WorldWideScience

Sample records for terms lane departure

  1. Human factors study of driver assistance systems to reduce lane departures and side collision accidents.

    2008-07-01

    This study investigated the human factors issues related to the implementation of lane departure warning systems (LDWS) to reduce side collision and run-off-road crashes for heavy trucks. Lane departures can be either intentional (e.g., to pass anoth...

  2. Driver assistance system for lane departure avoidance by steering and differential braking

    MINOIU-ENACHE, N; MAMMAR, S; GLASER, S; LUSETTI, B

    2010-01-01

    Lane departure avoidance systems assist actively the driver during inattention or drowsiness and increase driving safety. Most of the lane departure avoidance systems use for the lateral control of the vehicle in closed loop a DC motor similar to the electrical powered steering (EPS) assistance. Important difficulties and limits of this approach are the shared control with the driver on the steering wheel and the vehicle handling at limits. In this paper a combined lateral control using a DC ...

  3. Design of a lane departure driver-assist system under safety specifications

    Hoehener Daniel; Huang Geng; Del Vecchio Domitilla

    2016-01-01

    We use a controlled invariance approach to design a semi-autonomous lane departure assist system that is guaranteed to keep the vehicle in the lane. The controlled invariant safe set is the set of system states from which an input exists that can keep the vehicle in the lane. First we provide theoretical conditions under which this set has a simple characterization and can be computed in real-time. We then use this characterization to derive a feedback strategy that keeps the vehicle in the l...

  4. Lane Departure System Design using with IR Camera for Night-time Road Conditions

    Osman Onur Akırmak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, one of the largest areas of research and development in the automobile industry is road safety. Many deaths and injuries occur every year on public roads from accidents caused by sleepy drivers, that technology could have been used to prevent. Lane detection at night-time is an important issue in driving assistance systems. This paper deals with vision-based lane detection and tracking at night-time. This project consists of a research and development of an algorithm for automotive systems to detect the departure of vehicle from out of lane. Once the situation is detected, a warning is issued to the driver with sound and visual message through “Head Up Display” (HUD system. The lane departure is detected through the images obtained from a single IR camera, which identifies the departure at a satisfactory accuracy via improved quality of video stream. Our experimental results and accuracy evaluation show that our algorithm has good precision and our detecting method is suitable for night-time road conditions.

  5. A new shared control for lane keeping and road departure prevention

    Merah, Abdelkader; Hartani, Kada; Draou, Azeddine

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the driver's active assistances have become important features in commercialised vehicles. In this paper, we present one of these features which consists of an advanced driver assistance system for lane keeping. A thorough analysis of its performance and stability with respect to variations in driver behaviour will be given. Firstly, the lateral control model based on visual preview is established and the kinematics model based on visual preview, including speed and other factors, is used to calculate the lateral error and direction error. Secondly, and according to the characteristics of the lateral control, an efficient strategy of intelligent electric vehicle lateral mode is proposed. The integration of the vehicle current lateral error and direction error is chosen as the parameter of the sliding mode switching function to design the sliding surface. The control variables are adjusted according to the fuzzy control rules to ensure that they meet the existence and reaching condition. A new fuzzy logic-based switching strategy with an efficient control law is also proposed to ensure a level of continuous and variable sharing according to the state of the driver and the vehicle positioning on the roadway. The proposed control law acts either at the centre of the lane, as a lane keeping assistance system to reduce the driver's workload for long trips, or as a lane departure avoidance system that intervenes for unintended lane departures. Simulation results are included in this paper to explain this concept.

  6. Computer Vision Based Smart Lane Departure Warning System for Vehicle Dynamics Control

    Ambarish G. Mohapatra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Collision Avoidance System solves many problems caused by traffic congestion worldwide and a synergy of new information technologies for simulation, real-time control and communications networks. The above system is characterized as an intelligent vehicle system. Traffic congestion has been increasing world-wide as a result of increased motorization, urbanization, population growth and changes in population density. Congestion reduces utilization of the transportation infrastructure and increases travel time, air pollution, fuel consumption and most importantly traffic accidents. The main objective of this work is to develop a machine vision system for lane departure detection and warning to measure the lane related parameters such as heading angle, lateral deviation, yaw rate and sideslip angle from the road scene image using standard image processing technique that can be used for automation of steering a motor vehicle. The exact position of the steering wheel can be monitored using a steering wheel sensor. This core part of this work is based on Hough transformation based edge detection technique for the detection of lane departure parameters. The prototype designed for this work has been tested in a running vehicle for the monitoring of real-time lane related parameters.

  7. Prevalence of driver physical factors leading to unintentional lane departure crashes.

    Cicchino, Jessica B; Zuby, David S

    2017-07-04

    Some lane-keeping assist systems in development and production provide autonomous braking and steering to correct unintentional lane drift but otherwise require drivers to fully control their vehicles. The goal of this study was to quantify the proportion of drivers involved in unintentional lane drift crashes who would be unable to regain control of their vehicles to inform the design of such systems. The NHTSA's National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey collected in-depth, on-scene data for a nationally representative sample of 5,470 U.S. police-reported passenger vehicle crashes during 2005-2007 that occurred between 6 a.m. and midnight and for which emergency medical services were dispatched. The physical states of drivers involved in the 631 lane drift crashes in the sample, which represented 259,034 crashes nationally, were characterized. Thirty-four percent of drivers who crashed because they drifted from their lanes were sleeping or otherwise incapacitated. These drivers would be unlikely to regain full control of their vehicles if an active safety system prevented their initial drift. An additional 13% of these drivers had a nonincapacitating medical issue, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) ≥ 0.08%, or other physical factor that may not allow them to regain full vehicle control. When crashes involved serious or fatal injuries, 42% of drivers who drifted were sleeping or otherwise incapacitated, and an additional 14% were impacted by a nonincapacitating medical issue, BAC ≥ 0.08%, or other physical factor. Designers of active safety systems that provide autonomous lateral control should consider that a substantial proportion of drivers at risk of lane drift crashes are incapacitated. Systems that provide only transient corrective action may not ultimately prevent lane departure crashes for these drivers, and drivers who do avoid lane drift crashes because of these systems may be at high risk of other types of crashes when they attempt to regain

  8. Observed activation status of lane departure warning and forward collision warning of Honda vehicles at dealership service centers.

    Reagan, Ian J; McCartt, Anne T

    2016-11-16

    There are little objective data on whether drivers with lane departure warning and forward collision warning systems actually use them, but self-report data indicate that lane departure warning may be used less and viewed less favorably than forward collision warning. The current study assessed whether the systems were turned on when drivers brought their vehicles to dealership service stations and whether the observational protocol is a feasible method for collecting similar data on various manufacturers' systems. Observations of 2013-2015 Honda Accords, 2014-2015 Odysseys, and 2015 CR-Vs occurred at 2 U.S. Honda dealerships for approximately 4 weeks during Summer 2015. Of the 265 vehicles observed to have the 2 systems, 87 (32.8%) had lane departure warning turned on. Accords were associated with a 66% increase in the likelihood that lane departure warning was turned on compared with Odysseys, but the rate was still only about 40% in Accords. In contrast, forward collision warning was turned on in all but one of the observed vehicles. Observations found that the activation rate was much higher for forward collision warning than lane departure warning. The observation method worked well and appears feasible for extending to other manufacturers.

  9. A New Lane Departure Warning Algorithm Considering the Driver’s Behavior Characteristics

    Lun Hui Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the driving safety warning required for different driver types and situations, a new lane departure warning (LDW algorithm was proposed. Its adaptability is much better through setting the different thresholds of time to lane crossing (TLC using fuzzy control method for driver with different driving behaviors in different lanes and different vehicle movements. To ensure the accuracy of computation of TLC under the different actual driving scenarios, the algorithm was established based on vehicle kinematics and advanced mathematics compared to other ways of computation of TLC. On this basis, a LDW strategy determining driver's intentions was presented by introducing identifying vehicle movements. Finally, a vast quantity of the real vehicle experiments was given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed LDW algorithm. The results of the tests show that the algorithm can decrease false alarm rate effectively because of distinguishing from unconscious by real-time vehicle movements, and promote the adaptability to the driver behavior characteristics, so it has favorable driver acceptance and strong intelligence.

  10. Comparison of Expected Crash and Injury Reduction from Production Forward Collision and Lane Departure Warning Systems.

    Kusano, Kristofer D; Gabler, Hampton C

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) now tests for forward collision warning (FCW) and lane departure warning (LDW). The design of these warnings differs greatly between vehicles and can result in different real-world field performance in preventing or mitigating the effects of collisions. The objective of this study was to compare the expected number of crashes and injured drivers that could be prevented if all vehicles in the fleet were equipped with the FCW and LDW systems tested under the U.S. NCAP. To predict the potential crashes and serious injury that could be prevented, our approach was to computationally model the U.S. crash population. The models simulated all rear-end and single-vehicle road departure collisions that occurred in a nationally representative crash database (NASS-CDS). A sample of 478 single-vehicle crashes from NASS-CDS 2012 was the basis for 24,822 simulations for LDW. A sample of 1,042 rear-end collisions from NASS-CDS years 1997-2013 was the basis for 7,616 simulations for FCW. For each crash, 2 simulations were performed: (1) without the system present and (2) with the system present. Models of each production safety system were based on 54 model year 2010-2014 vehicles that were evaluated under the NCAP confirmation procedure for LDW and/or FCW. NCAP performed 40 LDW and 45 FCW tests of these vehicles. The design of the FCW systems had a dramatic impact on their potential to prevent crashes and injuries. Between 0 and 67% of crashes and 2 and 69% of moderately to fatally injured drivers in rear-end impacts could have been prevented if all vehicles were equipped with the FCW systems. Earlier warning times resulted in increased benefits. The largest effect on benefits, however, was the lower operating speed threshold of the systems. Systems that only operated at speeds above 20 mph were less than half as effective as those that operated above 5 mph with similar warning times. The production LDW systems could have prevented

  11. Benefit-cost analysis of lane departure warning and roll stability control in commercial vehicles.

    Medina-Flintsch, Alejandra; Hickman, Jeffrey S; Guo, Feng; Camden, Matthew C; Hanowski, Richard J; Kwan, Quon

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the cost benefits of two different onboard safety systems (OSS) installed on trucks as they operated during normal revenue deliveries. Using a formal economic analysis approach, the study quantified the costs and benefits associated with lane departure warning (LDW) systems and roll stability control (RSC) systems. The study used data collected from participating carriers (many of these crashes were not reported to state or Federal agencies), and the research team also reviewed each crash file to determine if the specific OSS would have mitigated or prevented the crash. The deployment of each OSS was anticipated to increase the safety of all road users, but impact different sectors of society in different ways. Benefits that were inherent in each group (e.g., industry, society) were considered, and different benefit-cost analyses (BCAs) were performed. This paper presents two BCAs: a BCA focused on the costs and benefits in the carrier industry by implementing each OSS, and a BCA that measured the societal benefits of each OSS. In addition, a BCA for a theoretical mandatory deployment option for each OSS is presented. BCA results for LDW and RSC clearly showed their benefits outweighed their costs for the carrier and society. Practical applications: Cost information is a crucial factor in purchasing decisions in carriers; similarly, regulators must consider the cost burden prior to mandating technologies. The results in this study provide carrier decision makers and regulators with information necessary to make an informed decision regarding RSC and LDW. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effectiveness of lane departure warning systems-A reduction in real-world passenger car injury crashes.

    Sternlund, Simon; Strandroth, Johan; Rizzi, Matteo; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes

    2017-02-17

    The objective of this study was to estimate the safety benefits of in vehicle lane departure warning (LDW) and lane keeping aid (LKA) systems in reducing relevant real-world passenger car injury crashes. The study used an induced exposure method, where LDW/LKA-sensitive and nonsensitive crashes were compared for Volvo passenger cars equipped with and without LDW/LKA systems. These crashes were matched by car make, model, model year, and technical equipment; that is, low-speed autonomous emergency braking (AEB) called City Safety (CS). The data were extracted from the Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition database (STRADA) and consisted of 1,853 driver injury crashes that involved 146 LDW-equipped cars, 11 LKA-equipped cars, and 1,696 cars without LDW/LKA systems. The analysis showed a positive effect of the LDW/LKA systems in reducing lane departure crashes. The LDW/LKA systems were estimated to reduce head-on and single-vehicle injury crashes on Swedish roads with speed limits between 70 and 120 km/h and with dry or wet road surfaces (i.e., not covered by ice or snow) by 53% with a lower limit of 11% (95% confidence interval [CI]). This reduction corresponded to a reduction of 30% with a lower limit of 6% (95% CI) for all head-on and single-vehicle driver injury crashes (including all speed limits and all road surface conditions). LDW/LKA systems were estimated to lower the driver injury risk in crash types that the systems are designed to prevent; that is, head-on and single-vehicle crashes. Though these are important findings, they were based on a small data set. Therefore, further research is desirable to evaluate the effectiveness of LDW/LKA systems under real-world conditions and to differentiate the effectiveness between technical solutions (i.e., LDW and LKA) proposed by different manufacturers.

  13. A New Approach to Lane Guidance Systems

    Eidehall, Andreas; Pohl, Jochen; Gustafsson, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new automotive safety function called Emergency Lane Assist (ELA). ELA combines conventional lane guidance systems with a threat assessment module that tries to activate and deactivate the lane guidance interventions according to the actual risk level of lane departure. The goal is to only prevent dangerous lane departure manoeuvres. Such a threat assessment algorithm is dependent on detailed information about the vehicle surroundings, i.e., positions and motion of other...

  14. Isospin term of the real part of the Lane optical-model potential

    Brandenberger, J.D.; Schrils, R.

    1976-01-01

    Previous neutron differential cross section measurements for Ni, Fe, and Co at 9 MeV are reanalyzed to obtain the isospin term in the real part of the Lane optical model potential employing a surface-centered form factor. The strength determined is 1.4 +- 0.2 MeV. It is further shown that analysis of the data is little affected by the choice of a volume or surface form for the isospin term in the real potential

  15. Road Lane Detection by Discriminating Dashed and Solid Road Lanes Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor

    Toan Minh Hoang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing need for road lane detection used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles, many studies have been conducted to turn road lane detection into a virtual assistant to improve driving safety and reduce car accidents. Most of the previous research approaches detect the central line of a road lane and not the accurate left and right boundaries of the lane. In addition, they do not discriminate between dashed and solid lanes when detecting the road lanes. However, this discrimination is necessary for the safety of autonomous vehicles and the safety of vehicles driven by human drivers. To overcome these problems, we propose a method for road lane detection that distinguishes between dashed and solid lanes. Experimental results with the Caltech open database showed that our method outperforms conventional methods.

  16. Road Lane Detection by Discriminating Dashed and Solid Road Lanes Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor.

    Hoang, Toan Minh; Hong, Hyung Gil; Vokhidov, Husan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-08-18

    With the increasing need for road lane detection used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles, many studies have been conducted to turn road lane detection into a virtual assistant to improve driving safety and reduce car accidents. Most of the previous research approaches detect the central line of a road lane and not the accurate left and right boundaries of the lane. In addition, they do not discriminate between dashed and solid lanes when detecting the road lanes. However, this discrimination is necessary for the safety of autonomous vehicles and the safety of vehicles driven by human drivers. To overcome these problems, we propose a method for road lane detection that distinguishes between dashed and solid lanes. Experimental results with the Caltech open database showed that our method outperforms conventional methods.

  17. Short-term impacts of a 4-lane highway on black bears in eastern North Carolina

    Van Manen, Frank T.; McCollister, Matthew F.; Nicholson, Jeremy M.; Thompson, Laura M.; Kindall, Jason L.; Jones, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Among numerous anthropogenic impacts on terrestrial landscapes, expanding transportation networks represent one of the primary challenges to wildlife conservation worldwide. Larger mammals may be particularly vulnerable because of typically low densities, low reproductive rates, and extensive movements. Although numerous studies have been conducted to document impacts of road networks on wildlife, inference has been limited because of experimental design limitations. During the last decade, the North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) rerouted and upgraded sections of United States Highway 64 between Raleigh and the Outer Banks to a 4-lane, divided highway. A new route was selected for a 24.1-km section in Washington County. The new section of highway included 3 wildlife underpasses with adjacent wildlife fencing to mitigate the effects of the highway on wildlife, particularly American black bears (Ursus americanus). We assessed the short-term impacts of the new highway on spatial ecology, population size, survival, occupancy, and gene flow of black bears. We tested our research hypotheses using a before-after control-impact (BACI) study design. We collected data during 2000–2001 (preconstruction phase) and 2006–2007 (postconstruction phase) in the highway project area and a nearby control area (each approx. 11,000 ha), resulting in 4 groups of data (i.e., pre- or postconstruction study phase, treatment or control area). We captured and radiocollared 57 bears and collected 5,775 hourly locations and 4,998 daily locations. Using mixed-model analysis of variance and logistic regression, we detected no differences in home ranges, movement characteristics, proximity to the highway alignment, or habitat use between the 2 study phases, although minimum detectable effect sizes were large for several tests. However, after completion of the new highway, bears on the treatment area became less inactive in morning, when highway traffic was low, compared with

  18. Lane Detection on the iPhone

    Ren, Feixiang; Huang, Jinsheng; Terauchi, Mutsuhiro; Jiang, Ruyi; Klette, Reinhard

    A robust and efficient lane detection system is an essential component of Lane Departure Warning Systems, which are commonly used in many vision-based Driver Assistance Systems (DAS) in intelligent transportation. Various computation platforms have been proposed in the past few years for the implementation of driver assistance systems (e.g., PC, laptop, integrated chips, PlayStation, and so on). In this paper, we propose a new platform for the implementation of lane detection, which is based on a mobile phone (the iPhone). Due to physical limitations of the iPhone w.r.t. memory and computing power, a simple and efficient lane detection algorithm using a Hough transform is developed and implemented on the iPhone, as existing algorithms developed based on the PC platform are not suitable for mobile phone devices (currently). Experiments of the lane detection algorithm are made both on PC and on iPhone.

  19. Lane detection using Randomized Hough Transform

    Mongkonyong, Peerawat; Nuthong, Chaiwat; Siddhichai, Supakorn; Yamakita, Masaki

    2018-01-01

    According to the report of the Royal Thai Police between 2006 and 2015, lane changing without consciousness is one of the most accident causes. To solve this problem, many methods are considered. Lane Departure Warning System (LDWS) is considered to be one of the potential solutions. LDWS is a mechanism designed to warn the driver when the vehicle begins to move out of its current lane. LDWS contains many parts including lane boundary detection, driver warning and lane marker tracking. This article focuses on the lane boundary detection part. The proposed lane boundary detection detects the lines of the image from the input video and selects the lane marker of the road surface from those lines. Standard Hough Transform (SHT) and Randomized Hough Transform (RHT) are considered in this article. They are used to extract lines of an image. SHT extracts the lines from all of the edge pixels. RHT extracts only the lines randomly picked by the point pairs from edge pixels. RHT algorithm reduces the time and memory usage when compared with SHT. The increase of the threshold value in RHT will increase the voted limit of the line that has a high possibility to be the lane marker, but it also consumes the time and memory. By comparison between SHT and RHT with the different threshold values, 500 frames of input video from the front car camera will be processed. The accuracy and the computational time of RHT are similar to those of SHT in the result of the comparison.

  20. Miami, FL I-95 express lanes.

    2013-01-01

    The Miami-Ft. Lauderdale region is creating a 22-mile managed-lane facility, : including HOT lanes on I-95, between I-395 and I-595, with a longer term goal of : providing a network of managed lanes throughout the congested region. Freeflowing : cond...

  1. Lupino Lane

    Couderc, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Henry George Lupino est né à Londres le 16 juin 1892 d’une famille d’acteurs d’origine italienne : les Lupino, célèbre troupe de smarionnettistes, avaient émigré dès le xviie siècle, puis s’étaient illustrés au music-hall. Le père, Henry Charles, épousa une Lane, famille célèbre de la scène anglaise, et eut deux fils : Henry George qui adopta comme pseudonyme les noms de ses deux géniteurs (Lupino Lane) et Wallace qui comme son frère fit une carrière cinématographique. Le petit Henry George s...

  2. Towards End-to-End Lane Detection: an Instance Segmentation Approach

    Neven, Davy; De Brabandere, Bert; Georgoulis, Stamatios; Proesmans, Marc; Van Gool, Luc

    2018-01-01

    Modern cars are incorporating an increasing number of driver assist features, among which automatic lane keeping. The latter allows the car to properly position itself within the road lanes, which is also crucial for any subsequent lane departure or trajectory planning decision in fully autonomous cars. Traditional lane detection methods rely on a combination of highly-specialized, hand-crafted features and heuristics, usually followed by post-processing techniques, that are computationally e...

  3. Brick Lane Patchwork

    Emanuele Monegato

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay Brick Lane Patchwork takes its roots in the consideration that the most effective cultural representations of London Brick Lane are explicitly or implicitly linked to the nature of a patchwork. Many contemporary cultural representations made a vain and ambitious effort to portray the real soul(s of Brick Lane, without taking into consideration its complexity and, therefore, delivering a distinctive image of the area as if it was a single piece of cloth, not a whole quilt. Starting from already existing cultural representations of Brick Lane (Monica Ali's first novel Brick Lane and its filmic adaptation directed by Sarah Gavron, the poetic memoir Salaam Brick Lane - a Year in the New East End and the short film Brick Lane by Paul Makkar, which are going to be privileged squared cloths to be sewn in the above mentioned patchwork, the aim of this essay is both to detect its proper cultural representations and to sew an imaginative patchwork quilt, a new and multiple image of this London area enhancing its hybrid soul(s, its blending procedure and contemporary facets. Ali M., 2004, Brick Lane, Doubleday Black Swan, London.Gavron S., 2007, Brick Lane, Sony Pictures Classics.Hall T., 2005, Salaam Brick Lane - A Year in the New East End, John Murray Publishers, London. Makkar P., 2002, Brick Lane, Anapurna Films.

  4. Video-based lane estimation and tracking for driver assistance: Survey, system, and evaluation

    McCall, J C; Trivedi, Mohan Manubhai

    2006-01-01

    Driver-assistance systems that monitor driver intent, warn drivers of lane departures, or assist in vehicle guidance are all being actively considered. It is therefore important to take a critical look at key aspects of these systems, one of which is lane-position tracking. It is for these driver-assistance objectives that motivate the development of the novel "video-based lane estimation and tracking" (VioLET) system. The system is designed using steerable filters for robust and accurate lan...

  5. Multi-lane Roundabout Capacity Evaluation

    Ammar Šarić

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although two-lane roundabouts theoretically exhibit excellent operating performance, in practice, safety problems arise because of inappropriate driving behavior. Turbo roundabouts, which are characterized by a much higher level of safety, are alternatives to classic two-lane roundabouts, but the capacity-related benefits derived from such roundabouts remain an open issue. Accordingly, this study uses an equilibrium traffic flow allocation approach to evaluate multi-lane roundabout capacity based on gap acceptance theory. Capacity levels are calculated and compared for different gap acceptance parameters, including local parameters, and different traffic flow scenarios. It is found that the capacity of minor approaches on turbo roundabouts is always higher than on two-lane roundabouts, but that the main approaches on two-lane roundabouts exhibit better performance in terms of fully equilibrium traffic allocation. This state, however, cannot be achieved for every demand scenario. The results depend strongly on traffic movements and gap acceptance parameters indicating the need for local calibration processes.

  6. Capacity of two-lane roads

    Kennedy, DA

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationships of speed vs density, volume and percentage loop occupation are investigated. The effect of differing directional splits in traffic volumes is also examined. A method of determining the Level-of Service of two-lane roads in terms...

  7. Motorcycle lane-sharing : literature review.

    2010-06-01

    This report examines the use of lane-sharing (also sometimes referred to as lane-splitting and filtering) nationally and internationally and includes discussions on motorcycle and driver (auto) safety, and the potential benefits of lane-sharing.

  8. Deployment strategies of managed lanes on arterials.

    2015-02-01

    This report investigates issues related to planning, financing, deployment, and operation of managed : lanes on arterials. In this report, a strategy for managed lanes refers to a combination of the managed : lane type, the design and implementation,...

  9. CMOS Image Sensor with a Built-in Lane Detector

    Li-Chen Fu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work develops a new current-mode mixed signal Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS imager, which can capture images and simultaneously produce vehicle lane maps. The adopted lane detection algorithm, which was modified to be compatible with hardware requirements, can achieve a high recognition rate of up to approximately 96% under various weather conditions. Instead of a Personal Computer (PC based system or embedded platform system equipped with expensive high performance chip of Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC or Digital Signal Processor (DSP, the proposed imager, without extra Analog to Digital Converter (ADC circuits to transform signals, is a compact, lower cost key-component chip. It is also an innovative component device that can be integrated into intelligent automotive lane departure systems. The chip size is 2,191.4 x 2,389.8 mm, and the package uses 40 pin Dual-In-Package (DIP. The pixel cell size is 18.45 x 21.8 mm and the core size of photodiode is 12.45 x 9.6 mm; the resulting fill factor is 29.7%.

  10. CMOS Image Sensor with a Built-in Lane Detector.

    Hsiao, Pei-Yung; Cheng, Hsien-Chein; Huang, Shih-Shinh; Fu, Li-Chen

    2009-01-01

    This work develops a new current-mode mixed signal Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) imager, which can capture images and simultaneously produce vehicle lane maps. The adopted lane detection algorithm, which was modified to be compatible with hardware requirements, can achieve a high recognition rate of up to approximately 96% under various weather conditions. Instead of a Personal Computer (PC) based system or embedded platform system equipped with expensive high performance chip of Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) or Digital Signal Processor (DSP), the proposed imager, without extra Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) circuits to transform signals, is a compact, lower cost key-component chip. It is also an innovative component device that can be integrated into intelligent automotive lane departure systems. The chip size is 2,191.4 × 2,389.8 μm, and the package uses 40 pin Dual-In-Package (DIP). The pixel cell size is 18.45 × 21.8 μm and the core size of photodiode is 12.45 × 9.6 μm; the resulting fill factor is 29.7%.

  11. New procedure for departure formalities

    HR & GS Departments

    2011-01-01

    As part of the process of simplifying procedures and rationalising administrative processes, the HR and GS Departments have introduced new personalised departure formalities on EDH. These new formalities have applied to students leaving CERN since last year and from 17 October 2011 this procedure will be extended to the following categories of CERN personnel: Staff members, Fellows and Associates. It is planned to extend this electronic procedure to the users in due course. What purpose do departure formalities serve? The departure formalities are designed to ensure that members of the personnel contact all the relevant services in order to return any necessary items (equipment, cards, keys, dosimeter, electronic equipment, books, etc.) and are aware of all the benefits to which they are entitled on termination of their contract. The new departure formalities on EDH have the advantage of tailoring the list of services that each member of the personnel must visit to suit his individual contractual and p...

  12. Application of a performance management framework for priced lanes.

    2013-04-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation and its agency partners have implemented various forms of lane : management and pricing over the past three decades, including high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes, highoccupancy toll lanes, managed lanes, and tol...

  13. Towards trusted trade-lanes

    Hulstijn, J.; Hofman, W.; Zomer, G.; Tan, Y.H.

    2016-01-01

    Customs administrations are exploring system-based approaches to regulatory supervision, taking the entire set of controls in a process into account. In addition to Trusted Traders, which are recognized by a certification process, customs are considering to identify so called Trusted Trade Lanes:

  14. Road Lane Detection Robust to Shadows Based on a Fuzzy System Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor

    Toan Minh Hoang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, autonomous vehicles, particularly self-driving cars, have received significant attention owing to rapid advancements in sensor and computation technologies. In addition to traffic sign recognition, road lane detection is one of the most important factors used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles for maintaining the safety of semi-autonomous and fully autonomous systems. Unlike traffic signs, road lanes are easily damaged by both internal and external factors such as road quality, occlusion (traffic on the road, weather conditions, and illumination (shadows from objects such as cars, trees, and buildings. Obtaining clear road lane markings for recognition processing is a difficult challenge. Therefore, we propose a method to overcome various illumination problems, particularly severe shadows, by using fuzzy system and line segment detector algorithms to obtain better results for detecting road lanes by a visible light camera sensor. Experimental results from three open databases, Caltech dataset, Santiago Lanes dataset (SLD, and Road Marking dataset, showed that our method outperformed conventional lane detection methods.

  15. Road Lane Detection Robust to Shadows Based on a Fuzzy System Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor.

    Hoang, Toan Minh; Baek, Na Rae; Cho, Se Woon; Kim, Ki Wan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2017-10-28

    Recently, autonomous vehicles, particularly self-driving cars, have received significant attention owing to rapid advancements in sensor and computation technologies. In addition to traffic sign recognition, road lane detection is one of the most important factors used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles for maintaining the safety of semi-autonomous and fully autonomous systems. Unlike traffic signs, road lanes are easily damaged by both internal and external factors such as road quality, occlusion (traffic on the road), weather conditions, and illumination (shadows from objects such as cars, trees, and buildings). Obtaining clear road lane markings for recognition processing is a difficult challenge. Therefore, we propose a method to overcome various illumination problems, particularly severe shadows, by using fuzzy system and line segment detector algorithms to obtain better results for detecting road lanes by a visible light camera sensor. Experimental results from three open databases, Caltech dataset, Santiago Lanes dataset (SLD), and Road Marking dataset, showed that our method outperformed conventional lane detection methods.

  16. Lane Changing and Lane Utilization Behavior for Three Lane Normal Section in Iraq Traffic Sites

    Hamid Athab Eedan Al-Jameel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, different programs or methods have been produced to solve the traffic problem everywhere in the world. Iraq is one of the countries which suffer from high problems in traffic operation, design and planning. Therefore, to use the sophisticated traffic programs or models such as simulation models there is an urgent need to investigate specified field parameters which correspond to calibrated parameters used in the model under study. This study has focused on studying driver behavior which represents the core stone in a traffic simulation. This behavior represents lane changing (LC and lane utilization (LU in normal sections. Three normal sections with three lanes have been selected in different sites in Iraq: two sites in Al-Najaf city and one site in Al-Muthna city. The results of data analysis show that the driver behavior in both LC and LU is similar to the behavior in the UK. The current observed data could be used for the calibration process for any traffic simulation model in order to mimic the reality of Iraqi drivers.

  17. Implementation elements for conversion of general-purpose freeway lane into high-occupancy-vehicle lane

    1997-01-01

    Conversion of a general-purpose freeway into a high-occupancy-vehicle (HOV) lane is an alternative to infrastructure addition for HOV system implementation. Research indicates that lane conversion is feasible technically if sufficient HOV usage and m...

  18. Towards a definition of safety for individual drivers lane behavior

    van Loon, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    To assess lateral control performance in drivers, lane behaviour indicators such as the mean lane position, standard deviation of lane position and time-to-line-crossing are the most frequently used measures. For lane position, the commonly accepted (qualitative) proposition is that increased lane

  19. Development of a lane change risk index using vehicle trajectory data.

    Park, Hyunjin; Oh, Cheol; Moon, Jaepil; Kim, Seongho

    2018-01-01

    Surrogate safety measures (SSMs) have been widely used to evaluate crash potential, which is fundamental for the development of effective safety countermeasures. Unlike existing SSMs, which are mainly focused on the evaluation of longitudinal vehicle maneuvering leading to rear-end crashes, this study proposes a new method for estimating crash risk while a subject vehicle changes lanes, referred to as the lane change risk index (LCRI). A novel feature of the proposed methodology is its incorporation of the amount of exposure time to potential crash and the expected crash severity level by applying a fault tree analysis (FTA) to the evaluation framework. Vehicle interactions between a subject vehicle and adjacent vehicles in the starting lane and the target lane are evaluated in terms of crash potential during lane change. Vehicle trajectory data obtained from a traffic stream, photographed using a drone flown over a freeway segment, is used to investigate the applicability of the proposed methodology. This study compares the characteristics of compulsory and discretionary lane changes observed in a work zone section and a general section of a freeway using the LCRI. It is expected that the outcome of this study will be valuable in evaluating the effectiveness of various traffic operations and control strategies in terms of lane change safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Real driving at night - Predicting lane departures from physiological and subjective sleepiness

    Hallvig, D.; Anund, A.; Fors, C.; Kecklund, L.G.; Äkerstedt, T.

    2014-01-01

    Only limited information is available on how driving performance relates to physiological and subjective sleepiness on real roads. This relation was the focus of the present study. 33 volunteers drove for 90 min on a rural road during the afternoon and night in an instrumented car, while

  1. A comparative study of bike lane injuries.

    Wee, Jung Hee; Park, Jeong Ho; Park, Kyu Nam; Choi, Seung Pill

    2012-02-01

    Because of the increased number of bicycle riders and governmental promotions, a recent increase in the construction of bicycle lanes has occurred. We aimed to characterize injuries specific to bicycle lane accidents by comparing them with injuries that occurred on regular roadways. On the basis of our findings, we provide suggestions on proper preventive strategies. We performed a retrospective study on 408 cases obtained between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2010. Of these cases, 387 met the criterion that the location of the injury could be confirmed by telephone or via review of the patient's chart. Data regarding age, gender, Injury Severity Score, time of the accident, location of the accident, and other characteristics were collected. Data were analyzed using SPSS 12.0K. Of the 387 cases, 204 (52.7%) patients were injured in bicycle lanes and 183 (47.3%) were injured on regular roadways. Comparing cases of bicycle lane injuries and non-bicycle lane injuries, there were no differences in age, day of the week, season, or the time at which the accident occurred. Bicycle helmets were used more frequently in bicycle lane injuries (33.2% vs. 13.7%; p cases, falls (42.6%) and collisions with other vehicles (39.3%) were the most common causes of injury. Although the severity of injuries was slightly lower in bicycle lane cases, it was not significantly lower than non-bicycle lane cases. Although people are increasingly using bicycle lanes for safety, this study shows that they are not definitively safer. Therefore, improvements in the policies related to implementing bicycle lane safety are needed, for example, by enforcing the use of protective gear or preventing the use of bicycle lanes by pedestrians. More safety education programs are also needed. III.

  2. Toyota drivers' experiences with Dynamic Radar Cruise Control, Pre-Collision System, and Lane-Keeping Assist.

    Eichelberger, Angela H; McCartt, Anne T

    2016-02-01

    Advanced crash avoidance and driver assistance technologies potentially can prevent or mitigate many crashes. Previous surveys with drivers have found favorable opinions for many advanced technologies; however, these surveys are not necessarily representative of all drivers or all systems. As the technologies spread throughout the vehicle fleet, it is important to continue studying driver acceptance and use of them. This study focused on 2010-2013 Toyota Sienna and Prius models that were equipped with adaptive cruise control, forward collision avoidance, and lane departure warning and prevention (Prius models only). Telephone interviews were conducted in summer 2013 with 183 owners of vehicles with these technologies. About 9 in 10 respondents wanted adaptive cruise control and forward collision avoidance on their next vehicle, and 71% wanted lane departure warning/prevention again. Males and females reported some differences in their experiences with the systems; for example, males were more likely to have turned on lane departure warning/prevention than females, and when using this system, males reported more frequent warnings than did females. Relative to older drivers, drivers age 40 and younger were more likely to have seen or heard a forward collision warning. Consistent with the results in previous surveys of owners of luxury vehicles, the present survey found that driver acceptance of the technologies was high, although less so for lane departure warning/prevention. Experiences with the Toyota systems differed by driver age and gender to a greater degree than in previous surveys, suggesting that the responses of drivers may begin to differ as crash avoidance technology becomes available on a wider variety of vehicles. Crash avoidance technologies potentially can prevent or mitigate many crashes, but their success depends in part on driver acceptance. These systems will be effective only to the extent that drivers use them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and

  3. Lane Determination with GPS Precise Point Positioning

    Knoop, V.L.; de Bakker, P.F.; Tiberius, C.C.J.M.; van Arem, B.

    2017-01-01

    Modern intelligent transport solutions can achieve an improvement of traffic flow on motorways. With lane-specific measurements and lane-specific control, more measures are possible. Single frequency precise point positioning (PPP) is a newly developed and affordable technique to achieve an

  4. Robust lane detection and tracking using multiple visual cues under stochastic lane shape conditions

    Huang, Zhi; Fan, Baozheng; Song, Xiaolin

    2018-03-01

    As one of the essential components of environment perception techniques for an intelligent vehicle, lane detection is confronted with challenges including robustness against the complicated disturbance and illumination, also adaptability to stochastic lane shapes. To overcome these issues, we proposed a robust lane detection method named classification-generation-growth-based (CGG) operator to the detected lines, whereby the linear lane markings are identified by synergizing multiple visual cues with the a priori knowledge and spatial-temporal information. According to the quality of linear lane fitting, the linear and linear-parabolic models are dynamically switched to describe the actual lane. The Kalman filter with adaptive noise covariance and the region of interests (ROI) tracking are applied to improve the robustness and efficiency. Experiments were conducted with images covering various challenging scenarios. The experimental results evaluate the effectiveness of the presented method for complicated disturbances, illumination, and stochastic lane shapes.

  5. Multi-lane detection based on multiple vanishing points detection

    Li, Chuanxiang; Nie, Yiming; Dai, Bin; Wu, Tao

    2015-03-01

    Lane detection plays a significant role in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) for intelligent vehicles. In this paper we present a multi-lane detection method based on multiple vanishing points detection. A new multi-lane model assumes that a single lane, which has two approximately parallel boundaries, may not parallel to others on road plane. Non-parallel lanes associate with different vanishing points. A biological plausibility model is used to detect multiple vanishing points and fit lane model. Experimental results show that the proposed method can detect both parallel lanes and non-parallel lanes.

  6. Lane-Level Road Information Mining from Vehicle GPS Trajectories Based on Naïve Bayesian Classification

    Luliang Tang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel approach for mining lane-level road network information from low-precision vehicle GPS trajectories (MLIT, which includes the number and turn rules of traffic lanes based on naïve Bayesian classification. First, the proposed method (MLIT uses an adaptive density optimization method to remove outliers from the raw GPS trajectories based on their space-time distribution and density clustering. Second, MLIT acquires the number of lanes in two steps. The first step establishes a naïve Bayesian classifier according to the trace features of the road plane and road profiles and the real number of lanes, as found in the training samples. The second step confirms the number of lanes using test samples in reference to the naïve Bayesian classifier using the known trace features of test sample. Third, MLIT infers the turn rules of each lane through tracking GPS trajectories. Experiments were conducted using the GPS trajectories of taxis in Wuhan, China. Compared with human-interpreted results, the automatically generated lane-level road network information was demonstrated to be of higher quality in terms of displaying detailed road networks with the number of lanes and turn rules of each lane.

  7. Refining Lane-Based Traffic Signal Settings to Satisfy Spatial Lane Length Requirements

    Yanping Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In conventional lane-based signal optimization models, lane markings guiding road users in making turns are optimized with traffic signal settings in a unified framework to maximize the overall intersection capacity or minimize the total delay. The spatial queue requirements of road lanes should be considered to avoid overdesigns of green durations. Point queue system adopted in the conventional lane-based framework causes overflow in practice. Based on the optimization results from the original lane-based designs, a refinement is proposed to enhance the lane-based settings to ensure that spatial holding limits of the approaching traffic lanes are not exceeded. A solution heuristic is developed to modify the green start times, green durations, and cycle length by considering the vehicle queuing patterns and physical holding capacities along the approaching traffic lanes. To show the effectiveness of this traffic signal refinement, a case study of one of the busiest and most complicated intersections in Hong Kong is given for demonstration. A site survey was conducted to collect existing traffic demand patterns and existing traffic signal settings in peak periods. Results show that the proposed refinement method is effective to ensure that all vehicle queue lengths satisfy spatial lane capacity limits, including short lanes, for daily operation.

  8. Surface Management System Departure Event Data Analysis

    Monroe, Gilena A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a data analysis of the Surface Management System (SMS) performance of departure events, including push-back and runway departure events.The paper focuses on the detection performance, or the ability to detect departure events, as well as the prediction performance of SMS. The results detail a modest overall detection performance of push-back events and a significantly high overall detection performance of runway departure events. The overall detection performance of SMS for push-back events is approximately 55%.The overall detection performance of SMS for runway departure events nears 100%. This paper also presents the overall SMS prediction performance for runway departure events as well as the timeliness of the Aircraft Situation Display for Industry data source for SMS predictions.

  9. The Sight Distance Issues with Retrofitted Single-Lane HOV Facilities

    Zhongren Wang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that obstruction inside a highway horizontal curve will lead to impaired sight distance. Highway alignment design standards in terms of the minimum horizontal curve radius are specified to allow for adequate stopping sight distance at given design speeds. For a single-lane HOV facility, inside curve obstruction may occur no matter when the facility curves to the left (per travel direction or right. A unique situation that calls for special attention is that the adjacent mixed-flow lane traffic, once queued, may become sight obstruction. Calculations indicated that such obstruction may govern the minimum curve radius design as long as the left shoulder is not less than 0.92 m, when the HOV lane is contiguous to the mixed-flow lanes. Such governance may necessitate design speed reduction, horizontal and cross-section design adjustment, or both.

  10. Understanding Traveler Behavior : The Psychology Behind Managed Lane Use

    2012-07-01

    Recent analysis of Katy Freeway/Managed Lane (ML) travelers and I-394 Freeway/High : Occupancy Toll (HOT) lane traveler data has found that many travelers pay to use these HOT : lanes and MLs when adjacent toll-free lanes are operating at nearly the ...

  11. Rebound Attack on the Full LANE Compression Function

    Matusiewicz, Krystian; Naya-Plasencia, Maria; Nikolic, Ivica

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we apply the rebound attack to the AES based SHA-3 candidate Lane. The hash function Lane uses a permutation based compression function, consisting of a linear message expansion and 6 parallel lanes. In the rebound attack on Lane, we apply several new techniques to construct...... a collision for the full compression function of Lane-256 and Lane-512. Using a relatively sparse truncated differential path, we are able to solve for a valid message expansion and colliding lanes independently. Additionally, we are able to apply the inbound phase more than once by exploiting the degrees...

  12. 49 CFR 236.587 - Departure test.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Departure test. 236.587 Section 236.587..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.587 Departure test. (a) The...: (1) Operation over track elements; (2) Operation over test circuit; (3) Use of portable test...

  13. Implementation Issues for Departure Planning Systems

    Hansman, R. John; Feron, Eric; Clarke, John-Paul; Odoni, Amedeo

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the proposed effort is to investigate issues associated with the design and implementation of decision aiding tools to assist in improving the departure process at congested airports. This effort follows a preliminary investigation of potential Departure Planning approaches and strategies, which identified potential benefits in departure efficiency, and also in reducing the environmental impact of aircraft in the departure queue. The preliminary study bas based, in large part, on observations and analysis of departure processes at Boston, Logan airport. The objective of this follow-on effort is to address key implementation issues and to expand the observational base to include airports with different constraints and traffic demand. Specifically, the objectives of this research are to: (1) Expand the observational base to include airports with different underlying operational dynamics. (2) Develop prototype decision aiding algorithms/approaches and assess potential benefits. and (3) Investigate Human Machine Integration (HMI) issues associated with decision aids in tower environments.

  14. Dark nebulae, dark lanes, and dust belts

    Cooke, Antony

    2012-01-01

    As probably the only book of its type, this work is aimed at the observer who wants to spend time with something less conventional than the usual fare. Because we usually see objects in space by means of illumination of one kind or another, it has become routine to see them only in these terms. However, part of almost everything that we see is the defining dimension of dark shading, or even the complete obscuration of entire regions in space. Thus this book is focused on everything dark in space: those dark voids in the stellar fabric that mystified astronomers of old; the dark lanes reported in many star clusters; the magical dust belts or dusty regions that have given so many galaxies their identities; the great swirling 'folds' that we associate with bright nebulae; the small dark feature detectable even in some planetary nebulae; and more. Many observers pay scant attention to dark objects and details. Perhaps they are insufficiently aware of them or of the viewing potential they hold, but also it may be...

  15. Spot and Runway Departure Advisor

    Jung, Yoon Chul

    2013-01-01

    The Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) is a research prototype of a decision support tool for ATC tower controllers to assist in manging and controlling traffic on the surface of an airport. SARDA employs a scheduler to generate an optimal runway schedule and gate push-back - spot release sequence and schedule that improves efficiency of surface operations. The advisories for ATC tower controllers are displayed on an Electronic Flight Strip (EFS) system. The human-in-the-loop simulation of the SARDA tool was conducted for east operations of Dallas-Ft. Worth International Airport (DFW) to evaluate performance of the SARDA tool and human factors, such as situational awareness and workload. The results indicates noticeable taxi delay reduction and fuel savings by using the SARDA tool. Reduction in controller workload were also observed throughout the scenario runs. The future plan includes modeling and simulation of the ramp operations of the Charlotte International Airport, and develop a decision support tool for the ramp controllers.

  16. Optimization of airport security lanes

    Chen, Lin

    2018-05-01

    Current airport security management system is widely implemented all around the world to ensure the safety of passengers, but it might not be an optimum one. This paper aims to seek a better security system, which can maximize security while minimize inconvenience to passengers. Firstly, we apply Petri net model to analyze the steps where the main bottlenecks lie. Based on average tokens and time transition, the most time-consuming steps of security process can be found, including inspection of passengers' identification and documents, preparing belongings to be scanned and the process for retrieving belongings back. Then, we develop a queuing model to figure out factors affecting those time-consuming steps. As for future improvement, the effective measures which can be taken include transferring current system as single-queuing and multi-served, intelligently predicting the number of security checkpoints supposed to be opened, building up green biological convenient lanes. Furthermore, to test the theoretical results, we apply some data to stimulate the model. And the stimulation results are consistent with what we have got through modeling. Finally, we apply our queuing model to a multi-cultural background. The result suggests that by quantifying and modifying the variance in wait time, the model can be applied to individuals with various habits customs and habits. Generally speaking, our paper considers multiple affecting factors, employs several models and does plenty of calculations, which is practical and reliable for handling in reality. In addition, with more precise data available, we can further test and improve our models.

  17. Semantic Information Extraction of Lanes Based on Onboard Camera Videos

    Tang, L.; Deng, T.; Ren, C.

    2018-04-01

    In the field of autonomous driving, semantic information of lanes is very important. This paper proposes a method of automatic detection of lanes and extraction of semantic information from onboard camera videos. The proposed method firstly detects the edges of lanes by the grayscale gradient direction, and improves the Probabilistic Hough transform to fit them; then, it uses the vanishing point principle to calculate the lane geometrical position, and uses lane characteristics to extract lane semantic information by the classification of decision trees. In the experiment, 216 road video images captured by a camera mounted onboard a moving vehicle were used to detect lanes and extract lane semantic information. The results show that the proposed method can accurately identify lane semantics from video images.

  18. Effects of Car Accidents on Three-Lane Traffic Flow

    Jianzhong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-lane traffic flow model is proposed to investigate the effect of car accidents on the traffic flow. The model is an extension of the full velocity difference (FVD model by taking into account the lane changing. The extended lane-changing rules are presented to model the lane-changing behaviour. The cases that the car accidents occupy the exterior or interior lane, the medium lane, and two lanes are studied by numerical simulations. The time-space diagrams and the current diagrams are presented, and the traffic jams are investigated. The results show that the car accident has a different effect on the traffic flow when it occupies different lanes. The car accidents have a more serious effect on the whole road when they occupy two lanes. The larger the density is, the greater the influence on the traffic flow becomes.

  19. Advanced laser-based tracking device for motor vehicle lane position monitoring and steering assistance

    Bachalo, William D.; Inenaga, Andrew; Schuler, Carlos A.

    1995-12-01

    Aerometrics is developing an innovative laser-diode based device that provides a warning signal when a motor-vehicle deviates from the center of the lane. The device is based on a sensor that scans the roadway on either side of the vehicle and determines the lateral position relative to the existing painted lines marking the lane. No additional markings are required. A warning is used to alert the driver of excessive weaving or unanticipated departure from the center of the lane. The laser beams are at invisible wavelengths to that operation of the device does not pose a distraction to the driver or other motorists: When appropriate markers are not present on the road, the device is capable of detecting this condition and warn the driver. The sensor system is expected to work well irrespective of ambient light levels, fog and rain. This sensor has enormous commercial potential. It could be marketed as an instrument to warn drivers that they are weaving, used as a research tool to monitor driving patterns, be required equipment for those previously convicted of driving under the influence, or used as a backup sensor for vehicle lateral position control. It can also be used in storage plants to guide robotic delivery vehicles. In this paper, the principles of operation of the sensor, and the results of Aerometrics ongoing testing will be presented.

  20. LANES - LOCAL AREA NETWORK EXTENSIBLE SIMULATOR

    Gibson, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Local Area Network Extensible Simulator (LANES) provides a method for simulating the performance of high speed local area network (LAN) technology. LANES was developed as a design and analysis tool for networking on board the Space Station. The load, network, link and physical layers of a layered network architecture are all modeled. LANES models to different lower-layer protocols, the Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) and the Star*Bus. The load and network layers are included in the model as a means of introducing upper-layer processing delays associated with message transmission; they do not model any particular protocols. FDDI is an American National Standard and an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) draft standard for a 100 megabit-per-second fiber-optic token ring. Specifications for the LANES model of FDDI are taken from the Draft Proposed American National Standard FDDI Token Ring Media Access Control (MAC), document number X3T9.5/83-16 Rev. 10, February 28, 1986. This is a mature document describing the FDDI media-access-control protocol. Star*Bus, also known as the Fiber Optic Demonstration System, is a protocol for a 100 megabit-per-second fiber-optic star-topology LAN. This protocol, along with a hardware prototype, was developed by Sperry Corporation under contract to NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as a candidate LAN protocol for the Space Station. LANES can be used to analyze performance of a networking system based on either FDDI or Star*Bus under a variety of loading conditions. Delays due to upper-layer processing can easily be nullified, allowing analysis of FDDI or Star*Bus as stand-alone protocols. LANES is a parameter-driven simulation; it provides considerable flexibility in specifying both protocol an run-time parameters. Code has been optimized for fast execution and detailed tracing facilities have been included. LANES was written in FORTRAN 77 for implementation on a DEC VAX under VMS 4.6. It consists of two

  1. Express Lane Eligibility for Medicaid and CHIP Coverage

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — States may rely on eligibility information from "Express Lane" agency programs to streamline and simplify enrollment and renewal in Medicaid and CHIP. Express Lane...

  2. Toward a best practice model for managed lanes in Texas.

    2013-09-01

    Increasing implementation of managed lanes in the : United States : Katy Freeway Managed Lanes : (KML) offers lessons learned : for other projects : First operational, multilane, : variably priced, managed facility : in Texas : Became oper...

  3. Design and scope of impact of auxiliary lanes : technical report.

    2014-06-01

    For decades, Texas Department of Transportation districts have constructed auxiliary lanes to support interchange : ramp operations and to resolve congestion proximate to freeway entrance and exit ramps. While auxiliary lanes are : built throughout T...

  4. Dynamic access control for two-direction shared traffic lanes

    Ebben, Mark; van der Zee, D.J.; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.

    2001-01-01

    In specific traffic situations, a single lane is available for traffic from two directions. Examples are traffic accidents or road maintenance reducing the number of available lanes on a road or, as we faced in a project on underground freight transportation, construction of a single lane for two

  5. Dynamic access control for two-direction shared traffic lanes

    Ebben, M.J.R.; van der Zee, D.J.; van der Heijden, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    In specilic traflic situations, a single lane is available for traiffic from two directions. Examples are traffic accidents or road maintenance reducing thc number of available lanes on a road or, as we faced in a project on underground freight transportation, construction of a slnglc lane for two

  6. Modeling merging behavior at lane drops.

    2015-02-01

    In work-zone configurations where lane drops are present, merging of traffic at the taper presents an operational concern. In : addition, as flow through the work zone is reduced, the relative traffic safety of the work zone is also reduced. Improvin...

  7. Virtual queuing at airport security lanes

    Lange, de R.; Samoilovich, I.; Rhee, van der B.

    2013-01-01

    Airports continuously seek opportunities to reduce the security costs without negatively affecting passenger satisfaction. In this paper, we investigate the possibilities of implementing virtual queuing at airport security lanes, by offering some passengers a time window during which they can arrive

  8. Assessing air quality impacts of managed lanes.

    2010-12-01

    Impacts on transit bus performance and air quality were investigated for a case study high-occupancy / toll (HOT) lane project on a corridor of I-95 near Miami. Trends in air pollutant concentration monitoring data in the study area first were analyz...

  9. In-transit charging lane model

    Verkerk, A.; Nijmeijer, H.; Khajepour, A.

    2012-01-01

    The current electric vehicles still have a problem with a short range and long charging time compared to the internal combustion vehicles. A possible solution for this problem is to charge the batteries while driving on the highway. For this, a special traffic lane is needed with an in-transit

  10. Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA)

    Jung, Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) is a decision support tool to assist airline ramp controllers and ATC tower controllers to manage traffic on the airport surface to significantly improve efficiency and predictability in surface operations. The core function of the tool is the runway scheduler which generates an optimal solution for runway sequence and schedule of departure aircraft, which would minimize system delay and maximize runway throughput. The presentation also discusses the latest status of NASA's current surface research through a collaboration with an airline partner, where a tool is developed for airline ramp operators to assist departure pushback operations. The presentation describes the concept of the SARDA tool and results from human-in-the-loop simulations conducted in 2012 for Dallas-Ft. Worth International Airport and 2014 for Charlotte airport ramp tower.

  11. Stability of the car-following model on two lanes

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Huang, Hai-Jun; Gao, Zi-You

    2005-12-01

    In the case of two-lane traffic, vehicle drivers always worry about the lane changing actions from neighbor lane. This paper studies the stability of a car-following model on two lanes which incorporates the lateral effects in traffic. The stability condition of the model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. The modified Korteweg-de Vries equation is constructed and solved, and three types of traffic flows in the headway-sensitivity space—stable, metastable, and unstable—are classified. Both analytical and simulation results show that the anxiousness about lane changing from neighbor lane indeed has influence upon people’s driving behavior and the consideration of lateral effects could stabilize the traffic flows on both lanes.

  12. Lane detection algorithm for an onboard camera

    Bellino, Mario; Lopez de Meneses, Yuri; Ryser, Peter; Jacot, Jacques

    2005-02-01

    After analysing the major causes of injuries and death on roads, it is understandable that one of the main goals in the automotive industry is to increase vehicle safety. The European project SPARC (Secure Propulsion using Advanced Redundant Control) is developing the next generation of trucks that will fulfil these aims. The main technologies that will be used in the SPARC project to achieve the desiderated level of safety will be presented. In order to avoid accidents in critical situations, it is necessary to have a representation of the environment of the vehicle. Thus, several solutions using different sensors will be described and analysed. Particularly, a division of this project aims to integrate cameras in automotive vehicles to increase security and prevent driver's mistakes. Indeed, with this vision platform it would be possible to extract the position of the lane with respect to the vehicle, and thus, help the driver to follow the optimal trajectory. A definition of lane is proposed, and a lane detection algorithm is presented. In order to improve the detection, several criteria are explained and detailed. Regrettably, such an embedded camera is subject to the vibration of the truck, and the resulting sequence of images is difficult to analyse. Thus, we present different solutions to stabilize the images and particularly a new approach developed by the "Laboratoire de Production Microtechnique". Indeed, it was demonstrated in previous works that the presence of noise can be used, through a phenomenon called Stochastic Resonance. Thus, instead of decreasing the influence of noise in industrial applications, which has non negligible costs, it is perhaps interesting to use this phenomenon to reveal some useful information, such as for example the contour of the objects and lanes.

  13. Optimizing departure times in vehicle routes

    Kok, A.L.; Hans, Elias W.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Most solution methods for the vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW) develop routes from the earliest feasible departure time. However, in practice, temporal traffic congestions make that such solutions are not optimal with respect to minimizing the total duty time. Furthermore, VRPTW

  14. Optimizing Departure Times in Vehicle Routes

    Kok, A.L.; Hans, Elias W.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Most solution methods for the vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW) develop routes from the earliest feasible departure time. In practice, however, temporary traffic congestion make such solutions non-optimal with respect to minimizing the total duty time. Furthermore, the VRPTW does not

  15. Comparisons of mandatory and discretionary lane changing behavior on freeways

    Matthew Vechione

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This research performs comparative analyses on drivers’ behavior during mandatory and discretionary lane changes. We do this by examining the statistical properties of four lane changing decision variables that describe the gaps between the subject vehicle and the surrounding vehicles. Mandatory and discretionary lane changes in NGSIM’s I-80 Freeway and U.S. Highway 101 data collection sites were identified. First, for each variable at the same site, descriptive statistics for the two types of lane changes were compared, and hypothesis tests on the difference between two means were conducted. Then, for each decision variable at the same site, the observed cumulative distributions between the mandatory and discretionary lane changes were compared by means of the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. This test was repeated for the fitted distributions of the same decision variable at the same site. The results show that, for the three decision variables associated with gaps in the target lane, the means and distributions between the two types of lane changes are not significantly different. The only variable found to have significant differences in means and distributions is the gap between the subject vehicle and the preceding vehicle in the original lane. This may be because this variable is not an important input in mandatory lane change decisions. This finding provides statistical justification for researchers to develop models with different inputs for mandatory and discretionary lane changes in driver assist systems, in autonomous vehicles, and in microscopic traffic simulation tools.

  16. Improving the Sustainability of Transportation: Environmental and Functional Benefits of Right Turn By-Pass Lanes at Roundabouts

    Marco Guerrieri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The functional performances of conventional roundabouts (single-lane and multi-lane and innovative roundabouts (spiral, flower, C and turbo can be improved through right-turn bypass lanes controlled by stop, yield or free-flow signs. The article presents evaluations of the emissions of air pollutants (carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particle pollution (PM10 and PM2.5, fuel consumption and construction, management, energetic and environmental costs in roundabouts without or with bypass lanes (controlled by stop, yield or free-flow. The suggested methodology has a general character and can be applied as a multi-parametric criterion for choosing road intersections, although, in the present paper, it has been employed only for a case study. For the aims of this research, we employed recent closed-form formulations to determine roundabout performances; moreover, we used the COPERT IV® software to estimate air emissions in nine different types of vehicles. Numerous traffic simulations were carried out. The variation in the maximum hourly traffic Qmax and annual traffic QTOT provided the appropriate domains of the examined geometric layouts, both in functional and environmental terms and with regard to generalized costs, estimated for a 10-year period. It resulted that the introduction of right-turn bypasses in all arms of conventional roundabouts with a one ring lane and one lane at the entries (single-lane roundabouts is the most cost-effective when the flows entering the roundabout are higher than Qmax = 2000 veh/h. Moreover, free-flow bypass lanes always provide greater capacity and lower delays than stop- or yield-signaled bypasses. However, with extremely high Qmax values, stop-controlled bypasses guarantee lower fuel consumption, while those with a yield sign lower total costs.

  17. Effects of Lane Width, Lane Position and Edge Shoulder Width on Driving Behavior in Underground Urban Expressways: A Driving Simulator Study

    Shuo Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the effects of lane width, lane position and edge shoulder width on driving behavior for a three-lane underground urban expressway. A driving simulator was used with 24 volunteer test subjects. Five lane widths (2.85, 3.00, 3.25, 3.50, and 3.75 m and three shoulder widths (0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 m were studied. Driving speed, lane deviation and subjective perception of driving behavior were collected as performance measures. The results show that lane and shoulder width have significant effects on driving speed. Average driving speed increases from 60.01 km/h in the narrowest lane to 88.05 km/h in the widest lane. While both narrower lanes and shoulders result in reduced speed and lateral lane deviation, the effect of lane width is greater than that of shoulder width. When the lane and shoulder are narrow, drivers in the left or right lane tend to shy away from the tunnel wall, even encroaching into the neighboring middle lane. As the lane or shoulder gets wider, drivers tend to stay in the middle of the lane. An interesting finding is that although few participants acknowledged that lane position had any great bearing on their driving behaviors, the observed driving speed is statistically higher in the left lane than in the other two lanes when the lane width is narrow (in 2.85, 3 and 3.25 m lanes. These findings provided support for amending the current design specifications of urban underground roads, such as the relationship between design speed and lane width, speed limit, and combination form of lanes.

  18. Development of lane change aid system; Lane change aid system no kaihatsu

    Uemura, H; Yoshida, T; Butsuen, T [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan); Sakai, N; Nakano, T; Nakamoto, T

    1997-10-01

    We have developed a lane change aid system, which detects vehicles behind in adjacent lanes with CCD images, shows the driver the information of vehicle location with a head-up display, and warns him/her if necessary. By comparing the brightness on two CCD images, distance distribution along several CCD lines is measured. To assure the effective vehicle detection on public roads, we have developed a detection algorithm which distinguishes vehicles and guard-rails by observing the patterns of measured distances. We will show the system configuration, detection logic, and the system evaluation on public road. 5 refs., 12 figs.

  19. Lane marking detection based on waveform analysis and CNN

    Ye, Yang Yang; Chen, Hou Jin; Hao, Xiao Li

    2017-06-01

    Lane markings detection is a very important part of the ADAS to avoid traffic accidents. In order to obtain accurate lane markings, in this work, a novel and efficient algorithm is proposed, which analyses the waveform generated from the road image after inverse perspective mapping (IPM). The algorithm includes two main stages: the first stage uses an image preprocessing including a CNN to reduce the background and enhance the lane markings. The second stage obtains the waveform of the road image and analyzes the waveform to get lanes. The contribution of this work is that we introduce local and global features of the waveform to detect the lane markings. The results indicate the proposed method is robust in detecting and fitting the lane markings.

  20. Effects of Potential Lane-Changing Probability on Uniform Flow

    Tang Tieqiao; Huang Haijun; Shang Huayan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we use the car-following model with the anticipation effect of the potential lane-changing probability (Acta Mech. Sin. 24 (2008) 399) to investigate the effects of the potential lane-changing probability on uniform flow. The analytical and numerical results show that the potential lane-changing probability can enhance the speed and flow of uniform flow and that their increments are related to the density.

  1. Optimizing traffic flow efficiency by controlling lane changes: collective, group and user optima

    Yao, S.; Knoop, V.L.; van Arem, B.

    2017-01-01

    Lane changes can lead to disturbances in traffic flow, whilst the uneven distribution of traffic over different lanes as a result of lane changes can also lead to instabilities and congestion on one specific lane. Therefore, giving advice on lane change can be beneficial for both individual drivers

  2. Design and development of multi-lane smart electromechanical actuators

    Annaz, Fawaz Yahya

    2014-01-01

    Design and Development of Multi-Lane Smart Electromechanical Actuators presents the design of electromechanical actuators in two types of architectures, namely, Torque Summed Architecture (TSA) and Velocity Summed Architecture, (VSA). It examines them in: * Hardware redundancy, where the architecture is made up of 3 or 4 lanes. * Digital Math Model redundancy, where a more compact two lanes architectures will be presented. The book starts with the very basic concepts and introduces the design process logically so that an understanding of the smart multi-lane systems that drive an aileron

  3. Intelligent driving in traffic systems with partial lane discipline

    Assadi, Hamid; Emmerich, Heike

    2013-04-01

    It is a most common notion in traffic theory that driving in lanes and keeping lane changes to a minimum leads to smooth and laminar traffic flow, and hence to increased traffic capacity. On the other hand, there exist persistent vehicular traffic systems that are characterised by habitual disregarding of lane markings, and partial or complete loss of laminar traffic flow. Here, we explore the stability of such systems through a microscopic traffic flow model, where the degree of lane-discipline is taken as a variable, represented by the fraction of drivers that disregard lane markings completely. The results show that lane-free traffic may win over completely ordered traffic at high densities, and that partially ordered traffic leads to the poorest overall flow, while not considering the crash probability. Partial order in a lane-free system is similar to partial disorder in a lane-disciplined system in that both lead to decreased traffic capacity. This could explain the reason why standard enforcement methods, which rely on continuous increase of order, often fail to incur order to lane-free traffic systems. The results also provide an insight into the cooperative phenomena in open systems with self-driven particles.

  4. 8 CFR 215.2 - Authority of departure-control officer to prevent alien's departure from the United States.

    2010-01-01

    ... prevent alien's departure from the United States. 215.2 Section 215.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROLS OF ALIENS DEPARTING FROM THE UNITED STATES § 215.2 Authority of departure-control officer to prevent alien's departure from the United States. (a) No alien...

  5. Decision dynamics of departure times: Experiments and modeling

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Han, Xiao; Bao, Jian-Zhang; Jiang, Rui; Jia, Bin; Yan, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Boyu; Wang, Wen-Xu; Gao, Zi-You

    2017-10-01

    A fundamental problem in traffic science is to understand user-choice behaviors that account for the emergence of complex traffic phenomena. Despite much effort devoted to theoretically exploring departure time choice behaviors, relatively large-scale and systematic experimental tests of theoretical predictions are still lacking. In this paper, we aim to offer a more comprehensive understanding of departure time choice behaviors in terms of a series of laboratory experiments under different traffic conditions and feedback information provided to commuters. In the experiment, the number of recruited players is much larger than the number of choices to better mimic the real scenario, in which a large number of commuters will depart simultaneously in a relatively small time window. Sufficient numbers of rounds are conducted to ensure the convergence of collective behavior. Experimental results demonstrate that collective behavior is close to the user equilibrium, regardless of different scales and traffic conditions. Moreover, the amount of feedback information has a negligible influence on collective behavior but has a relatively stronger effect on individual choice behaviors. Reinforcement learning and Fermi learning models are built to reproduce the experimental results and uncover the underlying mechanism. Simulation results are in good agreement with the experimentally observed collective behaviors.

  6. Circulatory Markings at Double-Lane Traffic Roundabout.

    Bie, Jing; Lo, Hong K.; Wong, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares two types of circulatory markings at a double-lane traffic roundabout: the concentric marking scheme and the Alberta marking scheme. The effects of these two marking schemes on drivers' lane choice behavior, delay, and safety, are compared based on data collected from before and

  7. Lane-changing model with dynamic consideration of driver's propensity

    Wang, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Jinglei; Ban, Xuegang Jeff

    2015-07-01

    Lane-changing is the driver's selection result of the satisfaction degree in different lane driving conditions. There are many different factors influencing lane-changing behavior, such as diversity, randomicity and difficulty of measurement. So it is hard to accurately reflect the uncertainty of drivers' lane-changing behavior. As a result, the research of lane-changing models is behind that of car-following models. Driver's propensity is her/his emotion state or the corresponding preference of a decision or action toward the real objective traffic situations under the influence of various dynamic factors. It represents the psychological characteristics of the driver in the process of vehicle operation and movement. It is an important factor to influence lane-changing. In this paper, dynamic recognition of driver's propensity is considered during simulation based on its time-varying discipline and the analysis of the driver's psycho-physic characteristics. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method is used to quantify the hierarchy of driver's dynamic lane-changing decision-making process, especially the influence of the propensity. The model is validated using real data. Test results show that the developed lane-changing model with the dynamic consideration of a driver's time-varying propensity and the AHP method are feasible and with improved accuracy.

  8. Modeling electric bicycle's lane-changing and retrograde behaviors

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Luo, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Liang

    2018-01-01

    Recently, electric bicycle (EB) has been one important traffic tool due to its own merits. However, EB's motion behaviors (especially at a signalized/non-signalized intersection) are more complex than those of vehicle since it always has lane-changing and retrograde behaviors. In this paper, we propose a model to explore EB's lane-changing and retrograde behaviors on a road with a signalized intersection. The numerical results indicate that the proposed model can qualitatively describe each EB's lane-changing and retrograde behaviors near a signalized intersection, and that lane-changing and retrograde behaviors have prominent impacts on the signalized intersection (i.e., prominent jams and congestions occur). The above results show that EB should be controlled as a vehicle, i.e., lane-changing and retrograde behaviors at a signalized intersection should strictly be prohibited to improve the operational efficiency and traffic safety at the signalized intersection.

  9. Lane-changing behavior and its effect on energy dissipation using full velocity difference model

    Wang, Jian; Ding, Jian-Xun; Shi, Qin; Kühne, Reinhart D.

    2016-07-01

    In real urban traffic, roadways are usually multilane with lane-specific velocity limits. Most previous researches are derived from single-lane car-following theory which in the past years has been extensively investigated and applied. In this paper, we extend the continuous single-lane car-following model (full velocity difference model) to simulate the three-lane-changing behavior on an urban roadway which consists of three lanes. To meet incentive and security requirements, a comprehensive lane-changing rule set is constructed, taking safety distance and velocity difference into consideration and setting lane-specific speed restriction for each lane. We also investigate the effect of lane-changing behavior on distribution of cars, velocity, headway, fundamental diagram of traffic and energy dissipation. Simulation results have demonstrated asymmetric lane-changing “attraction” on changeable lane-specific speed-limited roadway, which leads to dramatically increasing energy dissipation.

  10. Impacts of cloud flare-ups on hurricane intensity resulting from departures from balance laws

    T. N. Krishnamurti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud flare-ups along the inner eye wall of a hurricane lead to enhancement of cloud scale divergence, which in turn leads to a large local enhancement of the departure from balance laws and can lead to local supergradient winds. This scenario is tested using the results from a mesoscale microphysical model at horizontal resolution of 1.33 km for the simulation of hurricane Katrina. Rainwater mixing ratio tags growing cloud elements. The departure from balance laws includes terms such as the local, horizontal and vertical advections of divergence, divergence square and a term invoking the gradient of vertical velocity. It is noted that these terms collectively contribute to a substantial local enhancement of the departure from balance laws. Departures from balance laws are related to the radial gradient wind imbalances in a storm-centred coordinate. In this study, several examples, from the hurricane Katrina simulations, that display this scenario of rapid intensification are illustrated. Organisation of convection in the azimuthal direction seems important for the hurricane scale; cloud flare-ups away from such regions of azimuthal organisation fail to contribute to this scenario for the overall intensification of the hurricane.

  11. Traffic flow behavior at a single-lane urban roundabout

    Lakouari, N.; Oubram, O.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Cisneros-Villalobos, L.; Velásquez-Aguilar, J. G.

    In this paper, we propose a stochastic cellular automata model to study the traffic behavior at a single-lane roundabout. Vehicles can enter the interior lane or exit from it via N intersecting lane, the boundary conditions are stochastic. The traffic is controlled by a self-organized scheme. It has turned out that depending on the rules of insertion to the roundabout, five distinct traffic phases can appear, namely, free flow, congestion, maximum current, jammed and gridlock. The transition between the free flow and the gridlock is forbidden. The density profiles are used to study the traffic pattern at the interior lane of the roundabout. In order to quantify the interactions between vehicles in the interior lane of the roundabout, the velocity correlation coefficient (VCC) is also studied. Besides, the spatiotemporal diagrams corresponding to the entry/exit lanes are derived numerically. Furthermore, we have investigated the effect of displaying signal (PIn), as the PIn decreases, the maximum current increases at the expense of the free flow and the jamming phase. Finally, we have investigated the effect of the braking probability P on the interior lane of the roundabout. We have found that the increase of P raises the spontaneous jam formation on the ring. Thus, enlarges the maximum current and the jamming phase while the free flow phase decreases.

  12. Impact of Flight Departure Delay on Airline Choice Behavior

    Taylor Tae-Hwee Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Korean aviation industry (KAI has been expanded significantly, because the Incheon International Airport opened in 2001 and low cost carriers (LCC entered the KAI market. But following the KAI's growth, flight departure delays (FDDs have increased six-fold during the past decade. In terms of these situations, this study firstly adds the FDD variable to an airline choice behavior (ACB model and secondly analyses how FDD impact the ACB. As a result, FDD is relatively less influential on ACB than other attributes. Both the flight service and available schedule are positively related to the choice of full service carriers (FSC. The analysis shows that FSCs’ allotment rate (AR is 85.3%, while LCCs’ one is 14.7%.

  13. How a fast lane may replace a congestion toll

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers a congested bottleneck. A fast lane reserves a more than proportional share of capacity to a designated group of travellers. Travellers are otherwise identical and other travellers can use the reserved capacity when it would otherwise be idle. The paper shows that such a fast...... welfare improving when demand is elastic....... lane is always Pareto improving under Nash equilibrium in arrival times at the bottleneck and inelastic demand. It can replicate the arrival schedule and queueing outcomes of a toll that optimally charges a constant toll during part of the demand peak. Within some bounds, the fast lane scheme is still...

  14. How a fast lane may replace a congestion toll

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    This paper considers a congested bottleneck. A fast lane reserves a more than proportional share of capacity to a designated group of travellers. Travellers are otherwise identical and other travellers can use the reserved capacity when it would otherwise be idle. The paper shows that such a fast...... welfare improving when demand is elastic....... lane is always Pareto improving under Nash equilibrium in arrival times at the bottleneck and inelastic demand. It can replicate the arrival schedule and queueing outcomes of a toll that optimally charges a constant toll during part of the demand peak. Within some bounds, the fast lane scheme is still...

  15. Quantifying the number of lane changes in traffic : An empirical analysis

    Knoop, V.L.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Shiomi, Y.; Buisson, C.

    2012-01-01

    Lane changes are an important aspect of freeway flow. Most lane change models are microscopic, describing whether individual vehicles/drives will change lanes, and hence are calibrated microscopically. Macroscopic validation often is restricted to the distribution of vehicles across lanes. To the

  16. Modeling merging behavior at lane drops : [tech transfer summary].

    2015-02-01

    A better understanding of the merging behavior of drivers will lead : to the development of better lane-drop traffic-control plans and : strategies, which will provide better guidance to drivers for safer : merging.

  17. Comparative analysis of dynamic pricing strategies for managed lanes.

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate and compare the performances of different : dynamic pricing strategies for managed lanes facilities. These pricing strategies include real-time : traffic responsive methods, as well as refund options a...

  18. Social dilemma structures hidden behind traffic flow with lane changes

    Tanimoto, Jun; Kukida, Shinji; Hagishima, Aya

    2014-01-01

    Aiming to merge traffic flow analysis with evolutionary game theory, we investigated the question of whether such structures can be formed from frequent lane changes in usual traffic flow without any explicit bottlenecks. In our model system, two classes of driver-agents coexist: C-agents (cooperative strategy) always remain in the lane they are initially assigned, whereas D-agents (defective strategy) try to change lanes to move ahead. In relatively high-density flows, such as the metastable and high-density phases, we found structures that correspond to either n-person prisoner dilemma (n-PD) games or quasi-PD games. In these situations, lane changes by D-agents create heavy traffic jams that reduce social efficiency. (paper)

  19. Shipping Fairways, Lanes, and Zones for US waters

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  20. MILLS B. LANE, JR. AND ENTERPRISE IN A NEW SOUTH

    Randall L. Patton

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For a century, Citizens & Southern Bank was a fixture in Georgia. In 1991, the C&S brand name disappeared in a merger with North Carolina National Bank. This was one of the bittersweet consequences of the slow, confusing swirl of bank deregulation after 1970, when institutions such as C&S simply disappeared, swallowed by the “winners” in the new competitive environment of interstate banking in the 1980s and 1990s. Even earlier, however, the Lane family had ceased to control the bank started by Mills Lane, Sr. in 1891. Mills B. Lane, Jr. was the last member of the Lane family to run C&S. After his retirement in 1973, Mills handpicked his successor and tried to retain some influence, but the bank began slipping away from the Lanes. By the early 80s, a decade before Hugh McColl’s NCNB acquired C&S, Mills Lane, Jr. was deeply alienated from the institution that had been, according to many, “Georgia’s cornerstone bank.”

  1. Impacts of wireless charging lanes on travel time and energy consumption in a two-lane road system

    He, Jia; Yang, Hai; Huang, Hai-Jun; Tang, Tie-Qiao

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to compare different energy consumption models and design a strategy to study the quantitative effects of wireless charging lane (WCL) on each electric vehicle's (EV's) link travel time. We utilize the modified energy consumption model and strategy to explore electric vehicle's electricity consumption and link travel time in a two-lane system with a WCL. The numerical results show that EVs' charging behavior on WCL will cause the drivers to execute the lane-changing maneuvers frequently and that the WCL has prominent impacts on EV's energy consumption and travel time, i.e., the capacity drops by 8%-17% while the EV's energy consumption increases by 3%-14% in the two-lane road system.

  2. Bubble departure diameter in narrow rectangular channel under rolling condition

    Xie, T.; Chen, B.; Yan, X.; Xu, J.; Huang, Y.; Xiao, Z. [Nuclear Power Inst. of China, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2014-07-01

    Forced convective subcooled boiling flow experiments were conducted in a vertical upward narrow rectangular channel under rolling motion. A high-speed digital video camera was used to capture the dynamics of the bubble nucleation process. Bubble departure diameters were obtained from the images. A bubble departure model based on force balance analysis was proposed to predict the bubble departure size under rolling condition by considering the additional centrifugal, tangential and Coriolis force. The proposed model agreed well with the experimental data within the averaged relative deviation of 5%. (author)

  3. Departure time choice: Modelling individual preferences, intention and constraints

    Thorhauge, Mikkel

    by nearly all studies within departure time. More importantly it shows that the underlying psychological processes are more complex than simply accounting for attitudes and perceptions which are typically used in other areas. The work in this PhD thesis accounts for the full Theory of Planned Behaviour......, but can also be perceived by the individuals as barriers towards participating in activities. Perceived constraints affect the departure time choice through the individual intention of being on time. This PhD thesis also contributes to the departure time literature by discussing the problem of collecting...... whether they are constrained. The thesis also provides empirical evidences of the policy implication of not accounting for other activities and their constraints. Thirdly, the thesis shows that the departure time choice can be partly explained by psychological factors, which have previously been neglected...

  4. A Queuing Model of the Airport Departure Process

    Balakrishnan, Hamsa; Simaiakis, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical model of the aircraft departure process at an airport. The modeling procedure includes the estimation of unimpeded taxi-out time distributions and the development of a queuing model of the departure runway system based on the transient analysis of D/E/1 queuing systems. The parameters of the runway service process are estimated using operational data. Using the aircraft pushback schedule as input, the model predicts the expected runway schedule and takeoff ti...

  5. The asymptotic variance of departures in critically loaded queues

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad; Mandjes, M.R.H.; Nazarathy, Y.; Whitt, W.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the asymptotic variance of the departure counting process D(t) of the GI/G/1 queue; D(t) denotes the number of departures up to time t. We focus on the case where the system load ϱ equals 1, and prove that the asymptotic variance rate satisfies limt→∞varD(t) / t = λ(1 - 2 / π)(ca2 +

  6. Impact of left lane truck restriction strategies on multilane highways in Louisiana : a literature review.

    2009-04-01

    Truck lane restriction strategies (TLRS) are a means of managing truck traffic on highways by prohibiting trucks from using certain lanes to minimize interaction between trucks and other vehicles. The purpose of this study is to review the literature...

  7. Investigating the value of time and value of reliability for managed lanes : [summary].

    2015-09-01

    Managed lanes employ various operational and design strategies to improve highway : efficiency by moving traffic to lanes that are restricted, for example, to drivers with one or : more passengers or to drivers that pay a fee. A drivers decision t...

  8. How flexible is flexible? Accounting for the effect of rescheduling possibilities in choice of departure time for work trips

    Thorhauge, Mikkel; Cherchi, Elisabetta; Rich, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    for each of these activities. We then built a stated preference experiment to infer preferences on departure time choice, and estimated a mixed logit model, based on the scheduling model, to account for the effects of daily activity schedules and their constraints. Our results show that measuring......In departure time studies it is crucial to ascertain whether or not individuals are flexible in their choices. Previous studies have found that individuals with flexible work times have a lower value of time for late arrivals. Flexibility is usually measured in terms of flexible work start time...... is not accounted for....

  9. Gap Acceptance During Lane Changes by Large-Truck Drivers—An Image-Based Analysis

    Nobukawa, Kazutoshi; Bao, Shan; LeBlanc, David J.; Zhao, Ding; Peng, Huei; Pan, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of rearward gap acceptance characteristics of drivers of large trucks in highway lane change scenarios. The range between the vehicles was inferred from camera images using the estimated lane width obtained from the lane tracking camera as the reference. Six-hundred lane change events were acquired from a large-scale naturalistic driving data set. The kinematic variables from the image-based gap analysis were filtered by the weighted linear least squares in order to extrapolate them at the lane change time. In addition, the time-to-collision and required deceleration were computed, and potential safety threshold values are provided. The resulting range and range rate distributions showed directional discrepancies, i.e., in left lane changes, large trucks are often slower than other vehicles in the target lane, whereas they are usually faster in right lane changes. Video observations have confirmed that major motivations for changing lanes are different depending on the direction of move, i.e., moving to the left (faster) lane occurs due to a slower vehicle ahead or a merging vehicle on the right-hand side, whereas right lane changes are frequently made to return to the original lane after passing. PMID:26924947

  10. Gap Acceptance During Lane Changes by Large-Truck Drivers-An Image-Based Analysis.

    Nobukawa, Kazutoshi; Bao, Shan; LeBlanc, David J; Zhao, Ding; Peng, Huei; Pan, Christopher S

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an analysis of rearward gap acceptance characteristics of drivers of large trucks in highway lane change scenarios. The range between the vehicles was inferred from camera images using the estimated lane width obtained from the lane tracking camera as the reference. Six-hundred lane change events were acquired from a large-scale naturalistic driving data set. The kinematic variables from the image-based gap analysis were filtered by the weighted linear least squares in order to extrapolate them at the lane change time. In addition, the time-to-collision and required deceleration were computed, and potential safety threshold values are provided. The resulting range and range rate distributions showed directional discrepancies, i.e., in left lane changes, large trucks are often slower than other vehicles in the target lane, whereas they are usually faster in right lane changes. Video observations have confirmed that major motivations for changing lanes are different depending on the direction of move, i.e., moving to the left (faster) lane occurs due to a slower vehicle ahead or a merging vehicle on the right-hand side, whereas right lane changes are frequently made to return to the original lane after passing.

  11. Lane changing and speed interaction on freeways : An analytical microscopic study

    Keyvan Ekbatani, M.; Grebert, V.; Daamen, W.; Knoop, V.L.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the influence of lane changing manoeuvre on the capacity, stability, and breakdown of traffic flows is a crucial issue. In a recent study, four distinct lane change strategies on freeways have been empirically found: (1) Speed Leading; (2) Speed Leading with Overtaking; (3) Lane

  12. A high accuracy vehicle positioning system implemented in a lane assistance system when GPS Is unavailable.

    2011-07-01

    The use of lane assistance systems can reduce the stress levels experienced by drivers and allow for better lane : keeping in narrow, bus-dedicated lanes. In 2008, the Intelligent Vehicles (IV) Lab at the University of Minnesota : has developed such ...

  13. 30 CFR 285.103 - When may MMS prescribe or approve departures from these regulations?

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may MMS prescribe or approve departures... CONTINENTAL SHELF General Provisions § 285.103 When may MMS prescribe or approve departures from these regulations? (a) The MMS may prescribe or approve departures from these regulations when departures are...

  14. ON THE CURVATURE OF DUST LANES IN GALACTIC BARS

    Comeron, Sebastien; MartInez-Valpuesta, Inma; Knapen, Johan H.; Beckman, John E.

    2009-01-01

    We test the theoretical prediction that the straightest dust lanes in bars are found in strongly barred galaxies, or more specifically, that the degree of curvature of the dust lanes is inversely proportional to the strength of the bar. The test uses archival images of barred galaxies for which a reliable nonaxisymmetric torque parameter (Q b ) and the radius at which Q b has been measured (r(Q b )) have been published in the literature. Our results confirm the theoretical prediction but show a large spread that cannot be accounted for by measurement errors. We simulate 238 galaxies with different bar and bulge parameters in order to investigate the origin of the spread in the dust lane curvature versus Q b relation. From these simulations, we conclude that the spread is greatly reduced when describing the bar strength as a linear combination of the bar parameters Q b and the quotient of the major and minor axes of the bar, a/b. Thus, we conclude that the dust lane curvature is predominantly determined by the parameters of the bar.

  15. Blind spot detection & passive lane change assist systems

    Surovtcev, I.

    2015-01-01

    The project goal was design and implementation of proof-of-concept for two systems that aim to tackle the blind spot problem of for the commercial vehicles: Blind Spot Detection and Passive Lane Change Assist functions. The system implementation was done using Rapid Control Prototype (RCP) hardware.

  16. Teaching "The Children of Willesden Lane." [DVD Series

    Annenberg Media, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This unique set of multimedia resources for middle and high school teachers of history, literature, social studies, and the arts, provides background, lessons, and ideas for studying and discussing the book "The Children of Willesden Lane" (2002). This book is based on the true story of Lisa Jura, a young girl who escaped Nazi persecution, as told…

  17. Evaluating transit preferential measures : Priority lanes, boarding and control strategies

    West, J.; Cats, O.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of bus service improvements such as bus lanes, allowing boarding through all doors and headway-based holding control ideally requires a simulation model that combines features of both classical analytical models and microscopic simulation. However, as the usage of such models has been

  18. Assessing air quality impacts of managed lanes : summary.

    2010-01-01

    Researchers at the National Center for Transit Research, University of South Florida, recently studied a segment of I-95 between Ft. Lauderdale and Miami to investigate the impacts of high-occupancy/toll (HOT) lanes on air quality. The project simula...

  19. Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC): NASA to FAA Research Transition

    Engelland, Shawn; Davis, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    After takeoff, aircraft must merge into en route (Center) airspace traffic flows which may be subject to constraints that create localized demand-capacity imbalances. When demand exceeds capacity, Traffic Management Coordinators (TMCs) and Frontline Managers (FLMs) often use tactical departure scheduling to manage the flow of departures into the constrained Center traffic flow. Tactical departure scheduling usually involves use of a Call for Release (CFR) procedure wherein the Tower must call the Center to coordinate a release time prior to allowing the flight to depart. In present-day operations release times are computed by the Center Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) decision support tool based upon manual estimates of aircraft ready time verbally communicated from the Tower to the Center. The TMA-computed release time is verbally communicated from the Center back to the Tower where it is relayed to the Local controller as a release window that is typically three minutes wide. The Local controller will manage the departure to meet the coordinated release time window. Manual ready time prediction and verbal release time coordination are labor intensive and prone to inaccuracy. Also, use of release time windows adds uncertainty to the tactical departure process. Analysis of more than one million flights from January 2011 indicates that a significant number of tactically scheduled aircraft missed their en route slot due to ready time prediction uncertainty. Uncertainty in ready time estimates may result in missed opportunities to merge into constrained en route flows and lead to lost throughput. Next Generation Air Transportation System plans call for development of Tower automation systems capable of computing surface trajectory-based ready time estimates. NASA has developed the Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC) concept that improves tactical departure scheduling by automatically communicating surface trajectory-based ready time predictions and

  20. Study of current and planned high occupancy vehicle lane use: performance and prospects

    Southworth, F.; Westbrook, F.

    1985-12-01

    This report details the results of a nationwide study of HOV lanes: their characteristics and performance as traffic congestion mitigating and rideshare enhancing facilities. The study took the form of telephone interviews with a variety of planning agencies in each of the 48 contiguous states and Hawaii over the period April through June 1985, with subsequent receipt of the most current documentation on regional HOV lane operations. The most up-to-date evidence on each lane's performance is presented: its hourly and peak period person throughput vis-a-vis the highway's adjacent, conventional mixed traffic lane(s), its vehicle throughput and occupancy, travel speed and travel time savings for HOVs, lane rule violation rates, lane construction and maintenance costs and accident data. Estimates are provided of the growth in ridesharing over the life of the HOV-only lanes, of the number of vehicles removed from the highway through ridesharing, and of the subsequent fuel savings attributable to HOV lane projects. The relationship between bus patronage and carpool/vanpool mode adoption is looked at, and it is concluded that both forms of HOV can do well on properly planned lanes. The authors also point out the very partial nature of the existing evidence upon which to base HOV lane project evaluation, and the subsequent difficulty associated with ''selling'' the HOV lane concept to many planners and members of the public. They identify those characteristics associated with clearly successful HOV lane projects. Finally, the current state of planning for new HOV lanes in cities around the nation is described, and the major reasons given for rejection or abandonment of HOV lane projects are discussed.

  1. Towards 400GBASE 4-lane Solution Using Direct Detection of MultiCAP Signal in 14 GHz Bandwidth per Lane

    Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Tianjian, Zuo; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee

    2013-01-01

    We report on an experimental demonstration of 102 Gbit/s transmission over a 15km single wavelength and polarization fiber link with 14GHz 3dB bandwidth. Novel multiband CAP signaling allows for a 4-lane 400GBASE long reach solution....

  2. Probabilistic assessment of roadway departure risk in a curve

    Rey, G.; Clair, D.; Fogli, M.; Bernardin, F.

    2011-10-01

    Roadway departure while cornering constitutes a major part of car accidents and casualties in France. Even though drastic policy about overspeeding contributes to reduce accidents, there obviously exist other factors. This article presents the construction of a probabilistic strategy for the roadway departure risk assessment. A specific vehicle dynamic model is developed in which some parameters are modelled by random variables. These parameters are deduced from a sensitivity analysis to ensure an efficient representation of the inherent uncertainties of the system. Then, structural reliability methods are employed to assess the roadway departure risk in function of the initial conditions measured at the entrance of the curve. This study is conducted within the French national road safety project SARI that aims to implement a warning systems alerting the driver in case of dangerous situation.

  3. Numerical solution of optimal departure frequency of Taipei TMS

    Young, Lih-jier; Chiu, Chin-Hsin

    2016-05-01

    Route Number 5 (Bannan Line) of Taipei Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) is the most popular line in the Taipei Metro System especially during rush hours periods. It has been estimated there are more than 8,000 passengers on the ticket platform during 18:00∼19:00 at Taipei main station. The purpose of this research is to predict a specific departure frequency of passengers per train. Monte Carlo Simulation will be used to optimize departure frequency according to the passenger information provided by 22 stations, i.e., 22 random variables of route number 5. It is worth mentioning that we used 30,000 iterations to get the different samples of the optimization departure frequency, i.e., 10 trains/hr which matches the practical situation.

  4. Effect of bike lane infrastructure improvements on ridership in one New Orleans neighborhood.

    Parker, Kathryn M; Rice, Janet; Gustat, Jeanette; Ruley, Jennifer; Spriggs, Aubrey; Johnson, Carolyn

    2013-02-01

    Incorporating cycling into daily life is one way to increase physical activity. This study examined the impact of building new bike lanes in New Orleans to determine whether more people were cycling on the street and with the flow of traffic after bike lanes were built. Through direct observation of one intervention and two adjacent streets, observers counted cyclists riding on the street and sidewalk, with and against traffic, before and after installation of the lanes. Data were tallied separately for adults, children, males, females, and by race for each location. There was an increase in cyclists on all three streets after the installation of the bike lanes, with the largest increase on the street with the new lane. Additionally, the proportion of riders cycling with traffic increased after the lanes were striped. Bike lanes can have a positive impact in creating a healthy neighborhood.

  5. An electric vehicle driving behavior model in the traffic system with a wireless charging lane

    He, Jia; Huang, Hai-Jun; Yang, Hai; Tang, Tie-Qiao

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a car-following model is proposed to study each EV's (electric vehicle) motion behavior near the WCL (wireless charging lane) and a lane-changing rule is designed to describe the EV's lane-changing behavior. Then, the car-following model and lane-changing rule are used to explore each EV's micro driving behavior in a two-lane system with a WCL. Finally, the impacts of the WCL on each EV's motion behavior are investigated. The numerical results show that each EV should run slowly on the WCL if it needs charge of electricity, that the EV's lane-changing behavior has great effects on the whole system, that the delay time caused by the WCL turns more prominent when the traffic turns heavy, and that lane-changing frequently occurs near the WCL (especially at the downstream of the WCL).

  6. A Precise Lane Detection Algorithm Based on Top View Image Transformation and Least-Square Approaches

    Byambaa Dorj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The next promising key issue of the automobile development is a self-driving technique. One of the challenges for intelligent self-driving includes a lane-detecting and lane-keeping capability for advanced driver assistance systems. This paper introduces an efficient and lane detection method designed based on top view image transformation that converts an image from a front view to a top view space. After the top view image transformation, a Hough transformation technique is integrated by using a parabolic model of a curved lane in order to estimate a parametric model of the lane in the top view space. The parameters of the parabolic model are estimated by utilizing a least-square approach. The experimental results show that the newly proposed lane detection method with the top view transformation is very effective in estimating a sharp and curved lane leading to a precise self-driving capability.

  7. Microscopic modeling of multi-lane highway traffic flow

    Hodas, Nathan O.; Jagota, Anand

    2003-12-01

    We discuss a microscopic model for the study of multi-lane highway traffic flow dynamics. Each car experiences a force resulting from a combination of the desire of the driver to attain a certain velocity, aerodynamic drag, and change of the force due to car-car interactions. The model also includes multi-lane simulation capability and the ability to add and remove obstructions. We implement the model via a Java applet, which is used to simulate traffic jam formation, the effect of bottlenecks on traffic flow, and the existence of light, medium, and heavy traffic flow. The simulations also provide insight into how the properties of individual cars result in macroscopic behavior. Because the investigation of emergent characteristics is so common in physics, the study of traffic in this manner sheds new light on how the micro-to-macro transition works in general.

  8. Bayesian Reasoning Using 3D Relations for Lane Marker Detection

    Boesman, Bart; Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Baseski, Emre

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a lane marker detection algorithm that integrates 3D attributes as well as 3D relations between local edges and semi-global contours in a Bayesian framework. The algorithm is parameter free and does not make use of any heuristic assumptions. The reasoning is based on the complete...... to the reconstruction process need to be taken into account to make the reasoning process more stable. The results are shown on a publicly available data set....

  9. Intelligent Lane Reservation System for Highway(s)

    Dobre, Ciprian

    2012-01-01

    Highways tend to get congested because of the increase in the number of cars travelling on them. There are two solutions to this. The first one, which is also expensive, consists in building new highways to support the traffic. A much cheaper alternative consists in the introduction of advanced intelligent traffic control systems to manage traffic and increase the efficiency of the already existing highways. Intelligent lane reservation system for highways (ILRSH) is such a software control s...

  10. Departure Queue Prediction for Strategic and Tactical Surface Scheduler Integration

    Zelinski, Shannon; Windhorst, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A departure metering concept to be demonstrated at Charlotte Douglas International Airport (CLT) will integrate strategic and tactical surface scheduling components to enable the respective collaborative decision making and improved efficiency benefits these two methods of scheduling provide. This study analyzes the effect of tactical scheduling on strategic scheduler predictability. Strategic queue predictions and target gate pushback times to achieve a desired queue length are compared between fast time simulations of CLT surface operations with and without tactical scheduling. The use of variable departure rates as a strategic scheduler input was shown to substantially improve queue predictions over static departure rates. With target queue length calibration, the strategic scheduler can be tuned to produce average delays within one minute of the tactical scheduler. However, root mean square differences between strategic and tactical delays were between 12 and 15 minutes due to the different methods the strategic and tactical schedulers use to predict takeoff times and generate gate pushback clearances. This demonstrates how difficult it is for the strategic scheduler to predict tactical scheduler assigned gate delays on an individual flight basis as the tactical scheduler adjusts departure sequence to accommodate arrival interactions. Strategic/tactical scheduler compatibility may be improved by providing more arrival information to the strategic scheduler and stabilizing tactical scheduler changes to runway sequence in response to arrivals.

  11. High lane density slab-gel electrophoresis using micromachined instrumentation.

    Papautsky, I; Mohanty, S; Weiss, R; Frazier, A B

    2001-10-01

    In this paper, micromachined pipette arrays (MPAs) and microcombs were studied as a means of enabling high lane density gel electrophoresis. The MPA provide a miniaturized format to interface sub-microliter volumes of samples between macroscale sample preparation formats and microscale biochemical analysis systems. The microcombs provide a means of creating sample loading wells in the gel material on the same center-to-center spacing as the MPAs. Together, the two micromachined instruments provide an alternative to current combs and pipetting technologies used for creating sample loading wells and sample delivery in gel electrophoresis systems. Using three designs for the microcomb-MPA pair, center-to-center spacings of 1.0 mm, 500 microm, and 250 microm are studied. The results demonstrate an approximate 10-fold increase in lane density and a 10-fold reduction in sample size from 5 microL to 500 pL. As a result, the number of theoretical plates has increased 2.5-fold, while system resolution has increased 1.5-fold over the conventional agarose gel systems. An examination of changes in resolution across the width of individual separation lanes in both systems revealed dependence in the case of the conventional gels and no dependence for the gels loaded with the micromachined instrumentation.

  12. Ship-Track Models Based on Poisson-Distributed Port-Departure Times

    Heitmeyer, Richard

    2006-01-01

    ... of those ships, and their nominal speeds. The probability law assumes that the ship departure times are Poisson-distributed with a time-varying departure rate and that the ship speeds and ship routes are statistically independent...

  13. Integration of Tactical Departure Scheduling and Traffic Flow Management, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the ATM Select topic area of Integrated Arrival, Departure and Surface (IADS) planning, this proposal addresses Tactical Departure Scheduling (TDS), which is a...

  14. An extended two-lane car-following model accounting for inter-vehicle communication

    Ou, Hui; Tang, Tie-Qiao

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we develop a novel car-following model with inter-vehicle communication to explore each vehicle's movement in a two-lane traffic system when an incident occurs on a lane. The numerical results show that the proposed model can perfectly describe each vehicle's motion when an incident occurs, i.e., no collision occurs while the classical full velocity difference (FVD) model produces collision on each lane, which shows the proposed model is more reasonable. The above results can help drivers to reasonably adjust their driving behaviors when an incident occurs in a two-lane traffic system.

  15. 77 FR 24381 - Security Zone; Passenger Vessel SAFARI EXPLORER Arrival/Departure, Kaunakakai Harbor, Molokai, HI

    2012-04-24

    ...-AA87 Security Zone; Passenger Vessel SAFARI EXPLORER Arrival/ Departure, Kaunakakai Harbor, Molokai, HI... channel's entrance during the arrival and departure of the Passenger Vessel Safari Explorer in Kaunakakai... entrance during the arrival and departure of the Passenger Vessel Safari Explorer in Kaunakakai Harbor...

  16. Arrival and Departure Patterns of Public Sector Employees before and after Implementation of Flexitime.

    Ronen, Simcha

    1981-01-01

    Examined the effects of a flexible working hours schedule on the arrival and departure times of 162 public sector employees. Results indicated that workers, when scheduling their own workday, deviate only moderately from their preflexitime arrival/departure times; and they tend to develop relatively stable arrival/departure patterns. (Author/RC)

  17. Functional Analysis for an Integrated Capability of Arrival/Departure/Surface Management with Tactical Runway Management

    Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Okuniek, Nikolai; Lohr, Gary W.; Schaper, Meilin; Christoffels, Lothar; Latorella, Kara A.

    2014-01-01

    The runway is a critical resource of any air transport system. It is used for arrivals, departures, and for taxiing aircraft and is universally acknowledged as a constraining factor to capacity for both surface and airspace operations. It follows that investigation of the effective use of runways, both in terms of selection and assignment as well as the timing and sequencing of the traffic is paramount to the efficient traffic flows. Both the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and NASA have developed concepts and tools to improve atomic aspects of coordinated arrival/departure/surface management operations and runway configuration management. In December 2012, NASA entered into a Collaborative Agreement with DLR. Four collaborative work areas were identified, one of which is called "Runway Management." As part of collaborative research in the "Runway Management" area, which is conducted with the DLR Institute of Flight Guidance, located in Braunschweig, the goal is to develop an integrated system comprised of the three DLR tools - arrival, departure, and surface management (collectively referred to as A/D/S-MAN) - and NASA's tactical runway configuration management (TRCM) tool. To achieve this goal, it is critical to prepare a concept of operations (ConOps) detailing how the NASA runway management and DLR arrival, departure, and surface management tools will function together to the benefit of each. To assist with the preparation of the ConOps, the integrated NASA and DLR tools are assessed through a functional analysis method described in this report. The report first provides the highlevel operational environments for air traffic management (ATM) in Germany and in the U.S., and the descriptions of the DLR's A/D/S-MAN and NASA's TRCM tools at the level of details necessary to compliment the purpose of the study. Functional analyses of each tool and a completed functional analysis of an integrated system design are presented next in the report. Future efforts to fully

  18. Determinants of spring migration departure decision in a bat.

    Dechmann, Dina K N; Wikelski, M; Ellis-Soto, D; Safi, K; O'Mara, M Teague

    2017-09-01

    Migratory decisions in birds are closely tied to environmental cues and fat stores, but it remains unknown if the same variables trigger bat migration. To learn more about the rare phenomenon of bat migration, we studied departure decisions of female common noctules ( Nyctalus noctula ) in southern Germany. We did not find the fattening period that modulates departure decisions in birds. Female noctules departed after a regular evening foraging session, uniformly heading northeast. As the day of year increased, migratory decisions were based on the interactions among wind speed, wind direction and air pressure. As the migration season progressed, bats were likely to migrate on nights with higher air pressure and faster tail winds in the direction of travel, and also show high probability of migration on low-pressure nights with slow head winds. Common noctules thus monitor complex environmental conditions to find the optimal migration night. © 2017 The Authors.

  19. Airport Flight Departure Delay Model on Improved BN Structure Learning

    Cao, Weidong; Fang, Xiangnong

    An high score prior genetic simulated annealing Bayesian network structure learning algorithm (HSPGSA) by combining genetic algorithm(GA) with simulated annealing algorithm(SAA) is developed. The new algorithm provides not only with strong global search capability of GA, but also with strong local hill climb search capability of SAA. The structure with the highest score is prior selected. In the mean time, structures with lower score are also could be choice. It can avoid efficiently prematurity problem by higher score individual wrong direct growing population. Algorithm is applied to flight departure delays analysis in a large hub airport. Based on the flight data a BN model is created. Experiments show that parameters learning can reflect departure delay.

  20. Patch Departure Behavior of Bumble Bees: Rules and Mechanisms

    Dale E. Taneyhill

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available I present an increment-decay model for the mechanism of bumble bees' decision to depart from inflorescences. The probability of departure is the consequence of a dynamic threshold level of stimuli necessary to elicit a stereotyped landing reaction. Reception of floral nectar lowers this threshold, making the bee less likely to depart. Concurrently the threshold increases, making departure from the inflorescence more probable. Increments to the probability of landing are an increasing, decelerating function of nectar volume, and are worth less, in sequence, for the same amount of nectar. The model is contrasted to threshold departure rules, which predict that bees will depart from inflorescences if the amount of nectar in the last one or two flowers visited is below a given level. Field tests comparing the two models were performed with monkshood (Aconitum columbianum. Treated flowers contained a descending series of nectar volumes (6 to 0 L of 30 % sucrose solution. The more nectar that bees encountered in the treated flowers, the more likely they were to remain within the inflorescence after subsequently visiting one to three empty flowers. I discuss the differences between rules and mechanisms in regard to cognitive models of foraging behavior.

  1. Real-Time Lane Detection on Suburban Streets Using Visual Cue Integration

    Shehan Fernando

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The detection of lane boundaries on suburban streets using images obtained from video constitutes a challenging task. This is mainly due to the difficulties associated with estimating the complex geometric structure of lane boundaries, the quality of lane markings as a result of wear, occlusions by traffic, and shadows caused by road-side trees and structures. Most of the existing techniques for lane boundary detection employ a single visual cue and will only work under certain conditions and where there are clear lane markings. Also, better results are achieved when there are no other on-road objects present. This paper extends our previous work and discusses a novel lane boundary detection algorithm specifically addressing the abovementioned issues through the integration of two visual cues. The first visual cue is based on stripe-like features found on lane lines extracted using a two-dimensional symmetric Gabor filter. The second visual cue is based on a texture characteristic determined using the entropy measure of the predefined neighbourhood around a lane boundary line. The visual cues are then integrated using a rule-based classifier which incorporates a modified sequential covering algorithm to improve robustness. To separate lane boundary lines from other similar features, a road mask is generated using road chromaticity values estimated from CIE L*a*b* colour transformation. Extraneous points around lane boundary lines are then removed by an outlier removal procedure based on studentized residuals. The lane boundary lines are then modelled with Bezier spline curves. To validate the algorithm, extensive experimental evaluation was carried out on suburban streets and the results are presented.

  2. Extended-Search, Bézier Curve-Based Lane Detection and Reconstruction System for an Intelligent Vehicle

    Xiaoyun Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To improve the real-time performance and detection rate of a Lane Detection and Reconstruction (LDR system, an extended-search-based lane detection method and a Bézier curve-based lane reconstruction algorithm are proposed in this paper. The extended-search-based lane detection method is designed to search boundary blocks from the initial position, in an upwards direction and along the lane, with small search areas including continuous search, discontinuous search and bending search in order to detect different lane boundaries. The Bézier curve-based lane reconstruction algorithm is employed to describe a wide range of lane boundary forms with comparatively simple expressions. In addition, two Bézier curves are adopted to reconstruct the lanes' outer boundaries with large curvature variation. The lane detection and reconstruction algorithm — including initial-blocks' determining, extended search, binarization processing and lane boundaries' fitting in different scenarios — is verified in road tests. The results show that this algorithm is robust against different shadows and illumination variations; the average processing time per frame is 13 ms. Significantly, it presents an 88.6% high-detection rate on curved lanes with large or variable curvatures, where the accident rate is higher than that of straight lanes.

  3. Effect of bubble interface parameters on predicted of bubble departure diameter in a narrow channel

    Xu Jianjun; Xie Tianzhou; Zhou Wenbin; Chen Bingde; Huang Yanping

    2014-01-01

    The predicted model on the bubble departure diameter in a narrow channel is built by analysis of forces acting on the bubble, and effects of bubble interface parameters such as the bubble inclination angle, upstream contact angle, downstream contact angle and bubble contact diameter on predicted bubble departure diameters in a narrow channel are analysed by comparing with the visual experimental data. Based on the above results, the bubble interface parameters as the input parameters used to obtain the bubble departure diameter in a narrow channel are assured, and the bubble departure diameters in a narrow channel are predicted by solving the force equation. The predicted bubble departure diameters are verified by the 58 bubble departure diameters obtained from the vertical and inclined visual experiment, and the predicted results agree with the experimental results. The different forces acting on the bubble are obtained and the effect of thermal parameters in this experiment on bubble departure diameters is analysed. (authors)

  4. Policy options evaluation tool for managed lanes (POET-ML) users guide and methodology description : Federal Highway Administration HOV lane performance

    2008-12-01

    Users guide for a sketch planning tool for exploring policy alternatives. It is intended for an audience of transportation professionals responsible for planning, designing, funding, operating, enforcing, monitoring, and managing HOV and HOT lanes...

  5. Effective public communication and marketing of high-occupancy-vehicle lanes : an agency perspective

    1997-01-01

    The Massachusetts Highway Department (MassHighway) opened the Southeast Expressway high-occupancy-vehicle (HOV) lane on November 15, 1995. The 6-mi (9.6-km) contraflow lane, open to vehicles with at least three occupants, was MassHighways third at...

  6. Nonlinear model predictive control of a passenger vehicle for automated lane changes

    Acosta, A.F.; Marquez-Ruiz, A.; Espinosa, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a nonlinear Model Predictive Control (MPC) for lane changes, based on a simplified Single Track Model (STM) of the vehicle. The STM includes the position of the vehicle in global coordinates as a state so that the position of the target lane can be specified to the MPC for

  7. Work zone simulator analysis : driver performance and acceptance of Missouri alternate lane shift configurations.

    2017-01-13

    The objective of this project is to evaluate MoDOTs alternate lane shift sign configuration for work zones. The single sign proposed by MoDOT provides the traveler with enough information to let them know that all lanes are available to shift arou...

  8. Accelerated Lane-Changing Trajectory Planning of Automated Vehicles with Vehicle-to-Vehicle Collaboration

    Haijian Bai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the complexity of lane changing using automated vehicles and the frequency of turning lanes in city settings, this paper aims to generate an accelerated lane-changing trajectory using vehicle-to-vehicle collaboration (V2VC. Based on the characteristics of accelerated lane changing, we used a polynomial method and cooperative strategies for trajectory planning to establish a lane-changing model under different degrees of collaboration with the following vehicle in the target lane by considering vehicle kinematics and comfort requirements. Furthermore, considering the shortcomings of the traditional elliptical vehicle and round vehicle models, we established a rectangular vehicle model with collision boundary conditions by analysing the relationships between the possible collision points and the outline of the vehicle. Then, we established a simulation model for the accelerated lane-changing process in different environments under different degrees of collaboration. The results show that, by using V2VC, we can achieve safe accelerated lane-changing trajectories and simultaneously satisfy the requirements of vehicle kinematics and comfort control.

  9. 75 FR 22578 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Centre Lane Trading Limited

    2010-04-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-365] Application To Export Electric Energy; Centre Lane... application. SUMMARY: Centre Lane Trading Limited (CLT) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy...)). On April 20, 2010, DOE received an application from CLT for authority to transmit electric energy...

  10. A summary of design, policies and operational characteristics for shared bicycle/bus lanes.

    2012-07-01

    This report contains the results of an investigation of the design and operation of shared bicycle/bus lanes in municipalities in the United States and other countries. These lanes are designated for use by public transit buses, bicycles, and usually...

  11. Assisted overtaking : An assessment of overtaking on two-lane rural roads

    Hegeman, G.

    2008-01-01

    At the start of the 21st century overtaking on two-lane rural roads is a major traffic safety problem. However, this dissertation research demonstrates that most drivers are perfectly able to safely perform these manoeuvres. Their time spent in the left lane is about eight seconds. Preparing

  12. 77 FR 8253 - Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: Hidden Lane Landfill...

    2012-02-14

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9631-3] Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: Hidden Lane Landfill Superfund Site ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance... (``DOJ'') on behalf of EPA, in connection with the Hidden Lane Landfill Superfund Site, Sterling, Loudoun...

  13. Taxi-Out Time Prediction for Departures at Charlotte Airport Using Machine Learning Techniques

    Lee, Hanbong; Malik, Waqar; Jung, Yoon C.

    2016-01-01

    Predicting the taxi-out times of departures accurately is important for improving airport efficiency and takeoff time predictability. In this paper, we attempt to apply machine learning techniques to actual traffic data at Charlotte Douglas International Airport for taxi-out time prediction. To find the key factors affecting aircraft taxi times, surface surveillance data is first analyzed. From this data analysis, several variables, including terminal concourse, spot, runway, departure fix and weight class, are selected for taxi time prediction. Then, various machine learning methods such as linear regression, support vector machines, k-nearest neighbors, random forest, and neural networks model are applied to actual flight data. Different traffic flow and weather conditions at Charlotte airport are also taken into account for more accurate prediction. The taxi-out time prediction results show that linear regression and random forest techniques can provide the most accurate prediction in terms of root-mean-square errors. We also discuss the operational complexity and uncertainties that make it difficult to predict the taxi times accurately.

  14. Design of a Multi-layer Lane-Level Map for Vehicle Route Planning

    Liu Chaoran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of intelligent transportation system, there occurs further demand for high precision localization and route planning, and simultaneously the traditional road-level map fails to meet with this requirement, by which this paper is motivated. In this paper, t he three-layer lane-level map architecture for vehicle path guidance is established, and the mathematical models of road-level layer, intermediate layer and lane-level layer are designed considering efficiency and precision. The geometric model of the lane-level layer of the map is characterized by Cubic Hermite Spline for continuity. A method of generating the lane geometry with fixed and variable control points is proposed, which can effectively ensure the accuracy with limited num ber of control points. In experimental part, a multi-layer map of an intersection is built to validate the map model, and an example of a local map was generated with the lane-level geometry.

  15. Departures from radiative equilibrium in stellar atmospheres grey absorption

    Cram, L.E.

    1978-01-01

    We discuss some of the consequences of departures from radiative equilibrium in stellar atmospheres. Using a discrete ordinates method we solve the radiative transfer equation in a grey atmosphere subjected to a specified distribution of mechanical heating, and determine the resulting temperature changes in LTE and non LTE conditions. We show how radiative transfer leads to temperature changes in regions that are not directly heated, and how non LTE effects lead to an amplification of the temperature rise produced by a given distribution of heating. An attempt is made to resolve a controversy surrounding the estimation of excess radiative losses in the solar chromosphere. (orig.) [de

  16. Exact Methods for Solving the Train Departure Matching Problem

    Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Bull, Simon Henry

    In this paper we consider the train departure matching problem which is an important subproblem of the Rolling Stock Unit Management on Railway Sites problem introduced in the ROADEF/EURO Challenge 2014. The subproblem entails matching arriving train units to scheduled departing trains at a railway...... site while respecting multiple physical and operational constraints. In this paper we formally define that subproblem, prove its NP- hardness, and present two exact method approaches for solving the problem. First, we present a compact Mixed Integer Program formulation which we solve using a MIP solver...

  17. Departures from the impulse approximation in deep inelastic neutron scattering

    Mayers, J.

    1989-01-01

    A new formulation of the impulse approximation (IA) in deep inelastic neutron scattering is developed. It is shown that observed departures from the IA at intermediate momentum transfers are caused by the quantum nature of the initial state rather than final state effects, as has previously been assumed and that these effects become small at high temperatures. It is also argued that final state broadening is significant for He liquids in all feasible experiments, but that in other systems the IA is approached at high momentum transfers. (author)

  18. A two-Lane model with anomalous slow dynamics

    Linford, Dan; Richards, Trevor; Pleimling, Michel

    2011-10-01

    It is known that in one-dimensional equilibrium systems with short range interactions a phase transition cannot exist at finite, non-zero temperatures. However, far from equilibrium, one-dimensional systems with local interactions can exhibit a phase transition. The ABC model, a three species model defined on a chain characterized by non-symmetric exchanges between particles, is known to possess a non-equilibrium phase transition. This model exhibits anomalous slow dynamics that we investigate in some detail using two-time quantities. In addition we discuss an extension of this model to a case where this single lane is coupled to a one-dimensional particle bath. This coupling yields an additional phase transition that we discuss in some detail.

  19. Benzole still reflux system - Dawes Lane Coke Ovens

    Hardwick, J.

    2005-07-01

    The paper describes a project carried out at Dawes Lane coking plant (in Scunthorpe, UK) to access current performance of the batch reflux system with respect to the operation of personnel and to recommend a solution to eliminate naphthalene blockage and problems previously caused by the use of hot debenzolised oil (DBO) as make-up. A successful solution was found and implemented. The benzole product now being produced is within specification and regularly achieves the composition produced by the previous hot reflux system (83% benzole, 7% naphthalene) with an addition reduction in wash oil usage of 20%. Problems of naphthalene blockages in reflux pipework have been cured. The expenses on the project were small. The paper was presented at a COMA meeting at Monckton Coke Ovens on 19 May 2005. 6 figs.

  20. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses of managed lanes on freeway facilities in South Florida

    Soheil Sajjadi

    2017-02-01

    The results of the study indicate that the percent drop in capacity for the one-lane FP site is 7.6% while the flow did not substantially change after the breakdown in the two-lane FP site. The research findings also include guidelines for simulating the breakdown events and calibrating one-lane and two-lane managed lane facilities in VISSIM microsimulation software. The Wiedemann car-following parameters (CC0 = 3.9 ft, CC1 = 1.9 s, CC2 = 26.25 ft, CC4 = −0.35, and CC5 = 0.35 provided the best fit for the one-lane FP site, while the combination (CC0 = 4.92 ft, CC1 = 1.9 s, CC2 = 39.37 ft, CC4 = −0.7, and CC5 = 0.7 parameters is recommended for the two-lane FP site.

  1. A mathematical model for predicting lane changes using the steering wheel angle.

    Schmidt, Kim; Beggiato, Matthias; Hoffmann, Karl Heinz; Krems, Josef F

    2014-06-01

    Positive safety effects of advanced driver assistance systems can only become effective if drivers accept and use these systems. Early detection of driver's intention would allow for selective system activation and therefore reduce false alarms. This driving simulator study aims at exploring early predictors of lane changes. In total, 3111 lane changes of 51 participants on a simulated highway track were analyzed. Results show that drivers stopped their engagement in a secondary task about 7s before crossing the lane, which indicates a first planning phase of the maneuver. Subsequently, drivers start moving toward the lane, marking a mean steering wheel angle of 2.5°. Steering wheel angle as a directly measurable vehicle parameter appears as a promising early predictor of a lane change. A mathematical model of the steering wheel angle is presented, which is supposed to contribute for predicting lane change maneuvers. The mathematical model will be part of a further predictor of lane changes. This predictor can be a new advanced driver assistance system able to recognize a driver's intention. With this knowledge, other systems can be activated or deactivated so drivers get no annoying and exhausting alarm signals. This is one way how we can increase the acceptance of assistance systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluating the Interference of Bicycle Traffic on Vehicle Operation on Urban Streets with Bike Lanes

    Ziyuan Pu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many urban streets are designed with on-street bike lanes to provide right-of-way for bicycle traffic. However, when bicycle flow is large, extensive passing maneuvers could occupy vehicle lanes and thus cause interferences to vehicle traffic. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate how bicycle traffic affects vehicle operation on urban streets with bike lanes. Data were collected on six street segments in Nanjing, China. The cumulative curves were constructed to extract traffic flow information including individual bicycle and vehicle speeds and aggregated traffic parameters such as flow and density. The results showed that as bicycle density on bike lanes continuously increases faster bicycles may run into vehicle lanes causing considerable reductions in vehicle speeds. A generalized linear model was estimated to predict the vehicle delay. Results showed that vehicle delay increases as bicycle flow and vehicle flow increase. Number of vehicle lanes and width of bike lane also have significant impact on vehicle delay. Findings of the study are helpful to regions around the world in bike infrastructure design in order to improve operations of both bicycles and vehicles.

  3. A case study on multi-lane roundabouts under congestion: Comparing software capacity and delay estimates with field data

    Xuanwu Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies on modern roundabouts performance are mostly based on data from singe lane roundabouts that are not heavily congested. For planners and designers interested in building multilane roundabouts for intersections with potential growth in future traffic, there has been a lack of existing studies with field data that provide reference values in terms of capacity and delay measurements. With the intent of providing such reference values, a case study was conducted by using the East Dowling Road Roundabouts in Anchorage, Alaska, which are currently operating with extensive queues during the evening peak hours. This research used multiple video camcorders to capture vehicle turning movements at the roundabouts as well as the progression of vehicle queues at the roundabout entrance approaches. With these video records, the number of vehicles in the queues can be accurately counted in any single minute during the peak hours. This study shows that unbalanced entrance flow patterns (i.e., one entrance has significant higher flow than others can intensify the queue and delay for the overall roundabouts. Then various software packages including RODEL, SIDRA and VISSIM were used to estimate several performance measurements, such as capacity, queue length, and delay, compared with the collected field data. With the comparison, it is found that all the three software packages overestimate multi-lane roundabout capacity before calibration. With default parameters, SIDRA and VISSIM tend to underestimate delays and queue lengths for the multi-lane roundabouts under congestion, while RODEL results in higher delay and queue length estimations at most of the entrance approaches.

  4. Amplitudes of solar-like oscillations in red giants: Departures from the quasi-adiabatic approximation

    Barban C.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available CoRoT and Kepler measurements reveal us that the amplitudes of solar-like oscillations detected in red giant stars scale from stars to stars in a characteristic way. This observed scaling relation is not yet fully understood but constitutes potentially a powerful diagnostic about mode physics. Quasi-adiabatic theoretical scaling relations in terms of mode amplitudes result in systematic and large differences with the measurements performed for red giant stars. The use of a non-adiabatic intensity-velocity relation derived from a non-adiabatic pulsation code significantly reduces the discrepancy with the CoRoT measurements. The origin of the remaining difference is still unknown. Departure from adiabatic eigenfunction is a very likely explanation that is investigated in the present work using a 3D hydrodynamical model of the surface layers of a representative red giant star.

  5. Reminder concerning vaccinations prior to departure on duty travel

    2006-01-01

    For many years the Medical Service has administered vaccination to any member of the personnel going on duty travel to countries with an endemic risk of disease. An appointment must be made with the medical secretariat (73186) a minimum of one month before departure. The doctors will write you a prescription for the vaccines and medicines at the time of the appointment. The vaccines and medicines will be reimbursed by your health insurance and the remaining balance by the relevant CERN Department. During the appointment you will be provided with documentation on the risks and the preventive measures to be taken. This service is offered to you but is not compulsory and you remain entirely free to choose your doctor. Please do not forget to bring your vaccination card to the appointment.

  6. Lane Changing Trajectory Planning and Tracking Controller Design for Intelligent Vehicle Running on Curved Road

    Lie Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the active safety and realize the autonomy of intelligent vehicle on highway curved road, a lane changing trajectory is planned and tracked for lane changing maneuver on curved road. The kinematics model of the intelligent vehicle with nonholonomic constraint feature and the tracking error model are established firstly. The longitudinal and lateral coupling and the difference of curvature radius between the outside and inside lane are taken into account, which is helpful to enhance the authenticity of desired lane changing trajectory on curved road. Then the trajectory tracking controller of closed-loop control structure is derived using integral backstepping method to construct a new virtual variable. The Lyapunov theory is applied to analyze the stability of the proposed tracking controller. Simulation results demonstrate that this controller can guarantee the convergences of both the relative position tracking errors and the position tracking synchronization.

  7. Effects of turning and through lane sharing on traffic performance at intersections

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2016-02-01

    Turning vehicles strongly influence traffic flows at intersections. Effective regulation of turning vehicles is important to achieve better traffic performance. This paper studies the impact of lane sharing and turning signals on traffic performance at intersections by using cellular automata. Both right-turn and left-turn lane sharing are studied. Interactions between vehicles and pedestrians are considered. The transportation efficiency, road safety and energy economy are the traffic performance metrics. Extensive simulations are carried out to study the traffic performance indices. It is observed that shared turning lanes and permissive left-turn signal improve the transportation efficiency and reduce the fuel consumption in most cases, but the safety is usually sacrificed. It is not always beneficial for the through vehicles when they are allowed to be in the turning lanes.

  8. Open Access!: Review of Online Statistics: An Interactive Multimedia Course of Study by David Lane

    Samuel L. Tunstall

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available David M. Lane (project leader. Online Statistics Education: An Interactive Multimedia Course of Study (http://onlinestatbook.com/ Also: David M. Lane (primary author and editor, with David Scott, Mikki Hebl, Rudy Guerra, Dan Osherson, and Heidi Zimmer. Introduction to Statistics. Online edition (http://onlinestatbook.com/Online_Statistics_Education.pdf, 694 pp. It is rare that students receive high-quality textbooks for free, but David Lane's Online Statistics: An Interactive Multimedia Course of Study permits precisely that. This review gives an overview of the many features in Lane's online textbook, including the Java Applets, the textbook itself, and the resources available for instructors. A discussion of uses of the site, as well as a comparison of the text to alternative online statistics textbooks, is included.

  9. Investigating the value of time and value of reliability for managed lanes.

    2015-12-01

    This report presents a comprehensive study in Value of Time (VOT) and Value of Reliability (VOR) analysis in : the context of managed lane (ML) facilities. Combined Revealed Preference (RP) and Stated Preference (SP) : data were used to understand tr...

  10. Shipping Fairways, Lanes, and Zones for US waters as of June 2013

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  11. A self-adaptive toll rate algorithm for high occupancy toll (HOT) lane operations.

    2009-12-01

    Dramatically increasing travel demands and insufficient traffic facility supplies have resulted in severe : traffic congestion. High Occupancy Toll (HOT) lane operations have been proposed as one of the most : applicable and cost-effective countermea...

  12. Safety effects of cross-section design for two-lane roads. Volume 1

    1987-10-01

    This study was intended to quantify the benefits and costs resulting from lane widening, shoulder widening, shoulder surfacing, sideslope flattening, and roadside improvements. Detailed traffic, accident, and roadway data were collected on 4,951 mile...

  13. Lane assignment traffic control devices on frontage roads and conventional roads at interchanges : technical report.

    2011-11-01

    The intersection and mandatory movement lane control signs placed on intersection approaches are critical to : safe and efficient intersection operations. Ramp, frontage road, and cross-street approaches to interchanges : often widen at intersections...

  14. Briefing paper : toward a best practice model for managed lanes in Texas.

    2013-09-01

    Over the past two decades, agencies : have increasingly implemented managed : lanes (MLs) to mitigate growing urban traffic : congestion in the United States. Multiple operating : projects : representing a combination : of HOV-to-HOT conversions a...

  15. On the origin of the dust lane in the active radio galaxies

    Morita, Kazuhiko; Sakashita, Shiro

    1979-01-01

    A simple explosion model leading to the extragalactic extended radio sources is developed to understand the origin of the dust lane seen in the active radio galaxies. The point explosion in a spheroid with inhomogeneous density distribution is investigated by taking account of the cooling effect induced by radiative energy loss. It is suggested that the morphological relation between the dust lane and double radio sources is well explained on the basis of explosion model. (author)

  16. Modelling of lane-changing behaviour integrating with merging effect before a city road bottleneck

    Lv, Wei; Song, Wei-guo; Fang, Zhi-ming; Ma, Jian

    2013-10-01

    Merging behaviour is a compulsive action in a discretionary lane-changing traffic system, especially in a system with a bottleneck. This paper aims to investigate the generic lane-changing behaviour considering the merging effect before a city road bottleneck. Thus firstly the merging behaviour is distinguished from other generic lane-changing behaviour. Combining discretionary lane-changing and compulsive merging, we developed an integrative traffic model, in which a method to calculate the lane-changing probability and the merging probability was proposed. A simulation scenario derived from real life was conducted to validate the proposed programming algorithm. Finally, a discussion on the simulation findings shows that the merging influence can be expanded and the merging behaviour can increase the probability of local traffic jamming in its affected area of the adjacent lane. The distribution of the merging distance provides fundamental insights for actual traffic management. The result of the clearance time implies the position of the incident point has a significant effect on the clearing time and it is important to ensure the end (exit) of the road is unimpeded in traffic evacuation.

  17. Image processing-based framework for continuous lane recognition in mountainous roads for driver assistance system

    Manoharan, Kodeeswari; Daniel, Philemon

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a robust lane detection technique for roads on hilly terrain. The target of this paper is to utilize image processing strategies to recognize lane lines on structured mountain roads with the help of improved Hough transform. Vision-based approach is used as it performs well in a wide assortment of circumstances by abstracting valuable information contrasted with other sensors. The proposed strategy processes the live video stream, which is a progression of pictures, and concentrates on the position of lane markings in the wake of sending the edges through different channels and legitimate thresholding. The algorithm is tuned for Indian mountainous curved and paved roads. A technique of computation is utilized to discard the disturbing lines other than the credible lane lines and show just the required prevailing lane lines. This technique will consequently discover two lane lines that are nearest to the vehicle in a picture as right on time as could reasonably be expected. Various video sequences on hilly terrain are tested to verify the effectiveness of our method, and it has shown good performance with a detection accuracy of 91.89%.

  18. 75 FR 13293 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Arrival and Departure Record

    2010-03-19

    ..., Carriers, Government Agencies, and the Travel and Tourism Industry I-94 (Arrival and Departure Record... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Arrival and Departure Record AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland...

  19. Left Unsaid: The Role of Work Expectations and Psychological Contracts in Faculty Careers and Departure

    O'Meara, KerryAnn; Bennett, Jessica Chalk; Neihaus, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Early career faculty bring many expectations to the door-steps of their new academic homes. Yet such expectations are often left unsaid. Unfortunately, what is left unsaid can be a major factor in faculty departure. This study makes a distinct contribution to the departure literature by examining the psychological contracts and work expectations…

  20. Teaching a Psychology-Based Study Abroad Pre-Departure Course

    Goldstein, Susan B.

    2017-01-01

    In response to recent research indicating that the benefits of study abroad are significantly enhanced by pre-departure training, tertiary institutions are increasingly offering pre-departure courses to students preparing to study abroad. Teachers of psychology are well positioned to contribute to such courses in that a large number of…

  1. Considering departures from current timber harvesting policies: case studies of four communities in the Pacific Northwest.

    Con H Schallau; Paul E. Polzin

    1983-01-01

    U.S. Department of Agriculture regulations permit departures from current National Forest timber harvesting policies when "implementation of base harvest schedules.., would cause a substantial adverse impact upon a community .... " This paper describes the kinds of information needed for forest managers to adequately assess the relevance of the departure...

  2. Embedded star formation in S4G galaxy dust lanes

    Elmegreen, Debra M.; Teich, Yaron; Popinchalk, Mark; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Knapen, Johan H.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert; Comerón, Sébastien; Laine, Jarkko; Laurikainen, Eija; Efremov, Yuri N.; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Kim, Taehyun; De Paz, Armando Gil; Hinz, Joannah L.; Ho, Luis C.; Holwerda, Benne; Menéndez-Delmestre, Karín; Mizusawa, Trisha

    2014-01-01

    Star-forming regions that are visible at 3.6 μm and Hα but not in the u, g, r, i, z bands of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey are measured in five nearby spiral galaxies to find extinctions averaging ∼3.8 mag and stellar masses averaging ∼5 × 10 4 M ☉ . These regions are apparently young star complexes embedded in dark filamentary shock fronts connected with spiral arms. The associated cloud masses are ∼10 7 M ☉ . The conditions required to make such complexes are explored, including gravitational instabilities in spiral-shocked gas and compression of incident clouds. We find that instabilities are too slow for a complete collapse of the observed spiral filaments, but they could lead to star formation in the denser parts. Compression of incident clouds can produce a faster collapse but has difficulty explaining the semi-regular spacing of some regions along the arms. If gravitational instabilities are involved, then the condensations have the local Jeans mass. Also in this case, the near-simultaneous appearance of equally spaced complexes suggests that the dust lanes, and perhaps the arms too, are relatively young.

  3. Improving the Lane Reference Detection for Autonomous Road Vehicle Control

    Felipe Jiménez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous road vehicles are increasingly becoming more important and there are several techniques and sensors that are being applied for vehicle control. This paper presents an alternative system for maintaining the position of autonomous vehicles without adding additional elements to the standard sensor architecture, by using a 3D laser scanner for continuously detecting a reference element in situations in which the GNSS receiver fails or provides accuracy below the required level. Considering that the guidance variables are more accurately estimated when dealing with reference points in front of and behind the vehicle, an algorithm based on vehicle dynamics mathematical model is proposed to extend the detected points in cases where the sensor is placed at the front of the vehicle. The algorithm has been tested when driving along a lane delimited by New Jersey barriers at both sides and the results show a correct behaviour. The system is capable of estimating the reference element behind the vehicle with sufficient accuracy when the laser scanner is placed at the front of it, so the robustness of the control input variables (lateral and angular errors estimation is improved making it unnecessary to place the sensor on the vehicle roof or to introduce additional sensors.

  4. SOCIO-SPATIAL INTEGRATION OF LANDSCAPE BACK LANE OF HOUSING AT BANDAR BARU NILAI: PRIVACY AND COMMUNITY

    SITI F. M. LIAS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban informal spaces in the form of back lane tend to promote socio-spatial integration between neighbourhood communities. The Back Lane Planning Design Guidelines issued in 2014 by Town and Country Planning Department of Malaysia identified back lane as such a place to encourage communal lifestyle whereas an area of owns residents privacy. In reality, back lane portrays as the wasted unfavourable paths thus several social concerns of safety, security, health issues as well as invading privacy and sense of deficiency community bonding issues arise. This study quantitatively analyses dwellers perception focusing to level of visual privacy and level of spiritual neighbourhood interaction towards effectiveness of newly landscape back lane (LBL in contemporary urban dwellings. Comparison of socio-spatial integration between two types of back lane design in grid-linear housing scheme ; the pleasing greenery landscape back lane (LBL and the plain empty bare paved back lane (PBL in residential area of Kota Seriemas, Nilai, Negeri Sembilan . Structured questionnaire distributed to 115 respondents to assess on privacy and comfort level, neighbourhood activities and communal lifestyle, back -lane usage, resident’s perception and expectation.The study proved the landscape design back lane (LBL is ensuring own right privacy lacking in promoting community interaction among the residents due to contemporary urban lifestyles.

  5. The effect of perceived mobility necessity in the choice of departure time

    Thorhauge, Mikkel; Cherchi, Elisabetta; Rich, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    is likely to affect the choice of departure time. However departure time choice is also related to the full daily activity pattern, such as a restriction or a preference in one activity may form restrictions in the flexibility of other activities and thereby affect the preference for the related departure...... time. In this paper we investigate how the latent effect of the perceived mobility necessities affects the choice of departure time. A stated choice experiment collected among workers who commute to Copenhagen center is used to estimate 9 hybrid choice models where the discrete choice of departing...... before or later than the current trip depends on the latent construct of the perceived mobility necessities. Results show that individuals who perceive they have high mobility necessity tend to prefer the current departure time, and in particular dislike departing later. However the latent variables...

  6. Natural organic matter removal by ion exchange at different positions in the drinking water treatment lane

    A. Grefte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To guarantee a good water quality at the customers tap, natural organic matter (NOM should be (partly removed during drinking water treatment. The objective of this research was to improve the biological stability of the produced water by incorporating anion exchange (IEX for NOM removal. Different placement positions of IEX in the treatment lane (IEX positioned before coagulation, before ozonation or after slow sand filtration and two IEX configurations (MIEX® and fluidized IEX (FIX were compared on water quality as well as costs. For this purpose the pre-treatment plant at Loenderveen and production plant Weesperkarspel of Waternet were used as a case study. Both, MIEX® and FIX were able to remove NOM (mainly the HS fraction to a high extent. NOM removal can be done efficiently before ozonation and after slow sand filtration. The biological stability, in terms of assimilable organic carbon, biofilm formation rate and dissolved organic carbon, was improved by incorporating IEX for NOM removal. The operational costs were assumed to be directly dependent of the NOM removal rate and determined the difference between the IEX positions. The total costs for IEX for the three positions were approximately equal (0.0631 € m−3, however the savings on following treatment processes caused a cost reduction for the IEX positions before coagulation and before ozonation compared to IEX positioned after slow sand filtration. IEX positioned before ozonation was most cost effective and improved the biological stability of the treated water.

  7. The evaluation of high occupancy vehicle lanes on Sun Yat-Sen freeway in Taiwan

    Jou, R.C. [National Chi Nan Univ., Nantou, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Weng, M.C. [Ministry of Transportation and Communications, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.C. [National Central Univ., Taiwan (China)

    2005-06-30

    Travel demand in Taiwan, particularly intercity trips, has changed in response to the significant increase in domestic trade and economic activities. Most of Taiwan's population lives and works along the western corridor because there is a mountain range running north-south along the eastern coast. The existing transportation system includes highways, freeways, rail and aviation. The average travel time from Taipei to Koahsiung by the Sun Yat-Sen freeway can vary from 4 to 8 hours or more on weekends and holidays. The current capacity of the freeway is insufficient to accommodate the increasing travel demand. Many traffic management strategies such as ramp metering control, no tolls, and no tolls for high occupancy vehicles (HOV) have been proposed to alleviate traffic congestion. The government plans to reallocate one inner lane as an HOV lane in each direction at all times. However, this would require a preference survey to assess the drivers' decisions to use these HOV lanes at all times on the highway. In this study, 2 types of latent attributes, perceptions and attitudes were defined to analyze their effects on travelers' choice of HOV lanes. Revealed preference and stated preference data were collected and considered simultaneously to fully utilize the strength of each type. Travelers' decisions were found to be a function of socio-economic attributes, travel characteristics and perceptions of alternatives. A model system was developed to comprise a discrete choice model and the latent variable model's structural and measurement equations. It was concluded that the preferred choice was for the HOV lane to be used toll-free, by vehicles with 4 or more passengers, in which the HOV lane is separated from regular lanes with a guardrail. 8 tabs.

  8. An entropy-based analysis of lane changing behavior: An interactive approach.

    Kosun, Caglar; Ozdemir, Serhan

    2017-05-19

    As a novelty, this article proposes the nonadditive entropy framework for the description of driver behaviors during lane changing. The authors also state that this entropy framework governs the lane changing behavior in traffic flow in accordance with the long-range vehicular interactions and traffic safety. The nonadditive entropy framework is the new generalized theory of thermostatistical mechanics. Vehicular interactions during lane changing are considered within this framework. The interactive approach for the lane changing behavior of the drivers is presented in the traffic flow scenarios presented in the article. According to the traffic flow scenarios, 4 categories of traffic flow and driver behaviors are obtained. Through the scenarios, comparative analyses of nonadditive and additive entropy domains are also provided. Two quadrants of the categories belong to the nonadditive entropy; the rest are involved in the additive entropy domain. Driving behaviors are extracted and the scenarios depict that nonadditivity matches safe driving well, whereas additivity corresponds to unsafe driving. Furthermore, the cooperative traffic system is considered in nonadditivity where the long-range interactions are present. However, the uncooperative traffic system falls into the additivity domain. The analyses also state that there would be possible traffic flow transitions among the quadrants. This article shows that lane changing behavior could be generalized as nonadditive, with additivity as a special case, based on the given traffic conditions. The nearest and close neighbor models are well within the conventional additive entropy framework. In this article, both the long-range vehicular interactions and safe driving behavior in traffic are handled in the nonadditive entropy domain. It is also inferred that the Tsallis entropy region would correspond to mandatory lane changing behavior, whereas additive and either the extensive or nonextensive entropy region would

  9. The effects of lane width, shoulder width, and road cross-sectional reallocation on drivers' behavioral adaptations.

    Mecheri, Sami; Rosey, Florence; Lobjois, Régis

    2017-07-01

    Previous research has shown that lane-width reduction makes drivers operate vehicles closer to the center of the road whereas hard-shoulder widening induces a position farther away from the road's center. The goal of the present driving-simulator study was twofold. First, it was aimed at further investigating the respective effects of lane and shoulder width on in-lane positioning strategies, by examining vehicle distance from the center of the lane. The second aim was to assess the impact on safety of three possible cross-sectional reallocations of the width of the road (i.e., three lane-width reductions with concomitant shoulder widening at a fixed cross-sectional width) as compared to a control road. The results confirmed that lane-width reduction made participants drive closer to the road's center. However, in-lane position was affected differently by lane narrowing, depending on the traffic situation. In the absence of oncoming traffic, lane narrowing gave rise to significant shifts in the car's distance from the lane's center toward the edge line, whereas this distance remained similar across lane widths during traffic periods. When the shoulders were at least 0.50m wide, participants drove farther away from both the road center and the lane center. Road reallocation operations resulted in vehicles positioned farther away from the edge of the road and less swerving behavior, without generating higher driving speeds. Finally, it is argued that road-space reallocation may serve as a good low-cost tool for providing a recovery area for steering errors, without impairing drivers' behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Socio-demographic impacts on lane-changing response time and distance in work zone with Drivers' Smart Advisory System

    Qing Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lane-changing behavior is an important component of traffic simulation. A lane-changing action is normally confined to a decision-making process of the task, and the action itself is sometimes assumed as an instantaneous event. Besides, the lane-changing behavior is based mostly on observable positions and speeds of other vehicles, rather than on vehicles' intentions. In practice, changing one lane requires about 5–6 s to complete. Existing lane-changing models do not comprehensively consider drivers' response to work zone lane-changing signs (or other related messages, if any. Furthermore, drivers' socio-demographics are normally not taken into account. With regard to this, fuzzy logic-based lane-changing models that consider drivers' socio-demographics were developed to improve the realism of lane-changing maneuvers in work zones. Drivers' Smart Advisory System (DSAS messages were provided as one of the scenarios. Drivers' responses, including reactions to work zone signs and DSAS messages, and actions to change lane, were investigated. Drivers' socio-demographic factors were primary independent variables, while Lane-Changing Response Time (LCRT and Distance (LCRD were defined as output variables. The model validation process yielded acceptable error ranges. To illustrate how these models can be used in traffic simulation, the LCRT and LCRD in work zones were estimated for five geo-locations with different socio-demographic specifications. Results show that the DSAS is able to instruct all drivers to prepare and change lanes earlier, thereby shortening the duration of changing lanes. Educational background and age are essential variables, whereas the impacts of gender on the output variables are indistinctive.

  11. Modeling Lane-Changing Behavior in Freeway Off-Ramp Areas from the Shanghai Naturalistic Driving Study

    Lanfang Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate lane-changing characteristics in freeway off-ramp areas using Shanghai Naturalistic Driving Study (SH-NDS data, considering a four-lane freeway stretch in various traffic conditions. In SH-NDS, the behavior of drivers is observed unobtrusively in a natural setting for a long period of time. We identified 433 lane-changing events with valid time series data from the whole dataset. Based on the logit model developed to analyze the choice of target lanes, a likelihood analysis of lane-changing behavior was graphed with respect to three traffic conditions: free flow, medium flow, and heavy flow. The results suggested that lane-changing behavior of exiting vehicles is the consequence of the balance between route plan (mandatory incentive and expectation to improve driving condition (discretionary incentive. In higher traffic density, the latter seems to play a significant role. Furthermore, we found that lane-change from the slow lane to the fast lane would lead to higher speed variance value, which indicates a higher crash risk. The findings contribute to a better understanding on drivers’ natural driving behavior in freeway off-ramp areas and can provide important insight into road network design and safety management strategies.

  12. Medical reasons behind player departures from male and female professional tennis competitions.

    Okholm Kryger, Katrine; Dor, Frédéric; Guillaume, Marion; Haida, Amal; Noirez, Philippe; Montalvan, Bernard; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    The number of retirements, withdrawals, and "lucky losers" (the replacement of a player who withdraws before the start of the tournament by a losing player from the qualifying round) from professional tennis tournaments has increased, but the reasons behind such departures have not yet been analyzed. An official consensus statement has been conducted to allow a general categorization of injuries in tennis. To determine the reasons for departure and injury rates in professional tennis. Descriptive epidemiology study. All reasons for departures were collected from official Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) and Women's Tennis Association (WTA) web pages. All tournaments apart from the 4 major competitions (the Australian Open, French Open, Wimbledon, and US Open) were included for the period 2001-2012 for men and women. Personal data, tournament information, surface, match setting, date, and reason were obtained for each departure scenario. Variations in departure and injury rates were seen throughout the season. Women left and were injured significantly more than men. Women mainly left because of thigh injuries, whereas men left mainly because of back injuries. Playing surface only had an influence on the risk of lower back injuries. Only women's departures were affected by the tournament round. A high number of departures from tournaments have occurred during the past 10 years on the ATP and WTA circuits. Injuries were the main reasons of these departures, regardless of the type of departure and player sex. The back and thigh were the main locations of injuries for men and women, respectively. © 2014 The Author(s).

  13. Comparison of Points of Departure for Health Risk Assessment Based on High-Throughput Screening Data

    Sand, Salomon; Parham, Fred; Portier, Christopher J.; Tice, Raymond R.; Krewski, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background: The National Research Council’s vision for toxicity testing in the 21st century anticipates that points of departure (PODs) for establishing human exposure guidelines in future risk assessments will increasingly be based on in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) data. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare different PODs for HTS data. Specifically, benchmark doses (BMDs) were compared to the signal-to-noise crossover dose (SNCD), which has been suggested as the lowest dose applicable as a POD. Methods: Hill models were fit to > 10,000 in vitro concentration–response curves, obtained for > 1,400 chemicals tested as part of the U.S. Tox21 Phase I effort. BMDs and lower confidence limits on the BMDs (BMDLs) corresponding to extra effects (i.e., changes in response relative to the maximum response) of 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% were estimated for > 8,000 curves, along with BMDs and BMDLs corresponding to additional effects (i.e., absolute changes in response) of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%. The SNCD, defined as the dose where the ratio between the additional effect and the difference between the upper and lower bounds of the two-sided 90% confidence interval on absolute effect was 1, 0.67, and 0.5, respectively, was also calculated and compared with the BMDLs. Results: The BMDL40, BMDL25, and BMDL18, defined in terms of extra effect, corresponded to the SNCD1.0, SNCD0.67, and SNCD0.5, respectively, at the median. Similarly, the BMDL25, BMDL17, and BMDL13, defined in terms of additional effect, corresponded to the SNCD1.0, SNCD0.67, and SNCD0.5, respectively, at the median. Conclusions: The SNCD may serve as a reference level that guides the determination of standardized BMDs for risk assessment based on HTS concentration–response data. The SNCD may also have application as a POD for low-dose extrapolation. Citation: Sand S, Parham F, Portier CJ, Tice RR, Krewski D. 2017. Comparison of points of departure for health risk assessment based on

  14. “Bus Lane Within The Area Of Intersection” Method For Buses Priority On The Intersections

    Vikovych Ihor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this article is to formalize the “special bus lanes within the area of intersection” method that allows providing buses with space-time priority at signalized intersections (mostly of the isolated type, including those with no more than two traffic lanes in each direction at the approaches to the intersection. The article establishes the limits for efficient application of this method, and describes the results of a simulation experiment conducted in the VISSIM environment to investigate the functioning of the method on an actual intersection. The most critical phase of implementation of this method is to determine the optimum length of the special bus lane at the approach to the intersection. The optimum length of special bus lanes at the approaches to isolated or coordinated intersections is determined based on the maximum length of queued vehicles which is computed using the simulation models developed in the Objective-C language. The article covers the basic characteristics of those models, their structure and building principles, and also provides the model validation results. Simulation models can be used both for determination of the optimum length of special bus lanes at the approaches to signalized intersections and for analysis of intersection performance based on the maximum length of queued vehicles.

  15. Does the Walker Lane extend through the Nevada test site region?

    Fridrich, C.; O'Leary, D.

    1993-01-01

    The southeastern terminus of the Walker Lane is poorly defined and poorly understood. Recent work in and around the Nevada Test Site (NTS) suggests the presence of a structural zone that may be an extension of the Walker Lane, and that may be continuous with the Las Vegas valley shear zone farther to the southeast. Unlike the Walker Lane, large through-going strike-slip faults have not been found in the NTS zone. Instead, the strike-slip faults present are few, are relatively short, commonly consist of diffuse fault zones, are interconnected poorly if at all, and largely appear to represent zones of accommodation between domains in which extension occurred at different times and to different degrees. However, the majority of these right-slip and left-slip faults are northwest-trending and northeast-trending, respectively, suggesting that plate motions may have played a role in the creation of these accommodation zones. An obstacle to understanding the NTS zone is that major ignimbrite sheets and calderas of the southwestern Nevada volcanic field (SNVF) formed in this zone at the height of late Tertiary tectonic activity, possibly burying much of the structural evidence. The NTS zone could represent an intersection of the Walker Lane with another major structural feature, a significant bend in the Walker Lane, or a transtensional tear that localized accommodation structures as well as the prominent late Miocene calderas of the SNVF. Ongoing field work is aimed at determining which of these and competing interpretations is best

  16. Sensor fusion: lane marking detection and autonomous intelligent cruise control system

    Baret, Marc; Baillarin, S.; Calesse, C.; Martin, Lionel

    1995-12-01

    In the past few years MATRA and RENAULT have developed an Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control (AICC) system based on a LIDAR sensor. This sensor incorporating a charge coupled device was designed to acquire pulsed laser diode emission reflected by standard car reflectors. The absence of moving mechanical parts, the large field of view, the high measurement rate and the very good accuracy for distance range and angular position of targets make this sensor very interesting. It provides the equipped car with the distance and the relative speed of other vehicles enabling the safety distance to be controlled by acting on the throttle and the automatic gear box. Experiments in various real traffic situations have shown the limitations of this kind of system especially on bends. All AICC sensors are unable to distinguish between a bend and a change of lane. This is easily understood if we consider a road without lane markings. This fact has led MATRA to improve its AICC system by providing the lane marking information. Also in the scope of the EUREKA PROMETHEUS project, MATRA and RENAULT have developed a lane keeping system in order to warn of the drivers lack of vigilance. Thus, MATRA have spread this system to far field lane marking detection and have coupled it with the AICC system. Experiments will be carried out on roads to estimate the gain in performance and comfort due to this fusion.

  17. Multi-lane Changing Model with Coupling Driving Intention and Inclination

    Jiangfeng Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering the impact of drivers’ psychology and behaviour, a multi-lane changing model coupling driving intention and inclination is proposed by introducing two quantitative indices of intention: strength of lane changing and risk factor. According to the psychological and behavioural characteristics of aggressive drivers and conservative drivers, the safety conditions for lane changing are designed respectively. The numerical simulations show that the proposed model is suitable for describing the traffic flow with frequent lane changing, which is more consistent with the driving behaviour of drivers in China. Compared with symmetric two-lane cellular automata (STCA model, the proposed model can improve the average speed of vehicles by 1.04% under different traffic demands when aggressive drivers are in a higher proportion (the threshold of risk factor is 0.4. When the risk factor increases, the average speed shows the polarization phenomenon with the average speed slowing down in big traffic demand. The proposed model can reflect the relationship among density, flow, and speed, and the risk factor has a significant impact on density and flow.

  18. Poetic Arrivals and Departures: Bodying the Ethnographic Field in Verse

    Devika Chawla

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available For decades, social research has engaged the "linguistic turn," which was considered revolutionary in the ways that scholars began to reframe reality, knowledge, and representation. Among ethnographers, this turn was robustly embraced, especially at the level of intersubjectivity, reflexivity, and positionality in field practices. More recently, the performance paradigm reframed the field, the ethnographer, and her participants as embodied persons and places with bodied terrains and topographies. In my recent ethnographic life history study about Indian women's experiences in Hindu arranged marriages, I entered my field equipped theoretically with some knowledge of and keen awareness about the positional and performative contingencies that would unravel in the field because I was working with women who had made very disparate choices from my own. However, when it arrived, my own crisis of representation was material, textual, epistemological, and theoretical. My experiences in the field radically reconfigured my relationship to ethnographic representation—the textual, the performed, and the performative. In this paper, I show my arrivals and departures in and out of theory, text, and performance as I re-envision my fieldwork as a site of bodied and embodied "material performances"—both my own and my participants'. I turn specifically to a symbolic analysis of a poem, which came upon me during fieldwork in the form of a performance text. I refer to this poem as a sideways mystory which in its poetic form allowed me to shift from an interpreter of tales to a cultural critic who wants to uncover hidden truths and provoke the audience to think about complex realities and act. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802248

  19. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" Signage Communicates U.S. Roadway Rules and Increases Perception of Safety.

    Hess, George; Peterson, M Nils

    2015-01-01

    Many global challenges, including obesity, health care costs, and climate change, could be addressed in part by increasing the use of bicycles for transportation. Concern about the safety of bicycling on roadways is frequently cited as a deterrent to increasing bicycle use in the USA. The use of effective signage along roadways might help alleviate these concerns by increasing knowledge about the rights and duties of bicyclists and motorists, ideally reducing crashes. We administered a web-based survey, using Twitter for recruitment, to examine how well three US traffic control devices communicated the message that bicyclists are permitted in the center of the travel lane and do not have to "get out of the way" to allow motorists to pass without changing lanes: "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" and "Share the Road" signage, and Shared Lane Markings on the pavement. Each was compared to an unsigned roadway. We also asked respondents whether it was safe for a bicyclist to occupy the center of the travel lane. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage was the most consistently comprehended device for communicating the message that bicyclists may occupy the travel lane and also increased perceptions of safety. "Share the Road" signage did not increase comprehension or perceptions of safety. Shared Lane Markings fell somewhere between. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage showed notable increases in comprehension among novice bicyclists and private motor vehicle commuters, critical target audiences for efforts to promote bicycling in the USA. Although limited in scope, our survey results are indicative and suggest that Departments of Transportation consider replacing "Share the Road" with "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage, possibly combined with Shared Lane Markings, if the intent is to increase awareness of roadway rights and responsibilities. Further evaluation through virtual reality simulations and on-road experiments is merited.

  20. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" Signage Communicates U.S. Roadway Rules and Increases Perception of Safety.

    George Hess

    Full Text Available Many global challenges, including obesity, health care costs, and climate change, could be addressed in part by increasing the use of bicycles for transportation. Concern about the safety of bicycling on roadways is frequently cited as a deterrent to increasing bicycle use in the USA. The use of effective signage along roadways might help alleviate these concerns by increasing knowledge about the rights and duties of bicyclists and motorists, ideally reducing crashes. We administered a web-based survey, using Twitter for recruitment, to examine how well three US traffic control devices communicated the message that bicyclists are permitted in the center of the travel lane and do not have to "get out of the way" to allow motorists to pass without changing lanes: "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" and "Share the Road" signage, and Shared Lane Markings on the pavement. Each was compared to an unsigned roadway. We also asked respondents whether it was safe for a bicyclist to occupy the center of the travel lane. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage was the most consistently comprehended device for communicating the message that bicyclists may occupy the travel lane and also increased perceptions of safety. "Share the Road" signage did not increase comprehension or perceptions of safety. Shared Lane Markings fell somewhere between. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage showed notable increases in comprehension among novice bicyclists and private motor vehicle commuters, critical target audiences for efforts to promote bicycling in the USA. Although limited in scope, our survey results are indicative and suggest that Departments of Transportation consider replacing "Share the Road" with "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage, possibly combined with Shared Lane Markings, if the intent is to increase awareness of roadway rights and responsibilities. Further evaluation through virtual reality simulations and on-road experiments is merited.

  1. Measure of departure from marginal point-symmetry for two-way contingency tables

    Kouji Yamamoto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available For two-way contingency tables, Tomizawa (1985 considered the point-symmetry and marginal point-symmetry models, and Tomizawa, Yamamoto and Tahata (2007 proposed a measure to represent the degree of departure from point-symmetry. The present paper proposes a measure to represent the degree of departure from marginal pointsymmetry for two-way tables. The proposed measure is expressed by using Cressie-Read power-divergence or Patil-Taillie diversity index. This measure would be useful for comparing the degrees of departure from marginal point-symmetry in several tables. The relationship between the degree of departure from marginal point-symmetry and the measure is shown when it is reasonable to assume underlying bivariate normal distribution. Examples are shown.

  2. Best Practices for Construction and Repair of Bridge Approaches and Departures

    2018-03-01

    Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) has experienced frequent distresses in bridge approach/departure asphalt pavements in its highway system. Commonly observed distresses include alligator cracking and rutting, which reduce roadway smoothness...

  3. Controller Design and Evaluation of Lane-Keeping-Assistance System for Motorcycles

    Katagiri, Nozomi; Marumo, Yoshitaka; Tsunashima, Hitoshi

    This study seeks to design a lane keeping controller for motorcycles and to evaluate it by computer simulation with a four-degree-of-freedom model and a rider control model. We applied the optimal control theory to the lane keeping controller as a model-based control. By examining the computer simulation with the rider-in-the-loop system consisting of the motorcycle, the controller, and the rider control model, good lane following performance is achieved without interference between the control input and the rider's input. In addition, the virtual point regulator, which compensates the lateral displacement at the virtual point ahead of the vehicle, corresponds to not only the steering torque disturbance but also the lateral force disturbance by choosing the distance to the virtual point.

  4. A Departure Time Choice for Morning Commute Considering Train Capacity of a Rail Transit Line

    Jia Feng; Baohua Mao; Zhijie Chen; Yun Bai; Minggao Li

    2013-01-01

    Every commuter utilizing urban rail transit decides the departure time from home to a station according to individual judgment for the biggest possibility to board a train as soon as possible after the arrival. Therefore, the departure time choice behavior of the commuters is complicated especially when the transport capacity of this transit line cannot meet the travel demands of its users in rush hour. This research first develops a travel cost function mainly considering the travel time to ...

  5. Understanding student early departure from a Master of Public Health programme in South Africa

    T Dlungwane

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Student departure from university without completing a qualification is a major concern in higher education. Higher Education South Africa reported that in undergraduate studies, 35% of students depart after the first year and only 15% of students who enrol complete their degree within the minimum permissible time. At postgraduate level, the departure from Masters programmes in South Africa (SA ranged from 30% to 67% in 2010. Early departure refers to students who leave an academic programme within the first semester of commencing their studies. At one SA university, there were a total of 109 first-time Master of Public Health (MPH student registrations in 2013 and 2014. By the end of the first semester in the respective years, a total of 27 students actively deregistered from the programme and 11 students did not sit the first-semester examinations, representing an aggregate 35% rate of early departure. The factors associated with early departure at the University of KwaZulu-Natal are not well understood. Objective. To understand factors associated with early departure in the MPH programme at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. Method. A mixed-methods design was implemented. Students who departed within the first semester of commencing the MPH programme in 2013/2014 were followed up. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Results. Failure to balance work and academic obligations with poor time management, stress and academic demands related to the programme, and insufficient academic progress were found to be associated with student early departure from the MPH programme. Conclusion. Student early departure from the MPH programme was influenced by multifaceted factors. Senior students can mentor new students as early as possible in their programme. The orientation block should include development activities such as time management, stress management and effective study skills to assist

  6. The Stiles-Crawford Effect: spot-size ratio departure in retinitis pigmentosa

    Sharma, Nachieketa K.; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2016-04-01

    The Stiles-Crawford effect of the first kind is the retina's compensative response to loss of luminance efficiency for oblique stimulation manifested as the spot-size ratio departure from the perfect power coupling for a normal human eye. In a retinitis pigmentosa eye (RP), the normal cone photoreceptor morphology is affected due to foveal cone loss and disrupted cone mosaic spatial arrangement with reduction in directional sensitivity. We show that the flattened Stiles-Crawford function (SCF) in a RP eye is due to a different spot-size ratio departure profile, that is, for the same loss of luminance efficiency, a RP eye has a smaller departure from perfect power coupling compared to a normal eye. Again, the difference in spot-size ratio departure increases from the centre towards the periphery, having zero value for axial entry and maximum value for maximum peripheral entry indicating dispersal of photoreceptor alignment which prevents the retina to go for a bigger compensative response as it lacks both in number and appropriate cone morphology to tackle the loss of luminance efficiency for oblique stimulation. The slope of departure profile also testifies to the flattened SCF for a RP eye. Moreover, the discrepancy in spot-size ratio departure between a normal and a RP eye is shown to have a direct bearing on the Stiles-Crawford diminution of visibility.

  7. Phenology of Honey Bee Swarm Departure in New Jersey, United States.

    Gilley, D C; Courtright, T J; Thom, C

    2018-03-31

    Departure of swarms from honey bee (Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Apidae)) nests is an important reproductive event for wild honey bee colonies and economically costly in managed bee colonies. The seasonal timing of swarm departure varies regionally and annually, creating challenges for honey bee management and emphasizing the potential for swarming behavior to be affected by plant-pollinator phenological mismatch. In this study, we first document variability in the timing of swarm departure across the large and heterogeneous geographical area of New Jersey over 4 years using 689 swarm-cluster observations. Second, hypothesizing that honey bee colonies adaptively tune the timing of swarm departure to match floral food-resource availability, we predicted that growing degree-days could be used to account for regional and annual variability. To test this idea, we used local weather records to determine the growing degree-day on which each swarm cluster was observed and tested for differences among climate regions and years. The state-wide mean swarm cluster date was May 15 (± 0.6 d), with moderate but significant differences among the state's five climate regions and between years. Use of degree-day information suggests that local heat accumulation can account for some climate-region differences in swarm-departure timing. Annual variation existed on a scale of only several days and was not accounted for by growing degree-days, suggesting little adaptive tuning of swarm-departure timing with respect to local heat accumulation.

  8. Numerical simulation of bubble growth and departure during flow boiling period by lattice Boltzmann method

    Sun, Tao; Li, Weizhong; Yang, Shuai

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The bubble departure diameter is proportional to g −0.425 in quiescent fluid. • The bubble release frequency is proportional to g 0.678 in quiescent fluid. • The simulation result supports the transient micro-convection model. • The bubble departure diameter has exponential relation with inlet velocity. • The bubble release frequency has linear relation with inlet velocity. -- Abstract: Nucleate boiling flows on a horizontal plate are studied in this paper by a hybrid lattice Boltzmann method, where both quiescent and slowly flowing ambient are concerned. The process of a single bubble growth on and departure from the superheated wall is simulated. The simulation result supports the transient micro-convection model. The bubble departure diameter and the release frequency are investigated from the simulation result. It is found that the bubble departure diameter and the release frequency are proportional to g −0.425 and g 0.678 in quiescent fluid, respectively, where g is the gravitational acceleration. Nucleate boiling in slowly flowing ambient is also calculated in consideration of forced convection. It is presented that the bubble departure diameter and the release frequency have exponential relationship and linear relationship with inlet velocity in slowly flowing fluid, respectively

  9. Departure scripts and life review of parents living with abusive adult children with mental disorder.

    Avieli, Hila; Smeloy, Yael; Band-Winterstein, Tova

    2015-08-01

    Increasing numbers of aging parents are finding themselves in the role of caregiver for their mentally ill adult child due to global deinstitutionalization policy. The aim of this article is to explore preparations for the end of life in light of the life review process among old parents of abusive children with mental disorder. Data collection was performed through in-depth semi-structured interviews with 20 parents, followed by phenomenological analysis. Five different types of departure scripts emerged: a pragmatic departure script, a burned-out departure script, a dead-end departure script, an optimistic departure script, and a violent departure script. The parents in this study tended to interpret events in their past to fit their perception of the current relationship with their child, thus connecting past, present, and future into one coherent picture. Years of extended care have led to a unique aging process which does not allow separation from the child or the development of a sense of closure that characterizes the aging process. This calls for better insights and deeper understanding in regard to intervention with such families. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Lane Changing Control to Reduce Traffic Load Effect on Long-Span Bridges

    Caprani, Colin C; Enright, Bernard; Carey, Colm

    2012-01-01

    Long span bridges are critical parts of a nation’s infrastructure network and congested traffic loading is the governing form of traffic loading. Groups of trucks travelling in conveys are created when fast-er moving vehicles, such as cars, change lane. In this research the authors investigate how the control of these lane-changing events can help reduce the traffic load effects on long span bridges. Real traffic data is used to simulate a traffic stream on a virtual road and bridge using a m...

  11. Saturation flow mathematical model based on multiple combinations of lane groups

    Racila, L.

    2016-07-01

    The ideal value of the traffic stream that can pass through an intersection is known as the saturation flow rate per hour on vehicle green time. The saturation flow is important in the understanding of the traffic light cycle and from there the understanding the Level of Service. The paper wishes to evaluate through a series of applied mathematical methods the effect of different lane grouping and critical lane group concept on the saturation flow rate. The importance of this method is that it creates a base for a signalized intersections timing plan. (Author)

  12. Studies of vehicle lane-changing dynamics and its effect on traffic efficiency, safety and environmental impact

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2017-02-01

    Drivers often change lanes on the road to maintain desired speed and to avoid slow vehicles, pedestrians, obstacles and lane closure. Understanding the effect of lane-changing on the traffic is an important topic in designing optimal traffic control systems. This paper presents a comprehensive study of this topic. We review the theory of microscopic dynamic car-following models and the lane-changing models, propose additional lane-changing rules to deal with moving bottleneck and lane reduction, and investigate the effects of lane-changing on the traffic efficiency, traffic safety and fuel consumption as a function of different variables including the distance of the emergency sign ahead of the lane closure, speed limit, traffic density, etc. Extensive simulations of the traffic system have been carried out in different scenarios. A number of important findings of the effect of various factors on the traffic are reported. These findings provide guidance on the traffic management and are important to the designers and engineers of modern highway or inner city roads to achieve high traffic efficiency and safety with minimum environmental impact.

  13. Calibration of the inertial consistency index to assess road safety on horizontal curves of two-lane rural roads.

    Llopis-Castelló, David; Camacho-Torregrosa, Francisco Javier; García, Alfredo

    2018-05-26

    One of every four road fatalities occurs on horizontal curves of two-lane rural roads. To this regard, many studies have been undertaken to analyze the crash risk on this road element. Most of them were based on the concept of geometric design consistency, which can be defined as how drivers' expectancies and road behavior relate. However, none of these studies included a variable which represents and estimates drivers' expectancies. This research presents a new local consistency model based on the Inertial Consistency Index (ICI). This consistency parameter is defined as the difference between the inertial operating speed, which represents drivers' expectations, and the operating speed, which represents road behavior. The inertial operating speed was defined as the weighted average operating speed of the preceding road section. In this way, different lengths, periods of time, and weighting distributions were studied to identify how the inertial operating speed should be calculated. As a result, drivers' expectancies should be estimated considering 15 s along the segment and a linear weighting distribution. This was consistent with drivers' expectancies acquirement process, which is closely related to Short-Term Memory. A Safety Performance Function was proposed to predict the number of crashes on a horizontal curve and consistency thresholds were defined based on the ICI. To this regard, the crash rate increased as the ICI increased. Finally, the proposed consistency model was compared with previous models. As a conclusion, the new Inertial Consistency Index allowed a more accurate estimation of the number of crashes and a better assessment of the consistency level on horizontal curves. Therefore, highway engineers have a new tool to identify where road crashes are more likely to occur during the design stage of both new two-lane rural roads and improvements of existing highways. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An Optimization Model for the Selection of Bus-Only Lanes in a City.

    Chen, Qun

    2015-01-01

    The planning of urban bus-only lane networks is an important measure to improve bus service and bus priority. To determine the effective arrangement of bus-only lanes, a bi-level programming model for urban bus lane layout is developed in this study that considers accessibility and budget constraints. The goal of the upper-level model is to minimize the total travel time, and the lower-level model is a capacity-constrained traffic assignment model that describes the passenger flow assignment on bus lines, in which the priority sequence of the transfer times is reflected in the passengers' route-choice behaviors. Using the proposed bi-level programming model, optimal bus lines are selected from a set of candidate bus lines; thus, the corresponding bus lane network on which the selected bus lines run is determined. The solution method using a genetic algorithm in the bi-level programming model is developed, and two numerical examples are investigated to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed model.

  15. An Optimization Model for the Selection of Bus-Only Lanes in a City.

    Qun Chen

    Full Text Available The planning of urban bus-only lane networks is an important measure to improve bus service and bus priority. To determine the effective arrangement of bus-only lanes, a bi-level programming model for urban bus lane layout is developed in this study that considers accessibility and budget constraints. The goal of the upper-level model is to minimize the total travel time, and the lower-level model is a capacity-constrained traffic assignment model that describes the passenger flow assignment on bus lines, in which the priority sequence of the transfer times is reflected in the passengers' route-choice behaviors. Using the proposed bi-level programming model, optimal bus lines are selected from a set of candidate bus lines; thus, the corresponding bus lane network on which the selected bus lines run is determined. The solution method using a genetic algorithm in the bi-level programming model is developed, and two numerical examples are investigated to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed model.

  16. Bifurcation of Lane Change and Control on Highway for Tractor-Semitrailer under Rainy Weather

    Tao Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed for analyzing the nonlinear dynamics and stability in lane changes on highways for tractor-semitrailer under rainy weather. Unlike most of the literature associated with a simulated linear dynamic model for tractor-semitrailers steady steering on dry road, a verified 5DOF mechanical model with nonlinear tire based on vehicle test was used in the lane change simulation on low adhesion coefficient road. According to Jacobian matrix eigenvalues of the vehicle model, bifurcations of steady steering and sinusoidal steering on highways under rainy weather were investigated using a numerical method. Furthermore, based on feedback linearization theory, taking the tractor yaw rate and joint angle as control objects, a feedback linearization controller combined with AFS and DYC was established. The numerical simulation results reveal that Hopf bifurcations are identified in steady and sinusoidal steering conditions, which translate into an oscillatory behavior leading to instability. And simulations of urgent step and single-lane change in high velocity show that the designed controller has good effects on eliminating bifurcations and improving lateral stability of tractor-semitrailer, during lane changing on highway under rainy weather. It is a valuable reference for safety design of tractor-semitrailers to improve the traffic safety with driver-vehicle-road closed-loop system.

  17. The effect of varying levels of vehicle automation on drivers' lane changing behaviour.

    Ruth Madigan

    Full Text Available Much of the Human Factors research into vehicle automation has focused on driver responses to critical scenarios where a crash might occur. However, there is less knowledge about the effects of vehicle automation on drivers' behaviour during non-critical take-over situations, such as driver-initiated lane-changing or overtaking. The current driving simulator study, conducted as part of the EC-funded AdaptIVe project, addresses this issue. It uses a within-subjects design to compare drivers' lane-changing behaviour in conventional manual driving, partially automated driving (PAD and conditionally automated driving (CAD. In PAD, drivers were required to re-take control from an automated driving system in order to overtake a slow moving vehicle, while in CAD, the driver used the indicator lever to initiate a system-performed overtaking manoeuvre. Results showed that while drivers' acceptance of both the PAD and CAD systems was high, they generally preferred CAD. A comparison of overtaking positions showed that drivers initiated overtaking manoeuvres slightly later in PAD than in manual driving or CAD. In addition, when compared to conventional driving, drivers had higher deviations in lane positioning and speed, along with higher lateral accelerations during lane changes following PAD. These results indicate that even in situations which are not time-critical, drivers' vehicle control after automation is degraded compared to conventional driving.

  18. Traffic conflict assessment for non-lane-based movements of motorcycles under congested conditions

    Long Xuan Nguyen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic conflict under congested conditions is one of the main safety issues of motorcycle traffic in developing countries. Unlike cars, motorcycles often display non-lane-based movements such as swerving or oblique following of a lead vehicle when traffic becomes congested. Very few studies have quantitatively evaluated the effects of such non-lane-based movements on traffic conflict. Therefore, in this study we aim to develop an integrated model to assess the traffic conflict of motorcycles under congested conditions. The proposed model includes a concept of safety space to describe the non-lane-based movements unique to motorcycles, new features developed for traffic conflict assessment such as parameters of acceleration and deceleration, and the conditions for choosing a lead vehicle. Calibration data were extracted from video clips taken at two road segments in Ho Chi Minh City. A simulation based on the model was developed to verify the dynamic non-lane-based movements of motorcycles. Subsequently, the assessment of traffic conflict was validated by calculating the probability of sudden braking at each time interval according to the change in the density of motorcycle flow. Our findings underscore the fact that higher flow density may lead to conflicts associated with a greater probability of sudden breaking. Three types of motorcycle traffic conflicts were confirmed, and the proportions of each type were calculated and discussed.

  19. The effect of varying levels of vehicle automation on drivers' lane changing behaviour.

    Madigan, Ruth; Louw, Tyron; Merat, Natasha

    2018-01-01

    Much of the Human Factors research into vehicle automation has focused on driver responses to critical scenarios where a crash might occur. However, there is less knowledge about the effects of vehicle automation on drivers' behaviour during non-critical take-over situations, such as driver-initiated lane-changing or overtaking. The current driving simulator study, conducted as part of the EC-funded AdaptIVe project, addresses this issue. It uses a within-subjects design to compare drivers' lane-changing behaviour in conventional manual driving, partially automated driving (PAD) and conditionally automated driving (CAD). In PAD, drivers were required to re-take control from an automated driving system in order to overtake a slow moving vehicle, while in CAD, the driver used the indicator lever to initiate a system-performed overtaking manoeuvre. Results showed that while drivers' acceptance of both the PAD and CAD systems was high, they generally preferred CAD. A comparison of overtaking positions showed that drivers initiated overtaking manoeuvres slightly later in PAD than in manual driving or CAD. In addition, when compared to conventional driving, drivers had higher deviations in lane positioning and speed, along with higher lateral accelerations during lane changes following PAD. These results indicate that even in situations which are not time-critical, drivers' vehicle control after automation is degraded compared to conventional driving.

  20. Approximate Analytic and Numerical Solutions to Lane-Emden Equation via Fuzzy Modeling Method

    De-Gang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel algorithm, called variable weight fuzzy marginal linearization (VWFML method, is proposed. This method can supply approximate analytic and numerical solutions to Lane-Emden equations. And it is easy to be implemented and extended for solving other nonlinear differential equations. Numerical examples are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the developed technique.

  1. We Have Met Our Past and Our Future: Thanks for the Walk down Memory Lane

    Wiseman, Robert C.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author takes the readers for a walk down memory lane on the use of teaching aids. He shares his experience of the good old days of Audio Visual--opaque projector, motion pictures/films, recorders, and overhead projector. Computers have arrived, and now people can make graphics, pictures, motion pictures, and many different…

  2. Operational performance of a congested corridor with lanes dedicated to autonomous vehicle traffic

    Zachary Vander Laan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the operational performance impact of autonomous vehicles (AV on a multi-lane freeway corridor with separate lanes dedicated to AV and non-AV traffic. Autonomous vehicle behavior is modeled at the macroscopic level by modifying the fundamental diagram relating hourly traffic flow and vehicle density, a step that is justified by adjusting a parameter from Newell’s car-following model at the microscopic level and transforming back to a macroscopic representation. The model is applied to the I-95 corridor between Washington, DC and Baltimore, MD during the PM peak period, where the impact of introducing a managed AV-only lane is assessed at varying penetration rates of autonomous vehicles. The results show that the overall corridor performance metrics improve with increasing penetration rates up to 30%, 40% or 50% (depending on the underlying assumptions that govern AV behavior, after which the performance deteriorates drastically. Implications of the results are discussed in light of the per-lane and aggregated metrics, and future directions for research are proposed.

  3. 112-Gbit/s × 4-lane duobinary-4-PAM for 400GBase

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Mao, B.

    2014-01-01

    Novel duobinary-4-PAM signaling is experimentally demonstrated to support a 4-lane low-latency 400GbE client side solution. Direct detection of 112 Gbps transmission over a 5 km single wavelength and polarization fiber link is achieved....

  4. The effect of varying levels of vehicle automation on drivers’ lane changing behaviour

    Louw, Tyron; Merat, Natasha

    2018-01-01

    Much of the Human Factors research into vehicle automation has focused on driver responses to critical scenarios where a crash might occur. However, there is less knowledge about the effects of vehicle automation on drivers’ behaviour during non-critical take-over situations, such as driver-initiated lane-changing or overtaking. The current driving simulator study, conducted as part of the EC-funded AdaptIVe project, addresses this issue. It uses a within-subjects design to compare drivers’ lane-changing behaviour in conventional manual driving, partially automated driving (PAD) and conditionally automated driving (CAD). In PAD, drivers were required to re-take control from an automated driving system in order to overtake a slow moving vehicle, while in CAD, the driver used the indicator lever to initiate a system-performed overtaking manoeuvre. Results showed that while drivers’ acceptance of both the PAD and CAD systems was high, they generally preferred CAD. A comparison of overtaking positions showed that drivers initiated overtaking manoeuvres slightly later in PAD than in manual driving or CAD. In addition, when compared to conventional driving, drivers had higher deviations in lane positioning and speed, along with higher lateral accelerations during lane changes following PAD. These results indicate that even in situations which are not time-critical, drivers’ vehicle control after automation is degraded compared to conventional driving. PMID:29466402

  5. Lane changing trajectory planning and tracking control for intelligent vehicle on curved road.

    Wang, Lukun; Zhao, Xiaoying; Su, Hao; Tang, Gongyou

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores lane changing trajectory planning and tracking control for intelligent vehicle on curved road. A novel arcs trajectory is planned for the desired lane changing trajectory. A kinematic controller and a dynamics controller are designed to implement the trajectory tracking control. Firstly, the kinematic model and dynamics model of intelligent vehicle with non-holonomic constraint are established. Secondly, two constraints of lane changing on curved road in practice (LCCP) are proposed. Thirdly, two arcs with same curvature are constructed for the desired lane changing trajectory. According to the geometrical characteristics of arcs trajectory, equations of desired state can be calculated. Finally, the backstepping method is employed to design a kinematic trajectory tracking controller. Then the sliding-mode dynamics controller is designed to ensure that the motion of the intelligent vehicle can follow the desired velocity generated by kinematic controller. The stability of control system is proved by Lyapunov theory. Computer simulation demonstrates that the desired arcs trajectory and state curves with B-spline optimization can meet the requirements of LCCP constraints and the proposed control schemes can make tracking errors to converge uniformly.

  6. Inner-Outer Lane Advantage in Olympic 1000 Meter Speed Skating

    Kamst, Richard; Kuper, Gerard H.; Sierksma, Gerard; Talsma, Bertus G.

    During the Olympic Games and the World Championships Single Distances the 1000m is skated by every skater only one time. However, there may be a difference in skating a 1000m race with a start in the inner and the outer lane that introduces an externality that introduces unfairness. We show that

  7. Microscopic Model of Automobile Lane-changing Virtual Desire Trajectory by Spline Curves

    Yulong Pei

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available With the development of microscopic traffic simulation models, they have increasingly become an important tool for transport system analysis and management, which assist the traffic engineer to investigate and evaluate the performance of transport network systems. Lane-changing model is a vital component in any traffic simulation model, which could improve road capacity and reduce vehicles delay so as to reduce the likelihood of congestion occurrence. Therefore, this paper addresses the virtual desire trajectory, a vital part to investigate the behaviour divided into four phases. Based on the boundary conditions, β-spline curves and the corresponding reverse algorithm are introduced firstly. Thus, the relation between the velocity and length of lane-changing is constructed, restricted by the curvature, steering velocity and driving behaviour. Then the virtual desire trajectory curves are presented by Matlab and the error analysis results prove that this proposed description model has higher precision in automobile lane-changing process reconstruction, compared with the surveyed result. KEY WORDS: traffic simulation, lane-changing model, virtual desire trajectory, β-spline curves, driving behaviour

  8. An Abstract Model for Proving Safety of Multi-lane Traffic Manoeuvres

    Hilscher, Martin; Linker, Sven; Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    on the view of each car. To guarantee safety, we present two variants of a lane-change controller, one with perfect knowledge of the safety envelopes of neighbouring cars and one which takes only the size of the neighbouring cars into account. Based on these controllers we provide a local safety proof...

  9. Empirical analysis of an in-car speed, headway and lane use Advisory system

    Schakel, W.J.; Van Arem, B.; Van Lint, J.W.C.

    2014-01-01

    For a recently developed in-car speed, headway and lane use advisory system, this paper investigates empirically advice validity (advice given in correct traffic circumstances), credibility (advice logical to drivers) and frequency. The system has been developed to optimize traffic flow by giving

  10. CityMobil : Human factor issues regarding highly automated vehicles on eLane

    Toffetti, A.; Wilschut, E.S.; Martens, M.H.; Schieben, A.; Rambaldini, A.; Merat, N.; Flemisch, F.

    2009-01-01

    There are several human factor concerns with highly autonomous or semiautonomous driving, such as transition of control, loss of skill, and dealing with automated system errors. Four CityMobil experiments studied the eLane concept for dual-mode cars, and the results of one are described. The open

  11. Quantitative analysis of pedestrian safety at uncontrolled multi-lane mid-block crosswalks in China.

    Zhang, Cunbao; Zhou, Bin; Chen, Guojun; Chen, Feng

    2017-11-01

    A lot of pedestrian-vehicle crashes at mid-block crosswalks severely threaten pedestrian's safety around the world. The situations are even worse in China due to low yielding rate of vehicles at crosswalks. In order to quantitatively analyze pedestrian's safety at multi-lane mid-block crosswalks, the number of pedestrian-vehicle conflicts was utilized to evaluate pedestrian's accident risk. Five mid-block crosswalks (Wuhan, China) were videoed to collect data of traffic situation and pedestrian-vehicle conflicts, and the quantity and spatial distribution of pedestrian-vehicle conflicts at multi-lane mid-block crosswalk were analyzed according to lane-based post-encroachment time(LPET). Statistical results indicate that conflicts are mainly concentrated in lane3 and lane6. Percentage of conflict of each lane numbered from 1 to 6 respectively are 4.1%, 13.1%, 19.8%, 8.4%, 19.0%, 28.1%. Conflict rate under different crossing strategies are also counted. Moreover, an order probit (OP) model of pedestrian-vehicle conflict analysis (PVCA) was built to find out the contributions corresponding to those factors (such as traffic volume, vehicle speed, pedestrian crossing behavior, pedestrian refuge, etc.) to pedestrian-vehicle conflicts. The results show that: pedestrian refuge have positive effects on pedestrian safety; on the other hand, high vehicle speed, high traffic volume, rolling gap crossing pattern, and larger pedestrian platoon have negative effects on pedestrian safety. Based on our field observation and PVCA model, the number of conflicts will rise by 2% while the traffic volume increases 200 pcu/h; similarly, if the vehicle speed increases 5km/h, the number of conflicts will rise by 12% accordingly. The research results could be used to evaluate pedestrian safety at multi-lane mid-block crosswalks, and useful to improve pedestrian safety by means of pedestrian safety education, pedestrian refuge setting, vehicle speed limiting, and so on. Copyright © 2017

  12. Making Bengali Brick Lane: claiming and contesting space in East London.

    Alexander, Claire

    2011-06-01

    Based on a recent empirical project on 'the Bengal diaspora', the paper explores the construction and contestation of meanings around the iconic East London street, Brick Lane. Taking the 2006 protests around the film Brick Lane as its starting point, the paper draws on original interviews conducted in 2008 with a range of Bengali community representatives, to examine the narratives of space, community and belonging that emerge around the idea of Brick Lane as the 'cultural heartland' of the British Bangladeshi community. By exploring the representation, production and contestation of 'social space' through everyday practices, the paper engages with and contests the representation of minority ethnic 'communities' in the context of contemporary multicultural London and examines the process of 'claiming' and 'making' space in East London. In so doing, the paper contributes to a critical tradition that challenges essentialising and pathologizing accounts of ethnic communities and racialized spaces, or that places them outside of broader social and historical processes - redolent, for example, in contemporary discussions about 'parallel lives' or 'the clash of civilizations'. By contrast, this paper views social space as made through movement and narration, with a particular emphasis on the social agency of local Bengali inhabitants and the multiple meanings that emerge from within this 'imagined community'. However, rather than simply stressing the unfinished and processual nature of spatial meanings, the paper insists on the historical, embodied and affective dimensions of such meaning making, and a reckoning with the broader social and political landscape within which such meanings take shape. The focus on Brick Lane provides an empirically rich, geographically and historically located lens through which to explore the complex role of ethnicity as a marker of social space and of spatial practices of resistance and identity. By exploring Bengali Brick Lane through

  13. A bi-objective integer programming model for partly-restricted flight departure scheduling.

    Zhong, Han; Guan, Wei; Zhang, Wenyi; Jiang, Shixiong; Fan, Lingling

    2018-01-01

    The normal studies on air traffic departure scheduling problem (DSP) mainly deal with an independent airport in which the departure traffic is not affected by surrounded airports, which, however, is not a consistent case. In reality, there still exist cases where several commercial airports are closely located and one of them possesses a higher priority. During the peak hours, the departure activities of the lower-priority airports are usually required to give way to those of higher-priority airport. These giving-way requirements can inflict a set of changes on the modeling of departure scheduling problem with respect to the lower-priority airports. To the best of our knowledge, studies on DSP under this condition are scarce. Accordingly, this paper develops a bi-objective integer programming model to address the flight departure scheduling of the partly-restricted (e.g., lower-priority) one among several adjacent airports. An adapted tabu search algorithm is designed to solve the current problem. It is demonstrated from the case study of Tianjin Binhai International Airport in China that the proposed method can obviously improve the operation efficiency, while still realizing superior equity and regularity among restricted flows.

  14. Modeling mechanical restriction differences between car and heavy truck in two-lane cellular automata traffic flow model

    Li, Xin; Li, Xingang; Xiao, Yao; Jia, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Real traffic is heterogeneous with car and truck. Due to mechanical restrictions, the car and the truck have different limited deceleration capabilities, which are important factors in safety driving. This paper extends the single lane safety driving (SD) model with limited deceleration capability to two-lane SD model, in which car-truck heterogeneous traffic is considered. A car has a larger limited deceleration capability while a heavy truck has a smaller limited deceleration capability as a result of loaded goods. Then the safety driving conditions are different as the types of the following and the leading vehicles vary. In order to eliminate the well-known plug in heterogeneous two-lane traffic, it is assumed that heavy truck has active deceleration behavior when the heavy truck perceives the forming plug. The lane-changing decisions are also determined by the safety driving conditions. The fundamental diagram, spatiotemporal diagram, and lane-changing frequency were investigated to show the effect of mechanical restriction on heterogeneous traffic flow. It was shown that there would be still three traffic phases in heterogeneous traffic condition; the active deceleration of the heavy truck could well eliminate the plug; the lane-changing frequency was low in synchronized flow; the flow and velocity would decrease as the proportion of heavy truck grows or the limited deceleration capability of heavy truck drops; and the flow could be improved with lane control measures.

  15. An investigation of merging and diverging cars on a multi-lane road using a cellular automation model

    Jetto, K.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we have investigated two observed situations in a multi-lane road. The first one concerns a fast merging vehicle. The second situation is related to the case of a fast vehicle leaving the fastest lane back into the slowest lane and targeting a specific way out. We are interested in the relaxation time τ, i.e., which is the time that the merging (diverging) vehicle spends before reaching the desired lane. Using analytical treatment and numerical simulations for the NaSch model, we have found two states, namely, the free state in which the merging (diverging) vehicle reaches the desired lane, and the trapped state in which τ diverges. We have established phase diagrams for several values of the braking probability. In the second situation, we have shown that diverging from the fast lane targeting a specific way out is not a simple task. Even if the diverging vehicle is in the free phase, two different states can be distinguished. One is the critical state, in which the diverging car can probably reach the desired way out. The other is the safe state, in which the diverging car can surely reach the desired way out. In order to be in the safe state, we have found that the driver of the diverging car must know the critical distance (below which the way out will be out of his reach) in each lane. Furthermore, this critical distance depends on the density of cars, and it follows an exponential law.

  16. Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC) Overview and Results: NASA to FAA Research Transition

    Engelland, Shawn; Davis, Tom.

    2013-01-01

    NASA researchers developed the Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC) concept to improve the tactical departure scheduling process. The PDRC system is comprised of: 1) a surface automation system that computes ready time predictions and departure runway assignments, 2) an en route scheduling automation tool that uses this information to estimate ascent trajectories to the merge point and computes release times and, 3) an interface that provides two-way communication between the two systems. To minimize technology transfer issues and facilitate its adoption by TMCs and Frontline Managers (FLM), NASA developed the PDRC prototype using the Surface Decision Support System (SDSS) for the Tower surface automation tool, a research version of the FAA TMA (RTMA) for en route automation tool and a digital interface between the two DSTs to facilitate coordination.

  17. A Study of Commuters’ Decision-Making When Delaying Departure for Work-Home Trips

    Que, Fangjie; Wang, Wei

    2017-12-01

    Studies on the travel behaviors and patterns of residents are important to the arrangement of urban layouts and urban traffic planning. However, research on the characteristics of the decision-making behavior regarding departure time is not fully expanded yet. In this paper, the research focuses on commuters’ decision-making behavior regarding departure delay. According to the 2013 travel survey data of Suzhou City, a nested logit (NL) model was built to represent the probabilities of individual choices. Parameter calibration was conducted, so that the significant factors influencing the departure delay were obtained. Ultimately, the results of the NL model indicated that it performed better and with higher precision, compared to the traditional multinomial logit (MNL) model.

  18. Identifying Key Issues and Potential Solutions for Integrated Arrival, Departure, Surface Operations by Surveying Stakeholder Preferences

    Aponso, Bimal; Coppenbarger, Richard A.; Jung, Yoon; Quon, Leighton; Lohr, Gary; O’Connor, Neil; Engelland, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) collaborates with the FAA and industry to provide concepts and technologies that enhance the transition to the next-generation air-traffic management system (NextGen). To facilitate this collaboration, ARMD has a series of Airspace Technology Demonstration (ATD) sub-projects that develop, demonstrate, and transitions NASA technologies and concepts for implementation in the National Airspace System (NAS). The second of these sub-projects, ATD-2, is focused on the potential benefits to NAS stakeholders of integrated arrival, departure, surface (IADS) operations. To determine the project objectives and assess the benefits of a potential solution, NASA surveyed NAS stakeholders to understand the existing issues in arrival, departure, and surface operations, and the perceived benefits of better integrating these operations. NASA surveyed a broad cross-section of stakeholders representing the airlines, airports, air-navigation service providers, and industry providers of NAS tools. The survey indicated that improving the predictability of flight times (schedules) could improve efficiency in arrival, departure, and surface operations. Stakeholders also mentioned the need for better strategic and tactical information on traffic constraints as well as better information sharing and a coupled collaborative planning process that allows stakeholders to coordinate IADS operations. To assess the impact of a potential solution, NASA sketched an initial departure scheduling concept and assessed its viability by surveying a select group of stakeholders for a second time. The objective of the departure scheduler was to enable flights to move continuously from gate to cruise with minimal interruption in a busy metroplex airspace environment using strategic and tactical scheduling enhanced by collaborative planning between airlines and service providers. The stakeholders agreed that this departure concept could improve schedule

  19. Extracting message inter-departure time distributions from the human electroencephalogram.

    Bratislav Mišić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The complex connectivity of the cerebral cortex is a topic of much study, yet the link between structure and function is still unclear. The processing capacity and throughput of information at individual brain regions remains an open question and one that could potentially bridge these two aspects of neural organization. The rate at which information is emitted from different nodes in the network and how this output process changes under different external conditions are general questions that are not unique to neuroscience, but are of interest in multiple classes of telecommunication networks. In the present study we show how some of these questions may be addressed using tools from telecommunications research. An important system statistic for modeling and performance evaluation of distributed communication systems is the time between successive departures of units of information at each node in the network. We describe a method to extract and fully characterize the distribution of such inter-departure times from the resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG. We show that inter-departure times are well fitted by the two-parameter Gamma distribution. Moreover, they are not spatially or neurophysiologically trivial and instead are regionally specific and sensitive to the presence of sensory input. In both the eyes-closed and eyes-open conditions, inter-departure time distributions were more dispersed over posterior parietal channels, close to regions which are known to have the most dense structural connectivity. The biggest differences between the two conditions were observed at occipital sites, where inter-departure times were significantly more variable in the eyes-open condition. Together, these results suggest that message departure times are indicative of network traffic and capture a novel facet of neural activity.

  20. Stories of staying and leaving: A mixed methods analysis of biology undergraduate choice, persistence, and departure

    Lang, Sarah Adrienne

    Using a sequential, explanatory mixed methods design, this dissertation study compared students who persist in the biology major (persisters) with students who leave the biology major (switchers) in terms of how their pre-college experiences, college biology experiences, and biology performance figured into their choice of biology and their persistence in or departure from the biology major. This study combined (1) quantitative comparisons of biology persisters and switchers via a questionnaire developed for the study and survival analysis of a larger population of biology freshmen with (2) qualitative comparison of biology switchers and persisters via semi-structured life story interviews and homogenous focus groups. 319 students (207 persisters and 112 switchers) participated in the questionnaire and 36 students (20 persisters and 16 switchers) participated in life story and focus group interviews. All participants were undergraduates who entered The University of Texas at Austin as biology freshmen in the fall semesters of 2000 through 2004. Findings of this study suggest: (1) Regardless of eventual major, biology students enter college with generally the same suite of experiences, sources of personal encouragement, and reasons for choosing the biology major; (2) Despite the fact that they have also had poor experiences in the major, biology persisters do not actively decide to stay in the biology major; they simply do not leave; (3) Based upon survival analysis, biology students are most at-risk of leaving the biology major during the first two years of college and if they are African-American or Latino, women, or seeking a Bachelor of Arts degree (rather than a Bachelor of Science); (4) Biology switchers do not leave biology due to preference for other disciplines; they leave due to difficulties or dissatisfaction with aspects of the biology major, including their courses, faculty, and peers; (5) Biology performance has a differential effect on persistence in

  1. GoGene: gene annotation in the fast lane.

    Plake, Conrad; Royer, Loic; Winnenburg, Rainer; Hakenberg, Jörg; Schroeder, Michael

    2009-07-01

    High-throughput screens such as microarrays and RNAi screens produce huge amounts of data. They typically result in hundreds of genes, which are often further explored and clustered via enriched GeneOntology terms. The strength of such analyses is that they build on high-quality manual annotations provided with the GeneOntology. However, the weakness is that annotations are restricted to process, function and location and that they do not cover all known genes in model organisms. GoGene addresses this weakness by complementing high-quality manual annotation with high-throughput text mining extracting co-occurrences of genes and ontology terms from literature. GoGene contains over 4,000,000 associations between genes and gene-related terms for 10 model organisms extracted from more than 18,000,000 PubMed entries. It does not cover only process, function and location of genes, but also biomedical categories such as diseases, compounds, techniques and mutations. By bringing it all together, GoGene provides the most recent and most complete facts about genes and can rank them according to novelty and importance. GoGene accepts keywords, gene lists, gene sequences and protein sequences as input and supports search for genes in PubMed, EntrezGene and via BLAST. Since all associations of genes to terms are supported by evidence in the literature, the results are transparent and can be verified by the user. GoGene is available at http://gopubmed.org/gogene.

  2. First motorcycle-exclusive lane (Motovia) in Colombia: perceptions of users in Cali, 2012-2013.

    Osorio-Cuéllar, Gisel V; Pacichana-Quinayaz, Sara G; Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco J; Fandiño-Losada, Andrés; Jaramillo-Molina, Ciro; Gutiérrez-Martínez, María I

    2017-06-01

    This study's goal was to evaluate the pilot exclusive lane for motorcycles (Motovía) in Cali, Colombia, from the perception of its users in 2012-2013. A cross-sectional study using roadside surveys plus a qualitative component of individual semi-structured interviews was carried out. Road users' perceptions were investigated before and after implementation of lane dividers (LD) and were compared with other roads in the city. Perceptions were compared using chi-square tests. In the study, 293 motorcyclists, 111 cyclists, and 115 automobile drivers were interviewed. Following the installation of the LD, the majority of motorcyclists and cyclists reported that LD made easier the driving maneuvers and decreased travel time, in contrast to perceptions of automobile drivers (p motorcycles. Further research about vulnerable road users' infrastructure is required.

  3. Simulation of three lanes one-way freeway in low visibility weather by possible traffic accidents

    Pang, Ming-bao; Zheng, Sha-sha; Cai, Zhang-hui

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the traffic impact of low visibility weather on a freeway including the fraction of real vehicle rear-end accidents and road traffic capacity. Based on symmetric two-lane Nagel-Schreckenberg (STNS) model, a cellular automaton model of three-lane freeway mainline with the real occurrence of rear-end accidents in low visibility weather, which considers delayed reaction time and deceleration restriction, was established with access to real-time traffic information of intelligent transportation system (ITS). The characteristics of traffic flow in different visibility weather were discussed via the simulation experiments. The results indicate that incoming flow control (decreasing upstream traffic volume) and inputting variable speed limits (VSL) signal are effective in accident reducing and road actual traffic volume's enhancing. According to different visibility and traffic demand the appropriate control strategies should be adopted in order to not only decrease the probability of vehicle accidents but also avoid congestion.

  4. Lane-Level Vehicle Trajectory Reckoning for Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure System

    Yinsong Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a lane-level positioning method by trajectory reckoning without Global Positioning System (GPS equipment in the environment of Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure System (CVIS. Firstly, the accuracy requirements of vehicle position in CVIS applications and the applicability of GPS positioning methods were analyzed. Then, a trajectory reckoning method based on speed and steering data from vehicle’s Control Area Network (CAN and roadside calibration facilities was proposed, which consists of three critical models, including real-time estimation of steering angle and vehicle direction, vehicle movement reckoning, and wireless calibration. Finally, the proposed method was validated through simulation and field tests under a variety of traffic conditions. Results show that the accuracy of the reckoned vehicle position can reach the lane level and match the requirements of common CVIS applications.

  5. Evaluating lane-by-lane gap-out based signal control for isolated intersection under stop-line, single and multiple advance detection systems

    Chandan Keerthi Kancharla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In isolated intersection’s actuated signal control, inductive loop detector layout plays a crucial role in providingthe vehicle information to the signal controller. Based on vehicle actuations at the detector, the green time is extended till a pre-defined threshold gap-out occurs. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA proposed various guidelines for detec-tor layouts on low-speed and high-speed approaches. This paper proposes single and multiple advance detection schemes for low-speed traffic movements, that utilizes vehicle actuations from advance detectors located upstream of the stop-line, which are able to detect spill-back queues. The proposed detection schemes operate with actuated signal control based on lane-by-lane gap-out criteria. The performance of the proposed schemes is compared with FHWA’s stop-line and single advance detection schemes in the VISSIM simulation tool. Results have shown that the proposed single advance detection schemes showed improved performance in reducing travel time delay and average number of stops per vehicle under low volumes while the multiple advance detection scheme performed well under high volumes.

  6. 40 Gb/s Lane Rate NG-PON using Electrical/Optical Duobinary, PAM-4 and Low Complex Equalizations

    Wei, J. L.; Grobe, Klaus; Wagner, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    We present the first numerical investigation and comparison of 40-Gb/s lane rate electrical Duobinary, optical Duobinary and PAM-4 for NG-PONs incorporating low complex linear and nonlinear post-equalizations.......We present the first numerical investigation and comparison of 40-Gb/s lane rate electrical Duobinary, optical Duobinary and PAM-4 for NG-PONs incorporating low complex linear and nonlinear post-equalizations....

  7. Is improved lane keeping during cognitive load caused by increased physical arousal or gaze concentration toward the road center?

    Li, Penghui; Markkula, Gustav; Li, Yibing; Merat, Natasha

    2018-08-01

    Driver distraction is one of the main causes of motor-vehicle accidents. However, the impact on traffic safety of tasks that impose cognitive (non-visual) distraction remains debated. One particularly intriguing finding is that cognitive load seems to improve lane keeping performance, most often quantified as reduced standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP). The main competing hypotheses, supported by current empirical evidence, suggest that cognitive load improves lane keeping via either increased physical arousal, or higher gaze concentration toward the road center, but views are mixed regarding if, and how, these possible mediators influence lane keeping performance. Hence, a simulator study was conducted, with participants driving on a straight city road section whilst completing a cognitive task at different levels of difficulty. In line with previous studies, cognitive load led to increased physical arousal, higher gaze concentration toward the road center, and higher levels of micro-steering activity, accompanied by improved lane keeping performance. More importantly, during the high cognitive task, both physical arousal and gaze concentration changed earlier in time than micro-steering activity, which in turn changed earlier than lane keeping performance. In addition, our results did not show a significant correlation between gaze concentration and physical arousal on the level of individual task recordings. Based on these findings, various multilevel models for micro-steering activity and lane keeping performance were conducted and compared, and the results suggest that all of the mechanisms proposed by existing hypotheses could be simultaneously involved. In other words, it is suggested that cognitive load leads to: (i) an increase in arousal, causing increased micro-steering activity, which in turn improves lane keeping performance, and (ii) an increase in gaze concentration, causing lane keeping improvement through both (a) further increased micro

  8. Egocentric framing - one way people may fail in a switch dilemma: evidence from excessive lane switching.

    Navon, David; Kaplan, Todd R; Kasten, Ronen

    2013-11-01

    To study switching behavior, an experiment mimicking the state of a driver on the road was conducted. In each trial participants were given a chance to switch lanes. Despite the fact that lane switching had no sound rational basis, participants often switched lanes when the speed of driving in their lane on the previous trial was relatively slow. That tendency was discerned even when switching behavior had been sparsely reinforced, and was especially marked in almost a third of the participants, who manifested it consistently. The findings illustrate a type of behavior occurring in various contexts (e.g., stocks held in a portfolio, conduct pertinent for residual life expectancy, supermarket queues). We argue that this behavior may be due to a fallacy reminiscent of that arising in the well-known "envelopes problem", in which each of two players holds a sum of money of which she knows nothing about except that it is either half or twice the amount held by the other player. Players may be paradoxically tempted to exchange assets, since an exchange fallaciously appears to always yield an expected value greater than whatever is regarded as the player's present assets. We argue that the fallacy is due to egocentrically framing the problem as if the "amount I have" is definite, albeit unspecified, and shows that framing the paradox acentrically instead eliminates the incentive to exchange assets. A possible psychological source for the human disposition to frame problems in a way that inflates expected gain is discussed. Finally, a heuristic meant to avert the source of the fallacy is proposed. © 2013.

  9. Lie Group Classification of a Generalized Lane-Emden Type System in Two Dimensions

    Motlatsi Molati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to perform a complete Lie symmetry classification of a generalized Lane-Emden type system in two dimensions which models many physical phenomena in biological and physical sciences. The classical approach of group classification is employed for classification. We show that several cases arise in classifying the arbitrary parameters, the forms of which include amongst others the power law nonlinearity, and exponential and quadratic forms.

  10. A Numerical Method for Lane-Emden Equations Using Hybrid Functions and the Collocation Method

    Changqing Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical method to solve Lane-Emden equations as singular initial value problems is presented in this work. This method is based on the replacement of unknown functions through a truncated series of hybrid of block-pulse functions and Chebyshev polynomials. The collocation method transforms the differential equation into a system of algebraic equations. It also has application in a wide area of differential equations. Corresponding numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method.

  11. Promoting International Energy Security. Volume 3: Sea-Lanes to Asia

    2012-01-01

    set off tsunamis, as occurred in the Indian Ocean on December 26, 2004, when an earthquake and tsunami killed over 225,000 people. Natural events...in Somalia, the ability to counter the menagerie of gangs that currently plough the seas off the Horn of Africa will be minimal. Further, the...Promoting International Energy Security: Volume 3, Sea-Lanes to Asia sunk several Vietnamese ships, killing 70 Vietnamese sailors (EIA, 2008b). As states

  12. Experimental study of the vehicle dynamics behavior during lane changing in different speeds

    Heerwan, P. M.; Asyraf, S. M.; Efistein, A. N.; Seah, C. H.; Zikri, J. M.; Syawahieda, J. N.

    2017-10-01

    During lane changing, the speed of the vehicle is related to the stability of the vehicle. If the driver changes the lane at a high speed, the vehicle will lose its stability and it can increase the possibility of an accident. In this study, the experiment has been developed to analyse how the speed of the vehicle can affect the vehicle dynamics behavior. To achieve this objective, the UMP Test Car which employed with global positioning system (GPS), steering torque and angle sensor, displacement sensor and gyro sensor is used in the experiment. The experiment is run at the UMP test track and the track has 2 lanes which can allows the vehicle to change the position from the left to the right. In the experiment, when the GPS monitor shows 30 km/h, the driver will maintain the speed and start to turn the steering just after the test car reaches to the first skittle. Then, the driver will turn again the steering when the test car reaches to the second skittle. This method is repeated two times and the same methods is used for the speed 50 km/h. The data from the sensors is recorded in the Dewetron software and the graph is plotted. From the experimental results, the steering angle, steering torque, yaw rate and displacement for the speed 30 km/h is smaller than 50 km/h. It means that during lane changing, the speed 30 km/h is more stable compared with 50 km/h.

  13. Microscopic origin and macroscopic implications of lane formation in mixtures of oppositely driven particles

    Klymko, Katherine; Geissler, Phillip L.; Whitelam, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Colloidal particles of two types, driven in opposite directions, can segregate into lanes [Vissers et al., Soft Matter 7, 2352 (2011), 10.1039/c0sm01343a]. This phenomenon can be reproduced by two-dimensional Brownian dynamics simulations of model particles [Dzubiella et al., Phys. Rev. E 65, 021402 (2002), 10.1103/PhysRevE.65.021402]. Here we use computer simulation to assess the generality of lane formation with respect to variation of particle type and dynamical protocol. We find that laning results from rectification of diffusion on the scale of a particle diameter: oppositely driven particles must, in the time taken to encounter each other in the direction of the drive, diffuse in the perpendicular direction by about one particle diameter. This geometric constraint implies that the diffusion constant of a particle, in the presence of those of the opposite type, grows approximately linearly with the Péclet number, a prediction confirmed by our numerics over a range of model parameters. Such environment-dependent diffusion is statistically similar to an effective interparticle attraction; consistent with this observation, we find that oppositely driven nonattractive colloids display features characteristic of the simplest model system possessing both interparticle attractions and persistent motion, the driven Ising lattice gas [Katz, Leibowitz, and Spohn, J. Stat. Phys. 34, 497 (1984), 10.1007/BF01018556]. These features include long-ranged correlations in the disordered regime, a critical regime characterized by a change in slope of the particle current with the Péclet number, and fluctuations that grow with system size. By analogy, we suggest that lane formation in the driven colloid system is a phase transition in the macroscopic limit, but that macroscopic phase separation would not occur in finite time upon starting from disordered initial conditions.

  14. Fast food purchasing and access to fast food restaurants: a multilevel analysis of VicLANES

    Kavanagh Anne M; Bentley Rebecca J; Thornton Lukar E

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems using data from the Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments Study (VicLANES) – a cross-sectional multilevel study con...

  15. DETERMINATION OF THE DELAY DEPARTURE TIME OF THE BUS FROM STOPPING POINT INTO THE CAR FLOW

    P. Gorbachov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model for estimation of the bus departure delax from the bus stopping point after passenger loading is presented. The model allows to take into account the traffic density on a particular road section of the transport network, as well as the bus parameters.

  16. Compound extremes of summer temperature and precipitation leading to intensified departures from natural variability.

    Mahony, C. R.; Cannon, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change can drive local climates outside the range of their historical year-to-year variability, straining the adaptive capacity of ecological and human communities. We demonstrate that interactions between climate variables can produce larger and earlier departures from natural variability than is detectable in individual variables. For example, summer temperature (Tx) and precipitation (Pr) are negatively correlated in most terrestrial regions, such that interannual variability lies along an axis from warm-and-dry to cool-and-wet conditions. A climate change trend perpendicular to this axis, towards warmer-wetter conditions, can depart more quickly from the range of natural variability than a warmer-drier trend. This multivariate "departure intensification" effect is evident in all six CMIP5 models that we examined: 23% (9-34%) of the land area of each model exhibits a pronounced increase in 2σ extremesin the Tx-Pr regime relative to Tx or Pr alone. Observational data suggest that Tx-Pr correlations are sufficient to produce departure intensification in distinct regions on all continents. Departures from the historical Tx-Pr regime may produce ecological disruptions, such as in plant-pathogen interactions and human diseases, that could offset the drought mitigation benefits of increased precipitation. Our study alerts researchers and adaptation practitioners to the presence of multivariate climate change signals and compound extremes that are not detectable in individual climate variables.

  17. 8 CFR 1240.26 - Voluntary departure-authority of the Executive Office for Immigration Review.

    2010-01-01

    ... removability; (D) Waives appeal of all issues; and (E) Has not been convicted of a crime described in section... section 239(a) of the Act; (ii) The alien is, and has been, a person of good moral character for at least... business days of the immigration judge's order granting voluntary departure. (ii) An alien who has been...

  18. Measurement of high-departure aspheres using subaperture stitching with the Variable Optical Null (VON)

    Kulawiec, Andrew; Murphy, Paul; DeMarco, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Aspheric surfaces are proven to provide significant benefits to a wide variety of optical systems, but the ability to produce high-precision aspheric surfaces has historically been limited by the ability (or lack thereof) to measure them. Traditionally, aspheric measurements have required dedicated null optics, but the cost, lead time, and calibration difficulty of using null optics has made the use of aspheres more challenging and less attractive. In the past three years, QED has developed the Subaperture Stitching Interferometer for Aspheres (SSI-A®) to help address this limitation, providing flexible aspheric measurement capability of up to 200 waves of aspheric departure from best-fit sphere. Some aspheres, however, have thousands of waves of departure. We have recently developed Variable Optical Null (VON) technology that can null much of the aspheric departure in a subaperture. The VON is automatically configurable and is adjusted to nearly null each specific subaperture of an asphere. This ability to nearly null a local subaperture of an asphere provides a significant boost in aspheric measurement capability, enabling aspheres with up to 1000 waves of departure to be measured, without the use of dedicated null optics. We outline the basic principles of subaperture stitching and VON technology, demonstrate the extended capability provided by the VON, and present measurement results from the new Aspheric Stitching Interferometer (ASI®).

  19. 78 FR 53671 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Security Zones: Dignitary Arrival/Departure and United Nations...

    2013-08-30

    ... waters of the Bronx Kill southeast of the Bronx Kill Rail Road Bridge (mile 0.6) (NAD 1983). (3) Marine... zone on the waters of the East River and Bronx Kill during the arrival and departure of the President... River and Bronx Kill in the vicinity of Randalls and Wards Islands. The RNA is approximately 2,150 yards...

  20. 77 FR 2019 - Security Zone; Passenger Vessel SAFARI EXPLORER Arrival/Departure, Kaunakakai Harbor, Molokai, HI

    2012-01-13

    ...-AA87 Security Zone; Passenger Vessel SAFARI EXPLORER Arrival/ Departure, Kaunakakai Harbor, Molokai, HI... vessel SAFARI EXPLORER to its intended berth in the harbor. Entry into the temporary security zone is... operation of the SAFARI EXPLORER into Molokai has been voluntarily suspended by the operating company...

  1. Accounting for the Theory of Planned Behaviour in departure time choice

    Thorhauge, Mikkel; Haustein, Sonja; Cherchi, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    into a discrete choice model. The psychological factors were measured based on an online questionnaire addressed to car commuters to the city centre of Copenhagen (N = 286). The questionnaire additionally included a travel diary and a stated preference experiment with nine departure time choice scenarios. All...

  2. Faculty Teaching Skills and Their Influence on the College Student Departure Process.

    Braxton, John M.; Bray, Nathaniel J.; Berger, Joseph B.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the influence of student perceptions of faculty teaching skills on social integration, subsequent institutional commitment, and student departure decisions. Using path analysis to consider this link, the findings demonstrate a significant influence of faculty teaching skills on student persistence. Theoretical and practical implications…

  3. Precise and accurate train run data: Approximation of actual arrival and departure times

    Richter, Troels; Landex, Alex; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær

    with the approximated actual arrival and departure times. As a result, all future statistics can now either be based on track circuit data with high precision or approximated actual arrival times with a high accuracy. Consequently, performance analysis will be more accurate, punctuality statistics more correct, KPI...

  4. Developing Intercultural Understanding for Study Abroad: Students' and Teachers' Perspectives on Pre-Departure Intercultural Learning

    Holmes, P.; Bavieri, L.; Ganassin, S.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on students' and teachers' perspectives on a programme designed to develop Erasmus students' intercultural understanding prior to going abroad. We aimed to understand how students and their teachers perceived pre-departure materials in promoting their awareness of key concepts related to interculturality (e.g., essentialism,…

  5. 76 FR 5058 - Airports of Entry or Departure for Flights to and From Cuba

    2011-01-28

    ... [CBP Dec 11-05] RIN 1651-AA86 Airports of Entry or Departure for Flights to and From Cuba AGENCY: U.S... (DHS) regulations, direct flights between the United States and Cuba must arrive at or depart from one... Border Protection (CBP) to process authorized flights between the United States and Cuba. These...

  6. An empirical Bayes safety evaluation of tram/streetcar signal and lane priority measures in Melbourne.

    Naznin, Farhana; Currie, Graham; Sarvi, Majid; Logan, David

    2016-01-01

    Streetcars/tram systems are growing worldwide, and many are given priority to increase speed and reliability performance in mixed traffic conditions. Research related to the road safety impact of tram priority is limited. This study explores the road safety impacts of tram priority measures including lane and intersection/signal priority measures. A before-after crash study was conducted using the empirical Bayes (EB) method to provide more accurate crash impact estimates by accounting for wider crash trends and regression to the mean effects. Before-after crash data for 29 intersections with tram signal priority and 23 arterials with tram lane priority in Melbourne, Australia, were analyzed to evaluate the road safety impact of tram priority. The EB before-after analysis results indicated a statistically significant adjusted crash reduction rate of 16.4% after implementation of tram priority measures. Signal priority measures were found to reduce crashes by 13.9% and lane priority by 19.4%. A disaggregate level simple before-after analysis indicated reductions in total and serious crashes as well as vehicle-, pedestrian-, and motorcycle-involved crashes. In addition, reductions in on-path crashes, pedestrian-involved crashes, and collisions among vehicles moving in the same and opposite directions and all other specific crash types were found after tram priority implementation. Results suggest that streetcar/tram priority measures result in safety benefits for all road users, including vehicles, pedestrians, and cyclists. Policy implications and areas for future research are discussed.

  7. Deep Neural Network for Structural Prediction and Lane Detection in Traffic Scene.

    Li, Jun; Mei, Xue; Prokhorov, Danil; Tao, Dacheng

    2017-03-01

    Hierarchical neural networks have been shown to be effective in learning representative image features and recognizing object classes. However, most existing networks combine the low/middle level cues for classification without accounting for any spatial structures. For applications such as understanding a scene, how the visual cues are spatially distributed in an image becomes essential for successful analysis. This paper extends the framework of deep neural networks by accounting for the structural cues in the visual signals. In particular, two kinds of neural networks have been proposed. First, we develop a multitask deep convolutional network, which simultaneously detects the presence of the target and the geometric attributes (location and orientation) of the target with respect to the region of interest. Second, a recurrent neuron layer is adopted for structured visual detection. The recurrent neurons can deal with the spatial distribution of visible cues belonging to an object whose shape or structure is difficult to explicitly define. Both the networks are demonstrated by the practical task of detecting lane boundaries in traffic scenes. The multitask convolutional neural network provides auxiliary geometric information to help the subsequent modeling of the given lane structures. The recurrent neural network automatically detects lane boundaries, including those areas containing no marks, without any explicit prior knowledge or secondary modeling.

  8. Non-lane-discipline-based car-following model under honk environment

    Rong, Ying; Wen, Huiying

    2018-04-01

    This study proposed a non-lane-discipline-based car-following model by synthetically considering the visual angles and the timid/aggressive characteristics of drivers under honk environment. We firstly derived the neutral stability condition by the linear stability theory. It showed that the parameters related to visual angles and driving characteristics of drivers under honk environment all have significant impact on the stability of non-lane-discipline traffic flow. For better understanding the inner mechanism among these factors, we further analyzed how each parameter affects the traffic flow and gained further insight into how the visual angles information influences other parameters and then influences the non-lane-discipline traffic flow under honk environment. And the results showed that the other aspects such as driving characteristics of drivers or honk effect are all interacted with the "Visual-Angle Factor". And the effect of visual angle is not just to say simply it has larger stable region or not as the existing studies. Finally, to verify the proposed model, we carried out the numerical simulation under the periodic boundary condition. And the results of numerical simulation are agreed well with the theoretical findings.

  9. Engineering Solutions to Enhance Traffic Safety Performance on Two-Lane Highways

    Lina Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving two-lane highway traffic safety conditions is of practical importance to the traffic system, which has attracted significant research attention within the last decade. Many cost-effective and proactive solutions such as low-cost treatments and roadway safety monitoring programs have been developed to enhance traffic safety performance under prevailing conditions. This study presents research perspectives achieved from the Highway Safety Enhancement Project (HSEP that assessed safety performance on two-lane highways in Beijing, China. Potential causal factors are identified based on proposed evaluation criteria, and primary countermeasures are developed against inferior driving conditions such as sharp curves, heavy gradients, continuous downgrades, poor sight distance, and poor clear zones. Six cost-effective engineering solutions were specifically implemented to improve two-lane highway safety conditions, including (1 traffic sign replacement, (2 repainting pavement markings, (3 roadside barrier installation, (4 intersection channelization, (5 drainage optimization, and (6 sight distance improvement. The effectiveness of these solutions was examined and evaluated based on Empirical Bayes (EB models. The results indicate that the proposed engineering solutions effectively improved traffic safety performance by significantly reducing crash occurrence risks and crash severities.

  10. TLC City West, Cooldown Commons, Fortunestown Lane, Citywest, Co. Dublin.

    Cornally, Nicola

    2015-11-01

    The \\'Let Me Decide\\' Advance Care Planning (LMD-ACP) programme offers a structured approach to End-of-Life (EoL) care planning in long-term care for residents with and without capacity to complete an advance care directive\\/plan. The programme was implemented in three homes in the South of Ireland, with a view to improving quality of care at end of life. This paper will present an evaluation of the systematic implementation of the LMD-ACP programme in the homes.

  11. 76 FR 13204 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Request for Entry or Departure for Flights to and From...

    2011-03-10

    ... Activities: Request for Entry or Departure for Flights to and From Cuba AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... comment on an information collection requirement concerning the Request for Entry or Departure for Flights... information (a total capital/startup costs and operations and maintenance costs). The comments that are...

  12. Scheduling and control strategies for the departure problem in air traffic control

    Bolender, Michael Alan

    Two problems relating to the departure problem in air traffic control automation are examined. The first problem that is addressed is the scheduling of aircraft for departure. The departure operations at a major US hub airport are analyzed, and a discrete event simulation of the departure operations is constructed. Specifically, the case where there is a single departure runway is considered. The runway is fed by two queues of aircraft. Each queue, in turn, is fed by a single taxiway. Two salient areas regarding scheduling are addressed. The first is the construction of optimal departure sequences for the aircraft that are queued. Several greedy search algorithms are designed to minimize the total time to depart a set of queued aircraft. Each algorithm has a different set of heuristic rules to resolve situations within the search space whenever two branches of the search tree with equal edge costs are encountered. These algorithms are then compared and contrasted with a genetic search algorithm in order to assess the performance of the heuristics. This is done in the context of a static departure problem where the length of the departure queue is fixed. A greedy algorithm which deepens the search whenever two branches of the search tree with non-unique costs are encountered is shown to outperform the other heuristic algorithms. This search strategy is then implemented in the discrete event simulation. A baseline performance level is established, and a sensitivity analysis is performed by implementing changes in traffic mix, routing, and miles-in-trail restrictions for comparison. It is concluded that to minimize the average time spent in the queue for different traffic conditions, a queue assignment algorithm is needed to maintain an even balance of aircraft in the queues. A necessary consideration is to base queue assignment upon traffic management restrictions such as miles-in-trail constraints. The second problem addresses the technical challenges associated

  13. Multivariate poisson lognormal modeling of crashes by type and severity on rural two lane highways.

    Wang, Kai; Ivan, John N; Ravishanker, Nalini; Jackson, Eric

    2017-02-01

    In an effort to improve traffic safety, there has been considerable interest in estimating crash prediction models and identifying factors contributing to crashes. To account for crash frequency variations among crash types and severities, crash prediction models have been estimated by type and severity. The univariate crash count models have been used by researchers to estimate crashes by crash type or severity, in which the crash counts by type or severity are assumed to be independent of one another and modelled separately. When considering crash types and severities simultaneously, this may neglect the potential correlations between crash counts due to the presence of shared unobserved factors across crash types or severities for a specific roadway intersection or segment, and might lead to biased parameter estimation and reduce model accuracy. The focus on this study is to estimate crashes by both crash type and crash severity using the Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) Multivariate Poisson Lognormal (MVPLN) model, and identify the different effects of contributing factors on different crash type and severity counts on rural two-lane highways. The INLA MVPLN model can simultaneously model crash counts by crash type and crash severity by accounting for the potential correlations among them and significantly decreases the computational time compared with a fully Bayesian fitting of the MVPLN model using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. This paper describes estimation of MVPLN models for three-way stop controlled (3ST) intersections, four-way stop controlled (4ST) intersections, four-way signalized (4SG) intersections, and roadway segments on rural two-lane highways. Annual Average Daily traffic (AADT) and variables describing roadway conditions (including presence of lighting, presence of left-turn/right-turn lane, lane width and shoulder width) were used as predictors. A Univariate Poisson Lognormal (UPLN) was estimated by crash type and

  14. The effect of concurrent bandwidth feedback on learning the lane-keeping task in a driving simulator.

    de Groot, Stefan; de Winter, Joost C F; López García, José Manuel; Mulder, Max; Wieringa, Peter A

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether concurrent bandwidth feedback improves learning of the lane-keeping task in a driving simulator. Previous research suggests that bandwidth feedback improves learning and that off-target feedback is superior to on-target feedback. This study aimed to extend these findings for the lane-keeping task. Participants without a driver's license drove five 8-min lane-keeping sessions in a driver training simulator: three practice sessions, an immediate retention session, and a delayed retention session I day later. There were four experimental groups (n=15 per group): (a) on-target, receiving seat vibrations when the center of the car was within 0.5 m of the lane center; (b) off-target, receiving seat vibrations when the center of the car was more than 0.5 m away from the lane center; (c) control, receiving no vibrations; and (d) realistic, receiving seat vibrations depending on engine speed. During retention, all groups were provided with the realistic vibrations. During practice, on-target and off-target groups had better lane-keeping performance than the nonaugmented groups, but this difference diminished in the retention phase. Furthermore, during late practice and retention, the off-target group outperformed the on-target group.The off-target group had a higher rate of steering reversal and higher steering entropy than the nonaugmented groups, whereas no clear group differences were found regarding mean speed, mental workload, or self-reported measures. Off-target feedback is superior to on-target feedback for learning the lane-keeping task. This research provides knowledge to researchers and designers of training systems about the value of feedback in simulator-based training of vehicular control.

  15. 41 CFR 301-11.10 - Am I required to record departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim?

    2010-07-01

    ... departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? 301-11.10 Section 301-11.10 Public Contracts and... dates and times on my travel claim? You must record the date of departure from, and arrival at, the... visited. You do not have to record departure/arrival times, but you must annotate your travel claim when...

  16. A study of vapor bubble departure in subcooled flow boiling at low pressure

    Donevski, Bozin; Saga, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Toshio; Segawa, Shigeki

    1999-01-01

    An experimental study of vapor bubble dynamics in sub-cooled flow boiling was conducted using the flow visualization and digital image processing methods. Vapor bubble departure departure in subcooled flow boiling have been experimentally investigated over a range of mass flux G=0.384 (kg/m 2 s), and heat flux q w = 27.2 x 10 4 (W/m 2 ), for the subcooled flow boiling region. It has been observed that once a vapor bubble departs from a nucleation site, it typically slides along the heating surface at sonic finite distance down-stream of nucleation site. The image processing method proposed in this study is based on the detachment and tracing of the edges of the bubbles and their background. The proposed method can be used in various fields of engineering applications. (Original)

  17. Scaling relation between earthquake magnitude and the departure time from P wave similar growth

    Noda, Shunta; Ellsworth, William L.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new scaling relation between earthquake magnitude (M) and a characteristic of initial P wave displacement. By examining Japanese K-NET data averaged in bins partitioned by Mw and hypocentral distance, we demonstrate that the P wave displacement briefly displays similar growth at the onset of rupture and that the departure time (Tdp), which is defined as the time of departure from similarity of the absolute displacement after applying a band-pass filter, correlates with the final M in a range of 4.5 ≤ Mw ≤ 7. The scaling relation between Mw and Tdp implies that useful information on the final M can be derived while the event is still in progress because Tdp occurs before the completion of rupture. We conclude that the scaling relation is important not only for earthquake early warning but also for the source physics of earthquakes.

  18. Large-scale circulation departures related to wet episodes in north-east Brazil

    Sikdar, Dhirendra N.; Elsner, James B.

    1987-01-01

    Large scale circulation features are presented as related to wet spells over northeast Brazil (Nordeste) during the rainy season (March and April) of 1979. The rainy season is divided into dry and wet periods; the FGGE and geostationary satellite data was averaged; and mean and departure fields of basic variables and cloudiness were studied. Analysis of seasonal mean circulation features show: lowest sea level easterlies beneath upper level westerlies; weak meridional winds; high relative humidity over the Amazon basin and relatively dry conditions over the South Atlantic Ocean. A fluctuation was found in the large scale circulation features on time scales of a few weeks or so over Nordeste and the South Atlantic sector. Even the subtropical High SLPs have large departures during wet episodes, implying a short period oscillation in the Southern Hemisphere Hadley circulation.

  19. Large-scale circulation departures related to wet episodes in northeast Brazil

    Sikdar, D. N.; Elsner, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    Large scale circulation features are presented as related to wet spells over northeast Brazil (Nordeste) during the rainy season (March and April) of 1979. The rainy season season is devided into dry and wet periods, the FGGE and geostationary satellite data was averaged and mean and departure fields of basic variables and cloudiness were studied. Analysis of seasonal mean circulation features show: lowest sea level easterlies beneath upper level westerlies; weak meridional winds; high relative humidity over the Amazon basin and relatively dry conditions over the South Atlantic Ocean. A fluctuation was found in the large scale circulation features on time scales of a few weeks or so over Nordeste and the South Atlantic sector. Even the subtropical High SLP's have large departures during wet episodes, implying a short period oscillation in the Southern Hemisphere Hadley circulation.

  20. An Arrival and Departure Time Predictor for Scheduling Communication in Opportunistic IoT

    Pozza, Riccardo; Georgoulas, Stylianos; Moessner, Klaus; Nati, Michele; Gluhak, Alexander; Krco, Srdjan

    2016-01-01

    In this article, an Arrival and Departure Time Predictor (ADTP) for scheduling communication in opportunistic Internet of Things (IoT) is presented. The proposed algorithm learns about temporal patterns of encounters between IoT devices and predicts future arrival and departure times, therefore future contact durations. By relying on such predictions, a neighbour discovery scheduler is proposed, capable of jointly optimizing discovery latency and power consumption in order to maximize communication time when contacts are expected with high probability and, at the same time, saving power when contacts are expected with low probability. A comprehensive performance evaluation with different sets of synthetic and real world traces shows that ADTP performs favourably with respect to previous state of the art. This prediction framework opens opportunities for transmission planners and schedulers optimizing not only neighbour discovery, but the entire communication process. PMID:27827909

  1. An Arrival and Departure Time Predictor for Scheduling Communication in Opportunistic IoT.

    Pozza, Riccardo; Georgoulas, Stylianos; Moessner, Klaus; Nati, Michele; Gluhak, Alexander; Krco, Srdjan

    2016-11-04

    In this article, an Arrival and Departure Time Predictor (ADTP) for scheduling communication in opportunistic Internet of Things (IoT) is presented. The proposed algorithm learns about temporal patterns of encounters between IoT devices and predicts future arrival and departure times, therefore future contact durations. By relying on such predictions, a neighbour discovery scheduler is proposed, capable of jointly optimizing discovery latency and power consumption in order to maximize communication time when contacts are expected with high probability and, at the same time, saving power when contacts are expected with low probability. A comprehensive performance evaluation with different sets of synthetic and real world traces shows that ADTP performs favourably with respect to previous state of the art. This prediction framework opens opportunities for transmission planners and schedulers optimizing not only neighbour discovery, but the entire communication process.

  2. Small Woods Where I Met Myself : Jerry Uelsmann's departure from straight photography

    Petersén, Moa

    2018-01-01

    In the article I investigate the differences between Ansel Adams' and Jerry Uelsmann's use of nature in their respective photography. Through their attitudes, approaches to, and involvement with nature their different relations to the photographic medium and the creative process unfold. Uelsmann's departure from the straight photographic tradition - that Ansel Adams came to symbolize - is in the article explained through an analysis of Uelsmann's and Adams' use of nature in their respective a...

  3. Framework for determining airport daily departure and arrival delay thresholds: statistical modelling approach.

    Wesonga, Ronald; Nabugoomu, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    The study derives a framework for assessing airport efficiency through evaluating optimal arrival and departure delay thresholds. Assumptions of airport efficiency measurements, though based upon minimum numeric values such as 15 min of turnaround time, cannot be extrapolated to determine proportions of delay-days of an airport. This study explored the concept of delay threshold to determine the proportion of delay-days as an expansion of the theory of delay and our previous work. Data-driven approach using statistical modelling was employed to a limited set of determinants of daily delay at an airport. For the purpose of testing the efficacy of the threshold levels, operational data for Entebbe International Airport were used as a case study. Findings show differences in the proportions of delay at departure (μ = 0.499; 95 % CI = 0.023) and arrival (μ = 0.363; 95 % CI = 0.022). Multivariate logistic model confirmed an optimal daily departure and arrival delay threshold of 60 % for the airport given the four probable thresholds {50, 60, 70, 80}. The decision for the threshold value was based on the number of significant determinants, the goodness of fit statistics based on the Wald test and the area under the receiver operating curves. These findings propose a modelling framework to generate relevant information for the Air Traffic Management relevant in planning and measurement of airport operational efficiency.

  4. Sex differences in parent-infant interaction during free play, departure, and separation.

    Weinraub, M; Frankel, J

    1977-12-01

    20 18-month-olds were observed with their mothers and 20 with their fathers in laboratory free-play, departure, and separation situations. Parent and infant behaviors were allowed to vary naturally. Although there were no parent sex or infant sex differences in infants' free-play behavior, there were parent sex X infant sex differences in parental free-play behaviors. Parents talked to, sat on the floor more with, and tended to share play more with same-sexed than opposite-sexed infants, and the patterning of free-play behaviors was different for mothers and fathers. During departure, fathers talked to the infants more than mothers. Infants were more distressed in the absence of same-sexed than opposite-sexed parents. There were infant sex X parent sex differences in the relationships between separation distress and parental free-play and departure behaviors. The implications of these findings for understanding differential roles of mothers and fathers, the development of sex differences, and the determinants of separation distress are discussed.

  5. Ecological limit functions relating fish community response to hydrologic departures of the ecological flow regime in the Tennessee River basin, United States

    Knight, Rodney R.; Murphy, Jennifer C.; Wolfe, William J.; Saylor, Charles F.; Wales, Amy K.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological limit functions relating streamflow and aquatic ecosystems remain elusive despite decades of research. We investigated functional relationships between species richness and changes in streamflow characteristics at 662 fish sampling sites in the Tennessee River basin. Our approach included the following: (1) a brief summary of relevant literature on functional relations between fish and streamflow, (2) the development of ecological limit functions that describe the strongest discernible relationships between fish species richness and streamflow characteristics, (3) the evaluation of proposed definitions of hydrologic reference conditions, and (4) an investigation of the internal structures of wedge-shaped distributions underlying ecological limit functions.Twenty-one ecological limit functions were developed across three ecoregions that relate the species richness of 11 fish groups and departures from hydrologic reference conditions using multivariate and quantile regression methods. Each negatively sloped function is described using up to four streamflow characteristics expressed in terms of cumulative departure from hydrologic reference conditions. Negative slopes indicate increased departure results in decreased species richness.Sites with the highest measured fish species richness generally had near-reference hydrologic conditions for a given ecoregion. Hydrology did not generally differ between sites with the highest and lowest fish species richness, indicating that other environmental factors likely limit species richness at sites with reference hydrology.Use of ecological limit functions to make decisions regarding proposed hydrologic regime changes, although commonly presented as a management tool, is not as straightforward or informative as often assumed. We contend that statistical evaluation of the internal wedge structure below limit functions may provide a probabilistic understanding of how aquatic ecology is influenced by altered hydrology

  6. Direct HST Dust Lane Detection in Powerful Narrow-Line Radio Galaxies

    Ramírez, Edgar A.; Aretxaga, Itziar [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, Puebla (Mexico); Tadhunter, Clive N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique [NASA Ames Research Center, SOFIA Science Center, SOFIA/USRA, Mountain View, CA (United States); Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Packham, Chris, E-mail: e.ramirez@inaoep.mx [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-11-22

    We present the analysis of near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope imaging of 10 Fanaroff Riley II powerful radio galaxies at low redshift (0.03 < z < 0.11) optically classified as narrow-line radio galaxies. The photometric properties of the host galaxy are measured using galfit, and compared with those from the literature. Our high resolution near-infrared observations provide new and direct information on the central kpc-scale dust lanes in our sample that could be connected to the pc-scale torus structure. Moreover, analyzing the infrared spectrograph Spitzer spectra of our sample, we suggest properties of the dust size of the torus.

  7. A Macroscopic Approach to the Lane Formation Phenomenon in Pedestrian Counterflow

    Xiong, Tao; Zhang, Peng; Wong, S. C.; Shu, Chi-Wang; Zhang, Meng-Ping

    2011-10-01

    We simulate pedestrian counterflow by adopting an optimal path-choice strategy and a recently observed speed-density relationship. Although the whole system is symmetric, the simulation demonstrates the segregation and formation of many walking lanes for two groups of pedestrians. The symmetry breaking is most likely triggered by a small numerical viscosity or “noise", and the segregation is associated with the minimization of travel time. The underlying physics can be compared with the “optimal self-organization" mechanism in Helbing's social force model, by which driven entities in an open system tend to minimize their interaction to enable them to reach some ordering state.

  8. Forecasting Container Shipping Freight Rates for the Far East-Northern Europe Trade Lane

    Munim, Ziaul Haque; Schramm, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    econometric and time series modelling have been rather limited. Therefore, in this paper, we discuss contemporary container freight rate dynamics in an attempt to forecast for the Far East to Northern Europe trade lane. Methodology-wise, we employ autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) as well......This study introduces a state-of-the-art volatility forecasting method for container shipping freight rates. Over the last decade, the container shipping industry has become very unpredictable. The demolition of the shipping conferences system in 2008 for all trades calling a port in the European...

  9. Changes in Central Walker Lane Strain Accommodation near Bridgeport, California; as told by the Stanislaus Group

    Carlson, C. W.; Pluhar, C. J.; Glen, J. M.; Farner, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Accommodating ~20-25% of the dextral-motion between the Pacific and North American plates the Walker Lane is represented as an elongate, NW oriented, region of active tectonics positioned between the northwesterly-translating Sierra Nevada microplate and the east-west extension of the Basin and Range. This region of transtension is being variably accommodated on regional-scale systems of predominantly strike-slip faulting. At the western edge of the central Walker Lane (ca. 38°-39°N latitude) is a region of crustal-scale blocks bounded by wedge-shaped depositional-basins and normal-fault systems, here defined as the west-central Walker Lane (WCWL). Devoid of obvious strike-slip faulting, the presence of tectonic-block vertical-axis rotations in the WCWL represents unrecognized components of dextral-shearing and/or changes of strain-accommodation over time. We use paleomagnetic reference directions for Eureka Valley Tuff (EVT) members of the late Miocene Stanislaus Group as spatial and temporal markers for documentation of tectonic-block vertical-axis rotations near Bridgeport, CA. Study-site rotations revealed discrete rotational domains of mean vertical-axis rotation ranging from ~10°-30° with heterogeneous regional distribution. Additionally, the highest measured magnitudes of vertical-axis rotation (~50°-60° CW) define a 'Region of High Strain' that includes the wedge-shaped Bridgeport Valley (Basin). This study revealed previously-unrecognized tectonic rotation of reference direction sites from prior studies for two (By-Day and Upper) of the three members of the EVT, resulting in under-estimates of regional strain accommodation by these studies. Mean remanent directions and virtual geomagnetic poles utilized in our study yielded a recalculated reference direction for the By-Day member of: Dec.=353.2°; Inc.= 43.7°; α95=10.1, in agreement with new measurements in the stable Sierra Nevada. This recalculated direction confirmed the presence of previously

  10. Effects of steering demand on lane keeping behaviour, self-reports, and physiology. A simulator study.

    Dijksterhuis, Chris; Brookhuis, Karel A; De Waard, Dick

    2011-05-01

    In this study a driving simulator was used to determine changes in mental effort in response to manipulations of steering demand. Changes in mental effort were assessed by using subjective effort ratings, physiology, and the standard deviation of the lateral position. Steering demand was increased by exposure to narrow lane widths and high density oncoming traffic while speed was fixed in all conditions to prevent a compensatory reaction. Results indicated that both steering demand factors influence mental effort expenditure and using multiple measures contributes to effort assessment. Application of these outcomes for adaptive automation is envisaged. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bernstein Series Solution of a Class of Lane-Emden Type Equations

    Osman Rasit Isik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present an approximate solution that depends on collocation points and Bernstein polynomials for a class of Lane-Emden type equations with mixed conditions. The method is given with some priori error estimate. Even the exact solution is unknown, an upper bound based on the regularity of the exact solution will be obtained. By using the residual correction procedure, the absolute error can be estimated. Also, one can specify the optimal truncation limit n which gives a better result in any norm. Finally, the effectiveness of the method is illustrated by some numerical experiments. Numerical results are consistent with the theoretical results.

  12. Motion Planning of Autonomous Vehicles on a Dual Carriageway without Speed Lanes

    Rahul Kala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of motion planning of an autonomous vehicle amidst other vehicles on a straight road is considered. Traffic in a number of countries is unorganized, where the vehicles do not move within predefined speed lanes. In this paper, we formulate a mechanism wherein an autonomous vehicle may travel on the “wrong” side in order to overtake a vehicle. Challenges include assessing a possible overtaking opportunity, cooperating with other vehicles, partial driving on the “wrong” side of the road and safely going to and returning from the “wrong” side. The experimental results presented show vehicles cooperating to accomplish overtaking manoeuvres.

  13. Homotopy perturbation method with Laplace Transform (LT-HPM) for solving Lane-Emden type differential equations (LETDEs).

    Tripathi, Rajnee; Mishra, Hradyesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In this communication, we describe the Homotopy Perturbation Method with Laplace Transform (LT-HPM), which is used to solve the Lane-Emden type differential equations. It's very difficult to solve numerically the Lane-Emden types of the differential equation. Here we implemented this method for two linear homogeneous, two linear nonhomogeneous, and four nonlinear homogeneous Lane-Emden type differential equations and use their appropriate comparisons with exact solutions. In the current study, some examples are better than other existing methods with their nearer results in the form of power series. The Laplace transform used to accelerate the convergence of power series and the results are shown in the tables and graphs which have good agreement with the other existing method in the literature. The results show that LT-HPM is very effective and easy to implement.

  14. Accommodation of missing shear strain in the Central Walker Lane, western North America: Constraints from dense GPS measurements

    Bormann, Jayne M.; Hammond, William C.; Kreemer, Corné; Blewitt, Geoffrey

    2016-04-01

    We present 264 new interseismic GPS velocities from the Mobile Array of GPS for Nevada Transtension (MAGNET) and continuous GPS networks that measure Pacific-North American plate boundary deformation in the Central Walker Lane. Relative to a North America-fixed reference frame, northwestward velocities increase smoothly from ∼4 mm/yr in the Basin and Range province to 12.2 mm/yr in the central Sierra Nevada resulting in a Central Walker Lane deformation budget of ∼8 mm/yr. We use an elastic block model to estimate fault slip and block rotation rates and patterns of deformation from the GPS velocities. Right-lateral shear is distributed throughout the Central Walker Lane with strike-slip rates generally Bodie Hills, Carson Domain, and Mina Deflection are between 1-4°/Myr, lower than published paleomagnetic rotation rates, suggesting that block rotation rates have decreased since the Late to Middle Miocene.

  15. Focus State Roadway Departure Safety Plans and High Friction Surface Treatments Peer Exchange : an RPSCB Peer Exchange

    2014-08-01

    This report summarizes the Focus State Roadway Departure Safety Plans and High Friction Surface Treatments Peer Exchange, held in Birmingham, Alabama, sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Office of Safetys Roadway Safety Professi...

  16. Traffic lanes for vehicles of mass public passenger transport on city streets

    Gladović Pavle V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the basic measures of regulating public mass passenger transport in a city network are the introduction and management of traffic lanes reserved for the public transportation. These traffic lanes are important for several reasons: faster moving and shorter travelling time for the vehicles, reducing operating costs, improving the safety, increasing passenger comfort, maintaining of the timetable quality, etc. In most cities, an intensive use of the public transport is concentrated in the morning and the afternoon peak period. The state of the public transport system during these periods is reflected in the crowds inside the vehicles, long vehicle queues at intersections and at bus stops, which cause congestion on the streets and result in delays of public transport vehicles. This paper provides an overview of the current situation on an example in the city of Belgrade. The capacity and the quality of service for the street surfaces reserved for the public transportation vehicles were analysed on the aforementioned example.

  17. An Extended Non-Lane-Based Optimal Velocity Model with Dynamic Collaboration

    Zhipeng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating the effects of the lane width in traffic, in this paper, we propose a dynamical model based on the strategy of three-vehicle cooperation driving. We obtain the smoother acceleration distribution in the new model through considering the dynamic collaboration with the nearest preceding vehicle and the nearest following vehicle. It is proved that the stability of the new model is greatly improved compared to the early non-lane-based car following model by using the linear stability theory. We find that when the parameter of lateral separation distance is identified, the amplitude of traffic congestion decreases with increasing the strength of dynamic collaboration in the simulation experiments. In addition, we apply the new extended model to simulate the motions of cars starting from a traffic signal and the dissipating of the traffic congestion; it is found that our new model can predict realistic delay time and kinematic wave speed and obtained a faster dissipation speed of traffic congestion than the traffic flow model without considering the dynamic collaboration.

  18. Design of a New Integrated Structure of the Active Suspension System and Emergency Lane Change Test

    Zhao, Jing-bo; Liu, Hai-mei; Zhang, Lan-chun; Bei, Shao-yi

    2017-09-01

    An integrated structure of the active suspension system was proposed in order to solve the problem of the individual control of the height of the body or the adjustable damping of the active suspension system of the electric vehicle, which improve the vibration reduction performance of the vehicle. The air bag was used to replace the traditional spiral spring, and the traditional shock absorber was replaced by the damping adjustable shock absorber, and the control module received the body acceleration sensor and the horizontal height sensor signal. The system controlled adjustable damping coefficient of shock absorber through the height of the car body the output of the air pump relay and the height control valve and the output of the electromagnetic valve of the adjustable damping shock absorber, and the emergency lane change test was carried out under different modes of speed of 60km/h. The experimental results indicated that the damping value was greater, average roll angle, yaw angle and average vehicle lateral acceleration were small when vehicle body was in the state of emergency lane change, which verified the feasibility of the integrated control strategy and structure design of the active suspension system. The research has important theoretical research value and engineering application prospect for designing and controlling strategy of vehicle chassis integrated control system.

  19. Radiological survey results at 1 Shady Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ095)

    Foley, R.D.; Johnson, C.A.

    1995-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) conducted remedial action at the Stepan property in Maywood, New Jersey and several vicinity properties in Lodi, New Jersey as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are in the vicinity of the DOE-owned Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS), adjacent to the former Maywood Chemical Works facility. The property at One Shady Lane, Lodi, New Jersey was not one of these vicinity properties but was surveyed by DOE at the request of the owner. At the request of DOE, a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a radiological survey at this property. The purpose of the survey, conducted in November 1994, was to confirm whether remedial actions were to be performed on the property in order to be in compliance with the identified Guidelines. The radiological survey included surface gamma scans and gamma readings at 1 meter, and the collection of soil samples for radionuclide analysis. Results of the survey demonstrated that all radiological measurements on the property at One Shady Lane, Lodi, New Jersey, were comparable to background levels in the area, and well within the limits prescribed by DOE radiological guidelines. Based on the results of the radiological survey data, this property does not meet guidelines for inclusion under FUSRAP

  20. Prediction of Driver's Intention of Lane Change by Augmenting Sensor Information Using Machine Learning Techniques.

    Kim, Il-Hwan; Bong, Jae-Hwan; Park, Jooyoung; Park, Shinsuk

    2017-06-10

    Driver assistance systems have become a major safety feature of modern passenger vehicles. The advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) is one of the active safety systems to improve the vehicle control performance and, thus, the safety of the driver and the passengers. To use the ADAS for lane change control, rapid and correct detection of the driver's intention is essential. This study proposes a novel preprocessing algorithm for the ADAS to improve the accuracy in classifying the driver's intention for lane change by augmenting basic measurements from conventional on-board sensors. The information on the vehicle states and the road surface condition is augmented by using an artificial neural network (ANN) models, and the augmented information is fed to a support vector machine (SVM) to detect the driver's intention with high accuracy. The feasibility of the developed algorithm was tested through driving simulator experiments. The results show that the classification accuracy for the driver's intention can be improved by providing an SVM model with sufficient driving information augmented by using ANN models of vehicle dynamics.

  1. Microscopic origin and macroscopic implications of lane formation in mixtures of oppositely-driven particles

    Whitelam, Stephen

    Colloidal particles of two types, driven in opposite directions, can segregate into lanes. I will describe some results on this phenomenon obtained by simple physical arguments and computer simulations. Laning results from rectification of diffusion on the scale of a particle diameter: oppositely-driven particles must, in the time taken to encounter each other in the direction of the drive, diffuse in the perpendicular direction by about one particle diameter. This geometric constraint implies that the diffusion constant of a particle, in the presence of those of the opposite type, grows approximately linearly with Peclet number, a prediction confirmed by our numerics. Such environment-dependent diffusion is statistically similar to an effective interparticle attraction; consistent with this observation, we find that oppositely-driven colloids display features characteristic of the simplest model system possessing both interparticle attractions and persistent motion, the driven Ising lattice gas. Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  2. Lane fuzzy collision in channel with potential deformation by photon-phonon-electron excitation and sub-atomic control

    Shen Jing

    1998-01-01

    Collision between μ + and the μ - beams in the crystal are forbidden due to the two beams having different ''lanes'' in a channel. A laser pulse of ps-fs shocks lattice kernel vibration and dilates lattice electron distribution. It deforms the Lindhard's potential which is then expressed in a quantized form as the Huang-Zhu's potential[1]. The dynamic lanes can be made to overlap in a channel to allow collision without ductile fracture. This raises a new technology of sub-atomic information and control, which has been raised by T. D. Lee

  3. 78 FR 51184 - Air Pollution Control: Proposed Actions on Clean Air Act Section 105 Grant to the Lane Regional...

    2013-08-20

    ...The EPA has made a proposed determination that a reduction in recurring expenditures of non-Federal funds for the Lane Regional Air Protection Agency (LRAPA) in Eugene, Oregon is a result of agency wide non-selective reductions in expenditures. This determination, when final, will permit the LRAPA to continue to receive grant funding under Section 105 of the Clean Air Act for the state fiscal year (SFY) 2014. This determination will also reset the LRAPA required maintenance of effort level for SFY 2012 and 2013 to reflect the non-selective reductions made to address reductions in revenue due to adverse economic conditions in Lane County, Oregon.

  4. Benefit Opportunities for Integrated Surface and Airspace Departure Scheduling: A Study of Operations at Charlotte-Douglas International Airport

    Coppenbarger, Rich; Jung, Yoon; Kozon, Tom; Farrahi, Amir; Malik, Wakar; Lee, Hanbong; Chevalley, Eric; Kistler, Matt

    2016-01-01

    NASA is collaborating with the FAA and aviation industry to develop and demonstrate new capabilities that integrate arrival, departure, and surface air-traffic operations. The concept relies on trajectory-based departure scheduling and collaborative decision making to reduce delays and uncertainties in taxi and climb operations. The paper describes the concept and benefit mechanisms aimed at improving flight efficiency and predictability while maintaining or improving operational throughput. The potential impact of the technology is studied and discussed through a quantitative analysis of relevant shortfalls at the site identified for initial deployment and demonstration in 2017: Charlotte-Douglas International Airport. Results from trajectory analysis indicate substantial opportunity to reduce taxi delays for both departures and arrivals by metering departures at the gate in a manner that maximizes throughput while adhering to takeoff restrictions due mostly to airspace constraints. Substantial taxi-out delay reduction is shown for flights subject to departure restrictions stemming from traffic flow management initiatives. Opportunities to improve the predictability of taxi, takeoff, and climb operations are examined and their potential impact on airline scheduling decisions and air-traffic forecasting is discussed. In addition, the potential to improve throughput with departure scheduling that maximizes use of available runway and airspace capacity is analyzed.

  5. Excursions out-of-lane versus standard deviation of lateral position as outcome measure of the on-the-road driving test.

    Verster, Joris C; Roth, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    The traditional outcome measure of the Dutch on-the-road driving test is the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), the weaving of the car. This paper explores whether excursions out-of-lane are a suitable additional outcome measure to index driving impairment. A literature search was conducted to search for driving tests that used both SDLP and excursions out-of-lane as outcome measures. The analyses were limited to studies examining hypnotic drugs because several of these drugs have been shown to produce next-morning sedation. Standard deviation of lateral position was more sensitive in demonstrating driving impairment. In fact, solely relying on excursions out-of-lane as outcome measure incorrectly classifies approximately half of impaired drives as unimpaired. The frequency of excursions out-of-lane is determined by the mean lateral position within the right traffic lane. Defining driving impairment as having a ΔSDLP > 2.4 cm, half of the impaired driving tests (51.2%, 43/84) failed to produce excursions out-of-lane. Alternatively, 20.9% of driving tests with ΔSDLP < 2.4 cm (27/129) had at least one excursion out-of-lane. Excursions out-of-lane are neither a suitable measure to demonstrate driving impairment nor is this measure sufficiently sensitive to differentiate adequately between differences in magnitude of driving impairment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. A Test and Extension of Lane and Terry's (2000) Conceptual Model of Mood-Performance Relationships Using a Large Internet Sample.

    Lane, Andrew M; Terry, Peter C; Devonport, Tracey J; Friesen, Andrew P; Totterdell, Peter A

    2017-01-01

    The present study tested and extended Lane and Terry (2000) conceptual model of mood-performance relationships using a large dataset from an online experiment. Methodological and theoretical advances included testing a more balanced model of pleasant and unpleasant emotions, and evaluating relationships among emotion regulation traits, states and beliefs, psychological skills use, perceptions of performance, mental preparation, and effort exerted during competition. Participants ( N = 73,588) completed measures of trait emotion regulation, emotion regulation beliefs, regulation efficacy, use of psychological skills, and rated their anger, anxiety, dejection, excitement, energy, and happiness before completing a competitive concentration task. Post-competition, participants completed measures of effort exerted, beliefs about the quality of mental preparation, and subjective performance. Results showed that dejection associated with worse performance with the no-dejection group performing 3.2% better. Dejection associated with higher anxiety and anger scores and lower energy, excitement, and happiness scores. The proposed moderating effect of dejection was supported for the anxiety-performance relationship but not the anger-performance relationship. In the no-dejection group, participants who reported moderate or high anxiety outperformed those reporting low anxiety by about 1.6%. Overall, results showed partial support for Lane and Terry's model. In terms of extending the model, results showed dejection associated with greater use of suppression, less frequent use of re-appraisal and psychological skills, lower emotion regulation beliefs, and lower emotion regulation efficacy. Further, dejection associated with greater effort during performance, beliefs that pre-competition emotions did not assist goal achievement, and low subjective performance. Future research is required to investigate the role of intense emotions in emotion regulation and performance.

  7. Rates and timing of vertical-axis block rotations across the central Sierra Nevada-Walker Lane transition in the Bodie Hills, California/Nevada

    Rood, Dylan H.; Burbank, Douglas W.; Herman, Scott W.; Bogue, Scott

    2011-10-01

    We use paleomagnetic data from Tertiary volcanic rocks to address the rates and timing of vertical-axis block rotations across the central Sierra Nevada-Walker Lane transition in the Bodie Hills, California/Nevada. Samples from the Upper Miocene (˜9 Ma) Eureka Valley Tuff suggest clockwise vertical-axis block rotations between NE-striking left-lateral faults in the Bridgeport and Mono Basins. Results in the Bodie Hills suggest clockwise rotations (R ± ΔR, 95% confidence limits) of 74 ± 8° since Early to Middle Miocene (˜12-20 Ma), 42 ± 11° since Late Miocene (˜8-9 Ma), and 14 ± 10° since Pliocene (˜3 Ma) time with no detectable northward translation. The data are compatible with a relatively steady rotation rate of 5 ± 2° Ma-1 (2σ) since the Middle Miocene over the three examined timescales. The average rotation rates have probably not varied by more than a factor of two over time spans equal to half of the total time interval. Our paleomagnetic data suggest that block rotations in the region of the Mina Deflection began prior to Late Miocene time (˜9 Ma), and perhaps since the Middle Miocene if rotation rates were relatively constant. Block rotation in the Bodie Hills is similar in age and long-term average rate to rotations in the Transverse Ranges of southern California associated with early transtensional dextral shear deformation. We speculate that the age of rotations in the Bodie Hills indicates dextral shear and strain accommodation within the central Walker Lane Belt resulting from coupling of the Pacific and North America plates.

  8. Perceiving and Acting on Complex Affordances: How Children and Adults Bicycle across Two Lanes of Opposing Traffic

    Grechkin, Timofey Y.; Chihak, Benjamin J.; Cremer, James F.; Kearney, Joseph K.; Plumert, Jodie M.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined how children and adults negotiate a challenging perceptual-motor problem with significant real-world implications--bicycling across two lanes of opposing traffic. Twelve- and 14-year-olds and adults rode a bicycling simulator through an immersive virtual environment. Participants crossed intersections with continuous…

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation treatment at phytosanitary dose levels on the quality of ‘Lane Late’ navel oranges

    The objectives of this study were to determine the dose tolerance of ‘Lane Late’ navel oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) to irradiation for phytosanitary purposes, identify the sensory attributes that may be affected by the treatment, and determine which changes, if any, influence consumer liking....

  10. Complex traffic flow that allows as well as hampers lane-changing intrinsically contains social-dilemma structures

    Iwamura, Yoshiro; Tanimoto, Jun

    2018-02-01

    To investigate an interesting question as to whether or not social dilemma structures can be found in a realistic traffic flow reproduced by a model, we built a new microscopic model in which an intentional driver may try lane-changing to go in front of other vehicles and may hamper others’ lane-changes. Our model consists of twofold parts; cellular automaton emulating a real traffic flow and evolutionary game theory to implement a driver’s decision making-process. Numerical results reveal that a social dilemma like the multi-player chicken game or prisoner’s dilemma game emerges depending on the traffic phase. This finding implies that a social dilemma, which has been investigated by applied mathematics so far, hides behind a traffic flow, which has been explored by fluid dynamics. Highlight - Complex system of traffic flow with consideration of driver’s decision making process is concerned. - A new model dovetailing cellular automaton with game theory is established. - Statistical result from numerical simulations reveals a social dilemma structure underlying traffic flow. - The social dilemma is triggered by a driver’s egocentric actions of lane-changing and hampering other’s lane-change.

  11. Lane Detection in Video-Based Intelligent Transportation Monitoring via Fast Extracting and Clustering of Vehicle Motion Trajectories

    Jianqiang Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lane detection is a crucial process in video-based transportation monitoring system. This paper proposes a novel method to detect the lane center via rapid extraction and high accuracy clustering of vehicle motion trajectories. First, we use the activity map to realize automatically the extraction of road region, the calibration of dynamic camera, and the setting of three virtual detecting lines. Secondly, the three virtual detecting lines and a local background model with traffic flow feedback are used to extract and group vehicle feature points in unit of vehicle. Then, the feature point groups are described accurately by edge weighted dynamic graph and modified by a motion-similarity Kalman filter during the sparse feature point tracking. After obtaining the vehicle trajectories, a rough k-means incremental clustering with Hausdorff distance is designed to realize the rapid online extraction of lane center with high accuracy. The use of rough set reduces effectively the accuracy decrease, which results from the trajectories that run irregularly. Experimental results prove that the proposed method can detect lane center position efficiently, the affected time of subsequent tasks can be reduced obviously, and the safety of traffic surveillance systems can be enhanced significantly.

  12. DIVIDED ATTENTION IN EXPERIENCED YOUNG AND OLDER DRIVERS - LANE TRACKING AND VISUAL ANALYSIS IN A DYNAMIC DRIVING SIMULATOR

    BROUWER, WH; WATERINK, W; VANWOLFFELAAR, PC; ROTHENGATTER, T

    1991-01-01

    A simulated driving task that required the simultaneous execution of two continuous visual tasks was administered to 12 healthy young (mean age 26.1 years) and 12 healthy older (mean age 64.4 years) experienced and currently active drivers. The first task was a compensatory lane-tracking task

  13. Enabling 4-Lane Based 400 G Client-Side Transmission Links with MultiCAP Modulation

    Tatarczak, Anna; Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Zuo, Tianjian

    2015-01-01

    We propose a uniform solution for a future client-side 400 G Ethernet standard based on MultiCAP advanced modulation format, intensity modulation, and direct detection. It employs 4 local area networks-wavelength division multiplexing (LAN-WDM) lanes in 1300 nm wavelength band and parallel optics...

  14. Identifying factors affecting the safety of mid-block bicycle lanes considering mixed 2-wheeled traffic flow.

    Bai, Lu; Chan, Ching-Yao; Liu, Pan; Xu, Chengcheng

    2017-10-03

    Electric bikes (e-bikes) have been one of the fastest growing trip modes in Southeast Asia over the past 2 decades. The increasing popularity of e-bikes raised some safety concerns regarding urban transport systems. The primary objective of this study was to identify whether and how the generalized linear regression model (GLM) could be used to relate cyclists' safety with various contributing factors when riding in a mid-block bike lane. The types of 2-wheeled vehicles in the study included bicycle-style electric bicycles (BSEBs), scooter-style electric bicycles (SSEBs), and regular bicycles (RBs). Traffic conflict technology was applied as a surrogate measure to evaluate the safety of 2-wheeled vehicles. The safety performance model was developed by adopting a generalized linear regression model for relating the frequency of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes and regular bikes to the operating speeds of BSEBs, SSEBs, and RBs in mid-block bike lanes. The frequency of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes and bikes increased with an increase in the operating speeds of e-bikes and the volume of e-bikes and bikes and decreased with an increase in the width of bike lanes. The large speed difference between e-bikes and bikes increased the frequency of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes and bikes in mid-block bike lanes. A 1% increase in the average operating speed of e-bikes would increase the expected number of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes and bikes by 1.48%. A 1% increase in the speed difference between e-bikes and bikes would increase the expected number of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes/bikes by 0.16%. The conflict frequency in mid-block bike lanes can be modeled using generalized linear regression models. The factors that significantly affected the frequency of rear-end conflicts included the operating speeds of e-bikes, the speed difference between e-bikes and regular bikes, the volume of e-bikes, the volume of bikes, and the width of bike lanes. The

  15. Development of a multi-lane X-ray mirror providing variable beam sizes

    Laundy, D., E-mail: david.laundy@diamond.ac.uk; Sawhney, K.; Nistea, I.; Alcock, S. G.; Pape, I.; Sutter, J.; Alianelli, L.; Evans, G. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    Grazing incidence mirrors are used on most X-ray synchrotron beamlines to focus, collimate or suppress harmonics. Increasingly beamline users are demanding variable beam shapes and sizes at the sample position. We have now developed a new concept to rapidly vary the beam size and shape of a focused X-ray beam. The surface of an elliptically figured mirror is divided into a number of laterally separated lanes, each of which is given an additional longitudinal height profile calculated to shape the X-ray beam to a top-hat profile in the focal plane. We have now fabricated two prototype mirrors and present the results of metrology tests and measurements made with one of the mirrors focusing the X-rays on a synchrotron beamline. We envisage that such mirrors could be widely applied to rapid beam-size switching on many synchrotron beamlines.

  16. New Analytic Solution to the Lane-Emden Equation of Index 2

    S. S. Motsa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two new analytic methods that are used for solving initial value problems that model polytropic and stellar structures in astrophysics and mathematical physics. The applicability, effectiveness, and reliability of the methods are assessed on the Lane-Emden equation which is described by a second-order nonlinear differential equation. The results obtained in this work are also compared with numerical results of Horedt (1986 which are widely used as a benchmark for testing new methods of solution. Good agreement is observed between the present results and the numerical results. Comparison is also made between the proposed new methods and existing analytical methods and it is found that the new methods are more efficient and have several advantages over some of the existing analytical methods.

  17. The Dawes Lane coke ovens by-products plant expert system

    P. Warren [Corus Research Development and Technology (United Kingdom). Teeside Technology Department

    2002-07-01

    A system has been developed to provide comprehensive monitoring of the washer/scrubber processes on the by-products plant at Dawes Lane coke ovens where faulty operation may cause blockage of the gas stream leading to opening of the battery bleeders to release gas to atmosphere. The system developed and the additional instrumentation and practices have met the requirements for improved monitoring to reduce the likelihood of uncontrolled gas emissions. It is planned to further develop the system so that it will contribute towards optimisation of plant operation, and so to generate a financial benefit from the investment made. The paper was presented to the Midland Section of the Coke Oven Managers' Association at Corus Centre, Scunthorpe, UK on 20 May 2001. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Brain limbic system-based intelligent controller application to lane change manoeuvre

    Kim, Changwon; Langari, Reza

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents the application of a novel neuromorphic control strategy for lane change manoeuvres in the highway environment. The lateral dynamics of a vehicle with and without wind disturbance are derived and utilised to implement a control strategy based on the brain limbic system. To show the robustness of the proposed controller, several disturbance conditions including wind, uncertainty in the cornering stiffness, and changes in the vehicle mass are investigated. To demonstrate the performance of the suggested strategy, simulation results of the proposed method are compared with the human driver model-based control scheme, which has been discussed in the literature. The simulation results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed controller in energy efficiency, driving comfort, and robustness.

  19. Contribution of ship traffic to aerosol particle concentrations downwind of a major shipping lane

    Kivekäs, N.; Massling, Andreas; Grythe, H.

    2014-01-01

    at a remote location. We studied the particle number concentration (12 to 490 nm in diameter), the mass concentration (12 to 150 nm in diameter) and number and volume size distribution of aerosol particles in ship plumes for a period of 4.5 months at Hovsore, a coastal site on the western coast of Jutland...... in Denmark. During episodes of western winds, the site is about 50 km downwind of a major shipping lane and the plumes are approximately 1 hour old when they arrive at the site. We have used a sliding percentile-based method for separating the plumes from the measured background values and to calculate...... the ship plume contribution to the total particle number and PM0.15 mass concentration (mass of particles below 150 nm in diameter, converted from volume assuming sphericity) at the site. The method is not limited to particle number or volume concentration, but can also be used for different chemical...

  20. A Liouville type theorem for Lane-Emden systems involving the fractional Laplacian

    Quaas, Alexander; Xia, Aliang

    2016-08-01

    We establish a Liouville type theorem for the fractional Lane-Emden system: {(-Δ)αu=vqin  RN,(-Δ)αv=upin  RN, where α \\in (0,1) , N>2α and p, q are positive real numbers and in an appropriate new range. To prove our result we will use the local realization of fractional Laplacian, which can be constructed as a Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator of a degenerate elliptic equation in the spirit of Caffarelli and Silvestre (2007 Commun. PDE 32 1245-60). Our proof is based on a monotonicity argument for suitable transformed functions and the method of moving planes in a half infinite cylinder ({IR}× S+N , where S+N is the half unit sphere in {{{R}}N+1} ) based on maximum principles which are obtained by barrier functions and a coupling argument using a fractional Sobolev trace inequality.

  1. Analytical Model for Passing Sight Distance Design Criteria of Two-Lane Roads in Sri Lanka

    Mampearachchi W. K.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available For a safe overtaking manoeuvre on two-lane highways, drivers need a sufficient sight distance along the roadway, but it depends on the traffic environment. To provide an adequate Passing Sight Distance (PSD, a number of models have been proposed since the initial model introduced by American Association of State Highways and Transport Officials (AASHTO in 1954. It is a current design practice in Sri Lanka as well, however, not validated for local traffic conditions. This paper will present an alternative PSD model and an evaluation of AASHTO model for national highway design. Experiment was based on GPS data collection. In conclusion, PSD demand was satisfied by AASHTO PSD under mix traffic conditions, but not the safety concerns for speeds greater than 80 km/h, while alternative model successful for all speeds.

  2. Bio-inspired computational heuristics to study Lane-Emden systems arising in astrophysics model.

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Raja, Muhammad Asif Zahoor; Bilal, Muhammad; Ashraf, Farooq

    2016-01-01

    This study reports novel hybrid computational methods for the solutions of nonlinear singular Lane-Emden type differential equation arising in astrophysics models by exploiting the strength of unsupervised neural network models and stochastic optimization techniques. In the scheme the neural network, sub-part of large field called soft computing, is exploited for modelling of the equation in an unsupervised manner. The proposed approximated solutions of higher order ordinary differential equation are calculated with the weights of neural networks trained with genetic algorithm, and pattern search hybrid with sequential quadratic programming for rapid local convergence. The results of proposed solvers for solving the nonlinear singular systems are in good agreements with the standard solutions. Accuracy and convergence the design schemes are demonstrated by the results of statistical performance measures based on the sufficient large number of independent runs.

  3. Active training and driving-specific feedback improve older drivers' visual search prior to lane changes

    Lavallière Martin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Driving retraining classes may offer an opportunity to attenuate some effects of aging that may alter driving skills. Unfortunately, there is evidence that classroom programs (driving refresher courses do not improve the driving performance of older drivers. The aim of the current study was to evaluate if simulator training sessions with video-based feedback can modify visual search behaviors of older drivers while changing lanes in urban driving. Methods In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the video-based feedback training, 10 older drivers who received a driving refresher course and feedback about their driving performance were tested with an on-road standardized evaluation before and after participating to a simulator training program (Feedback group. Their results were compared to a Control group (12 older drivers who received the same refresher course and in-simulator active practice as the Feedback group without receiving driving-specific feedback. Results After attending the training program, the Control group showed no increase in the frequency of the visual inspection of three regions of interests (rear view and left side mirrors, and blind spot. In contrast, for the Feedback group, combining active training and driving-specific feedbacks increased the frequency of blind spot inspection by 100% (32.3 to 64.9% of verification before changing lanes. Conclusions These results suggest that simulator training combined with driving-specific feedbacks helped older drivers to improve their visual inspection strategies, and that in-simulator training transferred positively to on-road driving. In order to be effective, it is claimed that driving programs should include active practice sessions with driving-specific feedbacks. Simulators offer a unique environment for developing such programs adapted to older drivers' needs.

  4. Results of the radiological survey at 9 Redstone Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ069)

    Foley, R.D.; Carrier, R.F.

    1989-07-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process waste and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monozite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Areas residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with teas and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigate radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 232 Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 9 Redstone Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ069), was conducted during 1987. Measurements at the private property located at 9 Redstone Lane indicate slightly elevated gamma exposure rates in association with cinder-like material observed in logging holes. These elevated levels result from naturally occurring radioactivity present in such substances as ashes and cinders. They are not related to the deposit of residues from processing operations at the MCW site. All other radiological findings conform to the guidelines established by the DOE for the Maywood, New Jersey, area remedial action plan. 4 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Active training and driving-specific feedback improve older drivers' visual search prior to lane changes.

    Lavallière, Martin; Simoneau, Martin; Tremblay, Mathieu; Laurendeau, Denis; Teasdale, Normand

    2012-03-02

    Driving retraining classes may offer an opportunity to attenuate some effects of aging that may alter driving skills. Unfortunately, there is evidence that classroom programs (driving refresher courses) do not improve the driving performance of older drivers. The aim of the current study was to evaluate if simulator training sessions with video-based feedback can modify visual search behaviors of older drivers while changing lanes in urban driving. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the video-based feedback training, 10 older drivers who received a driving refresher course and feedback about their driving performance were tested with an on-road standardized evaluation before and after participating to a simulator training program (Feedback group). Their results were compared to a Control group (12 older drivers) who received the same refresher course and in-simulator active practice as the Feedback group without receiving driving-specific feedback. After attending the training program, the Control group showed no increase in the frequency of the visual inspection of three regions of interests (rear view and left side mirrors, and blind spot). In contrast, for the Feedback group, combining active training and driving-specific feedbacks increased the frequency of blind spot inspection by 100% (32.3 to 64.9% of verification before changing lanes). These results suggest that simulator training combined with driving-specific feedbacks helped older drivers to improve their visual inspection strategies, and that in-simulator training transferred positively to on-road driving. In order to be effective, it is claimed that driving programs should include active practice sessions with driving-specific feedbacks. Simulators offer a unique environment for developing such programs adapted to older drivers' needs.

  6. A Kinematic Model for Vertical Axis Rotation within the Mina Deflection of the Walker Lane

    Gledhill, T.; Pluhar, C. J.; Johnson, S. A.; Lindeman, J. R.; Petronis, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    The Mina Deflection, at the boundary between the Central and Southern Walker Lane, spans the California-Nevada border and includes a heavily-faulted Pliocene volcanic field overlying Miocene ignimbrites. The dextral Walker Lane accommodates 25% of relative Pacific-North America plate motion and steps right across the sinistral Mina deflection. Ours and previous work shows that the Mina Deflection partially accommodates deformation by vertical-axis rotation of up to 99.9o ± 6.1o rotation since 11 Ma. This rotation is evident in latite ignimbrite of Gilbert et al. (1971), which we have formalized as three members of Tuff of Huntoon Creek (THC). The welded, basal, normal-polarity Huntoon Valley Member of THC is overlain by the unwelded to partially-welded, reversed-polarity Adobe Hills Mbr. This member includes internal breaks suggesting multiple eruptive phases, but the paleomagnetic results from each are statistically indistinguishable, meaning that they were likely erupted in rapid succession (within a few centuries of one another). THC ends with a welded member exhibiting very shallow inclination and south declination that we call Excursional Mbr. One of the upper members has been dated at 11.17 ± 0.04 Ma. These Miocene units are overlain by Pliocene basalts, Quaternary alluvium, and lacustrine deposits. Our paleomagnetic results show a gradient between the zero rotation domain and high rotation across a 20km baseline. A micropolar model, based on 25 years of earthquake data from the Northern and Southern California Seismic Network, suggest the Mina Deflection is currently experiencing transpressional seismogenic deformation (Unruh et al., 2003). Accepting Unruh's model and assuming continuous rotation since 11 Ma, we propose a kinematic model for the western Mina Deflection that accommodates 90o of vertical axis rotation from N-S to ENE-WSW oriented blocks.

  7. Visual scanning training for neglect after stroke with and without a computerized lane tracking dual task

    M.E. eVan Kessel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Neglect patients typically fail to explore the contralesional half-space. During visual scanning training, these patients learn to consciously pay attention to contralesional target stimuli. It has been suggested that combining scanning training with methods addressing non-spatial attention might enhance training results. In the present study, a dual task training component was added to a visual scanning training (i.e. Training di Scanning Visuospaziale – TSVS; Pizzamiglio et al., 1990. Twenty-nine subacute right hemisphere stroke patients were semi-randomly assigned to an experimental (N=14 or a control group (N=15. Patients received 30 training sessions during six weeks. TSVS consisted of four standardized tasks (digit detection, reading/copying, copying drawings and figure description. Moreover, a driving simulator task was integrated in the training procedure. Control patients practiced a single lane tracking task for two days a week during six weeks. The experimental group was administered the same training schedule, but in weeks 4-6 of the training, the TSVS digit detection task was combined with lane tracking on the same projection screen, so as to create a dual task (CVRT-TR. Various neglect tests and driving simulator tasks were administered before and after training. No significant group and interaction effects were found that might reflect additional positive effects of dual task training. Significant improvements after training were observed in both groups taken together on most assessment tasks. Ameliorations were generally not correlated to post onset time, but spontaneous recovery, test-retest variability and learning effects could not be ruled out completely, since these were not controlled for. Future research might focus on increasing the amount of dual task training, the implementation of progressive difficulty levels in the driving simulator tasks and further exploration of relationships between dual task training and daily

  8. Lane Level Localization; Using Images and HD Maps to Mitigate the Lateral Error

    Hosseinyalamdary, S.; Peter, M.

    2017-05-01

    In urban canyon where the GNSS signals are blocked by buildings, the accuracy of measured position significantly deteriorates. GIS databases have been frequently utilized to improve the accuracy of measured position using map matching approaches. In map matching, the measured position is projected to the road links (centerlines) in this approach and the lateral error of measured position is reduced. By the advancement in data acquision approaches, high definition maps which contain extra information, such as road lanes are generated. These road lanes can be utilized to mitigate the positional error and improve the accuracy in position. In this paper, the image content of a camera mounted on the platform is utilized to detect the road boundaries in the image. We apply color masks to detect the road marks, apply the Hough transform to fit lines to the left and right road boundaries, find the corresponding road segment in GIS database, estimate the homography transformation between the global and image coordinates of the road boundaries, and estimate the camera pose with respect to the global coordinate system. The proposed approach is evaluated on a benchmark. The position is measured by a smartphone's GPS receiver, images are taken from smartphone's camera and the ground truth is provided by using Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) technique. Results show the proposed approach significantly improves the accuracy of measured GPS position. The error in measured GPS position with average and standard deviation of 11.323 and 11.418 meters is reduced to the error in estimated postion with average and standard deviation of 6.725 and 5.899 meters.

  9. LANE LEVEL LOCALIZATION; USING IMAGES AND HD MAPS TO MITIGATE THE LATERAL ERROR

    S. Hosseinyalamdary

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In urban canyon where the GNSS signals are blocked by buildings, the accuracy of measured position significantly deteriorates. GIS databases have been frequently utilized to improve the accuracy of measured position using map matching approaches. In map matching, the measured position is projected to the road links (centerlines in this approach and the lateral error of measured position is reduced. By the advancement in data acquision approaches, high definition maps which contain extra information, such as road lanes are generated. These road lanes can be utilized to mitigate the positional error and improve the accuracy in position. In this paper, the image content of a camera mounted on the platform is utilized to detect the road boundaries in the image. We apply color masks to detect the road marks, apply the Hough transform to fit lines to the left and right road boundaries, find the corresponding road segment in GIS database, estimate the homography transformation between the global and image coordinates of the road boundaries, and estimate the camera pose with respect to the global coordinate system. The proposed approach is evaluated on a benchmark. The position is measured by a smartphone’s GPS receiver, images are taken from smartphone’s camera and the ground truth is provided by using Real-Time Kinematic (RTK technique. Results show the proposed approach significantly improves the accuracy of measured GPS position. The error in measured GPS position with average and standard deviation of 11.323 and 11.418 meters is reduced to the error in estimated postion with average and standard deviation of 6.725 and 5.899 meters.

  10. Investigation of pedestrian crashes on two-way two-lane rural roads in Ethiopia.

    Tulu, Getu Segni; Washington, Simon; Haque, Md Mazharul; King, Mark J

    2015-05-01

    Understanding pedestrian crash causes and contributing factors in developing countries is critically important as they account for about 55% of all traffic crashes. Not surprisingly, considerable attention in the literature has been paid to road traffic crash prediction models and methodologies in developing countries of late. Despite this interest, there are significant challenges confronting safety managers in developing countries. For example, in spite of the prominence of pedestrian crashes occurring on two-way two-lane rural roads, it has proven difficult to develop pedestrian crash prediction models due to a lack of both traffic and pedestrian exposure data. This general lack of available data has further hampered identification of pedestrian crash causes and subsequent estimation of pedestrian safety performance functions. The challenges are similar across developing nations, where little is known about the relationship between pedestrian crashes, traffic flow, and road environment variables on rural two-way roads, and where unique predictor variables may be needed to capture the unique crash risk circumstances. This paper describes pedestrian crash safety performance functions for two-way two-lane rural roads in Ethiopia as a function of traffic flow, pedestrian flows, and road geometry characteristics. In particular, random parameter negative binomial model was used to investigate pedestrian crashes. The models and their interpretations make important contributions to road crash analysis and prevention in developing countries. They also assist in the identification of the contributing factors to pedestrian crashes, with the intent to identify potential design and operational improvements. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Bubble Departure from Metal-Graphite Composite Surfaces and Its Effects on Pool Boiling Heat Transfer

    Chao, David F.; Sankovic, John M.; Motil, Brian J.; Yang, W-J.; Zhang, Nengli

    2010-01-01

    The formation and growth processes of a bubble in the vicinity of graphite micro-fiber tips on metal-graphite composite boiling surfaces and their effects on boiling behavior are investigated. It is discovered that a large number of micro bubbles are formed first at the micro scratches and cavities on the metal matrix in pool boiling. By virtue of the non-wetting property of graphite, once the growing micro bubbles touch the graphite tips, the micro bubbles are sucked by the tips and merged into larger micro bubbles sitting on the end of the tips. The micro bubbles grow rapidly and coalesce to form macro bubbles, each spanning several tips. The necking process of a detaching macro bubble is analyzed. It is revealed that a liquid jet is produced by sudden break-off of the bubble throat. The composite surfaces not only have higher temperatures in micro- and macrolayers but also make higher frequency of the bubble departure, which increase the average heat fluxes in both the bubble growth stage and in the bubble departure period. Based on these analyses, the enhancement mechanism of pool boiling heat transfer on composite surfaces is clearly revealed.

  12. Detection of the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) in nuclear fuel rod simulators

    Mesquita, Amir Z.; Rezende, Hugo C.; Santos, Andre Augusto C.; Silva, Vitor Vasconcelos A.; Campolina, Daniel de Almeida M., E-mail: amir@cdtn.br, E-mail: hcr@cdtn.br, E-mail: aacs@cdtn.br, E-mail: vitors@cdtn.br, E-mail: campolina@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Tecnologia de Reatores; Palma, Daniel Artur P., E-mail: dapalma@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In the thermal hydraulic experiments to determinate parameters of heat transfer, where fuel rod simulators are heated by electric current, the preservation of the simulators are essential when the heat flux goes to the critical point. One of the most important limits in the design of cooling water reactors is the condition in which the heat transfer coefficient by boiling in the core deteriorates itself. The departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) happens in the area of low steam quality when there is nucleus formation of bubbles. This result in a departure from nucleate boiling in which steam bubbles no longer break away from the solid surface of the channel, bubbles dominate the channel or surface, and the heat flux dramatically decreases. Vapor essentially insulates the bulk liquid from the hot surface. At this time, the small increase in the heat flux or in the inlet temperature of the cooler in the core, or the small decrease in the inlet flux of cooling, results in changes in the heat transfer mechanism. This causes increases in the surface temperature of the fuel elements causing failures at the fuel (burnout). This paper describes the experiments conducted to detection of critical heat flux in nuclear fuel element simulators carried out in the thermal-hydraulic laboratory of Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN). It is concluded that the use of displacement transducer is the most efficient technique for detecting of critical heat flux in nuclear simulators heated by electric current in open pool. (author)

  13. Detection of the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) in nuclear fuel rod simulators

    Mesquita, Amir Z.; Rezende, Hugo C.; Santos, Andre Augusto C.; Silva, Vitor Vasconcelos A.; Campolina, Daniel de Almeida M.

    2013-01-01

    In the thermal hydraulic experiments to determinate parameters of heat transfer, where fuel rod simulators are heated by electric current, the preservation of the simulators are essential when the heat flux goes to the critical point. One of the most important limits in the design of cooling water reactors is the condition in which the heat transfer coefficient by boiling in the core deteriorates itself. The departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) happens in the area of low steam quality when there is nucleus formation of bubbles. This result in a departure from nucleate boiling in which steam bubbles no longer break away from the solid surface of the channel, bubbles dominate the channel or surface, and the heat flux dramatically decreases. Vapor essentially insulates the bulk liquid from the hot surface. At this time, the small increase in the heat flux or in the inlet temperature of the cooler in the core, or the small decrease in the inlet flux of cooling, results in changes in the heat transfer mechanism. This causes increases in the surface temperature of the fuel elements causing failures at the fuel (burnout). This paper describes the experiments conducted to detection of critical heat flux in nuclear fuel element simulators carried out in the thermal-hydraulic laboratory of Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN). It is concluded that the use of displacement transducer is the most efficient technique for detecting of critical heat flux in nuclear simulators heated by electric current in open pool. (author)

  14. Investigation, Modeling, and Analysis of Integrated Metroplex Arrival and Departure Coordination Concepts

    Clarke, John-Paul B.; Brooks, James; McClain, Evan; Paladhi, Anwesha Roy; Li, Leihong; Schleicher, David; Saraf, Aditya; Timar, Sebastian; Crisp, Don; Bertino, Jason; hide

    2012-01-01

    This work involves the development of a concept that enhances integrated metroplex arrival and departure coordination, determines the temporal (the use of time separation for aircraft sharing the same airspace resources) and spatial (the use of different routes or vertical profiles for aircraft streams at any given time) impact of metroplex traffic coordination within the National Airspace System (NAS), and quantifies the benefits of the most desirable metroplex traffic coordination concept. Researching and developing metroplex concepts is addressed in this work that broadly applies across the range of airspace and airport demand characteristics envisioned for NextGen metroplex operations. The objective of this work is to investigate, formulate, develop models, and analyze an operational concept that mitigates issues specific to the metroplex or that takes advantage of unique characteristics of metroplex airports to improve efficiencies. The concept is an innovative approach allowing the NAS to mitigate metroplex interdependencies between airports, optimize metroplex arrival and departure coordination among airports, maximize metroplex airport throughput, minimize delay due to airport runway configuration changes, increase resiliency to disruptions, and increase the tolerance of the system to degrade gracefully under adverse conditions such as weather, traffic management initiatives, and delays in general.

  15. Multi-objective Optimization of Departure Procedures at Gimpo International Airport

    Kim, Junghyun; Lim, Dongwook; Monteiro, Dylan Jonathan; Kirby, Michelle; Mavris, Dimitri

    2018-04-01

    Most aviation communities have increasing concerns about the environmental impacts, which are directly linked to health issues for local residents near the airport. In this study, the environmental impact of different departure procedures using the Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT) was analyzed. First, actual operational data were compiled at Gimpo International Airport (March 20, 2017) from an open source. Two modifications were made in the AEDT to model the operational circumstances better and the preliminary AEDT simulations were performed according to the acquired operational procedures. Simulated noise results showed good agreements with noise measurement data at specific locations. Second, a multi-objective optimization of departure procedures was performed for the Boeing 737-800. Four design variables were selected and AEDT was linked to a variety of advanced design methods. The results showed that takeoff thrust had the greatest influence and it was found that fuel burn and noise had an inverse relationship. Two points representing each fuel burn and noise optimum on the Pareto front were parsed and run in AEDT to compare with the baseline. The results showed that the noise optimum case reduced Sound Exposure Level 80-dB noise exposure area by approximately 5% while the fuel burn optimum case reduced total fuel burn by 1% relative to the baseline for aircraft-level analysis.

  16. Research on Arrival/Departure Scheduling of Flights on Multirunways Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Hang Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the phenomenon of a large number of flight delays in the terminal area makes a reasonable scheduling for the approach and departure flights, which will minimize flight delay losses and improve runway utilization. This paper considered factors such as operating conditions and safety interval of multi runways; the maximum throughput and minimum flight delay losses as well as robustness were taken as objective functions; the model of optimization scheduling of approach and departure flights was established. Finally, the genetic algorithm was introduced to solve the model. The results showed that, in the program whose advance is not counted as a loss, its runway throughput is improved by 18.4%, the delay losses are reduced by 85.8%, and the robustness is increased by 20% compared with the results of FCFS (first come first served algorithm, while, compared with the program whose advance is counted as a loss, the runway throughput is improved by 15.16%, flight delay losses are decreased by 75.64%, and the robustness is also increased by 20%. The algorithm can improve the efficiency and reduce delay losses effectively and reduce the workload of controllers, thereby improving economic results.

  17. Reflections on researcher departure: Closure of prison relationships in ethnographic research.

    Abbott, Laura; Scott, Tricia

    2018-01-01

    The United Kingdom has the highest incarceration rate in Western Europe. It is known that women in prison are a vulnerable female population who are at risk of mental ill-health due to disadvantaged and chaotic life experiences. Accurate numbers of pregnant women held in UK prisons are not recorded, yet it is estimated that 6%-7% of the female prison population are at varying stages of pregnancy and around 100 babies are born to incarcerated women each year. There are limited published papers that document the departure of the researcher following closure of fieldwork with women in prison. This article identifies the dilemmas and challenges associated with the closure of prison fieldwork through the interwoven reflections of the researcher. Departure scenarios are presented which illuminate moments of closure talk with five women, supported by participant reflections regarding abandonment and loss, making pledges for the future, self-affirmation, incidental add-ons at the end of an interview and red flags, alerting the researcher to potential participant harm through ill health or self-injury. The primary intention of the study was to observe the pregnant woman's experience with the English prison system through interviews with pregnant women and field observations of the environment. Ethnographic design enabled the researcher, a practising midwife, to engage with the prisoners' pregnancy experiences in three English prisons, which took place over 10 months during 2015-2016. Data collection involved semi-structured, audio-recorded interviews with 28 female prisoners in England who were pregnant or had recently given birth while imprisoned, 10 members of staff and a period of non-participant observation. Follow-up interviews with 5 women were undertaken as their pregnancies progressed. Computerised qualitative data analysis software was used to generate and analyse pregnancy-related themes. Ethical considerations: Favourable ethical opinion was granted by National

  18. Late quaternary slip-rate variations along the Warm Springs Valley fault system, northern Walker Lane, California-Nevada border

    Gold, Ryan; dePolo, Craig; Briggs, Richard W.; Crone, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which faults exhibit temporally varying slip rates has important consequences for models of fault mechanics and probabilistic seismic hazard. Here, we explore the temporal behavior of the dextral‐slip Warm Springs Valley fault system, which is part of a network of closely spaced (10–20 km) faults in the northern Walker Lane (California–Nevada border). We develop a late Quaternary slip record for the fault using Quaternary mapping and high‐resolution topographic data from airborne Light Distance and Ranging (LiDAR). The faulted Fort Sage alluvial fan (40.06° N, 119.99° W) is dextrally displaced 98+42/-43 m, and we estimate the age of the alluvial fan to be 41.4+10.0/-4.8 to 55.7±9.2  ka, based on a terrestrial cosmogenic 10Be depth profile and 36Cl analyses on basalt boulders, respectively. The displacement and age constraints for the fan yield a slip rate of 1.8 +0.8/-0.8 mm/yr to 2.4 +1.2/-1.1 mm/yr (2σ) along the northern Warm Springs Valley fault system for the past 41.4–55.7 ka. In contrast to this longer‐term slip rate, shorelines associated with the Sehoo highstand of Lake Lahontan (~15.8  ka) adjacent to the Fort Sage fan are dextrally faulted at most 3 m, which limits a maximum post‐15.8 ka slip rate to 0.2  mm/yr. These relations indicate that the post‐Lahontan slip rate on the fault is only about one‐tenth the longer‐term (41–56 ka) average slip rate. This apparent slip‐rate variation may be related to co‐dependent interaction with the nearby Honey Lake fault system, which shows evidence of an accelerated period of mid‐Holocene earthquakes.

  19. Generalized Measure of Departure from No Three-Factor Interaction Model for 2 x 2 x K Contingency Tables

    Yohei Ban

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available For 2 x 2 x K contingency tables, Tomizawa considered a Shannon entropy type measure to represent the degree of departure from a log-linear model of no three-factor interaction (the NOTFI model. This paper proposes a generalization of Tomizawa's measure for 2 x 2 x K tables. The measure proposed is expressed by using Patil-Taillie diversity index or Cressie-Read power-divergence. A special case of the proposed measure includes Tomizawa's measure. The proposed measure would be useful for comparing the degrees of departure from the NOTFI model in several tables.

  20. Prediction of Chinese Drivers' Intentions to Park Illegally in Emergency Lanes: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Zheng, Yubing; Ma, Yang; Guo, Lixin; Cheng, Jianchuan; Zhang, Yunlong

    2018-06-21

    Illegal parking in emergency lanes (paved highway shoulders) is becoming a serious road safety issue in China. The aim of this study was: 1) to examine the utility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) extended with descriptive norm, past behavior, facilitating and deterring circumstances, sensation seeking and invulnerability in predicting Chinese drivers' intentions in illegal emergency lane parking; 2) to investigate whether respondents' demographic characteristics would impact their views towards the behavior and predictive patterns of intentions; 3) to identify significant predictors of intentions. In this cross-sectional study, eligible respondents were all qualified Chinese drivers. A self-administered questionnaire was employed to collect data including demographic information, descriptive norm, past behavior, facilitating and deterring circumstances, sensation seeking and scenario-based invulnerability combined with TPB constructs. Descriptive statistics, MANOVAs and a series of hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were conducted in SPSS. A total of 435 qualified drivers (234 males and 201 females) with a mean age of 35.2 years (S.D.=10.3) were included in analysis. The descriptive analysis showed that most participants reported weak intentions (M = 2.35) to park illegally in emergency lanes with negative attitude (M = 3.19), low perceived support (M = 2.91) and high control (M = 5.08) over the behavior. The model succeeded in explaining 64% of the variance in intentions for the whole sample, and principal TPB components accounted for 21% of variance in intentions after demographic variables were controlled. MANOVAs revealed that significant differences of respondents' opinions towards illegal emergency lane parking were only found between better-educated drivers (with college education background) and less-educated ones. Separate regression analyses revealed that predictive pattern of better-educated participants also

  1. Ray Tracing Results for Elevation Angle Spread of Departure and its Impact on System Performance

    Mondal, Bishwarup; Thomas, Timothy; Nguyen, Huan Cong

    2014-01-01

    Elevation spread of departure angles (ESD) is the key parameter characterizing a 3D fast-fading channel model. 3D channel mod-eling is currently being studied in 3GPP to enable the develop-ment of MIMO techniques exploiting both azimuth and elevation dimensions of the channel. In this paper we use...... ray-tracing techniques to estimate the ESD behavior in Manhattan and Copenhagen city environments and compare it with the 3GPP ESD model. We also investigate the ESD spread within a cluster of rays and show that the ESD within a cluster depends significantly on the distance of the mobile from the base......-station. This char-acterization addresses a gap in the existing literature. Simulation results show that the performance of MIMO techniques such as vertical sectorization depends significantly on the ESD of the underlying environment. This observation also underscores the importance of an accurate ESD model....

  2. Multidisciplinary Simulation of Graphite-Composite and Cermet Fuel Elements for NTP Point of Departure Designs

    Stewart, Mark E.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares the expected performance of two Nuclear Thermal Propulsion fuel types. High fidelity, fluid/thermal/structural + neutronic simulations help predict the performance of graphite-composite and cermet fuel types from point of departure engine designs from the Nuclear Thermal Propulsion project. Materials and nuclear reactivity issues are reviewed for each fuel type. Thermal/structural simulations predict thermal stresses in the fuel and thermal expansion mis-match stresses in the coatings. Fluid/thermal/structural/neutronic simulations provide predictions for full fuel elements. Although NTP engines will utilize many existing chemical engine components and technologies, nuclear fuel elements are a less developed engine component and introduce design uncertainty. Consequently, these fuel element simulations provide important insights into NTP engine performance.

  3. Low-frequency Carbon Radio Recombination Lines. I. Calculations of Departure Coefficients

    Salgado, F.; Morabito, L. K.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Salas, P.; Toribio, M. C.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2017-03-10

    In the first paper of this series, we study the level population problem of recombining carbon ions. We focus our study on high quantum numbers, anticipating observations of carbon radio recombination lines to be carried out by the Low Frequency Array. We solve the level population equation including angular momentum levels with updated collision rates up to high principal quantum numbers. We derive departure coefficients by solving the level population equation in the hydrogenic approximation and including low-temperature dielectronic capture effects. Our results in the hydrogenic approximation agree well with those of previous works. When comparing our results including dielectronic capture, we find differences that we ascribe to updates in the atomic physics (e.g., collision rates) and to the approximate solution method of the statistical equilibrium equations adopted in previous studies. A comparison with observations is discussed in an accompanying article, as radiative transfer effects need to be considered.

  4. A departure from cognitivism: Implications of Chomsky's second revolution in linguistics

    Schoneberger, Ted

    2000-01-01

    In 1957 Noam Chomsky published Syntactic Structures, expressing views characterized as constituting a “revolution” in linguistics. Chomsky proposed that the proper subject matter of linguistics is not the utterances of speakers, but what speakers and listeners know. To that end, he theorized that what they know is a system of rules that underlie actual performance. This theory became known as transformational grammar. In subsequent versions of this theory, rules continued to play a dominant role. However, in 1980 Chomsky began a second revolution by proposing the elimination of rules in a new theory: the principles-and-parameters approach. Subsequent writings finalized the abandonment of rules. Given the centrality of rules to cognitivism, this paper argues that Chomsky's second revolution constitutes a departure from cognitivism. PMID:22477214

  5. Tinkering toward departure: The limits of improvisation in rural Ethiopian biomedical practices.

    Rieder, Stephanie

    2017-04-01

    This paper explores Ethiopian physicians' responses to tensions produced by gaps between ideals of biomedicine and realities of clinical practice in two rural Ethiopian hospitals. Physicians engage in creativity and improvisation, including relying on informal networks and practices and tinkering within diagnoses and procedures, to overcome constraints of lack of resources and limited opportunities to engage in "good medicine." These courageous, but often unsuccessful attempts to mitigate professional and personal conflicts within their medical practices represent improvisation in impossible circumstances. This paper results from ethnographic research conducted in 2013-2014 and includes participant observations and qualitative interviews in two hospitals within the same community. The inherent conflicts among globalized standards, unpredictable transnational medical networks, and innovative practices produce tenuous clinical spaces and practices that rely on a mosaic of techniques and ad hoc connections. Tinkering and improvisation often fail to mediate these conflicts, contributing to physician disenchantment and departure from the community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A departure from cognitivism: Implications of Chomsky's second revolution in linguistics.

    Schoneberger, T

    2000-01-01

    In 1957 Noam Chomsky published Syntactic Structures, expressing views characterized as constituting a "revolution" in linguistics. Chomsky proposed that the proper subject matter of linguistics is not the utterances of speakers, but what speakers and listeners know. To that end, he theorized that what they know is a system of rules that underlie actual performance. This theory became known as transformational grammar. In subsequent versions of this theory, rules continued to play a dominant role. However, in 1980 Chomsky began a second revolution by proposing the elimination of rules in a new theory: the principles-and-parameters approach. Subsequent writings finalized the abandonment of rules. Given the centrality of rules to cognitivism, this paper argues that Chomsky's second revolution constitutes a departure from cognitivism.

  7. The Role of the CMB in Redshift Related Departures from the Gao–Solomon Relation

    Tunnard, R.; Greve, T. R.

    2017-01-01

    A strong correlation between the far-IR and HCN(1−0) line luminosities, known as the Gao–Solomon relation, has been observed to hold over more than 10 orders of magnitude in the local universe. Departures from this relation at redshifts ≳1.5 have been interpreted as evidence for increased dense gas star formation efficiency in luminous galaxies during the period of peak of star formation in the history of the universe. We examine whether the offsets from the relation can be explained by the hotter Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at high redshift, which, due to a loss of contrast against the hotter background, reduces the observable molecular-line flux far more significantly than the far-IR continuum bands. Simple line-of-sight modeling argues for highly significant departures from the Gao–Solomon relation at high redshift for kinetic temperatures ∼15 K, while more complex toy-galaxy models based on NGC 1068 suggest a much weaker effect with the galaxy integrated HCN line flux falling by only 10% at z = 3, within the intrinsic scatter of the relation. We conclude that, while the CMB is unlikely to explain the deviations reported in the literature, it may introduce a second-order effect on the relation by raising the low-luminosity end of the Gao–Solomon relation in cooler galaxies. A similar examination of the CO-IR relation finds tantalizing signs of the CMB having a measurable effect on the integrated CO emission in high-redshift galaxies, but these signs cannot be confirmed with the current data.

  8. The Role of the CMB in Redshift Related Departures from the Gao–Solomon Relation

    Tunnard, R.; Greve, T. R., E-mail: richard.tunnard.13@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2017-11-01

    A strong correlation between the far-IR and HCN(1−0) line luminosities, known as the Gao–Solomon relation, has been observed to hold over more than 10 orders of magnitude in the local universe. Departures from this relation at redshifts ≳1.5 have been interpreted as evidence for increased dense gas star formation efficiency in luminous galaxies during the period of peak of star formation in the history of the universe. We examine whether the offsets from the relation can be explained by the hotter Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at high redshift, which, due to a loss of contrast against the hotter background, reduces the observable molecular-line flux far more significantly than the far-IR continuum bands. Simple line-of-sight modeling argues for highly significant departures from the Gao–Solomon relation at high redshift for kinetic temperatures ∼15 K, while more complex toy-galaxy models based on NGC 1068 suggest a much weaker effect with the galaxy integrated HCN line flux falling by only 10% at z = 3, within the intrinsic scatter of the relation. We conclude that, while the CMB is unlikely to explain the deviations reported in the literature, it may introduce a second-order effect on the relation by raising the low-luminosity end of the Gao–Solomon relation in cooler galaxies. A similar examination of the CO-IR relation finds tantalizing signs of the CMB having a measurable effect on the integrated CO emission in high-redshift galaxies, but these signs cannot be confirmed with the current data.

  9. ROADSIDE BARRIER AND PASSIVE SAFETY OF MOTORCYCLISTS ALONG EXCLUSIVE MOTORCYCLE LANES

    A.B. IBITOYE

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous increase in number of motorcycles and fatalities in some ASEAN countries is becoming a main concern for the safety of motorcyclists along exclusive motorcycle lanes. The existing w-beam guardrail system along exclusive motorcycle lanes was originally designed to reduce severity of a crash when cars and trucks involve in run-off road accident – but not specifically to protect motorcyclists during such accident. However, the consequences of this guardrail design on the passive safety of motorcyclist have been given little consideration. Thus, Probability of the motorcyclists getting injured on collision with guardrail is higher compared to other motor vehicle’s driver. In order to investigate the passive safety of motorcyclists while in collision with this guardrail, this study carried out computer simulation of typical crash scenario and conducted a physical crash test to validate the simulation model. The study examines the crash mechanism as related to injury severity when motorcyclist interacts with W-beam guardrail. A three-dimensional computer simulation of a scaled Hybrid III 50th percentile Male dummy mounted on a motorcycle and colliding with W-beam guardrail was carried out. Multi-body model of motorcycle and finite element model of guardrail were developed with commercially available software called MADYMO. The simulation model is validated with a simple crash test conducted with same initial impact configuration. The subsequent simulations were set up for impacting the existing w-beam guardrail with 110 kg motorcycle using eighteen impact conditions that consist of impact angles 15o, 30o and 45o, impact speeds of 32, 48 and 60km/h as well as post spacing of 2m and 4m. The predicted rider’s injury risk criteria were used to assess safety of guardrail response to motorcyclists. The obtained results confirmed that the existing w-beam guardrail is not safe to motorcyclist, especially for the head injury at impact speed

  10. Fast food purchasing and access to fast food restaurants: a multilevel analysis of VicLANES

    Thornton, Lukar E; Bentley, Rebecca J; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2009-01-01

    Background While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems using data from the Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments Study (VicLANES) – a cross-sectional multilevel study conducted within metropolitan Melbourne, Australia in 2003. Methods The VicLANES data used in this analysis included 2547 participants from 49 census collector districts in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. The outcome of interest was the total frequency of fast food purchased for consumption at home within the previous month (never, monthly and weekly) from five major fast food chains (Red Rooster, McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Hungry Jacks and Pizza Hut). Three measures of fast food access were created: density and variety, defined as the number of fast food restaurants and the number of different fast food chains within 3 kilometres of road network distance respectively, and proximity defined as the road network distance to the closest fast food restaurant. Multilevel multinomial models were used to estimate the associations between fast food restaurant access and purchasing with never purchased as the reference category. Models were adjusted for confounders including determinants of demand (attitudes and tastes that influence food purchasing decisions) as well as individual and area socio-economic characteristics. Results Purchasing fast food on a monthly basis was related to the variety of fast food restaurants (odds ratio 1.13; 95% confidence interval 1.02 – 1.25) after adjusting for individual and area characteristics. Density and proximity were not found to be significant predictors of fast food purchasing after adjustment for individual socio-economic predictors

  11. Fast food purchasing and access to fast food restaurants: a multilevel analysis of VicLANES.

    Thornton, Lukar E; Bentley, Rebecca J; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2009-05-27

    While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems using data from the Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments Study (VicLANES) - a cross-sectional multilevel study conducted within metropolitan Melbourne, Australia in 2003. The VicLANES data used in this analysis included 2547 participants from 49 census collector districts in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. The outcome of interest was the total frequency of fast food purchased for consumption at home within the previous month (never, monthly and weekly) from five major fast food chains (Red Rooster, McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Hungry Jacks and Pizza Hut). Three measures of fast food access were created: density and variety, defined as the number of fast food restaurants and the number of different fast food chains within 3 kilometres of road network distance respectively, and proximity defined as the road network distance to the closest fast food restaurant.Multilevel multinomial models were used to estimate the associations between fast food restaurant access and purchasing with never purchased as the reference category. Models were adjusted for confounders including determinants of demand (attitudes and tastes that influence food purchasing decisions) as well as individual and area socio-economic characteristics. Purchasing fast food on a monthly basis was related to the variety of fast food restaurants (odds ratio 1.13; 95% confidence interval 1.02 - 1.25) after adjusting for individual and area characteristics. Density and proximity were not found to be significant predictors of fast food purchasing after adjustment for individual socio-economic predictors. Although we found an independent

  12. Fast food purchasing and access to fast food restaurants: a multilevel analysis of VicLANES

    Kavanagh Anne M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems using data from the Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments Study (VicLANES – a cross-sectional multilevel study conducted within metropolitan Melbourne, Australia in 2003. Methods The VicLANES data used in this analysis included 2547 participants from 49 census collector districts in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. The outcome of interest was the total frequency of fast food purchased for consumption at home within the previous month (never, monthly and weekly from five major fast food chains (Red Rooster, McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Hungry Jacks and Pizza Hut. Three measures of fast food access were created: density and variety, defined as the number of fast food restaurants and the number of different fast food chains within 3 kilometres of road network distance respectively, and proximity defined as the road network distance to the closest fast food restaurant. Multilevel multinomial models were used to estimate the associations between fast food restaurant access and purchasing with never purchased as the reference category. Models were adjusted for confounders including determinants of demand (attitudes and tastes that influence food purchasing decisions as well as individual and area socio-economic characteristics. Results Purchasing fast food on a monthly basis was related to the variety of fast food restaurants (odds ratio 1.13; 95% confidence interval 1.02 – 1.25 after adjusting for individual and area characteristics. Density and proximity were not found to be significant predictors of fast food purchasing after adjustment for individual socio

  13. Monitoring the newly qualified nurses in Sweden: the Longitudinal Analysis of Nursing Education (LANE study

    Wallin Lars

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Longitudinal Analysis of Nursing Education (LANE study was initiated in 2002, with the aim of longitudinally examining a wide variety of individual and work-related variables related to psychological and physical health, as well as rates of employee and occupational turnover, and professional development among nursing students in the process of becoming registered nurses and entering working life. The aim of this paper is to present the LANE study, to estimate representativeness and analyse response rates over time, and also to describe common career pathways and life transitions during the first years of working life. Methods Three Swedish national cohorts of nursing students on university degree programmes were recruited to constitute the cohorts. Of 6138 students who were eligible for participation, a total of 4316 consented to participate and responded at baseline (response rate 70%. The cohorts will be followed prospectively for at least three years of their working life. Results Sociodemographic data in the cohorts were found to be close to population data, as point estimates only differed by 0-3% from population values. Response rates were found to decline somewhat across time, and this decrease was present in all analysed subgroups. During the first year after graduation, nearly all participants had qualified as nurses and had later also held nursing positions. The most common reason for not working was due to maternity leave. About 10% of the cohorts who graduated in 2002 and 2004 intended to leave the profession one year after graduating, and among those who graduated in 2006 the figure was almost twice as high. Intention to leave the profession was more common among young nurses. In the cohort who graduated in 2002, nearly every fifth registered nurse continued to further higher educational training within the health professions. Moreover, in this cohort, about 2% of the participants had left the nursing

  14. Evaluation of the traffic safety benefits of a lower speed limit and restriction of trucks to use of right lane only on I-10 over the Atchafalaya Basin.

    2012-01-01

    To improve traffic operation and safety, several states have implemented truck lane restriction and differential speed limit policies on freeways. In response to an 11-vehicle crash in September 2003, the Louisiana State Department of Transportation ...

  15. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from HARRIOT LANE in the NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) from 20 February 1987 to 22 February 1987 (NODC Accession 8700096)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT from the HARRIOT LANE in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and TOGA Area - Atlantic Ocean. Data...

  16. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from HARRIOT LANE in the NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) from 29 December 1986 to 31 December 1986 (NODC Accession 8700074)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XTB casts in the NW Atlantic Ocean from the HARRIOT LANE. Data were collected from 29 December...

  17. The “green wave” mode production on the two-lane highways during the construction works time period

    А. Berezhnoy

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the problem of a bi-directional “green wave” mode production is considered for the vehicle flows motion on two-lane highways during the conducting of construction works. The solution of the given task allows to develop practical recommendations for the sphere of the construction works management on two-lane roads and country highways, and also to raise traffic control efficiency in the pointed conditions. The comparative analysis of possible traffic regulation modes for the set scheme of road construction works sites and the estimation of their effi ciency is performed, the test of a hypothesis regarding the possibility of a bi-directional “green wave” mode realization is carried out, and calculation of traffic lights signal control phases time is performed.

  18. A multiclass vehicular dynamic traffic flow model for main roads and dedicated lanes/roads of multimodal transport network

    Sossoe, K.S., E-mail: kwami.sossoe@irt-systemx.fr [TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE SYSTEMX (France); Lebacque, J-P., E-mail: jean-patrick.lebacque@ifsttar.fr [UPE/IFSTTAR-COSYS-GRETTIA (France)

    2015-03-10

    We present in this paper a model of vehicular traffic flow for a multimodal transportation road network. We introduce the notion of class of vehicles to refer to vehicles of different transport modes. Our model describes the traffic on highways (which may contain several lanes) and network transit for pubic transportation. The model is drafted with Eulerian and Lagrangian coordinates and uses a Logit model to describe the traffic assignment of our multiclass vehicular flow description on shared roads. The paper also discusses traffic streams on dedicated lanes for specific class of vehicles with event-based traffic laws. An Euler-Lagrangian-remap scheme is introduced to numerically approximate the model’s flow equations.

  19. 75 FR 76997 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Arrival and Departure Record (Forms I-94 and I-94W) and...

    2010-12-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Arrival and Departure Record (Forms I-94 and I-94W) and Electronic System for Travel Authorization AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security ACTION: 30-Day notice...

  20. 76 FR 44349 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Arrival and Departure Record (Forms I-94 and I-94W) and...

    2011-07-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Arrival and Departure Record (Forms I-94 and I-94W) and Electronic System for Travel Authorization AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security ACTION: 30-day notice...

  1. Fuelling and moult in Red Knots before northward departure: a visual evaluation of differences between ages, sexes and subspecies

    Verhoeven, M.A.; Van Eerbeek, J.; Hassell, C.J.; Piersma, T.

    2016-01-01

    The departure of migratory birds from their non-breeding grounds is thought to be driven by the phenologyof their breeding destination. In north-west Australia, two plumage morphs of Red Knot (Calidris canutus) prepare for a5500-km journey to Yellow Sea staging areas. These morphs are recognised as

  2. Revising Tinto's Interactionalist Theory of Student Departure Through Theory Elaboration: Examining the Role of Organizational Attributes in the Persistence Process.

    Berger, Joseph B.; Braxton, John M.

    1998-01-01

    A study used theory elaboration to help revise Tinto's interactionalist theory of individual student departure from college to include the effects of organizational attributes on student withdrawal. Results provide strong support for including concepts from organizational theory and suggest future research should use theory elaboration to look for…

  3. Departure fuel loads in time-minimizing migrating birds can be explained by the energy costs of being heavy

    Klaassen, M.R.J.; Lindstrom, A.

    1996-01-01

    Lindstrom & Alerstam (1992 Am. Nat. 140, 477-491) presented a model that predicts optimal departure fuel loads as a function of the rate of fuel deposition in time-minimizing migrants. The basis of the model is that the coverable distance per unit of fuel deposited, diminishes with increasing fuel

  4. 8 CFR 215.8 - Requirements for biometric identifiers from aliens on departure from the United States.

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for biometric identifiers from... Requirements for biometric identifiers from aliens on departure from the United States. (a)(1) The Secretary of... of entry, to provide fingerprints, photograph(s) or other specified biometric identifiers...

  5. An observational study of consumer use of fast-food restaurant drive-through lanes: implications for menu labelling policy.

    Roberto, Christina A; Hoffnagle, Elena; Bragg, Marie A; Brownell, Kelly D

    2010-11-01

    Some versions of restaurant menu labelling legislation do not require energy information to be posted on menus for drive-through lanes. The present study was designed to quantify the number of customers who purchase fast food through drive-in windows as a means of informing legislative labelling efforts. This was an observational study. The study took place at two McDonald's and Burger King restaurants, and single Dairy Queen, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Taco Bell and Wendy's restaurants. The number of customers entering the chain restaurants and purchasing food via the drive-through lane were recorded. A total of 3549 patrons were observed. The percentage of customers who made their purchases at drive-throughs was fifty-seven. The overall average (57 %) is likely a conservative estimate because some fast-food restaurants have late-night hours when only the drive-throughs are open. Since nearly six in ten customers purchase food via the drive-through lanes, menu labelling legislation should mandate the inclusion of menu labels on drive-through menu boards to maximise the impact of this public health intervention.

  6. Modeling and simulation of driver's anticipation effect in a two lane system on curved road with slope

    Kaur, Ramanpreet; Sharma, Sapna

    2018-06-01

    The complexity of traffic flow phenomena on curved road with slope is investigated and a new lattice model is presented with the addition of driver's anticipation effect for two lane system. The condition under which the free flow turns into the jammed one, is obtained theoretically by using stability analysis. The results obtained through linear analysis indicates that the stable region increases (decreases) corresponding to uphill (downhill) case due to increasing slope angle for fixed anticipation parameter. It is found that when the vehicular density becomes higher than a critical value, traffic jam appears in the form of kink antikink density waves. Analytically, the kink antikink density waves are described by the solution of mKdV equation obtained from non linear analysis. In addition, the theoretical results has been verified through numerical simulation, which confirm that the slope on a curved highway significantly influence the traffic dynamics and traffic jam can be suppressed efficiently by considering the anticipation parameter in a two lane lattice model when lane changing is allowed.

  7. Fast learning method for convolutional neural networks using extreme learning machine and its application to lane detection.

    Kim, Jihun; Kim, Jonghong; Jang, Gil-Jin; Lee, Minho

    2017-03-01

    Deep learning has received significant attention recently as a promising solution to many problems in the area of artificial intelligence. Among several deep learning architectures, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) demonstrate superior performance when compared to other machine learning methods in the applications of object detection and recognition. We use a CNN for image enhancement and the detection of driving lanes on motorways. In general, the process of lane detection consists of edge extraction and line detection. A CNN can be used to enhance the input images before lane detection by excluding noise and obstacles that are irrelevant to the edge detection result. However, training conventional CNNs requires considerable computation and a big dataset. Therefore, we suggest a new learning algorithm for CNNs using an extreme learning machine (ELM). The ELM is a fast learning method used to calculate network weights between output and hidden layers in a single iteration and thus, can dramatically reduce learning time while producing accurate results with minimal training data. A conventional ELM can be applied to networks with a single hidden layer; as such, we propose a stacked ELM architecture in the CNN framework. Further, we modify the backpropagation algorithm to find the targets of hidden layers and effectively learn network weights while maintaining performance. Experimental results confirm that the proposed method is effective in reducing learning time and improving performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Speed Distribution on Two-Lane Rural Highways with Mixed Traffic: A Case Study in North East India

    Saha, Pritam; Roy, Nabanita; Sarkar, Ashoke Kumar; Pal, Manish

    2017-06-01

    This work focuses on minimising inaccuracies in distributional assumptions of speed data on two-lane roads with heterogeneous traffic to improve accuracy in capacity and level of service analysis. Accordingly, field study was conducted on a two-lane highway in India that exhibits heterogeneity in its traffic composition. Two distribution functions, namely, normal and logistic were examined for the observed speed data. The appropriate function was chosen using a methodology based on K-S test and field validation. Logistic distribution function was found to exhibit its aptness in describing speed under such traffic and was, thereby, considered in estimating the limiting speed of slower vehicles that tends to obstruct the flow of traffic. Vehicles that move at or below this speed cause delay to the faster ones resulting in formation of platoons at moderate and heavy flow when passing is restricted. Since the percent time-spent-following, a performance measure to assess level-of-service of two-lane highways, considers proportion of vehicles that are trapped inside platoons, it is imperative to estimate the limiting speed of slower vehicles correctly to approximate the delayed vehicles.

  9. Highway driving safety the day after using sleep medication: the direction of lapses and excursions out-of-lane in drowsy drivers.

    Verster, Joris C; Mooren, Loes; Bervoets, Adriana C; Roth, Thomas

    2017-10-24

    The primary outcome measure of the on-road driving test is the Standard Deviation of Lateral Position. However, other outcome measures, such as lapses and excursions out-of-lane, also need to be considered as they may be related to crash risk. The aim of this study was to determine the direction of lapses and excursions out-of-lane (i.e. towards/into the adjacent traffic lane or towards/into the road shoulder). In total, data from 240 driving tests were re-analysed, and 628 lapses and 401 excursions out-of-lane were identified. The analyses revealed that lapses were made equally frequently over left (49.4%) and over right (43.3%). In contrast, excursions out-of-lane were almost exclusively directed over right into the (safer) road shoulder (97.3%). These findings suggest that drivers are unaware of having lapses, whereas excursions out-of-lane are events where the driver is aware of loss of vehicle control. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  10. Changing lanes in a simulator: effects of aging on the control of the vehicle and visual inspection of mirrors and blind spot.

    Lavalliere, Martin; Laurendeau, Denis; Simoneau, Martin; Teasdale, Normand

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine lane change strategies in active younger and older drivers. Visual inspection of mirrors and the blind spot and the control of the vehicle were documented in a simulator environment. Younger (n = 10, 21-31 years) and older (n = 11, 65-75 years) active drivers drove through a continuous simulated environment including urban and rural sections. The scenario included events where, to negotiate a secure lane change, the driver needed to look at 3 regions of interest (ROI): (1) the rearview mirror, (2) the left side mirror, and (3) the left blind spot. The lane change maneuvers were necessary to avoid a vehicle parked halfway in the rightmost lane that was partially or completely blocking the lane or for overtaking a slower moving vehicle. Compared with younger drivers, older drivers showed a reduced frequency of visual inspection toward the rearview mirror and the blind spot. Also, though the older drivers showed a constant frequency of visual inspection across the 2 types of driving maneuvers, the younger drivers increased their frequency of inspection when overtaking a slower vehicle. Control of the car was mostly similar for both groups. A better knowledge of the drivers' visual search strategies when changing lanes could help in identifying suboptimal strategies at-risk of causing crashes and also serves to develop retraining programs.

  11. Crowd of individuals walking in opposite directions. A toy model to study the segregation of the group into lanes of individuals moving in the same direction

    Goldsztein, Guillermo H.

    2017-08-01

    Consider a corridor, street or bridge crowded with pedestrians walking in both directions. The individuals do not walk in a completely straight line. They adjust their path to avoid colliding with incoming pedestrians. As a result of these adjustments, the whole group sometimes end up split into lanes of individuals moving in the same direction. While this formation of lanes facilitates the flow and benefits the whole group, it is believed that results from the actions of the individuals acting only on their behalf, without considering others. This phenomenon is an example of self-organization. We analyze a simple model. We assume that individuals move around a two-lane circular track. All of them at the same speed. Half of them in one direction and the rest in the opposite direction. Each time two individuals collide, one of them moves to the other lane. The individual changing lanes is selected randomly. The system self-organizes. Eventually each lane is occupied with individuals moving in only one direction. We show that the time required for the system to self-organize is bounded by a linear function on the number of individuals. This toy model provides an example where global self-organization occurs even though each member of the group acts without considering the rest.

  12. Truck acceleration behavior study and acceleration lane length recommendations for metered on-ramps

    Guangchuan Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the actual truck acceleration capability at metered on-ramps. Truck acceleration performance data were collected through a video-based data collection method. A piecewise constant acceleration model was employed to capture truck acceleration characteristics. It was found that the existing acceleration length will affect truck drivers’ acceleration behavior. At the taper type ramp that has limited acceleration distance, acceleration profile indicated a decreasing trend with distance. While for the ramp with an auxiliary lane that has sufficient acceleration distance, it was found that the acceleration behavior is to have a high acceleration rate in the beginning, then acceleration rate decrease with speed increase, and high acceleration rate again as drivers approach the merging area. Field data show that the truck acceleration performance data documented in the ITE’s (Institute of Transportation Engineers “Traffic Engineering Handbook” are much lower than the field collected data. Also, based on the regression analysis of speed versus distance profiles, it was found that the AASHTO’s (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Green Book acceleration length design guidance is insufficient to accommodate trucks at metered on-ramps. The required acceleration lengths for medium and heavy trucks are approximately 1.3 and 1.6 times of the Green Book design guideline, respectively.

  13. Lane-Emden equation with inertial force and general polytropic dynamic model for molecular cloud cores

    Li, DaLei; Lou, Yu-Qing; Esimbek, Jarken

    2018-01-01

    We study self-similar hydrodynamics of spherical symmetry using a general polytropic (GP) equation of state and derive the GP dynamic Lane-Emden equation (LEE) with a radial inertial force. In reference to Lou & Cao, we solve the GP dynamic LEE for both polytropic index γ = 1 + 1/n and the isothermal case n → +∞; our formalism is more general than the conventional polytropic model with n = 3 or γ = 4/3 of Goldreich & Weber. For proper boundary conditions, we obtain an exact constant solution for arbitrary n and analytic variable solutions for n = 0 and n = 1, respectively. Series expansion solutions are derived near the origin with the explicit recursion formulae for the series coefficients for both the GP and isothermal cases. By extensive numerical explorations, we find that there is no zero density at a finite radius for n ≥ 5. For 0 ≤ n 0 for monotonically decreasing density from the origin and vanishing at a finite radius for c being less than a critical value Ccr. As astrophysical applications, we invoke our solutions of the GP dynamic LEE with central finite boundary conditions to fit the molecular cloud core Barnard 68 in contrast to the static isothermal Bonnor-Ebert sphere by Alves et al. Our GP dynamic model fits appear to be sensibly consistent with several more observations and diagnostics for density, temperature and gas pressure profiles.

  14. Method for environmental risk analysis of marine terminals, process industry terminals, pipelines and shipping lanes

    Nissen-Lie, Torild R.; Aspholm, Ole O. [DNV Energy, Oslo (Norway)

    2008-07-01

    The paper describes a quantitative method for analyzing the environmental risk of marine terminals, process industry terminals, pipelines and shipping lanes. The method has been used both in Norway and elsewhere in the world; calculating the risk for environmental resources as fish, seabirds and waterfowls, marine mammals, otters, sea turtles and salt marches and other shoreline/sub tidal habitats. The environmental risk is the product of the probability of acute releases and the environmental consequences. Consequences for vulnerable species and habitats are calculated based on oil drift modelling results and a consequence matrix consisting of 5-7 consequence parameter and five consequence levels of increasing seriousness. An average consequence level is calculated on basis of defined weighting factors to provide an overall consequence value for each spill scenario for each species/habitat. An environmental risk analysis highlights the hazards that have to be managed in order to run an environmentally sustainable operation and can also provide input to establish cost-effective oil spill response measures. (author)

  15. Results of the radiological survey at 19 Redstone Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ056)

    Cottrell, W.D.; Floyd, L.M.; Francis, M.W.; Mynatt, J.O.

    1989-10-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 232 Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 19 Redstone Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ056), was conducted during 1985 and 1986. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions were not significantly different from normal background levels in the northern New Jersey area. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Results of the radiological survey at 106 Columbia Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ063)

    Foley, R.D.; Floyd, L.M.; Crutcher, J.W.

    1989-07-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 232 Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 106 Columbia Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ063), was conducted during 1987. Results of the survey demonstrated radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions are typical of the type of material originating from the MCW site. 4 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Results of the radiological survey at 17 Redstone Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ030)

    Foley, R.D.; Floyd, L.M.; Carrier, R.F.; Crutcher, J.W.

    1989-06-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 232 Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 17 Redstone Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ030), was conducted during 1985 and 1986. Results of the survey demonstrated radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions are typical of the type of material originating from the MCW site. 4 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Results of the radiological survey at 112 Columbia Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ068)

    Foley, R.D.; Floyd, L.M.; Carrier, R.F.

    1989-11-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 232 Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 112 Columbia Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ068), was conducted during 1987. 4 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Results of the radiological survey at 7 Redstone Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ044)

    Cottrell, W.D.; Floyd, L.M.; Francis, M.W.; Mynatt, J.O.

    1989-10-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 232 Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclides analyses. The survey of this site, 7 Redstone Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ044), was conducted during 1985 and 1986. Some radionuclide measurements were greater than typical background levels in the northern New Jersey area. However, results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Thermodynamic treatment of nonphysical systems: formalism and an example (single-lane traffic)

    Reiss, H.; Hammerich, A.D.; Montroll, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    An effort is made to introduce thermodynamic and statistical thermodynamic methods into the treatment of nonphysical (e.g., social, economic, etc.) systems. Emphasis is placed on the use of the entire thermodynamic framework, not merely entropy. Entropy arises naturally, related in a simple manner to other measurables, but does not occupy a primary position in the theory. However, the maximum entropy formalism is a convenient procedure for deriving the thermodynamic analog framework in which undetermined multipliers are thermodynamic-like variables which summarize the collective behavior of the system. The authors discuss the analysis of Levine and his coworkers showing that the maximum entropy formalism is the unique algorithm for achieving consistent inference of probabilities. The thermodynamic-like formalism for treating a single lane of vehicular traffic is developed and applied to traffic in which the interaction between cars is chosen to be a particular form of the ''follow-the-leader'' type. The equation of state of the traffic, the distributions of velocity and headway, and the various thermodynamic-like parameters, e.g., temperature (collective sensitivity), pressure, etc. are determined for the example of the Holland Tunnel. Nearest-neighbor and pair correlation functions for the vehicles are also determined. Interesting and suggestive results are obtained

  1. Evaluating User Response to In-Car Haptic Feedback Touchscreens Using the Lane Change Test

    Matthew J. Pitts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Touchscreen interfaces are widely used in modern technology, from mobile devices to in-car infotainment systems. However, touchscreens impose significant visual workload demands on the user which have safety implications for use in cars. Previous studies indicate that the application of haptic feedback can improve both performance of and affective response to user interfaces. This paper reports on and extends the findings of a 2009 study conducted to evaluate the effects of different combinations of touchscreen visual, audible, and haptic feedback on driving and task performance, affective response, and subjective workload; the initial findings of which were originally published in (M. J. Pitts et al., 2009. A total of 48 non-expert users completed the study. A dual-task approach was applied, using the Lane Change Test as the driving task and realistic automotive use case touchscreen tasks. Results indicated that, while feedback type had no effect on driving or task performance, preference was expressed for multimodal feedback over visual alone. Issues relating to workload and cross-modal interaction were also identified.

  2. Development of regionalized SPFs for two-lane rural roads in Pennsylvania.

    Li, Lingyu; Gayah, Vikash V; Donnell, Eric T

    2017-11-01

    The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials' Highway Safety Manual (HSM) contains safety performance functions (SPFs) to predict annual crash frequencies for several roadway types. When applying these SPFs in a jurisdiction whose data were not used to develop the SPF, a calibration factor can be applied to adjust the expected crash frequency estimate to statewide or local conditions. Alternatively, the HSM suggests that transportation agencies may develop their own SPFs in lieu of applying the calibration factor to the HSM SPFs. However, the HSM does not provide guidance on the appropriate level of regionalization that should be adopted for either method, even though safety performance may vary considerably within a state. In light of this, the present study considers the development of local or regionalized SPFs for two-lane rural highways within the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Three regionalization levels were considered: statewide, engineering district and individual counties. The expected crash frequency for each level of regionalization was compared to the reported crash frequency over an eight-year analysis period. The results indicate that district-level SPFs with county-level adjustment factors provide better predictive accuracy than the development of a statewide SPF or application of the HSM-calibrated SPF. The findings suggest that there are significant differences in safety performance across engineering districts within Pennsylvania. As such, other state transportation agencies developing SPFs or using calibration factors may also consider how variations across jurisdictions will affect predicted crash frequencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Keeping Energy Savings in the LOOP: Mesa Lane Partners Case Study

    None

    2013-03-01

    Mesa Lane Partners (MLP) partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to a build a new, low-energy mixed-use building that consumes at least 50% less energy than requirements set by Energy Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of America (IESNA), as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) provided technical expertise in support of this DOE program. The privately developed 46,000-square-foot LOOP project, which is intended to provide affordable off-campus student housing in an underserved community next to University of California at Santa Barbara, will contain more than 7,000 square feet of retail space, a roof deck, an event space, a gym, and 48 apartments. The project developer, MLP, is aiming to exceed CBP requirement, targeting energy consumption that is at least 65% less than that required by the standard. If the LOOP meets this goal, it is expected to achieve Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold certification.

  4. SDS-PAGE in conjunction with match lane statistical analysis for the detection of meat adulteration

    Hegazy, R.A.; Nassef, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of seven meat types and two component mixtures of them were made. Banding patterns of resulting denstograms in conjunction with cluster analysi and match lane statistical analysis were used for the detection of meat adulteration. The use of beef as a reference meat have resulted in a clear distinction from goat, pork, chicken, turkey, camel meats and their mixture and camel meat. The use of pork meat as a reference was more assurate because of the low degrees of matching with all meats and their mixtures and consequently high abilities of differentiations. The purpose of identification. the purpose of identification of meat species arises from the desire of human, in general, to confirm what he eat ? for moslems the establisment that meat is free from pork type is most important. Another economic purpose is the detection of adulteration of valuable meat by less valuable types. Several attempts in different laboratories were done to serve this object but most of analytical techniques. Barbieri and formi (1999) were able to detect 5% of meat type in mixtures by isolelectric focusing and 1% of meat type by PCR technique in beef, pork, chicken and turkey meats. By crossover immunoelectrophoresis technique, zanon and vianello (1998) were also to detect a limit of 5% of specific meat in mixuters of beef, pork, mutton/lamb, horse and chicken meats

  5. Fat, weather, and date affect migratory songbirds' departure decisions, routes, and time it takes to cross the Gulf of Mexico.

    Deppe, Jill L; Ward, Michael P; Bolus, Rachel T; Diehl, Robert H; Celis-Murillo, Antonio; Zenzal, Theodore J; Moore, Frank R; Benson, Thomas J; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A; Schofield, Lynn N; Enstrom, David A; Paxton, Eben H; Bohrer, Gil; Beveroth, Tara A; Raim, Arlo; Obringer, Renee L; Delaney, David; Cochran, William W

    2015-11-17

    Approximately two thirds of migratory songbirds in eastern North America negotiate the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), where inclement weather coupled with no refueling or resting opportunities can be lethal. However, decisions made when navigating such features and their consequences remain largely unknown due to technological limitations of tracking small animals over large areas. We used automated radio telemetry to track three songbird species (Red-eyed Vireo, Swainson's Thrush, Wood Thrush) from coastal Alabama to the northern Yucatan Peninsula (YP) during fall migration. Detecting songbirds after crossing ∼1,000 km of open water allowed us to examine intrinsic (age, wing length, fat) and extrinsic (weather, date) variables shaping departure decisions, arrival at the YP, and crossing times. Large fat reserves and low humidity, indicative of beneficial synoptic weather patterns, favored southward departure across the Gulf. Individuals detected in the YP departed with large fat reserves and later in the fall with profitable winds, and flight durations (mean = 22.4 h) were positively related to wind profit. Age was not related to departure behavior, arrival, or travel time. However, vireos negotiated the GOM differently than thrushes, including different departure decisions, lower probability of detection in the YP, and longer crossing times. Defense of winter territories by thrushes but not vireos and species-specific foraging habits may explain the divergent migratory behaviors. Fat reserves appear extremely important to departure decisions and arrival in the YP. As habitat along the GOM is degraded, birds may be limited in their ability to acquire fat to cross the Gulf.

  6. Fat, weather, and date affect migratory songbirds’ departure decisions, routes, and time it takes to cross the Gulf of Mexico

    Deppe, Jill L.; Ward, Michael P.; Bolus, Rachel T.; Diehl, Robert H.; Celis-Murillo, A.; Zenzal, Theodore J.; Moore, Frank R.; Benson, Thomas J.; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.; Schofield, Lynn N.; Enstrom, David A.; Paxton, Eben H.; Bohrer, Gil; Beveroth, Tara A.; Raim, Arlo; Obringer, Renee L.; Delaney, David; Cochran, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately two thirds of migratory songbirds in eastern North America negotiate the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), where inclement weather coupled with no refueling or resting opportunities can be lethal. However, decisions made when navigating such features and their consequences remain largely unknown due to technological limitations of tracking small animals over large areas. We used automated radio telemetry to track three songbird species (Red-eyed Vireo, Swainson’s Thrush, Wood Thrush) from coastal Alabama to the northern Yucatan Peninsula (YP) during fall migration. Detecting songbirds after crossing ∼1,000 km of open water allowed us to examine intrinsic (age, wing length, fat) and extrinsic (weather, date) variables shaping departure decisions, arrival at the YP, and crossing times. Large fat reserves and low humidity, indicative of beneficial synoptic weather patterns, favored southward departure across the Gulf. Individuals detected in the YP departed with large fat reserves and later in the fall with profitable winds, and flight durations (mean = 22.4 h) were positively related to wind profit. Age was not related to departure behavior, arrival, or travel time. However, vireos negotiated the GOM differently than thrushes, including different departure decisions, lower probability of detection in the YP, and longer crossing times. Defense of winter territories by thrushes but not vireos and species-specific foraging habits may explain the divergent migratory behaviors. Fat reserves appear extremely important to departure decisions and arrival in the YP. As habitat along the GOM is degraded, birds may be limited in their ability to acquire fat to cross the Gulf.

  7. New Departure from Nucleate Boiling model relying on first principle energy balance at the boiling surface

    Demarly, Etienne; Baglietto, Emilio

    2017-11-01

    Predictions of Departure from Nucleate Boiling have been a longstanding challenge when designing heat exchangers such as boilers or nuclear reactors. Many mechanistic models have been postulated over more than 50 years in order to explain this phenomenon but none is able to predict accurately the conditions which trigger the sudden change of heat transfer mode. This work aims at demonstrating the pertinence of a new approach for detecting DNB by leveraging recent experimental insights. The new model proposed departs from all the previous models by making the DNB inception come from an energy balance instability at the heating surface rather than a hydrodynamic instability of the bubbly layer above the surface (Zuber, 1959). The main idea is to modulate the amount of heat flux being exchanged via the nucleate boiling mechanism by the wetted area fraction on the surface, thus allowing a completely automatic trigger of DNB that doesn't require any parameter prescription. This approach is implemented as a surrogate model in MATLAB in order to validate the principles of the model in a simple and controlled geometry. Good agreement is found with the experimental data leveraged from the MIT Flow Boiling at various flow regimes. Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL).

  8. Systematic investigation of NLTE phenomena in the limit of small departures from LTE

    Libby, S. B.; Graziani, F. R.; More, R. M.; Kato, T.

    1997-04-01

    In this paper, we begin a systematic study of Non-Local Thermal Equilibrium (NLTE) phenomena in near equilibrium (LTE) high energy density, highly radiative plasmas. It is shown that the principle of minimum entropy production rate characterizes NLTE steady states for average atom rate equations in the case of small departures form LTE. With the aid of a novel hohlraum-reaction box thought experiment, we use the principles of minimum entropy production and detailed balance to derive Onsager reciprocity relations for the NLTE responses of a near equilibrium sample to non-Planckian perturbations in different frequency groups. This result is a significant symmetry constraint on the linear corrections to Kirchoff's law. We envisage applying our strategy to a number of test problems which include: the NLTE corrections to the ionization state of an ion located near the edge of an otherwise LTE medium; the effect of a monochromatic radiation field perturbation on an LTE medium; the deviation of Rydberg state populations from LTE in recombining or ionizing plasmas; multi-electron temperature models such as that of Busquet; and finally, the effect of NLTE population shifts on opacity models.

  9. Systematic investigation of NLTE phenomena in the limit of small departures from LTE

    Libby, S.B.; Graziani, F.R.; More, R.M.; Kato, T.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we begin a systematic study of Non-Local Thermal Equilibrium (NLTE) phenomena in near equilibrium (LTE) high energy density, highly radiative plasmas. It is shown that the principle of minimum entropy production rate characterizes NLTE steady states for average atom rate equations in the case of small departures form LTE. With the aid of a novel hohlraum-reaction box thought experiment, we use the principles of minimum entropy production and detailed balance to derive Onsager reciprocity relations for the NLTE responses of a near equilibrium sample to non-Planckian perturbations in different frequency groups. This result is a significant symmetry constraint on the linear corrections to Kirchoff close-quote s law. We envisage applying our strategy to a number of test problems which include: the NLTE corrections to the ionization state of an ion located near the edge of an otherwise LTE medium; the effect of a monochromatic radiation field perturbation on an LTE medium; the deviation of Rydberg state populations from LTE in recombining or ionizing plasmas; multi-electron temperature models such as that of Busquet; and finally, the effect of NLTE population shifts on opacity models. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  10. Systematic investigation of NLTE phenomena in the limit of small departures from LTE

    Libby, S. B.; Graziani, F. R.; More, R. M.; Kato, T.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we begin a systematic study of Non-Local Thermal Equilibrium (NLTE) phenomena in near equilibrium (LTE) high energy density, highly radiative plasmas. It is shown that the principle of minimum entropy production rate characterizes NLTE steady states for average atom rate equations in the case of small departures form LTE. With the aid of a novel hohlraum-reaction box thought experiment, we use the principles of minimum entropy production and detailed balance to derive Onsager reciprocity relations for the NLTE responses of a near equilibrium sample to non-Planckian perturbations in different frequency groups. This result is a significant symmetry constraint on the linear corrections to Kirchoff's law. We envisage applying our strategy to a number of test problems which include: the NLTE corrections to the ionization state of an ion located near the edge of an otherwise LTE medium; the effect of a monochromatic radiation field perturbation on an LTE medium; the deviation of Rydberg state populations from LTE in recombining or ionizing plasmas; multi-electron temperature models such as that of Busquet; and finally, the effect of NLTE population shifts on opacity models

  11. Visual Observation of Bubble Departure Characteristics in the Nano-particle Coated Heating Surface

    Han, Won Soek; Yoo, Shin; Lee, Jae Young

    2010-01-01

    Although the great enhancement of the thermal conductivity of the nanofluids, the fluid mixed with small amount of the nano meter sized particles, has been known, many experimental data of the boiling heat transfer reported degraded heat transfer rate than the fresh fluid. However, the great enhancement of the critical heat flux in nanofluids has been reported by many investigators. Due to the opaque scattering of the nano particles in nano fluids, direct observation of the bubble dynamics in the boiling process has not been made. However, it has been known that the boiling heat transfer characteristics of the heater coated by the nano particles in the fresh water are almost similar to that in the nano fluid. Recently, consensus has been made in the understanding of the CHF enhancement of nanofluids or nano-particle coated heater as the surface phenomena. Therefore, in the present paper, we do experimental study to observe the bubble departure in the pool boiling process with the nano-particle coated heater

  12. Longitudinal safety evaluation of electric vehicles with the partial wireless charging lane on freeways.

    Li, Ye; Wang, Wei; Xing, Lu; Fan, Qi; Wang, Hao

    2018-02-01

    As an environment friendly transportation mode, the electric vehicle (EV) has drawn an increasing amount of attention from governments, vehicle manufactories and researchers recently. One of the biggest issue impeding EV's popularization associates with the charging process. The wireless charging lane (WCL) has been proposed as a convenient charging facility for EVs. Due to the high costs, the application of WCL on the entire freeways is impractical in the near future, while the partial WCL (PWCL) may be a feasible solution. This study aims to evaluate longitudinal safety of EVs with PWCL on freeways based on simulations. The simulation experiments are firstly designed, including deployment of PWCL on freeways and distribution of state of charge (SOC) of EVs. Then, a vehicle behavior model for EVs is proposed based on the intelligent driver model (IDM). Two surrogate safety measures, derived from time-to-collision (TTC), are utilized as indicators for safety evaluations. Sensitivity analysis is also conducted for related factors. Results show that the distribution of EVs' SOC significantly affect longitudinal safety when the PWCL is utilized. The low SOC in traffic consisting of EVs has the negative effect on longitudinal safety. The randomness and incompliance of EV drivers worsens the safety performance. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the larger maximum deceleration rate results in the higher longitudinal crash risks of EVs, while the length of PWCL has no monotonous effect. Different TTC thresholds also show no impact on results. A case study shows the consistent results. Based on the findings, several suggestions are discussed for EVs' safety improvement. Results of this study provide useful information for freeway safety when EVs are applied in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Accelerated Evaluation of Automated Vehicles Safety in Lane-Change Scenarios Based on Importance Sampling Techniques.

    Zhao, Ding; Lam, Henry; Peng, Huei; Bao, Shan; LeBlanc, David J; Nobukawa, Kazutoshi; Pan, Christopher S

    2017-03-01

    Automated vehicles (AVs) must be thoroughly evaluated before their release and deployment. A widely used evaluation approach is the Naturalistic-Field Operational Test (N-FOT), which tests prototype vehicles directly on the public roads. Due to the low exposure to safety-critical scenarios, N-FOTs are time consuming and expensive to conduct. In this paper, we propose an accelerated evaluation approach for AVs. The results can be used to generate motions of the other primary vehicles to accelerate the verification of AVs in simulations and controlled experiments. Frontal collision due to unsafe cut-ins is the target crash type of this paper. Human-controlled vehicles making unsafe lane changes are modeled as the primary disturbance to AVs based on data collected by the University of Michigan Safety Pilot Model Deployment Program. The cut-in scenarios are generated based on skewed statistics of collected human driver behaviors, which generate risky testing scenarios while preserving the statistical information so that the safety benefits of AVs in nonaccelerated cases can be accurately estimated. The cross-entropy method is used to recursively search for the optimal skewing parameters. The frequencies of the occurrences of conflicts, crashes, and injuries are estimated for a modeled AV, and the achieved accelerated rate is around 2000 to 20 000. In other words, in the accelerated simulations, driving for 1000 miles will expose the AV with challenging scenarios that will take about 2 to 20 million miles of real-world driving to encounter. This technique thus has the potential to greatly reduce the development and validation time for AVs.

  14. Study on driver`s stress in lane-change maneuver. Evaluation and analysis of heat rate change; Shasen henkoji no untensha no kinchodo kaiseki. Shinpaku hendo no gen`in bunrui to sono hyoka

    Sumida, K [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Chikamori, S; Shimizu, Y [Seikei University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We measured the changes of heart rate in order to analyze the drivers` stress while they tried high speed lane-change on the stationary driving simulator. We concluded that the reasons of the chances were mainly dependent on the following two items. (1) mental pressure caused by the coming task of lane-change, (2) mental disturbance by the task to keep the vehicle inside the lane. By using the mental pressure and disturbance, we could evaluate the stability of the vehicles in lane-change maneuver. 3 refs., 11 figs.

  15. Empirical Evidence on Time-Varying Hedging Effectiveness of Emissions Allowances under Departures from the Cost-of-Carry Theory

    Kai Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Under departures from the cost-of-carry theory, traded spot prices and conditional volatility disturbed from futures market have significant impacts on futures price of emissions allowances, and then we propose time-varying hedge ratios and hedging effectiveness estimation using ECM-GARCH model. Our empirical results show that conditional variance, conditional covariance, and their correlation between between spot and futures prices exhibit time-varying trends. Conditional volatility of spot prices, conditional volatility disturbed from futures market, and conditional correlation of market noises implied from spot and futures markets have significant effects on time-varying hedge ratios and hedging effectiveness. In the immature emissions allowances market, market participants optimize portfolio sizes between spot and futures assets using historical market information and then achieve higher risk reduction of assets portfolio revenues; accordingly, we can obtain better hedging effectiveness through time-varying hedge ratios with departures from the cost-of-carry theory.

  16. Direct evidence of departure from local thermodynamic equilibrium in a free-burning arc-discharge plasma

    Snyder, S.C.; Lassahn, G.D.; Reynolds, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    Radial profiles of gas temperature, electron temperature, and electron density were measured in a free-burning atmospheric-pressure argon arc-discharge plasma using line-shape analysis of scattered laser light. This method yields gas temperature, electron temperature, and electron density directly, with no reliance on the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Our results show a significant departure from LTE in the center of the discharge, contrary to expectations

  17. Identifying significant predictors of head-on conflicts on two-lane rural roads using inductive loop detectors data.

    Shariat-Mohaymany, Afshin; Tavakoli-Kashani, Ali; Nosrati, Hadi; Ranjbari, Andisheh

    2011-12-01

    To identify the significant factors that influence head-on conflicts resulting from dangerous overtaking maneuvers on 2-lane rural roads in Iran. A traffic conflict technique was applied to 12 two-lane rural roads in order to investigate the potential situations for accidents to occur and thus to identify the geometric and traffic factors affecting traffic conflicts. Traffic data were collected via the inductive loop detectors installed on these roads, and geometric characteristics were obtained through field observations. Two groups of data were then analyzed independently by Pearson's chi-square test to evaluate their relationship to traffic conflicts. The independent variables were percentage of time spent following (PTSF), percentage of heavy vehicles, directional distribution of traffic (DDT), mean speed, speed standard deviation, section type, road width, longitudinal slope, holiday or workday, and lighting condition. It was indicated that increasing the PTSF, decreasing the percentage of heavy vehicles, increasing the mean speed (up to 75 km/h), increasing DDT in the range of 0 to 60 percent, and decreasing the standard deviation of speed significantly increased the occurrence of traffic conflicts. It was also revealed that traffic conflicts occur more frequently on curve sections and on workdays. The variables road width, slope, and lighting condition were found to have a minor effect on conflict occurrence. To reduce the number of head-on conflicts on the aforementioned roads, some remedial measures are suggested, such as not constructing long "No Passing" zones and constructing passing lanes where necessary; keeping road width at the standard value; constructing roads with horizontal curves and a high radius and using appropriate road markings and overtaking-forbidden signs where it is impossible to modify the radius; providing enough light and installing caution signs/devices on the roads; and intensifying police control and supervision on workdays

  18. Perception of Safety and Liking Associated to the Colour Intervention of Bike Lanes: Contribution from the Behavioural Sciences to Urban Design and Wellbeing

    Vera-Villarroel, Pablo; Contreras, Daniela; Lillo, Sebastián; Segovia, Ariel; Rojo, Natalia; Moreno, Sandra; Oyarzo, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The perception of colour and its subjective effects are key issues to designing safe and enjoyable bike lanes. This paper addresses the relationship between the colours of bike lane interventions—in particular pavement painting and intersection design—and the subjective evaluation of liking, visual saliency, and perceived safety related to such an intervention. Utilising images of three real bike lane intersections modified by software to change their colour (five in total), this study recruited 538 participants to assess their perception of all fifteen colour-design combinations. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) with the Bonferroni post hoc test was performed to assess the effect of the main conditions (colour and design) on the dependent variables (liking towards the intervention, level of visual saliency of the intersection, and perceived safety of the bike lane). The results showed that the colour red was more positively associated to the outcome variables, followed by yellow and blue. Additionally, it was observed that the effect of colour widely outweighs the effect of design, suggesting that the right choice and use of colour would increase the effectiveness on bike-lanes pavement interventions. Limitations and future directions are discussed. PMID:27548562

  19. Penny Lane et Strawberry Field(s : réel, identité et fantasmagorie

    Bernard Gensane

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Les chansons « Penny Lane » et « Strawberry Fields Forever » permettent d’appréhender le thème de l’enfance chez les Beatles. De manière très différente, John Lennon et Paul McCartney s’appuient sur une visite de deux lieux réels liverpooliens pour mettre en résonance leurs visions fantasmagoriques du passé, et pour exploiter la langue (qu’ils travaillent et qui les travaille dans une perspective authentiquement artistique.

  20. Description of nucleon scattering on 208Pb by a fully Lane-consistent dispersive spherical optical model potential

    Sun, W. L.; Wang, J.; Soukhovitskii, E. Sh.; Capote, R.; Quesada, J. M.

    2017-09-01

    A fully Lane-consistent dispersive spherical optical potential is proposed to describe nucleon scattering interaction with doubly magic nucleus 208Pb up to 200 MeV. The experimental neutron total cross sections, elastically scattered nucleon angular distributions and (p,n) data had been used to search the potential parameters. Good agreement between experiments and the calculations with this potential is observed. Meanwhile, the application of the determined optical potential with the same parameters to neighbouring near magic Pb-Bi isotopes is also examined to show the predictive power of this potential.

  1. Pre-departure training and the social accountability of International Medical Electives.

    Wallace, Lauren J; Webb, Allison

    2014-01-01

    Due to widespread awareness of global inequities in health and development, participation and interest in International Medical Electives has grown. However, it has been suggested that the benefits of these electives for students and communities may not outweigh the harms. Pre-departure training (PDT) has been proposed as a route through which participants can adequately prepare for their elective experience. Through a review of the current literature, this article explores the ethics of international medical electives using a social accountability framework and assesses the success of PDT in mitigating harms for students and communities. We find that the literature on PDT is limited. What is clear from completed studies is that the focus of PDT has often been centered on the clinical experience, while theories of development and health inequity remain minor topics. We argue that a greater benefit for students and communities could be gained from framing health inequity from a critical perspective, and integrating mandatory global health education into medical school curricula. We suggest that attention to only PDT is not enough. In a socially accountable program, community partnerships must be bilateral and respect communities as primary stakeholders in the training of students and in program evaluation. Unfortunately, research to-date has focused on the student experience; further studies of the community perspective would help to elicit how PDT and partnership models can be strengthened, improving the experiences of both students and communities. Finally, individual medical schools and organizations that offer global health elective experiences must ensure that they take responsibility for monitoring PDT.

  2. Analysis on BDS Satellite Internal Multipath and Its Impact on Wide-lane FCB Estimation

    RUAN Rengui

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To the issue of the satellite internal multipath (SIMP of BeiDou satellites, it proposed and emphasized that the SIMP model should be established as a function of the nadir angle with respect to the observed satellite rather than the elevation of the measurement, so that it can be used for receivers at various altitude. BDS data from global distributed stations operated by the International Monitoring and Assessment System (iGMAS and the Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX of the International GNSS Service (IGS are collected and a new SIMP model as a piece-wise linear function of the nadir angle is released for the IGSO-and MEO-satellite groups and for B1, B2 and B3 frequency band individually. The SIMP of GEO,IGSO and MEO satellites is further analyzed with B1/B2 dual-frequency data onboard the FengYun-3 C(FY3C satellite at an altitude of~830 km, and it showed that, for nadir angles smaller than 7°, the SIMP values for GEO is quite close to the IGSO's, especially for B2, which may suggest that the SIMP model for IGSO satellites possibly also works for GEO satellites. It also demonstrated that, when the nadir angle is smaller than 12°for the MEO and 7°for the IGSO, the estimated SIMP model with data from FY3C is considerable consistent with that estimated with data collected at ground stations. Experiments are carried out to investigate the impacts of the SIMP on wide-lane fractional cycle bias (FCB estimation for BDS satellites. The result indicates that, with the correction of the estimated SIMP, the repeatability of the FCB series is significantly improved by more than 60% for all satellites. Specifically, for the MEO and IGSO satellites, the repeatability is smaller than 0.05 cycle; the repeatability of 0.023 and 0.068 cycles achieved for GEO satellites C01 and C02 respectively with the estimated SIMP model for IGSO satellites.

  3. What is known about the effects of medical tourism in destination and departure countries? A scoping review

    Snyder Jeremy

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical tourism involves patients intentionally leaving their home country to access non-emergency health care services abroad. Growth in the popularity of this practice has resulted in a significant amount of attention being given to it from researchers, policy-makers, and the media. Yet, there has been little effort to systematically synthesize what is known about the effects of this phenomenon. This article presents the findings of a scoping review examining what is known about the effects of medical tourism in destination and departure countries. Methods Drawing on academic articles, grey literature, and media sources extracted from18 databases, we follow a widely used scoping review protocol to synthesize what is known about the effects of medical tourism in destination and departure countries. The review design has three main stages: (1 identifying the question and relevant literature; (2 selecting the literature; and (3 charting, collating, and summarizing the data. Results The large majority of the 203 sources accepted into the review offer a perspective of medical tourism from the Global North, focusing on the flow of patients from high income nations to lower and middle income countries. This greatly shapes any discussion of the effects of medical tourism on destination and departure countries. Five interrelated themes that characterize existing discussion of the effects of this practice were extracted from the reviewed sources. These themes frame medical tourism as a: (1 user of public resources; (2 solution to health system problems; (3 revenue generating industry; (4 standard of care; and (5 source of inequity. It is observed that what is currently known about the effects of medical tourism is minimal, unreliable, geographically restricted and mostly based on speculation. Conclusions Given its positive and negative effects on the health care systems of departure and destination countries, medical tourism is a

  4. What is known about the effects of medical tourism in destination and departure countries? A scoping review.

    Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A; Snyder, Jeremy; Kingsbury, Paul

    2010-11-03

    Medical tourism involves patients intentionally leaving their home country to access non-emergency health care services abroad. Growth in the popularity of this practice has resulted in a significant amount of attention being given to it from researchers, policy-makers, and the media. Yet, there has been little effort to systematically synthesize what is known about the effects of this phenomenon. This article presents the findings of a scoping review examining what is known about the effects of medical tourism in destination and departure countries. Drawing on academic articles, grey literature, and media sources extracted from18 databases, we follow a widely used scoping review protocol to synthesize what is known about the effects of medical tourism in destination and departure countries. The review design has three main stages: (1) identifying the question and relevant literature; (2) selecting the literature; and (3) charting, collating, and summarizing the data. The large majority of the 203 sources accepted into the review offer a perspective of medical tourism from the Global North, focusing on the flow of patients from high income nations to lower and middle income countries. This greatly shapes any discussion of the effects of medical tourism on destination and departure countries. Five interrelated themes that characterize existing discussion of the effects of this practice were extracted from the reviewed sources. These themes frame medical tourism as a: (1) user of public resources; (2) solution to health system problems; (3) revenue generating industry; (4) standard of care; and (5) source of inequity. It is observed that what is currently known about the effects of medical tourism is minimal, unreliable, geographically restricted and mostly based on speculation. Given its positive and negative effects on the health care systems of departure and destination countries, medical tourism is a highly significant and contested phenomenon. This is especially

  5. What is known about the effects of medical tourism in destination and departure countries? A scoping review

    2010-01-01

    Background Medical tourism involves patients intentionally leaving their home country to access non-emergency health care services abroad. Growth in the popularity of this practice has resulted in a significant amount of attention being given to it from researchers, policy-makers, and the media. Yet, there has been little effort to systematically synthesize what is known about the effects of this phenomenon. This article presents the findings of a scoping review examining what is known about the effects of medical tourism in destination and departure countries. Methods Drawing on academic articles, grey literature, and media sources extracted from18 databases, we follow a widely used scoping review protocol to synthesize what is known about the effects of medical tourism in destination and departure countries. The review design has three main stages: (1) identifying the question and relevant literature; (2) selecting the literature; and (3) charting, collating, and summarizing the data. Results The large majority of the 203 sources accepted into the review offer a perspective of medical tourism from the Global North, focusing on the flow of patients from high income nations to lower and middle income countries. This greatly shapes any discussion of the effects of medical tourism on destination and departure countries. Five interrelated themes that characterize existing discussion of the effects of this practice were extracted from the reviewed sources. These themes frame medical tourism as a: (1) user of public resources; (2) solution to health system problems; (3) revenue generating industry; (4) standard of care; and (5) source of inequity. It is observed that what is currently known about the effects of medical tourism is minimal, unreliable, geographically restricted and mostly based on speculation. Conclusions Given its positive and negative effects on the health care systems of departure and destination countries, medical tourism is a highly significant and

  6. Extracting Lane Geometry and Topology Information from Vehicle Fleet Trajectories in Complex Urban Scenarios Using a Reversible Jump Mcmc Method

    Roeth, O.; Zaum, D.; Brenner, C.

    2017-05-01

    Highly automated driving (HAD) requires maps not only of high spatial precision but also of yet unprecedented actuality. Traditionally small highly specialized fleets of measurement vehicles are used to generate such maps. Nevertheless, for achieving city-wide or even nation-wide coverage, automated map update mechanisms based on very large vehicle fleet data gain importance since highly frequent measurements are only to be obtained using such an approach. Furthermore, the processing of imprecise mass data in contrast to few dedicated highly accurate measurements calls for a high degree of automation. We present a method for the generation of lane-accurate road network maps from vehicle trajectory data (GPS or better). Our approach therefore allows for exploiting today's connected vehicle fleets for the generation of HAD maps. The presented algorithm is based on elementary building blocks which guarantees useful lane models and uses a Reversible Jump Markov chain Monte Carlo method to explore the models parameters in order to reconstruct the one most likely emitting the input data. The approach is applied to a challenging urban real-world scenario of different trajectory accuracy levels and is evaluated against a LIDAR-based ground truth map.

  7. Aerometrics' laser-based lane-tracker sensor: engineering and on-the-road evaluation of advanced prototypes

    Schuler, Carlos A.; Tapos, Francis M.; Alayleh, Mehyeddine M.; Bachalo, William D.

    1997-02-01

    Aerometrics initiated and continues on the development an innovative laser-diode based device that provides a warning signal when a motor-vehicle deviates from the center of the lane. The device is based on a sensor that scans the roadway on either side of the vehicle and determines the lateral position relative to the existing painted lines marking the lane. The principles of operation of the sensor, and the results of Aerometrics' early testing were presented last year in this forum. This paper presents Aerometrics' continuing efforts in bringing the technology to market. New prototypes have been developed and tested. Aerometrics' engineering efforts and the use of latest technologies have resulted in a 24-fold reduction in sensor volume when compared to their predecessors and similar reductions in weight. The current prototype measures less than 9 cm X 8 cm X 7 cm, and can be easily fit within the cavity of rear-view mirror holders used in most present-day vehicles. Also, advances in signal conditioning and processing have improved the reliability of the sensor. Results of continuing testing of the sensor will be presented.

  8. Prediction of Driver’s Intention of Lane Change by Augmenting Sensor Information Using Machine Learning Techniques

    Kim, Il-Hwan; Bong, Jae-Hwan; Park, Jooyoung; Park, Shinsuk

    2017-01-01

    Driver assistance systems have become a major safety feature of modern passenger vehicles. The advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) is one of the active safety systems to improve the vehicle control performance and, thus, the safety of the driver and the passengers. To use the ADAS for lane change control, rapid and correct detection of the driver’s intention is essential. This study proposes a novel preprocessing algorithm for the ADAS to improve the accuracy in classifying the driver’s intention for lane change by augmenting basic measurements from conventional on-board sensors. The information on the vehicle states and the road surface condition is augmented by using an artificial neural network (ANN) models, and the augmented information is fed to a support vector machine (SVM) to detect the driver’s intention with high accuracy. The feasibility of the developed algorithm was tested through driving simulator experiments. The results show that the classification accuracy for the driver’s intention can be improved by providing an SVM model with sufficient driving information augmented by using ANN models of vehicle dynamics. PMID:28604582

  9. Prediction of Driver’s Intention of Lane Change by Augmenting Sensor Information Using Machine Learning Techniques

    Il-Hwan Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Driver assistance systems have become a major safety feature of modern passenger vehicles. The advanced driver assistance system (ADAS is one of the active safety systems to improve the vehicle control performance and, thus, the safety of the driver and the passengers. To use the ADAS for lane change control, rapid and correct detection of the driver’s intention is essential. This study proposes a novel preprocessing algorithm for the ADAS to improve the accuracy in classifying the driver’s intention for lane change by augmenting basic measurements from conventional on-board sensors. The information on the vehicle states and the road surface condition is augmented by using an artificial neural network (ANN models, and the augmented information is fed to a support vector machine (SVM to detect the driver’s intention with high accuracy. The feasibility of the developed algorithm was tested through driving simulator experiments. The results show that the classification accuracy for the driver’s intention can be improved by providing an SVM model with sufficient driving information augmented by using ANN models of vehicle dynamics.

  10. Analysis of the injury severity of crashes by considering different lighting conditions on two-lane rural roads.

    Jafari Anarkooli, A; Hadji Hosseinlou, M

    2016-02-01

    Many studies have examined different factors contributing to the injury severity of crashes; however, relatively few studies have focused on the crashes by considering the specific effects of lighting conditions. This research investigates lighting condition differences in the injury severity of crashes using 3-year (2009-2011) crash data of two-lane rural roads of the state of Washington. Separate ordered-probit models were developed to predict the effects of a set of factors expected to influence injury severity in three lighting conditions; daylight, dark, and dark with street lights. A series of likelihood ratio tests were conducted to determine if these lighting condition models were justified. The modeling results suggest that injury severity in specific lighting conditions are associated with contributing factors in different ways, and that such differences cannot be uncovered by focusing merely on one aggregate model. Key differences include crash location, speed limit, shoulder width, driver action, and three collision types (head-on, rear-end, and right-side impact collisions). This paper highlights the importance of deploying street lights at and near intersections (or access points) on two-lane rural roads because injury severity highly increases when crashes occur at these points in dark conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  11. Quad 14Gbps L-Band VCSEL-based System for WDM Migration of 4-lanes 56 Gbps Optical Data Links

    Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Pham, Tien Thang

    2012-01-01

    We report on migrating multiple lane link into a single WDM L-band VCSEL-based system. Experimental validation successfully achieves 10 km of SMF reach with 4x14Gbps and less than 0.5dB inter-channel crosstalk penalty.......We report on migrating multiple lane link into a single WDM L-band VCSEL-based system. Experimental validation successfully achieves 10 km of SMF reach with 4x14Gbps and less than 0.5dB inter-channel crosstalk penalty....

  12. The Dynamic Optimization of the Departure Times of Metro Users during Rush Hour in an Agent-Based Simulation: A Case Study in Shenzhen, China

    Yuliang Xi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As serious traffic problems have increased throughout the world, various types of studies, especially traffic simulations, have been conducted to investigate this issue. Activity-based traffic simulation models, such as MATSim (Multi-Agent Transport Simulation, are intended to identify optimal combinations of activities in time and space. It is also necessary to examine commuting-based traffic simulations. Such simulations focus on optimizing travel times by adjusting departure times, travel modes or travel routes to present travel suggestions to the public. This paper examines the optimal departure times of metro users during rush hour using a newly developed simulation tool. A strategy for identifying relatively optimal departure times is identified. This study examines 103,637 person agents (passengers in Shenzhen, China, and reports their average departure time, travel time and travel utility, as well as the numbers of person agents who are late and miss metro trips in every iteration. The results demonstrate that as the number of iterations increases, the average travel time of these person agents decreases by approximately 4 min. Moreover, the latest average departure time with no risk of being late when going to work is approximately 8:04, and the earliest average departure time with no risk of missing metro trips when getting off work is approximately 17:50.

  13. Simulation in Pre-departure Training for Residents Planning Clinical Work in a Low-Income Country

    Kevin R. Schwartz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increasingly, pediatric and emergency medicine (EM residents are pursuing clinical rotations in low-income countries. Optimal pre-departure preparation for such rotations has not yet been established. High-fidelity simulation represents a potentially effective modality for such preparation. This study was designed to assess whether a pre-departure high-fidelity medical simulation curriculum is effective in helping to prepare residents for clinical rotations in a low-income country. Methods: 43 pediatric and EM residents planning clinical rotations in Liberia, West Africa, participated in a simulation-based curriculum focused on severe pediatric malaria and malnutrition and were then assessed by survey at three time points: pre-simulation, post-simulation, and after returning from work abroad. Results: Prior to simulation, 1/43 (2% participants reported they were comfortable with the diagnosis and management of severe malnutrition; this increased to 30/42 (71% after simulation and 24/31 (77% after working abroad. Prior to simulation, 1/43 (2% of residents reported comfort with the diagnosis and management of severe malaria; this increased to 26/42 (62% after simulation and 28/31 (90% after working abroad; 36/42 (86% of residents agreed that a simulation-based global health curriculum is more useful than a didactic curriculum alone, and 41/42 (98% felt a simulator-based curriculum should be offered to all residents planning a clinical trip to a low-income country. Conclusion: High-fidelity simulation is effective in increasing residents’ self-rated comfort in management of pediatric malaria and malnutrition and a majority of participating residents feel it should be included as a component of pre-departure training for all residents rotating clinically to low-income countries.

  14. Excursions out-of-lane versus standard deviation of lateral position as outcome measure of the on-the-road driving test

    Verster, Joris C; Roth, Thomas

    BACKGROUND: The traditional outcome measure of the Dutch on-the-road driving test is the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), the weaving of the car. This paper explores whether excursions out-of-lane are a suitable additional outcome measure to index driving impairment. METHODS: A

  15. Page from the Log Book of the USS "Harriet Lane" and Painting by Thomas P. Rossiter, Related to the Prince of Wales's 1860 Visit to Mount Vernon

    Potter, Lee Ann; Eder, Elizabeth K.; Hussey, Michael

    2011-01-01

    On 1860, Prince Albert Edward took a daylong excursion aboard the 270-foot revenue cutter USS "Harriet Lane" to Mount Vernon, the ancestral home of George Washington. The ceremonial visit to Mount Vernon was thought of at the time as not only a tribute to Washington as a man and leader, but as symbolic of reconciliation between England and its…

  16. An evaluation of a lane support system for bus rapid transit on narrow shoulders and the relation to bus driver mental workload

    Ward, Nicholas J.; Shankwitz, Craig; Gorgestani, Alec; Donath, Max; De Waard, Dick; Boer, Erwin R.

    2006-01-01

    The use of dedicated bus shoulders is a key method for implementing bus rapid transit (BRT) in areas that do not have the space for additional infrastructure. However, the narrow width of the bus shoulder and the need to anticipate traffic hazards in the adjacent lane can both be significant

  17. Interactions between the Laramide Foreland and the passive margin of the Gulf of Mexico: Tectonics and sedimentation in the Golden Lane area, Veracruz State, Mexico

    Alzaga-Ruiz, H.; Lopez, M.; Roure, F.; Séranne, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the analyses of the clastic sedimentary infill of the Coastal Plain of Eastern Mexico, which initiated synchronously with the Laramide orogeny in the vicinity of the Golden Lane. Results of these analyses are used as boundary conditions for calibrating/interpreting seismic

  18. Reducing travel delay by in-car advice on speed, headway and lane use based on downstream traffic flow conditions - a simulation study

    Schakel, W.J.; Klunder, G.; van Arem, B.; Harmsen, E.; Hagenzieker, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    A new advisory ADAS system is implemented in micro simulation to asses the effects on traffic flow as well as on safety. The system uses loop detector data from which situations may be recognized where advices are given to drivers in-car. Advice is given on speed, headway and lane use. Effectively

  19. Quad 14 Gbps L-band VCSEL-based system for WDM migration of 4-lanes 56 Gbps optical data links

    Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Pham, Tien Thang

    2012-01-01

    We report on migrating multiple-lane link into an L-band VCSEL-based WDM system. Experimental validation achieves successful transmission over 10 km of SMF at 4x14Gbps. Inter-channel crosstalk penalty is observed to be less than 0.5 dB and a transmission penalty around 1 dB. The power budget margin...

  20. Analisis Elemen Visual Pada Promosi Busana Muslimah di Instagram (Studi Kasus Merek Hijab Juniper Lane, Zaha, dan Zysku Xena di Bandung

    Ramadita Fetrianggi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of Visual Elements on Muslimah Clothing Promotion in Instagram (Case Study on Brands of Hijab Juniper Lane, Zaha, and Zysku Xena in Bandung. Muslim clothing in the form of hijab has become popular as a religious lifestyle and identity. The popularity of hijab is due to the promotion of marketing through instagram displaying muslim fashion clothing that is designed very interesting, so that consumers become interested and marketing becomes increasing. This study aims to examine muslim clothing photos on instagram hijab with brands of Juniper Lane, Zaha, and Zysku Xena in Bandung seen from the visual elements of photography. The research method used case study with descriptive approach through visual analysis. The research subjects are instagram photos on Juniper Lane hijab brand, Zaha, and Zysku Xena in Bandung. Data collection techniques were collected by observation, instagram photo documentation study, and interviews with local brand owners of hijab and consumers. Data were analyzed by visual analysis, content analysis, and qualitative analysis. The results show that muslim clothing photos on instagram with brands of hijab Juniper Lane, Zaha, and Zysku Xena in Bandung have fulfilled the visual elements of photography, so the photo design becomes attractive, the consumers become interested in them, and the marketing becomes increasing.

  1. Understanding the emission impacts of high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) to high-occupancy toll (HOT) lane conversions: Experience from Atlanta, Georgia.

    Xu, Yanzhi Ann; Liu, Haobing; Rodgers, Michael O; Guin, Angshuman; Hunter, Michael; Sheikh, Adnan; Guensler, Randall

    2017-08-01

    Converting a congested high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane into a high-occupancy toll (HOT) lane is a viable option for improving travel time reliability for carpools and buses that use the managed lane. However, the emission impacts of HOV-to-HOT conversions are not well understood. The lack of emission impact quantification for HOT conversions creates a policy challenge for agencies making transportation funding choices. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the case study of before-and-after changes in vehicle emissions for the Atlanta, Georgia, I-85 HOV/HOT lane conversion project, implemented in October 2011. The analyses employed the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) for project-level analysis with monitored changes in vehicle activity data collected by Georgia Tech researchers for the Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT). During the quarterly field data collection from 2010 to 2012, more than 1.5 million license plates were observed and matched to vehicle class and age information using the vehicle registration database. The study also utilized the 20-sec, lane-specific traffic operations data from the Georgia NaviGAtor intelligent transportation system, as well as a direct feed of HOT lane usage data from the State Road and Tollway Authority (SRTA) managed lane system. As such, the analyses in this paper simultaneously assessed the impacts associated with changes in traffic volumes, on-road operating conditions, and fleet composition before and after the conversion. Both greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants were examined. A straight before-after analysis showed about 5% decrease in air pollutants and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). However, when the before-after calendar year of analysis was held constant (to account for the effect of 1 yr of fleet turnover), mass emissions at the analysis site during peak hours increased by as much as 17%, with little change in CO 2 . Further investigation revealed that a large percentage decrease in criteria

  2. Reducing perceived barriers to nursing homes data entry in the advancing excellence campaign: the role of LANEs (Local Area Networks for Excellence).

    Bakerjian, Debra; Bonner, Alice; Benner, Carol; Caswell, Cheryl; Weintraub, Alissa; Koren, Mary Jane

    2011-09-01

    Advancing Excellence (AE) is a coalition-based campaign concerned with how society cares for its elderly and disabled citizens. The purpose of this project was to work with a small group of volunteer nursing homes and with local quality improvement networks called LANEs (Local Area Networks for Excellence) in 6 states in a learning collaborative. The purpose of the collaborative was to determine effective ways for LANEs to address and mitigate perceived barriers to nursing home data entry in the national Advancing Excellence campaign and to test methods by which local quality improvement networks could support nursing homes as they enter data on the AE Web site. A semistructured telephone survey of nursing homes was conducted in 6 states. Participants included LANEs from California, Georgia, Massachusetts, Michigan, Oklahoma, and Washington. Facility characteristics were obtained from a series of questions during the telephone interview. Three states (GA, MA, OK) piloted a new spreadsheet and process for entering data on staff turnover, and 3 states (CA, MI, WA) piloted a new spreadsheet and process for entering data on consistent assignment. Many of the nursing homes we contacted had not entered data for organizational goals on the national Web site, but all were able to do so with telephone assistance from the LANE. Eighty-five percent of nursing homes said they would be able to collect information on advance directives if tools (eg, spreadsheets) were provided. Over 40% of nursing homes, including for-profit homes, were willing to have staff and residents/families enter satisfaction data directly on an independent Web site. Nursing homes were able to convey concerns and questions about the process of goal entry, and offer suggestions to the LANEs during semistructured telephone interviews. The 6 LANEs discussed nursing home responses on their regularly scheduled calls, and useful strategies were shared across states. Nursing homes reported that they are using

  3. Reducing Traffic Congestions by Introducing CACC-Vehicles on a Multi-Lane Highway Using Agent-Based Approach

    Arnaout, Georges M.; Bowling, Shannon R.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic congestion is an ongoing problem of great interest to researchers from different areas in academia. With the emerging technology for inter-vehicle communication, vehicles have the ability to exchange information with predecessors by wireless communication. In this paper, we present an agent-based model of traffic congestion and examine the impact of having CACC (Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control) embedded vehicle(s) on a highway system consisting of 4 traffic lanes without overtaking. In our model, CACC vehicles adapt their acceleration/deceleration according to vehicle-to-vehicle inter-communication. We analyze the average speed of the cars, the shockwaves, and the evolution of traffic congestion throughout the lifecycle of the model. The study identifies how CACC vehicles affect the dynamics of traffic flow on a complex network and reduce the oscillatory behavior (stop and go) resulting from the acceleration/deceleration of the vehicles.

  4. Dual-task effects of simulated lane navigation and story recall in older adults with and without memory impairment.

    Cook, Sarah E; Sisco, Shannon M; Marsiske, Michael

    2013-01-01

    While driving is a complex task, it becomes relatively automatic over time although unfamiliar situations require increased cognitive effort. Much research has examined driving risk in cognitively impaired elders and found little effect. This study assessed whether mildly memory impaired elders made disproportionate errors in driving or story recall, under simultaneous simulated driving and story recall. Forty-six healthy (61% women; mean age = 76.4) and 15 memory impaired (66% women, mean age = 79.4) elders participated. Cognitive status was determined by neuropsychological performance. Results showed that during dual-task conditions, participants stayed in lane more, and recalled stories more poorly, than when they did the tasks separately. Follow-up analysis revealed that verbatim recall, in particular, was reduced while driving for healthy participants. While memory impaired participants performed more poorly than healthy controls on both tasks, cognitive status was not associated with greater dual-task costs when driving and story recall were combined.

  5. Latest Quaternary paleoseismology and evidence of distributed dextral shear along the Mohawk Valley fault zone, northern Walker Lane, California

    Gold, Ryan D.; Briggs, Richard; Personius, Stephen; Crone, Anthony J.; Mahan, Shannon; Angster, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The dextral-slip Mohawk Valley fault zone (MVFZ) strikes northwestward along the eastern margin of the Sierra Nevada in the northern Walker Lane. Geodetic block modeling indicates that the MVFZ may accommodate ~3 mm/yr of regional dextral strain, implying that it is the highest slip-rate strike-slip fault in the region; however, only limited geologic data are available to constrain the system’s slip rate and earthquake history. We mapped the MVFZ using airborne lidar data and field observations and identified a site near Sulphur Creek for paleoseismic investigation. At this site, oblique dextral-normal faulting on the steep valley margin has created a closed depression that floods annually during spring snowmelt to form an ephemeral pond. We excavated three fault-perpendicular trenches at the site and exposed pond sediment that interfingers with multiple colluvial packages eroded from the scarp that bounds the eastern side of the pond. We documented evidence for four surface-rupturing earthquakes on this strand of the MVFZ. OxCal modeling of radiocarbon and luminescence ages indicates that these earthquakes occurred at 14.0 ka, 12.8 ka, 5.7 ka, and 1.9 ka. The mean ~4 kyr recurrence interval is inconsistent with slip rates of ~3 mm/yr; these rates imply surface ruptures of more than 10 m per event, which is geologically implausible for the subdued geomorphic expression and 60 km length of the MVFZ. We propose that unidentified structures not yet incorporated into geodetic models may accommodate significant dextral shear across the northern Walker Lane, highlighting the role of distributed deformation in this region.

  6. Crashes and near-crashes on horizontal curves along rural two-lane highways: Analysis of naturalistic driving data.

    Wang, Bo; Hallmark, Shauna; Savolainen, Peter; Dong, Jing

    2017-12-01

    Prior research has shown the probability of a crash occurring on horizontal curves to be significantly higher than on similar tangent segments, and a disproportionally higher number of curve-related crashes occurred in rural areas. Challenges arise when analyzing the safety of horizontal curves due to imprecision in integrating information as to the temporal and spatial characteristics of each crash with specific curves. The second Strategic Highway Research Program(SHRP 2) conducted a large-scale naturalistic driving study (NDS),which provides a unique opportunity to better understand the contributing factors leading to crash or near-crash events. This study utilizes high-resolution behavioral data from the NDS to identify factors associated with 108 safety critical events (i.e., crashes or near-crashes) on rural two-lane curves. A case-control approach is utilized wherein these events are compared to 216 normal, baseline-driving events. The variables examined in this study include driver demographic characteristics, details of the traffic environment and roadway geometry, as well as driver behaviors such as in-vehicle distractions. Logistic regression models are estimated to discern those factors affecting the likelihood of a driver being crash-involved. These factors include high-risk behaviors, such as speeding and visual distractions, as well as curve design elements and other roadway characteristics such as pavement surface conditions. This paper successfully integrated driver behavior, vehicle characteristics, and roadway environments into the same model. Logistic regression model was found to be an effective way to investigate crash risks using naturalistic driving data. This paper revealed a number of contributing factors to crashes on rural two-lane curves, which has important implications in traffic safety policy and curve geometry design. This paper also discussed limitations and lessons learned from working with the SHRP 2 NDS data. It will benefit

  7. The Effect of Sharrows, Painted Bicycle Lanes and Physically Protected Paths on the Severity of Bicycle Injuries Caused by Motor Vehicles.

    Wall, Stephen P; Lee, David C; Frangos, Spiros G; Sethi, Monica; Heyer, Jessica H; Ayoung-Chee, Patricia; DiMaggio, Charles J

    2016-01-01

    We conducted individual and ecologic analyses of prospectively collected data from 839 injured bicyclists who collided with motorized vehicles and presented to Bellevue Hospital, an urban Level-1 trauma center in New York City, from December 2008 to August 2014. Variables included demographics, scene information, rider behaviors, bicycle route availability, and whether the collision occurred before the road segment was converted to a bicycle route. We used negative binomial modeling to assess the risk of injury occurrence following bicycle path or lane implementation. We dichotomized U.S. National Trauma Data Bank Injury Severity Scores (ISS) into none/mild (0-8) versus moderate, severe, or critical (>8) and used adjusted multivariable logistic regression to model the association of ISS with collision proximity to sharrows (i.e., bicycle lanes designated for sharing with cars), painted bicycle lanes, or physically protected paths. Negative binomial modeling of monthly counts, while adjusting for pedestrian activity, revealed that physically protected paths were associated with 23% fewer injuries. Painted bicycle lanes reduced injury risk by nearly 90% (IDR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02-0.33). Holding all else equal, compared to no bicycle route, a bicycle injury nearby sharrows was nearly twice as likely to be moderate, severe, or critical (adjusted odds ratio 1.94; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-4.15). Painted bicycle lanes and physically protected paths were 1.52 (95% CI 0.85-2.71) and 1.66 (95% CI 0.85-3.22) times as likely to be associated with more than mild injury respectively.

  8. The Effect of Sharrows, Painted Bicycle Lanes and Physically Protected Paths on the Severity of Bicycle Injuries Caused by Motor Vehicles

    Stephen P. Wall

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted individual and ecologic analyses of prospectively collected data from 839 injured bicyclists who collided with motorized vehicles and presented to Bellevue Hospital, an urban Level-1 trauma center in New York City, from December 2008 to August 2014. Variables included demographics, scene information, rider behaviors, bicycle route availability, and whether the collision occurred before the road segment was converted to a bicycle route. We used negative binomial modeling to assess the risk of injury occurrence following bicycle path or lane implementation. We dichotomized U.S. National Trauma Data Bank Injury Severity Scores (ISS into none/mild (0–8 versus moderate, severe, or critical (>8 and used adjusted multivariable logistic regression to model the association of ISS with collision proximity to sharrows (i.e., bicycle lanes designated for sharing with cars, painted bicycle lanes, or physically protected paths. Negative binomial modeling of monthly counts, while adjusting for pedestrian activity, revealed that physically protected paths were associated with 23% fewer injuries. Painted bicycle lanes reduced injury risk by nearly 90% (IDR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02–0.33. Holding all else equal, compared to no bicycle route, a bicycle injury nearby sharrows was nearly twice as likely to be moderate, severe, or critical (adjusted odds ratio 1.94; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.91–4.15. Painted bicycle lanes and physically protected paths were 1.52 (95% CI 0.85–2.71 and 1.66 (95% CI 0.85–3.22 times as likely to be associated with more than mild injury respectively.

  9. Usability Evaluation of Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) Concept in Dallas/Fort Worth Airport Tower Simulation

    Hayashi, Miwa; Hoang, Ty; Jung, Yoon C.; Gupta, Gautam; Malik, Waqar; Dulchinos, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) is a proposed decision-support tool for air traffic control tower controllers for reducing taxi delay and optimizing the departure sequence. In the present study, the tool's usability was evaluated to ensure that its claimed performance benefits are not being realized at the cost of increasing the work burden on controllers. For the evaluation, workload ratings and questionnaire responses collected during a human-in-the-loop simulation experiment were analyzed to assess the SARDA advisories' effects on the controllers' ratings on cognitive resources (e.g., workload, spare attention) and satisfaction. The results showed that SARDA reduced the controllers' workload and increased their spare attention. It also made workload and attention levels less susceptible to the effects of increases in the traffic load. The questionnaire responses suggested that the controllers generally were satisfied with the ease of use of the tool and the objectives of the SARDA concept, but with some caution. To gain more trust from controllers, the the reasoning behind advisories may need to be made more transparent to them.

  10. "Pushing the Boundaries": Participant Motivation and Self-Reported Benefits of Short-Term International Study Tours

    Bretag, Tracey; van der Veen, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Short-term overseas study tours serve as a means of developing students' global competencies. The authors conducted pre-departure and post-return focus groups with three groups of students at an Australian university who had participated in short-term study tours to Asia to explore their motivations for participating and their self-reported…

  11. Imminent brain death : point of departure for potential heart-beating organ donor recognition

    de Groot, Yorick J.; Jansen, Nichon E.; Bakker, Jan; Kuiper, Michael A.; Aerdts, Stan; Maas, Andrew I. R.; Wijdicks, Eelco F. M.; van Leiden, Hendrik A.; Hoitsma, Andries J.; Kremer, Berry H. P. H.; Kompanje, Erwin J. O.

    There is, in European countries that conduct medical chart review of intensive care unit (ICU) deaths, no consensus on uniform criteria for defining a potential organ donor. Although the term is increasingly being used in recent literature, it is seldom defined in detail. We searched for criteria

  12. Imminent brain death: Point of departure for potential heart-beating organ donor recognition

    Y.J. de Groot (Yorick); N.E. Jansen (Nichon); J. Bakker (Jan); M.A. Kuiper (Michael); S. Aerdts (Stan); A.I.R. Maas (Andrew); E.F.M. Wijdicks (Eelco); H.A. van Leiden (Hendrik); A.J. Hoitsma (Andries); H.P.H. Kremer (Berry); E.J.O. Kompanje (Erwin)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: There is, in European countries that conduct medical chart review of intensive care unit (ICU) deaths, no consensus on uniform criteria for defining a potential organ donor. Although the term is increasingly being used in recent literature, it is seldom defined in detail. We

  13. Imminent brain death: point of departure for potential heart-beating organ donor recognition.

    Groot, Y.J. de; Jansen, N.E.; Bakker, J.; Kuiper, M.A.; Aerdts, S.; Maas, A.I.; Wijdicks, E.F.; Leiden, H.A. van; Hoitsma, A.J.; Kremer, H.P.H.; Kompanje, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is, in European countries that conduct medical chart review of intensive care unit (ICU) deaths, no consensus on uniform criteria for defining a potential organ donor. Although the term is increasingly being used in recent literature, it is seldom defined in detail. We searched for

  14. International Benchmark based on Pressurised Water Reactor Sub-channel and Bundle Tests. Volume III: Departure from Nucleate Boiling

    Rubin, Adam; Avramova, Maria; Velazquez-Lozada, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    This report summarised the second phase of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Benchmark Based on NUPEC PWR Sub-channel and Bundle Tests (PSBT), which was intended to provide data for the verification of Departure from Nucleate Boiling (DNB) prediction in existing thermal-hydraulics codes and provide direction in the development of future methods. This phase was composed of three exercises; Exercise 1: fluid temperature benchmark, Exercise 2: steady-state rod bundle benchmark and Exercise 3: transient rod bundle benchmark. The experimental data provided to the participants of this benchmark is from a series of void measurement tests using full-size mock-up tests for both BWRs and PWRs. These tests were performed from 1987 to 1995 by the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) in Japan and made available by the Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organisation (JNES) for the purposes of this benchmark, which was organised by Pennsylvania State University. Nine institutions from seven countries participated in this benchmark. Nine different computer codes were used in Exercise 1, 2 and 3. Among the computer codes were porous media, sub-channel and systems thermal-hydraulic code. The improvement between FLICA-OVAP (sub-channel) and FLICA (sub-channel) was noticeable. The main difference between the two was that FLICA-OVAP implicitly assigned flow regime based on drift flux, while FLICA assumes single phase flows. In Exercises 2 and 3, the codes were generally able to predict the Departure from Nucleate Boiling (DNB) power as well as the axial location of the onset of DNB (for the steady-state cases) and the time of DNB (for the transient cases). It was noted that the codes that used the Electric-Power-Research- Institute (EPRI) Critical-Heat-Flux (CHF) correlation had the lowest mean error in Exercise 2 for the predicted DNB power

  15. Articulating the history and major departure points evident in post-apartheid South African national water policy and law

    Chikozho, C.; Danga, L.; Saruchera, D.

    2017-08-01

    Governance of the water sector in South Africa has reflected the political changes taking place in society. For instance, due to apartheid policies of segregation, inequality of access to water resources marks South Africa's history in a very profound way and redistribution of rights to water to redress the results of past discrimination became an explicit purpose of the post-apartheid water governance policy and legislative regime. In this paper, we articulate the history and major departure points evident in post-apartheid South African national water policy and law. This includes documenting and reflecting on most of the available information that shows how the new water policy and law were developed. Findings from the study show that the key players active in the water law review process deliberately took into account the political goals and dynamics of power asymmetry within which the law was being articulated. Therefore, the water law as it stands today and in the past must be understood within the context of the socio-economic and political landscape that has prevailed in South Africa at different historical junctures. We contend that a detailed examination and articulation of the history and major departure points evident in post-apartheid South African national water policy and law enables practitioners and scholars to better understand the main motivations behind the water sector reforms and the then prevailing thinking behind the policy and legislation eventually promulgated. The present water law must be understood in the context of these reforms and the objectives they sought to achieve.

  16. Pre-Departure Clearance (PDC): An Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Reports Concerning PDC Related Errors

    Montalyo, Michael L.; Lebacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Airlines operating in the United States are required to operate under instrument flight rules (EFR). Typically, a clearance is issued via voice transmission from clearance delivery at the departing airport. In 1990, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) began deployment of the Pre-Departure Clearance (PDC) system at 30 U.S. airports. The PDC system utilizes aeronautical datalink and Aircraft Communication and Reporting System (ACARS) to transmit departure clearances directly to the pilot. An objective of the PDC system is to provide an immediate reduction in voice congestion over the clearance delivery frequency. Participating airports report that this objective has been met. However, preliminary analysis of 42 Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) reports has revealed problems in PDC procedures and formatting which have caused errors in the proper execution of the clearance. It must be acknowledged that this technology, along with other advancements on the flightdeck, is adding more responsibility to the crew and increasing the opportunity for error. The present study uses these findings as a basis for further coding and analysis of an additional 82 reports obtained from an ASRS database search. These reports indicate that clearances are often amended or exceptions are added in order to accommodate local ATC facilities. However, the onboard ACARS is limited in its ability to emphasize or highlight these changes which has resulted in altitude and heading deviations along with increases in ATC workload. Furthermore, few participating airports require any type of PDC receipt confirmation. In fact, 35% of all ASRS reports dealing with PDC's include failure to acquire the PDC at all. Consequently, this study examines pilots' suggestions contained in ASRS reports in order to develop recommendations to airlines and ATC facilities to help reduce the amount of incidents that occur.

  17. Analyzing the effectiveness of expatriate pre-departure cross-cultural training in Finland

    Pessala, Heli

    2012-01-01

    Globalization has resulted in companies engaging more and more into international operations. During recent decades the focus of international growth opportunities has been in emerging economies which share substantial cultural differences with Western companies. The cultural differences can create obstacles in day-to-day business and this requires companies to develop the cultural competencies of their employees. Especially the expatriates that are chosen for long-term international wor...

  18. Similar and Contrasting Response of Rifting and Transtension in the Gulf of California and Walker Lane to Preceding Arc Magmatism

    Henry, C. D.; Faulds, J. E.

    2006-12-01

    The Gulf of California (GC) and Walker Lane (WL) have undergone strikingly similar development with strike- slip faulting following initial extension. They differ significantly in the amount of Pacific-North American plate motion taken up by each: essentially all relative motion in the GC and ~25% in the WL. In both areas, ancestral arc magmatism preceded and probably focused deformation, perhaps because heating and/or hydration weakened the lithosphere. However, differences in migration of the Rivera (RTJ) and Mendocino triple junctions (MTJ) related to differences in the orientation of plate boundaries determined how strike-slip faulting developed. Abrupt southward jumps in the RTJ led to abrupt cessation of magmatism over arc lengths of as much as 1000 km and initiation of east-northeast extension within the future GC. The best known jump was at ~13 Ma, but an earlier jump occurred at ~18 Ma. Arc magmatism has been best documented in Baja California, Sonora, and Nayarit, although Baja constituted the most-trenchward fringe of the ancestral arc. New and published data indicate that Sinaloa underwent a similar history of arc magmatism. The greatest volume of the arc immediately preceding RTJ jumps was probably in mainland Mexico. Arc magmatism shut off following these jumps, extension began in the future GC, and strike-slip faulting either followed or accompanied extension in the GC. In contrast, the MTJ migrated progressively northward. New and published data indicate magmatism generally shut off coincident with this retreat, but distinct nodes or zones of magmatism, presumably unrelated to subduction, persisted or initiated after arc activity ceased. We have suggested that the WL has grown progressively northward, following the retreating arc, and that the northern WL is its youngest part. However, the timing of initiation of strike-slip faulting in most of the WL is poorly known and controversial. Testing our hypothesis requires determining initiation and

  19. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USCGC HARRIOT LANE using BT and XBT casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from 01 December 1987 to 05 January 1988 (NODC Accession 8800015)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USCGC HARRIOT LANE in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected from...

  20. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USCGC HARRIET LANE using BT and XBT casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from 21 July 1988 to 18 August 1988 (NODC Accession 8800256)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USCGC HARRIET LANE in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected from...

  1. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USCGC HARRIOT LANE using BT and XBT casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea from 30 April 1988 to 31 May 1988 (NODC Accession 8800173)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USCGC HARRIOT LANE in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea. Data...

  2. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USCGC HARRIOT LANE using BT and XBT casts in the NW Atlantic Ocean for 1987-05-31 (NODC Accession 8700225)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USCGC Harriot Lane in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and TOGA Area - Atlantic...

  3. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USCGC HARRIOT LANE using BT and XBT casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from 09 March 1988 to 10 March 1988 (NODC Accession 8800094)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USCGC Harriot Lane in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected from...

  4. The ATCA CABB Line Survey on Centaurus A: Properties of the Molecular Gas from the Dust Lanes to the Central Engine

    Ott, Juergen; Koribalski, Baerbel; Henkel, Christian; Edwards, Philip; Norris, Ray; Meier, David; Feain, Ilana; Curran, Steve; Martin-Pintado, Jesus; Beelen, Alexandre; Aalto, Susanne; Combes, Francoise; Israel, Frank; Muller, Sebastien; Espada, Daniel; Guelin, Michel; Black, John Harry; V-Trung, Dinh; Impellizzeri, Caterina M. V.; Persson, Carina

    2011-10-01

    Centaurus A with its host NGC5128 is the most nearby radio galaxy. Its molecular spectrum exhibits three prominent features: a) gas that is located in the outer disk and dust lanes, b) absorption lines that are supposedly close to the central AGN, and c) gas in emission from the nucleus. We propose to perform an extensive line survey toward CenA using the exciting new capabilities of CABB. The broad basebands and narrow zoom bands of CABB are ideal to capture the full breath of the CenA spectral features. Our multi-band line observations will allow us to derive the exact physical conditions of each component as well as the chemistry involved. We will therefore obtain a comprehensive view of the physics imprinted on the molecular spectrum of a radio galaxy and its host, reaching from the central supermassive black hole, through the accretion region and the inner disk to the outer dust lanes.

  5. "I Couldn't Wait to Leave the Toxic Environment": A Mixed Methods Study of Women Faculty Satisfaction and Departure from One Research Institution

    Gardner, Susan K.

    2012-01-01

    A mixed methods analysis of women faculty departure at one research institution was conducted using Hagedorn's model of faculty job satisfaction. Findings from an institution-wide survey and interviews with women faculty who had left the institution resulted in several themes: (a) a lack of resources to support faculty work, (b) a lack of…

  6. A Modified Model of College Student Persistence: Exploring the Relationship between Astin's Theory of Involvement and Tinto's Theory of Student Departure.

    Milem, Jeffrey F.; Berger, Joseph B.

    1997-01-01

    Provides insight into first-year undergraduate persistence by using behavioral measures--based on Alexander Astin's theory of involvement--to further understanding of Tinto's theory of student departure. Findings support the use of an integrated model in which student behaviors and perceptions interact to influence the development of academic and…

  7. Place, Capital Flows and Property Regimes: The Elites’ Former Houses in Beijing’s South Luogu Lane

    Zhifen Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Place is seen as a process whereby social and cultural forms are reproduced. This process is closely linked to capital flows, which are, in turn, shaped by changing property regimes. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the relationship between property regimes, capital flows and place-making. The goal of this paper is to highlight the role of changing property regimes in the production of place. Our research area is South Luogu Lane (SLL in Central Beijing. We take elites’ former houses in SLL as the main unit of analysis in this study. From studying this changing landscape, we draw four main conclusions. First, the location of SSL was critical in enabling it to emerge as a high-status residential community near the imperial city. Second, historical patterns of capital accumulation influenced subsequent rounds of private investment into particular areas of SLL. Third, as laws relating to the ownership of land and real estate changed fundamentally in the early 1950s and again in the 1980s, the target and intensity of capital flows into housing in SLL changed too. Fourth, these changes in capital flow are linked to ongoing changes in the place image of SLL.

  8. A Lane-Level LBS System for Vehicle Network with High-Precision BDS/GPS Positioning

    Guo, Chi; Guo, Wenfei; Cao, Guangyi; Dong, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, research on vehicle network location service has begun to focus on its intelligence and precision. The accuracy of space-time information has become a core factor for vehicle network systems in a mobile environment. However, difficulties persist in vehicle satellite positioning since deficiencies in the provision of high-quality space-time references greatly limit the development and application of vehicle networks. In this paper, we propose a high-precision-based vehicle network location service to solve this problem. The major components of this study include the following: (1) application of wide-area precise positioning technology to the vehicle network system. An adaptive correction message broadcast protocol is designed to satisfy the requirements for large-scale target precise positioning in the mobile Internet environment; (2) development of a concurrence service system with a flexible virtual expansion architecture to guarantee reliable data interaction between vehicles and the background; (3) verification of the positioning precision and service quality in the urban environment. Based on this high-precision positioning service platform, a lane-level location service is designed to solve a typical traffic safety problem. PMID:25755665

  9. El uso del subtexto como propaganda machista en el personaje de Lois Lane en Man of Steel (Zack Snyder, 2013

    Alfonso M. Rodríguez de Austria Giménez de Aragón

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es desvelar la existencia y analizar el contenido de un subtexto asociado al personaje de Lois Lane, novia de Superman, en la película de Zack Snyder Man of Steel, 2013. En primer lugar definiré los conceptos «texto» y «subtexto», y los relacionaremos con la histórica técnica de «escritura entre líneas» descrita por el filósofo Leo Strauss. A continuación llevaré a cabo el análisis textual (y subtextual del personaje, para comprobar que su diseño responde a la intención de emitir dos tipos de mensajes contradictorios: a nivel textual es una mujer inteligente, independiente y capaz, pero a nivel subtextual se revela como una mujer estúpida, dependiente e incapaz de completar satisfactoriamente sus funciones sin la ayuda de un hombre.

  10. IRI performance models for recently constructed low and medium-traffic two lane roads of the province of Biscay

    Perez Acebo, H.; Gonzalo-Orden, H.

    2016-07-01

    Reliable pavement prediction models are needed for pavement management systems (PMS), as they are a key component to forecast future conditions of the pavement and to prioritize maintenance, rehabilitation and reconstruction strategies. The International Roughness Index (IRI) is the most used parameter worldwide for calibrating pavement roughness and measures reasonably the ride comfort perceived by occupants of passenger cars. The Regional Government of Biscay also collects this value on the road network under its control These surveys are carried out regularly in the XXI century. Several IRI performance models have been proposed by different authors and administrations, varying greatly in their comprehensiveness, the ability to predict performance with accurancy and input data requirements. The aim of this paper is to develop a roughness performance model for Biscay's roads, based on availablbe IRI data, taking into account heavy traffic volume and the age of pavement. Local characteristics as climate conditions and average rainfall are not considered. IRI performance models have been suggested for regional two lane highways with low and medium heavy traffic constructed in the last 20 years in the province of Biscay, with no treatments during their life. They can be applied for flexible pavements, but no logical coherent results have been concluded for semi-rigid pavements. (Author)

  11. Misuse of speed-bumps on two-lane main rural roads. A generalized practice in Venezuela

    Calderas Volcanes, R.J.; Moreno Gonzalez, E.G.

    2016-07-01

    Settlements of uncontrolled population on side of road in Venezuela originate the excessive use of traffic speed reducers to mitigate accidents. Misuse of these speed control devices generate problem of functionality in the two-lane main rural roads which requires to be studied to demonstrate its effect on the capacity and level of service. Although other factors may occur (i.e, environmental problems and health), the disproportionate use of speed-bumps worsens circulation quality by increase of travel time as most sensitive parameter. Where this effect not can be reversed it should be made efforts to mitigate speed using another traffic-calming device. The studied stretches are selected according to particular characteristics such as: urban settlement, isolated speed-bump and its installation in series, including case without speed-bumps which guarantees the proper contrast. Video cameras to detect the travel time of vehicles are used in each road section, it allow the measures of other parameters. The travel time distribution with or without speed-bumps and probability distribution that characterizes vehicle movement in each stretch allows the simulation and modeling with the ARENA software. Travel time allows obtain the speed which, together with the volume of traffic, determines the level of service according to the Highway Capacity Manual criterion. The economic cost of substitute measures versus travel time is evaluated and may be useful in decision-making or implementation of better policies by transport governmental institutions. (Author)

  12. A page is turned with the departure of Anne-Sylvie Catherin

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    The Staff Association wants to thank Anne Sylvie Catherin for her achievements during her career at CERN, and in particular during her mandate of head of the Human Resources Department. Anne-Sylvie Catherin arrived at CERN as a lawyer specialized in labor law of International Organizations, and she brought along her knowledge, as well as an unparalleled energy and professionalism. The Staff Association has particularly appreciated her collaborative approach during discussions in the concertation process. This attitude has clearly contributed to the implementation of significant change in the management of human resources, while preserving social peace. We expect that the person who will succeed Anne-Sylvie Catherin will have the same constructive attitude, in respect of the concertation process, as well as a continuity in the definition and implementation of HR processes. Finally, we hope that the new head of HR will be able to develop a long-term vision for the Organization and its staff, measuring to the vi...

  13. Measuring chess experts' single-use sequence knowledge: an archival study of departure from 'theoretical' openings.

    Philippe Chassy

    Full Text Available The respective roles of knowledge and search have received considerable attention in the literature on expertise. However, most of the evidence on knowledge has been indirect--e.g., by inferring the presence of chunks in long-term memory from performance in memory recall tasks. Here we provide direct estimates of the amount of monochrestic (single use and rote knowledge held by chess players of varying skill levels. From a large chess database, we analyzed 76,562 games played in 2008 by individuals ranging from Class B players (average players to Masters to measure the extent to which players deviate from previously known initial sequences of moves ("openings". Substantial differences were found in the number of moves known by players of different skill levels, with more expert players knowing more moves. Combined with assumptions independently made about the branching factor in master games, we estimate that masters have memorized about 100,000 opening moves. Our results support the hypothesis that monochrestic knowledge is essential for reaching high levels of expertise in chess. They provide a direct, quantitative estimate of the number of opening moves that players have to know to reach master level.

  14. Reference Computational Meshing Strategy for Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Departure from Nucleate BoilingReference Computational Meshing Strategy for Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Departure from Nucleate Boiling

    Pointer, William David [ORNL

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this effort is to establish a strategy and process for generation of suitable computational mesh for computational fluid dynamics simulations of departure from nucleate boiling in a 5 by 5 fuel rod assembly held in place by PWR mixing vane spacer grids. This mesh generation process will support ongoing efforts to develop, demonstrate and validate advanced multi-phase computational fluid dynamics methods that enable more robust identification of dryout conditions and DNB occurrence.Building upon prior efforts and experience, multiple computational meshes were developed using the native mesh generation capabilities of the commercial CFD code STAR-CCM+. These meshes were used to simulate two test cases from the Westinghouse 5 by 5 rod bundle facility. The sensitivity of predicted quantities of interest to the mesh resolution was then established using two evaluation methods, the Grid Convergence Index method and the Least Squares method. This evaluation suggests that the Least Squares method can reliably establish the uncertainty associated with local parameters such as vector velocity components at a point in the domain or surface averaged quantities such as outlet velocity magnitude. However, neither method is suitable for characterization of uncertainty in global extrema such as peak fuel surface temperature, primarily because such parameters are not necessarily associated with a fixed point in space. This shortcoming is significant because the current generation algorithm for identification of DNB event conditions relies on identification of such global extrema. Ongoing efforts to identify DNB based on local surface conditions will address this challenge

  15. Exploring the relationships between drivers' familiarity and two-lane rural road accidents. A multi-level study.

    Intini, Paolo; Berloco, Nicola; Colonna, Pasquale; Ranieri, Vittorio; Ryeng, Eirin

    2018-02-01

    Previous research has suggested that drivers' route familiarity/unfamiliarity (using different definitions of familiarity), and the interactions between familiar and unfamiliar drivers, may affect both the driving performances and the likelihood of road crashes. The purpose of this study is to provide a contribution in the search for relationships between familiarity and crashes by: 1) introducing a measure of familiarity based on the distance from residence; 2) analyzing a traffic and accident dataset referred to rural two-lane sections of the Norwegian highways E6 and E39; 3) using a multi-level approach, based on different perspectives, from a macro analysis to more detailed levels. In the macro analyses, the accident rates computed for different seasons and for different summer traffic variation rates (used as indicators of the share of familiar drivers in the flow) were performed. At the second level, a logistic regression model was used to explain the familiarity/unfamiliarity of drivers (based on their distance from residence), through variables retrieved from the database. In the last step, an in-depth analysis considering also accident types and dynamics was conducted. In the macro analysis, no differences were found between accident rates in the different conditions. Whereas, as emerged from the detailed analyses, the factors: high traffic volume, low summer traffic variation, autumn/winter, minor intersections/driveways, speed limits accident risk, possibly due to distraction and dangerous behaviors, while the influence of being unfamiliar on the accident proneness has some unclarified aspects. However, crashes to unfamiliar drivers may cluster at sites showing high summer traffic variation and in summer months. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Life in the Slow, Dark, Salty, Cold and Oxygen-Depleted Lane - Insights on Habitability from Lake Vida

    Murray, A.

    2014-04-01

    Ice-entrained Lake Vida brine has provided an accessible natural habitat to study life in the slow lane - where cellular growth is limited, but not extinguished. We measured in situ stable isotopic signatures of N2O, SO42-, H2, conducted experiments utilizing stable isotope geochemical tracers to detect microbial transformations and employed radioisotopically-labeled amino acid precursors to detect cellular macromolecule biosynthesis. The results indicated a dominance of abiotic processes in the brine - yet support metabolically active life through detection of nominal rates of protein biosynthesis. At the same time, the brine has posed a challenge to our understanding of ecosystem energetics. Data collected thus far suggests that the brine is isolated from surfical processes and receives no new mass or energy from above. Calculations have estimated carbon remineralization rates, which indicate that resources should be depleted to the level of small molecules perhaps supporting a methanogenic ecosystem given the amount of time since encapsulation at the temperatures recorded - yet the brine is resource-rich harboring abundant bacteria and large molecules, in addition to a complex mixture of both reduced and oxidized compounds. This has motivated explorations into alternative sources of energy such as hydrogen - which was detected at levels 10 micromolar - that could be generated by brine-rock interactions and supply endogenous energy to this closed ecosystem. This cold, salty, anoxic and organically rich brine, provides insight into a new category of habitable earth ecosystems that may also give us food for thought when considering habitability of giant planet icy worlds or of icy exoplanets. However, the methods we use, and the framework of scientific inquiry applied, are limited by perception and familiarity of rates of change that are important in human time scales. The Vida-icy brine ecosystem provides a model for expansion of our understanding of habitability

  17. Feedwater line break accident analysis for SMART in the view point of minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio

    Kim Soo Hyoung; Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Chung, Young Jong; Kim, Keung Koo

    2012-01-01

    KAERI and KEPCO consortium had performed standard design of SMART(System integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) from 2009 to 2011 and obtained standard design approval in July 2012. To confirm the safety of SMART design, all of the safety related design basis events were analyzed. A feedwater line break (FLB) is a postulated accident and is a limiting accident for a decrease in the heat removal by the secondary system in the view point of the peak RCS pressure. It is well known that departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) increases with the increase of the system pressure for conventional nuclear power plants. But SMART has comparatively lower RCS flow rate, and there is a possibility to show different DNBR behavior depending on the system pressure. To confirm that SMART is safe in case of FLB accident, the Korean nuclear regulatory body required to perform the safety analysis in the view point of minimum DNBR (MDNBR) during the licensing review process for standard design approval (SDA) of SMART design. In this paper, the safety analysis results of the FLB accident for SMART in the view point of MDNBR is described

  18. Eco-Approach and Departure System for Left-Turn Vehicles at a Fixed-Time Signalized Intersection

    Huifu Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research proposed an eco-approach and departure system for left-turn vehicles at a fixed-time signalized intersection. This system gives higher priority to enhancing traffic safety than improving mobility and fuel efficiency, and optimizes the entire traffic consisted of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs and conventional human-driven vehicles by providing ecological speed trajectories for left-turn CAVs. All the ecological speed trajectories are offline optimized before the implementation of system. The speed trajectory optimization is constructed in Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle structure. The before and after evaluation of the proposed system shows the percentage of vehicles that drive pass the intersection at safe speed increases by 2.14% to 45.65%, fuel consumption benefits range 0.53% to 18.44%, emission benefits range from 0.57% to 15.69%, no significant throughput benefits is observed. The proposed system significantly enhances the traffic safety and improves the fuel efficiency and emission reduction of left-turn vehicles with no adverse effect on mobility, and has a good robustness against the randomness of traffic. The investigation also indicates that the computation time of proposed system is greatly reduced compared to previous eco-driving system with online speed optimization. The computation time is up to 0.01 s. The proposed system is ready for real-time application.

  19. Feedwater line break accident analysis for SMART in the view point of minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio

    Kim Soo Hyoung; Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Chung, Young Jong; Kim, Keung Koo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    KAERI and KEPCO consortium had performed standard design of SMART(System integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) from 2009 to 2011 and obtained standard design approval in July 2012. To confirm the safety of SMART design, all of the safety related design basis events were analyzed. A feedwater line break (FLB) is a postulated accident and is a limiting accident for a decrease in the heat removal by the secondary system in the view point of the peak RCS pressure. It is well known that departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) increases with the increase of the system pressure for conventional nuclear power plants. But SMART has comparatively lower RCS flow rate, and there is a possibility to show different DNBR behavior depending on the system pressure. To confirm that SMART is safe in case of FLB accident, the Korean nuclear regulatory body required to perform the safety analysis in the view point of minimum DNBR (MDNBR) during the licensing review process for standard design approval (SDA) of SMART design. In this paper, the safety analysis results of the FLB accident for SMART in the view point of MDNBR is described.

  20. Best estimate plus uncertainty analysis of departure from nucleate boiling limiting case with CASL core simulator VERA-CS in response to PWR main steam line break event

    Brown, C.S., E-mail: csbrown3@ncsu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, 2500 Stinson Drive, Raleigh, NC 27695-7909 (United States); Zhang, H., E-mail: Hongbin.Zhang@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3870 (United States); Kucukboyaci, V., E-mail: kucukbvn@westinghouse.com [Westinghouse Electric Company, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States); Sung, Y., E-mail: sungy@westinghouse.com [Westinghouse Electric Company, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Best estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU) analyses of PWR core responses under main steam line break (MSLB) accident. • CASL’s coupled neutron transport/subchannel code VERA-CS. • Wilks’ nonparametric statistical method. • MDNBR 95/95 tolerance limit. - Abstract: VERA-CS (Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications, Core Simulator) is a coupled neutron transport and thermal-hydraulics subchannel code under development by the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). VERA-CS was applied to simulate core behavior of a typical Westinghouse-designed 4-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) with 17 × 17 fuel assemblies in response to two main steam line break (MSLB) accident scenarios initiated at hot zero power (HZP) at the end of the first fuel cycle with the most reactive rod cluster control assembly stuck out of the core. The reactor core boundary conditions at the most DNB limiting time step were determined by a system analysis code. The core inlet flow and temperature distributions were obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The two MSLB scenarios consisted of the high and low flow situations, where reactor coolant pumps either continue to operate with offsite power or do not continue to operate since offsite power is unavailable. The best estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU) analysis method was applied using Wilks’ nonparametric statistical approach. In this demonstration of BEPU application, 59 full core simulations were performed for each accident scenario to provide the minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio (MDNBR) at the 95/95 (95% probability with 95% confidence level) tolerance limit. A parametric goodness-of-fit approach was also applied to the results to obtain the MDNBR value at the 95/95 tolerance limit. Initial sensitivity analysis was performed with the 59 cases per accident scenario by use of Pearson correlation coefficients. The results show that this typical PWR core

  1. Best estimate plus uncertainty analysis of departure from nucleate boiling limiting case with CASL core simulator VERA-CS in response to PWR main steam line break event

    Brown, C.S.; Zhang, H.; Kucukboyaci, V.; Sung, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Best estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU) analyses of PWR core responses under main steam line break (MSLB) accident. • CASL’s coupled neutron transport/subchannel code VERA-CS. • Wilks’ nonparametric statistical method. • MDNBR 95/95 tolerance limit. - Abstract: VERA-CS (Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications, Core Simulator) is a coupled neutron transport and thermal-hydraulics subchannel code under development by the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). VERA-CS was applied to simulate core behavior of a typical Westinghouse-designed 4-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) with 17 × 17 fuel assemblies in response to two main steam line break (MSLB) accident scenarios initiated at hot zero power (HZP) at the end of the first fuel cycle with the most reactive rod cluster control assembly stuck out of the core. The reactor core boundary conditions at the most DNB limiting time step were determined by a system analysis code. The core inlet flow and temperature distributions were obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The two MSLB scenarios consisted of the high and low flow situations, where reactor coolant pumps either continue to operate with offsite power or do not continue to operate since offsite power is unavailable. The best estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU) analysis method was applied using Wilks’ nonparametric statistical approach. In this demonstration of BEPU application, 59 full core simulations were performed for each accident scenario to provide the minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio (MDNBR) at the 95/95 (95% probability with 95% confidence level) tolerance limit. A parametric goodness-of-fit approach was also applied to the results to obtain the MDNBR value at the 95/95 tolerance limit. Initial sensitivity analysis was performed with the 59 cases per accident scenario by use of Pearson correlation coefficients. The results show that this typical PWR core

  2. "You should go so that others can come"; the role of facilities in determining an early departure after childbirth in Morogoro Region, Tanzania.

    McMahon, Shannon A; Mohan, Diwakar; LeFevre, Amnesty E; Mosha, Idda; Mpembeni, Rose; Chase, Rachel P; Baqui, Abdullah H; Winch, Peter J

    2015-12-09

    Tanzania is among ten countries that account for a majority of the world's newborn deaths. However, data on time-to-discharge after facility delivery, receipt of postpartum messaging by time to discharge and women's experiences in the time preceding discharge from a facility after childbirth are limited. Household survey of 1267 women who delivered in the preceding 2-14 months; in-depth interviews with 24 women, 12 husbands, and 5 community elders. Two-thirds of women with vaginal, uncomplicated births departed within 12 h; 90 % within 24 h, and 95 % within 48 h. Median departure times varied significantly across facilities (hospital: 23 h, health center: 10 h, dispensary: 7 h, p discharge. In multiple logistic regression, level of facility (hospital, health center, dispensary) was the only significant predictor of early discharge (p = 0.001). However across all types of facilities a majority of women depart before 24 h ranging from hospitals (54 %) to health centers (64 %) to dispensaries (74 %). Most women who experienced a delivery complication (56 %), gave birth by caesarean section (90 %), or gave birth to a pre-term baby (70 %) stayed longer than 24 h. Reasons for early discharge include: facility practices including discharge routines and working hours and facility-based discomforts for women and those who accompany them to facilities. Provision of postpartum counseling was inadequate regardless of time to discharge and regardless of type of facility where delivery occurred. Our quantitative and qualitative findings indicate that the level of facility care and comforts existing or lacking in a facility have the greatest effect on time to discharge. This suggests that individual or interpersonal characteristics play a limited role in deciding whether a woman would stay for shorter or longer periods. Implementation of a policy of longer stay must incorporate enhanced postpartum counseling and should be sensitive to women's perceptions

  3. Numerical Study of Single Bubble Growth on and Departure from a Horizontal Superheated Wall by Three-dimensional Lattice Boltzmann Method

    Feng, Yuan; Li, Hui-Xiong; Guo, Kai-Kai; Zhao, Jian-Fu; Wang, Tai

    2018-05-01

    A three-dimensional hybrid lattice Boltzmann method was used to simulate the progress of a single bubble's growth and departure from a horizontal superheated wall. The evolutionary process of the bubble shapes and also the temperature fields during pool nucleate boiling were obtained and the influence of the gravitational acceleration on the bubble departure diameter (BDD), the bubble release frequency (BRF) and the heat flux on the superheated wall was analyzed. The simulation results obtained by the present three-dimensional numerical studies demonstrate that the BDD is proportional to g^{-0.301}, the BRF is proportional to g^{-0.58}, and the averaged wall heat flux is proportional to g^{0.201}, where g is the gravitational acceleration. These results are in good agreement with the common-used experimental correlations, indicating the rationality of the present numerical model and results.

  4. Analysis of the equilibrium trip cost accounting for the fuel cost in a single-lane traffic system without late arrival

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Wang, Tao; Chen, Liang; Huang, Hai-Jun

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the fuel cost into each commuter's trip cost, define a new trip cost without late arrival and its corresponding equilibrium state, and use a car-following model to explore the impacts of the fuel cost on each commuter's departure time, departure interval, arrival time, arrival interval, traveling time, early arrival time and trip cost at the above equilibrium state. The numerical results show that considering the fuel cost in each commuter's trip cost has positive impacts on his trip cost and fuel cost, and the traffic situation in the system without late arrival, i.e., each commuter should explicitly consider the fuel cost in his trip cost.

  5. Departure from Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium in argon plasmas sustained in a Torche à Injection Axiale sur Guide d'Ondes

    Rincón, R.; Muñoz, J.; Calzada, M.D.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma torches are suitable plasma sources for a wide range of applications. The capability of these discharges to produce processes like sample excitation or decomposition of molecules inside them depends on the density of the plasma species and their energies (temperatures). The relation between these parameters determines the specific state of thermodynamic equilibrium in the discharge. Thus, the understanding of plasma possibilities for application purposes is related to the knowledge of the plasma thermodynamic equilibrium degree. In this paper a discussion about the equilibrium state for Ar plasmas generated by using a Torche à Injection Axiale sur Guide d'Ondes, TIAGO device, is presented. Emission spectroscopy techniques were used to measure gas temperature and electron density at the exit of the nozzle torch and along the dart. Boltzmann-plots as well as b p parameters were calculated to characterize the type and degree of departure from partial Local Saha Equilibrium (pLSE). This study indicates that the closer situation to Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) of the plasma corresponds to larger Ar flows which highlights the importance of the nitrogen (atmosphere surrounding the plasma) in the kinetics of Ar-TIAGO discharges. - Highlights: • Discharges sustained in Ar using a TIAGO Torch show a significant departure from Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium. • Nitrogen entrance from surrounding air highly influences Thermodynamic Equilibrium. • Departure from LTE has been studied by means of Boltzmann plots and b p parameters. • The discharge is ionizing at the nozzle exit plasma, while along the dart it becomes recombining

  6. BOOSTING LY α   AND He ii λ 1640 LINE FLUXES FROM POPULATION III GALAXIES: STOCHASTIC IMF SAMPLING AND DEPARTURES FROM CASE-B

    Mas-Ribas, Lluís; Dijkstra, Mark; Forero-Romero, Jaime E.

    2016-01-01

    We revisit calculations of nebular hydrogen Ly α and He ii λ 1640 line strengths for Population III (Pop III) galaxies, undergoing continuous, and bursts of, star formation. We focus on initial mass functions (IMFs) motivated by recent theoretical studies, which generally span a lower range of stellar masses than earlier works. We also account for case-B departures and the stochastic sampling of the IMF. In agreement with previous work, we find that departures from case-B can enhance the Ly α flux by a factor of a few, but we argue that this enhancement is driven mainly by collisional excitation and ionization, and not due to photoionization from the n  = 2 state of atomic hydrogen. The increased sensitivity of the Ly α flux to the high-energy end of the galaxy spectrum makes it more subject to stochastic sampling of the IMF. The latter introduces a dispersion in the predicted nebular line fluxes around the deterministic value by as much as a factor of ∼4. In contrast, the stochastic sampling of the IMF has less impact on the emerging Lyman Werner photon flux. When case-B departures and stochasticity effects are combined, nebular line emission from Pop III galaxies can be up to one order of magnitude brighter than predicted by “standard” calculations that do not include these effects. This enhances the prospects for detection with future facilities such as the James Webb Space Telescope and large, ground-based telescopes.

  7. Boosting Lyα and He II λ1640 Line Fluxes from Population III Galaxies: Stochastic IMF Sampling and Departures from Case-B

    Mas-Ribas, Lluís; Dijkstra, Mark; Forero-Romero, Jaime E.

    2016-12-01

    We revisit calculations of nebular hydrogen Lyα and He II λ1640 line strengths for Population III (Pop III) galaxies, undergoing continuous, and bursts of, star formation. We focus on initial mass functions (IMFs) motivated by recent theoretical studies, which generally span a lower range of stellar masses than earlier works. We also account for case-B departures and the stochastic sampling of the IMF. In agreement with previous work, we find that departures from case-B can enhance the Lyα flux by a factor of a few, but we argue that this enhancement is driven mainly by collisional excitation and ionization, and not due to photoionization from the n = 2 state of atomic hydrogen. The increased sensitivity of the Lyα flux to the high-energy end of the galaxy spectrum makes it more subject to stochastic sampling of the IMF. The latter introduces a dispersion in the predicted nebular line fluxes around the deterministic value by as much as a factor of ˜4. In contrast, the stochastic sampling of the IMF has less impact on the emerging Lyman Werner photon flux. When case-B departures and stochasticity effects are combined, nebular line emission from Pop III galaxies can be up to one order of magnitude brighter than predicted by “standard” calculations that do not include these effects. This enhances the prospects for detection with future facilities such as the James Webb Space Telescope and large, ground-based telescopes.

  8. Comparison of optical-model and Lane-model analyses of sub-Coulomb protons on /sup 92,94/Zr

    Schrils, R.; Flynn, D.S.; Hershberger, R.L.; Gabbard, F.

    1979-01-01

    Accurate proton elastic-scattering cross sections were measured with enriched targets of /sup 92,94/Zr from E/sub p/ = 2.0 to 6.5 MeV. The elastic-scattering cross sections, together with absorption cross sections, were analyzed with a Lane model which employed the optical potential of Johnson et al. The resulting parameters were compared with those obtained with a single-channel optical model and negligible differences were found. Significant differences between the 92 Zr and 94 Zr real diffusenesses resulted from the inclusion of the (p,p) data in the analyses

  9. GPS Imaging suggests links between climate, magmatism, seismicity, and tectonics in the Sierra Nevada-Long Valley Caldera-Walker Lane system, western United States

    Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.; Kreemer, C.; Smith, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Walker Lane is a region of complex active crustal transtension in the western Great Basin of the western United States, accommodating about 20% of the 50 mm/yr relative motion between the Pacific and North American plates. The Long Valley caldera lies in the central Walker Lane in eastern California, adjacent to the eastern boundary of the Sierra Nevada/Great Valley microplate, and experiences intermittent inflation, uplift, and volcanic unrest from the magma chamber that resides at middle crustal depths. Normal and transform faults accommodating regional tectonic transtension pass by and through the caldera, complicating the interpretation of the GPS-measured strain rate field, estimates of fault slip rates, and seismic hazard. Several dozen continuously recording GPS stations measure strain and uplift in the area with mm precision. They observe that the most recent episode of uplift at Long Valley began in mid-2011, continuing until late 2016, raising the surface by 100 mm in 6 years. The timing of the initiation of uplift coincides with the beginning of severe drought in California. Furthermore, the timing of a recent pause in uplift coincides with the very wet 2016-2017 winter, which saw approximately double normal snow pack. In prior studies, we showed that the timing of changes in geodetically measured uplift rate of the Sierra Nevada coincides with the timing of drought conditions in California, suggesting a link between hydrological loading and Sierra Nevada elevation. Here we take the analysis three steps further to show that changes in Sierra Nevada uplift rate coincide in time with 1) enhanced inflation at the Long Valley caldera, 2) shifts in the patterns and rates of horizontal tensor strain rate, and 3) seismicity patterns in the central Walker Lane. We use GPS solutions from the Nevada Geodetic Laboratory and the new GPS Imaging technique to produce robust animations of the time variable strain and uplift fields. The goals of this work are to

  10. Departure Roger Anthoine

    Schopper,H

    1986-01-01

    Remerciements et discours du D.G. H.Schopper à l'occasion du départ de Roger Anthoine (attaché de presse), qui travaillait dans la communication et quitte le Cern après 27 ans de service. Il gardait des relations avec des médias internationaux et la presse locale; remise des cadeaux: album photo avec images des musés de Genève et un radio aviation; R.A. fait un résumé de ses activités et souvenirs et remercie ses collaborateurs

  11. Clustering of velocities in a GPS network spanning the Sierra Nevada Block, the northern Walker Lane Belt, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt, California-Nevada

    Savage, James C.; Simpson, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The deformation across the Sierra Nevada Block, the Walker Lane Belt, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt (CNSB) between 38.5°N and 40.5°N has been analyzed by clustering GPS velocities to identify coherent blocks. Cluster analysis determines the number of clusters required and assigns the GPS stations to the proper clusters. The clusters are shown on a fault map by symbols located at the positions of the GPS stations, each symbol representing the cluster to which the velocity of that GPS station belongs. Fault systems that separate the clusters are readily identified on such a map. Four significant clusters are identified. Those clusters are strips separated by (from west to east) the Mohawk Valley-Genoa fault system, the Pyramid Lake-Wassuk fault system, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt. The strain rates within the westernmost three clusters approximate simple right-lateral shear (~13 nstrain/a) across vertical planes roughly parallel to the cluster boundaries. Clustering does not recognize the longitudinal segmentation of the Walker Lane Belt into domains dominated by either northwesterly trending, right-lateral faults or northeasterly trending, left-lateral faults.

  12. Identification of column edges of DNA fragments by using K-means clustering and mean algorithm on lane histograms of DNA agarose gel electrophoresis images

    Turan, Muhammed K.; Sehirli, Eftal; Elen, Abdullah; Karas, Ismail R.

    2015-07-01

    Gel electrophoresis (GE) is one of the most used method to separate DNA, RNA, protein molecules according to size, weight and quantity parameters in many areas such as genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, microbiology. The main way to separate each molecule is to find borders of each molecule fragment. This paper presents a software application that show columns edges of DNA fragments in 3 steps. In the first step the application obtains lane histograms of agarose gel electrophoresis images by doing projection based on x-axis. In the second step, it utilizes k-means clustering algorithm to classify point values of lane histogram such as left side values, right side values and undesired values. In the third step, column edges of DNA fragments is shown by using mean algorithm and mathematical processes to separate DNA fragments from the background in a fully automated way. In addition to this, the application presents locations of DNA fragments and how many DNA fragments exist on images captured by a scientific camera.

  13. Recent state of stress change in the Walker Lane zone, western Basin and Range province, United States

    Bellier, Olivier; Zoback, Mary Lou

    1995-06-01

    The NW to north-trending Walker Lane zone (WLZ) is located along the western boundary of the northern Basin and Range province with the Sierra Nevada. This zone is distinguished from the surrounding Basin and Range province on the basis of irregular topography and evidence for both normal and strike-slip Holocene faulting. Inversion of slip vectors from active faults, historic fault offsets, and earthquake focal mechanisms indicate two distinct Quaternary stress regimes within the WLZ, both of which are characterized by a consistent WNW σ3 axis; these are a normal faulting regime with a mean σ3 axis of N85°±9°W and a mean stress ratio (R value) (R=(σ2-σ1)/(σ3-σ1)) of 0.63-0.74 and a younger strike-slip faulting regime with a similar mean σ3 axis (N65° - 70°W) and R values ranging between ˜ 0.1 and 0.2. This younger regime is compatible with historic fault offsets and earthquake focal mechanisms. Both the extensional and strike-slip stress regimes reactivated inherited Mesozoic and Cenozoic structures and also produced new faults. The present-day strike-slip stress regime has produced strike-slip, normal oblique-slip, and normal dip-slip historic faulting. Previous workers have explained the complex interaction of active strike-slip, oblique, and normal faulting in the WLZ as a simple consequence of a single stress state with a consistent WNW σ3 axis and transitional between strike-slip and normal faulting (maximum horizontal stress approximately equal to vertical stress, or R ≈ 0 in both regimes) with minor local fluctuations. The slip data reported here support previous results from Owens Valley that suggest deformation within temporally distinct normal and strike-slip faulting stress regimes with a roughly constant WNW trending σ3 axis (Zoback, 1989). A recent change from a normal faulting to a strike-slip faulting stress regime is indicated by the crosscutting striae on faults in basalts the dominantly strike-slip earthquake focal mechanisms and

  14. The role of intention as mediator between latent effects and behavior: application of a hybrid choice model to study departure time choices

    Thorhauge, Mikkel; Cherchi, Elisabetta; Walker, Joan L.

    2017-01-01

    of them consider the effect of intention and its role as mediator between those psychological effects and the choice, as implied in the Theory of Planned Behavior. In this paper we contribute to the literature in this field by specifically studying the direct effect of the intention on the actual behavior......, while attitude, social norms, and perceived behavioral control affect the intention to behave in a given way. We apply a hybrid choice model to study the departure time choice. For this, we use data from Danish commuters in the morning rush hours in the Greater Copenhagen area. We find a significant...

  15. Global numerical solutions of growth and departure of a vapour bubble at a horizontal superheated wall in a pure liquid and a binary mixture

    Zijl, W.; Ramakers, F.J.M.; Stralen, S.J.D. van

    1979-01-01

    The growth and buoyancy induced departure of vapour bubbles at a horizontal superheated wall has been studied by global numerical methods. Integral forms of the heat transport equation have been solved by use of series expansions, obtained by the theory of fractional derivatives. The global orthogonal collocation method has been applied for the potential flow around the bubble. In this way a set of only eight or ten ordinary differential equations has to be integrated by computer. The results, following from prescribed initial temperature distributions, are in quantitative agreement with experimental data, obtained in water and aqueous binary mixtures, boiling at subatmospheric pressure. (author)

  16. Rates and timing of vertical-axis block rotations across the Sierra Nevada-Walker Lane transition in the Bodie Hills

    Rood, D. H.; Herman, S.; Burbank, D.; Bogue, S.

    2008-12-01

    We use paleomagnetic data from Tertiary volcanic rocks to address the rates and timing of vertical-axis block rotation across the Sierra Nevada-Walker Lane transition in the Bodie Hills, California/Nevada. In zones of continental deformation, block rotations are an important mechanism for permanent stain accommodation, and thus may be crucial to testing geodetic block models and resolving geologic-geodetic slip discrepancies. In our study, data included in the paleomagetic site means are high quality AF demagnetization results (least squared fits that generally include 5-7 points with MAD values less than 1). Thermal demagnetization results match the AF directions, and both thermal demag and rockmag results indicate strong ChRM, mostly carried by single domain magnetite. The site means used to calculate the VGPs all have a95 values less than 10 (mostly 2-5) and include 6-11 sites each. Each site (and thus site mean) has a reasonably well-known structural correction. The VGP scatter values range from 12 to 16 degrees, indicating that they include appropriate secular variation. The mean declinations and 95 percent confidence limits for each VGP timeslice are statistically distinct from one another (71 ± 9, 39 ± 13, and 11 ± 11 degrees). The slope of a linear regression fit to the age versus declination data gives a rate of vertical axis block rotation of approximately 3-4 degrees/Myr. Fitting two separate lines to the age vs. declination data would indicate an increase in the rates of rotation since ~10 Ma. Two possible interpretations of the data are: (1) the rotations began during or before the Middle Miocene, or (2) rates of rotation were high initially (e.g. ~10 Ma) and decelerated until the Pliocene. These data have implications for the (1) timing and spatial extent of distributed strain accumulation related to the initiation of the San Andreas Fault-Eastern California Shear Zone-Walker Lane transform plate boundary, (2) transfer of transform plate boundary

  17. High-Precision Locations and the Stress Field from Instrumental Seismicity, Moment Tensors, and Short-Period Mechanisms through the Mina Deflection, Central Walker Lane

    Ruhl, C. J.; Smith, K. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Mina Deflection (MD) region of the central Walker Lane of eastern California and western Nevada, is a complex zone of northeast-trending normal, and primarily left-lateral strike-slip to oblique-slip faulting that separates the Southern Walker Lane (SWL) from a series of east-tilted normal fault blocks in the Central Walker Lane (CWL) (Faulds and Henry, 2008; Surpless, 2008). The MD accommodates the transfer of right-lateral strike-slip motion from northwest-striking faults in the SWL to a series of left-stepping northwest-striking right-lateral strike-slip faults in the CWL, east of the Wassuk Range near Hawthorne, NV. The ~50 km wide ~80 km long right-step is a distinct transition in regional physiography that has been attributed to strain accommodation through pre-Cenozoic lithospheric structures. Several slip transfer mechanisms have been proposed within the MD, from clockwise rotation of high-angle fault blocks (Wesnousky, 2005), to low-angle displacement within the Silver Peak-Lone Mountain complex (Oldow et al., 2001), and curved fault arrays associated with localized basins and tectonic depressions (Ferranti et al., 2009). The region has been a regular source of M4+ events, the most recent being an extended sequence that included twenty-seven M 3.5+ earthquakes (largest event M 4.6) south of Hawthorne in 2011. These earthquakes (Mina, NV, and the 1932 M 7.1 Cedar Mountains earthquake east of the Pilot Mountains. Another persistent feature in the seismicity is an ~40 km long arcuate distribution of activity extending from approximately Queen Valley, north of the White Mountains, to Mono Lake that appears to reflect a southwestern boundary to northeast-striking structures in the MD. Here we develop high-precision relocations of instrumental seismicity in the MD from 1984 through 2012, including relocations of the 2004 sequence, and account for the historical seismic record. MT solutions from published reports and computed from recent M 3.5+ earthquakes as

  18. Specific safety measures for emergency lanes and shoulders of motorways : a proposal for motorways' authorities in the framework of the European research project Safety Standards for Road Design and Redesign SAFESTAR, Workpackage 1.1.

    Braimaister, L.

    1999-01-01

    This workpackage is one of seven workpackages of the European SAFESTAR project, launched by DG VII. Directing on safety standards and recommendations for the Trans-European Roadway Network (TERN), the workpackage considered safety measures on emergency lanes (stopping strips), which are inherent

  19. A nonclassical Radau collocation method for solving the Lane-Emden equations of the polytropic index 4.75 ≤ α < 5

    Tirani, M. D.; Maleki, M.; Kajani, M. T.

    2014-11-01

    A numerical method for solving the Lane-Emden equations of the polytropic index α when 4.75 ≤ α ≤ 5 is introduced. The method is based upon nonclassical Gauss-Radau collocation points and Freud type weights. Nonclassical orthogonal polynomials, nonclassical Radau points and weighted interpolation are introduced and are utilized in the interval [0,1]. A smooth, strictly monotonic transformation is used to map the infinite domain x ∈ [0,∞) onto a half-open interval t ∈ [0,1). The resulting problem on the finite interval is then transcribed to a system of nonlinear algebraic equations using collocation. The method is easy to implement and yields very accurate results.

  20. Examining the departure in response of non-point detectors due to non-uniform illumination and displacement of effective center

    Khabaz, Rahim, E-mail: r.khabaz@gu.ac.ir

    2013-11-11

    A mathematical simulation approach based on the general purpose Monte Carlo N-particle transport code MCNP was developed to calculate the departure in reading of the neutron spectrometer instrument from that expected according to the inverse square law. The calculations were performed to evaluate the effects of beam divergence on the response of a 10 in. spherical device equipped with a long BF{sub 3} counter irradiated by 11 mono-energy neutron beams. The necessary geometry correction factor, because of non-uniform illumination, for the calibration of seven polyethylene spheres with several radionuclide neutron sources, i.e. Ra–Be, {sup 241}Am–Be, {sup 241}Am–B and Po–Be sources was also determined. In all calculations, the displacement of effective center from the geometric center of moderating spheres, when used as an instrument for neutron fluence measurement, was quantified. -- Highlights: • The commonly applied method for measuring the energy spectrum of neutron fields is BSS. • One of the problems of the BSS is the geometry correction factor. • This factor is related to the non-uniform illumination of the spectrometer. • At short distances, serious departure was created in reading from the inverse square law. • This study evaluates a Monte Carlo method to calculate this factor and related parameters.

  1. Examining the departure in response of non-point detectors due to non-uniform illumination and displacement of effective center

    Khabaz, Rahim

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical simulation approach based on the general purpose Monte Carlo N-particle transport code MCNP was developed to calculate the departure in reading of the neutron spectrometer instrument from that expected according to the inverse square law. The calculations were performed to evaluate the effects of beam divergence on the response of a 10 in. spherical device equipped with a long BF 3 counter irradiated by 11 mono-energy neutron beams. The necessary geometry correction factor, because of non-uniform illumination, for the calibration of seven polyethylene spheres with several radionuclide neutron sources, i.e. Ra–Be, 241 Am–Be, 241 Am–B and Po–Be sources was also determined. In all calculations, the displacement of effective center from the geometric center of moderating spheres, when used as an instrument for neutron fluence measurement, was quantified. -- Highlights: • The commonly applied method for measuring the energy spectrum of neutron fields is BSS. • One of the problems of the BSS is the geometry correction factor. • This factor is related to the non-uniform illumination of the spectrometer. • At short distances, serious departure was created in reading from the inverse square law. • This study evaluates a Monte Carlo method to calculate this factor and related parameters

  2. Branch-based model for the diameters of the pulmonary airways: accounting for departures from self-consistency and registration errors.

    Neradilek, Moni B; Polissar, Nayak L; Einstein, Daniel R; Glenny, Robb W; Minard, Kevin R; Carson, James P; Jiao, Xiangmin; Jacob, Richard E; Cox, Timothy C; Postlethwait, Edward M; Corley, Richard A

    2012-06-01

    We examine a previously published branch-based approach for modeling airway diameters that is predicated on the assumption of self-consistency across all levels of the tree. We mathematically formulate this assumption, propose a method to test it and develop a more general model to be used when the assumption is violated. We discuss the effect of measurement error on the estimated models and propose methods that take account of error. The methods are illustrated on data from MRI and CT images of silicone casts of two rats, two normal monkeys, and one ozone-exposed monkey. Our results showed substantial departures from self-consistency in all five subjects. When departures from self-consistency exist, we do not recommend using the self-consistency model, even as an approximation, as we have shown that it may likely lead to an incorrect representation of the diameter geometry. The new variance model can be used instead. Measurement error has an important impact on the estimated morphometry models and needs to be addressed in the analysis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Joint Direction-of-Departure and Direction-of-Arrival Estimation in a UWB MIMO Radar Detecting Targets with Fluctuating Radar Cross Sections

    Idnin Pasya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a joint direction-of-departure (DOD and direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation in a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO radar utilizing ultra wideband (UWB signals in detecting targets with fluctuating radar cross sections (RCS. The UWB MIMO radar utilized a combination of two-way MUSIC and majority decision based on angle histograms of estimated DODs and DOAs at each frequency of the UWB signal. The proposed angle estimation scheme was demonstrated to be effective in detecting targets with fluctuating RCS, compared to conventional spectra averaging method used in subband angle estimations. It was found that a wider bandwidth resulted in improved estimation performance. Numerical simulations along with experimental evaluations in a radio anechoic chamber are presented.

  4. Measurement of nucleation site density, bubble departure diameter and frequency in pool boiling of water using high-speed infrared and optical cameras

    Gerardi, Craig; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hu, Lin-wen; McKrell, Thomas [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)], e-mail: jacopo@mit.edu

    2009-07-01

    A high-speed video and IR thermometry based technique has been used to obtain time and space resolved information on bubble nucleation and boiling heat transfer. This approach provides a fundamental and systematic method for investigating nucleate boiling in a very detailed fashion. Data on bubble departure diameter and frequency, growth and wait times, and nucleation site density are measured with relative ease. The data have been compared to the traditional decades-old and poorly-validated nucleate-boiling models and correlations. The agreement between the data and the models is relatively good. This study also shows that new insights into boiling heat transfer mechanisms can be obtained with the present technique. For example, our data and analysis suggest that a large contribution to bubble growth comes from heat transfer through the superheated liquid layer in addition to micro layer evaporation. (author)

  5. Measurement of nucleation site density, bubble departure diameter and frequency in pool boiling of water using high-speed infrared and optical cameras

    Gerardi, Craig; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hu, Lin-wen; McKrell, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    A high-speed video and IR thermometry based technique has been used to obtain time and space resolved information on bubble nucleation and boiling heat transfer. This approach provides a fundamental and systematic method for investigating nucleate boiling in a very detailed fashion. Data on bubble departure diameter and frequency, growth and wait times, and nucleation site density are measured with relative ease. The data have been compared to the traditional decades-old and poorly-validated nucleate-boiling models and correlations. The agreement between the data and the models is relatively good. This study also shows that new insights into boiling heat transfer mechanisms can be obtained with the present technique. For example, our data and analysis suggest that a large contribution to bubble growth comes from heat transfer through the superheated liquid layer in addition to micro layer evaporation. (author)

  6. Belize it or not:implied contract terms in Marks and Spencer v BNP Paribas

    McCunn, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    In Marks and Spencer v BNP Paribas, the Supreme Court restated the law on the implication of terms in fact, rejecting the previously authoritative approach taken by Lord Hoffmann in Attorney General of Belize v Belize Telecom Ltd. This article examines two major departures from Belize in Lord Neuberger’s leading judgment: the treatment of implication as a process separate from interpretation, and a return to the ‘traditional tests’ for the implication of terms. It argues that these are retrog...

  7. Kinematics of Deformation in West-Central Walker Lane; Paleomagnetic Testing of Fault-Block Rotation and Doming Models, Eastern California and Western Nevada

    Fredrickson, S. M.; Pluhar, C. J.; Carlson, C. W.

    2013-12-01

    Walker Lane is a broad (~100-200 km) zone of dextral shear located between the Sierra Nevada microplate and the Basin and Range Province. We consider Bodie Hills a part of the greater Walker Lane because it has experienced clockwise, vertical-axis rotation of crustal blocks due to dextral shear accommodation. This strain is variable, resulting in rotations ranging from ~10°-70° depending on location. The Miocene Eureka Valley Tuff (EVT) is an ideal strain marker, because it is a geologically instantaneous and laterally extensive unit. We use paleomagnetic analysis of ignimbrites to improve the resolution of strain domain boundaries as well as test for doming in Bodie Hills. EVT site mean directions were compared to reference directions of the Tollhouse Flat and By Day Members collected from the stable Sierra Nevada to determine magnitudes of vertical-axis rotation. Three new sites and three previously sampled sites define a high-rotation domain including Bridgeport Valley and the East Walker River Canyon with an average clockwise rotation of ~50°-60°. We define the eastern boundary of this high-rotation domain as coinciding with a mapped fault exhibiting 11.7°×7.9° rotation of the presumed footwall. Our data corroborates and improves on Carlson's (2012) kinematic model in which the greater Bodie Hills has rotated clockwise ~30° since EVT emplacement. Eutaxitic textures, dipping up to 90°, are gross indicators of true tilt, but are also influenced by original dips in some localities, complicating interpretations. John et al. (2012) describe a simple doming model of Bodie Hills since EVT emplacement, supported by the high elevation of outflow channels compared to source areas. Our paleomagnetic data does not support simple doming, suggesting that there is either no doming of Bodie Hills, or that vertical crustal displacements have occurred without large-scale folding. John et al. (2012) dated undifferentiated EVT in Bodie Hills at ~9.4 Ma; using

  8. Additional short-term plutonium urinary excretion data from the 1945-1947 plutonium injection studies

    Moss, W.D.; Gautier, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    A review of original injection experimental records at LASL suggest that the power function fit is a good choice to describe early plutonium excretion; however, the later period (300-, 500-, and 1600-day) results along with 10,000 day results show a significant departure from the Langham power function model used to describe long-term Pu excretion. The authors suggest that since the 523- and 1600-day data in question influenced the mathematical development of the Langham power function equation, its use in predicting Pu body burdens from long-term excretion data should be discouraged. 9 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  9. Single-lane 180  Gbit/s PAM-4 signal transmission over 2  km SSMF for short-reach applications.

    Zhang, Qiang; Stojanovic, Nebojsa; Prodaniuc, Cristian; Xie, Changsong; Koenigsmann, Michael; Laskowski, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the generation and transmission of a single-lane 180  Gbit/s (90 GBaud) four-level pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM-4) signal in an intensity-modulation direct-detection system with a 7.5 GHz 3 dB bandwidth. The generated signal is transmitted over a 2 km standard single-mode fiber with, to the best of our knowledge, the highest reported net data rate in the C-band: 150  Gbit/s. A net data rate of 168  Gbit/s is also reachable with 1 km reach. The PAM-4 and duobinary (DB) PAM-4 modulation schemes are compared; the obtained results show that DB-PAM-4 significantly outperforms PAM-4 in the considered strong bandwidth-constrained system. Both a feed-forward equalizer and a maximum-likelihood sequence estimator are investigated for data recovery.

  10. Effects of natal departure and water level on survival of juvenile snail kites (Rostrhamus sociabilis) in Florida

    Dreitz, V.J.; Kitchens, W.M.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Survival rate from fledging to breeding, or juvenile survival, is an important source of variation in lifetime reproductive success in birds. Therefore, determining the relationship between juvenile survival and environmental factors is essential to understanding fitness consequences of reproduction in many populations. With increases in density of individuals and depletion of food resources, quality of most habitats deteriorates during the breeding season. Individuals respond by dispersing in search of food resources. Therefore, to understand the influence of environmental factors on juvenile survival, it is also necessary to know how natal dispersal influences survival of juveniles. We examined effects of various environmental factors and natal dispersal behavior on juvenile survival of endangered Snail Kites (Rostrhamus sociabilis) in central and southern Florida, using a generalized estimating equations (GEEs) approach and model selection criteria. Our results suggested yearly effects and an influence of age and monthly minimum hydrologic levels on juvenile Snail Kite survival. Yearly variation in juvenile survival has been reported by other studies, and other reproductive components of Snail Kites also exhibit such variation. Age differences in juvenile survival have also been seen in other species during the juvenile period. Our results demonstrate a positive relationship between water levels and juvenile survival. We suggest that this is not a direct linear relationship, such that higher water means higher juvenile survival. The juvenile period is concurrent with onset of the wet season in the ecosystem we studied, and rainfall increases as juveniles age. For management purposes, we believe that inferences suggesting increasing water levels during the fledging period will increase juvenile survival may have short-term benefits but lead to long-term declines in prey abundance and possibly wetland vegetation structure.

  11. How words trace terms and other termniological information

    Weilgaard Christensen, Lotte

    2009-01-01

    of proportionality exists between their valency patterns and the categories of terminological information. With the aim of making my results useful for terminological practice, I have created an inventory of the verbs scrutinized so far, based on my knowledge of the working processes traditionally applied......The paper describes a project dealing with Danish verbs as linguistic signals. The aim of the method applied is to extract term-related as well as concept-related terminological information from unstructured machine-readable corpora in Danish. The description of the verbs takes as its point...... of departure a valency theory called the Pronominal Approach. The verbs under scrunity are divided into three groups: metalinguistic term-related verbs, metalinguistic concept-related verbs, and finally relational verbs, of which verbs signalling hierarchical relations only are dealt with in my project...

  12. PROBLEM SETTING AND SOLUTION OF THE RESPONSE CORRECTION OF ARRIVAL AND DEPARTURE AIR TRAFFIC FLOW IN THE VICINITY OF THE FIELD BY MEANS OF THE GENETIC ALGORITHM

    Georgii N. Lebedev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvement in the effectiveness of airfield operation largely depends on the problem solving quality on the interaction boundaries of different technological sections. One of such hotspots is the use of the same runway by inbound and outbound aircraft. At certain intensity of outbound and inbound air traffic flow the conflict of aircraft interests appears, where it may be quite difficult to sort out priorities even for experienced controllers, in consequence of which mistakes in decision-making unavoidably appear.In this work the task of response correction of landing and takeoff time of the aircraft using the same RW, in condition of the conflict of interests “arrival – departure” at the increased operating intensity is formulated. The choice of optimal solution is made taking into account mutual interests without the complete sorting and the evaluation of all solutions.Accordingly, the genetic algorithm, which offers a simple and effective approach to optimal control problem solution by providing flight safety at an acceptably high level, is proposed. The estimation of additional aviation fuel consumption is used as optimal choice evaluation criterion.The advantages of the genetic algorithm application at decision-making in comparison with today’s “team” solution of the conflict “departure – arrival” in the airfield area are shown.

  13. A procedure for estimating the electron temperature and the departure of the LTE condition in a time-dependent, spatially homogeneous, optically thin plasma

    Bredice, F. [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas, La Plata (Argentina); Borges, F.O., E-mail: borges@if.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Lab. de Plasma e Espectroscopia; Di Rocco, H.O. [Instituto de Fisica Arroyo Seco (IFAS), Universidad Nacional del Centro, Tandil (Argentina); Mercado, R.S. [Grupo de Espectroscopia Optica de Emision y Laser (GEOEL), Universidad del Atlantico, Barranquilla (Colombia); Villagran-Muniz, M. [Laboratorio de Fotofisica, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Palleschi, V. [Applied Laser Spectroscopy Laboratory, ICCOM-CNR, Pisa (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    We present a method to estimate the temperature of transient plasmas and their degree of departure from local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. Our method is based on application of the Saha–Boltzmann equations on the temporal variation of the intensity of the spectral lines of the plasma, under the assumption that the plasmas at the different times when the spectra were obtained are in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The method requires no knowledge of the spectral efficiency of the spectrometer/detector, transition probabilities of the considered lines, or degeneracies of the upper and lower levels. Provided that the conditions of optically thin, homogeneous plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium are satisfied, the accuracy of the procedure is limited only by the precision with which the line intensities and densities can be determined at two different temperatures. The procedure generates an equation describing the temporal evolution of the electron number density of transient plasmas under local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. The method is applied to the analysis of two laser-induced breakdown spectra of cadmium at different temperatures. (author)

  14. Analysis of Void Fraction Distribution and Departure from Nucleate Boiling in Single Subchannel and Bundle Geometries Using Subchannel, System, and Computational Fluid Dynamics Codes

    Taewan Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the accuracy and validity of subchannel, system, and computational fluid dynamics codes, the Paul Scherrer Institut has participated in the OECD/NRC PSBT benchmark with the thermal-hydraulic system code TRACE5.0 developed by US NRC, the subchannel code FLICA4 developed by CEA, and the computational fluid dynamic code STAR-CD developed by CD-adapco. The PSBT benchmark consists of a series of void distribution exercises and departure from nucleate boiling exercises. The results reveal that the prediction by the subchannel code FLICA4 agrees with the experimental data reasonably well in both steady-state and transient conditions. The analyses of single-subchannel experiments by means of the computational fluid dynamic code STAR-CD with the CD-adapco boiling model indicate that the prediction of the void fraction has no significant discrepancy from the experiments. The analyses with TRACE point out the necessity to perform additional assessment of the subcooled boiling model and bulk condensation model of TRACE.

  15. A procedure for estimating the electron temperature and the departure of the LTE condition in a time-dependent, spatially homogeneous, optically thin plasma

    Bredice, F.; Borges, F.O.; Mercado, R.S.; Villagran-Muniz, M.; Palleschi, V.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method to estimate the temperature of transient plasmas and their degree of departure from local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. Our method is based on application of the Saha–Boltzmann equations on the temporal variation of the intensity of the spectral lines of the plasma, under the assumption that the plasmas at the different times when the spectra were obtained are in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The method requires no knowledge of the spectral efficiency of the spectrometer/detector, transition probabilities of the considered lines, or degeneracies of the upper and lower levels. Provided that the conditions of optically thin, homogeneous plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium are satisfied, the accuracy of the procedure is limited only by the precision with which the line intensities and densities can be determined at two different temperatures. The procedure generates an equation describing the temporal evolution of the electron number density of transient plasmas under local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. The method is applied to the analysis of two laser-induced breakdown spectra of cadmium at different temperatures. (author)

  16. Departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium in cutting arc plasmas derived from electron and gas density measurements using a two-wavelength quantitative Schlieren technique

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Artana, G.; Kelly, H.

    2011-01-01

    A two-wavelength quantitative Schlieren technique that allows inferring the electron and gas densities of axisymmetric arc plasmas without imposing any assumption regarding statistical equilibrium models is reported. This technique was applied to the study of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) departures within the core of a 30 A high-energy density cutting arc. In order to derive the electron and heavy particle temperatures from the inferred density profiles, a generalized two-temperature Saha equation together with the plasma equation of state and the quasineutrality condition were employed. Factors such as arc fluctuations that influence the accuracy of the measurements and the validity of the assumptions used to derive the plasma species temperature were considered. Significant deviations from chemical equilibrium as well as kinetic equilibrium were found at elevated electron temperatures and gas densities toward the arc core edge. An electron temperature profile nearly constant through the arc core with a value of about 14000-15000 K, well decoupled from the heavy particle temperature of about 1500 K at the arc core edge, was inferred.

  17. Real-life data for the optimization of the geometric layout of an intersection

    Fleuren, S.T.G.; Lefeber, A.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    This document contains the data of ten real-life intersections. This data can be used for the optimization of the geometric layout of the intersection, e.g., optimizing the arrival lanes, departure lanes and lane markings at the intersection.

  18. Study on driving control behavior for lane change maneuver. Analysis of expert driver using neural network system; Shasen henkoji no driver sosa tokusei. Neural network system ni yoru jukuren driver no kaiseki

    Yang, Z; Okayama, T; Katayama, T [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan); Kageyama, I [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In order to study driver steering control behavior for vehicle, a driver model for single-lane change maneuver is constructed by a neural network system concerned with the man-machine-environment system. And, using sensitivity analysis, it is found that the model represent the driver control behavior, and the relation between the driver control behavior and vehicle responses. The sensitivity analysis is also examined by applying to the 2nd order predictive driver model. The validity of the sensitivity analysis is confirmed. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  19. The association between calfhood bovine respiratory disease complex and subsequent departure from the herd, milk production, and reproduction in dairy cattle.

    Schaffer, Aaron P; Larson, Robert L; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Hanzlicek, Gregg A; Bartle, Steven J; Thomson, Daniel U

    2016-05-15

    OBJECTIVE To describe the frequency of calfhood producer-identified bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in Holstein replacement heifers on 1 large farm and determine associations between development of BRDC at ≤ 120 days of age (BRDC120) with milk production estimate, calving interval, and risk of departure from the herd (DFH). DESIGN Retrospective, observational study. ANIMALS 14,024 Holstein heifer calves born on 1 farm. PROCEDURES Data were obtained from herd management records. Cox proportional hazard and generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to assess associations for variables of interest (BRDC120 status, demographic data, and management factors) with DFH, milk production estimate, and calving interval. RESULTS Except for the year 2007, animals identified as having BRDC120 were 1.62 to 4.98 times as likely to leave the herd before first calving, compared with those that did not have this designation. Calves identified as having BRDC prior to weaning were 2.62 times as likely to have DFH before first calving as those classified as developing BRDC after weaning. Cows identified as having BRDC120 were 1.28 times as likely to have DFH between the first and second calving as were other cows. The BRDC120 designation was associated with a 233-kg (513-lb) lower 305-day mature equivalent value for first lactation milk production, but was not associated with longer or shorter calving intervals at maturity. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Dairy cattle identified as having BRDC120 had increased risk of DFH before the first or second calving and lower first-lactation milk production estimates, compared with results for cattle without this finding. Further investigation of these associations is warranted.

  20. Landsat Time-series for the Masses: Predicting Wood Biomass Growth from Tree-rings Using Departures from Mean Phenology in Google Earth Engine

    Foster, J. R.; D'Amato, A. W.; Itter, M.; Reinikainen, M.; Curzon, M.

    2017-12-01

    The terrestrial carbon cycle is perturbed when disturbances remove leaf biomass from the forest canopy during the growing season. Changes in foliar biomass arise from defoliation caused by insects, disease, drought, frost or human management. As ephemeral disturbances, these often go undetected and their significance to models that predict forest growth from climatic drivers remains unknown. Here, we seek to distinguish the roles of weather vs. canopy disturbance on forest growth by using dense Landsat time-series to quantify departures in mean phenology that in turn predict changes in leaf biomass. We estimated a foliar biomass index (FBMI) from 1984-2016, and predict plot-level wood growth over 28 years on 156 tree-ring monitoring plots in Minnesota, USA. We accessed the entire Landsat archive (sensors 4, 5 & 7) to compute FBMI using Google Earth Engine's cloud computing platform (GEE). GEE allows this pixel-level approach to be applied at any location; a feature we demonstrate with published wood-growth data from flux tower sites. Our Bayesian models predicted biomass changes from tree-ring plots as a function of Landsat FBMI and annual climate data. We expected model parameters to vary by tree functional groups defined by differences in xylem anatomy and leaf longevity, two traits with linkages to phenology, as reported in a recent review. We found that Landsat FBMI was a surprisingly strong predictor of aggregate wood-growth, explaining up to 80% of annual growth variation for some deciduous plots. Growth responses to canopy disturbance varied among tree functional groups, and the importance of some seasonal climate metrics diminished or changed sign when FBMI was included (e.g. fall and spring climatic water deficit), while others remained unchanged (current and lagged summer deficit). Insights emerging from these models can clear up sources of persistent uncertainty and open a new frontier for models of forest productivity.