel via neutron reactions with lithium, which will be incorporated in a breeding blanket that surrounds the fusion source. Recent work by LLNL proposed the used of liquid Li as the breeder in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. Subsequently, an LDRD was initiated to develop alternatives ternary alloy liquid metal breeders that have reduced chemical reactivity with water and air compared to pure Li. Part of the work plan was to experimentally investigate the phase diagrams of ternary alloys. Of particular interest was measurement of the melt temperature, which must be low enough to be compatible with the temperature limits of the steel used in the construction of the chamber and heat transfer system.

  6. Ternary complex formation of lanthanides and radiolanthanides with phosphate and serum proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumaier, B.; Roesch, F.

    1999-01-01

    Radioyttrium was recently reported to form ternary complexes with phosphate and serum proteins in blood. In the present work it was investigated whether the trivalent radiolanthanides react in a chemically similar way. In systematic binding studies using gel filtration a ternary complex formation between different lanthanides, phosphate and serum proteins could be identified. The tendency to build a ternary compound of the type Ln III - phosphate - serum protein, however, is dependent on the ionic radii of the lanthanides. Whereas the light and transition lanthanides have a strong inclination to build a ternary complex, this tendency is weaker for the heavier ones. Taking into account the high content of phosphate in human blood, the corresponding ternary complexes of radiolanthanides represent an important transport form of these elements in blood. This finding may contribute to an understanding of the nuclear medical observation on the biodistribution of radiolanthanides. The heavy radiolanthanides can be classified as bone seeking metals, whereas the light and transition lanthanide elements accumulate mainly in the liver and the spleen. For the lighter radiolanthanides the corresponding ternary complexes thus represent an important transport form in blood. This physicochemical form of lanthanides mainly results in reticulo endothelial accumulation; on the other hand, the lower tendency of heavier lanthanides leads to preferential skeletal deposition. (orig.)

  7. Phase equilibria of the Mo-Al-Ho ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yitai; Chen, Xiaoxian; Liu, Hao [Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Guangxi Key Laboratory of Processing for Non-ferrous Metal and Featured Materials; Zhan, Yongzhong [Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Guangxi Key Laboratory of Processing for Non-ferrous Metal and Featured Materials; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Center of Ecological Collaborative Innovation for Aluminum Industry

    2017-08-15

    Investigation into the reactions and phase equilibria of transition metal elements (i.e. Mo, Zr, Cr, V and Ti), Al and rare earths is academically and industrially important for the development of both refractory alloys and lightweight high-temperature materials. In this work, the equilibria of the Mo-Al-Ho ternary system at 773 K have been determined by using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. A new ternary phase Al{sub 4}Mo{sub 2}Ho has been found and the other ternary phase Al{sub 43}Mo{sub 4}Ho{sub 6} is observed. Ten binary phases in the Al-Mo and Al-Ho systems, including Al{sub 17}Mo{sub 4} rather than Al{sub 4}Mo, have been determined to exist at 773 K. The homogeneity ranges of AlMo{sub 3} and Al{sub 8}Mo{sub 3} phase are 7.5 at.% and 1 at.%, respectively. According to the phase-disappearing method, the maximum solubility of Al in Mo is about 16 at.%.

  8. Study on the solid state chemistry of ternary uranium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Toshiyuki

    1988-03-01

    With the increase of burnup of uranium oxide fuels, various kinds of fission products are formed, and the oxygen atoms combined with the consumed heavy atoms are freed. The solid state chemical and/or thermodynamic properties of these elements at high temperatures are complex, and have not been well clarified. In the present report, an approach was taken that the chemical interactions between UO 2 and these fission products can be regarded as causing overlapped effects of composing ternary uranium oxides, and formation reactions and phase behavior were studied for several ternary uranium oxides with typical fission product elements such as alkaline earth metals and rare earth elements. Precise determination methods for the composition of ternary uranium oxides were developed. The estimated accuracies for x and y values in M y U 1-y O 2+x were ± 0.006 and ± 0.004, respectively. The thermodynamic properties and the lattice parameters of the phases in the Ca-U-O and Pr-U-O systems were discussed in relation to the composition determined by the methods. Crystal structure analyses of cadmium monouranates were made with X-ray diffraction method. (author) 197 refs

  9. High-Efficient Circuits for Ternary Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Faghih Mirzaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New ternary adders, which are fundamental components of ternary addition, are presented in this paper. They are on the basis of a logic style which mostly generates binary signals. Therefore, static power dissipation reaches its minimum extent. Extensive different analyses are carried out to examine how efficient the new designs are. For instance, the ternary ripple adder constructed by the proposed ternary half and full adders consumes 2.33 μW less power than the one implemented by the previous adder cells. It is almost twice faster as well. Due to their unique superior characteristics for ternary circuitry, carbon nanotube field-effect transistors are used to form the novel circuits, which are entirely suitable for practical applications.

  10. Evaluation of ΔGsub(f) values for unstable compounds: a Fortran program for the calculation of ternary phase equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throop, G.J.; Rogl, P.; Rudy, E.

    1978-01-01

    A Fortran IV program was set up for the calculation of phase equilibria and tieline distributions in ternary systems of the type: transition metal-transition metal-nonmetal (interstitial type of solid solutions). The method offers the possibility of determining the thermodynamic values for unstable compounds through their influence upon ternary phase equilibria. The variation of the free enthalpy of formation of ternary solid solutions is calculated as a function of nonmetal content, thus describing the actual curvature of the phase boundaries. The integral and partial molar free enthalpies of formation of binary nonstoichiometric compounds and of phase solutions are expressed as analytical functions of the nonmetal content within their homogeneity range. The coefficient of these analytical expressions are obtained by the use either of the Wagner-Schottky vacancy model or polynomials second order in composition (parabolic approach). The free energy of formation, ΔGsub(f) has been calculated for the systems Ti-C, Zr-C, and Ta-C. Calculations of the ternary phase equilibria yielded the values for ΔGsub(f) for the unstable compounds Ti 2 C at 1500 0 C and Zr 2 C at 1775 0 C of -22.3 and 22.7 kcal g atom metal respectively. These values were used for the calculation of isothermal sections within the ternary systems Ti-Ta-C (at 1500 0 C) and Zr-Ta-C (at 1775 0 C). The ideal case of ternary phase solutions is extended to regular solutions. (author)

  11. Fac–mer equilibria of coordinated iminodiacetate (ida ) in ternary Cu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Keywords. Fac–mer equilibria; CuII-iminodiacetate-imidazole/benzimidazole ternary complexes; stability constants. 1. Introduction. Mixed ligand complexes of transition metal ions with amino acids, peptides or their derivatives or analogues, and heterocyclic N-bases can serve as model compounds of bioinorganic interests ...

  12. Plutonium microstructures. Part 2. Binary and ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, E.M.; Bergin, J.B.

    1983-12-01

    This report is the second of three parts that exhibit illustrations of inclusions in plutonium metal from inherent and tramp impurities, of intermetallic and nonmetallic constituents from alloy additions, and of the effects of thermal and mechanical treatments. This part includes illustrations of the microstructures in binary cast alloys and a few selected ternary alloys that result from measured additions of diluent elements, and of the microconstituents that are characteristic of phase fields in extended alloy systems. Microhardness data are given and the etchant used in the preparation of each sample is described

  13. Phase diagram of the ternary Zr-Ti-Sn system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, D.; Gonzalez Camus, M.

    1987-01-01

    It is well known that Ti stabilizes the high temperature cubic phase of Zr and that Sn stabilizes the low temperature hexagonal phase of Zr. The effect of Sn on the Zr-Ti diagram has been studied in the present paper. Using high purity metals, nine different alloys have been prepared, with 4-32 at % Ti, 0.7-2.2 at % Sn and Zr till 100%. Resistivity and optical and SEM metallography techniques have been employed. Effect of some impurities have been analyzed. The results are discussed and different isothermic sections of the ternary Zr-Ti-Sn diagram are presented. (Author) [es

  14. Susceptibility of ternary aluminum alloys to cracking during solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jiangwei; Kou, Sindo

    2017-01-01

    The crack susceptibility map of a ternary Al alloy system provides useful information about which alloy compositions are most susceptible to cracking and thus should be avoided by using a filler metal with a significantly different composition. In the present study the crack susceptibility maps of ternary Al alloy systems were calculated based on the maximum |dT/d(f S ) 1/2 | as an index for the crack susceptibility, where T is temperature and f S fraction solid. Due to the complexity associated with ternary alloy solidification, commercial thermodynamic software Pandat and Al database PanAluminum, instead of analytical equations, were used to calculate f S as a function of T and hence the maximum |dT/d(f S ) 1/2 | for ternary Al-Mg-Si, Al-Cu-Mg and Al-Cu-Si alloy systems. A crack susceptibility map covering 121 alloy compositions was constructed for each of the three ternary alloy systems at each of the following three levels of back diffusion: no back diffusion, back diffusion under a 100 °C/s cooling rate, and back diffusion under 20° C/s. The location of the region of high crack susceptibility, which is the most important part of the map, was shown in each of the nine calculated maps. These locations were compared with those observed in crack susceptibility tests by previous investigators. With back diffusion considered, either under 20 or 100 °C/s, the agreement between the calculated and observed maps was good especially for Al-Mg-Si and Al-Cu-Mg. Thus, the maximum |dT/d(f S ) 1/2 | can be used as a crack susceptibility index to construct crack susceptibility maps for ternary Al alloys and to evaluate the effect of back diffusion on their crack susceptibility. - Graphical abstract: The crack susceptibility map of a ternary alloy system indicates the composition range most susceptible to cracking, which should be avoided in welding or casting. The crack susceptibility maps of ternary Al alloy systems Al-Mg-Si, Al-Cu-Mg and Al-Cu-Si were calculated based

  15. Description of the ternary system Cu-Ge-Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogguy, M.; Carcaly, C.; Rivet, J.; Flahaut, J.

    1977-01-01

    The Cu-Ge-Te ternary system has been studied by DTA and by crystallographic and metallographic analysis. The existence of a ternary compound Cu 2 GeTe 3 is demonstrated; this compound has a ternary incongruent melting point at 500 0 C. This ternary compound has a superstructure of a zinc blende type. The study shows the existence of five ternary eutectics. Two liquid-liquid miscibility gaps exist: the first is situated entirely in the ternary system; the second gives a monotectic region within the ternary system. (Auth.)

  16. All-optical symmetric ternary logic gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2010-09-01

    Symmetric ternary number (radix=3) has three logical states (1¯, 0, 1). It is very much useful in carry free arithmetical operation. Beside this, the logical operation using this type of number system is also effective in high speed computation and communication in multi-valued logic. In this literature all-optical circuits for three basic symmetrical ternary logical operations (inversion, MIN and MAX) are proposed and described. Numerical simulation verifies the theoretical model. In this present scheme the different ternary logical states are represented by different polarized state of light. Terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch has been used categorically in this manuscript.

  17. Performance Estimation for Lowpass Ternary Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenton Steele

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Ternary filters have tap values limited to −1, 0, or +1. This restriction in tap values greatly simplifies the multipliers required by the filter, making ternary filters very well suited to hardware implementations. Because they incorporate coarse quantisation, their performance is typically limited by tap quantisation error. This paper derives formulae for estimating the achievable performance of lowpass ternary filters, thereby allowing the number of computationally intensive design iterations to be reduced. Motivated by practical communications systems requirements, the performance measure which is used is the worst-case stopband attenuation.

  18. Ternary ceramic thermal spraying powder and method of manufacturing thermal sprayed coating using said powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogli, Evelina; Sherman, Andrew J.; Glasgow, Curtis P.

    2018-02-06

    The invention describes a method for producing ternary and binary ceramic powders and their thermal spraying capable of manufacturing thermal sprayed coatings with superior properties. Powder contain at least 30% by weight ternary ceramic, at least 20% by weight binary molybdenum borides, at least one of the binary borides of Cr, Fe, Ni, W and Co and a maximum of 10% by weight of nano and submicro-sized boron nitride. The primary crystal phase of the manufactured thermal sprayed coatings from these powders is a ternary ceramic, while the secondary phases are binary ceramics. The coatings have extremely high resistance against corrosion of molten metal, extremely thermal shock resistance and superior tribological properties at low and at high temperatures.

  19. MnO2 Nanorods Intercalating Graphene Oxide/Polyaniline Ternary Composites for Robust High-Performance Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guangqiang; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Lingling; Kan, Erjun; Zhang, Shaopeng; Tang, Jian; Tang, Weihua

    2014-04-01

    New ternary composites of MnO2 nanorods, polyaniline (PANI) and graphene oxide (GO) have been prepared by a two-step process. The 100 nm-long MnO2 nanorods with a diameter ~20 nm are conformably coated with PANI layers and fastened between GO layers. The MnO2 nanorods incorporated ternary composites electrode exhibits significantly increased specific capacitance than PANI/GO binary composite in supercapacitors. The ternary composite with 70% MnO2 exhibits a highest specific capacitance reaching 512 F/g and outstanding cycling performance, with ~97% capacitance retained over 5000 cycles. The ternary composite approach offers an effective solution to enhance the device performance of metal-oxide based supercapacitors for long cycling applications.

  20. Ternary networks reliability and Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Gertsbakh, Ilya; Vaisman, Radislav

    2014-01-01

    Ternary means “based on three”. This book deals with reliability investigations of  networks whose components subject to failures can be in three states –up, down and middle (mid), contrary to traditionally considered networks  having only binary (up/down) components. Extending binary case to ternary allows to consider more realistic and flexible models for communication, flow and supply networks.

  1. Sol-gel prepared active ternary oxide coating on titanium in cathodic protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR V. PANIC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of a ternary oxide coating, on titanium, which consisted of TiO2, RuO2 and IrO2 in the molar ratio 0.6:0.3:0.1, calculated on the metal atom, were investigated for potential application for cathodic protection in a seawater environment. The oxide coatings on titanium were prepared by the sol gel procedure from a mixture of inorganic oxide sols, which were obtained by forced hydrolysis of metal chlorides. The morphology of the coating was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties of activated titanium anodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and polarization measurements in a H2SO4- and NaCl-containing electrolyte, as well as in seawater sampled on the Adriatic coast in Tivat, Montenegro. The anode stability during operation in seawater was investigated by the galvanostatic accelerated corrosion stability test. The morphology and electrochemical characteristics of the ternary coating are compared to that of a sol-gel-prepared binary Ti0.6Ru0.4O2 coating. The activity of the ternary coating was similar to that of the binary Ti0.6Ru0.4O2 coating in the investigated solutions. However, the corrosion stability in seawater is found to be considerably greater for the ternary coating.

  2. Investigation of transient photoresponse of WSSe ternary alloy crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Payal; Solanki, G. K.; Tannarana, Mohit; Pataniya, Pratik; Patel, K. D.; Pathak, V. M.

    2018-05-01

    Transition metal chalcogenides have been studied intensively in recent time due to their tunability of electronic properties by compositional change, alloying and by transforming bulk material into crystalline 2D structure. These changes lead to the development of verities of next generation opto-electronic device applications such as solar cells, FETs and flexible detectors etc. In present work, we report growth and characterization of crystalline ternary alloy WSSe by direct vapour transport technique. A photodetector is constructed using grown crystals to study its transient photoresponse under polychromatic radiation. The WSSe crystals are mechanically exfoliated to thickness of 3 µm and the lateral dimension of prepared sample is 2.25 mm2. The time-resolved photoresponse is studied under polychromatic illumination of power density ranging from 10 to 40 mW/cm2. The photo response is also studied under different bias voltages ranging from 0.1 V to 0.5 V. The typical photodetector parameters i.e. photocurrent, rise and fall time, responsivity and sensitivity are evaluated and discussed in light of the ternary alloy composition.

  3. Crystallization features of ternary reversible reciprocal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomashik, V.N.; Shcherbak, L.P.; Fejchuk, P.I.; Grytsiv, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    Some features of the primary crystallization of phases in ternary reversible reciprocal system are considered and discussed. The diagonal join CdTe-GeSe of the CdTe + GeSe = CdSe + GeTe ternary reciprocal system is studied to show that the features in primary and secondary heating and cooling curves in such systems under fully equilibrium conditions are not reproduced upon consecutive heating and cooling sessions, because of the existence of different amounts of the reagents and the reaction products in the mixture; the temperatures of each transformation lie in a range. Those who experimentally investigate other ternary and more complex reversible reciprocal systems should take this fact into account [ru

  4. The ternary system nickel-boron-silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugscheider, E.; Reimann, H.; Knotek, O.

    1975-01-01

    The ternary system Nickel-Boron-Silicon was established at 850 0 C by means of X-ray diffraction, metallographic and micro-hardness examinations. The well known binary nickel borides and silicides resp. were confirmed. In the boron-silicon system two binary phases, SiBsub(4-x) with x approximately 0.7 and SiB 6 were found the latter in equilibrium with the β-rhombohedral boron. Confirming the two ternary silicon borides a greater homogeneity range was found for Ni 6 Si 2 B, the phase Nisub(4,6)Si 2 B published by Uraz and Rundqvist can better be described by the formula Nisub(4.29)Si 2 Bsub(1.43). In relation to further investigations we measured melting temperatures in ternary Ni-10 B-Si alloys by differential thermoanalysis. (author)

  5. Ternary fission induced by polarized neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gönnenwein Friedrich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ternary fission of (e,e U- and Pu- isotopes induced by cold polarized neutrons discloses some new facets of the process. In the so-called ROT effect shifts in the angular distributions of ternary particles relative to the fission fragments show up. In the so-called TRI effect an asymmetry in the emission of ternary particles relative to a plane formed by the fragment momentum and the spin of the neutron appear. The two effects are shown to be linked to the components of angular momentum perpendicular and parallel to the fission axis at the saddle point of fission. Based on theoretical models the spectroscopic properties of the collective transitional states at the saddle point are inferred from experiment.

  6. True ternary fission of 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayaraghavan, K.R.; Balasubramaniam, M.; Oertzen, W. von

    2014-01-01

    Splitting of heavy radioactive nucleus into three fragments is known as ternary fission. If the size of the fragments are almost equal it is referred to as true ternary fission. Recently, Yu. V. Pyatkov et al observed/reported the experimental observation of true ternary fission in 252 Cf. In this work, the possibilities of different true ternary fission modes of 252 Cf through potential energy surface (PES) calculations based on three cluster model (TCM) are discussed. In TCM a condition on the mass numbers of the fission fragments is implied as A 1 ≥ A 2 ≥ A 3 in order to avoid repetition of combinations. Due to this condition, the values of Z 3 vary from 0 to 36 and Z 2 vary from 16 to 51. Of the different pairs having similar (Z 2 , Z 3 ) with different potential energy, a pair possessing minimum potential energy is chosen. Thus identified favourable combinations are plotted. For the PES calculations the arrangement of the fragments is considered in the order of A 1 +A 2 +A 3 . i.e. the heavy and the lightest fragments are kept at the ends. It is seen that the deepest minimum in the PES occurs for Z 3 =2 labelled as (Z 2 ; 2) indicating He accompanied breakup as the most favourable one. Of which, the breakup with Z 2 around 46 to 48 is the least (shown by dashed (Z 1 = 50) and dotted (Z 1 = 52) lines indicating a constant Z 1 value). The other notable minima in the PES are labelled and they correspond to the (Z 2 , Z 3 ) pairs viz., (20, 20), (28, 20), (28, 28) and (32, 32). Of these four minima, the first three are associated with the magic numbers 20 and 28. For Z 3 =20, there are two minimums at (20,20) and (28,20) among them (28,20) is the lowest minimum through which the minimum-path passes, and it is the ternary decay observed by Yu. V. Pyatkov et al. The fourth minima is the most interesting due to the fact that it corresponds to true ternary fission mode with Z 2 =32, Z 3 =32 and Z 1 =34. The minimum potential energy path also goes through this true

  7. A Josephson ternary associative memory cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisue, M.; Suzuki, K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a three-valued content addressable memory cell using a Josephson complementary ternary logic circuit named as JCTL. The memory cell proposed here can perform three operations of searching, writing and reading in ternary logic system. The principle of the memory circuit is illustrated in detail by using the threshold-characteristics of the JCTL. In order to investigate how a high performance operation can be achieved, computer simulations have been made. Simulation results show that the cycle time of memory operation is 120psec, power consumption is about 0.5 μW/cell and tolerances of writing and reading operation are +-15% and +-24%, respectively

  8. A high-throughput search for new ternary superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyshadham, Chandramouli; Hansen, Jacob; Oses, Corey; Curtarolo, Stefano; Hart, Gus

    In 2006 an unexpected new superalloy, Co3[Al,W], was discovered. This new alloy is cobalt-based, in contrast to conventional superalloys, which are nickel-based. Inspired by this new discovery, we performed first-principles calculations, searching through 2224 ternary metallic systems of the form A3[B0.5C0.5], where A = Ni/Co/Fe and [B, C] = all binary combinations of 40 different elements chosen from the periodic table. We found 175 new systems that are better than the Co3[Al, W] superalloy. 75 of these systems are brand new--they have never been reported in experimental literature. These 75 new potential superalloys are good candidates for further experiments. Our calculations are consistent with current experimental literature where data exists. Work supported under: ONR (MURI N00014-13-1-0635).

  9. Ternary-fragmentation-driving potential energies of 252Cf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikraj, C.; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2017-12-01

    Within the framework of a simple macroscopic model, the ternary-fragmentation-driving potential energies of 252Cf are studied. In this work, all possible ternary-fragment combinations of 252Cf are generated by the use of atomic mass evaluation-2016 (AME2016) data and these combinations are minimized by using a two-dimensional minimization approach. This minimization process can be done in two ways: (i) with respect to proton numbers (Z1, Z2, Z3) and (ii) with respect to neutron numbers (N1, N2, N3) of the ternary fragments. In this paper, the driving potential energies for the ternary breakup of 252Cf are presented for both the spherical and deformed as well as the proton-minimized and neutron-minimized ternary fragments. From the proton-minimized spherical ternary fragments, we have obtained different possible ternary configurations with a minimum driving potential, in particular, the experimental expectation of Sn + Ni + Ca ternary fragmentation. However, the neutron-minimized ternary fragments exhibit a driving potential minimum in the true-ternary-fission (TTF) region as well. Further, the Q -value energy systematics of the neutron-minimized ternary fragments show larger values for the TTF fragments. From this, we have concluded that the TTF region fragments with the least driving potential and high Q values have a strong possibility in the ternary fragmentation of 252Cf. Further, the role of ground-state deformations (β2, β3, β4, and β6) in the ternary breakup of 252Cf is also studied. The deformed ternary fragmentation, which involves Z3=12 -19 fragments, possesses the driving potential minimum due to the larger oblate deformations. We also found that the ground-state deformations, particularly β2, strongly influence the driving potential energies and play a major role in determining the most probable fragment combinations in the ternary breakup of 252Cf.

  10. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Mujin; Wang, Cuiping; Yang, Shuiyuan; Shi, Zhan; Han, Jiajia; Liu, Xingjun [Xiamen Univ. (China). College of Materials and Fujian Provincial Key Lab. of Materials Genome

    2017-08-15

    The phase equilibria in the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system are investigated combined with X-ray diffraction, electron probe micro-analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Two isothermal sections of the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system at 1 000 C and 1 100 C are experimentally established. Most of the binary intermetallic compounds, e.g. Zr{sub 7}Ni{sub 10}, ZrNi, ZrNi{sub 5}, Zr{sub 14}Cu{sub 51}, and Zr{sub 2}Cu{sub 9}, show a remarkable ternary solubility. A new ternary compound named τ{sub 3} (Zr{sub 31.1-30.7} . Cu{sub 28.5-40.3}Ni{sub 40.4-29.0}) is detected at 1 000 C and dissolved at 1 020 C because the nearby large liquid phase field further expands. The newly determined phase equilibria will provide important information for both thermodynamic assessment and alloy design of Zr-based metallic glass.

  11. Characterization of U(VI)-carbonato ternary complexes on hematite: EXAFS and electrophoretic mobility measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, John R.; Reitmeyer, Rebecca; Lenhart, John J.; Davis, James A.

    2000-01-01

    We have measured U(VI) adsorption on hematite using EXAFS spectroscopy and electrophoresis under conditions relevant to surface waters and aquifers (0.01 to 10 μM dissolved uranium concentrations, in equilibrium with air, pH 4.5 to 8.5). Both techniques suggest the existence of anionic U(VI)-carbonato ternary complexes. Fits to EXAFS spectra indicate that U(VI) is simultaneously coordinated to surface FeO6 octahedra and carbonate (or bicarbonate) ligands in bidentate fashions, leading to the conclusion that the ternary complexes have an inner-sphere metal bridging (hematite-U(VI)-carbonato) structure. Greater than or equal to 50% of adsorbed U(VI) was comprised of monomeric hematite-U(VI)-carbonato ternary complexes, even at pH 4.5. Multimeric U(VI) species were observed at pH ≥ 6.5 and aqueous U(VI) concentrations approximately an order of magnitude more dilute than the solubility of crystalline β-UO2(OH)2. Based on structural constraints, these complexes were interpreted as dimeric hematite-U(VI)-carbonato ternary complexes. These results suggest that Fe-oxide-U(VI)-carbonato complexes are likely to be important transport-limiting species in oxic aquifers throughout a wide range of pH values.

  12. Boron-Based Hydrogen Storage: Ternary Borides and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajo, John J. [HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA (United States)

    2016-04-28

    DOE continues to seek reversible solid-state hydrogen materials with hydrogen densities of ≥11 wt% and ≥80 g/L that can deliver hydrogen and be recharged at moderate temperatures (≤100 °C) and pressures (≤100 bar) enabling incorporation into hydrogen storage systems suitable for transportation applications. Boron-based hydrogen storage materials have the potential to meet the density requirements given boron’s low atomic weight, high chemical valance, and versatile chemistry. However, the rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based compounds are thus far much too slow for practical applications. Although contributing to the high hydrogen densities, the high valance of boron also leads to slow rates of hydrogen exchange due to extensive boron-boron atom rearrangements during hydrogen cycling. This rearrangement often leads to multiple solid phases occurring over hydrogen release and recharge cycles. These phases must nucleate and react with each other across solid-solid phase boundaries leading to energy barriers that slow the rates of hydrogen exchange. This project sought to overcome the slow rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based hydrogen storage materials by minimizing the number of solid phases and the boron atom rearrangement over a hydrogen release and recharge cycle. Two novel approaches were explored: 1) developing matched pairs of ternary borides and mixed-metal borohydrides that could exchange hydrogen with only one hydrogenated phase (the mixed-metal borohydride) and only one dehydrogenated phase (the ternary boride); and 2) developing boranes that could release hydrogen by being lithiated using lithium hydride with no boron-boron atom rearrangement.

  13. Indacenodithienothiophene-Based Ternary Organic Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparini, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.gasparini@fau.de [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (I-MEET), Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); García-Rodríguez, Amaranda [Macromolecular Chemistry Group (buwmakro), Institute for Polymer Technology, BergischeUniversität Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Prosa, Mario [Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Bologna (Italy); Bayseç, Şebnem; Palma-Cando, Alex [Macromolecular Chemistry Group (buwmakro), Institute for Polymer Technology, BergischeUniversität Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Katsouras, Athanasios; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos [Department of Materials Science Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina (Greece); Pagona, Georgia; Gregoriou, Vasilis G. [Advent Technologies SA, Patras Science Park, Patra (Greece); National Hellenic Research Foundation (NHRF), Athens (Greece); Chochos, Christos L. [Department of Materials Science Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina (Greece); Advent Technologies SA, Patras Science Park, Patra (Greece); Allard, Sybille; Scherf, Ulrich [Macromolecular Chemistry Group (buwmakro), Institute for Polymer Technology, BergischeUniversität Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Brabec, Christoph J. [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (I-MEET), Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research (ZAE Bayern), Erlangen (Germany); Ameri, Tayebeh, E-mail: nicola.gasparini@fau.de [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (I-MEET), Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-01-13

    One of the key aspects to achieve high efficiency in ternary bulk-hetorojunction solar cells is the physical and chemical compatibility between the donor materials. Here, we report the synthesis of a novel conjugated polymer (P1) containing alternating pyridyl[2,1,3]thiadiazole between two different donor fragments, dithienosilole and indacenodithienothiophene (IDTT), used as a sensitizer in a host system of indacenodithieno[3,2-b]thiophene,2,3-bis(3-(octyloxy)phenyl)quinoxaline (PIDTTQ) and [6,6]-phenyl C{sub 70} butyric acid methyl ester (PC{sub 71}BM). We found that the use of the same IDTT unit in the host and guest materials does not lead to significant changes in the morphology of the ternary blend compared to the host binary. With the complementary use of optoelectronic characterizations, we found that the ternary cells suffer from a lower mobility-lifetime (μτ) product, adversely impacting the fill factor. However, the significant light harvesting in the near infrared region improvement, compensating the transport losses, results in an overall power conversion efficiency enhancement of ~7% for ternary blends as compared to the PIDTTQ:PC{sub 71}BM devices.

  14. Self-triggered coordination with ternary controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Frasca, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    This paper regards coordination of networked systems with ternary controllers. We develop a hybrid coordination system which implements a self-triggered communication policy, based on polling the neighbors upon need. We prove that the proposed scheme ensures finite-time convergence to a neighborhood

  15. Does Science Also Prefer a Ternary Pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogliani, L.; Klein, D. J.; Balaban, A. T.

    2006-01-01

    Through the importance of the number three in our culture and the strange preference for a ternary pattern of our nature one can perceive how and why number theory degraded to numerology. The strong preference of our minds for simple patterns can be read as the key to understanding not only the development of numerology, but also why scientists…

  16. Angular distribution in ternary cold fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delion, D.S.; J.W. Goethe Univ., Frankfurt; Sandulescu, A.; J.W. Goethe Univ., Frankfurt; Greiner, W.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the spontaneous ternary cold fission of 252 Cf, accompanied by 4 He, 10 Be and 14 C. The light cluster decays from the first resonant eigenstate in the Coulomb potential plus a harmonic oscillator potential. We have shown that the angular distribution of the emitted light particle is strongly connected with its deformation and the equatorial distance. (author)

  17. Ternary catalyst-olefin-hydroperoxide complexes and their contribution to epoxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svitych, R.B.; Rzhevskaya, N.N.; Buchachenko, A.L.; Yablonskij, O.P.; Petukhov, A.A.; Belyaev, V.A.

    1976-01-01

    Electron and NMR spectroscopy have been used for studying the complex formation of catalysts (Mo 5+ , Mn 2+ , Co 2+ ) in double and triple systems: metal-olefin and metal-olefin-hydroperoxide. It has been established that ions of metals form complexes with olefins in the first sphere. The formation has been proved of ternary complexes metal-olefin-hydroperoxide. The structure of the complexes has been proposed with olefins in the first and hydroperoxide in the second sphere of the metal ion. The structure explains known kinetic regularities of epoxydation and the mechanism of the formation of final products, oxide and alcohol. It has been shown that the best catalysts for epoxydation of olefins with hydroperoxides must be the compounds of the metals with an electron state of ion d 0 [ru

  18. Hydrothermal synthesis of graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotube/Fe3O4 ternary nanocomposite for removal of Cu (II) and methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zhihang; Zhan, Yingqing; Li, Fei; Wan, Xinyi; He, Yi; Hou, Chunyan; Hu, Hai

    2017-09-01

    In this work, highly activated graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotube/Fe3O4 ternary nanocomposite adsorbent was prepared from a simple hydrothermal route by using ferrous sulfate as precursor. For this purpose, the graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotube architectures were formed through the π-π attractions between them, followed by attaching Fe3O4 nanoparticles onto their surface. The structure and composition of as-prepared ternary nanocomposite were characterized by XRD, FTIR, XPS, SEM, TEM, Raman, TGA, and BET. It was found that the resultant porous graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotube/Fe3O4 ternary nanocomposite with large surface area could effectively prevent the π-π stacking interactions between graphene oxide nanosheets and greatly improve sorption sites on the surfaces. Thus, owing to the unique ternary nanocomposite architecture and synergistic effect among various components, as-prepared ternary nanocomposite exhibited high separation efficiency when they were used to remove the Cu (II) and methylene blue from aqueous solutions. Furthermore, the adsorption isotherms of ternary nanocomposite structures for Cu (II) and methylene blue removal fitted the Langmuir isotherm model. This work demonstrated that the graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotube/Fe3O4 ternary nanocomposite was promising as an efficient adsorbent for heavy metal ions and organic dye removal from wastewater in low concentration.

  19. Design of a novel quantum reversible ternary up-counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshmand, Pouran; Haghparast, Majid

    2015-08-01

    Reversible logic has been recently considered as an interesting and important issue in designing combinational and sequential circuits. The combination of reversible logic and multi-valued logic can improve power dissipation, time and space utilization rate of designed circuits. Only few works have been reported about sequential reversible circuits and almost there are no paper exhibited about quantum ternary reversible counter. In this paper, first we designed 2-qutrit and 3-qutrit quantum reversible ternary up-counters using quantum ternary reversible T-flip-flop and quantum reversible ternary gates. Then we proposed generalized quantum reversible ternary n-qutrit up-counter. We also introduced a new approach for designing any type of n-qutrit ternary and reversible counter. According to the results, we can conclude that applying second approach quantum reversible ternary up-counter is better than the others.

  20. Thermal expansion of the nuclear fuel-sodium reaction product Na3(U0.84(2),Na0.16(2))O4 - Structural mechanism and comparison with related sodium-metal ternary oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illy, Marie-Claire; Smith, Anna L.; Wallez, Gilles; Raison, Philippe E.; Caciuffo, Roberto; Konings, Rudy J. M.

    2017-07-01

    Na3.16(2)UV,VI0.84(2)O4 is obtained from the reaction of sodium with uranium dioxide under oxygen potential conditions typical of a sodium-cooled fast nuclear reactor. In the event of a breach of the steel cladding, it would be the dominant reaction product forming at the rim of the mixed (U,Pu)O2 fuel pellets. High-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements show that a distortion of the uranium environment in Na3.16(2)UV,VI0.84(2)O4 results in a strongly anisotropic thermal expansion. A comparison with several related sodium metallates Nan-2Mn+On-1 - including Na3SbO4 and Na3TaO4, whose crystal structures are reported for the first time - has allowed us to assess the role played in the lattice expansion by the Mn+ cation radius and the Na/M ratio. On this basis, the thermomechanical behavior of the title compound is discussed, along with those of several related double oxides of sodium and actinide elements, surrogate elements, or fission products.

  1. Regularity in the formation of compounds in ternary R-Me-Sn systems, R - REM, Me - Fe, Co, Ni, Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skolozdra, R.V.; Komarovskaya, L.P.; Koretskaya, O.Eh.

    1992-01-01

    For the ternary alloy systems of (La, Y, Gd, Lu)-Fe-Sn, (Ce, Y, Gd)-Co-Sn, (Ce, Y, Gd, Lu)-Ni-Sn and (Pr, Gd, Lu)-Cu-Sn isothermal sections of phase diagrams were plotted within the range of 670 to 870 K. It was revealed that substitution of transition metal in the kFe-Co-Ni-Cu series led to changes both in a number of ternary stannides and their structural types. A tendency was observed in change of stannide numbers depending on quantity ratio of R and Me components. Crystallochemical analysis of compounds obtained showed that they could be treated as interstitial structures or lsuperstructures with respect to them. The results of magnetic properties measurements were used for explanation of structural features of ternary compounds considered

  2. Characterization of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and refractory metals in binary and ternary silicon-based films using ion beam methods; Caracterisation des elements: carbone, azote, oxygene et metal refractaire dans des depots binaires et ternaires a base de silicium par methodes d'analyse utilisant les faisceaux d'ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somatri-Bouamrane, R. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire]|[Universite Claude Bernard, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1996-12-19

    Ion beam methods (non Rutherford backscattering, nuclear reactions) have been carried out in order to characterize silicon-based films. The cross sections for the reactions {sup 12}C({alpha},{alpha}), {sup 14}N({alpha},{alpha}), {sup 16}O({alpha},{alpha}), {sup 28}Si({alpha},{alpha}) and {sup 14}N({alpha},p) have been measured within 2 and 7 MeV. CVD beta SiC films could be analyzed and the interface between silicon carbide and the (100) silicon substrate was studied. The epitaxial growth of the beta SiC film could be modelled by comparing the results obtained with ion beam analysis, infrared spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Moreover, the stoichiometry of low pressure CVD Me-Si-N (Me=Re, W, Ti, Ta) ternary systems was studied. The evolution of the nitrogen content in W-Si-N systems allowed to study their stability with respect to the annealing conditions. (N.T.)

  3. First principle study of UHTC ternary diboride, Cr2AlB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Anugya; Rajpoot, Priyanka; Verma, U. P.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper ab-initio study of the structural, electronic and optical properties of ternary metal boride Cr2AlB2 using full potential linear augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method based on the density functional theory (DFT). The study of structural properties shows that Cr2AlB2 is metallic in nature and have orthorhombic crystal structure. The optical properties show that it possess anisotropic behavior, which have wide applications in electricity production through concentration of solar power (CSP) technology. To the best of our knowledge, theoretical study of the optical properties of Cr2AlB2 is reported for the first time.

  4. Growth and characterization of III-N ternary thin films by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nepal, Neeraj; Anderson, Virginia R.; Hite, Jennifer K.; Eddy, Charles R.

    2015-08-31

    We report the growth and characterization of III-nitride ternary thin films (Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N, In{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N and In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N) at ≤ 500 °C by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy (PA-ALE) over a wide stoichiometric range including the range where phase separation has been an issue for films grown by molecular beam epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The composition of these ternaries was intentionally varied through alterations in the cycle ratios of the III-nitride binary layers (AlN, GaN, and InN). By this digital alloy growth method, we are able to grow III-nitride ternaries by PA-ALE over nearly the entire stoichiometry range including in the spinodal decomposition region (x = 15–85%). These early efforts suggest great promise of PA-ALE at low temperatures for addressing miscibility gap challenges encountered with conventional growth methods and realizing high performance optoelectronic and electronic devices involving ternary/binary heterojunctions, which are not currently possible. - Highlights: • III-N ternaries grown at ≤ 500 °C by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy • Growth of InGaN and AlInN in the spinodal decomposition region (15–85%) • Epitaxial, smooth and uniform III-N film growth at low temperatures.

  5. Growth and characterization of III-N ternary thin films by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepal, Neeraj; Anderson, Virginia R.; Hite, Jennifer K.; Eddy, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    We report the growth and characterization of III-nitride ternary thin films (Al x Ga 1−x N, In x Al 1−x N and In x Ga 1−x N) at ≤ 500 °C by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy (PA-ALE) over a wide stoichiometric range including the range where phase separation has been an issue for films grown by molecular beam epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The composition of these ternaries was intentionally varied through alterations in the cycle ratios of the III-nitride binary layers (AlN, GaN, and InN). By this digital alloy growth method, we are able to grow III-nitride ternaries by PA-ALE over nearly the entire stoichiometry range including in the spinodal decomposition region (x = 15–85%). These early efforts suggest great promise of PA-ALE at low temperatures for addressing miscibility gap challenges encountered with conventional growth methods and realizing high performance optoelectronic and electronic devices involving ternary/binary heterojunctions, which are not currently possible. - Highlights: • III-N ternaries grown at ≤ 500 °C by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy • Growth of InGaN and AlInN in the spinodal decomposition region (15–85%) • Epitaxial, smooth and uniform III-N film growth at low temperatures

  6. Ternary nitrides for hydrogen storage: Li-B-N, Li-Al-N and Li-Ga-N systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langmi, Henrietta W.; McGrady, G. Sean

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation of hydrogen storage performance of ternary nitrides based on lithium and the Group 13 elements boron, aluminum and gallium. These were prepared by ball milling Li 3 N together with the appropriate Group 13 nitride-BN, AlN or GaN. Powder X-ray diffraction of the products revealed that the ternary nitrides obtained are not the known Li 3 BN 2 , Li 3 AlN 2 and Li 3 GaN 2 phases. At 260 deg. C and 30 bar hydrogen pressure, the Li-Al-N ternary system initially absorbed 3.7 wt.% hydrogen, although this is not fully reversible. We observed, for the first time, hydrogen uptake by a pristine ternary nitride of Li and Al synthesized from the binary nitrides of the metals. While the Li-Ga-N ternary system also stored a significant amount of hydrogen, the storage capacity for the Li-B-N system was near zero. The hydrogenation reaction is believed to be similar to that of Li 3 N, and the enthalpies of hydrogen absorption for Li-Al-N and Li-Ga-N provide evidence that AlN and GaN, as well as the ball milling process, play a significant role in altering the thermodynamics of Li 3 N

  7. Prediction of high-Tc conventional superconductivity in the ternary lithium borohydride system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokail, Christian; von der Linden, Wolfgang; Boeri, Lilia

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the superconducting ternary lithium borohydride phase diagram at pressures of 0 and 200 GPa using methods for evolutionary crystal structure prediction and linear-response calculations for the electron-phonon coupling. Our calculations show that the ground state phase at ambient pressure, LiBH4, stays in the P n m a space group and remains a wide band-gap insulator at all pressures investigated. Other phases along the 1 :1 :x Li:B:H line are also insulating. However, a full search of the ternary phase diagram at 200 GPa revealed a metallic Li2BH6 phase, which is thermodynamically stable down to 100 GPa. This superhydride phase, crystallizing in a F m 3 ¯m space group, is characterized by sixfold hydrogen-coordinated boron atoms occupying the fcc sites of the unit cell. Due to strong hydrogen-boron bonding this phase displays a critical temperature of ˜100 K between 100 and 200 GPa. Our investigations confirm that ternary compounds used in hydrogen-storage applications should exhibit high-Tc conventional superconductivity in diamond anvil cell experiments, and suggest a viable route to optimize the superconducting behavior of high-pressure hydrides, exploiting metallic covalent bonds.

  8. The ternary system nickel-nobium-carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadelmaier, H.H.; Fiedler, M.L.

    1975-01-01

    The ternary system nickel-niobium-carbon was studied by metallographic and X-ray diffraction methods to produce a liquidus projection and an isothermal section at 1,100 0 C. The liquidus projection is dominated by a wide field of primary NbC that extends far into the nickel corner of the composition triangle. Only one ternary compound is observed in this system, an eta-carbide formed in a peritectoid reaction. It has a narrow homogeneity range at Ni 2 Nb 4 C, and its lattice constant in alloys quenched from 1,100 0 C varies between 11.659 and 11.667 A. No eta-carbide Ni 3 Nb 3 C or Ni 6 Nb 6 could be detected. (orig.) [de

  9. Ternary cobalt-molybdenum-zirconium coatings for alternative energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yar-Mukhamedova, Gulmira; Ved', Maryna; Sakhnenko, Nikolay; Koziar, Maryna

    2017-11-01

    Consistent patterns for electrodeposition of Co-Mo-Zr coatings from polyligand citrate-pyrophosphate bath were investigated. The effect of both current density amplitude and pulse on/off time on the quality, composition and surface morphology of the galvanic alloys were determined. It was established the coating Co-Mo-Zr enrichment by molybdenum with current density increasing up to 8 A dm-2 as well as the rising of pulse time and pause duration promotes the content of molybdenum because of subsequent chemical reduction of its intermediate oxides by hydrogen ad-atoms. It was found that the content of the alloying metals in the coating Co-Mo-Zr depends on the current density and on/off times extremely and maximum Mo and Zr content corresponds to the current density interval 4-6 A dm-2, on-/off-time 2-10 ms. Chemical resistance of binary and ternary coatings based on cobalt is caused by the increased tendency to passivity and high resistance to pitting corrosion in the presence of molybdenum and zirconium, as well as the acid nature of their oxides. Binary coating with molybdenum content not less than 20 at.% and ternary ones with zirconium content in terms of corrosion deep index are in a group ;very proof;. It was shown that Co-Mo-Zr alloys exhibits the greatest level of catalytic properties as cathode material for hydrogen electrolytic production from acidic media which is not inferior a platinum electrode. The deposits Co-Mo-Zr with zirconium content 2-4 at.% demonstrate high catalytic properties in the carbon(II) oxide conversion. This confirms the efficiency of materials as catalysts for the gaseous wastes purification and gives the reason to recommend them as catalysts for red-ox processes activating by oxygen as well as electrode materials for red-ox batteries.

  10. Crystal chemistry and magnetic properties of ternary rare earth sulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plug, C.M.; Rijksuniversiteit Leiden

    1977-01-01

    The results of magnetic measurements on two groups of ternary rare earth sulphides are described, the MLnS 2 (M=Li, Na, K) type of compounds and the series Ln 2 ZrS 5 , where Ln denotes one of the rare earths. None of these compounds is metallic, excluding the possibility of RKKY-interaction. In chapter II a survey of the relevant theory on magnetic properties and crystal field splitting is given. In spite of the similarity in chemical properties of the rare earths, the crystal chemistry of their compounds is rather complex. This is due to the lanthanide contraction. The third chapter deals with the description and classification of the numerous crystal structures of both ternary and binary rare earth sulphides that have been observed. Rather simple relations between various structures are presented using a new method of structure classification. The magnetic interactions expected to be based on superexchange via the anions, which is usually very structure dependent. Experiments to study the crystallographic ordering, applying both X-ray and electron diffraction methods and the results of the magnetic measurements on the compounds MLnS 2 are reported in chapter IV. The compounds Ln 2 ZrS 5 are candidates for a systematic study of the variation of the magnetic properties along the rare earth series. The results of magnetic measurements on these compounds are presented in chapter V, combined with the results of specific heat measurements. Also the magnetic structure of two representatives, Tb 2 ZrS 5 and Dy 2 ZrS 5 , determined by neutron diffraction experiments below the ordering temperature, is reported

  11. Equilibrium study for ternary mixtures of biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doungsri, S.; Sookkumnerd, T.; Wongkoblap, A.; Nuchitprasittichai, A.

    2017-11-01

    The liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data for the ternary mixtures of methanol + fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) + palm oil and FAME + palm oil + glycerol at various temperatures from 35 to 55°C, the tie lines and binodial curves were also investigated and plotted in the equilibrium curve. The experimental results showed that the binodial curves of methanol + FAME + palm oil depended significantly with temperature while the binodial curves of FAME + palm oil + glycerol illustrated insignificant change with temperatures. The interaction parameters between liquid pair obtained for NRTL (Nonrandom Two-Liquid) and UNIQUAC (Universal Quasi-Chemical Theory) models from the experimental data were also investigated. It was found that the correlated parameters of UNIQUAC model for system of FAME + palm oil + glycerol, denoted as a13 and a31, were 580.42K and -123.69K, respectively, while those for system of methanol + FAME + palm oil, denoted as a42 and a24, were 71.48 K and 965.57K, respectively. The ternary LLE data reported here would be beneficial for engineers and scientists to use for prediction of yield and purity of biodiesel for the production. The UNIQUAC model agreed well with the experimental data of ternary mixtures of biodiesel.

  12. Design of ternary clocked adiabatic static random access memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pengjun; Mei Fengna

    2011-01-01

    Based on multi-valued logic, adiabatic circuits and the structure of ternary static random access memory (SRAM), a design scheme of a novel ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM is presented. The scheme adopts bootstrapped NMOS transistors, and an address decoder, a storage cell and a sense amplifier are charged and discharged in the adiabatic way, so the charges stored in the large switch capacitance of word lines, bit lines and the address decoder can be effectively restored to achieve energy recovery during reading and writing of ternary signals. The PSPICE simulation results indicate that the ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM has a correct logic function and low power consumption. Compared with ternary conventional SRAM, the average power consumption of the ternary adiabatic SRAM saves up to 68% in the same conditions. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  13. Design of ternary clocked adiabatic static random access memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengjun, Wang; Fengna, Mei

    2011-10-01

    Based on multi-valued logic, adiabatic circuits and the structure of ternary static random access memory (SRAM), a design scheme of a novel ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM is presented. The scheme adopts bootstrapped NMOS transistors, and an address decoder, a storage cell and a sense amplifier are charged and discharged in the adiabatic way, so the charges stored in the large switch capacitance of word lines, bit lines and the address decoder can be effectively restored to achieve energy recovery during reading and writing of ternary signals. The PSPICE simulation results indicate that the ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM has a correct logic function and low power consumption. Compared with ternary conventional SRAM, the average power consumption of the ternary adiabatic SRAM saves up to 68% in the same conditions.

  14. Ternary q-Virasoro-Witt Hom-Nambu-Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammar, F; Makhlouf, A; Silvestrov, S

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we construct ternary q-Virasoro-Witt algebras which q-deform the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras constructed by Curtright, Fairlie and Zachos using su(1, 1) enveloping algebra techniques. The ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras constructed by Curtright, Fairlie and Zachos depend on a parameter and are not Nambu-Lie algebras for all but finitely many values of this parameter. For the parameter values for which the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras are Nambu-Lie, the corresponding ternary q-Virasoro-Witt algebras constructed in this paper are also Hom-Nambu-Lie because they are obtained from the ternary Nambu-Lie algebras using the composition method. For other parameter values this composition method does not yield a Hom-Nambu-Lie algebra structure for q-Virasoro-Witt algebras. We show however, using a different construction, that the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras of Curtright, Fairlie and Zachos, as well as the general ternary q-Virasoro-Witt algebras we construct, carry a structure of the ternary Hom-Nambu-Lie algebra for all values of the involved parameters.

  15. Description of light charged particle emission in ternary fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, A. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Kuklin, S. N.; Scheid, W.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the motion of three fragments starting from the scission point of ternary system. In the alpha-accompanied ternary fission the initial conditions are not the free parameters and determined by minimization of potential energy at scission point. In the trajectory calculations the angular distribution and mean value of the kinetic energy of the alpha-particles are well described in the spontaneous ternary fission of 252 Cf. In the Be- and C-accompanied ternary fission we found that the emission of the third particle occurs from one of the heavy fragments after their separation. (authors)

  16. Role of ternary fission in synthesis of bypassed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramarovskij, Ya.M.; Chechev, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    A possible influence of ternary fission with escape of neutron-enriched light charged particles on the synthesis of bypassed nuclides is considered. It is shown that this concept cannot give explanation of bypassed isotope concentrations, but it can make some contribution, if the probability of ternary fission for superheavy nuclei grows sharply with Z 2 /A parameter. The account of β-delayed fission contributes to the shift of ternary fission fragments into the region of neutron-deficient isotopes. Consistent consideration of the ternary fission role in the nucleosynthesis is possible only with an important accumulation of experimental and theoretical data on this process, particularly for the nuclei with Z > 100

  17. Fusibility diagram of ternary system with incongruently melting double compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutsyk, V.I.; Vorob'eva, V.P.; Sumkina, O.G.

    1989-01-01

    Temperature calculation and properties of ternary eutectics and concentration coordinates of ternary peritectics accoriding to the linear model of initial crystallization surfaces as an element of the expert system for simulating fusibility diagrams of ternary systems is considered. It is shown that the calculated and experimental data on coordinates of ternary nonvariant points in the systems NaCl-PbCl 2 -CdCl 2 , PbCl 2 -CaCl 2 -UCl 4 , CaF 2 -NaF-CsF and UCl 3 -CaCl 2 -ThCl 4 are in good agreement

  18. Ternary Au/ZnO/rGO nanocomposites electrodes for high performance electrochemical storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Manchal; Doong, Ruey-an; Kumar, Nagesh; Tseng, Tseung Yuen

    2017-10-01

    The combination of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles with reduced graphene oxides (rGO) is an active electrode material for electrochemical storage devices. Herein, we have, for the first time, reported the fabrication of ternary Au/ZnO/rGO nanocomposites by using a rapid and environmentally friendly microwave-assisted hydrothermal method for high performance supercapacitor applications. The ZnO/rGO provides excellent electrical conductivity and good macro/mesopore structures, which can facilitate the rapid electrons and ions transport. The Au nanoparticles with particle sizes of 7-12 nm are homogeneously distributed onto the ZnO/rGO surface to enhance the electrochemical performance by retaining the capacitance at high current density. The Au/ZnO/rGO nanocomposites, prepared with the optimized rGO amount of 100 mg exhibit a high specific capacitance of 875 and 424 F g-1 at current densities of 1 and 20 A g-1, respectively, in 2 M KOH. In addition, the energy and power densities of ternary Au/ZnO/rGO can be up to 17.6-36.5 Wh kg-1 and 0.27-5.42 kW kg-1, respectively. Results obtained in this study clearly demonstrate the excellence of ternary Au/ZnO/rGO nanocomposites as the active electrode materials for electrochemical pseudocapacitor performance and can open an avenue to fabricate metal/metal oxide/rGO nanocomposites for electrochemical storage devices with both high energy and power densities.

  19. Ternary Complexes of some Divalent Metal Ions with Potentially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    -aminobutyric acid.7–9 Calcium and magnesium are essential mineral nutrients for life.10,11 In animals and plants different cell types maintain different concentrations of magne- sium.12–16 The Lewis acidity of the Zn2+ ion, flexibility of its.

  20. Experimental investigation of the ternary system Ni–Pd–Sn with special focus on the B8-type phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandl, Isabella; Ipser, Herbert; Richter, Klaus W.

    2015-01-01

    The ternary alloy system Ni–Pd–Sn was investigated experimentally from 700 °C upwards, with special focus on the general NiAs-type compounds. The phase diagram and crystallographic parameters were studied by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), light optical microscopy (LOM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in combination with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). An isothermal section at 700 °C was constructed wherein a continuous phase field between the binary NiAs-type compounds γ (PdSn) and Ni 3 Sn 2 (high temperature modification) was detected. A series of samples throughout this phase field was used to investigate lattice parameter variations, occupation of the atomic sites and the melting behaviour. A partial ordering of the transition metals was observed. Moreover, three vertical sections at 30 at.%, 40 at.% and 50 at.% Sn were determined. Altogether, seven ternary invariant phase reactions were discovered: two ternary eutectic reactions, one ternary eutectoid reaction, three ternary transition reactions and one maximum. A complete reaction scheme for the investigated temperature range is given. Furthermore, a partial liquidus surface projection, except for the low-temperature Sn-rich region, was developed. - Highlights: • Detailed study of the ternary alloy system Ni–Pd–Sn. • 1 Isotherm, 3 vertical sections, a partial liquidus projection and a reaction scheme. • A continuous phase field, between γ and Ni 3 Sn 2 , was discovered. • Lattice parameters and structural features in this phase field were analysed. • A partial order of Ni and Pd in this phase field was observed

  1. Comparative study of binary and ternary complexes of some rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhijani, S.D.; Sangal, S.P.

    1978-01-01

    Modified form of Irving and Rossotti's pH titration technique has been used to evaluate and compare the stability constants of the binary and ternary complexes of Sc(III), Y(III), La(III), Pr(III), Nd(III) and Sm(III) at 30 0 at an ionic strength of 0.2M NaClO 4 . For the study of ternary complexes, nitrilotriacetic acid has been used as a primary ligand and polyhydroxy phenols i.e. pyrocatechol (PYC), pyrogallol (PYG) and gallic acid (GA) as secondary ligands. The stability constants of the binary complexes were found to be more than those of the corresponding ternary complexes which can reasonably be explained on the basis of electrostatic force between primary complex (metal in the case of binary complex) and secondary ligand, and space available to accommodate the secondary ligand. The stability decreases with the increase in ionic radii, i.e. Sc(III)>Y(III)>Sm(III)>Nd(III)>Pr(III)>La(III). In terms of secondary ligand, it follows the order PYC>GA>PYG. Rare earths form only 1:1 binary complex, and 1:1:1 mixed ligand complex in all the cases. (author)

  2. Embedding complete ternary tree in hypercubes using AVL trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Choudum; I. Raman (Indhumathi)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractA complete ternary tree is a tree in which every non-leaf vertex has exactly three children. We prove that a complete ternary tree of height h, TTh, is embeddable in a hypercube of dimension . This result coincides with the result of [2]. However, in this paper, the embedding utilizes

  3. Thermodynamic modeling of the Ti-Al-Cr ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Leyi; Qiu Aitao; Liu Lanjie; Jiang Ming; Lu Xionggang; Li Chonghe

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The full experimental results of the Ti-Al-Cr ternary system and its sub-binary systems are reviewed and analysed in detail. → Based on the latest thermodynamic assessments of the Ti-Al, Ti-Cr and Al-Cr systems and the ternary experimental data in literature, the thermodynamic parameters of the Ti-Al-Cr ternary system are fully assessed by the Calphad method. → The transformation of disorder to order (bcc a 2 to B2) and the new ternary compound L 12T i 25 Cr 8 Al 67 are considered in this work. - Abstract: The Ti-Al-Cr ternary system is one of the most important systems to studying the titanium alloys. Some experimental data of this ternary system are available and a few partial thermodynamic assessments are reported. However, no full thermodynamic descriptions were published. In this study, the previous work on the Ti-Al-Cr system and its related binary systems are reviewed. Based on the thermodynamic descriptions of the Ti-Al, Ti-Cr and Al-Cr systems and the ternary experimental data in literature, the Ti-Al-Cr ternary system is assessed by means of the Calphad method. Several isothermal sections from 1073 K to 1573 K and some invariant reactions are calculated, which are in good agreement with the most of the experimental results.

  4. Density-Driven segregation in Binary and Ternary Granular Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windows-Yule, Kit; Parker, David

    2015-01-01

    We present a first experimental study of density-induced segregation within a three-dimensional, vibrofluidised, ternary granular system. Using Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT), we study the steady-state particle distributions achieved by binary and ternary granular beds under a variety of

  5. Calculation of ternary interdiffusion coefficients using a single diffusion couple

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Jiří; Rothová, Věra

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 5 (2016), s. 305-314 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : diffusion * interdiffusion * ternary alloys * ternary diffusion coefficients Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.366, year: 2016

  6. A high-speed interconnect network using ternary logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Long, S. I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a high-speed interconnect network (ICN) for a multiprocessor system using ternary logic. By using ternary logic and a fast point-to-point communication technique called STARI (Self-Timed At Receiver's Input), the communication between...

  7. Inclusion complex formation of ternary system: Fluoroscein-p-sulfonato calix[4]arene-Cu(2+) by cooperative binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawhale, Sharadchandra; Jadhav, Ankita; Rathod, Nilesh; Malkhede, Dipalee; Chaudhari, Gajanan

    2015-09-05

    The aqueous solution of fluorescein-para sulfonato calix[4]arene-metal ion complex has been studied based on absorption, fluorescence, (1)H NMR and FTIR spectroscopic results. It was found that the fluorescence intensity quenched regularly upon addition of pSCX4 and metal ion. The quenching constants and binding constants were determined for pSCX4-FL and pSCX4-FL-Cu(2+) systems. 1:1 stoichiometry is obtained for pSCX4-Cu(2+) system by continuous variation method. The NMR and IR results indicates the interaction among FL, pSCX4 and Cu(2+). The combined results demonstrate the cooperative binding to design the complex for ternary system. The life time for binary and ternary system has been studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Symmetric weak ternary quantum homomorphic encryption schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuqi; She, Kun; Luo, Qingbin; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Chao

    2016-03-01

    Based on a ternary quantum logic circuit, four symmetric weak ternary quantum homomorphic encryption (QHE) schemes were proposed. First, for a one-qutrit rotation gate, a QHE scheme was constructed. Second, in view of the synthesis of a general 3 × 3 unitary transformation, another one-qutrit QHE scheme was proposed. Third, according to the one-qutrit scheme, the two-qutrit QHE scheme about generalized controlled X (GCX(m,n)) gate was constructed and further generalized to the n-qutrit unitary matrix case. Finally, the security of these schemes was analyzed in two respects. It can be concluded that the attacker can correctly guess the encryption key with a maximum probability pk = 1/33n, thus it can better protect the privacy of users’ data. Moreover, these schemes can be well integrated into the future quantum remote server architecture, and thus the computational security of the users’ private quantum information can be well protected in a distributed computing environment.

  9. Nanoscratching of nylon 66-based ternary nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasari, Aravind; Yu Zhongzhen; Mai Yiuwing

    2007-01-01

    The nanoscratch behavior of nylon 66/SEBS-g-MA/clay ternary nanocomposites produced by different blending protocols with contrasting microstructures is studied by using atomic force and transmission electron microscopy. A standard diamond Berkovich indenter is used for scratching and a low load of 1 mN, along with a low sliding velocity of 1 μm s -1 , are employed for this purpose. It is shown that in order to resist penetration it is more important to have exfoliated clay in the continuous nylon matrix during nanoscratching than to have the clay in the dispersed soft rubber domains. The results obtained also explain the preferred usage of ternary nanocomposites compared to binary nanocomposites, particularly nylon 66/exfoliated clay nanocomposites. This research extends current basic knowledge and provides new insights on the nature of nanoscale processes that occur during nanoscratching of polymer nanocomposites. Critical questions are raised on the relationships between the penetration depth and material deformation and damage left behind the moving indenter

  10. Irregular Homogeneity Domains in Ternary Intermetallic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Joubert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ternary intermetallic A–B–C systems sometimes have unexpected behaviors. The present paper examines situations in which there is a tendency to simultaneously form the compounds ABx, ACx and BCx with the same crystal structure. This causes irregular shapes of the phase homogeneity domains and, from a structural point of view, a complete reversal of site occupancies for the B atom when crossing the homogeneity domain. This work reviews previous studies done in the systems Fe–Nb–Zr, Hf–Mo–Re, Hf–Re–W, Mo–Re–Zr, Re–W–Zr, Cr–Mn–Si, Cr–Mo–Re, and Mo–Ni–Re, and involving the topologically close-packed Laves, χ and σ phases. These systems have been studied using ternary isothermal section determination, DFT calculations, site occupancy measurement using joint X-ray, and neutron diffraction Rietveld refinement. Conclusions are drawn concerning this phenomenon. The paper also reports new experimental or calculated data on Co–Cr–Re and Fe–Nb–Zr systems.

  11. Study on the Mg-Li-Zn ternary alloy system with improved mechanical properties, good degradation performance and different responses to cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Yang; Wu, Yuanhao; Bian, Dong; Gao, Shuang; Leeflang, M.A.; Guo, Hui; Zheng, Yufeng; Zhou, J.

    2017-01-01

    Novel Mg-(3.5, 6.5wt%)Li-(0.5, 2, 4wt%)Zn ternary alloys were developed as new kinds of biodegradable metallic materials with potential for stent application. Their mechanical properties, degradation behavior, cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility were studied. These potential biomaterials

  12. Calculated site substitution in ternary gamma'-Ni3Al: Temperature and composition effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruban, Andrei; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1997-01-01

    -tin orbitals method in conjunction with the local-density and multisublattice coherent-potential approximations and include all 3d, 4d, 5d, and noble metals. The calculations show the existence of simple trends in the alloying behavior of the gamma' phase which may be explained in a Friedel-like model based...... on the interaction between Ni and the added species. It is shown that the commonly accepted interpretation of the site substitution behavior of Cu and Pd may be incorrect because of site substitution reversal at high temperatures. It is further shown that the direction of the solubility lobe in the ternary phase...

  13. New ternary intermetallics, based magnesium, for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquefere, J.G.

    2009-05-01

    The use of fossil fuels (non-renewable energy) is responsible for increasing the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Among the considered alternatives, hydrogen is seen as the most attractive energy vector. The storage in intermetallics makes it possible to obtain mass and volume capacities (e.g. 140 g/L) higher than those obtained by liquid form or under pressure (respectively 71 and 40 g/L). We have synthesised Mg and Rare Earth based compounds (RE = Y, Ce and Gd), derived from the cubic Laves phases AB2. Their physical and chemical properties have been studied (hydrogenation, electrochemistry, magnetism,...). The conditions of sorption (P and T) are particularly favorable (i.e. absorption at room temperature and atmospheric pressure). Besides, to improve the sorption kinetics of metallic magnesium, the compounds developed previously were used as catalysts. Thus, GdMgNi4 was milled with magnesium and the speeds of absorption and desorption of the mixture are found higher than those obtained for the composites Mg+Ni or Mg+V, which are reference systems. A theoretical approach (DFT) was used to model the electronic structure of the ternary compounds (i.e. REMgNi4) and thus to predict or confirm the experimental results. (authors)

  14. Ternary alloying study of MoSi2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, D.; Li, C.; Akselsen, O.M.; Ulvensoen, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    Ternary alloying of MoSi 2 with adding a series of transition elements was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Iron, Co, Ni, Cr, V, Ti, and Nb were chosen as alloying elements according to the AB 2 structure map or the atomic size factor. The studied MoSi 2 base alloys were prepared by the arc melting process from high-purity metals. The EDS analysis showed that Fe, Co, and Ni have no solid solubility in as-cast MoSi 2 , while Cr, V, Ti, and Nb exhibit limited solid solubilities, which were determined to be 1.4 ± 0.7, 1.4 ± 0.4, 0.4 ± 0.1, and 0.8 ± 0.1. Microstructural characterization indicated that Mo-Si-M VIII (M VIII = Fe, Co, Ni) and Mo-Si-Cr alloys have a two-phase as-cast microstructure, i.e., MoSi 2 matrix and the second-phase FeSi 2 , CoSi, NiSi 2 , and CrSi 2 , respectively. In as-cast Mo-Si-V, Mo-Si-Ti, and Mo-Si-Nb alloys, besides MoSi 2 and C40 phases, the third phases were observed, which have been identified to be (Mo, V) 5 Si 3 , TiSi 2 , and (Mo, Nb) 5 Si 3

  15. Iron binary and ternary coatings with molybdenum and tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yar-Mukhamedova, Gulmira, E-mail: gulmira-alma-ata@mail.ru [Institute Experimental and Theoretical Physics Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 050038, Al-Farabi av., 71, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Ved, Maryna; Sakhnenko, Nikolay; Karakurkchi, Anna; Yermolenko, Iryna [National Technical University “Kharkov Polytechnic Institute”, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • High quality coatings of double Fe-Mo and ternary Fe-Mo-W electrolytic alloys can be produced both in a dc and a pulsed mode. • Application of unipolar pulsed current allows receiving an increased content of the alloying components and their more uniform distribution over the surface. • It is established that Fe-Mo and Fe-Mo-W coatings have an amorphous structure and exhibit improved corrosion resistance and microhardness as compared with the steel substrate due to the inclusion molybdenum and tungsten. - Abstract: Electrodeposition of Fe-Mo-W and Fe-Mo layers from a citrate solution containing iron(III) on steel and iron substrates is compared. The utilization of iron(III) compounds significantly improved the electrolyte stability eliminating side anodic redox reactions. The influence of concentration ratios and electrodeposition mode on quality, chemical composition, and functional properties of the alloys is determined. It has been found that alloys deposited in pulse mode have more uniform surface morphology and chemical composition and contain less impurities. Improvement in physical and mechanical properties as well as corrosion resistance of Fe-Mo and Fe-Mo-W deposits when compared with main alloy forming metals is driven by alloying components chemical passivity as well as by alloys amorphous structure. Indicated deposits can be considered promising materials in surface hardening technologies and repair of worn out items.

  16. Facile Synthesis of Ternary Boron Carbonitride Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Lijie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, a novel and facile approach for the synthesis of ternary boron carbonitride (B–C–N nanotubes was reported. Growth occurred by heating simple starting materials of boron powder, zinc oxide powder, and ethanol absolute at 1150 °C under a mixture gas flow of nitrogen and hydrogen. As substrate, commercial stainless steel foil with a typical thickness of 0.05 mm played an additional role of catalyst during the growth of nanotubes. The nanotubes were characterized by SEM, TEM, EDX, and EELS. The results indicate that the synthesized B–C–N nanotubes exhibit a bamboo-like morphology and B, C, and N elements are homogeneously distributed in the nanotubes. A catalyzed vapor–liquid–solid (VLS mechanism was proposed for the growth of the nanotubes.

  17. Ternary particle yields in 249Cf(nth,f)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsekhanovich, I.; Büyükmumcu, Z.; Davi, M.; Denschlag, H. O.; Gönnenwein, F.; Boulyga, S. F.

    2003-03-01

    An experiment measuring ternary particle yields in 249Cf(nth,f) was carried out at the high flux reactor of the Institut Laue-Langevin using the Lohengrin recoil mass separator. Parameters of energy distributions were determined for 27 ternary particles up to 30Mg and their yields were calculated. The yields of 17 further ternary particles were estimated on the basis of the systematics developed. The heaviest particles observed in the experiment are 37Si and 37S; their possible origin is discussed.

  18. Ternary particle yields in 249Cf(nth,f)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsekhanovich, I.; Bueyuekmumcu, Z.; Davi, M.; Denschlag, H.O.; Goennenwein, F.; Boulyga, S.F.

    2003-01-01

    An experiment measuring ternary particle yields in 249 Cf(n th ,f) was carried out at the high flux reactor of the Institut Laue-Langevin using the Lohengrin recoil mass separator. Parameters of energy distributions were determined for 27 ternary particles up to 30 Mg and their yields were calculated. The yields of 17 further ternary particles were estimated on the basis of the systematics developed. The heaviest particles observed in the experiment are 37 Si and 37 S; their possible origin is discussed

  19. A Three-dimensional Topological Model of Ternary Phase Diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Yingxue; Bao, Hong

    2017-01-01

    In order to obtain a visualization of the complex internal structure of ternary phase diagram, the paper realized a three-dimensional topology model of ternary phase diagram with the designed data structure and improved algorithm, under the guidance of relevant theories of computer graphics. The purpose of the model is mainly to analyze the relationship between each phase region of a ternary phase diagram. The model not only obtain isothermal section graph at any temperature, but also extract a particular phase region in which users are interested. (paper)

  20. Design and assembly of ternary Pt/Re/SnO2 NPs by controlling the zeta potential of individual Pt, Re, and SnO2 NPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzymała, Elżbieta; Gruzeł, Grzegorz; Pajor-Świerzy, Anna; Depciuch, Joanna; Socha, Robert; Kowal, Andrzej; Warszyński, Piotr; Parlinska-Wojtan, Magdalena

    2018-05-01

    In this study Pt, Re, and SnO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were combined in a controlled manner into binary and ternary combinations for a possible application for ethanol oxidation. For this purpose, zeta potentials as a function of the pH of the individual NPs solutions were measured. In order to successfully combine the NPs into Pt/SnO2 and Re/SnO2 NPs, the solutions were mixed together at a pH guaranteeing opposite zeta potentials of the metal and oxide NPs. The individually synthesized NPs and their binary/ternary combinations were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. FTIR and XPS spectroscopy showed that the individually synthesized Pt and Re NPs are metallic and the Sn component was oxidized to SnO2. STEM showed that all NPs are well crystallized and the sizes of the Pt, Re, and SnO2 NPs were 2.2, 1.0, and 3.4 nm, respectively. Moreover, EDS analysis confirmed the successful formation of binary Pt/SnO2 and Re/SnO2 NP, as well as ternary Pt/Re/SnO2 NP combinations. This study shows that by controlling the zeta potential of individual metal and oxide NPs, it is possible to assemble them into binary and ternary combinations. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. Probability of ternary fission of 93Nb andnat Ag nuclei induced by 0.8-1.8 GeV photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, D.A. de; Milomen, W.C.C.; Tavares, O.A.P.

    1989-01-01

    The yields of ternary fission of 93 Nb and nat Ag nuclei induced by bremsstrahlung photons of 0.8, 1.0, 1.4 and 1.8 GeV end-point energies have been measured by using the 2 Π-forward geometry with thick target metal foils in contact with makrofol polycarbonate sheets as fission-track detectors. Absolute mean cross sections per photon in the range 0.8-1.8 GeV have been obtained as 0.3 ± 0.3 μb and 0.5 ± μb, respectively, for 93 Nb and nat Ag nuclei. These correspond to a probability of ternary fission of approx. 10 -5 for both nuclei. Results are discussed and compared with previous ternary fission data obtained for nuclei of A [pt

  2. Speeds of sound and isothermal compressibility of ternary liquid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thermo-acoustics Research Lab, Department of Chemistry, University of Allahabad,. Allahabad 211 002, India ... compressibility data of these industrially important organic compounds of ternary and higher liquid ... distillation. Densities and ...

  3. Positron annihilation lifetime study of interfaces in ternary polymer blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meghala, D; Ramya, P; Pasang, T; Raj, J M; Ranganathaiah, C; Williams, J F

    2013-01-01

    A new method based on positron lifetime spectroscopy is developed to characterize individual interfaces in ternary polymer blends and hence determine the composition dependent miscibility level. The method owes its origin to the Kirkwood-Risemann-Zimm (KRZ) model for the evaluation of the hydrodynamic interaction parameters (α ij ) which was used successfully for a binary blend with a single interface. The model was revised for the present work for ternary polymer blends to account for three interfaces. The efficacy of this method is shown for two ternary blends namely poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly (ethylene-co-vinylacetate)/poly(vinyl chloride) (SAN/EVA/PVC) and polycaprolactone /poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(vinyl chloride) (PCL/SAN/PVC) at different compositions. An effective hydrodynamic interaction parameter, α eff , was introduced to predict the overall miscibility of ternary blends.

  4. Kinetic and thermodynamic study of lithium ternary amalgams in contact with solvated lithium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordova M, M.

    1991-12-01

    Lithium amalgams are used on lithium isotope separation, the process has been studied in its different parameters, but there is no information on the isotopic separation in the presence of ternary metals diluted in the amalgam. The latest voltammetric technique developed for trace analysis is used for the study, to determine the effects of the presence of cadmium, which has been selected on compatibility criteria with the system, in the intermetallic structures of the amalgam. The differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry indicates the presence of an intermetallic persistent structure after the potassium and lithium oxidation. This structure has a slow formation and destruction rate, with an anionic character, which accounts for the oxidation potential displacement of the amalgamated metals. The activation energy results of amalgam decomposition reaction in contact with water, allows to establish the intermetallic effects on this reaction, raising the energy of the activated state, on condition that there were time to form it. A reaction mechanism is proposed that agrees with these results. The study of the isotopic composition indicates that the intermetallic species affect the thermodynamic equilibrium between the phases in contact. The measurements of the system's isotopic composition do not give exact values for the separation factors, but they establish a difference in the sign of enthalpies of the isotopic equilibria. The enthalpy for the isotopic exchange for the binary amalgam is negative, with a value that agrees with those in the literature. Nevertheless, those of the ternary systems are positive, indicating an endothermic character process. (author)

  5. Studies on ternary silver sulfides; Fukugo gin ryukabutsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-31

    Some sulfides containing silver show high ion mobility based on movability of silver, whose application is expected. Studies have been carried out centrally on synthesis of new compounds of ternary silver sulfides by elucidating the relationship among their compositions, structures and properties by means of crystal chemical studies mainly on their phase relationship. A few new compounds have been synthesized, such as the ones having the argyrodite family compound structure including transition metals. The synthesizing process takes a kind of turbulent liquid state structure at elevated temperatures because of movability of silver, but silver is fixed at low temperatures in different sites between skeleton structures made by other atoms. These studies on phase transfer, structures, and silver movability have been based on X-ray diffraction, infrared and Raman spectroscopic measurements, NMR, measurements of electric and thermal characteristics. For the studies related to compositions and structures of ternary metal sulfides which take compound crystalline structure, a structure analyzing method based on multi-dimensional hyperspatial groups was used. This paper reports the summary of the studies in seven chapters, and dwells on the remaining problems and future prospects. 158 refs., 114 figs., 65 tabs.

  6. NiS and MoS2 nanosheet co-modified graphitic C3N4 ternary heterostructure for high efficient visible light photodegradation of antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuejun; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Xinyi; Xu, Guangqing; Wang, Dongmei; Lv, Jun; Zheng, Zhixiang; Wu, Yucheng

    2018-01-05

    The development of efficient solar driven catalytic system for the degradation of antibiotics has become increasingly important in environmental protection and remediation. Non-noble-metal NiS and MoS 2 nanosheet co-modified graphitic C 3 N 4 ternary heterostructure has been synthesized via a facile combination of hydrothermal and ultrasound method, and the ternary heterostructure has been utilized for photocatalytic degradation of antibiotic agents. The antibiotics of ciprofloxacin (CIP) and tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) were photodegraded by the hybrid under the visible light. The optimal photodegradation rate of the ternary heterostructure reaches about 96% after 2h irradiation, which is 2.1 times higher than that of pure g-C 3 N 4 for TC degradation. The photocatalytic degradation rates of the ternary heterostructure for both CIP and TC obey the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The enhanced visible light adsorption and charge separation efficiency contribute to the photocatalytic performance of the ternary heterostructure. This work provides new insights and pathways by which efficient degradation of antibiotics can be achieved and will stimulate further studies in this important field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Tricolore. A flexible color scale for ternary compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2018-01-01

    tricolore is an R library providing a flexible color scale for the visualization of three-part/ternary compositions. Its main functionality is to color-code any ternary composition as a mixture of three primary colours and to draw a suitable color-key. tricolore flexibly adapts to different...... visualisation challenges via - discrete and continuous color support - support for unbalanced compositional data via centering - support for data with very narrow range via scaling - hue, chroma and lightness options...

  8. Analytical determination of distillation boundaries for ternary azeotropic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Marcilla Gomis, Antonio; Reyes Labarta, Juan Antonio; Velasco, Raúl; Serrano Cayuelas, María Dolores; Olaya López, María del Mar

    2009-01-01

    A new straight forward algorithm to calculate distillation boundaries in ternary azeotropic systems has been developed. The proposed method allows, using cubic splines, the calculation of distillation trajectories and the calculation of that corresponding to the searched distillation boundaries. The algorithm is applied to 4 ternary liquid-vapour systems to test its validity. Vicepresidency of Research (University of Alicante) and Generalitat Valenciana (GV/2007/125)

  9. Some new protonated ternary complexes of rare-earths with CDTA/DTPA and keto-glutaric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, S.P.; Chaturvedi, G.K.; Sharma, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Potentiometric evidences have been cited for the formation of 1:1:1, M(III)-CDTA/DTPA-H 2 KGA ternary complexes in the solution equilibria (where M(III)=LA(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Gd(III) or Dy(III); CDTA=1,2-diaminocyclohexanetetra-acetic acid; DTPA=diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid and H 2 KGA= β-ketoglutaric acid). Indications have been cited for the formation of protonated mixed ligand complexes at low pH as intermediate products, which undergo deprotonation at comparatively high pH forming 1:1:1, ternary species. The formation constants (log Ksub(MLL')) for the protonated ternary species, formed by simultaneous addition of both the ligands to metal ion and their deprotonation constants - log Ksub(A)sup(H) have been evaluated. The following order in the relative stabilities of the resulting complexes in terms of metal ions, La(III) < Pr(III) < Nd(III) < Gd(III) < Dy(III), has been observed. (author)

  10. Charge distribution in the ternary fragmentation of {sup 252}Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthil Kannan, M.T.; Balasubramaniam, M. [Bharathiar University, Department of Physics, Coimbatore (India)

    2017-08-15

    We present here, for the first time, a study on ternary fragmentation charge distribution of {sup 252}Cf using the convolution integral method and the statistical theory. The charge distribution for all possible charge combinations of a ternary breakup are grouped as a bin containing different mass partitions. Different bins corresponding to various third fragments with mass numbers from A{sub 3} = 16 to 84 are identified with the available experimental masses. The corresponding potential energy surfaces are calculated using the three cluster model for the two arrangements A{sub 1} + A{sub 2} + A{sub 3} and A{sub 1} + A{sub 3} + A{sub 2}. The ternary fragmentation yield values are calculated for the ternary combination from each bin possessing minimum potential energy. The yields of the resulting ternary combinations as a function of the charge numbers of the three fragments are analyzed for both the arrangements. The calculations are carried out at different excitation energies of the parent nucleus. For each excitation energy the temperature of the three fragments are iteratively computed conserving the total energy. The distribution of fragment temperatures corresponding to different excitation energies for some fixed third fragments are discussed. The presence of the closed shell nucleus Sn in the favourable ternary fragmentation is highlighted. (orig.)

  11. Impact of ternary blends of biodiesel on diesel engine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pongamia and waste cooking oils are the main non edible oils for biodiesel production in India. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the fuel properties and investigate the impact on engine performance using Pongamia and waste cooking biodiesel and their ternary blend with diesel. The investigation of the fuel properties shows that Pongamia biodiesel and waste cooking biodiesel have poor cold flow property. This will lead to starting problem in the engine operation. To overcome this problem the ternary blends of diesel, waste cooking biodiesel and Pongamia biodiesel are prepared. The cloud and pour point for ternary blend, (WCB20:PB20:D60 were found to be 7 °C and 6.5 °C which are comparable to cloud and pour point of diesel 6 °C and 5 °C, respectively. The result of the test showed that brake specific fuel consumption for Pongamia biodiesel and waste cooking biodiesel is higher than ternary blend, (WCB20:PB20:D60 due to their lower energy content. The brake thermal efficiency of ternary blend and diesel is comparable while the Pongamia and waste cooking biodiesel have low efficiency. The result of investigation showed that ternary blend can be developed as alternate fuel.

  12. Modeling of H- surface conversion sources; binary (H-Ba) and ternary (H-Cs/W) converter arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Os, C.F.A.; Kunkel, W.B.; Leguijt, C.; Los, J.

    1991-01-01

    The production process for the formation of H - ions in a surface conversion source is sputtering of hydrogen atoms from the converter surface layers by incident positive ions, followed by electron attachment via resonant charge exchange with the converter surface. The sputtering process is in direct relation to the converter surface composition. New experimental data led us to identify two different classes of converters: metallic converters, like solid barium(binary) and adlayer converters, like cesium on tungsten (ternary). For a binary converter the hydrogen in the surface layers is directly sputtered by the incoming ions. Consequently, the negative ion yield scales with the hydrogen concentration in the surface layers. In the cesium/tungsten system (ternary) the hydrogen at the surface is believed to be sandwiched between the cesium adlayer and the tungsten surface. Hence, the negative ion yield scales with the sputter coefficient of hydrogen on adsorbed cesium. This is experimentally confirmed

  13. Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficient estimation for ternary systems: an ideal ternary alcohol system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allie-Ebrahim, Tariq; Zhu, Qingyu; Bräuer, Pierre; Moggridge, Geoff D; D'Agostino, Carmine

    2017-06-21

    The Maxwell-Stefan model is a popular diffusion model originally developed to model diffusion of gases, which can be considered thermodynamically ideal mixtures, although its application has been extended to model diffusion in non-ideal liquid mixtures as well. A drawback of the model is that it requires the Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficients, which are not based on measurable quantities but they have to be estimated. As a result, numerous estimation methods, such as the Darken model, have been proposed to estimate these diffusion coefficients. However, the Darken model was derived, and is only well defined, for binary systems. This model has been extended to ternary systems according to two proposed forms, one by R. Krishna and J. M. van Baten, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2005, 44, 6939-6947 and the other by X. Liu, T. J. H. Vlugt and A. Bardow, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2011, 50, 10350-10358. In this paper, the two forms have been analysed against the ideal ternary system of methanol/butan-1-ol/propan-1-ol and using experimental values of self-diffusion coefficients. In particular, using pulsed gradient stimulated echo nuclear magnetic resonance (PGSTE-NMR) we have measured the self-diffusion coefficients in various methanol/butan-1-ol/propan-1-ol mixtures. The experimental values of self-diffusion coefficients were then used as the input data required for the Darken model. The predictions of the two proposed multicomponent forms of this model were then compared to experimental values of mutual diffusion coefficients for the ideal alcohol ternary system. This experimental-based approach showed that the Liu's model gives better predictions compared to that of Krishna and van Baten, although it was only accurate to within 26%. Nonetheless, the multicomponent Darken model in conjunction with self-diffusion measurements from PGSTE-NMR represents an attractive method for a rapid estimation of mutual diffusion in multicomponent systems, especially when compared to exhaustive

  14. Binary and ternary photofission of thorium 232

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titterton, E W; Brinkley, T A

    1950-05-01

    Work by Titterton and Goward (1949) has shown that uranium undergoes photofission into three charged fragments. Experiments have been conducted to determine whether a similar process takes place in the photofission of thorium. Some difficulties were encountered in loading plates with /sup 232/Th atoms, but this was finally accomplished by means of a technique described in detail. Plates loaded by this method were irradiated with a continuous spectrum of ..gamma.. rays of maximum energy 24 MeV from the (Atomic Energy Research Establishment) Synchrotron. Three irradiations, of 100, 150, and 180 r, were made and the resulting plates showed a fission density of 2.5 x 10/sup 4//cc at the 150 r level. In an examination involving 2500 binary photofissions, 5 cases of ternary fission involving the emission of a long range light fragment, probably an ..cap alpha..-particle, were observed. These events are described. A number-range curve was determined for the photofission tracks and is compared with a similar curve for tracks formed by the slow neutron fission of /sup 235/U in a D/sub 1/ emulsion under conditions of similar emulsion sensitivity. It appears that the energy release in the photofission of /sup 232/Th is smaller than that in the slow neutron fission of /sup 235/U. The data indicate that 124 MeV is the mean kinetic energy released in the photofission of /sup 232/Th.

  15. Anisotropy in the ternary cold fission

    CERN Document Server

    Delion, D S; Greiner, W

    2003-01-01

    We describe the spontaneous ternary cold fission of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf, accompanied by sup 4 He, sup 1 sup 0 Be and sup 1 sup 4 C within a stationary scattering formalism. We show that the light cluster should be born in the neck region. It decays from the first resonant eigenstate in the Coulomb plus harmonic oscillator potential, centred in this region and eccentric with respect to the symmetry axis. This description gives a simple answer to the question why the averaged values in the energy spectra of emitted clusters are close to each other, in spite of different Coulomb barriers. We have shown that the angular distribution of the emitted light particle is strongly connected with its deformation and the equatorial distance. Experimental angular distributions can be explained by the spherical shapes of emitted clusters, except for a deformed sup 1 sup 0 Be. We also predicted some dependences of half-lives for such tri-nuclear systems upon potential parameters.

  16. Constitution of the ternary system Cr–Ni–Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krendelsberger, Natalja; Weitzer, Franz; Du, Yong; Schuster, Julius C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Reaction scheme and liquidus surface for Cr-Ni-Ti are given. •In the ternary the C14-type Laves phase coexists with the liquid phase. •Two ternary eutectics are identified. -- Abstract: The nature of solid–liquid phase equilibria in the ternary system Cr–Ni–Ti was investigated using electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis. Literature data on solid state phase equilibria are confirmed. The Cr 2 Ti Laves phase modifications coexisting with Ni–Ti phases are clarified to be hexagonal C14-type and cubic C15-type. The C14-type Laves phase γCr 2 Ti is found to coexist with the liquid phase. It forms in the pseudobinary peritectic reaction p max1 from L + β(Cr,Ti) at 1389 °C. On further cooling γCr 2 Ti + NiTi solidify at 1202 °C in the pseudobinary eutectic e max2 . In the Cr-rich part of the system ternary eutectics occur at 1216 °C (E 1 : L = Ni 3 Ti + (Ni) + β(Cr,Ti)) and 1100 °C (E 2 : L = NiTi + Ni 3 Ti + β(Cr,Ti)), respectively. No ternary eutectic is found in the Ti-rich part. Rather the eutectic trough ends in the binary eutectic L = NiTi 2 + β(Ti)

  17. Ternary fission of spontaneously fissile uranium isomers excited by neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarenko, V.E.; Molchanov, Y.D.; Otroshchenko, G.A.; Yan'kov, G.B.

    1989-01-01

    Spontaneously fissile isomers (SFI) of uranium were excited in the reactions 236,238 U(n,n') at an average neutron energy 4.5 MeV. A pulsed electrostatic accelerator and time analysis of the fission events were used. Fission fragments were detected by the scintillation method, and long-range particles from fission were detected by an ionization method. The relative probability of fission of nuclei through a spontaneously fissile isomeric state was measured: (1.30±0.01)·10 -4 ( 236 U) and (1.48±0.02)·10 -4 ( 238 U). Half-lives of the isomers were determined: 121±2 nsec (the SFI 236 U) and 267±13 nsec (the SFI 238 U). In study of the ternary fission of spontaneously fissile isotopes of uranium it was established that the probability of the process amounts to one ternary fission per 163±44 binary fissions of the SFI 236 U and one ternary fission per 49±14 binary fissions of the SFI 238 U. The substantial increase of the probability of ternary fission of SFI of uranium in comparison with the case of ternary fission of nuclei which are not in an isomeric state may be related to a special nucleon configuration of the fissile isomers of uranium

  18. Modelling equilibrium adsorption of single, binary, and ternary combinations of Cu, Pb, and Zn onto granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Paripurnanda; Shim, Wang Geun; Sounthararajah, Danious Pratheep; Kalaruban, Mahatheva; Nur, Tanjina; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu

    2018-03-30

    Elevated concentrations of heavy metals in water can be toxic to humans, animals, and aquatic organisms. A study was conducted on the removal of Cu, Pb, and Zn by a commonly used water treatment adsorbent, granular activated carbon (GAC), from three single, three binary (Cu-Pb, Cu-Zn, Pb-Zn), and one ternary (Cu-Pb-Zn) combination of metals. It also investigated seven mathematical models on their suitability to predict the metals adsorption capacities. Adsorption of Cu, Pb, and Zn increased with pH with an abrupt increase in adsorption at around pH 5.5, 4.5, and 6.0, respectively. At all pHs tested (2.5-7.0), the adsorption capacity followed the order Pb > Cu > Zn. The Langmuir and Sips models fitted better than the Freundlich model to the data in the single-metal system at pH 5. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacities of Pb, Cu, and Zn (mmol/g) obtained from the model's fits were 0.142, 0.094, and 0.058, respectively. The adsorption capacities (mmol/g) for these metals at 0.01 mmol/L equilibrium liquid concentration were 0.130, 0.085, and 0.040, respectively. Ideal Adsorbed Solution (IAS)-Langmuir and IAS-Sips models fitted well to the binary and ternary metals adsorption data, whereas the Extended Langmuir and Extended Sips models' fits to the data were poor. The selectivity of adsorption followed the same order as the metals' capacities and affinities of adsorption in the single-metal systems.

  19. Growth and properties of Al-rich InxAl1-xN ternary alloy grown on GaN template by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Tae Su; Suh, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Jong Ock; Jeong, Hyun; Lee, Yong Seok; Nagarajan, S; Lim, Kee Young; Hong, Chang-Hee

    2008-01-01

    An Al-rich In x Al 1-x N ternary alloy was grown on a GaN template by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). The GaN template was fabricated on a c-plane sapphire with a low temperature GaN nucleation layer. The growth of the 300 nm thick In x Al 1-x N layer was carried out under various growth temperatures and pressures. The surface morphology and the InN molar fraction of the In x Al 1-x N layer were assessed by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high resolution x-ray diffraction, respectively. The AFM surface images of the In x Al 1-x N ternary alloy exhibited quantum dot-like grains caused by the 3D island growth mode. The grains, however, disappeared rapidly by increasing diffusion length and mobility of the Al adatoms with increasing growth temperature and the full width at half maximum value of ternary peaks in HR-XRD decreased with decreasing growth pressure. The MOCVD growth condition with the increased growth temperature and decreased growth pressure would be effective to grow the In x Al 1-x N ternary alloy with a smooth surface and improved quality. The optical band edge of In x Al 1-x N ternary alloys was estimated by optical absorbance and, based on the results of HR-XRD and optical absorbance measurements, we obtained the bowing parameter of the In x Al 1-x N ternary alloy at b = 5.3 eV, which was slightly larger than that of previous reports

  20. A New Class of Ternary Compound for Lithium-Ion Battery: from Composite to Solid Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiali; Wu, Hailong; Cui, Yanhua; Liu, Shengzhou; Tian, Xiaoqing; Cui, Yixiu; Liu, Xiaojiang; Yang, Yin

    2018-02-14

    Searching for high-performance cathode materials is a crucial task to develop advanced lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with high-energy densities for electrical vehicles (EVs). As a promising lithium-rich material, Li 2 MnO 3 delivers high capacity over 200 mAh g -1 but suffers from poor structural stability and electronic conductivity. Replacing Mn 4+ ions by relatively larger Sn 4+ ions is regarded as a possible strategy to improve structural stability and thus cycling performance of Li 2 MnO 3 material. However, large difference in ionic radii of Mn 4+ and Sn 4+ ions leads to phase separation of Li 2 MnO 3 and Li 2 SnO 3 during high-temperature synthesis. To prepare solid-solution phase of Li 2 MnO 3 -Li 2 SnO 3 , a buffer agent of Ru 4+ , whose ionic radius is in between that of Mn 4+ and Sn 4+ ions, is introduced to assist the formation of a single solid-solution phase. The results show that the Li 2 RuO 3 -Li 2 MnO 3 -Li 2 SnO 3 ternary system evolves from mixed composite phases into a single solid-solution phase with increasing Ru content. Meanwhile, discharge capacity of this ternary system shows significantly increase at the transformation point which is ascribed to the improvement of Li + /e - transportation kinetics and anionic redox chemistry for solid-solution phase. The role of Mn/Sn molar ratio of Li 2 RuO 3 -Li 2 MnO 3 -Li 2 SnO 3 ternary system has also been studied. It is revealed that higher Sn content benefits cycling stability of the system because Sn 4+ ions with larger sizes could partially block the migration of Mn 4+ and Ru 4+ from transition metal layer to Li layer, thus suppressing structural transformation of the system from layered-to-spinel phase. These findings may enable a new route for exploring ternary or even quaternary lithium-rich cathode materials for LIBs.

  1. Ternary systems Sr-{Ni,Cu}-Si: Phase equilibria and crystal structure of ternary phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, Navida; Melnychenko-Koblyuk, Nataliya; Grytsiv, Andriy; Rogl, Peter; Giester, Gerald; Wosik, Jaroslaw; Nauer, Gerhard E.

    2010-01-01

    Phase relations were established in the Sr-poor part of the ternary systems Sr-Ni-Si (900 deg. C) and Sr-Cu-Si (800 deg. C) by light optical microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction on as cast and annealed alloys. Two new ternary compounds SrNiSi 3 (BaNiSn 3 -type) and SrNi 9-x Si 4+x (own-type) were found in the Sr-Ni-Si system along with previously reported Sr(Ni x Si 1-x ) 2 (AlB 2 -type). The crystal structure of SrNi 9-x Si 4+x (own-type, x=2.7, a=0.78998(3), c=1.1337(2) nm; space group P4/nbm) was determined from X-ray single crystal counter to be a low symmetry derivative of the cubic, parent NaZn 13 -type. At higher Si-content X-ray Rietveld refinements reveal the formation of a vacant site (□) corresponding to a formula SrNi 5.5 Si 6.5 □ 1.0 . Phase equilibria in the Sr-Cu-Si system are characterized by the compounds SrCu 2-x Si 2+x (ThCr 2 Si 2 -type), Sr(Cu x Si 1-x ) 2 (AlB 2 -type), SrCu 9-x Si 4+x (0≤x≤1.0; CeNi 8.5 Si 4.5 -type) and SrCu 13-x Si x (4≤x≤1.8; NaZn 13 -type). The latter two structure types appear within a continuous solid solution. Neither a type-I nor a type-IX clathrate compound was encountered in the Sr-{Cu,Ni}-Si systems. Structural details are furthermore given for about 14 new ternary compounds from related alloy systems with Ba. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure of SrNi 9-x Si 4+x (own-type, x=2.7, a=0.78998(3), c=1.1337(2) nm; space group P4/nbm) was determined from X-ray single crystal counter to be a low symmetry derivative of the cubic, parent NaZn 13 -type and is related to CeNi 8.5 Si 4.5 -type.

  2. Model for competitive binary and ternary ion-molecule reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, E.

    1985-01-01

    A mechanism by which competitive binary and ternary ion-molecule reactions can occur is proposed. Calculations are undertaken for the specific system CH3(+) + NH3 + He which has been studied in the laboratory by Smith and Adams (1978), and the potential surface of which has been studied theoretically by Nobes and Radom (1983). It is shown that a potential-energy barrier in the exit channel prevents the rapid dissociation of collision complexes with large amounts of angular momentum and thereby allows collisional stabilization of the complexes. The calculated ternary-reaction rate coefficient is in good agreement with the experimental value, but a plot of the effective two-body rate coefficient of the ternary channel vs helium density does not quite show the observed saturation. 21 references

  3. Collective and tracer diffusion kinetics in the ternary random alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belova, I.V.; Murch, G.E.; Allnatt, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, collective and tracer diffusion kinetics is addressed for the ternary random alloy. A formal solution from the self-consistent theory of Moleko et al (Moleko L K, Allnatt A R and Allnatt E L 1989 Phil. Mag. A 59 141) is derived for collective diffusion and compared with the corresponding solution for the binary random alloy. Tracer diffusion in the ternary alloy is treated from the perspective of a special case of the quaternary random alloy. Results from Monte Carlo calculations for tracer and collective correlation factors (for the bcc ternary random alloy) are found to be in excellent agreement with this self-consistent theory but in only semi-quantitative agreement with the earlier theory of Manning (Manning J R 1971 Phys. Rev. B 4 1111). (author)

  4. Constitutional studies of the molybdenum-ruthenium-palladium ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, L.A.; Pratt, J.N.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental and computational study has been made of phase equilibria in the Mo-Ru-Pd ternary system. The constitution of annealed binary and ternary alloys was investigated using optical and electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and SEM phase analysis techniques. Limited thermodynamic measurements were made using the ZrO 2 solid electrolyte e.m.f. method. The data obtained from the various techniques were used to construct a ternary isothermal section at 1473 K. The experimentally determined section is compared with a calculated section for the same temperature, computed using thermodynamic coefficients derived solely from binary system information. Lattice parameters are reported for the b.c.c., f.c.c. and c.p.h. solid solutions and for the σ phase. (orig.)

  5. Thermal decomposition of cesium-ethylene-ternary graphite intercalation compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, R.; Oishi, Y.; Arii, T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the thermal decomposition of air-stable Cs-ethylene-ternary graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) is discussed. The air stability of Cs-GICs is improved remarkably after the absorption of ethylene into their interlayer nanospace, because the ethylene molecules oligomerize and block the movement of Cs atoms. In addition, the evaporation of Cs atoms from the Cs-ethylene-ternary GICs is observed above 400 o C under a N 2 atmosphere of 100 Pa by ion attachment mass spectrometry. Although the results indicate that Cs-ethylene-ternary GICs remain stable up to approximately 400 o C, their thermal stability is not very high as compared to that of Cs-GICs.

  6. α-ternary decay of Cf isotopes, statistical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Jayesh George; Santhosh, K.P.

    2017-01-01

    The process of splitting a heavier nucleus to three simultaneous fragments is termed as ternary fission and compared to usual binary fission, it is a rare process. Depending on the nature of third particle either it is called light charged particle (LCP) accompanying fission if it is light or true ternary fission if all three fragments have nearly same mass distributions. After experimental observations in early seventies, initially with a slow pace, now theoretical studies in ternary fission has turned to a hot topic in nuclear decay studies especially in past one decade. Mean while various models have been developed, existing being modified and seeking for new with a hope that it can beam a little more light to the profound nature of nuclear interaction. In this study a statistical method, level density formulation, has been employed

  7. Completed Local Ternary Pattern for Rotation Invariant Texture Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha H. Rassem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the two texture descriptors, the completed modeling of Local Binary Pattern (CLBP and the Completed Local Binary Count (CLBC, have achieved a remarkable accuracy for invariant rotation texture classification, they inherit some Local Binary Pattern (LBP drawbacks. The LBP is sensitive to noise, and different patterns of LBP may be classified into the same class that reduces its discriminating property. Although, the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP is proposed to be more robust to noise than LBP, however, the latter’s weakness may appear with the LTP as well as with LBP. In this paper, a novel completed modeling of the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP operator is proposed to overcome both LBP drawbacks, and an associated completed Local Ternary Pattern (CLTP scheme is developed for rotation invariant texture classification. The experimental results using four different texture databases show that the proposed CLTP achieved an impressive classification accuracy as compared to the CLBP and CLBC descriptors.

  8. The partially alternating ternary sum in an associative dialgebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremner, Murray R; Sanchez-Ortega, Juana

    2010-01-01

    The alternating ternary sum in an associative algebra, abc - acb - bac + bca + cab - cba, gives rise to the partially alternating ternary sum in an associative dialgebra with products dashv and vdash by making the argument a the center of each term. We use computer algebra to determine the polynomial identities in degree ≤9 satisfied by this new trilinear operation. In degrees 3 and 5, these identities define a new variety of partially alternating ternary algebras. We show that there is a 49-dimensional space of multilinear identities in degree 7, and we find equivalent nonlinear identities. We use the representation theory of the symmetric group to show that there are no new identities in degree 9.

  9. New ternary hydride formation in U-Ti-H system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takuya; Kayano, Hideo; Yamawaki, Michio.

    1991-01-01

    Hydrogen absorption properties of two titanium-rich uranium alloys, UTi 2 and UTi 4 , were studied in order to prepare and identify the recently found ternary hydride. They slowly reacted with hydrogen of the initial pressure of 10 5 Pa at 873K to form the ternary hydride. The hydrogenated specimen mainly consisted of the pursued ternary hydride but contained also U(or UO 2 ), TiH x , and some transient phases. X-ray powder diffraction and Electron Probe Micro Analysis proved that it was the UTi 2 H x with the expected MgCu 2 structure, though all the X-ray peaks were broad probably because of inhomogeneity. This compound had extremely high resistance to powdering on its formation, which showed high potential utilities for a non-powdering tritium storage system or for other purposes. (author)

  10. Thermodynamic and topological instability approaches for forecasting glass-forming ability in the ternary Al-Ni-Y system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.F. de; Aliaga, L.C.R.; Bolfarini, C.; Botta, W.J.; Kiminami, C.S.

    2008-01-01

    A thermodynamic approach to predict bulk glass-forming compositions in binary metallic systems was recently proposed. In this approach, the parameter γ* = ΔH amor /(ΔH inter - ΔH amor ) indicates the glass-forming ability (GFA) from the standpoint of the driving force to form different competing phases, and ΔH amor and ΔH inter are the enthalpies for glass and intermetallic formation, respectively. Good glass-forming compositions should have a large negative enthalpy for glass formation and a very small difference for intermetallic formation, thus making the glassy phase easily reachable even under low cooling rates. The γ* parameter showed a good correlation with GFA experimental data in the Ni-Nb binary system. In this work, a simple extension of the γ* parameter is applied in the ternary Al-Ni-Y system. The calculated γ* isocontours in the ternary diagram are compared with experimental results of glass formation in that system. Despite some misfitting, the best glass formers are found quite close to the highest γ* values, leading to the conclusion that this thermodynamic approach can be extended to ternary systems, serving as a useful tool for the development of new glass-forming compositions. Finally the thermodynamic approach is compared with the topological instability criteria used to predict the thermal behavior of glassy Al alloys

  11. Preparation and photoluminescence enhancement in terbium(III ternary complexes with β-diketone and monodentate auxiliary ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devender Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of new solid ternary complexes of terbium(III ion based on β-diketone ligand acetylacetone (acac and monodentate auxiliary ligands (aqua/urea/triphenylphosphineoxide/pyridine-N-oxide had been prepared. The structural characterizations of synthesized ternary compounds were studied by means of elemental analysis, infrared (IR, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectral techniques. The optical characteristics were investigated with absorption as well as photoluminescence spectroscopy. Thermal behavior of compounds was examined by TGA/DTA analysis and all metal complexes were found to have good thermal stability. The luminescence decay time of complexes were also calculated by monitoring at emission wavelength corresponding to 5D4 → 7F5 transition. A comparative inspection of the luminescent behavior of prepared ternary compounds was performed in order to determine the function of auxiliary ligands in the enhancement of luminescence intensity produced by central terbium(III ion. The color coordinates values suggested that compounds showed bright green emission in visible region in electromagnetic spectrum. Complexes producing green light could play a significant role in the fabrication of efficient light conversion molecular devices for display purposes and lightning systems.

  12. Studies on Ternary Complex Formation of U(VI)-salicylate by Using Time-resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Wan Sik; Cho, H. R.; Park, K. K.; Kim, W. H.; Jung, E. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Organic ligands containing carboxylic and phenolic functional groups naturally occur in groundwater environment, particularly in forms of polyelectrolytes such as humic and fulvic acids, from microbial degradation of biomass, e.g., plant and animal tissues. These ligands play important roles in dissolution and migration of actinide radionuclide species since they can form stable ternary actinide complexes with common inorganic ions like hydroxides and carbonates. Therefore, model ternary complexes of lanthanides and actinides have been targets of studies to understand their chemical behaviors under near-neutral pH groundwater conditions. Previous model carboxylic ligands include phthalates, maleic acids, or alpha- substituted carboxylic acids. However, majority of previous studies investigated binary systems or used potentiometric titration method that requires high ligand concentration in mM levels. Recently, highly sensitive time-resolved laserinduced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) has been used to investigate lower concentration (e.g., a few {mu}M levels) reactions of binary complexes between of ligands and metal ions. This technique provides information regarding electronic structures and complexation constants as well as fluorescence quenching mechanism. In the present study, we studied the U(VI)-OH-salicylate (SA) ternary complex formation at higher pH (> 4) via TRLF spectrum and UV-Vis absorbance measurement. Preliminary studies show that the fluorescence (FL) intensity of hydroxouranyl species at pH 4.5 decreases as SA concentration elevates in aqueous solution. Fluorescence quenching mechanism by SA is suggested based on FL intensity (I) and lifetime (tau) measurement via TRLFS

  13. Equilibrium phase diagram of the Ag-Au-Pb ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassam, S.; Bahari, Z.

    2005-01-01

    The phase diagram of the ternary system Ag-Au-Pb has been established using differential thermal analysis and X-ray powder diffraction analysis. Four vertical sections were studied: X Pb = 0.40, X Au /X Pb = 1/3, X Ag /X Au = 4/1 and X Ag /X Au = 1/1. Two ternary transitory peritectics and one ternary eutectic were characterized. A schematic representation of the ternary equilibria is given

  14. Adiabatic pipelining: a key to ternary computing with quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pečar, P.; Ramšak, A.; Zimic, N.; Mraz, M.; Lebar Bajec, I.

    2008-12-01

    The quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots, was introduced by Lent in the mid-1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multi-valued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi-valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turned out, even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and the application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We present here a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more, the ternary QCAs presented here are sizewise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve towards their faster adoption.

  15. Adiabatic pipelining: a key to ternary computing with quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecar, P; Zimic, N; Mraz, M; Lebar Bajec, I; Ramsak, A

    2008-01-01

    The quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots, was introduced by Lent in the mid-1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multi-valued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi-valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turned out, even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and the application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We present here a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more, the ternary QCAs presented here are sizewise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve towards their faster adoption.

  16. Adiabatic pipelining: a key to ternary computing with quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pečar, P; Ramšak, A; Zimic, N; Mraz, M; Lebar Bajec, I

    2008-12-10

    The quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots, was introduced by Lent in the mid-1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multi-valued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi-valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turned out, even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and the application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We present here a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more, the ternary QCAs presented here are sizewise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve towards their faster adoption.

  17. A novel ternary logic circuit using Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisue, M.; Oochi, K.; Nishizawa, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a novel Josephson complementary ternary logic circuit named as JCTL. This fundamental circuit is constructed by combination of two SQUIDs, one of which is switched in the positive direction and the other in the negative direction. The JCTL can perform the fundamental operations of AND, OR, NOT and Double NOT in ternary form. The principle of the operation and design criteria are described in detail. The results of the simulation show that the reliable operations of these circuits can be achieved with a high performance

  18. PM1 steganographic algorithm using ternary Hamming Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Kaczyński

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available PM1 algorithm is a modification of well-known LSB steganographic algorithm. It has increased resistance to selected steganalytic attacks and increased embedding efficiency. Due to its uniqueness, PM1 algorithm allows us to use of larger alphabet of symbols, making it possible to further increase steganographic capacity. In this paper, we present the modified PM1 algorithm which utilizies so-called syndrome coding and ternary Hamming code. The modified algorithm has increased embedding efficiency, which means fewer changes introduced to carrier and increased capacity.[b]Keywords[/b]: steganography, linear codes, PM1, LSB, ternary Hamming code

  19. Ternary iron(II) complex with an emissive imidazopyridine arm from Schiff base cyclizations and its oxidative DNA cleavage activity

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Arindam; Dhar, Shanta; Nethaji, Munirathinam; Chakravarty, Akhil R

    2005-01-01

    The ternary iron(II) complex [Fe(L')(L")] $(PF_6)_3(1)$ as a synthetic model for the bleomycins, where L' and L" are formed from metal-mediated cyclizations of N,N -(2-hydroxypropane-1,3-diyl)bis(pyridine-2-aldimine)(L), is synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. In the six-coordinate iron(II) complex, ligands L' and L" show tetradentate and bidentate chelating modes of bonding. Ligand L' is formed from an intramolecular attack of the alcoholic OH group of L to o...

  20. Predicting the stability of ternary intermetallics with density functional theory and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jonathan; Chen, Liming; Botti, Silvana; Marques, Miguel A. L.

    2018-06-01

    We use a combination of machine learning techniques and high-throughput density-functional theory calculations to explore ternary compounds with the AB2C2 composition. We chose the two most common intermetallic prototypes for this composition, namely, the tI10-CeAl2Ga2 and the tP10-FeMo2B2 structures. Our results suggest that there may be ˜10 times more stable compounds in these phases than previously known. These are mostly metallic and non-magnetic. While the use of machine learning reduces the overall calculation cost by around 75%, some limitations of its predictive power still exist, in particular, for compounds involving the second-row of the periodic table or magnetic elements.

  1. Molecular dynamics study of the ternary Cu50Ti25Zr25 bulk glass forming alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celtek M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure and thermodynamic properties of a ternary Cu50Ti25Zr25 metallic glass forming alloy in solid-liquid to glass phases were studied using molecular dynamics (MD method based on tight-binding (TB potentials. An atomic description of the melting, glass formation and crystallization process has been analyzed using different heating and cooling rates. The computed Glass Forming Ability (GFA parameters are in good agreement with experimental data. The structure analysis of the Cu50Ti25Zr25 based on molecular dynamics simulation will be also presented and compared with available MD results. We have also discussed the crystallization transition with two different interatomic potentials used in this work

  2. Formation of binary and ternary complexes of mercaptobenzimidazoles with lanthanides in presence of aminopolycarboxylic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seshi Reddy, P; Manwal, D D; Chandra Pal, A V [Osmania Univ., Hyderabad (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-05-01

    The formation constants of 1:1 and 1:2 binary Ln (III)-2-mercaptomethylbenzimidazole (MMB), Ln (III)-2-mercapto-ethylbenzimidazole (MEB) and 1:1:1 ternary [Ln (III)-A-MMB], [Ln (III)-A-MEB] chelates [where Ln(III) = Pr, Nd, Gd, Dy and Y; A = iminodiacetic acid (IMDA), hydroxyethyliminodiacetic acid (HIMDA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)] have been determined pH-metrically in 50% (v/v) aqueous ethanol medium at 30 degC and I = 0.1 M (NaClO{sub 4}). The ligands MMB and MEB coordinates as secondary ligands in presence of IMDA, HIMDA and NTA with metal ions. (author). 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Sc-W-Si and Sc-W-Ge ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, B.Ya.; Voznyak, O.M.; Bodak, O.I.

    1989-01-01

    Phase equilibria in Sc-W-Si and Sc-W-Ge ternary systems are investigated at 1070 K. Sc 2+x W 3-x Si 4 ternary compound (0≤x≤1) is determined, its crystal structure (Ce 2 Sc 3 Si 4 structural type), as well as, change of elementary cell parameters and microhardness within homogeneity range are determined. Regularities of component interaction within Sc-M-Si(Ge) (M-Cr, Mo, W) ternary system are determined. Ternary systems with Mo and W are more closer to each other according to the phase equilibria character, than to ternary systems with Cr

  4. Synthesis and characterization of ternary Pt-Ni-M/C (M=Cu, Fe, Ce, Mo, W) nano-catalysts for low temperature fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Riaz; Jamil, Rabia; Ansari, Muhammad Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Ternary metal catalysts were synthesized by impregnation method. The mixture of metal solutions was reduced slowly under inert atmosphere and the reduced metals were deposited on the Vulcan Carbon(VC). Tungsten, molybdenum, cerium, iron and copper were added to specified amounts of platinum and nickel. Addition of nickel generally improves catalytic activity of platinum. The XRD of the catalysts was done and the crystallite size and other parameters were calculated. Crystallite sizes were in the range of 5 to 16 nm. Electrochemical surface areas of the catalysts were determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in acidic media and are compared. Electro oxidation of methanol on the catalysts was done and peak potential, peak current, mass activity of the catalysts were calculated and are compared. These parameters were determined in acidic and basic media. It was found that mass activity increased significantly in basic media. Rate constants for the electro oxidation of methanol were also calculated in acidic and basic media and are compared and discussed. Rate constants were generally higher in basic media. Ternary catalysts showed improved catalytic activity than the binary catalyst. Nano alloying improved the catalytic activity and stability of the ternary catalysts

  5. Design and synthesis of hierarchical MnO2 nanospheres/carbon nanotubes/conducting polymer ternary composite for high performance electrochemical electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ye; Cheng, Yingwen; Hobson, Tyler; Liu, Jie

    2010-07-14

    For efficient use of metal oxides, such as MnO(2) and RuO(2), in pseudocapacitors and other electrochemical applications, the poor conductivity of the metal oxide is a major problem. To tackle the problem, we have designed a ternary nanocomposite film composed of metal oxide (MnO(2)), carbon nanotube (CNT), and conducting polymer (CP). Each component in the MnO(2)/CNT/CP film provides unique and critical function to achieve optimized electrochemical properties. The electrochemical performance of the film is evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, and constant-current charge/discharge cycling techniques. Specific capacitance (SC) of the ternary composite electrode can reach 427 F/g. Even at high mass loading and high concentration of MnO(2) (60%), the film still showed SC value as high as 200 F/g. The electrode also exhibited excellent charge/discharge rate and good cycling stability, retaining over 99% of its initial charge after 1000 cycles. The results demonstrated that MnO(2) is effectively utilized with assistance of other components (fFWNTs and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) in the electrode. Such ternary composite is very promising for the next generation high performance electrochemical supercapacitors.

  6. Ternary mixtures of alkyltriphenylphosphonium bromides (C12 TPB ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Critical Micellar Concentrations (CMCs) by conductometry, but their ternary mixtures produce single ... efficiently quenched pyrene fluorescence; the performances of the homologues in this respect were assessed. Keywords ..... The shape of the amphiphile aggregates ..... Haque M E, Das A R and Moulik S P 1999 J. Colloid.

  7. Mechanochemically prepared ternary hybrid cathode material for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posudievsky, Oleg Yu; Kozarenko, Olga A.; Dyadyun, Vyacheslav S.; Jorgensen, Scott W.; Spearot, James A.; Koshechko, Vyacheslav G.; Pokhodenko, Vitaly D.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The presence of macromolecules of an ion-conducting polymer in the composition of the ternary nanocomposite PPy–PEO/V 2 O 5 promotes interfacial transfer of lithium ions and also facilitates faster transport inside the particles of the nanocomposite. -- Highlights: • Two- and three component nanocomposites are prepared via a solvent-free mechanochemical synthesis. • The nanocomposites retain their capacity above 200 mA h g −1 for at least one hundred cycles. • The presence of PEO promotes interfacial transfer of lithium ions and facilitates faster transport inside the nanocomposite. -- Abstract: Ternary host–guest nanocomposite based on vanadium oxide and two polymers with different types of conductivity (ionic and electronic) – polypyrrole (PPy) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) – is prepared by solventless mechanochemical synthesis. The nanocomposite can be reversibly cycled with a specific capacity of ∼200 mA h g −1 for at least one hundred cycles of full charge–discharge as the active component of the positive electrode of lithium batteries. Electrochemical performance of ternary PPy 0.1 PEO 0.15 V 2 O 5 is compared with two-component analog PPy 0.1 V 2 O 5 . The presence of macromolecules of an ion-conducting polymer in the composition of the ternary nanocomposite PPy 0.1 PEO 0.15 V 2 O 5 promotes interfacial transfer of lithium ions and also facilitates faster transport inside the particles of the nanocomposite

  8. Robust Self-Triggered Coordination With Ternary Controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Frasca, Paolo; Nair, G.N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper regards the coordination of networked systems, studied in the framework of hybrid dynamical systems. We design a coordination scheme which combines the use of ternary controllers with a self-triggered communication policy. The communication policy requires the agents to measure, at each

  9. Excess isentropic compressibility and speed of sound of the ternary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These excess properties of the binary mixtures were fitted to Redlich-Kister equation, while the Cibulka's equation was used to fit the values related to the values to the ternary system. These excess properties have been used to discuss the presence of significant interactions between the component molecules in the binary ...

  10. Robust self-triggered coordination with ternary controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Frasca, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper regards the coordination of networked systems, studied in the framework of hybrid dynamical systems. We design a coordination scheme which combines the use of ternary controllers with a self-triggered communication policy. The communication policy requires the agents to measure, at each

  11. Calculation of Fe–B–V ternary phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homolová, Viera; Kroupa, Aleš; Výrostková, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phase diagram of Fe–B–V system was modelled by CALPHAD method. ► Database for thermodynamic calculations for Fe–B–V system was created. ► The new ternary phase was found in 67Fe–18B–15V [in at.%] alloy. - Abstract: The phase equilibria of the Fe–B–V ternary system are studied experimentally and theoretically in this paper. Phase diagram of the system was modelled by CALPHAD method. Boron was modelled as an interstitial element in the FCC and BCC solid solutions. The calculations of isothermal sections of phase diagram are compared with our experimental results at 903 and 1353 K and with available literature experimental data. New ternary phase (with chemical composition 28Fe32V40B in at.%) was found in 67Fe–18B–15V alloy [in at.%]. Further experimental studies for the determination of exact nature of the ternary phase including crystallographic information are necessary.

  12. Effect of Limestone Powder on Microstructure of Ternary Cementitious System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Ye, G.

    2012-01-01

    The pressure to reach sustainability favours the development of ternary composite cement. The synergistic effect on mechanical behaviour at 28 days between limestone powder (LP) and pozzolanic additives, i.e. fly ash (FA) and blast furnace slag (BFS), has been documented. In order to better

  13. Studies on Molecular Interaction in Ternary Liquid Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uvarani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity for the ternary liquid mixtures of cyclohexanone with 1-propanol and 1-butanol in carbon tetrachloride were measured at 303 K. The acoustical parameters and their excess values were calculated. The trends in the variation of these excess parameters were used to discuss the nature and strength of the interactions present between the component molecules.

  14. A Simple Refraction Experiment for Probing Diffusion in Ternary Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Cecil A.; Mankidy, Bijith D.; Gupta, Vinay K.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion is a fundamental phenomenon that is vital in many chemical processes such as mass transport in living cells, corrosion, and separations. We describe a simple undergraduate-level experiment based on Weiner's Method to probe diffusion in a ternary aqueous mixture of small molecular-weight molecules. As an illustration, the experiment…

  15. Segregation in ternary alloys: an interplay of driving forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luyten, J.; Helfensteyn, S.; Creemers, C.

    2003-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations combined with the constant bond energy (CBE) model are set up to explore and understand the general segregation behaviour in ternary alloys as a function of composition and more in particular the segregation to Cu-Ni-Al (1 0 0) surfaces. Besides its simplicity, allowing swift simulations, which are necessary for a first general survey over all possible compositions, one of the advantages of the CBE model lies in the possibility to clearly identify the different driving forces for segregation. All simulations are performed in the Grand Canonical Ensemble, using a new algorithm to determine the chemical potential of the components. Notwithstanding the simplicity of the CBE model, one extra feature is evidenced: depending on the values of the interatomic interaction parameters, in some regions of the ternary diagram, a single solid solution becomes thermodynamically unstable, leading to demixing into two conjugate phases. The simulations are first done for three hypothetical systems that are however representative for real alloy systems. The three systems are characterised by different sets of interatomic interaction parameters. These extensive simulations over the entire composition range of the ternary alloy yield a 'topographical' segregation map, showing distinct regions where different species segregate. These distinct domains originate from a variable interplay between the driving forces for segregation and attractive/repulsive interactions in the bulk of the alloy. The results on these hypothetical systems are very helpful for a better understanding of the segregation behaviour in Cu-Ni-Al and other ternary alloys

  16. Univolatility curves in ternary mixtures: geometry and numerical computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shcherbakova, Nataliya; Rodriguez-Donis, Ivonne; Abildskov, Jens

    2017-01-01

    We propose a new non-iterative numerical algorithm allowing computation of all univolatility curves in homogeneous ternary mixtures independently of the presence of the azeotropes. The key point is the concept of generalized univolatility curves in the 3D state space, which allows the main comput...

  17. Phase coexistence and line tension in ternary lipid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idema, T.; Leeuwen, van J.M.J.; Storm, C.

    2009-01-01

    The ternary system consisting of cholesterol, a saturated lipid, and an unsaturated one exhibits a rich phase behavior with multiple phase coexistence regimes. Remarkably, phase separation even occurs when each of the three binary systems consisting of two of these components is a uniform mixture.

  18. Thermodynamic evaluation of the Ti-Al-O ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.-J.

    1997-01-01

    A thermodynamic evaluation of the Ti-Al-O ternary system has been made by using thermodynamic models for the Gibbs energy of individual phases. A consistent model parameter set was determined so that the calculation of isothermal sections and other thermodynamic quantities becomes possible. The agreement between calculation and corresponding experimental data was generally good along large temperature and composition range. (orig.)

  19. Design of ternary low-power Domino JKL flip—flop and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pengjun; Yang Qiankun; Zheng Xuesong

    2012-01-01

    By researching the ternary flip—flop and the adiabatic Domino circuit, a novel design of low-power ternary Domino JKL flip—flop on the switch level is proposed. First, the switch-level structure of the ternary adiabatic Domino JKL flip—flop is derived according to the switch-signal theory and its truth table. Then the ternary loop operation circuit and ternary reverse loop operation circuit are achieved by employing the ternary JKL flip—flop. Finally, the circuit is simulated by using the Spice tool and the results show that the logic function is correct. The energy consumption of the ternary adiabatic Domino JKL flip—flop is 69% less than its conventional Domino counterpart. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  20. Experimental investigation of the Ag–Bi–I ternary system and thermodynamic properties of the ternary phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashadieva, Leyla F.; Aliev, Ziya S.; Shevelkov, Andrei V.; Babanly, Mahammad B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The self-consistent phase diagram of the Ag–Bi–I system is constructed. ► Ag 2 BiI 5 and AgBi 2 I 7 are the only ternary phases of the system. ► Standard thermodynamic functions of formation and the standard entropies of Ag 2 BiI 5 and AgBi 2 I 7 are calculated. - Abstract: The phase equilibriums in the Ag–Bi–I ternary system and thermodynamic properties of the ternary phases were experimentally determined by using DTA and XRD techniques and EMF measurements with the Ag 4 RbI 5 solid electrolyte. According to the obtained experimental results, the polythermal sections of the ternary phase diagram, its isothermal section at 300 K as well as the projection of the liquids surface have been revised. The fields of the primary crystallization and types and coordinates of nonvariant and monovariant equilibriums were determined. The partial molar functions of silver iodide and silver in the alloys as well as the standard thermodynamic functions of formation and the standard entropies of Ag 2 BiI 5 and AgBi 2 I 7 were calculated based on EMF measurements.

  1. Phase equilibria in the Mo-Fe-P system at 800 °C and structure of ternary phosphide (Mo(1-x)Fe(x))3P (0.10 ≤ x ≤ 0.15).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliynyk, Anton O; Lomnytska, Yaroslava F; Dzevenko, Mariya V; Stoyko, Stanislav S; Mar, Arthur

    2013-01-18

    Construction of the isothermal section in the metal-rich portion (ternary phases: (Mo(1-x)Fe(x))(2)P (x = 0.30-0.82) and (Mo(1-x)Fe(x))(3)P (x = 0.10-0.15). The occurrence of a Co(2)Si-type ternary phase (Mo(1-x)Fe(x))(2)P, which straddles the equiatomic composition MoFeP, is common to other ternary transition-metal phosphide systems. However, the ternary phase (Mo(1-x)Fe(x))(3)P is unusual because it is distinct from the binary phase Mo(3)P, notwithstanding their similar compositions and structures. The relationship has been clarified through single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies on Mo(3)P (α-V(3)S-type, space group I42m, a = 9.7925(11) Å, c = 4.8246(6) Å) and (Mo(0.85)Fe(0.15))(3)P (Ni(3)P-type, space group I4, a = 9.6982(8) Å, c = 4.7590(4) Å) at -100 °C. Representation in terms of nets containing fused triangles provides a pathway to transform these closely related structures through twisting. Band structure calculations support the adoption of these structure types and the site preference of Fe atoms. Electrical resistivity measurements on (Mo(0.85)Fe(0.15))(3)P reveal metallic behavior but no superconducting transition.

  2. Ternary Fission of U235 by Resonance Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvitek, I.; Popov, Ju.P.; Rjabov, Ju.V.

    1965-01-01

    Recently a number of papers have appeared indicating considerable variations in the ratio of the ternary-fission cross-section to the binary-fission cross-section of U 235 on transition from one neutron resonance to another. However, such variations have not been discovered in U 233 and Pu 239 . The paper reports investigations of the ternary fission of U 235 by neutrons with an energy of 0.1 to 30 eV. Unlike other investigators of the ternary fission of U 235 , we identified the ternary-fission event by the coincidence of one of the fission fragments with a light long-range particle. This made it passible to separate ternary fissions from the possible contribution of the (n, α)reaction. The measurements were performed at the fast pulsed reactor of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research by the time-of-flight method. A flight length of 100 m was used, giving a resolution of 0.6 μs/m. Gas scintillation counters filled with xenon at a pressure of 2 atm were used to record the fission fragments and the light long-range particle. A layer of enriched U 235 ∼2 mg/cm 2 thick and ∼300 cm 2 in area was applied to an aluminium foil 20-fim thick. The scintillations from the fission fragments were recorded in the gas volume on one side of the foil and those from the light long-range particles in that on the other. In order to assess the background (e.g . coincidences of the pulse from a fragment with that from a fission gamma quantum or a proton from the (n, p) reaction in the aluminium foil), a measurement was carried out in which the volume recording the long-range particle was shielded with a supplementary aluminium filter 1-mm thick. The results obtained indicate the absence of the considerable variations in the ratio between the ternary-and binary- fission cross-sections for U 235 that have been noted by other authors. Measurements showed no irregularity in the ratio of the cross-sections in the energy range 0.1 to 0.2 eV. The paper discusses the possible effect of

  3. Neutronics and activation analysis of lithium-based ternary alloys in IFE blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolodosky, Alejandra, E-mail: aleja311@berkeley.edu [University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94706 (United States); Kramer, Kevin [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA (United States); Meier, Wayne; DeMuth, James; Reyes, Susana [TerraPower, Bellevue, WA 98005 (United States); Fratoni, Massimiliano [University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94706 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Monte Carlo calculations were performed on numerous lithium ternary alloys. • Elements with high neutron multiplication performed well with low absorbers. • Enriching lithium decreases minimum lithium concentration of alloys by 60% or more. • Alloys that performed well neutronically were selected for activation calculations. • Alloys activated, except LiBaBi, do not pose major environmental or safety concerns. - Abstract: An attractive feature of using liquid lithium as the breeder and coolant in fusion blankets is that it has very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and presents plant safety concerns. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is carrying an effort to develop a lithium-based ternary alloy that maintains the beneficial properties of lithium (e.g. high tritium breeding and solubility) and at the same time reduces overall flammability concerns. This study evaluates the neutronics performance of lithium-based alloys in the blanket of an inertial fusion energy chamber in order to inform such development. 3-D Monte Carlo calculations were performed to evaluate two main neutronics performance parameters for the blanket: tritium breeding ratio (TBR), and the fusion energy multiplication factor (EMF). It was found that elements that exhibit low absorption cross sections and higher q-values such as Pb, Sn, and Sr, perform well with those that have high neutron multiplication such as Pb and Bi. These elements meet TBR constrains ranging from 1.02 to 1.1. However, most alloys do not reach EMFs greater than 1.15. Additionally, it was found that enriching lithium with {sup 6}Li significantly increases the TBR and decreases the minimum lithium concentration by more than 60%. The amount of enrichment depends on how much total lithium is in the alloy to begin with. Alloys that performed well in the TBR

  4. Investigations of the ternary system beryllium-carbon-tungsten and analyses of beryllium on carbon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kost, Florian

    2009-01-01

    Beryllium, carbon and tungsten are planned to be used as first wall materials in the future fusion reactor ITER. The aim of this work is a characterization of mixed material formation induced by thermal load. To this end, model systems (layers) were prepared and investigated, which give insight into the basic physical and chemical concepts. Before investigating ternary systems, the first step was to analyze the binary systems Be/C and Be/W (bottom-up approach), where the differences between the substrates PG (pyrolytic graphite) and HOPG (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) were of special interest. Particularly X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low energy ion scattering (ISS) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) were used as analysis methods. Beryllium evaporated on carbon shows an island growth mode, whereas a closed layer can be assumed for layer thicknesses above 0.7 nm. Annealing of the Be/C system induces Be 2 C island formation for T≥770 K. At high temperatures (T≥1170 K), beryllium carbide dissociates, resulting in (metallic) beryllium desorption. For HOPG, carbide formation starts at higher temperatures compared to PG. Activation energies for the diffusion processes were determined by analyzing the decreasing beryllium amount versus annealing time. Surface morphologies were characterized using angle-resolved XPS (ARXPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Experiments were performed to study processes in the Be/W system in the temperature range from 570 to 1270 K. Be 2 W formation starts at 670 K, a complete loss of Be 2 W is observed at 1170 K due to dissociation (and subsequent beryllium desorption). Regarding ternary systems, particularly Be/C/W and C/Be/W were investigated, attaching importance to layer thickness (reservoir) variations. At room temperature, Be 2 C, W 2 C, WC and Be 2 W formation at the respective interfaces was observed. Further Be 2 C is forming with increasing annealing temperatures. Depending on the layer

  5. Fabrication of Ternary AgPdAu Alloy Nanoparticles on c-Plane Sapphire by the Systematical Control of Film Thickness and Deposition Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, Sundar; Pandey, Puran; Sui, Mao; Bastola, Sushil; Lee, Jihoon

    2018-06-01

    In this work, a systematic study on the fabrication of ternary AgPdAu alloy nanoparticles (NPs) on c-plane sapphire (0001) is presented and the corresponding structural and optical characteristics are demonstrated. The metallic trilayers of various thicknesses and deposition orders are annealed in a controlled manner (400 °C to 900 °C) to induce the solid-state dewetting that yields the various structural configurations of AgPdAu alloy NPs. The dewetting of relatively thicker trilayers (15 nm) is gradually progressed with void nucleation, growth, and coalescence, isolated NP formation, and shape transformation, along with the temperature control. For 6 nm thickness, owing to the sufficient dewetting of trilayers along with enhanced diffusion, dense and small spherical alloy NPs are fabricated. Depending on the specific growth condition, the surface diffusion and interdiffusion of metal atoms, surface and interface energy minimization, Rayleigh instability, and equilibrium configuration are correlated to describe the fabrication of ternary alloy NPs. Ternary alloy NPs exhibit morphology-dependent ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-VIS-NIR) reflectance properties such as the inverse relationship of average reflectance with the surface coverage, absorption enhancement in specific regions, and reflectance maxima in UV and NIR regions. In addition, Raman spectra depict the six active phonon modes of sapphires and their intensity and position modulation by the alloy NPs.

  6. Thermodynamic calculations in ternary titanium–aluminium–manganese system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA I. KOSTOV

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculations in the ternary Ti–Al–Mn system are shown in this paper. The thermodynamic calculations were performed using the FactSage thermochemical software and database, with the aim of determining thermodynamic properties, such as activities, coefficient of activities, partial and integral values of the enthalpies and Gibbs energies of mixing and excess energies at two different temperatures: 2000 and 2100 K. Bearing in mind that no experimental data for the Ti–Al–Mn ternary system have been obtained or reported. The obtained results represent a good base for further thermodynamic analysis and may be useful as a comparison with some future critical experimental results and thermodynamic optimization of this system.

  7. Reconstructing Unrooted Phylogenetic Trees from Symbolic Ternary Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, Stefan; Long, Yangjing; Wu, Yaokun

    2018-03-09

    Böcker and Dress (Adv Math 138:105-125, 1998) presented a 1-to-1 correspondence between symbolically dated rooted trees and symbolic ultrametrics. We consider the corresponding problem for unrooted trees. More precisely, given a tree T with leaf set X and a proper vertex coloring of its interior vertices, we can map every triple of three different leaves to the color of its median vertex. We characterize all ternary maps that can be obtained in this way in terms of 4- and 5-point conditions, and we show that the corresponding tree and its coloring can be reconstructed from a ternary map that satisfies those conditions. Further, we give an additional condition that characterizes whether the tree is binary, and we describe an algorithm that reconstructs general trees in a bottom-up fashion.

  8. Ternary fission in an effective liquid drop model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Sergio B.; Tavares, Odilon A.P.; Dimarco, A.; Goncalves, Marcello; Guzman, Fernando; Trallero-Herrera, Carlos; Rodriguez, Oscar; Garcia, Fermin

    2001-01-01

    Full text follows: The nuclear partition in three fragments has been observed in recent experiments for fission process of 252 Cf and 24 '0 Pu. We apply the Effective Liquid Drop Model (ELDM), successfully used for discussing binary cold fission and cluster emissions for a three center geometric shape parametrization, describing the quasi-molecular deformation which can lead to ternary fragmentation. A preliminary calculation for rates of these processes are performed and the results are compared to the rate of the dominant binary fission process. A large range of parent nuclei (spherical and deformed) is covered in the calculation. The purpose is to point out others possible ternary fission process experimentally measurable. (author)

  9. Dynamical theory of subconstituents based on ternary algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bars, I.; Guenaydin, M.

    1980-01-01

    We propose a dynamical theory of possible fundamental constituents of matter. Our scheme is based on (super) ternary algebras which are building blocks of Lie (super) algebras. Elementary fields, called ''ternons,'' are associated with the elements of a (super) ternary algebra. Effective gauge bosons, ''quarks,'' and ''leptons'' are constructed as composite fields from ternons. We propose two- and four-dimensional (super) ternon theories whose structures are closely related to CP/sub N/ and Yang-Mills theories and their supersymmetric extensions. We conjecture that at large distances (low energies) the ternon theories dynamically produce effective gauge theories and thus may be capable of explaining the present particle-physics phenomenology. Such a scenario is valid in two dimensions

  10. Cohesion energy calculations for ternary ionic novel crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez P, G.; Cabrera, E.; Mijangos, R.R.; Valdez, E.; Duarte, C.

    2001-01-01

    The present work calculates the value of the link energy of a crystalline ternary structure newly formed by alkali halides. The ternary structure prepared with different concentrations of KCl x KBrRbCl 2 maintains a very good miscibility and stability. The calculation is based on the use of a generalization of the Vegard law (which generally is valid for binary compounds) for calculating the values of the lattice constant and the repulsive m exponent. The value of the lattice parameter given by X-ray diffractometry agrees with the close approximation of the calculated value of the method used. It also compares the value of energy cohesion obtained by the Born expression with more complex approximations. (Author)

  11. Metal Ion Controlled Polymorphism of a Peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Lars Bo Stegeager; Jancso, Attila; Szunyogh, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    ions on fully or partially unstructured proteins, or the effect of metal ions on protein aggregation. Metal ions may be employed to fold (or misfold) individual peptides in a controlled manner depending on the potential metal ion coordinating amino acid side chains (Cys, His, Asp, Glu......In this work a metal ion binding model dodecapeptide was investigated in terms of its capacity to adopt different structures depending on the metal ion to peptide stoichiometry. The dodecapeptide is much simpler than real proteins, yet displays sufficient complexity to model the effect of metal......, …) in the peptide, and the ligand and structural preferences of the metal ion (in our studies Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Cu+/2+). Simultaneously, new species such as metal ion bridged ternary complexes or even oligomers may be formed. In recent previous studies we have observed similar polymorphism of zinc finger model...

  12. 600 °C isothermal section of the Al–Cr–Zn ternary phase diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Zuxin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Material Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovolatic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Su, Xuping, E-mail: sxping@cczu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Material Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovolatic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Peng, Haoping; Liu, Ya; Wu, Changjun; Wang, Jianhua [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Material Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China)

    2015-11-15

    600 °C isothermal section of the Al–Cr–Zn system has been determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Eleven three-phase regions have been identified experimentally at 600 °C. The τ{sub 3} and τ{sub 4} ternary compounds were identified in this isothermal section and the crystal structures of both phases are cubic. The lattice parameters of τ{sub 3} and τ{sub 4} are a = 2.1536 nm and a = 1.8323 nm, respectively. The formerly reported τ{sub 1} phase was not found. The formerly reported τ{sub 2} phase is an extension of Al{sub 7}Cr. The highest Zn content in γ{sub 2} and ν phases is 7.1 at at.% and 6.7 at.%, respectively. The Zn solubility in Al{sub 7}Cr phase can be up to 10.4 at.%, while that in Al{sub 4}Cr phase is less than 4 at.%. The clearly phase relation of the Al–Cr–Zn system can lead us to better understand the effect of Cr on the corrosion behavior of metals in the Zn–Al bath and the Hot-dip galvanizing process. - Highlights: • Isothermal section of the Al–Cr–Zn system at 600 °C was determined. • Eleven three-phase regions were identified experimentally at 600 °C. • Existence of the γ{sub 2} and ν phases was confirmed at 600 °C. • X-ray diffraction patterns of the ternary phases τ{sub 3} and τ{sub 4} were proposed for the first time.

  13. Peculiarities of thermoelectric half-Heusler phase formation in Zr–Co–Sb ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaka, V.V., E-mail: romakav@lp.edu.ua [Department of Applied Material Science and Materials Engineering, Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ustyyanovycha Str. 5, 79013 Lviv (Ukraine); Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Universität Wien, Währingerstr. 42, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Romaka, L. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya Str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Rogl, P. [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Universität Wien, Währingerstr. 42, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Stadnyk, Yu. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya Str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Melnychenko, N. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya Str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Army Academy named after Hetman Petro Sahaydachnyi, Gvardijska Str. 32, 79012 Lviv (Ukraine); Korzh, R.; Duriagina, Z. [Department of Applied Material Science and Materials Engineering, Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ustyyanovycha Str. 5, 79013 Lviv (Ukraine); Horyn, A. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya Str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine)

    2014-02-05

    Highlights: • Phase relations for the Zr–Co–Sb system at 500 °C. • Homogeneity region for half-Heusler phase. • The distribution of DOS for Zr{sub 1+x}Co{sub 1−x}Sb predicts transition from semiconductor (x = 0) to metallic (x = 0.13) like behavior. • The existence of the solid solution Zr{sub 5}Co{sub x}Sb{sub 3+y} (x = 0.0–1.0, y = 0.0–1.0). -- Abstract: The phase equilibria in the Zr–Co–Sb ternary system were studied at 873 K by means of X-ray and metallographic analyses in the whole concentration range. The interaction between the elements results the formation of four ternary compounds at investigated temperature: ZrCoSb (MgAgAs-type), Zr{sub 6}CoSb{sub 2} (K{sub 2}UF{sub 6}-type), Zr{sub 5}CoSb{sub 3} (Hf{sub 5}CuSn{sub 3}-type) and Zr{sub 5}Co{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 2.5} (W{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type). The limited composition Zr{sub 5}CoSb{sub 3} of the solid solution based on the Zr{sub 5}Sb{sub 3−4} binaries is considered as compound with Hf{sub 5}CuSn{sub 3} structure type. The influence of the disordering and defects in the crystal structure of ZrCoSb on the physical properties was analyzed. The performed electronic structure calculations are in good agreement with electrical and magnetic studies.

  14. Developing Low-Clinker Ternary Blends for Indian Cement Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Aritra

    2018-05-01

    In today's scenario cement-concrete has become the backbone of infrastructure development. The use of concrete is increasing day by day and so does cement. One of the major concerns is that the cement manufacturing contributes 7% of total man-made CO2 emission in the environment. At the same time India being a developing country secured the second position in cement production. On the other hand solid waste management is one of the growing problems in India. As we are one of the major contributors in this situation so, the time has come to think about the sustainable alternatives. From various researches it has been observed that the low clinker cement can be suitable option. In the present paper we have tried to develop a low clinker ternary blend for Indian cement industry using the concept of synergetic behavior of fly ash-limestone reaction and formation of more stable monocarboaluminate hydrate and hemicarboaluminate hydrate. 30% fly ash and 15% limestone and 5% gypsum have been used as supplementary cementing material for replacing 50% clinker. The mechanical properties like, compressive strength, have been studied for the fly ash limestone ternary blends cements and the results have been compared with the other controlled blends and ternary blends. The effect of intergrinding of constituent materials has shown a comparable properties which can be used for various structural application. The effect of dolomitic limestone has also been studied in fly ash limestone ternary blends and the result shows the relation between compressive strength and dolomite content is inversely proportional.

  15. Electronic structure of ternary hydrides based on light elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orgaz, E. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: orgaz@eros.pquim.unam.mx; Membrillo, A. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Castaneda, R. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Aburto, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-12-08

    Ternary hydrides based on light elements are interesting owing to the high available energy density. In this work we focused into the electronic structure of a series of known systems having the general formula AMH{sub 4}(A=Li,Na,M=B,Al). We computed the energy bands and the total and partial density of states using the linear-augmented plane waves method. In this report, we discuss the chemical bonding in this series of complex hydrides.

  16. New ternary oxides with rhenium(4) of the perovskite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jezowska-Trzebiatowska, B; Nowakowski, T; Mrozinski, J [Wroclaw Univ. (Poland)

    1978-01-01

    A series of ternary oxides described by general formula CaIrsub(x)Resub(1-x)O/sub 3/, where x 0.25; 0.33; 0.66; 0.75, has been obtained. The X-ray investigations have shown, that these compounds have a distorted perovskite structure. The proximal coordination sphere of Re/sup 4 +/ and Ir/sup 4 +/ ions constituted by an octahedron of oxide ions was confirmed by the IR spectra.

  17. Thermoelectric properties of RuSb2Te ternary skutterudites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Jiří; Plecháček, T.; Drašar, Č.; Laufek, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 7 (2013), s. 1864-1869 ISSN 0361-5235 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/1315 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : RuSb2Te * ternary skutterudite * doping Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.675, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11664-012-2451-5

  18. Some new quasi-twisted ternary linear codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Daskalov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Let [n, k, d]_q code be a linear code of length n, dimension k and minimum Hamming distance d over GF(q. One of the basic and most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with best possible minimum distances. In this paper seven quasi-twisted ternary linear codes are constructed. These codes are new and improve the best known lower bounds on the minimum distance in [6].

  19. Synthesis of Ternary Quantum Logic Circuits by Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Faisal Shah; Perkowski, Marek

    2005-01-01

    Recent research in multi-valued logic for quantum computing has shown practical advantages for scaling up a quantum computer. Multivalued quantum systems have also been used in the framework of quantum cryptography, and the concept of a qudit cluster state has been proposed by generalizing the qubit cluster state. An evolutionary algorithm based synthesizer for ternary quantum circuits has recently been presented, as well as a synthesis method based on matrix factorization.In this paper, a re...

  20. Gases and carbon in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehn, H.; Fromm, E.; Hoerz, G.

    1978-01-01

    This issue is part of a series of data on 'gases and carbon in metals'. The present survey includes results from papers dealing with gases and carbon in actinides and recommends critically selected data for each element. Firstly data od binary systems are presented, starting with hydrogen and followed by carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and rare gases. Within one metal-metalloid system the data are listed under topics such as solubility limit, dissociation pressure of compunds, vapour pressure of volatile oxides, thermodynamic data, diffusion, transport parameters (effective valence, heat of transport), permeation of gases through metals, gas adsorption and gas desorption kinetics, compound formation, precipitation kinetics, and property changes. Following the data on binary systems, the data of ternary systems are presented, beginning with systems which contain one metal and two gases or one gas and carbon and continuing with systems with two metals and one gas or carbon. Within a ternary system the topics are arranged in the same way as in binary systems. (HB) [de

  1. Phase Equilibria of Sn-Co-Cu Ternary System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Kai; Hsu, Chia-Ming; Chen, Sinn-Wen; Chen, Chih-Ming; Huang, Yu-Chih

    2012-10-01

    Sn-Co-Cu ternary alloys are promising lead-free solders, and isothermal sections of Sn-Co-Cu phase equilibria are fundamentally important for the alloys' development and applications. Sn-Co-Cu ternary alloys were prepared and equilibrated at 523 K, 1073 K, and 1273 K (250 °C, 800 °C, and 1000 °C), and the equilibrium phases were experimentally determined. In addition to the terminal solid solutions and binary intermetallic compounds, a new ternary compound, Sn3Co2Cu8, was found. The solubilities of Cu in the α-CoSn3 and CoSn2 phases at 523 K (250 °C) are 4.2 and 1.6 at. pct, respectively, while the Cu solubility in the α-Co3Sn2 phase is as high as 20.0 at. pct. The Cu solubility increases with temperature and is around 30.0 at. pct in the β-Co3Sn2 at 1073 K (800 °C). The Co solubility in the η-Cu6Sn5 phase is also significant and is 15.5 at. pct at 523 K (250 °C).

  2. Valence band electronic structure of Pd based ternary chalcogenide superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohani, H. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mishra, P. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Goyal, R.; Awana, V.P.S. [National Physical Laboratory(CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Sekhar, B.R., E-mail: sekhar@iopb.res.in [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • VB Photoemission study and DFT calculations on Pd based ternary superconductors are presented. • Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} shows a temperature dependent pseudogap. • VB spectral features of ternary superconductors are correlated to their structural geometry. - Abstract: We present a comparative study of the valence band electronic structure of Pd based ternary chalcogenide superconductors Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5}, Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}S{sub 6} and Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}Te{sub 6} using experimental photoemission spectroscopy and density functional based theoretical calculations. We observe a qualitatively similarity between valence band (VB) spectra of Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} and Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}S{sub 6}. Further, we find a pseudogap feature in Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} at low temperature, unlike other two compounds. We have correlated the structural geometry with the differences in VB spectra of these compounds. The different atomic packing in these compounds could vary the strength of inter-orbital hybridization among various atoms which leads to difference in their electronic structure as clearly observed in our DOS calculations.

  3. Realizing Ternary Logic in FPGAs for SWL DSP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayeb Din

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently SWL (Short Word Length DSP (Digital Signal Processing applications has been proposed to overcome multiplier complexity that is evident in most of the digital applications. These SWL applications have been processed through sigma-delta modulation as a key element. For such applications, adder design plays vital role and can impact upon the chip area and its performance. In this paper, a ternary approach for adder tree has been proposed instead of binary that can accommodate more data with less chip-area at the cost of extra pin. The proposed ternary adder tree has been designed and developed in Quartus-II using three different design strategies namely T-gate (Ternary gate, LUT (Look Up Table and algebraic equations. Through rigorous simulation it was found that T-gate technique results in superior performance, an average of 23.5 and 33% improvement compared to the same adder structure based on Boolean Algebraic Equation and LUT, respectively. The proposed adder design would benefit the efficient implementation of SWL applications.

  4. Ternary fission of 184466,476X formed in U + U collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karthikraj, C.; Subramanian, S.; Selvaraj, S.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the very rare process of nuclear ternary fission has been of great interest in nuclear dynamics. Based on the statistical theory of fission, we discuss here the ternary-fission mass distribution of 184 466,476 X formed in low-energy U + U collisions for different heavy third fragments at T = 1 and 2 MeV. The expected ternary configurations 208 Pb + 208 Pb + 50 Ca and 204 Hg + 204 Hg + 58 Cr are obtained from the ternary fission of 184 466 X at T = 2 MeV. In addition, for both the systems, various possible ternary modes are listed for different heavy third fragments. Our results clearly indicate that the favored ternary configurations have either proton and/or neutron shell closure nucleus as one of their partners. (orig.)

  5. State-of-the-art Sn2+-based ternary oxides as photocatalysts for water splitting: electronic structures and optoelectronic properties

    KAUST Repository

    Noureldine, Dalal

    2016-09-19

    Developing visible light responsive metal oxide photocatalysts is a challenge that must be conquered to achieve high efficiency for water splitting or hydrogen evolution reactions. Valence band engineering is possible by forming ternary oxides using the combination of a metal cation with an s2d10 electronic configuration and a transition metal oxide with a d0 configuration. Many (Sn2+, Bi3+, Pb2+)-based ternary metal oxide photocatalysts have been reported for hydrogen and/or oxygen evolution under visible irradiation. Sn2+-based materials have attracted particular attention because tin is inexpensive, abundant and more environmentally friendly than lead or bismuth. In this review, we provide a fruitful library for Sn2+-based photocatalysts that have been reported to evolve hydrogen using sacrificial reagents, including SnNb2O6, Sn2Nb2O7, SnTaxNb2−xO6, SnTa2O6, Sn2Ta2O7, SnWO4 (α and β phases), SnSb2O6·nH2O, and Sn2TiO4. The synthesis method used in the literature and the resultant morphology and crystal structure of each compound are discussed. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the electronic structure and density of states are provided, and the consequent optoelectronic properties such as band gap, nature of the bandgap, dielectric constant, and effective masses are summarized. This review will help highlight the main challenges for Sn2+-based materials.

  6. State-of-the-art Sn2+-based ternary oxides as photocatalysts for water splitting: electronic structures and optoelectronic properties

    KAUST Repository

    Noureldine, Dalal; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Developing visible light responsive metal oxide photocatalysts is a challenge that must be conquered to achieve high efficiency for water splitting or hydrogen evolution reactions. Valence band engineering is possible by forming ternary oxides using the combination of a metal cation with an s2d10 electronic configuration and a transition metal oxide with a d0 configuration. Many (Sn2+, Bi3+, Pb2+)-based ternary metal oxide photocatalysts have been reported for hydrogen and/or oxygen evolution under visible irradiation. Sn2+-based materials have attracted particular attention because tin is inexpensive, abundant and more environmentally friendly than lead or bismuth. In this review, we provide a fruitful library for Sn2+-based photocatalysts that have been reported to evolve hydrogen using sacrificial reagents, including SnNb2O6, Sn2Nb2O7, SnTaxNb2−xO6, SnTa2O6, Sn2Ta2O7, SnWO4 (α and β phases), SnSb2O6·nH2O, and Sn2TiO4. The synthesis method used in the literature and the resultant morphology and crystal structure of each compound are discussed. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the electronic structure and density of states are provided, and the consequent optoelectronic properties such as band gap, nature of the bandgap, dielectric constant, and effective masses are summarized. This review will help highlight the main challenges for Sn2+-based materials.

  7. High-field superconductivity in the Nb-Ti-Zr ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralls, K.M.; Rose, R.M.; Wulff, J.

    1980-01-01

    Resistive critical current densities, critical fields, and normal-state electrical resistivities were obtained at 4.2 0 K for 55 alloys in the Nb-Ti-Zr ternary alloy system, excepting Ti-Zr binary compositions. The resistive critical field as a function of ternary composition has a saddle point between the Nb-Ti and Nb-Zr binaries, so that ternary alloying in this system is not expected to result in higher critical fields than the binary alloys

  8. High-field superconductivity in the Nb-Ti-Zr ternary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralls, K. M.; Rose, R. M.; Wulff, J.

    1980-06-01

    Resistive critical current densities, critical fields, and normal-state electrical resistivities were obtained at 4.2 °K for 55 alloys in the Nb-Ti-Zr ternary alloy system, excepting Ti-Zr binary compositions. The resistive critical field as a function of ternary composition has a saddle point between the Nb-Ti and Nb-Zr binaries, so that ternary alloying in this system is not expected to result in higher critical fields than the binary alloys.

  9. Zr-Fe-Sn Ternary System Phase Diagrams- New Experimental Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieva, N; Gomez, A; Arias, D

    2004-01-01

    New experimental results for the Zr-Fe-Sn ternary system are presented in this paper. The phases present and equilibrium relations for the 900 o C isothermal on the central zone of the Gibbs triangle are analysed. A set of ternary alloys was designed and obtained, and they were analysed by semi quantitative SEM- EDS, XRD, and metallographic samples. The resulting ternary phase diagrams are presented here (JCH)

  10. Experimental study of the ternary Ag-Cu-In phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahari, Zahra; Elgadi, Mohamed; Rivet, Jacques; Dugue, Jerome

    2009-01-01

    The phase diagram of the Ag-Cu-In system was investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Two isothermal sections (at 510 and 607 deg. C) and 15 isopletic sections were studied. The results showed seven ternary peritectics, one ternary eutectic and one ternary metatectic. A complete reaction scheme was constructed, the valleys were drawn and the liquidus surfaces were derived from DSC data in the entire composition range.

  11. Experimental study of the ternary Ag-Cu-In phase diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahari, Zahra [Laboratoire de chimie physique et minerale, Faculte des sciences pharmaceutiques et biologiques, Universite Paris Descartes, avenue de l' Observatoire, 75006 Paris (France); Laboratoire de chimie du solide mineral (LCSM), Faculte des sciences, Universite Mohamed 1er, Route Sidi Maafa, B.P. 524, Oujda, Maroc (Morocco); Elgadi, Mohamed [Laboratoire de chimie du solide mineral (LCSM), Faculte des sciences, Universite Mohamed 1er, Route Sidi Maafa, B.P. 524, Oujda, Maroc (Morocco); Rivet, Jacques [Laboratoire de chimie physique et minerale, Faculte des sciences pharmaceutiques et biologiques, Universite Paris Descartes, avenue de l' Observatoire, 75006 Paris (France); Dugue, Jerome [Laboratoire de chimie physique et minerale, Faculte des sciences pharmaceutiques et biologiques, Universite Paris Descartes, avenue de l' Observatoire, 75006 Paris (France)], E-mail: jerome.dugue@univ-paris5.fr

    2009-05-27

    The phase diagram of the Ag-Cu-In system was investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Two isothermal sections (at 510 and 607 deg. C) and 15 isopletic sections were studied. The results showed seven ternary peritectics, one ternary eutectic and one ternary metatectic. A complete reaction scheme was constructed, the valleys were drawn and the liquidus surfaces were derived from DSC data in the entire composition range.

  12. Polarographic and potentiometric studies on some binary and ternary complex systems of dioxouranium(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janarthanam, M.; Sivasankar, B.; Rengaraj, K.; Nair, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    The relative coordinating abilities of donor sites in the potentially tridentate ligands viz., asparagine, glutamine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid towards uranyl ion have been investigated by polarographic and pH-metric techniques. The metal ion forms 1:2 complexes under polarographic conditions. However, only 1:1 complex is observed under pH-metric conditions, where 1:2 complexes do not proceed due to extensive hydrolysis of the metal ion. The relative variations of ΔE 1/2 with pH and ligand concentration supported by conductometric titration data indicate that the primary amino groups in the amino acids are not involved in coordination with uranyl ion. Further, the amide groups in asparagine and glutamine also do not participate in coordination thus rendering these ligands unidentate. In aspartic and glutamic acid complexes, seven- and eight- membered chelate rings are formed involving two terminal carboxyl groups. The mixed ligand complex equilibria of uranyl ion involving aspartic acid/glutamic acid as primary ligands (A) and maleic acid, malonic acid, succinic acid and lactic acid as secondary ligands (B) have also been studied by computer based numerical evaluation of pH titration data. The concentration profiles have indicated the favorability of the formation of ternary complexes in general as reflected in the Δlog K values. (author). 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Efficient hydrogen evolution catalysis using ternary pyrite-type cobalt phosphosulphide

    KAUST Repository

    Cabán-Acevedo, Miguel

    2015-09-14

    The scalable and sustainable production of hydrogen fuel through water splitting demands efficient and robust Earth-abundant catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Building on promising metal compounds with high HER catalytic activity, such as pyrite structure cobalt disulphide (CoS 2), and substituting non-metal elements to tune the hydrogen adsorption free energy could lead to further improvements in catalytic activity. Here we present a combined theoretical and experimental study to establish ternary pyrite-type cobalt phosphosulphide (CoPS) as a high-performance Earth-abundant catalyst for electrochemical and photoelectrochemical hydrogen production. Nanostructured CoPS electrodes achieved a geometrical catalytic current density of 10 mA cm at overpotentials as low as 48mV, with outstanding long-term operational stability. Integrated photocathodes of CoPS on n -p-p silicon micropyramids achieved photocurrents up to 35 mA cm at 0 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), onset photovoltages as high as 450 mV versus RHE, and the most efficient solar-driven hydrogen generation from Earth-abundant systems.

  14. Prediction of superconducting ternary hydride MgGeH6: from divergent high-pressure formation routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanbin; Duan, Defang; Shao, Ziji; Li, Da; Wang, Liyuan; Yu, Hongyu; Tian, Fubo; Xie, Hui; Liu, Bingbing; Cui, Tian

    2017-10-18

    Invigorated by the high temperature superconductivity in some binary hydrogen-dominated compounds, we systematically explored high-pressure phase diagrams and superconductivity of a ternary Mg-Ge-H system using ab initio methods. Stoichiometric MgGeH 6 with high hydrogen content exhibiting Pm3[combining macron] symmetry was predicted from a series of high-pressure synthesis paths. We performed an in-depth study on three distinct formation routes to MgGeH 6 , i.e., Mg + Ge + 3H 2 → MgGeH 6 , MgGe + 3H 2 → MgGeH 6 and MgH 2 + GeH 4 → MgGeH 6 at high pressures. By directly squeezing three elemental solids Mg + Ge + 3H 2 , we obtained ternary MgGeH 6 at 200 GPa. By adding a little bit of the MgGe alloy into hydrogen, we found that MgGeH 6 can form and stabilize at about 200 GPa. More intriguingly, upon compressing MgH 2 and GeH 4 to 250 GPa, we also predicted the same MgGeH 6 . Electron structure calculations reveal that the cubic MgGeH 6 is a good metal and takes on ionic character. Electron-phonon coupling calculation reveals a large λ = 1.16 for MgGeH 6 at 200 GPa. In particular, we found that ternary MgGeH 6 could be a potential high temperature superconductor with a superconducting transition temperature T c of ∼67 K at 200 GPa.

  15. Exploring multi-metal biosorption by indigenous metal-hyperresistant Enterobacter sp. J1 using experimental design methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, W.-B.; Kao, W.-C.; Shi, J.-J.; Chang, J.-S.

    2008-01-01

    A novel experimental design, combining mixture design and response surface methodology (RSM), was developed to investigate the competitive adsorption behavior of lead, copper and cadmium by an indigenous isolate Enterobacter sp. J1 able to tolerate high concentrations of a variety of heavy metals. Using the proposed combinative experimental design, two different experiment designs in a ternary metal biosorption system can be integrated to a succinct experiment and the number of experimental trials was markedly reduced from 38 to 26 by reusing the mutual experimental data. Triangular contour diagrams and triangular three-dimensional surface plots were generated to describe the ternary metal biosorption equilibrium data in mixture design systems. The results show that the preference of metal sorption of Enterobacter sp. J1 decreased in the order of Pb 2+ > Cu 2+ > Cd 2+ . The presence of other metals resulted in a competitive effect. The influence of the other two metals in ternary metal biosorption system can be easily determined by comparing the stray distance from the single metal biosorption. The behavior of competitive biosorption was successfully described and predicted using a combined Langmuir-Freundlich model along with new three-dimensional contour-surface plots

  16. Exploring multi-metal biosorption by indigenous metal-hyperresistant Enterobacter sp. J1 using experimental design methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, W.-B. [Department of Cosmetic Science, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Kao, W.-C.; Shi, J.-J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chang, J.-S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: changjs@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2008-05-01

    A novel experimental design, combining mixture design and response surface methodology (RSM), was developed to investigate the competitive adsorption behavior of lead, copper and cadmium by an indigenous isolate Enterobacter sp. J1 able to tolerate high concentrations of a variety of heavy metals. Using the proposed combinative experimental design, two different experiment designs in a ternary metal biosorption system can be integrated to a succinct experiment and the number of experimental trials was markedly reduced from 38 to 26 by reusing the mutual experimental data. Triangular contour diagrams and triangular three-dimensional surface plots were generated to describe the ternary metal biosorption equilibrium data in mixture design systems. The results show that the preference of metal sorption of Enterobacter sp. J1 decreased in the order of Pb{sup 2+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Cd{sup 2+}. The presence of other metals resulted in a competitive effect. The influence of the other two metals in ternary metal biosorption system can be easily determined by comparing the stray distance from the single metal biosorption. The behavior of competitive biosorption was successfully described and predicted using a combined Langmuir-Freundlich model along with new three-dimensional contour-surface plots.

  17. Atomistic study of ternary oxides as high-temperature solid lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongyu

    Friction and wear are important tribological phenomena tightly associated with the performance of tribological components/systems such as bearings and cutting machines. In the process of contact and sliding, friction and wear lead to energy loss, and high friction and wear typically result in shortened service lifetime. To reduce friction and wear, solid lubricants are generally used under conditions where traditional liquid lubricants cannot be applied. However, it is challenging to maintain the functionality of those materials when the working environment becomes severe. For instance, at elevated temperatures (i.e., above 400 °C), most traditional solid lubricants, such as MoS2 and graphite, will easily oxidize or lose lubricity due to irreversible chemical changes. For such conditions, it is necessary to identify materials that can remain thermally stable as well as lubricious over a wide range of temperatures. Among the currently available high-temperature solid lubricants, Ag-based ternary metal oxides have recently drawn attention due to their low friction and ability to resist oxidation. A recent experimental study showed that the Ag-Ta-O ternary exhibited an extremely low coefficient of friction (0.06) at 750 °C. To fully uncover the lubricious nature of this material as a high-temperature solid lubricant, a series of tribological investigations were carried out based on one promising candidate - silver tantalate (AgTaO3). The study was then extended to alternative materials, Cu-Ta-O ternaries, to accommodate a variety of application requirements. We aimed to understand, at an atomic level, the effects of physical and chemical properties on the thermal, mechanical and tribological behavior of these materials at high temperatures. Furthermore, we investigated potassium chloride films on a clean iron surface as a representative boundary lubricating system in a nonextreme environment. This investigation complemented the study of Ag/Cu-Ta-O and enhanced the

  18. Direct femtosecond observation of charge carrier recombination in ternary semiconductor nanocrystals: The effect of composition and shelling

    KAUST Repository

    Bose, Riya

    2015-02-12

    Heavy-metal free ternary semiconductor nanocrystals are emerging as key materials in photoactive applications. However, the relative abundance of intra-bandgap defect states and lack of understanding of their origins within this class of nanocrystals are major factors limiting their applicability. To remove these undesirable defect states which considerably shorten the lifetimes of photogenerated excited carriers, a detailed understanding about their origin and nature is required. In this report, we monitor the ultrafast charge carrier dynamics of CuInS2 (CIS), CuInSSe (CISSe), and CuInSe2 (CISe) nanocrystals, before and after ZnS shelling, using state-of-the-art time-resolved laser spectroscopy with broadband capabilities. The experimental results demonstrate the presence of both electron and hole trapping intra-bandgap states in the nanocrystals which can be removed significantly by ZnS shelling, and the carrier dynamics is slowed down. Another important observation remains the reduction of carrier lifetime in the presence of Se, and the shelling strategy is observed to be less effective at suppressing trap states. This study provides quantitative physical insights into the role of anion composition and shelling on the charge carrier dynamics in ternary CIS, CISSe, and CISe nanocrystals which are essential to improve their applicability for photovoltaics and optoelectronics.

  19. Solidification and solid state phenomena during TLP bonding of IN718 superalloy using Ni–Si–B ternary filler alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouranvari, M., E-mail: mpouranvari@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11365-11155 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ekrami, A.; Kokabi, A.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11365-11155 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-06-25

    Highlights: ► Microstructure evolution during TLP bonding of IN718 using Ni–Si–B filler. ► Athermal solidification path is influenced by severe segregation of B and Si in residual liquid. ► High hardness of ASZ microconstituents necessitates designing a PBHT to avert brittleness. ► Diffusion induced Cr–Mo–Nb based boride precipitation was observed in DAZ. ► Boride precipitates in DAZ influence the corrosion resistance and aging behavior. -- Abstract: This paper addresses solidification and solid state precipitation phenomena during transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding of wrought IN718 nickel base superalloy using Ni–4.5Si–3.2B (wt.%) ternary filler alloy. The solidification sequence of the residual liquid in the joint centerline was found to be (1) formation of proeutectic γ, followed by (2) γ/Ni{sub 3}B eutectic reaction, followed by (3) ternary eutectic of γ/Ni{sub 3}B/Ni{sub 6}Si{sub 2}B. Extensive fine Ni{sub 3}Si formed within the eutectic-γ via solid state precipitation during cooling. Extensive Cr–Mo–Nb rich boride precipitates were formed in the substrate region due to boron diffusion into the base metal during bonding process. The implications of the phase transformations on the mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and aging behavior of the joint, which are pertinent to the development of an optimum post bond heat treatment, are highlighted.

  20. Solidification and solid state phenomena during TLP bonding of IN718 superalloy using Ni–Si–B ternary filler alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouranvari, M.; Ekrami, A.; Kokabi, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Microstructure evolution during TLP bonding of IN718 using Ni–Si–B filler. ► Athermal solidification path is influenced by severe segregation of B and Si in residual liquid. ► High hardness of ASZ microconstituents necessitates designing a PBHT to avert brittleness. ► Diffusion induced Cr–Mo–Nb based boride precipitation was observed in DAZ. ► Boride precipitates in DAZ influence the corrosion resistance and aging behavior. -- Abstract: This paper addresses solidification and solid state precipitation phenomena during transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding of wrought IN718 nickel base superalloy using Ni–4.5Si–3.2B (wt.%) ternary filler alloy. The solidification sequence of the residual liquid in the joint centerline was found to be (1) formation of proeutectic γ, followed by (2) γ/Ni 3 B eutectic reaction, followed by (3) ternary eutectic of γ/Ni 3 B/Ni 6 Si 2 B. Extensive fine Ni 3 Si formed within the eutectic-γ via solid state precipitation during cooling. Extensive Cr–Mo–Nb rich boride precipitates were formed in the substrate region due to boron diffusion into the base metal during bonding process. The implications of the phase transformations on the mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and aging behavior of the joint, which are pertinent to the development of an optimum post bond heat treatment, are highlighted

  1. Reaction phases and diffusion paths in SiC/metal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naka, M.; Fukai, T. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan); Schuster, J.C. [Vienna Univ., Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    The interface structures between SiC and metal are reviewed at SiC/metal systems. Metal groups are divided to carbide forming metals and non-carbide forming metals. Carbide forming metals form metal carbide granular or zone at metal side, and metal silicide zone at SiC side. The further diffusion of Si and C from SiC causes the formation of T ternary phase depending metal. Non-carbide forming metals form silicide zone containing graphite or the layered structure of metal silicide and metal silicide containing graphite. The diffusion path between SiC and metal are formed along tie-lines connecting SiC and metal on the corresponding ternary Si-C-M system. The reactivity of metals is dominated by the forming ability of carbide or silicide. Te reactivity tendency of elements are discussed on the periodical table of elements, and Ti among elements shows the highest reactivity among carbide forming metals. For non-carbide forming metals the reactivity sequence of metals is Fe>Ni>Co. (orig.)

  2. Crystal Growth of Ternary Compound Semiconductors in Low Gravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua

    2014-01-01

    A low gravity material experiment will be performed in the Material Science Research Rack (MSRR) on International Space Station (ISS). There are two sections of the flight experiment: (I) crystal growth of ZnSe and related ternary compounds, such as ZnSeS and ZnSeTe, by physical vapor transport (PVT) and (II) melt growth of CdZnTe by directional solidification. The main objective of the project is to determine the relative contributions of gravity-driven fluid flows to the compositional distribution, incorporation of impurities and defects, and deviation from stoichiometry observed in the grown crystals as results of buoyancy-driven convection and growth interface fluctuations caused by irregular fluid-flows on Earth. The investigation consists of extensive ground-based experimental and theoretical research efforts and concurrent flight experimentation. This talk will focus on the ground-based studies on the PVT crystal growth of ZnSe and related ternary compounds. The objectives of the ground-based studies are (1) obtain the experimental data and conduct the analyses required to define the optimum growth parameters for the flight experiments, (2) perfect various characterization techniques to establish the standard procedure for material characterization, (3) quantitatively establish the characteristics of the crystals grown on Earth as a basis for subsequent comparative evaluations of the crystals grown in a low-gravity environment and (4) develop theoretical and analytical methods required for such evaluations. ZnSe and related ternary compounds have been grown by vapor transport technique with real time in-situ non-invasive monitoring techniques. The grown crystals have been characterized extensively by various techniques to correlate the grown crystal properties with the growth conditions.

  3. Modelling Eu(III) speciation in a Eu(III)/PAHA/α-Al2O3 ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janot, Noemie; Reiller, Pascal E.; Benedetti, Marc F.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, modelling of Eu(III) speciation in a ternary system, i.e., in presence of purified Aldrich humic acid (PAHA) and α-Al 2 O 3 , is presented. First, the mineral surface charge is measured by potentiometric titrations and then described using the CD-MUSIC model. This model is also used to describe Eu(III) binding to the α-Al 2 O 3 surface at different pH values, ionic strength and mineral concentrations. Time resolved luminescence spectroscopy (TRLS) is then used to study the binding of Eu(III) to PAHA at pH 4 with different humic acid concentrations. The spectra are used to calculate a spectroscopic 'titration curve', used to determine Eu(III)/PAHA binding parameters in the NICA-Donnan model. Following a previous study (Janot et al., Water Res. 46, 731-740), modelling of the ternary system is based upon the definition of two PAHA pools where one fraction remains in solution and the other is adsorbed onto the mineral surface, with each possessing different proton and metal binding parameters. The modification of protonation behaviour for both fractions is examined using spectrophotometric titrations of the non adsorbed PAHA fraction at different organic/mineral ratios. These data are then used to describe Eu(III) interactions in the ternary system: Eu(III) re-partitioning in the ternary system is calculated for different pH, ionic strength and PAHA concentrations, and results are compared to experimental observations. The model is in good agreement with experimental data, except at high PAHA fractionation rates. Results show that organic complexation dominates over a large pH range, with the predominant species existing as the surface-bound fraction. Above pH 8, Eu(III) seems to be mostly complexed to the mineral surface, which is in agreement with previous spectroscopic observations (Janot et al., Environ. Sci. Technol. 45, 3224-3230). (authors)

  4. Ternary equilibria in bismuth--indium--lead alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, K.C.; Johnson, D.L.; Nelson, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    The liquidus surface is characterized by three binary equilibria. One binary extends from the Pb--Bi peritectic to the Pb--In peritectic. The other two extend from In--Bi eutectics, merge at 50 at. percent Bi and 30 at. percent Pb, and end at the Bi--Pb eutectic. Based on analysis of ternary liquidus contours and vertical sections, it is suggested that solidification for high lead and very high indium alloys occurs from two-phase equilibria. Solidification from all other alloys occurs from three-phase equilibria. Four-phase solidification does not occur in this system

  5. Paramagnetic centers in ternary coordinated oxygen in beryllium aluminosilicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaginina, L.A.; Zatsepin, A.F.; Dmitriev, I.A.

    1988-01-01

    Glasses of the composition 3BeO-Al 2 O 3 -6SiO 2 containing a homogenizing additive of MgF 2 were synthesized. The ESR spectra of x-ray and gamma irradiated specimens were determined. A complex ESR spectrum arose in the original glass. The ESR spectrum of the gamma-irradiated polycrystalline Be 2 SiO 4 glass was almost identical to the crystallized glass. It was shown that the presence of beryllium atoms in the composition of silicate glasses created the conditions for the formation of structural fragments with ternary coordinated oxygen

  6. Implementation of DFT application on ternary optical computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junjie, Peng; Youyi, Fu; Xiaofeng, Zhang; Shuai, Kong; Xinyu, Wei

    2018-03-01

    As its characteristics of huge number of data bits and low energy consumption, optical computing may be used in the applications such as DFT etc. which needs a lot of computation and can be implemented in parallel. According to this, DFT implementation methods in full parallel as well as in partial parallel are presented. Based on resources ternary optical computer (TOC), extensive experiments were carried out. Experimental results show that the proposed schemes are correct and feasible. They provide a foundation for further exploration of the applications on TOC that needs a large amount calculation and can be processed in parallel.

  7. Infrared target recognition based on improved joint local ternary pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junding; Wu, Xiaosheng

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a simple, efficient, yet robust approach, named joint orthogonal combination of local ternary pattern, for automatic forward-looking infrared target recognition. It gives more advantages to describe the macroscopic textures and microscopic textures by fusing variety of scales than the traditional LBP-based methods. In addition, it can effectively reduce the feature dimensionality. Further, the rotation invariant and uniform scheme, the robust LTP, and soft concave-convex partition are introduced to enhance its discriminative power. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve competitive results compared with the state-of-the-art methods.

  8. Quantifying the energetics of cooperativity in a ternary protein complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter S; Schuck, Peter; Sundberg, Eric J

    2002-01-01

    and mathematical modeling to describe the energetics of cooperativity in a trimolecular protein complex. As a model system for quantifying cooperativity, we studied the ternary complex formed by the simultaneous interaction of a superantigen with major histocompatibility complex and T cell receptor, for which...... a structural model is available. This system exhibits positive and negative cooperativity, as well as augmentation of the temperature dependence of binding kinetics upon the cooperative interaction of individual protein components in the complex. Our experimental and theoretical analysis may be applicable...... to other systems involving cooperativity....

  9. Ternary system of cesium, rubidium and lead iodides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchanskaya, V.V.; Dunaeva, T.I.; Il'yasov, I.I.

    1990-01-01

    Meltability diagram of ternary system (CsI) 2 -(RbI) 2 -PbI 2 has been studied. The liquidus of the given system consists of crystallization fields of solid solutions (CsI-RbI) and (CsI·PbI 2 -RbI-PbI 2 ), fields of incongruently melting compounds 9RbI·PbI 2 , 4CsI·PbI 2 and field of PbI 2 component. In the system two nonvariant points at 410 and 380 deg C are detected

  10. First principle study of cubic ScGaN ternaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adli, W.; Mecheref, R.; Sekkal, N.; Tair, F.; Amrani, B.

    2008-08-01

    The electronic properties of the Sc x Ga1- x N ternary alloy are investigated. The transition from rocksalt (B1) to zinc blende (B3) structure is found to occur rapidly after incorporating just a small fraction (less than 1%) of Ga. In the present paper, the first principles method the full potential linear muffin-tin orbitals method (FPLMTO) in its atomic sphere approximation (ASA) coupled to the technique of the empty spheres is employed. Our results concerning the electronic properties are different from those reported in literature. (author)

  11. Binary and ternary chelates of Sc(III), Y(III) and La(III) with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid as primary ligand and substituted salicylic acids as secondary ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, A K; Chandra, M; Agarwala, B V; Dey, A K [Allahabad Univ. (India). Chemical Labs.

    1980-02-01

    Study of ternary complex formation of several tripositive metal ions viz. Sc(III), Y(III) and La(III) with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a primary ligand and 5-chlorosalicylic acid (CSA) or 3,5-dibromosalicylic acid (DBSA) as secondary ligands by pH-metric titration technique is reported. The stability order of metal chelates with respect to ligands is observed to be DBSA>CSA and with respect to metal ions Sc(III)>Y(III)>La(III).

  12. Electronic structure and bonding in the ternary silicide YNiSi3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Gi Hong; Kang, Dae Bok

    2003-01-01

    An analysis of the electronic structure and bonding in the ternary silicide YNiSi 3 is made, using extended Hueckel tight-binding calculations. The YNiSi 3 structure consists of Ni-capped Si 2 dimer layers and Si zigzag chains. Significant bonding interactions are present between the silicon atoms in the structure. The oxidation state formalism of (Y 3+ )(Ni 0 )(Si 3 ) 3- for YNiSi 3 constitutes a good starting point to describe its electronic structure. Si atoms receive electrons form the most electropositive Y in YNiSi 3 , and Ni 3d and Si 3p states dominate below the Fermi level. There is an interesting electron balance between the two Si and Ni sublattices. Since the π orbitals in the Si chain and the Ni d and s block levels are almost completely occupied, the charge balance for YNiSi 3 can be rewritten as (Y 3+ )(Ni 2- )(Si 2- )(Si-Si) + , making the Si 2 layers oxidized. These results suggest that the Si zigzag chain contains single bonds and the Si 2 double layer possesses single bonds within a dimer with a partial double bond character. Stronger Si-Si and Ni-Si bonding interactions are important for giving stability to the structure, while essentially no metal-metal bonding exists at all. The 2D metallic behavior of this compound is due to the Si-Si interaction leading to dispersion of the several Si 2 π bands crossing the Fermi level in the plane perpendicular to the crystallographic b axis

  13. Sunlight impelled photocatalytic pursuance of Ag-TiO2-SGO and Pt-TiO2-SGO ternary nanocomposites on rhodamine B degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamelu, K.; Ali, B. M. Jaffar

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate a hydrothermal method combined with polyol reduction process for the synthesis of an Ag-TiO2-SGO and Pt-TiO2-SGO ternary nanocomposites in which the Ag, Pt and TiO2 nanoparticles are dispersed on the Sulfonated graphene oxide nanosheets. The structural and optical properties of obtained nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, UV-DRS, Raman, FTIR and Photoluminescence spectroscopy. The nanocomposites shows increased light absorption ability in the visible region due to surface plasmon resonance effect of noble metal. The rate of electron-hole pair recombination was significating reduced for nanocomposites system compare to pure. Also, their Performance for the photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B as a model organic pollutant is explored. The results showed that Ag-TiO2-SGO and Pt-TiO2-SGO nanocomposites could degrade 95% of the dye within 90 min, under natural sunlight irradiation. The reaction kinetics of ternary nanocomposites exhibit more than 2.2 fold increased photocatalytic activity compared to pristine TiO2. Sulfonated graphene based ternary photocatalyst are potential candidates for wastewater treatment in real time application, due to this ability degrade cationic and anionic dyes.

  14. A binomial truncation function proposed for the second-moment approximation of tight-binding potential and application in the ternary Ni-Hf-Ti system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J H; Dai, X D; Wang, T L; Liu, B X

    2007-01-01

    We propose a two-parameter binomial truncation function for the second-moment approximation of the tight-binding (TB-SMA) interatomic potential and illustrate in detail the procedure of constructing the potentials for binary and ternary transition metal systems. For the ternary Ni-Hf-Ti system, the lattice constants, cohesion energies, elastic constants and bulk moduli of six binary compounds, i.e. L1 2 Ni 3 Hf, NiHf 3 , Ni 3 Ti, NiTi 3 , Hf 3 Ti and HfTi 3 , are firstly acquired by ab initio calculations and then employed to derive the binomial-truncated TB-SMA Ni-Hf-Ti potential. Applying the ab initio derived Ni-Hf-Ti potential, the lattice constants, cohesive energy, elastic constants and bulk moduli of another six binary compounds, i.e. D0 3 NiHf 3 , NiTi 3 HfTi 3 , and B2 NiHf, NiTi, HfTi, and two ternary compounds, i.e. C1 b NiHfTi, L2 1 Ni 2 HfTi, are calculated, respectively. It is found that, for the eight binary compounds studied, the calculated lattice constants and cohesion energies are in excellent agreement with those directly acquired from ab initio calculations and that the elastic constants and bulk moduli calculated from the potential are also qualitatively consistent with the results from ab initio calculations

  15. Using a Ternary Diagram to Display a System's Evolving Energy Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazzle, Bob; Tapp, Anne

    2016-01-01

    A ternary diagram is a graphical representation used for systems with three components. They are familiar to mineralogists (who typically use them to categorize varieties of solid solution minerals such as feldspar) but are not yet widely used in the physics community. Last year the lead author began using ternary diagrams in his introductory…

  16. Detection of the ternary alpha particles from 252Cr spontaneous source with timepix pixeleted detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadov, G.S.; Telezhnikov, S.A.; Ahmadov, F.I.; Garibov, A.A.; Ahmadov, G.S.; Ahmadov, F.I.; Granja, C.; Pospisil, S.

    2013-01-01

    A third charged particle is emitted besides the two main fission fragments in ternary fission. Because of the ternary fission is a unique tool to explore the dynamics and structure of atomic nuclei by probing the fissioning system near the scission point and observing fissioning reaction and decay mechanisms main tool to study nuclear fission processes

  17. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Co-W-V ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xingjun; Zhu Yihong; Yu Yan; Wang Cuiping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Three isothermal sections of the Co-W-V ternary system at 1100 deg. C, 1200 deg. C and 1300 deg. C were determined. → No ternary compound was found in the Co-W-V ternary system. → A stable liquid miscibility gap is newly discovered in the Co-W-V ternary system. → This work is of great essence to establish the thermodynamic database for the Co-based alloys. - Abstract: The phase equilibria in the Co-W-V ternary system were experimentally investigated by optical microscopy (OM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) on the equilibrated alloys. Three isothermal sections of the Co-W-V ternary system at 1100 deg. C, 1200 deg. C and 1300 deg. C were determined, and no ternary compound was found in this system. In addition, a novel phenomena induced by the liquid phase separation in the Co-W-V alloys was firstly discovered, suggesting that a stable liquid miscibility gap exists in the Co-W-V ternary system. The newly determined phase equilibria and firstly discovered phase separation phenomena in the Co-W-V system will provide important information for the development of Co-W based alloys.

  18. Multicomponent ternary cocrystals of the sulfonamide group with pyridine-amides and lactams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla, Geetha; Nangia, Ashwini

    2015-11-04

    SMBA was selected as a bifunctional sulfa drug to design ternary cocrystals with pyridine amides and lactam coformers. Supramolecular assembly of five ternary cocrystals of p-sulfonamide benzoic acid with nicotinamide and 2-pyridone is demonstrated and reproducible heterosynthons are identified for crystal engineering.

  19. Asymmetry in ternary fission induced by polarized neutrons and fission mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunakov, V.E.; Gennenvajn, F.; Dzhessinger, P.; Mutterer, M.; Petrov, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    The results of measuring the P-odd, P-even (right-left) and T-odd asymmetries of the charged particles emission in the double and ternary fission, induced by the polarized neutrons, are considered. It is shown, what kind of information on the mechanism of the ternary nuclear fission may be obtained from the theoretical analysis of these data [ru

  20. Measurement of p-odd asymmetry of fragment escape in ternary fission of plutonium 239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belozerov, A.V.; Vodennikov, B.D.; Danilyan, G.V.; Korobkina, E.I.; Pavlov, V.S.; Pevchev, Yu.F.; Sadchikov, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    Values of effects of parity nonconservation in binary and ternary fission of plutonium 239 by polarized thermal neutrons were measured simultaneously. The ratio of asymmetry coefficient (AC) of ternary fission to the AC of binary fission was equal to 0.67+-0.20. The obtained result testifies to insignificant disagreement of AC of fragment escape in studied fission types

  1. INTERVAL-VALUED INTUITIONISTIC FUZZY BI-IDEALS IN TERNARY SEMIRINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. KRISHNASWAMY

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the notions of interval-valued fuzzy bi-ideal, interval-valued anti fuzzy bi-ideal and interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy bi-ideal in ternary semirings and some of the basic properties of these ideals are investigated. We also introduce normal interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy ideals in ternary semirings.

  2. Energy dissipation in the process of ternary fission in heavy nuclear reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xian; Wang Chengqian; Yan Shiwei

    2015-01-01

    We studied the evolution of the collective motion, interaction potential, the total kinetic and excitation energies in ternary fissions of 197 Au + 197 Au system at 15 MeV/u, and discussed energy dissipation of this reaction. Through the comparison with energy-angle correlation data in binary fissions, we preliminarily concluded that the rst fission of ternary fission was an extreme deep-inelastic process. We further analyzed the correlation of the total kinetic energy with impact parameters in both binary and ternary reactions, and found that the total energy of binary reactions systems was lost about 150 MeV more than ternary fission with small impact parameters, and with larger impact parameters the total energy of ternary reactions were lost 300 MeV more than binary reactions. (authors)

  3. First-principles study of ternary fcc solution phases from special quasirandom structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin Dongwon; Wang Yi; Liu Zikui; Walle, Axel van de

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, ternary special quasirandom structures (SQSs) for a fcc solid solution phase are generated at different compositions, x A =x B =x C =(1/3) and x A =(1/2), x B =x C =(1/4), whose correlation functions are satisfactorily close to those of a random fcc solution. The generated SQSs are used to calculate the mixing enthalpy of the fcc phase in the Ca-Sr-Yb system. It is observed that first-principles calculations of all the binary and ternary SQSs in the Ca-Sr-Yb system exhibit very small local relaxation. It is concluded that the fcc ternary SQSs can provide valuable information about the mixing behavior of the fcc ternary solid solution phase. The SQSs presented in this work can be widely used to study the behavior of ternary fcc solid solutions

  4. High-performance ternary blend polymer solar cells involving both energy transfer and hole relay processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Luyao; Chen, Wei; Xu, Tao; Yu, Luping

    2015-06-04

    The integration of multiple materials with complementary absorptions into a single junction device is regarded as an efficient way to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs). However, because of increased complexity with one more component, only limited high-performance ternary systems have been demonstrated previously. Here we report an efficient ternary blend OSC with a PCE of 9.2%. We show that the third component can reduce surface trap densities in the ternary blend. Detailed studies unravel that the improved performance results from synergistic effects of enlarged open circuit voltage, suppressed trap-assisted recombination, enhanced light absorption, increased hole extraction, efficient energy transfer and better morphology. The working mechanism and high device performance demonstrate new insights and design guidelines for high-performance ternary blend solar cells and suggest that ternary structure is a promising platform to boost the efficiency of OSCs.

  5. FUSED SALT METHOD FOR COATING URANIUM WITH A METAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubank, L.D.

    1959-02-01

    A method is presented for coating uranium with a less active metal such as Cr, Ni, or Cu comprising immersing the U in a substantially anhydrous molten solution of a halide of these less active metals in a ternary chloride composition which consists of selected percentages of KCl, NaCl and another chloride such as LiCl or CaCl/sub 2/.

  6. Genetic Synthesis of New Reversible/Quantum Ternary Comparator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEIBUK, V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Methods of quantum/reversible logic synthesis are based on the use of the binary nature of quantum computing. However, multiple-valued logic is a promising choice for future quantum computer technology due to a number of advantages over binary circuits. In this paper we have developed a synthesis of ternary reversible circuits based on Muthukrishnan-Stroud gates using a genetic algorithm. The method of coding chromosome is presented, and well-grounded choice of algorithm parameters allowed obtaining better circuit schemes of one- and n-qutrit ternary comparators compared with other methods. These parameters are quantum cost of received reversible devices, delay time and number of constant input (ancilla lines. Proposed implementation of the genetic algorithm has led to reducing of the device delay time and the number of ancilla qutrits to 1 and 2n-1 for one- and n-qutrits full comparators, respectively. For designing of n-qutrit comparator we have introduced a complementary device which compares output functions of 1-qutrit comparators.

  7. Face Liveness Detection Using Dynamic Local Ternary Pattern (DLTP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajida Parveen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Face spoofing is considered to be one of the prominent threats to face recognition systems. However, in order to improve the security measures of such biometric systems against deliberate spoof attacks, liveness detection has received significant recent attention from researchers. For this purpose, analysis of facial skin texture properties becomes more popular because of its limited resource requirement and lower processing cost. The traditional method of skin analysis for liveness detection was to use Local Binary Pattern (LBP and its variants. LBP descriptors are effective, but they may exhibit certain limitations in near uniform patterns. Thus, in this paper, we demonstrate the effectiveness of Local Ternary Pattern (LTP as an alternative to LBP. In addition, we adopted Dynamic Local Ternary Pattern (DLTP, which eliminates the manual threshold setting in LTP by using Weber’s law. The proposed method was tested rigorously on four facial spoof databases: three are public domain databases and the other is the Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM face spoof database, which was compiled through this study. The results obtained from the proposed DLTP texture descriptor attained optimum accuracy and clearly outperformed the reported LBP and LTP texture descriptors.

  8. Enhanced Light Absorption in Fluorinated Ternary Small-Molecule Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastham, Nicholas D. [Department; Dudnik, Alexander S. [Department; Harutyunyan, Boris [Department; Aldrich, Thomas J. [Department; Leonardi, Matthew J. [Department; Manley, Eric F. [Department; Chemical; Butler, Melanie R. [Department; Harschneck, Tobias [Department; Ratner, Mark A. [Department; Chen, Lin X. [Department; Chemical; Bedzyk, Michael J. [Department; Department; Melkonyan, Ferdinand S. [Department; Facchetti, Antonio [Department; Chang, Robert P. H. [Department; Marks, Tobin J. [Department; Department

    2017-06-14

    Using small-molecule donor (SMD) semiconductors in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) has historically afforded lower power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) than their polymeric counterparts. The PCE difference is attributed to shorter conjugated backbones, resulting in reduced intermolecular interactions. Here, a new pair of SMDs is synthesized based on the diketopyrrolopyrrole-benzodithiophene-diketopyrrolopyrrole (BDT-DPP2) skeleton but having fluorinated and fluorinefree aromatic side-chain substituents. Ternary OPVs having varied ratios of the two SMDs with PC61BM as the acceptor exhibit tunable open-circuit voltages (Vocs) between 0.833 and 0.944 V due to a fluorination-induced shift in energy levels and the electronic “alloy” formed from the miscibility of the two SMDs. A 15% increase in PCE is observed at the optimal ternary SMD ratio, with the short-circuit current density (Jsc) significantly increased to 9.18 mA/cm2. The origin of Jsc enhancement is analyzed via charge generation, transport, and diffuse reflectance measurements, and is attributed to increased optical absorption arising from a maximum in film crystallinity at this SMD ratio, observed by grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering.

  9. A ternary logic model for recurrent neuromime networks with delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangartner, R D; Cull, P

    1995-07-01

    In contrast to popular recurrent artificial neural network (RANN) models, biological neural networks have unsymmetric structures and incorporate significant delays as a result of axonal propagation. Consequently, biologically inspired neural network models are more accurately described by nonlinear differential-delay equations rather than nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs), and the standard techniques for studying the dynamics of RANNs are wholly inadequate for these models. This paper develops a ternary-logic based method for analyzing these networks. Key to the technique is the realization that a nonzero delay produces a bounded stability region. This result significantly simplifies the construction of sufficient conditions for characterizing the network equilibria. If the network gain is large enough, each equilibrium can be classified as either asymptotically stable or unstable. To illustrate the analysis technique, the swim central pattern generator (CPG) of the sea slug Tritonia diomedea is examined. For wide range of reasonable parameter values, the ternary analysis shows that none of the network equilibria are stable, and thus the network must oscillate. The results show that complex synaptic dynamics are not necessary for pattern generation.

  10. Kinetics of radiation-induced segregation in ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, N.O.; Kumar, A.; Wiedersich, H.

    1982-01-01

    Model calculations of radiation-induced segregation in ternary alloys have been performed, using a simple theory. The theoretical model describes the coupling between the fluxes of radiation-induced defects and alloying elements in an alloy A-B-C by partitioning the defect fluxes into those occurring via A-, B-, and C-atoms, and the atom fluxes into those taking place via vacancies and interstitials. The defect and atom fluxes can be expressed in terms of concentrations and concentration gradients of all the species present. With reasonable simplifications, the radiation-induced segregation problem can be cast into a system of four coupled partial-differential equations, which can be solved numerically for appropriate initial and boundary conditions. Model calculations have been performed for ternary solid solutions intended to be representative of Fe-Cr-Ni and Ni-Al-Si alloys under various irradiation conditions. The dependence of segregation on both the alloy properties and the irradiation variables, e.g., temperature and displacement rate, was calculated. The sample calculations are in good qualitative agreement with the general trends of radiation-induced segregation observed experimentally

  11. Plotting and Analyzing Data Trends in Ternary Diagrams Made Easy

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Cédric M.

    2004-04-01

    Ternary plots are used in many fields of science to characterize a system based on three components. Triangular plotting is thus useful to a broad audience in the Earth sciences and beyond. Unfortunately, it is typically the most expensive commercial software packages that offer the option to plot data in ternary diagrams, and they lack features that are paramount to the geosciences, such as the ability to plot data directly into a standardized diagram and the possibility to analyze temporal and stratigraphic trends within this diagram. To address these issues, δPlot was developed with a strong emphasis on ease of use, community orientation, and availability free of charges. This ``freeware'' supports a fully graphical user interface where data can be imported as text files, or by copying and pasting. A plot is automatically generated, and any standard diagram can be selected for plotting in the background using a simple pull-down menu. Standard diagrams are stored in an external database of PDF files that currently holds some 30 diagrams that deal with different fields of the Earth sciences. Using any drawing software supporting PDF, one can easily produce new standard diagrams to be used with δPlot by simply adding them to the library folder. An independent column of values, commonly stratigraphic depths or ages, can be used to sort the data sets.

  12. Structural, magnetic and electronic properties of rare earth ternary oxides Li Ln(II) 2 Ln(III)O4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malki, M.

    1987-06-01

    Properties of a new class of rare earth ternary oxides Li Ln(II) 2 Ln(III)O 4 where Ln(II) is a divalent metal (Sr, Eu) and Ln(III) a trivalent rare earth (Eu, Gd, Dy, Er and Y). These orthorhombic compounds (type Li Eu 3 O 4 ) allow the study of many magnetic phenomena and their evolution in function of the nature of Ln(II) and Ln(III): diamagnetic ions Sr 2+ , Y 3+ ; isotrope magnetic ions: Eu 2+ , Gd 3+ and anisotrope magnetic ions Dy 3+ , Er 3+ . Magnetic and electric properties are obtained by classical techniques and from hyperfine interaction by Moessbauer spectroscopy. The possibility to use several Moessbauer resonance (nuclei Eu 151, Gd 155, Dy 161 and Er 166) completes informations obtained by the macroscopic study [fr

  13. Optical properties and thermal stability of LaYbO3 ternary oxide for high-k dielectric application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei-tao; Yang, Li; Li, Bin

    2011-01-01

    A new ternary rare oxide dielectric LaYbO3 film had been prepared on silicon wafers and quartz substrates by reactive sputtering method using a La-Yb metal target. A range of analysis techniques was performed to determine the optical band gap, thermal stability, and electrical property of the deposited samples. It was found the band gap of LaYbO3 film was about 5.8 eV. And the crystallization temperature for rapid thermal annealing (20 s) was between 900 and 950 °C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicate the formation of the SiO2 and silicate in the interface between silicon wafer and LaYbO3 film. The dielectric constant is about 23 from the calculation of capacitance-voltage curve, which is comparable higher than previously reported La2O3 or Yb2O3 film.

  14. Solid-state reactions during mechanical alloying of ternary Fe–Al–X (X=Ni, Mn, Cu, Ti, Cr, B, Si) systems: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadef, Fatma, E-mail: hadef77@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Recherche sur la Physico-Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, LRPCSI, Université 20 Août 1955, BP 26, Route d’El-Haddaiek, Skikda 21000 (Algeria); Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université 20 Août 1955, BP 26, Route d’El-Haddaiek, Skikda 21000 (Algeria)

    2016-12-01

    The last decade has witnessed an intensive research in the field of nanocrystalline materials due to their enhanced properties. A lot of processing techniques were developed in order to synthesis these novel materials, among them mechanical alloying or high-energy ball milling. In fact, mechanical alloying is one of the most common operations in the processing of solids. It can be used to quickly and easily synthesize a variety of technologically useful materials which are very difficult to manufacture by other techniques. One advantage of MA over many other techniques is that is a solid state technique and consequently problems associated with melting and solidification are bypassed. Special attention is being paid to the synthesis of alloys through reactions mainly occurring in solid state in many metallic ternary Fe–Al–X systems, in order to improve mainly Fe–Al structural and mechanical properties. The results show that nanocrystallization is the common result occurring in all systems during MA process. The aim of this work is to illustrate the uniqueness of MA process to induce phase transformation in metallic Fe–Al–X (X=Ni, Mn, Cu, Ti, Cr, B, Si) systems. - Highlights: • A review of state of the art on binary Fe–Al alloys was presented. • Structural and microstructural properties of MA ternary Fe–Al–X alloys were summerized. • MA process is a powerful tool for producing metallic alloys at the nanometer scale.

  15. Theoretical study of physical properties and oxygen incorporation effect in nanolaminated ternary carbides 211-MAX phases

    KAUST Repository

    Kanoun, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we employ ab initio approaches to review some important physical properties of nanolaminated ternary carbides MAX phases. We fi rstly use an all electron full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method within the generalized gradient approximation and the density functional theory approaches, to explore the existence of a steric effect on the M site in these compounds. The elastic properties are also reported in order to assess the mechanical stability. The substitution of oxygen for carbon in Ti 2 SnC M n +1 AX n, forming Ti 2 SnC 1- x O x, is examined next, where we simulated the effect of oxygen incorporation on mechanical and electronic properties using projector augmented wave method. We show that oxygen has interesting effects on both of elastic and electronic properties, that the bulk modulus decreases when oxygen concentration increases. The bonding in Ti 2 SnC 1- x O x has a tendency to a covalent-ionic nature with the presence of metallic character. © 2012 Woodhead Publishing Limited.

  16. Glass forming ability: Miedema approach to (Zr, Ti, Hf)-(Cu, Ni) binary and ternary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Joysurya [Department of Chemical, Materials and Biomolecular Engineering, 191 Auditorium Road, University of Connecticut, Storrs 06269, CT (United States)], E-mail: jbasu@engr.uconn.edu; Murty, B.S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Ranganathan, S. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2008-10-06

    Miedema's approach has been useful in determining the glass forming composition range for a particular alloy system. The concept of mixing enthalpy and mismatch entropy can be used in order to quantify Inoue's criteria of bulk metallic glass formation. In the present study, glass forming composition range has been determined for different binary and ternary (Zr, Ti, Hf)-(Cu, Ni) alloys based on the mixing enthalpy and mismatch entropy calculations. Though copper and nickel appear next to each other in the periodic table, the glass forming ability of the copper and nickel bearing alloys is different. Thermodynamic analysis reveals that the glass forming behaviour of Zr and Hf is similar, whereas it is different from that of Ti. The smaller atomic size of Ti and the difference in the heat of mixing of Ti, Zr, Hf with Cu and Ni leads to the observed changes in the glass forming behaviour. Enthalpy contour plots can be used to distinguish the glass forming compositions on the basis of the increasing negative enthalpy of the composition. This method reveals the high glass forming ability of binary Zr-Cu, Hf-Cu, Hf-Ni systems over a narrow composition range.

  17. Determination of oxygen in ternary uranium oxides by a gravimetric alkaline earth addition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujino, T.; Tagawa, H.

    1979-01-01

    The applicability of a gravimetric method based on alkaline earth metal addition for the determination of oxygen in ternary uranium oxides of the tupe M-U-O (M=La, Ce and Th) is described. The oxide sample is mixed with MgO or Basub(2.8)UOsub(5.8) and heated in air under suitable conditions. Because uranium is completely oxidized to the hexavalent state during the reaction, oxygen can be determined from the weight change. Oxygen in Lasub(y)Usub(1-y)Osub(2+x) is determined up to y = 0.8 with a standard deviation for x of +- 0.006 with MgO. For Thsub(y)Usub(1-y)Osub(2+x) the value of x is determined with Basub(2.8)UOsub(5.8) with a standard deviation of +- 0.01 at y = 0.8. For Cesub(y)Usub(1-y)Osub(2+x), the method can be applied only for low cerium concentrations where y = 0-0.2; the value for x with Basub(2.8)UOsub(5.8) at y = 0.2 showed a standard deviation of +- 0.002. (Auth.)

  18. Light-Triggered Ternary Device and Inverter Based on Heterojunction of van der Waals Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jaewoo; Jo, Seo-Hyeon; Kim, Minwoo; Song, Young Jae; Kim, Jeehwan; Park, Jin-Hong

    2017-06-27

    Multivalued logic (MVL) devices/circuits have received considerable attention because the binary logic used in current Si complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology cannot handle the predicted information throughputs and energy demands of the future. To realize MVL, the conventional transistor platform needs to be redesigned to have two or more distinctive threshold voltages (V TH s). Here, we report a finding: the photoinduced drain current in graphene/WSe 2 heterojunction transistors unusually decreases with increasing gate voltage under illumination, which we refer to as the light-induced negative differential transconductance (L-NDT) phenomenon. We also prove that such L-NDT phenomenon in specific bias ranges originates from a variable potential barrier at a graphene/WSe 2 junction due to a gate-controllable graphene electrode. This finding allows us to conceive graphene/WSe 2 -based MVL logic circuits by using the I D -V G characteristics with two distinctive V TH s. Based on this finding, we further demonstrate a light-triggered ternary inverter circuit with three stable logical states (ΔV out of each state <0.05 V). Our study offers the pathway to substantialize MVL systems.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of the Ternary Thiobismuthates A9Bi13S24 (A = K, Rb)

    KAUST Repository

    Davaasuren, Bambar

    2016-11-16

    Ternary alkali metal thiobismuthates ABiS (A = K, Rb) were synthesized by direct combination reactions at 650 °C. The compounds crystallize in the monoclinic space group C2/m (no. 12) with cell parameters a = 30.919(1) Å, b = 4.1008(2) Å, c = 20.9072(9) Å, β = 105.826(3)° for KBiS (1) and a = 31.823(6) Å, b = 4.1177(8) Å, c = 21.086(4) Å, β = 105.62(3)° for RbBiS (2). The crystal structure of 1 contains a 3D [KBiS] polyanionic framework, whereas 2 consists of 2D [RbBiS] polyanionic slabs stacked along [201]. Both 1 and 2 are semiconductors with a band gap of 1.4 and 1.3 eV, respectively, which is supported by an electronic structure calculation. 1 melts congruently at 580 °C, while 2 melts incongruently at 575 °C. 1 and 2 are airstable and insoluble in water and organic solvents.

  20. Evaluation of ternary blended cements for use in transportation concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Amanda Louise

    This thesis investigates the use of ternary blended cement concrete mixtures for transportation structures. The study documents technical properties of three concrete mixtures used in federally funded transportation projects in Utah, Kansas, and Michigan that used ternary blended cement concrete mixtures. Data were also collected from laboratory trial batches of ternary blended cement concrete mixtures with mixture designs similar to those of the field projects. The study presents the technical, economic, and environmental advantages of ternary blended cement mixtures. Different barriers of implementation for using ternary blended cement concrete mixtures in transportation projects are addressed. It was concluded that there are no technical, economic, or environmental barriers that exist when using most ternary blended cement concrete mixtures. The technical performance of the ternary blended concrete mixtures that were studied was always better than ordinary portland cement concrete mixtures. The ternary blended cements showed increased durability against chloride ion penetration, alkali silica reaction, and reaction to sulfates. These blends also had less linear shrinkage than ordinary portland cement concrete and met all strength requirements. The increased durability would likely reduce life cycle costs associated with concrete pavement and concrete bridge decks. The initial cost of ternary mixtures can be higher or lower than ordinary portland cement, depending on the supplementary cementitious materials used. Ternary blended cement concrete mixtures produce less carbon dioxide emissions than ordinary portland cement mixtures. This reduces the carbon footprint of construction projects. The barriers associated with implementing ternary blended cement concrete for transportation projects are not significant. Supplying fly ash returns any investment costs for the ready mix plant, including silos and other associated equipment. State specifications can make

  1. Thermal expansion of the nuclear fuel-sodium reaction product Na{sub 3}(U{sub 0.84(2)},Na{sub 0.16(2)})O{sub 4} - Structural mechanism and comparison with related sodium-metal ternary oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illy, Marie-Claire [Chimie ParisTech, PSL Research University, CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris (IRCP), F-75005 Paris (France); European Commission, Joint Research Centre, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Smith, Anna L. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Department of Radiation Science & Technology, Nuclear Energy and Radiation Applications (NERA), Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB, Delft (Netherlands); Wallez, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.wallez@upmc.fr [Chimie ParisTech, PSL Research University, CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris (IRCP), F-75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne University, UPMC Université, Paris 06, 75005 Paris (France); Raison, Philippe E.; Caciuffo, Roberto; Konings, Rudy J.M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    Na{sub 3.16(2)}U{sup V,VI}{sub 0.84(2)}O{sub 4} is obtained from the reaction of sodium with uranium dioxide under oxygen potential conditions typical of a sodium-cooled fast nuclear reactor. In the event of a breach of the steel cladding, it would be the dominant reaction product forming at the rim of the mixed (U,Pu)O{sub 2} fuel pellets. High-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements show that a distortion of the uranium environment in Na{sub 3.16(2)}U{sup V,VI}{sub 0.84(2)}O{sub 4} results in a strongly anisotropic thermal expansion. A comparison with several related sodium metallates Na{sub n-2}M{sup n+}O{sub n-1} - including Na{sub 3}SbO{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}TaO{sub 4}, whose crystal structures are reported for the first time - has allowed us to assess the role played in the lattice expansion by the M{sup n+} cation radius and the Na/M ratio. On this basis, the thermomechanical behavior of the title compound is discussed, along with those of several related double oxides of sodium and actinide elements, surrogate elements, or fission products. - Highlights: •Thermal expansion and structural mechanism of Na{sub 3}(U{sub 0.84(2)},Na{sub 0.16(2)})O{sub 4}, main product of the reaction of sodium with nuclear fuel. •Thermomechanical behavior of sodium uranate suggests possible strains on the fuel cladding and risks of de-cohesion with the fuel pin. •Effect of homo- and aliovalent cation substitutions allows to predict the thermomechanical behavior of sodium metallates involving fission products or minor actinide elements. •Crystal structure of new compounds Na{sub 3}SbO{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}TaO{sub 4}.

  2. The new barium mercuride BaHg6 and ternary indium and gallium derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendorff, Marco; Röhr, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The new binary Hg-rich mercuride BaHg 6 crystallizes with a singular structure type. ► Ternary In substituted compounds are isotypic, whereas Ga substituted compounds are only structurally related. ► Structure relation to other Hg-rich alkali and alkaline earth mercurides. ► Discussion of covalent and metallic bonding aspects, as found by structure features and band structure calculations. - Abstract: The new binary barium mercuride BaHg 6 and the derived ternary indium and gallium containing compounds BaIn 1.2 Hg 4.8 and BaGa 0.8 Hg 5.2 were synthesized from melts of the elements, which were slowly cooled from 500 to 200 °C. Their crystal structures have been determined by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction. The binary mercuride BaHg 6 (Pnma, a = 1338.9(3), b = 519.39(13), c = 1042.6(4) pm, Z = 4, R1 = 0.0885) and the isotypic indium substituted compound BaIn 1.2 Hg 4.8 as well as the structurally related gallium mercuride BaGa 0.8 Hg 5.2 (Cmcm, a = 729.77(7), b = 1910.1(2), c = 507.48(5) pm, Z = 4, R1 = 0.0606) crystallize with new structure types. Common features of both structures are planar nets of five- and eight-membered Hg rings, stacked perpendicular to the shortest axes. According to their lengths, the Hg–Hg bonds can be classified into three groups: strong, short ones (I, 285–292 pm), which are only found inside the nets, and longer distances (II), still carrying bond critical points, around 300 pm. Further contacts (III) serve to complete the coordination spheres of Hg/M (320–358 pm). The overall coordination numbers of Hg/M range from 10 to 13. The Ba cations are positioned in the centers of the octagons of the Hg/M nets, thus exhibiting a 5:8:5, i.e. 18, coordination by Hg/M atoms. DFT calculations of the electronic band structure of pure BaHg 6 and ordered models of the indium ( ′ BaInHg 5 ′ ) and the gallium ( ′ BaGaHg 5 ′ ) mercurides were performed using the FP-LAPW method. The calculated Bader charges

  3. Sequential character of low-energy ternary and quaternary nuclear fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadmensky, S. G., E-mail: kadmensky@phys.vsu.ru; Bulychev, A. O. [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    An analysis of low-energy true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission leads to the conclusion that these fission modes have a sequential two-step (three-step) character such that the emission of a third particle (third and fourth particles) and the separation of fission fragments occur at distinctly different instants, in contrast to the simultaneous emergence of all fission products in the case of onestep ternary (quaternary) fission. This conclusion relies on the following arguments. First, the emission of a third particle (third and fourth particles) from a fissile nucleus is due to a nonevaporative mechanism associated with a nonadiabatic character of the collective deformation motion of this nucleus at the stages preceding its scission. Second, the axial symmetry of the deformed fissile compound nucleus and the direction of its symmetry axis both remain unchanged at all stages of ternary (quaternary) fission. This circumstancemakes it possible to explain themechanism of the appearance of observed anisotropies and T — odd asymmeries in the angular distributions of products of ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission. Third, the T —odd asymmetry discovered experimentally in ternary nuclear fission induced by cold polarized neutrons obeys the T —invariance condition only in the case of a sequential two-step (three-step) character of true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission. At the same time, this asymmetry is not a T —invariant quantity in the case of the simultaneous emission of products of true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission from the fissile compound nucleus.

  4. Sequential character of low-energy ternary and quaternary nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadmensky, S. G.; Bulychev, A. O.

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of low-energy true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission leads to the conclusion that these fission modes have a sequential two-step (three-step) character such that the emission of a third particle (third and fourth particles) and the separation of fission fragments occur at distinctly different instants, in contrast to the simultaneous emergence of all fission products in the case of onestep ternary (quaternary) fission. This conclusion relies on the following arguments. First, the emission of a third particle (third and fourth particles) from a fissile nucleus is due to a nonevaporative mechanism associated with a nonadiabatic character of the collective deformation motion of this nucleus at the stages preceding its scission. Second, the axial symmetry of the deformed fissile compound nucleus and the direction of its symmetry axis both remain unchanged at all stages of ternary (quaternary) fission. This circumstancemakes it possible to explain themechanism of the appearance of observed anisotropies and T — odd asymmeries in the angular distributions of products of ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission. Third, the T —odd asymmetry discovered experimentally in ternary nuclear fission induced by cold polarized neutrons obeys the T —invariance condition only in the case of a sequential two-step (three-step) character of true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission. At the same time, this asymmetry is not a T —invariant quantity in the case of the simultaneous emission of products of true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission from the fissile compound nucleus.

  5. He and Be ternary spontaneous fission of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, J K; Ramayya, A V; Hamilton, J H

    2002-01-01

    Ternary and binary fission studies of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf have been carried out by using the Gammasphere detector array with light charged particle (LCD) detectors. The relative sup 4 He and sup 5 He ternary fission yields were determined. The kinetic energies of the sup 5 He and sup 4 He ternary particles were found to be approximately 11 and 16 MeV, respectively. The sup 5 He particles contribute 10-20 % to the total observed alpha ternary yield. The data indicate that in nuclei with octupole deformations the population for the negative parity bands might be enhanced in the alpha ternary fission. >From LCP-gamma double gated spectra, neutron multiplicity distributions for alpha ternary fission pairs were measured. The average neutron multiplicity decreases about 0.7 AMU in going from the binary to alpha ternary fission in the approximately same mass splittings (104-146). From the analysis of the gamma-gamma matrix gated on the sup 1 sup 0 Be particles, the two fragment pairs of sup 1 sup 3 sup 8 Xe - sup 1...

  6. Chemical vapor deposition of refractory ternary nitrides for advanced diffusion barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custer, Jonathan S.; Fleming, James G.; Roherty-Osmun, Elizabeth; Smith, Paul Martin

    1998-09-22

    Refractory ternary nitride films for diffusion barriers in microelectronics have been grown using chemical vapor deposition. Thin films of titanium-silicon-nitride, tungsten-boron-nitride, and tungsten-silicon-nitride of various compositions have been deposited on 150 mm Si wafers. The microstructure of the films are either fully amorphous for the tungsten based films, or nauocrystalline TiN in an amorphous matrix for titanium-silicon-nitride. All films exhibit step coverages suitable for use in future microelectronics generations. Selected films have been tested as diffusion barriers between copper and silicon, and generally perform extremely weH. These fiIms are promising candidates for advanced diffusion barriers for microelectronics applications. The manufacturing of silicon wafers into integrated circuits uses many different process and materials. The manufacturing process is usually divided into two parts: the front end of line (FEOL) and the back end of line (BEOL). In the FEOL the individual transistors that are the heart of an integrated circuit are made on the silicon wafer. The responsibility of the BEOL is to wire all the transistors together to make a complete circuit. The transistors are fabricated in the silicon itself. The wiring is made out of metal, currently aluminum and tungsten, insulated by silicon dioxide, see Figure 1. Unfortunately, silicon will diffuse into aluminum, causing aluminum spiking of junctions, killing transistors. Similarly, during chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of tungsten from ~fj, the reactivity of the fluorine can cause "worn-holes" in the silicon, also destroying transistors. The solution to these problems is a so-called diffusion barrier, which will allow current to pass from the transistors to the wiring, but will prevent reactions between silicon and the metal.

  7. Ternary Pt-Ru-Ni catalytic layers for methanol electrooxidation prepared by electrodeposition and galvanic replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios ePapaderakis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ternary Pt-Ru-Ni deposits on glassy carbon substrates, Pt-Ru(Ni/GC, have been formed by initial electrodeposition of Ni layers onto glassy carbon electrodes, followed by their partial exchange for Pt and Ru, upon their immersion into equimolar solutions containing complex ions of the precious metals. The overall morphology and composition of the deposits has been studied by SEM microscopy and EDS spectroscopy. Continuous but nodular films have been confirmed, with a Pt÷Ru÷Ni % bulk atomic composition ratio of 37÷12÷51 (and for binary Pt-Ni control systems of 47÷53. Fine topographical details as well as film thickness have been directly recorded using AFM microscopy. The composition of the outer layers as well as the interactions of the three metals present have been studied by XPS spectroscopy and a Pt÷Ru÷Ni % surface atomic composition ratio of 61÷12÷27 (and for binary Pt-Ni control systems of 85÷15 has been found, indicating the enrichment of the outer layers in Pt; a shift of the Pt binding energy peaks to higher values was only observed in the presence of Ru and points to an electronic effect of Ru on Pt. The surface electrochemistry of the thus prepared Pt-Ru(Ni/GC and Pt(Ni/GC electrodes in deaerated acid solutions (studied by cyclic voltammetry proves the existence of a shell consisting exclusively of Pt-Ru or Pt. The activity of the Pt-Ru(Ni deposits towards methanol oxidation (studied by slow potential sweep voltammetry is higher from that of the Pt(Ni deposit and of pure Pt; this enhancement is attributed both to the well-known Ru synergistic effect due to the presence of its oxides but also (based on the XPS findings to a modification effect of Pt electronic properties.

  8. Quantum error-correcting code for ternary logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Ritajit; Basu, Saikat; Ghosh, Shibashis; Sur-Kolay, Susmita

    2018-05-01

    Ternary quantum systems are being studied because they provide more computational state space per unit of information, known as qutrit. A qutrit has three basis states, thus a qubit may be considered as a special case of a qutrit where the coefficient of one of the basis states is zero. Hence both (2 ×2 ) -dimensional and (3 ×3 ) -dimensional Pauli errors can occur on qutrits. In this paper, we (i) explore the possible (2 ×2 ) -dimensional as well as (3 ×3 ) -dimensional Pauli errors in qutrits and show that any pairwise bit swap error can be expressed as a linear combination of shift errors and phase errors, (ii) propose a special type of error called a quantum superposition error and show its equivalence to arbitrary rotation, (iii) formulate a nine-qutrit code which can correct a single error in a qutrit, and (iv) provide its stabilizer and circuit realization.

  9. Ternary ceramic alloys of Zr-Ce-Hf oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, P.F.; Funkenbusch, E.F.

    1990-11-20

    A ternary ceramic alloy is described which produces toughening of zirconia and zirconia composites through the stress transformation from tetragonal phase to monoclinic phase. This alloy, having the general formula Ce[sub x]Hf[sub y]Zr[sub 1[minus]x[minus]y]O[sub 2], is produced through the addition of appropriate amounts of ceria and hafnia to the zirconia. Typically, improved toughness is achieved with about 5 to about 15 mol % ceria and up to about 40 mol % hafnia. The preparation of alloys of these compositions are given together with data as to the densities, tetragonal phase content, hardness and fracture toughness. The alloys are useful in preparing zirconia bodies as well as reinforcing ceramic composites. 1 fig.

  10. Hardware emulation of Memristor based Ternary Content Addressable Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Bahloul, Mohamed A.

    2017-12-13

    MTCAM (Memristor Ternary Content Addressable Memory) is a special purpose storage medium in which data could be retrieved based on the stored content. Using Memristors as the main storage element provides the potential of achieving higher density and more efficient solutions than conventional methods. A key missing item in the validation of such approaches is the wide spread availability of hardware emulation platforms that can provide reliable and repeatable performance statistics. In this paper, we present a hardware MTCAM emulation based on 2-Transistors-2Memristors (2T2M) bit-cell. It builds on a bipolar memristor model with storing and fetching capabilities based on the actual current-voltage behaviour. The proposed design offers a flexible verification environment with quick design revisions, high execution speeds and powerful debugging techniques. The proposed design is modeled using VHDL and prototyped on Xilinx Virtex® FPGA.

  11. Normal freezing of ideal ternary systems of the pseudobinary type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C. H.

    1972-01-01

    Perfect liquid mixing but no solid diffusion is assumed in normal freezing. In addition, the molar compositions of the freezing solid and remaining liquid, respectively, follow the solidus and liquidus curves of the constitutional diagram. For the linear case, in which both the liquidus and solidus are perfectly straight lines, the normal freezing equation giving the fraction solidified at each melt temperature and the solute concentration profile in the frozen solid was determined as early as 1902, and has since been repeatedly published. Corresponding equations for quadratic, cubic or higher-degree liquidus and solidus lines have also been obtained. The equation of normal freezing for ideal ternary liquid solutions solidified into ideal solid solutions of the pseudobinary type is given. Sample computations with the use of this new equation were made and are given for the Ga-Al-As system.

  12. Ternary oxide nanostructures and methods of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stanislaus S [Stony Brook, NY; Park, Tae-Jin [Port Jefferson, NY

    2009-09-08

    A single crystalline ternary nanostructure having the formula A.sub.xB.sub.yO.sub.z, wherein x ranges from 0.25 to 24, and y ranges from 1.5 to 40, and wherein A and B are independently selected from the group consisting of Ag, Al, As, Au, B, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, F, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hf, Ho, I, In, Ir, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, Os, P, Pb, Pd, Pr, Pt, Rb, Re, Rh, Ru, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Tb, Tc, Te, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, W, Y, Yb, and Zn, wherein the nanostructure is at least 95% free of defects and/or dislocations.

  13. Structural study of the continuous medium of spontaneous ternary emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desforge, Christine

    1993-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of the structure of a continuous medium of spontaneous ternary emulsions of oil-in-water type, composed of water and octane, and stabilised by means of a cationic surfactant (DDAB, didodecyldimethyl ammonium bromide). It shows that the kinetic stability is due to electrostatic repulsions between octane drops, and that these repulsions are due to the presence of positive charges on the DDAB mono-layer located at the interface between water and oil. Various aspects are highlighted by neutron and X ray scattering. In this study, the DDAB is replaced by a non-ionic surfactant. Its use results in very steady oil/water emulsions [fr

  14. Hardness and Microstructure of Binary and Ternary Nitinol Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2016-01-01

    The hardness and microstructure of twenty-six binary and ternary Nitinol (nickel titanium, nickel titanium hafnium, nickel titanium zirconium and nickel titanium tantalum) compounds were studied. A small (50g) ingot of each compound was produced by vacuum arc remelting. Each ingot was homogenized in vacuum for 48 hr followed by furnace cooling. Specimens from the ingots were then heat treated at 800, 900, 1000 or 1100 degree C for 2 hr followed by water quenching. The hardness and microstructure of each specimen was compared to the baseline material (55-Nitinol, 55 at.% nickel - 45 at.% titanium, after heat treatment at 900 degC). The results show that eleven of the studied compounds had higher hardness values than the baseline material. Moreover, twelve of the studied compounds had measured hardness values greater 600HV at heat treatments from 800 to 900 degree C.

  15. Modeling adsorption of binary and ternary mixtures on microporous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monsalvo, Matias Alfonso; Shapiro, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    it possible using the same equation of state to describe the thermodynamic properties of the segregated and the bulk phases. For comparison, we also used the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) to describe adsorption equilibria. The main advantage of these two models is their capabilities to predict......The goal of this work is to analyze the adsorption of binary and ternary mixtures on the basis of the multicomponent potential theory of adsorption (MPTA). In the MPTA, the adsorbate is considered as a segregated mixture in the external potential field emitted by the solid adsorbent. This makes...... multicomponent adsorption equilibria on the basis of single-component adsorption data. We compare the MPTA and IAST models to a large set of experimental data, obtaining reasonable good agreement with experimental data and high degree of predictability. Some limitations of both models are also discussed....

  16. Site occupancies in ternary C15 ordered Laves phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotula, P.G.; Chu, F.; Thoma, D.J.; Mitchell, T.E.; Anderson, I.M.; Bentley, J.

    1996-01-01

    Site occupancies in three C15-structured AB 2 (X) Laves phases have been determined by Atom Location by CHanneling Enhanced MIcroanalysis (ALCHEMI). In NbCr 2 (V), the results were consistent with exclusive site occupancies of Nb for the A sublattice and Cr and V for the B sublattice. The B-site occupancy of V is not expected from atom size effects alone. In NbCr 2 (Ti), the results were consistent with Ti partitioning mostly to the A sites with some anti-site defects likely. In HfV 2 (Nb), the results were consistent with Nb partitioning between the A and B sites. The results of the ALCHEMI analyses of these ternary C15 Laves phase materials will be discussed with respect to previously determined phase diagrams and first-principles total energy and electronic structure calculations

  17. Quadrupole interaction in ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors experiments and theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, M; Degering, D; Deicher, M; Kortus, J; Magerle, R; Möller, A; Samokhvalov, V; Unterricker, S; Vianden, R

    2000-01-01

    Electric field gradients have been measured at substitutional lattice sites in ternary semiconductors using perturbed gamma - gamma angular correlation spectroscopy. The experimental results for A/sup I/B/sup III/C/sub 2//sup VI/ chalcopyrite structure compounds and Square Operator A/sup II/B/sub 2//sup III/C/sub 4//sup VI/ defect chalcopyrites are compared with ab-initio calculations. The latter were carried out with the WIEN code that uses the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method within a density functional theory. The agreement between experiment and theory is in most cases very good. Furthermore, the anion displacements in AgGaX/sub 2/- compounds (X: S, Se, Te) have been determined theoretically by determining the minimum of the total energy of the electrons in an elementary cell. (20 refs).

  18. Superconducting properties of a copper-ternary alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.G.; Aleksivskii, N.E.

    1975-01-01

    The superconducting properties of a copper-ternary alloy of the type Cu 93 Nb 5 Sn 2 , subjected to a variety of mechanical and heat treatments, are discussed. The as-cast alloy does not turn superconducting down to 4.5K; but the cold-work and subsequent prescribed heat treatments are found to raise the transition temperature Tsub(c) to values as high as 18.1K and the critical current density Jsub(c) (of the Nb 3 Sn formed during annealing) to a value of 3.6x10 5 Acm -2 (at 4.2K and 30kOe). Various possibilities to improve Jsub(c) of this alloy to still higher values are discussed. The as-cast alloy is ductile, easy to draw, and economical from a technical point of view, and the annealed wires and strips are flexible enough for winding. (author)

  19. Secondary ordering in ternary alloy CuMnPt6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Miwako; Das, Ananda Kumar; Nakamura, Reo; Ohshima, Ken-ichi; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Shishido, Toetsu

    2006-01-01

    Using the pulsed-neutron diffraction technique, we performed in situ measurements of structural ordering in the ternary alloy CuMnPt 6 . The diffraction patterns at various temperatures give a direct observation of a double-step ordering: disorder to Cu 3 Au type order as an ordering within the fundamental face-centered cubic lattice to subdivide the lattice into two sublattices formed by face-centered sites (first sublattice) and corner sites (second sublattice) at 968degC; and Cu 3 Au type order to ABC 6 type order as an ordering within the second to subdivide the lattice further into two sublattices formed by alternating (111) planes at 746degC. The order parameters for the ABC 6 type structure experimentally estimated by the method of static concentration waves indicate that the primary ordering developed almost completely, but the secondary ordering remained incomplete. (author)

  20. Bond charges and electronic charge transfer in ternary semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, U.

    1986-01-01

    By means of a simple molecule-theoretic model of 'linear superposition of two-electron molecules' the bond charges between nearest neighbours and the effective charges of ions are calculated for ternary zinc-blende structure alloys as well as chalcopyrite semiconductors. Taking into account both, the charge transfer among the ions caused by the differences of electronegativities of atoms used and between the bonds created by the internal stress of the lattice a nearly unvaried averaged bond charge amount of the alloy is found, but rather dramatically changed local bond charge parameters in comparison with the respective values of binary compounds used. This fact should influence the noncentral force interaction in such semiconductors. (author)

  1. Hardware emulation of Memristor based Ternary Content Addressable Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Bahloul, Mohamed A.; Naous, Rawan; Masmoudi, M.

    2017-01-01

    MTCAM (Memristor Ternary Content Addressable Memory) is a special purpose storage medium in which data could be retrieved based on the stored content. Using Memristors as the main storage element provides the potential of achieving higher density and more efficient solutions than conventional methods. A key missing item in the validation of such approaches is the wide spread availability of hardware emulation platforms that can provide reliable and repeatable performance statistics. In this paper, we present a hardware MTCAM emulation based on 2-Transistors-2Memristors (2T2M) bit-cell. It builds on a bipolar memristor model with storing and fetching capabilities based on the actual current-voltage behaviour. The proposed design offers a flexible verification environment with quick design revisions, high execution speeds and powerful debugging techniques. The proposed design is modeled using VHDL and prototyped on Xilinx Virtex® FPGA.

  2. Enhancement of phononic band gaps in ternary/binary structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, Arafa H.; Mehaney, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Based on the transfer matrix method (TMM) and Bloch theory, the interaction of elastic waves (normal incidence) with 1D phononic crystal had been studied. The transfer matrix method was obtained for both longitudinal and transverse waves by applying the continuity conditions between the consecutive unit cells. Dispersion relations are calculated and plotted for both binary and ternary structures. Also we have investigated the corresponding effects on the band gaps values for the two types of phononic crystals. Furthermore, it can be observed that the complete band gaps are located in the common frequency stop-band regions. Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effect of different thickness ratios inside each unit cell on the band gap values, as well as unit cells thickness on the central band gap frequency. These phononic band gap materials can be used as a filter for elastic waves at different frequencies values.

  3. Ternary semitransparent organic solar cells with a laminated top electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makha, Mohammed; Testa, Paolo; Anantharaman, Surendra Babu; Heier, Jakob; Jenatsch, Sandra; Leclaire, Nicolas; Tisserant, Jean-Nicolas; Véron, Anna C; Wang, Lei; Nüesch, Frank; Hany, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Tinted and colour-neutral semitransparent organic photovoltaic elements are of interest for building-integrated applications in windows, on glass roofs or on facades. We demonstrate a semitransparent organic photovoltaic cell with a dry-laminated top electrode that achieves a uniform average visible transmittance of 51% and a power conversion efficiency of 3%. The photo-active material is based on a majority blend composed of a visibly absorbing donor polymer and a fullerene acceptor, to which a selective near-infrared absorbing cyanine dye is added as a minority component. Our results show that organic ternary blends are attractive for the fabrication of semitransparent solar cells in general, because a guest component with a complementary absorption can compensate for the inevitably reduced current generation capability of a high-performing binary blend when applied as a thin, semitransparent film.

  4. New method for the simultaneous condensation of complete ternary alloy systems under ultrahigh vacuum conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrtens, A.; Moske, M.; Samwer, K.

    1988-01-01

    An ultrahigh vacuum apparatus is described for the simultaneous condensation of complete ternary alloy systems. Three singly controlled electron beam evaporation sources provide a constant evaporation rate of the different elements. A specially designed rotating mask guarantees a concentration gradient on the substrate according to a ternary phase diagram. The conversion of the actual concentration profile into a standard ternary phase diagram is done by simple computer calculations. They involve corrections for the beam characteristics of the evaporation sources and for the rotating mask. As an example, measurements for the Zr--Cu--Co system are given. The concentration range for the amorphous phase is compared with thermodynamic predictions using Miedema's parameter

  5. Ternary particles with extreme N/Z ratios from neutron-induced fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, U.; Faust, H.; Friedrichs, T.; Oberstedt, S.; Fioni, G.; Grob, M.; Ahmad, I. J.; Devlin, M.; Heinz, A.; Kondev, F. G.; Lauritsen, T.; Sarantites, D. G.; Siem, S.; Sobotka, L. G.; Sonzogni, A.

    2000-01-01

    The existing ternary fission models can well reproduce the yields of the most abundant light charged particles. However, these models tend to significantly overestimate the yields of ternary particles with an extreme N/Z ratio: 3 He, 11 Li, 14 Be, etc. The experimental yields of these isotopes were investigated with the recoil separator LOHENGRIN down to a level of 10 -10 per fission. Results from the fissioning systems 233 U (n th , f), 235 U(n th ,f), 239 Pu(n th ,f) 241 Pu(n th ,f) and 245 Cm(n th ,f) are presented and the implications for the ternary fission models are discussed

  6. Composition Optimization of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloy Blankets for Fusion Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolodosky, Alejandra

    The goal of this dissertation is to examine the neutronic properties of a novel type of fusion reactor blanket material in the form of lithium-based ternary alloys. Pure liquid lithium, first proposed as a blanket for fusion reactors, is utilized as both a tritium breeder and a coolant. It has many attractive features such as high heat transfer and low corrosion properties, but most importantly, it has a very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and presents plant safety concerns including degradation of the concrete containment structure. The work of this thesis began as a collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in an effort to develop a lithium-based ternary alloy that can maintain the beneficial properties of lithium while reducing the reactivity concerns. The first studies down-selected alloys based on the analysis and performance of both neutronic and activation characteristics. First, 3-D Monte Carlo calculations were performed to evaluate two main neutronics performance parameters for the blanket: tritium breeding ratio (TBR), and energy multiplication factor (EMF). Alloys with adequate results based on TBR and EMF calculations were considered for activation analysis. Activation simulations were executed with 50 years of irradiation and 300 years of cooling. It was discovered that bismuth is a poor choice due to achieving the highest decay heat, contact dose rates, and accident doses. In addition, it does not meet the waste disposal ratings (WDR). The straightforward approach to obtain Monte Carlo TBR and EMF results required 231 simulations per alloy and became computationally expensive, time consuming, and inefficient. Consequently, alternate methods were pursued. A collision history-based methodology recently developed for the Monte Carlo code Serpent, calculates perturbation effects on practically

  7. PLUTONIUM METALLIC FUELS FOR FAST REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAN, MARIUS [Los Alamos National Laboratory; HECKER, SIEGFRIED S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-02-07

    Early interest in metallic plutonium fuels for fast reactors led to much research on plutonium alloy systems including binary solid solutions with the addition of aluminum, gallium, or zirconium and low-melting eutectic alloys with iron and nickel or cobalt. There was also interest in ternaries of these elements with plutonium and cerium. The solid solution and eutectic alloys have most unusual properties, including negative thermal expansion in some solid-solution alloys and the highest viscosity known for liquid metals in the Pu-Fe system. Although metallic fuels have many potential advantages over ceramic fuels, the early attempts were unsuccessful because these fuels suffered from high swelling rates during burn up and high smearing densities. The liquid metal fuels experienced excessive corrosion. Subsequent work on higher-melting U-PuZr metallic fuels was much more promising. In light of the recent rebirth of interest in fast reactors, we review some of the key properties of the early fuels and discuss the challenges presented by the ternary alloys.

  8. Organic Solar Cells beyond One Pair of Donor-Acceptor: Ternary Blends and More.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liqiang; Yan, Liang; You, Wei

    2013-06-06

    Ternary solar cells enjoy both an increased light absorption width, and an easy fabrication process associated with their simple structures. Significant progress has been made for such solar cells with demonstrated efficiencies over 7%; however, their fundamental working principles are still under investigation. This Perspective is intended to offer our insights on the three major governing mechanisms in these intriguing ternary solar cells: charge transfer, energy transfer, and parallel-linkage. Through careful analysis of exemplary cases, we summarize the advantages and limitations of these three major mechanisms and suggest future research directions. For example, incorporating additional singlet fission or upconversion materials into the energy transfer dominant ternary solar cells has the potential to break the theoretical efficiency limit in single junction organic solar cells. Clearly, a feedback loop between fundamental understanding and materials selection is in urgent need to accelerate the efficiency improvement of these ternary solar cells.

  9. Synthesis and properties of ternary mixture of nickel/cobalt/tin oxides for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, C. S.; Passos, R. R.; Pocrifka, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    The present study reports the synthesis and morphological, structural and electrochemical characterization of ternary oxides mixture containing nickel, cobalt and tin. The ternary oxide is synthesized by Pechini method with subsequent deposition onto a titanium substrate in a thin-film form. XRD and EDS analysis confirm the formation of ternary film with amorphous nature. SEM analysis show that cracks on the film favor the gain of the surface area that is an interesting feature for electrochemical capacitors. The ternary film is investigated in KOH electrolyte solution using cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge study with a specific capacitance of 328 F g-1, and a capacitance retention of 86% over 600 cycles. The values of specific power and specific energy was 345.7 W kg-1 and 18.92 Wh kg-1, respectively.

  10. The ternary systems Sc-Sm(Dy)-Si at 870 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, B.Ya.; Mokra, I.Ya.; Toporinskij, A.Ya.

    1991-01-01

    Isothermal cross sections of the ternary systems Sc-Sm-Si and Sc-Dy-Si at 870 K have been plotted. Investigation of scandium and disprosium in ternary systems have been examined by X-ray diffraction and microstructure analysis. Besides literary data on binary systems Sc-Si, Sm-Si, Dy-Si have been used. Formation of limited (Sc-Sm-Si, Sc-Dy-Si) and continuous (Sc-Dy-Si) solid solutions based on bisilicides of Sc and Sm(Dy) is discovered. Two and five ternary compounds in Sc-Sm-Si and Sc-Dy-Si systems have been determined and their crystal structure has been established. When investigating of Sc-(rare earth element)-Si ternary systems and should take into account the specific interaction of scandium and samarium with REE

  11. A computer calculation of the ternary Mo-Pd-Rh phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerler, R.; Pratt, J.N.

    1993-01-01

    Thermodynamic coefficients for the phases in the binary Mo-Pd, Pd-Rh and Mo-Rh systems were derived by the assessment of the available experimental data using the binary Lukas optimization program. The resulting coefficients were first successfully utilised in reestablishing the binaries. The coefficients thus obtained in the binary computation were combined with ternary descriptions to compute ternary isothermal sections. Although no ternary interaction term was involved in the construction of the isotherms, the section calculated at 1373 K is found to be consistent with the experimentally established isothermal section at the same temperature. The location of three-phase field (bcc+hcp+fcc) and phase boundaries in both isotherms are matching reasonably well. Combining only binary coefficients of these phases, it is possible to construct reasonable isothermal sections at different temperatures. Following this conclusion, isothermal sections ranging from 1373 to 2673 K of the ternary Mo-Pd-Rh system were calculated. (orig.)

  12. Theoretical study of physical properties and oxygen incorporation effect in nanolaminated ternary carbides 211-MAX phases

    KAUST Repository

    Kanoun, Mohammed; Goumri-Said, Souraya

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we employ ab initio approaches to review some important physical properties of nanolaminated ternary carbides MAX phases. We fi rstly use an all electron full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method within the generalized

  13. Special quasirandom structures for binary/ternary group IV random alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander I.; Jiang, Chao; Grimes, Robin W.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2010-01-01

    Simulation of defect interactions in binary/ternary group IV semiconductor alloys at the density functional theory level is difficult due to the random distribution of the constituent atoms. The special quasirandom structures approach is a

  14. An evaporation-based model of thermal neutron induced ternary fission of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestone, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    Ternary fission probabilities for thermal neutron induced fission of plutonium are analyzed within the framework of an evaporation-based model where the complexity of time-varying potentials, associated with the neck collapse, are included in a simplistic fashion. If the nuclear temperature at scission and the fission-neck-collapse time are assumed to be ~ 1.2 MeV and ~ 10 -22 s, respectively, then calculated relative probabilities of ternary-fission light-charged-particle emission follow the trends seen in the experimental data. The ability of this model to reproduce ternary fission probabilities spanning seven orders of magnitude for a wide range of light-particle charges and masses implies that ternary fission is caused by the coupling of an evaporation-like process with the rapid re-arrangement of the nuclear fluid following scission. (author)

  15. Partially fluorinated aarylene polyethers and their ternary blends with PBI and H3PO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Pan, Chao

    2008-01-01

    Ternary blend membranes based on sulphonated partially fluorinated arylene polyether, polybenzimidazole (PBI) and phosphoric acid were prepared and characterised as electrolyte for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Partially fluorinated arylene polyether was first prepared from...

  16. Synthesis and characterization of TiO2/Ag/polymer ternary nanoparticles via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung Tae; Koh, Joo Hwan; Seo, Jin Ah; Cho, Yong Soo; Kim, Jong Hak

    2011-01-01

    We report on the novel ternary hybrid materials consisting of semiconductor (TiO 2 ), metal (Ag) and polymer (poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (POEM)). First, a hydrophilic polymer, i.e. POEM, was grafted from TiO 2 nanoparticles via the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) technique. These TiO 2 -POEM brush nanoparticles were used to template the formation of Ag nanoparticles by introduction of a AgCF 3 SO 3 precursor and a NaBH 4 aqueous solution for reduction process. Successful grafting of polymeric chains from the surface of TiO 2 nanoparticles and the in situ formation of Ag nanoparticles within the polymeric chains were confirmed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). FT-IR spectroscopy also revealed the specific interaction of Ag nanoparticles with the C=O groups of POEM brushes. This study presents a simple route for the in situ synthesis of both metal and polymer confined within the semiconductor, producing ternary hybrid inorganic-organic nanomaterials.

  17. Metallic fuel development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, L.C.

    1987-01-01

    Metallic fuels are capable of achieving high burnup as a result of design modifications instituted in the late 1960's. The gap between the fuel slug and the cladding is fixed such that by the time the fuel swells to the cladding the fission gas bubbles interconnect and release the fission gas to an appropriately sized plenum volume. Interconnected porosity thus provides room for the fuel to deform from further swelling rather than stress the cladding. In addition, the interconnected porosity allows the fuel pin to be tolerant to transient events because as stresses are generated during a transient event the fuel flows rather than applying significant stress to the cladding. Until 1969 a number of metallic fuel alloys were under development in the US. At that time the metallic fuel development program in the US was discontinued in favor of ceramic fuels. However, development had proceeded to the point where it was clear that the zirconium addition to uranium-plutonium fuel would yield a ternary fuel with an adequately high solidus temperature and good compatibility with austenitic stainless steel cladding. Furthermore, several U-Pu-Zr fuel pins had achieved about 6 at.% bu by the late 1960's, without failure, and thus the prospect for high burnup was promising

  18. On the application of the NRTL method to ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Julia, Jorge; Barrero, Carmen R.; Corso, Maria E.; Grande, Maria del Carmen; Marschoff, Carlos M.

    2005-01-01

    The use of the NRTL method for correlating experimental data in ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria is considered. It is concluded that parameters obtained by direct correlation techniques have not a direct physical meaning. Also, it is shown that the resulting values for these parameters depend on the number of experimental points considered and on the particular calculation method employed. Thus, it is very risky to employ such parameters in predicting equilibria of other ternary mixtures

  19. Structure of the novel ternary hydrides Li4Tt2D (Tt=Si and Ge)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hui; Rush, J.J.; Maryland Univ., College Park, MD; Hartman, M.R.; Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR; Udovic, T.J.; Zhou Wei; Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA; Bowman, R.C. Jr.; Vajo, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The crystal structures of newly discovered Li 4 Ge 2 D and Li 4 Si 2 D ternary phases were solved by direct methods using neutron powder diffraction data. Both structures can be described using a Cmmm orthorhombic cell with all hydrogen atoms occupying Li 6 -octahedral interstices. The overall crystal structure and the geometry of these interstices are compared with those of other related phases, and the stabilization of this novel class of ternary hydrides is discussed. (orig.)

  20. Consideration of the Verleur model of far-infrared spectroscopy of ternary compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robouch, B. V.; Kisiel, A.; Sheregii, E. M.

    2001-01-01

    The clustering model proposed by Verleur and Barker [Phys. Rev. 149, 715 (1966)] to interpret far infrared data for face-centered-cubic ternary compounds is critically analyzed. It is shown that their approach, satisfactory for fitting some ternary compound spectral curves, is too restricted by its one-parameter β model to be able to describe preferences (with respect to a random distribution case) for the five tetrahedron configurations

  1. Affine planes, ternary rings, and examples of non-Desarguesian planes

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Nikolai V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to a detailed self-contained exposition of a part of the theory of affine planes leading to a construction of affine (or, equivalently, projective) planes not satisfying the Desarques axiom. It is intended to complement the introductory expositions of the theory of affine and projective planes. A novelty of our exposition is a new notation for the ternary operation in a ternary ring, much more suggestive than the standard one.

  2. High-performance ternary blend polymer solar cells involving both energy transfer and hole relay processes

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Luyao; Chen, Wei; Xu, Tao; Yu, Luping

    2015-01-01

    The integration of multiple materials with complementary absorptions into a single junction device is regarded as an efficient way to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs). However, because of increased complexity with one more component, only limited high-performance ternary systems have been demonstrated previously. Here we report an efficient ternary blend OSC with a PCE of 9.2%. We show that the third component can reduce surface trap densities in the...

  3. Evolution of Ternary AuAgPd Nanoparticles by the Control of Temperature, Thickness, and Tri-Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundar Kunwar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Metallic alloy nanoparticles (NPs possess great potential to enhance the optical, electronic, chemical, and magnetic properties for various applications by the control of morphology and elemental composition. This work presents the fabrication of ternary AuAgPd alloy nanostructures on sapphire (0001 via the solid-state dewetting of sputter-deposited tri-metallic layers. Based on the systematic control of temperature, thickness, and deposition order of tri-layers, the composite AuAgPd alloy nanoparticles (NPs with various shape, size, and density are demonstrated. The metallic tri-layers exhibit various stages of dewetting based on the increasing growth temperatures between 400 and 900 °C at 15 nm tri-layer film thickness. Specifically, the nucleation of tiny voids and hillocks, void coalescence, the growth and isolated nanoparticle formation, and the shape transformation with Ag sublimation are observed. With the reduced film thickness (6 nm, tiny alloy NPs with improved structural uniformity and spatial arrangement are obtained due to enhanced dewetting. The growth trend of alloy NPs is drastically altered by changing the deposition order of metallic tri-layers. The overall evolution is governed by the surface diffusion and inter-mixing of metallic atoms, Rayleigh-like instability, surface and interface energy minimization, and equilibrium state of the system. The UV-VIS-NIR reflectance spectra reveal the formation of an absorption band and reflectance maxima at specific wavelengths based on the morphology and composition of AuAgPd alloy NPs. In addition, Raman spectra analysis shows the modulation of intensity and peak position of natural vibration modes of sapphire (0001.

  4. Experimental determination of the phase equilibria in the Co-Fe-Zr ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.P.; Yu, Y.; Zhang, H.H.; Hu, H.F.; Liu, X.J.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We determined four isothermal sections of the Co-Fe-Zr system from 1000 o C to 1300 o C. → No ternary compound was found in the Co-Fe-Zr ternary system. → The solubility of Fe in the liquid phase at 1300 o C is extremely large. → The (Co, Fe) 2 Zr phase form the continuous solution from Co-Zr side to Fe-Zr side. → The solubility of Zr in the fcc (Co, Fe) phase is extremely small. - Abstract: The phase equilibria in the Co-Fe-Zr ternary system were investigated by means of optical microscopy (OM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) on equilibrated ternary alloys. Four isothermal sections of the Co-Fe-Zr ternary system at 1300 o C, 1200 o C, 1100 o C and 1000 o C were experimentally established. The experimental results indicate that (1) no ternary compound was found in this system; (2) the solubility of Fe in the liquid phase of the Co-rich corner at 1300 o C is extremely large; (3) the liquid phase in the Zr-rich corner and the (Co,Fe) 2 Zr phase form the continuous solid solutions from the Co-Zr side to the Fe-Zr side; (4) the solubility of Zr in the fcc (Co, Fe) phase is extremely small.

  5. Temperature dependence of binary and ternary recombination of H3+ ions with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glosik, J.; Plasil, R.; Korolov, I.; Kotrik, T.; Novotny, O.; Hlavenka, P.; Dohnal, P.; Varju, J.; Kokoouline, V.; Greene, Chris H.

    2009-01-01

    We study binary and the recently discovered process of ternary He-assisted recombination of H 3 + ions with electrons in a low-temperature afterglow plasma. The experiments are carried out over a broad range of pressures and temperatures of an afterglow plasma in a helium buffer gas. Binary and He-assisted ternary recombination are observed and the corresponding recombination rate coefficients are extracted for temperatures from 77 to 330 K. We describe the observed ternary recombination as a two-step mechanism: first, a rotationally excited long-lived neutral molecule H 3 * is formed in electron-H 3 + collisions. Second, the H 3 * molecule collides with a helium atom that leads to the formation of a very long-lived Rydberg state with high orbital momentum. We present calculations of the lifetimes of H 3 * and of the ternary recombination rate coefficients for para- and ortho-H 3 + . The calculations show a large difference between the ternary recombination rate coefficients of ortho- and para-H 3 + at temperatures below 300 K. The measured binary and ternary rate coefficients are in reasonable agreement with the calculated values.

  6. Temperature dependence of binary and ternary recombination of H3+ ions with electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glosík, J.; Plašil, R.; Korolov, I.; Kotrík, T.; Novotný, O.; Hlavenka, P.; Dohnal, P.; Varju, J.; Kokoouline, V.; Greene, Chris H.

    2009-05-01

    We study binary and the recently discovered process of ternary He-assisted recombination of H3+ ions with electrons in a low-temperature afterglow plasma. The experiments are carried out over a broad range of pressures and temperatures of an afterglow plasma in a helium buffer gas. Binary and He-assisted ternary recombination are observed and the corresponding recombination rate coefficients are extracted for temperatures from 77 to 330 K. We describe the observed ternary recombination as a two-step mechanism: first, a rotationally excited long-lived neutral molecule H3∗ is formed in electron- H3+ collisions. Second, the H3∗ molecule collides with a helium atom that leads to the formation of a very long-lived Rydberg state with high orbital momentum. We present calculations of the lifetimes of H3∗ and of the ternary recombination rate coefficients for para- and ortho- H3+ . The calculations show a large difference between the ternary recombination rate coefficients of ortho- and para- H3+ at temperatures below 300 K. The measured binary and ternary rate coefficients are in reasonable agreement with the calculated values.

  7. Mechanical and water barrier properties of agar/κ-carrageenan/konjac glucomannan ternary blend biohydrogel films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Jong-Whan; Wang, Long-Feng

    2013-07-01

    Multicomponent hydrogel films composed of agar, κ-carrageenan, konjac glucomannan powder, and nanoclay (Cloisite(®) 30B) were prepared and their mechanical and water barrier properties such as water vapor permeability (WVP), water contact angle (CA), water solubility (WS), water uptake ratio (WUR), water vapor uptake ratio (WVUR) were determined. Mechanical, water vapor barrier, and water resistance properties of the ternary blend film exhibited middle range of individual component films, however, they increased significantly after formation of nanocomposite with the clay. Especially, the water holding capacity of the ternary blend biopolymer films increased tremendously, from 800% to 1681% of WUR for agar and κ-carrageenan films up to 5118% and 5488% of WUR for the ternary blend and ternary blend nanocomposite films, respectively. Water vapor adsorption behavior of films was also tested by water vapor adsorption kinetics and water vapor adsorption isotherms test. Preliminary test result for fresh spinach packaging revealed that the ternary blend biohydrogel films had a high potential for the use as an antifogging film for packaging highly respiring agricultural produce. In addition, the ternary blend nanocomposite film showed an antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Balancing Accuracy and Computational Efficiency for Ternary Gas Hydrate Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. D.

    2011-12-01

    Geologic accumulations of natural gas hydrates hold vast organic carbon reserves, which have the potential of meeting global energy needs for decades. Estimates of vast amounts of global natural gas hydrate deposits make them an attractive unconventional energy resource. As with other unconventional energy resources, the challenge is to economically produce the natural gas fuel. The gas hydrate challenge is principally technical. Meeting that challenge will require innovation, but more importantly, scientific research to understand the resource and its characteristics in porous media. Producing natural gas from gas hydrate deposits requires releasing CH4 from solid gas hydrate. The conventional way to release CH4 is to dissociate the hydrate by changing the pressure and temperature conditions to those where the hydrate is unstable. The guest-molecule exchange technology releases CH4 by replacing it with a more thermodynamically stable molecule (e.g., CO2, N2). This technology has three advantageous: 1) it sequesters greenhouse gas, 2) it releases energy via an exothermic reaction, and 3) it retains the hydraulic and mechanical stability of the hydrate reservoir. Numerical simulation of the production of gas hydrates from geologic deposits requires accounting for coupled processes: multifluid flow, mobile and immobile phase appearances and disappearances, heat transfer, and multicomponent thermodynamics. The ternary gas hydrate system comprises five components (i.e., H2O, CH4, CO2, N2, and salt) and the potential for six phases (i.e., aqueous, liquid CO2, gas, hydrate, ice, and precipitated salt). The equation of state for ternary hydrate systems has three requirements: 1) phase occurrence, 2) phase composition, and 3) phase properties. Numerical simulation of the production of geologic accumulations of gas hydrates have historically suffered from relatively slow execution times, compared with other multifluid, porous media systems, due to strong nonlinearities and

  9. Competitive adsorption and selectivity sequence of heavy metals by chicken bone-derived biochar: Batch and column experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Cho, Ju-Sik; Ok, Yong Sik; Kim, Seong-Heon; Kang, Se-Won; Choi, Ik-Won; Heo, Jong-Soo; DeLaune, Ronald D; Seo, Dong-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate adsorption of heavy metals in single- and ternary-metal forms onto chicken bone biochar (CBB). Competitive sorption of heavy metals by CBB has never been reported previously. The maximum adsorption capacities of metals by CBB were in the order of Cu (130 mg g(-1)) > Cd (109 mg g(-1)) > Zn (93 mg g(-1)) in the single-metal adsorption isotherm and Cu (108 mg g(-1)) > Cd (54 mg g(-1)) ≥ Zn (44 mg g(-1)) in the ternary-metal adsorption isotherm. Cu was the most retained cation, whereas Zn could be easily exchanged and substituted by Cu. Batch experimental data best fit the Langmuir model rather than the Freundlich isotherms. In the column experiments, the total adsorbed amounts of the metals were in the following order of Cu (210 mg g(-1)) > Cd (192 mg g(-1)) > Zn (178) in single-metal conditions, and Cu (156) > Cd (123) > Zn (92) in ternary-metal conditions. Results from both the batch and column experiments indicate that competitive adsorption among metals increases the mobility of these metals. Especially, Zn in single-metal conditions lost it adsorption capacity most significantly. Based on the 3D simulation graphs of heavy metals, adsorption patterns under single adsorption condition were different than under competitive adsorption condition. Results from both the batch and column experiments show that competitive adsorption among metals increases the mobility of these metals. The maximum metal adsorption capacity of the metals in the column experiments was higher than that in the batch experiment indicating other metal retention mechanisms rather than adsorption may be involved. Therefore, both column and batch experiments are needed for estimating retention capacities and removal efficiencies of metals in CBB.

  10. Spectroscopic evidence for ternary surface complexes in the lead(II)-malonic acid-hematite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, J.J.; Bargar, J.R.; Davis, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) measurements, we examined the sorption of Pb(II) to hematite in the presence of malonic acid. Pb LIII-edge EXAFS measurements performed in the presence of malonate indicate the presence of both Fe and C neighbors, suggesting that a major fraction of surface-bound malonate is bonded to adsorbed Pb(II). In the absence of Pb(II), ATR-FTIR measurements of sorbed malonate suggest the formation of more than one malonate surface complex. The dissimilarity of the IR spectrum of malonate sorbed on hematite to those for aqueous malonate suggest at least one of the sorbed malonate species is directly coordinated to surface Fe atoms in an inner-sphere mode. In the presence of Pb, little change is seen in the IR spectrum for sorbed malonate, indicating that geometry of malonate as it coordinates to sorbed Pb(II) adions is similar to the geometry of malonate as it coordinates to Fe in the hematite surface. Fits of the raw EXAFS spectra collected from pH 4 to pH 8 result in average Pb-C distances of 2.98 to 3.14 A??, suggesting the presence of both four- and six-membered Pb-malonate rings. The IR results are consistent with this interpretation. Thus, our results suggest that malonate binds to sorbed Pb(II) adions, forming ternary metal-bridging surface complexes. ?? 2001 Academic Press.

  11. Tunable fluorescence emission of ternary nonstoichiometric Ag-In-S alloyed nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jian, E-mail: dhjfeng@ciac.jl.cn; Yang Xiurong, E-mail: xryang@ciac.jl.cn [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry (China)

    2012-08-15

    Low toxic, nonstoichiometric colloidal Ag-In-S ternary quantum dots with different Ag content were synthesized by a one-pot hot-injection method based on the reaction of metal acetylacetonates with sulfur dissolved in octadecene. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were used to characterize the size, structure, and morphology of these samples. ICP-MS was employed to analyze the compositions of Ag-In-S nanocrystals. The optical properties were characterized by UV-Vis absorption, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and time-resolved photoluminescence. Varying the fraction of cationic and capping agents, the compositions of Ag-In-S nanocrystals were precisely controlled. XRD and HRTEM results indicate the compositional homogeneity of Ag-In-S. The emission spectra across the different compositions exhibiting a single bandgap feature further confirm the formation of Ag-In-S alloy NCs, rather than phase separated Ag{sub 2}S and In{sub 2}S{sub 3}. Composition-dependent tunable PL emissions have been observed. The relative PL quantum yield is up to 16 %, which exhibited substantially enhanced comparing with the stoichiometric AgInS{sub 2} semiconductor core QDs reported in previous literature. The PL decay curve of Ag-In-S has a biexponential characteristic, which indicates that the recombination of an electron and a hole is dominated by the surface defect and the recombination process associated with internal traps is reduced significantly. The large Stokes shift between the absorption peaks and their emissions should inhibit the reabsorption and Foerster energy transfer between Ag-In-S nanocrystals, which provides the alternative in the further applications where high-concentrations of nanocrystals are needed.

  12. Carbon-supported ternary PtSnIr catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, J.; Kokoh, K.B.; Coutanceau, C.; Leger, J.-M. [Equipe Electrocatalyse, UMR 6503 CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, 40 avenue du Recteur Pineau 86022 Poitiers Cedex (France); Dos Anjos, D.M. [Equipe Electrocatalyse, UMR 6503 CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, 40 avenue du Recteur Pineau 86022 Poitiers Cedex (France); Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 780, 13560-970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Olivi, P.; De Andrade, A.R. [Departamento de Quimica da Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Tremiliosi-Filho, G. [Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 780, 13560-970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2007-08-01

    Binary PtIr, PtSn and ternary PtSnIr electrocatalysts were prepared by the Pechini-Adams modified method on carbon Vulcan XC-72, and these materials were characterized by TEM and XRD. The XRD results showed that the electrocatalysts consisted of the Pt displaced phase, suggesting the formation of solid solutions between the metals Pt/Ir and Pt/Sn. However, the increase in Sn loading promoted phase separation, with the formation of peaks typical of cubic Pt{sub 3}Sn. The electrochemical investigation of these different electrode materials was carried out as a function of the electrocatalyst composition, in a 0.5 mol dm{sup -3} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution, with either the presence or the absence of ethanol. Cyclic voltammetric measurements and chronoamperometric results obtained at room temperature showed that PtSn/C and PtSnIr/C displayed better electrocatalytic activity for ethanol electrooxidation compared to PtIr/C and Pt/C, mainly at low potentials. The oxidation process was also investigated by in situ infrared reflectance spectroscopy, to identify the adsorbed species. Linearly adsorbed CO and CO{sub 2} were found, indicating that the cleavage of the C-C bond in the ethanol substrate occurred during the oxidation process. At 90 C, the Pt{sub 89}Sn{sub 11}/C and Pt{sub 68}Sn{sub 9}Ir{sub 23}/C electrocatalysts displayed higher current and power performances as anode materials in a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC). (author)

  13. Establishment of Experimental Apparatus and Mechanical Test for SFR Metallic Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Ki; Lee, Chong Tak; Oh, Seok Jin; Ko, Young Mo; Kim, Ki Hwan; Woo, Yoon Myung; Lee, Chan Bock

    2010-12-01

    U-Zr binary alloys and U-Zr-Ce ternary alloys as SFR surrogate metallic fuels were fabricated by a casting process. Tensile tests were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties of the fuels. As a results, the mechanical properties such as yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and elongation were measured. In this report, these experimental results are presented

  14. TEXTURE-AWARE DENSE IMAGE MATCHING USING TERNARY CENSUS TRANSFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Textureless and geometric discontinuities are major problems in state-of-the-art dense image matching methods, as they can cause visually significant noise and the loss of sharp features. Binary census transform is one of the best matching cost methods but in textureless areas, where the intensity values are similar, it suffers from small random noises. Global optimization for disparity computation is inherently sensitive to parameter tuning in complex urban scenes, and must compromise between smoothness and discontinuities. The aim of this study is to provide a method to overcome these issues in dense image matching, by extending the industry proven Semi-Global Matching through 1 developing a ternary census transform, which takes three outputs in a single order comparison and encodes the results in two bits rather than one, and also 2 by using texture-information to self-tune the parameters, which both preserves sharp edges and enforces smoothness when necessary. Experimental results using various datasets from different platforms have shown that the visual qualities of the triangulated point clouds in urban areas can be largely improved by these proposed methods.

  15. The role of In in III-nitride ternary semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    Redondo cubero, A

    This proposal aims to study the role of In in the outstanding efficiency of luminescent devices based on group III-nitride ternary semiconductors. To study the microscopic environments of In in GaInN and AlInN, Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) experiments will be performed using the PAC-probes $^{111m}$Cd($^{111}$Cd), $^{115}$Cd($^{115}$In) and $^{117}$Cd($^{117}$In). Temperature dependent PAC measurements using the $^{111}$In($^{111}$Cd) probe indicated that In in GaN and AlN forms a complex with a defect, possibly a nitrogen vacancy (V$_{N}$), which is stable up to high temperatures and might be involved in the luminescence mechanisms. Analysing these results two questions arose: \\\\ \\\\1. Does the fact that the actual measurement is performed with the daughter nucleus $^{111}$Cd (being an acceptor) influence the probe-defect interaction? This question can be answered by performing measurements with the complementary probe $^{117}$Cd($^{117}$In). \\\\ \\\\ 2. What is the significance of $\\textit{a...

  16. Ternary choices in repeated games and border collision bifurcations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dal Forno, Arianna; Gardini, Laura; Merlone, Ugo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We extend a model of binary choices with externalities to include more alternatives. ► Introducing one more option affects the complexity of the dynamics. ► We find bifurcation structures which where impossible to observe in binary choices. ► A ternary choice cannot simply be considered as a binary choice plus one. - Abstract: Several recent contributions formalize and analyze binary choices games with externalities as those described by Schelling. Nevertheless, in the real world choices are not always binary, and players have often to decide among more than two alternatives. These kinds of interactions are examined in game theory where, starting from the well known rock-paper-scissor game, several other kinds of strategic interactions involving more than two choices are examined. In this paper we investigate how the dynamics evolve introducing one more option in binary choice games with externalities. The dynamics we obtain are always in a stable regime, that is, the structurally stable dynamics are only attracting cycles, but of any possible positive integer as period. We show that, depending on the structure of the game, the dynamics can be quite different from those existing when considering binary choices. The bifurcation structure, due to border collisions, is explained, showing the existence of so-called big-bang bifurcation points.

  17. Symmetric and asymmetric ternary fission of hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwek-Wilczynska, K.; Wilczynski, J.; Leegte, H.K.W.; Siemssen, R.H.; Wilschut, H.W.; Grotowski, K.; Panasiewicz, A.; Sosin, Z.; Wieloch, A.

    1993-01-01

    Emission of α particles accompanying fusion-fission processes in the 40 Ar + 232 Th reaction at E( 40 Ar) = 365 MeV was studied in a wide range of in-fission-plane and out-of-plane angles. The exact determination of the emission angles of both fission fragments combined with the time-of-flight measurements allowed us to reconstruct the complete kinematics of each ternary event. The coincident energy spectra of α particles were analyzed by using predictions of the energy spectra of the statistical code CASCADE . The analysis clearly demonstrates emission from the composite system prior to fission, emission from fully accelerated fragments after fission, and also emission during scission. The analysis is presented for both symmetric and asymmetric fission. The results have been analyzed using a time-dependent statistical decay code and confronted with dynamical calculations based on a classical one-body dissipation model. The observed near-scission emission is consistent with evaporation from a dinuclear system just before scission and evaporation from separated fragments just after scission. The analysis suggests that the time scale of fission of the hot composite systems is long (about 7x10 -20 s) and the motion during the descent to scission almost completely damped

  18. Growth Mechanism of Nanowires: Binary and Ternary Chalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N. B.; Coriell, S. R.; Su, Ching-Hua; Hopkins, R. H.; Arnold, B.; Choa, Fow-Sen; Cullum, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires exhibit very exciting optical and electrical properties including high transparency and a several order of magnitude better photocurrent than thin film and bulk materials. We present here the mechanism of nanowire growth from the melt-liquid-vapor medium. We describe preliminary results of binary and ternary selenide materials in light of recent theories. Experiments were performed with lead selenide and thallium arsenic selenide systems which are multifunctional material and have been used for detectors, acousto-optical, nonlinear and radiation detection applications. We observed that small units of nanocubes and elongated nanoparticles arrange and rearrange at moderate melt undercooling to form the building block of a nanowire. Since we avoided the catalyst, we observed self-nucleation and uncontrolled growth of wires from different places. Growth of lead selenide nanowires was performed by physical vapor transport method and thallium arsenic selenide nanowire by vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method. In some cases very long wires (>mm) are formed. To achieve this goal experiments were performed to create situation where nanowires grew on the surface of solid thallium arsenic selenide itself.

  19. Delay Insensitive Ternary CMOS Logic for Secure Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi S. P. Nair

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As digital circuit design continues to evolve due to progress of semiconductor processes well into the sub 100 nm range, clocked architectures face limitations in a number of cases where clockless asynchronous architectures generate less noise and produce less electro-magnetic interference (EMI. This paper develops the Delay-Insensitive Ternary Logic (DITL asynchronous design paradigm that combines design aspects of similar dual-rail asynchronous paradigms and Boolean logic to create a single wire per bit, three voltage signaling and logic scheme. DITL is compared with other delay insensitive paradigms, such as Pre-Charge Half-Buffers (PCHB and NULL Convention Logic (NCL on which it is based. An application of DITL is discussed in designing secure digital circuits resistant to side channel attacks based on measurement of timing, power, and EMI signatures. A Secure DITL Adder circuit is designed at the transistor level, and several variance parameters are measured to validate the efficiency of DITL in resisting side channel attacks. The DITL design methodology is then applied to design a secure 8051 ALU.

  20. Intermolecular Interactions in Ternary Glycerol–Sample–H2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Peter; Rasmussen, Erik Lumby; Koga, Yoshikata

    2011-01-01

    We studied the intermolecular interactions in ternary glycerol (Gly)–sample (S)–H2O systems at 25 °C. By measuring the excess partial molar enthalpy of Gly, HGlyEHEGly, we evaluated the Gly–Gly enthalpic interaction, HGly-GlyEHEGly--Gly, in the presence of various samples (S). For S, tert...... little effect on HGly-GlyEHEGly--Gly. This contrasts with our earlier studies on 1P–S–H2O in that Na+, F− and Cl− are found as hydration centers from the induced changes on HIP-IPEHEIP--IP in the presence of S, while Br−, I−, and SCN− are found to act as hydrophiles. In comparison with the Hofmeister...... ranking of these ions, the kosmotropes are hydration centers and the more kosmotropic the higher the hydration number, consistent with the original Hofmeister’s concept of “H2O withdrawing power.” Br−, I− and SCN−, on the other hand, acted as hydrophiles and the more chaotropic they are the more...

  1. Radiation-induced segregation in binary and ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, P.R.; Rehn, L.E.

    1979-01-01

    A review is given of our current knowledge of radiation-induced segregation of major and minor elements in simple binary and ternary alloys as derived from experimental techniques such as Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary-ion mass spectroscopy, ion-backscattering, infrared emissivity measurements and transmission electron microscopy. Measurements of the temperature, dose and dose-rate dependences as well as of the effects of such materials variables as solute solubility, solute misfit and initial solute concentration has proved particularly valuable in understanding the mechanisms of segregation. The interpretation of these data in terms of current theoretical models which link solute segregation behavior to defect-solute binding interactions and/or to the relative diffusion rates of solute and solvent atoms the interstitial and vacancy migration mechanisms has, in general, been fairly successful and has provided considerable insight into the highly interrelated phenomena of solute-defect trapping, solute segregation, phase stability and void swelling. Specific examples in selected fcc, bcc and hcp alloy systems are discussed with particular emphasis given to the effects of radiation-induced segregation on the phase stability of single-phase and two-phase binary alloys and simple Fe-Cr-Ni alloys. (Auth.)

  2. Contribution to the aluminum-tin-zinc ternary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drápala, J.; Kostiuková, G.; Losertová, M.

    2017-11-01

    The Sn-Zn-Al alloys are one of significant candidates in the proposal of alternative lead-free solders for higher temperature soldering. This paper deals with the study of the aluminum-tin-zinc system. Twenty Sn-Zn-Al alloys together with six binary Sn-Zn alloys were prepared and studied experimentally. Alloys were prepared from pure Sn, Zn and Al (melting and cooling in a vacuum resistance furnace). The specimens were studied metallographically including the micro-hardness measurements, complete chemical analysis (ICP-AES, OES), X-ray micro-analysis of alloys by SEM and EDX in order to determine the composition and identification of individual phases. Significant temperatures and enthalpies of phase transformations were determined by DTA. After long-term annealing of selected alloys in vacuum followed by quenching the structural and chemical microanalyses of the present phases and their limit concentrations were carried out. The achieved results were compared with the thermodynamic modelling of the ternary Sn-Zn-Al system (computer programs THERMOCALC, MTDATA, PANDAT and databases CALPHAD, COST). Electrical resistivity, density, magnetic susceptibility and wettability of Sn-Zn-Al solders were measured as well.

  3. Effects of magnetic atoms on the properties of ternary superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlap, B.D.; Shenoy, G.K.

    1980-01-01

    Until recently it has been commonly accepted that small impurities of magnetic atoms were severely detrimental to superconductivity, and that superconductivity and long-range magnetic ordering could not occur in the same materials. In known binary and pseudo-binary compounds, this is still the case. However, many recent experiments on ternary superconductors have shown that the effects of magnetism are considerably more complex. In some cases, the addition of magnetic atoms has been found to enhance superconducting properties by increasing the superconducting critical field, without significantly lowering the transition temperature. In many cases, compounds will show both superconducting and long range magnetic ordering transitions. The destruction of superconductivity by ferromagnetic ordering and the coexistence of superconductivity with antiferromagnetic ordering is now well established. Hyperfine interaction measurements have played a significant role in the investigations of these materials, including measurement of the magnitude of the exchange interaction between rare-earth spin and conduction electron spin, elucidation of the mechanism for critical field enhancement, specification of crystalline field ground states, and studies of the nature of magnetic ordering

  4. Electronic structure and phase equilibria in ternary substitutional alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traiber, A.J.S.; Allen, S.M.; Waterstrat, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    A reliable, consistent scheme to study phase equilibria in ternary substitutional alloys based on the tight-binding approximation is presented. With electronic parameters from linear muffin-tin orbital calculations, the computed density of states and band structures compare well with those from more accurate abinitio calculations. Disordered alloys are studied within the tight-binding coherent-potential approximation extended to alloys; energetics of ordered systems are obtained through effective pair interactions computed with the general perturbation method; and partially ordered alloys are studied with a novel simplification of the molecular coherent-potential approximation combined with the general perturbation method. The formalism is applied to bcc-based Zr-Ru-Pd alloys which are promising candidates for medical implant devices. Using energetics obtained from the above scheme, we apply the cluster- variation method to study phase equilibria for particular pseudo- binary alloys and show that results are consistent with observed behavior of electronic specific heat coefficient with composition for Zr 0.5 (Ru, Pd) 0.5

  5. Control mechanism of double-rotator-structure ternary optical computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, SONG; Liping, YAN

    2017-03-01

    Double-rotator-structure ternary optical processor (DRSTOP) has two characteristics, namely, giant data-bits parallel computing and reconfigurable processor, which can handle thousands of data bits in parallel, and can run much faster than computers and other optical computer systems so far. In order to put DRSTOP into practical application, this paper established a series of methods, namely, task classification method, data-bits allocation method, control information generation method, control information formatting and sending method, and decoded results obtaining method and so on. These methods form the control mechanism of DRSTOP. This control mechanism makes DRSTOP become an automated computing platform. Compared with the traditional calculation tools, DRSTOP computing platform can ease the contradiction between high energy consumption and big data computing due to greatly reducing the cost of communications and I/O. Finally, the paper designed a set of experiments for DRSTOP control mechanism to verify its feasibility and correctness. Experimental results showed that the control mechanism is correct, feasible and efficient.

  6. Transmission properties of one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiveshwari, Laxmi; Awasthi, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Omnidirectional photonic band gaps (PBGs) are found in one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals (PPC) composed of single negative metamaterials. The band characteristics and transmission properties are investigated through the transfer matrix method. We show that the proposed structure can trap light in three-dimensional space due to the elimination of Brewster's angle transmission resonance allowing the existence of complete PBG. The results are discussed in terms of incident angle, layer thickness, dielectric constant of the dielectric material, and number of unit cells (N) for TE and TM polarizations. It is seen that PBG characteristics is apparent even in an N ≥ 2 system, which is weakly sensitive to the incident angle and completely insensitive to the polarization. Finite PPC could be used for multichannel transmission filter without introducing any defect in the geometry. We show that the locations of the multichannel transmission peaks are in the allowed band of the infinite structure. The structure can work as a single or multichannel filter by varying the number of unit cells. Binary PPC can also work as a polarization sensitive tunable filter

  7. Transmission properties of one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiveshwari, Laxmi [Department of Physics, K. B. Womens' s College, Hazaribagh 825 301 (India); Awasthi, S. K. [Department of Physics and Material Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida 201 304 (India)

    2015-09-15

    Omnidirectional photonic band gaps (PBGs) are found in one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals (PPC) composed of single negative metamaterials. The band characteristics and transmission properties are investigated through the transfer matrix method. We show that the proposed structure can trap light in three-dimensional space due to the elimination of Brewster's angle transmission resonance allowing the existence of complete PBG. The results are discussed in terms of incident angle, layer thickness, dielectric constant of the dielectric material, and number of unit cells (N) for TE and TM polarizations. It is seen that PBG characteristics is apparent even in an N ≥ 2 system, which is weakly sensitive to the incident angle and completely insensitive to the polarization. Finite PPC could be used for multichannel transmission filter without introducing any defect in the geometry. We show that the locations of the multichannel transmission peaks are in the allowed band of the infinite structure. The structure can work as a single or multichannel filter by varying the number of unit cells. Binary PPC can also work as a polarization sensitive tunable filter.

  8. Multistate Memristive Tantalum Oxide Devices for Ternary Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wonjoo; Chattopadhyay, Anupam; Siemon, Anne; Linn, Eike; Waser, Rainer; Rana, Vikas

    2016-11-01

    Redox-based resistive switching random access memory (ReRAM) offers excellent properties to implement future non-volatile memory arrays. Recently, the capability of two-state ReRAMs to implement Boolean logic functionality gained wide interest. Here, we report on seven-states Tantalum Oxide Devices, which enable the realization of an intrinsic modular arithmetic using a ternary number system. Modular arithmetic, a fundamental system for operating on numbers within the limit of a modulus, is known to mathematicians since the days of Euclid and finds applications in diverse areas ranging from e-commerce to musical notations. We demonstrate that multistate devices not only reduce the storage area consumption drastically, but also enable novel in-memory operations, such as computing using high-radix number systems, which could not be implemented using two-state devices. The use of high radix number system reduces the computational complexity by reducing the number of needed digits. Thus the number of calculation operations in an addition and the number of logic devices can be reduced.

  9. Single-step solvothermal synthesis of mesoporous Ag-TiO2-reduced graphene oxide ternary composites with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif Sher Shah, Md. Selim; Zhang, Kan; Park, A. Reum; Kim, Kwang Su; Park, Nam-Gyu; Park, Jong Hyeok; Yoo, Pil J.

    2013-05-01

    With growing interest in the photocatalytic performance of TiO2-graphene composite systems, the ternary phase of TiO2, graphene, and Ag is expected to exhibit improved photocatalytic characteristics because of the improved recombination rate of photogenerated charge carriers and potential contribution of the generation of localized surface plasmon resonance at Ag sites on a surface of the TiO2-graphene binary matrix. In this work, Ag-TiO2-reduced graphene oxide ternary nanocomposites were successfully synthesized by a simple solvothermal process. In a single-step synthetic procedure, the reduction of AgNO3 and graphene oxide and the hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide were spontaneously performed in a mixed solvent system of ethylene glycol, N,N-dimethylformamide and a stoichiometric amount of water without resorting to the use of typical reducing agents. The nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, along with different microscopic and spectroscopic techniques, enabling us to confirm the successful reduction of AgNO3 and graphite oxide to metallic Ag and reduced graphene oxide, respectively. Due to the highly facilitated electron transport of well distributed Ag nanoparticles, the synthesized ternary nanocomposite showed enhanced photocatalytic activity for degradation of rhodamine B dye under visible light irradiation.With growing interest in the photocatalytic performance of TiO2-graphene composite systems, the ternary phase of TiO2, graphene, and Ag is expected to exhibit improved photocatalytic characteristics because of the improved recombination rate of photogenerated charge carriers and potential contribution of the generation of localized surface plasmon resonance at Ag sites on a surface of the TiO2-graphene binary matrix. In this work, Ag-TiO2-reduced graphene oxide ternary nanocomposites were successfully synthesized by a simple solvothermal process. In a single-step synthetic procedure, the reduction

  10. Amplifying and compressing optical filter based on one-dimensional ternary photonic crystal structure containing gain medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamshidi-Ghaleh, Kazem, E-mail: k-jamshidi@azaruinv.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimpour, Zeinab [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin 19839 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moslemi, Fatemeh [Department of Physics, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    The transmission spectrum properties of the one-dimensional ternary photonic crystal (1DTPC) structure, composed of dielectric (D), metal (M) and gain (G) materials, with three different arrangements of (DGM){sup N}, (GDM){sup N} and (DMG){sup N}, where N is the number of periodicity, were investigated. Two full photonic band gaps and N−1 resonant peaks, localized between them, were observed on transmittance spectra on near-UV spectrum region. When the gained layer was placed in front of the metal, the peaks appeared with higher resolution. There is a peak, localized on the higher band-edge of the first gap, which shows very interesting property than the other peaks. Thus, it amplifies and compresses faster with increase in the N and strength of the gain coefficient. The effects of the gain coefficient and periodicity number are graphically illustrated. This communication presents a PC structure that can be a good candidate to design an amplifying and compressing single or multi-channel optical filter in the UV region.

  11. Amplifying and compressing optical filter based on one-dimensional ternary photonic crystal structure containing gain medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi-Ghaleh, Kazem; Ebrahimpour, Zeinab; Moslemi, Fatemeh

    2015-07-01

    The transmission spectrum properties of the one-dimensional ternary photonic crystal (1DTPC) structure, composed of dielectric (D), metal (M) and gain (G) materials, with three different arrangements of (DGM)N, (GDM)N and (DMG)N, where N is the number of periodicity, were investigated. Two full photonic band gaps and N-1 resonant peaks, localized between them, were observed on transmittance spectra on near-UV spectrum region. When the gained layer was placed in front of the metal, the peaks appeared with higher resolution. There is a peak, localized on the higher band-edge of the first gap, which shows very interesting property than the other peaks. Thus, it amplifies and compresses faster with increase in the N and strength of the gain coefficient. The effects of the gain coefficient and periodicity number are graphically illustrated. This communication presents a PC structure that can be a good candidate to design an amplifying and compressing single or multi-channel optical filter in the UV region.

  12. A ternary functional Ag@GO@Au sandwiched hybrid as an ultrasensitive and stable surface enhanced Raman scattering platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cong-yun; Hao, Rui; Zhao, Bin; Hao, Yao-wu; Liu, Ya-qing

    2017-07-01

    The graphene-mediated surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates by virtues of plasmonic metal nanostructures and graphene or its derivatives have attracted tremendous interests which are expected to make up the deficiency of traditional plasmonic metal substrates. Herein, we designed and fabricated a novel ternary Ag@GO@Au sandwich hybrid wherein the ultrathin graphene oxide (GO) films were seamlessly wrapped around the hierarchical flower-like Ag particle core and meanwhile provided two-dimensional anchoring scaffold for the coating of Au nanoparticles (NPs). The surface coverage density of loading Au NPs could be readily controlled by tuning the dosage amount of Au particle solutions. These features endowed the sandwiched structures high enrichment capability for analytes such as aromatic molecules and astonishing SERS performance. The Raman signals were enormously enhanced with an ultrasensitive detection limit of rhodamine-6G (R6G) as low as 10-13 M based on the chemical enhancement from GO and multi-dimensional plasmonic coupling between the metal nanoparticles. In addition, the GO interlayer as an isolating shell could effectively prevent the metal-molecule direct interaction and suppress the oxidation of Ag after exposure at ambient condition which enabled the substrates excellent reproducibility with less than 6% signal variations and prolonged life-time. To evaluate the feasibility and the practical application for SERS detection in real-world samples based on GO sandwiched hybrid as SERS-active substrate, three different prohibited colorants with a series of concentrations were measured with a minimum detected concentration down to 10-9 M. Furthermore, the prepared GO sandwiched nanostructures can be used to identify different types of colorants existing in red wine, implying the great potential applications for single-particle SERS sensing of biotechnology and on-site monitoring in food security.

  13. Ternary Blend Composed of Two Organic Donors and One Acceptor for Active Layer of High-Performance Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Won; Choi, Yoon Suk; Ahn, Hyungju; Jo, Won Ho

    2016-05-04

    Ternary blends composed of two donor absorbers with complementary absorptions provide an opportunity to enhance the short-circuit current and thus the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells. In addition to complementary absorption of two donors, ternary blends may exhibit favorable morphology for high-performance solar cells when one chooses properly the donor pair. For this purpose, we develop a ternary blend with two donors (diketopyrrolopyrrole-based polymer (PTDPP2T) and small molecule ((TDPP)2Ph)) and one acceptor (PC71BM). The solar cell made of a ternary blend with 10 wt % (TDPP)2Ph exhibits higher PCE of 7.49% as compared with the solar cells with binary blends, PTDPP2T:PC71BM (6.58%) and (TDPP)2Ph:PC71BM (3.21%). The higher PCE of the ternary blend solar cell is attributed mainly to complementary absorption of two donors. However, a further increase in (TDPP)2Ph content in the ternary blend (>10 wt %) decreases the PCE. The ternary blend with 10 wt % (TDPP)2Ph exhibits well-developed morphology with narrow-sized fibrils while the blend with 15 wt % (TDPP)2Ph shows phase separation with large-sized domains, demonstrating that the phase morphology and compatibility of ternary blend are important factors to achieve a high-performance solar cell made of ternary blends.

  14. Composition Range and Glass Forming Ability of Ternary Ca-Mg-Cu Bulk Metallic Glasses (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Senkov, O. N; Scott, J. M; Miracle, D. B

    2006-01-01

    .... The maximum thickness at which an alloy remains fully amorphous, glass transition temperature, crystallization temperature, temperature interval of the super-cooled region, solidus and liquidus...

  15. Preparation and physical properties of rare earth, alkaline earth, and transition metal ternary chalcogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgobiani, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    A study was made on current-voltage characteristics, temperature dependences of electric conductivity and currents of thermoinduced depolarization of monocrystals, including EuGa 2 S 4 and (Ga 2 S 3 ) 1-x (Eu 2 O 3 ) x solid solutions. It is shown that these compounds, activated by europium, cerium, neodymium and other rare earths, manifest effective luminescence under the effect of ultraviolet and X-radiation, as well as under the effect of electron beams and electric field

  16. Facile synthesis of the flower-like ternary heterostructure of Ag/ZnO encapsulating carbon spheres with enhanced photocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiaohua [School of Environment, Key Laboratory of Yellow River and Huai River Water Environment and Pollution Control (Ministry of Education), Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Henan Engineering Laboratory of Environmental Functional Materials and Pollution Control, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, 453007 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, 453007 (China); Su, Shuai; Wu, Guangli; Li, Caizhu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, 453007 (China); Qin, Zhe [School of Environment, Key Laboratory of Yellow River and Huai River Water Environment and Pollution Control (Ministry of Education), Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Henan Engineering Laboratory of Environmental Functional Materials and Pollution Control, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, 453007 (China); Lou, Xiangdong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, 453007 (China); Zhou, Jianguo, E-mail: zhoujgwj@163.com [School of Environment, Key Laboratory of Yellow River and Huai River Water Environment and Pollution Control (Ministry of Education), Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Henan Engineering Laboratory of Environmental Functional Materials and Pollution Control, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, 453007 (China)

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • Flower-like Ag/ZnO encapsulating carbon spheres (Ag/ZnO@C) was synthesized. • A green facile synthesis method was used. • Ag/ZnO@C exhibited better photocatalytic performance than Ag/ZnO, ZnO@C, and ZnO. • Dye and metronidazole both can be decomposed by Ag/ZnO@C. - Abstract: To utilize sunlight more effectively in photocatalytic reactions, the flower-like ternary heterostructure of Ag/ZnO encapsulating carbon spheres (Ag/ZnO@C) was successfully synthesized by a green and facile one-pot hydrothermal method. The carbon spheres (CSs) were wrapped by ZnO nanosheets, forming flower-like microstructures, and Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were deposited on the surface of the ZnO nanosheets. The Ag/ZnO@C ternary heterostructure exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to those of Ag/ZnO, ZnO@C and pure ZnO for the degradation of Reactive Black GR and metronidazole under sunlight and visible light irradiation. This was attributed to the enhanced visible light absorption and effective charge separation based on the synergistic effect of ZnO, Ag NPs, and CSs. Due to the surface plasmon resonance effect of Ag NPs and surface photosensitizing effect of CSs, Ag/ZnO@C exhibited enhanced visible light absorption. Meanwhile, Ag NPs and CSs can both act as rapid electron transfer units to improve the separation of photogenerated charge carriers in Ag/ZnO@C. The primary active species were determined, and the photocatalytic mechanism was proposed. This work demonstrates an effective way to improve the photocatalytic performance of ZnO and provides information for the facile synthesis of noble metal/ZnO@C ternary heterostructure.

  17. Synergistic increase of oxygen reduction favourable Fe-N coordination structures in a ternary hybrid of carbon nanospheres/carbon nanotubes/graphene sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiming; Liu, Bin; Chen, Shengli

    2013-11-14

    A Fe/N co-doped ternary nanocarbon hybrid, with uniform bamboo-like carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in situ grown on/between the single/few-layer graphene sheets interspaced by carbon nanosphere aggregates, was prepared through a one-pot heat treatment of a precursor mixture containing graphene oxide, Vulcan XC-72 carbon nanospheres, nitrogen rich melamine and small amounts of Fe ions. Physical characterization including electron microscopic images, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, pore size distribution, XPS, XRD, Mössbauer spectra, and EDX revealed that the 0-D/1-D/2-D ternary hybrid architecture not only offered an optimized morphology for high dispersion of each nanocarbon moiety, while the carbon nanosphere interspaced graphene sheets have provided a platform for efficient reaction between Fe ions and melamine molecules, resulting in uniform nucleation and growth of CNTs and formation of high density Fe-N coordination assemblies that have been believed to be the active centers for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in carbon-based nonprecious metal electrocatalysts. In the absence of graphene oxides or carbon nanospheres, a similar heat treatment was found to result in large amounts of elemental Fe and Fe carbides and entangled CNTs with wide diameter distributions. As a result, the ternary Fe/N-doped nanocarbon hybrid exhibits ORR activity much higher than the Fe-N doped single or binary nanocarbon materials prepared under similar heat treatment conditions, and approaching that of the state-of-the-art carbon-supported platinum catalyst (Pt/C) in acidic media, as well as superior stability and methanol tolerance to Pt/C.

  18. Band gap characterization of ternary BBi1−xNx (0≤x≤1) alloys using modified Becke–Johnson (mBJ) potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalcin, Battal G.

    2015-01-01

    The semi-local Becke–Johnson (BJ) exchange-correlation potential and its modified form proposed by Tran and Blaha have attracted a lot of interest recently because of the surprisingly accurate band gaps they can deliver for many semiconductors and insulators (e.g., sp semiconductors, noble-gas solids, and transition-metal oxides). The structural and electronic properties of ternary alloys BBi 1−x N x (0≤x≤1) in zinc-blende phase have been reported in this study. The results of the studied binary compounds (BN and BBi) and ternary alloys BBi 1−x N x structures are presented by means of density functional theory. The exchange and correlation effects are taken into account by using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functional of Wu and Cohen (WC) which is an improved form of the most popular Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof (PBE). For electronic properties the modified Becke–Johnson (mBJ) potential, which is more accurate than standard semi-local LDA and PBE calculations, has been chosen. Geometric optimization has been implemented before the volume optimization calculations for all the studied alloys structure. The obtained equilibrium lattice constants of the studied binary compounds are in coincidence with experimental works. And, the variation of the lattice parameter of ternary alloys BBi 1−x N x almost perfectly matches with Vegard's law. The spin–orbit interaction (SOI) has been also considered for structural and electronic calculations and the results are compared to those of non-SOI calculations

  19. Low-cost fabrication of ternary CuInSe{sub 2} nanocrystals by colloidal route using a novel combination of volatile and non-volatile capping agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chawla, Parul; Narain Sharma, Shailesh, E-mail: shailesh@nplindia.org; Singh, Son

    2014-11-15

    Wet-route synthesis of CuInSe{sub 2} (CISe) nanocrystals has been envisaged with the utilization of the unique combination of coordinating ligand and non coordinating solvent. Our work demonstrates the formation of a single-phase, nearly stoichiometric and monodispersive, stable and well-passivated colloidal ternary CISe nanocrystals (band gap (E{sub g})∼1.16 eV) using a novel combination of ligands; viz. volatile arylamine aniline and non-volatile solvent 1-octadecene. The synthesis and growth conditions have been manoeuvred using the colligative properties of the mixture and thus higher growth temperature (∼250 °C) could be attained that promoted larger grain growth. The beneficial influence of the capping agents (aniline and 1-octadecene) on the properties of chalcopyrite nanocrystals has enabled us to pictorally model the structural, morphological and optoelectronic aspects of CISe nanoparticles. - Graphical abstract: Without resorting to any post-selenization process and using the colligative properties of the mixture comprising of volatile aniline and non-volatile 1-octadecene to manoeuvre the growth conditions to promote Ostwald ripening, a single phase, monodispersive and nearly stoichiometric ternary CISe nanocrystals are formed by wet-synthesis route. - Highlights: • Wet-route synthesis of CISe nanocrystals reported without post-selenization process. • Single-phase, stable and well-passivated colloidal ternary CISe nanocrystals formed. • Novel combination of capping agents: volatile aniline and non-volatile 1-octadecene. • Higher growth temperature attained using the colligative properties of the mixture. • Metallic salts presence explains exp. and theoretical boiling point difference.

  20. Synthesis of TiCuAg thick film inks for glass frit free metallization of aluminium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adlassnig, A.; Schuster, J. C.; Smetana, W.; Reicher, R.

    1997-01-01

    A glas frit free screen printing ink for metallization of AIN was developed. Bonding to the substrate is achieved by active metal additives. The metallic component consists of Cu and Ag powder synthesized from inorganic salts by the polyol process, and Cu-Ti powder synthesized by arc melting, milling and ultracentrifugation. This ternary powder mixture was introduced to a specifically developed organic vehicle and screen printed onto AIN. The detailed development process and the results will be presented. (author)

  1. Refractory metal based superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Paula R.; Vicente, Eduardo E.; Rubiolo, Gerardo H.

    1999-01-01

    Refractory metals are looked as promising materials for primary circuits in fission reactors and even as fusion reactor components. Indeed, superalloys could be developed which take advantage of their high temperature properties together with the benefits of a two- phase (intermetallic compound-refractory metal matrix) coherent structure. In 1993, researchers of the Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales of France reported the observation of such a coherent structure in the Ta-Ti-Zr-Al-Nb-Mo system although the exact composition is not reported. The intermetallic compound would be Ti 2 AlMo based. However, the formation of this compound and its possible coexistence with a disordered bcc phase in the ternary system Ti-Al-Mo is a controversial subject in the related literature. In this work we develop a technique to obtain homogeneous alloys samples with 50 Ti-25 Al-25 Mo composition. The resulting specimens were characterized by optical and electronic metallography (SEM), microprobe composition measurements (EPMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The results show the evidence for a bcc (A2→B2) ordering reaction in the Ti-Al-Mo system in the 50 Ti-25 Al-25 Mo composition. (author)

  2. Effect on strength of ternary alloying additions in L12 intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuanpang.

    1991-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of {111} antiphase boundaries (APBs) as well as the site preference of ternary additions in an A 3 B intermetallic with L1 2 structure are studied, using a thermodynamic model. A survey of the results from a variety of ternary alloying additions to Ni 3 Al has shown that there is a conflict in the actual role which solid solution strengthening plays in the athermal increment of yield strength. For instance, a good quantitative agreement with linear concentration law is observed only in alloys with stoichiometric compositions but not in the general case of non-stoichiometric alloys. In the light of the possibility that micro-segregation could explain the experimental discrepancy, the author extends the binary solid solution strengthening theory to the ternary system in an L1 2 structure for the four real systems of Ni-Al-Si, Ni-Al-Ti, Ni-Al-Hf, and Ni-Al-V. It is found that ternary site preference plays an important role in the ternary solid solution strengthening theory with L1 2 structure. Good quantitative agreement was found between the calculated and experimentally measured strength for both stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric alloys

  3. Monitoring ligand-dependent assembly of receptor ternary complexes in live cells by BRETFect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotnoir-White, David; El Ezzy, Mohamed; Boulay, Pierre-Luc; Rozendaal, Marieke; Bouvier, Michel; Gagnon, Etienne; Mader, Sylvie

    2018-03-13

    There is currently an unmet need for versatile techniques to monitor the assembly and dynamics of ternary complexes in live cells. Here we describe bioluminescence resonance energy transfer with fluorescence enhancement by combined transfer (BRETFect), a high-throughput technique that enables robust spectrometric detection of ternary protein complexes based on increased energy transfer from a luciferase to a fluorescent acceptor in the presence of a fluorescent intermediate. Its unique donor-intermediate-acceptor relay system is designed so that the acceptor can receive energy either directly from the donor or indirectly via the intermediate in a combined transfer, taking advantage of the entire luciferase emission spectrum. BRETFect was used to study the ligand-dependent cofactor interaction properties of the estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ, which form homo- or heterodimers whose distinctive regulatory properties are difficult to dissect using traditional methods. BRETFect uncovered the relative capacities of hetero- vs. homodimers to recruit receptor-specific cofactors and regulatory proteins, and to interact with common cofactors in the presence of receptor-specific ligands. BRETFect was also used to follow the assembly of ternary complexes between the V2R vasopressin receptor and two different intracellular effectors, illustrating its use for dissection of ternary protein-protein interactions engaged by G protein-coupled receptors. Our results indicate that BRETFect represents a powerful and versatile technique to monitor the dynamics of ternary interactions within multimeric complexes in live cells.

  4. A new method to estimate the atomic volume of ternary intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pani, M.; Merlo, F.

    2011-01-01

    The atomic volume of an A x B y C z ternary intermetallic compound can be calculated starting from volumes of some proper A-B, A-C and B-C binary phases. The three methods by Colinet, Muggianu and Kohler, originally used to estimate thermodynamic quantities, and a new method here proposed, were tested to derive volume data in eight systems containing 91 ternary phases with the known structure. The comparison between experimental and calculated volume values shows the best agreement both for the Kohler method and for the new proposed procedure. -- Graphical abstract: Synopsys: the volume of a ternary intermetallic compound can be calculated starting from volumes of some binary phases, selected by the methods of Colinet, Muggianu, Kohler and a new method proposed here. The so obtained values are compared with the experimental ones for eight ternary systems. Display Omitted Research highlights: → The application of some thermodinamic methods to a crystallochemical problem. → The prevision of the average atomic volume of ternary intermetallic phases. → The proposal of a new procedure to select the proper starting set of binary phases.

  5. Atomic-scale properties of Ni-based FCC ternary, and quaternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamm, Artur; Aabloo, Alvo; Klintenberg, Mattias; Stocks, Malcolm; Caro, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize some atomic-scale properties of Ni-based FCC multicomponent alloys. For this purpose, we use Monte Carlo method combined with density functional theory calculations to study short-range order (SRO), atomic displacements, electronic density of states, and magnetic moments in equimolar ternary NiCrCo, and quaternary NiCrCoFe alloys. According to our study, the salient features for the ternary alloy are a negative SRO parameter between Ni–Cr and a positive between Cr–Cr pairs as well as a weakly magnetic state. For the quaternary alloy we predict negative SRO parameter for Ni–Cr and Ni–Fe pairs and positive for Cr–Cr and Fe–Fe pairs. Atomic displacements for both ternary and quaternary alloys are negligible. In contrast to the ternary, the quaternary alloy shows a complex magnetic structure. The electronic structure of the ternary and quaternary alloys shows differences near the Fermi energy between a random solid solution and the predicted structure with SRO. Despite that, the calculated EXAFS spectra does not show enough contrast to discriminate between random and ordered structures. The predicted SRO has an impact on point-defect energetics, electron–phonon coupling and thermodynamic functions and thus, SRO should not be neglected when studying properties of these two alloys

  6. Investigation of itraconazole ternary amorphous solid dispersions based on povidone and Carbopol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan; Meckel, Jordan; Zhang, Feng

    2017-08-30

    We investigate a ternary system that consists of itraconazole (ITZ) and two polymers: povidone K12 and Carbopol 907. The interactions between these two polymers and their effects on the properties of ternary ITZ amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) are studied. These two polymers can form a water-insoluble complex in acidic aqueous media. The critical pH is determined to be 4.17. The weight percentage of Carbopol 907 in the interpolymer complex range from 59 to 70%, depending on the initial ratios between these two polymers in the starting solutions. This complexation is driven by a negative enthalpy change from the H-bonding between the two polymers and a positive entropy change from the freed water molecules. Due to the slow precipitation of the interpolymer complex in aqueous media, the attempt to prepare ternary ASD using solvent-controlled coprecipitation is not successful. Melt extrusion is identified to be the only viable method to prepare this ternary ASD. We find that interpolymer complex-based ASDs are physically less stable and demonstrate the poorest drug-release properties when compared to individual polymer-based binary ASDs. This study illustrates that the too strong interaction between polymers in ternary ASDs is detrimental to their performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. First-principles study of ternary bcc alloys using special quasi-random structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Chao

    2009-01-01

    Using a combination of exhaustive enumeration and Monte Carlo simulated annealing, we have developed special quasi-random structures (SQSs) for ternary body-centered cubic (bcc) alloys with compositions of A 1 B 1 C 1 , A 2 B 1 C 1 , A 6 B 1 C 1 and A 2 B 3 C 3 , respectively. The structures possess local pair and multisite correlation functions that closely mimic those of the random bcc alloy. We employed the SQSs to predict the mixing enthalpies, nearest neighbor bond length distributions and electronic density of states of bcc Mo-Nb-Ta and Mo-Nb-V solid solutions. Our convergence tests indicate that even small-sized SQSs can give reliable results. Based on the SQS energetics, the predicting powers of the existing empirical ternary extrapolation models were assessed. The present results suggest that it is important to take into account the ternary interaction parameter in order to accurately describe the thermodynamic behaviors of ternary alloys. The proposed SQSs are quite general and can be applied to other ternary bcc alloys.

  8. Crystallization, data collection and processing of the chymotrypsin–BTCI–trypsin ternary complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteves, Gisele Ferreira; Teles, Rozeni Chagas Lima; Cavalcante, Nayara Silva; Neves, David; Ventura, Manuel Mateus [Laboratório de Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, 70910-900 Brasília-DF (Brazil); Barbosa, João Alexandre Ribeiro Gonçalves, E-mail: joao@lnls.br [Center for Structural Molecular Biology (CeBiME), Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), CP 6192, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Freitas, Sonia Maria de, E-mail: joao@lnls.br [Laboratório de Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, 70910-900 Brasília-DF (Brazil)

    2007-12-01

    A ternary complex of the proteinase inhibitor (BTCI) with trypsin and chymotrypsin was crystallized and its crystal structure was solved by molecular replacement. A ternary complex of the black-eyed pea trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor (BTCI) with trypsin and chymotrypsin was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with 0.1 M HEPES pH 7.5, 10%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 6000 and 5%(v/v) 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol as precipitant. BTCI is a small protein with 83 amino-acid residues isolated from Vigna unguiculata seeds and is able to inhibit trypsin and chymotrypsin simultaneously by forming a stable ternary complex. X-ray data were collected from a single crystal of the trypsin–BTCI–chymotrypsin ternary complex to 2.7 Å resolution under cryogenic conditions. The structure of the ternary complex was solved by molecular replacement using the crystal structures of the BTCI–trypsin binary complex (PDB code) and chymotrypsin (PDB code) as search models.

  9. Experimental and predicted refractive index properties in ternary mixtures of associated liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sechenyh, Vitaliy V.; Legros, Jean-Claude; Shevtsova, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Measurements of refractive indices of 200 different aqueous ternary mixtures have been performed for two wave lengths. → Refractive indices of the associated ternary mixtures can be modeled with a relative error of about 0.9. → Difference between experimental and calculated derivatives of refractive index with concentration is unsatisfactory large. - Abstract: Refractive indices of ternary mixtures formed by (water + ethanol + k-ethylene glycol) (when k is mono, di or tri) and (water + t-butanol + dimethyl sulfoxide) are presented over a wide range of mixture compositions. All measurements have been conducted at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure using two light sources: one in the visible (λ = 670 nm) and the other in the infrared (λ = 925 nm) spectrum. The performance of several mixing rules that are commonly used in modeling optical constants are examined. We demonstrate that the refractive indices of the associated ternary mixtures can be modeled with a relative error of about 0.9% by using the thermodynamical properties of the pure components. The concentration derivatives of the refractive index are an important parameter, as they are required for different experimental techniques. These derivatives have been determined from the experimental data on refractive indices. However, applying mixing rules for calculation of the derivatives of the refractive indices with respect to concentrations does not provide satisfactory results in the case of ternary mixtures of associated liquids.

  10. Crystallization, data collection and processing of the chymotrypsin–BTCI–trypsin ternary complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, Gisele Ferreira; Teles, Rozeni Chagas Lima; Cavalcante, Nayara Silva; Neves, David; Ventura, Manuel Mateus; Barbosa, João Alexandre Ribeiro Gonçalves; Freitas, Sonia Maria de

    2007-01-01

    A ternary complex of the proteinase inhibitor (BTCI) with trypsin and chymotrypsin was crystallized and its crystal structure was solved by molecular replacement. A ternary complex of the black-eyed pea trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor (BTCI) with trypsin and chymotrypsin was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with 0.1 M HEPES pH 7.5, 10%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 6000 and 5%(v/v) 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol as precipitant. BTCI is a small protein with 83 amino-acid residues isolated from Vigna unguiculata seeds and is able to inhibit trypsin and chymotrypsin simultaneously by forming a stable ternary complex. X-ray data were collected from a single crystal of the trypsin–BTCI–chymotrypsin ternary complex to 2.7 Å resolution under cryogenic conditions. The structure of the ternary complex was solved by molecular replacement using the crystal structures of the BTCI–trypsin binary complex (PDB code) and chymotrypsin (PDB code) as search models

  11. Internal oxidation of laminated ternary Ru–Ta–Zr coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yung-I, E-mail: yichen@mail.ntou.edu.tw; Lu, Tso-Shen

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Internal oxidation was observed in annealed and laminated Ru–Ta–Zr coatings. • The oxidized Ru–Ta–Zr coatings comprised three alternately stacked sublayers. • Correlated variations of O{sup 2-} and Zr{sup 4+} binding energies were verified in XPS spectra. - Abstract: Researchers have observed the internal oxidation phenomenon in binary alloy coatings when developing refractory alloy coatings for protective purposes by conducting annealing at high temperatures and in oxygen-containing atmospheres. The coatings were assembled using cyclical gradient concentration deposition during cosputtering by employing a substrate holder rotating at a slow speed. The internally oxidized zone demonstrated a laminated structure, comprising alternating oxygen-rich and oxygen-deficient layers stacked in a general orientation. In the current study, Ru–Ta–Zr coatings were prepared with various stacking sequences during cosputtering. The Ru–Ta–Zr coatings were annealed at 600 °C in an atmosphere continuously purged with 1% O{sub 2}–99% Ar mixed gas for 30 min. A transmission electron microscope was used to examine the periods of the laminated layers and crystallinity of the annealed coatings. Depth profiles produced using an Auger electron spectroscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope were used to certify the periodic variation of the related constituents and chemical states of the elements, respectively. The results indicate that the internally oxidized ternary coatings are stacked of Ru-, Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-, and ZrO{sub 2}-dominant sublayers and that the stacking sequences of the sublayers affect the crystalline structure of the coatings. Zr is oxidized preferentially in the Ru–Ta–Zr coatings, increasing the surface hardness of the oxidized coatings.

  12. Deformation behaviour of a new magnesium ternary alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, P.; Kaya, A. Arslan; Sorgente, D.; Palumbo, G.

    2018-05-01

    Magnesium based alloys are yet to fill a greater niche especially in the automotive and aeronautical industry. In fact, such alloys have a big weight saving potential, together with good damping characteristics. However, nowadays about 90% of Magnesium products are produced by casting, mainly using two alloy systems, namely Mg-Al-Zn (AZ91D) and Mg-Al (AM50, AM60). Now the emphasis, especially after having achieved considerable success in creep resistance and understanding of the deformation behaviour of Magnesium, has been shifted towards wrought alloys; AZ31, in this case, is the most popular. In this work a multi-element Magnesium alloy, developed to improve the deformation capacity of such a lightweight material, has been investigated and compared to a commercial AZ31B. The possibility of adopting such a multi-element Magnesium alloy for manufacturing components via unconventional sheet forming (such as superplastic forming, warm hydroforming, incremental forming) has been proved in the present work focusing the attention on the superplastic field. Free inflation tests were thus conducted at 450°C setting constant pressure to investigate the superplastic behaviour (in terms of dome height and strain rate sensitivity index) of both the multi-element Magnesium alloy (Mg-2Zn-Ce) and the commercial one (AZ31B). To enhance information on the thickness distribution and investigate the microstructure evolution, metallographic analyses on the samples used to carry out free inflation tests were also performed. The developed ternary alloy manifested quite a good deformation behaviour (high strain rate sensitivity index), even being tested in the as cast condition; in addition a limited grain coarsening was observed in the specimens after deformation.

  13. Electrochemical combustion of indigo at ternary oxide coated titanium anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I. León

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The film of iridium and tin dioxides doped with antimony (IrO2-SnO2–Sb2O5 deposited on a Ti substrate (mesh obtained by Pechini method was used for the formation of ·OH radicals by water discharge. Detection of ·OH radicals was followed by the use of the N,N-dimethyl-p-nitrosoaniline (RNO as a spin trap. The electrode surface morphology and composition was characterized by SEM-EDS. The ternary oxide coating was used for the electrochemical combustion of indigo textile dye as a model organic compound in chloride medium. Bulk electrolyses were then carried out at different volumetric flow rates under galvanostatic conditions using a filter-press flow cell. The galvanostatic tests using RNO confirmed that Ti/IrO2-SnO2-Sb2O5 favor the hydroxyl radical formation at current densities between 5 and 7 mA cm-2, while at current density of 10 mA cm-2 the oxygen evolution reaction occurs. The indigo was totally decolorized and mineralized via reactive oxygen species, such as (·OH, H2O2, O3 and active chlorine formed in-situ at the Ti/IrO2-SnO2-Sb2O5 surface at volumetric flow rates between 0.1-0.4 L min-1 and at fixed current density of 7 mA cm-2. The mineralization of indigo carried out at 0.2 L min-1 achieved values of 100 %, with current efficiencies of 80 % and energy consumption of 1.78 KWh m-3.

  14. Evaluation of electro-spray ionisation mass spectrometry as a technique for the investigation of competitive interactions: A case study of the ternary Th-Mn-EDTA system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinoso-Maset, Estela; Worsfold, Paul J.; Keith-Roach, Miranda J.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Electro-spray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is a useful tool for exploring the speciation of solution-phase metal complexes; however, the quantification of ternary systems is challenging due to the differences in the electro-spray response of different species. Here, the Th-Mn-EDTA system was investigated to evaluate the capability of ESI-MS for quantifying the species present. Methods: Increasingly complex mixtures of Th(IV), Mn(II) and EDTA were analysed using manual flow injection of samples into an HPLC grade water mobile phase delivered to an ion trap mass spectrometer fitted with an ESI interface (ThermoQuest Finnigan Mat LCQ). Mass spectra were obtained in the positive and negative ion modes over a mass-to-charge (m/z) range from 50-2000. Results: The instrumental response to EDTA was affected by the addition of Th(NO 3 ) 4 but not MnCl 2 , while the response to both Th-EDTA and Mn-EDTA species was affected by addition of the other metal salt. Internal standards were also found to suppress signals to different extents. Therefore, each signal suppression was carefully quantified as the solution became more complex, and signal correction factors were used in conjunction with regular external calibration. Mixed metal signals were quantified adequately. Conclusions: This study showed the complexity of quantifying a ternary system involving different co-existing species. Nonetheless, the step-wise protocol developed provided quantitative data on the displacement of Mn from its EDTA complex by Th. (authors)

  15. De novo design of ligands for metal separation. Annual progress report, September 15, 1996 - September 14, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    'The specific aim of this report is to parameterize force field to reproduce geometries and relative energetics of metal-ligand complexes for cesium, strontium, plutonium, uranium, americium and other relevent alkali, transition, lanthanide and actinide metals. As an initial attempt to examine parametrization, Dr. Yasuo Takeuchi has examined parameters for iron in combination with the molecular mechanics force field. The authors realize that most of the current ad hoc methodologies used to model metal interactions in the past do not have a firm theoretical foundation for modeling the d and f orbitals. They have, therefore, started a collaboration with Prof. Anders Carlsson of the Department of Physics to provide a theoretically correct functional form for the metal force field. Prof. Carlsson has an extensive track record in the derivation of the form of angular force fields from analysis of the quantum-mechanical electronic structure. His most important related works have treated the angular forces around transition-metal (TM) atoms in an aluminum host, the angular forces in elemental bcc transition metals, and the origins of angular and torsional forces in well-bonded s-p systems. They propose to apply the basic ideas of these calculations to developing force laws for transition metal ions in biomolecules. Of particular relevance to the proposed work is his study analyzing angular forces around transition metal (TM) atoms embedded in an aluminum host. Such TM atoms have a profound effect on the host structure, often entirely reassembling the host structure in order to satisfy the angular bonding constraints around the TM atoms. For example, at a concentration of only 1 ∼ TM to 12 ∼ Al, the transition metals Mn, Mo, Tc, W, and Re form the Al 12 W structure, in which the underlying fcc aluminum lattice is disassembled and reassembled into icosahedra which surround the transition-metal atoms. The Al 12 W structure is a body-centered cubic arrangement of such

  16. New ternary tantalum borides containing boron dumbbells: Experimental and theoretical studies of Ta2OsB2 and TaRuB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbarki, Mohammed; Touzani, Rachid St.; Rehorn, Christian W.G.; Gladisch, Fabian C.; Fokwa, Boniface P.T.

    2016-01-01

    The new ternary transition metal-rich borides Ta 2 OsB 2 and TaRuB have been successfully synthesized by arc-melting the elements in a water-cooled crucible under an argon atmosphere. The crystal structures of both compounds were solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and their metal compositions were confirmed by EDX analysis. It was found that Ta 2 OsB 2 and TaRuB crystallize in the tetragonal Nb 2 OsB 2 (space group P4/mnc, no. 128) and the orthorhombic NbRuB (space group Pmma, no. 51) structure types with lattice parameters a=5.878(2) Å, c=6.857(2) Å and a=10.806(2) Å, b=3.196(1) Å, c=6.312(2) Å, respectively. Furthermore, crystallographic, electronic and bonding characteristics have been studied by density functional theory (DFT). Electronic structure relaxation has confirmed the crystallographic parameters while COHP bonding analysis indicates that B 2 -dummbells are the strongest bonds in both compounds. Moreover, the formation of osmium dumbbells in Ta 2 OsB 2 through a Peierls distortion along the c-axis, is found to be the origin of superstructure formation. Magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal that the two phases are Pauli paramagnets, thus confirming the theoretical DOS prediction of metallic character. Also hints of superconductivity are found in the two phases, however lack of single phase samples has prevented confirmation. Furthermore, the thermodynamic stability of the two modifications of AMB (A=Nb, Ta; M =Ru, Os) are studied using DFT, as new possible phases containing either B 4 - or B 2 -units are predicted, the former being the most thermodynamically stable modification. - Graphical abstract: The two new ternary tantalum borides, Ta 2 OsB 2 and TaRuB, have been discovered. Their crystal structures contain boron dumbbells, which are the strongest bonds. Peirls distortion is found responsible for Os 2 -dumbbells formation in Ta 2 OsB 2 . Ta 2 OsB 2 and TaRuB are Pauli paramagnet and potential superconductors. - Highlights:

  17. Metal-metal-hofteproteser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Michael; Overgaard, Søren; Penny, Jeannette

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark 4,456 metal-on-metal (MoM) hip prostheses have been implanted. Evidence demonstrates that some patients develope adverse biological reactions causing failures of MoM hip arthroplasty. Some reactions might be systemic. Failure rates are associated with the type and the design of the Mo...

  18. A constitutional investigation of the Mo-Pd-Rh ternary system at 1100deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerler, R.; Pratt, J.N.

    1991-01-01

    Phase relations in the system Mo-Pd-Rh were studied at 1100deg C using conventionally melted and ultrarapidly solidified samples. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis were used for phase characterisation. The complete isothermal section at 1100deg C was established. The Mo bcc phase was found to have a very limited solid solution range whereas the ternary fcc solid solution originating on the Pd-Rh binary is the dominant phase in the system at this temperature. The centre of the isothermal is dominated by the ternary extension of the Mo-Rh hcp intermediate phase. The three phase (bcc+fcc+hcp) equilibrium region is located very near to the Mo-Pd binary system. No additional ternary intermediate phases were observed. The results are consistent with an isothermal section reported at higher temperatures. (orig.)

  19. H2SO4-HNO3-H2O ternary system in the stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, C. S.; Hamill, P.

    1974-01-01

    Estimation of the equilibrium vapor pressure over the ternary system H2SO4-HNO3-H2O to study the possibility of stratospheric aerosol formation involving HNO3. It is shown that the vapor pressures for the ternary system H2SO4-HNO3-H2O with weight composition around 70-80% H2SO4, 10-20% HNO3, 10-20% H2O at -50 C are below the order of 10 to the minus 8th mm Hg. It is concluded that there exists more than sufficient nitric acid and water vapor in the stratosphere to participate in ternary system aerosol formation at -50 C. Therefore, HNO3 should be present in stratospheric aerosols, provided that H2SO4 is also present.

  20. Thermodynamics and phase equilibria of ternary systems relevant to contact materials for compound semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipser, H.; Richter, K.; Micke, K.

    1997-01-01

    In order to investigate the stability of ohmic contacts to compound semiconductors, it is necessary to know the phase equilibria in the corresponding multi-component systems. We are currently studying the phase equilibria and thermophysical properties of several ternary systems which are of interest in view of the use of nickel, palladium and platinum as contact materials for GaSb and InSb compound semiconductors: Ga-Ni-Sb, In-Ni-Sb, Ga-Pd-Sb and Ga-Pt-Sb. Phase equilibria are investigated by thermal analyses, X-ray powder diffraction methods as well as electron microprobe analysis. Thermodynamic properties are derived from vapour pressure measurements using an isopiestic method. It is planned to combine all information on phase equilibria and thermochemistry for the ternary and the limiting binary systems to perform an optimization of the ternary systems by computer calculations using standard software. (author)

  1. Thermodynamic description of the Al-Cu-Yb ternary system supported by first-principles calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase relationships of the ternary Al-Cu-Yb system have been assessed using a combination of CALPHAD method and first principles calculations. A self-consistent thermodynamic parameter was established based on the experimental and theoretical information. Most of the binary intermetallic phases, except Al3Yb, Al2Yb, Cu2Yb and Cu5Yb, were assumed to be zero solubility in the ternary system. Based on the experimental data, eight ternary intermetallic compounds were taken into consideration in this system. Among them, three were treated as line compounds with large homogeneity ranges for Al and Cu. The others were treated as stoichiometric compounds. The calculated phase diagrams were in agreement with available experimental and theoretical data.

  2. Binary and ternary cocrystals of sulfa drug acetazolamide with pyridine carboxamides and cyclic amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla, Geetha; Nangia, Ashwini

    2016-03-01

    A novel design strategy for cocrystals of a sulfonamide drug with pyridine carboxamides and cyclic amides is developed based on synthon identification as well as size and shape match of coformers. Binary adducts of acetazolamide (ACZ) with lactams (valerolactam and caprolactam, VLM, CPR), cyclic amides (2-pyridone, labeled as 2HP and its derivatives MeHP, OMeHP) and pyridine amides (nicotinamide and picolinamide, NAM, PAM) were obtained by manual grinding, and their single crystals by solution crystallization. The heterosynthons in the binary cocrystals of ACZ with these coformers suggested a ternary combination for ACZ with pyridone and nicotinamide. Novel supramolecular synthons of ACZ with lactams and pyridine carboxamides are reported together with binary and ternary cocrystals for a sulfonamide drug. This crystal engineering study resulted in the first ternary cocrystal of acetazolamide with amide coformers, ACZ-NAM-2HP (1:1:1).

  3. Binary and ternary cocrystals of sulfa drug acetazolamide with pyridine carboxamides and cyclic amides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Bolla

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel design strategy for cocrystals of a sulfonamide drug with pyridine carboxamides and cyclic amides is developed based on synthon identification as well as size and shape match of coformers. Binary adducts of acetazolamide (ACZ with lactams (valerolactam and caprolactam, VLM, CPR, cyclic amides (2-pyridone, labeled as 2HP and its derivatives MeHP, OMeHP and pyridine amides (nicotinamide and picolinamide, NAM, PAM were obtained by manual grinding, and their single crystals by solution crystallization. The heterosynthons in the binary cocrystals of ACZ with these coformers suggested a ternary combination for ACZ with pyridone and nicotinamide. Novel supramolecular synthons of ACZ with lactams and pyridine carboxamides are reported together with binary and ternary cocrystals for a sulfonamide drug. This crystal engineering study resulted in the first ternary cocrystal of acetazolamide with amide coformers, ACZ–NAM–2HP (1:1:1.

  4. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Ni-Nb-V ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xingjun; Yang, Shuiyuan; Wang, Cuiping [Xiamen Univ. (China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Xiamen Univ. (China). Fujian Provincial Key Lab. of Materials Genome; Zhang, Xianjie; Jiang, Hengxing; Shi, Zhan [Xiamen Univ. (China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2017-09-15

    The phase equilibria of the Ni-Nb-V ternary system at 1000 C and 1200 C were established using electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The results of the investigation revealed that: (1) The Nb solubility in (Ni) and σ{sup '} phases was less than 10 at.%; (2) A ternary compound τ (NiNbV) was confirmed, in which V had a large solubility; (3) A new liquid region was evident at 1200 C, but was absent at 1000 C; (4) The lattice constants of Ni{sub 3}Nb and Ni{sub 6}Nb{sub 7} phase decreased with increase in V content in the Ni{sub 3}Nb and Ni{sub 6}Nb{sub 7}. The phase equilibria of the Ni-Nb-V ternary system will contribute to its thermodynamic assessment.

  5. Refractive indices of ternary liquid mixtures containing aliphatic alcohols at several temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovilj Milan N.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The refractive indices of ternary liquid mixtures (2-propanol+2-butanol+ethanol and (chloroform+2-propanol+2-butanol were measured at 20, 25, 30, and 35°C, and atmospheric pressure. The results were used to calculate the refractive index deviations over the entire mole fraction range for the mixtures. The refractive index deviations for the ternary mixtures were further fitted to empirical correlations (Cibulka Nagata-Tamura, and Lopez et al to estimate the ternary fitting parameters. Standard deviations and average percentage deviations from the regression lines are shown. The best fit was obtained by the Nagata-Tamura empirical correlation. Some of the existing predictive equations for the refractive index deviations (Tsao-Smith, Köhler, and Colinet were tested.

  6. Efficient Implementation of Ternary SDM Filters using State-of-the-Art FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayabuddin Memon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the analysis of a ternary FIR filter at varying OSR (Over Sampling Ratios. The sigma delta modulated ternary filter impulse responses obtained using Matlab at varying OSRs show that each doubling of OSR results in an increase of 10dB in the stopband attenuation. BT-FIR (Balanced Ternary FIR Filters at varying OSRs have been implemented in VHDL using an efficient adder tree organization to gather the partial products. Filters in both pipelined and non-pipelined modes were synthesized on a small number of representative commercial FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays devices. Both the filter taps and binary inputs use 2\\'s complement format. The synthesis results show the tradeoffs between hardware area and performance at varying OSRs. In pipelined mode, a 6MHz video stream can easily be handled at an OSR of 64, while occupying less than 8% of a Stratix-III device.

  7. PMGA and its application in area and power optimization for ternary FPRM circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pengjun; Li Kangping; Zhang Huihong

    2016-01-01

    Based on the research of population migration algorithms (PMAs), a population migration genetic algorithm (PMGA) is proposed, combining a PMA with a genetic algorithm. A scheme of area and power optimization for a ternary FPRM circuit is proposed by using the PMGA. Firstly, according to the ternary FPRM logic function expression, area and power estimation models are established. Secondly, the PMGA is used to search for the best area and power polarity. Finally, 10 MCNC Benchmark circuits are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that the ternary FPRM circuits optimized by the PMGA saved 13.33% area and 20.00% power on average than the corresponding FPRM circuits optimized by a whole annealing genetic algorithm. (paper)

  8. Ternary particles with extreme N/Z ratios from neutron-induced fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koster, U.; Faust, H.; Friedrichs, T.; Oberstedt, S.; Fioni, G.; Grob, M.; Ahmad, I. J.; Devlin, M.; Heinz, A.; Kondev, F. G.; Lauritsen, T.; Sarantites, D. G.; Siem, S.; Sobotka, L. G.; Sonzogni, A.

    2000-05-16

    The existing ternary fission models can well reproduce the yields of the most abundant light charged particles. However, these models tend to significantly overestimate the yields of ternary particles with an extreme N/Z ratio: {sup 3}He, {sup 11}Li, {sup 14}Be, etc. The experimental yields of these isotopes were investigated with the recoil separator LOHENGRIN down to a level of 10{sup {minus}10} per fission. Results from the fissioning systems {sup 233}U (n{sub th}, f), {sup 235}U(n{sub th},f), {sup 239}Pu(n{sub th},f) {sup 241}Pu(n{sub th},f) and {sup 245}Cm(n{sub th},f) are presented and the implications for the ternary fission models are discussed.

  9. Phase Relations in Ternary Systems in the Subsolidus Region: Methods to Formulate Solid Solution Equations and to Find Particular Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Montan~o, Victor E.; Farías, Mario H.; Brown, Francisco; Mun~oz-Palma, Iliana C.; Cubillas, Fernando; Castillon-Barraza, Felipe F.

    2017-01-01

    A good understanding of ternary phase diagrams is required to advance and/or to reproduce experimental research in solid-state and materials chemistry. The aim of this paper is to describe the solutions to problems that appear when studying or determining ternary phase diagrams. A brief description of the principal features shown in phase diagrams…

  10. Formation and characterization of zein-propylene glycol alginate-surfactant ternary complexes: Effect of surfactant type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Sun, Cuixia; Wei, Yang; Zhan, Xinyu; Mao, Like; Gao, Yanxiang

    2018-08-30

    In this study, zein, propylene glycol alginate (PGA) and surfactant ternary complexes were fabricated by antisolvent co-precipitation method. Two types of surfactants (rhamnolipid and lecithin) were applied to generate zein-PGA-rhamnolipid (Z-P-R) and zein-PGA-lecithin (Z-P-L) ternary complexes, respectively. Results showed that the surfactant types significantly affected the properties of ternary complexes. The formation of ternary complexes was mainly due to the non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, electrostatic interaction and hydrophobic interactions among zein, PGA and surfactants. Moreover, the thermal stability of ternary complexes was enhanced with increasing the levels of both surfactants. Notably, ternary complex dispersions exhibited better stability against pH from 2 to 8. Furthermore, a compact network structure was observed in Z-P-R ternary complex, while Z-P-L ternary complex remained the spherical structure. These findings would provide new insights into the development of novel delivery system and expand the options, when zein-based complexes were utilized under different environment conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Vapor-liquid equilibria of binary and ternary mixtures of acetaldehyde with Versatic 9 and Veova 9

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raeissi, S.; Florusse, L.J.; Kroon, M.C.; Peters, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    In continuation of our earlier publication on the phase behavior of binary and ternary mixtures involving acetaldehyde, Versatic 10, and Veova 10, in this work we present bubble-point pressures of the binary and ternary systems of acetaldehyde, Versatic 9, and Veova 9. The measurements were carried

  12. Yttrium interaction with iron family metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharchenko, O.I.; Bodak, O.I.; Gladyshevskij, E.I.

    1977-01-01

    X-ray and micro-structure analyses were used to study ternary systems Y-Fe-Co, Y-Fe-Ni, Y-Co-Ni and phase equilibrium diagrams were plotted. The formation of a compound YCosub(0.8-0.38)Nisub(0.2-0.62) with a type MoB structure (a=3.946, c=20.85 A) was detected. Isostructural compounds with other rare earth metals (R) were found (R-Cd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm)

  13. Quantum chemical analysis of binary and ternary ferromagnetic alloys; Quantenchemische Untersuchungen binaerer und ternaerer ferromagnetischer Legierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Yasemin Erika Charlotte

    2007-02-23

    In this work the electronic structures, densities of states, chemical bonding, magnetic exchange Parameters and Curie temperatures of binary and ternary ferromagnetic alloys are analyzed. The electronic structure of ferromagnetic MnAl has been calculated using density-functional techniques (TB-LMTO-ASA, FPLAPW) and quantum chemically analyzed by means of the crystal orbital Hamilton population analysis. The crystal structure of the ferromagnetic tetragonal MnAl may be understood to originate from the structure of nonmagnetic cubic MnAl with a CsCl motif through a two-step process. While the nonmagnetic cubic structure is stable against a structural deformation, antibonding Mn-Mn interactions at the Fermi level lead to spin polarization and the onset of magnetism, i.e., a symmetry reduction taking place solely in the electronic degrees of freedom, by that emptying antibonding Mn-Mn states. Residual antibonding Al--Al states can only be removed by a subsequent, energetically smaller structural deformation towards the tetragonal system. As a final result, homonuclear bonding is strengthened and heteronuclear bonding is weakened. Corresponding DFT calculations of the electronic structure as well as the calculation of the chemical bonding and the magnetic exchange interactions have been performed on the basis of LDA and GGA for a series of ferromagnetic full Heusler alloys of general formula Co2MnZ (Z=Ga,Si,Ge,Sn), Rh2MnZ (Z=Ge,Sn,Pb), Ni2MnZ (Z=Ga,In,Sn), Pd2MnZ (Z=Sn,Sb) and Cu2MnZ (Z=Al,In,Sn). The connection between the electronic spectra and the magnetic interactions have been studied. Correlations between the chemical bondings in Heusler alloys derived from COHP analysis and magnetic phenomena are obvious, and different mechanisms leading to spin polarization and ferromagnetism are derived. The band dependence of the exchange parameters, their dependence on volume and valence electron concentration have been thoroughly analyzed within the Green function technique

  14. Metallated metal-organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bury, Wojciech; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Mondloch, Joseph E.

    2017-08-22

    Porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and metallated porous MOFs are provided. Also provided are methods of metallating porous MOFs using atomic layer deposition and methods of using the metallated MOFs as catalysts and in remediation applications.

  15. A Novel Method for Detecting and Computing Univolatility Curves in Ternary Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shcherbakov, Nataliya; Rodriguez-Donis, Ivonne; Abildskov, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Residue curve maps (RCMs) and univolatility curves are crucial tools for analysis and design of distillation processes. Even in the case of ternary mixtures, the topology of these maps is highly non-trivial. We propose a novel method allowing detection and computation of univolatility curves...... of the generalized univolatility and unidistribution curves in the three dimensional composition – temperature state space lead to a simple and efficient algorithm of computation of the univolatility curves. Two peculiar ternary systems, namely diethylamine – chloroform – methanol and hexane – benzene...

  16. Ternary chalcogenide micro-pseudocapacitors for on-chip energy storage

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra

    2015-05-11

    We report the successful fabrication of a micro-pseudocapacitor based on ternary nickel cobalt sulfide for the first time, with performance substantially exceeding that of previously reported micro-pseudocapacitors based on binary sulfides. CoNi2S4 micro-pseudocapacitor exhibits a maximum energy density of 18.7 mWh/cm3 at a power density of 1163 mW/cm3, opens up an avenue for exploring new family of ternary oxides/sulfides based micro-pseudocapacitors.

  17. Liquid-liquid equilibria for binary and ternary polymer solutions with PC-SAFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvig, Thomas; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2004-01-01

    concentration coexistence curves at fixed pressure and temperature. The algorithms automatically trace the entire liquid-liquid coexistence curves in steps by adjusting the step size, generating initial estimates, and subsequently solving the phase-equilibrium problem by a second-order method. The algorithms...... are used for investigating the correlative and predictive capabilities of the thermodynamic model PC-SAFT. The investigation shows that the model correlates well experimental LLE data for binary as well as ternary systems but further predicts the behavior of the ternary systems with reasonably good...

  18. Data and analyses of phase relations in the Ce-Fe-Sb ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Daiman; Xu, Chengliang; Li, Changrong; Guo, Cuiping; Zheng, Raowen; Du, Zhenmin; Li, Junqin

    2018-02-01

    These data and analyses support the research article "Experimental study on phase relations in the Ce-Fe-Sb ternary system" Zhu et al. (2017) [1]. The data and analyses presented here include the experimental results of XRD, SEM and EPMA for the determination of the whole liquidus projection and the isothermal section at 823 K in the Ce-Fe-Sb system. All the results enable the understanding of the constituent phases and the solidification processes of the as-cast alloys as well as the phase relations and the equilibrium regions at 823 K in the Ce-Fe-Sb ternary system over the entire composition.

  19. Design and analysis of 2T-2M Ternary content addressable memories

    KAUST Repository

    Bahloul, M. A.; Fouda, M. E.; Naous, Rawan; Zidan, Mohammed A.; Eltawil, A. M.; Kurdahi, F.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2017-01-01

    Associate and approximate computing using resistive memory based Ternary Content Addressable Memory is becoming widely used. In this paper, a simplified model based analysis of a 2T2M-Ternary Content Addressable Memory using memristors is introduced. A comprehensive study is presented taking into consideration different circuit parameters and parasitic effects. Parameters such as the memristor Rh/Rl ratio, transistor technology, operating frequency, and memory width are taken into consideration. The proposed model is verified with SPICE showing a high degree of matching between theory and simulation. The utility of the model is established using a design example.

  20. Mass spectrometric determination of the thermodynamic excess properties of ternary Fe-Co-Cr melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Harald; Tomiska, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Computer-aided Knudsen cell mass spectrometry is used for the thermodynamic investigations on ternary Fe-Co-Cr melts over the entire range of composition. The thermodynamic mixing behavior has been determined by means of the 'digital intensity-ratio' (DIR) method. The ternary thermodynamically adapted power (TAP) series concept is used for the algebraic representation of the molar excess properties. The corresponding TAP parameters, and the values of the molar excess quantities Z E (T, x) (Z is the Gibbs energy G, heat of mixing H, entropy S) as well as the thermodynamic activities of all three constituents at 1950 K are presented

  1. OBJECT TRACKING WITH ROTATION-INVARIANT LARGEST DIFFERENCE INDEXED LOCAL TERNARY PATTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Shajeena

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an ideal method for object tracking directly in the compressed domain in video sequences. An enhanced rotation-invariant image operator called Largest Difference Indexed Local Ternary Pattern (LDILTP has been proposed. The Local Ternary Pattern which worked very well in texture classification and face recognition is now extended for rotation invariant object tracking. Histogramming the LTP code makes the descriptor resistant to translation. The histogram intersection is used to find the similarity measure. This method is robust to noise and retain contrast details. The proposed scheme has been verified on various datasets and shows a commendable performance.

  2. Omnidirectional reflection in one-dimensional ternary photonic crystals and photonic heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shiqi [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Yang, Xiangbo, E-mail: 20001038@m.scnu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); School of Physical Education and Sports Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Liu, Chengyi Timon [School of Physical Education and Sports Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Designing dielectric systems to create omnidirectional band gaps (OBGs) is an attractive topic in the field of photonic band gap (PBG) structures. In this Letter, we propose a new approach to create OBGs by ternary photonic heterostructures (TPHs) composed of three kinds of materials with different refractive indices and obtain the formulae of the structures of TPHs, i.e., those of the thicknesses of materials and the number of sub-ternary photonic crystals. It may provide a powerful technique for designing the structures being able to produce OBGs by use of usual materials, lowcost materials, and materials with low refractive indices, etc.

  3. Search for new ternary Al, Ga or In containing phases using information forecasting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiseleva, N.N.; Burkhanov, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    Automated system of search for regularities in the formation of crystal phases and forecasting of new compounds with required properties, comprising data base on the properties of ternary inorganic compounds and cybernetic forecasting system, has been developed. General principles of operation of the developed information-forecasting system are considered. Efficiency of the system operation is shown, using as an example the search for new ternary compounds with aluminium, gallium and indium, crystallized in ZrNiAl, TiNiSi, ThCr 2 Si 2 , CaAl 2 Si 2 structural types. Results of the above-mentioned phases forecasting are shown

  4. Design and analysis of 2T-2M Ternary content addressable memories

    KAUST Repository

    Bahloul, M. A.

    2017-10-24

    Associate and approximate computing using resistive memory based Ternary Content Addressable Memory is becoming widely used. In this paper, a simplified model based analysis of a 2T2M-Ternary Content Addressable Memory using memristors is introduced. A comprehensive study is presented taking into consideration different circuit parameters and parasitic effects. Parameters such as the memristor Rh/Rl ratio, transistor technology, operating frequency, and memory width are taken into consideration. The proposed model is verified with SPICE showing a high degree of matching between theory and simulation. The utility of the model is established using a design example.

  5. Binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in glow discharge closing switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, S.R.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1988-04-27

    Highly efficient binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches are disclosed. The binary mixtures are combinations of helium or neon and selected perfluorides. The ternary mixtures are combinations of helium, neon, or argon, a selected perfluoride, and a small amount of gas that exhibits enhanced ionization characteristics. These mixtures are shown to be the optimum choices for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches by virtue if the combines physio-electric properties of the mixture components. 9 figs.

  6. Liquid demixing and microstructure formation in ternary Al-Sn-Cu alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirkovic, D.; Groebner, J. [Clausthal University of Technology, Institute of Metallurgy, Robert-Koch-Strasse 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Schmid-Fetzer, R. [Clausthal University of Technology, Institute of Metallurgy, Robert-Koch-Strasse 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)], E-mail: schmid-fetzer@tu-clausthal.de

    2008-07-25

    The complex features of the Al-Sn-Cu phase diagram, dominated by ternary liquid demixing, are revealed by a combination of thermodynamic modeling and experimental studies. Nine ternary alloys were selected to cover all essential features involving the liquidus surface and the invariant solidification reactions. These were analyzed by differential thermal analysis as well as microstructural and local chemical analysis of solidified microstructures. Three different monotectic invariant reactions occur in this system. Small changes in alloy composition may produce distinctly different microstructures with primary crystallization and secondary demixing or vice versa.

  7. Ternary chalcogenide micro-pseudocapacitors for on-chip energy storage

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra; Xia, Chuan; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    We report the successful fabrication of a micro-pseudocapacitor based on ternary nickel cobalt sulfide for the first time, with performance substantially exceeding that of previously reported micro-pseudocapacitors based on binary sulfides. CoNi2S4 micro-pseudocapacitor exhibits a maximum energy density of 18.7 mWh/cm3 at a power density of 1163 mW/cm3, opens up an avenue for exploring new family of ternary oxides/sulfides based micro-pseudocapacitors.

  8. Omnidirectional reflection in one-dimensional ternary photonic crystals and photonic heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shiqi; Yang, Xiangbo; Liu, Chengyi Timon

    2014-01-01

    Designing dielectric systems to create omnidirectional band gaps (OBGs) is an attractive topic in the field of photonic band gap (PBG) structures. In this Letter, we propose a new approach to create OBGs by ternary photonic heterostructures (TPHs) composed of three kinds of materials with different refractive indices and obtain the formulae of the structures of TPHs, i.e., those of the thicknesses of materials and the number of sub-ternary photonic crystals. It may provide a powerful technique for designing the structures being able to produce OBGs by use of usual materials, lowcost materials, and materials with low refractive indices, etc.

  9. All ternary permutation constraint satisfaction problems parameterized above average have kernels with quadratic numbers of variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutin, Gregory; Van Iersel, Leo; Mnich, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    A ternary Permutation-CSP is specified by a subset Π of the symmetric group S3. An instance of such a problem consists of a set of variables V and a multiset of constraints, which are ordered triples of distinct variables of V. The objective is to find a linear ordering α of V that maximizes...... the number of triples whose rearrangement (under α) follows a permutation in Π. We prove that all ternary Permutation-CSPs parameterized above average have kernels with quadratic numbers of variables....

  10. Physical Properties Of Some Pd-Au-Ag Ternary Alloys: A Md Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, G.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical properties of palladium (Pd), gold (Au) and silver (Ag) and their ternary alloys in the following concentrations (Au 5 0Ag 2 5Pd 2 5, Au 4 0Ag 2 0Pd 4 0) are studied by using by using molecular dynamics with Quantum Sutton-Chen (Q-SC) potential. Cell constants, densities, enthalpies, elastic constants and heat capacities are investigated. Calculations are performed in the solid phase. Rafii-Tabar combination rules are used and it is showed that these combination rules are valid for ternary alloys also. Additionally, temperature dependence of mechanical properties of alloys are investigated.

  11. Possible Mechanisms of Ternary Fission in the 197Au+197 Au System at 15 AMeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun-Long, Tian; Xian, Li; Shi-Wei, Yan; Xi-Zhen, Wu; Zhu-Xia, Li

    2009-01-01

    Ternary fission in 197 Au+ 197 Au collisions at 15 A MeV is investigated by using the improved quantum molecular dynamical (ImQMD) model. The experimental mass distributions for each of the three fragments are reproduced for the first time without any freely adjusting parameters. The mechanisms of ternary fission in central and semi-central collisions are dynamically studied. In direct prolate ternary fission, two necks are found to be formed almost simultaneously and rupture sequentially in a very short time interval. Direct oblate ternary fission is a very rare fission event, in which three necks are formed and rupture simultaneously, forming three equally sized fragments along space-symmetric directions in the reaction plane. In sequential ternary fission a binary division is followed by another binary fission event after hundreds of fm/c. (nuclear physics)

  12. Positive electrode for a lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2015-04-07

    A method for producing a lithium alkali transition metal oxide for use as a positive electrode material for lithium secondary batteries by a precipitation method. The positive electrode material is a lithium alkali transition metal composite oxide and is prepared by mixing a solid state mixed with alkali and transition metal carbonate and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain a small amount of alkali metal residual in the lithium transition metal composite oxide cathode material.

  13. Removal of Pb(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution by some fungi and natural adsorbents in single and multiple metal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoaib, A.; Badar, T.; Aslam, N.

    2011-01-01

    Six fungal and 10 natural biosorbents were analyzed for their Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) uptake capacity from single, binary and ternary metal ion system. Preliminary screening biosorption of assays revealed 2 fungi (Aspergillus niger and Cunninghamella echinulata) and three natural [Cicer arietinum husk, Moringa oleifera flower and soil (clay)] adsorbents hold considerable high adsorption efficiency and capacity for 3 meta l ions amongst the adsorbents. Further biosorption trials with five elected adsorbents showed a considerable reduction in metal uptake capability of adsorbents in binary- and ternary systems as compared to singly metal system. Cd(II) manifested the highest inhibitory effect on the biosorption of other metal ions, followed by Pb(II) and Cu(II). On account of metal preference, the selectivity order for metal ion towards the studied biomass matrices was Pb(II) (40-90%) > Cd(II) (2-53%) > Cu(II) (2-30%). (author)

  14. Alternative solution model for the ternary carbonate system CaCO3 - MgCO3 - FeCO3 - I. A ternary Bragg-Williams ordering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwiggen, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    The minerals of the ternary carbonate system CaCO3 - MgCO3 - FeCO3 represent a complex series of solid solutions and ordering states. An understanding of those complexities requires a solution model that can both duplicate the subsolidus phase relationships and generate correct values for the activities. Such a solution model must account for the changes in the total energy of the system resulting from a change in the ordering state of the individual constituents. Various ordering models have been applied to binary carbonate systems, but no attempts have previously been made to model the ordering in the ternary system. This study derives a new set of equations that allow for the equilibrium degree of order to be calculated for a system involving three cations mixing on two sites, as in the case of the ternary carbonates. The method is based on the Bragg-Williams approach. From the degree of order, the mole fractions of the three cations in each of the two sites can be determined. Once the site occupancies have been established, a Margules-type mixing model can be used to determine the free energy of mixing in the solid solution and therefore the activities of the various components. ?? 1993 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Simultaneous determination of Hg(II)-Ag(I)-Cd(II) by conductometric titration using the formation of ternary complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashida, Ichiro; Yoshida, Hitoshi; Taga, Mitsuhiko; Hikime, Seiichiro

    1979-01-01

    A conductometric determination of Hg(II), Ag(I) and Cd(II) was carried out by using the insoluble ternary complex formation of the metal ions with iodide ion in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline (phen). Recommended procedure is as follows; An aliquot of sample solution containing (14 -- 29) mg of Hg(II), (8 -- 16) mg of Ag(I), and (9 -- 17) mg of Cd(II) transfered into a 100 ml beaker. Add to acetate buffer and stoichiometric amounts of phen (40% ethanol-water solution). Amounts of nitrate ion which was estimated separately by other titration with 0.1 M Ag(phen) 2 complex (40% ethanol-water solution) are adjusted in the range of (4.0 -- 6.0) mM. The sample solution is titrated with 0.1 M KI standard solution at the rate of 0.20 ml/min or less. The titration curve showed three end-points corresponding to the formation of (1) Hg(phen) 2 I 2 , (2) Ag(phen)I, and (3) Cd(phen) 2 I 2 . The relative standard deviation was less than 0.8%, when the pH value was controlled at 4.0 -- 4.5 (acetate buffer) and the nitrate concentration was adjusted in the range of (4.0 -- 6.0)mM. The effect of diverse ions on the determination was also investigated in detail. (author)

  16. Ternary iron(II) complex with an emissive imidazopyridine arm from Schiff base cyclizations and its oxidative DNA cleavage activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arindam; Dhar, Shanta; Nethaji, Munirathinam; Chakravarty, Akhil R

    2005-01-21

    The ternary iron(II) complex [Fe(L')(L")](PF6)3(1) as a synthetic model for the bleomycins, where L' and L" are formed from metal-mediated cyclizations of N,N'-(2-hydroxypropane-1,3-diyl)bis(pyridine-2-aldimine)(L), is synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. In the six-coordinate iron(ii) complex, ligands L' and L" show tetradentate and bidentate chelating modes of bonding. Ligand L' is formed from an intramolecular attack of the alcoholic OH group of L to one imine moiety leading to the formation of a stereochemically constrained five-membered ring. Ligand L" which is formed from an intermolecular reaction involving one imine moiety of L and pyridine-2-carbaldehyde has an emissive cationic imidazopyridine pendant arm. The complex binds to double-stranded DNA in the minor groove giving a Kapp value of 4.1 x 10(5) M(-1) and displays oxidative cleavage of supercoiled DNA in the presence of H2O2 following a hydroxyl radical pathway. The complex also shows photo-induced DNA cleavage activity on UV light exposure involving formation of singlet oxygen as the reactive species.

  17. Spatial Associations and Chemical Composition of Organic Carbon Sequestered in Fe, Ca, and Organic Carbon Ternary Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, Tyler D; Adhikari, Dinesh; Wang, Jian; Yang, Yu; Sparks, Donald L

    2018-05-25

    Organo-mineral associations of organic carbon (OC) with iron (Fe) oxides play a major role in environmental OC sequestration, a process crucial to mitigating climate change. Calcium has been found to have high coassociation with OC in soils containing high Fe content, increase OC sorption extent to poorly crystalline Fe oxides, and has long been suspected to form bridging complexes with Fe and OC. Due to the growing realization that Ca may be an important component of C cycling, we launched a scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) investigation, paired with near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, in order to spatially resolve Fe, Ca, and OC relationships and probe the effect of Ca on sorbed OC speciation. We performed STXM-NEXAFS analysis on 2-line ferrihydrite reacted with leaf litter-extractable dissolved OC and citric acid in the absence and presence of Ca. Organic carbon was found to highly associate with Ca ( R 2 = 0.91). Carboxylic acid moieties were dominantly sequestered; however, Ca facilitated the additional sequestration of aromatic and phenolic moieties. Also, C NEXAFS revealed polyvalent metal ion complexation. Our results provide evidence for the presence of Fe-Ca-OC ternary complexation, which has the potential to significantly impact how organo-mineral associations are modeled.

  18. Transition metal carbide nanocomposite and amorphous thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Tengstrand, Olof

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores thin films of binary and ternary transition metal carbides, in the Nb-C, Ti-Si-C, Nb-Si-C, Zr-Si-C, and Nb-Ge-C systems. The electrical and mechanical properties of these systems are affected by their structure and here both nanocomposite and amorphous thin films are thus investigated. By appropriate choice of transition metal and composition the films can be designed to be multifunctional with a combination of properties, such as low electric resistivity, low contact res...

  19. The new ternary pnictides Er12Ni30P21 and Er13Ni25As19: Crystal structures and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oryshchyn, Stepan; Babizhetskyy, Volodymyr; Zhak, Olga; Zelinska, Mariya; Pivan, Jean-Yves; Duppel, Viola; Simon, Arndt; Kienle, Lorenz

    2010-01-01

    The new ternary pnictides Er 12 Ni 30 P 21 and Er 13 Ni 25 As 19 have been synthesized from the elements. They crystallize with hexagonal structures determined from single-crystal X-ray data for Er 12 Ni 30 P 21 (space group P6 3 /m, a=1.63900(3) nm, c=0.37573(1) nm, Z=1, R F =0.062 for 1574 F-values and 74 variable parameters), and for Er 13 Ni 25 As 19 (Tm 13 Ni 25 As 19 -type structure, space group P6-bar , a=1.6208(1) nm, c=0.38847(2) nm, Z=1, R F =0.026 for 1549 F-values and 116 variable parameters). These compounds belong to a large family of hexagonal structures with a metal-metalloid ratio of 2:1. HRTEM investigations were conducted to probe for local ordering of the disordered structure at the nanoscale. The magnetic properties of the phosphide Er 12 Ni 30 P 21 have been studied in the temperature of range 2 eff =9.59 μ B corresponds to the theoretical value of Er 3+ . - Graphical abstract: The new ternary pnictides Er 12 Ni 30 P 21 and Er 13 Ni 25 As 19 have been synthesized from the elements. They crystallize with hexagonal structures determined from single-crystal X-ray data. The compounds belong to a large family of structures with a metal-metalloid ratio of 2:1. HRTEM investigations were conducted to probe for local ordering of the disordered structure at the nanoscale. Display Omitted

  20. Intergrown SnO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2}@graphene ternary composite as high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Zheng; Gao, Renmei [Shanghai University, Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering (China); Tao, Haihua [Inspection Center of Industrial Products and Raw Materials of SHCIQ (China); Yuan, Shuai [Shanghai University, Research Center of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (China); Xu, Laiqiang; Xia, Saisai; Zhang, Haijiao, E-mail: hjzhang128@shu.edu.cn [Shanghai University, Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2016-10-15

    In recent years, a lot of metal oxides with high theoretical capacity have widely investigated as the high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, a simple, facile and effective one-pot hydrothermal strategy toward ternary SnO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2}@graphene composite has been developed by using SnCl{sub 2} and TiOSO{sub 4} as the starting materials. The obtained composite demonstrates a unique structure and high surface areas, in which both SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are well grown on the surface of graphene. More interestingly, the SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are intergrowth together, totally different with the traditional ternary hybrids. When used as anode material for LIBs, the introduction of TiO{sub 2} plays a crucial role in maintaining the structural stability of the electrode during Li{sup +} insertion/extraction, which can effectively prevent the aggregation of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The electrochemical tests indicate that as-prepared SnO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2}@graphene composite exhibits a high capacity of 1276 mA h g{sup −1} after 200 cycles at the current density of 200 mA g{sup −1}. Furthermore, the composite also maintains the specific capacity of 611 mA h g{sup −1} at an ultrahigh current density of 2000 mA g{sup −1}, which is superior to those of the reported SnO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2}/graphene hybrids. Accordingly, the remarkable electrochemical performance of ternary SnO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2}@graphene composites is mainly attributed to their unique nanostructure, high surface areas, and the synergistic effect not only between graphene and metal oxides but also between the intergrown SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles.Graphical abstractIntergrown SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles have been successfully anchored onto the graphene nanosheets as high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes.

  1. Ternary CoS{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2}/RGO electrocatalyst with CoMoS phase for efficient hydrogen evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yan-Ru; Shang, Xiao [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); Gao, Wen-Kun [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); College of Science, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); Dong, Bin, E-mail: dongbin@upc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); College of Science, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); Chi, Jing-Qi; Li, Xiao; Yan, Kai-Li; Chai, Yong-Ming [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); Liu, Yun-Qi, E-mail: liuyq@upc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); Liu, Chen-Guang [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Ternary CoS{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2}/RGO with CoMoS phase as electrocatalyst for HER was prepared. • CoMoS phase have the metallic nature and highly intrinsic activity for HER. • RGO support ensures good distribution of CoMoS phase and enhances the conductivity. • The introduction of CoMoS and RGO may be a novel strategy for efficient HER of MoS{sub 2}. - Abstract: CoMoS phase with metallic character plays crucial role on enhancing the activity of MoS{sub 2} electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, only Co atoms located in the edges of MoS{sub 2} can create CoMoS phase, so it is a challenge to obtain CoMoS phase with homogeneous distribution limited by the layered MoS{sub 2} and doping method of Co. Herein, we reported a simple one-pot hydrothermal method to prepare novel ternary CoS{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2}/RGO with CoMoS phase for HER using reduced graphene oxide (RGO) as support. XPS proves the formation of CoMoS phase, implying the enhanced activity for HER. RGO support ensures the well distribution of CoMoS phase and enhances the conductivity of CoS{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2}/RGO. Compared to CoS{sub 2}/RGO, MoS{sub 2}/RGO and CoS{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2}, the obtained CoS{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2}/RGO shows superior activity for HER with an onset overpotential of −80 mV (vs. RHE), small Tafel slope of 56 mV dec{sup −1}, high exchange current density of 11.4 μA cm{sup −2} and rigid electrochemical durability. The enhanced performances for HER may be ascribed to the formation of CoMoS phase with high activity and the existence of RGO support with good electrical conductivitys in ternary CoS{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2}/RGO. Therefore, the introduction of CoMoS phase and RGO into MoS{sub 2} could effectively enhance electrocatalytic properties for HER.

  2. Study on the Mg-Li-Zn ternary alloy system with improved mechanical properties, good degradation performance and different responses to cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wu, Yuanhao; Bian, Dong; Gao, Shuang; Leeflang, Sander; Guo, Hui; Zheng, Yufeng; Zhou, Jie

    2017-10-15

    Novel Mg-(3.5, 6.5wt%)Li-(0.5, 2, 4wt%)Zn ternary alloys were developed as new kinds of biodegradable metallic materials with potential for stent application. Their mechanical properties, degradation behavior, cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility were studied. These potential biomaterials showed higher ultimate tensile strength than previously reported binary Mg-Li alloys and ternary Mg-Li-X (X=Al, Y, Ce, Sc, Mn and Ag) alloys. Among the alloys studied, the Mg-3.5Li-2Zn and Mg-6.5Li-2Zn alloys exhibited comparable corrosion resistance in Hank's solution to pure magnesium and better corrosion resistance in a cell culture medium than pure magnesium. Corrosion products observed on the corroded surface were composed of Mg(OH) 2 , MgCO 3 and Ca-free Mg/P inorganics and Ca/P inorganics. In vitro cytotoxicity assay revealed different behaviors of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) and Human Aorta Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMCs) to material extracts. HUVECs showed increasing nitric oxide (NO) release and tolerable toxicity, whereas VSMCs exhibited limited decreasing viability with time. Platelet adhesion, hemolysis and coagulation tests of these Mg-Li-Zn alloys showed different degrees of activation behavior, in which the hemolysis of the Mg-3.5Li-2Zn alloy was lower than 5%. These results indicated the potential of the Mg-Li-Zn alloys as good candidate materials for cardiovascular stent applications. Mg-Li alloys are promising as absorbable metallic biomaterials, which however have not received significant attention since the low strength, controversial corrosion performance and the doubts in Li toxicity. The Mg-Li-Zn alloy in the present study revealed much improved mechanical properties higher than most reported binary Mg-Li and ternary Mg-Li-X alloys, with superior corrosion resistance in cell culture media. Surprisingly, the addition of Li and Zn showed increased nitric oxide release. The present study indicates good potential of Mg-Li-Zn alloy as

  3. Effect of alloying on elastic properties of ZrN based transition metal nitride alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Kanoun, Mohammed; Goumri-Said, Souraya

    2014-01-01

    We report the effect of composition and metal sublattice substitutional element on the structural, elastic and electronic properties of ternary transition metal nitrides Zr1-xMxN with M=Al, Ti, Hf, V, Nb, W and Mo. The analysis of the elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio provides insights regarding the mechanical behavior of Zr1-xMxN. We predict that ternary alloys are more ductile compared to their parent binary compounds. The revealed trend in the mechanical behavior might help for experimentalists on the ability of tuning the mechanical properties during the alloying process by varying the concentration of the transition metal. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Effect of alloying on elastic properties of ZrN based transition metal nitride alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Kanoun, Mohammed

    2014-09-01

    We report the effect of composition and metal sublattice substitutional element on the structural, elastic and electronic properties of ternary transition metal nitrides Zr1-xMxN with M=Al, Ti, Hf, V, Nb, W and Mo. The analysis of the elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young\\'s modulus, and Poisson\\'s ratio provides insights regarding the mechanical behavior of Zr1-xMxN. We predict that ternary alloys are more ductile compared to their parent binary compounds. The revealed trend in the mechanical behavior might help for experimentalists on the ability of tuning the mechanical properties during the alloying process by varying the concentration of the transition metal. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Epitaxial ternary nitride thin films prepared by a chemical solution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Hongmei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Feldmann, David M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Haiyan [TEXAS A& M; Bi, Zhenxing [TEXAS A& M

    2008-01-01

    It is indispensable to use thin films for many technological applications. This is the first report of epitaxial growth of ternary nitride AMN2 films. Epitaxial tetragonal SrTiN2 films have been successfully prepared by a chemical solution approach, polymer-assisted deposition. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of the films are also investigated.

  6. Effect of Ni-Co Ternary Molten Salt Catalysts on Coal Catalytic Pyrolysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xin; Qi, Cong; Li, Liang; Li, Yimin; Li, Song

    2017-08-01

    In order to facilitate efficient and clean utilization of coal, a series of Ni-Co ternary molten salt crystals are explored and the catalytic pyrolysis mechanism of Datong coal is investigated. The reaction mechanisms of coal are achieved by thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA), and a reactive kinetic model is constructed. The microcosmic structure and macerals are observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The catalytic effects of ternary molten salt crystals at different stages of pyrolysis are analyzed. The experimental results show that Ni-Co ternary molten salt catalysts have the capability to bring down activation energy required by pyrolytic reactions at its initial phase. Also, the catalysts exert a preferable catalytic action on macromolecular structure decomposition and free radical polycondensation reactions. Furthermore, the high-temperature condensation polymerization is driven to decompose further with a faster reaction rate by the additions of Ni-Co ternary molten salt crystal catalysts. According to pyrolysis kinetic research, the addition of catalysts can effectively decrease the activation energy needed in each phase of pyrolysis reaction.

  7. Cyclodextrin based ternary system of modafinil: Effect of trimethyl chitosan and polyvinylpyrrolidone as complexing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Parth; Agrawal, Y K; Sarvaiya, Jayrajsinh

    2016-03-01

    Modafinil is an approved drug for the treatment of narcolepsy and have a strong market presence in many countries. The drug is widely consumed for off-label uses and currently listed as a restricted drug. Modafinil has very low water solubility. To enhance the aqueous solubility of modafinil by the formation of a ternary complex with Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and two hydrophilic polymers was the main objective of the present study. Pyrrolidone (PVP K30) and a water soluble chitosan derivative, trimethyl chitosan (TMC) were studied by solution state and solid state characterization methods for their discriminatory efficiency in solubility enhancement of modafinil. Phase solubility study depicted the highest complexation efficiency (2.22) of cyclodextrin derivative in the presence of TMC compared to the same in the presence of PVP K30 (0.08) and in the absence of any polymer (0.92). FT-IR analysis of binary and ternary complex expressed comparable contribution of both polymers in formation of inclusion complex. The thermal behaviour of binary and ternary complex, involving individual polymers disclosed the influence of TMC on polymorphism of the drug. DSC study revealed efficiency of TMC to prevent conversion of metastable polymorphic form to stable polymorphic form. Ternary complex, involving TMC enhanced water solubility of the drug 1.5 times more compared to the binary complex of the drug whereas PVP K30 reduced the Solubility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. First-principle studies of the ternary palladates CaPd3O4 and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    devices [5]. Cahen et al [6] characterized single crystals of the ternary ... Wnuk et al [9] presented a chemical analysis of the. CaPd3O4 ..... [45] Ramu A T, Cassels L E, Hackman N H, Lu H, Zide J M O and Bowers J E 2010 J. Appl. Phys.

  9. The ternary sorption system U(VI)-phosphate-silica explained by spectroscopy and thermodynamic modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerstendorf, Harald; Stockmann, Madlen; Heim, Karsten; Mueller, Katharina; Brendler, Vinzenz [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Surface Processes; Comarmond, M.J.; Payne, T.E. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights (Australia); Steudtner, Robin [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology

    2017-06-01

    Spectroscopic data of sorption processes potentially provide direct impact on Surface Complexation Modelling (SCM) approaches. Based on spectroscopic data of the ternary sorption system U(VI)/phosphate/silica strongly suggesting the formation of a precipitate as the predominant surface process, SCM calculations accurately reproduced results from classical batch experiments.

  10. Phase equilibria in the ternary In-Ni-Sn system at 700 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmetterer, C; Zemanova, A; Flandorfer, H; Kroupa, A; Ipser, H

    2013-04-01

    The phase equilibria of the ternary system In-Ni-Sn were investigated experimentally at 700 °C using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) including electron micro probe analysis (EMPA) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). A corresponding isothermal section was established based on these results. This particular temperature was chosen because it allowed obtaining reliable results within reasonable time. The existence of the ternary phase InNi 6 Sn 5 was confirmed whereas the ternary compound In 2 NiSn, reported earlier in literature, was found to be part of a large solid solution field based on binary InNi. The ternary solubility of the binary phases was established, and continuous solid solutions were found between the isostructural phases Ni 3 Sn LT and InNi 3 as well as between Ni 3 Sn 2 HT and InNi 2 . In addition, this isothermal section could be well reproduced by CALPHAD modelling. The resulting calculated isotherm at 700 °C is presented, too, and compared with the experimental results.

  11. Volume dependence of T/sub c/ of Ternary A-15 Phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamrai, V.

    1984-01-01

    Results are presented of measurements of the superconducting transition temperature T/sub c/, lattice constant a, magnetic susceptibility /sub chi/, and critical field H/sub c/ 2 for many Nb 3 Al and V 3 Si-based ternary phases and Nb 3 SnH/sub x/. For V 3 Si-based ternary systems and Nb 3 SnH/sub x/ the density of states at the Fermi level N(epsilon/sub F/) sharply decreases with the concentration of the alloying element. The variation of N(epsilon/sub F/) in these ternary systems cannot be explained by the variation of a. In ternary phases Nb 3 (Al/sub 1-x/dY/sub x/), where Y can be Ge, Ga, Sb, or Se, a quite clear correlation is revealed between T/sub c/ and a. The dependence of T/sub c/ on V in these systems is due to the variation of the matrix element of the electron-phonon interaction 2 >

  12. Equilibrium thermodynamics of the ternary membrane-forming system nylon, formic acid and water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulte, A.M.W.; Bulte, A.M.W.; Naafs, E.M.; van Eeten, F.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Smolders, C.A.; Smolders, C.A.; Strathmann, H.

    1996-01-01

    The binary Flory-Huggins interaction parameters for the ternary membrane-forming system nylon, formic acid and water have been obtained from literature data, swelling values and melting point depression. Nylon 4,6 nylon 6 and a copolymer of nylon 4,6 and 6 were examined. The isothermal

  13. High-performance thermoelectric materials based on ternary TiO2/CNT/PANI composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden, Fuat; Li, Hui; Wang, Xizu; Wang, FuKe; He, Chaobin

    2018-04-04

    In the present work, we report the fabrication of high-performance thermoelectric materials using TiO2/CNT/PANI ternary composites. We showed that a conductivity of ∼2730 S cm-1 can be achieved for the binary CNT (70%)/PANI (30%) composite, which is the highest recorded value for the reported CNT/PANI composites. We further demonstrated that the Seebeck coefficient of CNT/PANI composites could be enhanced by incorporating TiO2 nanoparticles into the binary CNT/PANI composites, which could be attributed to lower carrier density and the energy scattering of low-energy carriers at the interfaces of TiO2/a-CNT and TiO2/PANI. The resulting TiO2/a-CNT/PANI ternary system exhibits a higher Seebeck coefficient and enhanced thermoelectric power. Further optimization of the thermoelectric power was achieved by water treatment and by tuning the processing temperature. A high thermoelectric power factor of 114.5 μW mK-2 was obtained for the ternary composite of 30% TiO2/70% (a-CNT (70%)/PANI (30%)), which is the highest reported value among the reported PANI based ternary composites. The improvement of thermoelectric performance by incorporation of TiO2 suggests a promising approach to enhance power factor of organic thermoelectric materials by judicial tuning of the carrier concentration and electrical conductivity.

  14. Protein-mediated efficient synergistic "antenna effect" in a ternary system in D₂O medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorai, Shyamal Kr; Samanta, Swarna Kamal; Mukherjee, Manini; Ghosh, Sanjib

    2012-08-16

    A ternary system consisting of a protein, catechin (either + or - epimer), and Tb(III) in suitable aqueous buffer medium at physiological pH (= 6.8) has been shown to exhibit highly efficient "antenna effect". Steady state and time-resolved emission studies of each component in the binary complexes (protein with Tb(III) and (+)- or (-)-catechin with Tb(III)) and the ternary systems along with the molecular docking studies reveal that the efficient sensitization could be ascribed to the effective shielding of microenvironment of Tb(III) from O-H oscillator and increased Tb-C (+/-) interaction in the ternary systems in aqueous medium. The ternary system exhibits protein-mediated efficient antenna effect in D(2)O medium due to synergistic ET from both the lowest ππ* triplet state of Trp residue in protein and that of catechin apart from protection of the Tb(III) environment from matrix vibration. The simple system consisting of (+)- or (-)-catechin and Tb(III) in D(2)O buffer at pH 6.8 has been prescribed to be a useful biosensor.

  15. Comparative instrumental evaluation of efficacy and safety between a binary and a ternary system in chemexfoliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameli, Norma; Mariano, Maria; Ardigò, Marco; Corato, Cristina; De Paoli, Gianfranco; Berardesca, Enzo

    2017-09-20

    To instrumentally evaluate the efficacy and the safety of a new ternary system chemo exfoliating formulation (water-dimethyl isosorbide-acid) vs traditional binary systems (water and acid) where the acid is maintained in both the systems at the same concentration. Different peelings (binary system pyruvic acid and trichloroacetic acid-TCA, and ternary system pyruvic acid and TCA) were tested on the volar forearm of 20 volunteers of both sexes between 28 and 50 years old. The outcomes were evaluated at the baseline, 10 minutes, 24 hours, and 1 week after the peeling by means of noninvasive skin diagnosis techniques. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy was used for stratum corneum evaluation, transepidermal waterloss, and Corneometry for skin barrier and hydration, Laser Doppler velocimetry in association with colorimetry for irritation and erythema analysis. The instrumental data obtained showed that the efficacy and safety of the new ternary system peel compounds were significantly higher compared with the binary system formulations tested. The new formulation peels improved chemexfoliation and reduced complications such as irritation, redness, and postinflammatory pigmentation compared to the traditional aqueous solutions. The study showed that ternary system chemexfoliation, using a controlled delivery technology, was able to provide the same clinical effects in term of stratum corneum reduction with a significantly reduced barrier alteration, water loss, and irritation/erythema compared to traditional binary system peels. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Ordered CoSn-type ternary phases in Co3Sn3-xGex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allred, Jared M.; Jia, Shuang; Bremholm, Martin

    2012-01-01

    . By taking advantage of the chemical differences between the two crystallographically inequivalent Sn sites in the structure, we observe ordered ternary phases, nominally Co3SnGe2 and Co3Sn2Ge. The electron count and unit cell configuration remain unchanged from CoSn; these observations thus help to clarify...

  17. Binary and ternary recombination of D3+ ions with electrons in He-D2 plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glosik, J.; Korolov, I.; Plasil, R.; Kotrik, T.; Dohnal, P.; Novotny, O.; Varju, J.; Roucka, S.; Greene, Chris H.; Kokoouline, V.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study is reported about the recombination of D 3 + ions with electrons in a low-temperature plasma (200-300 K) consisting of He with a small admixture of D 2 . At several temperatures, the pressure dependence of the apparent binary recombination rate coefficient (α eff ) was measured over a broad range of helium pressures (200-2000 Pa). The binary and ternary recombination rate coefficients were obtained from measured pressure dependences of α eff . The binary recombination rate coefficient obtained α bin (300 K)=(2.7±0.9)x10 -8 cm 3 s -1 is in agreement with recent theory. The ternary recombination rate coefficient obtained is K He (300 K)=(1.8±0.6)x10 -25 cm 6 s -1 . In analogy with the recently described process of helium-assisted ternary recombination of H 3 + ions, it is suggested that the ternary helium-assisted recombination of D 3 + ions proceeds through the formation of a neutral long-lived highly excited Rydberg molecule D 3 followed by a collision with a He atom.

  18. Binary and ternary recombination of D3+ ions with electrons in He-D2 plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glosík, J.; Korolov, I.; Plašil, R.; Kotrík, T.; Dohnal, P.; Novotný, O.; Varju, J.; Roučka, Š.; Greene, Chris H.; Kokoouline, V.

    2009-10-01

    An experimental study is reported about the recombination of D3+ ions with electrons in a low-temperature plasma (200-300 K) consisting of He with a small admixture of D2 . At several temperatures, the pressure dependence of the apparent binary recombination rate coefficient (αeff) was measured over a broad range of helium pressures (200-2000 Pa). The binary and ternary recombination rate coefficients were obtained from measured pressure dependences of αeff . The binary recombination rate coefficient obtained αbin(300K)=(2.7±0.9)×10-8cm3s-1 is in agreement with recent theory. The ternary recombination rate coefficient obtained is KHe(300K)=(1.8±0.6)×10-25cm6s-1 . In analogy with the recently described process of helium-assisted ternary recombination of H3+ ions, it is suggested that the ternary helium-assisted recombination of D3+ ions proceeds through the formation of a neutral long-lived highly excited Rydberg molecule D3 followed by a collision with a He atom.

  19. An improved ternary vector system for Agrobacterium-mediated rapid maize transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ajith; Bass, Steven H; Wu, Emily; Wang, Ning; McBride, Kevin E; Annaluru, Narayana; Miller, Michael; Hua, Mo; Jones, Todd J

    2018-05-01

    A simple and versatile ternary vector system that utilizes improved accessory plasmids for rapid maize transformation is described. This system facilitates high-throughput vector construction and plant transformation. The super binary plasmid pSB1 is a mainstay of maize transformation. However, the large size of the base vector makes it challenging to clone, the process of co-integration is cumbersome and inefficient, and some Agrobacterium strains are known to give rise to spontaneous mutants resistant to tetracycline. These limitations present substantial barriers to high throughput vector construction. Here we describe a smaller, simpler and versatile ternary vector system for maize transformation that utilizes improved accessory plasmids requiring no co-integration step. In addition, the newly described accessory plasmids have restored virulence genes found to be defective in pSB1, as well as added virulence genes. Testing of different configurations of the accessory plasmids in combination with T-DNA binary vector as ternary vectors nearly doubles both the raw transformation frequency and the number of transformation events of usable quality in difficult-to-transform maize inbreds. The newly described ternary vectors enabled the development of a rapid maize transformation method for elite inbreds. This vector system facilitated screening different origins of replication on the accessory plasmid and T-DNA vector, and four combinations were identified that have high (86-103%) raw transformation frequency in an elite maize inbred.

  20. Molecular dynamics simulations of ternary PtxPdyAuz fuel cell nanocatalyst growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brault, P.; Coutanceau, C.; C. Jennings, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation of PEMFC cathodes based on ternary Pt70Pd15Au15 and Pt50Pd25Au25 nanocatalysts dispersed on carbon indicate systematic Au segregation from the particle bulk to the surface, leading to an Au layer coating the cluster surface and to the spontaneous formation of a Pt...

  1. Ternary Ni–Cu–OH and Ni–Co–OH electrodes for electrochemical energy storage

    KAUST Repository

    Alhebshi, Nuha; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    In this project, Ni–Cu–OH and Ni–Co–OH ternary electrodes have been prepared. Different Ni:Cu and Ni:Co ratios were deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD) at room temperature on carbon microfibers. Since Ni(OH)2 is notorious for poor cycling

  2. Phase relationships in the Er-Mn-Ti ternary system at 773 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jingqi; Wang Xina; Tang Mengqi; Su Kunpeng; Yang Xiaomao; Li Chunhui; Li Xueqiang

    2009-01-01

    The Phase relationship in the Er-Mn-Ti ternary system at 773 K has been investigated by X-ray powder diffraction analysis with the aid of differential thermal analysis and optical microanalysis techniques in this work. The existence of eight binary compounds Mn 15 Ti 85, αMnTi, βMnTi, Mn 2 Ti, Mn 5 Ti, ErMn 12, Er 6 Mn 23 and ErMn 2 has been confirmed at 773 K in this system. The maximum solid solubility of Ti in Mn is about 8 at%Ti. The homogeneity range of Mn 2 Ti extends from about 31 at% to 39 at% Ti. The maximum solid solubility of Er in Mn 2 Ti phase is about less than 1 at% Er. No ternary compounds were found in this ternary system at 773K. At 773 K, the isothermal section of phase diagram of Er-Mn-Ti ternary system consists of 11 single-phase regions, 19 two-phase regions and 9 three-phase regions.

  3. Construction of Lines of Constant Density and Constant Refractive Index for Ternary Liquid Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasic, Aleksandar Z.; Djordjevic, Bojan D.

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrates construction of density constant and refractive index constant lines in triangular coordinate system on basis of systematic experimental determinations of density and refractive index for both homogeneous (single-phase) ternary liquid mixtures (of known composition) and the corresponding binary compositions. Background information,…

  4. A nanoindentation study of magnetron co-sputtered nanocrystalline ternary nitride coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeung W.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoindentation testing was used to determine the hardness, elastic modulus and plasticity parameter of three newly developed ternary nitride coatings with nano-sized grains. With decreasing nitrogen deposition pressure, grain diameter of the coatings decreases that leads to both higher nanohardness and elastic modulus with conservation of satisfactory values of plasticity characteristic.

  5. Deviations from Vegard’s law in ternary III-V alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Murphy, S. T.; Chroneos, Alexander; Grimes, R. W.; Jiang, C.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2010-01-01

    the linear relationship would predict. Here we use special quasirandom structures and density functional theory to investigate such deviations for MxN1−xAs ternary alloys, where M and N are group III species (B, Al, Ga, and In). Our simulations predict a

  6. Thermoelectric properties of ternary phases of thallium-tin-tellurium system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dichi, E. [Equipe materiaux et sante, faculte de pharmacie, universite Paris XI, 5, rue J.B, EA 401, Clement 92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France)], E-mail: emma.dichi@cep.u-psud.fr; Sghaier, M. [Equipe materiaux et sante, faculte de pharmacie, universite Paris XI, 5, rue J.B, EA 401, Clement 92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France); Kra, G. [Laboratoire de chimie minerale, universite de Cocody, 22, BP 582, Abidjan 22, Cote d' Ivoire (France)

    2008-06-30

    In this paper, we present the measurements of conductivity and of thermoelectric power. Measurements were taken for the temperature range of 100-330 K for the three ternary phases of Tl-Sn-Te system. The potential of these compounds as thermoelectric materials was studied.

  7. Synthesis, structural and magnetic characterization of soft magnetic nanocrystalline ternary FeNiCo particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toparli, Cigdem [Department of Metallurgical & Materials Eng., Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey); Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Düsseldorf (Germany); Ebin, Burçak [Department of Metallurgical & Materials Eng., Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey); Nuclear Chemistry and Industrial Material Recycling, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Gürmen, Sebahattin, E-mail: gurmen@itu.edu.tr [Department of Metallurgical & Materials Eng., Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2017-02-01

    The present study focuses on the synthesis, microstructural and magnetic properties of ternary FeNiCo nanoparticles. Nanocrystalline ternary FeNiCo particles were synthesized via hydrogen reduction assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method in single step. The effect of precursor concentration on the morphology and the size of particles was investigated. The syntheses were performed at 800 °C. Structure, morphology and magnetic properties of the as-prepared products were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) studies. Scherer calculation revealed that crystallite size of the ternary particles ranged between 36 and 60 nm. SEM and TEM investigations showed that the particle size was strongly influenced by the precursor concentration and Fe, Ni, Co elemental composition of individual particles was homogeneous. Finally, the soft magnetic properties of the particles were observed to be a function of their size. - Highlights: • Ternary FeNiCo alloy nanocrystalline particles were synthesized in a single step. • Cubic crystalline structure and spherical morphology was observed by XRD, SEM and TEM investigations. • The analysis of magnetic properties indicates the soft magnetic features of particles.

  8. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Cu–Ni–Si ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xingjun; Xiang, Shulin; Yang, Shuiyuan; Shi, Rongpei; Wang, Cuiping, E-mail: wangcp@xmu.edu.cn

    2013-11-25

    Highlights: •Three isothermal sections of the Cu–Ni–Si system have been investigated. •The ternary compound τ{sub 1} and the liquid phase are confirmed at 1073 K. •The γ (Cu{sub 5}Si) and θ (Ni{sub 2}Si) phases can be stabilized at higher or lower temperatures. -- Abstract: The phase equilibria in the Cu–Ni–Si ternary system have been investigated experimentally by means of electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis on equilibrated ternary alloys. Three isothermal sections at 1073, 1173 and 1273 K are determined in the whole composition range. The existence of liquid phase and the ternary compound τ{sub 1} is confirmed at 1073 K. The binary γ (Cu{sub 5}Si), γ (Ni{sub 31}Si{sub 12}), δ (Ni{sub 2}Si) and θ (Ni{sub 2}Si) phases exhibit a considerable solubility of a third element. In addition, the γ (Cu{sub 5}Si) and θ (Ni{sub 2}Si) phases can be stabilized by the addition of Ni and Cu, respectively.

  9. Dissolution and precipitation behavior of ternary solid dispersions of ezetimibe in biorelevant media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhayali, Amani; Tavellin, Staffan; Velaga, Sitaram

    2017-01-01

    The effects of different formulations and processes on inducing and maintaining the supersaturation of ternary solid dispersions of ezetimibe (EZ) in two biorelevant media fasted-state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF) and fasted-state simulated gastric fluid (FaSSGF) at different temperatures (25 °C and 37 °C) were investigated in this work. Ternary solid dispersions of EZ were prepared by adding polymer PVP-K30 and surfactant poloxamer 188 using melt-quenching and spray-drying methods. The resulting solid dispersions were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), modulated DSC, powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy. The dissolution of all the ternary solid dispersions was tested in vitro under non-sink conditions. All the prepared solid dispersions were amorphous in nature. In FaSSIF at 25 °C, the melt-quenched (MQ) solid dispersions of EZ were more soluble than the spray-dried (SD) solid dispersions and supersaturation was maintained. However, at 37 °C, rapid and variable precipitation behavior was observed for all the MQ and SD formulations. In FaSSGF, the melting method resulted in better solubility than the spray-drying method at both temperatures. Ternary solid dispersions show potential for improving solubility and supersaturation. However, powder dissolution experiments of these solid dispersions of EZ at 25 °C may not predict the supersaturation behavior at physiologically relevant temperatures.

  10. Properties of ternary NiFeW alloy coating by jet electrodeposition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, ternary NiFeW alloy coatings were prepared by jet electrodeposition, and the effects of lord salt concentration, jet speed, current density and temperature on the properties of the coatings, including the composition, microhardness, surface morphology, structure and corrosion resistance, were investigated.

  11. Reaction kinetics, reaction products and compressive strength of ternary activators activated slag designed by Taguchi method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, B.; Yu, Q.L.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the reaction kinetics, the reaction products and the compressive strength of slag activated by ternary activators, namely waterglass, sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate. Nine mixtures are designed by the Taguchi method considering the factors of sodium carbonate content

  12. Synthesis and characterization of the ternary telluroargentate K4[Ag18Te11

    KAUST Repository

    Davaasuren, Bambar; Dashjav, Enkhtsetseg; Rothenberger, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The ternary potassium telluroargentate(I), K4[Ag18Te11], was prepared by solvothermal synthesis in ethylenediamine at 160 °C. It crystallizes in the cubic space group Fm3¯ m (no. 225) with the cell parameter a = 18.6589(6) Å. The crystal structure

  13. Organic alloy systems suitable for the investigation of regular binary and ternary eutectic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturz, L.; Witusiewicz, V. T.; Hecht, U.; Rex, S.

    2004-09-01

    Transparent organic alloys showing a plastic crystal phase were investigated experimentally using differential scanning calorimetry and directional solidification with respect to find a suitable model system for regular ternary eutectic growth. The temperature, enthalpy and entropy of phase transitions have been determined for a number of pure substances. A distinction of substances with and without plastic crystal phases was made from their entropy of melting. Binary phase diagrams were determined for selected plastic crystal alloys with the aim to identify eutectic reactions. Examples for lamellar and rod-like eutectic solidification microstructures in binary systems are given. The system (D)Camphor-Neopentylglycol-Succinonitrile is identified as a system that exhibits, among others, univariant and a nonvariant eutectic reaction. The ternary eutectic alloy close to the nonvariant eutectic composition solidifies with a partially faceted solid-liquid interface. However, by adding a small amount of Amino-Methyl-Propanediol (AMPD), the temperature of the nonvariant eutectic reaction and of the solid state transformation from plastic to crystalline state are shifted such, that regular eutectic growth with three distinct nonfaceted phases is observed in univariant eutectic reaction for the first time. The ternary phase diagram and examples for eutectic microstructures in the ternary and the quaternary eutectic alloy are given.

  14. Ternary logic implemented on a single dopant atom field effect silicon transistor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, M.; Mol, J.A.; Verduijn, J.; Lansbergen, G.P.; Rogge, S.; Levine, R.D.; Remacle, F.

    2010-01-01

    We provide an experimental proof of principle for a ternary multiplier realized in terms of the charge state of a single dopant atom embedded in a fin field effect transistor (Fin-FET). Robust reading of the logic output is made possible by using two channels to measure the current flowing through

  15. Ternary diffusion in Cu-rich fcc Cu–Al–Si alloys at 1073 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dandan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Zhang, Lijun [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Du, Yong, E-mail: yongducalphad@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Xu, Honghui [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Jin, Zhanpeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)

    2013-07-25

    Highlights: •Interdiffusivities in Cu-rich fcc Cu–Al–Si alloys at 1073 K were determined. •The present results were compared with experimental data in boundary binary systems. •The present results were validated by thermodynamic constraints and Fick’s law. •The sign of ternary cross diffusivities was predicted in terms of thermodynamics. -- Abstract: Utilizing six groups of bulk diffusion couples and with electron probe microanalysis technique, the composition dependence of ternary interdiffusion coefficients in Cu-rich fcc Cu–Al–Si alloys at 1073 K were determined by the Matano-Kirkaldy method. Using a three-dimensional representation, the obtained main ternary diffusion coefficients were found to be consistent with the experimental data in boundary binaries available in the literature. The reliability of the obtained interdiffusivities was further validated by thermodynamic constraints as well as by Fick’s second law applied to numerical simulation. The sign of the ternary cross diffusivities in fcc Cu–Al–Si alloys, which shows a noticeable effect on microstructure, was also successfully predicted in terms of thermodynamics.

  16. Ternary diffusion in Cu-rich fcc Cu–Al–Si alloys at 1073 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Dandan; Zhang, Lijun; Du, Yong; Xu, Honghui; Jin, Zhanpeng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Interdiffusivities in Cu-rich fcc Cu–Al–Si alloys at 1073 K were determined. •The present results were compared with experimental data in boundary binary systems. •The present results were validated by thermodynamic constraints and Fick’s law. •The sign of ternary cross diffusivities was predicted in terms of thermodynamics. -- Abstract: Utilizing six groups of bulk diffusion couples and with electron probe microanalysis technique, the composition dependence of ternary interdiffusion coefficients in Cu-rich fcc Cu–Al–Si alloys at 1073 K were determined by the Matano-Kirkaldy method. Using a three-dimensional representation, the obtained main ternary diffusion coefficients were found to be consistent with the experimental data in boundary binaries available in the literature. The reliability of the obtained interdiffusivities was further validated by thermodynamic constraints as well as by Fick’s second law applied to numerical simulation. The sign of the ternary cross diffusivities in fcc Cu–Al–Si alloys, which shows a noticeable effect on microstructure, was also successfully predicted in terms of thermodynamics

  17. Role of energy cost in the yield of cold ternary fission of Cf

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The energy costs in the cold ternary fission of 252Cf for various light charged particle emission are calculated by including Wong's correction for Coulomb potential. Energy cost is found to be higher in cold fission than in normal fission. It is found that energy cost always increases with decrease in experimental yield ...

  18. The ternary sorption system U(VI)-phosphate-silica explained by spectroscopy and thermodynamic modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerstendorf, Harald; Stockmann, Madlen; Heim, Karsten; Mueller, Katharina; Brendler, Vinzenz; Steudtner, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Spectroscopic data of sorption processes potentially provide direct impact on Surface Complexation Modelling (SCM) approaches. Based on spectroscopic data of the ternary sorption system U(VI)/phosphate/silica strongly suggesting the formation of a precipitate as the predominant surface process, SCM calculations accurately reproduced results from classical batch experiments.

  19. The effect of the head group on branched-alkyl chain surfactants in glycolipid/n-octane/water ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainggolan, Irwana; Radiman, Shahidan; Hamzah, Ahmad Sazali; Hashim, Rauzah

    2009-10-01

    Two novel glycolipids have been synthesized and their phase behaviour studied. They have been characterized using FT-IR, FAB and 13C NMR and 1H NMR to ensure the purity of novel glycolipids. The two glycolipids are distinguished based on the head group of glycolipids (monosaccharide/glucose and disaccharide/maltose). These two novel glycolipids have been used as surfactant to perform two phase diagrams. Phase behaviours that have been investigated are 2-hexyldecyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2-HDG)/n-octane/water ternary system and 2-hexyldecyl-beta-D-maltoside (2-HDM)/n-octane/water ternary system. SAXS and polarizing optical microscope have been used to study the phase behaviours of these two surfactants in ternary phase diagram. Study of effect of the head group on branched-alkyl chain surfactants in ternary system is a strategy to derive the structure-property relationship. For comparison, 2-HDM and 2-HDG have been used as surfactant in the same ternary system. The phase diagram of 2-hexyldecyl-beta-D-maltoside/n-octane/water ternary system exhibited a Lalpha phase at a higher concentration regime, followed with two phases and a micellar solution region in a lower concentration regime. The phase diagram of 2-HDG/water/n-octane ternary system shows hexagonal phase, cubic phase, rectangular ribbon phase, lamellar phase, cubic phase as the surfactant concentration increase.

  20. Mechanism of ternary breakup in the reaction 197Au+197Au at 15A MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Junlong; Wu Xizhen; Li Zhuxia; Zhao Kai; Zhang Yingxun; Li Xian; Yan Shiwei

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of the ternary breakup of the very heavy system 197 Au+ 197 Au at an energy of 15A MeV has been studied by using the improved quantum molecular dynamics model. The calculation results reproduce the characteristic features in ternary breakup events explored in a series of experiments; i.e., the masses of three fragments are comparable in size and the very fast, nearly collinear breakup of the colliding system is dominant in the ternary breakup events. Further, the evolution of the time scales of different ternary reaction modes and the behavior of mass distributions of three fragments with impact parameters are studied. The time evolution of the configurations of the composite reaction systems is also studied. We find that for most of the ternary breakup events with the features found in the experiments, the configuration of the composite system has two-preformed-neck shape. The study shows that those ternary breakup events having the characteristic features found in the experiments happen at relatively small impact parameter reactions, but not at peripheral reactions. The ternary breakup reaction at peripheral reactions belongs to binary breakup with a neck emission.