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Sample records for terms controlled taxonomic

  1. Controlling the taxonomic variable: Taxonomic concept resolution for a southeastern United States herbarium portal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Franz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Overview. Taxonomic names are imperfect identifiers of specific and sometimes conflicting taxonomic perspectives in aggregated biodiversity data environments. The inherent ambiguities of names can be mitigated using syntactic and semantic conventions developed under the taxonomic concept approach. These include: (1 representation of taxonomic concept labels (TCLs: name sec. source to precisely identify name usages and meanings, (2 use of parent/child relationships to assemble separate taxonomic perspectives, and (3 expert provision of Region Connection Calculus articulations (RCC–5: congruence, [inverse] inclusion, overlap, exclusion that specify how data identified to different-sourced TCLs can be integrated. Application of these conventions greatly increases trust in biodiversity data networks, most of which promote unitary taxonomic 'syntheses' that obscure the actual diversity of expert-held views. Better design solutions allow users to control the taxonomic variable and thereby assess the robustness of their biological inferences under different perspectives. A unique constellation of prior efforts – including the powerful Symbiota collections software platform, the Euler/X multi-taxonomy alignment toolkit, and the "Weakley Flora" which entails 7,000 concepts and more than 75,000 RCC–5 articulations – provides the opportunity to build a first full-scale concept resolution service for SERNEC, the SouthEast Regional Network of Expertise and Collections, currently with 60 member herbaria and 2 million occurrence records. Intellectual merit. We have developed a multi-dimensional, step-wise plan to transition SERNEC's data culture from name- to concept-based practices. (1 We will engage SERNEC experts through annual, regional workshops and follow-up interactions that will foster buy-in and ultimately the completion of 12 community-identified use cases. (2. We will leverage RCC–5 data from the Weakley Flora and further development of

  2. Taxonomic Analysis of Voivodships Development in Terms of ICT Usage in Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczmarczyk Paweł

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the development of voivodships in terms of ICT usage in enterprises by means of taxonomic methods. The theoretical part of the paper has been devoted to the role of modern information and communication technologies in post-industrial enterprises, in particular to the meaning of these technologies for new management concepts (e-business, online marketing, CRM, network management, X-engineering. The research methodology has been carried out, with special attention being paid to the agglomerative clustering method and optimization clustering method.

  3. Guidelines for quality assurance and quality control of fish taxonomic data collected as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Stephen Joseph; Meador, Michael R.

    1998-01-01

    Fish community structure is characterized by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program as part of a perennial, multidisciplinary approach to evaluating the physical, chemical, and biological conditions of the Nation's water resources. The objective of quality assurance and quality control of fish taxonomic data that are collected as part of the NAWQA Program is to establish uniform guidelines and protocols for the identification, processing, and archiving of fish specimens to ensure that accurate and reliable data are collected. Study unit biologists, collaborating with regional biologists and fish taxonomic specialists, prepare a pre-sampling study plan that includes a preliminary faunal list and identification of an ichthyological curation center for receiving preserved fish specimens. Problematic taxonomic issues and protected taxa also are identified in the study plan, and collecting permits are obtained in advance of sampling activities. Taxonomic specialists are selected to identify fish specimens in the field and to assist in determining what fish specimens should be sacrificed, fixed, and preserved for laboratory identification, independent taxonomic verification, and long-term storage in reference or voucher collections. Quantitative and qualitative sampling of fishes follows standard methods previously established for the NAWQA Program. Common ichthyological techniques are used to process samples in the field and prepare fish specimens to be returned to the laboratory or sent to an institutional repository. Taxonomic identifications are reported by using a standardized list of scientific names that provides nomenclatural consistency and uniformity across study units.

  4. A taxonomical review on impact assessment of optimally placed DGs and FACTS controllers in power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindeshwar Singh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present scenario of all over the world like develops and undeveloped countries are fastly used Distributed Generations (DGs and Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems (FACTS controllers in power systems for reactive power supports so that the overall power system performances are improved such as minimization of real and reactive power losses, environmental pollutions and maximization of loadability of system, power system stability, the short circuit capacity of the line and also enhancement of voltage profile, available power transfer capacity of the system, reliability as well as security of the system and more flexible operations of the system. This survey paper presents a taxonomical review on impact assessment of DGs and FACTS controllers in power systems from different power system performance viewpoints and reveals the current status of research work in this field.

  5. Taxonomic minimalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattle, A J; Oliver, I

    1994-12-01

    Biological surveys are in increasing demand while taxonomic resources continue to decline. How much formal taxonomy is required to get the job done? The answer depends on the kind of job but it is possible that taxonomic minimalism, especially (1) the use of higher taxonomic ranks, (2) the use of morphospecies rather than species (as identified by Latin binomials), and (3) the involvement of taxonomic specialists only for training and verification, may offer advantages for biodiversity assessment, environmental monitoring and ecological research. As such, formal taxonomy remains central to the process of biological inventory and survey but resources may be allocated more efficiently. For example, if formal Identification is not required, resources may be concentrated on replication and increasing sample sizes. Taxonomic minimalism may also facilitate the inclusion in these activities of important but neglected groups, especially among the invertebrates, and perhaps even microorganisms. Copyright © 1994. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Lago Maggiore oligotrophication as seen from the long-term evolution of its phytoplankton taxonomic size structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe MORABITO

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid and common deterioration of aquatic ecosystems, scientists and environmental protection organizations acutely need means capable of producing quantitative estimates for structural deformations of natural communities. Recently, very common biomass size spectra ignore community taxonomic composition, i.e., one of the most important kinds of biological information. Therefore, another very old, but rare in planktonology, method – the traditional taxonomic size spectrum (TTSS – can be helpful. TTSS, a specific form of size-frequency distribution of taxonomic units, reveals repeating patterns of deep subalpine Lago Maggiore (Italy phytoplankton taxonomic structure. The general TTSS pattern was safeguarded during 22 annual cycles (1984-2005, when many principal environmental characteristics were changed considerably during the lake oligotrophication. At the same time, the fine structure deformations of this pattern helped us divide the total oligotrophication process into several stages characterized by notable changes of TTSS peaks' proportions. These peak-height alterations were caused by pronounced changes in the species list and overall taxonomic diversity of the lake phytoplankton. The average cell volume decline was found. It was significantly correlated with the total phosphorus descending trend. This cell volume decline was produced by the addition of numerous species into the medium-and-small size fractions. Typical patterns of the stable and transitory stages were differentiated, which could be valuable for environmental protection and diagnostic applications. The central peak height difference between the stable and the transitory periods was statistically significant. Oligotrophication process decomposition into several more homogenous groups of years was supported by quantitative estimators produced by hierarchical cluster analysis. The highest level of the similarity measure (Pearson r in pairs of annual TTSS was

  7. Fútbol, tesauros y taxonomías Web: desafíos del control de vocabulario Web Football Soccer, Thesaurus, and Taxinomies: Vocabulary control challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Caminotti

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la terminología empleada en las taxonomías de 31 sitios Web de clubes de fútbol argentinos, 20 oficiales y 11 no oficiales, de acuerdo con las normas de construcción de tesauros y las directrices para el control de autoridades de nombres y materia. El vocabulario empleado en estos sitios Web es coloquial y expresa cierta carga emocional. Muchos términos incluyen un artículo determinado (el, la, los, las como primera palabra, otros necesitan una nota de alcance por tener un significado diferente al de la lengua estándar, hay homónimos que requieren un calificador y numerosos sinónimos y seudónimos (nombres de los jugadores, técnicos, estadios, clubes, así como abundantes términos en inglés que demandan una relación de equivalencia. Se concluye que las normas y directrices pueden ser de utilidad para mejorar la precisión y el acierto en la recuperación de información, sin cambiar la terminología propia del ámbito futbolístico.The terminology used in the taxonomies of 31 Web sites of Argentine football soccer clubs (20 official Websites and 11 non-official ones was analyzed, in accordance to the standards and guidelines for thesaurus construction and authority control for names and subjects. The vocabulary of these Web sites is very colloquial and emotional. There are terms using the determined article (the as first word, others with a different meaning from that of the standard language need scope notes, some homonyms require parenthetical qualifiers, and several synonyms and pseudonyms (name of players, coaches, stadiums, clubs, as well as abundant terms in English language that demand an equivalence relation. We conclude that the standards and guidelines may be useful to improve precision in the information retrieval, without changing the typical terminology of the football soccer environment.

  8. Termite and earthworm abundance and taxonomic richness under long-term conservation soil management in Saria, Burkina Faso, West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zida, Z.; Ouedraogo, E.; Mando, A.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2011-01-01

    Unsustainable crop and soil management practices are major causes of soil degradation and declining soil biodiversity in West Africa. Identifying soil management practices that favor macrofauna abundance is highly desirable for long-term soil health. This study investigates the effects of long-term

  9. Asteroid taxonomic classifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tholen, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on three taxonomic classification schemes developed and applied to the body of available color and albedo data. Asteroid taxonomic classifications according to two of these schemes are reproduced

  10. Marine Actinobacteria as a source of compounds for phytopathogen control: An integrative metabolic-profiling / bioactivity and taxonomical approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz A Betancur

    Full Text Available Marine bacteria are considered as promising sources for the discovery of novel biologically active compounds. In this study, samples of sediment, invertebrate and algae were collected from the Providencia and Santa Catalina coral reef (Colombian Caribbean Sea with the aim of isolating Actinobateria-like strain able to produce antimicrobial and quorum quenching compounds against pathogens. Several approaches were used to select actinobacterial isolates, obtaining 203 strains from all samples. According to their 16S rRNA gene sequencing, a total of 24 strains was classified within Actinobacteria represented by three genera: Streptomyces, Micromonospora, and Gordonia. In order to assess their metabolic profiles, the actinobacterial strains were grown in liquid cultures, and LC-MS-based analyses from ethyl acetate fractions were performed. Based on taxonomical classification, screening information of activity against phytopathogenic strains and quorum quenching activity, as well as metabolic profiling, six out of the 24 isolates were selected for follow-up with chemical isolation and structure identification analyses of putative metabolites involved in antimicrobial activities.

  11. Marine Actinobacteria as a source of compounds for phytopathogen control: An integrative metabolic-profiling / bioactivity and taxonomical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur, Luz A.; Naranjo-Gaybor, Sandra J.; Vinchira-Villarraga, Diana M.; Moreno-Sarmiento, Nubia C.; Maldonado, Luis A.; Suarez-Moreno, Zulma R.; Acosta-González, Alejandro; Padilla-Gonzalez, Gillermo F.; Puyana, Mónica; Castellanos, Leonardo; Ramos, Freddy A.

    2017-01-01

    Marine bacteria are considered as promising sources for the discovery of novel biologically active compounds. In this study, samples of sediment, invertebrate and algae were collected from the Providencia and Santa Catalina coral reef (Colombian Caribbean Sea) with the aim of isolating Actinobateria-like strain able to produce antimicrobial and quorum quenching compounds against pathogens. Several approaches were used to select actinobacterial isolates, obtaining 203 strains from all samples. According to their 16S rRNA gene sequencing, a total of 24 strains was classified within Actinobacteria represented by three genera: Streptomyces, Micromonospora, and Gordonia. In order to assess their metabolic profiles, the actinobacterial strains were grown in liquid cultures, and LC-MS-based analyses from ethyl acetate fractions were performed. Based on taxonomical classification, screening information of activity against phytopathogenic strains and quorum quenching activity, as well as metabolic profiling, six out of the 24 isolates were selected for follow-up with chemical isolation and structure identification analyses of putative metabolites involved in antimicrobial activities. PMID:28225766

  12. Long-term control of root growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene

    1992-05-26

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

  13. A specialized araneophagic predator's short-term nutrient utilization depends on the macronutrient content of prey rather than on prey taxonomic affiliation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Søren; Li, Daiqin; Mayntz, David

    2010-01-01

    rate of high-protein flies than of high-lipid flies and spiders but, after 5 days of feeding, there is no significant difference in growth between treatments, and the diets lead to significant changes in the macronutrient composition of P. quei as a result of variable extraction and utilization...... of the prey. The short-term utilization of spider prey is similar to that of high-lipid flies and both differ in several respects from the utilization of high-protein flies. Thus, the short-term nutrient utilization is better explained by prey macronutrient content than by whether the prey is a spider or not....... The results suggest that spider prey may have a more optimal macronutrient composition for P. quei and that P. quei does not depend on spider-specific substances....

  14. Quality control for terms and definitions in ontologies and taxonomies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüegg Alexander

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ontologies and taxonomies are among the most important computational resources for molecular biology and bioinformatics. A series of recent papers has shown that the Gene Ontology (GO, the most prominent taxonomic resource in these fields, is marked by flaws of certain characteristic types, which flow from a failure to address basic ontological principles. As yet, no methods have been proposed which would allow ontology curators to pinpoint flawed terms or definitions in ontologies in a systematic way. Results We present computational methods that automatically identify terms and definitions which are defined in a circular or unintelligible way. We further demonstrate the potential of these methods by applying them to isolate a subset of 6001 problematic GO terms. By automatically aligning GO with other ontologies and taxonomies we were able to propose alternative synonyms and definitions for some of these problematic terms. This allows us to demonstrate that these other resources do not contain definitions superior to those supplied by GO. Conclusion Our methods provide reliable indications of the quality of terms and definitions in ontologies and taxonomies. Further, they are well suited to assist ontology curators in drawing their attention to those terms that are ill-defined. We have further shown the limitations of ontology mapping and alignment in assisting ontology curators in rectifying problems, thus pointing to the need for manual curation.

  15. A Taxonomic Search Engine: Federating taxonomic databases using web services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Page Roderic DM

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The taxonomic name of an organism is a key link between different databases that store information on that organism. However, in the absence of a single, comprehensive database of organism names, individual databases lack an easy means of checking the correctness of a name. Furthermore, the same organism may have more than one name, and the same name may apply to more than one organism. Results The Taxonomic Search Engine (TSE is a web application written in PHP that queries multiple taxonomic databases (ITIS, Index Fungorum, IPNI, NCBI, and uBIO and summarises the results in a consistent format. It supports "drill-down" queries to retrieve a specific record. The TSE can optionally suggest alternative spellings the user can try. It also acts as a Life Science Identifier (LSID authority for the source taxonomic databases, providing globally unique identifiers (and associated metadata for each name. Conclusion The Taxonomic Search Engine is available at http://darwin.zoology.gla.ac.uk/~rpage/portal/ and provides a simple demonstration of the potential of the federated approach to providing access to taxonomic names.

  16. A Taxonomic Search Engine: federating taxonomic databases using web services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Roderic D M

    2005-03-09

    The taxonomic name of an organism is a key link between different databases that store information on that organism. However, in the absence of a single, comprehensive database of organism names, individual databases lack an easy means of checking the correctness of a name. Furthermore, the same organism may have more than one name, and the same name may apply to more than one organism. The Taxonomic Search Engine (TSE) is a web application written in PHP that queries multiple taxonomic databases (ITIS, Index Fungorum, IPNI, NCBI, and uBIO) and summarises the results in a consistent format. It supports "drill-down" queries to retrieve a specific record. The TSE can optionally suggest alternative spellings the user can try. It also acts as a Life Science Identifier (LSID) authority for the source taxonomic databases, providing globally unique identifiers (and associated metadata) for each name. The Taxonomic Search Engine is available at http://darwin.zoology.gla.ac.uk/~rpage/portal/ and provides a simple demonstration of the potential of the federated approach to providing access to taxonomic names.

  17. Generalizing human error rates: A taxonomic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffardi, L.; Fleishman, E.; Allen, J.

    1989-01-01

    It is well established that human error plays a major role in malfunctioning of complex, technological systems and in accidents associated with their operation. Estimates of the rate of human error in the nuclear industry range from 20-65% of all system failures. In response to this, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has developed a variety of techniques for estimating human error probabilities for nuclear power plant personnel. Most of these techniques require the specification of the range of human error probabilities for various tasks. Unfortunately, very little objective performance data on error probabilities exist for nuclear environments. Thus, when human reliability estimates are required, for example in computer simulation modeling of system reliability, only subjective estimates (usually based on experts' best guesses) can be provided. The objective of the current research is to provide guidelines for the selection of human error probabilities based on actual performance data taken in other complex environments and applying them to nuclear settings. A key feature of this research is the application of a comprehensive taxonomic approach to nuclear and non-nuclear tasks to evaluate their similarities and differences, thus providing a basis for generalizing human error estimates across tasks. In recent years significant developments have occurred in classifying and describing tasks. Initial goals of the current research are to: (1) identify alternative taxonomic schemes that can be applied to tasks, and (2) describe nuclear tasks in terms of these schemes. Three standardized taxonomic schemes (Ability Requirements Approach, Generalized Information-Processing Approach, Task Characteristics Approach) are identified, modified, and evaluated for their suitability in comparing nuclear and non-nuclear power plant tasks. An agenda for future research and its relevance to nuclear power plant safety is also discussed

  18. Term Based Comparison Metrics for Controlled and Uncontrolled Indexing Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, B. M.; Tennis, J. T.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: We define a collection of metrics for describing and comparing sets of terms in controlled and uncontrolled indexing languages and then show how these metrics can be used to characterize a set of languages spanning folksonomies, ontologies and thesauri. Method: Metrics for term set characterization and comparison were identified and…

  19. Behavioural Models of Motor Control and Short-Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Imanaka, Kuniyasu; Funase, Kozo; Yamauchi, Masaki

    1995-01-01

    We examined in this review article the behavioural and conceptual models of motor control and short-term memory which have intensively been investigated since the 1970s. First, we reviewed both the dual-storage model of short-term memory in which movement information is stored and a typical model of motor control which emphasizes the importance of efferent factors. We then examined two models of preselection effects: a cognitive model and a cognitive/ efferent model. Following this we reviewe...

  20. Cydia pomonella (L.) (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE). Aspectos de su taxonomía, comportamiento y monitoreo aplicados a programas de control en grandes áreas

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Darío E.

    2012-01-01

    La carpocapsa [Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)] és una de les plagues més importants dels fruiters de llavor (pereres, pomeres i codonyers) i dels noguers. El seu control és crític per a assolir una producció sostenible i amb qualitat per a l’exportació. La implementació de programes de control d’abast regional de grans àrees ha demostrat ser una estratègia molt efectiva que permet assolir molt bons resultats de control amb nivell de danys baixos i una reducc...

  1. Exploring historical trends using taxonomic name metadata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schenk Ryan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Authority and year information have been attached to taxonomic names since Linnaean times. The systematic structure of taxonomic nomenclature facilitates the ability to develop tools that can be used to explore historical trends that may be associated with taxonomy. Results From the over 10.7 million taxonomic names that are part of the uBio system 4, approximately 3 million names were identified to have taxonomic authority information from the years 1750 to 2004. A pipe-delimited file was then generated, organized according to a Linnaean hierarchy and by years from 1750 to 2004, and imported into an Excel workbook. A series of macros were developed to create an Excel-based tool and a complementary Web site to explore the taxonomic data. A cursory and speculative analysis of the data reveals observable trends that may be attributable to significant events that are of both taxonomic (e.g., publishing of key monographs and societal importance (e.g., world wars. The findings also help quantify the number of taxonomic descriptions that may be made available through digitization initiatives. Conclusion Temporal organization of taxonomic data can be used to identify interesting biological epochs relative to historically significant events and ongoing efforts. We have developed an Excel workbook and complementary Web site that enables one to explore taxonomic trends for Linnaean taxonomic groupings, from Kingdoms to Families.

  2. PESI - a taxonomic backbone for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouwenberg, Juliana; Boumans, Louis; Hussey, Charles; Hyam, Roger; Nicolson, Nicola; Kirk, Paul; Paton, Alan; Michel, Ellinor; Guiry, Michael D.; Boegh, Phillip S.; Pedersen, Henrik Ærenlund; Enghoff, Henrik; von Raab-Straube, Eckhard; Güntsch, Anton; Geoffroy, Marc; Müller, Andreas; Kohlbecker, Andreas; Berendsohn, Walter; Appeltans, Ward; Arvanitidis, Christos; Vanhoorne, Bart; Declerck, Joram; Vandepitte, Leen; Hernandez, Francisco; Nash, Róisín; Costello, Mark John; Ouvrard, David; Bezard-Falgas, Pascale; Bourgoin, Thierry; Wetzel, Florian Tobias; Glöckler, Falko; Korb, Günther; Ring, Caroline; Hagedorn, Gregor; Häuser, Christoph; Aktaç, Nihat; Asan, Ahmet; Ardelean, Adorian; Borges, Paulo Alexandre Vieira; Dhora, Dhimiter; Khachatryan, Hasmik; Malicky, Michael; Ibrahimov, Shaig; Tuzikov, Alexander; De Wever, Aaike; Moncheva, Snejana; Spassov, Nikolai; Chobot, Karel; Popov, Alexi; Boršić, Igor; Sfenthourakis, Spyros; Kõljalg, Urmas; Uotila, Pertti; Olivier, Gargominy; Dauvin, Jean-Claude; Tarkhnishvili, David; Chaladze, Giorgi; Tuerkay, Michael; Legakis, Anastasios; Peregovits, László; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur; Ólafsson, Erling; Lysaght, Liam; Galil, Bella Sarah; Raimondo, Francesco M.; Domina, Gianniantonio; Stoch, Fabio; Minelli, Alessandro; Spungis, Voldermars; Budrys, Eduardas; Olenin, Sergej; Turpel, Armand; Walisch, Tania; Krpach, Vladimir; Gambin, Marie Therese; Ungureanu, Laurentia; Karaman, Gordan; Kleukers, Roy M.J.C.; Stur, Elisabeth; Aagaard, Kaare; Valland, Nils; Moen, Toril Loennechen; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Tykarski, Piotr; Węsławski, Jan Marcin; Kędra, Monika; M. de Frias Martins, Antonio; Abreu, António Domingos; Silva, Ricardo; Medvedev, Sergei; Ryss, Alexander; Šimić, Smiljka; Marhold, Karol; Stloukal, Eduard; Tome, Davorin; Ramos, Marian A.; Valdés, Benito; Pina, Francisco; Kullander, Sven; Telenius, Anders; Gonseth, Yves; Tschudin, Pascal; Sergeyeva, Oleksandra; Vladymyrov, Volodymyr; Rizun, Volodymyr Bohdanovych; Raper, Chris; Lear, Dan; Stoev, Pavel; Penev, Lyubomir; Rubio, Ana Casino; Backeljau, Thierry; Saarenmaa, Hannu; Ulenberg, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Reliable taxonomy underpins communication in all of biology, not least nature conservation and sustainable use of ecosystem resources. The flexibility of taxonomic interpretations, however, presents a serious challenge for end-users of taxonomic concepts. Users need standardised and continuously harmonised taxonomic reference systems, as well as high-quality and complete taxonomic data sets, but these are generally lacking for non-specialists. The solution is in dynamic, expertly curated web-based taxonomic tools. The Pan-European Species-directories Infrastructure (PESI) worked to solve this key issue by providing a taxonomic e-infrastructure for Europe. It strengthened the relevant social (expertise) and information (standards, data and technical) capacities of five major community networks on taxonomic indexing in Europe, which is essential for proper biodiversity assessment and monitoring activities. The key objectives of PESI were: 1) standardisation in taxonomic reference systems, 2) enhancement of the quality and completeness of taxonomic data sets and 3) creation of integrated access to taxonomic information. New information This paper describes the results of PESI and its future prospects, including the involvement in major European biodiversity informatics initiatives and programs. PMID:26491393

  3. Global taxonomic diversity of living reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincheira-Donoso, Daniel; Bauer, Aaron M; Meiri, Shai; Uetz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Reptiles are one of the most ecologically and evolutionarily remarkable groups of living organisms, having successfully colonized most of the planet, including the oceans and some of the harshest and more environmentally unstable ecosystems on earth. Here, based on a complete dataset of all the world's diversity of living reptiles, we analyse lineage taxonomic richness both within and among clades, at different levels of the phylogenetic hierarchy. We also analyse the historical tendencies in the descriptions of new reptile species from Linnaeus to March 2012. Although (non-avian) reptiles are the second most species-rich group of amniotes after birds, most of their diversity (96.3%) is concentrated in squamates (59% lizards, 35% snakes, and 2% amphisbaenians). In strong contrast, turtles (3.4%), crocodilians (0.3%), and tuataras (0.01%) are far less diverse. In terms of species discoveries, most turtles and crocodilians were described early, while descriptions of lizards, snakes and amphisbaenians are multimodal with respect to time. Lizard descriptions, in particular, have reached unprecedented levels during the last decade. Finally, despite such remarkably asymmetric distributions of reptile taxonomic diversity among groups, we found that the distributions of lineage richness are consistently right-skewed, with most clades (monophyletic families and genera) containing few lineages (monophyletic genera and species, respectively), while only a few have radiated greatly (notably the families Colubridae and Scincidae, and the lizard genera Anolis and Liolaemus). Therefore, such consistency in the frequency distribution of richness among clades and among phylogenetic levels suggests that the nature of reptile biodiversity is fundamentally fractal (i.e., it is scale invariant). We then compared current reptile diversity with the global reptile diversity and taxonomy known in 1980. Despite substantial differences in the taxonomies (relative to 2012), the patterns of

  4. Global Taxonomic Diversity of Living Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincheira-Donoso, Daniel; Bauer, Aaron M.; Meiri, Shai; Uetz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Reptiles are one of the most ecologically and evolutionarily remarkable groups of living organisms, having successfully colonized most of the planet, including the oceans and some of the harshest and more environmentally unstable ecosystems on earth. Here, based on a complete dataset of all the world’s diversity of living reptiles, we analyse lineage taxonomic richness both within and among clades, at different levels of the phylogenetic hierarchy. We also analyse the historical tendencies in the descriptions of new reptile species from Linnaeus to March 2012. Although (non-avian) reptiles are the second most species-rich group of amniotes after birds, most of their diversity (96.3%) is concentrated in squamates (59% lizards, 35% snakes, and 2% amphisbaenians). In strong contrast, turtles (3.4%), crocodilians (0.3%), and tuataras (0.01%) are far less diverse. In terms of species discoveries, most turtles and crocodilians were described early, while descriptions of lizards, snakes and amphisbaenians are multimodal with respect to time. Lizard descriptions, in particular, have reached unprecedented levels during the last decade. Finally, despite such remarkably asymmetric distributions of reptile taxonomic diversity among groups, we found that the distributions of lineage richness are consistently right-skewed, with most clades (monophyletic families and genera) containing few lineages (monophyletic genera and species, respectively), while only a few have radiated greatly (notably the families Colubridae and Scincidae, and the lizard genera Anolis and Liolaemus). Therefore, such consistency in the frequency distribution of richness among clades and among phylogenetic levels suggests that the nature of reptile biodiversity is fundamentally fractal (i.e., it is scale invariant). We then compared current reptile diversity with the global reptile diversity and taxonomy known in 1980. Despite substantial differences in the taxonomies (relative to 2012), the patterns of

  5. Global taxonomic diversity of living reptiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pincheira-Donoso

    Full Text Available Reptiles are one of the most ecologically and evolutionarily remarkable groups of living organisms, having successfully colonized most of the planet, including the oceans and some of the harshest and more environmentally unstable ecosystems on earth. Here, based on a complete dataset of all the world's diversity of living reptiles, we analyse lineage taxonomic richness both within and among clades, at different levels of the phylogenetic hierarchy. We also analyse the historical tendencies in the descriptions of new reptile species from Linnaeus to March 2012. Although (non-avian reptiles are the second most species-rich group of amniotes after birds, most of their diversity (96.3% is concentrated in squamates (59% lizards, 35% snakes, and 2% amphisbaenians. In strong contrast, turtles (3.4%, crocodilians (0.3%, and tuataras (0.01% are far less diverse. In terms of species discoveries, most turtles and crocodilians were described early, while descriptions of lizards, snakes and amphisbaenians are multimodal with respect to time. Lizard descriptions, in particular, have reached unprecedented levels during the last decade. Finally, despite such remarkably asymmetric distributions of reptile taxonomic diversity among groups, we found that the distributions of lineage richness are consistently right-skewed, with most clades (monophyletic families and genera containing few lineages (monophyletic genera and species, respectively, while only a few have radiated greatly (notably the families Colubridae and Scincidae, and the lizard genera Anolis and Liolaemus. Therefore, such consistency in the frequency distribution of richness among clades and among phylogenetic levels suggests that the nature of reptile biodiversity is fundamentally fractal (i.e., it is scale invariant. We then compared current reptile diversity with the global reptile diversity and taxonomy known in 1980. Despite substantial differences in the taxonomies (relative to 2012, the

  6. Efficacy of lifestyle modification for long-term weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadden, Thomas A; Butryn, Meghan L; Byrne, Kirstin J

    2004-12-01

    A comprehensive program of lifestyle modification induces loss of approximately 10% of initial weight in 16 to 26 weeks, as revealed by a review of recent randomized controlled trials, including the Diabetes Prevention Program. Long-term weight control is facilitated by continued patient-therapist contact, whether provided in person or by telephone, mail, or e-mail. High levels of physical activity and the consumption of low-calorie, portion-controlled meals, including liquid meal replacements, can also help maintain weight loss. Additional studies are needed of the effects of macronutrient content (e.g., low-fat vs. low-carbohydrate diets) on long-term changes in weight and health. Research also is needed on effective methods of providing comprehensive weight loss control to the millions of Americans who need it.

  7. INCAP - Applying short-term flexibility to control inventories

    OpenAIRE

    Lödding , Hermann; Lohmann , Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Inventory Based Capacity Control (INCAP) is a very simple method that allows inventory levels to be effectively controlled by using short-term capacity flexibility in make-to-stock settings. Moreover, INCAP can be used for finished goods inventories as well as for semi-finished goods inventories. The basic idea is to define upper and lower inventory limits and to adjust capacities if the inventory level reaches either limit. Should the inventory fall below the lower limit,...

  8. Short-Term Memory, Executive Control, and Children's Route Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Farran, Emily K.; Courbois, Yannick; Lemahieu, Axelle; Mellier, Daniel; Sockeel, Pascal; Blades, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate route-learning ability in 67 children aged 5 to 11 years and to relate route-learning performance to the components of Baddeley's model of working memory. Children carried out tasks that included measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and executive control and also measures of verbal and…

  9. Managerial Long-Term Responsibility in Family-Controlled Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Sternad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that long-term orientation (LTO as a dominantstrategic logic contributes to the sustainable performance offamily-controlled firms (FCFS. Combining a review of the literatureon lto with stewardship theory and upper echelons theoryreasoning, this article presents a typology of managerial responsibilityand introduces the concept of long-term responsibility as amanagerial characteristic constituting a major driving force behindcreating lto. The antecedents of long-term responsibilityunder family firm-specific conditions (stemming from the familysystem, the governance system, and family-firm managers’ personalcharacteristics are also identified and presented in an integratedmodel. The paper contributes to a more comprehensiveunderstanding of intertemporal choice in fcfs and explains whythey tend to be more long-term oriented than other types of firms.

  10. Revised accident source terms and control room habitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, G.P.; Hubner, R.S.; Johnson, W.J.; Schwartz, B.C.

    1993-01-01

    In April 1992, the NRC staff presented to the Commissioners the draft NUREG open-quotes Revised Accident Source Terms for Light-Water Nuclear Power Plants.close quotes This document is the culmination of more than ten years of NRC-sponsored research and represents the first change in the NRC's position on source terms since TID-14844 was issued in 1962. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of the revised source terms on the current approach to analyzing control room habitability as required by 10 CFR 50. Sample calculations are presented that identify aspects of the model requiring clarification before the implementation of the revised source terms. 6 refs., 4 tabs

  11. [Taxonomic theory for non-classical systematics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlinov, I Ia

    2012-01-01

    Outlined briefly are basic principles of construing general taxonomic theory for biological systematics considered in the context of non-classical scientific paradigm. The necessity of such kind of theory is substantiated, and some key points of its elaboration are exposed: its interpretation as a framework concept for the partial taxonomic theories in various schools of systematics; elaboration of idea of cognitive situation including three interrelated components, namely subject, object, and epistemic ones; its construing as a content-wisely interpreted quasi-axiomatics, with strong structuring of its conceptual space including demarcation between axioms and inferring rules; its construing as a "conceptual pyramid" of concepts of various levels of generality; inclusion of a basic model into definition of the taxonomic system (classification) regulating its content. Two problems are indicated as fundamental: definition of taxonomic diversity as a subject domain for the systematics as a whole; definition of onto-epistemological status of taxonomic system (classification) in general and of taxa in particular.

  12. Short-term memory, executive control, and children's route learning

    OpenAIRE

    Purser, H. R.; Farran, E. K.; Courbois, Y.; Lemahieu, A.; Mellier, D.; Sockeel, P.; Blades, M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate route-learning ability in 67 children aged 5 to 11years and to relate route-learning performance to the components of Baddeley's model of working memory. Children carried out tasks that included measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and executive control and also measures of verbal and visuospatial long-term memory; the route-learning task was conducted using a maze in a virtual environment. In contrast to previous research, correlation...

  13. Support Vector Machine Based Tool for Plant Species Taxonomic Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Manimekalai .K; Vijaya.MS

    2014-01-01

    Plant species are living things and are generally categorized in terms of Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus and name of Species in a hierarchical fashion. This paper formulates the taxonomic leaf categorization problem as the hierarchical classification task and provides a suitable solution using a supervised learning technique namely support vector machine. Features are extracted from scanned images of plant leaves and trained using SVM. Only class, order, family of plants...

  14. Long Term Cost Efficiency through Green Management Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vukania Adda, Nancy; Qin, Xiaochen

    2012-01-01

    Title: Long term cost efficiency through green management control systems.Authors: Nancy Vukania &Xiaochen QinSupervisor: Åsa Karin-EngstrandBackground: The worldwide financial crisis of 2008 has reconfigured the economic turf leading to a more uncertain and turbulent playing field – a greater challenge for business strategy and the quest for optimization- The oil price hike of 2008 (Furlong 2010)1 caused its rippling effect to affect various cost categories including energy, labor and lo...

  15. Taxonomic names, metadata, and the Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderic D. M. Page

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Life Science Identifiers (LSIDs offer an attractive solution to the problem of globally unique identifiers for digital objects in biology. However, I suggest that in the context of taxonomic names, the most compelling benefit of adopting these identifiers comes from the metadata associated with each LSID. By using existing vocabularies wherever possible, and using a simple vocabulary for taxonomy-specific concepts we can quickly capture the essential information about a taxonomic name in the Resource Description Framework (RDF format. This opens up the prospect of using technologies developed for the Semantic Web to add ``taxonomic intelligence" to biodiversity databases. This essay explores some of these ideas in the context of providing a taxonomic framework for the phylogenetic database TreeBASE.

  16. Controlled Terms or Free Terms? A JavaScript Library to Utilize Subject Headings and Thesauri on the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Nagaya

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available There are two types of keywords used as metadata: controlled terms and free terms. Free terms have the advantage that metadata creators can freely select keywords, but there also exists a disadvantage that the information retrieval recall ratio might be reduced. The recall ratio can be improved by using controlled terms. But creating and maintaining controlled vocabularies has an enormous cost. In addition, many existing controlled vocabularies are published in formats less suitable for programming. We introduce a JavaScript library called “covo.js” that enables us to make use of controlled vocabularies as metadata for the organization of web pages.

  17. How long-term dynamics of sediment subduction controls short-term dynamics of seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizzi, S.; van Zelst, I.; van Dinther, Y.; Funiciello, F.; Corbi, F.

    2017-12-01

    Most of the world's greatest earthquakes occur along the subduction megathrust. Weak and porous sediments have been suggested to homogenize the plate interface and thereby promote lateral rupture propagation and great earthquakes. However, the importance of sediment thickness, let alone their physical role, is not yet unequivocally established. Based on a multivariate statistical analysis of a global database of 62 subduction segments, we confirm that sediment thickness is one of the key parameters controlling the maximum magnitude a megathrust can generate. Moreover, Monte Carlo simulations highlighted that the occurrence of great earthquakes on sediment-rich subduction segments is very unlikely (p-value≪0.05) related to pure chance. To understand how sediments in the subduction channel regulate earthquake size, this study extends and demystifies multivariate, spatiotemporally limited data through numerical modeling. We use the 2D Seismo-Thermo-Mechanical modeling approach to simulate both the long- and short-term dynamics of subduction and related seismogenesis (van Dinther et al., JGR, 2013). These models solve for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy using a visco-elasto-plastic rheology with rate-dependent friction. Results show that subducted sediments have a strong influence on the long-term evolution of the convergent margin. Increasing the sediment thickness on the incoming plate from 0 to 6 km causes a decrease of slab dip from 23° to 10°. This, in addition to increased radiogenic heating, extends isotherms, thereby widening the seismogenic portion of the megathrust from 80 to 150 km. Consequently, over tens of thousands of years, we observe that the maximum moment magnitude of megathrust earthquakes increases from 8.2 to 9.2 for these shallower and warmer interfaces. In addition, we observe more and larger splay faults, which could enhance vertical seafloor displacements. These results highlight the primary role of subducted sediments in

  18. Converting Taxonomic Descriptions to New Digital Formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Cui

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract.--The majority of taxonomic descriptions is currently in print format. The majority of digital descriptions are in formats such as DOC, HTML, or PDF and for human readers. These formats do not convey rich semantics in taxonomic descriptions for computer-aided process. Newer digital formats such as XML and RDF accommodate semantic annotations that allow computers to process the rich semantics on human's behalf, thus open up opportunities for a wide range of innovative usages of taxonomic descriptions, such as searching in more precise and flexible ways, integrating with gnomic and geographic information, generating taxonomic keys automatically, and text data mining and information visualization etc. This paper discusses the challenges in automated conversion of multiple collections of descriptions to XML format and reports an automated system, MARTT. MARTT is a machine-learning system that makes use of training examples to tag new descriptions into XML format. A number of utilities are implemented as solutions to the challenges. The utilities are used to reduce the effort for training example preparation, to facilitate the creation of a comprehensive schema, and to predict system performance on a new collection of descriptions. The system has been tested with several plant and alga taxonomic publications including Flora of China and Flora of North America.

  19. The Geomagnetic Control Concept of The Ionospheric Long- Term Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, A. V.

    The geomagnetic control concept has been developed to explain long-term trends of the electron concentration in the F2 and E ionospheric regions. Periods with negative and positive foF2, hmF2 and foE trends correspond to the periods of increasing or decreasing geomagnetic activity with the turning points around the end of 1950s, 1960s, and 1980s where trends change their signs. Strong latitudinal and diurnal variations revealed for the foF2 and hmF2 trends can be explained by neutral composition, temperature and thermospheric wind changes. Particle precipitation is important in the auroral zone. The newly proposed concept proceeds from a natural origin of the F2-layer trends rather than an artificial one related to the greenhouse effect. Using the proposed method a very long-term foF2 and foE trends related with general increase of geomagnetic activity in the 20th century has been revealed for the first time. The firstly revealed relationship of the foE trends with geomagnetic activity is due to nitric oxide variations at the E-region heights. This "natural" relationship of the foE trends with geomagnetic activity breaks down around 1970 on many stations presumably due to chemical polution of the upper atmosphere. The increasing rate of rocket and satellite launchings in the late 1960s is considered as a reason.

  20. Current Taxonomical Situation of Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Masatoshi; Osaki, Makoto; Nomoto, Ryohei; Arai, Sakura; Osawa, Ro; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; Takamatsu, Daisuke

    2016-06-24

    Streptococcus suis, a major porcine pathogen and an important zoonotic agent, is considered to be composed of phenotypically and genetically diverse strains. However, recent studies reported several "S. suis-like strains" that were identified as S. suis by commonly used methods for the identification of this bacterium, but were regarded as distinct species from S. suis according to the standards of several taxonomic analyses. Furthermore, it has been suggested that some S. suis-like strains can be assigned to several novel species. In this review, we discuss the current taxonomical situation of S. suis with a focus on (1) the classification history of the taxon of S. suis; (2) S. suis-like strains revealed by taxonomic analyses; (3) methods for detecting and identifying this species, including a novel method that can distinguish S. suis isolates from S. suis-like strains; and (4) current topics on the reclassification of S. suis-like strains.

  1. Long-Term Hydrologic Impacts of Controlled Drainage Using DRAINMOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, S.; Bowling, L. C.; Frankenberger, J.

    2017-12-01

    Controlled drainage is a management strategy designed to mitigate water quality issues caused by subsurface drainage but it may increase surface ponding and runoff. To improve controlled drainage system management, a long-term and broader study is needed that goes beyond the experimental studies. Therefore, the goal of this study was to parametrize the DRAINMOD field-scale, hydrologic model for the Davis Purdue Agricultural Center located in Eastern Indiana and to predict the subsurface drain flow and surface runoff and ponding at this research site. The Green-Ampt equation was used to characterize the infiltration, and digital elevation models (DEMs) were used to estimate the maximum depressional storage as the surface ponding parameter inputs to DRAINMOD. Hydraulic conductivity was estimated using the Hooghoudt equation and the measured drain flow and water table depths. Other model inputs were either estimated or taken from the measurements. The DRAINMOD model was calibrated and validated by comparing model predictions of subsurface drainage and water table depths with field observations from 2012 to 2016. Simulations based on the DRAINMOD model can increase understanding of the environmental and hydrological effects over a broader temporal and spatial scale than is possible using field-scale data and this is useful for developing management recommendations for water resources at field and watershed scales.

  2. Mitigating the Long term Operating Extreme Load through Active Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koukoura, Christina; Natarajan, Anand

    2014-01-01

    The parameters influencing the long term extreme operating design loads are identified through the implementation of a Design of Experiment (DOE) method. A function between the identified critical factors and the ultimate out-of-plane loads on the blade is determined. Variations in the initial blade azimuth location are shown to affect the extreme blade load magnitude during operation in normal turbulence wind input. The simultaneously controlled operation of generator torque variation and pitch variation at low blade pitch angles is detected to be responsible for very high loads acting on the blades. Through gain scheduling of the controller (modifications of the proportional Kp and the integral K gains) the extreme loads are mitigated, ensuring minimum instantaneous variations in the power production for operation above rated wind speed. The response of the blade load is examined for different values of the integral gain as resulting in rotor speed error and the rate of change of rotor speed. Based on the results a new load case for the simulation of extreme loads during normal operation is also presented

  3. A taxonomic revision of Lamium (Lamiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennema, J.

    1989-01-01

    The present study deals with the systematics and taxonomy of the genus Lamium (Lamiaceae). The taxonomic revision is mainly based on the study of herbarium collections, and to a smaller degree on field observations and abstracts from literature. The research was done at the Rijksherbarium, Leyden,

  4. Seasonality, distribution and taxonomic status of avian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Description of a new species is based upon morphology of gametocyte development in the peripheral blood of the avian host. This does not distinguish between morphologically identical gametocytes from different avian host families, nor is species or family level a valid taxonomic character. Thus, Haemoproteus and ...

  5. Taxonomic Challenges and Distribution of Gracilarioid Algae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews the taxonomical literature of the gracilarioid algae from Tanzania, and provides information about their ecology and distribution based on an intensive regime of local collection. Its aim was to provide names, even if on a preliminary basis, for local gracilarioid taxa. Our revision shows that species ...

  6. Taxonomic novelties in African Dracaena (Dracaenaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, T.H.J.; Burg, van der W.J.; Wiland-Szymańska, J.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2018-01-01

    In preparing the treatment of Dracaena for Flore du Gabon and Flore d’Afrique centrale, a relatively high number of taxonomic and nomenclatural novelties were discovered; these are presented here. Within Dracaena five species and one forma are described as new, D. bushii, D. haemanthoides, D.

  7. Polyphasic taxonomic characterization of lactic acid bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of these analyses showed that ting fermentation involved at least three different species of LAB, i.e. Lactobacillus fermentum, L. plantarum and L. rhamnosus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of polyphasic taxonomic characterization of LAB from this food. This research forms an essential first step towards ...

  8. Executive control and faithfulness: only long-term romantic relationships require prefrontal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Ryuhei; Yanagisawa, Kuniaki; Ashida, Hiroshi; Abe, Nobuhito

    2018-03-01

    Individuals in the early stages of a romantic relationship generally express intense passionate love toward their partners. This observation allows us to hypothesize that the regulation of interest in extra-pair relationships by executive control, which is supported by the function of the prefrontal cortex, is less required in individuals in the early stages of a relationship than it is in those who are in a long-term relationship. To test this hypothesis, we asked male participants in romantic relationships to perform a go/no-go task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which is a well-validated task that can measure right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) activity implicated in executive control. Subsequently, the participants engaged in a date-rating task in which they rated how much they wanted to date unfamiliar females. We found that individuals with higher right VLPFC activity better regulated their interest in dates with unfamiliar females. Importantly, this relationship was found only in individuals with long-term partners, but not in those with short-term partners, indicating that the active regulation of interest in extra-pair relationships is required only in individuals in a long-term relationship. Our findings extend previous findings on executive control in the maintenance of monogamous relationships by highlighting the role of the VLPFC, which varies according to the stage of the romantic relationship.

  9. Long-term litter decomposition controlled by manganese redox cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiluweit, Marco; Nico, Peter; Harmon, Mark E; Mao, Jingdong; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Kleber, Markus

    2015-09-22

    Litter decomposition is a keystone ecosystem process impacting nutrient cycling and productivity, soil properties, and the terrestrial carbon (C) balance, but the factors regulating decomposition rate are still poorly understood. Traditional models assume that the rate is controlled by litter quality, relying on parameters such as lignin content as predictors. However, a strong correlation has been observed between the manganese (Mn) content of litter and decomposition rates across a variety of forest ecosystems. Here, we show that long-term litter decomposition in forest ecosystems is tightly coupled to Mn redox cycling. Over 7 years of litter decomposition, microbial transformation of litter was paralleled by variations in Mn oxidation state and concentration. A detailed chemical imaging analysis of the litter revealed that fungi recruit and redistribute unreactive Mn(2+) provided by fresh plant litter to produce oxidative Mn(3+) species at sites of active decay, with Mn eventually accumulating as insoluble Mn(3+/4+) oxides. Formation of reactive Mn(3+) species coincided with the generation of aromatic oxidation products, providing direct proof of the previously posited role of Mn(3+)-based oxidizers in the breakdown of litter. Our results suggest that the litter-decomposing machinery at our coniferous forest site depends on the ability of plants and microbes to supply, accumulate, and regenerate short-lived Mn(3+) species in the litter layer. This observation indicates that biogeochemical constraints on bioavailability, mobility, and reactivity of Mn in the plant-soil system may have a profound impact on litter decomposition rates.

  10. Few apparent short-term effects of elevated soil temperature and increased frequency of summer precipitation on the abundance and taxonomic diversity of desert soil micro- and meso-fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, B.J.; Neher, D.A.; Housman, D.C.; Belnap, J.

    2011-01-01

    Frequent hydration and drying of soils in arid systems can accelerate desert carbon and nitrogen mobilization due to respiration, microbial death, and release of intracellular solutes. Because desert microinvertebrates can mediate nutrient cycling, and the autotrophic components of crusts are known to be sensitive to rapid desiccation due to elevated temperatures after wetting events, we studied whether altered soil temperature and frequency of summer precipitation can also affect the composition of food web consumer functional groups. We conducted a two-year field study with experimentally-elevated temperature and frequency of summer precipitation in the Colorado Plateau desert, measuring the change in abundance of nematodes, protozoans, and microarthropods. We hypothesized that microfauna would be more adversely affected by the combination of elevated temperature and frequency of summer precipitation than either effect alone, as found previously for phototrophic crust biota. Microfauna experienced normal seasonal fluctuations in abundance, but the effect of elevated temperature and frequency of summer precipitation was statistically non-significant for most microfaunal groups, except amoebae. The seasonal increase in abundance of amoebae was reduced with combined elevated temperature and increased frequency of summer precipitation compared to either treatment alone, but comparable with control (untreated) plots. Based on our findings, we suggest that desert soil microfauna are relatively more tolerant to increases in ambient temperature and frequency of summer precipitation than the autotrophic components of biological soil crust at the surface.

  11. Terms and definitions of quality assurance/quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaden, W.

    1980-01-01

    Terms of quality assurance are defined and interpreted. Reference is made to the IAEA Code of Practice and to other important Codes and Standards like ANSI, ASME and KTA. The relevance of these terms to everyday's work and problems of a quality assurance engineer is explained. (orig.)

  12. FANTOM: Functional and taxonomic analysis of metagenomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanli Kemal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interpretation of quantitative metagenomics data is important for our understanding of ecosystem functioning and assessing differences between various environmental samples. There is a need for an easy to use tool to explore the often complex metagenomics data in taxonomic and functional context. Results Here we introduce FANTOM, a tool that allows for exploratory and comparative analysis of metagenomics abundance data integrated with metadata information and biological databases. Importantly, FANTOM can make use of any hierarchical database and it comes supplied with NCBI taxonomic hierarchies as well as KEGG Orthology, COG, PFAM and TIGRFAM databases. Conclusions The software is implemented in Python, is platform independent, and is available at http://www.sysbio.se/Fantom.

  13. Long-term behaviour of timber structures in torrent control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickli, Christian; Graf, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Timber is widely used for protection measures in torrent control. However, life span of woody constructions such as timber check dams is limited due to fungal decay. However, only sparse scientific information is available on the long-term behaviour of timber structures and the colonisation with decay fungi. Related to this, in practice a controversial discussion has been going on if either Norway Spruce (Picea abies) or Silver Fir (Abies alba) is more enduring and if bark removal increases resistance against fungal decay. In order to going into this matter a series of 15 timber check dams built in 1996 has been monitored. The constructions were alternatively realised with Norway Spruce and Silver Fir, half of them each with remaining and removed bark, respectively. The scientific investigations included the documentation of colonisation with rot fungi and the identification of decayed zones with a simple practical approach as well as based on drilling resistance. Colonisation by decay fungi started three years after construction (e.g. Gloeophyllum sepiarium), detecting two years later first parts with reduced wood resistance. Sixteen years after construction decay was found on all check dams but two. Wood quality was markedly better in watered sections compared to the occasionally dry lateral abutment sections. Taking the whole check dams into consideration, slightly more decay was detected in Norway Spruce compared to logs in Silver Fir and both the practical approach and the drilling resistance measurement yielded in more defects on logs without bark. However, due to limited number of replications and fungal data, it was not possible to statistically verify these results. Statistical analysis was restricted to the drilling resistance data and fruit-bodies of decay fungi of the uppermost log of each check dam. Based on this limited analysis significant differences in the effect on the drilling resistance were found for watered sections and lateral abutments

  14. Partitioning taxonomic diversity of aquatic insect assemblages ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological diversity can be divided into: alpha (α, local), beta (β, difference in assemblage composition among locals), and gamma (γ, total diversity). We assessed the partitioning of taxonomic diversity of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) and of functional feeding groups (FFG) in Neotropical Savanna (southeastern Brazilian Cerrado) streams. To do so, we considered three diversity components: stream site (α), among stream sites (β1), and among hydrologic units (β2). We also evaluated the association of EPT genera composition with heterogeneity in land use, instream physical habitat structure, and instream water quality variables. The percent of EPT taxonomic α diversity (20.7%) was lower than the β1 and β2 diversities (53.1% and 26.2%, respectively). The EPT FFG α diversity (26.5%) was lower than the β1 diversity (55.8%) and higher than the β2 (17.7%) diversity. The collector-gatherer FFG was predominant and had the greatest β diversity among stream sites (β1, 55.8%). Our findings support the need for implementing regional scale conservation strategies in the Cerrado biome, which has been degraded by anthropogenic activities. Using adaptations of the US EPA’s National Aquatic Resource Survey (NARS) designs and methods, Ferreira and colleagues examined the distribution of taxonomic and functional diversity of aquatic insects among basins, stream sites within basins, and within stream sample reaches. They sampled 160 low-order stre

  15. Taxonomic revision of Pachyptera (Bignonieae, Bignoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Nayara Carvalho Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pachyptera DC. is a small genus of neotropical lianas included in tribe Bignonieae (Bignoniaceae. The genus has a complicated taxonomic history but currently includes species distributed from Belize to Southern Amazon. Pachyptera is characterised by four main synapomorphies, namely, a papery peeling bark, prophylls of the axillary buds organised in a series of three, patelliform glands arranged in lines in the upper portions of the calyx and corolla tube. Furthermore, members of the genus also have stems with four phloem wedges in cross-section and conspicuous extrafloral nectaries between the interpetiolar region and at the petiole apex, although these characters are also shared with other genera of tribe Bignonieae. Here, we present a taxonomic revision of Pachyptera, which includes a complete list of synonyms, detailed morphological descriptions of species and an identification key, as well as information on the habitat, distribution and phenology, nomenclatural notes, taxonomic comments and illustrations of all the species. In addition, we designate three lectotypes, propose one new combination, raise one variety to species status and describe a new species. After these adjustments, a Pachyptera with five well-defined species is recognised.

  16. Taxonomic revision of Pachyptera (Bignonieae, Bignoniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Jessica Nayara Carvalho; Lohmann, Lúcia G

    2018-01-01

    Pachyptera DC. is a small genus of neotropical lianas included in tribe Bignonieae (Bignoniaceae). The genus has a complicated taxonomic history but currently includes species distributed from Belize to Southern Amazon. Pachyptera is characterised by four main synapomorphies, namely, a papery peeling bark, prophylls of the axillary buds organised in a series of three, patelliform glands arranged in lines in the upper portions of the calyx and corolla tube. Furthermore, members of the genus also have stems with four phloem wedges in cross-section and conspicuous extrafloral nectaries between the interpetiolar region and at the petiole apex, although these characters are also shared with other genera of tribe Bignonieae. Here, we present a taxonomic revision of Pachyptera , which includes a complete list of synonyms, detailed morphological descriptions of species and an identification key, as well as information on the habitat, distribution and phenology, nomenclatural notes, taxonomic comments and illustrations of all the species. In addition, we designate three lectotypes, propose one new combination, raise one variety to species status and describe a new species. After these adjustments, a Pachyptera with five well-defined species is recognised.

  17. Data Driven Synthesis of Three Term Digital Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, Lee H.; Mitra, Sandipan; Bhattacharyya, Shankar P.

    This paper presents a method for digital PID and first order controller synthesis based on frequency domain data alone. The techniques given here first determine all stabilizing controllers from measurement data. In both PID and first order controller cases, the only information required are frequency domain data (Nyquist-Bode data) and the number of open-loop RHP poles. Specifically no identification of the plant model is required. Examples are given for illustration.

  18. Differences in Processing of Taxonomic and Sequential Relations in Semantic Memory: An fMRI Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinke, Lars; van der Meer, Elke; Krueger, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Conceptual knowledge of our world is represented in semantic memory in terms of concepts and semantic relations between concepts. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the cortical regions underlying the processing of sequential and taxonomic relations. Participants were presented verbal cues and performed three tasks:…

  19. Impurity control in near-term tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M. Jr.; Smith, D.L.; Brooks, J.N.

    1976-10-01

    Several methods for reducing impurity contamination in near-term tokamak reactors by modifying the first-wall surface with a low-Z or low-sputter material are examined. A review of the sputtering data and an assessment of the technological feasibility of various wall modification schemes are presented. The power performance of a near-term tokamak reactor is simulated for various first-wall surface materials, with and without a divertor, in order to evaluate the likely effect of plasma contamination associated with these surface materials

  20. Air traffic controllers' long-term speech-in-noise training effects: A control group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaballos, Maria T P; Plasencia, Daniel P; González, María L Z; de Miguel, Angel R; Macías, Ángel R

    2016-01-01

    Speech perception in noise relies on the capacity of the auditory system to process complex sounds using sensory and cognitive skills. The possibility that these can be trained during adulthood is of special interest in auditory disorders, where speech in noise perception becomes compromised. Air traffic controllers (ATC) are constantly exposed to radio communication, a situation that seems to produce auditory learning. The objective of this study has been to quantify this effect. 19 ATC and 19 normal hearing individuals underwent a speech in noise test with three signal to noise ratios: 5, 0 and -5 dB. Noise and speech were presented through two different loudspeakers in azimuth position. Speech tokes were presented at 65 dB SPL, while white noise files were at 60, 65 and 70 dB respectively. Air traffic controllers outperform the control group in all conditions [P<0.05 in ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests]. Group differences were largest in the most difficult condition, SNR=-5 dB. However, no correlation between experience and performance were found for any of the conditions tested. The reason might be that ceiling performance is achieved much faster than the minimum experience time recorded, 5 years, although intrinsic cognitive abilities cannot be disregarded. ATC demonstrated enhanced ability to hear speech in challenging listening environments. This study provides evidence that long-term auditory training is indeed useful in achieving better speech-in-noise understanding even in adverse conditions, although good cognitive qualities are likely to be a basic requirement for this training to be effective. Our results show that ATC outperform the control group in all conditions. Thus, this study provides evidence that long-term auditory training is indeed useful in achieving better speech-in-noise understanding even in adverse conditions.

  1. Taxonomic and functional responses to fire and post-fire management of a Mediterranean hymenoptera community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Eduardo; Santos, Xavier; Pujade-Villar, Juli

    2011-11-01

    Fire is one of the commonest disturbances worldwide, transforming habitat structure and affecting ecosystem functioning. Understanding how species respond to such environmental disturbances is a major conservation goal that should be monitored using functionally and taxonomically diverse groups such as Hymenoptera. In this respect, we have analyzed the taxonomic and functional response to fire and post-fire management of a Hymenoptera community from a Mediterranean protected area. Thus, Hymenoptera were sampled at fifteen sites located in three burnt areas submitted to different post-fire practices, as well as at five sites located in peripheral unburnt pine forest. A total of 4882 specimens belonging to 33 families, which were classified into six feeding groups according to their dietary preferences, were collected. ANOVA and Redundancy Analyses showed a taxonomic and functional response to fire as all burnt areas had more Hymenoptera families, different community composition and higher numbers of parasitoids than the unburnt area. Taxonomic differences were also found between burnt areas in terms of the response of Hymenoptera to post-fire management. In general the number of parasitoids was positively correlated to the number of potential host arthropods. Parasitoids are recognized to be sensitive to habitat changes, thus highlighting their value for monitoring the functional responses of organisms to habitat disturbance. The taxonomic and functional responses of Hymenoptera suggest that some pine-forest fires can enhance habitat heterogeneity and arthropod diversity, hence increasing interspecific interactions such as those established by parasitoids and their hosts.

  2. Taxonomic and Functional Responses to Fire and Post-Fire Management of a Mediterranean Hymenoptera Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Eduardo; Santos, Xavier; Pujade-Villar, Juli

    2011-11-01

    Fire is one of the commonest disturbances worldwide, transforming habitat structure and affecting ecosystem functioning. Understanding how species respond to such environmental disturbances is a major conservation goal that should be monitored using functionally and taxonomically diverse groups such as Hymenoptera. In this respect, we have analyzed the taxonomic and functional response to fire and post-fire management of a Hymenoptera community from a Mediterranean protected area. Thus, Hymenoptera were sampled at fifteen sites located in three burnt areas submitted to different post-fire practices, as well as at five sites located in peripheral unburnt pine forest. A total of 4882 specimens belonging to 33 families, which were classified into six feeding groups according to their dietary preferences, were collected. ANOVA and Redundancy Analyses showed a taxonomic and functional response to fire as all burnt areas had more Hymenoptera families, different community composition and higher numbers of parasitoids than the unburnt area. Taxonomic differences were also found between burnt areas in terms of the response of Hymenoptera to post-fire management. In general the number of parasitoids was positively correlated to the number of potential host arthropods. Parasitoids are recognized to be sensitive to habitat changes, thus highlighting their value for monitoring the functional responses of organisms to habitat disturbance. The taxonomic and functional responses of Hymenoptera suggest that some pine-forest fires can enhance habitat heterogeneity and arthropod diversity, hence increasing interspecific interactions such as those established by parasitoids and their hosts.

  3. Long-term control medication use and asthma control status among children and adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Hatice S; Bailey, Cathy M; Qin, Xiaoting; Johnson, Carol

    2017-12-01

    Uncontrolled asthma decreases quality of life and increases health care use. Most people with asthma need daily use of long-term control (LTC) medications for asthma symptoms and to prevent asthma attacks. Ongoing assessment of a person's level of asthma control and medication use is important in determining the effectiveness of current treatment to decrease the frequency and intensity of symptoms and functional limitations. To assess the use of LTC medication among children and adults with current asthma and identify contributing factors for LTC medication use. We used the 2006-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) child and adult Asthma Call-back Survey (ACBS) data to assess the level of asthma control and LTC medication use. Asthma control was classified as well controlled and uncontrolled using guideline-based measures. We used multivariable logistic regression models to identify contributing factors for LTC medication use and having uncontrolled asthma. Among persons with current asthma, 46.0% of children and 41.5% of adults were taking LTC medications and 38.4% of children and 50.0% of adults had uncontrolled asthma. Among children who had uncontrolled asthma (38.4%), 24.1% were taking LTC medications and 14.3% were not taking LTC medications. Among adults who had uncontrolled asthma (50.0%), 26.7% were taking LTC medications and 23.3% were not taking LTC medications. Using BRFSS ACBS data to assess the level of asthma control and LTC medication use can identify subpopulations of persons with asthma who receive suboptimal treatment, for which better asthma-related medical treatment and management are needed.

  4. Motivation, self-determination, and long-term weight control

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Pedro J; Silva, Marlene N; Mata, Jutta; Palmeira, António L; Markland, David

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This article explores the topics of motivation and self-regulation in the context of weight management and related behaviors. We focus on the role of a qualitative approach to address motivation - not only considering the level but also type of motivation - in weight control and related behaviors. We critically discuss the operationalization of motivation in current weight control programs, present a complementary approach to understanding motivation based on self-determination theor...

  5. Building a Taxonomic Data Editor: ITIS Taxonomic Workbench 6.0

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell,David; Bowman,Lisa; Brockmeier,Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS - www.itis.gov) provides a regularly updated global database that currently contains over 840,000 scientific names and their hierarchy. A new rich Internet application for adding and editing ITIS data, Taxonomic Workbench 6.0, is being developed using the AngularJS framework. AngularJS is designed to take advantage of many features that are fairly recent to the web platform, facilitates a well-structured product that is easier to maintain, and...

  6. Taxonomic novelties within the genus Columnea (Gesneriaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaya Marquez, Marisol

    2010-01-01

    A new species of Columnea and a new variety of Columnea lanata (Seem.) Kuntze belonging to section Collandra (Gesneriaceae) are described and illustrated. The new species was found in the Pacific slopes of the Cordillera Occidental in the Department of Choco in Colombia; the new variety comes from the Pacific slopes of the Cordillera Occidental, in the region of Murri located at the North West of the Department of Antioquia . A taxonomic key to distinguish the new species from the morphologically closer species is presented.

  7. Una taxonomía de modelos de desarrollo sustentable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Tetreault

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo pretende ayudar a desenmarañar una parte del discurso sobre desarrollo sustentable mediante la construcción de una taxonomía de modelos de desarrollo sustentable. La misma taxonomía se basa en una revisión literaria extensiva que en cierta medida privilegia la experiencia mexicana. De este modo, el ensayo presenta y compara tanto modelos normativos como positivos. Los modelos incluidos son el modelo dominante, el cual corresponde con la estrategia esbozada en el Informe Bruntland y Agenda 21; la ecología política, un modelo desarrollado por el economista francés Alain Lipietz; el modelo comunitario de desarrollo sustentable, cuyas raíces se encuentran en una escuela de pensamiento de la década de los setenta conocida como el “otro desarrollo”; el comercio justo, una experiencia cuyas raíces se encuentran en las comunidades indígenas de Oaxaca; la producción forestal industrial comunitaria, que ha sido puesta en práctica por varias comunidades forestales en el sur y el centro del país; el activismo ambiental, sobre todo respecto a los con- fl ictos locales que giran en torno al control de los recursos naturales; y la conservación basada en la comunidad, cuya manifestación principal es la reserva de la biosfera

  8. Biotechnological application and taxonomical distribution of plant growth promoting actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedi, Javad; Mohammadipanah, Fatemeh

    2015-02-01

    Plant growth promoting (PGP) bacteria are involved in various interactions known to affect plant fitness and soil quality, thereby increasing the productivity of agriculture and stability of soil. Although the potential of actinobacteria in antibiotic production is well-investigated, their capacity to enhance plant growth is not fully surveyed. Due to the following justifications, PGP actinobacteria (PGPA) can be considered as a more promising taxonomical group of PGP bacteria: (1) high numbers of actinobacteria per gram of soil and their filamentous nature, (2) genome dedicated to the secondary metabolite production (~5 to 10 %) is distinctively more than that of other bacteria and (3) number of plant growth promoter genera reported from actinobacteria is 1.3 times higher than that of other bacteria. Mechanisms by which PGPA contribute to the plant growth by association are: (a) enhancing nutrients availability, (b) regulation of plant metabolism, (c) decreasing environmental stress, (d) control of phytopathogens and (e) improvement of soil texture. Taxonomical and chemical diversity of PGPA and their biotechnological application along with their associated challenges are summarized in this paper.

  9. Mitigating the Long term Operating Extreme Load through Active Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koukoura, Christina; Natarajan, Anand

    2014-01-01

    blade azimuth location are shown to affect the extreme blade load magnitude during operation in normal turbulence wind input. The simultaneously controlled operation of generator torque variation and pitch variation at low blade pitch angles is detected to be responsible for very high loads acting...... on the blades. Through gain scheduling of the controller (modifications of the proportional Kp and the integral Ki gains) the extreme loads are mitigated, ensuring minimum instantaneous variations in the power production for operation above rated wind speed. The response of the blade load is examined...

  10. Motivation, self-determination, and long-term weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Pedro J; Silva, Marlene N; Mata, Jutta; Palmeira, António L; Markland, David

    2012-03-02

    This article explores the topics of motivation and self-regulation in the context of weight management and related behaviors. We focus on the role of a qualitative approach to address motivation--not only considering the level but also type of motivation--in weight control and related behaviors. We critically discuss the operationalization of motivation in current weight control programs, present a complementary approach to understanding motivation based on self-determination theory, and review empirical findings from weight control studies that have used self-determination theory measures and assessed their association with weight outcomes. Weight loss studies which used Motivational Interviewing (MI) are also reviewed, considering MI's focus on enhancing internal motivation. We hypothesize that current weight control interventions may have been less successful with weight maintenance in part due to their relative disregard of qualitative dimensions of motivation, such as level of perceived autonomy, often resulting in a motivational disconnect between weight loss and weight-related behaviors. We suggest that if individuals fully endorse weight loss-related behavioral goals and feel not just competent but also autonomous about reaching them, as suggested by self-determination theory, their efforts are more likely to result in long-lasting behavior change.

  11. Motivation, self-determination, and long-term weight control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Pedro J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article explores the topics of motivation and self-regulation in the context of weight management and related behaviors. We focus on the role of a qualitative approach to address motivation - not only considering the level but also type of motivation - in weight control and related behaviors. We critically discuss the operationalization of motivation in current weight control programs, present a complementary approach to understanding motivation based on self-determination theory, and review empirical findings from weight control studies that have used self-determination theory measures and assessed their association with weight outcomes. Weight loss studies which used Motivational Interviewing (MI are also reviewed, considering MI's focus on enhancing internal motivation. We hypothesize that current weight control interventions may have been less successful with weight maintenance in part due to their relative disregard of qualitative dimensions of motivation, such as level of perceived autonomy, often resulting in a motivational disconnect between weight loss and weight-related behaviors. We suggest that if individuals fully endorse weight loss-related behavioral goals and feel not just competent but also autonomous about reaching them, as suggested by self-determination theory, their efforts are more likely to result in long-lasting behavior change.

  12. Motivation, self-determination, and long-term weight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the topics of motivation and self-regulation in the context of weight management and related behaviors. We focus on the role of a qualitative approach to address motivation - not only considering the level but also type of motivation - in weight control and related behaviors. We critically discuss the operationalization of motivation in current weight control programs, present a complementary approach to understanding motivation based on self-determination theory, and review empirical findings from weight control studies that have used self-determination theory measures and assessed their association with weight outcomes. Weight loss studies which used Motivational Interviewing (MI) are also reviewed, considering MI's focus on enhancing internal motivation. We hypothesize that current weight control interventions may have been less successful with weight maintenance in part due to their relative disregard of qualitative dimensions of motivation, such as level of perceived autonomy, often resulting in a motivational disconnect between weight loss and weight-related behaviors. We suggest that if individuals fully endorse weight loss-related behavioral goals and feel not just competent but also autonomous about reaching them, as suggested by self-determination theory, their efforts are more likely to result in long-lasting behavior change. PMID:22385818

  13. Is Homo sapiens polytypic? Human taxonomic diversity and its implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    The term race is a traditional synonym for subspecies, however it is frequently asserted that Homo sapiens is monotypic and that what are termed races are nothing more than biological illusions. In this manuscript a case is made for the hypothesis that H. sapiens is polytypic, and in this way is no different from other species exhibiting similar levels of genetic and morphological diversity. First it is demonstrated that the four major definitions of race/subspecies can be shown to be synonymous within the context of the framework of race as a correlation structure of traits. Next the issue of taxonomic classification is considered where it is demonstrated that H. sapiens possesses high levels morphological diversity, genetic heterozygosity and differentiation (F(ST)) compared to many species that are acknowledged to be polytypic with respect to subspecies. Racial variation is then evaluated in light of the phylogenetic species concept, where it is suggested that the least inclusive monophyletic units exist below the level of species within H. sapiens indicating the existence of a number of potential human phylogenetic species; and the biological species concept, where it is determined that racial variation is too small to represent differentiation at the level of biological species. Finally the implications of this are discussed in the context of anthropology where an accurate picture of the sequence and timing of events during the evolution of human taxa are required for a complete picture of human evolution, and medicine, where a greater appreciation of the role played by human taxonomic differences in disease susceptibility and treatment responsiveness will save lives in the future.

  14. Institutional Control Program: Long Term Care and Control of Decommissioned Mine/Mill Sites Located on Crown Land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, K.

    2014-01-01

    Institutional Control Program: • Establishes an endpoint for mining company activities on sites located on Crown land; • Establishes funding for the long-term care and control of the closed sites; • Company responsibilities for sites under the Environmental Management and Protection Act remain; • Establishes an Institutional Control Registry; • Establishes an Institutional Control Monitoring and Maintenance Fund and an Institutional Control Unforeseen Events Fund

  15. Concordance and discordance between taxonomic and functional homogenization: responses of soil mite assemblages to forest conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akira S; Ota, Aino T; Fujii, Saori; Seino, Tatsuyuki; Kabeya, Daisuke; Okamoto, Toru; Ito, Masamichi T; Kaneko, Nobuhiro; Hasegawa, Motohiro

    2015-10-01

    The compositional characteristics of ecological assemblages are often simplified; this process is termed "biotic homogenization." This process of biological reorganization occurs not only taxonomically but also functionally. Testing both aspects of homogenization is essential if ecosystem functioning supported by a diverse mosaic of functional traits in the landscape is concerned. Here, we aimed to infer the underlying processes of taxonomic/functional homogenization at the local scale, which is a scale that is meaningful for this research question. We recorded species of litter-dwelling oribatid mites along a gradient of forest conversion from a natural forest to a monoculture larch plantation in Japan (in total 11 stands), and collected data on the functional traits of the recorded species to quantify functional diversity. We calculated the taxonomic and functional β-diversity, an index of biotic homogenization. We found that both the taxonomic and functional β-diversity decreased with larch dominance (stand homogenization). After further deconstructing β-diversity into the components of turnover and nestedness, which reflect different processes of community organization, a significant decrease in the response to larch dominance was observed only for the functional turnover. As a result, there was a steeper decline in the functional β-diversity than the taxonomic β-diversity. This discordance between the taxonomic and functional response suggests that species replacement occurs between species that are functionally redundant under environmental homogenization, ultimately leading to the stronger homogenization of functional diversity. The insights gained from community organization of oribatid mites suggest that the functional characteristics of local assemblages, which support the functionality of ecosystems, are of more concern in human-dominated forest landscapes.

  16. EAU standardised medical terminology for urologic imaging: a taxonomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Tillmann; Carey, Brendan; Walz, Jochen; Fulgham, Pat Fox

    2015-05-01

    The terminology and abbreviations used in urologic imaging have generally been adopted on an ad hoc basis by different speciality groups; however, there is a need for shared nomenclature to facilitate clinical communication and collaborative research. This work reviews the current nomenclature for urologic imaging used in clinical practice and proposes a taxonomy and terminology for urologic imaging studies. A list of terms used in urologic imaging were compiled from guidelines published by the European Association of Urology and the American Urological Association and from the American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria. Terms searched were grouped into broad categories based on technology, and imaging terms were further stratified based on the anatomic extent, contrast or phases, technique or modifiers, and combinations or fusions. Terms that had a high degree of utilisation were classified as accepted. We propose a new taxonomy to define a more useful and acceptable nomenclature model acceptable to all health professionals involved in urology. The major advantage of a taxonomic approach to the classification of urologic imaging studies is that it provides a flexible framework for classifying the modifications of current imaging modalities and allows the incorporation of new imaging modalities. The adoption of this hierarchical classification model ranging from the most general to the most detailed descriptions should facilitate hierarchical searches of the medical literature using both general and specific terms. This work is limited in its scope, as it is not currently all-inclusive. This will hopefully be addressed by future modification as others embrace the concept and work towards uniformity in nomenclature. This paper provides a noncomprehensive list of the most widely used terms across different specialties. This list can be used as the basis for further discussion, development, and enhancement. In this paper we describe a classification system

  17. Charting taxonomic knowledge through ontologies and ranking algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Robert; Klump, Jens

    2009-04-01

    Since the inception of geology as a modern science, paleontologists have described a large number of fossil species. This makes fossilized organisms an important tool in the study of stratigraphy and past environments. Since taxonomic classifications of organisms, and thereby their names, change frequently, the correct application of this tool requires taxonomic expertise in finding correct synonyms for a given species name. Much of this taxonomic information has already been published in journals and books where it is compiled in carefully prepared synonymy lists. Because this information is scattered throughout the paleontological literature, it is difficult to find and sometimes not accessible. Also, taxonomic information in the literature is often difficult to interpret for non-taxonomists looking for taxonomic synonymies as part of their research. The highly formalized structure makes Open Nomenclature synonymy lists ideally suited for computer aided identification of taxonomic synonyms. Because a synonymy list is a list of citations related to a taxon name, its bibliographic nature allows the application of bibliometric techniques to calculate the impact of synonymies and taxonomic concepts. TaxonRank is a ranking algorithm based on bibliometric analysis and Internet page ranking algorithms. TaxonRank uses published synonymy list data stored in TaxonConcept, a taxonomic information system. The basic ranking algorithm has been modified to include a measure of confidence on species identification based on the Open Nomenclature notation used in synonymy list, as well as other synonymy specific criteria. The results of our experiments show that the output of the proposed ranking algorithm gives a good estimate of the impact a published taxonomic concept has on the taxonomic opinions in the geological community. Also, our results show that treating taxonomic synonymies as part of on an ontology is a way to record and manage taxonomic knowledge, and thus contribute

  18. TaxMan: a taxonomic database manager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaxter Mark

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic analysis of large, multiple-gene datasets, assembled from public sequence databases, is rapidly becoming a popular way to approach difficult phylogenetic problems. Supermatrices (concatenated multiple sequence alignments of multiple genes can yield more phylogenetic signal than individual genes. However, manually assembling such datasets for a large taxonomic group is time-consuming and error-prone. Additionally, sequence curation, alignment and assessment of the results of phylogenetic analysis are made particularly difficult by the potential for a given gene in a given species to be unrepresented, or to be represented by multiple or partial sequences. We have developed a software package, TaxMan, that largely automates the processes of sequence acquisition, consensus building, alignment and taxon selection to facilitate this type of phylogenetic study. Results TaxMan uses freely available tools to allow rapid assembly, storage and analysis of large, aligned DNA and protein sequence datasets for user-defined sets of species and genes. The user provides GenBank format files and a list of gene names and synonyms for the loci to analyse. Sequences are extracted from the GenBank files on the basis of annotation and sequence similarity. Consensus sequences are built automatically. Alignment is carried out (where possible, at the protein level and aligned sequences are stored in a database. TaxMan can automatically determine the best subset of taxa to examine phylogeny at a given taxonomic level. By using the stored aligned sequences, large concatenated multiple sequence alignments can be generated rapidly for a subset and output in analysis-ready file formats. Trees resulting from phylogenetic analysis can be stored and compared with a reference taxonomy. Conclusion TaxMan allows rapid automated assembly of a multigene datasets of aligned sequences for large taxonomic groups. By extracting sequences on the basis of

  19. Taxonomic etymology – in search of inspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Jozwiak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of the etymology of zoological taxonomic names with emphasis on the most unusual examples. The names were divided into several categories, starting from the most common – given after morphological features – through inspiration from mythology, legends, and classic literature but also from fictional and nonfictional pop-culture characters (e.g., music, movies or cartoons, science, and politics. A separate category includes zoological names created using word-play and figures of speech such as tautonyms, acronyms, anagrams, and palindromes. Our intention was to give an overview of possibilities of how and where taxonomists can find the inspirations that will be consistent with the ICZN rules and generate more detail afterthought about the naming process itself, the meaningful character of naming, as well as the recognition and understanding of names.

  20. Flexible taxonomic assignment of ambiguous sequencing reads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansson Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To characterize the diversity of bacterial populations in metagenomic studies, sequencing reads need to be accurately assigned to taxonomic units in a given reference taxonomy. Reads that cannot be reliably assigned to a unique leaf in the taxonomy (ambiguous reads are typically assigned to the lowest common ancestor of the set of species that match it. This introduces a potentially severe error in the estimation of bacteria present in the sample due to false positives, since all species in the subtree rooted at the ancestor are implicitly assigned to the read even though many of them may not match it. Results We present a method that maps each read to a node in the taxonomy that minimizes a penalty score while balancing the relevance of precision and recall in the assignment through a parameter q. This mapping can be obtained in time linear in the number of matching sequences, because LCA queries to the reference taxonomy take constant time. When applied to six different metagenomic datasets, our algorithm produces different taxonomic distributions depending on whether coverage or precision is maximized. Including information on the quality of the reads reduces the number of unassigned reads but increases the number of ambiguous reads, stressing the relevance of our method. Finally, two measures of performance are described and results with a set of artificially generated datasets are discussed. Conclusions The assignment strategy of sequencing reads introduced in this paper is a versatile and a quick method to study bacterial communities. The bacterial composition of the analyzed samples can vary significantly depending on how ambiguous reads are assigned depending on the value of the q parameter. Validation of our results in an artificial dataset confirm that a combination of values of q produces the most accurate results.

  1. Extrafloral nectaries in Combretaceae: morphology, anatomy and taxonomic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Tilney

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Extrafloral nectaries (EFNs in members of the Combretaceae are nectaries not involved with pollination and occurring on vegetative structures; they are believed to attract ants to protect plants against herbivorv by other insects. In the Combretaceae EFNs are reported in species of Terminalia L. and Pteleopsis Engl., putative EFNs in Meiostemon Exell & Stace and Quisqualis L., and an absence of EFNs in Combretum Loefl. and Lumnitzera Willd. EFNs in the family are generally spherical in shape and may be raised, level with the surface or somewhat concave. They are similar in the Terminalia and  Pteleopsis species where they display varying degrees of internal zonation and are composed of small cells; those species observed in the field were all found to have functional EFNs. In Meiostemon tetrandrum (Exell Exell & Stace, Quisqualis indica L.. Q. littorea (Engl. Exell and Q. paviflora Gerrard ex Sond.. apparent EFNs lack internal zonation and are composed of enlarged cells; confirmation is required as to whether these are functional . The formation of EFNs appears to be highly flexible. They are usually essentially associated with new growth but their occurrence is sporadic and they do not appear on every leaf or every' branch of a plant. The distribution of EFNs on leaves, when present, is of taxonomic significance to separate species of Pteleopsis and Terminalia: otherwise the presence or absence and distribution of EFNs are too variable and sporadic in occurrence to be of taxonomic significance at the species level. Indiscriminate use of the terms gland and domatium instead of EFN. and possible confusion with damage caused by other organisms, has probably con­tributed to many of these structures not previously being recorded as EFNs. Floral and extrafloral nectar samples of T. phanerophlebia Engl. & Diels differed in sugar composition.

  2. A Falsification of the Citation Impediment in the Taxonomic Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Florian M; Pautasso, Marco; Zettel, Herbert; Moder, Karl; Arthofer, Wolfgang; Schlick-Steiner, Birgit C

    2015-09-01

    Current science evaluation still relies on citation performance, despite criticisms of purely bibliometric research assessments. Biological taxonomy suffers from a drain of knowledge and manpower, with poor citation performance commonly held as one reason for this impediment. But is there really such a citation impediment in taxonomy? We compared the citation numbers of 306 taxonomic and 2291 non-taxonomic research articles (2009-2012) on mosses, orchids, ciliates, ants, and snakes, using Web of Science (WoS) and correcting for journal visibility. For three of the five taxa, significant differences were absent in citation numbers between taxonomic and non-taxonomic papers. This was also true for all taxa combined, although taxonomic papers received more citations than non-taxonomic ones. Our results show that, contrary to common belief, taxonomic contributions do not generally reduce a journal's citation performance and might even increase it. The scope of many journals rarely featuring taxonomy would allow editors to encourage a larger number of taxonomic submissions. Moreover, between 1993 and 2012, taxonomic publications accumulated faster than those from all biological fields. However, less than half of the taxonomic studies were published in journals in WoS. Thus, editors of highly visible journals inviting taxonomic contributions could benefit from taxonomy's strong momentum. The taxonomic output could increase even more than at its current growth rate if: (i) taxonomists currently publishing on other topics returned to taxonomy and (ii) non-taxonomists identifying the need for taxonomic acts started publishing these, possibly in collaboration with taxonomists. Finally, considering the high number of taxonomic papers attracted by the journal Zootaxa, we expect that the taxonomic community would indeed use increased chances of publishing in WoS indexed journals. We conclude that taxonomy's standing in the present citation-focused scientific landscape could

  3. MicrO: an ontology of phenotypic and metabolic characters, assays, and culture media found in prokaryotic taxonomic descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Carrine E; Cui, Hong; Moore, Lisa R; Walls, Ramona L

    2016-01-01

    MicrO is an ontology of microbiological terms, including prokaryotic qualities and processes, material entities (such as cell components), chemical entities (such as microbiological culture media and medium ingredients), and assays. The ontology was built to support the ongoing development of a natural language processing algorithm, MicroPIE (or, Microbial Phenomics Information Extractor). During the MicroPIE design process, we realized there was a need for a prokaryotic ontology which would capture the evolutionary diversity of phenotypes and metabolic processes across the tree of life, capture the diversity of synonyms and information contained in the taxonomic literature, and relate microbiological entities and processes to terms in a large number of other ontologies, most particularly the Gene Ontology (GO), the Phenotypic Quality Ontology (PATO), and the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI). We thus constructed MicrO to be rich in logical axioms and synonyms gathered from the taxonomic literature. MicrO currently has ~14550 classes (~2550 of which are new, the remainder being microbiologically-relevant classes imported from other ontologies), connected by ~24,130 logical axioms (5,446 of which are new), and is available at (http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/MicrO.owl) and on the project website at https://github.com/carrineblank/MicrO. MicrO has been integrated into the OBO Foundry Library (http://www.obofoundry.org/ontology/micro.html), so that other ontologies can borrow and re-use classes. Term requests and user feedback can be made using MicrO's Issue Tracker in GitHub. We designed MicrO such that it can support the ongoing and future development of algorithms that can leverage the controlled vocabulary and logical inference power provided by the ontology. By connecting microbial classes with large numbers of chemical entities, material entities, biological processes, molecular functions, and qualities using a dense array of logical axioms, we

  4. Predictors of long-term benzodiazepine abstinence in participants of a randomized controlled benzodiazepine withdrawal program.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Gorgels, W.J.M.J.; Mol, A.J.J.; Balkom, A.J.L.M. van; Mulder, J.; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Breteler, M.H.M.; Zitman, F.G.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of resumed benzodiazepine use after participation in a benzodiazepine discontinuation trial. METHOD: We performed multiple Cox regression analyses to predict the long-term outcome of a 3-condition, randomized, controlled benzodiazepine discontinuation trial in

  5. Predictors of long-term benzodiazepine abstinence in participants of a randomized controlled benzodiazepine withdrawal program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Gorgels, W.J.M.J.; Mol, A.J.J.; Balkom, A.J.L.M. van; Mulder, J.; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Breteler, M.H.M.; Zitman, F.G.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To identify predictors of resumed benzodiazepine use after participation in a benzodiazepine discontinuation trial. Method: We performed multiple Cox regression analyses to predict the long-term outcome of a 3-condition, randomized, controlled benzodiazepine discontinuation trial in

  6. The Lack of a Long-Term Growth Effect of Annosus Control in Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. H. Tainter; J. G. Williams; N. J. Hess; S. W. Oak; D. A. Starkey

    1989-01-01

    An evaluation of basal area increment was made in 1988 of six pine plantations located across the southeastern United States. These plantations had been thinned in 1969-1970 and stumps treated with borax to measure long-term efficacy of annosus root rot control. In the present study, no long-term growth effects were identified. There were neither negative growth...

  7. A functional approach for research on cognitive control: Analysing cognitive control tasks and their effects in terms of operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liefooghe, Baptist; De Houwer, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive control is an important mental ability that is examined using a multitude of cognitive control tasks and effects. The present paper presents the first steps in the elaboration of a functional approach, which aims to uncover the communalities and differences between different cognitive control tasks and their effects. Based on the idea that responses in cognitive control tasks qualify as operant behaviour, we propose to reinterpret cognitive control tasks in terms of operant contingencies and cognitive control effects as instances of moderated stimulus control. We illustrate how our approach can be used to uncover communalities between topographically different cognitive control tasks and can lead to novel questions about the processes underlying cognitive control. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  8. Polar solar panels: Arctic and Antarctic microbiomes display similar taxonomic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Kristie; Martí, Jose Manuel; Belliure, Josabel; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Molina-Menor, Esther; Peretó, Juli; Porcar, Manuel

    2018-02-01

    Solar panels located on high (Arctic and Antarctic) latitudes combine the harshness of the climate with that of the solar exposure. We report here that these polar solar panels are inhabited by similar microbial communities in taxonomic terms, dominated by Hymenobacter spp., Sphingomonas spp. and Ascomycota. Our results suggest that solar panels, even on high latitudes, can shape a microbial ecosystem adapted to irradiation and desiccation. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. An edit script for taxonomic classifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiente Gabriel

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The NCBI taxonomy provides one of the most powerful ways to navigate sequence data bases but currently users are forced to formulate queries according to a single taxonomic classification. Given that there is not universal agreement on the classification of organisms, providing a single classification places constraints on the questions biologists can ask. However, maintaining multiple classifications is burdensome in the face of a constantly growing NCBI classification. Results In this paper, we present a solution to the problem of generating modifications of the NCBI taxonomy, based on the computation of an edit script that summarises the differences between two classification trees. Our algorithms find the shortest possible edit script based on the identification of all shared subtrees, and only take time quasi linear in the size of the trees because classification trees have unique node labels. Conclusion These algorithms have been recently implemented, and the software is freely available for download from http://darwin.zoology.gla.ac.uk/~rpage/forest/.

  10. Elaiophores: their taxonomic distribution, morphology and functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clivia Carolina Fiorilo Possobom

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Elaiophores are floral glands that secrete non-volatile oils as a reward for their pollinators. Their secretions mediate a specialized interaction between oil-producing plants and a few species of oil-collecting bees - Apidae and Melittidae. The present review focuses on the morphological and functional aspects of these secretory structures. We also provide information on their chemistry and pollination ecology. Our survey is organized taxonomically among the plant families for which elaiophore occurrence has been confirmed -for the monocots, Iridaceae and Orchidaceae, and for the eudicots, Calceolariaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Krameriaceae, Malpighiaceae, Plantaginaceae, Primulaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae and Stilbaceae. Most oil flowers are zygomorphic, bisexual, nectarless and present their elaiophores on the protective whorls or on the androecium. Trichomal elaiophores are reported in all of these families except Krameriaceae and Malpighiaceae, and they vary in the density and morphology of the trichomes. Epithelial elaiophores occur in some monocot representatives and in Krameriaceae and Malpighiaceae, and are similar among species. An intermediate type of elaiophore is reported in some species of Orchidaceae. Regardless of elaiophore type, these glands have similar subcellular features and secretion-release mechanisms. Finally, we note the dearth of information on elaiophore ultrastructure and functioning for several plant families.

  11. Coastal habitats as surrogates for taxonomic, functional and trophic structures of benthic faunal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnroos, Anna; Nordström, Marie C; Bonsdorff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Due to human impact, there is extensive degradation and loss of marine habitats, which calls for measures that incorporate taxonomic as well as functional and trophic aspects of biodiversity. Since such data is less easily quantifiable in nature, the use of habitats as surrogates or proxies for biodiversity is on the rise in marine conservation and management. However, there is a critical gap in knowledge of whether pre-defined habitat units adequately represent the functional and trophic structure of communities. We also lack comparisons of different measures of community structure in terms of both between- (β) and within-habitat (α) variability when accounting for species densities. Thus, we evaluated a priori defined coastal habitats as surrogates for traditional taxonomic, functional and trophic zoobenthic community structure. We focused on four habitats (bare sand, canopy-forming algae, seagrass above- and belowground), all easily delineated in nature and defined through classification systems. We analyzed uni- and multivariate data on species and trait diversity as well as stable isotope ratios of benthic macrofauna. A good fit between habitat types and taxonomic and functional structure was found, although habitats were more similar functionally. This was attributed to within-habitat heterogeneity so when habitat divisions matched the taxonomic structure, only bare sand was functionally distinct. The pre-defined habitats did not meet the variability of trophic structure, which also proved to differentiate on a smaller spatial scale. The quantification of trophic structure using species density only identified an epi- and an infaunal unit. To summarize the results we present a conceptual model illustrating the match between pre-defined habitat types and the taxonomic, functional and trophic community structure. Our results show the importance of including functional and trophic aspects more comprehensively in marine management and spatial planning.

  12. Taxonomic chauvinism revisited: insight from parental care research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary R Stahlschmidt

    Full Text Available Parental care (any non-genetic contribution by a parent that appears likely to increase the fitness of its offspring is a widespread trait exhibited by a broad range of animal taxa. In addition to influencing the fitness of parent(s and offspring, parental care may be inextricably involved in other evolutionary processes, such as sexual selection and the evolution of endothermy. Yet, recent work has demonstrated that bias related to taxonomy is prevalent across many biological disciplines, and research in parental care may be similarly burdened. Thus, I used parental care articles published in six leading journals of fundamental behavioral sciences (Animal Behaviour, Behavioral Ecology, Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, Ethology, Hormones and Behavior, and Physiology & Behavior from 2001-2010 (n = 712 to examine the year-to-year dynamics of two types of bias related to taxonomy across animals: (1 taxonomic bias, which exists when research output is not proportional to the frequency of organisms in nature, and (2 taxonomic citation bias, which is a proxy for the breadth of a given article-specifically, the proportion of articles cited that refer solely to the studied taxon. I demonstrate that research on birds likely represents a disproportionate amount of parental care research and, thus, exhibits taxonomic bias. Parental care research on birds and mammals also refers to a relatively narrow range of taxonomic groups when discussing its context and, thus, exhibits taxonomic citation bias. Further, the levels of taxonomic bias and taxonomic citation bias have not declined over the past decade despite cautionary messages about similar bias in related disciplines--in fact, taxonomic bias may have increased. As in Bonnet et al. (2002, my results should not be interpreted as evidence of an 'ornithological Mafia' conspiring to suppress other taxonomic groups. Rather, I generate several rational hypotheses to determine why bias persists and to

  13. Taxonomic chauvinism revisited: insight from parental care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlschmidt, Zachary R

    2011-01-01

    Parental care (any non-genetic contribution by a parent that appears likely to increase the fitness of its offspring) is a widespread trait exhibited by a broad range of animal taxa. In addition to influencing the fitness of parent(s) and offspring, parental care may be inextricably involved in other evolutionary processes, such as sexual selection and the evolution of endothermy. Yet, recent work has demonstrated that bias related to taxonomy is prevalent across many biological disciplines, and research in parental care may be similarly burdened. Thus, I used parental care articles published in six leading journals of fundamental behavioral sciences (Animal Behaviour, Behavioral Ecology, Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, Ethology, Hormones and Behavior, and Physiology & Behavior) from 2001-2010 (n = 712) to examine the year-to-year dynamics of two types of bias related to taxonomy across animals: (1) taxonomic bias, which exists when research output is not proportional to the frequency of organisms in nature, and (2) taxonomic citation bias, which is a proxy for the breadth of a given article-specifically, the proportion of articles cited that refer solely to the studied taxon. I demonstrate that research on birds likely represents a disproportionate amount of parental care research and, thus, exhibits taxonomic bias. Parental care research on birds and mammals also refers to a relatively narrow range of taxonomic groups when discussing its context and, thus, exhibits taxonomic citation bias. Further, the levels of taxonomic bias and taxonomic citation bias have not declined over the past decade despite cautionary messages about similar bias in related disciplines--in fact, taxonomic bias may have increased. As in Bonnet et al. (2002), my results should not be interpreted as evidence of an 'ornithological Mafia' conspiring to suppress other taxonomic groups. Rather, I generate several rational hypotheses to determine why bias persists and to guide future

  14. Lessons from long-term predator control: a case study with the red fox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirkwood, R.J.; Sutherland, D.R.; Murphy, S.; Dann, P.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Predator-control aims to reduce an impact on prey species, but efficacy of long-term control is rarely assessed and the reductions achieved are rarely quantified. Aims: We evaluated the changing efficacy of a 58-year-long campaign against red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) on Phillip Island, a

  15. Taxonomic and phylogenetic utility of variation in advertising calls of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taxonomic and phylogenetic utility of variation in advertising calls of francolins and spurfowls (Galliformes: Phasianidae). Tshifhiwa G. Mandiwana-Neudani, Rauri C.K. Bowie, Martine Hausberger, Laurence Henry, Timothy M. Crowe ...

  16. Smart Demand for Improving Short-term Voltage Control on Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; P. Da Silva, Luiz C.; Xu, Zhao

    2009-01-01

    customer integration to aid power system performance is almost inevitable. This study introduces a new type of smart demand side technology, denoted demand as voltage controlled reserve (DVR), to improve short-term voltage control, where customers are expected to play a more dynamic role to improve voltage...... control. The technology can be provided by thermostatically controlled loads as well as other types of load. This technology is proven to be effective in case of distribution systems with a large composition of induction motors, where the voltage presents a slow recovery characteristic due to deceleration...... of the motors during faults. This study presents detailed models, discussion and simulation tests to demonstrate the technical viability and effectiveness of the DVR technology for short-term voltage control....

  17. Long-term training modifies the modular structure and organization of walking balance control

    OpenAIRE

    Sawers, Andrew; Allen, Jessica L.; Ting, Lena H.

    2015-01-01

    How does long-term training affect the neural control of movements? Here we tested the hypothesis that long-term training leading to skilled motor performance alters muscle coordination during challenging, as well as nominal everyday motor behaviors. Using motor module (a.k.a., muscle synergy) analyses, we identified differences in muscle coordination patterns between professionally trained ballet dancers (experts) and untrained novices that accompanied differences in walking balance proficie...

  18. Long-Term Follow-Up of a Controlled Trial of Laser Laparoscopy for Pelvic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Kevin D.; Haines, Patricia; Sutton, Christopher J. G.

    2001-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term efficacy of laparoscopic laser surgery in the treatment of painful pelvic endometriosis. Methods: We conducted a long-term follow-up of 56 patients who had participated in a randomized, double-blind controlled study at a tertiary referral center for the laparoscopic treatment of endometriosis. The patients had pelvic pain, minimal-to-moderate endometriosis, and underwent laser laparoscopy. We asked patients wheth...

  19. Taxonomic colouring of phylogenetic trees of protein sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade-Navarro Miguel A

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic analyses of protein families are used to define the evolutionary relationships between homologous proteins. The interpretation of protein-sequence phylogenetic trees requires the examination of the taxonomic properties of the species associated to those sequences. However, there is no online tool to facilitate this interpretation, for example, by automatically attaching taxonomic information to the nodes of a tree, or by interactively colouring the branches of a tree according to any combination of taxonomic divisions. This is especially problematic if the tree contains on the order of hundreds of sequences, which, given the accelerated increase in the size of the protein sequence databases, is a situation that is becoming common. Results We have developed PhyloView, a web based tool for colouring phylogenetic trees upon arbitrary taxonomic properties of the species represented in a protein sequence phylogenetic tree. Provided that the tree contains SwissProt, SpTrembl, or GenBank protein identifiers, the tool retrieves the taxonomic information from the corresponding database. A colour picker displays a summary of the findings and allows the user to associate colours to the leaves of the tree according to any number of taxonomic partitions. Then, the colours are propagated to the branches of the tree. Conclusion PhyloView can be used at http://www.ogic.ca/projects/phyloview/. A tutorial, the software with documentation, and GPL licensed source code, can be accessed at the same web address.

  20. Long-term preventive maintenance of instrumentation control equipment for PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugitani, S.; Nanba, M.

    2006-01-01

    Since the PWR plants in Japan have been operated more than 30 years, main instrumentation control equipment of analog systems has been renewed to digital control systems. Renewal works had to be done in short period within periodical inspection term and for several facilities. The Mitsubishi LTD group had been provided with these market needs by its digital control system (MELTAC-NplusR 3) applicable to main instrumentation control equipment for primary and secondary systems and had already finished the renewal for practical plants. (T. Tanaka)

  1. Behaviour change techniques: the development and evaluation of a taxonomic method for reporting and describing behaviour change interventions (a suite of five studies involving consensus methods, randomised controlled trials and analysis of qualitative data).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Susan; Wood, Caroline E; Johnston, Marie; Abraham, Charles; Francis, Jill J; Hardeman, Wendy

    2015-11-01

    Meeting global health challenges requires effective behaviour change interventions (BCIs). This depends on advancing the science of behaviour change which, in turn, depends on accurate intervention reporting. Current reporting often lacks detail, preventing accurate replication and implementation. Recent developments have specified intervention content into behaviour change techniques (BCTs) - the 'active ingredients', for example goal-setting, self-monitoring of behaviour. BCTs are 'the smallest components compatible with retaining the postulated active ingredients, i.e. the proposed mechanisms of change. They can be used alone or in combination with other BCTs' (Michie S, Johnston M. Theories and techniques of behaviour change: developing a cumulative science of behaviour change. Health Psychol Rev 2012;6:1-6). Domain-specific taxonomies of BCTs have been developed, for example healthy eating and physical activity, smoking cessation and alcohol consumption. We need to build on these to develop an internationally shared language for specifying and developing interventions. This technology can be used for synthesising evidence, implementing effective interventions and testing theory. It has enormous potential added value for science and global health. (1) To develop a method of specifying content of BCIs in terms of component BCTs; (2) to lay a foundation for a comprehensive methodology applicable to different types of complex interventions; (3) to develop resources to support application of the taxonomy; and (4) to achieve multidisciplinary and international acceptance for future development. Four hundred participants (systematic reviewers, researchers, practitioners, policy-makers) from 12 countries engaged in investigating, designing and/or delivering BCIs. Development of the taxonomy involved a Delphi procedure, an iterative process of revisions and consultation with 41 international experts; hierarchical structure of the list was developed using inductive

  2. Methods for short-term control of Imperata grass in Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbynek Polesny

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional control of Imperata brasiliensis grasslands used by farmers in the Peruvian Amazon is to burn the grass. The objective of this study was to compare different methods of short-term control. Biological, mechanical, chemical and traditional methods of control were compared. Herbicide spraying and manual weeding have shown to be very effective in reducing above- and below-ground biomass growth in the first 45 days after slashing the grass, with effects persisting in the longer term, but both are expensive methods. Shading seems to be less effective in the short-term, whereas it influences the Imperata growth in the longer term. After one year shading, glyphosate application and weeding significantly reduced aboveground biomass by 94, 67 and 53%; and belowground biomass by 76, 65 and 58%, respectively, compared to control. We also found a significant decrease of Imperata rhizomes in soil during time under shading. Burning has proved to have no significant effect on Imperata growth. The use of shade trees in a kind of agroforestry system could be a suitable method for small farmers to control Imperata grasslands.

  3. Servo-controlled hind-limb electrical stimulation for short-term arterial pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Toru; Shimizu, Shuji; Yamamoto, Hiromi; Shishido, Toshiaki; Kamiya, Atsunori; Miyamoto, Tadayoshi; Sunagawa, Kenji; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2009-05-01

    Autonomic neural intervention is a promising tool for modulating the circulatory system thereby treating some cardiovascular diseases. In 8 pentobarbital-anesthetized cats, it was examined whether the arterial pressure (AP) could be controlled by acupuncture-like hind-limb electrical stimulation (HES). With a 0.5-ms pulse width, HES monotonically reduced AP as the stimulus current increased from 1 to 5 mA, suggesting that the stimulus current could be a primary control variable. In contrast, the depressor effect of HES showed a nadir approximately 10 Hz in the frequency range between 1 and 100 Hz. Dynamic characteristics of the AP response to HES approximated a second-order low-pass filter with dead time (gain: -10.2 +/- 1.6 mmHg/mA, natural frequency: 0.040 +/- 0.004 Hz, damping ratio 1.80 +/- 0.24, dead time: 1.38 +/- 0.13 s, mean +/- SE). Based on these dynamic characteristics, a servo-controlled HES system was developed. When a target AP value was set at 20 mmHg below the baseline AP, the time required for the AP response to reach 90% of the target level was 38 +/- 10 s. The steady-state error between the measured and target AP values was 1.3 +/- 0.1 mmHg. Autonomic neural intervention by acupuncture-like HES might provide an additional modality to quantitatively control the circulatory system.

  4. STABLE ADAPTIVE CONTROL FOR A CLASS OF NONLINEAR SYSTEMS WITHOUT USE OF A SUPERVISORY TERM IN THE CONTROL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMED BAHITA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a direct adaptive control scheme for a class of nonlinear systems is proposed. The architecture employs a Gaussian radial basis function (RBF network to construct an adaptive controller. The parameters of the adaptive controller are adapted and changed according to a law derived using Lyapunov stability theory. The centres of the RBF network are adapted on line using the k-means algorithm. Asymptotic Lyapunov stability is established without the use of a supervisory (compensatory term in the control law and with the tracking errors converging to a neighbourhood of the origin. Finally, a simulation is provided to explore the feasibility of the proposed neuronal controller design method.

  5. Free and controlled game and activities in pre-school education in terms of teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Kázmerová, Jana

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with free and controlled play activities in preschool education in terms of teachers. It focuses primarily on the game preschool children playing children spend most of their time is their most important activities for the advancement of their entire personality. The theoretical part is focused on defining the concept of game play and substance of the relationship and the importance of play of preschool children. It is focused on free and controlled the game and activities, ...

  6. Stability of rapid maxillary expansion and facemask therapy: a long-term controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masucci, Caterina; Franchi, Lorenzo; Defraia, Efisio; Mucedero, Manuela; Cozza, Paola; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this prospective controlled study was to evaluate the long-term effects of rapid maxillary expansion and facemask therapy in Class III subjects. Twenty-two subjects (9 boys, 13 girls; mean age, 9.2 years ± 1.6) with Class III disharmony were treated consecutively with rapid maxillary expansion and facemask therapy followed by fixed appliances. The patients were reevaluated at the end of the 2-phase treatment (mean age, 14.5 years ± 1.9) and then recalled about 8.5 years after the end of rapid maxillary expansion and facemask treatment (mean age, 18.7 years ± 2.1). Two groups of controls with untreated Class III malocclusion were used for statistical comparisons of the short-term and long-term intervals. Statistical comparisons were performed with the Mann-Whitney U test. In the long term, no significant differences in maxillary changes were recorded, whereas the treatment group showed significantly smaller increases in mandibular protrusion. The sagittal maxillomandibular skeletal variables maintained significant improvements in the treatment group vs the control groups. In the long term, rapid maxillary expansion and facemask therapy led to successful outcomes in about 73% of the Class III patients. Favorable skeletal changes were mainly due to significant improvements in the sagittal position of the mandible. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A control volume based finite difference method for solving the equilibrium equations in terms of displacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattel, Jesper; Hansen, Preben

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a novel control volume based FD method for solving the equilibrium equations in terms of displacements, i.e. the generalized Navier equations. The method is based on the widely used cv-FDM solution of heat conduction and fluid flow problems involving a staggered grid formulati....... The resulting linear algebraic equations are solved by line-Gauss-Seidel....

  8. Short-term displacement and reproducibility of the breast and nodal targets under active breathing control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moran, Jean M.; Balter, James M.; Ben-David, Merav A.; Marsh, Robin B.; van Herk, Marcel; Pierce, Lori J.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: The short-term displacement and reproducibility of the breast or chest wall, and the internal mammary (IM), infraclavicular (ICV), and supraclavicular (SCV) nodal regions have been assessed as a function of breath-hold state using an active breathing control (ABC) device for patients

  9. Long-term quality of life and tumour control following gamma knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangerid, Theresa; Bartek, Jiri; Svensson, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has for the last decades been an established treatment option for patients with small- or medium-sized vestibular schwannomas (VS), although little data is reported on long-term outcome regarding quality of life (QOL) and tumour control in this patient category...

  10. Long-term effects of chronic khat use: impaired inhibitory control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colzato, L.S.; Ruiz, M.J.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.; Bajo, M.T.; Hommel, B.

    2011-01-01

    So far no studies have systematically looked into the cognitive consequences of khat use. This study compared the ability to inhibit and execute behavioral responses in adult khat users and khat-free controls, matched in terms of age, race, gender distribution, level of intelligence, alcohol and

  11. Impaired vascular function during short-term poor glycaemic control in Type 1 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, V.R.; Mathiassen, E.R.; Clausen, P.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of short-term poor glycaemic control on vascular function in Type 1 diabetic patients. METHODS: Ten Type 1 diabetic patients, with diabetes duration of less than 10 years and normal urinary albumin excretion and ophthalmoscopy, were studied. All patients were examined af...

  12. Control of neglected tropical diseases needs a long-term commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubila Likezo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neglected tropical diseases are widespread, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, affecting over 2 billion individuals. Control of these diseases has gathered pace in recent years, with increased levels of funding from a number of governmental or non-governmental donors. Focus has currently been on five major 'tool-ready' neglected tropical diseases (lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis and trachoma, using a package of integrated drug delivery according to the World Health Organization guidelines for preventive chemotherapy. Discussion Success in controlling these neglected tropical diseases has been achieved in a number of countries in recent history. Experience from these successes suggests that long-term sustainable control of these diseases requires: (1 a long-term commitment from a wider range of donors and from governments of endemic countries; (2 close partnerships of donors, World Health Organization, pharmaceutical industries, governments of endemic countries, communities, and non-governmental developmental organisations; (3 concerted action from more donor countries to provide the necessary funds, and from the endemic countries to work together to prevent cross-border disease transmission; (4 comprehensive control measures for certain diseases; and (5 strengthened primary healthcare systems as platforms for the national control programmes and capacity building through implementation of the programmes. Conclusions The current level of funding for the control of neglected tropical diseases has never been seen before, but it is still not enough to scale up to the 2 billion people in all endemic countries. While more donors are sought, the stakeholders must work in a coordinated and harmonised way to identify the priority areas and the best delivery approaches to use the current funds to the maximum effect. Case management and other necessary control measures should be

  13. Taxonomic bias in biodiversity data and societal preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troudet, Julien; Grandcolas, Philippe; Blin, Amandine; Vignes-Lebbe, Régine; Legendre, Frédéric

    2017-08-22

    Studying and protecting each and every living species on Earth is a major challenge of the 21 st century. Yet, most species remain unknown or unstudied, while others attract most of the public, scientific and government attention. Although known to be detrimental, this taxonomic bias continues to be pervasive in the scientific literature, but is still poorly studied and understood. Here, we used 626 million occurrences from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), the biggest biodiversity data portal, to characterize the taxonomic bias in biodiversity data. We also investigated how societal preferences and taxonomic research relate to biodiversity data gathering. For each species belonging to 24 taxonomic classes, we used the number of publications from Web of Science and the number of web pages from Bing searches to approximate research activity and societal preferences. Our results show that societal preferences, rather than research activity, strongly correlate with taxonomic bias, which lead us to assert that scientists should advertise less charismatic species and develop societal initiatives (e.g. citizen science) that specifically target neglected organisms. Ensuring that biodiversity is representatively sampled while this is still possible is an urgent prerequisite for achieving efficient conservation plans and a global understanding of our surrounding environment.

  14. Short-term memory in the service of executive control functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Alizadeh Mansouri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Short-term memory is a crucial cognitive function for supporting on-going and upcoming behaviours, allowing storage of information across delay periods. The content of this memory may typically include tangible information about features such as the shape, colour or texture of an object, its location and motion relative to the body, or phonological information. The neural correlate of these short-term memories has been found in different brain areas involved in organizing perceptual or motor functions. In particular, neuronal activity in different prefrontal areas encodes task-related information corresponding to short-term memory across delay periods, and lesions in the prefrontal cortex severely affect the ability to hold this type of memory. Recent studies have further expanded the scope and possible role of short-term memory by showing that information of abstract entities such as a behaviour-guiding rule, or the occurrence of a conflict in information processing; can also be maintained in short-term memory and used for adjusting the allocation of executive control in dynamic environments. It has also been shown that neuronal activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices encodes information about such abstract entities. These findings suggest that the prefrontal cortex plays crucial roles in organizing goal-directed behaviour by supporting various mnemonic processes that maintain a wide range of information in the service of executive control of on-going or upcoming behaviour.

  15. Long-Term Follow-Up of Impulse Control Disorders in Parkinson’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mamikonyan, Eugenia; Siderowf, Andrew D.; Duda, John E.; Potenza, Marc N.; Horn, Stacy; Stern, Matthew B.; Weintraub, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have linked dopamine agonist (DA) usage with the development of impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Little is known about optimal management strategies or the long-term outcomes of affected patients. To report on the clinical interventions and long-term outcomes of PD patients who developed an ICD after DA initiation. Subjects contacted by telephone for a follow-up interview after a mean time period of 29.2 months. They were administered a modified Min...

  16. Long-term Effects of Chronic Khat Use:Impaired Inhibitory Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza S Colzato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available So far no studies have systematically looked into the cognitive consequences of khat use. This study compared the ability to inhibit and execute behavioral responses in adult khat users and khat-free controls, matched in terms of age, race, gender distribution, level of intelligence, and alcohol, and cannabis consumption. Response inhibition and response execution were measured by a stop-signal paradigm. Results show that users and non-users are comparable in terms of response execution but users need significantly more time to inhibit responses to stop signals than non-users.

  17. Genomic characterization reconfirms the taxonomic status of Lactobacillus parakefiri

    Science.gov (United States)

    TANIZAWA, Yasuhiro; KOBAYASHI, Hisami; KAMINUMA, Eli; SAKAMOTO, Mitsuo; OHKUMA, Moriya; NAKAMURA, Yasukazu; ARITA, Masanori; TOHNO, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing was performed for Lactobacillus parakefiri JCM 8573T to confirm its hitherto controversial taxonomic position. Here, we report its first reliable reference genome. Genome-wide metrics, such as average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization, and phylogenomic analysis based on multiple genes supported its taxonomic status as a distinct species in the genus Lactobacillus. The availability of a reliable genome sequence will aid future investigations on the industrial applications of L. parakefiri in functional foods such as kefir grains. PMID:28748134

  18. The taxlist package: managing plant taxonomic lists in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alvarez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic lists are crucial elements of vegetation-plot databases and provide the links between original entries, reference taxon views and different taxon concepts. We introduce the R package taxlist in the context of object-oriented modelling for taxonomic lists. This package provides a data structure based on species lists in Turboveg, which is a software broadly used for the storage of vegetation-plot databases and implements functions for importing and handling them prior to statistical analysis. We also present a schema for relational databases, compatible with taxlist objects and recommend its use for handling diversity records.

  19. Long-term exposure to noise impairs cortical sound processing and attention control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, Teija; Shtyrov, Yury; Winkler, Istvan; Saher, Marieke; Tervaniemi, Mari; Sallinen, Mikael; Teder-Sälejärvi, Wolfgang; Alho, Kimmo; Reinikainen, Kalevi; Näätänen, Risto

    2004-11-01

    Long-term exposure to noise impairs human health, causing pathological changes in the inner ear as well as other anatomical and physiological deficits. Numerous individuals are daily exposed to excessive noise. However, there is a lack of systematic research on the effects of noise on cortical function. Here we report data showing that long-term exposure to noise has a persistent effect on central auditory processing and leads to concurrent behavioral deficits. We found that speech-sound discrimination was impaired in noise-exposed individuals, as indicated by behavioral responses and the mismatch negativity brain response. Furthermore, irrelevant sounds increased the distractibility of the noise-exposed subjects, which was shown by increased interference in task performance and aberrant brain responses. These results demonstrate that long-term exposure to noise has long-lasting detrimental effects on central auditory processing and attention control.

  20. Early short-term management of control-actuator failures in a linear dynamic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Haim, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Early short-term management of malfunction attempts to maintain system stability during the early development stages of a failure. This is achieved in two stages. First, the failure is partially diagnosed by comparing observed system behavior against the performance expected for each of the selected set of hypothesized malfunctions. Second, the normal controller is replaced by a compensatory controller whose aim is to maintain system stability while compensating for the failure. Malfunctions involving control actuators are studied here. The aim of this study is to develop a technique for choosing the set of hypothesized failures and compensatory controllers which assure that the state of the system remains within specified bounds for a given duration after initiation of failure, regardless of the precise temporal development of the failure

  1. Operational techniques employed for the liquid sodium source term control loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chulos, L.E.

    1976-01-01

    Four Source Term Control Loops (STCLs) have been designed, constructed, and placed into operation at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) as part of the Radioactivity Control Technology program. The data obtained are used to determine the corrosion and deposition of LMFBR materials, including corrosion product radionuclides, in a non-isothermal flowing sodium system. The paper discusses operation of the STCL Facilities and, in particular, the methods used for controlling the oxygen content of the liquid sodium. These methods include cold trapping techniques, hot trapping, seeding the cold traps with sodium oxide, and precipitating the oxygen in the cold trap in a controlled manner. Operational problems encountered with the STCL Facilities and the techniques for correcting these problems are also discussed

  2. Intrapartum fever and chorioamnionitis as risks for encephalopathy in term newborns: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Heidi K; Li, Christopher I; Loch, Christian M; Koepsell, Thomas D

    2008-01-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between diagnoses of isolated intrapartum fever or chorioamnionitis and the risk of encephalopathy in term newborns. We conducted a population-based, case-control study in Washington State using 1994 to 2002 linked data from the Washington State Birth Registry and the Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System (CHARS). We identified 1060 singleton, term newborns (602 males, 458 females) with International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9) diagnoses consistent with encephalopathy, and 5330 unaffected control newborns (2756 males, 2574 females). Intrapartum fever was defined by a diagnosis of intrapartum temperature of >38 degrees C in the birth registry or CHARS databases. Chorioamnionitis was defined using ICD-9 diagnoses recorded in CHARS. We identified 2.2 cases of encephalopathy per 1000 births. Isolated intrapartum fever was associated with a 3.1-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.3-4.2) increased risk of newborn encephalopathy. Chorioamnionitis was associated with a 5.4-fold (95% CI 3.6-7.8) increased risk of encephalopathy. We found that isolated intrapartum fever and chorioamnionitis were independently associated with an increased risk of encephalopathy in term infants. Our data also indicate that there is a spectrum of risk for encephalopathy in term infants exposed to intrapartum fever. Infants born to women with signs of chorioamnionitis other than isolated intrapartum fever may be at higher risk of encephalopathy than those exposed only to isolated intrapartum fever.

  3. Controlling for unmeasured confounding and spatial misalignment in long?term air pollution and health studies

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Duncan; Sarran, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The health impact of long?term exposure to air pollution is now routinely estimated using spatial ecological studies, owing to the recent widespread availability of spatial referenced pollution and disease data. However, this areal unit study design presents a number of statistical challenges, which if ignored have the potential to bias the estimated pollution?health relationship. One such challenge is how to control for the spatial autocorrelation present in the data after accounting for the...

  4. Effects of Short Term Music and Second Language Training on Executive Control

    OpenAIRE

    Janus, Monika; Lee, Yunjo; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Separate lines of research have identified enhanced performance on non-verbal executive control (EC) tasks for bilinguals (Bialystok, Craik, Green, & Gollan, 2009) and those with music training (Moreno et al., 2011), but little is known about the relation between them in terms of the specificity of the effects of each experience or the degree of exposure necessary to induce these changes. Using an intervention design, the present study pseudo-randomly assigned 57 4- to 6-year-old children (ma...

  5. Attentional control constrains visual short-term memory: Insights from developmental and individual differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astle, D.E.; Nobre, A.C.; Scerif, G.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms by which attentional control biases mnemonic representations have attracted much interest but remain poorly understood. As attention and memory develop gradually over childhood and variably across individuals, assessing how participants of different ages and ability attend to mnemonic contents can elucidate their interplay. In Experiment 1, 7-, 10-year-olds and adults were asked to report whether a probe item had been part of a previously presented four-item array. The initial array could either be uncued, preceded (“pre-cued”) or followed (“retro-cued”) by a spatial cue orienting attention to one of the potential item locations. Performance across groups was significantly improved by both cue types and individual differences in children’s retrospective attentional control predicted their visual short-term and working memory span, whereas their basic ability to remember in the absence of cues did not. Experiment 2 imposed a variable delay between the array and the subsequent orienting cue. Cueing benefits were greater in adults compared to 10-year-olds, but they persisted even when cues followed the array by nearly 3 seconds, suggesting that orienting operated on durable short-term representations for both age groups. The findings indicate that there are substantial developmental and individual differences in the ability to control attention to memory and that in turn these differences constrain visual short-term memory capacity. PMID:20680889

  6. Taxonomic perspective of plant species yielding vegetable oils used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A search conducted to determine the plants yielding vegetable oils resulted in 78 plant species with potential use in cosmetics and skin care products. The taxonomic position of these plant species is described with a description of vegetable oils from these plants and their use in cosmetic and skin care products.

  7. Taxonomical analysis of the Cancer cluster of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perea, J.; Olmo, A. del; Moles, M.

    1986-01-01

    A description is presented of the Cancer cluster of galaxies, based on a taxonomical analysis in (α,delta, Vsub(r)) space. Earlier results by previous authors on the lack of dynamical entity of the cluster are confirmed. The present analysis points out the existence of a binary structure in the most populated region of the complex. (author)

  8. Data composition and taxonomic resolution in macroinvertebrate stream typology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, P.F.M.

    2006-01-01

    In the EU water framework directive (WFD) a typological framework is defined for assessing the ecological quality of water bodies in the future. The aim of this study was to test the effect of data composition and taxonomic resolution on this typology. The EU research projects AQEM and STAR provided

  9. Taxonomic status and conservation importance of the avifauna of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Democratic Republic of Congo) focussed on the status of 56 taxa, to reveal a high endemism (14 species of a total of at least 642). In addition, 33 taxa were also revealed as possible south-central African endemics but need thorough taxonomic ...

  10. The taxonomic status of giant sengis ( genus Rhynchocyon ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sengis (elephant-shrews) of Mozambique are poorly known, especially the taxonomic status of the giant sengis, genus Rhynchocyon. Currently, Rhynchocyon from Mozambique are thought to be chequered sengis, R. cirnei with specimens from the central coastal areas being placed in the subspecies R. c. cirnei, while ...

  11. Floristic composition and taxonomic distribution of plants in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Floristic composition and taxonomic distribution of plants in the dryland of Northwestern Nigeria. ... Analysis of abundance and rarity of species reveals that 10% and 90% of the encountered species were abundant and rare respectively in the study area. These finding poses serious ecological concerns in the study area, ...

  12. Developing green supply chain management strategies: A taxonomic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mutingi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this research is to explore the empirical green supply chain activities found in literature, and to develop a taxonomic framework that can be used for formulating appropriate strategies for green supply chains, based on characteristic dimensions for the green supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: The taxonomic framework is developed through (i analysis of green supply chain activities found in existing empirical work or case studies recorded in literature, (ii identification of key dimensions that influence green supply chain management strategies, and (iii development of a taxonomic scheme for selecting or developing green strategies. Findings: The paper finds that this study yielded: a set of three characteristic dimensions that influence strategic green supply chain management, and a guided structured approach selecting appropriate green strategies, providing managerial insights. Research limitations/implications: This paper shows that future work includes development of specific performance management indices according to the taxonomy of green strategies developed in this study. Practical implications: This research provided a practical guided approach that enhances appropriate formulation of green strategies for green supply chain management, while providing sound managerial insights for the supply chain decision maker. The choice of supply chain strategy directly impacts the overall environmental, economic and operations performance of the supply chain. Originality/value: This study presents to supply chain decision makers a new taxonomic framework that simplifies and enhances the formulation of green strategies, and to researchers a comparative understanding of various strategies applicable to green supply chains.

  13. Long-Term Effects from Bacterial Meningitis in Childhood and Adolescence on Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hannes; Patel, Mitesh; Ingason, Einar F.; Einarsson, Einar J.; Haraldsson, Ásgeir; Fransson, Per-Anders

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis in childhood is associated with cognitive deficiencies, sensorimotor impairments and motor dysfunction later in life. However, the long-term effects on postural control is largely unknown, e.g., whether meningitis subjects as adults fully can utilize visual information and adaptation to enhance stability. Thirty-six subjects (20 women, mean age 19.3 years) treated in childhood or adolescence for bacterial meningitis, and 25 controls (13 women, mean age 25.1 years) performed posturography with eyes open and closed under unperturbed and perturbed standing. The meningitis subjects were screened for subjective vertigo symptoms using a questionnaire, clinically tested with headshake and head thrust test, as well as their hearing was evaluated. Meningitis subjects were significantly more unstable than controls during unperturbed (p≤0.014) and perturbed standing, though while perturbed only with eyes open in anteroposterior direction (p = 0.034) whereas in lateral direction both with eyes open and closed (pMeningitis subjects had poorer adaption ability to balance perturbations especially with eyes open, and they frequently reported symptoms of unsteadiness (88% of the subjects) and dizziness (81%), which was found significantly correlated to objectively decreased stability. Out of the 36 subjects only 3 had unilateral hearing impairment. Hence, survivors of childhood bacterial meningitis may suffer long-term disorders affecting postural control, and would greatly benefit if these common late effects became generally known so treatments can be developed and applied. PMID:25405756

  14. Exposure to and recall of violence reduce short-term memory and cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogliacino, Francesco; Grimalda, Gianluca; Ortoleva, Pietro; Ring, Patrick

    2017-08-08

    Previous research has investigated the effects of violence and warfare on individuals' well-being, mental health, and individual prosociality and risk aversion. This study establishes the short- and long-term effects of exposure to violence on short-term memory and aspects of cognitive control. Short-term memory is the ability to store information. Cognitive control is the capacity to exert inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. Both have been shown to affect positively individual well-being and societal development. We sampled Colombian civilians who were exposed either to urban violence or to warfare more than a decade earlier. We assessed exposure to violence through either the urban district-level homicide rate or self-reported measures. Before undertaking cognitive tests, a randomly selected subset of our sample was asked to recall emotions of anxiety and fear connected to experiences of violence, whereas the rest recalled joyful or emotionally neutral experiences. We found that higher exposure to violence was associated with lower short-term memory abilities and lower cognitive control in the group recalling experiences of violence, whereas it had no effect in the other group. This finding demonstrates that exposure to violence, even if a decade earlier, can hamper cognitive functions, but only among individuals actively recalling emotional states linked with such experiences. A laboratory experiment conducted in Germany aimed to separate the effect of recalling violent events from the effect of emotions of fear and anxiety. Both factors had significant negative effects on cognitive functions and appeared to be independent from each other.

  15. Portion controlled ready-to-eat meal replacement is associated with short term weight loss: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyan, Rebecca; Lokesh, Deepa P; D'Souza, Ninoshka; Priscilla, Divya J; Peris, Chandni Halcyon; Selvam, Sumithra; Kurpad, Anura V

    2017-01-01

    Strategies to prevent and treat overweight/obesity are urgently needed. This study assessed the effect of a short-term intake of ready-to-eat cereal on body weight and waist circumference of overweight/obese individuals in comparison to a control group. A randomized, controlled 2-arm trial was carried out on 101 overweight/obese (Body Mass Index - 29.2±2.4 kg/m2) females aged 18 to 44 years, at St. John's Medical College Hospital. The intervention group received a low fat, ready to eat cereal, replacing two meals/day for two weeks. The control group was provided with standard dietary guidelines for weight loss and energy requirements for both groups were calculated similarly. Anthropometric, dietary, appetite and health status assessments were carried out at baseline and at the end of two weeks. At the end of two weeks, the mean reductions in body weight and waist circumference were significantly greater in the intervention group, -0.53 kg; 95% CI (-0.86 to -0.19) for body weight and -1.39 cm; 95% CI (-1.78, -0.99) for waist circumference. The intervention group had a significantly higher increase in dietary intakes of certain vitamins, fiber and sugar, and significantly higher reductions in total and polyunsaturated fats and sodium intakes, as compared to the control group (peat cereal could be effective for short-term weight loss, with some improvements in the nutrient intake profile. However, studies of longer duration are needed.

  16. Assessment of long-term leaching from waste incineration air-pollution-control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Mosbæk, Hans; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of long-term leaching from MSWI air-pollution-control (APC) residues is discussed with respect to use in environmental impact assessment, such as life-cycle assessment (LCA). A method was proposed for estimating leaching as a function of the liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio in a long......-term perspective (L/S 5000l/kg). Data for changes in residue pH as a function of L/S was used in combination with pH dependent leaching data to predict leachate concentrations of Al, Ca, Cd, Ba, Mg, Ni, Pb, S, Pb, V and Zn as a function of L/S. Mass balance calculations were used to determine the element fractions...... leached with respect to L/S. The estimated long-term leaching from a semi-dry residue and a fly ash was compared with short-term leaching determined by batch tests at L/S 10l/kg, both carbonated and non-carbonated versions of the residues were investigated. Generally, very high L/S ratios above 2000l...

  17. Taxonomic and developmental aspects of radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, F.L.; Anderson, S.L.

    1996-11-01

    Considerable information is available on the effects of radioactivity on adult and early life stages of organisms. The preponderance of data is on mortality after a single irradiation with relatively high doses. Unfortunately, because experiments were carried out under different conditions and for different time periods, the validity of comparing the results from different laxonomic groups is questionable. In general, the conclusions are that there is a relationship (1) between radioresistance to high doses of acute radiation and taxonomy of the organism, primitive forms being more radioresistant than complex vertebrates and (2) between radiosensitivity and developmental stage, early life stages being more sensitive than later stages. The first conclusion may be related to the capability of the organism to repopulate cells and to differentiate and redifferentiate them; the second to the rate of cellular division and to the degree of differentiation. In question, however, is the relevance of the responses from high levels of acute radiation to that of the responses to long-term exposure to low levels of radiation, which are ecologically of more interest. Data from studies of the effects of acute and chronic exposure on development of gametes and zygotes indicate that, for some fishes and invertebrates, responses at the cellular and molecular levels show effect levels comparable to those observed in some mammals. Acute doses between 0,05 and 0.5Cy and dose rates between 0.02 to 0.2mCy/h appear to define critical ranges in which detrimental effects on fertility are first observed in a variety of radiosensitive organisms. To better understand inherent radiosensitivity, we need more information on the ability of cells to repopulate and differentiate and to prevent or repair damage to biological critical molecules, such as DNA, because these factors may alter significantly organisms'' responses to radiation

  18. Taxonomic and developmental aspects of radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, F.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Anderson, S.L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Considerable information is available on the effects of radioactivity on adult and early life stages of organisms. The preponderance of data is on mortality after a single irradiation with relatively high doses. Unfortunately, because experiments were carried out under different conditions and for different time periods, the validity of comparing the results from different laxonomic groups is questionable. In general, the conclusions are that there is a relationship (1) between radioresistance to high doses of acute radiation and taxonomy of the organism, primitive forms being more radioresistant than complex vertebrates and (2) between radiosensitivity and developmental stage, early life stages being more sensitive than later stages. The first conclusion may be related to the capability of the organism to repopulate cells and to differentiate and redifferentiate them; the second to the rate of cellular division and to the degree of differentiation. In question, however, is the relevance of the responses from high levels of acute radiation to that of the responses to long-term exposure to low levels of radiation, which are ecologically of more interest. Data from studies of the effects of acute and chronic exposure on development of gametes and zygotes indicate that, for some fishes and invertebrates, responses at the cellular and molecular levels show effect levels comparable to those observed in some mammals. Acute doses between 0,05 and 0.5Cy and dose rates between 0.02 to 0.2mCy/h appear to define critical ranges in which detrimental effects on fertility are first observed in a variety of radiosensitive organisms. To better understand inherent radiosensitivity, we need more information on the ability of cells to repopulate and differentiate and to prevent or repair damage to biological critical molecules, such as DNA, because these factors may alter significantly organisms` responses to radiation.

  19. Long-term leaching from MSWI air-pollution-control residues: Leaching characterization and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyks, Jiri; Astrup, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    Long-term leaching of Ca, Fe, Mg, K, Na, S, Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mo, Sb, Si, Sri, Sr, Ti, V, P, Cl, and dissolved organic carbon from two different municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) air-pollution-control residues was monitored during 24 months of column percolat......Long-term leaching of Ca, Fe, Mg, K, Na, S, Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mo, Sb, Si, Sri, Sr, Ti, V, P, Cl, and dissolved organic carbon from two different municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) air-pollution-control residues was monitored during 24 months of column...... percolation experiments; liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratios of 200-250 L/kg corresponding to more than 10,000 years in a conventional landfill were reached. Less than 2% of the initially present As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, and Sb had leached during the Course of the experiments. Concentrations of Cd, Fe, Mg, Hg, Mn, Ni, Co......, Sn, Ti, and P were generally bellow 1 mu g/L; overall less than 1% of their mass leached. Column leaching data were further used in a two-step geochemical modeling in PHREEQC in order to (i) identify solubility controlling minerals and (ii) evaluate their interactions in a water-percolated column...

  20. Integrating Modeling and Monitoring to Provide Long-Term Control of Contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogwell, Th.

    2009-01-01

    An introduction is presented of the types of problems that exist for long-term control of radionuclides at DOE sites. A breakdown of the distributions at specific sites is given, together with the associated difficulties. A paradigm for remediation showing the integration of monitoring with modeling is presented. It is based on a feedback system that allows for the monitoring to act as principal sensors in a control system. Currently the establishment of a very prescriptive monitoring program fails to have a mechanism for improving models and improving control of the contaminants. The resulting system can be optimized to improve performance. Optimizing monitoring automatically entails linking the monitoring with modeling. If monitoring designs were required to be more efficient, thus requiring optimization, then the monitoring automatically becomes linked to modeling. Records of decision could be written to accommodate revisions in monitoring as better modeling evolves. The technical pieces of the required paradigm are already available; they just need to be implemented and applied to solve the long-term control of the contaminants. An integration of the various parts of the system is presented. Each part is described, and examples are given. References are given to other projects which bring together similar elements in systems for the control of contaminants. Trends are given for the development of the technical features of a robust system. Examples of monitoring methods for specific sites are given. The examples are used to illustrate how such a system would work. Examples of technology needs are presented. Finally, other examples of integrated modeling-monitoring approaches are presented. (authors)

  1. Risk Assessment and Control through Countermeasure System Iplementation for Long-term Crew Exposure to Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernand, Jeremy M.

    2004-01-01

    Experience with the International Space Station (ISS) program demonstrates the degree to which engineering design and operational solutions must protect crewmembers from health risks due to long-term exposure to the microgravity environment. Risks to safety and health due to degradation in the microgravity environment include crew inability to complete emergency or nominal activities, increased risk of injury, and inability to complete safe return to the ground due to reduced strength or embrittled bones. These risks without controls slowly increase in probability for the length of the mission and become more significant for increasing mission durations. Countermeasures to microgravity include hardware systems that place a crewmember s body under elevated stress to produce an effect similar to daily exposure to gravity. The ISS countermeasure system is predominately composed of customized exercise machines. Historical treatment of microgravity countermeasure systems as medical research experiments unintentionally reduced the foreseen importance and therefore the capability of the systems to function in a long-term operational role. Long-term hazardous effects and steadily increasing operational risks due to non-functional countermeasure equipment require a more rigorous design approach and incorporation of redundancy into seemingly non- mission-critical hardware systems. Variations in the rate of health degradation and responsiveness to countermeasures among the crew population drastically increase the challenge for design requirements development and verification of the appropriate risk control strategy. The long-term nature of the hazards and severe limits on logistical re-supply mass, volume and frequency complicates assessment of hardware availability and verification of an adequate maintenance and sparing plan. Design achievement of medically defined performance requirements by microgravity countermeasure systems and incorporation of adequate failure tolerance

  2. Treatment timing for functional jaw orthopaedics followed by fixed appliances: a controlled long-term study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavoni, Chiara; Lombardo, Elisabetta Cretella; Lione, Roberta; Faltin, Kurt; McNamara, James A; Cozza, Paola; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the role of treatment timing on long-term dentoskeletal effects of Class II treatment with removable functional appliances followed by full-fixed appliance therapy. A group of 46 patients (23 females and 23 males) with Class II malocclusion treated consecutively with either Bionator or Activator, followed by fixed appliances was compared with a matched control group of 31 subjects (16 females and 15 males) with untreated Class II malocclusion. The treated sample was evaluated at T1, start of treatment (mean age: 9.9 ± 1.3 years); T2, end of functional treatment and prior to fixed appliances (mean age: 11.9 ± 1.3 years); and T3, long-term observation (mean age: 18.3 ± 2.1 years). The treated and the control samples were divided into pre-pubertal and pubertal groups according to skeletal maturity observed at the start of treatment. Statistical comparisons were performed with independent sample t-tests. When treatment was initiated before puberty, Class II correction was mostly confined to the dentoalveolar changes, with significant improvements of both overjet and molar relationships. On the other hand, treatment with the outset at puberty produced significant long-term improvement of sagittal skeletal relationships, which were mainly sustained by mandibular changes. Treatment with removable functional appliances (Bionator or Activator) followed by full-fixed appliances produced significant skeletal long-term changes when it begins at puberty. Prepubertal Class II treatment results primarily in dentoalveolar changes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Modelling of long-term and short-term mechanisms of arterial pressure control in the cardiovascular system: an object-oriented approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez de Canete, J; Luque, J; Barbancho, J; Munoz, V

    2014-04-01

    A mathematical model that provides an overall description of both the short- and long-term mechanisms of arterial pressure regulation is presented. Short-term control is exerted through the baroreceptor reflex while renal elimination plays a role in long-term control. Both mechanisms operate in an integrated way over the compartmental model of the cardiovascular system. The whole system was modelled in MODELICA, which uses a hierarchical object-oriented modelling strategy, under the DYMOLA simulation environment. The performance of the controlled system was analysed by simulation in light of the existing hypothesis and validation tests previously performed with physiological data, demonstrating the effectiveness of both regulation mechanisms under physiological and pathological conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Influence on glycemic control of improved diabetic gastroparesis by long-term cisapride therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, K; Tanabe, S; Mitsuhashi, T; Saigenji, K

    1995-10-01

    To investigate the effect on glycemic control of improving diabetic gastroparesis, we evaluated symptoms (scored), gastric motor functions (solid and liquid gastric emptying studies and electrogastrography), and glycemic control in 11 patients with diabetic gastroparesis (5 men, 6 women, 50.4 +/- 4.5 years old) before and after treatment with cisapride (15 mg/day p.o., 12 weeks). None of the patients had organic abnormalities on gastrointestinal endoscopy. The dysmotility symptom score (maximum: 18) on cisapride significantly improved from 13.1 to 4.0 (p instant noodles labeled with 37 MBq (1 mCi) technetium-99m (both p < 0.05). Liquid gastric emptying, evaluated using a sulfamethizole technique, also improved but not significantly. Electrogastrography revealed no significant changes after treatment, but the postprandial rate of normal frequency waves tended to increase. Glycemic control was assessed based on HbA1C, fructosamine and M value. There were no significant changes in glycemic control after treatment with cisapride. We conclude that long-term administration of cisapride reduced dysmotility symptoms and improved solid and liquid gastric emptying without adversely affecting glycemic control.

  5. Design and development of microbioreactors for long-term cell culture in controlled oxygen microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaci, Hasan E; Devendra, Raghavendra; Smith, Quinton; Gerecht, Sharon; Drazer, German

    2012-02-01

    The ability to control the oxygen level to which cells are exposed in tissue culture experiments is crucial for many applications. Here, we design, develop and test a microbioreactor (MBR) for long-term cell culture studies with the capability to accurately control and continuously monitor the dissolved oxygen (DO) level in the cell microenvironment. In addition, the DO level can be controlled independently from other cues, such as the viscous shear-stress acting on the cells. We first analyze the transport of oxygen in the proposed device and determine the materials and dimensions that are compatible with uniform oxygen tension and low shear-stress at the cell level. The device is also designed to culture a statistically significant number of cells. We use fully transparent materials and the overall design of the device is compatible with live-cell imaging. The proposed system includes real-time read-out of actual DO levels, is simple to fabricate at low cost, and can be easily expanded to control the concentration of other microenvironmental solutes. We performed control experiments in the absence of cells to demonstrate that the MBR can be used to accurately modulate DO levels ranging from atmospheric level to 1%, both under no flow and perfusion conditions. We also demonstrate cancer cell attachment and viability within the MBR. The proposed MBR offers the unprecedented capability to perform on-line measurement and analysis of DO levels in the microenvironment of adherent cultures and to correlate them with various cellular responses.

  6. Taxonomic Diversity of Fungi Associated with Some PCN Populations from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Oro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased content of pesticides in food chain resulted in using microorganisms asagents of biological control. The potato cyst nematodes (PCN - Globodera pallida and G.rostochiensis belong to the group of the most important parasites - the quarantine organisms.The external and internal area of a cyst harbor numerous fungal and bacterial species.The aim of this study was to identify antagonistic fungi associated with some PCN populationsfrom Serbia. Fungal antagonists of potato cyst nematodes have not been previouslyinvestigated in our country. The diversity of PCN fungal antagonists is not reflected only atthe species level but also at the level of higher taxonomic categories.

  7. Air Traffic Controllers’ Long-Term Speech-in-Noise Training Effects: A Control Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaballos, María T.P.; Plasencia, Daniel P.; González, María L.Z.; de Miguel, Angel R.; Macías, Ángel R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Speech perception in noise relies on the capacity of the auditory system to process complex sounds using sensory and cognitive skills. The possibility that these can be trained during adulthood is of special interest in auditory disorders, where speech in noise perception becomes compromised. Air traffic controllers (ATC) are constantly exposed to radio communication, a situation that seems to produce auditory learning. The objective of this study has been to quantify this effect. Subjects and Methods: 19 ATC and 19 normal hearing individuals underwent a speech in noise test with three signal to noise ratios: 5, 0 and −5 dB. Noise and speech were presented through two different loudspeakers in azimuth position. Speech tokes were presented at 65 dB SPL, while white noise files were at 60, 65 and 70 dB respectively. Results: Air traffic controllers outperform the control group in all conditions [P<0.05 in ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests]. Group differences were largest in the most difficult condition, SNR=−5 dB. However, no correlation between experience and performance were found for any of the conditions tested. The reason might be that ceiling performance is achieved much faster than the minimum experience time recorded, 5 years, although intrinsic cognitive abilities cannot be disregarded. Discussion: ATC demonstrated enhanced ability to hear speech in challenging listening environments. This study provides evidence that long-term auditory training is indeed useful in achieving better speech-in-noise understanding even in adverse conditions, although good cognitive qualities are likely to be a basic requirement for this training to be effective. Conclusion: Our results show that ATC outperform the control group in all conditions. Thus, this study provides evidence that long-term auditory training is indeed useful in achieving better speech-in-noise understanding even in adverse conditions. PMID:27991470

  8. Randomized controlled trial evaluating the temporal effects of high-intensity exercise on learning, short-term and long-term memory, and prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Emily; Sng, Eveleen; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2017-11-01

    The broader purpose of this study was to examine the temporal effects of high-intensity exercise on learning, short-term and long-term retrospective memory and prospective memory. Among a sample of 88 young adult participants, 22 were randomized into one of four different groups: exercise before learning, control group, exercise during learning, and exercise after learning. The retrospective assessments (learning, short-term and long-term memory) were assessed using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Long-term memory including a 20-min and 24-hr follow-up assessment. Prospective memory was assessed using a time-based procedure by having participants contact (via phone) the researchers at a follow-up time period. The exercise stimulus included a 15-min bout of progressive maximal exertion treadmill exercise. High-intensity exercise prior to memory encoding (vs. exercise during memory encoding or consolidation) was effective in enhancing long-term memory (for both 20-min and 24-h follow-up assessments). We did not observe a differential temporal effect of high-intensity exercise on short-term memory (immediate post-memory encoding), learning or prospective memory. The timing of high-intensity exercise may play an important role in facilitating long-term memory. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Temporal changes in taxonomic and functional diversity of fish assemblages downstream from mountaintop mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Chambers, Douglas B.

    2014-01-01

    Mountaintop mining (MTM) affects chemical, physical, and hydrological properties of receiving streams, but the long-term consequences for fish-assemblage structure and function are poorly understood. We sampled stream fish assemblages using electrofishing techniques in MTM exposure sites and reference sites within the Guyandotte River basin, USA, during 2010–2011. We calculated indices of taxonomic diversity (species richness, abundance, Shannon diversity) and functional diversity (functional richness, functional evenness, functional divergence) to compare exposure and reference assemblages between seasons (spring and autumn) and across years (1999–2011). We based temporal comparisons on 2 sites that were sampled during 1999–2001 by Stauffer and Ferreri (2002). Exposure assemblages had lower taxonomic and functional diversity than reference assemblages or simulated assemblages that accounted for random variation. Differences in taxonomic composition between reference and exposure assemblages were associated with conductivity and aqueous Se concentrations. Exposure assemblages had fewer species, lower abundances, and less biomass than reference assemblages across years and seasons. Green Sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) and Creek Chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) became numerically dominant in exposure assemblages over time because of their persistence and losses of other taxa. In contrast, species richness increased over time in reference assemblages, a result that may indicate recovery from drought. Mean individual biomass increased as fish density decreased and most obligate invertivores were apparently extirpated at MTM exposure sites. Effects of MTM were not related to physical-habitat conditions but were associated with water-quality variables, which may limit quality and availability of benthic macroinvertebrate prey. Simulations revealed effects of MTM that could not be attributed to random variation in fish assemblage structure.

  10. Short-term airing by natural ventilation - modeling and control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perino, M; Heiselberg, P

    2009-10-01

    The need to improve the energy efficiency of buildings requires new and more efficient ventilation systems. It has been demonstrated that innovative operating concepts that make use of natural ventilation seem to be more appreciated by occupants. This kind of system frequently integrates traditional mechanical ventilation components with natural ventilation devices, such as motorized windows and louvers. Among the various ventilation strategies that are currently available, buoyancy driven single-sided natural ventilation has proved to be very effective and can provide high air change rates for temperature and IAQ control. However, in order to promote a wider applications of these systems, an improvement in the knowledge of their working principles and the availability of new design and simulation tools is necessary. In this context, the paper analyses and presents the results of a research that was aimed at developing and validating numerical models for the analysis of buoyancy driven single-sided natural ventilation systems. Once validated, these models can be used to optimize control strategies in order to achieve satisfactory indoor comfort conditions and IAQ. Practical Implications Numerical and experimental analyses have proved that short-term airing by intermittent ventilation is an effective measure to satisfactorily control IAQ. Different control strategies have been investigated to optimize the capabilities of the systems. The proposed zonal model has provided good performances and could be adopted as a design tool, while CFD simulations can be profitably used for detailed studies of the pollutant concentration distribution in a room and to address local discomfort problems.

  11. Long-term training modifies the modular structure and organization of walking balance control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawers, Andrew; Allen, Jessica L; Ting, Lena H

    2015-12-01

    How does long-term training affect the neural control of movements? Here we tested the hypothesis that long-term training leading to skilled motor performance alters muscle coordination during challenging, as well as nominal everyday motor behaviors. Using motor module (a.k.a., muscle synergy) analyses, we identified differences in muscle coordination patterns between professionally trained ballet dancers (experts) and untrained novices that accompanied differences in walking balance proficiency assessed using a challenging beam-walking test. During beam walking, we found that experts recruited more motor modules than novices, suggesting an increase in motor repertoire size. Motor modules in experts had less muscle coactivity and were more consistent than in novices, reflecting greater efficiency in muscle output. Moreover, the pool of motor modules shared between beam and overground walking was larger in experts compared with novices, suggesting greater generalization of motor module function across multiple behaviors. These differences in motor output between experts and novices could not be explained by differences in kinematics, suggesting that they likely reflect differences in the neural control of movement following years of training rather than biomechanical constraints imposed by the activity or musculoskeletal structure and function. Our results suggest that to learn challenging new behaviors, we may take advantage of existing motor modules used for related behaviors and sculpt them to meet the demands of a new behavior. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Force control tasks with pure haptic feedback promote short-term focused attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dangxiao; Zhang, Yuru; Yang, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Gaofeng; Yang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Focused attention has great impact on our quality of life. Our learning, social skills and even happiness are closely intertwined with our capacity for focused attention. Attention promotion is replete with examples of training-induced increases in attention capability, most of which rely on visual and auditory stimulation. Pure haptic stimulation to increase attention capability is rarely found. We show that accurate force control tasks with pure haptic feedback enhance short-term focused attention. Participants were trained by a force control task in which information from visual and auditory channels was blocked, and only haptic feedback was provided. The trainees were asked to exert a target force within a pre-defined force tolerance for a specific duration. The tolerance was adaptively modified to different levels of difficulty to elicit full participant engagement. Three attention tests showed significant changes in different aspects of focused attention in participants who had been trained as compared with those who had not, thereby illustrating the role of haptic-based sensory-motor tasks in the promotion of short-term focused attention. The findings highlight the potential value of haptic stimuli in brain plasticity and serve as a new tool to extend existing computer games for cognitive enhancement.

  13. A controlled survey of less typical long-term consequences after an extensive waterborne epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Janne; Laine, Outi; Lumio, Jukka; Antonen, Jaakko; Toikkanen, Salla; Virtanen, Mikko J; Kuusi, Markku

    2017-02-21

    Extensive backflow of treated wastewater caused household water contamination in a Finnish town in 2007. The drinking water of 9 500 residents became heavily polluted with faecal microbes, resulting in a large gastroenteritis epidemic. Cases of reactive arthritis, milder joint symptoms and prolonged gastrointestinal symptoms were observed after the outbreak. A follow-up survey was performed to study less familiar long-term health consequences within a year from the outbreak. The contaminated group comprised a sample of residents of the area with polluted water supply (N = 323) and the control group a sample of residents in a nearby municipality (N = 186). The presence of 20 general symptoms or complaints was inquired by a mail survey. Quarterly prevalence of each symptom or complaint was measured. Twelve of these proceeded to further analysis. The response rate was 53% (323/615) in the contaminated group and 54% (186/343) in the control group. Rash, eye irritation, heartburn and weight loss were more prevalent in the contaminated group during the first year quarter. In the last year quarter, only eye irritation was significantly more common in the contaminated group. The excess prevalence of four complaints at the first year quarter can be explained by acute gastroenteritis or intensive water chlorination. The excess prevalence of eye irritation at the fourth year quarter cannot be explained by chlorination anymore but might be a sign of co-existing reactive joint disease. In general, long-term consequences of the outbreak can be considered minor in terms of the surveyed symptoms or complaints.

  14. Taxonomic Studies on the Genus Arnebia Forssk. (Boraginaceae in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ambrish

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Arnebia Forssk. in India is taxonomically studied based on field surveys, collection of live plants, consultation of herbarium and literature. The genus is represented in India by 10 taxa including 8 species and 2 varieties viz., Arnebia bhattacharyyae K. Ambrish & S.K. Srivast., A. benthamii (Wall. ex G. Don I.M. Johnst., A. euchroma ( Royle I.M. Johnst., A. guttata Bunge, A. hispidissima (Sieber ex Lehm. A.DC., A. linearifolia A.DC., A. griffithii Boiss., A. nandadeviensis K. Chandra Sek. & R.S. Rawal , A. euchroma var. grandis (Bornm. Kazmi and A. guttata var. thomsonii (C.B. Clarke Kazmi, distributed in Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand in North-West Himalaya to Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Rajasthan in India. Dichotomous keys to all the species in India along with taxonomic description, distribution, illustrations and images of most of the species including type and their economic importance are provided.

  15. A taxonomic synopsis of Altingiaceae with nine new combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Ickert-Bond

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic synopsis of the Altingiaceae is presented, including the taxonomic enumeration and distribution of 15 recognized species based on studies of 1,500 specimens from 24 herbaria throughout the distributional range of the taxa. Previous phylogenetic analyses based on several molecular markers have shown that Altingia and Semiliquidambar are nested within Liquidambar. All Altingia and Semiliquidambar species are now formally transferred to Liquidambar, which has the nomenclatural priority. The following nine new combinations are herein made: Liquidambar cambodiana (Lecomte Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, L. caudata (H. T. Chang Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, L. chingii (Metcalf Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, L. gracilipes (Hemsl. Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, L. multinervis (Cheng Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, L. obovata (Merrill & Chun Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, L. poilanei (Tardieu Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, L. siamensis (Craib Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, and L. yunnanensis (Rehder & Wilson Ickert-Bond & J. Wen.

  16. Partial migration in fishes: definitions, methodologies and taxonomic distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, B B; Skov, C; Hulthén, K

    2012-01-01

    published. In addition, previous work and synthesis has been hampered by a varied lexicon associated with this phenomenon in fishes. In this review, definitions and important concepts in partial migration research are discussed, and a classification system of the different forms of partial migration......Partial migration, where populations are composed of both migratory and resident individuals, is extremely widespread across the animal kingdom. Researchers studying fish movements have long recognized that many fishes are partial migrants, however, no detailed taxonomic review has ever been...... in fishes introduced. Next, a detailed taxonomic overview of partial migration in this group is considered. Finally, methodological approaches that ichthyologists can use to study this fascinating phenomenon are reviewed. Partial migration is more widespread amongst fishes than previously thought, and given...

  17. Standardizing metadata and taxonomic identification in metabarcoding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedersoo, Leho; Ramirez, Kelly S; Nilsson, R Henrik; Kaljuvee, Aivi; Kõljalg, Urmas; Abarenkov, Kessy

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing-based metabarcoding studies produce vast amounts of ecological data, but a lack of consensus on standardization of metadata and how to refer to the species recovered severely hampers reanalysis and comparisons among studies. Here we propose an automated workflow covering data submission, compression, storage and public access to allow easy data retrieval and inter-study communication. Such standardized and readily accessible datasets facilitate data management, taxonomic comparisons and compilation of global metastudies.

  18. La confusa taxonomía de Cryptosporidium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Pérez-Cordón

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Los últimos descubrimientos en la biología y filogenética de Cryptosporidium refuerzan la necesidad de una exhaustiva revisión del ciclo de vida y la taxonomía de este parásito. Tanto futuros estudios de cultivo in vitro e in vivo así como estudios moleculares y genéticos permitirán avanzar en el profundo conocimiento de este interesante parásito.

  19. A taxonomic revision of the genus Rafnia Thunb. (Fabaceae, Crotalarieae)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Sc. A taxonomic revision of the genus Rafnia Thunb. (= Oedmannia Thunb., Vascoa DC., Pelecynthis E. Mey), a relatively poorly known papilionoid legume genus, is presented. Rafnia (family Fabaceae, tribe Crotalarieae) is subendemic to the fynbos region of the Western and Eastern Cape Provinces of South Africa, with one species having a distribution area reaching into KwaZulu-Natal. The species delimitation has been unsatisfactory, and the relationships among the taxa uncertain. Rafnia is ...

  20. High taxonomic variability despite stable functional structure across microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louca, Stilianos; Jacques, Saulo M S; Pires, Aliny P F; Leal, Juliana S; Srivastava, Diane S; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Farjalla, Vinicius F; Doebeli, Michael

    2016-12-05

    Understanding the processes that are driving variation of natural microbial communities across space or time is a major challenge for ecologists. Environmental conditions strongly shape the metabolic function of microbial communities; however, other processes such as biotic interactions, random demographic drift or dispersal limitation may also influence community dynamics. The relative importance of these processes and their effects on community function remain largely unknown. To address this uncertainty, here we examined bacterial and archaeal communities in replicate 'miniature' aquatic ecosystems contained within the foliage of wild bromeliads. We used marker gene sequencing to infer the taxonomic composition within nine metabolic functional groups, and shotgun environmental DNA sequencing to estimate the relative abundances of these groups. We found that all of the bromeliads exhibited remarkably similar functional community structures, but that the taxonomic composition within individual functional groups was highly variable. Furthermore, using statistical analyses, we found that non-neutral processes, including environmental filtering and potentially biotic interactions, at least partly shaped the composition within functional groups and were more important than spatial dispersal limitation and demographic drift. Hence both the functional structure and taxonomic composition within functional groups of natural microbial communities may be shaped by non-neutral and roughly separate processes.

  1. Effects of long-term stimulation of textured insoles on postural control in health elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annino, Giuseppe; Palazzo, Francesco; Alwardat, Mohammad S; Manzi, Vincenzo; Lebone, Pietro; Tancredi, Virginia; Sinibaldi Salimei, Paola; Caronti, Alfio; Panzarino, Michele; Padua, Elvira

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to confirm the effects of long term (chronic) stimulating surface (textured insole) on body balance of elderly people. Twenty-four healthy elderly individuals were randomly distributed in two groups: control and experimental (67.75±6.04 years, 74.55±12.14 kg, 163.7±8.55 cm, 27.75±3.04 kg/m2). Over one month, control group (CG) used smooth insoles and the experimental group (ExG) used textured insoles every day. Velocity net (Vnet), anteroposterior (VA/P), mediolateral (VM/L) and sway path of CoP were assessed in different eye conditions before and after the experimental procedure. A mixed between-within subject ANOVA was conducted to assess the impact of soft and textured insoles and two visual conditions (vision vs. no vision) across two time periods (α≤0.05). The results showed any statistical difference between groups in each parameter assessed in this study. CoP, Vnet and VM/L in the experimental group showed a statistically significant effect of textured insoles only without vision (CoP: P=0.002; η2=0.35), Vnet P=0.02; η2=0.24, VM/L P=0.04; η2=0.177) whereas VA/P showed no statistically significant effect in the same group and condition. There was no significant effect in Vnet, VA/P, VM/L and COP in control group that used smooth insole for both eye conditions. The results confirm that postural stability improved in healthy elderly individuals, increasing somatosensory information's from feet plantar mechanoreceptors. Long term stimulation with textured insoles decreased CoP, Vnet and VM/L with eyes closed.

  2. Short-term hypertension management in community is associated with long-term risk of stroke and total death in China: A community controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zengwu; Hao, Guang; Wang, Xin; Wang, Wen; Chen, Weiwei; Zhu, Manlu

    2016-11-01

    It is not fully clear whether the effect of short-term management in community can reduce the long-term risk of stroke OBJECTIVES:: To evaluate whether short-term hypertension management is associated with long-term incidence of stroke and total death in community health centers in China. Community controlled trail. Six community health centers (4 active, 2 control) in China, patients with hypertension. Patients were treated with normally therapy method. Patients were treated oriented by the Guideline for hypertension management. Two centers (Hebei and Zhejiang) from the Hypertension Control in Community (HCC) Project, which was conducted from 2005 to 2008, were randomly selected for this study. Four thousand hypertensive patients from these centers, who were under management for one year in the baseline, were followed up in 2013. The electronic health record system (2005-2008) was used to identify 2000 hypertensive patients, who were not included in HCC but lived in comparable community health center in the same province, as the control group. All baseline and follow-up data were collected using standardized questionnaires for stroke outcomes. Stroke. Of the 6000 participants, 3787 (63.1%) were eligible for analysis. At the time of follow-up, the average BP was kept in the lower level than that in baseline, and the control rate was 59.3%. After propensity-score matching, 110 strokes (2.0% vs 4.6%) and 141 deaths (1.4% vs 3.8%) were noted in the matched intervention and control groups (1078 pairs), respectively. Patients in the intervention group were less likely to experience a stroke or die than those in the control group (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.26-0.62, P stroke in hypertensive patients.

  3. Decayed, missing and filled teeth and dental anomalies in long term survived leukemic children: a prospective controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Lauritano, D; Petruzzi, M; Baldoni, M

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this prospective controlled study is the comparison between long-term children survived leukaemia and a control group in terms of the decayed, missing or filled permanent teeth (DMFT) and dental anomalies. Study design: Fifty-two long term children survived leukaemia, aged from 8 to 15 years (27 females, 25 males; mean age 11.5 years) were evaluated for the possible effects of the anti-leukaemic therapy on dental development and compared to a control group of 52 healthy ...

  4. A thermal control system for long-term survival of scientific instruments on lunar surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, K; Iijima, Y; Sakatani, N; Otake, H; Tanaka, S

    2014-03-01

    A thermal control system is being developed for scientific instruments placed on the lunar surface. This thermal control system, Lunar Mission Survival Module (MSM), was designed for scientific instruments that are planned to be operated for over a year in the future Japanese lunar landing mission SELENE-2. For the long-term operations, the lunar surface is a severe environment because the soil (regolith) temperature varies widely from nighttime -200 degC to daytime 100 degC approximately in which space electronics can hardly survive. The MSM has a tent of multi-layered insulators and performs a "regolith mound". Temperature of internal devices is less variable just like in the lunar underground layers. The insulators retain heat in the regolith soil in the daylight, and it can keep the device warm in the night. We conducted the concept design of the lunar survival module, and estimated its potential by a thermal mathematical model on the assumption of using a lunar seismometer designed for SELENE-2. Thermal vacuum tests were also conducted by using a thermal evaluation model in order to estimate the validity of some thermal parameters assumed in the computed thermal model. The numerical and experimental results indicated a sufficient survivability potential of the concept of our thermal control system.

  5. A thermal control system for long-term survival of scientific instruments on lunar surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, K.; Iijima, Y.; Tanaka, S.; Sakatani, N.; Otake, H.

    2014-01-01

    A thermal control system is being developed for scientific instruments placed on the lunar surface. This thermal control system, Lunar Mission Survival Module (MSM), was designed for scientific instruments that are planned to be operated for over a year in the future Japanese lunar landing mission SELENE-2. For the long-term operations, the lunar surface is a severe environment because the soil (regolith) temperature varies widely from nighttime −200 degC to daytime 100 degC approximately in which space electronics can hardly survive. The MSM has a tent of multi-layered insulators and performs a “regolith mound”. Temperature of internal devices is less variable just like in the lunar underground layers. The insulators retain heat in the regolith soil in the daylight, and it can keep the device warm in the night. We conducted the concept design of the lunar survival module, and estimated its potential by a thermal mathematical model on the assumption of using a lunar seismometer designed for SELENE-2. Thermal vacuum tests were also conducted by using a thermal evaluation model in order to estimate the validity of some thermal parameters assumed in the computed thermal model. The numerical and experimental results indicated a sufficient survivability potential of the concept of our thermal control system

  6. A controlled investigation of continuing pain education for long-term care staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandehari, Omeed O; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Williams, Jaime; Thorpe, Lilian; Alfano, Dennis P; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina; Malloy, David C; Martin, Ronald R; Rahaman, Omar; Zwakhalen, Sandra M G; Carleton, R N; Hunter, Paulette V; Lix, Lisa M

    2013-01-01

    The underassessment and undertreatment of pain in residents of long-term care (LTC) facilities has been well documented. Gaps in staff knowledge and inaccurate beliefs have been identified as contributors. To investigate the effectiveness of an expert-based continuing education program in pain assessment⁄management for LTC staff. Participants included 131 LTC staff members who were randomly assigned to either an interactive pain education (PE) program, which addressed gaps in knowledge such as medication management, or an interactive control program consisting of general dementia education without a specific clinical focus. Participants attended three sessions, each lasting 3 h, and completed measures of pain-related knowledge and attitudes⁄beliefs before, immediately after and two weeks following the program. Focus groups were conducted with a subset of participants to gauge perception of the training program and barriers to implementing pain-related strategies. Analysis using ANOVA revealed that PE participants demonstrated larger gains compared with control participants with regard to pain knowledge and pain beliefs. Barriers to implementing pain-related strategies certainly exist. Nonetheless, qualitative analyses demonstrated that PE participants reported that they overcame many of these barriers and used pain management strategies four times more frequently than control participants. Contrary to previous research, the present study found that the interactive PE program was effective in changing pain beliefs and improving knowledge. Continuing PE in LTC has the potential to address knowledge gaps among front-line LTC providers.

  7. A thermal control system for long-term survival of scientific instruments on lunar surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, K., E-mail: ogawa@astrobio.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Complexity Science and Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Iijima, Y.; Tanaka, S. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Sakatani, N. [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Shonan Village, Hayama, Kanagawa (Japan); Otake, H. [JAXA Space Exploration Center, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    A thermal control system is being developed for scientific instruments placed on the lunar surface. This thermal control system, Lunar Mission Survival Module (MSM), was designed for scientific instruments that are planned to be operated for over a year in the future Japanese lunar landing mission SELENE-2. For the long-term operations, the lunar surface is a severe environment because the soil (regolith) temperature varies widely from nighttime −200 degC to daytime 100 degC approximately in which space electronics can hardly survive. The MSM has a tent of multi-layered insulators and performs a “regolith mound”. Temperature of internal devices is less variable just like in the lunar underground layers. The insulators retain heat in the regolith soil in the daylight, and it can keep the device warm in the night. We conducted the concept design of the lunar survival module, and estimated its potential by a thermal mathematical model on the assumption of using a lunar seismometer designed for SELENE-2. Thermal vacuum tests were also conducted by using a thermal evaluation model in order to estimate the validity of some thermal parameters assumed in the computed thermal model. The numerical and experimental results indicated a sufficient survivability potential of the concept of our thermal control system.

  8. Stochastic Power Control for Time-Varying Long-Term Fading Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambous Charalambos D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new time-varying (TV long-term fading (LTF channel model which captures both the space and time variations of wireless systems is developed. The proposed TV LTF model is based on a stochastic differential equation driven by Brownian motion. This model is more realistic than the static models usually encountered in the literature. It allows viewing the wireless channel as a dynamical system, thus enabling well-developed tools of adaptive and nonadaptive estimation and identification techniques to be applied to this class of problems. In contrast with the traditional models, the statistics of the proposed model are shown to be TV, but converge in steady state to their static counterparts. Moreover, optimal power control algorithms (PCAs based on the new model are proposed. A centralized PCA is shown to reduce to a simple linear programming problem if predictable power control strategies (PPCS are used. In addition, an iterative distributed stochastic PCA is used to solve for the optimization problem using stochastic approximations. The latter solely requires each mobile to know its received signal-to-interference ratio. Generalizations of the power control problem based on convex optimization techniques are provided if PPCS are not assumed. Numerical results show that there are potentially large gains to be achieved by using TV stochastic models, and the distributed stochastic PCA provides better power stability and consumption than the distributed deterministic PCA.

  9. Morphological variations caused by fixation techniques may lead to taxonomic confusion in Laeonereis (Polychaeta: Nereididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica M. Oliveira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The nereidid polychaete Laeonereis acuta (Treadwell, 1923 is either considered to be a valid species, or a synonym of Laeonereis culveri (Webster, 1879. The species epithet, acuta, refers to the acuminate anterior region of the body followed by a widening that is visible up to the 10th setiger. The relative width of the anterior region of the body, however, has been reported in the taxonomic literature as variable for Laeonereis Hartman, 1945, a genus known from the eastern coast of North America to Patagonia (southern South America. To test whether variations in this character are real, or whether they correspond to an artifact, we analyzed morphological changes associated with different anesthesia and fixation techniques regularly used to prepare specimens of Laeonereis from southern Brazil (formerly reported as L. acuta. Six treatments, including combinations of anesthetics and fixative agents, and a control, were evaluated in groups of 25 adult animals. A simple model II regression analysis on living specimens showed that the growth is approximately isometric. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the treatment effect on the ratio of peristome width: setiger 6 width. This ratio was smaller in non-anesthetized individuals, especially when prepared in formalin and freshwater. When anesthetized with menthol and fixed in formalin with sea water, individuals retained a shape that was closest to their in vivo shape. Consequently, our results suggest that fixation without prior anesthesia is not recommended for morphological and taxonomical studies. Since morphology and morphometrics of the anterior region are consistently influenced by preparation techniques, it is likely that inadequate fixation routines have introduced several errors in the taxonomic and ecological literature of Laeonereis.

  10. Taxonomic richness and abundance of cryptic peracarid crustaceans in the Puerto Morelos Reef National Park, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Veronica Monroy-Velázquez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims Cryptic peracarids are an important component of the coral reef fauna in terms of diversity and abundance, yet they have been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the taxonomic richness and abundance of cryptic peracarids in coral rubble in the Puerto Morelos Reef National Park, Mexico (PMRNP, and their relationship with depth. Methods Three reef sites were selected: (1 Bonanza, (2 Bocana, and (3 Jardines. At each site six kilograms of coral rubble were collected over four sampling periods at three depths: 3 m (back-reef, 6–8 m (fore-reef, and 10–12 m (fore-reef. Results A total of 8,887 peracarid crustaceans belonging to 200 taxa distributed over five orders and 63 families was obtained; 70% of the taxa were identified to species and 25% to genus level. Fifty species of those collected represent new records for the Mexican Caribbean Sea. Isopoda was the most speciose order while Tanaidacea was the most abundant. Discussion Cryptic peracarid taxonomic richness and abundance were related to depth with higher values of both parameters being found in the shallow (3 m back-reef, possibly due to a higher reef development and a greater accumulation of coral rubble produced during hurricanes. Peracarid data obtained in the present study can be used as a baseline for future monitoring programs in the PMRNP.

  11. Long-term Diet and Biomarker Changes after a Short-term Intervention among Hispanic Breast Cancer Survivors: The ¡Cocinar Para Su Salud! Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Heather; Ogden Gaffney, Ann; Aycinena, A Corina; Koch, Pam; Contento, Isobel; Karmally, Wahida; Richardson, John M; Shi, Zaixing; Lim, Emerson; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Santella, Regina M; Blaner, William S; Clugston, Robin D; Cremers, Serge; Pollak, Susan; Sirosh, Iryna; Crew, Katherine D; Maurer, Matthew; Kalinsky, Kevin; Hershman, Dawn L

    2016-11-01

    Among Hispanic breast cancer survivors, we examined the long-term effects of a short-term culturally based dietary intervention on increasing fruits/vegetables (F/V), decreasing fat, and changing biomarkers associated with breast cancer recurrence risk. Spanish-speaking women (n = 70) with a history of stage 0-III breast cancer who completed treatment were randomized to ¡Cocinar Para Su Salud! (n = 34), a culturally based 9-session program (24 hours over 12 weeks, including nutrition education, cooking classes, and food-shopping field trips), or a control group (n = 36, written dietary recommendations for breast cancer survivors). Diet recalls, fasting blood, and anthropometric measures were collected at baseline, 6, and 12 months. We report changes between groups at 12 months in dietary intake and biomarkers using 2-sample Wilcoxon t tests and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. At 12 months, the intervention group compared with the control group reported higher increases in mean daily F/V servings (total: +2.0 vs. -0.4; P Salud! program was effective at increasing long-term F/V intake in Hispanic breast cancer survivors and changed biomarkers associated with breast cancer recurrence risk. It is possible for short-term behavioral interventions to have long-term effects on behaviors and biomarkers in minority cancer patient populations. Results can inform future study designs. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(11); 1491-502. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Determining the amount of physical activity needed for long-term weight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wier, L. T.; Ayers, G. W.; Jackson, A. S.; Rossum, A. C.; Poston, W. S.; Foreyt, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prospectively the influence of habitual physical activity on body weight of men and women and to develop a model that defines the role of physical activity on longitudinal weight change. DESIGN AND SETTING: Occupational cohort study conducted for a mean of 5.5 y. SUBJECTS: A total of 496 (341 male and 155 female) NASA/Johnson Space Center employees who completed the 3 month education component of the employee health-related fitness program and remained involved for a minimum of 2 y. MEASUREMENTS: Body weights were measured at baseline (T1) and follow-up (T2), and habitual physical activity was obtained from the mean of multiple ratings of the 11-point (0-10) NASA Activity Scale (NAS) recorded quarterly between T1 and T2. Other measures included age, gender, VO(2 max) obtained from maximal treadmill testing, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage. RESULTS: Multiple regression demonstrated that mean NAS, T1 weight, aging and gender all influence long-term T2 weight. T1 age was significant for the men only. Independently, each increase in mean NAS significantly (Pmen (b=-0.91 kg; 95% CI:-1.4 to-0.42 kg) and women (b=-2.14 kg; 95% CI:-2.93 to-1.35 kg). Mean NAS had a greater effect on T2 weight as T1 weight increased, and the relationship was dose-dependent. CONCLUSIONS: Habitual physical activity is a significant source of long-term weight change. The use of self-reported activity level is helpful in predicting long-term weight changes and may be used by health care professionals when counseling patients about the value of physical activity for weight control.

  13. Metabolic Model-Based Integration of Microbiome Taxonomic and Metabolomic Profiles Elucidates Mechanistic Links between Ecological and Metabolic Variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noecker, Cecilia; Eng, Alexander; Srinivasan, Sujatha; Theriot, Casey M.; Young, Vincent B.; Jansson, Janet K.; Fredricks, David N.; Borenstein, Elhanan; Sanchez, Laura M.

    2015-12-22

    ABSTRACT

    Multiple molecular assays now enable high-throughput profiling of the ecology, metabolic capacity, and activity of the human microbiome. However, to date, analyses of such multi-omic data typically focus on statistical associations, often ignoring extensive prior knowledge of the mechanisms linking these various facets of the microbiome. Here, we introduce a comprehensive framework to systematically link variation in metabolomic data with community composition by utilizing taxonomic, genomic, and metabolic information. Specifically, we integrate available and inferred genomic data, metabolic network modeling, and a method for predicting community-wide metabolite turnover to estimate the biosynthetic and degradation potential of a given community. Our framework then compares variation in predicted metabolic potential with variation in measured metabolites’ abundances to evaluate whether community composition can explain observed shifts in the community metabolome, and to identify key taxa and genes contributing to the shifts. Focusing on two independent vaginal microbiome data sets, each pairing 16S community profiling with large-scale metabolomics, we demonstrate that our framework successfully recapitulates observed variation in 37% of metabolites. Well-predicted metabolite variation tends to result from disease-associated metabolism. We further identify several disease-enriched species that contribute significantly to these predictions. Interestingly, our analysis also detects metabolites for which the predicted variation negatively correlates with the measured variation, suggesting environmental control points of community metabolism. Applying this framework to gut microbiome data sets reveals similar trends, including prediction of bile acid metabolite shifts. This framework is an important first step toward a system-level multi-omic integration and an improved mechanistic understanding of the microbiome activity and dynamics in

  14. Seasonal and interannual variability in the taxonomic composition and production dynamics of phytoplankton assemblages in Crater Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. David, McIntire; Larson, Gary L.; Truitt, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    in August and September was usually between depths of 100 m and 120 m. In comparison, the depth of maximum primary production ranged from 60 m to 80 m at this time of year. Regression analysis detected a weak negative relationship between chlorophyll concentration and Secchi disk depth, a measure of lake transparency. However, interannual changes in chlorophyll concentration and the species composition of the phytoplankton could not be explained by the removal of the septic field near Rim Village or by patterns of upwelling from the deep lake. An alternative trophic hypothesis proposes that the productivity of Crater Lake is controlled primarily by long-term patterns of climatic change that regulate the supply of allochthonous nutrients.

  15. Plastic surgery improves long-term weight control after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagué, Nicolas; Combescure, Christophe; Huber, Olivier; Pittet-Cuénod, Brigitte; Modarressi, Ali

    2013-10-01

    The positive impact of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on weight, comorbidities, and health-related quality of life is well documented. However, 50 percent of patients regain some of the lost weight after 2 years with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and present a mean weight regain of 10 to 15 percent after several years, partially losing the previously obtained benefits. The authors hypothesize that body contouring could decrease weight regain, leading to better long-term weight control after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. In a matched control study, variations in weight for 98 patients with body contouring after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass were compared with those of 102 matched control patients with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass alone. Data were collected prospectively at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and then yearly until 7 years. After a massive mean weight loss of 45.2 kg during the first 2 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, patients with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass alone presented a higher continuous mean weight regain than those with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and body contouring (1.78 kg/year versus 0.51 kg/year of weight regain, respectively; p = 0.001). After 7 years, patients with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass presented significantly higher mean weight regain than patients with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and body contouring (i.e., 10.8 percent versus 3.6 percent mean weight gain, respectively; p weight of 2.04 kg by body contouring, the weight regain was 22.9 kg for patients with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass alone and only 6.2 kg for those with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and body contouring. The authors demonstrated that patients with body contouring present better long-term weight control after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Therefore, body contouring must be considered as a reconstructive operation in the treatment of morbid obesity. Therapeutic, III.

  16. Improved local control with neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced rectal carcinoma: Long-term analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakfoor, Bruce M.; Willett, Christopher G.; Kaufman, S. Donald; Shellito, Paul C.; Daly, William J.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: Since 1979, our institution has treated locally advanced rectal cancer with preoperative irradiation followed by resection with or without intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT). In 1986, our preoperative treatment policy was changed to include bolus 5-FU chemotherapy concurrent with irradiation in hopes of improving resectability, downstaging and/or local control rates. We report the long-term results with the addition of 5-FU chemotherapy to preoperative irradiation. Materials and Methods: From 1979 - 1994, 200 patients with locally advanced rectal carcinoma (primary or recurrent) received preoperative irradiation, resection and IORT if indicated. Bolus 5-FU (500mg/m 2 /day) chemotherapy was administered for three days during weeks one and five of irradiation. The change in treatment policy was limited to the addition of 5-FU chemotherapy: the radiation techniques (four-field), doses (50.4 Gy), and indications for intraoperative radiation (microscopic residual, gross residual, tumor adherence) remained constant. The median follow-up for the entire group of patients was 33 months (.95 months - 199 months), and the minimum follow-up was 1.5 years. Tabular results are 5-year actuarial calculations. Results: One hundred and five patients received preoperative 5-FU chemotherapy and irradiation whereas 95 patients underwent preoperative irradiation alone. Sixty-five percent of the patients were able to undergo complete resections, and 53% had transmural disease upon pathologic examination. The addition of chemotherapy did not affect the rates of resectability or tumor downstaging. However, the 10-year local control rate was significantly improved for those patients who received preoperative chemotherapy: 77% vs. 44% (p<0.01) (see figure). When stratified by extent of resection and stage, those patients who underwent complete resections or had transmural disease had significantly improved local control rates when compared to the non-chemotherapy group: No

  17. Controlling for unmeasured confounding and spatial misalignment in long-term air pollution and health studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duncan; Sarran, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    The health impact of long-term exposure to air pollution is now routinely estimated using spatial ecological studies, owing to the recent widespread availability of spatial referenced pollution and disease data. However, this areal unit study design presents a number of statistical challenges, which if ignored have the potential to bias the estimated pollution-health relationship. One such challenge is how to control for the spatial autocorrelation present in the data after accounting for the known covariates, which is caused by unmeasured confounding. A second challenge is how to adjust the functional form of the model to account for the spatial misalignment between the pollution and disease data, which causes within-area variation in the pollution data. These challenges have largely been ignored in existing long-term spatial air pollution and health studies, so here we propose a novel Bayesian hierarchical model that addresses both challenges and provide software to allow others to apply our model to their own data. The effectiveness of the proposed model is compared by simulation against a number of state-of-the-art alternatives proposed in the literature and is then used to estimate the impact of nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter concentrations on respiratory hospital admissions in a new epidemiological study in England in 2010 at the local authority level. © 2015 The Authors. Environmetrics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effects of short-term music and second-language training on executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Monika; Lee, Yunjo; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-04-01

    Separate lines of research have identified enhanced performance on nonverbal executive control (EC) tasks for bilinguals and those with music training, but little is known about the relation between them in terms of the specificity of the effects of each experience or the degree of exposure necessary to induce these changes. Using an intervention design, the current study pseudorandomly assigned 57 4- to 6-year-old children (matched on age, maternal education, and cognitive scores) to a 20-day training program offering instruction in either music or conversational French. The test battery consisted of verbal and nonverbal tasks requiring EC. All children improved on these tasks following training with some training-specific differences. No changes were observed on background or working memory measures after either training, ruling out simple practice effects. Children in both groups had better scores on the most challenging condition of a grammaticality sentence judgment task in which it was necessary to ignore conflict introduced through misleading semantic content. Children in both training groups also showed better accuracy on the easier condition of a nonverbal visual search task at post-test, but children in the French training group also showed significant improvement on the more challenging condition of this task. These results are discussed in terms of emergent EC benefits of language and music training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Short Term Music and Second Language Training on Executive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Monika; Lee, Yunjo; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Separate lines of research have identified enhanced performance on non-verbal executive control (EC) tasks for bilinguals (Bialystok, Craik, Green, & Gollan, 2009) and those with music training (Moreno et al., 2011), but little is known about the relation between them in terms of the specificity of the effects of each experience or the degree of exposure necessary to induce these changes. Using an intervention design, the present study pseudo-randomly assigned 57 4- to 6-year-old children (matched on age, maternal education, and cognitive scores) to a 20-day training program offering instruction in either music or conversational French. The test battery consisted of verbal and non-verbal tasks requiring EC. All children improved on these tasks following training with some training-specific differences. No changes were observed on background or working memory measures after either training, ruling out simple practice effects. Children in both groups had better scores on the most challenging condition of a grammaticality sentence judgment task in which it was necessary to ignore conflict introduced through misleading semantic content. Children in both training groups also showed better accuracy on the easier condition of a non-verbal visual search task at post-test, but children in the French training group also showed significant improvement on the more challenging condition of this task. These results are discussed in terms of emergent EC benefits of language and music training. PMID:26709746

  20. Electroacupuncture for tapering off long-term benzodiazepine use: study protocol of randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Wing-Fai; Chung, Ka-Fai; Zhang, Zhang-Jin; Chan, Wai-Chi; Zhang, Shi-Ping; Ng, Roger Man-Kin; Chan, Connie Lai-Wah; Ho, Lai-Ming; Yu, Yee-Man; Lao, Li-Xing

    2017-03-31

    Conventional approaches for benzodiazepine tapering have their limitations. Anecdotal studies have shown that acupuncture is a potential treatment for facilitating successful benzodiazepine tapering. As of today, there was no randomized controlled trial examining its efficacy and safety. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of using electroacupuncture as an adjunct treatment to gradual tapering of benzodiazepine doses in complete benzodiazepine cessation in long-term benzodiazepine users. The study protocol of a randomized, assessor- and subject-blinded, controlled trial is presented. One hundred and forty-four patients with histories of using benzodiazepines in ≥50% of days for more than 3 months will be randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either electroacupuncture or placebo electroacupuncture combined with gradual benzodiazepine tapering schedule. Both experimental and placebo treatments will be delivered twice per week for 4 weeks. Major assessments will be conducted at baseline, week 6 and week 16 post-randomization. Primary outcome is the cessation rate of benzodiazepine use. Secondary outcomes include the percentage change in the doses of benzodiazepine usage and the severity of withdrawal symptoms experienced based on the Benzodiazepine Withdrawal Symptom Questionnaire, insomnia as measured by the Insomnia Severity Index, and anxiety and depressive symptoms as evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Adverse events will also be measured at each study visit. Results of this study will provide high quality evidence of the efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture as an adjunct treatment for benzodiazepine tapering in long-term users. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02475538 .

  1. Comparing the temporal dynamics of thematic and taxonomic processing using event-related potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Savic

    Full Text Available We report the results of a study comparing the temporal dynamics of thematic and taxonomic knowledge activation in a picture-word priming paradigm using event-related potentials. Although we found no behavioral differences between thematic and taxonomic processing, ERP data revealed distinct patterns of N400 and P600 amplitude modulation for thematic and taxonomic priming. Thematically related target stimuli elicited less negativity than taxonomic targets between 280-460 ms after stimulus onset, suggesting easier semantic processing of thematic than taxonomic relationships. Moreover, P600 mean amplitude was significantly increased for taxonomic targets between 520-600 ms, consistent with a greater need for stimulus reevaluation in that condition. These results offer novel evidence in favor of a dissociation between thematic and taxonomic thinking in the early phases of conceptual evaluation.

  2. Comparing the temporal dynamics of thematic and taxonomic processing using event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Olivera; Savic, Andrej M; Kovic, Vanja

    2017-01-01

    We report the results of a study comparing the temporal dynamics of thematic and taxonomic knowledge activation in a picture-word priming paradigm using event-related potentials. Although we found no behavioral differences between thematic and taxonomic processing, ERP data revealed distinct patterns of N400 and P600 amplitude modulation for thematic and taxonomic priming. Thematically related target stimuli elicited less negativity than taxonomic targets between 280-460 ms after stimulus onset, suggesting easier semantic processing of thematic than taxonomic relationships. Moreover, P600 mean amplitude was significantly increased for taxonomic targets between 520-600 ms, consistent with a greater need for stimulus reevaluation in that condition. These results offer novel evidence in favor of a dissociation between thematic and taxonomic thinking in the early phases of conceptual evaluation.

  3. Optimum differential terms for lateral motion control performance on the vehicle; Yokoundo seigyo seino ni oyobosu hisenkei bibunko no saitekika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamori, A [Japan Consumer Information Center, Tokyo (Japan); Nakaya, H [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    As general knowledge, the lateral control performance of vehicle improves as differential terms increases. But subjective rating has its limits of effect. The coefficient of differential terms and saturated steer angle velocity were set up using the experimental vehicle in several steps. Consequently, the optimum range, that subjective and objective rating were compatible, were made clear. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Intermediate-term and long-term outcome of piggyback drainage: connecting glaucoma drainage device to a device in-situ for improved intraocular pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervan, Edward; Lee, Edward; Giubilato, Antonio; Khanam, Tina; Maghsoudlou, Panayiotis; Morgan, William H

    2017-11-01

    This study provides results of a treatment option for patients with failed primary glaucoma drainage device. The study aimed to describe and evaluate the long-term intraocular pressure control and complications of a new technique joining a second glaucoma drainage device directly to an existing glaucoma drainage device termed 'piggyback drainage'. This is a retrospective, interventional cohort study. Eighteen eyes of 17 patients who underwent piggyback drainage between 2004 and 2013 inclusive have been studied. All patients had prior glaucoma drainage device with uncontrolled intraocular pressure. The piggyback technique involved suturing a Baerveldt (250 or 350 mm) or Molteno3 glaucoma drainage device to an unused scleral quadrant and connecting the silicone tube to the primary plate bleb. Failure of intraocular pressure control defined as an intraocular pressure greater than 21 mmHg on maximal therapy on two separate occasions or further intervention to control intraocular pressure. The intraocular pressure was controlled in seven eyes (39%) at last follow-up with a mean follow-up time of 74.2 months. The mean preoperative intraocular pressure was 27.1 mmHg (95% confidence interval 23.8-30.3) compared with 18.4 mmHg (95% confidence interval 13.9-22.8) at last follow-up. The mean time to failure was 57.1 months (95% confidence interval 32.2-82), and the mean time to further surgery was 72.3 months (95% confidence interval 49.9-94.7). Lower preoperative intraocular pressure was associated with longer duration of intraocular pressure control (P = 0.048). If the intraocular pressure was controlled over 2 years, it continued to be controlled over the long term. Two eyes (11%) experienced corneal decompensation. Piggyback drainage represents a viable surgical alternative for the treatment of patients with severe glaucoma with failing primary glaucoma drainage device, particularly in those at high risk of corneal decompensation. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand

  5. Control of the Onboard Microgravity Environment and Extension of the Service Life of the Long-Term Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V. A.

    2018-03-01

    The problem of control of the on-board microgravity environment in order to extend the service life of the long-term space station has been discussed. Software developed for the ISS and the results of identifying dynamic models and external impacts based on telemetry data have been presented. Proposals for controlling the onboard microgravity environment for future long-term space stations have been formulated.

  6. Risk factors for pre-term birth in Iraq: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Dabbagh Samim A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth (PTBis a major clinical problem associated with perinatal mortality and morbidity. The aim of the present study is to identify risk factors associated with PTB in Mosul, Iraq. Methods A case-control study was conducted in Mosul, Iraq, from 1st September, 2003 to 28th February, 2004. Results A total of 200 cases of PTB and 200 controls of full-term births were screened and enrolled in the study. Forward logistic regression analysis was used in the analysis. Several significant risk associations between PTB and the following risk factors were identified: poor diet (OR = 4.33, heavy manual work (OR = 1.70, caring for domestic animals (OR = 5.06, urinary tract infection (OR = 2.85, anxiety (OR = 2.16, cervical incompetence (OR = 4.74, multiple pregnancies (OR = 7.51, direct trauma to abdomen (OR = 3.76 and abortion (OR = 6.36. Conclusion The main determinants of PTB in Iraq were low socio-economic status and factors associated with it, such as heavy manual work and caring for domestic animals, in addition to urinary tract infections and poor obstetric history.

  7. A modified SILCS contraceptive diaphragm for long-term controlled release of the HIV microbicide dapivirine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Ian; Boyd, Peter; Kilbourne-Brook, Maggie; Saxon, Gene; Cohen, Jessica; Malcolm, R Karl

    2013-07-01

    There is considerable interest in developing new multipurpose prevention technologies to address women's reproductive health needs. This study describes an innovative barrier contraceptive device--based on the SILCS diaphragm--that also provides long-term controlled release of the lead candidate anti-HIV microbicide dapivirine. Diaphragm devices comprising various dapivirine-loaded polymer spring cores overmolded with a nonmedicated silicone elastomer sheath were fabricated by injection molding processes. In vitro release testing, thermal analysis and mechanical characterization were performed on the devices. A diaphragm device containing a polyoxymethylene spring core loaded with 10% w/w dapivirine provided continuous and controlled release of dapivirine over a 6-month period, with a mean in vitro daily release rate of 174 mcg/day. The mechanical properties of the new diaphragm were closely matched to the SILCS diaphragm. The study demonstrates proof of concept for a dapivirine-releasing diaphragm with daily release quantities potentially capable of preventing HIV transmission. In discontinuous clinical use, release of dapivirine may be readily extended over 1 or more years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Glossary of terms recommended for use in radiation control legislation and associated codes of practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindon, T.; Kennedy, K.N.; Elliott, G.

    1983-06-01

    A glossary of terms associated with radiological health is presented. It includes basic physics terms, quantities and units, radiological physics terms and radiation protection terms. The National Health and Medical Research Council has recommended that the glossary be used by organizations producing official documents and by appropriate regulatory authorities

  9. Determinants of Long-Term Durable Glycemic Control in New-Onset Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Jin Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLong-term durable glycemic control is a difficult goal in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. We evaluated the factors associated with durable glycemic control in a real clinical setting.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 194 new-onset, drug-naïve patients with T2DM who were diagnosed between January 2011 and March 2013, and were followed up for >2 years. Glycemic durability was defined as the maintenance of optimal glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c] <7.0% for 2 years without substitution or adding other glucose-lowering agents. Clinical factors and glycemic markers associated with glycemic durability were compared between two groups: a durability group and a non-durability group.ResultsPatients in the durability group had a higher baseline body mass index (26.1 kg/m2 vs. 24.9 kg/m2 and lower HbA1c (8.6% vs. 9.7% than the non-durability group. The initial choice of glucose-lowering agents was similar in both groups, except for insulin and sulfonylureas, which were more frequently prescribed in the non-durability group. In multiple logistic regression analyses, higher levels of education, physical activity, and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β were associated with glycemic durability. Notably, lower HbA1c (<7.0% at baseline and first follow-up were significantly associated with glycemic durability (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 7.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.51 to 22.3 (adjusted OR, 9.27; 95% CI, 1.62 to 53.1, respectively, after adjusting for confounding variables including the types of glucose-lowering agents.ConclusionEarly achievement of HbA1c level within the glycemic target was a determinant of long-term glycemic durability in new-onset T2DM, as were higher levels of education, physical activity, and HOMA-β.

  10. Utilization of control rod drive (CRD) system for long term core cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta B, A.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we consider an application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to risk management. Foreseeable risk management strategies to prevent core damage are constrained by the availability of first line systems as well as support systems. The actual trend in the evaluation of risk management options can be performed in a number of ways. An example is the identification of back-up systems which could be used to perform the same safety functions. In this work we deal with the evaluation of the feasibility, for BWR's, to use the Control Rod Drive system to maintain an adequate reactor core long term cooling in some accident sequences. This preliminary evaluation is carried out as a part of the Internal Events Analysis for Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (LVNPP) that is currently under way by the Mexican Nuclear Regulatory Body. This analysis addresses the evaluation and incorporation of all the systems, including the safety related and the back-up non safety related systems, that are available for the operator in order to prevent core damage. As a part of this analysis the containment venting capability is also evaluated as a back-up of the containment heat removal function. This will prevent the primary containment overpressurization and loss of certain core cooling systems. A selection of accident sequences in which the Control Rod Drive system could be used to mitigate the accident and prevent core damage are discussed. A personal computer transient analysis code is used to carry out thermohydraulic simulations in order to evaluate the Control Rod Drive system performance, the corresponding results are presented. Finally, some preliminary conclusions are drawn. (author). 9 refs, 5 figs

  11. Long-Term Improvements After Multimodal Rehabilitation in Late Phase After Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunketorp-Käll, Lina; Lundgren-Nilsson, Åsa; Samuelsson, Hans; Pekny, Tulen; Blomvé, Karin; Pekna, Marcela; Pekny, Milos; Blomstrand, Christian; Nilsson, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Treatments that improve function in late phase after stroke are urgently needed. We assessed whether multimodal interventions based on rhythm-and-music therapy or horse-riding therapy could lead to increased perceived recovery and functional improvement in a mixed population of individuals in late phase after stroke. Participants were assigned to rhythm-and-music therapy, horse-riding therapy, or control using concealed randomization, stratified with respect to sex and stroke laterality. Therapy was given twice a week for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was change in participants' perception of stroke recovery as assessed by the Stroke Impact Scale with an intention-to-treat analysis. Secondary objective outcome measures were changes in balance, gait, grip strength, and cognition. Blinded assessments were performed at baseline, postintervention, and at 3- and 6-month follow-up. One hundred twenty-three participants were assigned to rhythm-and-music therapy (n=41), horse-riding therapy (n=41), or control (n=41). Post-intervention, the perception of stroke recovery (mean change from baseline on a scale ranging from 1 to 100) was higher among rhythm-and-music therapy (5.2 [95% confidence interval, 0.79-9.61]) and horse-riding therapy participants (9.8 [95% confidence interval, 6.00-13.66]), compared with controls (-0.5 [-3.20 to 2.28]); P =0.001 (1-way ANOVA). The improvements were sustained in both intervention groups 6 months later, and corresponding gains were observed for the secondary outcomes. Multimodal interventions can improve long-term perception of recovery, as well as balance, gait, grip strength, and working memory in a mixed population of individuals in late phase after stroke. URL: http//www.ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01372059. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Tai Chi for treating knee osteoarthritis: Designing a long-term follow up randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rones Ramel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee Osteoarthritis (KOA is a major cause of pain and functional impairment among elders. Currently, there are neither feasible preventive intervention strategies nor effective medical remedies for the management of KOA. Tai Chi, an ancient Chinese mind-body exercise that is reported to enhance muscle function, balance and flexibility, and to reduce pain, depression and anxiety, may safely and effectively be used to treat KOA. However, current evidence is inconclusive. Our study examines the effects of a 12-week Tai Chi program compared with an attention control (wellness education and stretching on pain, functional capacity, psychosocial variables, joint proprioception and health status in elderly people with KOA. The study will be completed by July 2009. Methods/Design Forty eligible patients, age > 55 yr, BMI ≤ 40 kg/m2 with tibiofemoral osteoarthritis (American College of Rheumatology criteria are identified and randomly allocated to either Tai Chi (10 modified forms from classical Yang style Tai Chi or attention control (wellness education and stretching. The 60-minute intervention sessions take place twice weekly for 12 weeks. The study is conducted at an urban tertiary medical center in Boston, Massachusetts. The primary outcome measure is the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC pain subscale at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes include weekly WOMAC pain, function and stiffness scores, patient and physician global assessments, lower-extremity function, knee proprioception, depression, self-efficacy, social support, health-related quality of life, adherence and occurrence of adverse events after 12, 24 and 48 weeks. Discussion In this article, we present the challenges of designing a randomized controlled trial with long-term follow up. The challenges encountered in this design are: strategies for recruitment, avoidance of selection bias, the actual practice of Tai Chi, and the maximization of adherence

  13. External beam irradiation of craniopharyngiomas: long-term analysis of tumor control and morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlotto, John M.; Flickinger, John C.; Kondziolka, Douglas; Lunsford, L.D.; Deutsch, Melvin

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To delineate the long-term control and morbidity with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) of craniopharyngiomas. Methods and Materials: Between 1971 and 1992, 24 craniopharyngioma patients underwent EBRT at the University of Pittsburgh. Most (19 of 24) were treated within 1-3 months after subtotal resection. The other prior surgical procedures were biopsy (n = 2) and gross total resection (n = 1); 2 patients did not undergo any surgical procedure. The median follow-up was 12.1 years. The median patient age was 29 years (range 5-69). The total radiation doses varied from 36 to 70 Gy (median 59.75). The normalized total dose (NTD, biologically equivalent dose given in 2 Gy/fraction [α/β ratio = 2]) varied from 28 to 83 Gy (median 55.35). Results: The actuarial survival rate at 10 and 20 years was 100% and 92.3%, respectively. The actuarial local control rate at 10 and 20 years was 89.1% and 54.0%, respectively. No local failures occurred with doses ≥60 Gy (n=12) or NTDs ≥55 Gy. The complication-free survival rate at 10 and 20 years was 80.1% and 72.1%, respectively. No complications were noted with an NTD of ≤55 Gy. The actuarial survival free from any adverse outcome (recurrence or complication) was 70.1% and 31.8% at 10 and 20 years, respectively. The adverse outcome-free survival appeared optimized (at 73%) with an NTD of 55-63 Gy. Multivariate analysis found that tumor control correlated significantly with the total dose (p=0.02), treatment complications with NTD (p=0.008), and adverse outcome with hypopituitarism on presentation (p=0.03). Conclusion: We recommend treating craniopharyngioma with 1.6-1.7-Gy dose fractions to 60 Gy to optimize outcome from EBRT

  14. Taxonomic and Thematic Organisation of Proper Name Conceptual Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian J. Crutch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the investigation of the organisation of proper names in two aphasic patients (NBC and FBI. The performance of both patients on spoken word to written word matching tasks was inconsistent, affected by presentation rate and semantic relatedness of the competing responses, all hallmarks of a refractory semantic access dysphasia. In a series of experiments we explored the semantic relatedness effects within their proper name vocabulary, including brand names and person names. First we demonstrated the interaction between very fine grain organisation and personal experience, with one patient with a special interest in the cinema demonstrating higher error rates when identifying the names of actors working in a similar film genre (e.g. action movies: Arnold Schwarzenegger, Bruce Willis, Sylvester Stallone, Mel Gibson than those working in different genres (e.g. Arnold Schwarzenegger, Gregory Peck, Robin Williams, Gene Kelly. Second we compared directly two potential principles of semantic organisation – taxonomic and thematic. Furthermore we considered these principles of organisation in the context of the individuals' personal knowledge base. We selected topics matching the interests and experience of each patient, namely cinema and literature (NBC and naval history (FBI. The stimulus items were arranged in taxonomic arrays (e.g. Jane Austen, Emily Bronte, Agatha Christie, thematic arrays (e.g. Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice, Mr Darcy, and unrelated arrays (e.g. Jane Austen, Wuthering Heights, Hercule Poirot. We documented that different patterns of taxonomic and thematic organisation were constrained by whether the individual has limited knowledge, moderate knowledge or detailed knowledge of a particular vocabulary. It is suggested that moderate proper name knowledge is primarily organised by taxonomy whereas extensive experience results in a more detailed knowledge base in which theme is a powerful organising principle.

  15. Taxonomic and thematic organisation of proper name conceptual knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Warrington, Elizabeth K

    2011-01-01

    We report the investigation of the organisation of proper names in two aphasic patients (NBC and FBI). The performance of both patients on spoken word to written word matching tasks was inconsistent, affected by presentation rate and semantic relatedness of the competing responses, all hallmarks of a refractory semantic access dysphasia. In a series of experiments we explored the semantic relatedness effects within their proper name vocabulary, including brand names and person names. First we demonstrated the interaction between very fine grain organisation and personal experience, with one patient with a special interest in the cinema demonstrating higher error rates when identifying the names of actors working in a similar film genre (e.g., action movies: Arnold Schwarzenegger, Bruce Willis, Sylvester Stallone, Mel Gibson) than those working in different genres (e.g., Arnold Schwarzenegger, Gregory Peck, Robin Williams, Gene Kelly). Second we compared directly two potential principles of semantic organisation - taxonomic and thematic. Furthermore we considered these principles of organisation in the context of the individuals' personal knowledge base. We selected topics matching the interests and experience of each patient, namely cinema and literature (NBC) and naval history (FBI). The stimulus items were arranged in taxonomic arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Emily Bronte, Agatha Christie), thematic arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice, Mr Darcy), and unrelated arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Wuthering Heights, Hercule Poirot). We documented that different patterns of taxonomic and thematic organisation were constrained by whether the individual has limited knowledge, moderate knowledge or detailed knowledge of a particular vocabulary. It is suggested that moderate proper name knowledge is primarily organised by taxonomy whereas extensive experience results in a more detailed knowledge base in which theme is a powerful organising principle.

  16. Species delimitation in taxonomically difficult fungi: the case of Hymenogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Stielow

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available False truffles are ecologically important as mycorrhizal partners of trees and evolutionarily highly interesting as the result of a shift from epigeous mushroom-like to underground fruiting bodies. Since its first description by Vittadini in 1831, inappropriate species concepts in the highly diverse false truffle genus Hymenogaster has led to continued confusion, caused by a large variety of prevailing taxonomical opinions.In this study, we reconsidered the species delimitations in Hymenogaster based on a comprehensive collection of Central European taxa comprising more than 140 fruiting bodies from 20 years of field work. The ITS rDNA sequence dataset was subjected to phylogenetic analysis as well as clustering optimization using OPTSIL software.Among distinct species concepts from the literature used to create reference partitions for clustering optimization, the broadest concept resulted in the highest agreement with the ITS data. Our results indicate a highly variable morphology of H. citrinus and H. griseus, most likely linked to environmental influences on the phenology (maturity, habitat, soil type and growing season. In particular, taxa described in the 19(th century frequently appear as conspecific. Conversely, H. niveus appears as species complex comprising seven cryptic species with almost identical macro- and micromorphology. H. intermedius and H. huthii are described as novel species, each of which with a distinct morphology intermediate between two species complexes. A revised taxonomy for one of the most taxonomically difficult genera of Basidiomycetes is proposed, including an updated identification key. The (semi-automated selection among species concepts used here is of importance for the revision of taxonomically problematic organism groups in general.

  17. Long-term regional control after radiation therapy and neck dissection for base of tongue carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Henry J.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Kraus, Dennis H.; Pfister, David G.; Strong, Elliot W.; Raben, Adam; Shah, Jatin P.; Harrison, Louis B.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Minimal literature exists with 10-year data on neck control in advanced head and neck cancer. The purpose of this study is to determine long-term regional control for base of tongue carcinoma patients treated with primary radiation therapy plus neck dissection. Methods and Materials: Between 1981-1996, primary radiation therapy was used to treat 68 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue. Neck dissection was added for those who presented with palpable lymph node metastases. The T-stage distribution was T1, 17; T2, 32; T3, 17; and T4, 2. The N-stage distribution was N0, 10; N1, 24; N2a, 6; N2b, 11, N2c, 8; N3, 7; and Nx, 2. Ages ranged from 35 to 77 (median 55 years) among the 59 males and nine females. Therapy generally consisted of initial external beam irradiation to the primary site (54 Gy) and neck (50 Gy). Clinically positive necks were boosted to 60 Gy with external beam irradiation. Three weeks later, the base of tongue was boosted with an Ir-192 interstitial implant (20-30 Gy). A neck dissection was done at the same anesthesia for those who presented with clinically positive necks, even if a complete clinical neck response was achieved with external beam irradiation. Neoadjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy was administered to nine patients who would have required a total laryngectomy if their primary tumors had been surgically managed. The median follow-up was 36 months with a range from 1 to 151 months. Eleven patients were followed for over 8 years. No patients were lost to follow-up. Results: Actuarial 5- and 10-year neck control was 96% overall, 86% after radiation alone, and 100% after radiation plus neck dissection. Pathologically negative neck specimens were observed in 70% of necks dissected after external beam irradiation. The remaining 30% of dissected necks were pathologically positive. These specimens contained multiple positive nodes in 83% despite a 56% overall complete clinical neck response rate to irradiation

  18. Taxonomic revision of Asian genus Glyptopetalum Thwaites (Celastraceae R. Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan A. Savinov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic survey of Asian genus Glyptopetalum Thwaites (Celastraceae R. Br. is presented. Thirty five species taxa of Glyptopetalum are accepted, including one new species, G.  vidalii I. Savinov (Laos, Thailand, a new record for China, G. tonkinense Pitard (SE Yunnan and a new record for Cambodia,               G. quadrangulare Prain ex King, a new record for Indonesia – G. euonymoides Merr. and a new record for Philippines, Mindanao island – G. loheri Merr. 

  19. Long-term tolerability of inhaled human insulin (Exubera) in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnett, A H; Lange, P; Dreyer, M

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Inhaled human insulin (Exubera; EXU) has shown encouraging tolerability in short-term trials. We evaluated the safety profile of EXU after long-term exposure. DESIGN: In two, open-label, 2-year studies patients poorly controlled on a sulphonylurea were randomised to adjunctive EXU...... or metformin (study 1) and patients poorly controlled on metformin were randomised to adjunctive EXU or the sulphonylurea, glibenclamide (study 2). PATIENTS: The studies included 446 (study 1) and 476 (study 2) patients with type 2 diabetes, no clinically significant respiratory disease and glycosylated....... There was no discernable effect of long-term EXU therapy on pulmonary gas exchange. Insulin antibody binding reached a plateau at 6 months and did not correlate with HbA(1c) or lung function changes. Glycaemic control was maintained over 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: Exubera was well tolerated during long-term use. Pulmonary...

  20. Long-Term Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems (II&C) Modernization Future Vision and Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth Thomas; Bruce Hallbert

    2013-02-01

    Life extension beyond 60 years for the U.S operating nuclear fleet requires that instrumentation and control (I&C) systems be upgraded to address aging and reliability concerns. It is impractical for the legacy systems based on 1970’s vintage technology operate over this extended time period. Indeed, utilities have successfully engaged in such replacements when dictated by these operational concerns. However, the replacements have been approached in a like-for-like manner, meaning that they do not take advantage of the inherent capabilities of digital technology to improve business functions. And so, the improvement in I&C system performance has not translated to bottom-line performance improvement for the fleet. Therefore, wide-scale modernization of the legacy I&C systems could prove to be cost-prohibitive unless the technology is implemented in a manner to enable significant business innovation as a means of off-setting the cost of upgrades. A Future Vision of a transformed nuclear plant operating model based on an integrated digital environment has been developed as part of the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) research pathway, under the Light Water Reactor (LWR) Sustainability Program. This is a research and development program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), performed in close collaboration with the nuclear utility industry, to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. DOE’s program focus is on longer-term and higher-risk/reward research that contributes to the national policy objectives of energy security and environmental security . The Advanced II&C research pathway is being conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The Future Vision is based on a digital architecture that encompasses all aspects of plant operations and support, integrating plant systems, plant work processes, and plant workers in a

  1. Long-Term Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems (II&C) Modernization Future Vision and Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Life extension beyond 60 years for the U.S operating nuclear fleet requires that instrumentation and control (I&C) systems be upgraded to address aging and reliability concerns. It is impractical for the legacy systems based on 1970's vintage technology operate over this extended time period. Indeed, utilities have successfully engaged in such replacements when dictated by these operational concerns. However, the replacements have been approached in a like-for-like manner, meaning that they do not take advantage of the inherent capabilities of digital technology to improve business functions. And so, the improvement in I&C system performance has not translated to bottom-line performance improvement for the fleet. Therefore, wide-scale modernization of the legacy I&C systems could prove to be cost-prohibitive unless the technology is implemented in a manner to enable significant business innovation as a means of off-setting the cost of upgrades. A Future Vision of a transformed nuclear plant operating model based on an integrated digital environment has been developed as part of the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) research pathway, under the Light Water Reactor (LWR) Sustainability Program. This is a research and development program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), performed in close collaboration with the nuclear utility industry, to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. DOE's program focus is on longer-term and higher-risk/reward research that contributes to the national policy objectives of energy security and environmental security . The Advanced II&C research pathway is being conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The Future Vision is based on a digital architecture that encompasses all aspects of plant operations and support, integrating plant systems, plant work processes, and plant workers in a

  2. Long-Term Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems (II and C) Modernization Future Vision and Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Life extension beyond 60 years for the U.S operating nuclear fleet requires that instrumentation and control (I and C) systems be upgraded to address aging and reliability concerns. It is impractical for the legacy systems based on 1970's vintage technology operate over this extended time period. Indeed, utilities have successfully engaged in such replacements when dictated by these operational concerns. However, the replacements have been approached in a like-for-like manner, meaning that they do not take advantage of the inherent capabilities of digital technology to improve business functions. And so, the improvement in I and C system performance has not translated to bottom-line performance improvement for the fleet. Therefore, wide-scale modernization of the legacy I and C systems could prove to be cost-prohibitive unless the technology is implemented in a manner to enable significant business innovation as a means of off-setting the cost of upgrades. A Future Vision of a transformed nuclear plant operating model based on an integrated digital environment has been developed as part of the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II and C) research pathway, under the Light Water Reactor (LWR) Sustainability Program. This is a research and development program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), performed in close collaboration with the nuclear utility industry, to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. DOE's program focus is on longer-term and higher-risk/reward research that contributes to the national policy objectives of energy security and environmental security . The Advanced II and C research pathway is being conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The Future Vision is based on a digital architecture that encompasses all aspects of plant operations and support, integrating plant systems, plant work processes, and plant

  3. Impact of Infection Prevention and Control Initiatives on Acute Respiratory Infections in a Pediatric Long-Term Care Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Meghan T; Jackson, Olivia; Cohen, Bevin; Hutcheon, Gordon; Saiman, Lisa; Larson, Elaine; Neu, Natalie

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the collective impact of several infection prevention and control initiatives aimed at reducing acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in a pediatric long-term care facility. ARIs did not decrease overall, though the proportion of infections associated with outbreaks and average number of cases per outbreak decreased. Influenza rates decreased significantly. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:859-862.

  4. Gastroesophageal Acid Reflux Control 5 Years After Antireflux Surgery, Compared With Long-term Esomeprazole Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatlebakk, Jan G; Zerbib, Frank; Bruley des Varannes, Stanislas; Attwood, Stephen E; Ell, Christian; Fiocca, Roberto; Galmiche, Jean-Paul; Eklund, Stefan; Långström, Göran; Lind, Tore; Lundell, Lars R

    2016-05-01

    We compared the ability of laparoscopic antireflux surgery (LARS) and esomeprazole to control esophageal acid exposure, over a 5-year period, in patients with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). We also studied whether intraesophageal and intragastric pH parameters off and on therapy were associated with long-term outcomes. We analyzed data from a prospective, randomized, open-label trial comparing the efficacy and safety of LARS vs esomeprazole (20 or 40 mg/d) over 5 years in patients with chronic GERD. Ambulatory intraesophageal and intragastric 24-hour pH monitoring data were compared between groups before LARS or the start of esomeprazole treatment, and 6 months and 5 years afterward. A secondary aim was to evaluate the association between baseline and 6-month pH parameters and esomeprazole dose escalation, reappearance of GERD symptoms, and treatment failure over 5 years in patients receiving LARS or esomeprazole. In the LARS group (n = 116), the median 24-hour esophageal acid exposure was 8.6% at baseline and 0.7% after 6 months and 5 years (P acid exposure was 8.8% at baseline, 2.1% after 6 months, and 1.9% after 5 years (P acidity was stable in both groups. Patients who required a dose increase to 40 mg/d had more severe supine reflux at baseline, and decreased esophageal acid exposure (P acidity after dose escalation. Esophageal and intragastric pH parameters, off and on therapy, did not predict long-term symptom breakthrough. In a prospective study of patients with chronic GERD, esophageal acid reflux was reduced greatly by LARS or esomeprazole therapy. However, patients receiving LARS had significantly greater reductions in 24-hour esophageal acid exposure after 6 months and 5 years. Esophageal and gastric pH, off and on therapy, did not predict long-term outcomes of patients. Abnormal supine acid exposure predicted esomeprazole dose escalation. ClinicalTrials.Gov identifier: NCT00251927 (available: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show

  5. Analysis of the immune system of multiple myeloma patients achieving long-term disease control by multidimensional flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa de Magalhães, Roberto J.; Vidriales, María-Belén; Paiva, Bruno; Fernandez-Gimenez, Carlos; García-Sanz, Ramón; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Gutierrez, Norma C.; Lecrevisse, Quentin; Blanco, Juan F; Hernández, Jose; de las Heras, Natalia; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin; Roig, Monica; Costa, Elaine Sobral; Ocio, Enrique M.; Perez-Andres, Martin; Maiolino, Angelo; Nucci, Marcio; De La Rubia, Javier; Lahuerta, Juan-Jose; San-Miguel, Jesús F.; Orfao, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma remains largely incurable. However, a few patients experience more than 10 years of relapse-free survival and can be considered as operationally cured. Interestingly, long-term disease control in multiple myeloma is not restricted to patients with a complete response, since some patients revert to having a profile of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. We compared the distribution of multiple compartments of lymphocytes and dendritic cells in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of multiple myeloma patients with long-term disease control (n=28), patients with newly diagnosed monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (n=23), patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma (n=23), and age-matched healthy adults (n=10). Similarly to the patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and symptomatic multiple myeloma, patients with long-term disease control showed an expansion of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and natural killer cells. However, the numbers of bone marrow T-regulatory cells were lower in patients with long-term disease control than in those with symptomatic multiple myeloma. It is noteworthy that B cells were depleted in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and in those with symptomatic multiple myeloma, but recovered in both the bone marrow and peripheral blood of patients with long-term disease control, due to an increase in normal bone marrow B-cell precursors and plasma cells, as well as pre-germinal center peripheral blood B cells. The number of bone marrow dendritic cells and tissue macrophages differed significantly between patients with long-term disease control and those with symptomatic multiple myeloma, with a trend to cell count recovering in the former group of patients towards levels similar to those found in healthy adults. In summary, our results indicate that multiple myeloma patients with long-term disease control have a constellation of unique immune changes

  6. Virtual reality (HMD and Interaction from the Perspective of Narrative Construction and Communication: Taxonomic Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Rubio Tamayo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality is a term popularised by some authors since the eighties and the nineties, in order to define features for immersive environments generated artificially by digital means. Immersive processes in virtual environments have dramatically changed since early experiences in this area, such as Sensorama (1962, flight simulators (in the sixties or Aspen Movie Map Experiment (1978. Those changes offer new possibilities in communication and storytelling domains. This work does a systematic literature review about those phenomena, approaching also the emergence of interdisciplinary fields such as interaction design or user experience. The study aims also to configure a taxonomic classification of components in the domain of storytelling for the use of virtual reality technologies, trying to generate models which help to complement the current ones. This taxonomy is a qualitative milestone for studying interactive dimensions between technology, person and environment.

  7. Reconciling taxonomy and phylogenetic inference: formalism and algorithms for describing discord and inferring taxonomic roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsen Frederick A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although taxonomy is often used informally to evaluate the results of phylogenetic inference and the root of phylogenetic trees, algorithmic methods to do so are lacking. Results In this paper we formalize these procedures and develop algorithms to solve the relevant problems. In particular, we introduce a new algorithm that solves a "subcoloring" problem to express the difference between a taxonomy and a phylogeny at a given rank. This algorithm improves upon the current best algorithm in terms of asymptotic complexity for the parameter regime of interest; we also describe a branch-and-bound algorithm that saves orders of magnitude in computation on real data sets. We also develop a formalism and an algorithm for rooting phylogenetic trees according to a taxonomy. Conclusions The algorithms in this paper, and the associated freely-available software, will help biologists better use and understand taxonomically labeled phylogenetic trees.

  8. Beyond deficit or compensation: new insights on postural control after long-term total visual loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Maitê M; Lemos, Thiago; Imbiriba, Luís A; Ribeiro, Nathalia L; Vargas, Claudia D

    2017-02-01

    Loss of vision is well known to affect postural control in blind subjects. This effect has classically been framed in terms of deficit or compensation depending on whether body sway increases or decreases in comparison with that of sighted subjects with the eyes open. However, studies have shown that postural responses can be modulated by the context and that changes in postural sway may not necessarily mean a worsened or improved postural control. The goal of our study was to test whether balance is affected by the context in blind subjects. Additional to the quantification of center of pressure (COP) displacement, measurements of body motion (COG) and the correspondent net neuromuscular response (COP-COG) were evaluated in anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. Thirty-eight completely blind and thirty-two sighted subjects participated of this study. The volunteers were asked to stand barefoot on a force platform for 60 s in two different conditions: feet apart and feet together. Sighted participants performed the tests with both the eyes open and eyes closed. Results showed that the COP-COG displacements in the blind group were greater than those of the sighted group with eyes open in almost all conditions tested, but not in eyes closed condition. However, the COP and COG results confirmed that the postural responses were context dependent. Together these results suggest that total visual loss does not just lead to a balance deficit or compensation, but to a specific postural signature that might imply in enhancing COP, COG and/or COP-COG in specific postural conditions.

  9. prepare_taxa_charts.py: A Python program to automate generation of publication ready taxonomic pie chart images from QIIME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhujani, Vijay; Badapanda, Chandan

    2017-06-01

    QIIME (Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology) is one of the most popular open-source bioinformatics suite for performing metagenome, 16S rRNA amplicon and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) data analysis. Although, it is very comprehensive and powerful tool, it lacks a method to provide publication ready taxonomic pie charts. The script plot_taxa_summary . py bundled with QIIME generate a html file and a folder containing taxonomic pie chart and legend as separate images. The images have randomly generated alphanumeric names. Therefore, it is difficult to associate the pie chart with the legend and the corresponding sample identifier. Even if the option to have the legend within the html file is selected while executing plot_taxa_summary . py , it is very tedious to crop a complete image (having both the pie chart and the legend) due to unequal image sizes. It requires a lot of time to manually prepare the pie charts for multiple samples for publication purpose. Moreover, there are chances of error while identifying the pie chart and legend pair due to random alphanumeric names of the images. To bypass all these bottlenecks and make this process efficient, we have developed a python based program, prepare_taxa_charts . py , to automate the renaming, cropping and merging of taxonomic pie chart and corresponding legend image into a single, good quality publication ready image. This program not only augments the functionality of plot_taxa_summary . py but is also very fast in terms of CPU time and user friendly.

  10. Models of Disease Vector Control: When Can Aggressive Initial Intervention Lower Long-Term Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduro, Bismark; Grijalva, Mario J; Just, Winfried

    2018-04-01

    Insecticide spraying of housing units is an important control measure for vector-borne infections such as Chagas disease. As vectors may invade both from other infested houses and sylvatic areas and as the effectiveness of insecticide wears off over time, the dynamics of (re)infestations can be approximated by [Formula: see text]-type models with a reservoir, where housing units are treated as hosts, and insecticide spraying corresponds to removal of hosts. Here, we investigate three ODE-based models of this type. We describe a dual-rate effect where an initially very high spraying rate can push the system into a region of the state space with low endemic levels of infestation that can be maintained in the long run at relatively moderate cost, while in the absence of an aggressive initial intervention the same average cost would only allow a much less significant reduction in long-term infestation levels. We determine some sufficient and some necessary conditions under which this effect occurs and show that it is robust in models that incorporate some heterogeneity in the relevant properties of housing units.

  11. A wearable wireless ECG monitoring system with dynamic transmission power control for long-term homecare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yishan; Doleschel, Sammy; Wunderlich, Ralf; Heinen, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a wearable wireless ECG monitoring system based on novel 3-Lead electrode placements for long-term homecare. The experiment for novel 3-Lead electrode placements is carried out, and the results show that the distance between limb electrodes can be significantly reduced. Based on the new electrode position, a small size sensor node, which is powered by a rechargeable battery, is designed to detect, amplify, filter and transmit the ECG signals. The coordinator receives the data and sends it to PC. Finally the signals are displayed on the GUI. In order to control the power consumption of sensor node, a dynamic power adjustment method is applied to automatically adjust the transmission power of the sensor node according to the received signal strength indicator (RSSI), which is related to the distance and obstacle between sensor node and coordinator. The system is evaluated when the user, who wears the sensor, is walking and running. A promising performance is achieved even under body motion. The power consumption can be significantly reduced with this dynamic power adjustment method.

  12. Long-term CPAP treatment improves asthma control in patients with asthma and obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppi, Paula; Bachour, Patrick; Maasilta, Paula; Bachour, Adel

    2016-12-01

    Both asthma and obstructive sleep apnoea cause sleep disturbance, daytime sleepiness and diminished quality of life. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is efficient in reducing symptoms related to sleep apnoea. Here we report the impact of long-term use of CPAP on asthma symptoms. A survey questionnaire was distributed to all of our obstructive sleep apnoea patients with CPAP therapy in 2013. We used the Finnish version of the Asthma Control Test™ (ACT) and a visual analogue scale (0 = no symptoms, 100 = severe asthma symptoms). Asthma was defined as self-reported physician-diagnosed disease and a special reimbursement for asthma medication by the Social Insurance Institution. We sent 2577 questionnaires and received 1586 answers (61 %). One hundred ninety-seven patients were asthmatics with a prevalence of asthma among CPAP users of 13 %. We studied 152 patients (58 females) whose CPAP therapy was initiated after starting asthma medication. Their mean (SD) age was 62 (10) years, duration of CPAP 5.7 (4.7) years and their CPAP daily use was 6.3 (2.4) h. Self-reported asthma severity decreased significantly from 48.3 (29.6) to 33.1 (27.4) (p CPAP (P CPAP in patients with both asthma and obstructive sleep apnoea.

  13. Variance Component Selection With Applications to Microbiome Taxonomic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput sequencing technology has enabled population-based studies of the role of the human microbiome in disease etiology and exposure response. Microbiome data are summarized as counts or composition of the bacterial taxa at different taxonomic levels. An important problem is to identify the bacterial taxa that are associated with a response. One method is to test the association of specific taxon with phenotypes in a linear mixed effect model, which incorporates phylogenetic information among bacterial communities. Another type of approaches consider all taxa in a joint model and achieves selection via penalization method, which ignores phylogenetic information. In this paper, we consider regression analysis by treating bacterial taxa at different level as multiple random effects. For each taxon, a kernel matrix is calculated based on distance measures in the phylogenetic tree and acts as one variance component in the joint model. Then taxonomic selection is achieved by the lasso (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator penalty on variance components. Our method integrates biological information into the variable selection problem and greatly improves selection accuracies. Simulation studies demonstrate the superiority of our methods versus existing methods, for example, group-lasso. Finally, we apply our method to a longitudinal microbiome study of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infected patients. We implement our method using the high performance computing language Julia. Software and detailed documentation are freely available at https://github.com/JingZhai63/VCselection.

  14. Phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision of Physodactylinae (Coleoptera, Elateridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Policena Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A phylogeny based on male morphological characters and taxonomic revision of the Physodactylinae genera are presented. The phylogenetic analysis based on 66 male characters resulted in the polyphyly of Physodactylinae which comprises four independent lineages. Oligostethius and Idiotropia from Africa were found to be sister groups. Teslasena from Brazil was corroborated as belonging to Cardiophorinae clade. The South American genera Physodactylus and Dactylophysus were found to be sister groups and phylogenetically related to Heterocrepidius species. The Oriental Toxognathus resulted as sister group of that clade plus (Dicrepidius ramicornis (Lissomus sp, Physorhynus erythrocephalus. Taxonomic revisions include diagnoses and redescriptions of genera and distributional records and illustrations of species. Key to species of Teslasena, Toxognathus, Dactylophysus and Physodactylus are also provided. Teslasena lucasi is synonymized with T. femoralis. A new species of Dactylophysus is described, D. hirtus sp. nov., and lectotypes are designated to non-conspecific D. mendax sensu Fleutiaux and Heterocrepidius mendax Candèze. Physodactylus niger is removed from synonymy under P. oberthuri; P. carreti is synonymized with P. niger; P. obesus and P. testaceus are synonymized with P. sulcatus. Nine new species are described in Physodactylus: P. asper sp. nov., P. brunneus sp. nov., P. chassaini sp. nov., P. flavifrons sp. nov., P. girardi sp. nov., P. gounellei sp. nov., P. latithorax sp. nov., P. patens sp. nov. and P. tuberculatus sp. nov.

  15. Taxonomic revision and phylogenetic analyses of rubber powdery mildew fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, K K; Khan, Sehroon; Brooks, Siraprapa; Mortimer, Peter E; Karunarathna, Samantha C; Xu, Jianchu; Hyde, Kevin D

    2017-04-01

    Powdery mildew is a fungal disease that infects a wide range of plants, including rubber trees, which results in a reduction of latex yields of up to 45%. The causal agent of powdery mildew of rubber was first described as Oidium heveae, but later morpho-molecular research suggested that in the past, O. heveae has been confused with Erysiphe quercicola. However, it is still under debate whether the causal agent should be classified as a species of the genus Erysiphe emend. or Golovinomyces and Podosphaera, respectively. Therefore, the aim of this study was to undertake the morpho-molecular characterization of powdery mildew species associated with rubber trees, thus resolving these taxonomic issues. Morphological observation under light and scanning electron microscopes (SEM) clearly identified two morphotypes of the rubber powdery mildew. With the support of morphological and phylogenetic data, one of the two morphotypes was identified as the asexual morph of E. quercicola, while the second morphotype is still insufficiently known and according to the morphological results obtained we assume that it might belong to the genus Golovinomyces. More collections and additional molecular data are required for final conclusions regarding the exact taxonomic position of the second morphotype of rubber powdery mildew and its relation to the name O. heveae. The haplotype analysis identified eight haplotype groups of E. quercicola indicating the high genetic diversity of the species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Taxonomic and ad hoc categorization within the two cerebral hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yeshayahu; Aharoni, Bat-El; Mashal, Nira

    2015-01-01

    A typicality effect refers to categorization which is performed more quickly or more accurately for typical than for atypical members of a given category. Previous studies reported a typicality effect for category members presented in the left visual field/right hemisphere (RH), suggesting that the RH applies a similarity-based categorization strategy. However, findings regarding the typicality effect within the left hemisphere (LH) are less conclusive. The current study tested the pattern of typicality effects within each hemisphere for both taxonomic and ad hoc categories, using words presented to the left or right visual fields. Experiment 1 tested typical and atypical members of taxonomic categories as well as non-members, and Experiment 2 tested typical and atypical members of ad hoc categories as well as non-members. The results revealed a typicality effect in both hemispheres and in both types of categories. Furthermore, the RH categorized atypical stimuli more accurately than did the LH. Our findings suggest that both hemispheres rely on a similarity-based categorization strategy, but the coarse semantic coding of the RH seems to facilitate the categorization of atypical members.

  17. Two decades of climate driving the dynamics of functional and taxonomic diversity of a tropical small mammal community in western Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Mason-Romo, Edgard David; Farías, Ariel A.; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the effects of global climate disruption on biodiversity is important to future conservation efforts. While taxonomic diversity is widely studied, functional diversity of plants, and recently animals, is receiving increasing attention. Most studies of mammals are short-term, focus on temperate habitats, and rely on traits described in the literature rather than generating traits from observations. Unlike previous studies, this long-term field study assessed the factors driving t...

  18. Local control and intermediate-term cosmetic outcome following IMRT for nasal tumors. An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukai, Yuki [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Head Neck Cancer Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Janssen, Stefan [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Head Neck Cancer Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Glanzmann, Christoph; Studer, Gabriela [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Head Neck Cancer Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital Lucerne, Institute for Radiation Oncology, Lucerne (Switzerland); Holzmann, David [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Head Neck Cancer Center, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-04-15

    This study aims to evaluate local control and intermediate-term cosmetic outcome in patients with cancer of the nose treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). From June 2008 to September 2015, 36 consecutive patients presenting with nasal cavity, ala of the nose, or nasal vestibule tumors were treated at the Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Zurich either postoperatively (n = 14; 3/14 with nasal ablation) or with definitive IMRT (n = 22). Of these 36 patients, 8 presented with recurrent disease after surgery only and 1/36 with N1 disease. Concurrent systemic therapy was administered in 18/36 patients (50%). Nasal follow-up (FU) imaging documentation of 13 patients with preserved organ and >6 months FU offers a pre/post IMRT FU comparison. In addition, these patients' subjective evaluation of cosmesis was assessed. Mean/median FU was 41/33 months (range 5-92 months). Salvage ablation with curative intent was undergone by 3 patients with local relapse after definitive (n = 2) and postoperative (n = 1) IMRT. The 3-year local control, ultimate local control, and overall survival rates were 90, 97, and 90 %, respectively. Subjective and objective cosmetic outcome after IMRT is very satisfying so far. IMRT for nasal tumors was found to be effective and well tolerated. Intermediate-term cosmetic results are good. Radical surgical procedures may be saved for curative salvage treatment. (orig.) [German] Evaluation der Lokalkontrolle und des mittelfristigen kosmetischen Resultats nach intensitaetsmodulierter Radiotherapie (IMRT) von Patienten mit Nasentumoren. Von Juni 2008 bis September 2015 wurden an der Klinik fuer RadioOnkologie am UniversitaetsSpital Zuerich 36 konsekutive Patienten mit Tumoren der Nasenhoehle, der Nasenfluegel oder des Vestibulum nasi postoperativ (n = 14; 3/14 nach Nasenablation) oder definitiv IMRT-bestrahlt (n = 22). Von diesen 36 Patienten zeigten 8 ein Lokalrezidiv nach alleiniger vorangegangener Chirurgie und

  19. Foley Catheter for Induction of Labor at Term: An Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Gu

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the optimal Foley catheter balloon volume (30-mL vs. 80-mL and the maximum time for cervical ripening (12 hours vs. 24 hours to improve vaginal delivery rate within 24 hours of induction.We conducted an open-label, randomized controlled trial in a teaching hospital in China. Women with a term singleton pregnancy, cephalic presentation, intact membrane and an unfavorable cervix (Bishop score <6 were randomly allocated, in 1:1:1:1 ratio, to receive either one of the four treatments: (1 30-mL balloon for a maximum of 12 hours, (2 30-mL balloon for a maximum of 24 hours, (3 80-mL balloon for a maximum of 12 hours, and (4 80-mL balloon for a maximum of 24 hours. The primary outcome was vaginal delivery within 24 hours. Secondary outcomes included cesarean section rate and maternal/neonatal morbidity. Data were analyzed on a per-protocol basis.Five hundred and four women were recruited and randomized (126 women in each group; nine women did not receive the assigned intervention. More women achieved vaginal delivery within 24 hours in 12-hour Foley catheter groups than in the 24-hour Foley catheter groups (30-mL/12 hours: 54.5%, 30-mL/24 hours: 33.1%, 80-mL/12 hours: 46.4%, 80-mL/24 hours: 24.0%, p < 0.001. Cesarean section rates and the incidence of chorioaminonitis were comparable among four groups. After adjustment for confounding factors, both ripening time and balloon size did not affect the proportion of women delivered vaginally within 24 hours of induction.For women with an unfavorable cervix at term, induction of labor with a Foley catheter is safe and effective. Higher balloon volume (80-mL vs. 30-mL and longer ripening time (24 hours vs. 12 hours would not shorten induction to delivery interval or reduce cesarean section rate.Chinese Clinical trial registry (ChiCTR-TRC-13003044.

  20. Power consumption analysis of pump station control systems based on fuzzy controllers with discrete terms in iThink software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravyova, E. A.; Bondarev, A. V.; Sharipov, M. I.; Galiaskarova, G. R.; Kubryak, A. I.

    2018-03-01

    In this article, power consumption of pumping station control systems is discussed. To study the issue, two simulation models of oil level control in the iThink software have been developed, using a frequency converter only and using a frequency converter and a fuzzy controller. A simulation of the oil-level control was carried out in a graphic form, and plots of pumps power consumption were obtained. Based on the initial and obtained data, the efficiency of the considered control systems has been compared, and also the power consumption of the systems was shown graphically using a frequency converter only and using a frequency converter and a fuzzy controller. The models analysis has shown that it is more economical and safe to use a control circuit with a frequency converter and a fuzzy controller.

  1. Short-term adhesion and long-term biofouling testing of polydopamine and poly(ethylene glycol) surface modifications of membranes and feed spacers for biofouling control

    KAUST Repository

    Miller, Daniel J.

    2012-08-01

    Ultrafiltration, nanofiltration membranes and feed spacers were hydrophilized with polydopamine and polydopamine- g-poly(ethylene glycol) surface coatings. The fouling propensity of modified and unmodified membranes was evaluated by short-term batch protein and bacterial adhesion tests. The fouling propensity of modified and unmodified membranes and spacers was evaluated by continuous biofouling experiments in a membrane fouling simulator. The goals of the study were: 1) to determine the effectiveness of polydopamine and polydopamine- g-poly(ethylene glycol) membrane coatings for biofouling control and 2) to compare techniques commonly used in assessment of membrane biofouling propensity with biofouling experiments under practical conditions. Short-term adhesion tests were carried out under static, no-flow conditions for 1 h using bovine serum albumin, a common model globular protein, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a common model Gram-negative bacterium. Biofouling tests were performed in a membrane fouling simulator (MFS) for several days under flow conditions similar to those encountered in industrial modules with the autochthonous drinking water population and acetate dosage as organic substrate. Polydopamine- and polydopamine- g-poly(ethylene glycol)-modified membranes showed significantly reduced adhesion of bovine serum albumin and P. aeruginosa in the short-term adhesion tests, but no reduction of biofouling was observed during longer biofouling experiments with modified membranes and spacers. These results demonstrate that short-term batch adhesion experiments using model proteins or bacteria under static conditions are not indicative of biofouling, while continuous biofouling experiments showed that membrane surface modification by polydopamine and polydopamine- g-poly(ethylene glycol) is not effective for biofouling control. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Modeling coupled thermal, flow, transport and geochemical processes controlling near field long-term evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, W.; Arthur, R.; Xu, T.; Pruess, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Bentonite is planned for use as a buffer material in the Swedish nuclear waste disposal concept (KBS-3). Upon emplacement, the buffer is expected to experience a complex set of coupled processes involving heating, re-saturation, reaction and transport of groundwater imbibed from the host rock. The effect of these processes may eventually lead to changes in desirable physical and rheological properties of the buffer, but these processes are not well understood. In this paper, a new quantitative model is evaluated to help improve our understanding of the long-term performance of buffer materials. This is an extension of a previous study [1] that involved simple thermal and chemical models applied to a fully saturated buffer. The thermal model in the present study uses heating histories for spent fuel in a single waste package [2]. The model uses repository dimensions, such as borehole and tunnel spacings [2], which affect the temperature distribution around the waste package. At the time of emplacement, bentonite is partially saturated with water having a different composition than the host-rock groundwater. The present model simulates water imbibition from the host rock into the bentonite under capillary and hydraulic pressure gradients. The associated chemical reactions and solute transport are simulated using Aespoe water composition [3]. The initial mineralogy of bentonite is assumed to be dominated by Na-smectite with much smaller amounts of anhydrite and calcite. Na-smectite dissolution is assumed to be kinetically-controlled while all other reactions are assumed to be at equilibrium controlled. All equilibrium and kinetic constants are temperature dependent. The modeling tool used is TOUGHREACT, developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory [4]. TOUGHREACT is a numerical model that is well suited for near-field simulations because it accounts for feedback between porosity and permeability changes from mineral

  3. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the long-term control of the Earth's climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Carver

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available A CO2-weathering model has been used to explore the possible evolution of the Earth's climate as the Sun steadily brightened throughout geologic time. The results of the model calculations can be described in terms of three, qualitatively different, "Megaclimates". Mega-climate 1 resulted from a period of rapid outgassing in the early Archean, with high, but declining, temperatures caused by the small weathering rates on a largely water-covered planet. Mega-climate 2 began about 3 Gyear ago as major continental land masses developed, increasing the weathering rate in the early Proterozoic and thereby depleting the atmospheric CO2 concentration. This process produced the first Precambrian glaciations about 2.3 Gyear ago. During Mega-climate 2, evolutionary biological processes increased the surface weatherability in incremental steps and plate tectonics modulated the CO2 outgassing rate with an estimated period of 150 Myear (approximately one-half the period for the formation and breakup of super continents. Throughout Mega-climate 2 the surface temperature was controlled by variations in the atmospheric CO2 level allowing transitions between glacial and non-glacial conditions. The results of the model for Mega-climate 2 are in agreement with the occurrence (and absence of glaciations in the geologic record. Extending the model to the future suggests that CO2 control of the Earth's temperature will no longer be able to compensate for a solar flux that continues to increase. The present level of atmospheric CO2 is so small that further reduction in CO2 cannot prevent the Earth from experiencing Mega-climate 3 with steadily increasing surface temperatures caused by the continued brightening of the Sun. During Mega-climate 3, the main danger to the biosphere would come not from an increasing temperature but from a decreasing (rather than an increasing CO2 level which could, in time, fall below 0.5 PAL, causing serious damage to the biosphere

  4. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the long-term control of the Earth's climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Carver

    Full Text Available A CO2-weathering model has been used to explore the possible evolution of the Earth's climate as the Sun steadily brightened throughout geologic time. The results of the model calculations can be described in terms of three, qualitatively different, "Megaclimates". Mega-climate 1 resulted from a period of rapid outgassing in the early Archean, with high, but declining, temperatures caused by the small weathering rates on a largely water-covered planet. Mega-climate 2 began about 3 Gyear ago as major continental land masses developed, increasing the weathering rate in the early Proterozoic and thereby depleting the atmospheric CO2 concentration. This process produced the first Precambrian glaciations about 2.3 Gyear ago. During Mega-climate 2, evolutionary biological processes increased the surface weatherability in incremental steps and plate tectonics modulated the CO2 outgassing rate with an estimated period of 150 Myear (approximately one-half the period for the formation and breakup of super continents. Throughout Mega-climate 2 the surface temperature was controlled by variations in the atmospheric CO2 level allowing transitions between glacial and non-glacial conditions. The results of the model for Mega-climate 2 are in agreement with the occurrence (and absence of glaciations in the geologic record. Extending the model to the future suggests that CO2 control of the Earth's temperature will no longer be able to compensate for a solar flux that continues to increase. The present level of atmospheric CO2 is so small that further reduction in CO2 cannot prevent the Earth from experiencing Mega-climate 3 with steadily increasing surface temperatures caused by the continued brightening of the Sun. During Mega-climate 3, the main danger to the biosphere would come not from an increasing temperature but from a decreasing (rather than an increasing CO2

  5. Short-term genome evolution of Listeria monocytogenes in a non-controlled environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Reid A

    2008-11-01

    outbreak was caused by a L. monocytogenes strain that persisted in a food processing facility over 12 years and show that genome sequencing is a valuable and feasible tool for retrospective epidemiological analyses. Short-term evolution of L. monocytogenes in non-controlled environments appears to involve limited diversification beyond plasmid gain or loss and prophage diversification, highlighting the importance of phages in bacterial evolution.

  6. Impulse control disorder related behaviours during long-term rotigotine treatment: a post hoc analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, A; Chaudhuri, K R; Boroojerdi, B; Asgharnejad, M; Bauer, L; Grieger, F; Weintraub, D

    2016-10-01

    Dopamine agonists in Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated with impulse control disorders (ICDs) and other compulsive behaviours (together called ICD behaviours). The frequency of ICD behaviours reported as adverse events (AEs) in long-term studies of rotigotine transdermal patch in PD was evaluated. This was a post hoc analysis of six open-label extension studies up to 6 years in duration. Analyses included patients treated with rotigotine for at least 6 months and administered the modified Minnesota Impulse Disorders Interview. ICD behaviours reported as AEs were identified and categorized. For 786 patients, the mean (±SD) exposure to rotigotine was 49.4 ± 17.6 months. 71 (9.0%) patients reported 106 ICD AEs cumulatively. Occurrence was similar across categories: 2.5% patients reported 'compulsive sexual behaviour', 2.3% 'buying disorder', 2.0% 'compulsive gambling', 1.7% 'compulsive eating' and 1.7% 'punding behaviour'. Examining at 6-month intervals, the incidence was relatively low during the first 30 months; it was higher over the next 30 months, peaking in the 54-60-month period. No ICD AEs were serious, and 97% were mild or moderate in intensity. Study discontinuation occurred in seven (9.9%) patients with ICD AEs; these then resolved in five patients. Dose reduction occurred for 23 AEs, with the majority (73.9%) resolving. In this analysis of >750 patients with PD treated with rotigotine, the frequency of ICD behaviour AEs was 9.0%, with a specific incidence timeline observed. Active surveillance as duration of treatment increases may help early identification and management; once ICD behaviours are present rotigotine dose reduction may be considered. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Neurology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Academy of Neurology.

  7. Short-term hunger intensity changes following ingestion of a meal replacement bar for weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothacker, Dana Q; Watemberg, Salo

    2004-05-01

    Meal replacement products for weight loss are popular and safe for most unsupervised consumers desiring to lose weight. Previously we reported that the thickness of meal replacement diet shakes had a direct and significant effect on hunger intensity during the first 2 h and that hunger intensity scores for liquid meal replacements were significantly below baseline for 3 h following consumption (Mattes & Rothacker, 2001) This study uses the same protocol to investigate meal replacement bars designed for overweight consumers. Subjects were prescreened to include only those that normally ate breakfast and liked chocolate. The bar used in this study contained 250 calories (about 30 more than most liquid diet shakes), 4 g dietary fiber, 14 g protein and 8 g fat. Subjects were instructed to consume the entire bar with a glass of water following an overnight fast when they would normally consume their first meal of the day and to assess their hunger on a 1 (not hungry at all) to 9 (as hungry as I have ever felt) scale before consumption, immediately after and hourly for 6 h (only on typical weekdays). Similar assessments were made for the perception of stomach fullness (1=empty, 9=extremely full), strength of the desire to eat (1=no desire, 9=extremely strong) and thirst (1=not at all thirsty, 9=extremely thirsty). One-hundred and eight subjects (23 male and 85 female) completed the study. No gender satiety differences were found. Hunger ratings and desire to eat remained significantly below baseline for 5 h following consumption. Stomach fullness scores were significantly above baseline for 5 h. Thirst scores were significantly below baseline for 3 h. In conclusion, although the meal replacement diet bars contained only 30 additional calories than liquids, they provided an additional 2 h of hunger suppression from baseline that may have an impact on overall weightloss success. These results support superior short-term hunger control with solid meal replacements.

  8. Neurocognitive function in clinically stable individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder: Comparisons with schizophrenia patients and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yun Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the levels of the five domains of neurocognitive function—executive function, attention, memory, verbal comprehension, and perceptual organization—among clinically stable individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder, individuals with long-term schizophrenia, and a group of controls. We recruited a total of 93 clinically stable individuals with bipolar I disorder, 94 individuals with schizophrenia, and 106 controls in this study. Their neurocognitive function was measured using a series of neurocognitive function tests: the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Third Edition (WAIS-III, Line Cancellation Test, Visual Form Discrimination, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Continuous Performance Task, and Wechsler Memory Scale—Third Edition. Neurocognitive function was compared among the three groups through a multivariate analysis of variance. The results indicated that when the effect of age was controlled, clinically stable individuals with bipolar I disorder and those with schizophrenia demonstrated poor neurocognitive function on all tests except for the WAIS-III Similarity and Information and the Line Cancellation Test. The individuals with bipolar I disorder had similar levels of neurocognitive function compared with the schizophrenia group, but higher levels of neurocognitive function on the WAIS-III Comprehension, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and Wechsler Memory Scale—Third Edition Auditory Immediate and Delayed Index and Visual Immediate and Delayed Index. The conclusions of this study suggest that compared with controls, individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder and those with long-term schizophrenia have poorer neurocognitive function, even when clinically stable. Individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder and those with long-term schizophrenia have similar levels of deficits in several domains of neurocognitive function.

  9. Decayed, missing and filled teeth index and dental anomalies in long-term survivors leukaemic children: a prospective controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritano, Dorina; Petruzzi, Massimo

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this prospective controlled study is the comparison between long-term children survived leukaemia and a control group in terms of the decayed, missing or filled permanent teeth (DMFT) and dental anomalies. Fifty-two long term children survived leukaemia, aged from 8 to 15 years (27 females, 25 males; mean age 11.5 years) were evaluated for the possible effects of the anti-leukaemic therapy on dental development and compared to a control group of 52 healthy children (27 females, 25 males, mean age 11 years). All long-term children who survived were at least 24 months in continuous complete remission. The study of the dental status with a routine oral examination and panoramic radiographs was performed. The DMFT (recorded according to the WHO criteria) and dental anomalies were registered and evaluated. The results of this study evidence that long-term children survived leukaemia, in comparison with the control group, have an higher risk to develop dental caries and show a greater severity of dental anomalies including V-shaped roots, dental agenesis, microdontia, enamel dysplasias. Paediatric patients with haemathological diseases require a special attentions in dental care in addition to the antineoplastic treatment. Therefore, oral hygiene and oral health can be maintained thanks to a close cooperation between the paediatric oncohaematologists, pediatrics dental surgeons and dental hygienists.

  10. Taxonomic, biogeographic, and taphonomic reassessment of a large extinct species of paca from the Quaternary of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elver Luiz Mayer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of extinct species of Cuniculus (Caviomorpha, Rodentia, Mammalia is confusing and poorly studied. Here we provide a taxonomic review of extinct cuniculids, and discuss the taxonomic, biogeographic, taphonomic and chronologic aspects of new remains of an extinct large cuniculid from Brazilian Quaternary Gruta Cuvieri cave deposits. Our taxonomic review suggests that Cuniculus rugiceps (Lund, 1837 is the valid taxon to include all available occurrences of extinct cuniculids. The most evident features of this taxon are its larger size and the stronger and more densely distributed rugosities on the skull external surface when compared to the extant species. At present, the distribution of C. rugiceps is restricted to the tropical region of Brazil. Regarding the new remains, taphonomic analysis of the specimens from Cuvieri Cave suggests our sample is represented by at least seven individuals that accumulated within the cave deposit by pitfall entrapment. The biostratinomy of the specimens was characterized by prolonged surface exposure inside the pit with fragmentation and displacement caused mostly by falling and subsequent trampling by individuals of the same and/or other species. The stratigraphically controlled excavations and chronological data allowed the establishment of a Late Pleistocene minimum age for these specimens.

  11. XML schemas and mark-up practices of taxonomic literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penev, Lyubomir; Lyal, Christopher Hc; Weitzman, Anna; Morse, David R; King, David; Sautter, Guido; Georgiev, Teodor; Morris, Robert A; Catapano, Terry; Agosti, Donat

    2011-01-01

    We review the three most widely used XML schemas used to mark-up taxonomic texts, TaxonX, TaxPub and taXMLit. These are described from the viewpoint of their development history, current status, implementation, and use cases. The concept of "taxon treatment" from the viewpoint of taxonomy mark-up into XML is discussed. TaxonX and taXMLit are primarily designed for legacy literature, the former being more lightweight and with a focus on recovery of taxon treatments, the latter providing a much more detailed set of tags to facilitate data extraction and analysis. TaxPub is an extension of the National Library of Medicine Document Type Definition (NLM DTD) for taxonomy focussed on layout and recovery and, as such, is best suited for mark-up of new publications and their archiving in PubMedCentral. All three schemas have their advantages and shortcomings and can be used for different purposes.

  12. Memory systems, processes, and tasks: taxonomic clarification via factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruss, Peter J; Mitchell, David B

    2009-01-01

    The nature of various memory systems was examined using factor analysis. We reanalyzed data from 11 memory tasks previously reported in Mitchell and Bruss (2003). Four well-defined factors emerged, closely resembling episodic and semantic memory and conceptual and perceptual implicit memory, in line with both memory systems and transfer-appropriate processing accounts. To explore taxonomic issues, we ran separate analyses on the implicit tasks. Using a cross-format manipulation (pictures vs. words), we identified 3 prototypical tasks. Word fragment completion and picture fragment identification tasks were "factor pure," tapping perceptual processes uniquely. Category exemplar generation revealed its conceptual nature, yielding both cross-format priming and a picture superiority effect. In contrast, word stem completion and picture naming were more complex, revealing attributes of both processes.

  13. Effects of land use on taxonomic and functional diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hevia, Violeta; Carmona, Carlos P.; Azcárate, Francisco M.

    2016-01-01

    Land-use change is the major driver of biodiversity loss. However, taxonomic diversity (TD) and functional diversity (FD) might respond differently to land-use change, and this response might also vary depending on the biotic group being analysed. In this study, we compare the TD and FD of four......: the sampling unit scale and the site scale. Land-use intensity effects on TD and FD were quite different and highly varied among the four biotic groups, with no single clear pattern emerging that could be considered general for all organisms. Additive partitioning of species diversity revealed clear...... contrasting patterns between TD and FD in the percentage of variability observed at each spatial scale. While most variability in TD was found at the larger scales, irregardless of organism group and land-use type, most variability in FD was found at the smallest scale, indicating that species turnover among...

  14. Taxonomic status of two morphotypes of Coryphaena hippurus (Perciformes: Coryphaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Bonner

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two Coryphaena hippurus morphotypes (dourado and palombeta are found along the Brazilian coast and are considered by Rio de Janeiro’s fisherman and fishmongers as two different species. Furthermore, these morphotypes are commercialized under different values and suffer different fishing pressure. Therefore, a definition of their taxonomic status is an important economic and biological matter. In order to investigate this problem, allozyme electrophoresis method was undertaken for seventeen loci on 117 individuals of C. hippurus sampled at Cabo Frio/RJ (Brazil. The data indicate homogeneity between the morphotypes gene pools. Nevertheless, differences were found for genetic variation among dourado and palombeta, especially due to alcohol dehydrogenase locus. Natural selection hypothesis is discussed in explaining these findings.

  15. Flora of the city of Podgorica, Montenegro: Taxonomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stešević Danijela

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the taxonomic segment of a floristic study undertaken in the city of Podgorica in the period of 2002-2007. The check-list of spontaneously growing vascular plants includes 1227 species and subspecies belonging to 545 genera and 118 families. The dominant families are Poaceae (11.7%, asteraceae (11.2% and Fabaceae (9.2%. The most abundant genera are Trifolium (2.1%, Euphorbia (1.5%, Carex (1.5%, Bromus (1.3% and Vicia (1.2%. Analysis of the flora of Podgorica in comparison with some other european cities showed that the flora of Podgorica is most similar to that of Rome (Q/S= 0,7.

  16. Camallanus tridentatus (Drasche) (Nematoda: Camallanidae): new taxonomically important morphological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cláudia Portes; Moravec, Frantisek

    2009-02-01

    Camallanus tridentatus is redescribed on the basis of the examination of specimens obtained from the stomach, caeca and intestine of the naturally infected arapaima Arapaima gigas (Schinz) from the Mexiana Island, Amazon River Delta, Brazil. Data on the surface morphology of adults inferred from confocal laser scanning and scanning electron microscopical observations are also provided. The study revealed some taxonomically important, previously unreported morphological features in this species, such as the presence of the poorly sclerotized left spicule and deirids. C. tridentatus distinctly differs from other congeneric species parasitizing freshwater fishes in South America mainly in the structure of the buccal capsule and the female caudal end. C. maculatus Martins, Garcia, Piazza and Ghiraldelli is considered a junior synonymm of Camallanus cotti Fujita.

  17. Camallanus tridentatus (Drasche (Nematoda: Camallanidae: new taxonomically important morphological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Portes Santos

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Camallanus tridentatus is redescribed on the basis of the examination of specimens obtained from the stomach, caeca and intestine of the naturally infected arapaima Arapaima gigas (Schinz from the Mexiana Island, Amazon River Delta, Brazil. Data on the surface morphology of adults inferred from confocal laser scanning and scanning electron microscopical observations are also provided. The study revealed some taxonomically important, previously unreported morphological features in this species, such as the presence of the poorly sclerotized left spicule and deirids. C. tridentatus distinctly differs from other congeneric species parasitizing freshwater fishes in South America mainly in the structure of the buccal capsule and the female caudal end. C. maculatus Martins, Garcia, Piazza and Ghiraldelli is considered a junior synonymm of Camallanus cotti Fujita.

  18. Seed morphology and its taxonomic significance in the family malvaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, R.; Ather, A.

    2016-01-01

    The seed morphological studies of 75 taxa belonging to 6 sub-families of the family Malvaceae were carried out from Pakistan. In Pakistan the family Malvaceae is represented by 6 sub-families viz., Byttnerioideae, Dombeyoideae, Malvoideae, Bombacoideae, Helicteroideae and Sterculioideae. The seed macro and micro morphological characters are examined, using light (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Detailed seed morphological descriptions, micrographs and keys based on seed characters are also provided. A variety in various quantitative and qualitative seed characters was observed. The micro-morphological characters of seeds are quite significant to strengthen the taxonomic decisions within the family Malvaceae at various levels. The data obtained from the seed morphological characters were analyzed numerically to trace out the phylogenetic affinities for the taxa within the family Malvaceae from Pakistan. (author)

  19. Fossil struthionid eggshells from Laetoli, Tanzania: Taxonomic and biostratigraphic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Terry; Msuya, Charles P.

    2005-04-01

    Recent paleontological investigations at Laetoli and neighboring localities in northern Tanzania have produced a large collection of fossil ostrich eggshells from the Pliocene-aged Laetolil Beds (˜3.5-4.5 Ma) and Ndolanya Beds (˜2.6-2.7 Ma). A detailed analysis of the morphology of the eggshells and their taxonomic affinities indicates that two different species of Struthio are represented. In the Lower Laetolil Beds and in the Upper Laetolil Beds below Tuff 3 a new species is recognized— Struthio kakesiensis. This is replaced in the Upper Laetolil Beds by Struthio camelus, the modern species of ostrich. Since radiometric age determinations are available for the stratigraphic sequence at Laetoli, it is possible to precisely date the first appearance of S. camelus at ˜3.6-3.8 Ma. Comparisons of the Laetoli material with specimens from the well-dated sequences at Lothagam and Kanapoi in northern Kenya, allow the taxonomic and biochronological analysis to be extended back in time to the late Miocene. At about 6.5 Ma, Diamantornis and elephant birds were replaced in East Africa by ostriches belonging to the genus Struthio. Three time-successive species of ostriches are identified in the fossil record of East Africa, beginning with Struthio. cf. karingarabensis (˜6.5-4.2 Ma), followed by S. kakesiensis (˜4.5-3.6 Ma) and then S. camelus (˜3.8 Ma onwards). A similar sequence of taxa has previously been recorded from localities in Namibia, but at these sites there is no possibility to precisely calibrate the ages of the different species using radiometric dating. Nevertheless, the broadly similar evolutionary sequence and the close correspondence in inferred ages for the succession of species in East Africa and Namibia suggest that ostrich eggshells are a very useful tool for biochronological correlation of paleontological sites in sub-Saharan Africa.

  20. Taxonomic composition of phytoplankton in the Vakh River (Western Siberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorobogatova, O. N.

    2018-03-01

    This paper provides data on the hydrological and hydrochemical parameters of the Vakh River in the Middle Ob region. In 2005-2008 we have identified 404 taxonomic units represented by 463 species, types and forms of algae, belonging to 140 genera, 52 families, 13 classes and 7 divisions. 386 species were identified for the first time, 141 taxa were identified as rare and 22 taxa as new for Western Siberia. Leading divisions, Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta, make up for 78.9% of total phytoplankton diversity. Cyanobacteria, Chrysophyta and Euglenophyta form a community of 88 taxonomic units having a rank lower than genus level, and represent 19.0% of the total number. The floral role of Xanthophyta and Dinophyta is insignificant (2.1%). The main structure-forming species are 14: vegetating throughout the year (Aulacoseira italica, Asterionella formosa), summer taxa (Microcystis aeruginosa, Melosira varians, Aulacoseira granulata, Pandorina morum, Pediastrum boryanum, P. duplex, Lacunastrum gracillimum, Scenedesmus quadricauda) and summer-autumn (Microcystis pulverea, Tabellaria fenestrata, T. flocculosa, Mucidosphaerium pulchellum). The Vakh River demonstrates specific characteristics of boreal flowing waterways. The northern composition is represented in a big rate of families (44.2%) and genera (109 77.9) with one to three species. The richest genera Closterium (31 taxa), Eunotia (27 taxa), Pinnularia (22 taxa), Desmidium (11 taxa) and the family Desmidiaceae (45 taxa) ensure diversity of phytoplankton. Ecological and geographical analysis demonstrates predominance of cosmopolitan algae (56.6%). Plankton represents 44.7% of all algae, oligogalobs - 78.8% and indifferent algae – 36.7%. Water meets the requirements for β-mezosaprobian pollution zone, class of satisfactory purity (III class).

  1. Obesity: a systematic review on parental involvement in long-term European childhood weight control interventions with a nutritional focus

    OpenAIRE

    Kruk, J J; Kortekaas, F; Lucas, C; Jager-Wittenaar, H

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, about 20% of children are overweight. Focus on parental responsibility is an effective method in weight control interventions in children. In this systematic review we describe the intensity of parental involvement and behaviour change aimed at parents in long-term European childhood weight control interventions. We include European Union studies targeting parents in order to improve children's weight status in multi-component (parental, behaviour change and nutrition) health promo...

  2. Automated and temperature-controlled micro-PIV measurements enabling long-term-stable microchannel acoustophoresis characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustsson, Per; Barnkob, Rune; Wereley, Steven T.

    2011-01-01

    We present a platform for micro particle image velocimetry (μPIV), capable of carrying out full-channel, temperature-controlled, long-term-stable, and automated μPIV-measurement of microchannel acoustophoresis with uncertainties below 5% and a spatial resolution in the order of 20 μm. A method to...

  3. Obesity: a systematic review on parental involvement in long-term European childhood weight control interventions with a nutritional focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kruk, Joke; Kortekaas, F.; Lucas, Cees; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, about 20% of children are overweight. Focus on parental responsibility is an effective method in weight control interventions in children. In this systematic review we describe the intensity of parental involvement and behaviour change aimed at parents in long-term European childhood

  4. Short-term effects of whole-body vibration on postural control in unilateral chronic stroke patients: preliminary evidence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, I.J.W. van; Geurts, A.C.H.; Hendricks, H.T.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2004-01-01

    The short-term effects of whole-body vibration as a novel method of somatosensory stimulation on postural control were investigated in 23 chronic stroke patients. While standing on a commercial platform, patients received 30-Hz oscillations at 3 mm of amplitude in the frontal plane. Balance was

  5. Persistent negative illness perceptions despite long-term biochemical control of acromegaly: novel application of the drawing test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemensma, Jitske; Pereira, Alberto M.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Broadbent, Elizabeth; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Kaptein, Adrian A.

    2015-01-01

    Context and objective: Patients with acromegaly have persistent complaints despite long-term biochemical control. Drawings can be used to assess patients' perceptions about their disease. We aimed to explore the utility of the drawing test and its relation to illness perceptions and quality of life

  6. Short-term memory in the service of executive control functions

    OpenAIRE

    Farshad Alizadeh Mansouri; Marcello eRosa; Nafiseh eAtapour

    2015-01-01

    Short-term memory is a crucial cognitive function for supporting on-going and upcoming behaviours, allowing storage of information across delay periods. The content of this memory may typically include tangible information about features such as the shape, colour or texture of an object, its location and motion relative to the body, or phonological information. The neural correlate of these short-term memories has been found in different brain areas involved in organizing perceptual or motor ...

  7. Taxonomic history and invasion biology of two Phyllonorycter leaf miners (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) with links to taxonomic and molecular datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Prins, Jurate; De Prins, Willy; De Coninck, Eliane; Kawahara, Akito Y; Milton, Megan A; Hebert, Paul D N

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with two European species, Phyllonorycter mespilella (Hübner, 1805) and P. trifasciella (Haworth, 1828), that have colonized the subtropical Canary Islands. The Rosaceae leaf miner, P. mespilella, is recorded for the first time from Lanzarote and La Palma, while the Caprifoliaceae leaf miner, P. trifasciella, is recorded from Tenerife. We present the diagnoses of these species based on morphology, a preliminary DNA barcode (COI) library of congeneric and con-familial species, and discuss the taxonomic position of the colonizers within the blancardella and trifasciella species groups. The recent intensification of anthropogenic disturbance likely accounts for their range expansion, an event that may impact the relict flora present on the Canary Islands.

  8. Short-term androgen priming by use of aromatase inhibitor and hCG before controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF. A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lossl, K; Andersen, C Yding; Loft, A

    2008-01-01

    Temporary exposure of follicles to increased levels of androgens may augment follicular responsiveness. The present study tested whether short-term androgen priming by aromatase inhibitor and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) before controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) increases the number of top......-quality embryos after IVF/ICSI....

  9. Bamboo tea: reduction of taxonomic complexity and application of DNA diagnostics based on rbcL and matK sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häser, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Background Names used in ingredient lists of food products are trivial and in their nature rarely precise. The most recent scientific interpretation of the term bamboo (Bambusoideae, Poaceae) comprises over 1,600 distinct species. In the European Union only few of these exotic species are well known sources for food ingredients (i.e., bamboo sprouts) and are thus not considered novel foods, which would require safety assessments before marketing of corresponding products. In contrast, the use of bamboo leaves and their taxonomic origin is mostly unclear. However, products containing bamboo leaves are currently marketed. Methods We analysed bamboo species and tea products containing bamboo leaves using anatomical leaf characters and DNA sequence data. To reduce taxonomic complexity associated with the term bamboo, we used a phylogenetic framework to trace the origin of DNA from commercially available bamboo leaves within the bambusoid subfamily. For authentication purposes, we introduced a simple PCR based test distinguishing genuine bamboo from other leaf components and assessed the diagnostic potential of rbcL and matK to resolve taxonomic entities within the bamboo subfamily and tribes. Results Based on anatomical and DNA data we were able to trace the taxonomic origin of bamboo leaves used in products to the genera Phyllostachys and Pseudosasa from the temperate “woody” bamboo tribe (Arundinarieae). Currently available rbcL and matK sequence data allow the character based diagnosis of 80% of represented bamboo genera. We detected adulteration by carnation in four of eight tea products and, after adapting our objectives, could trace the taxonomic origin of the adulterant to Dianthus chinensis (Caryophyllaceae), a well known traditional Chinese medicine with counter indications for pregnant women. PMID:27957401

  10. Two decades of climate driving the dynamics of functional and taxonomic diversity of a tropical small mammal community in western Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-Romo, Edgard David; Farías, Ariel A; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the effects of global climate disruption on biodiversity is important to future conservation efforts. While taxonomic diversity is widely studied, functional diversity of plants, and recently animals, is receiving increasing attention. Most studies of mammals are short-term, focus on temperate habitats, and rely on traits described in the literature rather than generating traits from observations. Unlike previous studies, this long-term field study assessed the factors driving the functional and taxonomic diversity of small-mammal assemblages in dry tropical forests using both traits recorded from literature and a demographic database. We assessed the drivers (abundance and biomass, temperature and rainfall) of taxonomic richness and functional diversity for two rain-driven seasons in two adjacent but distinct forests-upland and lowland (arroyo or riparian) forests. Our analysis found that rainfall, both seasonal and atypical, was the primary factor driving functional and taxonomic diversity of small-mammal assemblages. Functional responses differed between the two types of forests, however, with effects being stronger in the harsher conditions of the upland forests than in the less severe conditions prevailing in the arroyo (riparian) forest. The latter also supports a richer, more diverse, and more stable small-mammal assemblage. These findings highlight the importance of climate to tropical biological diversity, as extreme climate events (hurricanes, droughts and floods) and disruption of rainfall patterns were shown to decrease biodiversity. They also support the need to preserve these habitats, as their high taxonomic diversity and functional redundancy makes them resilient against global climate disruption and local extreme events. Tropical dry forests constitute a potential reservoir for biodiversity and the ecosystem services they provide. Unfortunately, these forests are among the most endangered terrestrial ecosystems because of

  11. Two decades of climate driving the dynamics of functional and taxonomic diversity of a tropical small mammal community in western Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard David Mason-Romo

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of global climate disruption on biodiversity is important to future conservation efforts. While taxonomic diversity is widely studied, functional diversity of plants, and recently animals, is receiving increasing attention. Most studies of mammals are short-term, focus on temperate habitats, and rely on traits described in the literature rather than generating traits from observations. Unlike previous studies, this long-term field study assessed the factors driving the functional and taxonomic diversity of small-mammal assemblages in dry tropical forests using both traits recorded from literature and a demographic database. We assessed the drivers (abundance and biomass, temperature and rainfall of taxonomic richness and functional diversity for two rain-driven seasons in two adjacent but distinct forests-upland and lowland (arroyo or riparian forests. Our analysis found that rainfall, both seasonal and atypical, was the primary factor driving functional and taxonomic diversity of small-mammal assemblages. Functional responses differed between the two types of forests, however, with effects being stronger in the harsher conditions of the upland forests than in the less severe conditions prevailing in the arroyo (riparian forest. The latter also supports a richer, more diverse, and more stable small-mammal assemblage. These findings highlight the importance of climate to tropical biological diversity, as extreme climate events (hurricanes, droughts and floods and disruption of rainfall patterns were shown to decrease biodiversity. They also support the need to preserve these habitats, as their high taxonomic diversity and functional redundancy makes them resilient against global climate disruption and local extreme events. Tropical dry forests constitute a potential reservoir for biodiversity and the ecosystem services they provide. Unfortunately, these forests are among the most endangered terrestrial ecosystems because

  12. NODC Standard Product: NODC Taxonomic Code on CD-ROM (NODC Accession 0050418)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The content of the NODC Taxonomic Code, Version 8 CD-ROM (CD-ROM NODC-68) distributed by NODC is archived in this accession. Version 7 of the NODC Taxonomic Code...

  13. Taxonomic status of the roses (Rosa) described by S.G. Dimitrov from Bulgaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinski, J.; Petrova, A; Tan, Kit

    2004-01-01

    The original herbarium vouchers for six species of Rosa (Rosaceae) described by S. G. Dimitrov from Bulgaria are taxonomically evaluated. Two species (R. balcanica, R. orphei) are considered hybrids, four other names (R. bulgarica, R. parilica, R. pontica and R. rhodopaea) are taxonomic synonyms...

  14. Taxonomic significance of cypsela morphology for the tribe mutisieae (s.l.) (asteraceae) from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, R.; Alam, J.

    2011-01-01

    Cypselas of 5 species distributed in 3 genera of the tribe Mutisieae (s.l.) were examined from Pakistan to assess their taxonomic significance. Micro morphological characters of cypsela including shape, pappus and carpopodium have been proved very rewarding to evaluate the taxonomic decisions both at the generic and specific levels. (author)

  15. Long-term impact of earthquake stress on fasting glucose control and diabetes prevalence among Chinese adults of Tangshan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Cuixia; Zhang, Yun; Yu, Lulu; Li, Na; Song, Mei; Wang, Lan; Zhao, Xiaochuan; Gao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xueyi

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the long-term influence of stresses from the 1976 Tangshan earthquake on blood glucose control and the incidence of diabetes mellitus in Chinese people of Tangshan. 1,551 adults ≥ 37 years of age were recruited for this investigation in Tangshan city of China, where one of the deadliest earthquakes occurred in 1796. All subjects finished a questionnaire. 1,030 of them who experienced that earthquake were selected into the exposure group, while 521 were gathered as the control group who have not exposed to any earthquake. The numbers of subjects who were first identified with diabetes or had normal FBG but with diabetic history were added for the calculation of diabetes prevalence. Statistic-analysis was applied on the baseline data, and incidences of IFG as well as diabetes among all groups. Statistic comparisons indicate there is no significant difference on average fasting glucose levels between the control group and the exposure group. However, the prevalence of IFG and diabetes among the exposure group displays significant variance with the control group. The prevalence of diabetes among exposure groups is significantly higher than the control group. Women are more likely to have diabetes after experiencing earthquake stresses compared to men. The earthquake stress was linked to higher diabetes incidence as an independent factor. The earthquake stress has long-term impacts on diabetes incidence as an independent risk factor. Emerging and long-term managements regarding the care of IFG and diabetes in populations exposed to earthquake stress should be concerned.

  16. Using the LHC control system - 2016 retrospective and short term plans

    CERN Document Server

    Crockford, G

    2017-01-01

    The paper will discuss the LHC control system performance during 2016 operation. It aims to answer the following questions: In retrospect, which controls facilities, if any, were missing and what could be improved? How did we perform on follow-up of requests from Evian 2015? Human errors committed while interacting with the control system are discussed and suggestions made for possible mitigation measures. Looking forward to EYETS (the extended year end technical stop), the planned control system changes and their impact will be presented.

  17. Need for ex officio control of unfair terms in consumer contracts: comparative view of the Spanish system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Blanco García

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available European authorities advocate for providing judges greater power to examine ex officio the abusive nature of the standard contract terms within a consumer contract.  This line of reasoning in case-law has been introduced in Spain, thus improving the protection of consumers’ rights and interests. However, countries like Uruguay do not consider this possibility, preventing judges from controlling contents unless it is requested by the parties, since the annulment of a contract would be questioned due to the legal nature of nullity. In this paper, the different regulations of unfair contract terms in the Spanish and Uruguayan systems are discussed.

  18. Differences between resource control types revisited : A short term longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijntjes, Albert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/265818494; Vermande, Marjolijn|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/138483515; Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits A; Vink, Gerko|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323348793; Aleva, Liesbeth|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/141299789; van der Meulen, Matty

    2018-01-01

    Hawley's influential resource control theory (RCT) posits that both coercive and prosocial strategies may yield social dominance, as indexed by resource control. Based on differences in youths’ relative use of these strategies, RCT a priori defines five distinct subtypes. Several studies by Hawley

  19. Limited agreement between current and long-term asthma control in children : the PACMAN cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Ellen S.; Raaijmakers, Jan A. M.; Vijverberg, Susanne J. H.; Koenderman, Leo; Postma, Dirkje S.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; van der Ent, Cornelis K.; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke-Hilse

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown that predictors of asthma treatment outcomes differ depending on the definition of the outcome chosen. This provides evidence that different outcomes studied may reflect distinct aspects of asthma control. To assess predictors of asthma control, we need firm

  20. Selective Short-Term Memory Deficits Arise from Impaired Domain-General Semantic Control Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Ehsan, Sheeba; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Semantic short-term memory (STM) patients have a reduced ability to retain semantic information over brief delays but perform well on other semantic tasks; this pattern suggests damage to a dedicated buffer for semantic information. Alternatively, these difficulties may arise from mild disruption to domain-general semantic processes that have…

  1. Explaining Semantic Short-Term Memory Deficits: Evidence for the Critical Role of Semantic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with apparently selective short-term memory (STM) deficits for semantic information have played an important role in developing multi-store theories of STM and challenge the idea that verbal STM is supported by maintaining activation in the language system. We propose that semantic STM deficits are not as selective as previously thought…

  2. The role of protein and carbohydrates for long-term weight control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Cornago, Aurora; van Baak, Marleen A.; Saris, Wim H. M.

    2014-01-01

    Current therapies to manage obesity are based on energy restriction and physical activity promotion. However, the role of specific dietary components for long-term weight maintenance is under debate. This review aims to illustrate some lessons from the pan-European Diogenes study, a randomized, c...

  3. Automatic and Controlled Processing in Sentence Recall: The Role of Long-Term and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, E.; Lambon Ralph, M.A.; Baddeley, A.D.

    2004-01-01

    Immediate serial recall is better for sentences than word lists presumably because of the additional support that meaningful material receives from long-term memory. This may occur automatically, without the involvement of attention, or may require additional attentionally demanding processing. For example, the episodic buffer model (Baddeley,…

  4. CONTROLLED, SHORT-TERM DERMAL AND INHALATION EXPOSURE TO MTBE AND DIBROMOCHLOROMETHANE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been added to gasoline to meet national ambient air quality standards in those parts of the US that are non-compliant for carbon monoxide. Although MTBE has provided important health benefits in terms of reduced hazardous air po...

  5. Model description for calculating the source term of the Angra 1 environmental control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.F.S. de; Amaral Neto, J.D.; Salles, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    This work presents the model used for evaluation of source term released from Angra 1 Nuclear Power Plant in case of an accident. After that, an application of the model for the case of a Fuel Assembly Drop Accident Inside the Fuel Handling Building during reactor refueling is presented. (author) [pt

  6. Reversible diastolic dysfunction after long-term exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism: a randomized, placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J. W. A.; Eustatia-Rutten, C. F. A.; Corssmit, E. P. M.; Pereira, A. M.; Frölich, M.; Bleeker, G. B.; Holman, E. R.; van der Wall, E. E.; Romijn, J. A.; Bax, J. J.

    2005-01-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism has been reported to affect systolic and diastolic cardiac function. However, the reversibility of these effects is not well established. Our objective was to investigate the presence and reversibility of cardiac abnormalities in patients with long-term exogenous

  7. Testing seasonal and long-term controls of streamwater DOC using empirical and process-based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futter, Martyn N; de Wit, Heleen A

    2008-12-15

    Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in surface waters are increasing across Europe and parts of North America. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain these increases including reductions in acid deposition, change in frequency of winter storms and changes in temperature and precipitation patterns. We used two modelling approaches to identify the mechanisms responsible for changing surface water DOC concentrations. Empirical regression analysis and INCA-C, a process-based model of stream-water DOC, were used to simulate long-term (1986--2003) patterns in stream water DOC concentrations in a small boreal stream. Both modelling approaches successfully simulated seasonal and inter-annual patterns in DOC concentration. In both models, seasonal patterns of DOC concentration were controlled by hydrology and inter-annual patterns were explained by climatic variation. There was a non-linear relationship between warmer summer temperatures and INCA-C predicted DOC. Only the empirical model was able to satisfactorily simulate the observed long-term increase in DOC. The observed long-term trends in DOC are likely to be driven by in-soil processes controlled by SO4(2-) and Cl(-) deposition, and to a lesser extent by temperature-controlled processes. Given the projected changes in climate and deposition, future modelling and experimental research should focus on the possible effects of soil temperature and moisture on organic carbon production, sorption and desorption rates, and chemical controls on organic matter solubility.

  8. Statistical Control Charts: Performances of Short Term Stock Trading in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumičić Ksenija

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The stock exchange, as a regulated financial market, in modern economies reflects their economic development level. The stock market indicates the mood of investors in the development of a country and is an important ingredient for growth. Objectives: This paper aims to introduce an additional statistical tool used to support the decision-making process in stock trading, and it investigate the usage of statistical process control (SPC methods into the stock trading process. Methods/Approach: The individual (I, exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA and cumulative sum (CUSUM control charts were used for gaining trade signals. The open and the average prices of CROBEX10 index stocks on the Zagreb Stock Exchange were used in the analysis. The statistical control charts capabilities for stock trading in the short-run were analysed. Results: The statistical control chart analysis pointed out too many signals to buy or sell stocks. Most of them are considered as false alarms. So, the statistical control charts showed to be not so much useful in stock trading or in a portfolio analysis. Conclusions: The presence of non-normality and autocorellation has great impact on statistical control charts performances. It is assumed that if these two problems are solved, the use of statistical control charts in a portfolio analysis could be greatly improved.

  9. Factors Associated with Long-Term Control of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Badedi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. This study assessed factors associated with glycemic control among Saudi patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods. We conducted an analytical cross-sectional study, which included a random sample of 288 patients with T2DM proportional to the diabetes population of each primary health care center in Jazan city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Results. More than two-thirds (74% of patients had poor glycemic control. Lack of education, polypharmacy, and duration of diabetes ≥ 7 years were significantly associated with higher glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c. Moreover, patients who were smoker or divorced were significantly more likely to have higher HbA1c. The patients who did not comply with diet or take their medications as prescribed had poor glycemic control. The study found lower HbA1c levels among patients who received family support or had close relationship with their physicians. Similarly, knowledgeable patients towards diabetes or those with greater confidence in ability to manage self-care behaviors had a lower HbA1c. In contrast, risk factors such as depression or stress were significantly correlated with poorer glycemic control. Conclusion. The majority of T2DM patients had poor glycemic control. The study identified several factors associated with glycemic control. Effective and tailored interventions are needed to mitigate exposure to these risk factors. This would improve glycemic control and reduce the risks inherent to diabetes complications.

  10. Factors Associated with Long-Term Control of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badedi, Mohammed; Solan, Yahiya; Darraj, Hussain; Sabai, Abdullah; Mahfouz, Mohamed; Alamodi, Saleh; Alsabaani, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Aims. This study assessed factors associated with glycemic control among Saudi patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. We conducted an analytical cross-sectional study, which included a random sample of 288 patients with T2DM proportional to the diabetes population of each primary health care center in Jazan city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Results. More than two-thirds (74%) of patients had poor glycemic control. Lack of education, polypharmacy, and duration of diabetes ≥ 7 years were significantly associated with higher glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Moreover, patients who were smoker or divorced were significantly more likely to have higher HbA1c. The patients who did not comply with diet or take their medications as prescribed had poor glycemic control. The study found lower HbA1c levels among patients who received family support or had close relationship with their physicians. Similarly, knowledgeable patients towards diabetes or those with greater confidence in ability to manage self-care behaviors had a lower HbA1c. In contrast, risk factors such as depression or stress were significantly correlated with poorer glycemic control. Conclusion. The majority of T2DM patients had poor glycemic control. The study identified several factors associated with glycemic control. Effective and tailored interventions are needed to mitigate exposure to these risk factors. This would improve glycemic control and reduce the risks inherent to diabetes complications.

  11. Parliamentary control of security information agency in terms of security culture: State and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though security services have the same function as before, today they have different tasks and significantly more work than before. Modern security problems of the late 20th and early 21st century require states to reorganize their security services, adapting them to the new changes. The reorganization involves, among other things, giving wider powers of the security services, in order to effectively counter the growing and sophisticated security threats, which may also lead to violations of human rights and freedoms. It is therefore necessary to define the right competence, organization, authority and control of these services. In democratic countries, there are several institutions with different levels of control of security services. Parliament is certainly one of the most important institutions in that control, both in the world and in our country. Powers, finance, the use of special measures and the nature and scope of work of the Security Information Agency are certainly object of the control of the National Assembly. What seems to be the problem is achieving a balance between the need for control of security services and security services to have effective methods for combating modern security problems. This paper presents the legal framework related to the National Assembly control of the Security Intelligence Agency, as well as the practical problems associated with this type of control. We analyzed the role of security culture as one of the factors of that control. In this regard, it provides guidance for the practical work of the members of parliament who control the Security Intelligence Agency, noting in particular the importance of and the need for continuous improvement of security culture representatives.

  12. Analytical design of an industrial two-term controller for optimal regulatory control of open-loop unstable processes under operational constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchamna, Rodrigue; Lee, Moonyong

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel optimization-based approach for the design of an industrial two-term proportional-integral (PI) controller for the optimal regulatory control of unstable processes subjected to three common operational constraints related to the process variable, manipulated variable and its rate of change. To derive analytical design relations, the constrained optimal control problem in the time domain was transformed into an unconstrained optimization problem in a new parameter space via an effective parameterization. The resulting optimal PI controller has been verified to yield optimal performance and stability of an open-loop unstable first-order process under operational constraints. The proposed analytical design method explicitly takes into account the operational constraints in the controller design stage and also provides useful insights into the optimal controller design. Practical procedures for designing optimal PI parameters and a feasible constraint set exclusive of complex optimization steps are also proposed. The proposed controller was compared with several other PI controllers to illustrate its performance. The robustness of the proposed controller against plant-model mismatch has also been investigated. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Character Selection During Interactive Taxonomic Identification: “Best Characters”

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    Nadia Talent

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Software interfaces for interactive multiple-entry taxonomic identification (polyclaves sometimes provide a “best character” or “separation” coefficient, to guide the user to choose a character that could most effectively reduce the number of identification steps required. The coefficient could be particularly helpful when difficult or expensive tasks are needed for forensic identification, and in very large databases, uses that appear likely to increase in importance. Several current systems also provide tools to develop taxonomies or single-entry identification keys, with a variety of coefficients that are appropriate to that purpose. For the identification task, however, information theory neatly applies, and provides the most appropriate coefficient. To our knowledge, Delta-Intkey is the only currently available system that uses a coefficient related to information theory, and it is currently being reimplemented, which may allow for improvement. We describe two improvements to the algorithm used by Delta-Intkey. The first improves transparency as the number of remaining taxa decreases, by normalizing the range of the coefficient to [0,1]. The second concerns numeric ranges, which require consistent treatment of sub-intervals and their end-points. A stand-alone Bestchar program for categorical data is provided, in the Python and R languages. The source code is freely available and dedicated to the Public Domain.

  14. The epidermis in Passerina/ (Thymelaeaceae: structure, function and taxonomic significance

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    C. L. Bredenkamp

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal features were studied in all 17 species of Passerina, a genus endemic to southern Africa. Leaves in Passerina are inversely ericoid, the adaxial surface concave and the abaxial surface convex. Leaves are inversely dorsiventral and epistomatic. The adaxial epidermis is villous, with unicellular, uniseriate trichomes and relatively small thin-walled cells, promoting flexibility of leaf margins owing to turgor changes. In common with many other Thymelaeaceae, abaxial epidermal cells are large and tanniniferous with mucilaginous cell walls. The cuticle is adaxially thin, but abaxially well devel­oped, probably enabling the leaf to restrict water loss and to tolerate high light intensity and UV-B radiation. Epicuticular waxes, present in all species, comprise both soft and plate waxes. Epidermal structure proves to be taxonomically impor­tant at family, genus and species levels. Interspecific differences include arrangement of stomata and presence or absence of abaxial epidermal hair. Other diagnostic characters of the abaxial epidermal cells are arrangement,size and shape, cutic- ular ornamentation and presence or absence of wax platelets. Two groups of species on the basis of abaxial epidermal cell orientation are recognised. Many leaf epidermal features in Passerina are interpreted as structural adaptations to the Mediterranean climate of the Cape.

  15. Recent progress in floristic and taxonomic studies in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Petrova

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An overview of floristic and taxonomic research on vascular plants in Bulgaria during the period of 2005-2016 has been made. The Bulgarian flora currently comprises 4064 species, belonging to 921 genera and 159 families. About 490 published papers were checked, in which 127 species were reported for the first time for the country by Bulgarian or foreign botanists, 11 of these taxa being ones new to science, while 51 are aliens. In the papers checked, 17 subspecies (two of them new to science and 18 hybrids (four of them new to science were also reported for the first time for the country, nine species were confirmed, and another 78 were unconfirmed, synonymised, or erroneously reported. In numerous papers, new localities for various species in different floristic regions in Bulgaria were reported. The books Flora of the Republic of Bulgaria Vol. 11, Red Data Book of the Republic of Bulgaria Vol. 1. Plants and Fungi, Atlas of Endemic Plants in Bulgaria, Invasive Alien Species of Vascular Plants in Bulgaria, Proceedings of Balkan Botanical Congress IV, etc., were published during the given period.

  16. Taxonomic and chemical assessment of exceptionally abundant rock mine biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Tomczyk-Żak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background An exceptionally thick biofilm covers walls of ancient gold and arsenic Złoty Stok mine (Poland in the apparent absence of organic sources of energy. Methods and Results We have characterized this microbial community using culture-dependent and independent methods. We sequenced amplicons of the 16S rRNA gene obtained using generic primers and additional primers targeted at Archaea and Actinobacteria separately. Also, we have cultured numerous isolates from the biofilm on different media under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. We discovered very high biodiversity, and no single taxonomic group was dominant. The majority of almost 4,000 OTUs were classified above genus level indicating presence of novel species. Elemental analysis, performed using SEM-EDS and X-ray, of biofilm samples showed that carbon, sulphur and oxygen were not evenly distributed in the biofilm and that their presence is highly correlated. However, the distribution of arsenic and iron was more flat, and numerous intrusions of elemental silver and platinum were noted, indicating that microorganisms play a key role in releasing these elements from the rock. Conclusions Altogether, the picture obtained throughout this study shows a very rich, complex and interdependent system of rock biofilm. The chemical heterogeneity of biofilm is a likely explanation as to why this oligotrophic environment is capable of supporting such high microbial diversity.

  17. Taxonomic and phytogeographic implications from ITS phylogeny in Berberis (Berberidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Dong; Kim, Sung-Hee; Landrum, Leslie R

    2004-06-01

    A phylogeny based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences from 79 taxa representing much of the diversity of Berberis L. (four major groups and 22 sections) was constructed for the first time. The phylogeny was basically congruent with the previous classification schemes at higher taxonomic levels, such as groups and subgroups. A notable exception is the non-monophyly of the group Occidentales of compound-leaved Berberis (previously separated as Mahonia). At lower levels, however, most of previous sections and subsections were not evident especially in simple-leaved Berberis. Possible relationship between section Horridae (group Occidentales) and the simple-leaved Berberis clade implies paraphyly of the compound-leaved Berberis. A well-known South America-Old World (mainly Asia) disjunctive distribution pattern of the simple-leaved Berberis is explained by a vicariance event occurring in the Cretaceous period. The ITS phylogeny also suggests that a possible connection between the Asian and South American groups through the North American species ( Berberis canadensis or B. fendleri) is highly unlikely.

  18. Taxonomic reappraisal of Antithamnion sparsum Tokida (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gwang Hoon; Han, He Kyong; Lim, Kook Jin

    2008-07-01

    The taxonomic criterion of Antithamnion sparsum was reappraised in comparison with A. densum and A. defectum based on crossing experiments, morphological observation, chromosome study and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. These species had a very similar morphology but were sexually isolated. The chromosome number was n = ca. 24 for A. densum, n = ca. 21 for A. defectum, and n = ca. 44 for A. sparsum. All isolates of A. sparsum and A. densum showed polysiphonia-type life history Asexual reproduction was induced by favorable environmental conditions. In A. sparsum, 1-2% of male plants developed mitotic tetrasporangia together with spermatangia. In A. densum, 5-10% of tetraspores developed into asexual tetrasporophytes. Phylogenetic relationships between these species were examined using RAPD analysis, and A. glanduliferum was used as an outgroup. A total of 167 polymorphic RAPD markers amplified from 15 different primers were analyzed. Results suggested that these species were closely related, with A. defectum placed in the middle of A. sparsum and A. densum. Chromosome study and RAPD analysis implied that A. sparsum first separated from A. defectum through polyploidization and later A. densum evolved. These species may present another example of the narrow species concept in the genus Antithamnion.

  19. Taxonomic characterization of the cellulose-degrading bacterium NCIB 10462

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dees, C.; Ringleberg, D.; Scott, T.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Phelps, T. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The gram negative cellulase-producing bacterium NCIB 10462 has been previously named Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. or var. cellulosa. Since there is renewed interest in cellulose-degrading bacteria for use in bioconversion of cellulose to chemical feed stocks and fuels, we re-examined the characteristics of this microorganism to determine its proper taxonomic characterization and to further define it`s true metabolic potential. Metabolic and physical characterization of NCIB 10462 revealed that this was an alkalophilic, non-fermentative, gram negative, oxidase positive, motile, cellulose-degrading bacterium. The aerobic substrate utilization profile of this bacterium was found to have few characteristics consistent with a classification of P. fluorescens with a very low probability match with the genus Sphingomonas. Total lipid analysis did not reveal that any sphingolipid bases are produced by this bacterium. NCIB 10462 was found to grow best aerobically but also grows well in complex media under reducing conditions. NCIB 10462 grew slowly under full anaerobic conditions on complex media but growth on cellulosic media was found only under aerobic conditions. Total fatty acid analysis (MIDI) of NCIB 10462 failed to group this bacterium with a known pseudomonas species. However, fatty acid analysis of the bacteria when grown at temperatures below 37{degrees}C suggest that the organism is a pseudomonad. Since a predominant characteristic of this bacterium is it`s ability to degrade cellulose, we suggest it be called Pseudomonas cellulosa.

  20. Taxonomic status of the Columbia duskysnail (Truncatelloidea, Amnicolidae, Colligyrus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsiu-Ping; Hershler, Robert; Rossel, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Undescribed freshwater snails (Amnicolidae: Colligyrus) from the Mount Hood region (northwestern United States) identified as a new species (commonly known as the Columbia duskysnail) in grey literature have been provided federal protection under the "survey and manage" provisions of the Northwest Forest Plan and have been placed on conservation watch lists. However, there are no published studies of the identity of these snails aside from a molecular phylogenetic analysis which delineated a close relationship between the single sampled population and Colligyrusgreggi, which is distributed more than 750 km to the east of the Mount Hood area. Here we examine the taxonomic status of the Columbia duskysnail based on additional molecular sampling of mitochondrial DNA sequences (COI) and morphological evidence. We found that the Columbia duskysnail is not a monophyletic group and forms a strongly supported clade with Colligyrusgreggi. The COI divergence between these broadly disjunct groups (2.1%) was somewhat larger than that within Colligyrusgreggi (1.0%) but considerably less than that among the three currently recognized species of Colligyrus (8.7-12.1%). Additionally we found that the Columbia duskysnail and Colligyrusgreggi cannot be consistently differentiated by previously reported diagnostic characters (size and shape of shell spire, pigmentation of body and penis) and are closely similar in other aspects of morphology. Based on these results we conclude that the Columbia duskysnail is conspecific with Colligyrusgreggi.

  1. Taxonomic status of the Columbia duskysnail (Truncatelloidea, Amnicolidae, Colligyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Ping Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Undescribed freshwater snails (Amnicolidae: Colligyrus from the Mount Hood region (northwestern United States identified as a new species (commonly known as the Columbia duskysnail in grey literature have been provided federal protection under the “survey and manage” provisions of the Northwest Forest Plan and have been placed on conservation watch lists. However, there are no published studies of the identity of these snails aside from a molecular phylogenetic analysis which delineated a close relationship between the single sampled population and C. greggi, which is distributed more than 750 km to the east of the Mount Hood area. Here we examine the taxonomic status of the Columbia duskysnail based on additional molecular sampling of mitochondrial DNA sequences (COI and morphological evidence. We found that the Columbia duskysnail is not a monophyletic group and forms a strongly supported clade with C. greggi. The COI divergence between these broadly disjunct groups (2.1% was somewhat larger than that within C. greggi (1.0% but considerably less than that among the three currently recognized species of Colligyrus (8.7–12.1%. Additionally we found that the Columbia duskysnail and C. greggi cannot be consistently differentiated by previously reported diagnostic characters (size and shape of shell spire, pigmentation of body and penis and are closely similar in other aspects of morphology. Based on these results we conclude that the Columbia duskysnail is conspecific with C. greggi.

  2. A taxonomic revision of the genus Ceiba Mill. (Bombacaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibbs, Peter

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In this taxonomic revision of Ceiba Mill, (in which we include Chorisia Kunth we recognize 17 species, seven of which we group in the C. insignis. species aggregate. One new species is described, C. lupuna P.E. Gibbs & Semir from Peru, which is referred to the C. insignis agg., and one new subspecies, C. aesculifolia subsp. parvifolia (Rose P.E. Gibbs & Semir is recognized. Distribution maps are provided for 16 species (that for C. pentandra is restricted to the New World, and six species are illustrated.En esta revisión taxonómica de Ceiba, que incluye el género Chorisia, se reconocen 17 especies, siete de las cuales se agrupan en el complejo C. insignis. Se describe una nueva especie, C. lupuna P.E. Gibbs & Semir, del Perú, que pertenece al complejo de C. insignis, asf como una nueva subespecie, C. aesculifolia subsp. parvifolia (Rose P.E. Gibbs & Semir. Se incluyen mapas de distribuci6n de 16 especies (aunque en el caso de C. pentandra solo se representa su distribución americana y se dibujan detalles diagnósticos de seis especies.

  3. Taxonomic relationships among Phenacomys voles as inferred by cytochrome b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, M.R.; Haig, S.M.; Forsman, E.D.; Mullins, T.D.

    2005-01-01

    Taxonomic relationships among red tree voles (Phenacomys longicaudus longicaudus, P. l. silvicola), the Sonoma tree vole (P. pomo), the white-footed vole (P. albipes), and the heather vole (P. intermedius) were examined using 664 base pairs of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Results indicate specific differences among red tree voles, Sonoma tree voles, white-footed voles, and heather voles, but no clear difference between the 2 Oregon subspecies of red tree voles (P. l. longicaudus and P. l. silvicola). Our data further indicated a close relationship between tree voles and albipes, validating inclusion of albipes in the subgenus Arborimus. These 3 congeners shared a closer relationship to P. intermedius than to other arvicolids. A moderate association between porno and albipes was indicated by maximum parsimony and neighbor-joining phylogenetic analyses. Molecular clock estimates suggest a Pleistocene radiation of the Arborimus clade, which is concordant with pulses of diversification observed in other murid rodents. The generic rank of Arborimus is subject to interpretation of data.

  4. Direct Yaw Control of Vehicle using State Dependent Riccati Equation with Integral Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDHU, F.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Direct yaw control of four-wheel vehicles using optimal controllers such as the linear quadratic regulator (LQR and the sliding mode controller (SMC either considers only certain parameters constant in the nonlinear equations of vehicle model or totally neglect their effects to obtain simplified models, resulting in loss of states for the system. In this paper, a modified state-dependent Ricatti equation method obtained by the simplification of the vehicle model is proposed. This method overcomes the problem of the lost states by including state integrals. The results of the proposed system are compared with the sliding mode slip controller and state-dependent Ricatti equation method using high fidelity vehicle model in the vehicle simulation software package, Carsim. Results show 38% reduction in the lateral velocity, 34% reduction in roll and 16% reduction in excessive yaw by only increasing the fuel consumption by 6.07%.

  5. Temperature feedback control for long-term carrier-envelope phase locking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zenghu [Manhattan, KS; Yun, Chenxia [Manhattan, KS; Chen, Shouyuan [Manhattan, KS; Wang, He [Manhattan, KS; Chini, Michael [Manhattan, KS

    2012-07-24

    A feedback control module for stabilizing a carrier-envelope phase of an output of a laser oscillator system comprises a first photodetector, a second photodetector, a phase stabilizer, an optical modulator, and a thermal control element. The first photodetector may generate a first feedback signal corresponding to a first portion of a laser beam from an oscillator. The second photodetector may generate a second feedback signal corresponding to a second portion of the laser beam filtered by a low-pass filter. The phase stabilizer may divide the frequency of the first feedback signal by a factor and generate an error signal corresponding to the difference between the frequency-divided first feedback signal and the second feedback signal. The optical modulator may modulate the laser beam within the oscillator corresponding to the error signal. The thermal control unit may change the temperature of the oscillator corresponding to a signal operable to control the optical modulator.

  6. Near-term improvements for nuclear power plant control room annunciator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.; Duvernoy, E.G.; Ames, K.R.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Eckenrode, R.J.

    1983-04-01

    This report sets forth a basic design philosophy with its associated functional criteria and design principles for present-day, hard-wired annunciator systems in the control rooms of nuclear power plants. It also presents a variety of annunciator design features that are either necessary for or useful to the implementation of the design philosophy. The information contained in this report is synthesized from an extensive literature review, from inspection and analysis of control room annunciator systems in the nuclear industry and in related industries, and from discussions with a variety of individuals who are knowledgeable about annunciator systems, nuclear plant control rooms, or both. This information should help licensees and license applicants in improving their hard-wired, control room annunciator systems as outlined by NUREG-0700

  7. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions: control targets and long term policy strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haites, E.

    1993-01-01

    A number of countries have unilaterally committed themselves to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. Other countries have resisted such commitments; they prefer to engage in further climate research to determine the extent of any emissions reduction that may be necessary before committing themselves to significant costs to implement controls. This paper examines the costs of alternative policies including immediate action to limit emissions and climate research followed by controls if necessary. (Author)

  8. Automatic and controlled processing in sentence recall: The role of long-term and working memory

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Baddeley, Alan D.

    2004-01-01

    Immediate serial recall is better for sentences than word lists presumably because of the additional support that meaningful material receives from long-term memory. This may occur automatically, without the involvement of attention, or may require additional attentionally demanding processing. For example, the episodic buffer model (Baddeley, 2000) proposes that the executive component of working memory plays a crucial role in the formation of links between different representational formats...

  9. The effects of long- and short-term interdisciplinary treatment approaches in women with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saral, Ilknur; Sindel, Dilsad; Esmaeilzadeh, Sina; Sertel-Berk, Hanife Ozlem; Oral, Aydan

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the effects of long- and short-term interdisciplinary treatment approaches for reducing symptoms and improving health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and physical functions of patients with fibromyalgia and compared the effects of two different interdisciplinary treatment approaches. We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled trial involving 66 women with fibromyalgia eligible for the study at a university hospital setting. The patients were randomized into three groups (allocation ratio 1:1:1) using a computer-generated random numbers: a long-term interdisciplinary treatment group (LG, n = 22) that participated in 10 sessions (3-h once-weekly session for 10 weeks) of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) together with exercise training and other fibromyalgia related educational programs (two full days); a short-term interdisciplinary treatment group (SG, n = 22) that received two full days of educational, exercise, and CBT programs; and a control group (CG, n = 22). The patients were evaluated at baseline and 6 months after treatment using the visual analog scale (pain, fatigue, and sleep), Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, Short Form-36, tender point numbers, and pressure algometry as primary outcomes. The statistical analysis was confined to the 'per-protocol' set. No blinding was performed. The number of patients analyzed was 21 in the LG, 19 in the SG, and 19 in the CG. The intensity of pain (p treatment approaches when compared with controls; the long-term treatment was found more effective in reducing pain than the short-term. Both, long- and short-term interdisciplinary treatments were effective in reducing the severity of some symptoms and disease activity in patients with fibromyalgia. The short-term program well meets the needs of women with fibromyalgia particularly in relation to pain and health status as measured using FIQ; however, a long-term program may be beneficial in reducing fatigue and

  10. Dreaming during sevoflurane or propofol short-term sedation: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G H; Liu, X S; Yu, F Q; Gu, E W; Zhang, J; Royse, A G; Wang, K

    2012-05-01

    Prior reports suggest that dreaming during anaesthesia is dependent on recovery time. Dreaming during sedation may impact patient satisfaction. The current study explores the incidence and content of dreaming during short-term sedation with sevoflurane or propofol and investigates whether dreaming is affected by recovery time. A total of 200 women undergoing first trimester abortion (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I) participated in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either sevoflurane or propofol for short-term sedation. Patients were interviewed upon emergence with the modified Brice questionnaire. The results showed the incidence of dreaming was significantly different between anaesthesia groups with 60% (60/100) of the sevoflurane group and 33% (33/100) of the propofol group (P=0.000). However, recovery time did not significantly differ between groups. In the sevoflurane group, a greater number of dreamers could not recall what they had dreamed about (P=0.02) and more patients reported dreams that had no sound (P=0.03) or movement (P=0.001) compared with dreamers in the propofol group. Most participants reported dreams with positive emotional content and this did not significantly differ between groups. Anaesthesia administered had no effect on patient satisfaction. The results suggest that the incidence of dreaming was not affected by recovery time. Patient satisfaction was not influenced by choice of sedative and/or by the occurrence of dreaming during sevoflurane or propofol short-term sedation.

  11. mTORC2 controls actin polymerization required for consolidation of long-term memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Zhu, Ping Jun; Zhang, Shixing; Zhou, Hongyi; Stoica, Loredana; Galiano, Mauricio; Krnjević, Krešimir; Roman, Gregg; Costa-Mattioli, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    A major goal of biomedical research has been the identification of molecular mechanisms that can enhance memory. Here we report a novel signaling pathway that regulates the conversion from short- to long-term memory. The mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), which contains the key regulatory protein Rictor (Rapamycin-Insensitive Companion of mTOR), was discovered only recently, and little is known about its physiological role. We show that conditional deletion of rictor in the postnatal murine forebrain greatly reduces mTORC2 activity and selectively impairs both long-term memory (LTM) and the late (but not the early) phase of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). Actin polymerization is reduced in the hippocampus of mTORC2-deficient mice and its restoration rescues both L-LTP and LTM. More importantly, a compound that selectively promotes mTORC2 activity converts early-LTP into late-LTP and enhances LTM. These findings indicate that mTORC2 could be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction. PMID:23455608

  12. Long-term tolerability of inhaled human insulin (Exubera) in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnett, A H; Lange, P; Dreyer, M

    2007-01-01

    or metformin (study 1) and patients poorly controlled on metformin were randomised to adjunctive EXU or the sulphonylurea, glibenclamide (study 2). PATIENTS: The studies included 446 (study 1) and 476 (study 2) patients with type 2 diabetes, no clinically significant respiratory disease and glycosylated....... There was no discernable effect of long-term EXU therapy on pulmonary gas exchange. Insulin antibody binding reached a plateau at 6 months and did not correlate with HbA(1c) or lung function changes. Glycaemic control was maintained over 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: Exubera was well tolerated during long-term use. Pulmonary...... function changes compared with comparator groups were small, non-progressive and reversed upon treatment discontinuation. Importantly, rates of lung function change were indistinguishable between EXU and comparator after 6 months of therapy. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Oct...

  13. Interpreting closed-loop learning control of molecular fragmentation in terms of wave-packet dynamics and enhanced molecular ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoza, David; Baertschy, Mark; Weinacht, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    We interpret a molecular fragmentation experiment using shaped, ultrafast laser pulses in terms of enhanced molecular ionization during dissociation. A closed-loop learning control experiment was performed to maximize the CF 3 + /CH 3 + production ratio in the dissociative ionization of CH 3 COCF 3 . Using ab inito molecular structure calculations and quasistatic molecular ionization calculations along with data from pump-probe experiments, we identify the primary control mechanism which is quite general and should be applicable to a broad class of molecules

  14. Internal Iliac Artery Embolization for the Control of Severe Bladder Hemorrhage Secondary to Carcinoma: Long-Term Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed El-Assmy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and long-term complications of internal iliac artery embolization as a palliative measure in the control of intractable hemorrhage from advanced bladder malignancy. From January 1998 through December 2005, seven patients underwent transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE of anterior division of internal iliac artery bilaterally for intractable bladder hemorrhage. After embolization, patients were followed for the efficacy of the procedure in controlling hematuria and complications. TAE was successful in immediate control of severe hemorrhage in all seven patients after a mean period of 4 days. At a mean (range follow-up of 10 (6–12 months, the hemorrhage was permanently controlled in four (57% patients. Three patients developed hematuria and required emergency admissions; two had mild hematuria and were managed conservatively, and the remaining one required a second attempt of embolization after 2 months from the first one. During the whole period of follow-up, there were no significant complications related to embolization. Internal iliac artery embolization is an effective and minimally invasive option when managing advanced bladder malignancies presenting with intractable bleeding. The long-term follow-up showed control of bleeding in the majority of such patients with no serious complications.

  15. Mechanisms of translation control underlying long-lasting synaptic plasticity and the consolidation of long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Emanuela; Huynh, Thu N; Klann, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of memory formation and its persistence is a phenomenon that has been studied intensely for centuries. Memory exists in many forms and is stored in various brain regions. Generally speaking, memories are reorganized into broadly distributed cortical networks over time through systems level consolidation. At the cellular level, storage of information is believed to initially occur via altered synaptic strength by processes such as long-term potentiation. New protein synthesis is required for long-lasting synaptic plasticity as well as for the formation of long-term memory. The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a critical regulator of cap-dependent protein synthesis and is required for numerous forms of long-lasting synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. As such, the study of mTORC1 and protein factors that control translation initiation and elongation has enhanced our understanding of how the process of protein synthesis is regulated during memory formation. Herein we discuss the molecular mechanisms that regulate protein synthesis as well as pharmacological and genetic manipulations that demonstrate the requirement for proper translational control in long-lasting synaptic plasticity and long-term memory formation. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Short and long-term effects of sham-controlled prefrontal EEG-neurofeedback training in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbregt, H J; Keeser, D; van Eijk, L; Suiker, E M; Eichhorn, D; Karch, S; Deijen, J B; Pogarell, O

    2016-04-01

    In this study we evaluated long-term effects of frontal beta EEG-neurofeedback training (E-NFT) on healthy subjects. We hypothesized that E-NFT can change frontal beta activity in the long-term and that changes in frontal beta EEG activity are accompanied by altered cognitive performance. 25 healthy subjects were included and randomly assigned to active or sham E-NFT. On average the subjects underwent 15 E-NFT training sessions with a training duration of 45 min. Resting-state EEG was recorded prior to E-NFT training (t1) and in a 3-year follow-up (t3). Compared to sham E-NFT, which was used for the control group, real E-NFT increased beta activity in a predictable way. This increase was maintained over a period of three years post training. However, E-NFT did not result in significantly improved cognitive performance. Based on our results, we conclude that EEG-NFT can selectively modify EEG beta activity both in short and long-term. This is a sham controlled EEG neurofeedback study demonstrating long-term effects in resting state EEG. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-term impact of earthquake stress on fasting glucose control and diabetes prevalence among Chinese adults of Tangshan

    OpenAIRE

    An, Cuixia; Zhang, Yun; Yu, Lulu; Li, Na; Song, Mei; Wang, Lan; Zhao, Xiaochuan; Gao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xueyi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the long-term influence of stresses from the 1976 Tangshan earthquake on blood glucose control and the incidence of diabetes mellitus in Chinese people of Tangshan. Methods: 1,551 adults ≥ 37 years of age were recruited for this investigation in Tangshan city of China, where one of the deadliest earthquakes occurred in 1796. All subjects finished a questionnaire. 1,030 of them who experienced that earthquake were selected into the exposure group, while 521 were gathe...

  18. Control System Architectures, Technologies and Concepts for Near Term and Future Human Exploration of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, Richard; Overland, David

    2004-01-01

    Technologies that facilitate the design and control of complex, hybrid, and resource-constrained systems are examined. This paper focuses on design methodologies, and system architectures, not on specific control methods that may be applied to life support subsystems. Honeywell and Boeing have estimated that 60-80Y0 of the effort in developing complex control systems is software development, and only 20-40% is control system development. It has also been shown that large software projects have failure rates of as high as 50-65%. Concepts discussed include the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and design patterns with the goal of creating a self-improving, self-documenting system design process. Successful architectures for control must not only facilitate hardware to software integration, but must also reconcile continuously changing software with much less frequently changing hardware. These architectures rely on software modules or components to facilitate change. Architecting such systems for change leverages the interfaces between these modules or components.

  19. IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF THE FINANCIAL CONTROL SYSTEM IN TERMS OF THE RISK-ORIENTED MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Ponkratova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The imperfection of the legislative and methodological basis of fi nancial control in the Russian Federation shall determine the list of issues on illicit and misuse of budget funds, including with the use of schemes for the withdrawal of capital abroad through fi nancial instruments (cash, Bank transfers and deposits, securities and bills of exchange operations which are common practice in our country. In this regard, of particular importance is the use of a risk-oriented model of financial control, adapted to the conditions of the Russian Federation.The article discusses the risk-based model as part of a system of financial control. The concept model aimed at check point, implying the identification of reference points in the organization's and customers' risk event.

  20. Implementation of a Wind Farm Turbine Control System with Short-Term Grid Faults Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    restrictions for the wind turbines behavior especially under grid faults. Wind turbines are requested to stay connected even during faults. These new requirements are challenging the control of the wind turbines and new control strategies are required to meet the target. This paper dealt...... with the implementation of a control strategy in order to stay connected under grid faults. The method aimed to ensure that a wind farm turbine remains connected and no electric power is delivered to the grid during the fault period. The overall system was modelled and simulated by using the software Matlab/Simulink.......The increased penetration of wind power in the grid has led to important technical barriers that limit the development, where the stability of the system plays a key issue. Grid operators in different countries are issuing new grid requirements, the so-called grid codes that impose more...

  1. Persistent negative illness perceptions despite long-term biochemical control of acromegaly: novel application of the drawing test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemensma, Jitske; Pereira, Alberto M; Romijn, Johannes A; Broadbent, Elizabeth; Biermasz, Nienke R; Kaptein, Adrian A

    2015-05-01

    Patients with acromegaly have persistent complaints despite long-term biochemical control. Drawings can be used to assess patients' perceptions about their disease. We aimed to explore the utility of the drawing test and its relation to illness perceptions and quality of life (QoL) in patients after long-term remission of acromegaly. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the utility of the drawing test. A total of 50 patients after long-term remission (mean±s.e.m., 16±1.2 years) of acromegaly were included in this study. Patients completed the drawing test (two retrospective drawings of their body perception before acromegaly and during the active phase of acromegaly, and one drawing on the current condition after long-term remission), Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised, Physical Symptom Checklist, EuroQoL-5D, and AcroQoL. Patients perceived a dramatic change in body size during the active state of the disease compared with the healthy state before the awareness of acromegaly. Patients reported that their body did not completely return to the original proportions after long-term remission. In addition, larger drawings indicated more negative consequences (Pdrawings also indicated more impaired QoL, especially disease-specific QoL (all Pdrawing test, illness perceptions, and QoL. The drawing test appears to be a novel and relatively easy tool to assess the perception of patients after long-term remission of acromegaly. The assessment of drawings may enable health care providers to appreciate the perceptions of patients with long-term remission of acromegaly, and enable discussion of symptoms and remission. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  2. LONG-TERM DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT ENHANCEMENT ADDITIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR MERCURY CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason D. Laumb; Dennis L. Laudal; Grant E. Dunham; John P. Kay; Christopher L. Martin; Jeffrey S. Thompson; Nicholas B. Lentz; Alexander Azenkeng; Kevin C. Galbreath; Lucinda L. Hamre

    2011-05-27

    Long-term demonstration tests of advanced sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) technologies have been completed at five coal-fired power plants. The targeted removal rate was 90% from baseline conditions at all five stations. The plants included Hawthorn Unit 5, Mill Creek Unit 4, San Miguel Unit 1, Centralia Unit 2, and Hoot Lake Unit 2. The materials tested included powdered activated carbon, treated carbon, scrubber additives, and SEAs. In only one case (San Miguel) was >90% removal not attainable. The reemission of mercury from the scrubber at this facility prevented >90% capture.

  3. MARTA: a suite of Java-based tools for assigning taxonomic status to DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Matthew; Bodenhausen, Natacha; Bergelson, Joy

    2010-02-15

    We have created a suite of Java-based software to better provide taxonomic assignments to DNA sequences. We anticipate that the program will be useful for protistologists, virologists, mycologists and other microbial ecologists. The program relies on NCBI utilities including the BLAST software and Taxonomy database and is easily manipulated at the command-line to specify a BLAST candidate's query-coverage or percent identity requirements; other options include the ability to set minimal consensus requirements (%) for each of the eight major taxonomic ranks (Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, ...) and whether to consider lower scoring candidates when the top-hit lacks taxonomic classification.

  4. Taxonomic formula of geoecological hazard for the cadastral districts of Moscow city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karfidova E.A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available the article proposes a method for calculating the taxonomic formula for the geoecological hazard of the cadastral district. The engineering-geological zoning map uses for calculating the balance of the territory by the hazard index – the basis of the taxonomic formula. The taxonomic formula as an open data set makes it possible to characterize the geoecological hazards of the territory of a district. The geoenvironmental hazard map of cadastral districts is necessary for regional model of spatial planning at the municipal level.

  5. Rationalizing Historical successes of malaria control in Africa in terms of mosquito resource availabilty management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Killeen, G.F.; Seyoum, A.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental management of mosquito resources is a promising approach with which to control malaria, but it has seen little application in Africa for more than half a century. Here we present a kinetic model of mosquito foraging for aquatic habitats and vertebrate hosts that allows estimation of

  6. The effect of metabolic control on hemodynamics in short-term insulin-dependent diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, E R; Hilsted, J; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1985-01-01

    Hemodynamics variables (heart rate, arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, hepato-splanchnic blood flow, forearm blood flow, and plasma catecholamines) were measured during good (median blood glucose 4.7 mmol/L) and poor (median blood glucose 16.3 mmol/L) metabolic control in eight young, short...

  7. Executive Functioning Skills in Long-Term Users of Cochlear Implants: A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisoni, David B.; Henning, Shirley C.; Colson, Bethany G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate differences in executive functioning between deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) and normal-hearing (NH) peers. The cognitive effects of auditory deprivation in childhood may extend beyond speech–language skills to more domain-general areas including executive functioning. Methods Executive functioning skills in a sample of 53 prelingually deaf children, adolescents, and young adults who received CIs prior to age 7 years and who had used their CIs for ≥7 years were compared with age- and nonverbal IQ-matched NH peers and with scale norms. Results Despite having above average nonverbal IQ, the CI sample scored lower than the NH sample and test norms on several measures of short-term/working memory, fluency–speed, and inhibition–concentration. Executive functioning was unrelated to most demographic and hearing history characteristics. Conclusions Prelingual deafness and long-term use of CIs was associated with increased risk of weaknesses in executive functioning. PMID:23699747

  8. A Taxonomic Reduced-Space Pollen Model for Paleoclimate Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, E. R.; Schoelzel, C.

    2010-12-01

    Paleoenvironmental reconstruction from fossil pollen often attempts to take advantage of the rich taxonomic diversity in such data. Here, a taxonomically "reduced-space" reconstruction model is explored that would be parsimonious in introducing parameters needing to be estimated within a Bayesian Hierarchical Modeling context. This work involves a refinement of the traditional pollen ratio method. This method is useful when one (or a few) dominant pollen type(s) in a region have a strong positive correlation with a climate variable of interest and another (or a few) dominant pollen type(s) have a strong negative correlation. When, e.g., counts of pollen taxa a and b (r >0) are combined with pollen types c and d (r logistic generalized linear model (GLM). The GLM can readily model this relationship in the forward form, pollen = g(climate), which is more physically realistic than inverse models often used in paleoclimate reconstruction [climate = f(pollen)]. The specification of the model is: rnum Bin(n,p), where E(r|T) = p = exp(η)/[1+exp(η)], and η = α + β(T); r is the pollen ratio formed as above, rnum is the ratio numerator, n is the ratio denominator (i.e., the sum of pollen counts), the denominator-specific count is (n - rnum), and T is the temperature at each site corresponding to a specific value of r. Ecological and empirical screening identified the model (Spruce+Birch) / (Spruce+Birch+Oak+Hickory) for use in temperate eastern N. America. α and β were estimated using both "traditional" and Bayesian GLM algorithms (in R). Although it includes only four pollen types, the ratio model yields more explained variation ( 80%) in the pollen-temperature relationship of the study region than a 64-taxon modern analog technique (MAT). Thus, the new pollen ratio method represents an information-rich, reduced space data model that can be efficiently employed in a BHM framework. The ratio model can directly reconstruct past temperature by solving the GLM equations

  9. Selective CD28 Antagonist Blunts Memory Immune Responses and Promotes Long-Term Control of Skin Inflammation in Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Nicolas; Chevalier, Melanie; Mary, Caroline; Hervouet, Jeremy; Minault, David; Baker, Paul; Ville, Simon; Le Bas-Bernardet, Stephanie; Dilek, Nahzli; Belarif, Lyssia; Cassagnau, Elisabeth; Scobie, Linda; Blancho, Gilles; Vanhove, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Novel therapies that specifically target activation and expansion of pathogenic immune cell subsets responsible for autoimmune attacks are needed to confer long-term remission. Pathogenic cells in autoimmunity include memory T lymphocytes that are long-lived and present rapid recall effector functions with reduced activation requirements. Whereas the CD28 costimulation pathway predominantly controls priming of naive T cells and hence generation of adaptive memory cells, the roles of CD28 costimulation on established memory T lymphocytes and the recall of memory responses remain controversial. In contrast to CD80/86 antagonists (CTLA4-Ig), selective CD28 antagonists blunt T cell costimulation while sparing CTLA-4 and PD-L1-dependent coinhibitory signals. Using a new selective CD28 antagonist, we showed that Ag-specific reactivation of human memory T lymphocytes was prevented. Selective CD28 blockade controlled both cellular and humoral memory recall in nonhuman primates and induced long-term Ag-specific unresponsiveness in a memory T cell-mediated inflammatory skin model. No modification of memory T lymphocytes subsets or numbers was observed in the periphery, and importantly no significant reactivation of quiescent viruses was noticed. These findings indicate that pathogenic memory T cell responses are controlled by both CD28 and CTLA-4/PD-L1 cosignals in vivo and that selectively targeting CD28 would help to promote remission of autoimmune diseases and control chronic inflammation. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. Steps to Health employee weight management randomized control trial: short-term follow-up results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østbye, Truls; Stroo, Marissa; Brouwer, Rebecca J N; Peterson, Bercedis L; Eisenstein, Eric L; Fuemmeler, Bernard F; Joyner, Julie; Gulley, Libby; Dement, John M

    2015-02-01

    To present the short-term follow-up findings of the Steps to Health study, a randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of two employee weight management programs offered within Duke University and the Health System. A total of 550 obese (body mass index, ≥30 kg/m2) employees were randomized 1:1 between January 2011 and June 2012 to the education-based Weight Management (WM) or the WM+ arm, which focused on behavior modification. Employees were contacted to complete a follow-up visit approximately 14 months after baseline. There were no clinically, or statistically, meaningful differences between arms, but there were modest reductions in body mass index, and positive, meaningful changes in diet and physical activity for both arms. The modest positive effects observed in this study may suggest that to achieve weight loss through the workplace more intensive interventions may be required.

  11. Short-Term Wave Forecasting for Real-Time Control of Wave Energy Converters

    OpenAIRE

    Fusco, Francesco; Ringwood, John

    2010-01-01

    Real-time control of wave energy converters requires knowledge of future incident wave elevation in order to approach optimal efficiency of wave energy extraction. We present an approach where the wave elevation is treated as a time series and it is predicted only from its past history. A comparison of a range of forecasting methodologies on real wave observations from two different locations shows how the relatively simple linear autoregressive model, which implicitly models the cyclical beh...

  12. The Comparison Study of Short-Term Prediction Methods to Enhance the Model Predictive Controller Applied to Microgrid Energy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Hernández-Hernández

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Electricity load forecasting, optimal power system operation and energy management play key roles that can bring significant operational advantages to microgrids. This paper studies how methods based on time series and neural networks can be used to predict energy demand and production, allowing them to be combined with model predictive control. Comparisons of different prediction methods and different optimum energy distribution scenarios are provided, permitting us to determine when short-term energy prediction models should be used. The proposed prediction models in addition to the model predictive control strategy appear as a promising solution to energy management in microgrids. The controller has the task of performing the management of electricity purchase and sale to the power grid, maximizing the use of renewable energy sources and managing the use of the energy storage system. Simulations were performed with different weather conditions of solar irradiation. The obtained results are encouraging for future practical implementation.

  13. Short-term response of Holcus lanatus L. (Common Velvetgrass) to chemical and manual control at Yosemite National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Laura J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Hutten, Martin

    2015-01-01

    One of the highest priority invasive species at both Yosemite and Sequoia and Kings Canyon national parks is Holcus lanatus L. (common velvetgrass), a perennial bunchgrass that invades mid-elevation montane meadows. Despite velvetgrass being a high priority species, there is little information available on control techniques. The goal of this project was to evaluate the short-term response of a single application of common chemical and manual velvetgrass control techniques. The study was conducted at three montane sites in Yosemite National Park. Glyphosate spot-spray treatments were applied at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% concentrations, and compared with hand pulling to evaluate effects on cover of common velvetgrass, cover of other plant species, and community species richness. Posttreatment year 1 cover of common velvetgrass was 12.1% ± 1.6 in control plots, 6.3% ± 1.5 averaged over the four chemical treatments (all chemical treatments performed similarly), and 13.6% ± 1.7 for handpulled plots. This represents an approximately 50% reduction in common velvetgrass cover in chemically- treated plots recoded posttreatment year 1 and no statistically significant reduction in hand pulled plots compared with controls. However, there was no treatment effect in posttreatment year 2, and all herbicide application rates performed similarly. In addition, there were no significant treatment effects on nontarget species or species richness. These results suggest that for this level of infestation and habitat type, (1) one year of hand pulling is not an effective control method and (2) glyphosate provides some level of control in the short-term without impact to nontarget plant species, but the effect is temporary as a single year of glyphosate treatment is ineffective over a two-year period.

  14. Behavior control in the sensorimotor loop with short-term synaptic dynamics induced by self-regulating neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem eToutounji

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The behavior and skills of living systems depend on the distributed control provided by specialized and highly recurrent neural networks. Learning and memory in these systems is mediated by a set of adaptation mechanisms, known collectively as neuronal plasticity. Translating principles of recurrent neural control and plasticity to artificial agents has seen major strides, but is usually hampered by the complex interactions between the agent's body and its environment. One of the important standing issues is for the agent to support multiple stable states of behavior, so that its behavioral repertoire matches the requirements imposed by these interactions. The agent also must have the capacity to switch between these states in time scales that are comparable to those by which sensory stimulation varies. Achieving this requires a mechanism of short-term memory that allows the neurocontroller to keep track of the recent history of its input, which finds its biological counterpart in short-term synaptic plasticity. This issue is approached here by deriving synaptic dynamics in recurrent neural networks. Neurons are introduced as self-regulating units with a rich repertoire of dynamics. They exhibit homeostatic properties for certain parameter domains, which result in a set of stable states and the required short-term memory. They can also operate as oscillators, which allow them to surpass the level of activity imposed by their homeostatic operation conditions. Neural systems endowed with the derived synaptic dynamics can be utilized for the neural behavior control of autonomous mobile agents. The resulting behavior depends also on the underlying network structure, which is either engineered, or developed by evolutionary techniques. The effectiveness of these self-regulating units is demonstrated by controlling locomotion of a hexapod with eighteen degrees of freedom, and obstacle-avoidance of a wheel-driven robot.

  15. Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial: Clinical and Cost-Effectiveness of a System of Longer-Term Stroke Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Anne; Young, John; Chapman, Katie; Nixon, Jane; Patel, Anita; Holloway, Ivana; Mellish, Kirste; Anwar, Shamaila; Breen, Rachel; Knapp, Martin; Murray, Jenni; Farrin, Amanda

    2015-08-01

    We developed a new postdischarge system of care comprising a structured assessment covering longer-term problems experienced by patients with stroke and their carers, linked to evidence-based treatment algorithms and reference guides (the longer-term stroke care system of care) to address the poor longer-term recovery experienced by many patients with stroke. A pragmatic, multicentre, cluster randomized controlled trial of this system of care. Eligible patients referred to community-based Stroke Care Coordinators were randomized to receive the new system of care or usual practice. The primary outcome was improved patient psychological well-being (General Health Questionnaire-12) at 6 months; secondary outcomes included functional outcomes for patients, carer outcomes, and cost-effectiveness. Follow-up was through self-completed postal questionnaires at 6 and 12 months. Thirty-two stroke services were randomized (29 participated); 800 patients (399 control; 401 intervention) and 208 carers (100 control; 108 intervention) were recruited. In intention to treat analysis, the adjusted difference in patient General Health Questionnaire-12 mean scores at 6 months was -0.6 points (95% confidence interval, -1.8 to 0.7; P=0.394) indicating no evidence of statistically significant difference between the groups. Costs of Stroke Care Coordinator inputs, total health and social care costs, and quality-adjusted life year gains at 6 months, 12 months, and over the year were similar between the groups. This robust trial demonstrated no benefit in clinical or cost-effectiveness outcomes associated with the new system of care compared with usual Stroke Care Coordinator practice. URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN 67932305. © 2015 Bradford Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust.

  16. Importation, Antibiotics, and Clostridium difficile Infection in Veteran Long-Term Care: A Multilevel Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kevin A; Jones, Makoto; Daneman, Nick; Adler, Frederick R; Stevens, Vanessa; Nechodom, Kevin E; Goetz, Matthew B; Samore, Matthew H; Mayer, Jeanmarie

    2016-06-21

    Although clinical factors affecting a person's susceptibility to Clostridium difficile infection are well-understood, little is known about what drives differences in incidence across long-term care settings. To obtain a comprehensive picture of individual and regional factors that affect C difficile incidence. Multilevel longitudinal nested case-control study. Veterans Health Administration health care regions, from 2006 through 2012. Long-term care residents. Individual-level risk factors included age, number of comorbid conditions, and antibiotic exposure. Regional risk factors included importation of cases of acute care C difficile infection per 10 000 resident-days and antibiotic use per 1000 resident-days. The outcome was defined as a positive result on a long-term care C difficile test without a positive result in the prior 8 weeks. 6012 cases (incidence, 3.7 cases per 10 000 resident-days) were identified in 86 regions. Long-term care C difficile incidence (minimum, 0.6 case per 10 000 resident-days; maximum, 31.0 cases per 10 000 resident-days), antibiotic use (minimum, 61.0 days with therapy per 1000 resident-days; maximum, 370.2 days with therapy per 1000 resident-days), and importation (minimum, 2.9 cases per 10 000 resident-days; maximum, 341.3 cases per 10 000 resident-days) varied substantially across regions. Together, antibiotic use and importation accounted for 75% of the regional variation in C difficile incidence (R2 = 0.75). Multilevel analyses showed that regional factors affected risk together with individual-level exposures (relative risk of regional antibiotic use, 1.36 per doubling [95% CI, 1.15 to 1.60]; relative risk of importation, 1.23 per doubling [CI, 1.14 to 1.33]). Case identification was based on laboratory criteria. Admission of residents with recent C difficile infection from non-Veterans Health Administration acute care sources was not considered. Only 25% of the variation in regional C difficile incidence in long-term

  17. An integral term adaptive neural control of fed-batch fermentation biotechnological process; Control neuronal adaptable con termino integral para un proceso biotecnologico de fermentacion por lote alimentado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baruch, Ieroham; Hernandez, Luis Alberto; Barrera Cortes, Josefina [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-15

    A nonlinear mathematical model of aerobic biotechnological process of a fed-batch fermentation system is derived using ordinary differential equations. A neurocontrol is applied using Recurrent Trainable Neural Network (RTNN) plus integral term; the first network performs an approximation of the plant's output; the second network generates the control signal so that the biomass concentration could be regulated by the nutrient influent flow rate into the bioreactor. [Spanish] Un modelo matematico no lineal de un proceso biotecnologico aerobio de un sistema de fermentacion por lote alimentado es presentado mediante ecuaciones diferenciales ordinarias. Es propuesto un control utilizando dos redes neuronales recurrentes entrenables (RNRE) con la adicion de un termino integral; la primera red representa un aproximador de la salida de la planta y la segunda genera la senal de control tal que la concentracion de la biomasa pueda ser regulada mediante la alimentacion de un flujo con nutrientes al biorreactor.

  18. Short- and Long-Term Learning of Feedforward Control of a Myoelectric Prosthesis with Sensory Feedback by Amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strbac, Matija; Isakovic, Milica; Belic, Minja; Popovic, Igor; Simanic, Igor; Farina, Dario; Keller, Thierry; Dosen, Strahinja

    2017-11-01

    Human motor control relies on a combination of feedback and feedforward strategies. The aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate artificial somatosensory feedback and feedforward control in the context of grasping with myoelectric prosthesis. Nine amputee subjects performed routine grasping trials, with the aim to produce four levels of force during four blocks of 60 trials across five days. The electrotactile force feedback was provided in the second and third block using multipad electrode and spatial coding. The first baseline and last validation block (open-loop control) evaluated the effects of long- (across sessions) and short-term (within session) learning, respectively. The outcome measures were the absolute error between the generated and target force, and the number of force saturations. The results demonstrated that the electrotactile feedback improved the performance both within and across sessions. In the validation block, the performance did not significantly decrease and the quality of open-loop control (baseline) improved across days, converging to the performance characterizing closed-loop control. This paper provides important insights into the feedback and feedforward processes in prosthesis control, contributing to the better understanding of the role and design of feedback in prosthetic systems.

  19. Work and family: associations with long-term sick-listing in Swedish women – a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandmark Hélène

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of Swedish women who are long-term sick-listed is high, and twice as high as for men. Also the periods of sickness absence have on average been longer for women than for men. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between factors in work- and family life and long-term sick-listing in Swedish women. Methods This case-control study included 283 women on long-term sick-listing ≥90 days, and 250 female referents, randomly chosen, living in five counties in Sweden. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses with odds ratios were calculated to estimate the associations between long-term sick-listing and factors related to occupational work and family life. Results Long-term sick-listing in women is associated with self-reported lack of competence for work tasks (OR 2.42 1.23–11.21 log reg, workplace dissatisfaction (OR 1.89 1.14–6.62 log reg, physical workload above capacity (1.78 1.50–5.94, too high mental strain in work tasks (1.61 1.08–5.01 log reg, number of employers during work life (OR 1.39 1.35–4.03 log reg, earlier part-time work (OR 1.39 1.18–4.03 log reg, and lack of influence on working hours (OR 1.35 1.47–3.86 log reg. A younger age at first child, number of children, and main responsibility for own children was also found to be associated with long-term sick-listing. Almost all of the sick-listed women (93% wanted to return to working life, and 54% reported they could work immediately if adjustments at work or part-time work were possible. Conclusion Factors in work and in family life could be important to consider to prevent women from being long-term sick-listed and promote their opportunities to remain in working life. Measures ought to be taken to improve their mobility in work life and control over decisions and actions regarding theirs lives.

  20. Comparing genomes to computer operating systems in terms of the topology and evolution of their regulatory control networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Koon-Kiu; Fang, Gang; Bhardwaj, Nitin; Alexander, Roger P; Gerstein, Mark

    2010-05-18

    The genome has often been called the operating system (OS) for a living organism. A computer OS is described by a regulatory control network termed the call graph, which is analogous to the transcriptional regulatory network in a cell. To apply our firsthand knowledge of the architecture of software systems to understand cellular design principles, we present a comparison between the transcriptional regulatory network of a well-studied bacterium (Escherichia coli) and the call graph of a canonical OS (Linux) in terms of topology and evolution. We show that both networks have a fundamentally hierarchical layout, but there is a key difference: The transcriptional regulatory network possesses a few global regulators at the top and many targets at the bottom; conversely, the call graph has many regulators controlling a small set of generic functions. This top-heavy organization leads to highly overlapping functional modules in the call graph, in contrast to the relatively independent modules in the regulatory network. We further develop a way to measure evolutionary rates comparably between the two networks and explain this difference in terms of network evolution. The process of biological evolution via random mutation and subsequent selection tightly constrains the evolution of regulatory network hubs. The call graph, however, exhibits rapid evolution of its highly connected generic components, made possible by designers' continual fine-tuning. These findings stem from the design principles of the two systems: robustness for biological systems and cost effectiveness (reuse) for software systems.

  1. Taxonomic studies of centric diatoms (Diatomeae: unusual nanoplanktonic forms and new records for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoli Pereira Cavalcante

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There have been few taxonomic studies of centric diatoms in lotic freshwater environments in Brazil, especially in terms of those including nanoplanktonic forms, which are often neglected in studies of local floras, because of their small size or confusing taxonomy. This is the first study focusing on centric diatoms in the flora of the state of Bahia, in northeastern Brazil. Plankton and periphyton attached to Eichornia crassipes were collected in the winter of 2009 in the Cachoeira River. The diatoms were analyzed and described under light and electron microscopies. Seventeen infrageneric taxa were identified. Cyclotella was represented by five taxa, and concerning of similarities between diacritical features of species in this genus, their descriptions were thoroughly detailed. This was the first time that Cyclotella atomus var. marina, previously recorded only in coastal areas of Japan and Korea, has been documented in a river in South America. We also identified two diatom taxa previously unrecorded in the flora of Brazil: C. cryptica and C. meduanae. Finally, we present a detailed light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy analysis of Skeletonema potamos, a diatom rarely found in the Brazilian literature.

  2. Experimental charcoalification of plant reproductive organs: Taphonomic implications for taxonomic information loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupia, R. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Charcoalification can preserve reproductive organs of plants in exceptional detail, but it has not been clear to what extent these taxonomically important structures suffer non-allometric size reduction during this process. To address this problem, seven angiosperm and two gymnosperm species were buried in sand and experimentally charcoalified in a muffle furnace at 325--350 degrees Celsius for two hours, and percent size reduction measured. Carpels, stamens, and petals never shrank by the same amount for a given angiosperm species. To determine the effect of different periods of heating on organs, one angiosperm species was treated for 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours. Organs continued to shrink over this entire period without reaching a plateau. This is important in designing future experiments, and in terms of interpreting fossils, since heat treatment varies across a single site in natural fires. Observations made during this study suggest that some carpels and petals never become charcoalified, that stamens are particularly susceptible to fragmentation after charcoalification, that some organs show predictable damage which is correlated with time, and that the saturation of a structure with water can significantly retard charcoalification for heat exposure of less than one hour. These factors may severely affect the entry of the charred remains into the fossil record. Despite the suggestion that female structures can be expected to shrink the least, it is impossible to prescribe quantitative correction factors to permit accurate reconstructions without constraining additional variables such as temperature and duration of heating.

  3. Taxonomic and Functional Responses of Soil Microbial Communities to Annual Removal of Aboveground Plant Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xue; Zhou, Xishu; Hale, Lauren; Yuan, Mengting; Feng, Jiajie; Ning, Daliang; Shi, Zhou; Qin, Yujia; Liu, Feifei; Wu, Liyou; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Liu, Xueduan; Luo, Yiqi; Tiedje, James M.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2018-01-01

    Clipping, removal of aboveground plant biomass, is an important issue in grassland ecology. However, few studies have focused on the effect of clipping on belowground microbial communities. Using integrated metagenomic technologies, we examined the taxonomic and functional responses of soil microbial communities to annual clipping (2010–2014) in a grassland ecosystem of the Great Plains of North America. Our results indicated that clipping significantly (P microbial respiration rates. Annual temporal variation within the microbial communities was much greater than the significant changes introduced by clipping, but cumulative effects of clipping were still observed in the long-term scale. The abundances of some bacterial and fungal lineages including Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were significantly (P microbial communities were significantly correlated with soil respiration and plant productivity. Intriguingly, clipping effects on microbial function may be highly regulated by precipitation at the interannual scale. Altogether, our results illustrated the potential of soil microbial communities for increased soil organic matter decomposition under clipping land-use practices. PMID:29904372

  4. Testing for variation in taxonomic extinction probabilities: a suggested methodology and some results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, M.J.; Nichols, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Several important questions in evolutionary biology and paleobiology involve sources of variation in extinction rates. In all cases of which we are aware, extinction rates have been estimated from data in which the probability that an observation (e.g., a fossil taxon) will occur is related both to extinction rates and to what we term encounter probabilities. Any statistical method for analyzing fossil data should at a minimum permit separate inferences on these two components. We develop a method for estimating taxonomic extinction rates from stratigraphic range data and for testing hypotheses about variability in these rates. We use this method to estimate extinction rates and to test the hypothesis of constant extinction rates for several sets of stratigraphic range data. The results of our tests support the hypothesis that extinction rates varied over the geologic time periods examined. We also present a test that can be used to identify periods of high or low extinction probabilities and provide an example using Phanerozoic invertebrate data. Extinction rates should be analyzed using stochastic models, in which it is recognized that stratigraphic samples are random varlates and that sampling is imperfect

  5. TAXONOMIC REVISION OF THE TIGRINA LEOPARDUS TIGRINUS (SCHREBER, 1775 SPECIES GROUP (CARNIVORA, FELIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABIO OLIVEIRA DO NASCIMENTO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The tigrina Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775 is a small-sized Neotropical spotted cat found from northern Argentina and southern Brazil to Costa Rica. Four subspecies are traditionally recognized: L. t. tigrinus (Schreber, 1775 from northern Brazil, the Guianas and eastern Venezuela; L. t. pardinoides (Gray, 1867 from western Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru; L. t. guttulus (Hensel, 1872 from southern Brazil, Paraguay and northern Argentina; and L. t. oncillus (Thomas, 1903 from Costa Rica. We studied external and craniodental morphology in quantitative and qualitative terms from 250 specimens in order to clarify the taxonomic status of tigrina. Based on the characters analyzed in this study, we recognize three diagnosable morphogroups, each with a distinct geographic distribution: northern/northwestern/west (samples from northern Brazil, the Guianas, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, northwestern Argentina and Costa Rica, eastern (samples from northeastern and central Brazil, and southern (samples from southern Brazil, Paraguay and northeastern Argentina. Taking into account the morphologic evidence presented here, supported by biogeographic data and molecular studies available, we recognize three full species for tigrinas: L. tigrinus (including the putative subspecies L. t. pardinoides and L. t. oncillus as junior synonyms for northern/northwestern/west group; L. emiliae (Thomas, 1914 for eastern group; and L. guttulus for southern group.

  6. Ca isotopes, chemical weathering, and geomorphic controls on long-term climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.; Jacobson, A. D.; Holmden, C. E.; Craw, D.

    2009-12-01

    Calcium isotope geochemistry (δ44Ca) offers a unique opportunity to directly quantify proportions of riverine Ca originating from silicate versus carbonate weathering, which is essential for understanding how geomorphic processes affecting landscape evolution, such as tectonic uplift and glaciation, influence the long-term cycling of atmospheric CO2. We measured the elemental and δ44Ca chemistry of river and rock samples from the New Zealand Southern Alps. In combination with our geochemical data, we used runoff and suspended sediment fluxes to elucidate relationships between chemical weathering, mechanical erosion, and long-term climate. The S. Alps have uniform bedrock chemistry but significant tectonic and climatic gradients. West of the main topographic divide, watersheds drain schist and experience high runoff, uplift, and erosion rates. East of the main divide, watersheds drain greywacke or schist and experience lower runoff, uplift, and erosion rates. Glaciated watersheds with high erosion rates are present throughout the mountain range. Both schist and greywacke contain up to 3% metamorphic and hydrothermal calcite. Waters exhibit two-component mixing between calcite and silicate end-members when plotted as δ44Ca versus Ca/Sr. Scatter about the mixing curve is generally smaller than the analytical uncertainty of the measurements and likely reflects variability of the end-member compositions rather than fractionation. We used the mixing relationships to calculate percentages of Ca from silicate weathering. Rivers draining greywacke average 27.6% of Ca from silicate weathering with glaciated and non-glaciated watersheds yielding 41.8 and 19.5%, respectively. Rivers draining schist average 9.8% with glaciated and non-glaciated watersheds yielding 17.7 and 3.9%, respectively. Although Ca fluxes are larger west of the main divide where erosion and runoff are higher, the percentage of Ca from silicate weathering is smaller. Hence, long-term atmospheric CO2

  7. Spatio-temporal variation of fish taxonomic composition in a South-East Asian flood-pulse system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Heng; Chevalier, Mathieu; Laffaille, Pascal; Lek, Sovan

    2017-01-01

    The Tonle Sap Lake (TSL) is a flood-pulse system. It is the largest natural lake in South-East Asia and constitutes one of the largest fisheries over the world, supporting the livelihood of million peoples. Nonetheless, the Mekong River Basin is changing rapidly due to accelerating water infrastructure development (hydropower, irrigation, flood control, and water supply) and climate change, bringing considerable modifications to the annual flood-pulse of the TSL. Such modifications are expected to have strong impacts on fish biodiversity and abundance. This paper aims to characterize the spatio-temporal variations of fish taxonomic composition and to highlights the underlying determinants of these variations. For this purpose, we used data collected from a community catch monitoring program conducted at six sites during 141 weeks, covering two full hydrological cycles. For each week, we estimated beta diversity as the total variance of the site-by-species community matrix and partitioned it into Local Contribution to Beta Diversity (LCBD) and Species Contribution to Beta Diversity (SCBD). We then performed multiple linear regressions to determine whether species richness, species abundances and water level explained the temporal variation in the contribution of site and species to beta diversity. Our results indicate strong temporal variation of beta diversity due to differential contributions of sites and species to the spatial variation of fish taxonomic composition. We further found that the direction, the shape and the relative effect of species richness, abundances and water level on temporal variation in LCBD and SCBD values greatly varied among sites, thus suggesting spatial variation in the processes leading to temporal variation in community composition. Overall, our results suggest that fish taxonomic composition is not homogeneously distributed over space and time and is likely to be impacted in the future if the flood-pulse dynamic of the system is

  8. Prevention of fall-related injuries in long-term care: a randomized controlled trial of staff education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Wayne A; Taylor, Jo A; Brown, Anne K; Gideon, Patricia; Hall, Kathi; Arbogast, Patrick; Meredith, Sarah

    2005-10-24

    Fall-related injuries, a major public health problem in long-term care, may be reduced by interventions that improve safety practices. Previous studies have shown that safety practice interventions can reduce falls; however, in long-term care these have relied heavily on external funding and staff. The aim of this study was to test whether a training program in safety practices for staff could reduce fall-related injuries in long-term care facilities. A cluster randomization clinical trial with 112 qualifying facilities and 10,558 study residents 65 years or older and not bedridden. The intervention was an intensive 2-day safety training program with 12-month follow-up. The training program targeted living space and personal safety; wheelchairs, canes, and walkers; psychotropic medication use; and transferring and ambulation. The main outcome measure was serious fall-related injuries during the follow-up period. There was no difference in injury occurrence between the intervention and control facilities (adjusted rate ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-1.16). For residents with a prior fall in facilities with the best program compliance, there was a nonsignificant trend toward fewer injuries in the intervention group (adjusted rate ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-1.10). More intensive interventions are required to prevent fall-related injuries in long-term care facilities.

  9. Lanthanum-modified drinking water treatment residue for initial rapid and long-term equilibrium phosphorus immobilization to control eutrophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changhui; Wu, Yu; Wang, Youquan; Bai, Leilei; Jiang, Helong; Yu, Juhua

    2018-06-15

    This study presents an approach for developing inactivating materials to achieve an initial rapid and a long-term equilibrium P immobilization to control eutrophication based on drinking water treatment residue (DWTR), which is a byproduct of potable water production. By taking advantage of the long-term equilibrium P adsorption by DWTR, the La chemical properties, and the previous success of using La-modified bentonite clay (Phoslock ® ), we used DWTR as a La carrier with different ratios to develop the specific materials. The La loading mechanisms, the potentially toxic effect of La-modified DWTR on snail Bellamya aeruginosa (within 120 d), and the short- and long-term (within 80 d) P immobilization characteristics of the modified DWTR were investigated to understand the performance of the developed materials. The results showed that La loading into DWTR was based on ligand exchanges and the formation of new particles; DWTR loaded with <5% La had no toxicity against the snail. Most importantly, the loading of 5% La to DWTR substantially enhanced the rapid immobilization capacity of DWTR, achieving an initial rapid and a long-term equilibrium P adsorption in aqueous solutions. This study promotes the beneficial recycling of DWTR and results in a win-win situation for lake restoration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Asian longhorned beetle complicates the relationship between taxonomic diversity and pest vulnerability in street tree assemblages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Urban foresters routinely emphasise the importance of taxonomic diversity to reduce the vulnerability of tree assemblages to invasive pests, but it is unclear to...

  11. Integrating DNA barcode data and taxonomic practice: determination, discovery, and description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Paul Z; DeSalle, Rob

    2011-02-01

    DNA barcodes, like traditional sources of taxonomic information, are potentially powerful heuristics in the identification of described species but require mindful analytical interpretation. The role of DNA barcoding in generating hypotheses of new taxa in need of formal taxonomic treatment is discussed, and it is emphasized that the recursive process of character evaluation is both necessary and best served by understanding the empirical mechanics of the discovery process. These undertakings carry enormous ramifications not only for the translation of DNA sequence data into taxonomic information but also for our comprehension of the magnitude of species diversity and its disappearance. This paper examines the potential strengths and pitfalls of integrating DNA sequence data, specifically in the form of DNA barcodes as they are currently generated and analyzed, with taxonomic practice.

  12. Partitioning taxonomic diversity of aquatic insect assemblages and functional feeding groups in Neotropical Savanna headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological diversity can be divided into: alpha (α, local), beta (β, difference in assemblage composition among locals), and gamma (γ, total diversity). We assessed the partitioning of taxonomic diversity of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) and of functional feedin...

  13. A review of the taxonomic status and biology of the Cape Parrot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of the taxonomic status and biology of the Cape Parrot Poicephalus robustus , with reference to the Brown-necked Parrot P. fuscicollis fuscicollis and the Grey-headed Parrot P. f. suahelicus.

  14. Taxonomic value of stem anatomical characters in classification of some Adonis (Ranunculaceae species in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Ghorbani Nohooji

    2011-06-01

    (A. aestivalis, A. flammea and A. dentata were evaluated using numerical taxonomic methods. Obtained results demonstrated that simultaneous application of both qualitative and relative characters offers a better chance in species delimitation in future researches.

  15. Taxonomic and functional patterns of macrobenthic communities on a high-Arctic shelf: A case study from the Laptev Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokarev, V. N.; Vedenin, A. A.; Basin, A. B.; Azovsky, A. I.

    2017-11-01

    The studies of functional structure of high-Arctic Ecosystems are scarce. We used data on benthic macrofauna from 500-km latitudinal transect in the eastern Laptev Sea, from the Lena delta to the continental shelf break, to describe spatial patterns in species composition, taxonomic and functional structure in relation to environmental factors. Both taxonomy-based approach and Biological Trait analysis yielded similar results and showed general depth-related gradient in benthic diversity and composition. This congruence between taxonomical and functional dimensions of community organization suggests that the same environmental factors (primarily riverine input and regime of sedimentation) have similar effect on both community structure and functioning. BTA also revealed a distinct functional structure of stations situated at the Eastern Lena valley, with dominance of motile, burrowing sub-surface deposit-feeders and absence of sedentary tube-dwelling forms. The overall spatial distribution of benthic assemblages corresponds well to that described there in preceding decades, evidencing the long-term stability of bottom ecosystem. Strong linear relationship between species and traits diversity, however, indicates low functional redundancy, which potentially makes the ecosystem susceptible to a species loss or structural shifts.

  16. Gemfibrozil in late preterm and term neonates with moderate jaundice: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaikrishan; Kumar, Praveen; Narang, Anil

    2009-12-01

    To determine, if oral Gemfibrozil is effective in decreasing the duration of phototherapy by at least 24 hours in neonates >34 weeks gestation with non-hemolytic jaundice, as compared to placebo. Double blind placebo controlled randomized controlled trial. Tertiary care neonatal unit in north India. Ninety seven neonates >34 weeks gestation with non-hemolytic jaundice within first 7 days of life requiring phototherapy. Two doses of Gemfibrozil (60 mg/kg/dose) or placebo, 12 hours apart. Babies were treated with single surface special blue light phototherapy. Serum total bilirubin (STB) was measured 8 hourly. Phototherapy was stopped if two consecutive STB values were below phototherapy zone. Duration of phototherapy. The median (IQR) duration of phototherapy was 40 (30, 60) hours in Gemfibrozil and 36 (19, 55) hours in the placebo group (P=0.13). The peak STB levels were 16.8 +/- 2.7 mg/dL and 16.3 +/- 2.3 mg/dL in Gemfibrozil and placebo groups, respectively. No side effect of the drug or placebo was noticed. Two doses of gemfibrozil (60 mg/kg/dose) given 12 hours apart were not able to reduce the duration of phototherapy, or peak bilirubin level in babies > 34 weeks gestation with non-hemolytic jaundice in the first week of life. Gemfibrozil was not associated with any side effects.

  17. Allocation of Functions in a Far-Term Air Traffic Control Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, Jeffrey; Martin, Lynne; Mercer, Joey; Cabrall, Christopher; Prevot, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop exploration of a ground-based automated separation assurance concept was conducted that involved the allocation of certain functions between humans and automation. This exploration included operations that were sustained for prolonged periods of time with high levels of traffic in the presence of convective weather and scheduling constraints. An investigation into the acceptability of the defined roles and performance of tasks was conducted where it was found that the participants rated the concept and allocation of functions with a high level of acceptability. However, issues were encountered with the automation related to the detection of and response to tactical conflicts. Lower ratings were given on account of these concerns, and it was found that a key contributor to the underlying problems was transitioning aircraft and the uncertainty of their trajectories. Stemming from those results, participants responded that they would rather have direct control over aircraft transitions as well as more control over the tactical conflict resolution automation. In contrast, participants responded that they would rather have the automation place aircraft back on trajectory, and perform weather avoidance and scheduling tasks.

  18. Short- and long-term control of Vespula pensylvanica in Hawaii by fipronil baiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Cause; Foote, David; Kremen, Claire

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The invasive western yellowjacket wasp, Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure), has significantly impacted the ecological integrity and human welfare of Hawaii. The goals of the present study were (1) to evaluate the immediate and long-term efficacy of a 0.1% fipronil chicken bait on V. pensylvanica populations in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, (2) to quantify gains in efficacy using the attractant heptyl butyrate in the bait stations and (3) to measure the benefits of this approach for minimizing non-target impacts to other arthropods. RESULTS: The 0.1% fipronil chicken bait reduced the abundance of V. pensylvanica by 95 ± 1.2% during the 3 months following treatment and maintained a population reduction of 60.9 ± 3.1% a year after treatment in the fipronil-treated sites when compared with chicken-only sites. The addition of heptyl butyrate to the bait stations significantly increased V. pensylvanica forager visitation and bait take and significantly reduced the non-target impacts of fipronil baiting. CONCLUSION: In this study, 0.1% fipronil chicken bait with the addition of heptyl butyrate was found to be an extremely effective large-scale management strategy and provided the first evidence of a wasp suppression program impacting Vepsula populations a year after treatment. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry

  19. Telemedicine support to patients with chronic diseases for better long-term control at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Rudel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Authors in many scientific publications suggest that the telemonitoring of health parameters is a useful tool for supporting patients with long-term conditions staying at home and their self-management of the disease. Those patients are likely to benefit from timely and adequate response to deteriorated conditions detected by the telemedicine system. Almost all of the studies state that telemedicine provided as telemonitoring can be an effective add-on tool in the hands of patients and medical experts for the self-management of patients with, for example, heart failure or diabetes. In this paper the principles of patient telemonitoring are presented as applied within a telemedicine service provided by the Centre for Telehealth (CEZAR at the General Hospital Slovenj Gradec (Slovenia. The centre supports patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and/or with chronic congestive heart failure. The service was set-up in 2014 as part of a European project called UNITED4HEALTH. Since then over 550 patients from the Carinthia and Saleška regions (Slovenia have been receiving telemedicine support for more than two years. The clinical outcomes of the telemedicine service published elsewhere prove that the selected telemedicine service model is adequate and the implemented technological solution is acceptable for all service users: the patients and the clinicians.

  20. A bilateral advantage in controlling access to visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Jessica L; Delvenne, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on visual short-term memory (VSTM) has revealed the existence of a bilateral field advantage (BFA--i.e., better memory when the items are distributed in the two visual fields than if they are presented in the same hemifield) for spatial location and bar orientation, but not for color (Delvenne, 2005; Umemoto, Drew, Ester, & Awh, 2010). Here, we investigated whether a BFA in VSTM is constrained by attentional selective processes. It has indeed been previously suggested that the BFA may be a general feature of selective attention (Alvarez & Cavanagh, 2005; Delvenne, 2005). Therefore, the present study examined whether VSTM for color benefits from bilateral presentation if attentional selective processes are particularly engaged. Participants completed a color change detection task whereby target stimuli were presented either across both hemifields or within one single hemifield. In order to engage attentional selective processes, some trials contained irrelevant stimuli that needed to be ignored. Targets were selected based on spatial locations (Experiment 1) or on a salient feature (Experiment 2). In both cases, the results revealed a BFA only when irrelevant stimuli were presented among the targets. Overall, the findings strongly suggest that attentional selective processes at encoding can constrain whether a BFA is observed in VSTM.

  1. Controlled adhesion and growth of long term glial and neuronal cultures on Parylene-C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Delivopoulos

    Full Text Available This paper explores the long term development of networks of glia and neurons on patterns of Parylene-C on a SiO(2 substrate. We harvested glia and neurons from the Sprague-Dawley (P1-P7 rat hippocampus and utilized an established cell patterning technique in order to investigate cellular migration, over the course of 3 weeks. This work demonstrates that uncontrolled glial mitosis gradually disrupts cellular patterns that are established early during culture. This effect is not attributed to a loss of protein from the Parylene-C surface, as nitrogen levels on the substrate remain stable over 3 weeks. The inclusion of the anti-mitotic cytarabine (Ara-C in the culture medium moderates glial division and thus, adequately preserves initial glial and neuronal conformity to underlying patterns. Neuronal apoptosis, often associated with the use of Ara-C, is mitigated by the addition of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. We believe that with the right combination of glial inhibitors and neuronal promoters, the Parylene-C based cell patterning method can generate structured, active neural networks that can be sustained and investigated over extended periods of time. To our knowledge this is the first report on the concurrent application of Ara-C and BDNF on patterned cell cultures.

  2. Long-term criticality control in radioactive waste disposal facilities using depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    Plant photosynthesis has created a unique planetary-wide geochemistry - an oxidizing atmosphere with oxidizing surface waters on a planetary body with chemically reducing conditions near or at some distance below the surface. Uranium is four orders of magnitude more soluble under chemically oxidizing conditions than it is under chemically reducing conditions. Thus, uranium tends to leach from surface rock and disposal sites, move with groundwater, and concentrate where chemically reducing conditions appear. Earth's geochemistry concentrates uranium and can separate uranium from all other elements except oxygen, hydrogen (in water), and silicon (silicates, etc). Fissile isotopes include 235 U, 233 U, and many higher actinides that eventually decay to one of these two uranium isotopes. The potential for nuclear criticality exists if the precipitated uranium from disposal sites has a significant fissile enrichment, mass, and volume. The earth's geochemistry suggests that isotopic dilution of fissile materials in waste with 238 U is a preferred strategy to prevent long-term nuclear criticality in and beyond the boundaries of waste disposal facilities because the 238 U does not separate from the fissile uranium isotopes. Geological, laboratory, and theoretical data indicate that the potential for nuclear criticality can be minimized by diluting fissile materials with- 238 U to 1 wt % 235 U equivalent

  3. Short term impact of Tribulus terrestris intake on doping control analysis of endogenous steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saudan, Christophe; Baume, Norbert; Emery, Caroline; Strahm, Emmanuel; Saugy, Martial

    2008-06-10

    Tribulus terrestris is a nutritional supplement highly debated regarding its physiological and actual effects on the organism. The main claimed effect is an increase of testosterone anabolic and androgenic action through the activation of endogenous testosterone production. Even if this biological pathway is not entirely proven, T. terrestris is regularly used by athletes. Recently, the analysis of two female urine samples by GC/C/IRMS (gas chromatography/combustion/isotope-ratio-mass-spectrometry) conclusively revealed the administration of exogenous testosterone or its precursors, even if the testosterone glucuronide/epitestosterone glucuronide (T/E) ratio and steroid marker concentrations were below the cut-off values defined by World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). To argue against this adverse analytical finding, the athletes recognized having used T. terrestris in their diet. In order to test this hypothesis, two female volunteers ingested 500 mg of T. terrestris, three times a day and for two consecutive days. All spot urines were collected during 48 h after the first intake. The (13)C/(12)C ratio of ketosteroids was determined by GC/C/IRMS, the T/E ratio and DHEA concentrations were measured by GC/MS and LH concentrations by radioimmunoassay. None of these parameters revealed a significant variation or increased above the WADA cut-off limits. Hence, the short-term treatment with T. terrestris showed no impact on the endogenous testosterone metabolism of the two subjects.

  4. A Source-Term Based Boundary Layer Bleed/Effusion Model for Passive Shock Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurle, Robert A.; Norris, Andrew T.

    2011-01-01

    A modeling framework for boundary layer effusion has been developed based on the use of source (or sink) terms instead of the usual practice of specifying bleed directly as a boundary condition. This framework allows the surface boundary condition (i.e. isothermal wall, adiabatic wall, slip wall, etc.) to remain unaltered in the presence of bleed. This approach also lends itself to easily permit the addition of empirical models for second order effects that are not easily accounted for by simply defining effective transpiration values. Two effusion models formulated for supersonic flows have been implemented into this framework; the Doerffer/Bohning law and the Slater formulation. These models were applied to unit problems that contain key aspects of the flow physics applicable to bleed systems designed for hypersonic air-breathing propulsion systems. The ability of each model to predict bulk bleed properties was assessed, as well as the response of the boundary layer as it passes through and downstream of a porous bleed system. The model assessment was performed with and without the presence of shock waves. Three-dimensional CFD simulations that included the geometric details of the porous plate bleed systems were also carried out to supplement the experimental data, and provide additional insights into the bleed flow physics. Overall, both bleed formulations fared well for the tests performed in this study. However, the sample of test problems considered in this effort was not large enough to permit a comprehensive validation of the models.

  5. Long-term corrosion/oxidation studies under controlled humidity conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gdowski, G.

    1997-01-01

    Independent of thermal loading scenarios, the waste packages at the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada will be exposed to environmental conditions where there is the possibility of significant water film formation occurring on the waste packages. Water films can cause aggressive aqueous film electrochemical corrosion on susceptible metals or alloys. Water film formation will be facilitated when relative humidities are high, when hygroscopic salts are present on the surfaces, when corrosion products are hygroscopic, and when particles form crevices with the surfaces (capillary effect). Also certain gaseous contaminants, such as, NO x and SO 2 , can facilitate water film formation. It should be noted that water film formation can occur at isolated spots (e.g. surface defects and salt particles) and need not cover the entire surface for electrochemical corrosion to occur. This activity will characterize the long term corrosion of metal specimens at two nominal relative humidities (50 and 85%) and at 80 C. Under the low relative humidity (50%) condition, water film formation is expected to be limited and therefore aqueous film electrochemical corrosion is expected also to be limited. Under the high relative humidity (85%) condition, significant water film formation is expected to occur under some test conditions, and subsequently aqueous film electrochemical corrosion will occur on susceptible materials

  6. Short Term Motor-Skill Acquisition Improves with Size of Self-Controlled Virtual Hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossmy, Ori; Mukamel, Roy

    2017-01-01

    Visual feedback in general, and from the body in particular, is known to influence the performance of motor skills in humans. However, it is unclear how the acquisition of motor skills depends on specific visual feedback parameters such as the size of performing effector. Here, 21 healthy subjects physically trained to perform sequences of finger movements with their right hand. Through the use of 3D Virtual Reality devices, visual feedback during training consisted of virtual hands presented on the screen, tracking subject's hand movements in real time. Importantly, the setup allowed us to manipulate the size of the displayed virtual hands across experimental conditions. We found that performance gains increase with the size of virtual hands. In contrast, when subjects trained by mere observation (i.e., in the absence of physical movement), manipulating the size of the virtual hand did not significantly affect subsequent performance gains. These results demonstrate that when it comes to short-term motor skill learning, the size of visual feedback matters. Furthermore, these results suggest that highest performance gains in individual subjects are achieved when the size of the virtual hand matches their real hand size. These results may have implications for optimizing motor training schemes.

  7. Short Term Motor-Skill Acquisition Improves with Size of Self-Controlled Virtual Hands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ori Ossmy

    Full Text Available Visual feedback in general, and from the body in particular, is known to influence the performance of motor skills in humans. However, it is unclear how the acquisition of motor skills depends on specific visual feedback parameters such as the size of performing effector. Here, 21 healthy subjects physically trained to perform sequences of finger movements with their right hand. Through the use of 3D Virtual Reality devices, visual feedback during training consisted of virtual hands presented on the screen, tracking subject's hand movements in real time. Importantly, the setup allowed us to manipulate the size of the displayed virtual hands across experimental conditions. We found that performance gains increase with the size of virtual hands. In contrast, when subjects trained by mere observation (i.e., in the absence of physical movement, manipulating the size of the virtual hand did not significantly affect subsequent performance gains. These results demonstrate that when it comes to short-term motor skill learning, the size of visual feedback matters. Furthermore, these results suggest that highest performance gains in individual subjects are achieved when the size of the virtual hand matches their real hand size. These results may have implications for optimizing motor training schemes.

  8. Clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% is efficacious and safe for long-term control of moderate scalp psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Yves; Papp, Kim; Bissonnette, Robert; Barber, Kirk; Kerrouche, Nabil; Villemagne, Hervé

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated in this study the efficacy and safety of an alternate regimen using clobetasol propionate 0.05% shampoo (CP shampoo) for long-term control of scalp psoriasis. Patients with moderate scalp psoriasis (Global Severity Score [GSS] of 3 on a 0-5 scale) first received CP shampoo once daily for 4 weeks. Patients with a GSS shampoo or vehicle twice weekly. When relapse (GSS > 2) occurred, patients received the 4-week daily CP shampoo treatment. Patients who had a GSS shampoo, almost 4 months later than with vehicle (30.5 days;p shampoo (40.3%) than with vehicle (11.6%;p shampoo was also safe during the 7-month study period, without leading to more cases of skin atrophy, telangiectasia, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression or adverse events compared to vehicle. The alternate treatment regimen with CP shampoo is efficacious and safe for long-term management of moderate scalp psoriasis.

  9. Cancer risk in long-term users of valproate: a population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Jesper; Friis, Søren; Bjerrum, Lars

    2009-01-01

    logistic regression. RESULTS: Among the cases and controls, 81 (0.05%) and 260 (0.04%), respectively, were long-term users of valproate. For cancer overall, the crude and adjusted odds ratios were 1.25 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.97-1.60] and 1.21 (95% CI, 0.95-1.56), respectively. Subgroup...... analyses revealed no dose or duration effect for overall cancer incidence, and no specific cancer site was found to be inversely associated with long-term use of valproate. For lung cancer, we found a positive but imprecise association (adjusted odds ratio, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.12-4.79). CONCLUSION: Long...

  10. Taxonomic research priorities for the conservation of the South African flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lize von Staden

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic revisions, monographs and floras are the most important, and often the only source of data for assessing the extinction risk of plants, with recent revisions contributing to more accurate assessments. The recently completed Red List of South African plants involved an overview of the taxonomic literature pertaining to the South African flora, providing an opportunity to identify critical gaps in taxonomic coverage. In this study we identified taxonomic research priorities for effective conservation of South African plants. Priorities were identified at genus level, according to time since last revision, level of endemism, collecting effort, proportion of taxa included in revisions, and specimen identification confidence. Although the results indicate that 62% of the flora has been recently revised, revisionary taxonomic output has declined drastically, particularly in the past 10 years. This decline is a result of a decrease in revisionary productivity per taxonomist and not a result of a decline in the number of working taxonomists. The family Aizoaceae is the top priority for taxonomic research with 55% of taxa in need of revision, followed by Hyacinthaceae with 34% of taxa not yet revised. Ericaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rutaceae, Malvaceae, Asteraceae and Acanthaceae are also priorities with over 30% of taxa last revised before 1970. We recommend the reinstatement of the Flora of Southern Africa project in an online format in order to centralise South Africa's existing taxonomic information and reinvigorate revisionary taxonomic study. This project will allow South Africa to fulfil its commitments to the Convention on Biodiversity by achieving Target 1 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation.

  11. The nutty world of hazel names - a crtitical taxonomic checklist of the genus Corylus (Betulaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Holstein, Norbert; Tamer, Sarah el; Weigend, Maximilian

    2018-01-01

    Hazelnuts (Corylus L.) are the source of one of the globally most important nut crops. Despite their economic and cultural importance, taxonomic knowledge is poor, even the number of species is equivocal. Weak morphological differentiation, the inconsistent taxonomic treatment of horticultural selections and cultivars, and uncritical regional treatments generated a multitude of names. The situation is further complicated by an ancient history of use (at least 10 400 years), trade (at least 40...

  12. Human impacts on functional and taxonomic homogenization of plateau fish assemblages in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohuan Su

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Human activities and the consequent extinctions of native species and invasions of non-native species have been changing the composition of species assemblages worldwide. These anthropogenic impacts alter not only the richness of assemblages but also the biological dissimilarity among them. However, much of the research effort to date has focused on changes in taxonomic dissimilarity (i.e. accounting for species composition whether assessments of functional dissimilarity (i.e. accounting for the diversity of biological traits are much more scarce, despite revealing important complimentary information by accounting for changes in the diversity of biological traits. Here, we assess the temporal (1950s against 2000s changes in both taxonomic and functional dissimilarities of freshwater fish assemblages across lakes from the Yunnan Plateau in China. The Jaccard index to quantify the changes in both taxonomic and functional dissimilarity. We then partitioned dissimilarity to extract its turnover component and measured the changes in the contribution of turnover to dissimilarity. We found that functional and taxonomic homogenization occurred simultaneously. However, patterns between these two processes differed for some lakes. Taxonomic and functional homogenizations were stronger when the historical level of taxonomic dissimilarity among assemblages was high. The impact of extinctions of native species and invasions of non-native species on homogenization was otherwise complex to disentangle with no significant effect of any of the studied environmental factors. In agreement with other studies, our study proved that change in taxonomic dissimilarity cannot be used to predict changes in functional dissimilarity and, as an indicator of ecosystem functioning, functional dissimilarity should be used together with taxonomic dissimilarity to attain a more holistic understanding of human impacts on natural ecosystems.

  13. Long term results after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) in patients with craniopharyngioma: maximal tumor control with minimal side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrabi, Semi B; Adeberg, Sebastian; Welzel, Thomas; Rieken, Stefan; Habermehl, Daniel; Debus, Jürgen; Combs, Stephanie E

    2014-09-16

    There are already numerous reports about high local control rates in patients with craniopharyngioma but there are only few studies with follow up times of more than 10 years. This study is an analysis of long term control, tumor response and side effects after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) for patients with craniopharyngioma. 55 patients who were treated with FSRT for craniopharyngioma were analyzed. Median age was 37 years (range 6-70 years), among them eight children craniopharyngioma. Overall treatment was tolerated well with almost no severe acute or chronic side effects. One patient developed complete anosmia, another one's initially impaired vision deteriorated further. In 83.6% of the cases with radiological follow up a regression of irradiated tumor residues was monitored, in 7 cases complete response was achieved. 44 patients presented themselves initially with endocrinologic dysfunction none of them showed signs of further deterioration during follow up. No secondary malignancies were observed. Long term results for patients with craniopharyngioma after stereotactic radiotherapy are with respect to low treatment related side effects as well as to local control and overall survival excellent.

  14. Cancer risk in long-term users of vitamin K antagonists: A population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Friis, Søren; Hallas, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    performed for selected cancer sites, subgroups and measures of exposure. A total of 238,196 cases and 1,713,176 controls were included. The adjusted OR for cancer associated with long-term VKA exposure was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.95–1.02). Long-term VKA use was associated with increased ORs for alcohol- or obesity-related...... a matched case–control analysis. We used data from four Danish nationwide registers. Cases were all Danish individuals with a first-time cancer diagnosis (except nonmelanoma skin cancer) between 2000 and 2009. For each case, eight controls, matched by birth year and gender, were selected from the source...... cancer sites, whereas we observed a decreased risk of prostate cancer (OR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.78–0.95). Our study does not support a general chemopreventive effect of VKA drugs. However, in accordance with findings from previous studies, we found an inverse association between use of VKA and prostate cancer....

  15. Body composition is normal in term infants born to mothers with well-controlled gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Cheryl P; Raynes-Greenow, Camille H; Turner, Robin M; Carberry, Angela E; Jeffery, Heather E

    2013-03-01

    This study aims to describe body composition in term infants of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared with infants of mothers with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). This cross-sectional study included 599 term babies born at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia. Neonatal body fat percentage (BF%) was measured within 48 h of birth using air-displacement plethysmography. Glycemic control data were based on third-trimester HbA(1c) levels and self-monitoring blood glucose levels. Associations between GDM status and BF% were investigated using linear regression adjusted for relevant maternal and neonatal variables. Of 599 babies, 67 (11%) were born to mothers with GDM. Mean ± SD neonatal BF% was 7.9 ± 4.5% in infants with GDM and 9.3 ± 4.3% in infants with NGT, and this difference was not statistically significant after adjustment. Good glycemic control was achieved in 90% of mothers with GDM. In this study, neonatal BF% did not differ by maternal GDM status, and this may be attributed to good maternal glycemic control.

  16. Short term wave forecasting, using digital filters, for improved control of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Frigaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a Digital Filter method for real time prediction of waves incident upon a Wave Energy device. The method transforms waves measured at a point ahead of the device, to expected waves incident on the device. The relationship between these incident waves and power capture is derived...... experimentally. Results are shown form measurements taken on the Wave Dragon prototype device, a floating overtopping device situated in Northern Denmark. In this case the method is able to accurately predict the surface elevation at the device 11.2 seconds before the measurement is made. This is sufficient...... to allow advanced control systems to be developed using this knowledge to significantly improve power capture....

  17. Short term wave forecasting, using digital filters, for improved control of Wave Energy Converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedd, J.; Frigaard, P. [Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents a Digital Filter method for real time prediction of waves incident upon a Wave Energy device. The method transforms waves measured at a point ahead of the device, to expected waves incident on the device. The relationship between these incident waves and power capture is derived experimentally. Results are shown form measurements taken on the Wave Dragon prototype device, a floating overtopping device situated in Northern Denmark. In this case the method is able to accurately predict the surface elevation at the device 11.2 seconds before the measurement is made. This is sufficient to allow advanced control systems to be developed using this knowledge to significantly improve power capture.

  18. Susceptibility to hypoxia and breathing control changes after short-term cold exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila T. Kovtun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Hypoxia is the reduction of oxygen availability due to external or internal causes. There is large individual variability of response to hypoxia. Objective . The aim of this study was to define individual and typological features in susceptibility to hypoxia, its interrelation with hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses (HVR and HCVR, respectively and their changes after cold acclimation. Design . Twenty-four healthy men were tested. HVR and HCVR were measured by the rebreathing method during hypoxic and hypercapnic tests, respectively. These tests were carried out in thermoneutral conditions before and after cold exposures (nude, at 13°C, 2 h daily, for 10 days. Susceptibility to hypoxia (sSaO2 was determined as haemoglobin saturation slope during hypoxic test. Results . It was found that HVR and HCVR significantly increased and susceptibility to hypoxia (sSaO2 tended to decrease after cold acclimation. According to sSaO2 results before cold exposures, the group was divided into 3: Group 1 – with high susceptibility to hypoxia, Group 2 – medium and Group 3 – low susceptibility. Analysis of variances (MANOVA shows the key role of susceptibility to hypoxia and cold exposures and their interrelation. Posterior analysis (Fisher LSD showed significant difference in susceptibility to hypoxia between the groups prior to cold acclimation, while HVR and HCVR did not differ between the groups. After cold acclimation, susceptibility to hypoxia was not significantly different between the groups, while HCVR significantly increased in Groups 1 and 3, HVR significantly increased in Group 3 and HCVR, HVR did not change in Group 2. Conclusions . Short-term cold exposures caused an increase in functional reserves and improved oxygen supply of tissues in Group 1. Cold exposure hypoxia has caused energy loss in Group 3. Group 2 showed the most appropriate energy conservation reaction mode to cold exposures. No relation was found between

  19. Dissecting rice polyamine metabolism under controlled long-term drought stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc Thi Do

    Full Text Available A selection of 21 rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica and japonica was characterized under moderate long-term drought stress by comprehensive physiological analyses and determination of the contents of polyamines and selected metabolites directly related to polyamine metabolism. To investigate the potential regulation of polyamine biosynthesis at the transcriptional level, the expression of 21 genes encoding enzymes involved in these pathways were analyzed by qRT-PCR. Analysis of the genomic loci revealed that 11 of these genes were located in drought-related QTL regions, in agreement with a proposed role of polyamine metabolism in rice drought tolerance. The cultivars differed widely in their drought tolerance and parameters such as biomass and photosynthetic quantum yield were significantly affected by drought treatment. Under optimal irrigation free putrescine was the predominant polyamine followed by free spermidine and spermine. When exposed to drought putrescine levels decreased markedly and spermine became predominant in all cultivars. There were no correlations between polyamine contents and drought tolerance. GC-MS analysis revealed drought-induced changes of the levels of ornithine/arginine (substrate, substrates of polyamine synthesis, proline, product of a competing pathway and GABA, a potential degradation product. Gene expression analysis indicated that ADC-dependent polyamine biosynthesis responded much more strongly to drought than the ODC-dependent pathway. Nevertheless the fold change in transcript abundance of ODC1 under drought stress was linearly correlated with the drought tolerance of the cultivars. Combining metabolite and gene expression data, we propose a model of the coordinate adjustment of polyamine biosynthesis for the accumulation of spermine under drought conditions.

  20. Short term effects of kinesiotaping on acromiohumeral distance in asymptomatic subjects: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Suarez, A; Navarro-Ledesma, S; Petocz, P; Hancock, M J; Hush, J

    2013-12-01

    The first aim of this study was to investigate whether kinesiotaping (KT) can increase the acromiohumeral distance (AHD) in asymptomatic subjects in the short term. The second aim was to investigate whether the direction of kinesiotaping application influences AHD. In recent years, the use of KT has become increasingly popular for a range of musculoskeletal conditions and for sport injuries. To date, we are unaware of any research investigating the effect of kinesiotaping on AHD. Moreover, it is unknown whether the direction of kinesiotaping application for the shoulder is important. Forty nine participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: kinesiotaping group 1 (KT1), kinesiotaping group 2 (KT2) and sham kinesiotaping (KT3). AHD ultrasound measurements at 0° and 60° of shoulder elevation were collected at baseline and immediately after kinesiotape application. The results showed significant improvements in AHD after kinesiotaping, compared with sham taping. The mean difference in AHD between KT1 and KT3 groups was 1.28 mm (95% CI: 0.55, 2.03), and between KT2 and KT3 was 0.98 mm (95% CI: 0.23, 1.74). Comparison of KT1 and KT2 groups, which was performed to identify whether the direction of taping influences the AHD, indicated there were no significant differences. KT increases AHD in healthy individuals immediately following application, compared with sham kinesiotape. No differences were found with respect to the direction in which KT was applied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical outcomes of elite controllers, viremic controllers, and long-term nonprogressors in the US Department of Defense HIV natural history study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulicz, Jason F; Marconi, Vincent C; Landrum, Michael L; Wegner, Scott; Weintrob, Amy; Ganesan, Anuradha; Hale, Braden; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy; Delmar, Judith; Barthel, Vincent; Quinnan, Gerald; Agan, Brian K; Dolan, Matthew J

    2009-12-01

    Durable control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication and lack of disease progression in the absence of antiretroviral therapy were studied in a military cohort of 4586 subjects. We examined groups of elite controllers (ie, subjects with plasma HIV RNA levels of <50 copies/mL; prevalence, 0.55% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.35%-0.80%]), viremic controllers (ie, subjects with plasma HIV RNA levels of 50-2000 copies/mL; prevalence, 3.34% [95% CI, 2.83%-3.91%]), and subjects with a lack of disease progression (ie, long-term nonprogressors [LTNPs]) through 7 years of follow-up (LTNP7s; prevalence, 3.32% [95% CI, 2.70%-4.01%]) or 10 years of follow-up (LTNP10s; prevalence, 2.04% [95% CI, 1.52%-2.68%]). For elite and viremic controllers, spontaneous virologic control was established early and was typically observed when the initial viral load measurement was obtained within 1 year of estimated seroconversion. Elite controllers had favorable time to development of AIDS (P=.048), a CD4 cell count of 350 cells/microL (P= .009), and more-stable CD4 cell trends, compared with viremic controllers. LTNPs defined by 10-year versus 7-year criteria had a longer survival time (P=.001), even after adjustment for differing periods of invulnerability (P= .042). Definitions of controllers and LTNPs describe distinct populations whose differing clinical outcomes improve with the stringency of criteria, underscoring the need for comparability between study populations.

  2. Improving probe set selection for microbial community analysis by leveraging taxonomic information of training sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Tao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population levels of microbial phylotypes can be examined using a hybridization-based method that utilizes a small set of computationally-designed DNA probes targeted to a gene common to all. Our previous algorithm attempts to select a set of probes such that each training sequence manifests a unique theoretical hybridization pattern (a binary fingerprint to a probe set. It does so without taking into account similarity between training gene sequences or their putative taxonomic classifications, however. We present an improved algorithm for probe set selection that utilizes the available taxonomic information of training gene sequences and attempts to choose probes such that the resultant binary fingerprints cluster into real taxonomic groups. Results Gene sequences manifesting identical fingerprints with probes chosen by the new algorithm are more likely to be from the same taxonomic group than probes chosen by the previous algorithm. In cases where they are from different taxonomic groups, underlying DNA sequences of identical fingerprints are more similar to each other in probe sets made with the new versus the previous algorithm. Complete removal of large taxonomic groups from training data does not greatly decrease the ability of probe sets to distinguish those groups. Conclusions Probe sets made from the new algorithm create fingerprints that more reliably cluster into biologically meaningful groups. The method can readily distinguish microbial phylotypes that were excluded from the training sequences, suggesting novel microbes can also be detected.

  3. Improving probe set selection for microbial community analysis by leveraging taxonomic information of training sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegger, Paul M; Della Vedova, Gianluca; Jiang, Tao; Borneman, James

    2011-10-10

    Population levels of microbial phylotypes can be examined using a hybridization-based method that utilizes a small set of computationally-designed DNA probes targeted to a gene common to all. Our previous algorithm attempts to select a set of probes such that each training sequence manifests a unique theoretical hybridization pattern (a binary fingerprint) to a probe set. It does so without taking into account similarity between training gene sequences or their putative taxonomic classifications, however. We present an improved algorithm for probe set selection that utilizes the available taxonomic information of training gene sequences and attempts to choose probes such that the resultant binary fingerprints cluster into real taxonomic groups. Gene sequences manifesting identical fingerprints with probes chosen by the new algorithm are more likely to be from the same taxonomic group than probes chosen by the previous algorithm. In cases where they are from different taxonomic groups, underlying DNA sequences of identical fingerprints are more similar to each other in probe sets made with the new versus the previous algorithm. Complete removal of large taxonomic groups from training data does not greatly decrease the ability of probe sets to distinguish those groups. Probe sets made from the new algorithm create fingerprints that more reliably cluster into biologically meaningful groups. The method can readily distinguish microbial phylotypes that were excluded from the training sequences, suggesting novel microbes can also be detected.

  4. Avibase – a database system for managing and organizing taxonomic concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Lepage

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific names of biological entities offer an imperfect resolution of the concepts that they are intended to represent. Often they are labels applied to entities ranging from entire populations to individual specimens representing those populations, even though such names only unambiguously identify the type specimen to which they were originally attached. Thus the real-life referents of names are constantly changing as biological circumscriptions are redefined and thereby alter the sets of individuals bearing those names. This problem is compounded by other characteristics of names that make them ambiguous identifiers of biological concepts, including emendations, homonymy and synonymy. Taxonomic concepts have been proposed as a way to address issues related to scientific names, but they have yet to receive broad recognition or implementation. Some efforts have been made towards building systems that address these issues by cataloguing and organizing taxonomic concepts, but most are still in conceptual or proof-of-concept stage. We present the on-line database Avibase as one possible approach to organizing taxonomic concepts. Avibase has been successfully used to describe and organize 844,000 species-level and 705,000 subspecies-level taxonomic concepts across every major bird taxonomic checklist of the last 125 years. The use of taxonomic concepts in place of scientific names, coupled with efficient resolution services, is a major step toward addressing some of the main deficiencies in the current practices of scientific name dissemination and use.

  5. Quantifying short-term foraging movements in a marsupial pest to improve targeted lethal control and disease surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yockney, Ivor J; Latham, M Cecilia; Rouco, Carlos; Cross, Martin L; Nugent, Graham

    2015-01-01

    In New Zealand, the introduced marsupial brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) is a pest species subject to control measures, primarily to limit its ability to transmit bovine tuberculosis (TB) to livestock and for conservation protection. To better define parameters for targeted possum control and TB surveillance, we here applied a novel approach to analyzing GPS data obtained from 44 possums fitted with radio-tracking collars, producing estimates of the animals' short-term nocturnal foraging patterns based on 1-, 3- or 5-nights' contiguous data. Studies were conducted within two semi-arid montane regions of New Zealand's South Island High Country: these regions support low-density possum populations (control) or monitoring devices (for TB surveillance), set for > 3 consecutive nights at 150 m interval spacings, would likely place >95% of the possums in this type of habitat at risk of encountering these devices, year-round. Modelling control efficacy against operational expenditure, based on these estimations, identified the relative cost-effectiveness of various strategies that could be applied to a typical aerial poisoning operation, to reduce the ongoing TB vectorial risk that possums pose in the High Country regions. These habitat-specific findings are likely to be more relevant than the conventional pest control and monitoring methodologies developed for possums in their more typical forested habitat.

  6. Peri-apatite coating decreases uncemented tibial component migration: long-term RSA results of a randomized controlled trial and limitations of short-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hamersveld, Koen T; Marang-Van De Mheen, Perla J; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Toksvig-Larsen, Sören

    2018-05-09

    Background and purpose - Biological fixation of uncemented knee prostheses can be improved by applying hydroxyapatite coating around the porous surface via a solution deposition technique called Peri-Apatite (PA). The 2-year results of a randomized controlled trial, evaluating the effect of PA, revealed several components with continuous migration in the second postoperative year, particularly in the uncoated group. To evaluate whether absence of early stabilization is diagnostic of loosening, we now present long-term follow-up results. Patients and methods - 60 patients were randomized to PA-coated or uncoated (porous only) total knee arthroplasty of which 58 were evaluated with radiostereometric analysis (RSA) performed at baseline, at 3 months postoperatively and at 1, 2, 5, 7, and 10 years. A linear mixed-effects model was used to analyze the repeated measurements. Results - PA-coated components had a statistically significantly lower mean migration at 10 years of 0.94 mm (95% CI 0.72-1.2) compared with the uncoated group showing a mean migration of 1.72 mm (95% CI 1.4-2.1). Continuous migration in the second postoperative year was seen in 7 uncoated components and in 1 PA-coated component. All of these implants stabilized after 2 years except for 2 uncoated components. Interpretation - Peri-apatite enhances stabilization of uncemented components. The number of components that stabilized after 2 years emphasizes the importance of longer follow-up to determine full stabilization and risk of loosening in uncemented components with biphasic migration profiles.

  7. Education, employment and marriage in long-term survivors of teenage and young adult cancer compared with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Luzius; Vetsch, Janine; Christen, Salome; Baenziger, Julia; Roser, Katharina; Dehler, Silvia; Michel, Gisela

    2017-03-21

    Teenage and young adult (TYA) cancer patients are faced with the diagnosis during a challenging period of psychosocial development that may affect social outcomes in the long term. Therefore, we aimed to: (1) determine differences in social outcomes between long-term TYA cancer survivors and healthy controls and (2) identify factors associated with adverse social outcomes. We sent a questionnaire to TYA cancer survivors (aged 16-25 years at diagnosis, 5 years after diagnosis) registered in the Cancer Registry Zurich and Zug. Information on controls was obtained from the Swiss Health Survey 2012. We assessed educational achievement, employment status, marital status and life partnership (survivors only), and compared these outcomes between survivors and controls. We used logistic regression to identify sociodemographic and cancer-related factors associated with social outcomes. We included 160 TYA cancer survivors and 999 controls. Educational achievement of survivors differed significantly from controls (p = 0.012): more survivors than controls reported upper secondary education (33 vs 27%) and fewer survivors reported university education (12 vs 21%). No significant differences were found for employment (p = 0.515) and marital status (p = 0.357). The majority of survivors (91%) and controls (90%) were employed, and 37% of survivors were married, compared with 41% of controls. There were no cancer-related factors associated with having only basic education. Unemployment was associated with younger age at diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] 5.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-30.8) and self-reported late effects (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.3-19.5). Survivors of younger age at diagnosis were more likely not to be married (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-5.7) and not to have a life partner (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.2). Our findings indicate that TYA cancer survivors completed applied higher education rather than a university education. Future studies including larger samples of TYA cancer survivors

  8. Creation of Long-Term Coherent Optical Memory via Controlled Nonlinear Interactions in Bose-Einstein Condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Rui; Garner, Sean R.; Hau, Lene Vestergaard

    2009-01-01

    A Bose-Einstein condensate confined in an optical dipole trap is used to generate long-term coherent memory for light, and storage times of more than 1 s are observed. Phase coherence of the condensate as well as controlled manipulations of elastic and inelastic atomic scattering processes are utilized to increase the storage fidelity by several orders of magnitude over previous schemes. The results have important applications for creation of long-distance quantum networks and for generation of entangled states of light and matter.

  9. Long term control of a maxillary sinus mucoepidermoid carcinoma with low dose radiation therapy: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vulpe, Horia; Giuliani, Meredith; Goldstein, David; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Dawson, Laura A; Hope, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the maxillary sinus is a rare malignancy of the head and neck. The location of this tumour near vital structures and its large size at presentation makes surgical resection with negative margins challenging. In incurable cases, relief from symptoms such as epistaxis may be achieved with radiation therapy. We present a case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the maxillary sinus that was effectively palliated with a short course of radiation therapy, achieving complete cessation of bleeding, decrease in tumour size, and long term control. We surveyed the literature on mucoepidermoid carcinomas and propose that some tumours may be particularly radiosensitive, benefiting from even short courses of radiation therapy

  10. Obstacles to condom use: the combination of other forms of birth control and short-term monogamy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critelli, J W; Suire, D M

    1998-03-01

    Two hundred thirty-seven college students involved in heterosexual relationships were surveyed to determine the effects of relationship type and use of forms of contraception other than condoms on condom use. Findings indicated that in the context of a short-term, monogamous relationship, the use of another form of birth control was associated with decreased condom use. In addition, 20% of the participants reported that they had wanted to use a condom for disease prevention on at least one occasion but had decided not to do so because they were using another form of contraception. Implications for preventive health are discussed.

  11. Long-term radiological liabilities and institutional control for radiation hazardous objects in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskra, A.; Lebedev, O.; Popov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Efforts aimed at securing safe human life environment are taking more and more significant place in the RF public policy sphere, practical steps are being made for the purpose of environmental remediation, including scheduled life cycle completion of a number of nuclear- and radiation-hazardous engineering objects. Currently nuclear subs decommissioning and dismantling is being carried out, as well as decommissioning of research reactors in various cities of the country. A number of industrial sites have already been cleaned up, in some places restoration works are on, remediation of the reactor sites and former naval technical service bases is being planned. Whereas nuclear reactors for various purposes, spent nuclear fuel and radwaste storage facilities, have safe and reliable physical protection, trained personnel and arm guard, so that the risk of the objects' eventual effects on the natural environment and the population in adjacent areas is well predicted at any stage of their life cycle, be it regular operation, shutdown, dismantling or site remediation, such components of the radiation legacy as radioactively contaminated sites and radionuclide ionizing radiation sources, though so different by nature, but equally bearing radiation threat, cause well explainable public anxiety. Their specific character lies not only in the fact that they are often not guarded in a proper way, but also in the great extent to which they are spread geographically. In order to prevent non-sanctioned access to such kind of objects and eventual exposure of the population, an institutional control system (ICS) should be set up for the radiation risk sources. The ICS has very much in common for various types of the radiation hazardous objects, and it should include such constituents as regulatory and normative documentation, environmental (radiation inclusive) monitoring arrangement, radioactive materials and radioactive wastes control and accounting, ensuring of civil security

  12. Cardiovascular autonomic control during short-term thermoneutral and cool head-out immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourot, Laurent; Bouhaddi, Malika; Gandelin, Emmanuel; Cappelle, Sylvie; Dumoulin, Gilles; Wolf, Jean-Pierre; Rouillon, Jean Denis; Regnard, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Moderately cold head-out water immersion stimulates both baro- and cold-receptors, and triggers complex and contradictory effects on the cardiovascular system and its autonomic nervous control. To assess the effects of water immersion and cold on cardiovascular status and related autonomic nervous activity. Hemodynamic variables and indexes of autonomic nervous activity (analysis of heart rate and blood pressure variability) were evaluated in 12 healthy subjects during 3 exposures of 20 min each in the upright position, i.e., in air (AIR, 24-25 degrees C), and during head-out water immersion at 35-36 degrees C (WIn) and 26-27 degrees C (WIc). Plasma noradrenaline, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and total peripheral resistances were reduced during WIn compared to AIR (263.9 +/- 39.4 vs. 492.5 +/- 35.7 pg x ml(-1), 116.5 +/- 3.7 and 65.4 +/- 1.7 mmHg vs. 140.8 +/- 4.7 and 89.8 +/- 2.8 mmHg, 14.1 +/- 1.0 vs. 16.3 +/- 0.9 mmHg x L(-1) x min, respectively) while they were increased during WIc (530.8 +/- 84.7 pg ml(-1), 148.0 +/- 7.0 mmHg, 80.8 +/- 3.0 mmHg, and 25.8 +/- 1.9 mmHg x L(-1) x min, respectively). The blood pressure variability was reduced to the same extent during WIc and Win compared to AIR. Heart rate decreased during WIn (67.8 +/- 2.7 vs. 81.2 +/- 2.7 bpm during AIR), in parallel with an increased cardiac parasympathetic activity. This pattern was strengthened during WIc (55.3 +/- 2.2 bpm). Thermoneutral WI lowered sympathetic activity and arterial tone, while moderate whole-body skin cooling triggered vascular sympathetic activation. Conversely, both WI and cold triggered cardiac parasympathetic activation, highlighting a complex autonomic control of the cardiovascular system.

  13. Study of long term structural and functional changes in medically controlled glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut N Pandey

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:Prospectively analyze the long term structural and functional changes in patients of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG receiving medical therapy (beta blockers and non beta blockers. In this study an attempt has been made to evaluate whether medical reduction of IOP prevents or delays the progression of glaucomatous visual field loss and/or optic nerve damage in patients with open angle glaucoma.METHODS:Study conducted over a period of 27 months, at a tertiary eye care hospital including both eyes of 40 patients with POAG. Group 1 (20 patients, 40 eyes received beta-blockers, and Group 2 (20 patients, 40 eyes received non-beta-blockers. Each patient underwent intraocular pressure measurement, best corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp, fundus examination, gonioscopy, central corneal thickness, visual field assessment by Humphrey automated perimetry and retinal nerve fibre layer thickness by Stratus optical coherence tomography at baseline and at two subsequent visits. The average time interval between each visit was 10-11 months. The statistical analysis was done using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Post-hoc test, using tukey’ method were adopted. Probablity (P value of 0.05 or less was considered to be statistically significant.RESULTS:A total of 80 eyes of 40 patients of POAG were enrolled, 24 males, 16 females, age group 50-80 years. In both beta and non beta blocker group, reduction (improvement in mean IOP from initial levels to the levels achieved at the 2nd and 3rd visits was statistically significant. One way ANOVA (df=2, fisher f value=11.64, P=0.000, one way ANOVA (df=3, fisher f value=35.61, P=0.000. Both mean deviation (MD and pattern standard deviation (PSD in both beta and non beta blockers at different visits were not statistically significant. Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (RNFL -only mean inferior retinal nerve fibre layer, the difference between the mean value in beta and non beta blocker groupwere statistically

  14. Postural control of small for gestational age infants born at term Controle postural de lactentes nascidos a termo pequenos para a idade gestacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Campos

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study compared the postural control of small (SGA and appropriate (AGA for gestational age infants born at term, at the ages of 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. METHOD: This was a cohort study of infants born at term, with birth weight less than the 10th percentile for the SGA group and between the 10th and 90th percentiles for the AGA group. Infants with genetic syndromes, malformations, congenital infections and internment in neonatal intensive care unit were excluded. The evaluation instrument was the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. RESULTS: Comparison of the SGA and AGA groups did not show any significant differences (p>0.05 at the assessment times. However, the postural control of the SGA group was influenced by the gestational age (r=-0.83; p= 0.006 and 5th minute Apgar (r= 0.79; p= 0.01 in the 3rd month, and by maternal occupation (r= 0.67; p= 0.01 in the 6th month. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the postural control was similar in the groups. However, the postural control of the SGA group was influenced by biological and environmental factors.OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve por objetivo comparar o controle postural de lactentes nascidos a termo, pequenos (PIG e adequados para a idade gestacional (AIG nos 3º, 6º, 9º e 12º meses. MÉTODO: Estudo longitudinal de lactentes nascidos a termo, com peso de nascimento menor que o percentil 10 para o grupo PIG e entre o percentil 10 e 90 para o grupo AIG. Síndromes genéticas, más-formações, infecções congênitas e internados em unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal foram excluídos. O instrumento de avaliação foi Alberta Infant Motor Scale. RESULTADOS: A comparação do grupo PIG e AIG não mostrou diferença significativa (p> 0,05 nos meses avaliados. Entretanto, o controle postural do grupo PIG foi influenciado pela idade gestacional (r= -0,83/p= 0,006 e Apgar de 5' (r= 0,79/p= 0,01 no 3º mês; e pela ocupação materna (r= 0,67/p= 0,01 no 6º mês. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que o

  15. Laboratory Performance Evaluation in Terms of Water Analysis Through an External Quality Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakotozafy, L.V.; Ramaherison, H.; Andriamahenina, N.J.; Rasoazanany, E.O.; Ravoson, H.N.; Raoelina Andriambololona

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of participation of Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires-Madagascar (INSTN-Madagascar) in interlaboratory comparisons organized annually, since 2007, by Southern African Development Community WaterLab Association. The following text describes an overview of the utility of provided proficiency testing programs used as an external quality control with respect to proving consistency and reliability of water analysis at INSTN-Madagascar. Total reflection X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometry and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry are both used to measure the following trace metals: Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb. The analysis of minor and major ions such as Cl - , F - , NO 3 - , SO 4 2- , PO 4 3- ,K + , Na + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ are conducted by using Ion Chromatography. To illustrate, graphical distributions of z-scores calculated from the results of water measurements are presented. During the consecutive proficiency testing rounds, INSTN-Madagascar has succeeded to have more than 80% of the values within tolerance limits on 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013. This paper shows some of the considerations for participating to proficiency testing exercises which could be used to obtain certain value from the schemes.

  16. Probiotics for future caries control: A short-term clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Chinnappa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare mutans streptococci levels in saliva, before and after consumption of probiotic ice-cream and curds. Materials and Methods: Forty caries free children in the age group of 12-14 years were selected and equally divided into four groups I, II, III, IV. Children in group I and II were given 100 ml probiotic ice-cream and plain ice cream respectively and group III and IV were given 100 ml probiotic curd and plain curd respectively for a period of 7 days. Saliva samples were assessed at baseline, 1 hour after consumption and after 7 days intervention period using Mitis salivarius Bacitracin agar. The number of colonies was counted and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The study revealed a reduction in salivary mutans streptococci (MS counts after 1 hour in all the groups. However after 7 days, probiotic ice-cream and curd showed a statistically significant (P < 0.001 reduction in MS counts as compared to the control ice cream and curd. The difference in the reduction of MS counts with probiotic ice-cream and probiotic curd at 1 hour and 7 days was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The use of probiotic products could be an alternative strategy of displacing pathogenic microorganisms by probiotic bacteria and can thus be exploited for the prevention of enamel demineralization.

  17. Non-inferiority of short-term urethral catheterization following fistula repair surgery: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barone Mark A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A vaginal fistula is a devastating condition, affecting an estimated 2 million girls and women across Africa and Asia. There are numerous challenges associated with providing fistula repair services in developing countries, including limited availability of operating rooms, equipment, surgeons with specialized skills, and funding from local or international donors to support surgeries and subsequent post-operative care. Finding ways of providing services in a more efficient and cost-effective manner, without compromising surgical outcomes and the overall health of the patient, is paramount. Shortening the duration of urethral catheterization following fistula repair surgery would increase treatment capacity, lower costs of services, and potentially lower risk of healthcare-associated infections among fistula patients. There is a lack of empirical evidence supporting any particular length of time for urethral catheterization following fistula repair surgery. This study will examine whether short-term (7 day urethral catheterization is not worse by more than a minimal relevant difference to longer-term (14 day urethral catheterization in terms of incidence of fistula repair breakdown among women with simple fistula presenting at study sites for fistula repair service. Methods/Design This study is a facility-based, multicenter, non-inferiority randomized controlled trial (RCT comparing the new proposed short-term (7 day urethral catheterization to longer-term (14 day urethral catheterization in terms of predicting fistula repair breakdown. The primary outcome is fistula repair breakdown up to three months following fistula repair surgery as assessed by a urinary dye test. Secondary outcomes will include repair breakdown one week following catheter removal, intermittent catheterization due to urinary retention and the occurrence of septic or febrile episodes, prolonged hospitalization for medical reasons, catheter blockage, and

  18. Long-term effect of inhaled budesonide in mild and moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Sørensen, T; Lange, Peter

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term efficacy of inhaled corticosteroids in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We investigated the efficacy of inhaled budesonide on decline in lung function and respiratory symptoms in a 3-year placebo-controlled study of patients with COPD....... METHODS: We used a parallel-group, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled design in a singlecentre study, nested in a continuing epidemiological survey (the Copenhagen City Heart Study). Inclusion criteria were as follows: no asthma; a ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and vital...... capacity of 0.7 or less; FEV1 which showed no response (budesonide, 800 microg plus 400 microg daily for 6 months followed by 400 microg twice daily for 30 months, or placebo...

  19. Modeling of short-term mechanism of arterial pressure control in the cardiovascular system: object-oriented and acausal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhánek, Tomáš; Kofránek, Jiří; Mateják, Marek

    2014-11-01

    This letter introduces an alternative approach to modeling the cardiovascular system with a short-term control mechanism published in Computers in Biology and Medicine, Vol. 47 (2014), pp. 104-112. We recommend using abstract components on a distinct physical level, separating the model into hydraulic components, subsystems of the cardiovascular system and individual subsystems of the control mechanism and scenario. We recommend utilizing an acausal modeling feature of Modelica language, which allows model variables to be expressed declaratively. Furthermore, the Modelica tool identifies which are the dependent and independent variables upon compilation. An example of our approach is introduced on several elementary components representing the hydraulic resistance to fluid flow and the elastic response of the vessel, among others. The introduced model implementation can be more reusable and understandable for the general scientific community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Taxonomic composition of microbiota of colon in breastfed infants with acute colienteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Sydorchuk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, paradoxical situation has been created, that testifies adverse evolution of modern acute intestinal infections, especially in infants and vital prognosis for patients by measure of deep study of this disease in patients, which number is significant and continues to grow, and the prognosis is getting worse. Aim: To define the etiology of colienteritis in infants (1–6 months old, the taxonomic composition of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms. Materials and methods: Content of colon of 48 children (one to six months old with colienteritis underwent bacterial and mycological examination (control group – 35 samples of colon content of practically healthy infants. Results: Etiological structure was determined in 28 (58,33 % of investigations. Consistency index, frequency of occurrence, Margalef species richness, Whittaker species diversity, Simpson and Berger–Parker species dominance indices of bacteria of genera Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Escherichia did not differ in patients and healthy children. These indices grow in Peptostreptococci: constancy index – by 78,26 %, frequency of occurrence – by 60,00 %, Margalef species richness index – by 2 times, Whittaker species diversity index – by 97,32 %, Simpson species dominance index – by 3 times and Berger - Parker index – by 65,31 %. These indices also grew in conditionally pathogenic Enterobacteria (Proteus by 82,24 %, by 2 times, by 2,03 times, by 68,18 % respectively. Study of taxonomic composition of colon microbiota in children with acute colienteritis showed widespread contamination of biotope (cavity by pathogenic (E. coli Hly +, enteropathogenic E. coli and conditionally pathogenic (C. diversus, Proteus ssp. Enterobacteria, Staphylococci, Peptococcus. This is accompanied with elimination of bacteria of genus Eubacterium from colon cavity. Conclusions: Acute colienteritis in one to six months old breastfed

  1. Ca isotopes reveal weak control of tectonic uplift on long-term climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.; Jacobson, A. D.; Holmden, C. E.; Craw, D.

    2010-12-01

    , which are longer on the eastern side of the main divide. After correcting for this input, we apportion Ca in all rivers to silicate versus carbonate weathering using a two-component mixing equation. For non-glaciated streams, the δ44/40Ca method and a conventional Ca/Na method agree within 2%. Silicate weathering contributes less Ca west of the main divide where uplift rates are highest. For actively glaciated catchments, the δ44/40Ca method attributes 26% more Ca to silicate weathering than the Ca/Na method. We ascribe this difference to non-stoichiometric leaching of Ca from freshly cleaved rock surfaces. This reaction must occur even faster than carbonate weathering, which dominates in adjacent non-glaciated watersheds. Our results support the assertion that mountain uplift does not dramatically elevate long-term atmospheric CO2 consumption rates compared to tectonically stable landscapes. However, δ44/40Ca reveals that glaciation, which is genetically linked to mountain uplift, yields moderately higher CO2 consumption rates than previously realized. Additionally, our study highlights how biological processes can influence the terrestrial Ca cycle.

  2. Long-Term Stability of Tramadol and Ketamine Solutions for Patient-Controlled Analgesia Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Junfeng; Qin, Wengang; Chen, Fuchao; Xia, Zhongyuan

    2015-08-26

    Subanesthetic doses of ketamine as an adjuvant to tramadol in patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for postoperative pain have been shown to improve the quality of analgesia. However, there are no such commercially available drug mixtures, and the stability of the combination has rarely been assessed. Admixtures were assessed for periods of up to 14 days at 4°C and 25°C. Three different mixtures of tramadol and ketamine (tramadol 5.0 mg/mL + ketamine 0.5 mg/mL, tramadol 5.0 mg/mL + ketamine 1.0 mg/mL, and tramadol 5.0 mg/mL + ketamine 2.0 mg/mL) were prepared in polyolefin bags by combining these 2 drugs with 0.9% sodium chloride (normal saline [NS]). The chemical stability of the admixtures was evaluated by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and by measurement of pH values. Solution appearance and color were assessed by observing the samples against black and white backgrounds. Solutions were considered stable if they maintained 90% of the initial concentration of each drug. The percentages of initial concentration of tramadol and ketamine in the various solutions remained above 98% when stored at 4°C or 25°C over the testing period. No changes in color or turbidity were observed in any of the prepared solutions. Throughout this period, pH values remained stable. The results indicate that the drug mixtures of tramadol with ketamine in NS for PCA delivery systems were stable for 14 days when stored in polyolefin bags at 4°C or 25°C.

  3. Long term results after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) in patients with craniopharyngioma: maximal tumor control with minimal side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrabi, Semi B; Adeberg, Sebastian; Welzel, Thomas; Rieken, Stefan; Habermehl, Daniel; Debus, Jürgen; Combs, Stephanie E

    2014-01-01

    There are already numerous reports about high local control rates in patients with craniopharyngioma but there are only few studies with follow up times of more than 10 years. This study is an analysis of long term control, tumor response and side effects after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) for patients with craniopharyngioma. 55 patients who were treated with FSRT for craniopharyngioma were analyzed. Median age was 37 years (range 6–70 years), among them eight children < 18 years. Radiotherapy (RT) was indicated for progressive disease after neurosurgical resection or postoperatively after repeated resection or partial resection. A median dose of 52.2 Gy (50 – 57.6 Gy) was applied with typical dose per fraction of 1.8 Gy five times per week. The regular follow up examinations comprised in addition to contrast enhanced MRI scans thorough physical examinations and clinical evaluation. During median follow up of 128 months (2 – 276 months) local control rate was 95.3% after 5 years, 92.1% after 10 years and 88.1% after 20 years. Overall survival after 10 years was 83.3% and after 20 years 67.8% whereby none of the deaths were directly attributed to craniopharyngioma. Overall treatment was tolerated well with almost no severe acute or chronic side effects. One patient developed complete anosmia, another one’s initially impaired vision deteriorated further. In 83.6% of the cases with radiological follow up a regression of irradiated tumor residues was monitored, in 7 cases complete response was achieved. 44 patients presented themselves initially with endocrinologic dysfunction none of them showed signs of further deterioration during follow up. No secondary malignancies were observed. Long term results for patients with craniopharyngioma after stereotactic radiotherapy are with respect to low treatment related side effects as well as to local control and overall survival excellent

  4. Timing of birth for women with a twin pregnancy at term: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslam Ross R

    2010-10-01

    is a protocol for a randomised trial, the findings of which will contribute information about the optimal time of birth for women with an uncomplicated multiple pregnancy at and beyond 37 weeks gestation. Clinical Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN15761056

  5. In the Way of Peacemaker Guide Curve between Water Supply and Flood Control for Short Term Reservoir Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, G.; Sensoy, A.; Yavuz, O.; Sorman, A. A.; Gezgin, T.

    2012-04-01

    Effective management of a controlled reservoir system where it involves multiple and sometimes conflicting objectives is a complex problem especially in real time operations. Yuvacık Dam Reservoir, located in the Marmara region of Turkey, is built to supply annual demand of 142 hm3 water for Kocaeli city requires such a complex management strategy since it has relatively small (51 hm3) effective capacity. On the other hand, the drainage basin is fed by both rainfall and snowmelt since the elevation ranges between 80 - 1548 m. Excessive water must be stored behind the radial gates between February and May in terms of sustainability especially for summer and autumn periods. Moreover, the downstream channel physical conditions constraint the spillway releases up to 100 m3/s although the spillway is large enough to handle major floods. Thus, this situation makes short term release decisions the challenging task. Long term water supply curves, based on historical inflows and annual water demand, are in conflict with flood regulation (control) levels, based on flood attenuation and routing curves, for this reservoir. A guide curve, that is generated using both water supply and flood control of downstream channel, generally corresponds to upper elevation of conservation pool for simulation of a reservoir. However, sometimes current operation necessitates exceeding this target elevation. Since guide curves can be developed as a function of external variables, the water potential of a basin can be an indicator to explain current conditions and decide on the further strategies. Besides, releases with respect to guide curve are managed and restricted by user-defined rules. Although the managers operate the reservoir due to several variable conditions and predictions, still the simulation model using variable guide curve is an urgent need to test alternatives quickly. To that end, using HEC-ResSim, the several variable guide curves are defined to meet the requirements by

  6. Risk of unsafe abortion associated with long-term contraception behaviour: a case control study from Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arambepola, Carukshi; Rajapaksa, Lalini C

    2017-06-29

    When faced with an unintended pregnancy, some women choose to undergo an unsafe abortion, while others do not. This choice may depend on long-term contraception that shapes the fertility goals of women, along with many other risk factors. We assessed the risk for unsafe abortion associated with contraceptive practices based on women's long-term behaviour, and its likely modification by the use of different types of contraceptives among women in Sri Lanka. An unmatched case-control study was conducted in nine hospitals among 171 women admitted for care following an unsafe abortion (Cases) and 600 women admitted to same hospitals for delivery of an unintended term pregnancy (Controls). Interviewer-administered-questionnaires assessed their socio-economic, reproductive and fertility (decisions on family size, family completion) characteristics, contraceptive method last used (traditional, modern), reasons for discontinuation/never-use, and contraceptive practices assessed at different time points. Using several regression models, the risk of abortion was assessed for 'non-use' of contraception against 'ineffective use' at conception; for non-use further categorised as 'never-use', 'early-discontinuation' (discontinued before last birth interval) and 'late-discontinuation' (discontinued during last birth interval); and for any interaction between the contraceptive practice and contraceptive method last used among the ever-users of contraception. At conception, 'non-use' of contraception imparted a two-fold risk for abortion against ineffective use (adjusted-OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2-3.2). The abortion risk on 'non-use' varied further according to 'early' (adjusted-OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1-3.1) and 'late' (adjusted-OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.5-3.6) discontinuation of contraception, but not with 'never-use' (crude-OR = 1.1; 95% CI: 0.6-2.3). Among the ever-users, the risk of abortion varied within each contraceptive practice by their last used contraceptive method and

  7. Dor Vs Toupet Fundoplication After Laparoscopic Heller Myotomy: Long-Term Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluated by High-Resolution Manometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Villalobos, Gonzalo; Coss-Adame, Enrique; Furuzawa-Carballeda, Janette; Romero-Hernández, Fernanda; Blancas-Breña, Blanca; Torres-Landa, Samuel; Palacios-Ramírez, Axel; Alejandro-Medrano, Edgar; Hernández-Ávila, Axel; Flores-Najera, Athenea; Ávila Escobedo, Lourdes Margarita; Ramírez Angulo, Cecilia; Rodríguez-Garcés, Angélica; Valdovinos, Miguel Ángel

    2018-01-01

    Laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) with partial fundoplication is an effective treatment for achalasia. However, the type of fundoplication is still a subject of debate. The aim of the study is to identify which partial fundoplication leads to better control of acid exposure, manometric parameters, and symptoms scores. A randomized controlled trial was performed to compare Dor vs Toupet fundoplication after LHM. The preoperative diagnosis was made by high-resolution manometry (HRM), upper endoscopy, and barium esophagogram. Preoperative and postoperative symptoms were evaluated with Eckardt, GERD-HRQL, and EAT-10 questionnaires. Seventy-three patients were randomized, 38 underwent Dor and 35 Toupet. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Postoperative HRM showed that the integrated relaxation pressure (IRP) and basal lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure were similar at 6 and 24 months. The number of patients with abnormal acid exposure was significantly lower for Dor (6.9%) than that of Toupet (34.0%) at 6 months, but it was not different at 12 or 24 months. No differences were found in postoperative symptom scores at 1, 6, or 24 months. There were no differences in symptom scores or HRM between fundoplications in the long term. A higher percentage of abnormal 24-h pH test were found for the Toupet group, with no difference in the long term.

  8. Clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% is efficacious and safe for long-term control of scalp psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Yves; Papp, Kim; Bissonnette, Robert; Guenther, Lyn; Tan, Jerry; Lynde, Charles; Kerrouche, Nabil; Villemagne, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    Clobetasol propionate (CP) shampoo 0.05% is an efficacious and safe treatment for scalp psoriasis. The aim of this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was to determine if CP shampoo is suitable for long-term disease control. Participants with moderate to severe scalp psoriasis (global severity score [GSS] of 3 or 4 on a scale of 0 [clear] to 5 [very severe]) first received once daily CP shampoo treatment for up to 4 weeks. Responders were subsequently randomized to receive the CP shampoo or vehicle twice weekly maintenance regimen for up to 6 months. When relapse occurred (defined as GSS > 2), participants resumed once daily CP shampoo treatment; when symptoms diminished (GSS shampoo did not relapse compared with participants treated with vehicle (P shampoo group. After 6 months 31.1% (33/106) of participants in the CP shampoo group were still relapse free versus 8.1% (9/111) of participants in the vehicle group. There was no greater incidence of skin atrophy, telangiectasia, or hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression in the CP shampoo group compared with the vehicle group. Clobetasol propionate shampoo is efficacious and safe for acute management and long-term maintenance of moderate to severe scalp psoriasis.

  9. Longer-term effects of ADAS use on speed and headway control in drivers diagnosed with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotzauer, Mandy; Caljouw, Simone R; De Waard, Dick; Brouwer, Wiebo H

    2015-01-01

    An advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) provided information about speed limits, speed, speeding, and following distance. Information was presented to the participants by means of a head-up display. Effects of the information on speed and headway control were studied in a longer-term driving simulator study including 12 repeated measures spread out over 4 weeks. Nine healthy older drivers between the ages of 65 and 82 years and 9 drivers between the ages of 68 and 82 years diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (PD) participated in the study. Within the 4 weeks, groups completed 12 consecutive sessions (10 with ADAS and 2 without ADAS) in a driving simulator. Results indicate an effect of ADAS use on performance. Removing ADAS after short-term exposure led to deterioration of performance in all speed measures in the group of drivers diagnosed with PD. These results suggest that provision of traffic information was utilized by drivers diagnosed with PD in order to control their speed.

  10. GABAergic activities control spike timing- and frequency-dependent long-term depression at hippocampal excitatory synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Nishiyama

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available GABAergic interneuronal network activities in the hippocampus control a variety of neural functions, including learning and memory, by regulating θ and γ oscillations. How these GABAergic activities at pre- and post-synaptic sites of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells differentially contribute to synaptic function and plasticity during their repetitive pre- and post-synaptic spiking at θ and γ oscillations is largely unknown. We show here that activities mediated by postsynaptic GABAARs and presynaptic GABABRs determine, respectively, the spike timing- and frequency-dependence of activity-induced synaptic modifications at Schaffer collateral-CA1 excitatory synapses. We demonstrate that both feedforward and feedback GABAAR-mediated inhibition in the postsynaptic cell controls the spike timing-dependent long-term depression of excitatory inputs (“e-LTD” at the θ frequency. We also show that feedback postsynaptic inhibition specifically causes e-LTD of inputs that induce small postsynaptic currents (<70 pA with LTP timing, thus enforcing the requirement of cooperativity for induction of long-term potentiation at excitatory inputs (“e-LTP”. Furthermore, under spike-timing protocols that induce e-LTP and e-LTD at excitatory synapses, we observed parallel induction of LTP and LTD at inhibitory inputs (“i-LTP” and “i-LTD” to the same postsynaptic cells. Finally, we show that presynaptic GABABR-mediated inhibition plays a major role in the induction of frequency-dependent e-LTD at α and β frequencies. These observations demonstrate the critical influence of GABAergic interneuronal network activities in regulating the spike timing and frequency dependences of long-term synaptic modifications in the hippocampus.

  11. Protein quality control in protection against systolic overload cardiomyopathy: the long term role of small heat shock proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarapeli, Asangi R K; Horak, Kathleen; Wang, Xuejun

    2010-07-21

    Molecular chaperones represent the first line of defense of intracellular protein quality control. As a major constituent of molecular chaperones, heat shock proteins (HSP) are known to confer cardiomyocyte short-term protection against various insults and injuries. Previously, we reported that the small HSP alphaB-crystallin (CryAB) attenuates cardiac hypertrophic response in mice subjected to 2 weeks of severe pressure overload. However, the long-term role of small HSPs in cardiac hypertrophy and failure has rarely been studied. The present study investigates the cardiac responses to chronic severe pressure overload in CryAB/HSPB2 germ line ablated (KO) and cardiac-specific CryAB overexpressingtransgenic (TG) mice. Pressure overload was induced by transverse aortic constriction in KO, TG, and non-transgenic wild type (NTG) control mice and 10 weeks later molecular, cellular, and whole organ level hypertrophic responses were analyzed. As we previously described, CryAB/HSPB2 KO mice showed abnormal baseline cardiac physiology that worsened into a restrictive cardiomyopathic phenotype with aging. Severe pressure overload in these mice led to rapid deterioration of heart function and development of congestive cardiac failure. Contrary to their short term protective phenotype, CryAB TG mice showed no significant effects on cardiac hypertrophic responses and very modest improvement of hemodynamics during chronic systolic overload. These findings indicate that small HSPs CryAB and/or HSPB2 are essential to maintain cardiac structure and function but overex-pression of CryAB is not sufficient to confer a sustained protection against chronic systolic overload.

  12. Cardiac complications associated with short-term mortality in schizophrenia patients hospitalized for pneumonia: a nationwide case-control study.

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    Ya-Tang Liao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is one of most prevalent infectious diseases worldwide and is associated with considerable mortality. In comparison to general population, schizophrenia patients hospitalized for pneumonia have poorer outcomes. We explored the risk factors of short-term mortality in this population because the information is lacking in the literature. METHODS: In a nationwide schizophrenia cohort, derived from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan, that was hospitalized for pneumonia between 2000 and 2008 (n = 1,741, we identified 141 subjects who died during their hospitalizations or shortly after their discharges. Based on risk-set sampling in a 1∶4 ratio, 468 matched controls were selected from the study cohort (i.e., schizophrenia cohort with pneumonia. Physical illnesses were categorized as pre-existing and incident illnesses that developed after pneumonia respectively. Exposures to medications were categorized by type, duration, and defined daily dose. We used stepwise conditional logistic regression to explore the risk factors for short-term mortality. RESULTS: Pre-existing arrhythmia was associated with short-term mortality (adjusted risk ratio [RR] = 4.99, p<0.01. Several variables during hospitalization were associated with increased mortality risk, including incident arrhythmia (RR = 7.44, p<0.01, incident heart failure (RR = 5.49, p = 0.0183 and the use of hypoglycemic drugs (RR = 2.32, p<0.01. Furthermore, individual antipsychotic drugs (such as clozapine known to induce pneumonia were not significantly associated with the risk. CONCLUSIONS: Incident cardiac complications following pneumonia are associated with increased short-term mortality. These findings have broad implications for clinical intervention and future studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms of the risk factors.

  13. Broad geographic, taxonomic and ecological patterns of interpopulation variation in the dietary habits of snakes

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    L. Luiselli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of their unique morphological and ecological characteristics (i.e. being obligate carnivorous, solitary, and ingesting their prey whole, snakes are expected to show unusual dietary patterns compared to other ectothermic vertebrates, and the best way to explore this is to analyse the snake dietary patterns globally. Here I review and analyse the peer-reviewed snake diet literature available in order to explore whether there are broad patterns in the interpopulation variability of diet composition in these unique ectothermic predators. I collated data for 181 independent populations belonging to 58 species of snakes from some of the main families (1 Boidae, 2 Pythonidae, 27 Colubridae, 10 Elapidae, and 18 Viperidae and from all the continents (4 from South and Central America, 13 from North America, 12 from Europe, 18 from Africa, 4 from Asia, and 7 from Australia. All these populations satisfied some precise criteria of inclusion, and were therefore re-analysed in a comparative perspective. I classified each literature entry according to 1 snake species, 2 snake family, 3 geographic position (continent of the study areas, 4 climatic region (temperate versus tropical, 5 guild (if the species is aquatic, terrestrial, or arboreal, 6 hunting strategy (sit-and-wait versus active forager, and 7 venom (if the species is venomous or not. All these seven factors were analysed by GLM procedures to evaluate their effects on the interpopulation diet variation within snake species, that was assessed by using a univariate similarity index. The various taxonomical categories of snake prey were grouped according to two different levels of taxonomic affinity: a general affinity, e.g. frogs and toads, salamanders, lizards, birds, etc., and b close affinity, by grouping prey types belonging to a same genus. My study revealed that, within-species snake populations showed a very low variability in terms of diet composition. As for the general affinity

  14. Effect of whey protein supplementation on long and short term appetite: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

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    Mollahosseini, Mehdi; Shab-Bidar, Sakineh; Rahimi, Mohammad Hossein; Djafarian, Kurosh

    2017-08-01

    Specific components of dairy, such as whey proteins may have beneficial effects on body composition by suppressing appetite, although the findings of existing studies have been inconsistent. Therefore, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was performed to investigate effect of whey protein supplementation on long and short term appetite. A systematic search was conducted to identify eligible publications. Means and SDs for hunger, fullness, satiety, desire to eat and prospective consumption of food, before and after intervention, were extracted and then composite appetite score (CAS) calculated. To pool data, either a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model and for assessing heterogeneity, Cochran's Q and I 2 tests were used. Eight publications met inclusion criteria that 5 records were on short term and 3 records on long term appetite. The meta-analysis showed a significant reduction in long term appetite by 4.13 mm in combined appetite score (CAS) (95% Confidence interval (CI): -6.57, -1.96; p = 0.001). No significant reduction in short term appetite was also seen (Mean difference (MD) = -0.39 95% CI = -2.07, 1.30; p = 0.653). Subgroup analyses by time showed that compared with carbohydrate, the reduction in appetite following consumption of whey consumption was not significant (MD = -0.39, 95% CI = -2.07, 1.3, p = 0.65, I 2  = 0.0%.)A significant reduction in prospective food consumption was seen (MD = -2.17, 95% CI = -3.86, -0.48). The results of our meta-analysis showed that whey protein may reduce the long and short term appetite, but our finding did not show any significant difference in appetite reduction between whey protein and carbohydrate in short duration. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Soil Dissolved Organic Carbon Fluxes are Controlled by both Precipitation and Longer-Term Climate Effects on Boreal Forest Ecosystems

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    Hotchkiss, E. R.; Ziegler, S. E.; Edwards, K. A.; Bowering, K.

    2017-12-01

    Water acts as a control on the cycling of organic carbon (OC). Forest productivity responses to climate change are linked to water availability while water residence time is a major control on OC loss in aquatic ecosystems. However, controls on the export of terrestrial OC to the aquatic environment remains poorly understood. Transport of dissolved OC (DOC) through soils both vertically to deeper soil horizons and into aquatic systems is a key flux of terrestrial OC, but the climate drivers controlling OC mobilized from soils is poorly understood. We installed zero-tension lysimeters across similar balsam fir forest sites within three regions that span a MAT gradient of 5.2˚C and MAP of 1050-1500 mm. Using soil water collected over all seasons for four years we tested whether a warmer and wetter climate promotes greater DOC fluxes in ecosystems experiencing relatively high precipitation. Variability within and between years was compared to that observed across climates to test the sensitivity of this flux to shorter relative to longer-term climate effects on this flux. The warmest and wettest southern site exhibited the greatest annual DOC flux (25 to 28 g C m-2 y-1) in contrast to the most northern site (8 to 10 g C m -2 y-1). This flux represented 10% of litterfall C inputs across sites and surpassed the DOC export from associated forested headwater streams (1 to 16 g C m-2 y-1) suggesting terrestrial to aquatic interface processing. Historical climate and increased soil C inputs explain the greater DOC flux in the southern region. Even in years with comparable annual precipitation among regions the DOC flux differed by climate region. Furthermore, neither quantity nor form of precipitation could explain inter-annual differences in DOC flux within each region. Region specific relationships between precipitation and soil water flux instead suggest historical climate effects may impact soil water transport efficiency thereby controlling the regional variation in

  16. Detection of Acute and Long-Term Effects of Concussion: Dual-Task Gait Balance Control Versus Computerized Neurocognitive Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, David R; Osternig, Louis R; Chou, Li-Shan

    2018-02-16

    To examine the acute (within 72h of injury) and long-term (2mo postinjury) independent associations between objective dual-task gait balance and neurocognitive measurements among adolescents and young adults with a concussion and matched controls. Longitudinal case-control. Motion analysis laboratory. A total of 95 participants completed the study: 51 who sustained a concussion (mean age, 17.5±3.3y; 71% men) and 44 controls (mean age, 17.7±2.9y; 72% men). Participants who sustained a concussion underwent a dual-task gait analysis and computerized neurocognitive testing within 72 hours of injury and again 2 months later. Uninjured controls also completed the same test protocol in similar time increments. Not applicable. We compared dual-task gait balance control and computerized neurocognitive test performance between groups using independent samples t tests. Multivariable binary logistic regression models were then constructed for each testing time to determine the association between group membership (concussion vs control), dual-task gait balance control, and neurocognitive function. Medial-lateral center-of-mass displacement during dual-task gait was independently associated with group membership at the initial test (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.432; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.269-4.661) and 2-month follow-up test (aOR, 1.817; 95% CI, 1.014-3.256) tests. Visual memory composite scores were significantly associated with group membership at the initial hour postinjury time point (aOR, .953; 95% CI, .833-.998). However, the combination of computerized neurocognitive test variables did not predict dual-task gait balance control for participants with concussion, and no single neurocognitive variable was associated with dual-task gait balance control at either testing time. Dual-task assessments concurrently evaluating gait and cognitive performance may allow for the detection of persistent deficits beyond those detected by computerized neurocognitive deficits

  17. Analyses of the stability and core taxonomic memberships of the human microbiome.

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    Kelvin Li

    Full Text Available Analyses of the taxonomic diversity associated with the human microbiome continue to be an area of great importance. The study of the nature and extent of the commonly shared taxa ("core", versus those less prevalent, establishes a baseline for comparing healthy and diseased groups by quantifying the variation among people, across body habitats and over time. The National Institutes of Health (NIH sponsored Human Microbiome Project (HMP has provided an unprecedented opportunity to examine and better define what constitutes the taxonomic core within and across body habitats and individuals through pyrosequencing-based profiling of 16S rRNA gene sequences from oral, skin, distal gut (stool, and vaginal body habitats from over 200 healthy individuals. A two-parameter model is introduced to quantitatively identify the core taxonomic members of each body habitat's microbiota across the healthy cohort. Using only cutoffs for taxonomic ubiquity and abundance, core taxonomic members were identified for each of the 18 body habitats and also for the 4 higher-level body regions. Although many microbes were shared at low abundance, they exhibited a relatively continuous spread in both their abundance and ubiquity, as opposed to a more discretized separation. The numbers of core taxa members in the body regions are comparatively small and stable, reflecting the relatively high, but conserved, interpersonal variability within the cohort. Core sizes increased across the body regions in the order of: vagina, skin, stool, and oral cavity. A number of "minor" oral taxonomic core were also identified by their majority presence across the cohort, but with relatively low and stable abundances. A method for quantifying the difference between two cohorts was introduced and applied to samples collected on a second visit, revealing that over time, the oral, skin, and stool body regions tended to be more transient in their taxonomic structure than the vaginal body region.

  18. Selection of multiple umbrella species for functional and taxonomic diversity to represent urban biodiversity.

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    Sattler, T; Pezzatti, G B; Nobis, M P; Obrist, M K; Roth, T; Moretti, M

    2014-04-01

    Surrogates, such as umbrella species, are commonly used to reduce the complexity of quantifying biodiversity for conservation purposes. The presence of umbrella species is often indicative of high taxonomic diversity; however, functional diversity is now recognized as an important metric for biodiversity and thus should be considered when choosing umbrella species. We identified umbrella species associated with high taxonomic and functional biodiversity in urban areas in Switzerland. We analyzed 39,752 individuals of 574 animal species from 96 study plots and 1397 presences of 262 plant species from 58 plots. Thirty-one biodiversity measures of 7 taxonomic groups (plants, spiders, bees, ground beetles, lady bugs, weevils and birds) were included in within- and across-taxa analyses. Sixteen measures were taxonomical (species richness and species diversity), whereas 15 were functional (species traits including mobility, resource use, and reproduction). We used indicator value analysis to identify umbrella species associated with single or multiple biodiversity measures. Many umbrella species were indicators of high biodiversity within their own taxonomic group (from 33.3% in weevils to 93.8% in birds), to a lesser extent they were indicators across taxa. Principal component analysis revealed that umbrella species for multiple measures of biodiversity represented different aspects of biodiversity, especially with respect to measures of taxonomic and functional diversity. Thus, even umbrella species for multiple measures of biodiversity were complementary in the biodiversity aspects they represented. Thus, the choice of umbrella species based solely on taxonomic diversity is questionable and may not represent biodiversity comprehensively. Our results suggest that, depending on conservation priorities, managers should choose multiple and complementary umbrella species to assess the state of biodiversity. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Long-term environmental monitoring for assessment of change: measurement inconsistencies over time and potential solutions.

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    Ellingsen, Kari E; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Tveraa, Torkild; Hewitt, Judi E; Thrush, Simon F

    2017-10-30

    The importance of long-term environmental monitoring and research for detecting and understanding changes in ecosystems and human impacts on natural systems is widely acknowledged. Over the last decades, a number of critical components for successful long-term monitoring have been identified. One basic component is quality assurance/quality control protocols to ensure consistency and comparability of data. In Norway, the authorities require environmental monitoring of the impacts of the offshore petroleum industry on the Norwegian continental shelf, and in 1996, a large-scale regional environmental monitoring program was established. As a case study, we used a sub-set of data from this monitoring to explore concepts regarding best practices for long-term environmental monitoring. Specifically, we examined data from physical and chemical sediment samples and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages from 11 stations from six sampling occasions during the period 1996-2011. Despite the established quality assessment and quality control protocols for this monitoring program, we identified several data challenges, such as missing values and outliers, discrepancies in variable and station names, changes in procedures without calibration, and different taxonomic resolution. Furthermore, we show that the use of different laboratories over time makes it difficult to draw conclusions with regard to some of the observed changes. We offer recommendations to facilitate comparison of data over time. We also present a new procedure to handle different taxonomic resolution, so valuable historical data is not discarded. These topics have a broader relevance and application than for our case study.

  20. Effects of a short-term parental education program on childhood atopic dermatitis: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Futamura, Masaki; Masuko, Ikuyo; Hayashi, Keiichi; Ohya, Yukihiro; Ito, Komei

    2013-01-01

    Parental education is important in managing childhood atopic dermatitis (AD). We evaluated the long-term effects of a 2-day parental education program (PEP) on childhood AD. In an investigator-blinded, randomized controlled trial, 59 children age 6 months to 6 years with moderate to severe AD and their mothers were recruited in Japan. Participants were given a booklet about AD and received conventional treatment alone or in combination with a 2-day PEP comprising three lectures, three practical sessions, and a group discussion. The primary outcome was evaluation of eczema severity using SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included changes in symptom scores, amount of corticosteroid used, parental quality of life as determined according to the Dermatitis Family Impact questionnaire, and change in parental anxiety regarding the use of corticosteroids in their children. Participants in the PEP group had a significantly lower SCORAD score than those in the control group at 6 months (mean difference 10.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.3-17.7, p = 0.01) and objective SCORAD score (mean difference 7.1, 95% CI = 0.8-13.5, p = 0.03). The sleeplessness symptom score (mean difference 1.6, 95% CI = 0.0-3.1, p = 0.048) and corticosteroid anxiety score (p = 0.02) in the PEP group were significantly better than in the control group at 6 months. There was no significant difference between groups in the amount of corticosteroid used or quality of life. The PEP had positive long-term effects on eczema severity and parental anxiety about corticosteroid usage. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Survival in Malnourished Older Patients Receiving Post-Discharge Nutritional Support; Long-Term Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    Neelemaat, F; van Keeken, S; Langius, J A E; de van der Schueren, M A E; Thijs, A; Bosmans, J E

    2017-01-01

    Previous analyses have shown that a post-discharge individualized nutritional intervention had positive effects on body weight, lean body mass, functional limitations and fall incidents in malnourished older patients. However, the impact of this intervention on survival has not yet been studied. The objective of this randomized controlled study was to examine the effect of a post-discharge individualized nutritional intervention on survival in malnourished older patients. Malnourished older patients, aged ≥ 60 years, were randomized during hospitalization to a three-months post-discharge nutritional intervention group (protein and energy enriched diet, oral nutritional supplements, vitamin D3/calcium supplement and telephone counseling by a dietitian) or to a usual care regimen (control group). Survival data were collected 4 years after enrollment. Survival analyses were performed using intention-to-treat analysis by Log-rank tests and Cox regression adjusted for confounders. The study population consisted of 94 men (45%) and 116 women with a mean age of 74.5 (SD 9.5) years. There were no statistically significant differences in baseline characteristics. Survival data was available in 208 out of 210 patients. After 1 and 4 years of follow-up, survival rates were respectively 66% and 29% in the intervention group (n=104) and 73% and 30% in the control group (n=104). There were no statistically significant differences in survival between the two groups 1 year (HR= 0.933, 95% CI=0.675-1.289) and 4 years after enrollment (HR=0.928, 95% CI=0.671-1.283). The current study failed to show an effect of a three-months post-discharge multi-component nutritional intervention in malnourished older patients on long-term survival, despite the positive effects on short-term outcome such as functional limitations and falls.

  2. Taxonomic notes on the ground beetles in the genus Trephionus Bates, 1883 from central Honshu, Japan (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Sphodrini, Synuchina).

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    Sasakawa, Kôji; Itô, Hirotarô

    2018-01-01

    Trephionus Bates, 1883, a Japanese endemic genus in the subtribe Synuchina (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Sphodrini), is revised taxonomically based mainly on the shape of the endophallus, a membranous inner sac everted from the aedeagus of the male genitalia. Three known species from central Honshu, T. kinoshitai Habu, 1954; T. shibataianus Habu, 1978; and T. babai Habu, 1978, are re-defined based on this genital character, and five new species are described from the region: T. cylindriphallus Sasakawa, sp . n ., T. niumontanus Sasakawa, sp . n ., T. inexpectatus Sasakawa & Itô, sp . n ., T. abiba Sasakawa & Itô, sp . n ., and T. bifidilobatus Sasakawa & Itô, sp . n . The observed interspecies differences in endophallus morphology are discussed in terms of the species-level phylogeny and genus-level taxonomy of Trephionus .

  3. Taxonomic notes on the ground beetles in the genus Trephionus Bates, 1883 from central Honshu, Japan (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Sphodrini, Synuchina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kôji Sasakawa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Trephionus Bates, 1883, a Japanese endemic genus in the subtribe Synuchina (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Sphodrini, is revised taxonomically based mainly on the shape of the endophallus, a membranous inner sac everted from the aedeagus of the male genitalia. Three known species from central Honshu, T. kinoshitai Habu, 1954; T. shibataianus Habu, 1978; and T. babai Habu, 1978, are re-defined based on this genital character, and five new species are described from the region: T. cylindriphallus Sasakawa, sp. n., T. niumontanus Sasakawa, sp. n., T. inexpectatus Sasakawa & Itô, sp. n., T. abiba Sasakawa & Itô, sp. n., and T. bifidilobatus Sasakawa & Itô, sp. n. The observed interspecies differences in endophallus morphology are discussed in terms of the species-level phylogeny and genus-level taxonomy of Trephionus.

  4. Short-Term Changes in General and Memory-Specific Control Beliefs and Their Relationship to Cognition in Younger and Older Adults

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    Bielak, Allison A. M.; Hultsch, David F.; Levy-Ajzenkopf, Judi; MacDonald, Stuart W. S.; Hunter, Michael A.; Strauss, Esther

    2007-01-01

    We examined short-term changes in younger and older adults' control beliefs. Participants completed measures of general and memory-specific competence and locus of control on 10 bi-monthly occasions. At each occasion, participants rated their control beliefs prior to and following completion of a battery of cognitive tasks. Exposure to the set of…

  5. Effects of Long-Term Exercise Interventions on Glycaemic Control in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: a Systematic Review.

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    Röhling, M; Herder, C; Roden, M; Stemper, T; Müssig, K

    2016-09-01

    Aim: Physical activity is one of the cornerstones in the prevention and management of diabetes mellitus, but the effects of different training forms on metabolic control still remain unclear. The aims of this review are to summarize the recommendations of 5 selected diabetes associations and to systematically review the effects of long-term supervised exercise interventions without calorie-restriction on glycemic control in people with type 1 and 2 diabetes focusing on resistance, endurance and combined training consisting of both endurance and resistance training. Methods: Literature searches were performed using MEDLINE for articles published between January 1, 2000 and March 17, 2015. Of 76 articles retrieved, 15 randomized and controlled studies met the inclusion criteria and allowed for examining the effect of exercise training in type 1 and 2 diabetes. Results: Diabetes associations recommend volume-focused exercise in their guidelines. In our analysis, all 3 training forms have the potential to improve the glycemic control, as assessed by HbA 1c (absolute changes in HbA 1c ranging from -0.1% to -1.1% (-1.1 to -12 mmol/mol) in resistance training, from -0.2% to -1.6% (-2.2 to -17.5 mmol/mol) in endurance training and from +0.1% to -1.5% (+1.1 to -16.4 mmol/mol) in combined training, respectively). Conclusions: There is evidence that combined exercise training may improve glycemic control to a greater extent than single forms of exercise, especially under moderate-intensive training conditions with equal training durations. In addition, intensity of training appears to be an important determinant of the degree of metabolic improvement. Nonetheless, it is still unknown to what extent exercise effects glycemic homeostasis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Identifying the gaps in infection prevention and control resources for long-term care facilities in British Columbia.

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    Gamage, Bruce; Schall, Valerie; Grant, Jennifer

    2012-03-01

    Infection prevention and control (IPC) is a critical, although often neglected, part of long-term care (LTC) management. Little is known about what IPC resources are available for LTC and how that impacts patient care and safety. One hundred eighty-eight LTC facilities were randomly selected out of all British Columbia facilities and surveyed using a validated survey tool. The tool was used to collect data regarding IPC resources grouped within 6 indices: (1) leadership, (2) infection control professionals (ICP) coverage, (3) policies and procedures, (4) support through partnerships, (5) surveillance, and (6) control activities. All components measured have been identified as key for an effective IPC program. Survey responses were used to calculate scores for IPC programs as a whole and for each of the 6 indices. Of 188 randomly selected facilities, 86 institutions participated. Facilities were compared by region, funding source, and ICP coverage. Overall, LTC facilities lacked IPC leadership, especially physician support. Having no dedicated ICP was associated with poorer scores on all indices. Only 41% of practicing ICPs had more than 2 years experience, and only 14% were professionally certified. Twenty-two percent of ICPs had additional roles within the institution, and 44% had additional roles outside of the institution. Thirty-five percent of institutions had no IPC dedicated budget. LTC institutions-with bed numbers exceeding those in acute care-represent an important aspect of health services. These data show that many LTC facilities lack the necessary resources to provide quality infection control programs. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Taxonomically restricted genes are associated with the evolution of sociality in the honey bee

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    Tsutsui Neil D

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that taxonomically restricted genes are significant in number and important for the evolution of lineage specific traits. Social insects have gained many novel morphological and behavioral traits relative to their solitary ancestors. The task repertoire of an advanced social insect, for example, can be 40-50 tasks, about twice that of a solitary wasp or bee. The genetic basis of this expansion in behavioral repertoire is still poorly understood, and a role for taxonomically restricted genes has not been explored at the whole genome level. Results Here we present comparative genomics results suggesting that taxonomically restricted genes may have played an important role in generating the expansion of behavioral repertoire associated with the evolution of eusociality. First, we show that the current honey bee official gene set contains about 700 taxonomically restricted genes. These are split between orphans, genes found only in the Hymenoptera, and genes found only in insects. Few of the orphans or genes restricted to the Hymenoptera have been the focus of experimental work, but several of those that have are associated with novel eusocial traits or traits thought to have changed radically as a consequence of eusociality. Second, we predicted that if taxonomically restricted genes are important for generating novel eusocial traits, then they should be expressed with greater frequency in workers relative to the queen, as the workers exhibit most of the novel behavior of the honey bee relative to their solitary ancestors. We found support for this prediction. Twice as many taxonomically restricted genes were found amongst the genes with higher expression in workers compared to those with higher expression in queens. Finally, we compiled an extensive list of candidate taxonomically restricted genes involved in eusocial evolution by analyzing several caste specific gene expression data sets. Conclusions This

  8. Taxonomic considerations in listing subspecies under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Susan M; Beever, Erik A; Chambers, Steven M; Draheim, Hope M; Dugger, Bruce D; Dunham, Susie; Elliott-Smith, Elise; Fontaine, Joseph B; Kesler, Dylan C; Knaus, Brian J; Lopes, Iara F; Loschl, Pete; Mullins, Thomas D; Sheffield, Lisa M

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) allows listing of subspecies and other groupings below the rank of species. This provides the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service with a means to target the most critical unit in need of conservation. Although roughly one-quarter of listed taxa are subspecies, these management agencies are hindered by uncertainties about taxonomic standards during listing or delisting activities. In a review of taxonomic publications and societies, we found few subspecies lists and none that stated standardized criteria for determining subspecific taxa. Lack of criteria is attributed to a centuries-old debate over species and subspecies concepts. Nevertheless, the critical need to resolve this debate for ESA listings led us to propose that minimal biological criteria to define disjunct subspecies (legally or taxonomically) should include the discreteness and significance criteria of distinct population segments (as defined under the ESA). Our subspecies criteria are in stark contrast to that proposed by supporters of the phylogenetic species concept and provide a clear distinction between species and subspecies. Efforts to eliminate or reduce ambiguity associated with subspecies-level classifications will assist with ESA listing decisions. Thus, we urge professional taxonomic societies to publish and periodically update peer-reviewed species and subspecies lists. This effort must be paralleled throughout the world for efficient taxonomic conservation to take place.

  9. Environmental metabarcodes for insects: in silico PCR reveals potential for taxonomic bias.

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    Clarke, Laurence J; Soubrier, Julien; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

    2014-11-01

    Studies of insect assemblages are suited to the simultaneous DNA-based identification of multiple taxa known as metabarcoding. To obtain accurate estimates of diversity, metabarcoding markers ideally possess appropriate taxonomic coverage to avoid PCR-amplification bias, as well as sufficient sequence divergence to resolve species. We used in silico PCR to compare the taxonomic coverage and resolution of newly designed insect metabarcodes (targeting 16S) with that of existing markers [16S and cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI)] and then compared their efficiency in vitro. Existing metabarcoding primers amplified in silico 90% coverage. Furthermore, metabarcodes targeting COI appeared to introduce taxonomic PCR-amplification bias, typically amplifying a greater percentage of Lepidoptera and Diptera species, while failing to amplify certain orders in silico. To test whether bias predicted in silico was observed in vitro, we created an artificial DNA blend containing equal amounts of DNA from 14 species, representing 11 insect orders and one arachnid. We PCR-amplified the blend using five primer sets, targeting either COI or 16S, with high-throughput amplicon sequencing yielding more than 6 million reads. In vitro results typically corresponded to in silico PCR predictions, with newly designed 16S primers detecting 11 insect taxa present, thus providing equivalent or better taxonomic coverage than COI metabarcodes. Our results demonstrate that in silico PCR is a useful tool for predicting taxonomic bias in mixed template PCR and that researchers should be wary of potential bias when selecting metabarcoding markers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Korean deaf adolescents' recognition of written words for taxonomic categories of different levels.

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    Li, Degao; Yi, Kwangoh; Kim, Jung Yeon

    2011-04-01

    Deaf college students seem to have relatively stronger associations from words for taxonomic categories of basic (e.g., snake) to those of super-ordinate (e.g., reptiles) level than vice versa compared with hearing students in word association (Marschark, Convertino, McEvoy & Masteller, 2004). In deciding whether two sequentially presented words for taxonomic categories of different levels are conceptually related, deaf adolescents might therefore have a poorer performance when they see a category name before than when they see it after one of the corresponding exemplar words. Deaf Korean adolescents were found to recognize words for taxonomic categories of super-ordinate level with lower efficiencies than those of basic level. Their accuracy seemed to reflect a reversed typicality effect when they decided that first-presented words for taxonomic categories of basic level were conceptually related to second-presented words for those of super-ordinate level. It was argued that deaf Korean adolescents went through a temporary stage of having iconic representations of several exemplars of the category aroused in working memory before the abstract semantic representation was fully activated when they saw the word for a taxonomic category of super-ordinate level. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2010 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  11. Fast and accurate taxonomic assignments of metagenomic sequences using MetaBin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet K Sharma

    Full Text Available Taxonomic assignment of sequence reads is a challenging task in metagenomic data analysis, for which the present methods mainly use either composition- or homology-based approaches. Though the homology-based methods are more sensitive and accurate, they suffer primarily due to the time needed to generate the Blast alignments. We developed the MetaBin program and web server for better homology-based taxonomic assignments using an ORF-based approach. By implementing Blat as the faster alignment method in place of Blastx, the analysis time has been reduced by severalfold. It is benchmarked using both simulated and real metagenomic datasets, and can be used for both single and paired-end sequence reads of varying lengths (≥45 bp. To our knowledge, MetaBin is the only available program that can be used for the taxonomic binning of short reads (<100 bp with high accuracy and high sensitivity using a homology-based approach. The MetaBin web server can be used to carry out the taxonomic analysis, by either submitting reads or Blastx output. It provides several options including construction of taxonomic trees, creation of a composition chart, functional analysis using COGs, and comparative analysis of multiple metagenomic datasets. MetaBin web server and a standalone version for high-throughput analysis are available freely at http://metabin.riken.jp/.

  12. Long-term organic farming fosters below and aboveground biota: Implications for soil quality, biological control and productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkhofer, K.; Bezemer, TM; Bloem, J

    2008-01-01

     Organic farming may contribute substantially to future agricultural production worldwide by improving soil quality and pest control, thereby reducing environmental impacts of conventional farming. We investigated in a comprehensive way soil chemical, as well as below and aboveground biological...... with (CONFYM) or without manure (CONMIN) and herbicide application within a long-term agricultural experiment (DOK trial, Switzerland). Soil carbon content was significantly higher in systems receiving farmyard manure and concomitantly microbial biomass (fungi and bacteria) was increased. Microbial activity...... parameters, such as microbial basal respiration and nitrogen mineralization, showed an opposite pattern, suggesting that soil carbon in the conventional system (CONFYM) was more easily accessible to microorganisms than in organic systems. Bacterivorous nematodes and earthworms were most abundant in systems...

  13. The effects of long-term noninvasive ventilation in hypercapnic COPD patients: a randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Backer L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available L De Backer¹, W Vos², B Dieriks¹, D Daems¹, S Verhulst¹, S Vinchurkar², K Ides¹, J De Backer², P Germonpre¹, W De Backer¹1Antwerp University Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, 2FluidDa, Antwerp, BelgiumIntroduction: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV is a well-established treatment for acute-on-chronic respiratory failure in hypercapnic COPD patients. Less is known about the effects of a long-term treatment with NIV in hypercapnic COPD patients and about the factors that may predict response in terms of improved oxygenation and lowered CO2 retention.Methods: In this study, we randomized 15 patients to a routine pharmacological treatment (n = 5, age 66 [standard deviation ± 6] years, FEV1 30.5 [±5.1] %pred, PaO2 65 [±6] mmHg, PaCO2 52.4 [±6.0] mmHg or to a routine treatment and NIV (using the Synchrony BiPAP device [Respironics, Inc, Murrsville, PA] (n = 10, age 65 [±7] years, FEV1 29.5 [±9.0] %pred, PaO2 59 [±13] mmHg, PaCO2 55.4 [±7.7] mmHg for 6 months. We looked at arterial blood gasses, lung function parameters and performed a low-dose computed tomography of the thorax, which was later used for segmentation (providing lobe and airway volumes, iVlobe and iVaw and post-processing with computer methods (providing airway resistance, iRaw giving overall a functional image of the separate airways and lobes.Results: In both groups there was a nonsignificant change in FEV1 (NIV group 29.5 [9.0] to 38.5 [14.6] %pred, control group 30.5 [5.1] to 36.8 [8.7] mmHg. PaCO2 dropped significantly only in the NIV group (NIV: 55.4 [7.7] → 44.5 [4.70], P = 0.0076; control: 52.4 [6.0] → 47.6 [8.2], NS. Patients actively treated with NIV developed a more inhomogeneous redistribution of mass flow than control patients. Subsequent analysis indicated that in NIV-treated patients that improve their blood gases, mass flow was also redistributed towards areas with higher vessel density and less emphysema, indicating that flow was

  14. Long-term flow/chemistry feedback in a porous medium with heterogenous permeability: Kinetic control of dissolution and precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, E.W.; Lasaga, A.C.; Rye, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    The kinetics of dissolution and precipitation is of central importance to understanding the long-term evolution of fluid flows in crustal environments, with implications for problems as diverse as nuclear waste disposal and crustal evolution. The authors examine the dynamics of such evolution for several geologically relevant permeability distributions (models for en-echelon cracks, an isolated sloping fractured zone, and two sloping high-permeability zones that are close enough together to interact). Although the focus is on a simple quartz matrix system, generic features emerge from this study that can aid in the broader goal of understanding the long-term feedback between flow and chemistry, where dissolution and precipitation is under kinetic control. Examples of thermal convection in a porous medium with spatially variable permeability reveal features of central importance to water-rock interaction. After a transient phase, an accelerated rate of change of porosity may be used with care to decrease computational time, as an alternative to the quasi-stationary state approximation (Lichtner, 1988). Kinetic effects produce features not expected by traditional assumptions made on the basis of equilibrium, for example, that cooling fluids are oversaturated and heating fluids are undersaturated with respect to silicic acid equilibrium. Indeed, the authors observe regions of downwelling oversaturated fluid experiencing heating and regions of upwelling, yet cooling, undersaturated fluid. When oscillatory convection is present, the amplitudes of oscillation generally increase with time in near-surface environments, whereas amplitudes tend to decrease over long times near the heated lower boundary. The authors examine the scaling behavior of characteristic length scales, of terms in the solute equation, and of the typical deviation from equilibrium, each as a function of the kinetic rate parameters

  15. Hybridisation among groupers (genus Cephalopholis) at the eastern Indian Ocean suture zone: taxonomic and evolutionary implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payet, Samuel D.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; DiBattista, Joseph D.; Newman, Stephen J.; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane; Berumen, Michael L.; McIlwain, Jennifer L.

    2016-12-01

    Hybridisation is a significant evolutionary process that until recently was considered rare in the marine environment. A suture zone in the eastern Indian Ocean is home to numerous hybridising sister species, providing an ideal opportunity to determine how hybridisation affects speciation and biodiversity in coral reef fishes. At this location, hybridisation between two grouper (Epinephelidae) species: Cephalopholis urodeta (Pacific Ocean) and C. nigripinnis (Indian Ocean) was investigated to determine the genetic basis of hybridisation and to compare the ecology and life history of hybrids and their parent species. This approach aimed to provide insights into the taxonomic and evolutionary consequences of hybridisation. Despite clear phenotypic differences, multiple molecular markers revealed hybrids, and their parent species were genetically homogenous within and (thousands of kilometres) outside of the hybrid zone. Hybrids were at least as fit as their parent species (in terms of growth, reproduction, and abundance) and were observed in a broad range of intermediate phenotypes. The two species appear to be interbreeding at Christmas Island due to inherent biological and ecological compatibilities, and the lack of genetic structure may be explained by three potential scenarios: (1) hybridisation and introgression; (2) discordance between morphology and genetics; and (3) incomplete lineage sorting. Further molecular analyses are necessary to discriminate these scenarios. Regardless of which applies, C. urodeta and C. nigripinnis are unlikely to evolve in reproductive isolation as they cohabit where they are common (Christmas Island) and will source congeneric mates where they are rare (Cocos Keeling Islands). Our results add to the growing body of evidence that hybridisation among coral reef fishes is a dynamic evolutionary factor.

  16. Hybridisation among groupers (genus Cephalopholis) at the eastern Indian Ocean suture zone: taxonomic and evolutionary implications

    KAUST Repository

    Payet, Samuel D.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; DiBattista, Joseph; Newman, Stephen J.; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane; Berumen, Michael L.; McIlwain, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Hybridisation is a significant evolutionary process that until recently was considered rare in the marine environment. A suture zone in the eastern Indian Ocean is home to numerous hybridising sister species, providing an ideal opportunity to determine how hybridisation affects speciation and biodiversity in coral reef fishes. At this location, hybridisation between two grouper (Epinephelidae) species: Cephalopholis urodeta (Pacific Ocean) and C. nigripinnis (Indian Ocean) was investigated to determine the genetic basis of hybridisation and to compare the ecology and life history of hybrids and their parent species. This approach aimed to provide insights into the taxonomic and evolutionary consequences of hybridisation. Despite clear phenotypic differences, multiple molecular markers revealed hybrids, and their parent species were genetically homogenous within and (thousands of kilometres) outside of the hybrid zone. Hybrids were at least as fit as their parent species (in terms of growth, reproduction, and abundance) and were observed in a broad range of intermediate phenotypes. The two species appear to be interbreeding at Christmas Island due to inherent biological and ecological compatibilities, and the lack of genetic structure may be explained by three potential scenarios: (1) hybridisation and introgression; (2) discordance between morphology and genetics; and (3) incomplete lineage sorting. Further molecular analyses are necessary to discriminate these scenarios. Regardless of which applies, C. urodeta and C. nigripinnis are unlikely to evolve in reproductive isolation as they cohabit where they are common (Christmas Island) and will source congeneric mates where they are rare (Cocos Keeling Islands). Our results add to the growing body of evidence that hybridisation among coral reef fishes is a dynamic evolutionary factor. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  17. Hybridisation among groupers (genus Cephalopholis) at the eastern Indian Ocean suture zone: taxonomic and evolutionary implications

    KAUST Repository

    Payet, Samuel D.

    2016-08-05

    Hybridisation is a significant evolutionary process that until recently was considered rare in the marine environment. A suture zone in the eastern Indian Ocean is home to numerous hybridising sister species, providing an ideal opportunity to determine how hybridisation affects speciation and biodiversity in coral reef fishes. At this location, hybridisation between two grouper (Epinephelidae) species: Cephalopholis urodeta (Pacific Ocean) and C. nigripinnis (Indian Ocean) was investigated to determine the genetic basis of hybridisation and to compare the ecology and life history of hybrids and their parent species. This approach aimed to provide insights into the taxonomic and evolutionary consequences of hybridisation. Despite clear phenotypic differences, multiple molecular markers revealed hybrids, and their parent species were genetically homogenous within and (thousands of kilometres) outside of the hybrid zone. Hybrids were at least as fit as their parent species (in terms of growth, reproduction, and abundance) and were observed in a broad range of intermediate phenotypes. The two species appear to be interbreeding at Christmas Island due to inherent biological and ecological compatibilities, and the lack of genetic structure may be explained by three potential scenarios: (1) hybridisation and introgression; (2) discordance between morphology and genetics; and (3) incomplete lineage sorting. Further molecular analyses are necessary to discriminate these scenarios. Regardless of which applies, C. urodeta and C. nigripinnis are unlikely to evolve in reproductive isolation as they cohabit where they are common (Christmas Island) and will source congeneric mates where they are rare (Cocos Keeling Islands). Our results add to the growing body of evidence that hybridisation among coral reef fishes is a dynamic evolutionary factor. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  18. Brain changes in long-term zen meditators using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging: a controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Fayed

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This work aimed to determine whether (1H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI are correlated with years of meditation and psychological variables in long-term Zen meditators compared to healthy non-meditator controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Design. Controlled, cross-sectional study. Sample. Meditators were recruited from a Zen Buddhist monastery. The control group was recruited from hospital staff. Meditators were administered questionnaires on anxiety, depression, cognitive impairment and mindfulness. (1H-MRS (1.5 T of the brain was carried out by exploring four areas: both thalami, both hippocampi, the posterior superior parietal lobule (PSPL and posterior cingulate gyrus. Predefined areas of the brain were measured for diffusivity (ADC and fractional anisotropy (FA by MR-DTI. RESULTS: Myo-inositol (mI was increased in the posterior cingulate gyrus and Glutamate (Glu, N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA and N-acetyl-aspartate/Creatine (NAA/Cr was reduced in the left thalamus in meditators. We found a significant positive correlation between mI in the posterior cingulate and years of meditation (r = 0.518; p = .019. We also found significant negative correlations between Glu (r = -0.452; p = .045, NAA (r = -0.617; p = .003 and NAA/Cr (r = -0.448; P = .047 in the left thalamus and years of meditation. Meditators showed a lower Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC in the left posterior parietal white matter than did controls, and the ADC was negatively correlated with years of meditation (r = -0.4850, p = .0066. CONCLUSIONS: The results are consistent with the view that mI, Glu and NAA are the most important altered metabolites. This study provides evidence of subtle abnormalities in neuronal function in regions of the white matter in meditators.

  19. Understanding staff perceptions about Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae control efforts in Chicago long-term acute care hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Rosie D; Moore, Nicholas M; Weiner, Shayna B; Sikka, Monica; Lin, Michael Y; Weinstein, Robert A; Hayden, Mary K; Sinkowitz-Cochran, Ronda L

    2014-04-01

    To identify differences in organizational culture and better understand motivators to implementation of a bundle intervention to control Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (KPC). Mixed-methods study. Four long-term acute care hospitals (LTACHs) in Chicago. LTACH staff across 3 strata of employees (administration, midlevel management, and frontline clinical workers). Qualitative interviews or focus groups and completion of a quantitative questionnaire. Eighty employees (frontline, 72.5%; midlevel, 17.5%; administration, 10%) completed surveys and participated in qualitative discussions in August 2012. Although 82.3% of respondents felt that quality improvement was a priority at their LTACH, there were statistically significant differences in organizational culture between staff strata, with administrative-level having higher organizational culture scores (ie, more favorable responses) than midlevel or frontline staff. When asked to rank the success of the KPC control program, mean response was 8.0 (95% confidence interval, 7.6-8.5), indicating a high level of agreement with the perception that the program was a success. Patient safety and personal safety were reported most often as personal motivators for intervention adherence. The most convergent theme related to prevention across groups was that proper hand hygiene is vital to prevention of KPC transmission. Despite differences in organizational culture across 3 strata of LTACH employees, the high degree of convergence in motivation, understanding, and beliefs related to implementation of a KPC control bundle suggests that all levels of staff may be able to align perspectives when faced with a key infection control problem and quality improvement initiative.

  20. Long-term outcomes of patients with Streptococcus suis infection in Viet Nam: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Vu T L; Long, Hoang B; Kinh, Nguyen V; Ngan, Ta T D; Dung, Vu T V; Nadjm, Behzad; van Doorn, H Rogier; Hoa, Ngo T; Horby, Peter; Wertheim, Heiman F L

    2018-02-01

    Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic cause of severe meningitis and sepsis in humans. We aimed to assess the long-term outcomes in patients who survived S. suis infection, in particular the progress and impact of vestibulocochlear sequelae. This case-control study evaluated outcomes of S. suis infection at discharge and 3 and 9 months post-discharge for 47 prospectively enrolled cases and at 11-34 months for 31 retrospectively enrolled cases. Outcomes in patients were compared to 270 controls matched for age, sex and residency. The prevalence ratio (PR) of moderate-to-complete hearing loss was 5.0(95%CI 3.6-7.1) in cases at discharge, 3.7(2.5-5.4) at 3 months, 3.2(2.2-4.7) at 9 months, and 3.1(2.1-4.4) in retrospective cases compared to controls. Hearing improvement occurred mostly within the first 3 months with a change in hearing level of 11.1%(95%CI 7.0-15.1%) compared to discharge. The PR of vestibular dysfunction was 2.4(95%CI 1.7-3.3) at discharge, 2.2(1.4-3.1) at 3 months, 1.8(1.1-2.5) at 9 months, and 1.8(1.1-2.6) for retrospective cases compared to controls. Cases also indicated more problems with mobility, self-care and usual activities. Both hearing and vestibular impairment were common and persist in cases. Appropriate patient management strategies are needed to reduce the incidence and impact of these sequelae. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. BIOCHEMICAL CONTROL DURING LONG-TERM FOLLOW-UP OF 230 ADULT PATIENTS WITH CUSHING DISEASE: A MULTICENTER RETROSPECTIVE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, Eliza B; Shafiq, Ismat; Gordon, Murray B; Bonert, Vivien; Ayala, Alejandro; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Katznelson, Laurence; Lalazar, Yelena; Manuylova, Ekaterina; Pulaski-Liebert, Karen J; Carmichael, John D; Hannoush, Zeina; Surampudi, Vijaya; Broder, Michael S; Cherepanov, Dasha; Eagan, Marianne; Lee, Jackie; Said, Qayyim; Neary, Maureen P; Biller, Beverly M K

    2017-08-01

    Cushing disease (CD) results from excessive exposure to glucocorticoids caused by an adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting pituitary tumor. Inadequately treated CD is associated with significant morbidity and elevated mortality. Multicenter data on CD patients treated in routine clinical practice are needed to assess treatment outcomes in this rare disorder. The study purpose was to describe the burden of illness and treatment outcomes for CD patients. Eight pituitary centers in four U.S. regions participated in this multicenter retrospective chart review study. Subjects were CD patients diagnosed at ≥18 years of age within the past 20 years. Descriptive statistical analyses were conducted to examine presenting signs, symptoms, comorbidities, and treatment outcomes. Of 230 patients, 79% were female (median age at diagnosis, 39 years; range, 18 to 78 years). Length of follow-up was 0 to 27.5 years (median, 1.9 years). Pituitary adenomas were 0 to 51 mm. The most common presenting comorbidities included hypertension (67.3%), polycystic ovary syndrome (43.5%), and hyperlipidemia (41.5%). Biochemical control was achieved with initial pituitary surgery in 41.4% patients (91 of 220), not achieved in 50.0% of patients (110 of 220), and undetermined in 8.6% of patients (19 of 220). At the end of follow-up, control had been achieved with a variety of treatment methods in 49.1% of patients (110 of 224), not achieved in 29.9% of patients (67 of 224), and undetermined in 21.0% of patients (47 of 224). Despite multiple treatments, at the end of follow-up, biochemical control was still not achieved in up to 30% of patients. These multicenter data demonstrate that in routine clinical practice, initial and long-term control is not achieved in a substantial number of patients with CD. BLA = bilateral adrenalectomy CD = Cushing disease CS = Cushing syndrome eCRF = electronic case report form MRI = magnetic resonance imaging PCOS = polycystic ovary syndrome.

  2. Trichome morphology in Teucrium L. (Labiatae. A taxonomic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro, Teresa

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of trichomes of 56 Teucrium L. species belonging to the 9 sections of the genus in the Mediterranean área was surveyed by scanning electrón microscopy (SEM of leaves, calyx, corolla and nutlets. 25 trichome types are described, 12 of them are new. Thin walled hairs are the exclusive type found in the corolla and are the most widespread type on the abaxial side of the leaves. Subsessile glandular hairs, 2-4-celled, are found on the nutlet and leaves of the semi-shrubby and paleoendemic species. The presence of short or elongated, generally adpressed simple thick-walled slighüy conical hairs provides an additional character to clarify the boundaries between sect. Chamedrys (Mill. Schreb, and sect. Polium (Mill. Schreb. Branched non-glandular hairs are confined to sect. Polium subsect Polium, except for the rare branched hair conical and thick-walled type found in Teucrium barbarum Jahand. & Maire (sect. Chamaedrys and T. heterophyllum L`Hér. from sect. Teucrium. This last section is well defined by the absence of simple slighüy conical thick-walled hairs and the glandular hairs in the corolla. Sect. Teucriopsis Benth, is of particular interest for the exclusive presence of branched and peltate glandular hairs on the nutlets surface. Sect. Chamedrys is a homogeneous group, distinguished from the other sections by an indumentum formed only by trichomes types evolved from the simple slighüy conical thick-walled hairs. This section overlaps, in the presence of glandular sub-sessile hair on the nutlets surface, with sects. Isotriodon Boiss, and sect. Polium subsect. Rotundifolia Cohén ex Valdés Berm. & Sánchez Crespo. The trichomes type of the calyx teeth, abaxial side of the leaf and latero-posterior corolla lobes can be used as a distinctive taxonomic character at specific and infra-specific level. This study supports Bentham's delimitaüon of sections with the addiüons subequently made by Boissier.La micromorfología de

  3. CNS germinoma: disease control and long-term functional outcome for 12 children treated with craniospinal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchant, Thomas E.; Sherwood, Scot H.; Mulhern, Raymond K.; Rose, Susan R.; Thompson, Stephen J.; Sanford, Robert A.; Kun, Larry E.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To provide evidence that radiation therapy alone in the form of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and a boost to the primary site of disease provides effective disease control and limited additional morbidity for patients with CNS germinoma. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients with a median age of 12 years (range 9-16 years) with CNS germinoma were treated with CSI (median 25.6 Gy, range 23.4-32 Gy) and a boost to the primary site of disease (50.4 Gy, range 45-54 Gy) between January 1987 and June 1998. All patients were biopsied prior to radiation therapy and none received chemotherapy. No patients were lost to follow-up and the majority had long-term (> 45 month) pre- and postirradiation endocrine and psychology assessment. Results: All 12 patients are alive and no failures have occurred with a median follow-up of 69 months (range 14-143 months). Preirradiation endocrine deficiencies were present in 6 of 6 suprasellar tumors and 1 of 6 pineal tumors; with follow-up there was no substantial difference between age and gender adjusted pre- and postirradiation stature and weight. With long-term follow-up, there were no significant differences between pre- and postirradiation full-scale, verbal, and performance IQ scores. Conclusions: This study confirms the ability of radiation therapy alone to achieve disease control with a high rate of success in pediatric patients and demonstrates that the treatment toxicity faced by these patients may be less than anticipated. Because these patients present with substantial preexisting morbidity at diagnosis and may be of an age where the potential for radiation-related side effects is relatively small, the superiority of treatment alternatives may be difficult to prove

  4. Low birth weight at term and its determinants in a tertiary hospital of Nepal: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudesh Raj Sharma

    Full Text Available Birth weight of a child is an important indicator of its vulnerability for childhood illness and chances of survival. A large number of infant deaths can be averted by appropriate management of low birth weight babies and prevention of factors associated with low birth weight. The prevalence of low birth weight babies in Nepal is estimated to be about 12-32%.Our study aimed at identifying major determinants of low birth weight among term babies in Nepal. A hospital-based retrospective case control study was conducted in maternity ward of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital from February to July 2011. A total of 155 LBW babies and 310 controls were included in the study. Mothers admitted to maternity ward during the study period were interviewed, medical records were assessed and anthropometric measurements were done. Risk factors, broadly classified into proximal and distal factors, were assessed for any association with birth of low-birth weight babies. Regression analysis revealed that a history of premature delivery (adjusted odds ratio; aOR5.24, CI 1.05-26.28, hard physical work during pregnancy (aOR1.48, CI 0.97-2.26, younger age of mother (aOR1.98, CI 1.15-3.41, mothers with haemoglobin level less than 11gm/dl (aOR0.51, CI0.24-1.07 and lack of consumption of nutritious food during pregnancy (aOR1.99, CI 1.28-3.10 were significantly associated with the birth of LBW babies. These factors should be addressed with appropriate measures so as to decrease the prevalence of low birth weight among term babies in Nepal.

  5. [Short-term effect of black film covering on Oncomelania hupensis snail control in marshland and lake regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sheng-bang; Zhou, Yi-biao; Li, Lin-han; Wu, Jin-yi; Yao, Bao-dong; Zhu, Shao-ping; Wei, Cheng-jian; Li, Fu-ping; Hu, Ben-jiao; Ren, Guang-hui; Yi, Ping; Jiang, Qing-wu

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the short-term effect of the black film covering combined with niclosamide on Oncomelania hupensis snail control in marshland and lake regions. A ditch with snails in Anxiang County was selected as the experimental sites. The ditch was divided into 3 groups: a film group, a niclosamide group, and a niclosamide and film group. The snails were surveyed before the test and 1, 3, 5, 7 days after the experiment. After the film covering, the highest temperature of the surface of soil was 63.7 degrees C on the first day, and the temperature higher than 40 degrees C lasted 4.34 hours. On the second day, the highest temperature was 52.3 degrees C, and the temperature higher than 40 degrees C lasted 4.96 hours. On the fourth day and fifth day, the temperature was lower than 30 degrees C, while the temperature was lower than 34 degrees C on the sixth day. On the seventh day of the experiment, the snail death rates of the film group, the niclosamide group, and the niclosamide and film group on the soil surface were 16.36%, 58.40% and 53.57%, respectively. On the seventh day, the snail death rates of the film group, and the niclosamide and film group under the soil were 20.00% and 40.00%, respectively, while no snails were found under the soil in the niclosamide group 3 days after the experiment. In mesh bags, the snail death rates of the film group, the niclosamide group, and the niclosamide and film group were 84.00%, 95.33% and 95.33%, respectively. The short-term effect of the black film covering on snail control is not obvious, and the black film covering does no promote the molluscicidal effect of niclosamide.

  6. Long-term child follow-up after large obstetric randomised controlled trials for the evaluation of perinatal interventions: a systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teune, M. J.; van Wassenaer, A. G.; Malin, G. L.; Asztalos, E.; Alfirevic, Z.; Mol, B. W. J.; Opmeer, B. C.

    2013-01-01

    Although the hope is that many perinatal interventions are performed with an ultimate aim to improve the long-term health and development of the child, long-term outcome is rarely used as a primary end-point in perinatal randomised controlled trials (RCTs). To evaluate how often and with which tools

  7. Efficacy of phosphorus-32 brachytherapy without external-beam radiation for long-term tumor control in patients with craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Shaheryar F; Moore, Reilin J; Boaz, Joel C; Fulkerson, Daniel H

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT Radioactive phosphorus-32 (P32) has been used as brachytherapy for craniopharyngiomas with the hope of providing local control of enlarging tumor cysts. Brachytherapy has commonly been used as an adjunct to the standard treatment of surgery and external-beam radiation (EBR). Historically, multimodal treatment, including EBR, has shown tumor control rates as high as 70% at 10 years after treatment. However, EBR is associated with significant long-term risks, including visual deficits, endocrine dysfunction, and cognitive decline. Theoretically, brachytherapy may provide focused local radiation that controls or shrinks a symptomatic cyst without exposing the patient to the risks of EBR. For this study, the authors reviewed their experiences with craniopharyngioma patients treated with P32 brachytherapy as the primary treatment without EBR. The authors reviewed these patients' records to evaluate whether this strategy effectively controls tumor growth, thus avoiding the need for further surgery or EBR. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of pediatric patients treated for craniopharyngioma between 1997 and 2004. This was the time period during which the authors' institution had a relatively high use of P32 for treatment of cystic craniopharyngioma. All patients who had surgery and injection of P32 without EBR were identified. The patient records were analyzed for complications, cyst control, need for further surgery, and need for future EBR. RESULTS Thirty-eight patients were treated for craniopharyngioma during the study period. Nine patients (23.7%) were identified who had surgery (resection or biopsy) with P32 brachytherapy but without initial EBR. These 9 patients represented the study group. For 1 patient (11.1%), there was a complication with the brachytherapy procedure. Five patients (55.5%) required subsequent surgery. Seven patients (77.7%) required subsequent EBR for tumor growth. The mean time between the injection of P32 and

  8. More than just orphans: are taxonomically-restricted genes important in evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalturin, Konstantin; Hemmrich, Georg; Fraune, Sebastian; Augustin, René; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2009-09-01

    Comparative genome analyses indicate that every taxonomic group so far studied contains 10-20% of genes that lack recognizable homologs in other species. Do such 'orphan' or 'taxonomically-restricted' genes comprise spurious, non-functional ORFs, or does their presence reflect important evolutionary processes? Recent studies in basal metazoans such as Nematostella, Acropora and Hydra have shed light on the function of these genes, and now indicate that they are involved in important species-specific adaptive processes. Here we focus on evidence from Hydra suggesting that taxonomically-restricted genes play a role in the creation of phylum-specific novelties such as cnidocytes, in the generation of morphological diversity, and in the innate defence system. We propose that taxon-specific genes drive morphological specification, enabling organisms to adapt to changing conditions.

  9. Does taxonomic diversity in indicator groups influence their effectiveness in identifying priority areas for species conservation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Jesper Stentoft; Larsen, Frank Wugt; Rahbek, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    The identification of priority areas for biodiversity conservation is a cornerstone of systematic conservation planning. However, biodiversity, or even the distribution of all species, cannot be directly quantified, due to the inherent complexity of natural systems. Species indicator groups may...... serve as important tools for the identification of priority areas for conservation. Yet, it is unclear which factors make certain indicator groups perform better than others. In this study, using data on the Danish distribution of 847 species of plants, vertebrates and insects, we assessed whether...... the taxonomic diversity in species indicator groups influence their effectiveness in the identification of priority areas for species conservation. We tested whether indicator groups comprising a higher taxonomic diversity (i.e. indicator groups consisting of species from many different taxonomic groups...

  10. Phytoliths as Emerging Taxonomic Tools for Identification of Plants: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Abdul Shakoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent advancements in identification of plant species, phytoliths have found an immense role in the identification of plants at different levels of taxonomic hierarchy. Many plant groups are known to accumulate silica in solid form in and between the cells and tissues and hence create the structures commonly known as phytoliths. These phytoliths create replicas of the structures where they are deposited. The shapes of phytolith replicas, their size dimensions (morphometric parameters, surface features (ornamentation, distribution, and orientation pattern in epidermal layers of vegetative and reproductive structures as well as their frequency are highly important for characterization of species. Monocotyledonous families particularly the family Poaceae (Gramineae are known to produce diverse phytolith types that can serve as diagnostic markers for characterization of different taxa at different levels of taxonomic hierarchy. The present paper highlights the importance of phytoliths in taxonomic analysis of plants particularly in the family Poaceae.

  11. Identification and conservation application of signal, noise, and taxonomic effects in diversity patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleishman, E.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing research on butterflies and birds in the Great Basin has identified biogeographic patterns while elucidating how dynamic measures of diversity (species richness and turnover affect inferences for conservation planning and adaptive management. Nested subsets analyses suggested that processes influencing predictability of assemblage composition differ among taxonomic groups, and the relative importance of those processes may vary spatially within a taxonomic group. There may be a time lag between deterministic environmental changes and a detectable faunal response, even for taxonomic groups that are known to be sensitive to changes in climate and land cover. Measures of beta diversity were sensitive to correlations between sampling resolution and local environmental heterogeneity. Temporal and spatial variation in species composition indicated that spatially extensive sampling is more effective for drawing inferences about biodiversity responses to environmental change than intensive sampling at relatively few, smaller sites.

  12. STAT3 Controls the Long-Term Survival and Phenotype of Repair Schwann Cells during Nerve Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Cristina; Davis, Catherine M; Gomez-Sanchez, Jose A; Turmaine, Mark; Meijer, Dies; Poli, Valeria; Mirsky, Rhona; Jessen, Kristjan R

    2017-04-19

    After nerve injury, Schwann cells convert to a phenotype specialized to promote repair. But during the slow process of axonal regrowth, these repair Schwann cells gradually lose their regeneration-supportive features and eventually die. Although this is a key reason for the frequent regeneration failures in humans, the transcriptional mechanisms that control long-term survival and phenotype of repair cells have not been studied, and the molecular signaling underlying their decline is obscure. We show, in mice, that Schwann cell STAT3 has a dual role. It supports the long-term survival of repair Schwann cells and is required for the maintenance of repair Schwann cell properties. In contrast, STAT3 is less important for the initial generation of repair Schwann cells after injury. In repair Schwann cells, we find that Schwann cell STAT3 activation by Tyr705 phosphorylation is sustained during long-term denervation. STAT3 is required for maintaining autocrine Schwann cell survival signaling, and inactivation of Schwann cell STAT3 results in a striking loss of repair cells from chronically denervated distal stumps. STAT3 inactivation also results in abnormal morphology of repair cells and regeneration tracks, and failure to sustain expression of repair cell markers, including Shh, GDNF, and BDNF. Because Schwann cell development proceeds normally without STAT3, the function of this factor appears restricted to Schwann cells after injury. This identification of transcriptional mechanisms that support long-term survival and differentiation of repair cells will help identify, and eventually correct, the failures that lead to the deterioration of this important cell population. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although injured peripheral nerves contain repair Schwann cells that provide signals and spatial clues for promoting regeneration, the clinical outcome after nerve damage is frequently poor. A key reason for this is that, during the slow growth of axons through the proximal

  13. Taxonomic separation of hippocampal networks: principal cell populations and adult neurogenesis

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    Roelof Maarten evan Dijk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available While many differences in hippocampal anatomy have been described between species, it is typically not clear if they are specific to a particular species and related to functional requirements or if they are shared by species of larger taxonomic units. Without such information, it is difficult to infer how anatomical differences may impact on hippocampal function, because multiple taxonomic levels need to be considered to associate behavioral and anatomical changes. To provide information on anatomical changes within and across taxonomic ranks, we present a quantitative assessment of hippocampal principal cell populations in 20 species or strain groups, with emphasis on rodents, the taxonomic group that provides most animals used in laboratory research. Of special interest is the importance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in species-specific adaptations relative to other cell populations. Correspondence analysis of cell numbers shows that across taxonomic units, phylogenetically related species cluster together, sharing similar proportions of principal cell populations. CA3 and hilus are strong separators that place rodent species into a tight cluster based on their relatively large CA3 and small hilus while non-rodent species (including humans and non-human primates are placed on the opposite side of the spectrum. Hilus and CA3 are also separators within rodents, with a very large CA3 and rather small hilar cell populations separating mole-rats from other rodents that, in turn, are separated from each other by smaller changes in the proportions of CA1 and granule cells. When adult neurogenesis is included, the relatively small populations of young neurons, proliferating cells and hilar neurons become main drivers of taxonomic separation within rodents. The observations provide challenges to the computational modeling of hippocampal function, suggest differences in the organization of hippocampal information streams in rodent and non

  14. Functional and Taxonomic Differentiation of Macrophyte Assemblages Across the Yangtze River Floodplain Under Human Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; García Molinos, Jorge; Zhang, Xiaolin; Xu, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Human activities and the consequent extirpations of species have been changing the composition of species assemblages worldwide. These anthropogenic impacts alter not only the richness of assemblages but also the biological dissimilarity among them. One of the main gaps in the assessment of biodiversity change in freshwater ecosystems is our limited understanding regarding how taxonomic and functional facets of macrophyte assemblages respond to human impacts on regional scales. Here, we assess the temporal (before 1970s against after 2000s) changes in taxonomic and functional richness and compositional dissimilarities, partitioned into its turnover and nestedness components, of freshwater macrophyte assemblages across the floodplain lakes of the Yangtze River in China. We found that functional and taxonomic assemblage differentiation occurred simultaneously under increasing human impact, concomitant to a general decrease in functional and taxonomic richness. However, this effect weakened when the historical level of taxonomic dissimilarity among assemblages was high. Macrophyte species with large dispersal range and submersed life form were significantly more susceptible to extirpation. The impact of human activities on differentiation was complex but habitat loss and fishery intensity were consistently the main drivers of assemblage change in these lakes, whereas water quality (i.e., light pollution and nutrient enrichment) had weaker effects. Further, macrophyte taxonomic and functional differentiation was mainly driven by the nestedness component of dissimilarity, accounting for changes in assemblage composition related to changes in species richness independent of species replacement. This result, markedly different from previous studies on freshwater fish assemblages conducted in these lakes, represents a novel contribution toward achieving a more holistic understanding of how human impacts contribute to shape community assemblages in natural ecosystems.

  15. Land use change has stronger effects on functional diversity than taxonomic diversity in tropical Andean hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, Boris A; Santillán, Vinicio E; Graham, Catherine H

    2018-03-01

    Land use change modifies the environment at multiple spatial scales, and is a main driver of species declines and deterioration of ecosystem services. However, most of the research on the effects of land use change has focused on taxonomic diversity, while functional diversity, an important predictor of ecosystem services, is often neglected. We explored how local and landscape scale characteristics influence functional and taxonomic diversity of hummingbirds in the Andes Mountains in southern Ecuador. Data was collected in six landscapes along a land use gradient, from an almost intact landscape to one dominated by cattle pastures. We used point counts to sample hummingbirds from 2011 to 2012 to assessed how local factors (i.e., vegetation structure, flowering plants richness, nectar availability) and landscape factors (i.e., landscape heterogeneity, native vegetation cover) influenced taxonomic and functional diversity. Then, we analyzed environment - trait relationships (RLQ test) to explore how different hummingbird functional traits influenced species responses to these factors. Taxonomic and functional diversity of hummingbirds were positively associated with landscape heterogeneity but only functional diversity was positively related to native vegetation coverage. We found a weak response of taxonomic and functional diversity to land use change at the local scale. Environment-trait associations showed that body mass of hummingbirds likely influenced species sensitivity to land use change. In conclusion, landscape heterogeneity created by land use change can positively influence hummingbird taxonomic and functional diversity; however, a reduction of native vegetation cover could decrease functional diversity. Given that functional diversity can mediate ecosystem services, the conservation of native vegetation cover could play a key role in the maintenance of hummingbird pollination services in the tropical Andes. Moreover, there are particular functional

  16. Successful long-term control of Cushing’s disease after partial resection of gigantic ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatroslav Čerina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Only 4-9% of patients with Cushing’s disease (CD harbor pituitary macroadenomas. Clinical and biochemical features of macrocorticotropinomas are poorly understood. Some evidence exist that these tumors presents clinical features more similar to a non-functioning adenomas, being though defined silent corticotropinomas, rather than to ACTH-secreting adenomas. In this paper, we report a case of a 60-year old woman with a history of obesity, arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus who presented with overt central hypothyroidism. Magnetic resonance imaging disclosed giant pituitary adenoma measuring 50 mm. Endocrinological evaluation confirmed CD: ACTH 50.3 pmol/L, urinary free-cortisol of 739 nmol/24h and cortisol of 639 nmol/L after 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test. Tumor mass was reduced by 50% using purely endoscopic transsphenoidal approach. Thirty-eight months after the partial resection, the patient had well controlled CD: ACTH 20.2 pmol/L, urinary free-cortisol of 238 nmol/24h, cortisol of 105 nmol/L after 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest ACTH-secreting adenoma ever reported. Our case suggests that tumor size does not necessarily correlate with aggressiveness of CD in patients with macrocorticotropinomas and that long-term control of CD may be achieved albeit incomplete surgical removal. Further studies are needed in order to determine the best treatment option for patients with macrocorticotropinomas.

  17. Definitive Radiotherapy for Ewing Tumors of Extremities and Pelvis: Long-Term Disease Control, Limb Function, and Treatment Toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indelicato, Daniel J.; Keole, Sameer R.; Shahlaee, Amir H.; Shi Wenyin; Morris, Christopher G.; Marcus, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: More than 70% of Ewing tumors occur in the extremities and pelvis. This study identified factors influencing local control and functional outcomes after management with definitive radiotherapy (RT). Patients and Methods: A total of 75 patients with a localized Ewing tumor of the extremity or pelvis were treated with definitive RT at the University of Florida between 1970 and 2006 (lower extremity tumors in 30, pelvic tumors in 26, and upper extremity tumors in 19). RT was performed on a once-daily (40%) or twice-daily (60%) basis. The median dose was 55.2 Gy in 1.8-Gy daily fractions or 55.0 Gy in 1.2-Gy twice-daily fractions. The median observed follow-up was 4.7 years. Functional outcome was assessed using the Toronto Extremity Salvage Score. Results: The 10-year actuarial overall survival, cause-specific survival, freedom from relapse, and local control rate was 48%, 48%, 42%, and 71%, respectively. Of the 72 patients, 3 required salvage amputation. Inferior cause-specific survival was associated with larger tumors (81% for tumors 3 . Conclusions: Limb preservation was effectively achieved through definitive RT. Treating limited field sizes with hyperfractionated high-energy RT could minimize long-term complications and provides superior functional outcomes

  18. Short-term tibolone does not interfere with endothelial function: a double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celani, M F S; Hurtado, R; Brandão, A H F; Maciel da Fonseca, A M R; Geber, S

    2016-06-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of short-term hormone replacement therapy with tibolone 2.5 mg daily on endothelial function of healthy postmenopausal women, using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. Methods We performed a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. A total of 100 healthy postmenopausal women were randomly allocated to receive tibolone (n = 50) or placebo (n = 50) for 28 days. Measurement of the FMD of the brachial artery was performed before and after the use of tibolone and placebo. Results A total of 31 women completed the study in the tibolone group, and 32 women completed the study in the control group. The results of the FMD measurements obtained from the women in the two groups before treatment were similar (0.018 and 0.091, for tibolone and placebo, p = 0.57). The values of the FMD in women who used tibolone and placebo, before and after the treatment, were similar in both groups. The numbers of women who presented an increase in the values of the FMD in both groups were also similar. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that the administration of 2.5 mg tibolone to healthy postmenopausal women for 28 days does not promote endothelial-dependent vasodilation, measured by FMD of the brachial artery.

  19. User adaptation in long-term, open-loop myoelectric training: implications for EMG pattern recognition in prosthesis control

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiayuan; Zhang, Dingguo; Jiang, Ning; Sheng, Xinjun; Farina, Dario; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Recent studies have reported that the classification performance of electromyographic (EMG) signals degrades over time without proper classification retraining. This problem is relevant for the applications of EMG pattern recognition in the control of active prostheses. Approach. In this study we investigated the changes in EMG classification performance over 11 consecutive days in eight able-bodied subjects and two amputees. Main results. It was observed that, when the classifier was trained on data from one day and tested on data from the following day, the classification error decreased exponentially but plateaued after four days for able-bodied subjects and six to nine days for amputees. The between-day performance became gradually closer to the corresponding within-day performance. Significance. These results indicate that the relative changes in EMG signal features over time become progressively smaller when the number of days during which the subjects perform the pre-defined motions are increased. The performance of the motor tasks is thus more consistent over time, resulting in more repeatable EMG patterns, even if the subjects do not have any external feedback on their performance. The learning curves for both able-bodied subjects and subjects with limb deficiencies could be modeled as an exponential function. These results provide important insights into the user adaptation characteristics during practical long-term myoelectric control applications, with implications for the design of an adaptive pattern recognition system.

  20. The effect of physical exercise on orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides and its role on long-term feeding control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benite-Ribeiro, Sandra Aparecida; Putt, David A; Santos, Júlia Matzenbacher

    2016-08-01

    Over the past decades, life-styles changing have led to exacerbated food and caloric intake and a reduction in energy expenditure. Obesity, main outcome of these changes, increases the risk for developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, the leading cause of death in adult and middle age population. Body weight and energy homeostasis are maintained via complex interactions between orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides that take place predominantly in the hypothalamus. Overeating may disrupt the mechanisms of feeding control, by decreasing the expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and increasing orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP), which leads to a disturbance in appetite control and energy balance. Studies have shown that regular physical exercise might decrease body-weight, food intake and improve the metabolic profile, however until the currently there is no consensus about its effects on the expression of orexigenic/anorexigenic neuropeptides expression. Therefore, we propose that the type and length of physical exercise affect POMC/αMSH and NPY/AgRP systems differently and plays an important role in feeding behavior. Moreover, based on the present reports, we hypothesize that increased POMC/αMSH overcome NPY/AgRP expression decreasing food intake in long term physical exercise and that results in amelioration of several conditions related to overweight and obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chrysomya albiceps and C. rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae): contribution to an ongoing taxonomic problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawi, T I; Greenberg, B

    1993-05-01

    Until recently, the two biologically equivalent blow flies Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) had disjunct distributions outside the Americas; the former was Palaearctic, the latter Australasian and Oriental. The two species are now spreading throughout the Americas and coexist in Argentina. The predatory "hairy" larvae of both species are difficult to separate, which could result in taxonomic errors. New diagnostic characters are presented to differentiate the third instars of the two species. The usefulness of the prostigmatic bristle as a diagnostic taxonomic character in distinguishing adults of these species is questioned.

  2. Relating belowground microbial composition to the taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional trait distributions of trees in a tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberán, Albert; McGuire, Krista L; Wolf, Jeffrey A; Jones, F Andrew; Wright, Stuart Joseph; Turner, Benjamin L; Essene, Adam; Hubbell, Stephen P; Faircloth, Brant C; Fierer, Noah

    2015-12-01

    The complexities of the relationships between plant and soil microbial communities remain unresolved. We determined the associations between plant aboveground and belowground (root) distributions and the communities of soil fungi and bacteria found across a diverse tropical forest plot. Soil microbial community composition was correlated with the taxonomic and phylogenetic structure of the aboveground plant assemblages even after controlling for differences in soil characteristics, but these relationships were stronger for fungi than for bacteria. In contrast to expectations, the species composition of roots in our soil core samples was a poor predictor of microbial community composition perhaps due to the patchy, ephemeral, and highly overlapping nature of fine root distributions. Our ability to predict soil microbial composition was not improved by incorporating information on plant functional traits suggesting that the most commonly measured plant traits are not particularly useful for predicting the plot-level variability in belowground microbial communities. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  3. Medium-term effectiveness of online behavioral training in migraine self-management: A randomized trial controlled over 10 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbi, M J; Kleiboer, A M; van Silfhout, H G; Vink, G; Passchier, J

    2015-06-01

    This randomized, controlled trial examined the medium-term effectiveness of online behavioral training in migraine self-management (oBT; N = 195) versus waitlist control (WLC; N = 173) on attack frequency, indicators of self-management (primary outcomes), headache top intensity, use of rescue medications, quality of life and disability (secondary outcomes). An online headache diary following the ICHD-II and questionnaires were completed at baseline (T0), post-training (T1) and six months later (T2). Missing data (T1: 24%; T2: 37%) were handled by multiple imputation. We established effect sizes (ES) and tested between-group differences over time with linear mixed modelling techniques based on the intention-to-treat principle. At T2, attack frequency had improved significantly in oBT (-23%, ES = 0.66) but also in WLC (-19%; ES = 0.52). Self-efficacy, internal and external control in migraine management--and triptan use--improved only in oBT, however. This indicates different processes in both groups and could signify (the start of) active self-management in oBT. Also, only oBT improved migraine-specific quality of life to a sizable extent. oBT produced self-management gains but could not account for improved attack frequency, because WLC improved as well. The perspective that BT effects develop gradually, and that online delivery will boost BT outreach, justifies further research. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. DNA typing for personal identification of urine after long-term preservation for testing in doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kimiko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Ueki, Makoto

    2017-08-01

    When the tampering of a urine sample is suspected in doping control, personal identification of the sample needs to be determined by short tandem repeat (STR) analysis using DNA. We established a method for extracting DNA from urine samples stored at -20 °C without using any additives or procedures, which is consistent with how samples are required to be managed for doping control. The method, using the Puregene® Blood Core kit followed by NucleoSpin® gDNA Clean-up or NucleoSpin® gDNA Clean-up XS kit, does not need any special instrument and can provide a purified extract with high-quality DNA from up to 40 mL of urine suitable for STR analysis using an AmpFlSTR® Identifiler® PCR amplification kit. Storing urine at -20 °C is detrimental to the stability of DNA. The DNA concentration of preserved urine could not be predicted by specific gravity or creatinine level at the time of urine collection. The DNA concentration of a purified extract (10 μL) was required to be >0.06 ng/μL to ensure a successful STR analysis. Thus, the required extraction volumes of urine preserved for 3-7 years at -20 °C were estimated to be 30 mL and 20 mL to succeed in at least 86% of men and 91% of women, respectively. Considering the long half-life of DNA during long-term preservation, our extraction method is applicable to urine samples stored even for 10 years, which is currently the storage duration allowed (increased from 8 years) before re-examination in doping control. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Study protocol for the Flooring for Injury Prevention (FLIP) Study: a randomised controlled trial in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Chantelle C; Feldman, Fabio; Laing, Andrew C; Leung, Pet Ming; Robinovitch, Stephen N; Mackey, Dawn C

    2016-12-01

    A promising strategy for reducing the incidence and severity of fall-related injuries in long-term care (LTC) is to decrease the ground surface stiffness, and the subsequent forces applied to the body parts at impact, through installation of compliant flooring that does not substantially affect balance or mobility. Definitive evidence of the effects of compliant flooring on fall-related injuries in LTC is lacking. The Flooring for Injury Prevention (FLIP) Study is designed to address this gap. The FLIP Study is a 4-year, parallel-group, 2-arm, randomised controlled superiority trial of flooring in 150 resident rooms at a LTC site. The primary objective is to determine whether compliant flooring reduces serious fall-related injuries relative to control flooring. Intervention (2.54 cm SmartCells compliant; 74 rooms) and control (2.54 cm plywood; 76 rooms) floorings were installed over the top of existing concrete floors and covered with identical 2.00 mm vinyl. The primary outcome is serious fall-related injury, defined as any impact-related injury due to a fall in a study room that results in Emergency Department visit or hospital admission. Secondary outcomes include minor fall-related injury, any fall-related injury, falls, number of fallers, fractures, and healthcare utilisation and costs for serious fall-related injuries. Randomisation of study rooms, and residents in rooms, was stratified by residential unit, and flooring assignments were concealed. Outcome ascertainment began September 2013. Results from the FLIP Study will provide evidence about the effects of compliant flooring on fall-related injuries in LTC and will guide development of safer environments for vulnerable older adults. NCT01618786. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Short-term effects of customized arch support insoles on symptomatic flexible flatfoot in children: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ru-Lan; Peng, Hui-Ling; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2018-05-01

    Limited evidence is available regarding the effects of insoles on pediatric flexible flatfoot because of the heterogeneity and low methodological quality of previous studies. The purpose of this prospective trial is to examine the short-term effects of customized arch support insoles on symptomatic flexible flatfoot in children by using the International Classification of Functioning, randomized controlled Disability, and Health (ICF) framework. This study was conducted in a rehabilitation outpatient clinic of a teaching hospital. Fifty-two children with symptomatic flexible flatfoot were included. The children in the treatment group wore customized arch support insoles for 12 weeks, whereas those in the control group did not wear the insoles. Both clinical and radiographic measurements, including the navicular drop, foot posture index, Beighton hypermobility score, talonavicular coverage angle, calcaneal inclination angle, and calcaneal-first metatarsal angle, were used for diagnosing flexible flatfoot. Physical activity (10-m normal and fast walking, stair ascent, stair descent, and chair rising), physical function, and psychometric properties (Pediatric Outcome Data Collection Instrument and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory) were evaluated at the baseline and 12 weeks after the intervention. Compared with the control group, the treatment group exhibited significant improvement in pain/comfort (P = .048), physical health (P = .035), stair ascent time (P = .015), upper extremity and physical function (P = .016), and transfer and basic mobility (P = .042) during the intervention period. Children with flexible flatfoot who wore customized arch support insoles for 12 weeks exhibited significantly improved pain/comfort, physical health, stair ascent time, upper extremity and physical function, and transfer and basic mobility. These variables belong to the domains of body functions and structures and activity and participation in the ICF

  7. Predicting the impact of long-term temperature changes on the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis: a mechanistic model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara D Mangal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Many parasites of medical and veterinary importance are transmitted by cold-blooded intermediate hosts or vectors, the abundance of which will vary with ambient temperatures, potentially altering disease prevalence. In particular, if global climate change will increase mean ambient temperature in a region endemic with a human pathogen then it is possible that the incidence of disease will similarly increase. Here we examine this possibility by using a mathematical model to explore the effects of increasing long-term mean ambient temperature on the prevalence and abundance of the parasite Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of schistosomiasis in humans.The model showed that the impact of temperature on disease prevalence and abundance is not straightforward; the mean infection burden in humans increases up to 30 degrees C, but then crashes at 35 degrees C, primarily due to increased mortalities of the snail intermediate host. In addition, increased temperatures changed the dynamics of disease from stable, endemic infection to unstable, epidemic cycles at 35 degrees C. However, the prevalence of infection was largely unchanged by increasing temperatures. Temperature increases also affected the response of the model to changes in each parameter, indicating certain control strategies may become less effective with local temperature changes. At lower temperatures, the most effective single control strategy is to target the adult parasites through chemotherapy. However, as temperatures increase, targeting the snail intermediate hosts, for example through molluscicide use, becomes more effective.These results show that S. mansoni will not respond to increased temperatures in a linear fashion, and the optimal control strategy is likely to change as temperatures change. It is only through a mechanistic approach, incorporating the combined effects of temperature on all stages of the life-cycle, that we can begin to predict the consequences of climate

  8. Feasibility of personalised remote long-term follow-up of people with cochlear implants: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullington, Helen; Kitterick, Padraig; Weal, Mark; Margol-Gromada, Magdalena

    2018-04-20

    Substantial resources are required to provide lifelong postoperative care to people with cochlear implants. Most patients visit the clinic annually. We introduced a person-centred remote follow-up pathway, giving patients telemedicine tools to use at home so they would only visit the centre when intervention was required. To assess the feasibility of comparing a remote care pathway with the standard pathway in adults using cochlear implants. Two-arm randomised controlled trial. Randomisation used a minimisation approach, controlling for potential confounding factors. Participant blinding was not possible, but baseline measures occurred before allocation. University of Southampton Auditory Implant Service: provider of National Health Service care. 60 adults who had used cochlear implants for at least 6 months. Control group (n=30) followed usual care pathway.Remote care group (n=30) received care remotely for 6 months incorporating: home hearing in noise test, online support tool and self-adjustment of device (only 10 had compatible equipment). Primary: change in patient activation; measured using the Patient Activation Measure.Secondary: change in hearing and quality of life; qualitative feedback from patients and clinicians. One participant in the remote care group dropped out. The remote care group showed a greater increase in patient activation than the control group. Changes in hearing differed between the groups. The remote care group improved on the Triple Digit Test hearing test; the control group perceived their hearing was worse on the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale questionnaire. Quality of life remained unchanged in both groups. Patients and clinicians were generally positive about remote care tools and wanted to continue. Adults with cochlear implants were willing to be randomised and complied with the protocol. Personalised remote care for long-term follow-up is feasible and acceptable, leading to more empowered patients. ISRCTN14644286

  9. Long-term follow-up of a randomized controlled trial on additional core stability exercises training for improving dynamic sitting balance and trunk control in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanas-Valdés, Rosa; Bagur-Calafat, Caritat; Girabent-Farrés, Montserrat; Caballero-Gómez, Fernanda Mª; du Port de Pontcharra-Serra, Helena; German-Romero, Ana; Urrútia, Gerard

    2017-11-01

    Analyse the effect of core stability exercises in addition to conventional physiotherapy training three months after the intervention ended. A randomized controlled trial. Outpatient services. Seventy-nine stroke survivors. In the intervention period, both groups underwent conventional physiotherapy performed five days/week for five weeks, and in addition the experimental group performed core stability exercises for 15 minutes/day. Afterwards, during a three-month follow-up period, both groups underwent usual care that could eventually include conventional physiotherapy or physical exercise but not in a controlled condition. Primary outcome was trunk control and dynamic sitting balance assessed by the Spanish-Version of Trunk Impairment Scale 2.0 and Function in Sitting Test. Secondary outcomes were standing balance and gait evaluated by the Berg Balance Scale, Tinetti Test, Brunel Balance Assessment, Spanish-Version of Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke and activities of daily living using the Barthel Index. A total of 68 subjects out of 79 completed the three-month follow-up period. The mean difference (SD) between groups was 0.78 (1.51) points ( p = 0.003) for total score on the Spanish-Version of Trunk Impairment Scale 2.0, 2.52 (6.46) points ( p = 0.009) for Function in Sitting Test, dynamic standing balance was 3.30 (9.21) points ( p= 0.009) on the Berg Balance Scale, gait was 0.82 (1.88) points ( p = 0.002) by Brunel Balance Assessment (stepping), and 1.11 (2.94) points ( p = 0.044) by Tinetti Test (gait), all in favour of core stability exercises. Core stability exercises plus conventional physiotherapy have a positive long-term effect on improving dynamic sitting and standing balance and gait in post-stroke patients.

  10. Population modelling to compare chronic external radiotoxicity between individual and population endpoints in four taxonomic groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonzo, Frédéric; Hertel-Aas, Turid; Real, Almudena; Lance, Emilie; Garcia-Sanchez, Laurent; Bradshaw, Clare; Vives i Batlle, Jordi; Oughton, Deborah H.; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we modelled population responses to chronic external gamma radiation in 12 laboratory species (including aquatic and soil invertebrates, fish and terrestrial mammals). Our aim was to compare radiosensitivity between individual and population endpoints and to examine how internationally proposed benchmarks for environmental radioprotection protected species against various risks at the population level. To do so, we used population matrix models, combining life history and chronic radiotoxicity data (derived from laboratory experiments and described in the literature and the FREDERICA database) to simulate changes in population endpoints (net reproductive rate R_0, asymptotic population growth rate λ, equilibrium population size N_e_q) for a range of dose rates. Elasticity analyses of models showed that population responses differed depending on the affected individual endpoint (juvenile or adult survival, delay in maturity or reduction in fecundity), the considered population endpoint (R_0, λ or N_e_q) and the life history of the studied species. Among population endpoints, net reproductive rate R_0 showed the lowest EDR_1_0 (effective dose rate inducing 10% effect) in all species, with values ranging from 26 μGy h"−"1 in the mouse Mus musculus to 38,000 μGy h"−"1 in the fish Oryzias latipes. For several species, EDR_1_0 for population endpoints were lower than the lowest EDR_1_0 for individual endpoints. Various population level risks, differing in severity for the population, were investigated. Population extinction (predicted when radiation effects caused population growth rate λ to decrease below 1, indicating that no population growth in the long term) was predicted for dose rates ranging from 2700 μGy h"−"1 in fish to 12,000 μGy h"−"1 in soil invertebrates. A milder risk, that population growth rate λ will be reduced by 10% of the reduction causing extinction, was predicted for dose rates ranging from 24 μGy h"−"1

  11. Global taxonomic diversity of anomodonts (tetrapoda, therapsida and the terrestrial rock record across the Permian-Triassic boundary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Fröbisch

    Full Text Available The end-Permian biotic crisis (~252.5 Ma represents the most severe extinction event in Earth's history. This paper investigates diversity patterns in Anomodontia, an extinct group of therapsid synapsids ('mammal-like reptiles', through time and in particular across this event. As herbivores and the dominant terrestrial tetrapods of their time, anomodonts play a central role in assessing the impact of the end-Permian extinction on terrestrial ecosystems. Taxonomic diversity analysis reveals that anomodonts experienced three distinct phases of diversification interrupted by the same number of extinctions, i.e. an end-Guadalupian, an end-Permian, and a mid-Triassic extinction. A positive correlation between the number of taxa and the number of formations per time interval shows that anomodont diversity is biased by the Permian-Triassic terrestrial rock record. Normalized diversity curves indicate that anomodont richness continuously declines from the Middle Permian to the Late Triassic, but also reveals all three extinction events. Taxonomic rates (origination and extinction indicate that the end-Guadalupian and end-Permian extinctions were driven by increased rates of extinction as well as low origination rates. However, this pattern is not evident at the final decline of anomodont diversity during the Middle Triassic. Therefore, it remains unclear whether the Middle Triassic extinction represents a gradual or abrupt event that is unique to anomodonts or more common among terrestrial tetrapods. The end-Permian extinction represents the most distinct event in terms of decline in anomodont richness and turnover rates.

  12. Correlation of resource plays and biodiversity patterns: accumulation of organic-rich shale tracks taxonomic turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eoff, Jennifer D.

    2012-01-01

    Similar paleogeographic and paleotectonic settings characterize most self-sourced shale hydrocarbon plays. Their deposition occurred within similar orders of magnitude of eustatic events and during geologic periods characterized by “warm” (or transitional) climates and calcitic seas. In addition, the stratigraphic occurrence of shale plays parallels certain historical patterns of marine metazoan biodiversity. Such strong agreement among several correlation tools elucidates why these resources may be limited to discrete intervals of geological time. Correlation of self-sourced shale with biodiversity trends indicates that the factors controlling the deposition of marine organic matter may not be independent of those that induced taxonomic turnover. Paleoecological changes promoted accumulation and preservation of Type II kerogen. Deposition of self-sourced shale appears to correspond to reductions in absolute biodiversity and declining percentages of bioturbating taxa, with concomitant increases in proportions of pelagic taxa relative to infaunal and epifaunal organisms. Whereas upwelling and anoxia may have contributed to the deposition of kerogen in source rocks throughout much of the sedimentary record, diminished consumption of biomass by benthic metazoans likely augmented the preservation of organic carbon during deposition of this shale type. Rapid tectonic-plate reconfiguration induced coeval events, creating basins with sufficiently high rates of accommodation creation necessary to preserve additional organic material accumulating as the heterotrophic benthos suffered in response to rapidly changing environments. Combining sea-level curves, paleogeography, climate, and seawater chemistry provides a first-order approximation of the distribution of potential self-sourced shale in the geologic record. A model that predicts the stratigraphic distribution of self-sourced-shale deposition can aid in exploration of continuous hydrocarbon accumulations in self

  13. MetaMeta: integrating metagenome analysis tools to improve taxonomic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Vitor C; Matschkowski, Marcel; Renard, Bernhard Y

    2017-08-14

    Many metagenome analysis tools are presently available to classify sequences and profile environmental samples. In particular, taxonomic profiling and binning methods are commonly used for such tasks. Tools available among these two categories make use of several techniques, e.g., read mapping, k-mer alignment, and composition analysis. Variations on the construction of the corresponding reference sequence databases are also common. In addition, different tools provide good results in different datasets and configurations. All this variation creates a complicated scenario to researchers to decide which methods to use. Installation, configuration and execution can also be difficult especially when dealing with multiple datasets and tools. We propose MetaMeta: a pipeline to execute and integrate results from metagenome analysis tools. MetaMeta provides an easy workflow to run multiple tools with multiple samples, producing a single enhanced output profile for each sample. MetaMeta includes a database generation, pre-processing, execution, and integration steps, allowing easy execution and parallelization. The integration relies on the co-occurrence of organisms from different methods as the main feature to improve community profiling while accounting for differences in their databases. In a controlled case with simulated and real data, we show that the integrated profiles of MetaMeta overcome the best single profile. Using the same input data, it provides more sensitive and reliable results with the presence of each organism being supported by several methods. MetaMeta uses Snakemake and has six pre-configured tools, all available at BioConda channel for easy installation (conda install -c bioconda metameta). The MetaMeta pipeline is open-source and can be downloaded at: https://gitlab.com/rki_bioinformatics .

  14. Outcomes of long-term outpatient tinnitus-coping therapy: psychometric changes and value of tinnitus-control instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffier, Philipp P; Haupt, Heidemarie; Scherer, Hans; Mazurek, Birgit

    2006-12-01

    Increasing tinnitus compliance and coping are desirable aims of successful treatment in chronic tinnitus. However, application of established procedures such as tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT) is often relatively short. In addition, the value of tinnitus control instruments (TCI) is questionable, especially for minor severity levels of tinnitus, and the comparability of treatment results is low. To evaluate long-term changes of tinnitus-related distress, defined psychometric data were collected in patients with compensated tinnitus (cT) or decompensated tinnitus (dT) during a standardized 2-yr outpatient tinnitus-coping therapy (TCT). In a prospective clinical investigation, the data of 70 tinnitus patients were recorded at the beginning and at 6-mo intervals, with a final investigation after 24 mo. The first group consisted of 40 patients with cT and dT who were randomly assigned to a treatment group and a waiting-list control group. After a period of 12 mo without treatment, the control group was treated similarly. The tinnitus questionnaire (TQ) of Goebel and Hiller, visual analog scales (VAS), and a severity questionnaire for tinnitus-associated complaints were used as psychodiagnostic instruments. Therapy components consisted of counseling, fitting patients with TCIs (TCI provision), auditory and relaxation training, and psychosomatic care if necessary. A second group of 30 patients with cT receiving TCT without TCI devices was investigated to evaluate the additive efficacy of TCI in cT. The initial TQ score did not differ between the treatment group and the waiting-list control group. After 12 mo, the control group did not show any significant changes, but the treatment group had improved significantly. During TCT, the combined data of both groups showed a statistically significant decrease of the TQ score in dT (59.1 to 34.8) and cT (32.8 to 24.0). These changes were especially reflected by the subscales of cognitive and emotional distress and also by the

  15. External cephalic version for breech presentation with or without spinal analgesia in nulliparous women at term: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiniger, Carolyn F; Ginosar, Yehuda; Elchalal, Uriel; Sharon, Einav; Nokrian, Malka; Ezra, Yossef

    2007-12-01

    To compare the success of external cephalic version using spinal analgesia with no analgesia among nulliparas. A prospective randomized controlled trial was performed in a tertiary referral center delivery suite. Nulliparous women at term requesting external cephalic version for breech presentation were randomized to receive spinal analgesia (7.5 mg bupivacaine) or no analgesia before the external cephalic version. An experienced obstetrician performed the external cephalic version. Primary outcome was successful conversion to vertex presentation. Seventy-four women were enrolled, and 70 analyzed (36 spinal, 34 no analgesia). Successful external cephalic version occurred among 24 of 36 (66.7%) women randomized to receive spinal analgesia compared with 11 of 34 (32.4%) without, P=.004 (95% confidence interval [CI] of the difference: 0.0954-0.5513). External cephalic version with spinal analgesia resulted in a lower visual analog pain score, 1.76+/-2.74 compared with 6.84+/-3.08 without, Pexternal cephalic version success was 4.0-fold higher when performed with spinal analgesia P=.02 (95% CI, odds ratio [OR] 1.2-12.9). Complete breech presentation before attempting external cephalic version increased the odds of success 8.2-fold, P=.001 (95% CI, OR 2.2-30.3). Placental position, estimated fetal weight, and maternal weight did not contribute to the success rate when spinal analgesia was used. There were no cases of placental abruption or fetal distress. Administration of spinal analgesia significantly increases the success rate of external cephalic version among nulliparous women at term, which allows possible normal vaginal delivery. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00119184 I.

  16. Tocolysis for repeat external cephalic version in breech presentation at term: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, Lawrence; Pandit, Meghana

    2005-05-01

    External cephalic version (ECV) reduces the incidence of breech presentation at term and caesarean section for non-cephalic births. Tocolytics may improve success rates, but are time consuming, may cause side effects and have not been proven to alter caesarean section rates. The aim of this trial was to determine whether tocolysis should be used if ECV is being re-attempted after a failed attempt. To determine whether tocolysis should be used if ECV is being re-attempted after a failed attempt. Randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. UK teaching hospital. One hundred and twenty-four women with a breech presentation at term who had undergone an unsuccessful attempt at ECV. Relative risks with 95% confidence intervals for categorical variables and a t test for continuous variables. Analysis was by intention to treat. Incidence of cephalic presentation at delivery. Secondary outcomes were caesarean section and measures of neonatal and maternal morbidity. The use of tocolysis for a repeat attempt at ECV significantly increases the incidence of cephalic presentation at delivery (RR 3.21; 95% CI 1.23-8.39) and reduces the incidence of caesarean section (RR 0.33; 95% CI 0.14-0.80). The effects were most marked in multiparous women (RR for cephalic presentation at delivery 9.38; 95% CI 1.64-53.62). Maternal and neonatal morbidity remain unchanged. The use of tocolysis increases the success rate of repeat ECV and reduces the incidence of caesarean section. A policy of only using tocolysis where an initial attempt has failed leads to a relatively high success rate with minimum usage of tocolysis.

  17. Randomized controlled trial of laparoscopic Heller myotomy plus Dor fundoplication versus Nissen fundoplication for achalasia: long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecchi, Fabrizio; Giaccone, Claudio; Farinella, Eleonora; Campaci, Roberto; Morino, Mario

    2008-12-01

    To compare in a prospective, randomized trial the long-term results of laparoscopic Heller myotomy plus Dor fundoplication versus laparoscopic Heller myotomy plus floppy-Nissen for achalasia. Anterior fundoplication is usually performed after Heller myotomy to control GER; however, the incidence of postoperative GER ranges between 10% and 30%. Total fundoplication may aid in reducing GER rates. From December 1993 to September 2002, 153 patients with achalasia underwent Heller laparoscopic myotomy plus antireflux fundoplication. Of these, 9 were excluded from the study. The remaining 144 patients were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups: Heller laparoscopic myotomy plus anterior fundoplication (Dor procedure) or Heller laparoscopic myotomy plus total fundoplication (floppy-Nissen procedure). The primary end point was incidence of clinical and instrumental GER after a minimum of 60 months follow-up. The secondary end point was recurrence of dysphagia. Follow-up clinical assessments were performed at 1, 3, 12, and 60 months using a modified DeMeester Symptom Scoring System (MDSS). Esophageal manometry and 24-hour pH monitoring were performed at 3, 12, and 60 months postoperative. Of the 144 patients originally included in the study, 138 were available for long-term analysis: 71 (51%) underwent antireflux fundoplication plus a Dor procedure (H + D group) and 67 (49%) antireflux fundoplication plus a Nissen procedure (H + N group). No mortality was observed. The mean follow-up period was 125 months. No statistically significant differences in clinical (5.6% vs. 0%) or instrumental GER (2.8% vs. 0%) were found between the 2 groups; however, a statistically significant difference in dysphagia rates was noted (2.8% vs. 15%; P Heller myotomy.

  18. Dual nitrergic/cholinergic control of short-term plasticity of corticostriatal inputs to striatal projection neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Peter Blomeley

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of nitric oxide and acetylcholine to modulate the short-term plasticity of corticostriatal inputs was investigated using current-clamp recordings in BAC mouse brain slices. Glutamatergic responses were evoked by stimulation of corpus callosum in D1 and D2 dopamine receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-MSNs and D2-MSN, respectively. Paired-pulse stimulation (50 ms intervals evoked depressing or facilitating responses in subgroups of both D1-MSNs and D2 MSNs. In both neuronal types, glutamatergic responses of cells that displayed paired-pulse depression were not significantly affected by the nitric oxide donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP; 100 µM. Conversely, in D1-MSNs and D2-MSNs that displayed paired-pulse facilitation, SNAP did not affect the first evoked response, but significantly reduced the amplitude of the second evoked EPSP, converting paired-pulse facilitation into paired-pulse depression. SNAP also strongly excited cholinergic interneurons and increased their cortical glutamatergic responses acting through a presynaptic mechanism. The effects of SNAP on glutamatergic response of D1-MSNs and D2-MSN were mediated by acetylcholine. The broad-spectrum muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (25 µM did not affect paired-pulse ratios and did not prevent the effects of SNAP. Conversely, the broad-spectrum nicotinic receptor antagonist tubocurarine (10 µM fully mimicked and occluded the effects of SNAP. We concluded that phasic acetylcholine release mediates feedforward facilitation in MSNs through activation of nicotinic receptors on glutamatergic terminals and that nitric oxide, while increasing cholinergic interneurons’ firing, functionally impairs their ability to modulate glutamatergic inputs of MSNs. These results show that nitrergic and cholinergic transmission control the short-term plasticity of glutamatergic inputs in the striatum and reveal a novel cellular mechanism underlying paired

  19. The Impact of Short-Term Video Games on Performance among Children with Developmental Delays: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ru-Lan; Lee, Wen-Chung; Lin, Jui-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    This prospective, randomized controlled study investigated the effects of short-term interactive video game playing among children with developmental delays participating in traditional rehabilitation treatment at a rehabilitation clinic. One hundred and one boys and 46 girls with a mean age of 5.8 years (range: 3 to 12 years) were enrolled in this study. All patients were confirmed to suffer from developmental delays, and were participating in traditional rehabilitation treatment. Children participated in two periods of 4 weeks each, group A being offered intervention of eight 30-minute sessions of interactive video games in the first period, and group B in the second, in addition to the traditional rehabilitation treatment. The physical, psychosocial, and total health of the children was periodically assessed using the parent-reported Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory-Generic Core Scales (PedsQL); and the children’s upper extremity and physical function, transfer and basic mobility, sports and physical functioning, and global functioning were assessed using the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument. Parental impact was evaluated using the PedsQL-Family Impact Module for family function, PedsQL-Health Satisfaction questionnaire for parents’ satisfaction with their children’s care and World Health Organization-Quality of Life-Brief Version for quality of life. Compared with the baseline, significant improvements of physical function were observed in both groups (5.6 ± 19.5, p = 0.013; 4.7 ± 13.8, p = 0.009) during the intervention periods. No significant improvement of psychosocial health, functional performance, or family impact was observed in children with developmental delays. Short-term interactive video game play in conjunction with traditional rehabilitation treatment improved the physical health of children with developmental delays. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02184715 PMID:26983099

  20. The Impact of Short-Term Video Games on Performance among Children with Developmental Delays: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-Lan Hsieh

    Full Text Available This prospective, randomized controlled study investigated the effects of short-term interactive video game playing among children with developmental delays participating in traditional rehabilitation treatment at a rehabilitation clinic. One hundred and one boys and 46 girls with a mean age of 5.8 years (range: 3 to 12 years were enrolled in this study. All patients were confirmed to suffer from developmental delays, and were participating in traditional rehabilitation treatment. Children participated in two periods of 4 weeks each, group A being offered intervention of eight 30-minute sessions of interactive video games in the first period, and group B in the second, in addition to the traditional rehabilitation treatment. The physical, psychosocial, and total health of the children was periodically assessed using the parent-reported Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory-Generic Core Scales (PedsQL; and the children's upper extremity and physical function, transfer and basic mobility, sports and physical functioning, and global functioning were assessed using the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument. Parental impact was evaluated using the PedsQL-Family Impact Module for family function, PedsQL-Health Satisfaction questionnaire for parents' satisfaction with their children's care and World Health Organization-Quality of Life-Brief Version for quality of life. Compared with the baseline, significant improvements of physical function were observed in both groups (5.6 ± 19.5, p = 0.013; 4.7 ± 13.8, p = 0.009 during the intervention periods. No significant improvement of psychosocial health, functional performance, or family impact was observed in children with developmental delays. Short-term interactive video game play in conjunction with traditional rehabilitation treatment improved the physical health of children with developmental delays.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02184715.

  1. The Impact of Short-Term Video Games on Performance among Children with Developmental Delays: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ru-Lan; Lee, Wen-Chung; Lin, Jui-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    This prospective, randomized controlled study investigated the effects of short-term interactive video game playing among children with developmental delays participating in traditional rehabilitation treatment at a rehabilitation clinic. One hundred and one boys and 46 girls with a mean age of 5.8 years (range: 3 to 12 years) were enrolled in this study. All patients were confirmed to suffer from developmental delays, and were participating in traditional rehabilitation treatment. Children participated in two periods of 4 weeks each, group A being offered intervention of eight 30-minute sessions of interactive video games in the first period, and group B in the second, in addition to the traditional rehabilitation treatment. The physical, psychosocial, and total health of the children was periodically assessed using the parent-reported Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory-Generic Core Scales (PedsQL); and the children's upper extremity and physical function, transfer and basic mobility, sports and physical functioning, and global functioning were assessed using the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument. Parental impact was evaluated using the PedsQL-Family Impact Module for family function, PedsQL-Health Satisfaction questionnaire for parents' satisfaction with their children's care and World Health Organization-Quality of Life-Brief Version for quality of life. Compared with the baseline, significant improvements of physical function were observed in both groups (5.6 ± 19.5, p = 0.013; 4.7 ± 13.8, p = 0.009) during the intervention periods. No significant improvement of psychosocial health, functional performance, or family impact was observed in children with developmental delays. Short-term interactive video game play in conjunction with traditional rehabilitation treatment improved the physical health of children with developmental delays. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02184715.

  2. Transcending Library Catalogs: A Comparative Study of Controlled Terms in Library of Congress Subject Headings and User-Generated Tags in LibraryThing for Transgender Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Perhaps the greatest power of folksonomies, especially when set against controlled vocabularies like the Library of Congress Subject Headings, lies in their capacity to empower user communities to name their own resources in their own terms. This article analyzes the potential and limitations of both folksonomies and controlled vocabularies for…

  3. Different Immunological Phenotypes Associated with Preserved CD4+ T Cell Counts in HIV-Infected Controllers and Viremic Long Term Non-Progressors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardbo, Julie Christine; Hartling, Hans J; Ronit, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    HIV-infected controllers control viral replication and maintain normal CD4+ T cell counts. Long Term Non-Progressors (LTNP) also maintain normal CD4+ T cell counts, but have on-going viral replication. We hypothesized that different immunological mechanisms are responsible for preserved CD4+ T cell...

  4. Experiences of a long-term randomized controlled prevention trial in a maiden environment: Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahu Mati

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventive drugs require long-term trials to show their effectiveness or harms and often a lot of changes occur during post-marketing studies. The purpose of this article is to describe the research process in a long-term randomized controlled trial and discuss the impact and consequences of changes in the research environment. Methods The Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy trial (EPHT, originally planned to continue for five years, was planned in co-operation with the Women's International Study of Long-Duration Oestrogen after Menopause (WISDOM in the UK. In addition to health outcomes, EPHT was specifically designed to study the impact of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT on health services utilization. Results After EPHT recruited in 1999–2001 the Women's Health Initiative (WHI in the USA decided to stop the estrogen-progestin trial after a mean of 5.2 years in July 2002 because of increased risk of breast cancer and later in 2004 the estrogen-only trial because HT increased the risk of stroke, decreased the risk of hip fracture, and did not affect coronary heart disease incidence. WISDOM was halted in autumn 2002. These decisions had a major influence on EPHT. Conclusion Changes in Estonian society challenged EPHT to find a balance between the needs of achieving responses to the trial aims with a limited budget and simultaneously maintaining the safety of trial participants. Flexibility was the main key for success. Rapid changes are not limited only to transiting societies but are true also in developed countries and the risk must be included in planning all long-term trials. The role of ethical and data monitoring committees in situations with emerging new data from other studies needs specification. Longer funding for preventive trials and more flexibility in budgeting are mandatory. Who should prove the effectiveness of an (old drug for a new preventive indication? In preventive drug trials companies may

  5. Effectiveness of zinc supplementation to full term normal infants: a community based double blind, randomized, controlled, clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K V Radhakrishna

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to test whether zinc supplementation, if initiated early, can prevent stunting and promote optimum body composition in full term infants. For this, full term pregnant women from low income urban community were enrolled and were followed-up for 24 months postpartum. Body mass index (BMI was calculated from maternal weight and height that were collected one month after delivery. Infants' weight, and length, head, chest and mid upper arm circumferences and skin fold thicknesses at triceps, biceps and subscapular area were collected at baseline (before randomization and once in three months up till 24 months. Three hundred and twenty four infants were randomized and allocated to zinc (163 or placebo (161 groups respectively. Supplementation of zinc was initiated from 4 months of age and continued till children attained 18 months. The control (placebo group of children received riboflavin 0.5 mg/day, whereas the intervention (zinc group received 5 mg zinc plus riboflavin 0.5 mg/day. When infants were 18 months old, dietary intakes (in 78 children were calculated by 24 hour diet recall method and hemoglobin, zinc, copper and vitamin A were quantified in blood samples collected from 70 children. The results showed prevalence of undernutrition (body mass index <18.5 in 37% of the mothers. Mean±SD calorie consumption and zinc intakes from diets in infants were 590±282.8 Kcal/day and 0.97±0.608 mg/day respectively. Multiple linear regression models demonstrated maternal weight as a strong predictor of infants' weight and length at 18 months of age. As expected, diarrhea duration impacted infants' linear growth and weight gain adversely. Zinc supplementation for a mean period of 190 days, starting from 4 months up to 18 months of age, in full term normal infants, consuming an average energy of 590 Kcal/day, had significant effect on the skin fold thicknesses, but not on their linear growth.Clinical Trail Registration India (CTRI CTRI

  6. Long-term success of oral health intervention among care-dependent institutionalized seniors: Findings from a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindling, Franz Sebastian; Krisam, Johannes; Hassel, Alexander J; Rammelsberg, Peter; Zenthöfer, Andreas

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the long-term effectiveness of oral health education of caregivers in nursing homes with care-dependent and cognitively impaired residents. Fourteen nursing homes with a total of 269 residents were allocated to a control group, with continued normal care, or to an intervention group. Allocation was performed at nursing home level. In the intervention group, caregivers were given oral health education, and ultrasonic cleaning devices were provided to clean removable prostheses. Oral health was assessed at baseline and after 6 and 12 months by use of the Plaque Control Record (PCR), Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI), Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN) and Denture Hygiene Index (DHI). Mixed models for repeated measures were performed for each target variable, with possible confounding factors (intervention/control group, age, sex, residence location and care-dependence). In the control group, no changes of target variables were observed between baseline and the 6- and 12-month follow-ups. After 6 and 12 months, PCR and DHI were significantly improved in the intervention group. For PCR, the intergroup difference of improvements was -14.4 (95% CI: -21.8; -6.9) after 6 months. After 12 months, the difference was -16.2 (95% CI: -27.7; -4.7). For DHI, the intergroup difference compared to baseline was -15 (95% CI: -23.6; -6.5) after 6 months and -13.3 (95% CI: -24.9; -1.8) after 12 months. There was neither a statistically significant effect on GBI nor on CPITN. Care-dependency showed a substantial trend to smaller improvements in PCR (P = .074), while an inverse effect was apparent for DHI (P < .001). Education of caregivers improves and maintains the oral health of care-dependent nursing home residents over longer periods. Use of ultrasonic devices is a promising means of improving denture hygiene among the severely care-dependent. Such interventions can be easily and cheaply implemented in routine daily care.

  7. Brain Changes in Long-Term Zen Meditators Using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Diffusion Tensor Imaging: A Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayed, Nicolás; Lopez del Hoyo, Yolanda; Andres, Eva; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Bellón, Juan; Aguilar, Keyla; Cebolla, Ausias; Garcia-Campayo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This work aimed to determine whether 1H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are correlated with years of meditation and psychological variables in long-term Zen meditators compared to healthy non-meditator controls. Materials and Methods Design. Controlled, cross-sectional study. Sample. Meditators were recruited from a Zen Buddhist monastery. The control group was recruited from hospital staff. Meditators were administered questionnaires on anxiety, depression, cognitive impairment and mindfulness. 1H-MRS (1.5 T) of the brain was carried out by exploring four areas: both thalami, both hippocampi, the posterior superior parietal lobule (PSPL) and posterior cingulate gyrus. Predefined areas of the brain were measured for diffusivity (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) by MR-DTI. Results Myo-inositol (mI) was increased in the posterior cingulate gyrus and Glutamate (Glu), N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and N-acetyl-aspartate/Creatine (NAA/Cr) was reduced in the left thalamus in meditators. We found a significant positive correlation between mI in the posterior cingulate and years of meditation (r = 0.518; p = .019). We also found significant negative correlations between Glu (r = −0.452; p = .045), NAA (r = −0.617; p = .003) and NAA/Cr (r = −0.448; P = .047) in the left thalamus and years of meditation. Meditators showed a lower Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) in the left posterior parietal white matter than did controls, and the ADC was negatively correlated with years of meditation (r = −0.4850, p = .0066). Conclusions The results are consistent with the view that mI, Glu and NAA are the most important altered metabolites. This study provides evidence of subtle abnormalities in neuronal function in regions of the white matter in meditators. PMID:23536796

  8. Evaluation of a decision aid for women with breech presentation at term: a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN14570598

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, N; Roberts, CL; Raynes-Greenow, CH; Barratt, A; Peat, B

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of a decision aid for women with a breech presentation compared with usual care. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Tertiary obstetric hospitals offering external cephalic version (ECV). Population Women with a singleton pregnancy were diagnosed antenatally with a breech presentation at term, and were clinically eligible for ECV. Methods Women were randomised to either receive a decision aid about the management options for breech presentation in addition to usual care or to receive usual care only with standard counselling from their usual pregnancy care provider. The decision aid comprised a 24-page booklet supplemented by a 30-minute audio-CD and worksheet that was designed for women to take home and review with a partner. Main outcome measures Decisional conflict (uncertainty), knowledge, anxiety and satisfaction with decision making, and were assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Results Compared with usual care, women reviewing the decision aid experienced significantly lower decisional conflict (mean difference −8.92; 95% CI −13.18, −4.66) and increased knowledge (mean difference 8.40; 95% CI 3.10, 13.71), were more likely to feel that they had enough information to make a decision (RR 1.30; 95% CI 1.14, 1.47), had no increase in anxiety and reported greater satisfaction with decision making and overall experience of pregnancy and childbirth. In contrast, 19% of women in the usual care group reported they would have made a different decision about their care. Conclusions A decision aid is an effective and acceptable tool for pregnant women that provides an important adjunct to standard counselling for the management of breech presentation. Please cite this paper as: Nassar N, Roberts C, Raynes-Greenow C, Barratt A, Peat B, on behalf of the Decision Aid for Breech Presentation Trial Collaborators. Evaluation of a decision aid for women with breech presentation at term: a randomised controlled

  9. The effects of short-term alpha-ketoisocaproic acid supplementation on exercise performance: a randomized controlled trial

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    Yarrow Joshua F

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the efficacy of short-term alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC monotherapy supplementation immediately prior to moderate- and high-intensity single bout exercise performance. Methods Thirteen resistance trained men (22.8 ± 2.5 years; 81.6 ± 12.6 kg participated in a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled crossover experiment. Each subject completed one familiarization and four experimental trials with either 1.5 g or 9.0 g of either KIC or isocaloric placebo control (CONT, following an overnight fast. During the experimental trials, subjects consumed the supplement regimen and then completed leg and chest press repetitions to failure and 30 s of repeated maximal vertical jumping (VJ on a force plate. Results In this treatment regimen, no significant differences (p > 0.05 were observed between dosages or conditions for leg press (low CONT = 19.8 ± 0.4 SEM, low KIC = 21.0 ± 0.5, high CONT = 20.1 ± 0.3, high KIC = 22.4 ± 0.6 or chest press (low CONT = 18.1 ± 0.2, low KIC = 18.5 ± 0.3, high CONT = 17.8 ± 0.3, high KIC = 18.0 ± 0.3 repetitions to failure. Additionally, no significant differences were observed for peak or mean VJ performance (low CONT = 34.6 ± 2.2 cm and 28.6 ± 1.8 cm; low KIC = 35.6 ± 2.0 cm and 29.4 ± 1.6 cm; high CONT = 35.7 ± 2.1 cm and 29.4 ± 1.7 cm; high KIC = 34.8 ± 2.3 cm and 28.3 ± 1.7 cm, respectively. Conclusion Based on our results, we conclude that acute KIC ingestion by itself with no other ergogenic supplement, immediately prior to exercise, did not alter moderate- nor high-intensity single-bout exercise performance in young resistance-trained males. This study addressed single-dose single-bout performance events; the efficacy of KIC monotherapy supplementation on repeated high-intensity exercise bouts and long-term exercise training remains unknown.

  10. Short Term Analgesic Effects of 5% Dextrose Epidural Injections for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniquis-Smigel, Liza; Dean Reeves, Kenneth; Jeffrey Rosen, Howard; Lyftogt, John; Graham-Coleman, Cassie; Cheng, An-Lin; Rabago, David

    2017-02-01

    Hypertonic dextrose injection (prolotherapy) is reported to reduce pain including non-surgical chronic low back pain (CLBP), and subcutaneous injection of 5% dextrose is reported to reduce neurogenic pain, hyperalgesia and allodynia. The mechanism in both cases is unclear, though a direct effect of dextrose on neurogenic pain has been proposed. This study assessed the short-term analgesic effects of epidural 5% dextrose injection compared with saline for non-surgical CLBP. Randomized double-blind (injector, participant) controlled trial. Adults with moderate-to-severe non-surgical low back pain with radiation to gluteal or leg areas for at least 6 months received a single epidurogram-confirmed epidural injection of 10 mL of 5% dextrose or 0.9% saline using a published vertical caudal injection technique. The primary outcome was change in a numerical rating scale (NRS, 0 - 10 points) pain score between baseline and 15 minutes; and 2, 4, and 48 hours and 2 weeks post-injection. The secondary outcome was percentage of participants achieving 50% or more pain improvement at 4 hours. No baseline differences existed between groups; 35 participants (54 ± 10.7 years old; 11 female) with moderate-to-severe CLBP (6.7 ± 1.3 points) for 10.6 ± 10.5 years. Dextrose participants reported greater NRS pain score change at 15 minutes (4.4 ± 1.7 vs 2.4 ± 2.8 points; P = 0.015), 2 hours (4.6 ± 1.9 vs 1.8 ± 2.8 points; P = 0.001), 4 hours (4.6 ± 2.0 vs 1.4 ± 2.3 points; P dextrose recipients and 19% (3/16) of saline recipients reported ≥ 50% pain reduction at 4 hours (P dextrose on pain at the dorsal root level; waning pain control at 2 weeks suggests the need to assess the effect of serial dextrose epidural injections in a long-term study with robust outcome assessment.

  11. Taxonomic Approaches to Enlisted Occupational Classification. Volume II,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    component clusters. These densities are interpreted to represent the degree of belongingness of each point to each cluster. As a possible technique for...a performance evaluation for an enlisted subordi- nate or a civilian employee would be considered LEADERSHIP AND SUPERVISION. CORROSION CONTROL AND...personnel for formal training, advancement in rate, and for spe- cial programs; and evaluating the performance of subordinates and civilian employees

  12. The long-term effect of minimalist shoes on running performance and injury: design of a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Joel T; Thewlis, Dominic; Tsiros, Margarita D; Brown, Nicholas A T; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The outcome of the effects of transitioning to minimalist running shoes is a topic of interest for runners and scientists. However, few studies have investigated the longer term effects of running in minimalist shoes. The purpose of this randomised controlled trial (RCT) is to investigate the effects of a 26 week transition to minimalist shoes on running performance and injury risk in trained runners unaccustomed to minimalist footwear. Methods and analysis A randomised parallel intervention design will be used. Seventy-six trained male runners will be recruited. To be eligible, runners must be aged 18–40 years, run with a habitual rearfoot footfall pattern, train with conventional shoes and have no prior experience with minimalist shoes. Runners will complete a standardised transition to either minimalist or control shoes and undergo assessments at baseline, 6 and 26 weeks. 5 km time-trial performance (5TT), running economy, running biomechanics, triceps surae muscle strength and lower limb bone mineral density will be assessed at each time point. Pain and injury will be recorded weekly. Training will be standardised during the first 6 weeks. Primary statistical analysis will compare 5TT between shoe groups at the 6-week time point and injury incidence across the entire 26-week study period. Ethics and dissemination This RCT has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of South Australia. Participants will be required to provide their written informed consent prior to participation in the study. Study findings will be disseminated in the form of journal publications and conference presentations after completion of planned data analysis. Trial registration number This RCT has been registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12613000642785). PMID:26297368

  13. A multicomponent exercise program improves physical function in long-term nursing home residents: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Haritz; Rezola-Pardo, Chloe; Zarrazquin, Idoia; Echeverria, Iñaki; Yanguas, Jose Javier; Iturburu, Miren; Gil, Susana Maria; Rodriguez-Larrad, Ana; Irazusta, Jon

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the impact of a multicomponent exercise program on anthropometry, physical function, and physical activity on older adults living in long-term nursing homes (LTNH), we conducted a randomized controlled trial involving 112 participants aged 84.9 ± 6.9 years. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention (IG) or control group (CG). The IG participated in a 3-month multicomponent exercise intervention focused on strength, balance, stretching exercises, and walking recommendations. Subjects in the CG participated in routine activities. Analyses of outcome parameters were performed in the entire sample and in two subgroups, classified according to participants' physical function score at baseline. The group-by-time interaction, favoring the IG, was significant for the entire sample and for the participants in the low physical function subgroup for the following parameters: waist circumference, 30-s chair-stand, arm-curl, 8-ft timed up-and-go, SPPB score, gait speed, and Berg scale (p < .05). In participants with higher physical function at baseline, significant group-by-time interaction was observed in the SPPB score and Berg scale (p < .05). When differences were analyzed within groups, the IG maintained or improved in all assessed parameters, while participants in the CG showed a marked decline. Our study showed that a multicomponent exercise program is effective for older people living in LTNH. This is especially relevant in those with lower physical function scores. The lower efficacy of the program in participants with better function might be due to the insufficient exercise demands of our intervention for more fit residents. Future studies should analyze the effects of programs with higher intensities in older people with intermediate to high physical function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-term sequential monitoring of controlled graves representing common burial scenarios with ground penetrating radar: Years 2 and 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, John J.; Walter, Brittany S.; Healy, Carrie

    2016-09-01

    Geophysical techniques such as ground-penetrating radar (GPR) have been successfully used for forensic searches to locate clandestine graves and physical evidence. However, additional controlled research is needed to fully understand the applicability of this technology when searching for clandestine graves in various environments, soil types, and for longer periods of time post-burial. The purpose of this study was to determine the applicability of GPR for detecting controlled graves in a Spodosol representing multiple burial scenarios for Years 2 and 3 of a three-year monitoring period. Objectives included determining how different burial scenarios are factors in producing a distinctive anomalous response; determining how different GPR imagery options (2D reflection profiles and horizontal time slices) can provide increased visibility of the burials; and comparing GPR imagery between 500 MHz and 250 MHz dominant frequency antennae. The research site contained a grid with eight graves representing common forensic burial scenarios in a Spodosol, a common soil type of Florida, with six graves containing a pig carcass (Sus scrofa). Burial scenarios with grave items (a deep grave with a layer of rocks over the carcass and a carcass wrapped in a tarpaulin) produced a more distinctive response with clearer target reflections over the duration of the monitoring period compared to naked carcasses. Months with increased precipitation were also found to produce clearer target reflections than drier months, particularly during Year 3 when many grave scenarios that were not previously visible became visible after increased seasonal rainfall. Overall, the 250 MHz dominant frequency antenna imagery was more favorable than the 500 MHz. While detection of a simulated grave may be difficult to detect over time, long term detection of a grave in a Spodosol may be possible if the disturbed spodic horizon is detected. Furthermore, while grave visibility increased with the 2D

  15. Long-Term Efficacy of Maintenance Therapy for Multiple Myeloma: A Quantitative Synthesis of 22 Randomized Controlled Trials

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    Jie-Li Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to quantitatively synthesize data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs concerning maintenance for multiple myeloma (MM. We searched electronic literature databases and conference proceedings to identify relevant RCTs. We selected eligible RCTs using predefined selection criteria. We conducted meta-analysis comparing maintenance containing new agents and conventional maintenance, and subgroup analysis by transplantation status and mainstay agent as well. We performed trial sequential analysis (TSA to determine adequacy of sample size for overall and subgroup meta-analyses. We performed network meta-analysis (NMA to compare and rank included regimens. A total of 22 RCTs involving 9,968 MM patients and 15 regimens were included, the overall quality of which was adequate. Significant heterogeneity was detected for progression-free survival (PFS but not overall survival (OS. Meta-analyses showed that maintenance containing new agents significantly improved PFS but not OS [PFS: Hazard Ratio (HR = 0.59, 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 0.54 to 0.64; OS: HR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.87 to 1.00], compared with controls. Subgroup analyses revealed lenalidomide (Len-based therapies better than thalidomide-based ones (HR = 0.50 and 0.66, respectively; P = 0.001. NMA revealed that most of the maintenance regimens containing new agents were significantly better than simple observation in terms of PFS but not OS. Len single agent was the most effective, considering PFS and OS both. We concluded that conventional maintenance has very limited effect. Maintenance containing new agents is highly effective in improving PFS, but has very limited effect on OS. Maintenance with Len may have the largest survival benefits. Emerging strategies may further change the landscape of maintenance of MM.

  16. A Novel Multidisciplinary Intervention for Long-Term Weight Loss and Glycaemic Control in Obese Patients with Diabetes

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    Anna Lih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Obesity and diabetes are difficult to treat in public clinics. We sought to determine the effectiveness of the Metabolic Rehabilitation Program (MRP in achieving long-term weight loss and improving glycaemic control versus “best practice” diabetes clinic (DC in obese patients using a retrospective cohort study. Methods. Patients with diabetes and BMI > 30 kg/m2 who attended the MRP, which consisted of supervised exercise and intense allied health integration, or the DC were selected. Primary outcomes were improvements in weight and glycaemia with secondary outcomes of improvements in blood pressure and lipid profile at 12 and 30 months. Results. Baseline characteristics of both cohorts (40 MRP and 40 DC patients were similar at baseline other than age (63 in MRP versus 68 years in DC, P=0.002. At 12 months, MRP patients lost 7.65 ± 1.74 kg versus 1.76 ± 2.60 kg in the DC group (P<0.0001 and 9.70 ± 2.13 kg versus 0.98 ± 2.65 kg at 30 months (P<0.0001. Similarly, MRP patients had significant absolute reductions in %HbA1c at 30 months versus the DC group (−0.86 ± 0.31% versus 0.12% ± 0.33%, P<0.038, with nonsignificant improvements in lipids and blood pressure in MRP patients. Conclusion. Further research is needed to establish the MRP as an effective strategy for achieving sustained weight loss and improving glycaemic control in obese patients with type 2 diabetes.

  17. Mixing-controlled uncertainty in long-term predictions of acid rock drainage from heterogeneous waste-rock piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, D.; Beckie, R. D.; Mayer, K. U.

    2015-12-01

    The chemistry of drainage from waste-rock piles at mine sites is difficult to predict because of a number of uncertainties including heterogeneous reactive mineral content, distribution of minerals, weathering rates and physical flow properties. In this presentation, we examine the effects of mixing on drainage chemistry over timescales of 100s of years. We use a 1-D streamtube conceptualization of flow in waste rocks and multicomponent reactive transport modeling. We simplify the reactive system to consist of acid-producing sulfide minerals and acid-neutralizing carbonate minerals and secondary sulfate and iron oxide minerals. We create multiple realizations of waste-rock piles with distinct distributions of reactive minerals along each flow path and examine the uncertainty of drainage geochemistry through time. The limited mixing of streamtubes that is characteristic of the vertical unsaturated flow in many waste-rock piles, allows individual flowpaths to sustain acid or neutral conditions to the base of the pile, where the streamtubes mix. Consequently, mixing and the acidity/alkalinity balance of the streamtube waters, and not the overall acid- and base-producing mineral contents, control the instantaneous discharge chemistry. Our results show that the limited mixing implied by preferential flow and the heterogeneous distribution of mineral contents lead to large uncertainty in drainage chemistry over short and medium time scales. However, over longer timescales when one of either the acid-producing or neutralizing primary phases is depleted, the drainage chemistry becomes less controlled by mixing and in turn less uncertain. A correct understanding of the temporal variability of uncertainty is key to make informed long-term decisions in mining settings regarding the management of waste material.

  18. Cremastosperma (and other evolutionary digressions) : Molecular phylogenetic, biogeographic, and taxonomic studies in Neotropical Annonaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirie, Michael David

    2005-01-01

    Results are presented of research on a family of flowering plants, the Annonaceae, species of which are found in tropical rainforest across the world. The project focussed on one group of species, the genus Cremastosperma, which is found in the South and Central American tropics. A taxonomic

  19. The effect of taxonomic resolution on the assessment of ecological water quality classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt-Kloiber, A.; Nijboer, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    Within the ecological assessment of running waters based on benthic macroinvertebrates different levels of taxonomic resolution (species, genus, family and higher) are in use. Although assessment systems are often developed with detailed data on species level, water managers and other end-users

  20. Low Functional β-Diversity Despite High Taxonomic β-Diversity among Tropical Estuarine Fish Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villéger, Sébastien; Miranda, Julia Ramos; Hernandez, Domingo Flores; Mouillot, David

    2012-01-01

    The concept of β-diversity, defined as dissimilarity among communities, has been widely used to investigate biodiversity patterns and community assembly rules. However, in ecosystems with high taxonomic β-diversity, due to marked environmental gradients, the level of functional β-diversity among communities is largely overlooked while it may reveal processes shaping community structure. Here, decomposing biodiversity indices into α (local) and γ (regional) components, we estimated taxonomic and functional β-diversity among tropical estuarine fish communities, through space and time. We found extremely low functional β-diversity values among fish communities (diversities, α and γ functional diversities were very close to the minimal value. These patterns were caused by two dominant functional groups which maintained a similar functional structure over space and time, despite the strong dissimilarity in taxonomic structure along environmental gradients. Our findings suggest that taxonomic and functional β-diversity deserve to be quantified simultaneously since these two facets can show contrasting patterns and the differences can in turn shed light on community assembly rules. PMID:22792395

  1. Global hotspots and correlates of alien species richness across taxonomic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Wayne; Moser, Dietmar; van Kleunen, Mark; Kreft, Holger; Pergl, Jan; Pysek, Petr; Weigelt, Patrick; Winter, Marten; Lenzner, Bernd; Blackburn, Tim M.; Dyer, Ellie; Cassey, Phillip; Scrivens, Sally-Louise; Economo, Evan P.; Guenard, Benoit; Capinha, Cesar; Seebens, Hanno; Garcia-Diaz, Pablo; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Garcia-Berthou, Emili; Casal, Christine; Mandrak, Nicholas E.; Fuller, Pam; Meyer, Carsten; Essl, Franz

    2017-01-01

    Human-mediated transport beyond biogeographic barriers has led to the introduction and establishment of alien species in new regions worldwide. However, we lack a global picture of established alien species richness for multiple taxonomic groups. Here, we assess global patterns and potential drivers of established alien species richness across eight taxonomic groups (amphibians, ants, birds, freshwater fishes, mammals, vascular plants, reptiles and spiders) for 186 islands and 423 mainland regions. Hotspots of established alien species richness are predominantly island and coastal mainland regions. Regions with greater gross domestic product per capita, human population density, and area have higher established alien richness, with strongest effects emerging for islands. Ants and reptiles, birds and mammals, and vascular plants and spiders form pairs of taxonomic groups with the highest spatial congruence in established alien richness, but drivers explaining richness differ between the taxa in each pair. Across all taxonomic groups, our results highlight the need to prioritize prevention of further alien species introductions to island and coastal mainland regions globally.

  2. A Taxonomic Note on the Misidentification of Anemone tschernjaewii Regel. in Kashmir Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijaz Hassan Ganie

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The correct identification of Anemone tschernjaewii Regel. previously misidentified as A. biflora DC. in the Kashmir Himalaya, Indi