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Sample records for termite insecta isoptera

  1. Termite (Insecta, Isoptera) assemblage of a gallery forest relic from the Chaco province (Argentina): taxonomic and functional groups

    OpenAIRE

    Godoy, M. C.; Laffont, E. R.; Coronel, J. M.; Etcheverry, C.

    2012-01-01

    Comunitat de tèrmits (Insecta, Isoptera) d’un relicte de selva en galeria del Chaco (Argentina): grups taxonòmics i funcionals Es va analitzar la termitofauna de la selva en galeria de la Reserva Colonia Benítez (província del Chaco, Argentina) mitjançant el protocol d’estimació de la diversitat d’isòpters (transsectes de 100 x 2 m). Es van detetcar 12 espècies incloses en 10 gèneres i dues famílies (Kalotermitidae i Termitidae) pertanyents als quatre grups de tèrmits establerts en funció ...

  2. Termite (Insecta, Isoptera assemblage of a gallery forest relic from the Chaco province (Argentina: taxonomic and functional groups

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    Godoy, M. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Termite fauna of the gallery forest in the Colonia Benitez Reserve (Chaco province, Argentina were analyzed using the rapid diversity assessment protocol (100 x 2 m transects. Twelve species, 10 genera and two families (Kalotermitidae and Termitidae, were detected, comprising the four feeding groups recognized for termites. True soil–feeders (IV showed the highest species richness, and dead wood and grasses feeders (II had the highest relative abundance. The most frequently occupied microhabitats were dead wood pieces lying on the ground. These results indicate that the Reserve harbors a diverse termite community similar to the ‘monte fuerte’ isopteran fauna (91.6% shared species. Our findings also support the Reserve´s value as a well–preserved fragment of the original gallery forest and emphasize the need to promote its conservation.

  3. Termite (Insecta, Isoptera fauna from natural parks of the northeast region of Argentina Fauna de cupins (Insecta, Isoptera de parques nacionais da região noroeste da Argentina

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    Enrique Rafael Laffont

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of insect biodiversity in natural areas of Argentina is limited, and termites are among the understudied taxa. In order to assess the diversity of Isoptera in some protected areas of the country, termite sampling within three National Parks of the Northeast region of Argentina was developed during 1995-1999. The results presented in this paper correspond to the Chaco National Park (Province of Chaco, Iguassu National Park (Province of Misiones and Mburucuya National Park (Province of Corrientes. Among the four termite families recorded from Argentina, the family Termitidae was the best represented at the three sampled areas. The recorded genera (15 were: Rugitermes Holmgren and Tauritermes Krishna (Kalotermitidae, Heterotermes Frogatt (Rhinotermitidae, Cornitermes Wasmann, Cortaritermes Mathews, Diversitermes Holmgren, Nasutitermes Dudley, Velocitermes Holmgren (Nasutitermitinae, Amitermes Silvestri, Microcerotermes Silvestri, Neocapritermes Holmgren, Termes Linné (Termitinae, Anoplotermes Müller, Aparatermes Fontes and Ruptitermes Mathews (Apicotermitinae (Termitidae. None of the collected termite species was common to the three National Parks, and only four of them were detected at two of the reserves. Due to the particular assemblage of termites found at each park, these three natural protected areas could be considered important reserves for the conservation of the termite fauna from the Northeast region of Argentina.O conhecimento da biodiversidade de insetos em áreas naturais da Argentina é limitado e os cupins estão entre os menos estudados. Para conhecer a diversidade dos Isóptera em algumas áreas protegidas do país, foi feita uma amostragem de cupins em três parques nacionais da região noroeste da Argentina, durante 1995-1999. Os resultados aqui apresentados correspondem ao Chaco National Park (Província de Chaco, Iguassu National Park (Província de Misiones e Mburucuya National Park (Província de Corrientes

  4. Catnip essential oil as a barrier to subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.J. Peterson; J. Ems-Wilson

    2003-01-01

    The essential oil of catnip, Nepeta cataria (Lamiacae) was evaluated for behavioral effects on two populations of subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) and R. virginicus (Banks) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). The catnip essential oil contained =36: 64 E,Z-nepetalactone and Z,E-nepetalactone,...

  5. Les attaques des Termites (Isoptera) dans les parcelles de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The species like (such as) Psammotermes, Microcerotermes and Odontotermes attack most on ligneous. Conclusion and Application of results: The study to know the advantage of diversity of termites and plant species in reforestation plots but also the interactions between termites is the plant species. Keywords: termites ...

  6. Termites (Isoptera) in Kibale Forest National Park, Western Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey in medium altitude primary forest yielded eleven species of termites in three families. At least three species are mainly West African. Low levels of termite consumption were observed in woody litter on the forest floor, but relatively high levels of attack on standing wood in the canopy were inferred. The chimpanzees ...

  7. Attraction of subterranean termites (Isoptera) to carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernklau, Elisa Jo; Fromm, Erich A; Judd, Timothy M; Bjostad, Louis B

    2005-04-01

    Subterranean termites, Reticulitermes spp., were attracted to carbon dioxide (CO2) in laboratory and field tests. In behavioral bioassays, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), Reticulitermes tibialis Banks, and Reticulitermes virginicus Banks were attracted to CO2 concentrations between 5 and 50 mmol/mol. In further bioassays, R. tibialis and R. virginicus were attracted to the headspace from polyisocyanurate construction foam that contained 10-12 mmol/mol CO2. In soil bioassays in the laboratory, more termites foraged in chambers containing CO2-generating formulations than in unbaited control chambers. In field tests, stations containing CO2-generating baits attracted R. tibialis away from wooden fence posts at rangeland sites in Colorado. For all of the CO2 formulations tested, termites foraged in significantly more bait stations at treatment fenceposts than in bait stations at the control fenceposts. By the end of the 8-wk study, the number of bait stations located by termites at treatment fenceposts ranged from 40 to 90%. At control fenceposts, termites foraged in only a single station and the one positive station was not located by termites until week 5 of the study. At treatment fenceposts, termites foraged equally in active stations (containing a CO2-generating bait) and passive stations (with no CO2-generating bait), indicating that bait stations may benefit passively from a proximal CO2 source in the soil. CO2 used as an attractant in current baiting systems could improve their effectiveness by allowing earlier exposure of termites to an insecticide.

  8. Control and prevention of biodeteriation caused by termites (Isoptera)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper reviewed the control measures against damage caused by termites. The objective was achieved using baseline published literature and data. This is particularly important because of the ever present destructive effect and presence of termites in every area of life worldwide. Multiple effective measures, ranging ...

  9. Les attaques des Termites (Isoptera) dans les parcelles de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 août 2016 ... attaquées par ces Termites. MÉTHODOLOGIE. Zone d'étude : L'étude est réalisée dans le Ferlo Nord du Sénégal, dans les parcelles de reboisement de la ... attaquées, on cherche l'espèce de Termite qui l'attaque et la partie de la plante ... avec des ouvrages, de Silvestri (1914-15), de Sjöstedt. (1925) et ...

  10. Recommendations for treated-area choice assays with termites (Isoptera)

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    Chris J. Peterson; Patrick D. Gerard; Janice Ems-Wilson

    2005-01-01

    The repellency of catnip (Nepeta cataria) essential oil was evaluated in a treated-area choice assay with subterranean termites (Reticulitermes spp.). It appeared that fewer R. virginicus were found on the treated portion of a petri dish within a period of about 7d; R. flavipes was not...

  11. Chemical Recruitment for Foraging in Ants (Formicidae and Termites (Isoptera: A Revealing Comparison

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    Klaus Jaffe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available All termites secrete trail pheromones from their sternal gland, whereas ants use a variety of glands for this purpose. This and the diversity of chemical compounds that serve as trail pheromones among ants, and the uniformity of chemicals among termite trails, suggest a different evolutionary historical dynamics for the development of chemical mass recruitment in both taxa. Termites in addition show pheromonal parsimony. This suggest a single evolutionary origin of pheromone trails in Isoptera, whereas chemical mass recruitment among Formicidae seems to have evolved many times and in different ways. Despite these very different evolutionary histories, both taxa evolved chemical recruitment systems involving attractants and orientation signals, and at least two divergent decision making system for recruitment. This evolutionary analogy suggests that chemical mass recruitment is constraint by fundamental physical dynamic laws. Artificial intelligence including “mass intelligence” and “ant intelligence”, emulates mass recruitment in interacting virtual agents in search of optimal solutions. This approach, however, has copied only the “Democratic” recruitment dynamics with a single compound pheromone. Ant and termite evolution shows more sophisticated recruitment dynamics which, if understood properly, will improve our understanding of nature and applications of artificial “swarm intelligence”.

  12. Talua SINE biology in the genome of the Reticulitermes subterranean termites (Isoptera, Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchetti, Andrea; Mantovani, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    Studies on transposable elements in termites are of interest because their genome is in a permanent condition of inbreeding. In this situation, an increase in transposon copy number should be mainly due to a Muller's ratchet effect, with selection against deleterious insertions playing a major role. Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous retrotransposons, known to be stable components of eukaryotic genomes. The SINE Talua, first isolated from Reticulitermes lucifugus (Rhinotermitidae), is the only mobile element described so far in termites. In the present survey, Talua has been found widespread in the Isoptera order. In comparison with other non-termite SINEs, Talua diversity and distribution in the Reticulitermes genome demonstrate that Talua is an ancient component of termite genome and that it is significantly associated with other repeats. In particular, the element is found to be involved with microsatellite motifs either as their generator or because inserted in their nearby. Further, two new SINEs and a putative retrotranscriptase-like sequence were found linked to Talua. Talua's genomic distribution is discussed in the light of the available models on transposable element dynamics within inbred genomes, also taking into account SINE role as drivers of genetic diversity in counteracting inbreeding depression.

  13. Termites (Isoptera) From The Lower Jspura River, Amazonas State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Constantino, Reginaldo

    1991-01-01

    Seventy species of termites were colected in primary forests on the lower Japurá River, Amazonas State, Brazil. Seven new species, Orthognathotermes humilis, sp. n., Spinitennes longiceps, sp. n., Annitermes gnomus, sp. n., Araujotermes nanus, sp. n., Embiratermes ignotus, sp. n., Subulitennes constricticeps, sp. n., and Syntermes robustus, sp.n., are described. The imago of Cavitermes parvicavus is described for the first time Drawings ofthe soldiers' head., ...

  14. Divergence times in the termite genus Macrotermes (Isoptera: Termitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, R; Hyodo, F; Korff-Schmising, M von; Maekawa, K; Miura, T; Takematsu, Y; Matsumoto, T; Abe, T; Bagine, R; Kaib, M

    2007-10-01

    The evolution of fungus-growing termites is supposed to have started in the African rain forests with multiple invasions of semi-arid habitats as well as multiple invasions of the Oriental region. We used sequences of the mitochondrial COII gene and Bayesian dating to investigate the time frame of the evolution of Macrotermes, an important genus of fungus-growing termites. We found that the genus Macrotermes consists of at least 6 distantly related clades. Furthermore, the COII sequences suggested some cryptic diversity within the analysed African Macrotermes species. The dates calculated with the COII data using a fossilized termite mound to calibrate the clock were in good agreement with dates calculated with COI sequences using the split between Locusta and Chortippus as calibration point which supports the consistency of the calibration points. The clades from the Oriental region dated back to the early Tertiary. These estimates of divergence times suggested that Macrotermes invaded Asia during periods with humid climates. For Africa, many speciation events predated the Pleistocene and fall in range of 6-23 million years ago. These estimates suggest that savannah-adapted African clades radiated with the spread of the semi-arid ecosystems during the Miocene. Apparently, events during the Pleistocene were of little importance for speciation within the genus Macrotermes. However, further investigations are necessary to increase the number of taxa for phylogenetic analysis.

  15. Revision of the termite family Rhinotermitidae (Isoptera) in New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourguignon, Thomas; Roisin, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Recently, we completed a revision of the Termitidae from New Guinea and neighboring islands, recording a total of 45 species. Here, we revise a second family, the Rhinotermitidae, to progress towards a full picture of the termite diversity in New Guinea. Altogether, 6 genera and 15 species are recorded, among which two species, Coptotermes gambrinus and Parrhinotermes barbatus, are new to science. The genus Heterotermes is reported from New Guinea for the first time, with two species restricted to the southern part of the island. We also provide the first New Guinea records for six species of the genera Coptotermes and Schedorhinotermes. We briefly describe soldiers and imagoes of each species and provide a key based on soldier characters. Finally, we discuss the taxonomic and biogeographical implication of our results. A replacement name, Schedolimulus minutides Bourguignon, is proposed for the termitophilous staphylinid Schedolimulus minutus Bourguignon, to solve a question of secondary homonymy.

  16. Revision of the termite family Rhinotermitidae (Isoptera in New Guinea

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    Thomas Bourguignon

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we completed a revision of the Termitidae from New Guinea and neighboring islands, recording a total of 45 species. Here, we revise a second family, the Rhinotermitidae, to progress towards a full picture of the termite diversity in New Guinea. Altogether, 6 genera and 15 species are recorded, among which two species, Coptotermes gambrinus and Parrhinotermes barbatus, are new to science. The genus Heterotermes is reported from New Guinea for the first time, with two species restricted to the southern part of the island. We also provide the first New Guinea records for six species of the genera Coptotermes and Schedorhinotermes. We briefly describe soldiers and imagoes of each species and provide a key based on soldier characters. Finally, we discuss the taxonomic and biogeographical implication of our results. A replacement name, Schedolimulus minutides Bourguignon, is proposed for the termitophilous staphylinid Schedolimulus minutus Bourguignon, to solve a question of secondary homonymy.

  17. Survey of the leg exocrine glands in termites(Isoptera

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    Helena Xavier Soares

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the leg exocrine glands in the termite workers of 16 species of the families Kalotermitidae and Termitidae was carried out through scanning electron microscope. Glandular openings were not found in the legs of Anoplotermes sp., Ruptitermes sp. (Apicotermitinae, Termitidae or Glyptotermes planus (Kalotermitidae, but they are present, spread over the ventral surface of the first, second and third tarsomeres of other Termitidae such as Armitermes euamignathus, Cornitermes cumulans, Nasutitermes coxipoensis, Rhynchotermes nasutissimus, Syntermes nanus, Embiratermes festivellus (Nasutitermitinae, Amitermes beaumonti, Hoplotermes amplus, Microcerotermes sp., Neocapritermes opacus, Orthognathotermes sp., Spinitermes brevicornutus and Termes sp. (Termitinae. The pores are usually isolated but they can also be grouped inside a round depression. The occurrence of leg exocrine glands in the family Termitidae is reported for the first time.

  18. The first report of gynandromorphy in termites (Isoptera; Kalotermitidae; Neotermes koshunensis)

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    Miyaguni, Yasushi; Nozaki, Tomonari; Yashiro, Toshihisa

    2017-08-01

    This is the first report of gynandromorphy in Isoptera. An Asian dry-wood termite, Neotermes koshunensis (Shiraki) [Kalotermitidae], possessing both male and female phenotypic characteristics, was found on Okinawa Island, Japan. This deformed individual showed morphological and anatomical hermaphroditism in the abdomen. The right side of the seventh sternite was the female form and contained an ovary, while the left side was the male form and contained a testis. Genotypic analysis revealed that this individual was a genotypic bilateral chimera. These results suggested that the termite was a bilateral gynandromorph with a male left side and a female right side. As reported previously in other insects, double fertilization (by two sperms, one with an X and one with a Y chromosome) of a binucleate egg is the most likely mechanism that generated this genotypic bilateral chimera. N. koshunensis has the ability to reproduce through parthenogenesis, in which the secondary polar body is likely to be used for nuclear phase recovery. If the second polar body in this mechanism has high fertility and healthy embryogenic potential, like an egg nucleus, some of gynandromorphs might be produced by a side effect of parthenogenetic ability.

  19. Catnip essential oil as a barrier to subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C J; Ems-Wilson, J

    2003-08-01

    The essential oil of catnip, Nepeta cataria (Lamiacae) was evaluated for behavioral effects on two populations of subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) and R. virginicus (Banks) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). The catnip essential oil contained approximately 36:64 E,Z-nepetalactone and Z,E-nepetalactone, respectively. The time to 50% dissipation (DT50) of the isomers in sand was dependent on dose, and ranged from 5.7 to 12.6 d for the E,Z-isomer and 7.7-18.6 d for the Z,E-isomer. For R. flavipes, the 24-h topical LD50 value was approximately 8200 microg/g termite. The 24-h fumigation LC50 value for R. flavipes was between 36 and 73 microg/ml air, and the 7-d fumigation LC50 value was between 14 and 36 microg/ml air. Exposure of R. virginicus to treated sand resulted in a 24-h LC50 value (95% F.L.) of 84 (67.6, 112) microg/cm2 and a 7-d LC50 value of 21.1 (16.4, 26.8) microg/cm2; for R. flavipes these values were 63.2 (53.7, 73.9) and 44.4 (34.6, 58.1) microg/cm2, respectively. Vertical tunneling through treated sand was eliminated at 500 ppm for R. virginicus and at 250 ppm for R. flavipes. Horizontal tunneling was stopped at 250 ppm for R. virginicus and reduced at doses above 250 ppm for R. flavipes. Although tunneling ceased in these tests, mortality was not high, indicating that the termites avoided the treated sand. Efficacy of catnip oil was equivalent to other monoterpenoids reported in the literature.

  20. Sequence analysis of a few species of termites (Order: Isoptera) on the basis of partial characterization of COII gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobti, Ranbir Chander; Kumari, Mamtesh; Sharma, Vijay Lakshmi; Sodhi, Monika; Mukesh, Manishi; Shouche, Yogesh

    2009-11-01

    The present study was aimed to get the nucleotide sequences of a part of COII mitochondrial gene amplified from individuals of five species of Termites (Isoptera: Termitidae: Macrotermitinae). Four of them belonged to the genus Odontotermes (O. obesus, O. horni, O. bhagwatii and Odontotermes sp.) and one to Microtermes (M. obesi). Partial COII gene fragments were amplified by using specific primers. The sequences so obtained were characterized to calculate the frequencies of each nucleotide bases and a high A + T content was observed. The interspecific pairwise sequence divergence in Odontotermes species ranged from 6.5% to 17.1% across COII fragment. M. obesi sequence diversity ranged from 2.5 with Odontotermes sp. to 19.0% with O. bhagwatii. Phylogenetic trees drawn on the basis of distance neighbour-joining method revealed three main clades clustering all the individuals according to their genera and families.

  1. The impact of edge effect on termite community (Blattodea: Isoptera) in fragments of Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida,C. S.; Cristaldo,P. F.; Florencio,D. F.; Ribeiro,E. J. M.; Cruz,N. G.; Silva,E. A.; Costa,D. A.; Araújo,A. P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Habitat fragmentation is considered to be one of the biggest threats to tropical ecosystem functioning. In this region, termites perform an important ecological role as decomposers and ecosystem engineers. In the present study, we tested whether termite community is negatively affected by edge effects on three fragments of Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Termite abundance and vegetation structure were sampled in 10 transects (15 × 2 m), while termite richness, activity, and soil litte...

  2. Characterization of microsatellites for population genetic analyses of the fungus-growing termite Odontotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Termitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husseneder, Claudia; Garner, Susan P; Huang, Qiuying; Booth, Warren; Vargo, Edward L

    2013-10-01

    The fungus-growing subterranean termite Odontotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Termitidae) is a destructive pest in Southeast Asia. To facilitate studies on the biology, ecology, and control of O. formosanus, we isolated and characterized nine novel microsatellite loci from a mixed partial genomic library of O. formosanus and the sympatric Macrotermes barneyi Light enriched for di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats. We screened these loci in three populations of O. formosanus from China. All loci were polymorphic. Three loci showed heterozygote deficit possibly because of the presence of null alleles. The remaining six loci with 4-15 alleles per locus and an average observed heterozygosity of 0.15-0.60 across populations were used for population genetic analysis. Populations from different provinces (Guangdong, Jiangxi, and Hubei) were genetically differentiated, but the genetic distance between populations was surprisingly small (FST: 0.03-0.08) and the gene flow was considerable (Nem: 3-8), despite the geographical distance being >300 km. Genetic diversity within populations was low (allelic richness: 5.1-6.3) compared with other subterranean dwelling termites, but consistent with the diversity in species of the family Termitidae. Microsatellite markers developed for O. formosanus will allow further studies to examine the phylogeography, population genetic and colony breeding structure, dispersal ranges, and size of foraging territories in this and closely related species, as well as aid in assessing treatment success.

  3. Efficacy of vetiver oil and nootkatone as soil barriers against Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maistrello, L; Henderson, G; Laine, R A

    2001-12-01

    Vetiver oil and its components nootkatone and cedrene were assessed as sand treatments for their efficacy to disrupt food recruitment by Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Termites were required to tunnel through sand treated with vetiver oil, nootkatone, cedrene, or untreated sand to reach a food source. Results showed that sand treated with vetiver oil or nootkatone disrupted termite tunneling behavior. As a consequence, after 21 d, wood consumption and termite survival were significantly lower compared with cedrene-treated or untreated sand treatments. Sand treated with vetiver oil or nootkatone at 100 microg/g substrate were effective barriers to termites.

  4. Wood degradation in the digestive tract of the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most wood decomposition in the digestive tract of subterranean termite workers occurs in food vacuoles of flagellate protozoan symbionts in the hindgut. This study uses scanning electron microscopy to analyze the degree of degradation of wood particles in different regions of the termite gut. Gut co...

  5. Termite assemblages (Blattodea: Isoptera in a habitat humidity gradient in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil

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    Alane A.V.O. Couto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We compared the termite assemblages of different ecosystems in a humidity gradient. Three areas were sampled: (i a humid montane forest; (ii a hillside forest where shaded coffee (Coffea arabica Linnaeus, 1753 is cultivated; (iii a seasonally dry forest (Caatinga. Active collection protocols were employed in each area during the dry and rainy seasons. The species were grouped according to their habitats and feeding habits. A total of 45 termite species belonging to 20 genera and three families were encountered. The termite fauna of the Caatinga was as rich and abundant as that of the humid forest areas, but it was distinct from it in species composition. Most termite species encountered in the montane forest were also found in the agro-ecological site, but some species were only found in the latter. The termite fauna of the Caatinga varied seasonally the most, with significantly reduced abundance during the dry period. When species richness, abundance, and species composition were considered together the climatic seasons were not found to significantly affect the termite faunas in any of the study areas. The numbers of encounters per feeding group and per habitat exploited did not differ among the different areas, or during the different seasons. Even in adjacent areas, the humidity gradient, as well as the vegetational characteristics, are reflected in differences in the termite fauna. Agro-ecological regimes can be considered viable alternatives to traditional methods of cultivation as they largely conserve the biodiversity found in non-modified environments.

  6. The impact of edge effect on termite community (Blattodea: Isoptera) in fragments of Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, C S; Cristaldo, P F; Florencio, D F; Ribeiro, E J M; Cruz, N G; Silva, E A; Costa, D A; Araújo, A P A

    2017-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is considered to be one of the biggest threats to tropical ecosystem functioning. In this region, termites perform an important ecological role as decomposers and ecosystem engineers. In the present study, we tested whether termite community is negatively affected by edge effects on three fragments of Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Termite abundance and vegetation structure were sampled in 10 transects (15 × 2 m), while termite richness, activity, and soil litter biomass were measured in 16 quadrants (5 × 2 m) at forest edge and interior of each fragment. Habitat structure (i.e. number of tree, diameter at breast height and soil litter biomass) did not differ between forest edge and interior of fragments. Termite richness, abundance and activity were not affected by edge effect. However, differences were observed in the β diversity between forest edge and interior as well as in the fragments sampled. The β diversity partitioning indicates that species turnover is the determinant process of termite community composition under edge effect. Our results suggest that conservation strategies should be based on the selection of several distinct sites instead of few rich sites (e.g. nesting).

  7. Occurrence of fungi in combs of fungus-growing termites (Isoptera: Termitidae, Macrotermitinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedegbe, Herbert J; Miambi, Edouard; Pando, Anne; Roman, Jocelyne; Houngnandan, Pascal; Rouland-Lefevre, Corinne

    2009-10-01

    Fungus-growing termites cultivate their mutualistic basidiomycete Termitomyces species on a substrate called a fungal comb. Here, the Suicide Polymerase Endonuclease Restriction (SuPER) method was adapted for the first time to a fungal study to determine the entire fungal community of fungal combs and to test whether fungi other than the symbiotic cultivar interact with termite hosts. Our molecular analyses show that although active combs are dominated by Termitomyces fungi isolated with direct Polymerase Endonuclease Restriction - Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), they can also harbor some filamentous fungi and yeasts only revealed by SuPER PCR-DGGE. This is the first molecular evidence of the presence of non-Termitomyces species in active combs. However, because there is no evidence for a species-specific relationship between these fungi and termites, they are mere transient guests with no specialization in the symbiosis. It is however surprising to notice that termite-associated Xylaria strains were not isolated from active combs even though they are frequently retrieved when nests are abandoned by termites. This finding highlights the implication of fungus-growing termites in the regulation of fungi occurring within the combs and also suggests that they might not have any particular evolutionary-based association with Xylaria species.

  8. The impact of edge effect on termite community (Blattodea: Isoptera in fragments of Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Almeida

    Full Text Available Abstract Habitat fragmentation is considered to be one of the biggest threats to tropical ecosystem functioning. In this region, termites perform an important ecological role as decomposers and ecosystem engineers. In the present study, we tested whether termite community is negatively affected by edge effects on three fragments of Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Termite abundance and vegetation structure were sampled in 10 transects (15 × 2 m, while termite richness, activity, and soil litter biomass were measured in 16 quadrants (5 × 2 m at forest edge and interior of each fragment. Habitat structure (i.e. number of tree, diameter at breast height and soil litter biomass did not differ between forest edge and interior of fragments. Termite richness, abundance and activity were not affected by edge effect. However, differences were observed in the β diversity between forest edge and interior as well as in the fragments sampled. The β diversity partitioning indicates that species turnover is the determinant process of termite community composition under edge effect. Our results suggest that conservation strategies should be based on the selection of several distinct sites instead of few rich sites (e.g. nesting.

  9. Clay preference and particle transport behavior of Formosan subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cai; Henderson, Gregg

    2014-12-01

    Although preference and utilization of clay have been studied in many higher termites, little attention has been paid to lower termites, especially subterranean termites. The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, can modify its habitat by using clay to fill tree cavities. Here, the biological significance of clay on C. formosanus was investigated. Choice tests showed that significantly more termites aggregated in chambers where clay blocks were provided, regardless of colony group, observation period, or nutritional condition (fed or starved). No-choice tests showed that clay had no observable effect on survivorship, live or dry biomass, water content, and tunneling activity after 33-35 d. However, clay appeared to significantly decrease filter paper consumption (dry weight loss). Active particle (sand, paper, and clay) transport behavior was observed in both choice and no-choice tests. When present, clay was preferentially spread on the substrate, attached to the smooth surfaces of the containers, and used to line sand tunnels. Mechanisms and potential application of clay attraction are discussed. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. The Termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Rhinotermitidae: Isoptera) Can Acquire Micronutrients from Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzow, Micah P; Judd, Timothy M

    2015-06-01

    Micronutrients are important for metabolic processes and structures in insects. How termites obtain micronutrients from the environment is not fully understood. It has been suggested that lower subterranean termites of Rhinotermitidae only gain their nutrients from their food sources. However, for subterranean termites, soil offers a potential source of micronutrients. This study tested the hypothesis that subterranean termites acquire micronutrients from the soil. Laboratory colonies of Reticulitermes flavipes Kollar were reared in arenas in which the levels of micronutrients, food, and soil were varied. The results showed that the micronutrients Ca (Calcium), Fe (Iron), Mg (Magnesium), and Mn (Manganese) were obtained from the soil, Cu (copper) was obtained by the food source, and K (Potassium) and Zn (Zinc) showed no differences between treatments. The results of this experiment suggest that subterranean termites can acquire micronutrients from the soil as well as other food sources. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Termite (order Blattodea, infraorder Isoptera) baiting 20 years after commercial release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Theodore A; Iqbal, Naeem

    2015-07-01

    Termite baiting is now one of the two main management tools in developed countries after 20 years of commercial release. It has two main goals: to use small amounts of active ingredient and 'colony elimination', i.e. death of all individuals in the colony. We consider how well baiting has been evaluated from 100 studies in the scientific literature. Studies have included 15 active ingredients, 23 termite species and 16 countries, yet most studies have focused on the chitin synthesis inhibitor hexaflumuron, Reticulitermes and the United States. Baiting has mostly met its goals: typically about 0.5 g of active ingredient was used, and colony elimination achieved, albeit with rates varying from 0 to 100%, and sometimes supplemented with liquid insecticide. Baiting was most successful using chitin synthesis inhibitors against Reticulitermes and Coptotermes (Rhinotermitidae), in temperate locations, although colony elimination was usually inferred indirectly - mostly by termite absence from baits - and was often slow, from 25 to 450 days. Baiting has been less tested and less successful against higher termites in tropical locations, where they are most diverse and abundant. Future research may have to consider greater termite species diversity and other active ingredients to reduce control times in order to fulfil the potential of baiting. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Microbial community diversity in the gut of the South American termite Cornitermes cumulans (Isoptera: Termitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco, Maria Angela B; Cavalcante, Janaina J V; Cardoso, Alexander M; Vieira, Ricardo P; Machado, Ednildo A; Clementino, Maysa M; Medeiros, Marcelo N; Albano, Rodolpho M; Garcia, Eloi S; de Souza, Wanderley; Constantino, Reginaldo; Martins, Orlando B

    2013-01-01

    Termites inhabit tropical and subtropical areas where they contribute to structure and composition of soils by efficiently degrading biomass with aid of resident gut microbiota. In this study, culture-independent molecular analysis was performed based on bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA clone libraries to describe the gut microbial communities within Cornitermes cumulans, a South American litter-feeding termite. Our data reveal extensive bacterial diversity, mainly composed of organisms from the phyla Spirochaetes, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Fibrobacteres. In contrast, a low diversity of archaeal 16S rRNA sequences was found, comprising mainly members of the Crenarchaeota phylum. The diversity of archaeal methanogens was further analyzed by sequencing clones from a library for the mcrA gene, which encodes the enzyme methyl coenzyme reductase, responsible for catalyzing the last step in methane production, methane being an important greenhouse gas. The mcrA sequences were diverse and divided phylogenetically into three clades related to uncultured environmental archaea and methanogens found in different termite species. C. cumulans is a litter-feeding, mound-building termite considered a keystone species in natural ecosystems and also a pest in agriculture. Here, we describe the archaeal and bacterial communities within this termite, revealing for the first time its intriguing microbiota.

  13. Identification of the Trail-Following Pheromone of the Pest Termite Amitermes evuncifer (Isoptera: Termitidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotoklo, E. A.; Sillam-Dusses, David; Kétoh, G.; Sémon, E.; Robert, A.; Bordereau, Ch.; Glitho, I. A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2010), s. 579-588 ISSN 0361-6525 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : dodecatrienol * neocembrene * multicomponent pheromone * termites Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.534, year: 2010

  14. Monthly fluctuation of termite caste proportions (Isoptera) within fire ant mounds (hymenoptera: formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas G. Shelton; J.T. Vogt; Marla J. Tanley; Arthur G. Appel

    2003-01-01

    Monthly abundance and caste proportions of subterranean termites (Reticulitennes spp.) inhabiting red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) mounds were recorded during 1999 and 2000 from a relatively undisturbed forest edge in Tuskegee, Alabama. Temperature data were also recorded at these mounds; mean air, soil, and mound temperatures followed a sine model over...

  15. Hospitalitermes krishnai, a new nasute termite (Nasutitermitinae, Termitidae, Isoptera, from southern Sumatra, Indonesia

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    Syaukani Syaukani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of nasute termite, Hospitalitermes krishnai sp. n., is described from soldiers and workers discovered in Lampung Province, Sumatra. This species can be distinguished from other related Hospitalitermes species from Southeast Asia by the anterior part of head capsule that is much smaller than the posterior part, head capsule that is moderately constricted behind the antennal sockets, and relatively deep depression between the head and nasus and, finally, the short and robust nasus measuring less than half as long as head capsule. Moreover, in profile the nasus is slightly up-curved but slightly decurved at the apical tip. We name this new species after Professor Kumar Krishna in recognition of his life-long contributions to termite taxonomy, systematics and biology.

  16. Uncitermes almeriae, a new termite species from Amazonia (Isoptera, Termitidae, Syntermitinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrijo, Tiago F; Constantini, Joice P; Scheffrahn, Rudolf H

    2016-01-01

    The Neotropical termite genus Uncitermes Rocha & Cancello, 2012 was known from a single species, Uncitermes teevani (Emerson, 1925). In this paper a new species, Uncitermes almeriae sp. n., is described and illustrated from worker and soldier castes, along with observations on the Uncitermes nest. A distribution map with the occurrences of both species is presented. The new species is distinguished from its congener by the presence of short bristles covering the head capsule and frontal tube.

  17. Diversité, nuisances et modes de gestion des termites (Isoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ce travail présente la première liste des espèces de termites recensées, une revue de la littérature de leurs dégâts sur les essences botaniques et leurs modes de gestion dans les agrosystèmes au Sénégal entre 1966 et 2015. Elle a été faite sur la base d'une revue bibliographique existante et complétée par un récent ...

  18. The frontal weapon of the termite Armitermes euamignathus Silvestri (Isoptera, Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae

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    Ana Maria Costa-Leonardo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Frontal weapon is the term used to designate the apparatus consisting of frontal gland and associated structures that participate in the chemical defense of termite soldiers. The ultra structure of the frontal gland and the scanning microscopy of the soldier head was investigated in the termite Amiitermes euamignathus Silvestri, 1901.Campaniform sensilla was not observed but there were 80 to100 sensory bristles around the frontal pore. The glandular epithelium shows only class 1 cells according 10 the classification of NOIROT & QUENNEDEY (1974, 1991. The glandular cells are characterized by apical microvilli, a basal labyrinth and a large quantity of smooth endoplasmic reticulum which forms dense zones throughout the cytoplasm. The secretion is concentrated mainly in the basal pole of the cell and consists of large lipid droplets. The secretory epithelium is covered by a thick apical cuticle composed of a thin outer epicuticle, a layer of epicuticular filaments and a dense procuticle. The cytological results concerning the frontal pore showed a reduced cuticle and the presence of a subcuticular space where the lipid droplets are accumulated. The lack of class 3 cells and the presence of an intrinsic musculature are two anatomical features of the A. euamignathus frontal gland that will be important in the phylogenetic relationships of the Nasutitermitinae.

  19. The clypeal gland: a new exocrine gland in termite imagoes (Isoptera: Serritermitidae, Rhinotermitidae, Termitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Křížková, Barbora; Bourguignon, Thomas; Vytisková, Blahoslava; Sobotník, Jan

    2014-11-01

    Social insects possess a rich set of exocrine organs producing diverse pheromones and defensive compounds. This is especially true for termite imagoes, which are equipped with several glands producing, among others, sex pheromones and defensive compounds protecting imagoes during the dispersal flight and colony foundation. Here, we describe the clypeal gland, a new termite exocrine organ occurring in the labro-clypeal region of imagoes of most Rhinotermitidae, Serritermitidae and Termitidae species. The clypeal gland of Coptotermes testaceus consists of class 1 (modified epidermal cell) and class 3 (bicellular gland unit) secretory cells. Ultrastructural features suggest that the gland secretes volatile compounds and proteins, probably after starting the reproduction. One peculiar feature of the gland is the presence of multiple secretory canals in a single canal cell, a feature never observed before in other insect glands. Although the function of the gland remains unknown, we hypothesize that it could produce secretion signalling the presence of functional reproductives or their need to be fed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chemical composition of essential oils of Drimys angustifolia Miers and Drimys brasiliensis Miers and their repellency to drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae

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    Madson Ralide Fonseca Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils extracted from leaves of the Southern Brazilian native species Drimys angustifolia Miers (DA and Drimys brasiliensis Miers (DB by Clevenger distillation were analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The oils of DA and DB consisted predominantly of monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids. The largest components of DA oil were bicyclogermacrene (19.6%, sabinene (9.7% and myrcene (5.2%, while DB oil was characterized by cyclocolorenone (18.2%, followed by terpinen-4- ol (8.7% and alpha-gurjunene (6.9%. Laboratory tests were carried out to determine the repellency of the essential oils to the drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae. It was observed that the oil showed repellency at the concentrations 25, 12.5, and 6.25 μg/mL. The oils of both species exhibited a negative repellency index, which represents repellent activity, except for DA oil at the highest concentration, which was attractive. Five deaths (11% of the termite sample were observed at 25 μg/mL DA, in the fourhour repellency test, while four deaths occurred at 12.5 μg/mL (approximately 9%. The essential oil of DB did not cause any termite deaths.

  1. Caste polymorphism of apterous line of the Neotropical termite Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky (Isoptera, Termitidae

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    Victor Luiz de Souza Lima

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Termite societies are structured by individuals that can be grouped into castes and instars. The development of these instars in most species occurs in irregular patterns and sometimes is distinguished subcastes in physical systems that originate polymorphic soldiers and workers. In this study, we characterized the morphological diversity of castes of apterous in Nasutitermes corniger. We collected four colonies of N. corniger, one every three months between May 2011 and February 2012. Individuals of the nest were separated into groups: larval stages, workers and presoldiers and soldiers. A morphometric analysis was performed on individuals from each group based on head width, metatibia, antenna, and thorax length. The data were submitted to discriminant analysis to confirm different morphological types inside these groups. The apterous line of N. corniger is composed of one first larval instar and two second larval instar. The workers caste has two lines of development with four instars in a larger line and three instars in a lower line. Two morphological types were identified in presoldiers and soldiers. The pattern of castes was similar to other species of the genus, in which bifurcation into two lines of workers, one smaller and one larger occurs after the first molt.

  2. Chemical composition, antifeedant, repellent, and toxicity activities of the rhizomes of galangal, Alpinia galanga against Asian subterranean termites, Coptotermes gestroi and Coptotermes curvignathus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Fauziah; Subramanian, Partiban; Ibrahim, Halijah; Abdul Malek, Sri Nurestri; Lee, Guan Serm; Hong, Sok Lai

    2015-01-01

    Dual choice bioassays were used to evaluate the antifeedant property of essential oil and methanolic extract of Alpinia galanga (L.) (locally known as lengkuas) against two species of termites, Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) and Coptotermes curvignathus (Holmgren) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). A 4-cm-diameter paper disc treated with A. galanga essential oil and another treated with either methanol or hexane as control were placed in a petri dish with 10 termites. Mean consumption of paper discs (miligram) treated with 2,000 ppm of essential oil by C. gestroi was 3.30 ± 0.24 mg and by C. curvignathus was 3.32 ± 0.24 mg. A. galanga essential oil showed significant difference in antifeedant effect, 2,000 ppm of A. galanga essential oil was considered to be the optimum concentration that gave maximum antifeedant effect. The essential oil composition was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major component of the essential oil was 1,8-cineol (61.9%). Antifeedant bioassay using 500 ppm of 1,8-cineol showed significant reduction in paper consumption by both termite species. Thus, the bioactive agent in A. galangal essential oil causing antifeeding activity was identified as 1,8-cineol. Repellent activity shows that 250 ppm of 1,8-cineol caused 50.00 ± 4.47% repellency for C. gestroi, whereas for C. curvignathus 750 ppm of 1,8-cineol was needed to cause similar repellent activity (56.67 ± 3.33%). C. curvignathus is more susceptible compare to C. gestroi in Contact Toxicity study, the lethal dose (LD50) of C. curvignathus was 945 mg/kg, whereas LD50 value for C. gestroi was 1,102 mg/kg. Hence 1,8-cineol may be developed as an alternative control against termite in sustainable agriculture practices. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  3. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers from the humivorous termite Cavitermes tuberosus (Isoptera: Termitinae) using pyrosequencing technology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fournier, D.; Hanus, Robert; Roisin, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2015), s. 521-524 ISSN 1877-7252 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Cavitermes tuberosus * termite * microsatellite * pyrosequencing * population genetics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.446, year: 2015

  4. TERMITES (INSECTA: BLATTODEA BUILDINGS IN URBAN LOCATED IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF SEROPÉDICA, RJ

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    V. F. M. Soares

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Termites (Blattodea are insects found between latitudes 52° N e 45° S in temperate climate places, such as in tropical areas. In Brazil, about 300 species were recorded belonging to four families: Kalotermitidae, Rhinotermitidae, Serritermitidae and Termitidae. Considered eusocial, they form colonies of individuals with overlapping generations, cooperative care of offspring and labor division. They develop by paurometabolism and are classified in caste with specific tasks within the colony. The staple food of termites is cellulose, but its source varies according to the species. In natural vegetation areas, termites have got an important ecological role, participating actively in recycling and decomposition of nutrients in ecosystems they inhabit. Besides of the positive contribution in changing soil porosity and aeration. In urban areas, 10% of the species are taken as plagues, causing enormous losses, explicit in cost with prevention, control and repair. Damage caused by termites in urban areas are mainly attributed to the species: Cryptotermes brevis (Walker, 1853, Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann, 1896 and Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky, 1896. Therefore, identifying termites species that colonize urban households in the municipality of Seropédica, RJ, has been the objective of this study. Three urban neighbourhoods: Fazenda Caxias, Boa Esperança and Ecologia, were sampled. Building were inspectied and owners interviewed, totalling twelve residents per block in fifteen blocks per neighbourhood. Proportion of infested buildings with each species was made suing the χ2 test and the probability level, from which a comparison was considered significant, was equal to the risk probability at 5% divided by the number of comparisons. Of the total 540 inspections, 30% of the households had occurrence of termites of which 50% C. brevis, 42% C. gestroi and 8% N. corniger. Coexistence of species within a residence was found in only 3% of the

  5. Seasonal Population Dynamics of a Specialized Termite-Eating Spider (Araneae: Ammoxenidae) and its Prey (Isoptera: Hodotermitidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haddad, C. R.; Brabec, Marek; Pekár, S.; Fourie, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 3 (2016), s. 105-110 ISSN 0031-4056 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA15-14762S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : activity * phenology * predator-prey dynamics * specialist * termite Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.000, year: 2016

  6. Antitermite Activities of C. decidua Extracts and Pure Compounds against Indian White Termite Odontotermes obesus (Isoptera: Odontotermitidae

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    Ravi Kant Upadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, we have tested antitermite responses of Capparis decidua stem, root, flower, and fruit extracts and pure compounds to Odontotermes obesus in various bioassays. Crude stem extract has shown very high susceptibility and very low LD50 values, that is, 14.171 μg/mg in worker termites. From stem extract, three pure compounds were isolated in pure form namely, heneicosylhexadecanoate (CDS2, triacontanol (CDS3, and 2-carboxy-1, 1-dimethylpyrrolidine (CDS8 which have shown very low LD50 value in a range of 5.537–10.083 μg/mg. Similarly, one novel compound 6-(1-hydroxy-non-3-enyl-tetrahydropyran-2-one (CDF1 was isolated from flower extract that has shown an LD50 8.08 μg/gm. Repellent action of compounds was tested in a Y-shaped glass olfactometer in which CDF1 compounds have significantly repelled termites to the opposite arm. Besides this, C. decidua extracts have shown significant reduction (P<0.05 and 0.01 in termite infestation in garden saplings when it was coated on cotton tags and employed over tree trunks. Further, C. deciduas stem extract was used for wood seasoning, which gave very good results as test wood sticks have shown significantly (P<0.05 and 0.01 very low termite infestation.

  7. Foraging distance and population size of juvenile colonies of the Formosan Subterranean Termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in laboratory extended arenas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between colony size and foraging distance was examined in extended foraging arenas with incipient colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Our results showed that as long as the royal pairs are present, larger colonies foraged at longer distance...

  8. Transcriptome response to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration in the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae

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    Wenjing Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Carbon dioxide (CO2 is a pervasive chemical stimulus that plays a critical role in insect life, eliciting behavioral and physiological responses across different species. High CO2 concentration is a major feature of termite nests, which may be used as a cue for locating their nests. Termites also survive under an elevated CO2 concentration. However, the mechanism by which elevated CO2 concentration influences gene expression in termites is poorly understood. Methods To gain a better understanding of the molecular basis involved in the adaptation to CO2 concentration, a transcriptome of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki was constructed to assemble the reference genes, followed by comparative transcriptomic analyses across different CO2 concentration (0.04%, 0.4%, 4% and 40% treatments. Results (1 Based on a high throughput sequencing platform, we obtained approximately 20 GB of clean data and revealed 189,421 unigenes, with a mean length and an N50 length of 629 bp and 974 bp, respectively. (2 The transcriptomic response of C. formosanus to elevated CO2 levels presented discontinuous changes. Comparative analysis of the transcriptomes revealed 2,936 genes regulated among 0.04%, 0.4%, 4% and 40% CO2 concentration treatments, 909 genes derived from termites and 2,027 from gut symbionts. Genes derived from termites appears selectively activated under 4% CO2 level. In 40% CO2 level, most of the down-regulated genes were derived from symbionts. (3 Through similarity searches to data from other species, a number of protein sequences putatively involved in chemosensory reception were identified and characterized in C. formosanus, including odorant receptors, gustatory receptors, ionotropic receptors, odorant binding proteins, and chemosensory proteins. Discussion We found that most genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, and genetic information processing were regulated under different CO2 concentrations. Results

  9. Mitochondrial and nuclear markers highlight the biodiversity of Kalotermes flavicollis (Fabricius, 1793) (Insecta, Isoptera, Kalotermitidae) in the Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velonà, A; Luchetti, A; Ghesini, S; Marini, M; Mantovani, B

    2011-06-01

    The biodiversity of the European termite Kalotermes flavicollis is here studied through the analysis of mitochondrial (303 bp of control region and 912 bp of COI/tRNA(Leu)/COII) and nuclear (five microsatellite and 20 Inter-SINE loci) markers on 18 colonies collected in Southern France, Corsica, Sardinia, peninsular Italy, the Balkans and Greece. Different statistical analyses (Bayesian phylogenetic analysis,parsimony network, F-statistics, PCA) were performed. Mitochondrial sequences produced an unresolved polytomy including samples from peninsular Italy, Balkans and Greece, and three main clades: southern France, Corsica-Sardinia and Portoscuso(SW Sardinia). Nuclear markers confirm these data, further highlighting a more significant divergence at the regional scale. The results obtained for the peri-Tyrrhenian area agree with major paleogeographic and paleoclimatic events that shaped the biodiversity of the local fauna. K. flavicollis biodiversity and its phylogeographic pattern are also evaluated in the light of the data available for the other native European termite taxon (genus Reticulitermes), in order to produce a more complete scenario of the Mediterranean. In the area comprised between southern France and Italy, the degree of diversity is similar; however, in the eastern area, while K. flavicollis is differentiated only at the population level, the genus Reticulitermes comprises at least six entities of specific and/or subspecific level. This discrepancy may be explained by taking into account the different evolutionary histories of the two taxa.

  10. Susceptibility of hornbeam and Scots pine woods to destruction by the subterranean termite Reticulitermes lucifugus ROSSI, 1792 (Blattodea: Isoptera

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    Krajewski Adam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of tests of the degree of damage to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris and hornbeam (Carpinus betulus woods by the termite Reticulitermes lucifugus. Both wood species are classified as “susceptible to destruction by termites” in the EN 350-2:2000 standard. The procedures described in the ASTM D 3345-08 standard (2009 were applied in the experiments. During laboratory coercion tests, wood samples from these two species were damaged to a degree between light attack and moderate attack with penetration. Recent Scots pine sapwood was damaged to a heavy degree. The results can be associated with the much higher density of hornbeam wood as compared to Scots pine sapwood. The mortality rate of the termites in the test containers with both wood species was similar and low, no greater than 10%. In the light of the results, the classification of the susceptibility of native wood species to termite feeding, as stated in the EN 350-2:2000 standard, appears to be oversimplified.

  11. Toxicity and behavioral effects of nootkatone, 1,10-dihydronootkatone, and tetrahydronootkatone to the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sanaa A; Henderson, Gregg; Zhu, Betty C R; Fei, Huixin; Laine, Roger A

    2004-02-01

    Toxicity and behavioral effects of nootkatone and two of its derivatives, 1,10-dihydronootkatone and tetrahydronootkatone, to Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki were investigated on workers from two different colonies by using topical application assays, repellency assays, and sand barrier assays. The acute toxicity of the nootkatones on workers from both colonies increased as the saturation of the molecule increased, but the difference was significant for only one colony. The results of the repellency assays showed a similar trend of efficiency; the threshold concentration for significant repellency was four-fold higher in nootkatone treatments (50 ppm) than in the reduced derivatives 1,10-dihydronootkatone or tetrahydronootkatone (12.5 ppm). In sand barrier assays, a concentration of 100 ppm of any of the three chemicals significantly reduced termite survival, tunnel building, and food consumption after a 12-d exposure. Termites preexposed to 100 ppm nootkatone-treated sand and placed in containers without nootkatone for 15 d continued to exhibit abnormal feeding and digging behaviors; survivorship, tunneling, and feeding activities were significantly reduced by 83.5, 63.2, and 95.4%, respectively. Termites pretreated for 12 d at concentrations of 50 and 75 ppm nootkatone and tetrahydronootkatone returned to normal digging activity after they were removed from the treatments, but their feeding activity was significantly reduced.

  12. Bioecological traits, abundance patterns and distribution extension of the soldierless Neotropical termite Compositermes vindai Scheffrahn, 2013 (Isoptera: Termitidae: Apicotermitinae

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    M. Celina Godoy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The soldierless Neotropical Apicotermitinae is considered among the less known termite groups and its ecological relevance warrants studies about the biology and diversity of their species. We investigated the presence, distribution and relative abundance of the recently described species Compositermes vindai Scheffrahn, 2013 in natural and anthropized ecosystems of northeastern Argentina. Their nests and populations, as well as their presence inside other Termitidae mounds were examined. A standardized sampling protocol for termites was applied at five sites, with 100 x 2 m transects. Worker morphometric data from the surveyed localities are also reported. C. vindai was found in protected environments with little disturbance as well as in other altered ecosystems. The abundance patterns of C. vindai in the sampled areas varied from rare to intermediate and seemed not to be significantly affected by the environmental changes of the sites due to their land uses. The microhabitats occupied were mainly superficial soil and other Termitidae mounds (Cornitermes cumulans Kollar, 1832; Syntermes obtusus Holmgren, 1911 and Cortaritermes fulviceps Silvestri, 1901. C. vindai subterranean and diffuse nests showed a core surrounding by scattered chambers and tunnels extending into the surrounding soil. The small size colonies comprised workers, brachypterous nymphs and white immature larvae. Winged imagoes or primary reproductives were not found. These new records also extend the distribution of C. vindai across the biomes and ecoregions of the Neotropical ecozone and constitute the first reports of C. vindai from Argentina.

  13. Identification of Termite Species by the Hydrocarbons in their Feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael I. Haverty; R. Joseph Woodrow; Lori J. Nelson; J. Kenneth Grace

    2005-01-01

    Blends of abundant cuticular hydrocarbons are species-specific for termites (Isoptera) and can be used to identify a given taxon without the diagnostic castes, soldiers or adults. We demonstrate that hydrocarbon extracts of termite fecal pellets from damaged wood can also be characterized and used to identify termites responsible for damage, even though termites are no...

  14. Structural requirements for repellency: norsesquiterpenes and sesquiterpenoid derivatives of nootkatone against the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Betty C R; Henderson, Gregg; Sauer, Anne M; Crowe, William; Laine, Roger A

    2010-08-01

    Research has shown that the family of grapefruit flavors called nootkatones have significant repellant and toxic effects to Formosan subterranean termites (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki). Nineteen synthetic nootkatone derivatives, along with three commercially available nootkatone derivatives, were tested for repellent activity against C. formosanus by a choice assay in a petri dish with a two-step triage procedure. Based on the repellency threshold value, the relationships between structure and activity are discussed. Four derivatives of nootkatone have very high repellency and toxicity to C. formosanus, 9 times the potency of the primary compound nootkatone. Four other compounds have between 2 and 3 times the repellency of nootkatones, and three compounds are equal in their repellency to nootkatone. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Phylogeography of an Australian termite, Amitermes laurensis (Isoptera, Termitidae), with special reference to the variety of mound shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Masato; Isagi, Yuji; Tsubota, Hiromi; Jacklyn, Peter; Bowman, David M J S

    2007-01-01

    In northern Australia, the debris-feeding termite Amitermes laurensis builds tall, wedge-shaped mounds in the northern part of Cape York Peninsula and Arnhem Land, where their habitats are seasonally flooded, and small dome shaped mounds in the southeastern part of Cape York Peninsula, where their habitats are well-drained. Phylogeographic analyses were conducted in 238 individuals from 30 populations using the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II (COII) gene. DNA sequences of 50 haplotypes were used to construct NJ, MP and ML trees. Phylogenetic trees for 16 Amitermes species showed monophyly of A. laurensis and the variation of A. laurensis mounds did not strongly correspond to the intraspecific phylogeny. It was observed that mounds with the same shape were constructed by phylogenetically different groups under similar environmental conditions and different mounds shapes were built by phylogenetically closely related groups under the different environmental conditions. Thus, phylogenetically close groups of A. laurensis, in different habitats, may adapt to environmental conditions by constructing different mound shapes. We also investigated the phylogeographic structure of A. laurensis. The significant positive correlation between genetic and geographic distances indicated isolation by distance, reflecting restricted dispersal ability of alates. Although the overall genetic structure of A. laurensis showed isolation by distance, we also identified two exceptions: (i) secondary contacts of genetically divergent lineages in southern Cape York Peninsula, and (ii) low genetic differences between geographically separated populations of Cape York Peninsula and Arnhem Land. Therefore, the phylogeography of A. laurensis may reflect continuous gene flow restricted to short distances and past changes of gene flow associated with the fluctuation of environmental conditions accompanying the changing sea levels in the Quaternary.

  16. Effect of Naphthalene, Butylated Hydroxytoluene, Dioctyl Phthalate, and Adipic Dioctyl Ester, Chemicals Found in the Nests of the Formosan Subterranean Termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) on a Saprophytic Mucor sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi are commonly found associated with termites and their nests. Four chemicals that have been isolated from the nests of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were evaluated to determine their effect on a common nest fungus, a saprophytic Mucor sp. Butylated hydroxyto...

  17. White-gutted soldiers: simplification of the digestive tube for a non-particulate diet in higher Old World termites (Isoptera: Termitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffrahn, R H; Bourguignon, T; Bordereau, C; Hernandez-Aguilar, R A; Oelze, V M; Dieguez, P; Šobotnik, J; Pascual-Garrido, A

    2017-01-01

    Previous observations have noted that in some species of higher termites the soldier caste lacks pigmented particles in its gut and, instead, is fed worker saliva that imparts a whitish coloration to the abdomen. In order to investigate the occurrence of this trait more thoroughly, we surveyed a broad diversity of termite specimens and taxonomic descriptions from the Old World subfamilies Apicotermitinae, Cubitermitinae, Foraminitermitinae, Macrotermitinae, and Termitinae. We identified 38 genera that have this "white-gutted" soldier (WGS) trait. No termite soldiers from the New World were found to possess a WGS caste. Externally, the WGS is characterized by a uniformly pale abdomen, hyaline gut, and proportionally smaller body-to-head volume ratio compared with their "dark-gutted" soldier (DGS) counterparts found in most termitid genera. The WGS is a fully formed soldier that, unlike soldiers in other higher termite taxa, has a small, narrow, and decompartmentalized digestive tube that lacks particulate food contents. The presumed saliva-nourished WGS have various forms of simplified gut morphologies that have evolved at least six times within the higher termites.

  18. The distribution, abundance, and the effects of fire on mound building termites (Trinervitermes and Cubitermes spp., Isoptera: Termitidae) in northern guinea savanna West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzie, John A H

    1986-11-01

    Termite mound densities in typical guinea savanna, Detarium, and grassland (boval) habitats in northern guinea savanna were determined by random quadratting of 2-3 sites in each habitat (100, 10x10 m quadrats per habitat). Dominant species in guinea savanna were T. geminatus (46 mounds ha -1 ) and T. oeconomus (21 mounds ha -1 ), in Detarium T. geminatus (59 mounds ha -1 ) and C. curtatus (45 mounds ha -1 ) and in boval C. curtatus (72 mounds ha -1 ) and T. geminatus (22 mounds ha -1 ). Only C. curtatus densities and total densities differed significantly between sites within habitats, but all species differed significantly in abundance between habitats. The composition of each community was related to general environment but no particular environmental variable was shown to be a major determinant of termite distribution. Evidence for the limitation of termite populations was obtained from indirect evidence of competition between colonies in Detarium, and by experimental manipulation of fire regimes in the typical guinea savanna habitat. Harvester termites increased four-five fold over two years in fire-protected plots as a result of increased food supplies. Total termite densities in the fire-protected community equilibrated to the new population density (100 mounds ha -1 ) after only two-three years.

  19. Effect of Seasonal Changes in Soil Temperature and Moisture on Wood Consumption and Foraging Activity of the Formosan Subterranean Termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine whether seasonal changes cause significant effects on the foraging activity and wood consumption of C. formosanus in New Orleans and how changes in specific climatic variables affect termite foraging behavior. There was a significant correlation between w...

  20. Distribution of a juvenogen and its metabolites in a laboratory system during juvenogen-induced caste differentiation in a termite, Reticulitermes santonensis (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tykva, Richard; Černý, B.; Wimmer, Zdeněk; Hanus, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 6 (2008), s. 654-659 ISSN 1526-498X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/2146 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : juvenogen * termite control * radiotracing * Reticulitermes santonensis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.040, year: 2008

  1. Sex pheromones and trail-following pheromone in the basal termites Zootermopsis nevadensis (Hagen) and Z. angusticollis (Hagen) (Isoptera: Termopsidae: Termopsinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bordereau, Ch.; Lacey, M. J.; Sémon, E.; Braekman, J. C.; Ghostin, J.; Robert, A.; Shellman Sherman, J.; Sillam-Dusses, David

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 3 (2010), s. 519-530 ISSN 0024-4066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : chemical communication * dampwood termite * dimethyldodecanal * phylogeny * solid phase microextraction Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.166, year: 2010

  2. Pheromones and exocrine glands in Isoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria; Haifig, Ives

    2010-01-01

    Termites are eusocial insects that have a peculiar and intriguing system of communication using pheromones. The termite pheromones are composed of a blend of chemical substances and they coordinate different social interactions or activities, including foraging, building, mating, defense, and nestmate recognition. Some of these sociochemicals are volatile, spreading in the air, and others are contact pheromones, which are transmitted by trophallaxis and grooming. Among the termite semiochemicals, the most known are alarm, trail, sex pheromones, and hydrocarbons responsible for the recognition of nestmates. The sources of the pheromones are exocrine glands located all over the termite body. The principal exocrine structures considered pheromone-producing glands in Isoptera are the frontal, mandibular, salivary or labial, sternal, and tergal glands. The frontal gland is the source of alarm pheromone and defensive chemicals, but the mandibular secretions have been little studied and their function is not well established in Isoptera. The secretion of salivary glands involves numerous chemical compounds, some of them without pheromonal function. The worker saliva contains a phagostimulating pheromone and probably a building pheromone, while the salivary reservoir of some soldiers contains defensive chemicals. The sternal gland is the only source of trail-following pheromone, whereas sex pheromones are secreted by two glandular sources, the sternal and tergal glands. To date, the termite semiochemicals have indicated that few molecules are involved in their chemical communication, that is, the same compound may be secreted by different glands, different castes and species, and for different functions, depending on the concentration. In addition to the pheromonal parsimony, recent studies also indicate the occurrence of a synergic effect among the compounds involved in the chemical communication of Isoptera. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of heartwood extractives on symbiotic protozoan communities and mortality in two termite species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar Hassan; Mark E. Mankowski; Grant Kirker; Sohail Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Lower termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) are considered severe pests of wood in service, crops and plantation forests. Termites mechanically remove and digest lignocellulosic material as a food source. The ability to digest lignocellulose not only depends on their digestive physiology, but also on the symbiotic relationship between termites and their intestinal...

  4. Evaluation of cellulose substrates treated with Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin as a biological control agent against the termite Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri (Isoptera: Termitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Habibpour

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is the first report on the promising effect of an entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin to control populations of Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri. Biological control is an alternative to the long-term usage of chemical pesticides. M. anisopliae, the causal agent of green muscardine disease of insects, is an important fungus in biological control of insect pests. Bait systems can eliminate entire colonies of subterranean termites. Baiting reduces adverse environmental impacts caused by organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides in the control of termites and creates sustainable protection of buildings against their invasion. Treated-sawdust bait was applied by two methods: a combination of treated sawdust and untreated filter paper, and b combination of treated sawdust and untreated sawdust. When combinations of treated sawdust and untreated sawdust were used, LC50 and LC90 were 8.4×106 and 3.9×107 (spore/ml, respectively. With the use of improved bait formula and more virulent strains, we hope to achieve better control of termite colonies and enable pathogens to become a useful element in the Integrated Pest Management system.

  5. ISOPTERA: TERMITIDAE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (termed the test diet) was then made up in which termite material supplied all the protein and fat, with the overall protein content of the diet being 10%. A second balanced artificial diet. (termed the basal diet) was prepared in which casein supplied all the protein, again with an overall protein content of 10%. Twenty identical ...

  6. Estimation of food composition of Hodotermes mossambicus (Isoptera: Hodotermitidae) based on observations and stable carbon isotope ratios

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Symes, CT

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available be underestimated. Key words carbon assimilation, colony, harvester termite, Suikerbosrand Introduction Termites are important soil organisms that play a signif- icant role in soil-forming processes (LaFage & Nutting, 1978; Hewitt et al., 1990). By decomposing... and recy- cling plant material, they contribute to soil fertility and the global cycling of carbon, nitrogen and other elements (LaFage & Nutting, 1978; Hewitt et al., 1990; Tayasu, 1998). The harvester termite Hodotermes mossambicus (Hagen) (Isoptera...

  7. Asexual queen succession in the higher termite Embiratermes neotenicus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fougeyrollas, R.; Dolejšová, Klára; Sillam-Dusses, D.; Roy, V.; Poteaux, C.; Hanus, Robert; Roisin, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 282, č. 1809 (2015), 20150260/1-20150260/7 ISSN 0962-8452 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12774S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : thelytokous parthenogenesis * breeding system * termites * Isoptera * Termitidae * reproductive strategies Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.823, year: 2015

  8. Identification of termite species by the hydrocarbons in their feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverty, Michael I; Woodrow, R Joseph; Nelson, Lori J; Grace, J Kenneth

    2005-09-01

    Blends of abundant cuticular hydrocarbons are species-specific for termites (Isoptera) and can be used to identify a given taxon without the diagnostic castes, soldiers or adults. We demonstrate that hydrocarbon extracts of termite fecal pellets from damaged wood can also be characterized and used to identify termites responsible for damage, even though termites are no longer present or easily recovered. In structures infested by drywood termites, it is common to find fecal pellets, but difficult to extract termites from the finished wood in service. Nine species belonging to two families (Kalotermitidae and Termopsidae) were examined to compare the hydrocarbon composition of termites and their fecal pellets. Diversity was extensive: at least one half of the amount of the hydrocarbons from Neotermes connexus, Incisitermes immigrans, Cryptotermes brevis, Cryptotermes cynocephalus, Procryptotermes corniceps, and Zootermopsis nevadensis nuttingi was olefins. Incisitermes minor and Pterotermes occidentis incorporated only small amounts of olefins in cuticular hydrocarbons; Marginitermes hubbardi had no detectable olefins. Hydrocarbons extracted from fecal pellets were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to cuticular extracts and can be used to determine the termite species responsible without the termites present.

  9. Facultative asexual reproduction and genetic diversity of populations in the humivorous termite Cavitermes tuberosus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fournier, D.; Hellemans, S.; Hanus, Robert; Roisin, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 283, č. 1832 (2016), č. článku 20160196. ISSN 0962-8452 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12774S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : thelytokous parthenogenesis * breeding systems * termites * reproductive strategies * Isoptera * Termitidae Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.940, year: 2016

  10. Cultural significance of termites in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huis, Arnold

    2017-01-26

    The number of termite species in the world is more than 2500, and Africa with more than 1000 species has the richest intercontinental diversity. The family Termitidae contains builders of great mounds up to 5 m high. Colonies are composed of casts: a queen, a king, soldiers and workers. Some species of termite cultivate specialised fungi to digest cellulose. Termites constitute 10% of all animal biomass in the tropics. The purpose of the study was to make an overview of how termites are utilized, perceived and experienced in daily life across sub-Saharan Africa. Ethno-entomological information on termites (Isoptera) in sub-Saharan Africa was collected by: (1) interviews with more than 300 people from about 120 ethnic groups from 27 countries in the region; (2) library studies in Africa, London, Paris and Leiden. Vernacular names relate to mounds, insects as food, the swarming, and the behaviour of termites. Swarming reproductive, soldiers and queens are collected as food. There are many different ways to harvest them. Termites can also be used as feed for poultry or as bait to catch birds and fish. The mushrooms that grow each year from the fungus gardens on the termite mounds are eaten. The soldiers, the fungus gardens and the soil of termite mounds are used for multiple medicinal purposes. Mounds and soil of termites have numerous functions: for geochemical prospecting, making bricks, plastering houses, making pots, and for storage. Termite soil is often used as fertilizer. The act of eating soil (geophagy) among women, especially those that are pregnant, is practised all over Africa. The mounds can serve as burying places and are often associated with the spiritual world, especially containing the spirits of ancestors. Termites also play a role as oracle, in superstitious beliefs, in art and literature. The following characteristics make termites so appealing: the dominance in the landscape, the social organization, the destructive power, and the provision of

  11. Population structure and genetic diversity in insular populations of Nasutitermes takasagoensis (Isoptera: Termitidae) analyzed by AFLP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Julio; Maekawa, Kiyoto; Miura, Toru; Matsumoto, Tadao

    2002-10-01

    Dispersal ability and degree of inbreeding in a population can indirectly be assessed using genetic markers. In general, it was suggested that winged termites are not able to fly distances greater than several hundred meters. Here, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used to analyze genetic diversity, population substructure, and gene flow among insular populations of the termite Nasutitermes takasagoensis (Isoptera: Termitidae) in the Yaeyama Islands, Okinawa, Japan. Samples were collected from 77 nests on seven islands of the Yaeyama Group. Using three primer combinations a total of 155 bands were generated with 78 (50%) polymorphic bands. Genetic distance and G(st) values among insular populations were calculated. Relatively high genetic diversity and low values of G (st), suggest there is moderate subpopulation structure. Based on these results, we discussed two possibilities; first, winged termites are able to fly over distances of several kilometers, and second, these results were obtained because insular populations share a recent common origin.

  12. Laboratory and field evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae for controlling subterranean termites

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, A; Ahmed, S; Shahid, M

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of the Metarhizium anisopliae strain ARSEF 6911 was determined in the laboratory and field against two sugarcane pests, Microtermes obesi Holmgren and Odontotermes obesus Rambur (Termitidae: Isoptera). The susceptibility of both termite species to different conidial suspensions (1 × 10(10), 1 × 10(8), 1 × 10(6) and 1 × 10(4) conidia/ml) was determined in laboratory. All conidial suspensions were able to induce mortality. Termite mortality caused by the fungal suspensions was dose...

  13. Toxicity, tunneling and feeding behavior of the termite, Coptotermes vastator, in sand treated with oil of the physic nut, Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acda, Menandro N

    2009-01-01

    Oil of the physic nut, Jatropha curcas L. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), was evaluated in the laboratory for its barrier and repellent activity against the Philippine milk termite Coptotermes vastator Light (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). The study showed that J. curcas oil had anti-feeding effect, induced reduction in tunneling activity and increased mortality in C. vastator. Behavior of termites exposed to sand treated with J. curcas oil indicated that it is toxic or repellent to C. vastator. Toxicity and repellent thresholds, were higher than those reported for other naturally occurring compounds tested against the Formosan subterranean termite.

  14. Comparative Study of the Labial Gland Secretion in Termites (Isoptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sillam-Dusses, David; Krasulová, Jana; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Pytelková, Jana; Cvačka, Josef; Kutalová, Kateřina; Bourguignon, T.; Miura, T.; Šobotník, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 10 (2012), e46431/1-e46431/9 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP525/09/P600 Grant - others:GA MZe(CZ) QH91097 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : salivary glands * defence * digestion * MALDI-TOF * SDS - PAGE * GC-MS Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012 http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0046431

  15. Agonistic behavior of the termite Prorhinotermes canalifrons (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šobotník, Jan; Hanus, Robert; Roisin, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 6 (2008), s. 521-534 ISSN 0892-7553 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/1643 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Prorhinotermes * agonismus * presoldier * intercaste * defensive behavior Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.179, year: 2008

  16. Les attaques des Termites (Isoptera) dans les parcelles de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 août 2016 ... habitations, les agro systèmes et les pâturages dans une savane sahélienne à Matam. (Sénégal). Mémoire de DEA, Université Ch. A. Diop de Dakar, pp. 51. Silvestri F : 1914-15. Contribuzione alla conoscenza dei. Termitidi e Termitophili dell'Africa occidentale. I. Termitidi. Bolletino del Laboratorio di ...

  17. Comportamento de formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae inquilinas de cupins (Isoptera: Termitidae em pastagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cristina Dutra

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o tipo de interação entre formigas e os cupins os quais habitam o mesmo ninho. Os experimentos foram de duas maneiras: A- para testar a relação de predação, os tratamentos usados foram: três formigas e um cupim, três formigas e três cupins, e três formigas e doze cupins; B- para testar a relação de proteção os tratamentos foram: três formigas e três cupins de um mesmo ninho e três formigas de um ninho diferente. Para verificar predação foram testadas diferentes origens de formigas e cupins. Os testes foram em arenas e placas de Petri. Os comportamentos observados foram: não responde; contato e abandono; agarra o cupim e luta. As espécies estudadas foram Camponotus sp. e Cornitermes silvestrii Emerson. No experimento A, nas arenas foi observado o comportamento de contato e abandono das formigas sobre um cupim significativamente diferente para formigas que não co-habitava com o cupim, já para um grupo de cupins o comportamento foi não responde. Na placa de Petri as formigas responderam ao contato com os cupins com comportamento de contato e abandono, morder e luta com o cupim, mas não houve diferença estatística entre os comportamentos. No experimento B observou-se luta entre as formigas de ninhos diferentes. Os experimentos mostraram que as formigas que co-habitam cupinzeiros não tiveram nenhuma resposta agressiva ou de predação com relação aos cupins dos quais co-habitam, mas também não tiveram comportamento de proteção com os mesmos, sugerindo que esta interação entre formigas e cupins é de inquilinismo.Behavior of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae Co-inhabit of Termites (Isoptera: Termitidae in grassland.Abstract. The aim of this study was to verify the kind of interactions between ants and termites that habit the same nest. Two kinds of experiments were done: A- to test the relation of predation, we used three ants and one termite, three ants and three termites and

  18. Evaluation of Low-Energy Microwaves Technology (Termatrac) for Detecting Western Drywood Termite in a Simulated Drywall System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taravati, Siavash

    2018-03-17

    Detecting drywood termites in structures is very challenging. Microwaves technology (Termatrac T3i) is a nondestructive method for detecting drywood termites in structures. Termatrac device and its mobile application provide a bar as well as a line graph when detecting insect movements, but interpreting these graphs is very subjective. In this paper, Termatrac's output signal is quantified using a new method to study the effect of wall layers, wood type, and termite density on signal strength measured as area under curve in a simulated drywall system in laboratory. Two experiments were conducted on Termatrac T3i at its maximum sensitivity (Gain: 10). In experiment I, HEXBUG Nano was used as a source of movement/vibration and two wood types were used in which the wall layers significantly predicted signal strength, but wood type did not. In experiment II, two different densities of live western drywood termites, Incisitermes minor (Hagen) (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae), were used to study the effect of termite density on signal strength. Interestingly, termite density did not significantly predict signal strength. The maximum reliable wood depth for detecting termites was 5 cm. Microwaves produced by Termatrac also showed good penetration into drywall and produced detectable signals even on a single drywood termite which confirms manufacturer's claim. Suggestions on using and improving microwaves technology for detecting termites is provided which can potentially be applied to other types of insects and noninsect animals.

  19. Watching termites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrard, G.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactive tracking techniques are being used to aid the investigation and control of termites. Studies include work related to the restoration of historic buildings when the damage inflicted on the timbers needs to be determined with minimum disturbance to the building. Another investigation has been the radioactive monitoring of pest-control techniques. Scandium-46, lanthanum-140 and gold-198 have been used in different investigations

  20. Chemical communication in termites: syn-4,6-dimethylundecan-1-ol as trail-following pheromone, syn-4,6-dimethylundecanal and (5E)-2,6,10-trimethylundeca-5,9-dienal as the respective male and female sex pheromones in Hodotermopsis sjoestedti (Isoptera, Archotermopsidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lacey, M. J.; Sémon, E.; Krasulová, Jana; Sillam-Dusses, David; Robert, A.; Cornette, R.; Hoskovec, Michal; Žáček, Petr; Valterová, Irena; Bordereau, Ch.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 12 (2011), s. 1585-1591 ISSN 0022-1910 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : sex-specific pheromones * basal termites * classification * phylogenetic relationships * zootermopsis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.236, year: 2011

  1. Genetic evidence for multiple invasions of the eastern subterranean termite into Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaduto, David A; Garner, Shawn R; Leach, Emma L; Thompson, Graham J

    2012-12-01

    Social insects are among the world's most successful species at invading new environments. Their characteristic division of labor can influence their capacity to colonize new habitats, often with negative ecological or economic impact. The social Hymenoptera (i.e., ants, bees, and wasps), are well studied in this regard, but much less is known about the invasive biology of termites (Isoptera). In this study we use province-wide sampling and a population genetic analysis to infer the minimum number of eastern subterranean termite [Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar)] introductions into Ontario (Canada). Structure analysis of multilocus microsatellite genotypes grouped the 30 collection points into K = 3 genetic clusters, suggesting as many three independent introductions into southern Ontario. Levels of genetic diversity were higher in termites from the Pelee region than in termites from Toronto and other Ontario cities, suggesting that these Pelee termite populations are potentially older and native to Ontario. A single origin scenario, in which all populations stem from a single source, therefore is not supported by the genetic data. Instead, our analysis suggests multiple independent introductions of this highly social, subterranean termite into Ontario, where the species is now well established as a structural pest of urban habitats.

  2. Character of cellulase activity in the guts of flagellate-free termites with different feeding habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Bing-Rong; Zeng, Wen-Hui; Xiao, Wei-Liang; Li, Qiu-Jian; Zhong, Jun-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose digestion in termites (Isoptera) is highly important for ecological reasons and applications in biofuel conversion. The speciose Termitidae family has lost flagellates in the hindgut and developed diverse feeding habits. To address the response of cellulase activity to the differentiation of feeding habits, a comparative study of the activity and distribution of composite cellulases, endo-β-1,4-glucanase, and β-glucosidase was performed in seven common flagellate-free termites with three feeding habits: the humus-feeding termites Sinocapritermes mushae (Oshima et Maki), Malaysiocapritermes zhangfengensis Zhu, Yang et Huang and Pericapritermes jiangtsekiangensis (Kemner); the fungus-growing termites Macrotermes barneyi Light and Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki); and the wood-feeding termites Nasutitermes parvonasutus (Shiraki) and Havilanditermes orthonasus (Tsai et Chen). The results showed that in diverse feeding groups, the wood-feeding group had the highest total composite cellulase and endo-β-1,4-glucanase activities, while the fungus-growing group had the highest β-glucosidase activity. In terms of the distribution of cellulase activity in the alimentary canals, the cellulase activities in wood-feeding termites were concentrated in the midgut, but there was no significant difference between all gut segments in humus-feeding termites. As for the fungus-growing termites, the main site of composite cellulase activity was in the midgut. The endo-β-1,4-glucanase activity was restricted to the midgut, but the primary site of β-glucosidase activity was in the foregut and the midgut (Mac. barneyi). The functions of the gut segments apparently differentiated between feeding groups. The results suggest that the differentiation of feeding habits in flagellate-free termites was characterized by the distribution of cellulases in the gut rather than by variations in cellulase activity.

  3. Biosensors for termite control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkhanda, M.

    2013-12-01

    Termites are major urban pests in Pakistan and cause damage to wooden structures and buildings. Termite management has two parts: prevention and control. The most difficult part of termite control is termite detection as most of them are subterranean in Pakistan and have tunneling habit.Throughout the world, chemical termiticides are going to be replaced by baits, microwave and sensor technology. Termite species are distinct biologically and have specific foraging behaviors. Termite Detection Radar, Moisture meter and Remote Thermal Sensor with Laser are available throughout the world. These can detect termites underground and use fewer chemicals than traditional methods. For wooden buildings, a termite sensor and an intrusion detection system for detecting termites are designed. A pair of electrodes is disposed inside the container. A pair of terminals is connected to these electrodes, these extend outside the container. Termites are detected by a change of conductivity between the electrodes, when termites are detected a warning device generates a warning signal. In Pakistan, there is dire need to develop such biosensoring devices locally, then apply control methods that would save money and protect the environment.

  4. A new species of Charinus Simon, 1892 (Amblypygi, Charinidae) from termite nests in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réveillion, F; Maquart, P O

    2015-10-15

    The genus Charinus is represented by 51 species, distributed in all tropical regions. Their small size allows them to use a wide range of micro-habitats, from caves, litter to insect nests. The new species C. sillami sp. nov. was found into termite nests of three different species: Neocapritermes taracua, Spinitermes sp. and Embiratermes neotenicus. Only Paracharon caecus (Paleoamblypygi: Paracharontidae) was previously known to be associated with Isoptera. Eleven species of Charinus were previously known from Northern South America. Charinus sillami sp. nov. is the second species of the genus occurring in French Guiana. An updated key of Northern South-American species is provided.

  5. Chemical warfare in termites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šobotník, Jan; Jirošová, Anna; Hanus, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 9 (2010), s. 1012-1021 ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600550614 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Isoptera * chemical defense * exocrine gland * frontal gland Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.310, year: 2010

  6. BIBLIOMETRICS ON ONE OF THE LARGEST TERMITE INVENTORIES IN THE CERRADO: "STUDIES ON TERMITES FROM THE MATO GROSSO STATE, BRAZIL BY AGA MATHEWS 1977"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HÉLIDA FERREIRA DA CUNHA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper consists on a bibliometric analysis of the international influences of the book "Studies on termites from the Mato Grosso State, Brazil", by AGA Mathews (1977. The number of citations has increased over the years after the first citation. Mathews book was cited in articles, reviews, theses, dissertations, books, book chapters, abstracts in conference proceedings, comments and scientific notes. Most these studies are empirical and descriptive. The studies were conducted in 35 countries of the Neotropical, Palearctic, Afrotropical, Nearctic, Australasia and Indomalaya regions. 55% of the studies were carried out in Brazil. The journals Sociobiology and Insectes Sociaux, have social insect studies within its scope, and the highest number of articles citing Mathews. Most of the 71 authors that cited Mathews more than twice are Brazilian. Constrictotermes cyphergaster was the most studied in over 80% of the studies addressing Isoptera. The most frequent keywords were termite, Isoptera and taxonomy, generalist terms indexed in most publications carried out in different countries. Most of the research studies were carried out in laboratories and native vegetation areas. Studies in agroecosystems were implemented predominantly in Brazil. This study shows the diversity of application (citations of Mathews' book, and that the number of citations will continue to increase due to the large amount of information presented by the author.

  7. Physical and chemical properties of some imported woods and their degradation by termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanbhag, Rashmi R; Sundararaj, R

    2013-01-01

    The influence of physical and chemical properties of 20 species of imported wood on degradation of the wood by termites under field conditions was studied. The wood species studied were: Sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus L. (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) (from two countries), Camphor, Dryobalanops aromatic C.F.Gaertner (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), Beech, Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart (Fagales: Fagaceae), F. sylvatica L. (from two countries), Oak, Quercus robur L., Ash, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl (Lamiales: Oleaceae), F. excelsior L., Padauk, Pterocarpus soyauxii Taubert (Fabales: Fabaceae), (from two countries), Jamba, Xylia dolabrifiormis Roxburgh, Shorea laevis Ridley (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), S. macoptera Dyer, S. robusta Roth, Teak, Tectona grandis L.f. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (from five countries), and rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis Müller Argoviensis (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) from India. The termites present were: Odontotermes horni (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Termitidae), O. feae, O. wallonensis, and O. obeus (Rambur). A significant conelation was found between density, cellulose, lignin, and total phenolic contents of the wood and degradation by termites. The higher the density of the wood, the lower the degradation. Similarly, higher amount of lignin and total phenolic contents ensured higher resistance, whereas cellulose drives the termites towards the wood.

  8. Physical and Chemical Properties of Some Imported Woods and their Degradation by Termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanbhag, Rashmi R.; Sundararaj, R.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of physical and chemical properties of 20 species of imported wood on degradation of the wood by termites under field conditions was studied. The wood species studied were: Sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus L. (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) (from two countries), Camphor, Dryobalanops aromatic C.F.Gaertner (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), Beech, Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart (Fagales: Fagaceae), F. sylvatica L. (from two countries), Oak, Quercus robur L., Ash, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl (Lamiales: Oleaceae), F. excelsior L., Padauk, Pterocarpus soyauxii Taubert (Fabales: Fabaceae), (from two countries), Jamba, Xylia dolabrifiormis Roxburgh, Shorea laevis Ridley (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), S. macoptera Dyer, S. robusta Roth, Teak, Tectona grandis L.f. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (from five countries), and rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis Müller Argoviensis (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) from India. The termites present were: Odontotermes horni (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Termitidae), O. feae, O. wallonensis, and O. obeus (Rambur). A significant conelation was found between density, cellulose, lignin, and total phenolic contents of the wood and degradation by termites. The higher the density of the wood, the lower the degradation. Similarly, higher amount of lignin and total phenolic contents ensured higher resistance, whereas cellulose drives the termites towards the wood. PMID:23906349

  9. Laboratory and field evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae for controlling subterranean termites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Ahmed, S.; Shahid, M.

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of the Metarhizium anisopliae strain ARSEF 6911 was determined in the laboratory and field against two sugarcane pests, Microtermes obesi Holmgren and Odontotermes obesus Rambur (Termitidae: Isoptera). The susceptibility of both termite species to different conidial suspensions (1 x 10 10 , 1 x 10 8 , 1 x 10 6 and 1 x 10 4 conidia/ml) was determined in laboratory. All conidial suspensions were able to induce mortality. Termite mortality caused by the fungal suspensions was dose dependent. There were no significant differences in the LT 50 values between species. Field evaluation of M. anisopliae alone or in combination with diesel oil and thyamethoxam was carried out in two growing seasons (autumn 2005 and spring 2006) at two sites located in Punjab, Pakistan. Dipping the sugarcane setts in these suspensions was tried to determine their effects on germination and percentage of bud damage to sugarcane setts. All treatments significantly reduced termite infestation compared to the untreated control. The combined treatment of M. anisopliae and diesel oil significantly reduced insect damage by attaining higher germination > 55% and lower bud damage < 5.50% at both sites in both seasons. The results suggest that the application of M. anisopliae and diesel oil in combination might be a useful treatment option for the management of termites in sugarcane. (author)

  10. Laboratory and field evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae for controlling subterranean termites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, A. [South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou (China). College of Natural Resources and Environment; Ahmed, S. [South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou (China). Dept. of Agricultural Entomology; Shahid, M., E-mail: solvia_aah@yahoo.co [University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    2011-03-15

    The efficacy of the Metarhizium anisopliae strain ARSEF 6911 was determined in the laboratory and field against two sugarcane pests, Microtermes obesi Holmgren and Odontotermes obesus Rambur (Termitidae: Isoptera). The susceptibility of both termite species to different conidial suspensions (1 x 10{sup 10}, 1 x 10{sup 8}, 1 x 10{sup 6} and 1 x 10{sup 4} conidia/ml) was determined in laboratory. All conidial suspensions were able to induce mortality. Termite mortality caused by the fungal suspensions was dose dependent. There were no significant differences in the LT{sub 50} values between species. Field evaluation of M. anisopliae alone or in combination with diesel oil and thyamethoxam was carried out in two growing seasons (autumn 2005 and spring 2006) at two sites located in Punjab, Pakistan. Dipping the sugarcane setts in these suspensions was tried to determine their effects on germination and percentage of bud damage to sugarcane setts. All treatments significantly reduced termite infestation compared to the untreated control. The combined treatment of M. anisopliae and diesel oil significantly reduced insect damage by attaining higher germination > 55% and lower bud damage < 5.50% at both sites in both seasons. The results suggest that the application of M. anisopliae and diesel oil in combination might be a useful treatment option for the management of termites in sugarcane. (author)

  11. PCR-SSCP and sequence analysis of three Odontotermes spp. (order: isoptera; family: termitidae) on the basis of partial 16SrRNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Mamtesh; Sharma, Vijay Lakshmi; Sodhi, Monika; Mukesh, Manishi; Shouche, Yogesh; Sobti, Ranbir Chander

    2009-10-01

    Partial 16S gene fragments were amplified by using specific primers in few species/populations of termites of the genus Odontotermes (Isoptera:Termitidae:Macrotermitinae), and the PCR products were subjected to SSCP analysis. Three haplotypes obtained were subjected to sequencing. The sequences obtained were characterized to see the frequencies of each nucleotide bases. High A + T content was observed. The inter-specific pairwise sequence divergence in Odontotermes spp. ranged from 0% to 4.8% across the entire 16S gene fragment. Identical sequences were found between two populations of O. horni. Individuals of different species having Type-I conformational pattern, i.e. O. obesus (-AI) and O. horni (-MI), as well as Type-II of O. obesus (-UII) and O. bhagwatii (-CHII) had no percent diversity. Phylogenetic trees drawn on the basis of distance Neighbour-joining method revealed clustering of individuals according to their genera and families.

  12. Detection of termites and other insects consumed by African great apes using molecular fecal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Ibrahim; Delaporte, Eric; Raoult, Didier; Bittar, Fadi

    2014-03-27

    The consumption of insects by apes has previously been reported based on direct observations and/or trail signs in feces. However, DNA-based diet analyses may have the potential to reveal trophic links for these wild species. Herein, we analyzed the insect-diet diversity of 9 feces obtained from three species of African great apes, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and bonobo (Pan paniscus), using two mitochondrial amplifications for arthropods. A total of 1056 clones were sequenced for Cyt-b and COI gene libraries, which contained 50 and 56 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), respectively. BLAST research revealed that the OTUs belonged to 32 families from 5 orders (Diptera, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Orthoptera). While ants were not detected by this method, the consumption of flies, beetles, moths, mosquitoes and termites was evident in these samples. Our findings indicate that molecular techniques can be used to analyze insect food items in wild animals.

  13. Green house gas emissions from termite ecosystem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    of termites (flagellate protozoa in lower termites and bacteria in higher termites) produce methane (CH4). Methane has been considered to be an important greenhouse gas (GHG) contributing significantly to global warming (Thakur et al., 2003). Termites may emit large quantities of methane, carbon dioxide and molecular.

  14. TERMITES ENDANGERED TRADITIONAL MEDICAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaukani Syaukani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Surveys on traditional medical plants affected by termites have been conducted since June to August 2010 at Ketambe, northern Aceh. Traditional medical plants and their natural habitats were obtained through interviewing local people. Termites were collected by adopted a Standardized Sampling Protocol and final. taxonomic confirmation was done with the help of Termite Research Group (the Natural History Museum, London. About 20 species of medical plants were attacked by termites with various levels. Nine genera and 20 species were collected from various habitats throughout Ketambe, Simpur as well as Gunung Setan villages. Coffe (Coffea arabica, hazelnut (Aleurites moluccana , and areca (Area catechu were among the worse of traditional medical  plant that had been attached by the termites.

  15. Respiratory concerts revealed by scanning microrespirography in a termite Prorhinotermes simplex (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sláma, Karel; Šobotník, Jan; Hanus, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2007), s. 295-311 ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/1643 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : respirographic scanning * discontinuous respiration * breathing regulation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.294, year: 2007

  16. Delineating species boundaries using an iterative taxonomic approach: The case of soldierless termites (Isoptera, Termitidae, Apicotermitinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bourguignon, T.; Šobotník, Jan; Hanus, Robert; Krasulová, Jana; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Cvačka, Josef; Roisin, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 3 (2013), s. 694-703 ISSN 1055-7903 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/12/1093 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Anoplotermes * CHs profile * COI * chemical fingerprint * DNA barcoding * enteric valve Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.018, year: 2013

  17. Distribution, diversity, mesonotal morphology, gallery architecture, and queen physogastry of the termite genus Calcaritermes (Isoptera, Kalotermitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Scheffrahn

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available An updated New World distribution of the genus Calcaritermes is given along with photographs and a key to the New World species outside Mexico. Calcaritermes recessifrons is found to be a junior synonym of C. nigriceps. Except for C. temnocephalus, pseudergates of the other seven studied Calcaritermes species possess a mesonotal rasp. The rasps suggest a role in propagation of microbes on gallery surfaces and microbial infusion below the wood surface. Calcaritermes temoncephalus is shown to have an unusually large physogastric queens for a kalotermitid and several species produce large eggs.

  18. Distribution, diversity, mesonotal morphology, gallery architecture, and queen physogastry of the termite genus Calcaritermes (Isoptera, Kalotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffrahn, Rudolf H

    2011-01-01

    An updated New World distribution of the genus Calcaritermes is given along with photographs and a key to the New World species outside Mexico. Calcaritermes recessifrons is found to be a junior synonym of Calcaritermes nigriceps. Except for Calcaritermes temnocephalus, pseudergates of the other seven studied Calcaritermes species possess a mesonotal rasp. The rasps suggest a role in propagation of microbes on gallery surfaces and microbial infusion below the wood surface. Calcaritermes temoncephalus is shown to have an unusually large physogastric queens for a kalotermitid and several species produce large eggs.

  19. Importance of protected areas for biodiversity conservation in central Côte D'ivoire: comparison of termite assemblages between two neighboring areas under differing levels of disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosso, Kanvaly; Yéo, Kolo; Konaté, Souleymane; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard

    2012-01-01

    To highlight human impact on biodiversity in the Lamto region, termites were studied with regard to their use as bio-indicators of habitat change in the tropics. Using a standardized method, termites were sampled in the three most common habitat types, i.e., in semi-deciduous forest, savanna woodland, and annually burned savanna, all inside Lamto Reserve and its surrounding rural domain. Termite species richness fell from 25 species in the Lamto forest to 13 species in the rural area, involving strong modification in the species composition (species turnover = 59 %). In contrast, no significant change in diversity was found between the Lamto savannas and the rural ones. In addition, the relative abundance of termites showed a significantly greater decline in the rural domain, even in the species Ancistrotermes cavithorax (Sjöstedt) (Isoptera: Termitidae), which is known to be ecologically especially versatile. Overall, the findings of this study suggest further investigation around Lamto Reserve on the impact of human activities on biodiversity, focusing on forest conversion to land uses (e.g. agricultural and silvicultural systems).

  20. Resistance of Particleboards Made from Fast-Growing Wood Species to Subterranean Termite Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermawan, Dede; Hadi, Yusuf S; Fajriani, Esi; Massijaya, Muhamad Y; Hadjib, Nurwati

    2012-05-29

    Laboratory-made particleboards were tested for their resistance to subterranean termite, Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren (Order Isoptera, Family Termitidae) by Indonesian standard SNI 01.7207-2006, during four weeks and at the end of the test their mass loss percentage and feeding rate were determined. Particleboards consisted of: jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba, Family Rubiacea) with a density of 0.41 g/cm³; sungkai (Peronema canescens, Family Verbenaceae) with a density of 0.46 g/cm³; mangium (Acacia mangium, Family Rhamnaceae) with a density of 0.60 g/cm³ separately and the three species mixture at a rate of 1:1:1. Densities of the boards were targetted at 0.60 g/cm³ and 0.80 g/cm³ by using 12% urea formaldehyde as binder with 2% paraffin as additive based on oven dry wood particle weight. The hand-formed mats and hot-pressing at 130 °C and 2.45 MPa for 10 min were applied. The results showed that particleboards density did not affect mass loss and feeding rate, but the particleboards made from higher density wood resulted in higher resistance to subterranean termite attack. The most resistant particleboards were made of magium, followed by sungkai, mixed species, and jabon.

  1. Resistance of Particleboards Made from Fast-Growing Wood Species to Subterranean Termite Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurwati Hadjib

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-made particleboards were tested for their resistance to subterranean termite, Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren (Order Isoptera, Family Termitidae by Indonesian standard SNI 01.7207–2006, during four weeks and at the end of the test their mass loss percentage and feeding rate were determined. Particleboards consisted of: jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba, Family Rubiacea with a density of 0.41 g/cm3; sungkai (Peronema canescens, Family Verbenaceae with a density of 0.46 g/cm3; mangium (Acacia mangium, Family Rhamnaceae with a density of 0.60 g/cm3 separately and the three species mixture at a rate of 1:1:1. Densities of the boards were targetted at 0.60 g/cm3 and 0.80 g/cm3 by using 12% urea formaldehyde as binder with 2% paraffin as additive based on oven dry wood particle weight. The hand-formed mats and hot-pressing at 130 °C and 2.45 MPa for 10 min were applied. The results showed that particleboards density did not affect mass loss and feeding rate, but the particleboards made from higher density wood resulted in higher resistance to subterranean termite attack. The most resistant particleboards were made of magium, followed by sungkai, mixed species, and jabon.

  2. Spatial structuring of the population genetics of a European subterranean termite species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankhead-Dronnet, Stéphanie; Perdereau, Elfie; Kutnik, Magdalena; Dupont, Simon; Bagnères, Anne-Geneviève

    2015-01-01

    In population genetics studies, detecting and quantifying the distribution of genetic variation can help elucidate ecological and evolutionary processes. In social insects, the distribution of population-level genetic variability is generally linked to colony-level genetic structure. It is thus especially crucial to conduct complementary analyses on such organisms to examine how spatial and social constraints interact to shape patterns of intraspecific diversity. In this study, we sequenced the mitochondrial COII gene for 52 colonies of the subterranean termite Reticulitermes grassei (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), sampled from a population in southwestern France. Three haplotypes were detected, one of which was found exclusively in the southern part of the study area (near the Pyrenees). After genotyping 6 microsatellite loci for 512 individual termites, we detected a significant degree of isolation by distance among individuals over the entire range; however, the cline of genetic differentiation was not continuous, suggesting the existence of differentiated populations. A spatial principal component analysis based on allele frequency data revealed significant spatial autocorrelation among genotypes: the northern and southern groups were strongly differentiated. This finding was corroborated by clustering analyses; depending on the randomized data set, two or three clusters, exhibiting significant degrees of differentiation, were identified. An examination of colony breeding systems showed that colonies containing related neotenic reproductives were prevalent, suggesting that inbreeding may contribute to the high level of homozygosity observed and thus enhance genetic contrasts among colonies. We discuss the effect of evolutionary and environmental factors as well as reproductive and dispersal modes on population genetic structure. PMID:26357538

  3. Termites as targets and models for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Michael E

    2015-01-07

    Termites have many unique evolutionary adaptations associated with their eusocial lifestyles. Recent omics research has created a wealth of new information in numerous areas of termite biology (e.g., caste polyphenism, lignocellulose digestion, and microbial symbiosis) with wide-ranging applications in diverse biotechnological niches. Termite biotechnology falls into two categories: (a) termite-targeted biotechnology for pest management purposes, and (b) termite-modeled biotechnology for use in various industrial applications. The first category includes several candidate termiticidal modes of action such as RNA interference, digestive inhibition, pathogen enhancement, antimicrobials, endocrine disruption, and primer pheromone mimicry. In the second category, termite digestomes are deep resources for host and symbiont lignocellulases and other enzymes with applications in a variety of biomass, industrial, and processing applications. Moving forward, one of the most important approaches for accelerating advances in both termite-targeted and termite-modeled biotechnology will be to consider host and symbiont together as a single functional unit.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Microbial Diversity in Termite Gut and Termite Nest Using Ion Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjula, Arumugam; Pushpanathan, Muthuirulan; Sathyavathi, Sundararaju; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2016-03-01

    Termite gut and termite nest possess complex microbial communities. However, only limited information is available on the comparative investigation of termite gut- and nest-associated microbial communities. In the present study, we examined and compared the bacterial diversity of termite gut and their respective nest by high-throughput sequencing of V3 hypervariable region of 16S rDNA. A total of 14 barcoded libraries were generated from seven termite gut samples and their respective nest samples, and sequenced using Ion Torrent platform. The sequences of each group were pooled, which yielded 170,644 and 132,000 reads from termite gut and termite nest samples, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed significant differences in the bacterial diversity and community structure between termite gut and termite nest samples. Phyla Verrucomicrobia and Acidobacteria were observed only in termite gut, whereas Synergistetes and Chlorobi were observed only in termite nest samples. These variations in microbial structure and composition could be attributed with the differences in physiological conditions prevailing in the termite gut (anoxic and alkaline) and termite nest (oxic, slightly acidic and rich in organic matter) environment. Overall, this study unmasked the complexity of bacterial population in the respective niche. Interestingly, majority of the sequence reads could be classified only up to the domain level indicating the presence of a huge number of uncultivable or unidentified novel bacterial species in both termite gut and nest samples. Whole metagenome sequencing and assessing the metabolic potential of these samples will be useful for biotechnological applications.

  5. Contribution to the study of insects (Arthropoda:Insecta associated with the genus Ixora L. (Angiospermae: Rubiaceae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Dias Trindade

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to register insects (Arthropoda: Insecta associated with genus Ixora L. (Angiospermae: Rubiaceae and contribute the knowledge about this popular tropical ornamental plant in Brazil. For this study, we detected the presence of insects in solid or isolated plants of Ixora spp., and greenhouses, between the period 2004 and 2012. It was pointed out for the first time on I. chinensis Lam.: Syntermes dirus (Burmeister, 1839 (Isoptera: Termitidae, Aspidiotus destructor (Signoret, 1869 and Chrysomphalus aonidum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Hemiptera: Diaspididae, Praelongorthezia praelonga (Douglas, 1891 (Hemiptera: Ortheziidae and Camponotus sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae. Studies registered for the first time on I. coccinea L.: Aleurothrixus aepim (Goeldi, 1886 and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae Eucalymnatus sp., Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner, 1861 and Saissetia olae (Olivier, 1791 (Hemiptera: Coccidae, and Camponotus sp. It was observed first on I. macrothyrsa Teijsm. & Binn. N. E. Br.: Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell, 1895, Aleurotrachelus sp. (Aleyrodidae, Aphis (Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy, 1907 and Myzus (Nectarosiphon persicae (Sulzer, 1778 (Hemiptera: Aphididae Harmonia sp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, Camponotus sp. This paper contributes to the study of these important ornamental plants, presenting for the first time a list of associated insects. This work also creates conditions for future studies.

  6. Ação dos térmitas no solo Termites action on the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Victor de Oliveira Ferreira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A ordem Isoptera é bastante conhecida pelo seu potencial como praga, apesar dos cupins-praga constituírem a minoria dentro do grupo. Os cupins (térmitas são invertebrados dominantes em ambientes terrestres tropicais e estão espalhados desde as florestas úmidas até as savanas, sendo encontrados até mesmo em regiões áridas, nos mais variados habitats. Esses insetos têm um papel destacado e ainda pouco estudado nos ecossistemas tropicais. Ciclagem de nutrientes, aeração, infiltração de água do solo, bioturbação, formação de agregados e decomposição de material orgânico, são processos influenciados pela ação dos térmitas, que vão, direta ou indiretamente, influenciar a formação dos solos e da paisagem onde se encontram. Sugerimos que uma maior abordagem deva ser dirigida em futuras pesquisas para a influência desses insetos no solo sob condições específicas de uso e manejo, na produção sustentável de alimentos e nas mudanças climáticas.The order Isoptera is well known by its potential as a plague, although the number of species that are plagues is small within the group. Termites are the dominant invertebrates in tropical terrestrial environments and are spread from tropical rainforests to the savannahs, being found even in arid regions, in various habitats. These insects have a major role and are still little studied in tropical ecosystems. Nutrient cycling, aeration, water infiltration of soil, bioturbation, aggregates formation and organic material decomposition, are processes influenced by the action of termites, which , directly or indirectly, affect soil and landscape formation wherever they are. We suggest that a better approach must be addressed in future researches about these insects influence in the soil under specified conditions of use and management, in sustainable food production and climate changes.

  7. Review of termite forest ecology and opportunities to investigate the relationship of termites to fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Peterson

    2010-01-01

    In forests, termites serve as “soil engineers,” translocating mineral soil to the surface, constructing macropores to improve water infiltration, increase soil minerals and organic carbon, facilitate the growth of microbes and affect the growth of vegetation. The future productivity of a forest site therefore depends to some degree on termite activity. Termites could...

  8. Egg care by termite soldiers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanus, Robert; Šobotník, Jan; Čížek, Lukáš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 52, - (2005), 357-359 ISSN 0020-1812 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/05/2146 Grant - others:NSF(US) DEB-97-07928; NSF(US) DEB-02-11591 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : termite soldier * egg transport Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.618, year: 2005

  9. Termite-egg mimicry by a sclerotium-forming fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Kenji

    2006-05-22

    Mimicry has evolved in a wide range of organisms and encompasses diverse tactics for defence, foraging, pollination and social parasitism. Here, I report an extraordinary case of egg mimicry by a fungus, whereby the fungus gains competitor-free habitat in termite nests. Brown fungal balls, called 'termite balls', are frequently found in egg piles of Reticulitermes termites. Phylogenetic analysis illustrated that termite-ball fungi isolated from different hosts (Reticulitermes speratus, Reticulitermes flavipes and Reticulitermes virginicus) were all very similar, with no significant molecular differences among host species or geographical locations. I found no significant effect of termite balls on egg survivorship. The termite-ball fungus rarely kills termite eggs in natural colonies. Even a termite species (Reticulitermes okinawanus) with no natural association with the fungus tended termite balls along with its eggs when it was experimentally provided with termite balls. Dummy-egg bioassays using glass beads showed that both morphological and chemical camouflage were necessary to induce tending by termites. Termites almost exclusively tended termite balls with diameters that exactly matched their egg size. Moreover, scanning electron microscopic observations revealed sophisticated mimicry of the smooth surface texture of eggs. These results provide clear evidence that this interaction is beneficial only for the fungus, i.e. termite balls parasitically mimic termite eggs.

  10. Integrating Ethno-Ecological and Scientific Knowledge of Termites for Sustainable Termite Management and Human Welfare in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudeta W. Sileshi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite their well-known role as pests, termites also provide essential ecosystem services. In this paper, we undertook a comprehensive review of studies on human-termite interactions and farmers' indigenous knowledge across Sub-Saharan Africa in an effort to build coherent principles for termite management. The review revealed that local communities have comprehensive indigenous knowledge of termite ecology and taxonomy, and apply various indigenous control practices. Many communities also have elaborate knowledge of the nutritional and medicinal value of termites and mushrooms associated with termite nests. Children and women also widely consume termite mound soil for nutritional or other benefits encouraged by indigenous belief systems. In addition, subsistence farmers use termites as indicators of soil fertility, and use termite mound soil in low-risk farming strategies for crop production. In the past, chemical control of termites has been initiated without empirical data on the termite species, their damage threshold, and the social, ecological, or economic risks and trade-offs of the control. This review has provided new insights into the intimate nature of human-termite interactions in Africa and the risks of chemical control of termites to human welfare and the environment. We recommend that management of termites in future should be built on farmers' indigenous knowledge and adequate understanding of the ecology of the local termite species.

  11. Trace elements in termites by PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, T. E-mail: tsuyoshi@termite.kuwri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kagemori, N.; Kawai, S.; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S

    2002-04-01

    Trace elements in a Japanese subterranean xylophagous termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were analyzed by the PIXE method. The total amount of the 14 predominant elements out of 27 detected in an intact termite was higher in a soldier termite (23 000 {mu}g/g) than in a worker termite (10 000 {mu}g/g). A block of wood (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) for termite feed had a much lower concentration (3600 {mu}g/g) compared with that in an intact termite. This probably relates the functional bio-condensation and/or bio-recycling of trace elements in C. formosanus. When a termite was separated into three anatomical parts, head, degutted body and gut, the worker gut contained the highest total amount of the 14 predominant measured elements (31 000 {mu}g/g). This might be correlated with the higher activity of food digestion and energy production in the worker gut. Moreover, the mandible of the soldier head, with an exoskeleton that is intensely hardened, showed a preferential distribution of Mn and Fe. These results suggest that the characteristic localization of elements will be closely related to the functional role of the individual anatomical part of C. formosanus.

  12. NEW DISTRIBUTION RECORD OF Cryptotermes brevis (ISOPTERA, KALOTERMITIDAE) IN ARGENTINA

    OpenAIRE

    JUAN MANUEL CORONEL; ENRIQUE LAFFONT; CELINA GODOY; CLARA ETCHEVERRY; MARCELA OBREGÓN

    2014-01-01

     The first record of the West Indian drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis  (Walker, 1853) in the city of Corrientes (Argentina) is reported. Several C. brevis  colonies were detected inside a local deposit, from wooden crates used for carrying fresh fruits. The observed damage consisted of small rounded holes, partially hollowed wood pieces and presence of debris. The importance of weather factors and the type of material of vegetable and fruit containers in the colonization and dispersion of ...

  13. The ontogeny of soldiers in Prorhinotermes simplex (Isoptera, Rhinotermitidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanus, Robert; Šobotník, Jan; Valterová, Irena; Lukáš, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2006), s. 249-257 ISSN 0020-1812 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/05/2146; GA ČR GA206/06/1643 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : termite soldiers * ontogeny * biochemistry * defensive secretion Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.481, year: 2006

  14. Predation by Megaponera foetens (Fabr.) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on termites in the Nigerian southern Guinea Savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, C; Johnson, R A; Wood, T G

    1978-01-01

    At Mokwa, in the Nigerian southern Guinea Savanna, Macrotermitinae are the only recorded prey of the obligate termite predator, Megaponera foetens. The main prey species is Macrotermes bellicosus (141 termites m -2 a -1 ) followed by Odontotermes spp. (42 termites m -2 a -1 ). Predation on other species, Ancistrotermes cavithorax, Macrotermes subhyalinus and Microtermes spp., amounts to only 10 termites m -2 a -1 . Macrotermes bellicosus is not the most abundant termite in the primary savanna. It is concluded that factors including termite abundance, termite foraging regimes and seasonality, termite biomass and the reactions of the ants to the termites and their products are involved in successful predation of termites by Megaponera.

  15. Nest-Gallery Development and Caste Composition of Isolated Foraging Groups of the Drywood Termite, Incisitermes minor (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmi, S Khoirul; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi; Yanase, Yoshiyuki; Oya, Masao; Torigoe, Toshiyuki; Akada, Masanori; Imadzu, Setsuo

    2016-07-22

    An X-ray computed-tomographic examination of nest-gallery development from timbers naturally infested by foraging groups of Incisitermes minor colonies was conducted. This study documents the colonization process of I. minor to new timbers and how the isolated groups maintain their nest-gallery system. The results suggested that development of a nest-gallery within a suitable wood item is not random, but shows selection for softer substrate and other adaptations to the different timber environments. Stigmergic coordinations were expressed in dynamic changes of the nest-gallery system; indicated by fortification behavior in sealing and re-opening a tunnel approaching the outer edge of the timber, and accumulating fecal pellets in particular chambers located beneath the timber surface. The study also examines the caste composition of isolated groups to discover how I. minor sustains colonies with and without primary reproductives.

  16. Biflora-4,10(19),15-triene: a new diterpene from a termite soldier (isoptera termitidae termitinae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiemer, D.F. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY); Meinwald, J.; Prestwich, G.D.; Solheim, B.A.; Clardy, J.

    1980-01-04

    This communication describes spectrometric, chemical, and x-ray diffraction studies leading to the assignment of the structure to this diterpene. The name assigned is biflora-4,10(19),15-triene on the basis of its skeletal relationship to the violet-red, o-quinonoid antibiotic biflorin, a constituent of the Brazilian medicinal plant Capraria biflora L. The triene was isolated from a hexane extract. The mass spectra and NMR spectra were measured. The compound was esterified with p-bromobenzoyl chloride. The p-bromobenzoate crystallized in the monoclinic crystal system. Lattice parameters were measured. Intensity data were collected on a fully automated four-circle diffractometer. 1666 unique reflections were judged observed after correction for Lorentz, polarization, and background effects. The bromine position was deduced from the Patterson synthesis with complications. Careful selection of atoms finally yielded the correct structure. Full-matrix least-square refinements converged to the current minimum crystallographic residual of 0.090. A computer-generated perspective drawing of the final x-ray model is shown. 1 figure.

  17. Nest-Gallery Development and Caste Composition of Isolated Foraging Groups of the Drywood Termite, Incisitermes minor (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khoirul Himmi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An X-ray computed-tomographic examination of nest-gallery development from timbers naturally infested by foraging groups of Incisitermes minor colonies was conducted. This study documents the colonization process of I. minor to new timbers and how the isolated groups maintain their nest-gallery system. The results suggested that development of a nest-gallery within a suitable wood item is not random, but shows selection for softer substrate and other adaptations to the different timber environments. Stigmergic coordinations were expressed in dynamic changes of the nest-gallery system; indicated by fortification behavior in sealing and re-opening a tunnel approaching the outer edge of the timber, and accumulating fecal pellets in particular chambers located beneath the timber surface. The study also examines the caste composition of isolated groups to discover how I. minor sustains colonies with and without primary reproductives.

  18. Sexual communication in the termite Prorhinotermes simplex (Isoptera, Rhinotermitidae) mediated by a pheromone from female tergal glands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanus, Robert; Luxová, Anna; Šobotník, Jan; Kalinová, Blanka; Jiroš, Pavel; Křeček, J.; Bourguignon, T.; Bordereau, Ch.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2009), s. 111-118 ISSN 0020-1812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600550614 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : sex pheromone * Prorhinotermes * GC-EAD * tergal glands * dodecatrienol Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.480, year: 2009

  19. Phylogenetic diversity of termite gut spirochaetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilburn, T G; Schmidt, T M; Breznak, J A

    1999-08-01

    A molecular phylogenetic analysis was done of not-yet-cultured spirochaetes inhabiting the gut of the termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar). Ninety-eight clones of near-full-length spirochaetal 16S rDNA genes were classified by ARDRA pattern and by partial sequencing. All clones grouped within the genus Treponema, and at least 21 new species of Treponema were recognized within R. flavipes alone. Analysis of 190 additional clones from guts of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Zootermopsis angusticollis (Hagen), as well as published data on clones from Cryptotermes domesticus (Haviland), Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt, Nasutitermes lujae (Wasmann) and Reticulitermes speratus(Kolbe), revealed a similar level of novel treponemal phylogenetic diversity in these representatives of five of the seven termite families. None of the clones was closely related (i.e. all bore termite gut spirochaete clones; another containing the majority of termite spirochaete clones and two Spirochaeta (S. caldaria and S. stenostrepta), which, although free living, group within the genus Treponema on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence. Signature nucleotides that almost perfectly distinguished the latter group, herein referred to as the 'termite cluster', occurred at the following (E. coli numbering) positions: 289-G x C-311; A at 812; and an inserted nucleotide at 1273. The emerging picture is that the long-recognized and striking morphological diversity of termite gut spirochaetes is paralleled by their phylogenetic diversity and may reflect substantial physiological diversity as well.

  20. Cultural significance of termites in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    van Huis, Arnold

    2017-01-01

    Background: The number of termite species in the world is more than 2500, and Africa with more than 1000 species has the richest intercontinental diversity. The family Termitidae contains builders of great mounds up to 5 m high. Colonies are composed of casts: a queen, a king, soldiers and workers. Some species of termite cultivate specialised fungi to digest cellulose. Termites constitute 10% of all animal biomass in the tropics. The purpose of the study was to make an overview of how termit...

  1. The hindgut lumen prokaryotic microbiota of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes and its responses to dietary lignocellulose composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucias, Drion G; Cai, Yunpeng; Sun, Yijun; Lietze, Verena-Ulrike; Sen, Ruchira; Raychoudhury, Rhitoban; Scharf, Michael E

    2013-04-01

    Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) is a highly eusocial insect that thrives on recalcitrant lignocellulosic diets through nutritional symbioses with gut-dwelling prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In the R. flavipes hindgut, there are up to 12 eukaryotic protozoan symbionts; the number of prokaryotic symbionts has been estimated in the hundreds. Despite its biological relevance, this diverse community, to date, has been investigated only by culture- and cloning-dependent methods. Moreover, it is unclear how termite gut microbiomes respond to diet changes and what roles they play in lignocellulose digestion. This study utilized high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of 16S V5-V6 amplicons to sample the hindgut lumen prokaryotic microbiota of R. flavipes and to examine compositional changes in response to lignin-rich and lignin-poor cellulose diets after a 7-day feeding period. Of the ~475,000 high-quality reads that were obtained, 99.9% were annotated as bacteria and 0.11% as archaea. Major bacterial phyla included Spirochaetes (24.9%), Elusimicrobia (19.8%), Firmicutes (17.8%), Bacteroidetes (14.1%), Proteobacteria (11.4%), Fibrobacteres (5.8%), Verrucomicrobia (2.0%), Actinobacteria (1.4%) and Tenericutes (1.3%). The R. flavipes hindgut lumen prokaryotic microbiota was found to contain over 4761 species-level phylotypes. However, diet-dependent shifts were not statistically significant or uniform across colonies, suggesting significant environmental and/or host genetic impacts on colony-level microbiome composition. These results provide insights into termite gut microbiome diversity and suggest that (i) the prokaryotic gut microbiota is much more complex than previously estimated, and (ii) environment, founding reproductive pair effects and/or host genetics influence microbiome composition. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Cellulolytic activity of gut extract of subterranean termite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Termites are well known for the ability to digest lignocelluloses, using it as a sole food source. To effectively digest ligonocellulose/wood, termites produce an array of enzymes along with the help of microbial and protist symbionts. Subterranean termite, like Odontotermes obesus, devoid of protist symbiont in their hind gut ...

  3. Termite species richness, composition and diversity on five farms in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted on five farms in former Damaraland, a communal farming area in arid northwestern Namibia. The aims of the survey were to establish termite inventories for each site and to investigate whether termite diversity is determined by land-use history and land-use intensity. Overall, termite diversity in ...

  4. Termite activity in relation to natural grassland soil attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaschuk, G.; Pires Santos, J.C.; Almeida, J.A.; Sinhorati, D.S.; Berton-Junior, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Soil-feeding termites transport soil for mound building, and this process can affect soil characteristics. To verify the influence of soil termite activity on soil characteristics, samples were collected from top, bottom and center of termite mounds, and of the adjacent area, to assess chemical and

  5. Morphology and phylogeny of Reticulitermes sp. (Isoptera, Rhinotermitidae) from Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghesini, S; Marini, M

    2012-12-01

    Taxonomy and phylogeny of termites of the genus Reticulitermes in central and eastern Mediterranean lands are poorly understood, partly due to insufficient sampling. This study aims to contribute to the knowledge of east Mediterranean termites by presenting morphological and molecular data on Reticulitermes from Cyprus. Samples from 15 colonies were collected throughout the island. Qualitative and quantitative morphological characters were analyzed for alate and soldier castes. Partial sequences of the mitochondrial genes COII and 16S were used to evaluate genetic diversity of Cypriot colonies and to determine their phylogenetic relationships with taxa from central and eastern Mediterranean areas. Cypriot alates have some morphological features in common with the Israeli R. clypeatus: an enlarged postclypeus and a wide unpigmented margin of the eye. They are larger than R. clypeatus but smaller than western European species, such as R. banyulensis, R. lucifugus corsicus and R. grassei. For Cypriot soldiers, two size groups were identified, possibly in relation with the age of their mother colonies. Phylogenetic analysis shows that, contrary to what might be expected, the samples with the highest affinity with Cypriot samples are not those from the nearby mainland (south Turkey, Israel), but from north-eastern Greece. Comprehensive sampling in the nearby mainland is lacking, so the possibility that populations exist it that region with an affinity towards Cypriot Reticulitermes sp. cannot be ruled out. Together with samples from the Halkidiki peninsula, north-eastern Greece, northern Turkey and Crete, Cypriot Reticulitermes form a well-supported north-eastern Mediterranean clade.

  6. Lower Termite Associations with Microbes: Synergy, Protection, and Interplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Faye Peterson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Lower-termites are one of the best studied symbiotic systems in insects. Their ability to feed on a nitrogen-poor, wood-based diet with help from symbiotic microbes has been under investigation for almost a century. A unique microbial consortium living in the guts of lower termites is essential for wood-feeding, host and symbiont cellulolytic enzymes synergize each other in the termite gut to increase digestive efficiency. Because of their critical role in digestion, gut microbiota are driving forces in all aspects termite biology. Social living also comes with risks for termites. The combination of group living and a microbe-rich habitat makes termites potentially vulnerable to pathogenic infections; however, the use of entomopathogens for termite control has been largely unsuccessful. One mechanism for this failure may be symbiotic collaboration; i.e., one of the very reasons termites have thrived in the first place. Symbiont contributions are thought to neutralize fungal spores as they pass through the termite gut. Also, when the symbiont community is disrupted pathogen susceptibility increases. These recent discoveries have shed light on novel interactions for symbiotic microbes both within the termite host and with pathogenic invaders. Lower-termite biology is therefore tightly linked to symbiotic associations and their resulting physiological collaborations.

  7. EFFECTS OF HABITAT CHARACTERIZATION ON THE ABUNDANCE AND ACTIVITY OF SUBTERRANEAN TERMITES IN ARID SOUTHEASTERN NEW MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitermes wheeleri was the most abundant termite species in most of the habitats. Gnathamitermes tubiformans was the most abundant subterranean termite species in habitats dominated by creosotebush, Larrea tridentata. Subterranean termite abundance measured by numbers of termit...

  8. Exploring the Potential for Actinobacteria as Defensive Symbionts in Fungus-Growing Termites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.A.; Mesquita Nobre, T.; Currie, C.R.; Aanen, D.K.; Poulsen, M.

    2012-01-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play a

  9. No evidence for an elephant-termite feedback loop in Sand Forest, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagendijk, D. D G; Davies, A. B.; Eggleton, P.; Slotow, R.

    2016-01-01

    Termites and mammalian herbivores might derive mutual benefit from each other through positive feedback loops, but empirical evidence is lacking. One suggested positive feedback loop is between termites and elephant, both ecosystem engineers. Termites, as decomposer organisms, contribute to nutrient

  10. Genetic Analysis of Termite Colonies in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Arango; D.A. Marschalek; F. Green III; K.F. Raffa; M.E. Berres

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document current areas of subterranean termite activity in Wisconsin and to evaluate genetic characteristics of these northern, peripheral colonies. Here, amplified fragment-length polymorphism was used to characterize levels of inbreeding, expected heterozygosity, and percent polymorphism within colonies as well as genetic structure...

  11. Insecta. La búsqueda de la clasificación perfecta Insecta. Searching for the perfect classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Muzón

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. La historia de la clasificación de los insectos es analizada desde el punto de vista de sus relaciones externas (e.g., Unirramia, Mandibulata, Atelocerata, Pancrustacea e internas (e.g., Hexapoda, Insecta, Entognatha, Ectognatha, Dicondylia, Apterygota, Pterygota, Paleoptera, Neoptera. Se consideran las fuentes de caracteres y las posturas filogenéticas que justifican los distintos taxones propuestos.ABSTRACT. The history of classifications of insects is revised from its relationships within Arthropoda (e.g., Unirramia, Mandibulata, Atelocerata, Pancrustacea and major supraordinal groups (e.g., Hexapoda, Insecta, Entognatha, Ectognatha, Dicondylia, Apterygota, Pterygota, Paleoptera, Neoptera. Main kinds of characters and phylogenetic schemes are considered.

  12. A genomic comparison of two termites with different social complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korb, Judith; Thomas-Poulsen, Michael; Hu, Haofu

    2015-01-01

    The termites evolved eusociality and complex societies before the ants, but have been studied much less. The recent publication of the first two termite genomes provides a unique comparative opportunity, particularly because the sequenced termites represent opposite ends of the social complexity...... spectrum. Zootermopsis nevadensis has simple colonies with totipotent workers that can develop into all castes (dispersing reproductives, nest-inheriting replacement reproductives, and soldiers). In contrast, the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis belongs to the higher termites and has very...... large and complex societies with morphologically distinct castes that are life-time sterile. Here we compare key characteristics of genomic architecture, focusing on genes involved in communication, immune defenses, mating biology and symbiosis that were likely important in termite social evolution. We...

  13. A genomic comparison of two termites with different social complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith eKorb

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The termites evolved eusociality and complex societies before the ants, but have been studied much less. The recent publication of the first two termite genomes provides a unique comparative opportunity, particularly because the sequenced termites represent opposite ends of the social complexity spectrum. Zootermopsis nevadensis has simple colonies with totipotent workers that can develop into all castes (dispersing reproductives, nest-inheriting replacement reproductives, and soldiers. In contrast, the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis belongs to the higher termites and has very large and complex societies with morphologically distinct castes that are life-time sterile. Here we compare key characteristics of genomic architecture, focusing on genes involved in communication, immune defenses, mating biology and symbiosis that were likely important in termite social evolution. We discuss these in relation to what is known about these genes in the ants and outline hypotheses for further testing.

  14. Potential for nitrogen fixation in fungus-growing termite symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapountzis, Panagiotis; de Verges, Jane; Rousk, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    Termites host a gut microbiota of diverse and essential symbionts that enable specialization on dead plant material; an abundant, but nutritionally imbalanced food source. To supplement the severe shortage of dietary nitrogen (N), some termite species make use of diazotrophic bacteria to fix...... atmospheric nitrogen (N2). Fungus-growing termites (subfamily Macrotermitinae) host a fungal exosymbiont (genus Termitomyces) that provides digestive services and the main food source for the termites. This has been thought to obviate the need for N2-fixation by bacterial symbionts. Here, we challenge...... this notion by performing acetylene reduction assays of live colony material to show that N2 fixation is present in two major genera (Macrotermes and Odontotermes) of fungus-growing termites. We compare and discuss fixation rates in relation to those obtained from other termites, and suggest avenues...

  15. Termite Diversity in Urban Landscape, South Jakarta, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Arinana Arinana; Rifat Aldina; Dodi Nandika; Aunu Rauf; Idham S. Harahap; I Made Sumertajaya; Effendi Tri Bahtiar

    2016-01-01

    The population of South Jakarta, a city within the Province of Jakarta Capital Region, is increasing annually, and the development of land into building causes termite diversity loss. The aim of this research was to determine the diversity of subterranean termite species and their distribution in South Jakarta and to evaluate the soil profile termite habitat. This study was conducted in South Jakarta and was carried out at four residential areas representing four randomly selected sub-distric...

  16. Mildew fungi found in termites (Reticulitermes lucifugus and their nests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wójcik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of observation of mould growth in laboratory colonies of termites. It also attempts to determine the species of mould fungi present in the research laboratory and the main colonies and their entomopathogenic for the termites. The following four species were found in test termite colonies: Trichoderme viride, Mucor himeralis, Rhizopus nigricans, Aspergillus sp., Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria sp., Penicylium verucosum and Fusarium sp. were recognisable in test colonies with domestic and exotic wood. Morphological observations of the fungi were carried out using a microscope with a 40x magnification. The growth of mould fungi in test containers caused death of whole termite colonies.

  17. Explosive Backpacks in Old Termite Workers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šobotník, Jan; Bourguignon, T.; Hanus, Robert; Demianova, Zuzana; Pytelková, Jana; Mareš, Michael; Foltynová, P.; Preisler, J.; Cvačka, Josef; Krasulová, Jana; Roisin, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 337, č. 6093 (2012), s. 436-436 ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP525/09/P600 Grant - others:CEITEC(CZ) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0068; GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/12/0538 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Neocapritermes taracua * chemical defense * termites * worker defense * suicidal defense Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 31.027, year: 2012

  18. Identifying the core microbial community in the gut of fungus-growing termites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otani, S.; Mikaelyan, A.; Nobre, T.; Hansen, L.H.; Kone, N.A.; Sorensen, S.J.; Aanen, D.K.; Boomsma, J.J.; Brune, A.; Poulsen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbes play a crucial role in decomposing lignocellulose to fuel termite societies, with protists in the lower termites and prokaryotes in the higher termites providing these services. However, a single basal subfamily of the higher termites, the Macrotermitinae, also domesticated a plant

  19. Aerodynamics of Ventilation in Termite Mounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailoor, Shantanu; Yaghoobian, Neda; Turner, Scott; Mittal, Rajat

    2017-11-01

    Fungus-cultivating termites collectively build massive, complex mounds which are much larger than the size of an individual termite and effectively use natural wind and solar energy, as well as the energy generated by the colony's own metabolic activity to maintain the necessary environmental condition for the colony's survival. We seek to understand the aerodynamics of ventilation and thermoregulation of termite mounds through computational modeling. A simplified model accounting for key mound features, such as soil porosity and internal conduit network, is subjected to external draft conditions. The role of surface flow conditions in the generation of internal flow patterns and the ability of the mound to transport gases and heat from the nursery are examined. The understanding gained from our study could be used to guide sustainable bio-inspired passive HVAC system design, which could help optimize energy utilization in commercial and residential buildings. This research is supported by a seed Grant from the Environment, Energy Sustainability and Health Institute of the Johns Hopkins University.

  20. The draft genome of a termite illuminates alternative social organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termites have substantial economic and ecological impact worldwide. They are also the oldest organisms living in complex societies, having evolved a caste system independent of that of eusocial Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps). Here we provide the first genome sequence for a termite, Zootermopsis ...

  1. Assessment of Termite Re-worked Lateritic Soil as Highway ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The geotechnical properties of termite reworked lateritic soils and their suitability for road construction have been evaluated for selected sites in south western Nigeria. The evaluation reveals that termite reworked soils have higher plastic limits, specific gravities, Maximum Dry Densities (MDD) and California Bearing Ratios ...

  2. Influence of Soil Properties on Soldierless Termite Distribution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bourguignon, T.; Drouet, T.; Šobotník, J.; Hanus, Robert; Roisin, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 8 (2015), e0135341/1-e0135341/11 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : tropical termites * soil-feeding termites * soil properties * soil preference Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0135341

  3. Indigenous methods of controlling termites in agroforestry systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    water run off into ant hills. Key words: Agroforestry, Indigenous Knowledge, and termites. ... Citrus lemon. 0.9. Sesbania sesban. 0.9. Maesopsis eminii. 2.6. Pinus patula. 1.9. Table 1: Agroforestry tree species found planted by respondents in selected districts of Uganda. Table 2 . Agroforestry tree species prone to termite ...

  4. Resistance of treated rubber wood ( Hevea brasiliensis ) to termite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 24 and 36 weeks respectively). The better performance of CCA over CNSL, with respect to resistance to termite degrade, follows the same trend as preservative absorption in the test samples. Keywords: Rubberwood, Copper Chromium Arsenate, Cashew Nut Shell Liquid, Termites Bowen Journal of Agriculture Vol.

  5. Termite Resistance of MDF Panels Treated with Various Boron Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Ondaral

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of various boron compounds on the termite resistance of MDF panels were evaluated. Either borax (BX, boric acid (BA, zinc borate (ZB, or sodium perborate tetrahydrate (SPT were added to urea-formaldehyde (UF resin at target contents of 1%, 1.5%, 2% and 2.5% based on dry fiber weight. The panels were then manufactured using 12% urea-formaldehyde resin and 1% NH4Cl. MDF samples from the panels were tested against the subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Laboratory termite resistance tests showed that all samples containing boron compounds had greater resistance against termite attack compared to untreated MDF samples. At the second and third weeks of exposure, nearly 100% termite mortalities were recorded in all boron compound treated samples. The highest termite mortalities were determined in the samples with either BA or BX. Also, it was found that SPT showed notable performance on the termite mortality. As chemical loadings increased, termite mortalities increased, and at the same time the weight losses of the samples decreased.

  6. Infections associated with edible termites and their public health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The species of bacteria isolated from termite's intestine included Escherichia coli (37.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (15.09%), Klebsiella spp (24.53%) and Streptococcus faecalis (22.64%). Over 50% of inhabitants-cum-consumers were unaware of possible acquisition and transmission of infections by termites. The medical ...

  7. Termite Population Dynamics in Arenic Kandiudults as Influenced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Termites have been identified as one of the major pests of cassava in Nigeria especially on infested soils. Termite Population Dynamics in Arenic Kandiudults as Influenced by Tillage and Organic Manure Sources in a Cassava Farm in Owerri, Southeastern Nigeria, was investigated in this study. Three years of field trials ...

  8. Termite Species Distribution and Flight Periods on Oahu, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Reina L; Grace, J Kenneth; Mason, Makena; Krushelnycky, Paul D; Spafford, Helen; Aihara-Sasaki, Maria

    2017-06-05

    Termites are economically-important structural pests, costing residents of Hawaii over $100 million annually. On Oahu, the last published termite swarming survey occurred from 1969 to 1971, and the last termite hand-collection survey occurred from 1998 to 2000. To contribute data on termite occurrences on Oahu, a light-trap survey took place from February 2011 to September 2012, and a hand-collection survey occurred from September to November 2012. Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, swarming was compared over the duration of the study, finding peak swarming in May 2011. C. formosanus alate activity density was regressed with environmental factors, finding a negative correlation with average wind speed and a positive correlation with average rainfall. Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) alates were observed in April, June, and July 2011 and in June 2012. Four species of termites were found in the hand-collection survey of 44 sites: Incisitermes immigrans (Snyder) ( n = 8/44), C. formosanus ( n = 2/44), Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light ( n = 1/44), and Neotermes sp. ( n = 1/44). This study contributes to distribution data for termite species on Oahu and records alate activity for two important termite pests.

  9. Diversity of Hindgut Bacterial Population in Subterranean Termite, Reticulitermes flavipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanrewaju Raji; Dragica Jeremic-Nikolic; Juliet D. Tang

    2017-01-01

    The termite hindgut contains a bacterial community that symbiotically aids in digestion of cellulosic materials. For this paper, a species survey of bacterial hindgut symbionts in termites collected from Saucier, Mississippi was examined. Two methods were tested for optimal genetic material isolation. Genomic DNA was isolated from the hindgut luminal contents of five...

  10. Influence of insecticide treatments on damaging termite population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of insecticide treatments on damaging termite population of rice and maize crops in Savanna (Lamto and Booro-Borotou, Cote d'lvoire) : Influence des traitements insecticides sur les populations de termites nuisibles aux cultures de riz et de mais en milieu de savane (Lamto et Booro-Borotou,Cote d'Lvoire).

  11. Stability of termite mound populations in a variable environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of all the climatic variables in the environment of termites in southern Kenya, only rainfall shows marked seasonality and unpredictability. But despite the great variability in rainfall patterns, the populations of termite mounds of various species in three well-separated study areas remained remarkably constant over a period ...

  12. Molecular diversity and host specificity of termite-associated Xylaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedegbe, Herbert J; Miambi, Edouard; Pando, Anne; Houngnandan, Pascal; Rouland-Lefevre, Corinne

    2009-01-01

    Studies have revealed that some Xylaria species were closely associated with fungus-growing termite nests. However this relationship rarely had been investigated and the host specificity of termite-associated Xylaria was not yet clearly established. Eighteen Xylaria rDNA-ITS sequences were obtained from fungus combs belonging to 11 Macrotermitinae species from eight regions. Low diversity was found between isolates, and nine sequences were retrieved. Termite-associated Xylaria were shown to be monophyletic, with three main clades, all including strains from various termite hosts and geographical localities. This new molecular study shows no species specificity with respect to fungus-growing termites, which suggests that there might be substrate specialization.

  13. Diet Segregation between Cohabiting Builder and Inquiline Termite Species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Florencio, D. F.; Marins, A.; Rosa, C. S.; Cristaldo, Paulo Fellipe; Araújo, A. P. A.; Silva, I. R.; DeSouza, O.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 6 (2013), e66535/1-e66535/9 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cornitermes-cumulans isoptera * macrotermes-bellicosus * ecology * coexistence Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013 http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0066535

  14. Brochosomes protect leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) from sticky exudates

    OpenAIRE

    Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2013-01-01

    Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with buckyball-shaped submicron proteinaceous secretory particles, called brochosomes. Here, we demonstrate that brochosomal coats, recently shown to be superhydrophobic, act as non-stick coatings and protect leafhoppers from contamination with their own sticky exudates—filtered plant sap. We exposed 137 wings of Alnetoidia alneti (Dahlbom), from half of which brochosomes were removed, to the rain of exudates under...

  15. Behaviour and Ecological Impacts of Termites: Fecundity Investigations in Mounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wako Sutuma Edessa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A radical study was conducted on the behaviour and ecological impacts of termites in Haru District of Western Oromia, Ethiopia. It was aimed at investigating the natural behaviour, fecundity in mounds, ecological impacts and recommending possible solutions to termite problems. Four mounds in different sites were vertically dug down to display the profile of the queen, soldiers, workers, number of laid eggs, nymphs and colonies of termites. On an average, termite queens of the study site may lay about 25 eggs per minute, 36, 000 eggs per day and 13, 140, 000 eggs annually. The fourth queen was unearthed to study the structure, size, number of ovaries and fecundity. It was examined that the death of a queen does not affect the colony, because four small queens are formed and one of them becomes the queen of queens and replaced the dead queen promptly. Accordingly, termites are found to be one of the most destructive agents of our ecosystems and their management requests careful and biological control methods. As a result, the negative effect of termites outweighs the positive effect of termites so that minimising the population size is important for human beings.

  16. Keefektifan Ekstrak Daun Carica Papaya Linn. Dengan Metode Racun Lambung Untuk Pengendalian Rayap Tanah Coptotermes SP. (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Zulyusri, Zulyusri; Desyanti, Desyanti; Ramadani, Rosi Fitri

    2012-01-01

    Termite Coptotermes sp. is one of the most harmful types of termite class of Rhinotermitidae,  Coptotermes genus. One of the controlling efforts is by using an extract of Carica papaya leaves. This study aims at finding out the effectiveness of the leaf extract Carica papaya on the termite Coptotermes sp. Mortality, as well as finding out the concentration of the extract  of papaya C. leaf highly effecting on controlling the termites Coptotermes sp. This was an experimental research with Comp...

  17. Response of Microtermes mycophagus (Isoptera: Termitidae to twenty one wood species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Iqbal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The responses of termite species to bait depend upon the quality of the food used in the stations. Woods are the most common food sources for termites but different termite species behave differently to different wood species and types. The knowledge of the preference status of different wood species to a termite species helps in effective monitoring and baiting program. The current study was carried out to evaluate the preference of 21 wood species to the termite, Microtermes mycophagus in the field by no-choice and choice feeding tests. The results indicated silk cotton tree and sacred fig woods as the most preferred wood species with mean mass losses of 71.21 ± 5.09% and 68.38 ± 7.27% in no-choice test and 95.02 ± 1.65% and 91.69 ± 2.07% in choice tests, respectively. White cedar was the least preferred wood species with mean mass losses of 7.49 ± 1.64% and 13.92 ± 1.89% in no choice and choice feeding tests, respectively. Based on present studies, sapwood of silk cotton tree and sacred fig may be used in effective monitoring and baiting program against M. mycophagus.

  18. Phenoloxidase activity in the infraorder Isoptera: unraveling life-history correlates of immune investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B.; Reichheld, Jennifer L.

    2016-02-01

    Within the area of ecological immunology, the quantification of phenoloxidase (PO) activity has been used as a proxy for estimating immune investment. Because termites have unique life-history traits and significant inter-specific differences exist regarding their nesting and foraging habits, comparative studies on PO activity can shed light on the general principles influencing immune investment against the backdrop of sociality, reproductive potential, and gender. We quantified PO activity across four termite species ranging from the phylogenetically basal to the most derived, each with their particular nesting/foraging strategies. Our data indicate that PO activity varies across species, with soil-dwelling termites exhibiting significantly higher PO levels than the above-ground wood nester species which in turn have higher PO levels than arboreal species. Moreover, our comparative approach suggests that pathogenic risks can override reproductive potential as a more important driver of immune investment. No gender-based differences in PO activities were recorded. Although termite PO activity levels vary in accordance with a priori predictions made from life-history theory, our data indicate that nesting and foraging strategies (and their resulting pathogenic pressures) can supersede reproductive potential and other life-history traits in influencing investment in PO. Termites, within the eusocial insects, provide a unique perspective for inferring how different ecological pressures may have influenced immune function in general and their levels of PO activity, in particular.

  19. Fungus-Growing Termites Originated in African Rain Forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur Kornelis; Eggleton, Paul

    2005-01-01

    of habitat switching [ 4 ] repeated over all phylogenetic trees sampled in a Bayesian analysis of molecular data [ 5 ]. Our reconstructions provide strong evidence that termite agriculture originated in African rain forest and that the main radiation leading to the extant genera occurred there. Because...... are consumed (cf. [ [1] and [2] ]). Fungus-growing termites are found throughout the Old World tropics, in rain forests and savannas, but are ecologically dominant in savannas [ 3 ]. Here, we reconstruct the ancestral habitat and geographical origin of fungus-growing termites. We used a statistical model...

  20. Terpenos em cupins do gênero Nasutitermes (Isoptera, Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia N. S. de la Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the front gland of termites has been studied for over 40 years. The genus Nasutitermes, considered the most evolved of the Termitidae family, has a peculiarity that sets it apart from the others: a caste of soldiers that carry a terpenic mixture used in defense. This secretion is formed by mono, sesqui and diterpenes from trinervitane, kempane and rippertane skeletons, only found in termites. This article sought to review the scientific literature and contribute to the knowledge on the chemical composition of the secretion of the Nasutitermes soldiers from the interesting aspects of its behavior.

  1. The complexities of hydrolytic enzymes from the termite digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadeddin, Anas

    2014-06-01

    The main challenge in second generation bioethanol production is the efficient breakdown of cellulose to sugar monomers (hydrolysis). Due to the recalcitrant character of cellulose, feedstock pretreatment and adapted hydrolysis steps are needed to obtain fermentable sugar monomers. The conventional industrial production process of second-generation bioethanol from biomass comprises several steps: thermochemical pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and sugar fermentation. This process is undergoing continuous optimization in order to increase the bioethanol yield and reduce the economic cost. Therefore, the discovery of new enzymes with high lignocellulytic activity or new strategies is extremely important. In nature, wood-feeding termites have developed a sophisticated and efficient cellulose degrading system in terms of the rate and extent of cellulose hydrolysis and exploitation. This system, which represents a model for digestive symbiosis has attracted the attention of biofuel researchers. This review describes the termite digestive system, gut symbionts, termite enzyme resources, in vitro studies of isolated enzymes and lignin degradation in termites.

  2. Population Suppression of Subterranean Termites by Slow-Acting Toxicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan-Yao Su; Rudolf H. Scheffrahn

    1991-01-01

    Historic background and the concept of slow-acting toxicants for population suppression of subterranean termites are reviewed. Information needed for development of bait-toxicants and studies needed to generate such information are summarized.

  3. Multiple levels of synergistic collaboration in termite lignocellulose digestion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Scharf

    Full Text Available In addition to evolving eusocial lifestyles, two equally fascinating aspects of termite biology are their mutualistic relationships with gut symbionts and their use of lignocellulose as a primary nutrition source. Termites are also considered excellent model systems for studying the production of bioethanol and renewable bioenergy from 2nd generation (non-food feedstocks. While the idea that gut symbionts are the sole contributors to termite lignocellulose digestion has remained popular and compelling, in recent years host contributions to the digestion process have become increasingly apparent. However, the degree to which host and symbiont, and host enzymes, collaborate in lignocellulose digestion remain poorly understood. Also, how digestive enzymes specifically collaborate (i.e., in additive or synergistic ways is largely unknown. In the present study we undertook translational-genomic studies to gain unprecedented insights into digestion by the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes and its symbiotic gut flora. We used a combination of native gut tissue preparations and recombinant enzymes derived from the host gut transcriptome to identify synergistic collaborations between host and symbiont, and also among enzymes produced exclusively by the host termite. Our findings provide important new evidence of synergistic collaboration among enzymes in the release of fermentable monosaccharides from wood lignocellulose. These monosaccharides (glucose and pentoses are highly relevant to 2(nd-generation bioethanol production. We also show that, although significant digestion capabilities occur in host termite tissues, catalytic tradeoffs exist that apparently favor mutualism with symbiotic lignocellulose-digesting microbes. These findings contribute important new insights towards the development of termite-derived biofuel processing biotechnologies and shed new light on selective forces that likely favored symbiosis and, subsequently, group living in

  4. Layers of Symbiosis - Visualizing the Termite Hindgut Microbial Community

    OpenAIRE

    Leadbetter, Jared

    2007-01-01

    Jared Leadbetter takes us for a nature walk through the diversity of life resident in the termite hindgut - a microenvironment containing 250 different species found nowhere else on Earth. Jared reveals that the symbiosis exhibited by this system is multi-layered and involves not only a relationship between the termite and its gut inhabitants, but also involves a complex web of symbiosis among the gut microbes themselves.

  5. Layers of symbiosis--visualizing the termite hindgut microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbetter, Jared

    2007-01-01

    Jared Leadbetter takes us for a nature walk through the diversity of life resident in the termite hindgut--a microenvironment containing 250 different species found nowhere else on Earth. Jared reveals that the symbiosis exhibited by this system is multi-layered and involves not only a relationship between the termite and its gut inhabitants, but also involves a complex web of symbiosis among the gut microbes themselves.

  6. Nootkatone is a repellent for Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, B C; Henderson, G; Chen, F; Maistrello, L; Laine, R A

    2001-03-01

    We examined the behavior of Formosan subterranean termites toward one of the components of vetiver grass oil, the roots of which manufacture insect repellents. We found nootkatone, a sesquiterpene ketone, isolated from vetiver oil is a strong repellent and toxicant to Formosan subterranean termites. The lowest effective concentration tested was 10 micrograms/g substrate. This is the first report of nootkatone being a repellent to insects.

  7. Adaptations in bacterial and fungal communities to termite fungiculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otani, Saria

    Nearly 30 MYA, a subfamily of termites, Macrotermitinae, started an obligate mutualistic relationship with the basidiomycete fungus Termitomyces. Fungus-growing termites maintain the ectosymbiont in optimal growth conditions and Termitomyces provides the food source and an external plant decompos......Nearly 30 MYA, a subfamily of termites, Macrotermitinae, started an obligate mutualistic relationship with the basidiomycete fungus Termitomyces. Fungus-growing termites maintain the ectosymbiont in optimal growth conditions and Termitomyces provides the food source and an external plant...... in the bacterial and fungal communities. To do this, we used pyrosequencing, fluorescent in situ hybridisation, light and confocal microscopy, enzymatic assays, chemical extractions, in vitro assays, and feeding experiments in this thesis work to elucidate these predicted changes in fungus-growing termite...... in the proportion of fungal material provided to the cockroaches. However, gut microbiotas remained distinct from those of termites after Termitomyces-feeding, indicating that a fungal diet can play a role in structuring gut community composition, but at the same time exemplifies how original community compositions...

  8. Termite Diversity in Urban Landscape, South Jakarta, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinana, Arinana; Aldina, Rifat; Nandika, Dodi; Rauf, Aunu; Harahap, Idham S; Sumertajaya, I Made; Bahtiar, Effendi Tri

    2016-05-06

    The population of South Jakarta, a city within the Province of Jakarta Capital Region, is increasing annually, and the development of land into building causes termite diversity loss. The aim of this research was to determine the diversity of subterranean termite species and their distribution in South Jakarta and to evaluate the soil profile termite habitat. This study was conducted in South Jakarta and was carried out at four residential areas representing four randomly selected sub-districts. Specimens were collected with a baiting system. At each residence, as many as 25-30 stakes of pine wood (Pinus merkusii) sized 2 cm × 2 cm × 46 cm were placed for termite sampling. Soil samples were also collected from each residence for testing of their texture, pH, soil water content, and C-organic. Three species of subterranean termites were identified, including Coptotermes curvignathus, Microtermes insperatus, and Macrotermes gilvus, with area-specific variations in occurrence. The soil and weather conditions in the studied areas provided suitable habitat for termites, and M. insperatus was the most commonly found species.

  9. Termite Diversity in Urban Landscape, South Jakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arinana Arinana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The population of South Jakarta, a city within the Province of Jakarta Capital Region, is increasing annually, and the development of land into building causes termite diversity loss. The aim of this research was to determine the diversity of subterranean termite species and their distribution in South Jakarta and to evaluate the soil profile termite habitat. This study was conducted in South Jakarta and was carried out at four residential areas representing four randomly selected sub-districts. Specimens were collected with a baiting system. At each residence, as many as 25–30 stakes of pine wood (Pinus merkusii sized 2 cm × 2 cm × 46 cm were placed for termite sampling. Soil samples were also collected from each residence for testing of their texture, pH, soil water content, and C-organic. Three species of subterranean termites were identified, including Coptotermes curvignathus, Microtermes insperatus, and Macrotermes gilvus, with area-specific variations in occurrence. The soil and weather conditions in the studied areas provided suitable habitat for termites, and M. insperatus was the most commonly found species.

  10. Exploring the potential for actinobacteria as defensive symbionts in fungus-growing termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Anna A.; Nobre, Tânia; Currie, Cameron R.

    2012-01-01

    isolated. If so, the antibiotics must be used in a targeted fashion, being applied to specific areas by the termites. We describe the first discovery of an assembly of antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria occurring in fungus-growing termite nests. However, due to the diversity found, and the lack of both......In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play...... a role as defensive symbionts against Pseudoxylaria in fungus-growing termites. We sampled for Actinobacteria from 30 fungus-growing termite colonies, spanning the three main termite genera and two geographically distant sites. Our isolations yielded 360 Actinobacteria, from which we selected subsets...

  11. A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamutė, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research. Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this

  12. A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Tamutis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera belonging to 92 families found and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monograic treatment (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997. The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of territory of the Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research.Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are also mentioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this

  13. Developmental Pathways of Psammotermes hybostoma (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): Old Pseudergates Make up a New Sterile Caste

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bourguignon, T.; Šobotník, Jan; Sillam-Dusses, David; Jiroš, Pavel; Hanus, Robert; Roisin, Y.; Miura, T.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 9 (2012), e44527/1-e44527/9 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : termite * ontogeny * pseudergate * true worker * polymorphism * evolution Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  14. The influence of fipronil on Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) feeding beyond treated plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Shelton

    2013-01-01

    A small-plot field trial was conducted to examine the area of influence of fipronil at incremental distances away from treated plots on the Harrison Experimental Forest near Saucier, MS. Small treated (water and fipronil) plots were surrounded by untreated wooden boards in an eight-point radial pattern, and examined for evidence of termite feeding every 60 d for 1 yr...

  15. Bionomics and formation of "Bonsai" colonies with long term rearing of Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This laboratory study reports the ability of Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, colonies to survive for at least 9-yr while restricted to a sweater box. Colonies survived by limiting queen size and worker numbers, allowing these bonsai colonies to thrive. Queen physogastr...

  16. Influence of a mineral insecticide particle size on bait efficacy against Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas g. Shelton; Laurent Cartier; Terence L. Wagner; Christian Becker

    2007-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of termiticidal baits comprised of powdered acellulose and a mineral insecticide, cryolite crystals, in laboratory bioassays against pseudergates of Eastern subterranean termites [Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar)]. The influence of cryolite crystal size [0 (control), 0.2, and 20 pm diameter particles] on the overall mortality...

  17. Lack of transfer of permethrin among nestmates of Reticulitermes flavipes in laboratory trials (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas G. Shelton; Craig D. Bell; Terence L. Wagner

    2005-01-01

    The movement of some soil termiticides among subterranean termites from exposed to naive individuals has raised some interesting questions. Thus far, the only compounds specifically examined for transfer have been termiticides with delayed action, non-repellent active ingredients. We hypothesized that movement of pesticide is possible even for traditional fast-acting...

  18. Distribution and density of Cubitermes Wasmann (Isoptera: Termitidae mounds in the northern Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.W. Meyer

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides fundamental information on distribution and density of the genus Cubitermes, Wasm. quantified for future monitoring. After distribution trends have been established, changes in Cubitermes density over time can be brought into contention with other factors in the Kruger National Park, such as the impact of fire frequency, water distribution, and elephant density on these insects. At least ten 2 ha belt-transects were undertaken in each of the 20 northern landscape zones of the KNP. Termite mounds were recorded and their activity within was determined. Cubitermes accounts for 29.8% of all active termite mounds in the northern KNP, with an average density of 0.33 mounds/ha. Cubitermes favours the Nwambiya Sandveld (zone 32. These termites occur in high density in the Klipkoppies 1 land type (Gorge, but in low densities in the Phalaborwa 10-12, Bulweni 1-3, Letaba 1-7 and Pafuri 3-6 land types. Cubitermes mounds tend to occur in high numbers on the Nzhelele formation (Mn (sandstones; quartzite; basalt. Mounds of this genus in the Far North are highly concentrated on the Gaudam and Moriah soil series of the Hutton form, suggesting that these termites prefer very sandy soils with medium to coarse particles.

  19. Tropical wood resistance to the West Indian drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis: If termites can't chew….

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosme, Lírio; Haro, Marcelo M; Guedes, Nelsa Maria P; Della Lucia, Terezinha Maria C; Guedes, Raul Narciso C

    2018-04-01

    The importance and impact of invasive species are usually considered based on their economic implications, particularly the direct damage that they cause. The West Indian drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis (Walker) is an example and is a concern in structural lumber, furniture, and other wood products. Despite its importance, its tropical wood preferences and the wood physical characteristics contributing to resistance have not been investigated to date. Here, we developed wood testing units to allow the X-ray recording of termite colonization and then subsequently tested tropical wood resistance to the termite through free-choice and no-choice bioassays using these wood testing units. The relevance of wood density and hardness as determinants of such resistance was also tested, as was termite mandible wear. The wood testing units used allowed the assessment of the termite infestation and wood area loss, enabling subsequent choice bioassays to be performed. While pine (Pinus sp.), jequitiba (Cariniana sp.) and angelim (Hymenolobium petraenum) exhibited the heaviest losses and highest infestations; cumaru (Dipteryx odorata), guariuba (Clarisia racemosa), and purpleheart (Peltogyne sp.) showed the lowest losses and infestations; courbaril (Hymenaea courbaril), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp.), and tatajuba (Bagassa guianensis) exhibited intermediary results. Wood hardness and in particular wood density were key determinants of wood resistance to the termites, which exhibited lower infestations associated with greater mandible wear when infesting harder high-density wood. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Decomposition rates and termite assemblage composition in semiarid Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurman, G.

    2005-01-01

    Outside of the humid tropics, abiotic factors are generally considered the dominant regulators of decomposition, and biotic influences are frequently not considered in predicting decomposition rates. In this study, I examined the effect of termite assemblage composition and abundance on decomposition of wood litter of an indigenous species (Croton megalobotrys) in five terrestrial habitats of the highly seasonal semiarid Okavango Delta region of northern Botswana, to determine whether natural variation in decomposer community composition and abundance influences decomposition rates. 1 conducted the study in two areas, Xudum and Santawani, with the Xudum study preceding the Santawani study. I assessed termite assemblage composition and abundance using a grid of survey baits (rolls of toilet paper) placed on the soil surface and checked 2-4 times/month. I placed a billet (a section of wood litter) next to each survey bait and measured decomposition in a plot by averaging the mass loss of its billets. Decomposition rates varied up to sixfold among plots within the same habitat and locality, despite the fact that these plots experienced the same climate. In addition, billets decomposed significantly faster during the cooler and drier Santawani study, contradicting climate-based predictions. Because termite incidence was generally higher in Santawani plots, termite abundance initially seemed a likely determinant of decomposition in this system. However, no significant effect of termite incidence on billet mass loss rates was observed among the Xudum plots, where decomposition rates remained low even though termite incidence varied considerably. Considering the incidences of fungus-growing termites and non-fungus-growing termites separately resolves this apparent contradiction: in both Santawani and Xudum, only fungus-growing termites play a significant role in decomposition. This result is mirrored in an analysis of the full data set of combined Xudum and Santawani data

  1. Termite Incidence on an Araucaria Plantation Forest in Teluk Bahang, Penang

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Hassan Ahmad; Aiman Hanis Jasmi

    2011-01-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate the incidence of termite attack on an Araucaria cunninghamii plantation at Teluk Bahang Forest Park (TBFP), Penang. The hilly plantation area was surveyed to determine the diversity of termite species present. Termite specimens were collected from standing Araucaria trees, underground monitoring (aggregation) stations, fallen logs, forest litter and mounds (nests). Seven species of termites were identified from 6 genera; Coptotermes curvignathus, Schedorhin...

  2. Papel dos besouros (Insecta, Coleoptera na Entomologia Forense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Emanuel dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho apresenta uma revisão do papel que os besouros (Insecta, Coleoptera desempenham na Entomologia Forense. Discussões sobre ocorrência em cadáveres humanos e carcaças animais, estimativas de Intervalo Pós-Morte (IPM, estudos realizados no Brasil e em outros países, principais famílias de importância forense e aspectos biológicos, ecológicos e biogeográficos das espécies são apresentadas.

  3. Papel dos besouros (Insecta, Coleoptera) na Entomologia Forense

    OpenAIRE

    Wellington Emanuel dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Esse trabalho apresenta uma revisão do papel que os besouros (Insecta, Coleoptera) desempenham na Entomologia Forense. Discussões sobre ocorrência em cadáveres humanos e carcaças animais, estimativas de Intervalo Pós-Morte (IPM), estudos realizados no Brasil e em outros países, principais famílias de importância forense e aspectos biológicos, ecológicos e biogeográficos das espécies são apresentadas.

  4. Mortality and repellent effects of microbial pathogens on Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Maureen S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two entomopathogenic fungi, Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium anisopliae, and one bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis, were tested for their ability to cause mortality of Formosan subterranean termites (FST, Coptotermes formosanus (Shiraki, after liquid exposure, and for their lack of propensity to repel FST. Results The fungus Isaria fumosorosea at 108 spores/ml caused 72.5% mortality on day 7, significantly higher than the control and 106 spores/ml treatment. On day 14, the 106 and 108 concentrations caused 38.8% and 92.5% mortality, respectively, significantly higher than the control. On day 21, 82.5% and 100% of the termites were killed by the 106 and 108 treatments, respectively. I. fumosorosea did not repel termites at 106 nor 108 spores/g in sand, soil or sawdust. The fungus Metarhizium anisopliae at 108 spores/ml caused 57.5% mortality on day 7, 77.5% mortality on day 14 and 100% mortality on day 21. Conclusions On all three days the rate of mortality was significantly higher than that of the control and 106 spores/ml treatment with I. fumosorosea. Neither I. fumosorosea nor M. anisopliae caused repellency of FST in sand, soil or sawdust. The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis did not cause significant mortality on days 7, 14 or 21. When termites were exposed to cells of B. thuringiensis in sawdust and when termites were exposed to a mixture of spores and cells in sand, a significantly higher number remained in the control tubes. Repellency was not seen with B. thuringiensis spores alone, nor with the above treatments in the other substrates.

  5. Identifying the core microbial community in the gut of fungus-growing termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otani, Saria; Mikaelyan, Aram; Nobre, Tânia

    2014-01-01

    with specific termite genus-level ecological niches. Finally, we show that gut communities of fungus-growing termites are similar to cockroaches, both at the bacterial phylum level and in a comparison of the core Macrotermitinae taxa abundances with representative cockroach, lower termite, and higher non...

  6. Levels of specificity of Xylaria species associated with fungus-growing termites: a phylogenetic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.A.; Ros, V.I.D.; Beer, de Z.W.; Debets, A.J.M.; Hartog, E.; Kuyper, T.W.; Laessoe, T.; Slippers, B.; Aanen, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    Fungus-growing termites live in obligate mutualistic symbiosis with species of the basidiomycete genus Termitomyces, which are cultivated on a substrate of dead plant material. When the termite colony dies, or when nest material is incubated without termites in the laboratory, fruiting bodies of the

  7. Comparison of termite assemblages along a landuse gradient on peat areas in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaessen, T.; Verwer, C.; Demies, M.; Kaliang, H.; Meer, van der P.J.

    2011-01-01

    VAESSEN T, VERWER C, DEMIES M, KALIANG H & VAN DER MEER PJ. 2011. Comparison of termite assemblages along a landuse gradient on peat areas in Sarawak, Malaysia. In this study we assessed the species density and relative abundance of termites in peat land in Sarawak, Malaysia. Termites were

  8. Mitochondrial DNA genetic diversity of the drywood termites Incisitermes minor and I. snyderi

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western drywood termite, Incisitermes minor (Hagen) and the light southern drywood termite I. snyderi (Light) are common drywood termites in southwestern and southern United States, respectively. Despite the economic importance of these two species, no information exists on the mitochondrial gen...

  9. Formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase gene diversity in the guts of higher termites with different diets and lifestyles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottesen, Elizabeth A; Leadbetter, Jared R

    2011-05-01

    In this study, we examine gene diversity for formyl-tetrahydrofolate synthetase (FTHFS), a key enzyme in homoacetogenesis, recovered from the gut microbiota of six species of higher termites. The "higher" termites (family Termitidae), which represent the majority of extant termite species and genera, engage in a broader diversity of feeding and nesting styles than the "lower" termites. Previous studies of termite gut homoacetogenesis have focused on wood-feeding lower termites, from which the preponderance of FTHFS sequences recovered were related to those from acetogenic treponemes. While sequences belonging to this group were present in the guts of all six higher termites examined, treponeme-like FTHFS sequences represented the majority of recovered sequences in only two species (a wood-feeding Nasutitermes sp. and a palm-feeding Microcerotermes sp.). The remaining four termite species analyzed (a Gnathamitermes sp. and two Amitermes spp. that were recovered from subterranean nests with indeterminate feeding strategies and a litter-feeding Rhynchotermes sp.) yielded novel FTHFS clades not observed in lower termites. These termites yielded two distinct clusters of probable purinolytic Firmicutes and a large group of potential homoacetogens related to sequences previously recovered from the guts of omnivorous cockroaches. These findings suggest that the gut environments of different higher termite species may select for different groups of homoacetogens, with some species hosting treponeme-dominated homoacetogen populations similar to those of wood-feeding, lower termites while others host Firmicutes-dominated communities more similar to those of omnivorous cockroaches.

  10. Geochemical prospecting for rare earth elements using termite mound materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Yu; Ohno, Tetsuji; Hoshino, Mihoko; Shin, Ki-Cheol; Murakami, Hiroyasu; Tsunematsu, Maiko; Watanabe, Yasushi

    2014-12-01

    The Blockspruit fluorite prospect, located in North West State of the Republic of South Africa, occurs within an actinolite rock zone that was emplaced into the Kenkelbos-type granite of Proterozoic age. There are a large number of termite mounds in the prospect. For geochemical prospecting for rare earth elements (REEs), in total, 200 samples of termite mound material were collected from actinolite rock and granite zones in the prospect. Geochemical analyses of these termite mound materials were conducted by two methods: portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Comparison of the two methods broadly indicates positive correlations of REEs (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and Y), in particular Y and La having a strong correlation. As the result of modal abundance analyses, the actinolite rock at surface mainly consists of ferro-actinolite (89.89 wt%) and includes xenotime (0.26 wt%) and monazite (0.21 wt%) grains as REE minerals. Termite mound materials from actinolite rock also contain xenotime (0.27 wt%) and monazite (0.41 wt%) grains. In addition, termite mound materials from the actinolite rock zone have high hematite and Fe silicate contents compared to those from granite zone. These relationships suggest that REE minerals in termite mound materials originate form actinolite rock. Geochemical anomaly maps of Y, La, and Fe concentrations drawn based on the result of the portable XRF analyses show that high concentrations of these elements trend from SW to NE which broadly correspond to occurrences of actinolite body. These results indicate that termite mounds are an effective tool for REE geochemical prospection in the study area for both light REEs and Y, but a more detailed survey is required to establish the distribution of the actinolite rock body.

  11. A quantitative study of seasonal foraging by the grass harvesting termite, Trinervitermes geminatus (Wasmann), (Isoptera, Nasutitermitinae) in Southern Guinea savanna, Mokwa, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohiagu, C E

    1979-01-01

    Trinervitermes geminatus (Wasmann) harvests standing grass tussocks which are cut into pieces and carried back to the nest. During this activity a certain proportion is left on the soil surface as litter whilst some is ingested. Foraging is mainly accomplished during the dry season (mid-October to the end of April) for periods of 2-4 h daily, either early in the morning, in the evening, or occasionally during both morning and evening. The duration and daily pattern of foraging is partly dependent on temperature, with a lower temperature threshold of 20° C and an upper threshold of 35° C below or above which foraging is restricted.The quantity of grass cut down and carried back to the nest by a population of 737 m -2 (3.08 g m -2 ) was estimated at 60.3 kg ha -1 a -1 with approximately 18 kg ha -1 a -1 cut and left as litter. Estimated consumption whilst foraging was approximately 20.4 kg ha -1 a -1 , giving a total consumption of about 81 kg ha -1 a -1 . Compared with a total estimated grass production of 3157 kg ha -1 a -1 and consumption by cattle of 1404 kg ha -1 a -1 , the quantity of grass removed by T. geminatus, amounting to only 3.1% of the net primary production, did not appear to be economically significant in this locality.

  12. Vertical stratification of the termite assemblage in a neotropical rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roisin, Yves; Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno; Orivel, Jerôme; Samaniego, Mirna; Leponce, Maurice

    2006-08-01

    The importance of termites as decomposers in tropical forests has long been recognized. Studies on the richness and diversity of termite species and their ecological function have flourished in more recent times, but these have been mostly conducted in a thin stratum within a standing man's reach. Our aims were to evaluate the specific richness and composition of the termite assemblage in the canopy of a tropical rainforest and to determine its originality with respect to the sympatric ground-level fauna. We conducted systematic searches for canopy termites, together with conventional sampling of the sympatric ground-level fauna, in the San Lorenzo forest, Panama. We hypothesized that (1) the canopy accommodates two categories of wood-feeding termites (long-distance foragers and small-colony "one-piece" species) and possibly soil-feeders in suspended soil-like habitats; (2) due to the abundance of soil-feeders, the overall diversity of the ground fauna is higher than that of the canopy; (3) differences in microclimate and resource accessibility favour vertical stratification among wood-feeders. Sixty-three canopy samples yielded ten species of termites, all wood-feeders. Five of these were not found at ground level, although a total of 243 ground samples were collected, representing 29 species. In addition to long-distance foragers (Microcerotermes and Nasutitermes spp.) and small-colony termites (mostly Kalotermitidae), the canopy fauna included Termes hispaniolae, a wood-feeding Termitidae from an allegedly soil-feeding genus, living in large dead branches. Soil-feeders were absent from the canopy, probably because large epiphytes were scarce. As predicted, the ground fauna was much richer than that of the canopy, but the species richness of both habitats was similar when only wood-feeders were considered. Vertical stratification was strongly marked among wood-feeders, as all common species, apart from the arboreal-nesting Microcerotermes arboreus, could

  13. Diet Segregation between Cohabiting Builder and Inquiline Termite Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Faria Florencio

    Full Text Available How do termite inquilines manage to cohabit termitaria along with the termite builder species? With this in mind, we analysed one of the several strategies that inquilines could use to circumvent conflicts with their hosts, namely, the use of distinct diets. We inspected overlapping patterns for the diets of several cohabiting Neotropical termite species, as inferred from carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures for termite individuals. Cohabitant communities from distinct termitaria presented overlapping diet spaces, indicating that they exploited similar diets at the regional scale. When such communities were split into their components, full diet segregation could be observed between builders and inquilines, at regional (environment-wide and local (termitarium scales. Additionally, diet segregation among inquilines themselves was also observed in the vast majority of inspected termitaria. Inquiline species distribution among termitaria was not random. Environmental-wide diet similarity, coupled with local diet segregation and deterministic inquiline distribution, could denounce interactions for feeding resources. However, inquilines and builders not sharing the same termitarium, and thus not subject to potential conflicts, still exhibited distinct diets. Moreover, the areas of the builder's diet space and that of its inquilines did not correlate negatively. Accordingly, the diet areas of builders which hosted inquilines were in average as large as the areas of builders hosting no inquilines. Such results indicate the possibility that dietary partitioning by these cohabiting termites was not majorly driven by current interactive constraints. Rather, it seems to be a result of traits previously fixed in the evolutionary past of cohabitants.

  14. Diet Segregation between Cohabiting Builder and Inquiline Termite Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florencio, Daniela Faria; Marins, Alessandra; Rosa, Cassiano Sousa; Cristaldo, Paulo Fellipe; Araújo, Ana Paula Albano; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; DeSouza, Og

    2013-01-01

    How do termite inquilines manage to cohabit termitaria along with the termite builder species? With this in mind, we analysed one of the several strategies that inquilines could use to circumvent conflicts with their hosts, namely, the use of distinct diets. We inspected overlapping patterns for the diets of several cohabiting Neotropical termite species, as inferred from carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures for termite individuals. Cohabitant communities from distinct termitaria presented overlapping diet spaces, indicating that they exploited similar diets at the regional scale. When such communities were split into their components, full diet segregation could be observed between builders and inquilines, at regional (environment-wide) and local (termitarium) scales. Additionally, diet segregation among inquilines themselves was also observed in the vast majority of inspected termitaria. Inquiline species distribution among termitaria was not random. Environmental-wide diet similarity, coupled with local diet segregation and deterministic inquiline distribution, could denounce interactions for feeding resources. However, inquilines and builders not sharing the same termitarium, and thus not subject to potential conflicts, still exhibited distinct diets. Moreover, the areas of the builder’s diet space and that of its inquilines did not correlate negatively. Accordingly, the diet areas of builders which hosted inquilines were in average as large as the areas of builders hosting no inquilines. Such results indicate the possibility that dietary partitioning by these cohabiting termites was not majorly driven by current interactive constraints. Rather, it seems to be a result of traits previously fixed in the evolutionary past of cohabitants. PMID:23805229

  15. Resistance of Wood Wool Cement Board to the Attack of Philippine Termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carlos M.; Eusebio, Dwight A.; San Pablo, Marciana R.; Villena, Edgar M.

    2011-01-01

    The resistance of yemane (Gmelina arborea Roxb.)-based wood wool cement board (WWCB) against Philippine termites was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Tests were conducted following the FPRDI standard procedures in determining the resistance of WWCB against subterranean and drywood termites. Results of the laboratory tests showed that WWCB was resistant to both Microcerotermes losbañosensis Oshima and Cryptotermes dudleyi Banks. Under field conditions, WWCB was highly resistant to subterranean termites. There was no remarkable termite damage except for the normal nibbling or initial termite feeding on the board during the 8-year exposure period. PMID:26467946

  16. Quantification of symbiotic contributions to lower termite lignocellulose digestion using antimicrobial treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Brittany F; Stewart, Hannah L; Scharf, Michael E

    2015-04-01

    Animal-microbe co-evolution and symbiosis are broadly distributed across the animal kingdom. Insects form a myriad of associations with microbes ranging from vectoring of pathogens to intracellular, mutualistic relationships. Lower termites are key models for insect-microbe symbiosis because of the diversity, complexity and functionality of their unique tripartite symbiosis. This collaboration allows termites to live on a diet of nitrogen-poor lignocellulose. Recent functional investigations of lignocellulose digestion in lower termites have primarily focused on the contributions of the eukaryotic members of the termite holobiont (termite and protist). Here, using multiple antimicrobial treatments, we induced differing degrees of dysbiosis in the termite gut, leading to variably altered symbiont abundance and diversity, and lignocellulolytic capacity. Although protists are clearly affected by antimicrobial treatments, our findings provide novel evidence that the removal of distinct groups of bacteria partially reduces, but does not abolish, the saccharolytic potential of the termite gut holobiont. This is specifically manifested by reductions of 23-47% and 30-52% in glucose and xylose yields respectively from complex lignocellulose. Thus, all members of the lower termite holobiont (termite, protist and prokaryotes) are involved in the process of efficient, sustained lignocellulase activity. This unprecedented quantification of the relative importance of prokaryotes in this system emphasizes the collaborative nature of the termite holobiont, and the relevance of lower termites as models for inter-domain symbioses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Levels of specificity of Xylaria species associated with fungus-growing termites: a phylogenetic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Andre; Ros, V I D; De Beer, Z. W.

    2009-01-01

    Fungus-growing termites live in obligate mutualistic symbiosis with species of the basidiomycete genus Termitomyces, which are cultivated on a substrate of dead plant material. When the termite colony dies, or when nest material is incubated without termites in the laboratory, fruiting bodies...... of the ascomycete genus Xylaria appear and rapidly cover the fungus garden. This raises the question whether certain Xylaria species are specialised in occupying termite nests or whether they are just occasional visitors. We tested Xylaria specificity at four levels: (1) fungus-growing termites, (2) termite genera...... of the ITS region revealed 16 operational taxonomic units of Xylaria, indicating high levels of Xylaria species richness. Not much of this variation was explained by termite genus, species, or colony; thus, at level 2-4 the specificity is low. Analysis of the large subunit rDNA region, showed that all...

  18. Internal ornamentation of the first proctodeal segment of the digestive tube of Syntermitinae (Isoptera, Termitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Rocha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The ornaments inside the first proctodeal segment of the digestive tube in thirty-three species of the termite subfamily Syntermitinae are described and illustrated, encompassing all genera of the subfamily. The occurrence, type and pattern of the ornamentation reveal a wide morphological diversity. A first proposal for classification and nomenclature of these structures and coverage patterns is included, as well as a discussion of possible functions.

  19. Developmental pathways of Psammotermes hybostoma (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae: old pseudergates make up a new sterile caste.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bourguignon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ergonomic efficiency is in termites maximized by task partitioning among specialized castes. The isopteran caste systems can be classified as either (i linear, when tasks are performed by pluripotent immatures (pseudergates, retaining the ability to develop into winged imagoes or (ii bifurcated, with the presence of a true worker caste, which diverges early and permanently from the sexual (nymph/alate line. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report on the ontogenetic potentialities of the highly polymorphic sand termite Psammotermes hybostoma. Beside numerous pluripotent pseudergates, constituting the main work force, some larger non-feeding apterous immatures, also occur. These individuals are unable to proceed to the winged imago stage, but store large amounts of fat and also give rise to large soldiers. Soldiers therefore originate from a wide range of apterous instars, consequently being highly polymorphic. CONCLUSIONS: The caste system of P. hybostoma is essentially linear, as in other basal Rhinotermitidae, but is distinguished by the late bifurcation leading to large apterous immatures. Because these large worker-like individuals deviate late and do not perform worker tasks, they cannot be considered homologous to the true workers of Termitidae and advanced Rhinotermitidae, but they provide a novel example of the evolution of sterile immatures in termites.

  20. The Physiology of Microbial Symbionts in Fungus-Farming Termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues da Costa, Rafael

    with their symbionts are main decomposer of organic matter in Africa, and this is reflect of a metabolic complementarity to decompose plant biomass in the genome of the three organisms involved in this symbiosis. Many of the physiological aspects of this symbiosis remain obscure, and here I focus on physiology...... termites where this is either absent or minimal, and this indicates evolutionary adaptations to dietary intakes displayed by different termite species. In addition to these two physiological aspects of this tripartite symbiosis, we questioned the physiological mechanisms displayed by Termitomyces...

  1. Termite Resistance of MDF Panels Treated with Various Boron Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Usta, Mustafa; Ustaomer, Derya; Kartal, Saip Nami; Ondaral, Sedat

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the effects of various boron compounds on the termite resistance of MDF panels were evaluated. Either borax (BX), boric acid (BA), zinc borate (ZB), or sodium perborate tetrahydrate (SPT) were added to urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin at target contents of 1%, 1.5%, 2% and 2.5% based on dry fiber weight. The panels were then manufactured using 12% urea-formaldehyde resin and 1% NH4Cl. MDF samples from the panels were tested against the subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus ...

  2. Metagenomic mining of feruloyl esterases from termite enteric flora

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rashamuse, K

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available on the sequence-derived descriptors and pharmacophoric properties (Udath et al. 2011). The applications of these enzymes in the industry cover a broad spectrum; including pulp and paper processing (Record et al. 2003) and as animal feed additives to facilitate... by Sambrook and Russell (2001). Termite sampling and DNA extraction Sugarcane feeding Trinervitermise trinervoides termite species were collected from Komatipoort, Mpumalanga, South Africa (25° 23' 7.8" S 31° 52' 53.1" E). Approximately 500 worker...

  3. Odor aversion and pathogen-removal efficiency in grooming behavior of the termite Coptotermes formosanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Yanagawa

    Full Text Available The results of biocontrol with entomopathogens in termites have been discouraging because of the strong social hygiene behavior for removing pathogens from termite colonies. However, the mechanism of pathogen detection is still unclear. For the successful application of biopesticides to termites in nature, it would be beneficial to identify substances that could disrupt the termite's ability to perceive pathogens. We hypothesized that termites can perceive pathogens and this ability plays an important role in effective hygiene behavior. In this study, pathogen-detection in the subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus was investigated. We performed quantitative assays on conidia removal by grooming behavior using epifluoresence microscopy and Y-maze tests to examine the perception of fungal odor by termites. Three species each of high- and low-virulence entomopathogenic fungi were used in each test. The results demonstrated that termites removed conidia more effectively from a nestmate's cuticle if its odor elicited stronger aversion. Highly virulent pathogens showed higher attachment rates to termite surfaces and their odors were more strongly avoided than those of low-virulence isolates in the same species. Moreover, termites appeared to groom each other more persistently when they had more conidia on their bodies. In brief, insect perception of pathogen-related odor seems to play a role in the mechanism of their hygiene behavior.

  4. Checklist of terebrantian thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera recorded from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Rachana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A consolidated systematic list of 333 species of terebrantian thrips, belonging to 118 genera (Insecta: Thysanoptera recorded so far from India, is provided in this article.  The list reveals that the family Thripidae has the lion’s share of 307 species, while Aeolothripidae, Melanthripidae, Merothripidae and Stenurothripidae contain very few species.  Further, analysis of the present study shows that around 40% of the listed 333 terebrantian species appear to be endemic based on the comparison of Indian fauna with that of the published data of thrips of adjoining regions.  Reports on the occurrence of exotic flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande and Neohydatothrips samayunkur (Kudo are of concern to the country, as they are notorious for damage to the cultivated plants.  

  5. Citas nuevas de Isoptera para el Chaco semiárido argentino New records of Isoptera for the argentinean semiarid Chaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cuezzo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available La fauna de termitas para un ambiente de Chaco semiárido fue relevada a fines de la estación seca. Dieciséis géneros y 18 especies pertenecientes a tres familias (Kalotermitidae, Rhinotermitidae y Termitidae son citados para Santiago del Estero. Once de estos géneros constituyen registros nuevos para esta provincia. Se aportan datos biológicos para algunas especies.The termite fauna of an environment of the argentinean semiarid Chaco was sampled at the end of the dry season. Sixteen genera and 18 species representing three families (Kalotermitidae, Rhinotermitidae and Termitidae are cited for Santiago del Estero. Eleven genera are new records for the mentioned province. Biological data are given for some species.

  6. Appraisal of the Economic Activities of Termites: A Review | Ibrahim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their burrowing within the soil increases the rate of percolation of water into the soil, thereby promoting water absorbent of the soil. Their feeding habit includes decomposition of dead trees, and incorporation into the soil, mineral nutrients of these trees. Man in response to the destructive activities of termites, developed ...

  7. appraisal of the economic activities of termites: a review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR.AMIN

    be divided into three general categories based on their habitat: damp wood, dry wood and subterranean. (Paul and ..... e.g. Zoo Basel in Switzerland hold two African termites. (Macrotermes bellicosus). Their populations exist and thrive. ... The advantage of this method is the ability to treat the entire structure without the use.

  8. Processed products of termites and lake flies: improving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Processed products of termites and lake flies: improving entomophagy for food security within the lake victoria region. ... Among the factors contributing to food shortage in Africa are lack of appropriate preservation and storage facilities, tropical heat and poor road network for marketing produce. High food spoilage caused ...

  9. Phenol-oxidizing laccases from the termite gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    cDNAs encoding two gut laccase isoforms (RfLacA and RfLacB) were sequenced from the termite Reticulitermes flavipes. Phylogenetic analyses comparing translated R. flavipes laccases to 67 others from prokaryotes and eukaryotes indicate that the R. flavipes laccases are evolutionarily unique. Alignmen...

  10. Utilization of the termite Hodotermes mossambicus (Hagen) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five species of primarily nocturnal geckos (Ptenopus garrulus maculatus, Chondrodactylus angulifer angulifer, Pachydactylus bibronii, P. mariquensis latirosths and P. punctatus) collected near Keetmanshoop, South West Africa on the night of 3 October 1987 were found to contain large numbers of the harvester termite ...

  11. Green house gas emissions from termite ecosystem | Gomati ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent estimates of the total annual source strength of CH4 vary from 400 to 1200 Tg. Activities such as rice cultivation, cattle production, mining, use of fossil fuels and biomass burning is believed to be the cause of increasing methane levels in the atmosphere. To add to this list is the source from termites, which contributes ...

  12. Tyraminergic and Octopaminergic Modulation of Defensive Behavior in Termite Soldier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Ishikawa

    Full Text Available In termites, i.e. a major group of eusocial insects, the soldier caste exhibits specific morphological characteristics and extremely high aggression against predators. Although the genomic background is identical to the other non-aggressive castes, they acquire the soldier-specific behavioral character during the course of caste differentiation. The high aggressiveness and defensive behavior is essential for colony survival, but the neurophysiological bases are completely unknown. In the present study, using the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti, we focused on two biogenic amines, octopamine (OA and tyramine (TA, as candidate neuromodulators for the defensive behavior in soldiers. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis revealed that TA levels in the brain and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG and the OA level in brain were increased in soldiers than in pseudergates (worker caste. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TA/OA neurons that innervate specific areas, including the mandibular muscles, antennal nerve, central complex, suboesophageal ganglion, and thoracic and/or abdominal ganglia, were enlarged in a soldier-specific manner. Together with the results that pharmacological application of TA promoted the defensive behavior in pseudergates, these findings suggest that the increased TA/OA levels induce the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior in termite soldiers. The projection targets of these soldier-specific enlarged TA/OA neurons may have important roles in the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior of the termite soldiers, inducing the neuronal transition that accompanies external morphological changes.

  13. Determining termite diversity in arid Namibian rangelands – a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three methods of sampling termite diversity in arid rangelands were tested in Namibia during the wet (March) and dry (October) seasons of 1998. Six sites were chosen: one pair on each of three farms representing a gradient of land use intensity. At each site, two adjacent plots of 1 ha each were sampled: one plot by a ...

  14. Nonrelatives inherit colony resources in a primitive termite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Philip M; Howard, Kenneth J; Breisch, Nancy L; Rivera, Anahi; Thorne, Barbara L

    2009-10-13

    The evolution of eusociality, especially how selection would favor sterility or subfertility of most individuals within a highly social colony, is an unresolved paradox. Eusociality evolved independently in diverse taxa, including insects (all ants and termites; some bees, wasps, thrips, and beetles), snapping shrimp, and naked mole rats. Termites have received comparatively less focus than the haplodiploid Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps); however, they are the only diploid group with highly complex colonies and an extraordinary diversity of castes. In this study we staged encounters between unrelated colonies of primitive dampwood termites, Zootermopsis nevadensis, mimicking natural meetings that occur under bark. During encounters, kings and/or queens were killed and surviving members merged into one colony. After encounters, members of both unrelated colonies cooperated as a single social unit. We determined the colony of origin of replacement reproductives that emerged after death of kings and/or queens. Here, we document that replacement reproductives developed from workers in either or both original colonies, inherited the merged resources of the colony, and sometimes interbred. Because this species shares many characteristics with ancestral termites, these findings demonstrate how ecological factors could have promoted the evolution of eusociality by accelerating and enhancing direct fitness opportunities of helper offspring, rendering relatedness favoring kin selection less critical.

  15. Cultural significance of termites in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van Arnold

    2017-01-01

    Background: The number of termite species in the world is more than 2500, and Africa with more than 1000 species has the richest intercontinental diversity. The family Termitidae contains builders of great mounds up to 5 m high. Colonies are composed of casts: a queen, a king, soldiers and workers.

  16. Chemical alarm in the termite Termitogeton planus (Rhinotermitidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dolejšová, Klára; Krasulová, Jana; Kutalová, K.; Hanus, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 40, 11/12 (2014), s. 1269-1276 ISSN 0098-0331 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1570 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : termites * soldiers * frontal gland * alarm pheromone * Rhinotermitidae * Termitogeton Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.747, year: 2014

  17. Termites of the Savanna ecosystem project study area, Nylsvley

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ferrar, P

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the termite fauna of the Savanna Ecosystem Project study area at the Nylsvley Nature Reserve, with an illustrated key for identification of species. Twenty-one species of fifteen genera and two families are recorded, and notes...

  18. Beyond cuticular hydrocarbons: Evidence of proteinaceous secretion specific to termite kings and queens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanus, Robert; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Hrdý, Ivan; Cvačka, Josef; Šobotník, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 277, č. 1684 (2010), s. 995-1002 ISSN 0962-8452 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600550614 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Isoptera * neotenic secondary reproductives * primer pheromones * MALDI-TOF Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.064, year: 2010

  19. Niche differentiation among neotropical soldierless soil-feeding termites revealed by stable isotope ratios

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bourguignon, T.; Šobotník, Jan; Lepoint, G.; Martin, J. M.; Roisin, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 10 (2009), s. 2038-2043 ISSN 0038-0717 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Anoplotermes * Termitidae * Isoptera * resource partitioning Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.978, year: 2009

  20. Variation in positive selection in termite GNBPs and Relish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulmer, Mark S; Crozier, Ross H

    2006-02-01

    Social insects are model organisms for investigating molecular evolution in the innate immune system. Their diversity affords comparative analysis among closely related species, and group living is likely to contribute to the pathogen stress imposed on the immune system. We used different models of nucleotide substitution at nonsynonymous (amino acid altering) and synonymous (silent) sites to compare the different levels and type of selection among three immunity genes in 13 Australian termite species (Nasutitermes). The immunity genes include two encoding pathogen recognition proteins (gram-negative bacterial-binding proteins) that duplicated and diverged before or soon after the evolution of the termites and a transcription factor (Relish), which induces the production of antimicrobial peptides. A comparison of evolutionary models that assign four unrestricted classes of dN/dS (the ratio of the nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rate) to different Nasutitermes lineages revealed that the occurrence of positive selection (dN/dS > 1) varies among lineages and the three genes. Positive selection appears to have driven the evolution of all three genes in an ancestral lineage of three subterranean termites. It had previously been suggested that there was a transition along this ancestral lineage to termite morphology and ecology associated with a diet of decayed wood, a diet that may expose termites to elevated levels of fungal and bacterial pathogens. Relish appears to have experienced the highest levels of selective pressure for change among all three genes. Positively selected sites in the molecule are located in regions that are important for its activation, which suggests that amino acid substitutions at these sites are a counter response to pathogen mechanisms that disrupt the activation of Relish.

  1. Detection of mitochondrial COII DNA sequences in ant guts as a method for assessing termite predation by ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom M Fayle

    Full Text Available Termites and ants contribute more to animal biomass in tropical rain forests than any other single group and perform vital ecosystem functions. Although ants prey on termites, at the community level the linkage between these groups is poorly understood. Thus, assessing the distribution and specificity of ant termitophagy is of considerable interest. We describe an approach for quantifying ant-termite food webs by sequencing termite DNA (cytochrome c oxidase subunit II, COII from ant guts and apply this to a soil-dwelling ant community from tropical rain forest in Gabon. We extracted DNA from 215 ants from 15 species. Of these, 17.2 % of individuals had termite DNA in their guts, with BLAST analysis confirming the identity of 34.1 % of these termites to family level or better. Although ant species varied in detection of termite DNA, ranging from 63 % (5/7; Camponotus sp. 1 to 0 % (0/7; Ponera sp. 1, there was no evidence (with small sample sizes for heterogeneity in termite consumption across ant taxa, and no evidence for species-specific ant-termite predation. In all three ant species with identifiable termite DNA in multiple individuals, multiple termite species were represented. Furthermore, the two termite species that were detected on multiple occasions in ant guts were in both cases found in multiple ant species, suggesting that ant-termite food webs are not strongly compartmentalised. However, two ant species were found to consume only Anoplotermes-group termites, indicating possible predatory specialisation at a higher taxonomic level. Using a laboratory feeding test, we were able to detect termite COII sequences in ant guts up to 2 h after feeding, indicating that our method only detects recent feeding events. Our data provide tentative support for the hypothesis that unspecialised termite predation by ants is widespread and highlight the use of molecular approaches for future studies of ant-termite food webs.

  2. Detection of mitochondrial COII DNA sequences in ant guts as a method for assessing termite predation by ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayle, Tom M; Scholtz, Olivia; Dumbrell, Alex J; Russell, Stephen; Segar, Simon T; Eggleton, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Termites and ants contribute more to animal biomass in tropical rain forests than any other single group and perform vital ecosystem functions. Although ants prey on termites, at the community level the linkage between these groups is poorly understood. Thus, assessing the distribution and specificity of ant termitophagy is of considerable interest. We describe an approach for quantifying ant-termite food webs by sequencing termite DNA (cytochrome c oxidase subunit II, COII) from ant guts and apply this to a soil-dwelling ant community from tropical rain forest in Gabon. We extracted DNA from 215 ants from 15 species. Of these, 17.2 % of individuals had termite DNA in their guts, with BLAST analysis confirming the identity of 34.1 % of these termites to family level or better. Although ant species varied in detection of termite DNA, ranging from 63 % (5/7; Camponotus sp. 1) to 0 % (0/7; Ponera sp. 1), there was no evidence (with small sample sizes) for heterogeneity in termite consumption across ant taxa, and no evidence for species-specific ant-termite predation. In all three ant species with identifiable termite DNA in multiple individuals, multiple termite species were represented. Furthermore, the two termite species that were detected on multiple occasions in ant guts were in both cases found in multiple ant species, suggesting that ant-termite food webs are not strongly compartmentalised. However, two ant species were found to consume only Anoplotermes-group termites, indicating possible predatory specialisation at a higher taxonomic level. Using a laboratory feeding test, we were able to detect termite COII sequences in ant guts up to 2 h after feeding, indicating that our method only detects recent feeding events. Our data provide tentative support for the hypothesis that unspecialised termite predation by ants is widespread and highlight the use of molecular approaches for future studies of ant-termite food webs.

  3. Symbiont diversity in Reticulitermes santonensis (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): investigation strategy through proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauwens, Julien; Millet, Catherine; Tarayre, Cedric; Brasseur, Catherine; Destain, Jacqueline; Vandenbol, Micheline; Thonart, Philippe; Portetelle, Daniel; De Pauw, Edwin; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frederic

    2013-10-01

    The complex microbial community living in the hindgut of lower termites includes prokaryotes, flagellates, yeasts, and filamentous fungi. Many microorganisms are found in the termite gut, but only a few are thought to be involved in symbiotic association to participate in cellulose digestion. Proteomics provides analyses from both taxonomical and functional perspectives. We aimed to identify symbiont diversity in the gut of Reticulitermes santonensis (Feytaud), via complementary electrospray ionization associated to ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis associated to matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. One specific challenge to the study of lower termites is the relatively few data available on abundant symbiotic flagellates. Analysis based on LC-MS/MS revealed few protein families showing assignments to eukaryotes and the taxonomic origin of highly represented actins could not be established. Tubulins proved to be the most suitable protein family with which to identify flagellate populations from hindgut samples using LC-MS/MS, compared with other protein families, although this method targeted few prokaryotes in our assay. Similarly, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis associated to matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry did not succeed in identifying flagellate populations, but did permit the identification of most of the prokaryotic components of the symbiotic system. Finally, fungi and yeasts were identified by both methods. Owing to the lack of sequenced genes in flagellates, targeting tubulins for LC-MS/MS could allow fingerprints of flagellate populations to be established. Experimental and technical improvements might increase the efficiency of identification of prokaryotic populations in the near future, based on metaproteomic development.

  4. Metavirome Sequencing of the Termite Gut Reveals the Presence of an Unexplored Bacteriophage Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhe, Chinmay V.; Husseneder, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    The Formosan subterranean termite; Coptotermes formosanus is nutritionally dependent on the complex and diverse community of bacteria and protozoa in their gut. Although, there have been many studies to decipher the taxonomic and functional diversity of bacterial communities in the guts of termites, their bacteriophages remain unstudied. We sequenced the metavirome of the guts of Formosan subterranean termite workers to study the diversity of bacteriophages and other associated viruses. Results showed that the termites harbor a virome in their gut comprised of varied and previously unknown bacteriophages. Between 87–90% of the predicted dsDNA virus genes by Metavir showed similarity to the tailed bacteriophages (Caudovirales). Many predicted genes from the virome matched to bacterial prophage regions. These data are suggestive of a virome dominated by temperate bacteriophages. We predicted the genomes of seven novel Caudovirales bacteriophages from the termite gut. Three of these predicted bacteriophage genomes were found in high proportions in all the three termite colonies tested. Two bacteriophages are predicted to infect endosymbiotic bacteria of the gut protozoa. The presence of these putative bacteriophages infecting endosymbionts of the gut protozoa, suggests a quadripartite relationship between the termites their symbiotic protozoa, endosymbiotic bacteria of the protozoa and their bacteriophages. Other than Caudovirales, ss-DNA virus related genes were also present in the termite gut. We predicted the genomes of 12 novel Microviridae phages from the termite gut and seven of those possibly represent a new proposed subfamily. Circovirus like genomes were also assembled from the termite gut at lower relative abundance. We predicted 10 novel circovirus genomes in this study. Whether these circoviruses infect the termites remains elusive at the moment. The functional and taxonomical annotations suggest that the termites may harbor a core virome comprised of

  5. Comparative Gut Microbiomes of Four Species Representing the Higher and the Lower Termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, LiJuan; Yang, LeLe; Huang, Shi; Su, XiaoQuan; Li, Yan; Wang, FengQin; Wang, EnTao; Kang, Ning; Xu, Jian; Song, AnDong

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at learning the association between the gut microbiota and termites with different diet habits and phylogenetic positions, the gut bacteria of three populations for each of the two higher termites (wood-feeding Mironasutitermes shangchengensis and fungus-feeding Odontotermes formosanus) and two wood-feeding lower termites (Tsaitermes ampliceps and Reticulitermes flaviceps) were analyzed by high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of 16S V1-V3 amplicons. As results, 132 bacterial genera and some unidentified operational taxonomic units within 29 phyla in the gut bacteria were detected, with Spirochaetes (11-55%), Firmicutes (7-18%), Bacteroidetes (7-31%), and Proteobacteria (8-14%) as the main phyla, and Treponema, TG5, Dysgonomonas, Tannerella, za29, Lactococcus, Pseudomonas, and SJA-88 as the common genera in all the four termites. The diversity of gut bacterial communities in the higher termite guts was significantly greater than that in the lower termites; while the gut microbiota in M. shangchengensis (wood-feeding higher termite) was more similar to those of the wood-feeding lower termites rather than that of O. formosanus (fungus-feeding higher termite), and phylum Spirochaetes and nitrogen-fixing bacteria were super-dominant in the wood-feeding termites, despite of their phylogenetic relations. This study reported for the first time the gut bacterial communities for the termites of M. shangchengensis and T. ampliceps and the comparative analyses showed that the gut microbial communities varied according to the phylogeny and the diet habits of termites. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  6. Seasonal and Daily Patterns in Activity of the Western Drywood Termite, Incisitermes minor (Hagen)

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Vernard; Leighton, Shawn; Tabuchi, Robin; Haverty, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Activity of colonies of the western drywood termite, Incisitermes minor, was measured with acoustic emission (AE) technology in five loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) logs. Termite activity, whether it was feeding, excavation or movement, was monitored for 11 months under ambient conditions in a small wooden structure maintained at the University of California Richmond Field Station. AE, temperature, and humidity data were measured in 3-minute increments. Termite activity was greater during the wa...

  7. Metavirome Sequencing of the Termite Gut Reveals the Presence of an Unexplored Bacteriophage Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinmay V. Tikhe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Formosan subterranean termite; Coptotermes formosanus is nutritionally dependent on the complex and diverse community of bacteria and protozoa in their gut. Although, there have been many studies to decipher the taxonomic and functional diversity of bacterial communities in the guts of termites, their bacteriophages remain unstudied. We sequenced the metavirome of the guts of Formosan subterranean termite workers to study the diversity of bacteriophages and other associated viruses. Results showed that the termites harbor a virome in their gut comprised of varied and previously unknown bacteriophages. Between 87–90% of the predicted dsDNA virus genes by Metavir showed similarity to the tailed bacteriophages (Caudovirales. Many predicted genes from the virome matched to bacterial prophage regions. These data are suggestive of a virome dominated by temperate bacteriophages. We predicted the genomes of seven novel Caudovirales bacteriophages from the termite gut. Three of these predicted bacteriophage genomes were found in high proportions in all the three termite colonies tested. Two bacteriophages are predicted to infect endosymbiotic bacteria of the gut protozoa. The presence of these putative bacteriophages infecting endosymbionts of the gut protozoa, suggests a quadripartite relationship between the termites their symbiotic protozoa, endosymbiotic bacteria of the protozoa and their bacteriophages. Other than Caudovirales, ss-DNA virus related genes were also present in the termite gut. We predicted the genomes of 12 novel Microviridae phages from the termite gut and seven of those possibly represent a new proposed subfamily. Circovirus like genomes were also assembled from the termite gut at lower relative abundance. We predicted 10 novel circovirus genomes in this study. Whether these circoviruses infect the termites remains elusive at the moment. The functional and taxonomical annotations suggest that the termites may harbor a core

  8. Metavirome Sequencing of the Termite Gut Reveals the Presence of an Unexplored Bacteriophage Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhe, Chinmay V; Husseneder, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    The Formosan subterranean termite; Coptotermes formosanus is nutritionally dependent on the complex and diverse community of bacteria and protozoa in their gut. Although, there have been many studies to decipher the taxonomic and functional diversity of bacterial communities in the guts of termites, their bacteriophages remain unstudied. We sequenced the metavirome of the guts of Formosan subterranean termite workers to study the diversity of bacteriophages and other associated viruses. Results showed that the termites harbor a virome in their gut comprised of varied and previously unknown bacteriophages. Between 87-90% of the predicted dsDNA virus genes by Metavir showed similarity to the tailed bacteriophages (Caudovirales) . Many predicted genes from the virome matched to bacterial prophage regions. These data are suggestive of a virome dominated by temperate bacteriophages. We predicted the genomes of seven novel Caudovirales bacteriophages from the termite gut. Three of these predicted bacteriophage genomes were found in high proportions in all the three termite colonies tested. Two bacteriophages are predicted to infect endosymbiotic bacteria of the gut protozoa. The presence of these putative bacteriophages infecting endosymbionts of the gut protozoa, suggests a quadripartite relationship between the termites their symbiotic protozoa, endosymbiotic bacteria of the protozoa and their bacteriophages. Other than Caudovirales, ss-DNA virus related genes were also present in the termite gut. We predicted the genomes of 12 novel Microviridae phages from the termite gut and seven of those possibly represent a new proposed subfamily. Circovirus like genomes were also assembled from the termite gut at lower relative abundance. We predicted 10 novel circovirus genomes in this study. Whether these circoviruses infect the termites remains elusive at the moment. The functional and taxonomical annotations suggest that the termites may harbor a core virome comprised of the

  9. The valid name for the genus Loxocephalus Foerster, 1862 (Insecta, Hymenoptera: Braconidae), preoccupied by Loxocephalus Eberhard, 1862 (Protozoa: Ciliophora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foissner, W.; Achterberg, van C.

    1997-01-01

    Loxocephalus Foerster, 1862 (Insecta: Braconidae) is preoccupied by Loxocephalus Eberhard, 1862 (Protozoa: Ciliophora). The name previously used for Loxocephalus Foerster, Myiocephalus Marshall, 1897, becomes the valid name for the genus.

  10. KEEFEKTIFAN EKSTRAK DAUN Carica papaya Linn. DENGAN METODE RACUN LAMBUNG UNTUK PENGENDALIAN RAYAP TANAH Coptotermes sp. (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulyusri Zulyusri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Termite Coptotermes sp. is one of the most harmful types of termite class of Rhinotermitidae,  Coptotermes genus. One of the controlling efforts is by using an extract of Carica papaya leaves. This study aims at finding out the effectiveness of the leaf extract Carica papaya on the termite Coptotermes sp. Mortality, as well as finding out the concentration of the extract  of papaya C. leaf highly effecting on controlling the termites Coptotermes sp. This was an experimental research with Completely Randomized Sampling (CRS in six extract treatments (0%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, 3%, 3.5%, 4% and 3 replications. The mortality data and the loss of feed were analyzed through the analysis of variance (ANOVA and followed by Duncan test at 5% significance level. The lethal concentration (LC and lethal time (LT were analyzed by Probit analysis. The results showed that the leaf extract of Carica papaya can be used to control termites and it functions most effectively at a concentration of 1.5%.  The lethal concentration (LC leaf extract of Carica papaya is 0.005 and lethal time (LT is 3.201 days.   Key words: Coptotermes sp., extract of Carica papaya leaves

  11. Diet is the primary determinant of bacterial community structure in the guts of higher termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaelyan, Aram; Dietrich, Carsten; Köhler, Tim; Poulsen, Michael; Sillam-Dussès, David; Brune, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    The gut microbiota of termites plays critical roles in the symbiotic digestion of lignocellulose. While phylogenetically 'lower termites' are characterized by a unique association with cellulolytic flagellates, higher termites (family Termitidae) harbour exclusively prokaryotic communities in their dilated hindguts. Unlike the more primitive termite families, which primarily feed on wood, they have adapted to a variety of lignocellulosic food sources in different stages of humification, ranging from sound wood to soil organic matter. In this study, we comparatively analysed representatives of different taxonomic lineages and feeding groups of higher termites to identify the major drivers of bacterial community structure in the termite gut, using amplicon libraries of 16S rRNA genes from 18 species of higher termites. In all analyses, the wood-feeding species were clearly separated from humus and soil feeders, irrespective of their taxonomic affiliation, offering compelling evidence that diet is the primary determinant of bacterial community structure. Within each diet group, however, gut communities of termites from the same subfamily were more similar than those of distantly related species. A highly resolved classification using a curated reference database revealed only few genus-level taxa whose distribution patterns indicated specificity for certain host lineages, limiting any possible cospeciation between the gut microbiota and host to short evolutionary timescales. Rather, the observed patterns in the host-specific distribution of the bacterial lineages in termite guts are best explained by diet-related differences in the availability of microhabitats and functional niches. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The effect of termites as ecosystem engineers in the humid tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martius, C.

    2001-12-01

    The effects of termites as "ecosystem engineers" in humid tropical ecosystems are manyfold and range from the modification of content and composition of organic matter in soils, changes of the soil structure, over effects on the composition of vegetation, to the enhancement of biodiversity of other organisms. An overview if given over findings of recent years with a focus on termites in Amazonian rain forests. Factors that determine termite distribution and diversity are then discussed, and the pests status of termites is shortly reviewed, on the basis of which management strategies for this particular group of soil organisms are outlined.

  13. Comprehensive phylogenetic diversity of [FeFe]-hydrogenase genes in termite gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hao; Bodington, Dylan; Zhang, Chong; Miyanaga, Kazuhiko; Tanji, Yasunori; Hongoh, Yuichi; Xing, Xin-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic diversity of [FeFe]-hydrogenase (HydA) in termite guts was assessed by pyrosequencing PCR amplicons obtained using newly designed primers. Of 8,066 reads, 776 hydA phylotypes, defined with 97% nucleotide sequence identity, were recovered from the gut homogenates of three termite species, Hodotermopsis sjoestedti, Reticulitermes speratus, and Nasutitermes takasagoensis. The phylotype coverage was 92-98%, and the majority shared only low identity with database sequences. It was estimated that 194-745 hydA phylotypes existed in the gut of each termite species. Our results demonstrate that hydA gene diversity in the termite gut microbiota is much higher than previously estimated.

  14. Termite Mounds Effects on Soil Properties in the Atlantic Forest Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Santana de Lima

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Termites have peculiar activities in the soil, inducing significant changes in the soil properties. The objective of this study was to assess physical and chemical properties and soil organic matter to evaluate the effect of termite activity and termite mounds on the soil. Two toposequences were selected and divided in slope thirds (shoulder, backslope, and footslope. In each of these, four termite mounds were selected. Samples were taken from the soils and termite mounds (top, center, and base along with a variety of termites for identification. Analyses were carried out for physical, soil texture, and chemical properties, as well as for particle size and chemical fractioning of organic matter. The species Cornitermes cumulans was found in all mounds. Soil with termite mound presented higher clay content, acidity, and Al3+ content. Phosphorus contents differed considerably between mound material and soil. Sum of bases and cation exchange capacity of the soil were higher in mounds, and differed within the mounds, according to the sampling height. Total organic carbon and particulate carbon content were highest at the mound base. A marked disparity was observed between the contents of humic substances in the mounds and surrounding soil, with humin fraction differences in distinct topographic position. The high nutrient contents detected in the termite mounds confirm the importance of termites in concentrating nutrients.

  15. Mayflies (Insecta: Ephemeroptera of Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCafferty, W. P.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ephemeroptera (Insecta fauna ofYellowstone National Park consists of 46 speciesin 24 genera among eight families. These speciesare listed, and fifteen of the species (includingcollection data are reported for the first time.Another 13 species have been taken adjacent tothe park in Wyoming and Montana and noted asexpected to occur in the park.

  16. Phylogenetic reconstruction of Syntermitinae (Isoptera, Termitidae based on morphological and molecular data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio M Rocha

    Full Text Available The subfamily Syntermitinae comprises a group of Neotropical termites with 18 genera and 101 species described. It has been considered a natural group, but relationships among the genera within the subfamily remain uncertain, and some genera appear to be non-monophyletic. Here, we provide a comprehensive phylogeny including six Neotropical species of Termitinae as outgroup, 42 Syntermitinae species as ingroup, 92 morphological characters (from external and internal anatomy of soldier and worker castes and 117 molecular sequences (109 obtained for this study and 8 from GenBank of 4 gene regions (41 and 22 from Cytochrome Oxidase I and II respectively, 19 from Cytochrome b, and 35 from 16S rDNA. Morphological and molecular data were analyzed in combination, with the Bayesian inference method, and the important aspects of termite biology, defense and feeding habits are discussed based on the resulting tree. Although useful for providing diagnostic characters, the morphology of the soldier caste reveals several cases of convergence; whereas the feeding habit shows indications of evolutionary significance.

  17. Phylogenetic reconstruction of Syntermitinae (Isoptera, Termitidae) based on morphological and molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Mauricio M; Morales-Corrêa E Castro, Adriana C; Cuezzo, Carolina; Cancello, Eliana M

    2017-01-01

    The subfamily Syntermitinae comprises a group of Neotropical termites with 18 genera and 101 species described. It has been considered a natural group, but relationships among the genera within the subfamily remain uncertain, and some genera appear to be non-monophyletic. Here, we provide a comprehensive phylogeny including six Neotropical species of Termitinae as outgroup, 42 Syntermitinae species as ingroup, 92 morphological characters (from external and internal anatomy of soldier and worker castes) and 117 molecular sequences (109 obtained for this study and 8 from GenBank) of 4 gene regions (41 and 22 from Cytochrome Oxidase I and II respectively, 19 from Cytochrome b, and 35 from 16S rDNA). Morphological and molecular data were analyzed in combination, with the Bayesian inference method, and the important aspects of termite biology, defense and feeding habits are discussed based on the resulting tree. Although useful for providing diagnostic characters, the morphology of the soldier caste reveals several cases of convergence; whereas the feeding habit shows indications of evolutionary significance.

  18. Evidence for cascades of perturbation and adaptation in the metabolic genes of higher termite gut symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinning; Leadbetter, Jared R

    2012-01-01

    Termites and their gut microbes engage in fascinating dietary mutualisms. Less is known about how these complex symbioses have evolved after first emerging in an insect ancestor over 120 million years ago. Here we examined a bacterial gene, formate dehydrogenase (fdhF), that is key to the mutualism in 8 species of "higher" termite (members of the Termitidae, the youngest and most biomass-abundant and species-rich termite family). Patterns of fdhF diversity in the gut communities of higher termites contrasted strongly with patterns in less-derived (more-primitive) insect relatives (wood-feeding "lower" termites and roaches). We observed phylogenetic evidence for (i) the sweeping loss of several clades of fdhF that may reflect extinctions of symbiotic protozoa and, importantly, bacteria dependent on them in the last common ancestor of all higher termites and (ii) a radiation of genes from the (possibly) single allele that survived. Sweeping gene loss also resulted in (iii) the elimination of an entire clade of genes encoding selenium (Se)-independent enzymes from higher termite gut communities, perhaps reflecting behavioral or morphological innovations in higher termites that relaxed preexisting environmental limitations of Se, a dietary trace element. Curiously, several higher termite gut communities may have subsequently reencountered Se limitation, reinventing genes for Se-independent proteins via convergent evolution. Lastly, the presence of a novel fdhF lineage within litter-feeding and subterranean higher (but not other) termites may indicate recent gene "invasion" events. These results imply that cascades of perturbation and adaptation by distinct evolutionary mechanisms have impacted the evolution of complex microbial communities in a highly successful lineage of insects. Since patterns of relatedness between termite hosts are broadly mirrored by the relatedness of their symbiotic gut microbiota, coevolution between hosts and gut symbionts is rightly

  19. Formyltetrahydrofolate Synthetase Gene Diversity in the Guts of Higher Termites with Different Diets and Lifestyles ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottesen, Elizabeth A.; Leadbetter, Jared R.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examine gene diversity for formyl-tetrahydrofolate synthetase (FTHFS), a key enzyme in homoacetogenesis, recovered from the gut microbiota of six species of higher termites. The “higher” termites (family Termitidae), which represent the majority of extant termite species and genera, engage in a broader diversity of feeding and nesting styles than the “lower” termites. Previous studies of termite gut homoacetogenesis have focused on wood-feeding lower termites, from which the preponderance of FTHFS sequences recovered were related to those from acetogenic treponemes. While sequences belonging to this group were present in the guts of all six higher termites examined, treponeme-like FTHFS sequences represented the majority of recovered sequences in only two species (a wood-feeding Nasutitermes sp. and a palm-feeding Microcerotermes sp.). The remaining four termite species analyzed (a Gnathamitermes sp. and two Amitermes spp. that were recovered from subterranean nests with indeterminate feeding strategies and a litter-feeding Rhynchotermes sp.) yielded novel FTHFS clades not observed in lower termites. These termites yielded two distinct clusters of probable purinolytic Firmicutes and a large group of potential homoacetogens related to sequences previously recovered from the guts of omnivorous cockroaches. These findings suggest that the gut environments of different higher termite species may select for different groups of homoacetogens, with some species hosting treponeme-dominated homoacetogen populations similar to those of wood-feeding, lower termites while others host Firmicutes-dominated communities more similar to those of omnivorous cockroaches. PMID:21441328

  20. Analysis of hindgut bacterial phyla frequency and diversity in subterranean termites exposed to chitosan-treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanrewaju Raji; Juliet D. Tang; Telmah Telmadarrehei; Dragica Jeremic

    2017-01-01

    The termite hindgut contains a microbial community that symbiotically aids in digestion of lignocellulosic materials. For better understanding of the dynamics of the bacteria-termite relationship, a species survey of bacterial hindgut microbes in subterranean termites (Reticulitermes flavipes: Kollar) collected from Louisville, Mississippi was...

  1. Testing protozoacidal activity of ligand-lytic peptides against termite gut protozoa in vitro (protozoa culture) and in vivo (microinjection into termite hindgut).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husseneder, Claudia; Sethi, Amit; Foil, Lane; Delatte, Jennifer

    2010-12-29

    We are developing a novel approach to subterranean termite control that would lead to reduced reliance on the use of chemical pesticides. Subterranean termites are dependent on protozoa in the hindguts of workers to efficiently digest wood. Lytic peptides have been shown to kill a variety of protozoan parasites (Mutwiri et al. 2000) and also protozoa in the gut of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus (Husseneder and Collier 2009). Lytic peptides are part of the nonspecific immune system of eukaryotes, and destroy the membranes of microorganisms (Leuschner and Hansel 2004). Most lytic peptides are not likely to harm higher eukaryotes, because they do not affect the electrically neutral cholesterol-containing cell membranes of higher eukaryotes (Javadpour et al. 1996). Lytic peptide action can be targeted to specific cell types by the addition of a ligand. For example, Hansel et al. (2007) reported that lytic peptides conjugated with cancer cell membrane receptor ligands could be used to destroy breast cancer cells, while lytic peptides alone or conjugated with non-specific peptides were not effective. Lytic peptides also have been conjugated to human hormones that bind to receptors on tumor cells for targeted destruction of prostate and testicular cancer cells (Leuschner and Hansel 2004). In this article we present techniques used to demonstrate the protozoacidal activity of a lytic peptide (Hecate) coupled to a heptapeptide ligand that binds to the surface membrane of protozoa from the gut of the Formosan subterranean termite. These techniques include extirpation of the gut from termite workers, anaerobic culture of gut protozoa (Pseudotrichonympha grassii, Holomastigotoides hartmanni,Spirotrichonympha leidyi), microscopic confirmation that the ligand marked with a fluorescent dye binds to the termite gut protozoa and other free-living protozoa but not to bacteria or gut tissue. We also demonstrate that the same ligand coupled to a lytic

  2. Uric acid, an important antioxidant contributing to survival in termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaki, Eisuke; Sakurai, Hiroki; Nitao, Masaru; Matsuura, Kenji; Iuchi, Yoshihito

    2017-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated spontaneously in all organisms and cause oxidative damage to biomolecules when present in excess. Accumulated oxidative damage accelerates aging; enhanced antioxidant capacity may be a positive factor for longevity. Recently, numerous studies of aging and longevity have been performed using short-lived animals, however, longevity mechanisms remain unknown. Here we show that a termite Reticulitermes speratus that is thought to be long-lived eusocial insect than other solitary insects uses large quantities of uric acid as an antioxidant against ROS. We demonstrated that the accumulation of uric acid considerably increases the free radical-scavenging activity and resistance against ultraviolet-induced oxidative stress in laboratory-maintained termites. In addition, we found that externally administered uric acid aided termite survival under highly oxidative conditions. The present data demonstrates that in addition to nutritional and metabolic roles, uric acid is an essential antioxidant for survival and contributes significantly to longevity. Uric acid also plays important roles in primates but causes gout when present in excess in humans. Further longevity studies of long-lived organisms may provide important breakthroughs with human health applications. PMID:28609463

  3. Effects of rice husk ash and termite hill types on the physical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This waste can be recycled through inclusion as stabilizer in brick making, thereby eliminating the hazard posed to the environment. This paper examined the effects of rice husk ash (RHA) on the two termite clay soils in brick making. The two termite clay soils obtained from red and gray anthills were stabilized with rice husk ...

  4. Quantification of termite bioturbation in a savannah ecosystem: Application of OSL dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jeppe Ågård; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Murray, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Luminescence dating is one of the most promising technique available for studying bioturbation on pedological timescales. In this study, we use multi-grain and single-grain quartz OSL to quantify termite bioturbation processes (Macrotermes natalensis) in a savannah ecosystem in Ghana. Termites tr...

  5. Heavy metals in some termite species and their nests in Ojo, Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Termites feed on decaying organic matter including plant parts and wood, concentrating heavy metals in the process. The main campus of Lagos State University was surveyed for termite species and their heavy metal contents. Nests including mounds, wooden structures and discarded wood products were observed for ...

  6. Resistance of borax–copper treated wood in aboveground exposure to attack by Formosan subterranean termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan Lebow; Bessie Woodward; Douglas Crawford; William Abbott

    2005-01-01

    The spread of Formosan subterranean termites (FSTs) in the southern United States has increased public interest in finding a preservative treatment to protect framing lumber from termite attack. This study evaluated the use of a borax-based preservative to protect wood from FST attack. Southern Pine and Douglas-fir specimens were pressure-treated with three...

  7. Control Of Book Termites Using Solid Attractants At The Central Library Of Universitas Sumatera Utara USU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameilia Zuliyanti Siregar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been identified the extent of damage due to the activity of Captotermes sp Microtermis sp Formica sp Araneus sp and Stegonium sp on books in the USU Library. Furthermore prevention of dominant pest attack on the book containing cellulose as the main food of termites termites control action term control by Action Research method action research Kurt Lewin adoption is done intensively from July to September 2017. used are of neem leaf Azadirachta indica tobacco leaf Nicotiana tabacum rubber cassava leaf Manihot glaziovii and betel nut Areca catechu which can be used as Termite Baiting System TBS. This method includes three stages in the form of planning planning activity and reflection actuating and reflexion and evaluation evaluation. The results show the higher number of termites in F1799.3 0.328 with zero days after application. Based on the research recorded in sampling for 3 months with 4 treatments had a significant effect on the percentage of the number of termites that died and collected with the value of F is 86.27 p amp706 0000 and the percentage of death is F 59.13 p amp706 0000. Pearson correlation value recorded percentage of termite mortality r 0.349 and percentage of book affected r -0597 showed a very significant relationship. Pinet pellet is the best attractant in controlling termite pests followed by tobacco plants poisonous yams and neem. Optimal FFB techniques in its use can control termite colonies in an environmentally friendly manner.

  8. What's inside a Termite's Gut?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Asia Liza; Rowton, Edgar; Anderson, Margery; Yourick, Debra

    2017-01-01

    During the Jurassic period (201 million to 145 million years ago), termites up to 15 mm long consumed and recycled vegetation and feces. Since then, termites have evolved into some 3,000 identified species, have colonized every continent except Antarctica, and are major contributors to nutrient cycling and vertebrate food webs (Shaw 2014).…

  9. Patterns of interaction specificity of fungus-growing termites and Termitomyces symbionts in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur K; Ros, Vera I D; de Fine Licht, Henrik H

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae live in a mutualistic symbiosis with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Termitomyces. Here, we explored interaction specificity in fungus-growing termites using samples from 101 colonies in South-Africa and Senegal, belonging to eight species...

  10. Parametric City Scale Energy Modeling Perspectives on using Termite in city scaled models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negendahl, Kristoffer; Nielsen, Toke Rammer

    Termite is a parametric tool using the Danish building performance simulation engine Be10 written for the Grasshopper3D/Rhino3D environment. The tool Be10 is originally intended for building energy frame calculations and is required by Danish law when constructing new buildings. Termite opens up...

  11. Vertical transmission as the key to the colonization of Madagascar by fungus-growing termites?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobre, T.; Eggleton, P.; Aanen, D.K.

    2010-01-01

    The mutualism between fungus-growing termites (Macrotermitinae) and their mutualistic fungi (Termitomyces) began in Africa. The fungus-growing termites have secondarily colonized Madagascar and only a subset of the genera found in Africa is found on this isolated island. Successful long-distance

  12. Patterns of interaction specificity of fungus-growing termites and Termitomyces symbionts in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanen, D.K.; Ros, V.I.D.; Licht, H.H.D.; Mitchel, J.; de Beer, Z.W.; Slippers, B.; Rouland-LeFevre, C.; Boomsma, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae live in a mutualistic symbiosis with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Termitomyces. Here, we explored interaction specificity in fungus-growing termites using samples from 101 colonies in South-Africa and Senegal, belonging to eight species

  13. Termite Incidence on an Araucaria Plantation Forest in Teluk Bahang, Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Hassan Ahmad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to evaluate the incidence of termite attack on an Araucaria cunninghamii plantation at Teluk Bahang Forest Park (TBFP, Penang. The hilly plantation area was surveyed to determine the diversity of termite species present. Termite specimens were collected from standin Araucaria trees, underground monitoring (aggregation stations, fallen logs, forest litter and mounds (nests. Seven species of termites were identified from 6 genera; Coptotermes curvignathus, Schedorhinotermes medioobscurus, Schedorhinotermes malaccensis, Odontotermes sarawakensis Parrhinotermes aequalis, Macrotermes malaccensis and Hospitalitermes hospitalis. A total of 289 Araucaria trees were inspected for signs of termite attack. Termite infestation of trees was determined mainly by the presence of mud on the trunk, but particularly around their butts at ground line. The most dominant termite species discovered infesting the Araucaria trees was Coptotermes curvignathus; accountable for 74% of all infestations. Schedorhinotermes medioobscurus and Odontotermes sarawakensis were commonly found infesting dead trees and/or tree stumps. Approximately 21.5% of all Araucaria trees in the plantation forest at Teluk Bahang were infested by termites.

  14. Patterns of interaction specificity of fungus-growing termites and Termitomyces symbionts in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanen, D.K.; Ros, V.I.D.; Fine Licht, de H.H.; Mitchell, J.; Beer, de Z.W.; Slippers, B.; Rouland-Lefevre, C.; Boomsma, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae live in a mutualistic symbiosis with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Termitomyces. Here, we explored interaction specificity in fungus-growing termites using samples from 101 colonies in South-Africa and Senegal, belonging to eight species

  15. Termite Incidence on an Araucaria Plantation Forest in Teluk Bahang, Penang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmi, Aiman Hanis; Ahmad, Abu Hassan

    2011-11-02

    A study was carried out to evaluate the incidence of termite attack on an Araucaria cunninghamii plantation at Teluk Bahang Forest Park (TBFP), Penang. The hilly plantation area was surveyed to determine the diversity of termite species present. Termite specimens were collected from standin Araucaria trees, underground monitoring (aggregation) stations, fallen logs, forest litter and mounds (nests). Seven species of termites were identified from 6 genera; Coptotermes curvignathus, Schedorhinotermes medioobscurus, Schedorhinotermes malaccensis, Odontotermes sarawakensis Parrhinotermes aequalis, Macrotermes malaccensis and Hospitalitermes hospitalis. A total of 289 Araucaria trees were inspected for signs of termite attack. Termite infestation of trees was determined mainly by the presence of mud on the trunk, but particularly around their butts at ground line. The most dominant termite species discovered infesting the Araucaria trees was Coptotermes curvignathus; accountable for 74% of all infestations. Schedorhinotermes medioobscurus and Odontotermes sarawakensis were commonly found infesting dead trees and/or tree stumps. Approximately 21.5% of all Araucaria trees in the plantation forest at Teluk Bahang were infested by termites.

  16. Associations of Two Ecologically Significant Social Insect Taxa in the Litter of an Amazonian Rainforest: Is There a Relationship between Ant and Termite Species Richness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Mertl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the ecological dominance of Neotropical ants and termites, little is understood about how their interactions influence their species richness and distribution. We surveyed ground-dwelling termite and ant species in a primary rainforest in Ecuador and analyzed ecological correlates of diversity. Termite richness was positively correlated with ant richness and abundance of twig-nesting ants. We found no evidence of competition for twigs between termites and ants. No ecological factors were correlated with termite diversity although elevation and twig and log abundance influenced ant diversity. When ant richness was compared to the richness of termites employing different predator defenses, a positive correlation was found with soldierless termites, but not genera employing chemical or mechanical defense. Our results suggest that multiple ecological factors influence ant and termite diversity, and that ant predation on termites may have a greater effect than competition between ant and termites for nest sites and food sources.

  17. The Orthoptera species (Insecta from Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve (Romania

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    LUPU Gabriel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigations that were made in the last 10 years and the review of scientific literature who relived studies made on grasshoppers, cricket and bush cricket species from Romania and especially from Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve (D.D.B.R. territory indicate the presence of 80 taxa belonging to Orthoptera order (ClassInsecta, an important number from a total of 187 taxa at national level. In the same time D.D.B.R. is characterized by some interesting elements of orthoptera fauna – one endemic species [Isophya dobrogensis (Kis 1994] on Popina Island, one new species for this territory [Metrioptera (Zeuneriana amplipennis (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1882] and two species (Isophya dobrogensis (Kis, 1994 and Saga pedo (Pallas, 1771 from Red List of plant and animal species from D.D.B.R. Over 40% orthoptera species from Romania characterize through their presence Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve having a diverse geographical spreading, fact that is correlated with the diversity of dobroudjean climate. This is characterized by unique elements in Romania being an interface area between different types of climate.

  18. Brochosomes protect leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) from sticky exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2013-10-06

    Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with buckyball-shaped submicron proteinaceous secretory particles, called brochosomes. Here, we demonstrate that brochosomal coats, recently shown to be superhydrophobic, act as non-stick coatings and protect leafhoppers from contamination with their own sticky exudates--filtered plant sap. We exposed 137 wings of Alnetoidia alneti (Dahlbom), from half of which brochosomes were removed, to the rain of exudates under a colony of live A. alneti. One hundred and fifty-two droplets became stuck to the bared wings and only three to the intact wings. Inspection of the wings with a scanning electron microscope confirmed that the droplets that had hit the intact wings had rolled or bounced off the brochosomal coats. This is the first experimental study that tested a biological function of the brochosomal coats of leafhopper integuments. We argue that the production of brochosomes in leafhoppers and production of epidermal wax blooms in other sap-sucking hemipterans are alternative solutions, both serving to protect these insects from entrapment by their exudates.

  19. The mitochondrial genome of the entomophagous endoparasite Xenosvesparum (Insecta: Strepsiptera)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carapelli, Antonio; Vannini, Laura; Nardi, Francesco; Boore,Jeffrey L.; Beani, Laura; Dallai, Romano; Frati, Francesco

    2005-12-01

    In this study, the nearly complete sequence (14,519 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the entomophagous endoparasite Xenos vesparum (Insecta: Strepsiptera) is described. All protein coding genes (PCGs) are in the arrangement known to be ancestral for insects, but three tRNA genes (trnA, trnS(gcu), and trnL(uag)) have transposed to derived positions and there are three tandem copies of trnH, each of which is potentially functional. All of these rearrangements except for that of trnL(uag) is within the short span between nad3 and nad4 and there are numerous blocks of unassignable sequence in this region, perhaps as remnants of larger scale predisposing rearrangements. X. vesparum mtDNA nucleotide composition is strongly biased toward As and Ts, as is typical for insect mtDNAs. There is also significant strand skew in the distribution of these nucleotides, with the J-strand being richer in A than T and in C than G, and the N-strand showing an opposite skew for complementary pairs of nucleotides. The hypothetical secondary structure of the 16S rRNA has also been reconstructed, obtaining a structural model similar to that of other insects.

  20. The complete mitogenome of Arcyptera coreana (Insecta: Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nian; Huang, Yuan

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitogenome of Arcyptera coreana (Insecta: Orthoptera: Acrididae) is determined to be 15,783 bp in length, consisting of 37 typical mitochondrial genes and an AT-rich region. Its gene order and orientation are identical to those of most other grasshoppers. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by typical ATN codons, except for cox1 gene with the unusual TTA as its start codon. Eleven genes use complete termination codon (TAA), whereas the cox2 and nad5 genes end with a single T. Except for trnS(AGN), all tRNA genes display typical secondary cloverleaf structures as those of other insects. The two rRNA genes (rrnL and rrnS) are 1,309 bp and 792 bp, respectively. The 946-bp long AT-rich region contains several features common to those of other Caelifera insects, such as the stem-loop secondary structure and the motif "TATTTwATryAyAAA".

  1. Vertical Distribution of Termites on Trees in Two Forest Landscapes in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hou-Feng; Yeh, Hsin-Ting; Chiu, Chun-I; Kuo, Chih-Yu; Tsai, Ming-Jer

    2016-03-25

    Termites are a key functional group in the forest ecosystem, but they damage trees. To investigate the termite infestation pattern on the whole tree, we cut 108 blackboard trees,Alstonia scholaris(L.) R. Br., and 50 Japanese cedars,Cryptomeria japonica (L. f.) D. Don, into sections. The bark surface and cross sections of the tree trunk were examined along the axes. A high percentage of blackboard trees (92.6%) was infested by fungus-growing termites,Odontotermes formosanus(Shiraki), but damage was limited to the bark surface at a 2-m height. The infestation rate of dampwood termites,Neotermes koshunensis(Shiraki), was only 4.6% (5/108), and all infestations were associated with trunk wounds.N. koshunensiswas found at significantly higher portion of a tree thanO. formosanus Among 50 Japanese cedars, 20 living trees were not infested by any termites, but 26 of the 30 dead trees were infested by subterranean termites,Reticulitermes flaviceps(Oshima), which excavated tunnels in the trunk. The infestation rate at basal sections was higher than that at distal sections. Only one Japanese cedar tree was infested by another dampwood termite,Glyptotermes satsumensis(Matsumura). The two dominant termite species,O. formosanusandR. flaviceps, had subterranean nests and infested trees from bottom up. The two primitive termitesN. koshunensis andG. satsumensishad low infestation rates and are most likely to infest trees by alates from top down. The niche segregation in trees of three termite families, Kalotermitidae, Rhinotermitidae, and Termitidae, was distinct. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Chemical Fertility Signaling in Termites: Idiosyncrasies and Commonalities in Comparison with Ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, Judith

    2018-04-04

    Termites evolved eusociality independently from social Hymenoptera. As a common trait, reproductive monopoly is maintained through chemical communication. The queen (and in termites also a king) prevents workers from reproduction by conveying their reproductive status. In termites all soldiers are sterile, but workers' potential to reproduce differs between species. It ranges from totipotency in wood-dwelling lower termites where workers are a transient stage from which all other castes develop, to sterile workers in some higher termites. Intermediate are species in which workers can develop into replacement sexuals within the nest but not into winged sexuals. I summarize the patchy picture about fertility signaling that we currently have for termites, pointing also to potential conflicts over reproduction that differ from those in social Hymenoptera. Recent findings imply that, similar to many social Hymenoptera, wood-dwelling termites that live in confined nests use long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) as fertility signals. Yet other compounds are important as well, comprising proteinaceous secretions and especially volatiles. For a subterranean termite, two volatiles have been identified as primer pheromones that prevent reproductive differentiation of workers. It requires more data to test whether wood-dwelling termites use CHCs, while species with larger colonies and less confined nests use volatiles, or whether all species rely on multicomponent signals. Ultimately, we need more effort to model and test potential conflicts over reproduction between queens, kings and workers. Here results from social Hymenoptera cannot be transferred to termites as the latter are diploid and commonly inbred. This review illustrates promising future research avenues.

  3. The antibacterial protein lysozyme identified as the termite egg recognition pheromone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Matsuura

    Full Text Available Social insects rely heavily on pheromone communication to maintain their sociality. Egg protection is one of the most fundamental social behaviours in social insects. The recent discovery of the termite-egg mimicking fungus 'termite-ball' and subsequent studies on termite egg protection behaviour have shown that termites can be manipulated by using the termite egg recognition pheromone (TERP, which strongly evokes the egg-carrying and -grooming behaviours of workers. Despite the great scientific and economic importance, TERP has not been identified because of practical difficulties. Herein we identified the antibacterial protein lysozyme as the TERP. We isolated the target protein using ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and the MALDI-TOF MS analysis showed a molecular size of 14.5 kDa. We found that the TERP provided antibacterial activity against a gram-positive bacterium. Among the currently known antimicrobial proteins, the molecular size of 14.5 kDa limits the target to lysozyme. Termite lysozymes obtained from eggs and salivary glands, and even hen egg lysozyme, showed a strong termite egg recognition activity. Besides eggs themselves, workers also supply lysozyme to eggs through frequent egg-grooming, by which egg surfaces are coated with saliva containing lysozyme. Reverse transcript PCR analysis showed that mRNA of termite lysozyme was expressed in both salivary glands and eggs. Western blot analysis confirmed that lysozyme production begins in immature eggs in queen ovaries. This is the first identification of proteinaceous pheromone in social insects. Researchers have focused almost exclusively on hydrocarbons when searching for recognition pheromones in social insects. The present finding of a proteinaceous pheromone represents a major step forward in, and result in the broadening of, the search for recognition pheromones. This novel function of lysozyme as a termite pheromone illuminates the profound influence

  4. Do termites avoid carcasses? Behavioral responses depend on the nature of the carcasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Boon Neoh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Undertaking behavior is a significant adaptation to social life in enclosed nests. Workers are known to remove dead colony members from the nest. Such behavior prevents the spread of pathogens that may be detrimental to a colony. To date, little is known about the ethological aspects of how termites deal with carcasses. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we tested the responses to carcasses of four species from different subterranean termite taxa: Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe (lower termites and Microcerotermes crassus Snyder and Globitermes sulphureus Haviland (higher termites. We also used different types of carcasses (freshly killed, 1-, 3-, and 7-day-old, and oven-killed carcasses and mutilated nestmates to investigate whether the termites exhibited any behavioral responses that were specific to carcasses in certain conditions. Some behavioral responses were performed specifically on certain types of carcasses or mutilated termites. C. formosanus and R. speratus exhibited the following behaviors: (1 the frequency and time spent in antennating, grooming, and carcass removal of freshly killed, 1-day-old, and oven-killed carcasses were high, but these behaviors decreased as the carcasses aged; (2 the termites repeatedly crawled under the aging carcass piles; and (3 only newly dead termites were consumed as a food source. In contrast, M. crassus and G. sulphureus workers performed relatively few behavioral acts. Our results cast a new light on the previous notion that termites are necrophobic in nature. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the behavioral response towards carcasses depends largely on the nature of the carcasses and termite species, and the response is more complex than was previously thought. Such behavioral responses likely are associated with the threat posed to the colony by the carcasses and the feeding habits and nesting ecology of a given species.

  5. Exploring the potential for actinobacteria as defensive symbionts in fungus-growing termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Anna A; Nobre, Tânia; Currie, Cameron R; Aanen, Duur K; Poulsen, Michael

    2012-05-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play a role as defensive symbionts against Pseudoxylaria in fungus-growing termites. We sampled for Actinobacteria from 30 fungus-growing termite colonies, spanning the three main termite genera and two geographically distant sites. Our isolations yielded 360 Actinobacteria, from which we selected subsets for morphological (288 isolates, grouped in 44 morphotypes) and for 16S rRNA (35 isolates, spanning the majority of morphotypes) characterisation. Actinobacteria were found throughout all sampled nests and colony parts and, phylogenetically, they are interspersed with Actinobacteria from origins other than fungus-growing termites, indicating lack of specificity. Antibiotic-activity screening of 288 isolates against the fungal cultivar and competitor revealed that most of the Actinobacteria-produced molecules with antifungal activity. A more detailed bioassay on 53 isolates, to test the specificity of antibiotics, showed that many Actinobacteria inhibit both Pseudoxylaria and Termitomyces, and that the cultivar fungus generally is more susceptible to inhibition than the competitor. This suggests that either defensive symbionts are not present in the system or that they, if present, represent a subset of the community isolated. If so, the antibiotics must be used in a targeted fashion, being applied to specific areas by the termites. We describe the first discovery of an assembly of antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria occurring in fungus-growing termite nests. However, due to the diversity found, and the lack of both phylogenetic and bioactivity specificity, further work is necessary for a better understanding of the putative role of antibiotic-producing bacteria in the fungus

  6. Termites community as environmental bioindicators in highlands: a case study in eastern slopes of Mount Slamet, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IDHAM SAKTI HARAHAP

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Pribadi T,Raffiudin R,HarahapIS (2011Termites community as environmental bioindicators in highlands: a case study in eastern slopes of Mount Slamet, Central Java. Biodiversitas 12: 235-240. Termites ecological behaviour is much affected by land use change and disturbance level. Their variation in diversity can be used as bioindicator of environmental quality. However, termite community response to land use changes and habitat disturbance in highland ecosystems remains poorly understood. This study was conducted to investigate the response of termite community to land use intensification and to explore their role as environmental bioindicator in Mount Slamet. A standard survey protocol was used to collect termites in five land use typesof various disturbance levels,i.e. protected forest, recreation forest, production forest,agroforestry, and urban area. It was found two termite families i.e. Rhinotermitidae and Termitidae with seven species, i.e Schedorhinotermes javanicus, Procapritermes sp, Pericapritermes semarangi, Macrotermes gilvus, Microtermes insperatus, Nasutitermes javanicus, and N. matanganensis. Termite species’ richness and evenness, Shannon-Wiener index, relative abundance, and biomass of termite were declined along with the land use types and disturbance level from protected forest to urban area. Habitat disturbance was the main declining factor of termite diversity. Termite composition changed along with the land use disturbance level. Soil feeding termites were sensitive to the disturbance – they were not found in urban area. Hence, their presence or absence can be used as environmental bioindicator to detect habitat disturbance.

  7. Response of Termite (Blattodea: Termitoidae) Assemblages to Lower Subtropical Forest Succession: A Case Study in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Qiang; Ke, Yun-Ling; Zeng, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Shi-Jun; Wu, Wen-Jing

    2016-02-01

    Termite (Blattodea: Termitoidae) assemblages have important ecological functions and vary in structure between habitats, but have not been studied in lower subtropical forests. To examine whether differences in the richness and relative abundance of termite species and functional groups occur in lower subtropical regions, termite assemblages were sampled in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China, among pine forest, pine and broad-leaved mixed forest (mixed forest), and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (monsoon forest). The dominant functional group was wood-feeding termites (family Termitidae), and the mixed forest hosted the greatest richness and relative abundance. Soil-feeding termites were absent from the lower subtropical system, while humus-feeding termites were sporadically distributed in mixed forest and monsoon forest. The species richness and functional group abundance of termites in our site may be linked to the forest succession. Altitude, soil temperature, air temperature, surface air relative humidity, and litter depth were significant influences on species and functional group diversity.

  8. Intra- and interspecific comparisons of bacterial diversity and community structure support coevolution of gut microbiota and termite host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongoh, Yuichi; Deevong, Pinsurang; Inoue, Tetsushi; Moriya, Shigeharu; Trakulnaleamsai, Savitr; Ohkuma, Moriya; Vongkaluang, Charunee; Noparatnaraporn, Napavarn; Kudo, Toshiaki

    2005-11-01

    We investigated the bacterial gut microbiota from 32 colonies of wood-feeding termites, comprising four Microcerotermes species (Termitidae) and four Reticulitermes species (Rhinotermitidae), using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and clonal analysis of 16S rRNA. The obtained molecular community profiles were compared statistically between individuals, colonies, locations, and species of termites. Both analyses revealed that the bacterial community structure was remarkably similar within each termite genus, with small but significant differences between sampling sites and/or termite species. In contrast, considerable differences were found between the two termite genera. Only one bacterial phylotype (defined with 97% sequence identity) was shared between the two termite genera, while 18% and 50% of the phylotypes were shared between two congeneric species in the genera Microcerotermes and Reticulitermes, respectively. Nevertheless, a phylogenetic analysis of 228 phylotypes from Microcerotermes spp. and 367 phylotypes from Reticulitermes spp. with other termite gut clones available in public databases demonstrated the monophyly of many phylotypes from distantly related termites. The monophyletic "termite clusters" comprised of phylotypes from more than one termite species were distributed among 15 bacterial phyla, including the novel candidate phyla TG2 and TG3. These termite clusters accounted for 95% of the 960 clones analyzed in this study. Moreover, the clusters in 12 phyla comprised phylotypes from more than one termite (sub)family, accounting for 75% of the analyzed clones. Our results suggest that the majority of gut bacteria are not allochthonous but are specific symbionts that have coevolved with termites and that their community structure is basically consistent within a genus of termites.

  9. IDENTIFICATION, PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL LIGNASE PROTEINS FROM TERMITES FOR DEPOLYMERIZATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SLACK, JEFFREY, M.

    2012-12-06

    Wood is a potential source for biofuels such as ethanol if it can be digested into sugars and fermented by yeast. Biomass derived from wood is a challenging substrate for ethanol production since it is made of lignin and cellulose which cannot be broken down easily into fermentable sugars. Some insects, and termites in particular, are specialized at using enzymes in their guts to digest wood into sugars. If termite gut enzymes could be made abundantly by a recombinant protein expression vector system, they could be applied to an industrial process to make biofuels from wood. In this study, a large cDNA library of relevant termite genes was made using termites fed a normal diet, or a diet with added lignin. A subtracted library yielded genes that were overexpressed in the presence of lignin. Termite gut enzyme genes were identified and cloned into recombinant insect viruses called baculoviruses. Using our PERLXpress system for protein expression, these termite gene recombinant baculoviruses were prepared and used to infect insect larvae, which then expressed abundant recombinant termite enzymes. Many of these expressed enzymes were prepared to very high purity, and the activities were studied in conjunction with collaborators at Purdue University. Recombinant termite enzymes expressed in caterpillars were shown to be able to release sugars from wood. Mixing different combinations of these enzymes increased the amount of sugars released from a model woody biomass substrate. The most economical, fastest and energy conserving way to prepare termite enzymes expressed by recombinant baculoviruses in caterpillars was by making crude liquid homogenates. Making enzymes stable in homogenates therefore was a priority. During the course of these studies, improvements were made to the recombinant baculovirus expression platform so that caterpillar-derived homogenates containing expressed termite enzymes would be more stable. These improvements in the baculoviruses included

  10. Acoustic detection of Oryctes rhinoceros (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) and Nasutitermes luzonicus (Isoptera: Termitidae) in palm trees in urban Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankin, R W; Moore, A

    2010-08-01

    Adult and larval Oryctes rhinoceros (L.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) were acoustically detected in live and dead palm trees and logs in recently invaded areas of Guam, along with Nasutitermes luzonicus Oshima (Isoptera: Termitidae), and other small, sound-producing invertebrates and invertebrates. The low-frequency, long-duration sound-impulse trains produced by large, active O. rhinoceros and the higher frequency, shorter impulse trains produced by feeding N. luzonicus had distinctive spectral and temporal patterns that facilitated their identification and discrimination from background noise, as well as from roaches, earwigs, and other small sound-producing organisms present in the trees and logs. The distinctiveness of the O. rhinoceros sounds enables current usage of acoustic detection as a tactic in Guam's ongoing O. rhinoceros eradication program.

  11. Termites utilise clay to build structural supports and so increase foraging resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberst, Sebastian; Lai, Joseph C S; Evans, Theodore A

    2016-02-08

    Many termite species use clay to build foraging galleries and mound-nests. In some cases clay is placed within excavations of their wooden food, such as living trees or timber in buildings; however the purpose for this clay is unclear. We tested the hypotheses that termites can identify load bearing wood, and that they use clay to provide mechanical support of the load and thus allow them to eat the wood. In field and laboratory experiments, we show that the lower termite Coptotermes acinaciformis, the most basal species to build a mound-nest, can distinguish unloaded from loaded wood, and use clay differently when eating each type. The termites target unloaded wood preferentially, and use thin clay sheeting to camouflage themselves while eating the unloaded wood. The termites attack loaded wood secondarily, and build thick, load-bearing clay walls when they do. The termites add clay and build thicker walls as the load-bearing wood is consumed. The use of clay to support wood under load unlocks otherwise unavailable food resources. This behaviour may represent an evolutionary step from foraging behaviour to nest building in lower termites.

  12. Phylogenetic diversity of Archaea in the intestinal tract of termites from different lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Huang, Zhou; Han, Shuai; Fan, Shuo; Yang, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Termites are among the few arthropods that emit methane to the atmosphere, which is a significant source of global greenhouse gas due to their huge biomass on earth. In this study, phylogenetic diversity of Archaea of five termite species from different lineages were analyzed based on 16S rRNA genes. Archaea associated with wood-feeding lower termite, R. chinensis were exclusively Methanobrevibacter in the order Methanobacteriales. This type of methanogens was also found in Nasutitermes sp. and Microcerotermes sp. but not in the fungus-cultivating termites, Odontotermes formosanus and Macrotermes barneyi, which harbor Archaea of the order Methanoplasmatales and Methanosarcinales in their guts. Archaeal diversity of wood-feeding higher termites was higher than wood-feeding lower termites. The highest archaeal diversity was found in Nasutitermes sp. In addition to methanogens affiliated with the orders Methanobacteriales, Methanomicrobiales, and Methanoplasmatales, 37% of archaeal clones were affiliated with non-methanogenic Thaumarchaeota. The results of this study will be significant for further understanding of symbiotic relationship between intestinal microbiota and termites. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Phenol-oxidizing laccases from the termite gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, M R; Salem, T Z; Denton, J S; Kovaleva, E S; Liu, Z; Barber, D S; Campbell, J H; Davis, D C; Buchman, G W; Boucias, D G; Scharf, M E

    2010-10-01

    cDNAs encoding two gut laccase isoforms (RfLacA and RfLacB) were sequenced from the termite Reticulitermes flavipes. Phylogenetic analyses comparing translated R. flavipes laccases to 67 others from prokaryotes and eukaryotes indicate that the R. flavipes laccases are evolutionarily unique. Alignments with crystallography-verified laccases confirmed that peptide motifs involved in metal binding are 100% conserved in both isoforms. Laccase transcripts and phenoloxidase activity were most abundant in symbiont-free salivary gland and foregut tissue, verifying that the genes and activities are host-derived. Using a baculovirus-insect expression system, the two isoforms were functionally expressed with histidine tags and purified to near homogeneity. ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry) analysis of RfLacA identified bound metals consisting mainly of copper (∼4 copper molecules per laccase protein molecule and ∼3 per histidine tag) with lesser amounts of calcium, manganese and zinc. Both recombinant enzyme preparations showed strong activity towards the lignin monomer sinapinic acid and four other phenolic substrates. By contrast, both isoforms displayed much lower or no activity against four melanin precursors, suggesting that neither isoform is involved in integument formation. Modification of lignin alkali by the recombinant RfLacA preparation was also observed. These findings provide evidence that R. flavipes gut laccases are evolutionarily distinct, host-derived, produced in the salivary gland, secreted into the foregut, bind copper, and play a role in lignocellulose digestion. These findings contribute to a better understanding of termite digestion and gut physiology, and will assist future translational studies that examine the contributions of individual termite enzymes in lignocellulose digestion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Termites Are Resistant to the Effects of Fire at Multiple Spatial Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitabile, Sarah C.; Nimmo, Dale G.; Bennett, Andrew F.; Clarke, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Termites play an important ecological role in many ecosystems, particularly in nutrient-poor arid and semi-arid environments. We examined the distribution and occurrence of termites in the fire-prone, semi-arid mallee region of south-eastern Australia. In addition to periodic large wildfires, land managers use fire as a tool to achieve both asset protection and ecological outcomes in this region. Twelve taxa of termites were detected by using systematic searches and grids of cellulose baits at 560 sites, clustered in 28 landscapes selected to represent different fire mosaic patterns. There was no evidence of a significant relationship between the occurrence of termite species and time-since-fire at the site scale. Rather, the occurrence of species was related to habitat features such as the density of mallee trees and large logs (>10 cm diameter). Species richness was greater in chenopod mallee vegetation on heavier soils in swales, rather than Triodia mallee vegetation of the sandy dune slopes. At the landscape scale, there was little evidence that the frequency of occurrence of termite species was related to fire, and no evidence that habitat heterogeneity generated by fire influenced termite species richness. The most influential factor at the landscape scale was the environmental gradient represented by average annual rainfall. Although termites may be associated with flammable habitat components (e.g. dead wood), they appear to be buffered from the effects of fire by behavioural traits, including nesting underground, and the continued availability of dead wood after fire. There is no evidence to support the hypothesis that a fine-scale, diverse mosaic of post-fire age-classes will enhance the diversity of termites. Rather, termites appear to be resistant to the effects of fire at multiple spatial scales. PMID:26571383

  15. Termites Are Resistant to the Effects of Fire at Multiple Spatial Scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Avitabile

    Full Text Available Termites play an important ecological role in many ecosystems, particularly in nutrient-poor arid and semi-arid environments. We examined the distribution and occurrence of termites in the fire-prone, semi-arid mallee region of south-eastern Australia. In addition to periodic large wildfires, land managers use fire as a tool to achieve both asset protection and ecological outcomes in this region. Twelve taxa of termites were detected by using systematic searches and grids of cellulose baits at 560 sites, clustered in 28 landscapes selected to represent different fire mosaic patterns. There was no evidence of a significant relationship between the occurrence of termite species and time-since-fire at the site scale. Rather, the occurrence of species was related to habitat features such as the density of mallee trees and large logs (>10 cm diameter. Species richness was greater in chenopod mallee vegetation on heavier soils in swales, rather than Triodia mallee vegetation of the sandy dune slopes. At the landscape scale, there was little evidence that the frequency of occurrence of termite species was related to fire, and no evidence that habitat heterogeneity generated by fire influenced termite species richness. The most influential factor at the landscape scale was the environmental gradient represented by average annual rainfall. Although termites may be associated with flammable habitat components (e.g. dead wood, they appear to be buffered from the effects of fire by behavioural traits, including nesting underground, and the continued availability of dead wood after fire. There is no evidence to support the hypothesis that a fine-scale, diverse mosaic of post-fire age-classes will enhance the diversity of termites. Rather, termites appear to be resistant to the effects of fire at multiple spatial scales.

  16. ¿QUÉ PERCEPCIÓN TENEMOS DE LOS INSECTOS-PALO (Insecta: Phasmatodea)?

    OpenAIRE

    MAURICIO VARGAS C.

    2006-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio compilatorio acerca de la relación que tienen las personas con los insectos palo (e insectos hoja; Insecta: Phasmatodea). Se destaca la importancia que tienen estos insectos en diferentes culturas, la forma de apreciarlos, percibirlos e interactuar con ellos. Se describen algunos aspectos etnotaxonómicos, de credo, usos y costumbres, representaciones gráficas, producciones literarias y cinematográficas de estos insectos en distintos grupos humanos. Se propone el estudio ...

  17. Feeding ecology and phylogenetic structure of a complex neotropical termite assemblage, revealed by nitrogen stable isotope ratios

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bourguignon, T.; Šobotník, Jan; Lepoint, G.; Martin, J. M.; Hardy, O. J.; Dejean, A.; Roisin, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 2 (2011), s. 261-269 ISSN 0307-6946 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : diet diversity * feeding groups * Isoptera * phylogenetic autocorrelation Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.995, year: 2011

  18. Mitochondrial and chemical profiles reveal a new genus and species of Neotropical termite with snapping soldiers, Palmitermes impostor (Termitidae : Termitinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellemans, S.; Bourguignon, T.; Kyjaková, Pavlína; Hanus, Robert; Roisin, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 4 (2017), s. 394-405 ISSN 1445-5226 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-25354P Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cuticular hydrocarbons * French Guiana * Isoptera * mitochondrial genome * Palmitermes * Termitinae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Biodiversity conservation Impact factor: 2.172, year: 2016

  19. Phylogenetic and functional analysis of gut microbiota of a fungus-growing higher termite: Bacteroidetes from higher termites are a rich source of β-glucosidase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiling; Liu, Ning; Qian, Changli; Wang, Qianfu; Wang, Qian; Long, Yanhua; Huang, Yongping; Zhou, Zhihua; Yan, Xing

    2014-08-01

    Fungus-growing termites, their symbiotic fungi, and microbiota inhibiting their intestinal tract comprise a highly efficient cellulose-hydrolyzing system; however, little is known about the role of gut microbiota in this system. Twelve fosmid clones with β-glucosidase activity were previously obtained by functionally screening a metagenomic library of a fungus-growing termite, Macrotermes annandalei. Ten contigs containing putative β-glucosidase genes (bgl1-10) were assembled by sequencing data of these fosmid clones. All these contigs were binned to Bacteroidetes, and all these β-glucosidase genes were phylogenetically closed to those from Bacteroides or Dysgonomonas. Six out of 10 β-glucosidase genes had predicted signal peptides, indicating a transmembrane capability of these enzymes to mediate cellulose hydrolysis within the gut of the termites. To confirm the activities of these β-glucosidase genes, three genes (bgl5, bgl7, and bgl9) were successfully expressed and purified. The optimal temperature and pH of these enzymes largely resembled the environment of the host's gut. The gut microbiota composition of the fungus-growing termite was also determined by 454 pyrosequencing, showing that Bacteroidetes was the most dominant phylum. The diversity and the enzyme properties of β-glucosidases revealed in this study suggested that Bacteroidetes as the major member in fungus-growing termites contributed to cello-oligomer degradation in cellulose-hydrolyzing process and represented a rich source for β-glucosidase genes.

  20. Termite assemblages from oil palm agroecosystems across Riau Province, Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Andi; Jalaludin, Nur-Atiqah; Hazmi, Izfa Riza; Rahim, Faszly

    2016-11-01

    Termite survey was conducted at six oil palm agroecosystem sites in Riau Province, Sumatra, Indonesia to document species richness across the sites. Six sites were surveyed by using continuous transect representing gradients of oil palm landuse across Indragiri Hulu to Bengkalis District since February 5th, 2015 until May 21st, 2015. Termites were sampled by modified transect protocols (100 m × 4 m × 10 cm). A total of 23 species belonging to two families and five subfamilies were collected. The termite assemblage was dominated by wood-feeding termites. The major family collected was Rhinotermitidae which included some pest species, such as Coptotermes curvignathus, C. sepangensis, C. kalshoveni, Schedorhinotermes malaccensis, S. medioobscurus, S. brevialatus, and S. javanicus.

  1. LBA-ECO ND-04 Termite Mound and Soil Characterization, Amazonas, Brazil: 1999-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports the results of a comprehensive study of mound building termites at the Embrapa research station in the Distrito Agropecuario da...

  2. LBA-ECO ND-04 Termite Mound and Soil Characterization, Amazonas, Brazil: 1999-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports the results of a comprehensive study of mound building termites at the Embrapa research station in the Distrito Agropecuario da SUFRAMA,...

  3. Impact des termites dans les champs paysans de riz et de mais en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oryza sativa L) and corn (Zea mays L.) in farmer fields. To reach this goal, a preliminary sampling was undertaken from the natural environment (shrub savannah) in a view of inventorying termites species to be used in this investigation.

  4. Termites as ecological indicators of mine-land rehabilitation in tropical Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinz, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents examples from field research of termites as indicators of rehabilitation success in the wet-dry tropics at Nabalco's bauxite mine, Gove, Australia and in Sierra Leone, West Africa. Field studies indicate that soil-plant-animal interactions are crucial in determining the recovery of disturbed land and that termites play an over-riding role in the process. Termites are seen as ecological indicators for successful soil and vegetation development in humid tropical environments. In land rehabilitation, termites help to create healthy, self-regulated vegetation systems that integrate with the surrounding landscapes and build structures and functions equal to those of the pre-disturbed system. They are reliable in signaling the health and stress factors of a system and provide a predictable response

  5. Characterization of magnetic material in the mound-building termite Macrotermes gilvus in Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esa, Mohammad Faris Mohammad; Hassan, Ibrahim Haji [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahim, Faszly; Hanifah, Sharina Abu [School of Environmental Scieces and Natural Resources Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Magnetic material such as magnetite are known as particles that respond to external magnetic field with their ferromagnetic properties as they are believed contribute to in responding to the geomagnetic field. These particles are used by terrestrial animals such as termites for navigation and orientation. Since our earth react as giant magnetic bar, the magnitude of this magnetic field present by intensity and direction (inclination and direction). The magnetic properties and presence of magnetite in termites Macrotermes gilvus, common mound-building termite were tested. M. gilvus termites was tested with a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer VSM to determine the magnetic properties of specimen. The crushed body sample was characterized with X-Ray Diffraction XRD to show the existent of magnetic material (magnetite) in the specimens. Results from VSM indicate that M. gilvus has diamagnetism properties. The characterization by XRD shows the existent of magnetic material in our specimen in low concentration.

  6. Diversity and genomes of uncultured microbial symbionts in the termite gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongoh, Yuichi

    2010-01-01

    Termites play a key role in the global carbon cycle as decomposers. Their ability to thrive solely on dead plant matter is chiefly attributable to the activities of gut microbes, which comprise protists, bacteria, and archaea. Although the majority of the gut microbes are as yet unculturable, molecular analyses have gradually been revealing their diversity and symbiotic mechanisms. Culture-independent studies indicate that a single termite species harbors several hundred species of gut microbes unique to termites, and that the microbiota is consistent within a host termite species. To elucidate the functions of these unculturable symbionts, environmental genomics has recently been applied. Particularly, single-species-targeting metagenomics has provided a breakthrough in the understanding of symbiotic roles, such as the nitrogen fixation, of uncultured, individual microbial species. A combination of single-species-targeting metagenomics, conventional metagenomics, and metatranscriptomics should be a powerful tool to dissect this complex, multi-layered symbiotic system.

  7. A phylogenetic community approach for studying termite communities in a West African savannah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausberger, Barbara; Korb, Judith

    2015-10-01

    Termites play fundamental roles in tropical ecosystems, and mound-building species in particular are crucial in enhancing species diversity, from plants to mammals. However, it is still unclear which factors govern the occurrence and assembly of termite communities. A phylogenetic community approach and null models of species assembly were used to examine structuring processes associated with termite community assembly in a pristine savannah. Overall, we did not find evidence for a strong influence of interspecific competition or environmental filtering in structuring these communities. However, the presence of a single species, the mound-building termite Macrotermes bellicosus, left a strong signal on structuring and led to clustered communities of more closely related species. Hence, this species changes the assembly rules for a whole community. Our results show the fundamental importance of a single insect species for community processes, suggesting that more attention to insect species is warranted when developing conservation strategies. © 2015 The Author(s).

  8. The Gut Microbiota of Termites: Digesting the Diversity in the Light of Ecology and Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Andreas; Dietrich, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Termite guts harbor a dense and diverse microbiota that is essential for symbiotic digestion. The major players in lower termites are unique lineages of cellulolytic flagellates, whereas higher termites harbor only bacteria and archaea. The functions of the mostly uncultivated lineages and their distribution in different diet groups are slowly emerging. Patterns in community structure match changes in the biology of different host groups and reflect the availability of microbial habitats provided by flagellates, wood fibers, and the increasing differentiation of the intestinal tract, which also creates new niches for microbial symbionts. Whereas the intestinal communities in the closely related cockroaches seem to be shaped primarily by the selective forces of microhabitat and functional niche, the social behavior of termites reduces the stochastic element of community assembly, which facilitates coevolution and may ultimately result in cospeciation.

  9. Protozoacidal Trojan-Horse: use of a ligand-lytic peptide for selective destruction of symbiotic protozoa within termite guts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Amit; Delatte, Jennifer; Foil, Lane; Husseneder, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    For novel biotechnology-based termite control, we developed a cellulose bait containing freeze-dried genetically engineered yeast which expresses a protozoacidal lytic peptide attached to a protozoa-recognizing ligand. The yeast acts as a 'Trojan-Horse' that kills the cellulose-digesting protozoa in the termite gut, which leads to the death of termites, presumably due to inefficient cellulose digestion. The ligand targets the lytic peptide specifically to protozoa, thereby increasing its protozoacidal efficiency while protecting non-target organisms. After ingestion of the bait, the yeast propagates in the termite's gut and is spread throughout the termite colony via social interactions. This novel paratransgenesis-based strategy could be a good supplement for current termite control using fortified biological control agents in addition to chemical insecticides. Moreover, this ligand-lytic peptide system could be used for drug development to selectively target disease-causing protozoa in humans or other vertebrates.

  10. Differential Ecological Specificity of Protist and Bacterial Microbiomes across a Set of Termite Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Waidele

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiome of lower termites comprises protists and bacteria that help these insects to digest cellulose and to thrive on wood. The composition of the termite gut microbiome correlates with phylogenetic distance of the animal host and host ecology (diet in termites collected from their natural environment. However, carryover of transient microbes from host collection sites are an experimental concern and might contribute to the ecological imprints on the termite gut microbiome. Here, we set out to test whether an ecological imprint on the termite gut microbiome remains, when focusing on the persistent microbiome. Therefore, we kept five termite species under strictly controlled dietary conditions and subsequently profiled their protist and bacterial gut microbial communities using 18S and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The species differed in their ecology; while three of the investigated species were wood-dwellers that feed on the piece of wood they live in and never leave except for the mating flight, the other two species were foragers that regularly leave their nests to forage for food. Despite these prominent ecological differences, protist microbiome structure aligned with phylogenetic relatedness of termite host species. Conversely, bacterial communities seemed more flexible, suggesting that microbiome structure aligned more strongly with the foraging and wood-dwelling ecologies. Interestingly, protist and bacterial community alpha-diversity correlated, suggesting either putative interactions between protists and bacteria, or that both types of microbes in the termite gut follow shared structuring principles. Taken together, our results add to the notion that bacterial communities are more variable over evolutionary time than protist communities and might react more flexibly to changes in host ecology.

  11. Density-body mass relationships: Inconsistent intercontinental patterns among termite feeding-groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlsjö, Cecilia A. L.; Parr, Catherine L.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Meir, Patrick; Rahman, Homathevi; Eggleton, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Allometric relationships are useful for estimating and understanding resource distribution in assemblages with species of different masses. Damuth's law states that body mass scales with population density as M-0.75, where M is body mass and -0.75 is the slope. In this study we used Damuth's law (M-0.75) as a null hypothesis to examine the relationship between body mass and population density for termite feeding-groups in three different countries and regions (Cameroon, West Africa; Peru South America; and Malaysia SE Asia). We found that none of the feeding-groups had a relationship where M-0.75 while the data suggested that population density-body mass relationships for true soil-feeding termites in Cameroon (M2.7) and wood-feeding termites in Peru (M1.5) were significantly different from the expected values given by Damuth's law. The dominance of large-bodied true soil-feeding termites in Cameroon and the absence of fungus-growing termites from Peru suggest that these allometric patterns are due to heterogeneities in termite biogeographical evolution. Additionally, as these feeding-groups have higher population density than expected by their body masses it may be suggested that they also have a higher energy throughput than expected. The results presented here may be used to gain further understanding of resource distribution among termite feeding-groups across regions and an insight into the importance of evolutionary history and biogeography on allometric patterns. Further understanding of population density-body mass relationships in termite feeding-groups may also improve understanding of the role these feeding-groups play in ecosystem processes in different regions.

  12. Differential Ecological Specificity of Protist and Bacterial Microbiomes across a Set of Termite Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waidele, Lena; Korb, Judith; Voolstra, Christian R; Künzel, Sven; Dedeine, Franck; Staubach, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiome of lower termites comprises protists and bacteria that help these insects to digest cellulose and to thrive on wood. The composition of the termite gut microbiome correlates with phylogenetic distance of the animal host and host ecology (diet) in termites collected from their natural environment. However, carryover of transient microbes from host collection sites are an experimental concern and might contribute to the ecological imprints on the termite gut microbiome. Here, we set out to test whether an ecological imprint on the termite gut microbiome remains, when focusing on the persistent microbiome. Therefore, we kept five termite species under strictly controlled dietary conditions and subsequently profiled their protist and bacterial gut microbial communities using 18S and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The species differed in their ecology; while three of the investigated species were wood-dwellers that feed on the piece of wood they live in and never leave except for the mating flight, the other two species were foragers that regularly leave their nests to forage for food. Despite these prominent ecological differences, protist microbiome structure aligned with phylogenetic relatedness of termite host species. Conversely, bacterial communities seemed more flexible, suggesting that microbiome structure aligned more strongly with the foraging and wood-dwelling ecologies. Interestingly, protist and bacterial community alpha-diversity correlated, suggesting either putative interactions between protists and bacteria, or that both types of microbes in the termite gut follow shared structuring principles. Taken together, our results add to the notion that bacterial communities are more variable over evolutionary time than protist communities and might react more flexibly to changes in host ecology.

  13. Comprehensive Phylogenetic Diversity of [FeFe]-Hydrogenase Genes in Termite Gut Microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Hao; Bodington, Dylan; Zhang, Chong; Miyanaga, Kazuhiko; Tanji, Yasunori; Hongoh, Yuichi; Xing, Xin-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic diversity of [FeFe]-hydrogenase (HydA) in termite guts was assessed by pyrosequencing PCR amplicons obtained using newly designed primers. Of 8,066 reads, 776 hydA phylotypes, defined with 97% nucleotide sequence identity, were recovered from the gut homogenates of three termite species, Hodotermopsis sjoestedti, Reticulitermes speratus, and Nasutitermes takasagoensis. The phylotype coverage was 92–98%, and the majority shared only low identity with database sequences. It was est...

  14. Diversity of Nitrogen Fixation Genes in the Symbiotic Intestinal Microflora of the Termite Reticulitermes speratus

    OpenAIRE

    Ohkuma, M.; Noda, S.; Usami, R.; Horikoshi, K.; Kudo, T.

    1996-01-01

    The diversity of nitrogen-fixing organisms in the symbiotic intestinal microflora of a lower termite, Reticulitermes speratus, was investigated without culturing the resident microorganisms. Fragments of the nifH gene, which encodes the dinitrogenase reductase, were directly amplified from the DNA of the mixed microbial population in the termite gut and were clonally isolated. The phylogenetic analysis of the nifH product amino acid sequences showed that there was a remarkable diversity of ni...

  15. Characterization of the core and caste-specific microbiota in the termite, Reticulitermes flavipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelynn eBenjamino

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The hindgut of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes harbors a complex symbiotic community consisting of protists, bacteria, and archaea. These symbionts aid in the digestion of lignocellulose from the termite’s wood meal. Termite hindguts were sampled and the V4 hyper-variable region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced and analyzed from individual termites. The core microbiota of worker termites consisted of 69 OTUs at the 97% identity level, grouped into 16 taxa, and together accounted for 67.05% of the sequences from the bacterial community. The core was dominated by Treponema, which contained 36 different OTUs and accounted for ~32% of the sequences, which suggests Treponema spp have an important impact on the overall physiology in the hindgut. Bray-Curtis beta diversity metrics showed that hindgut samples from termites of the same colony were more similar to each other than to samples from other colonies despite possessing a core that accounted for the majority of the sequences. The specific tasks and dietary differences of the termite castes could have an effect on the composition of the microbial community. The hindgut microbiota of termites from the alate castes differed from the worker caste with significantly lower abundances of Treponema and Endomicrobia, which dominated the hindgut microbiota in workers and soldiers. Protist abundances were also quantified in the same samples using qPCR of the 18S rRNA gene. Parabasalia abundances dropped significantly in the winged alates and the Oxymonadida abundances dropped in both alate castes. These data suggest that the changes in diet or overall host physiology affected the protist and bacterial populations in the hindgut. The in-depth bacterial characterization and protist quantification in this study sheds light on the potential community dynamics within the R. flavipes hindgut and identified a large and complex core microbiota in termites obtained from multiple colonies and castes.

  16. Differential Ecological Specificity of Protist and Bacterial Microbiomes across a Set of Termite Species

    KAUST Repository

    Waidele, Lena

    2017-12-19

    The gut microbiome of lower termites comprises protists and bacteria that help these insects to digest cellulose and to thrive on wood. The composition of the termite gut microbiome correlates with phylogenetic distance of the animal host and host ecology (diet) in termites collected from their natural environment. However, carryover of transient microbes from host collection sites are an experimental concern and might contribute to the ecological imprints on the termite gut microbiome. Here, we set out to test whether an ecological imprint on the termite gut microbiome remains, when focusing on the persistent microbiome. Therefore, we kept five termite species under strictly controlled dietary conditions and subsequently profiled their protist and bacterial gut microbial communities using 18S and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The species differed in their ecology; while three of the investigated species were wood-dwellers that feed on the piece of wood they live in and never leave except for the mating flight, the other two species were foragers that regularly leave their nests to forage for food. Despite these prominent ecological differences, protist microbiome structure aligned with phylogenetic relatedness of termite host species. Conversely, bacterial communities seemed more flexible, suggesting that microbiome structure aligned more strongly with the foraging and wood-dwelling ecologies. Interestingly, protist and bacterial community alpha-diversity correlated, suggesting either putative interactions between protists and bacteria, or that both types of microbes in the termite gut follow shared structuring principles. Taken together, our results add to the notion that bacterial communities are more variable over evolutionary time than protist communities and might react more flexibly to changes in host ecology.

  17. Analysis of genes of tetrahydrofolate-dependent metabolism from cultivated spirochaetes and the gut community of the termite Zootermopsis angusticollis

    OpenAIRE

    Salmassi, Tina M.; Leadbetter, Jared R.

    2003-01-01

    The hindguts of wood-feeding termites are the sites of intense, CO_2-reductive acetogenesis. This activity profoundly influences host nutrition and methane emissions. Homoacetogens previously isolated from diverse termites comprised novel taxa belonging to two distinct bacterial phyla, Firmicutes and Spirochaetes. Little else is known about either the diversity or abundance of homoacetogenic species present in any given termite or the genetic details underlying CO_2-reductive acetogenesis by ...

  18. Strong positive effects of termites on savanna bird abundance and diversity are amplified by large herbivore exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Moe, Stein R.; Eldegard, Katrine; Rannestad, Ole Tobias; Okullo, Paul; Lindtjørn, Ommund; Støen, Ole Gunnar; Dale, Svein

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Vast areas of the African savanna landscapes are characterized by tree‐covered Macrotermes termite mounds embedded within a relatively open savanna matrix. In concert with termites, large herbivores are important determinants of savanna woody vegetation cover. The relative cover of woody species has considerable effects on savanna function. Despite the potentially important ecological relationships between termite mounds, woody plants, large herbivores, and birds, these associations ...

  19. Efficacy of Chlorantraniliprole in Controlling Structural Infestations of the Eastern Subterranean Termite in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan C; Vargo, Edward L; Keefer, T Chris; Labadie, Paul; Scherer, Clay W; Gallagher, Nicola T; Gold, Roger E

    2017-08-31

    Subterranean termites are the most economically important structural pests in the USA, and the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) (Dictyoptera: Rhinotermitidae) is the most widely distributed species. Soil treatment with a liquid termiticide is a widely used method for controlling subterranean termites in structures. We assessed the efficacy of a nonrepellent termiticide, Altriset ® (active ingredient: chlorantraniliprole), in controlling structural infestations of R. flavipes in Texas, North Carolina, and Ohio and determined the post-treatment fate of termite colonies in and around the structures. In all three states, microsatellite markers indicated that only one R. flavipes colony was infesting each structure. A single chlorantraniliprole treatment provided effective structural protection as there was no further evidence of termite activity in and on the majority of structures from approximately 1 month to 2 years post-treatment when the study concluded. Additionally, the treatment appeared to either severely reduce the infesting colony's footprint at monitors in the landscape or eliminate colony members from these monitors. A supplemental spot-treatment was conducted at one house each in Texas and North Carolina at 5 and 6 months post-treatment, respectively; no termites were observed thereafter in these structures and associated landscaping. The number of colonies found exclusively in the landscape (not attacking the structure) varied among the states, with the largest number of colonies in Texas (0-4) and North Carolina (0-5) as compared to 0-1 in Ohio, the most northern state.

  20. Monitoring Termite-Mediated Ecosystem Processes Using Moderate and High Resolution Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, B. M.; Hanan, N. P.

    2016-12-01

    Termites are considered dominant decomposers and prominent ecosystem engineers in the global tropics and they build some of the largest and architecturally most complex non-human-made structures in the world. Termite mounds significantly alter soil texture, structure, and nutrients, and have major implications for local hydrological dynamics, vegetation characteristics, and biological diversity. An understanding of how these processes change across large scales has been limited by our ability to detect termite mounds at high spatial resolutions. Our research develops methods to detect large termite mounds in savannas across extensive geographic areas using moderate and high resolution satellite imagery. We also investigate the effect of termite mounds on vegetation productivity using Landsat-8 maximum composite NDVI data as a proxy for production. Large termite mounds in arid and semi-arid Senegal generate highly reflective `mound scars' with diameters ranging from 10 m at minimum to greater than 30 m. As Sentinel-2 has several bands with 10 m resolution and Landsat-8 has improved calibration, higher radiometric resolution, 15 m spatial resolution (pansharpened), and improved contrast between vegetated and bare surfaces compared to previous Landsat missions, we found that the largest and most influential mounds in the landscape can be detected. Because mounds as small as 4 m in diameter are easily detected in high resolution imagery we used these data to validate detection results and quantify omission errors for smaller mounds.

  1. Disruption of the termite gut microbiota and its prolonged consequences for fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B; Zecher, Courtney N; Schultheis, Kelley F; Brucker, Robert M; Bordenstein, Seth R

    2011-07-01

    The disruption of host-symbiont interactions through the use of antibiotics can help elucidate microbial functions that go beyond short-term nutritional value. Termite gut symbionts have been studied extensively, but little is known about their impact on the termite's reproductive output. Here we describe the effect that the antibiotic rifampin has not only on the gut microbial diversity but also on the longevity, fecundity, and weight of two termite species, Zootermopsis angusticollis and Reticulitermes flavipes. We report three key findings: (i) the antibiotic rifampin, when fed to primary reproductives during the incipient stages of colony foundation, causes a permanent reduction in the diversity of gut bacteria and a transitory effect on the density of the protozoan community; (ii) rifampin treatment reduces oviposition rates of queens, translating into delayed colony growth and ultimately reduced colony fitness; and (iii) the initial dosages of rifampin had severe long-term fitness effects on Z. angusticollis. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the antibiotic-induced perturbation of the microbial community is associated with prolonged reductions in longevity and fecundity. A causal relationship between these changes in the gut microbial population structures and fitness is suggested by the acquisition of opportunistic pathogens and incompetence of the termites to restore a pretreatment, native microbiota. Our results indicate that antibiotic treatment significantly alters the termite's microbiota, reproduction, colony establishment, and ultimately colony growth and development. We discuss the implications for antimicrobials as a new application to the control of termite pest species.

  2. Large herbivores maintain termite-caused differences in herbaceous species diversity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okullo, Paul; Moe, Stein R

    2012-09-01

    Termites and large herbivores affect African savanna plant communities. Both functional groups are also important for nutrient redistribution across the landscape. We conducted an experiment to study how termites and large herbivores, alone and in combination, affect herbaceous species diversity patterns in an African savanna. Herbaceous vegetation on large vegetated Macrotermes mounds (with and without large herbivores) and on adjacent savanna areas (with and without large herbivores) was monitored over three years in Lake Mburo National Park, Uganda. We found substantial differences in species richness, alpha diversity, evenness, and stability between termite mound herbaceous vegetation and adjacent savanna vegetation. Within months of fencing, levels of species richness, evenness, and stability were no longer significantly different between savanna and mounds. However, fencing reduced the cumulative number of species, particularly for forbs, of which 48% of the species were lost. Fencing increased the beta diversity (dissimilarity among plots) on the resource-poor (in terms of both nutrients and soil moisture) savanna areas, while it did not significantly affect beta diversity on the resource-rich termite mounds. While termites cause substantial heterogeneity in savanna vegetation, large herbivores further amplify these differences by reducing beta diversity on the savanna areas. Large herbivores are, however, responsible for the maintenance of a large number of forbs at the landscape level. These findings suggest that the mechanisms underlying the effects of termites and large herbivores on savanna plant communities scale up to shape community structure and dynamics at a landscape level.

  3. A unique guild of Lepidoptera associated with the glacial relict populations of Labrador tea (Ledum palustre Linnaeus, 1753) in Central European peatlands (Insecta: Lepidoptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spitzer, Karel; Jaroš, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 166 (2014), s. 319-327 ISSN 0300-5267 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Insecta * Lepidoptera * relict peat bogs Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.435, year: 2014

  4. Coendutermes tucum Fontes (Isoptera, Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae): description of the imago caste and additional notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuezzo, Carolina

    2016-12-09

    Coendutermes Fontes, 1985 is a monotypic South American termite genus. Coendutermes tucum Fontes, 1985, was described based on morphological characters from soldiers and workers collected in Mato Grosso, Brazil, and Jodensavanne, Suriname. Herein, I describe the imago caste of C. tucum for the first time with additional notes on soldiers, workers, and new distributional records. The studied material is deposited at the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil (MZUSP). I use the terminology of Fontes (1987) to describe worker mandibles, and that of Noirot (2001) for the different parts of the digestive tube of workers. I measured the imagoes morphometric characters following Roonwal (1970): LH, length of head capsule (9); WH, width of head capsule without eyes (18); OF, occipito-fontanelle distance (23); DE, diameter of eye (48); LO, length of ocellus (55); WO, width of ocellus (56); EOD, eye-ocellus distance (57); LP, length of pronotum (65); WP, width of pronotum (68); LT, length of hind tibia (85). I took photographs of all castes with a stereomicroscope (Leica M205C) attached to a video camera (Leica DFC295) and images of gizzard and enteric valve under a microscope (Leica DM750B) attached to a video camera (Leica ICC50HD), then I combined the stacks of images with the software Leica LAS EZ 2.0 or Helicon Focus 5.2.11 X64. For the scanning electron micrographs (SEM), one soldier was dried to critical point while directly mounted on a stub with double face adhesive tape, then coated with gold and photographed with the SEM (Zeiss LEO 440 ®).

  5. Culex aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 (Insecta, Diptera); Proposed Validation and Interpretation Under the Plenary Powers of the Species So Named. Z.N.(S.) 1216

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-07-01

    aegypti Linnaeus in its current connotation was Dyar (H. G.) ( 1920 , Insecutor Ins&. menst. 8 : 204). Dyar’s identification of this species was not...JUL 1962 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1962 to 00-00-1962 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Culex Aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 (Insecta, Diptera... CULEX AEGYPTI LINNAEUS, 1762 (INSECTA, DIPTERA); PRO- POSED VALIDATION AND INTERPRETATION UNDER THE PLENARY POWERS OF THE SPECIES SO NAMED. Z.N.(S

  6. In situ lignocellulosic unlocking mechanism for carbohydrate hydrolysis in termites: crucial lignin modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Deepak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Termites are highly effective at degrading lignocelluloses, and thus can be used as a model for studying plant cell-wall degradation in biological systems. However, the process of lignin deconstruction and/or degradation in termites is still not well understood. Methods We investigated the associated structural modification caused by termites in the lignin biomolecular assembly in softwood tissues crucial for cell-wall degradation. We conducted comparative studies on the termite-digested (i.e. termite feces and native (control softwood tissues with the aid of advanced analytical techniques: 13C crosspolarization magic angle spinning and nuclear magnetic resonance (CP-MAS-NMR spectroscopy, flash pyrolysis with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS, and Py-GC-MS in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (Py-TMAH-GC/MS. Results The 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopic analysis revealed an increased level of guaiacyl-derived (G unit polymeric framework in the termite-digested softwood (feces, while providing specific evidence of cellulose degradation. The Py-GC/MS data were in agreement with the 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopic studies, thus indicating dehydroxylation and modification of selective intermonomer side-chain linkages in the lignin in the termite feces. Moreover, Py-TMAH-GC/MS analysis showed significant differences in the product distribution between control and termite feces. This strongly suggests that the structural modification in lignin could be associated with the formation of additional condensed interunit linkages. Conclusion Collectively, these data further establish: 1 that the major β-O-4' (β-aryl ether was conserved, albeit with substructure degeneracy, and 2 that the nature of the resulting polymer in termite feces retained most of its original aromatic moieties (G unit-derived. Overall, these results provide insight into lignin-unlocking mechanisms for understanding plant cell-wall deconstruction

  7. Nitrous Oxide (N2O Emissions by Termites: Does the Feeding Guild Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Brauman

    Full Text Available In the tropics, termites are major players in the mineralization of organic matter leading to the production of greenhouse gases including nitrous oxide (N2O. Termites have a wide trophic diversity and their N-metabolism depends on the feeding guild. This study assessed the extent to which N2O emission levels were determined by termite feeding guild and tested the hypothesis that termite species feeding on a diet rich in N emit higher levels of N2O than those feeding on a diet low in N. An in-vitro incubation approach was used to determine the levels of N2O production in 14 termite species belonging to different feeding guilds, collected from a wide range of biomes. Fungus-growing and soil-feeding termites emit N2O. The N2O production levels varied considerably, ranging from 13.14 to 117.62 ng N2O-N d(-1 (g dry wt.(-1 for soil-feeding species, with Cubitermes spp. having the highest production levels, and from 39.61 to 65.61 ng N2O-N d(-1 (g dry wt.(-1 for fungus-growing species. Wood-feeding termites were net N2O consumers rather than N2O producers with a consumption ranging from 16.09 to 45.22 ng N2O-N d(-1 (g dry wt.(-1. Incubating live termites together with their mound increased the levels of N2O production by between 6 and 13 fold for soil-feeders, with the highest increase in Capritermes capricornis, and between 14 and 34 fold for fungus-growers, with the highest increase in Macrotermes muelleri. Ammonia-oxidizing (amoA-AOB and amoA-AOA and denitrifying (nirK, nirS, nosZ gene markers were detected in the guts of all termite species studied. No correlation was found between the abundance of these marker genes and the levels of N2O production from different feeding guilds. Overall, these results support the hypothesis that N2O production rates were higher in termites feeding on substrates with higher N content, such as soil and fungi, compared to those feeding on N-poor wood.

  8. Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions by Termites: Does the Feeding Guild Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauman, Alain; Majeed, Muhammad Zeeshan; Buatois, Bruno; Robert, Alain; Pablo, Anne-Laure; Miambi, Edouard

    2015-01-01

    In the tropics, termites are major players in the mineralization of organic matter leading to the production of greenhouse gases including nitrous oxide (N2O). Termites have a wide trophic diversity and their N-metabolism depends on the feeding guild. This study assessed the extent to which N2O emission levels were determined by termite feeding guild and tested the hypothesis that termite species feeding on a diet rich in N emit higher levels of N2O than those feeding on a diet low in N. An in-vitro incubation approach was used to determine the levels of N2O production in 14 termite species belonging to different feeding guilds, collected from a wide range of biomes. Fungus-growing and soil-feeding termites emit N2O. The N2O production levels varied considerably, ranging from 13.14 to 117.62 ng N2O-N d(-1) (g dry wt.)(-1) for soil-feeding species, with Cubitermes spp. having the highest production levels, and from 39.61 to 65.61 ng N2O-N d(-1) (g dry wt.)(-1) for fungus-growing species. Wood-feeding termites were net N2O consumers rather than N2O producers with a consumption ranging from 16.09 to 45.22 ng N2O-N d(-1) (g dry wt.)(-1). Incubating live termites together with their mound increased the levels of N2O production by between 6 and 13 fold for soil-feeders, with the highest increase in Capritermes capricornis, and between 14 and 34 fold for fungus-growers, with the highest increase in Macrotermes muelleri. Ammonia-oxidizing (amoA-AOB and amoA-AOA) and denitrifying (nirK, nirS, nosZ) gene markers were detected in the guts of all termite species studied. No correlation was found between the abundance of these marker genes and the levels of N2O production from different feeding guilds. Overall, these results support the hypothesis that N2O production rates were higher in termites feeding on substrates with higher N content, such as soil and fungi, compared to those feeding on N-poor wood.

  9. Accessing carboxylesterase diversity from termite hindgut symbionts through metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashamuse, Konanani; Mabizela-Mokoena, Nobalanda; Sanyika, Tendai Walter; Mabvakure, Batsirai; Brady, Dean

    2012-01-01

    A shotgun metagenomic library was constructed from termite hindgut symbionts and subsequently screened for esterase activities. A total of 68 recombinant clones conferring esterolytic phenotypes were identified, of which the 14 most active were subcloned and sequenced. The nucleotide lengths of the esterase-encoding open reading frames (ORFs) ranged from 783 to 2,592 bp and encoded proteins with predicted molecular masses of between 28.8 and 97.5 kDa. The highest identity scores in the GenBank database, from a global amino acid alignment ranged from 39 to 83%. The identified ORFs revealed the presence of the G-X-S-X-D, G-D-S-X, and S-X-X-K sequence motifs that have been reported to harbour a catalytic serine residue in other previously reported esterase primary structures. Five of the ORFs (EstT5, EstT7, EstT9, EstT10, and EstT12) could not be classified into any of the original eight esterase families. One of the ORFs (EstT9) showed a unique primary structure consisting of an amidohydrolase-esterase fusion. Six of the 14 esterase-encoding genes were recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and the purified enzymes exhibited temperature optima of between 40-50°C. Substrate-profiling studies revealed that the characterised enzymes were 'true' carboxylesterases based on their preferences for short to medium chain length p-nitrophenyl ester substrates. This study has demonstrated a successful application of a metagenomic approach in accessing novel esterase-encoding genes from the gut of termites that could otherwise have been missed by classical culture enrichment approaches. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Commercialization of a system to prevent the insect damage by termite. Kansai Electric Power Co.; Shiroari shokugai boshi system no jitsuyoka ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitta, T. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    2000-01-10

    The paper studied measures to prevent the underground power cable from insect damage by termite. To search for the termite entering the cable, fiber inspection is good, but the length which fiber reaches and the margin of cable diameter are limited. Moreover, the termite prevention use PFP pipe has been developed, but termite invades inside from the joint in PFP pipe. In AP pipe, termite invades from the place where concrete placing is poor and from cracks. As to the method to search for termite, sounds which termite emit to threaten foreign enemies were gathered by microphone, and the frequency was analyzed. As a result, it was verified that it is possible to judge if there is termite or not by checking levels in the 50-1300Hz zone (the method to let termite emit the threatening sound has been unknown). Since the path of invasion of termite is limited to the joint of cable, a thing in which chemical is put on rubber band of cable joint was developed. The chemical which was a little put on the rubber band is a domestic use insecticide generally commercially available, and adopted pyrethroids base chemical the safety of which was estimated. There is no need for spray of termite prevention agent, and the chemical is lower-priced than a change to the termite prevention cable. (NEDO)

  11. Soldier-specific modification of the mandibular motor neurons in termites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Ishikawa

    Full Text Available Social insects exhibit a variety of caste-specific behavioral tendencies that constitute the basis of division of labor within the colony. In termites, the soldier caste display distinctive defense behaviors, such as aggressively attacking enemies with well-developed mandibles, while the other castes retreat into the colony without exhibiting any aggressive response. It is thus likely that some form of soldier-specific neuronal modification exists in termites. In this study, the authors compared the brain (cerebral ganglion and the suboesophageal ganglion (SOG of soldiers and pseudergates (workers in the damp-wood termite, Hodotermopsis sjostedti. The size of the SOG was significantly larger in soldiers than in pseudergates, but no difference in brain size was apparent between castes. Furthermore, mandibular nerves were thicker in soldiers than in pseudergates. Retrograde staining revealed that the somata sizes of the mandibular motor neurons (MdMNs in soldiers were more than twice as large as those of pseudergates. The enlargement of MdMNs was also observed in individuals treated with a juvenile hormone analogue (JHA, indicating that MdMNs become enlarged in response to juvenile hormone (JH action during soldier differentiation. This enlargement is likely to have two functions: a behavioral function in which soldier termites will be able to defend more effectively through relatively faster and stronger mandibular movements, and a developmental function that associates with the development of soldier-specific mandibular muscle morphogenesis in termite head. The soldier-specific enlargement of mandibular motor neurons was observed in all examined species in five termite families that have different mechanisms of defense, suggesting that such neuronal modification was already present in the common ancestor of termites and is significant for soldier function.

  12. Nest plasticity of Cornitermes silvestrii (Isoptera, Termitidae, Syntermitinae in response to flood pulse in the Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik G. D. Plaza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nest plasticity of Cornitermes silvestrii (Isoptera, Termitidae, Syntermitinae in response to flood pulse in the Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The Pantanal is one of the largest wetlands in the world. Since many areas in Pantanal are flooded during part of the year, it is expected that plants and animals would have mechanisms for their survival during the flooded period. This study investigated the existence of differences in nest shape and inquilines of Cornitermes silvestrii in areas influenced by the flood pulse. We measured the volume, height, width, and height/width ratio of 32 nests in flooded areas and 27 in dry areas, and performed an one-way-Anova with the quasi-Poisson distribution to determine if there were differences in the nest measurements between the points. To analyze the relationship of nest inquilines to flood pulse and nest shape, we performed a regression with a Poisson distribution with the inquiline richness and flood pulse, and the above measurements. The nests of C. silvestrii in flooded areas were significantly higher than nests in dry areas, and had a larger height/width ratio. Colonies in periodically flooded areas would probably make a larger effort to extend their nests vertically, to maintain at least some portion of the structure out of the water and prevent the entire colony from being submerged. Neither the size of the nest nor the flood pulses influenced the assemblage of 11 species found in nests of C. silvestrii.

  13. Structural variation of the ribosomal gene cluster within the class Insecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukha, D.V.; Sidorenko, A.P.; Lazebnaya, I.V. [Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    General estimation of ribosomal DNA variation within the class Insecta is presented. It is shown that, using blot-hybridization, one can detect differences in the structure of the ribosomal gene cluster not only between genera within an order, but also between species within a genera, including sibling species. Structure of the ribosomal gene cluster of the Coccinellidae family (ladybirds) is analyzed. It is shown that cloned highly conservative regions of ribosomal DNA of Tetrahymena pyriformis can be used as probes for analyzing ribosomal genes in insects. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Effects of erosion from mounds of different termite genera on distinct functional grassland types in an African savannah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosling, Cleo M.; Cromsigt, Joris P. G. M.; Mpanza, Nokukhanya; Olff, Han

    A key aspect of savannah vegetation heterogeneity is mosaics formed by two functional grassland types, bunch grasslands, and grazing lawns. We investigated the role of termites, important ecosystem engineers, in creating high-nutrient patches in the form of grazing lawns. Some of the ways termites

  15. Correlation between infection by ophiostomatoid fungi and the presence of subterranean termites in Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Observations of subterranean termites feeding in pine sapwood containing ophiostomatoid fungi prompted a study to investigate the effect of infection by Leptographium fungi on the probability of encountering subterranean termites in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) roots. Root samples were collected f...

  16. Pycnoscelus surinamensis cockroach gut microbiota respond consistently to a fungal diet without mirroring those of fungus-farming termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Callum; Otani, Saria; Mikaelyan, Aram; Poulsen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiotas of cockroaches and termites play important roles in the symbiotic digestion of dietary components, such as lignocellulose. Diet has been proposed as a primary determinant of community structure within the gut, acting as a selection force to shape the diversity observed within this "bioreactor", and as a key factor for the divergence of the termite gut microbiota from the omnivorous cockroach ancestor. The gut microbiota in most termites supports primarily the breakdown of lignocellulose, but the fungus-farming sub-family of higher termites has become similar in gut microbiota to the ancestral omnivorous cockroaches. To assess the importance of a fungus diet as a driver of community structure, we compare community compositions in the guts of experimentally manipulated Pycnoscelus surinamensis cockroaches fed on fungus cultivated by fungus-farming termites. MiSeq amplicon analysis of gut microbiotas from 49 gut samples showed a step-wise gradient pattern in community similarity that correlated with an increase in the proportion of fungal material provided to the cockroaches. Comparison of the taxonomic composition of manipulated communities to that of gut communities of a fungus-feeding termite species showed that although some bacteria OTUs shared by P. surinamensis and the farming termites increased in the guts of cockroaches on a fungal diet, cockroach communities remained distinct from those of termites. These results demonstrate that a fungal diet can play a role in structuring gut community composition, but at the same time exemplifies how original community compositions constrain the magnitude of such change.

  17. Patterns of [FeFe] hydrogenase diversity in the gut microbial communities of lignocellulose-feeding higher termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballor, Nicholas R; Leadbetter, Jared R

    2012-08-01

    Hydrogen is the central free intermediate in the degradation of wood by termite gut microbes and can reach concentrations exceeding those measured for any other biological system. Degenerate primers targeting the largest family of [FeFe] hydrogenases observed in a termite gut metagenome have been used to explore the evolution and representation of these enzymes in termites. Sequences were cloned from the guts of the higher termites Amitermes sp. strain Cost010, Amitermes sp. strain JT2, Gnathamitermes sp. strain JT5, Microcerotermes sp. strain Cost008, Nasutitermes sp. strain Cost003, and Rhyncotermes sp. strain Cost004. Each gut sample harbored a more rich and evenly distributed population of hydrogenase sequences than observed previously in the guts of lower termites and Cryptocercus punctulatus. This accentuates the physiological importance of hydrogen for higher termite gut ecosystems and may reflect an increased metabolic burden, or metabolic opportunity, created by a lack of gut protozoa. The sequences were phylogenetically distinct from previously sequenced [FeFe] hydrogenases. Phylogenetic and UniFrac comparisons revealed congruence between host phylogeny and hydrogenase sequence library clustering patterns. This may reflect the combined influences of the stable intimate relationship of gut microbes with their host and environmental alterations in the gut that have occurred over the course of termite evolution. These results accentuate the physiological importance of hydrogen to termite gut ecosystems.

  18. Phylogenetic analyses of Podaxis specimens from Southern Africa reveal hidden diversity and new insights into associations with termites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conlon, Benjamin H.; Beer, de Z.W.; Fine Licht, De Henrik H.; Aanen, Duur K.; Poulsen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Although frequently found on mounds of the grass-cutting termite genus . Trinervitermes, virtually nothing is known about the natural history of the fungal genus . Podaxis (Agaricaceae) nor why it associates with termite mounds. More than 40 species of this secotioid genus have been described

  19. Genes underlying reproductive division of labor in termites, with comparisons to social Hymenoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith eKorb

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available All social insects are characterized by a reproductive division of labor. Within a colony only a few individuals reproduce (queens and in termites, also a king while the large majority (workers and soldiers forgo reproduction, at least temporarily. The evolution of such reproductive altruism can ultimately be explained by inclusive fitness theory. Here, I will review the proximate genetic mechanisms underlying this altruism in termites. As social cockroaches they evolved eusociality independently from the social Hymenoptera, which makes them interesting test cases to look for common underlying mechanisms of eusociality and lineage specific idiosyncrasies. First, I will provide a summary of the genes and their function that have been identified to underlie reproductive division of labor - so called 'queen genes,' - in the drywood termite Cryptotermes secundus, an emerging model to study termite social evolution. Second, I outline how widespread these queen genes are across the termite phylogeny, using also evidence from recent genome analyses. I will provide hypotheses about the evolutionary origin of these queen genes, aiming to link proximate mechanisms with ultimate functions. Finally, I will draw comparisons to social Hymenoptera to indicate potential common underpinnings that warrant further testing.

  20. First forensic records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Queiroz

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to describe the first records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil. The cases reported in this study resulted from forensic analysis of six human skeletons found in northeastern Brazil between 2012 and 2014. Traces of tunnels and nests commonly produced by termites were found on several human bone surfaces as well as the specimens and characteristic signs of osteophagic activity. In four cases, the species were identified: Amitermes amifer Silvestri, 1901, Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky, 1855 (on two skeletons, and Microcerotermes indistinctus Mathews, 1977. In two other cases, the activity of termites on bone surfaces was evidenced by remains of nests and tunnels produced by these insects. At least in the samples of human remains available for this report, the number of termites collected was greater on bones found during autumn, the rainy season in the Northeast of Brazil. The human bones examined showed termites like insects with lots of strength at bone degradation, capable of continuing the process of decomposition of human remains even in completely skeletonized bodies.

  1. Molecular signatures of nicotinoid-pathogen synergy in the termite gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ruchira; Raychoudhury, Rhitoban; Cai, Yunpeng; Sun, Yijun; Lietze, Verena-Ulrike; Peterson, Brittany F; Scharf, Michael E; Boucias, Drion G

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in lower termites revealed unexpected synergies between nicotinoid insecticides and fungal entomopathogens. The present study investigated molecular mechanisms of nicotinoid-pathogen synergy in the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes, using the nicotinoid, imidacloprid, in combination with fungal and bacterial entomopathogens. Particular focus was placed on metatranscriptome composition and microbial dynamics in the symbiont-rich termite gut, which houses diverse mixes of protists and bacteria. cDNA microarrays containing a mix of host and protist symbiont oligonucleotides were used to simultaneously assess termite and protist gene expression. Five treatments were compared that included single challenges with sublethal doses of fungi (Metharizium anisopliae), bacteria (Serratia marcescens) or imidacloprid, and dual challenges with fungi + imidacloprid or bacteria + imidacloprid. Our findings point towards protist dysbiosis and compromised social behavior, rather than suppression of stereotypical immune defense mechanisms, as the dominant factors underlying nicotinoid-pathogen synergy in termites. Also, greater impacts observed for the fungal pathogen than for the bacterial pathogen suggest that the rich bacterial symbiont community in the R. flavipes gut (>5000 species-level phylotypes) exists in an ecological balance that effectively excludes exogenous bacterial pathogens. These findings significantly advance our understanding of antimicrobial defenses in this important eusocial insect group, as well as provide novel insights into how nicotinoids can exert deleterious effects on social insect colonies.

  2. Termite assemblages in five semideciduous Atlantic Forest fragments in the northern coastland limit of the biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitor Bruno de Araújo Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Termites are abundant organisms in tropical ecosystems and strongly influence the litter decomposition and soil formation. Despite their importance, few studies about their assemblage structures have been made in Brazilian Atlantic Forest fragments, especially in the area located north of the São Francisco River. This study aims to analyze the assemblage composition of five Atlantic Forest fragments located in the northern biome limit along the Brazilian coast. A standardized sampling protocol of termites was applied in each fragment. Thirty-three termite species belonging to twenty genera and three families were found in the forest fragments. The wood-feeder group was dominant both concerning to species richness and number of encounters in all areas. In sites northern to 7°S, there is an evident simplification of the termite assemblage composition regarding species richness and number of encounters by feeding group. This fact is apparently due to a higher sandy level in soils and to semideciduous character of the vegetation in the northern fragments. Thus, even on the north of São Francisco River, termite biodiversity is heterogeneously spread with highest density of species in the portion between 07°S and São Francisco River mouth (10°29'S.

  3. First forensic records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, R A; Soriano, E P; Carvalho, M V D; Caldas-Junior, A F; Souza, E H A; Coelho-Junior, L G T M; Campello, R I C; Almeida, A C; Farias, R C A P; Vasconcellos, A

    2016-07-25

    The aim of this study was to describe the first records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil. The cases reported in this study resulted from forensic analysis of six human skeletons found in northeastern Brazil between 2012 and 2014. Traces of tunnels and nests commonly produced by termites were found on several human bone surfaces as well as the specimens and characteristic signs of osteophagic activity. In four cases, the species were identified: Amitermes amifer Silvestri, 1901, Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky, 1855) (on two skeletons), and Microcerotermes indistinctus Mathews, 1977. In two other cases, the activity of termites on bone surfaces was evidenced by remains of nests and tunnels produced by these insects. At least in the samples of human remains available for this report, the number of termites collected was greater on bones found during autumn, the rainy season in the Northeast of Brazil. The human bones examined showed termites like insects with lots of strength at bone degradation, capable of continuing the process of decomposition of human remains even in completely skeletonized bodies.

  4. Termite Nests as an Abundant Source of Cultivable Actinobacteria for Biotechnological Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujada, Nikhom; Sungthong, Rungroch; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2014-01-01

    A total of 118 actinobacterial isolates were collected from the three types of termite nests (mound, carton, and subterranean nests) to evaluate their potential as a source of bioactive actinobacteria with antimicrobial activity. The highest number (67 isolates) and generic abundance (7 known genera) of actinobacterial isolates were obtained from carton nests. Streptomyces was the dominant genus in each type of termite nest. In the non-Streptomyces group, Nocardia was the dominant genus detected in mound and carton nests, while Pseudonocardia was the dominant genus in subterranean nests. A discovery trend of novel species (termite nests examined. Each type of termite nest housed >20% of bioactive actinobacteria that could inhibit the growth of at least one test organism, while 12 isolates, belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Amycolatopsis, Pseudonocardia, Micromonospora and Nocardia, exhibited distinct antimicrobial activities. Streptomyces sp. CMU-NKS-3 was the most distinct bioactive isolate. It was closely related to S. padanus MITKK-103T, which was confirmed by 99% similarities in their 16S rRNA gene sequences. The highest level of extracellular antimicrobial substances was produced by the isolate CMU-NKS-3, which was grown in potato dextrose broth and exhibited a wide range (6.10×10−4–1.25 mg mL−1) of minimum inhibitory concentrations against diverse pathogens. We concluded that termite nests are an abundant source of bioactive strains of cultivable actinobacteria for future biotechnological needs. PMID:24909709

  5. Molecular signatures of nicotinoid-pathogen synergy in the termite gut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchira Sen

    Full Text Available Previous studies in lower termites revealed unexpected synergies between nicotinoid insecticides and fungal entomopathogens. The present study investigated molecular mechanisms of nicotinoid-pathogen synergy in the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes, using the nicotinoid, imidacloprid, in combination with fungal and bacterial entomopathogens. Particular focus was placed on metatranscriptome composition and microbial dynamics in the symbiont-rich termite gut, which houses diverse mixes of protists and bacteria. cDNA microarrays containing a mix of host and protist symbiont oligonucleotides were used to simultaneously assess termite and protist gene expression. Five treatments were compared that included single challenges with sublethal doses of fungi (Metharizium anisopliae, bacteria (Serratia marcescens or imidacloprid, and dual challenges with fungi + imidacloprid or bacteria + imidacloprid. Our findings point towards protist dysbiosis and compromised social behavior, rather than suppression of stereotypical immune defense mechanisms, as the dominant factors underlying nicotinoid-pathogen synergy in termites. Also, greater impacts observed for the fungal pathogen than for the bacterial pathogen suggest that the rich bacterial symbiont community in the R. flavipes gut (>5000 species-level phylotypes exists in an ecological balance that effectively excludes exogenous bacterial pathogens. These findings significantly advance our understanding of antimicrobial defenses in this important eusocial insect group, as well as provide novel insights into how nicotinoids can exert deleterious effects on social insect colonies.

  6. As you reap, so shall you sow: coupling of harvesting and inoculating stabilizes the mutualism between termites and fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur Kornelis

    2006-01-01

    is likely to be in monoculture and (ii) the termites ‘artificially' select for high nodule production, because their fungal food source also provides the inoculum for the next harvest. I also provide a brief comparison of the termite-fungus mutualism with the analogous agricultural mutualism between attine......At present there is no consensus theory explaining the evolutionary stability of mutualistic interactions. However, the question is whether there are general ‘rules', or whether each particular mutualism needs a unique explanation. Here, I address the ultimate evolutionary stability...... of the ‘agricultural' mutualism between fungus-growing termites and Termitomyces fungi, and provide a proximate mechanism for how stability is achieved. The key to the proposed mechanism is the within-nest propagation mode of fungal symbionts by termites. The termites suppress horizontal fungal transmission...

  7. Foraging, recruitment and predation by Decamorium uelense (Sanstchi) (Formicidae: Myrmicinae) on termites in Southern Guinea Savanna, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, C; Johnson, R A; Wood, T G

    1979-01-01

    The myrmicine ant Decamorium uelense is a predator of small termites which feed inside their food sources of roots and plant debris. The ant uses a specialized recruitment regime to secure its prey. A scout ant searches for foraging termites and returns to the nest where it recruits a column of 10-30 ants which attack and immobilize the termites. A mass recruitment phase is then instigated, with larger numbers of ants retrieving the prey. The major prey item is Microtermes (consumed at an annual rate of 632 termites m -2 ), with other small termites accounting for 0.5% of the total predation. The annual predation of Microtermes in primary savanna woodland by D. uelense removes 74% of the standing population.

  8. The fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis harbors bacillaene-producing Bacillus sp. that inhibit potentially antagonistic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Soohyun; Fraimout, Antoine; Sapountzis, Panagiotis; Oh, Dong-Chan; Poulsen, Michael

    2013-11-19

    The ancient fungus-growing termite (Mactrotermitinae) symbiosis involves the obligate association between a lineage of higher termites and basidiomycete Termitomyces cultivar fungi. Our investigation of the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis shows that Bacillus strains from M. natalensis colonies produce a single major antibiotic, bacillaene A (1), which selectively inhibits known and putatively antagonistic fungi of Termitomyces. Comparative analyses of the genomes of symbiotic Bacillus strains revealed that they are phylogenetically closely related to Bacillus subtilis, their genomes have high homology with more than 90% of ORFs being 100% identical, and the sequence identities across the biosynthetic gene cluster for bacillaene are higher between termite-associated strains than to the cluster previously reported in B. subtilis. Our findings suggest that this lineage of antibiotic-producing Bacillus may be a defensive symbiont involved in the protection of the fungus-growing termite cultivar.

  9. Pycnoscelus surinamensis cockroach gut microbiota respond consistently to a fungal diet without mirroring those of fungus-farming termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Callum; Otani, Saria; Mikaelyan, Aram

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiotas of cockroaches and termites play important roles in the symbiotic digestion of dietary components, such as lignocellulose. Diet has been proposed as a primary determinant of community structure within the gut, acting as a selection force to shape the diversity observed within...... this “bioreactor”, and as a key factor for the divergence of the termite gut microbiota from the omnivorous cockroach ancestor. The gut microbiota in most termites supports primarily the breakdown of lignocellulose, but the fungus-farming subfamily of higher termites has become similar in gut microbiota...... to the ancestral omnivorous cockroaches. To assess the importance of a fungus diet as a driver of community structure, we compare community compositions in the guts of experimentally manipulated Pycnoscelus surinamensis cockroaches fed on fungus cultivated by fungus-farming termites. MiSeq amplicon analysis of gut...

  10. Differences between bacterial communities in the gut of a soil-feeding termite (Cubitermes niokoloensis) and its mounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Saliou; Hamelin, Jérôme; Ndiaye, Farma; Assigbetse, Komi; Aragno, Michel; Chotte, Jean Luc; Brauman, Alain

    2007-08-01

    In tropical ecosystems, termite mound soils constitute an important soil compartment covering around 10% of African soils. Previous studies have shown (S. Fall, S. Nazaret, J. L. Chotte, and A. Brauman, Microb. Ecol. 28:191-199, 2004) that the bacterial genetic structure of the mounds of soil-feeding termites (Cubitermes niokoloensis) is different from that of their surrounding soil. The aim of this study was to characterize the specificity of bacterial communities within mounds with respect to the digestive and soil origins of the mound. We have compared the bacterial community structures of a termite mound, termite gut sections, and surrounding soil using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and cloning and sequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. DGGE analysis revealed a drastic difference between the genetic structures of the bacterial communities of the termite gut and the mound. Analysis of 266 clones, including 54 from excised bands, revealed a high level of diversity in each biota investigated. The soil-feeding termite mound was dominated by the Actinobacteria phylum, whereas the Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla dominate the gut sections of termites and the surrounding soil, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a distinct clustering of Actinobacteria phylotypes between the mound and the surrounding soil. The Actinobacteria clones of the termite mound were diverse, distributed among 10 distinct families, and like those in the termite gut environment lightly dominated by the Nocardioidaceae family. Our findings confirmed that the soil-feeding termite mound (C. niokoloensis) represents a specific bacterial habitat in the tropics.

  11. Intracolony variation of bacterial gut microbiota among castes and ages in the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes gilvus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongoh, Y; Ekpornprasit, L; Inoue, T; Moriya, S; Trakulnaleamsai, S; Ohkuma, M; Noparatnaraporn, N; Kudo, T

    2006-02-01

    The fungus-growing termites Macrotermes cultivate the obligate ectosymbiontic fungi, Termitomyces. While their relationship has been extesively studied, little is known about the gut bacterial symbionts, which also presumably play a crucial role for the nutrition of the termite host. In this study, we investigated the bacterial gut microbiota in two colonies of Macrotermes gilvus, and compared the diversity and community structure of bacteria among nine termite morphotypes, differing in caste and/or age, using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clonal analysis of 16S rRNA. The obtained molecular community profiles clustered by termite morphotype rather than by colony, and the clustering pattern was clearly more related to a difference in age than to caste. Thus, we suggest that the bacterial gut microbiota change in relation to the food of the termite, which comprises fallen leaves and the fungus nodules of Termitomyces in young workers, and leaves degraded by the fungi, in old workers. Despite these intracolony variations in bacterial gut microbiota, their T-RFLP profiles formed a distinct cluster against those of the fungus garden, adjacent soil and guts of sympatric wood-feeding termites, implying a consistency and uniqueness of gut microbiota in M. gilvus. Since many bacterial phylotypes from M. gilvus formed monophyletic clusters with those from distantly related termite species, we suggest that gut bacteria have co-evolved with the termite host and form a microbiota specific to a termite taxonomic and/or feeding group, and furthermore, to caste and age within a termite species.

  12. Analysis of genes of tetrahydrofolate-dependent metabolism from cultivated spirochaetes and the gut community of the termite Zootermopsis angusticollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmassi, Tina M; Leadbetter, Jared R

    2003-09-01

    The hindguts of wood-feeding termites are the sites of intense, CO2-reductive acetogenesis. This activity profoundly influences host nutrition and methane emissions. Homoacetogens previously isolated from diverse termites comprised novel taxa belonging to two distinct bacterial phyla, Firmicutes and Spirochates. Little else is known about either the diversity or abundance of homoacetogenic species present in any given termite or the genetic details underlying CO2-reductive acetogenesis by Spirochaetes. A key enzyme of CO2-reductive acetogenesis is formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (FTHFS). A previously designed primer set was used to amplify FTHFS genes from three isolated termite-gut spirochaetes. Sequencing DNA flanking the FTHFS gene of Treponema strain ZAS-2 revealed genes encoding two acetogenesis-related enzymes, methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase. Although termite-gut spirochaetes are only distantly related to clostridia at the ribosomal level, their tetrahydrofolate-dependent enzymes appear to be closely related. In contrast, homologous proteins identified in the non-homoacetogenic oral spirochaete Treponema denticola were only distantly related to those from clostridia and the termite-gut treponemes. Having demonstrated their utility with spirochaete pure cultures, the FTHFS primers were used to construct a 91-clone library from the termite-gut community DNA. From this, 19 DNA and eight amino acid FTHFS types were identified. Over 75 % of the retrieved clones formed a novel, coherent cluster with the FTHFS homologues obtained from the termite-gut treponemes. Thus, FTHFS gene diversity in the gut of the termite Zootermopsis angusticollis appears to be dominated by spirochaetes. The homoacetogenic capacity of termite-gut spirochaetes may have been acquired via lateral gene transfer from clostridia.

  13. Bionomics and Formation of “Bonsai” Colonies With Long-Term Rearing of Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbrink, W L A; Cornelius, M L; Showler, A T

    2016-04-01

    This laboratory study reports the ability of Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, colonies to survive for at least 9 yr while restricted to a sweater box. Colonies survived by limiting queen size and worker numbers, allowing these bonsai colonies to thrive. Queen physogastry appeared to plateau with 9-yr-old queens not larger than 6-yr-old queens, but nearly triple the size of 2-yr-old queens. Nine-year-old colony worker numbers were not greater than 6-yr-old colonies, but worker numbers were greater than in 2-yr-old colonies. Such colony survival under conditions of restricted resources provides a mechanism for re-infestation of areas following extensive area-wide control efforts. “Bonsai” colonies are relevant to the ability of marginalized colonies to avoid detection and then expand and invade into areas once the large, mature colonies are eliminated, and their potential to produce alates to start new C. formosanus colonies in areas which have been subjected to colony elimination programs impacts termite management strategies.

  14. Behaviour of damselfly larvae (Enallagma cyathigerum) (Insecta, Odonata) after long-term exposure to PFOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossum, Hans van [Evolutionary Ecology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: hans.vangossum@ua.ac.be; Bots, Jessica [Evolutionary Ecology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: jessica.bots@ua.ac.be; Snijkers, Tom [Evolutionary Ecology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: tom.snijkers@gmail.com; Meyer, Johan [Research group of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: izak.meyer@ua.ac.be; Van Wassenbergh, Sam [Laboratory for Functional Morphology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: sam.vanwassenbergh@ua.ac.be; De Coen, Wim [Research group of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: wim.decoen@ua.ac.be; De Bruyn, Luc [Evolutionary Ecology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Research Institute for Nature and Forest, Kliniekstraat 25, 1070 Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: luc.debruyn@ua.ac.be

    2009-04-15

    Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) is a persistent and ubiquitous environmental contaminant that has been detected in organisms worldwide. Here, we evaluate whether long-term (1 and 4 months) exposure to PFOS contamination affects the behavioural performance of freshwater larvae of the damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum (Insecta: Odonata). Our results show reduced behavioural performance with increasing PFOS concentration. In 1 month exposed larvae, no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) were 100 {mu}g/L for general activity. In 4 months exposed larvae, NOECs were 10 {mu}g/L, for each behavioural trait, except swimming acceleration of male larvae where the NOEC was 100 {mu}g/L. When faced with PFOS concentrations above the NOEC, E. cyathigerum larvae were less active, less capable to escape a simulated predator attack and less efficient in foraging. Together, our results show that damselfly larvae suffer reduced survival-related behavioural performance. - Long-term laboratory exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid decreases behavioural performance of damselfly larvae (Insecta: Odonata)

  15. Molecular phylogenetic diversity of the bacterial community in the gut of the termite Coptotermes formosanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzato, Naoya; Muramatsu, Mizuho; Matsui, Toru; Watanabe, Yoshio

    2005-06-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of the bacterial community in the gut of the termite Coptotermes formosanus was investigated using a 16S rRNA gene clone library constructed by PCR. After screening by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, 49 out of 261 clones with unique RFLP patterns were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. Many of the clones (94%) were derived from Bacteroidales, Spirochaetes, and low G + C content gram-positive bacteria consisting of Clostridiales, Mycoplasmatales, Bacillales, and Lactobacillales. In addition, a few clones derived from Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, and the candidate phylum "Synergistes" were also found. The most frequently identified RFLP type, BCf1-03, was assigned to the order Bacteroideales, and it constituted about 70% of the analyzed clones. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the representative clones found in this study tended to form some clusters with the sequences cloned from the termite gut in several other studies, suggesting the existence of termite-specific bacterial lineages.

  16. Pillotinas and hollandinas: distribution and behaviour of large spirochaetes symbiotic in termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, L; Margulis, L; Cheung, A T

    1978-01-01

    Pillotina spirochaetes have been observed in the hindguts of wood-eating cockroaches (Cryptocercus punctulatus), and in 25 out of 28 species of termites examined. They were especially abundant in 21 species of dry wood termites of the family Kalotermitidae, from Europe, North America and Australia. These included many species of Kalotermes and one or a few of the following: Glyptotermes, Bifidotermes, Neotermes, Ceratokalotermes, Paraneotermes, Cryptotermes, Porotermes, Marginitermes, Pterotermes, Zootermopsis, Reticulitermes, Coptotermes, Heterotermes, and nasutitermitids. Identifications of pillotinas were made on the basis of large size (0.5--2 micromtere in diameter, 50 to greater than 100 micrometers in length) and wave pattern; these were verified by electron microscopy in K. schwarzi, Pterotermes occidentis and others. Pillotinas were also present in all species of subterranean termites (Family Rhinotermitidae) examined, and in the most primitive Australian termite, Mastotermes darwiniensis (Family Mastotermitidae). They were not observed in damp wood termites (Family Hodotermidiae). Pillotinas are invariably associated with a rich, complex xylophagous microbial community composed primarily of motile prokaryotes, and hypermastigote and polymastigote flagellates. Some have been previously described by those primarily concerned with termite hindgut protozoa. Observations were made on their modes of behaviour, division, and microbial associates. A new genus of spirochaetes, Hollandina, is also described. It is distinguished from Pillotina by a smaller size and several ultrastructural features, but is otherwise closely related taxonomically. Evidence is provided to support Hollande and Gharagozlou's (1967) concept that the pillotinas and hollandinas deserve the taxonomic status of 'family' and that they should be classified with the cristispire siprochaetes a-cording to the scheme developed by Hovind-Hougen (1976). Spirochaetes are treated as a Phylum of the

  17. Niche heterogeneity determines bacterial community structure in the termite gut (Reticulitermes santonensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Schmitt-Wagner, Dirk; Stingl, Ulrich; Brune, Andreas

    2005-07-01

    Differences in microenvironment and interactions of microorganisms within and across habitat boundaries should influence structure and diversity of the microbial communities within an ecosystem. We tested this hypothesis using the well characterized gut tract of the European subterranean termite Reticulitermes santonensis as a model. By cloning and sequencing analysis and molecular fingerprinting (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism), we characterized the bacterial microbiota in the major intestinal habitats - the midgut, the wall of the hindgut paunch, the hindgut fluid and the intestinal protozoa. The bacterial community was very diverse (> 200 ribotypes) and comprised representatives of several phyla, including Firmicutes (mainly clostridia, streptococci and Mycoplasmatales-related clones), Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes and a number of Proteobacteria, all of which were unevenly distributed among the four habitats. The largest group of clones fell into the so-called Termite group 1 (TG-1) phylum, which has no cultivated representatives. The majority of the TG-1 clones were associated with the protozoa and formed two phylogenetically distinct clusters, which consisted exclusively of clones previously retrieved from the gut of this and other Reticulitermes species. Also the other clones represented lineages of microorganisms that were exclusively recovered from the intestinal tract of termites. The termite specificity of these lineages was underscored by the finding that the closest relatives of the bacterial clones obtained from R. santonensis were usually derived also from the most closely related termites. Overall, differences in diversity between the different gut habitats and the uneven distribution of individual phylotypes support conclusively that niche heterogeneity is a strong determinant of the structure and spatial organization of the microbial community in the termite gut.

  18. Correlation of cellulase gene expression and cellulolytic activity throughout the gut of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuguo; Smith, Joseph A; Oi, Faith M; Koehler, Philip G; Bennett, Gary W; Scharf, Michael E

    2007-06-15

    Termites have developed cellulose digestion capabilities that allow them to obtain energy and nutrition from nutritionally poor food sources, such as lignocellulosic plant material and residues derived from it (e.g., wood and humus). Lower termites, which are equipped with both endogenous (i.e., of termite origin) and symbiotic cellulases, feed primarily on wood and wood-related materials. This study investigated cellulase gene diversity, structure, and activity in the lower termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar). We initially used a metagenomics approach to identify four genes encoding one endogenous and three symbiotic cellulases, which we refer to as Cell-1, -2, -3 and -4. These four genes encode proteins that share significant sequence similarity with known endoglucanases, exoglucanases and xylanases. Phylogenetic analyses further supported these inferred relationships by showing that each of the four cellulase proteins clusters tightly with respective termite, protozoan or fungal cellulases. Gene structure studies revealed that Cell-1, -3 and -4 are intron-free, while Cell-2 contains the first intron sequence to be identified from a termite symbiont cellulase. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that the endogenous Cell-1 gene is expressed exclusively in the salivary gland/foregut, whereas symbiotic Cell-2, -3, and -4 are highly expressed in the hindgut (where cellulolytic protists are harbored). Cellulase activity assays mapped the distribution pattern of endoglucanase, exoglucanase and xylanase activity throughout the R. flavipes digestive tract. Cellulase gene expression correlated well with the specific types of cellulolytic activities observed in each gut region (foregut+salivary gland, midgut and hindgut). These results suggest the presence of a single unified cellulose digestion system, whereby endogenous and symbiotic cellulases work sequentially and collaboratively across the entire digestive tract of R. flavipes.

  19. Antimicrobial Activity of Actinobacteria Isolated From the Guts of Subterranean Termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango, R A; Carlson, C M; Currie, C R; McDonald, B R; Book, A J; Green, F; Lebow, N K; Raffa, K F

    2016-12-01

    Subterranean termites need to minimize potentially pathogenic and competitive fungi in their environment in order to maintain colony health. We examined the ability of Actinobacteria isolated from termite guts in suppressing microorganisms commonly encountered in a subterranean environment. Guts from two subterranean termite species, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) and Reticulitermes tibialis Banks, were extracted and plated on selective chitin media. A total of 38 Actinobacteria isolates were selected for in vitro growth inhibition assays. Target microbes included three strains of Serratia marcescens Bizio, two mold fungi (Trichoderma sp. and Metarhizium sp.), a yeast fungus (Candida albicans (C.P. Robin) Berkhout), and four basidiomycete fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeum (Persoon) Murrill, Tyromyces palustris (Berkeley & M.A. Curtis) Murrill, Irpex lacteus (Fries) Fries, and Trametes versicolor (L.) Lloyd). Results showed both broad and narrow ranges of antimicrobial activity against the mold fungi, yeast fungus, and S. marcescens isolates by the Actinobacteria selected. This suggests that termite gut-associated Actinobacteria produce secondary antimicrobial compounds that may be important for pathogen inhibition in termites. Basidiomycete fungi were strongly inhibited by the selected Actinobacteria isolates, with G. trabeum and T. versicolor being most inhibited, followed by I. lacteus and T. palustris The degree of inhibition was correlated with shifts in pH caused by the Actinobacteria. Nearly all Actinobacteria isolates raised pH of the growth medium to basic levels (i.e. pH ∼8.0-9.5). We summarize antimicrobial activity of these termite gut-associated Actinobacteria and examine the implications of these pH shifts. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Evidence of cue synergism in termite corpse response behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyshen, Michael D.; Shelton, Thomas G.

    2012-02-01

    Subterranean termites of the genus Reticulitermes are known to build walls and tubes and move considerable amounts of soil into wood but the causes of this behavior remain largely unexplored. In laboratory assays, we tested the hypothesis that Reticulitermes virginicus (Banks) would carry more sand into wooden blocks containing corpses compared to corpse-free controls. We further predicted that the corpses of predatory ants would elicit a stronger response than those of a benign beetle species or nestmates. As hypothesized, significantly more sand was carried into blocks containing corpses and this material was typically used to build partitions separating the dead from the rest of the colony. Contrary to expectations, however, this behavior did not vary among corpse types. We then tested the hypothesis that oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid released during arthropod decay and used by ants and other arthropod taxa in corpse recognition, would induce a similar building response in R. virginicus. To additionally determine the role of foreign objects in giving rise to this behavior, the experiment was carried out with and without imitation corpses (i.e., small glass beads). As predicted, oleic acid induced building (a tenfold increase) but only when applied to beads, suggesting strong synergism between tactile and chemical cues. Oleic acid also significantly reduced the amount of wood consumed by R. virginicus and may possess useful repellent properties.

  1. An American termite in Paris: temporal colony dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Guillaume; Dedeine, Franck; Bech, Nicolas; Bankhead-Dronnet, Stéphanie; Dupont, Simon; Bagnères, Anne-Geneviève

    2017-12-01

    Termites of the genus Reticulitermes are widespread invaders, particularly in urban habitats. Their cryptic and subterranean lifestyle makes them difficult to detect, and we know little about their colony dynamics over time. In this study we examined the persistence of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) colonies in the city of Paris over a period of 15 years. The aim was (1) to define the boundaries of colonies sampled within the same four areas over two sampling periods, (2) to determine whether the colonies identified during the first sampling period persisted to the second sampling period, and (3) to compare the results obtained when colonies were delineated using a standard population genetic approach versus a Bayesian clustering method that combined both spatial and genetic information. Herein, colony delineations were inferred from genetic differences at nine microsatellite loci and one mitochondrial locus. Four of the 18 identified colonies did not show significant differences in their genotype distributions between the two sampling periods. While allelic richness was low, making it hard to reliably distinguish colony family type, most colonies appeared to retain the same breeding structure over time. These large and expansive colonies showed an important ability to fuse (39% were mixed-family colonies), contained hundreds of reproductives and displayed evidence of isolation-by-distance, suggesting budding dispersal. These traits, which favor colony persistence over time, present a challenge for pest control efforts, which apply treatment locally. The other colonies showed significant differences, but we cannot exclude the possibility that their genotype distributions simply changed over time.

  2. The effect of maize stover used as mulch on termite damage to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La quantité de pailles de maïs appliquée corrélait significativement (P<0.05) et négativement avec les dégâts des termites mais corrélait positivement avec le nichement des fourmis prédateurs. Les résultats sont discutés dans le contexte de la gestion intégrée des pestes (IPM) pour les termites au niveau des systèmes de ...

  3. Optimization of a metatranscriptomic approach to study the lignocellulolytic potential of the higher termite gut microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marynowska, Martyna; Goux, Xavier; Sillam-Dussès, David; Rouland-Lefèvre, Corinne; Roisin, Yves; Delfosse, Philippe; Calusinska, Magdalena

    2017-09-01

    Thanks to specific adaptations developed over millions of years, the efficiency of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose decomposition of higher termite symbiotic system exceeds that of many other lignocellulose utilizing environments. Especially, the examination of its symbiotic microbes should reveal interesting carbohydrate-active enzymes, which are of primary interest for the industry. Previous metatranscriptomic reports (high-throughput mRNA sequencing) highlight the high representation and overexpression of cellulose and hemicelluloses degrading genes in the termite hindgut digestomes, indicating the potential of this technology in search for new enzymes. Nevertheless, several factors associated with the material sampling and library preparation steps make the metatranscriptomic studies of termite gut prokaryotic symbionts challenging. In this study, we first examined the influence of the sampling strategy, including the whole termite gut and luminal fluid, on the diversity and the metatranscriptomic profiles of the higher termite gut symbiotic bacteria. Secondly, we evaluated different commercially available kits combined in two library preparative pipelines for the best bacterial mRNA enrichment strategy. We showed that the sampling strategy did not significantly impact the generated results, both in terms of the representation of the microbes and their transcriptomic profiles. Nevertheless collecting luminal fluid reduces the co-amplification of unwanted RNA species of host origin. Furthermore, for the four studied higher termite species, the library preparative pipeline employing Ribo-Zero Gold rRNA Removal Kit "Epidemiology" in combination with Poly(A) Purist MAG kit resulted in a more efficient rRNA and poly-A-mRNAdepletion (up to 98.44% rRNA removed) than the pipeline utilizing MICROBExpress and MICROBEnrich kits. High correlation of both Ribo-Zero and MICROBExpresse depleted gene expression profiles with total non-depleted RNA-seq data has been shown

  4. Can 13C stable isotope analysis uncover essential amino acid provisioning by termite-associated gut microbes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Ayayee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gut-associated microbes of insects are postulated to provide a variety of nutritional functions including provisioning essential amino acids (EAAs. Demonstrations of EAA provisioning in insect-gut microbial systems, nonetheless, are scant. In this study, we investigated whether the eastern subterranean termite Reticulitermes flavipes sourced EAAs from its gut-associated microbiota. δ13CEAA data from termite carcass, termite gut filtrate and dietary (wood samples were determined following 13C stable isotope analysis. Termite carcass samples (−27.0 ± 0.4‰, mean ± s.e. were significantly different from termite gut filtrate samples (−27.53 ± 0.5‰, but not the wood diet (−26.0 ± 0.5‰ (F(2,64 = 6, P < 0.0052. δ13CEAA-offsets between termite samples and diet suggested possible non-dietary EAA input. Predictive modeling identified gut-associated bacteria and fungi, respectively as potential major and minor sources of EAAs in both termite carcass and gut filtrate samples, based on δ13CEAA data of four and three EAAs from representative bacteria, fungi and plant data. The wood diet, however, was classified as fungal rather than plant in origin by the model. This is attributed to fungal infestation of the wood diet in the termite colony. This lowers the confidence with which gut microbes (bacteria and fungi can be attributed with being the source of EAA input to the termite host. Despite this limitation, this study provides tentative data in support of hypothesized EAA provisioning by gut microbes, and also a baseline/framework upon which further work can be carried out to definitively verify this function.

  5. Indigenous utilization of termite mounds and their sustainability in a rice growing village of the central plain of Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivilay Sengdeaune

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to investigate the indigenous utilization of termite mounds and termites in a rain-fed rice growing village in the central plain of Laos, where rice production is low and varies year-to-year, and to assess the possibility of sustainable termite mound utilization in the future. This research was carried out from 2007 to 2009. Methods The termites were collected from their mounds and surrounding areas and identified. Twenty villagers were interviewed on their use of termites and their mounds in the village. Sixty-three mounds were measured to determine their dimensions in early March, early July and middle to late November, 2009. Results Eleven species of Termitidae were recorded during the survey period. It was found that the villagers use termite mounds as fertilizer for growing rice, vegetable beds and charcoal kilns. The villagers collected termites for food and as feed for breeding fish. Over the survey period, 81% of the mounds surveyed increased in volume; however, the volume was estimated to decrease by 0.114 m3 mound-1 year-1 on average due to several mounds being completely cut out. Conclusion It was concluded that current mound utilization by villagers is not sustainable. To ensure sustainable termite utilization in the future, studies should be conducted to enhance factors that promote mound restoration by termites. Furthermore, it will be necessary to improve mound conservation methods used by the villagers after changes in the soil mass of mounds in paddy fields and forests has been measured accurately. The socio-economic factors that affect mound utilization should also be studied.

  6. Characterization of N2O emission and associated bacterial communities from the gut of wood-feeding termite Nasutitermes voeltzkowi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Muhammad Zeeshan; Miambi, Edouard; Riaz, Muhammad Asam; Brauman, Alain

    2015-09-01

    Xylophagous termites rely on nitrogen deficient foodstuff with a low C/N ratio. Most research work has focused on nitrogen fixation in termites highlighting important inflow and assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen into their bodies fundamentally geared up by their intestinal microbial symbionts. Most of termite body nitrogen is of atmospheric origin, and microbially aided nitrification is the principal source of this nitrogen acquisition, but contrarily, the information regarding potent denitrification process is very scarce and poorly known, although the termite gut is considered to carry all favorable criteria necessary for microbial denitrification. Therefore, in this study, it is hypothesized that whether nitrification and denitrification processes coexist in intestinal milieu of xylophagous termites or not, and if yes, then is there any link between the denitrification product, i.e., N2O and nitrogen content of the food substrate, and moreover where these bacterial communities are found along the length of termite gut. To answer these questions, we measured in vivo N2O emission by Nasutitermes voeltzkowi (Nasutitermitinae) maintained on different substrates with varying C/N ratio, and also, molecular techniques were applied to study the diversity (DGGE) and density (qPCR) of bacterial communities in anterior and posterior gut portions. Rersults revealed that xylophagous termites emit feeble amount of N2O and molecular studies confirmed this finding by illustrating the presence of an ample density of N2O-reductase (nosZ) gene in the intestinal tract of these termites. Furthermore, intestinal bacterial communities of these termites were found more dense and diverse in posterior than anterior portion of the gut.

  7. Strong positive effects of termites on savanna bird abundance and diversity are amplified by large herbivore exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Stein R; Eldegard, Katrine; Rannestad, Ole Tobias; Okullo, Paul; Lindtjørn, Ommund; Støen, Ole Gunnar; Dale, Svein

    2017-12-01

    Vast areas of the African savanna landscapes are characterized by tree-covered Macrotermes termite mounds embedded within a relatively open savanna matrix. In concert with termites, large herbivores are important determinants of savanna woody vegetation cover. The relative cover of woody species has considerable effects on savanna function. Despite the potentially important ecological relationships between termite mounds, woody plants, large herbivores, and birds, these associations have previously received surprisingly little attention. We experimentally studied the effects of termites and large herbivores on the avian community in Lake Mburo National Park, Uganda, where woody vegetation is essentially limited to termite mounds. Our experiment comprised of four treatments in nine replicates; unfenced termite mounds, fenced mounds (excluding large mammals), unfenced adjacent savanna, and fenced savanna. We recorded species identity, abundance, and behavior of all birds observed on these plots over a two-month period, from late dry until wet season. Birds used termite mounds almost exclusively, with only 3.5% of observations occurring in the treeless intermound savanna matrix. Mean abundance and species richness of birds doubled on fenced (large herbivores excluded) compared to unfenced mounds. Feeding behavior increased when large mammals were excluded from mounds, both in absolute number of observed individuals, and relative to other behaviors. This study documents the fundamental positive impact of Macrotermes termites on bird abundance and diversity in an African savanna. Birds play crucial functional roles in savanna ecosystems, for example, by dispersing fruits or regulating herbivorous insect populations. Thus, the role of birds in savanna dynamics depends on the distribution and abundance of termite mounds.

  8. I. Structural studies of termite defense secretions. II. Structural studies of natural products of marine nudibranchs. [Kempene, tridachione

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solheim, B.A.

    1977-12-01

    Three families of termites have the ability to produce a sticky secretion that envelopes and immobilizes the enemy. In the family Termitidae the secretion contains the diterpenoid hydrocarbons, kempene I and kempene II. The molecular structure of kempene II from the termite, Nasutitermes kempae, is described in detail. Another species of termite, Cubitermes umbratus, contained the diterpenoid hydrocarbon biflora-4,10-19,15-triene in the secretion and this compound is described. Studies were also conducted on the mucous secretion of the pedal gland of the marine nudibranch, Tidachiella diomedea. Tridachione, a substituted ..gamma..-pyrone, was isolated in the pure state and its molecular structure is described in detail. (HLW)

  9. Genetically Engineered Yeast Expressing a Lytic Peptide from Bee Venom (Melittin) Kills Symbiotic Protozoa in the Gut of Formosan Subterranean Termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husseneder, Claudia; Donaldson, Jennifer R; Foil, Lane D

    2016-01-01

    The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, is a costly invasive urban pest in warm and humid regions around the world. Feeding workers of the Formosan subterranean termite genetically engineered yeast strains that express synthetic protozoacidal lytic peptides has been shown to kill the cellulose digesting termite gut protozoa, which results in death of the termite colony. In this study, we tested if Melittin, a natural lytic peptide from bee venom, could be delivered into the termite gut via genetically engineered yeast and if the expressed Melittin killed termites via lysis of symbiotic protozoa in the gut of termite workers and/or destruction of the gut tissue itself. Melittin expressing yeast did kill protozoa in the termite gut within 56 days of exposure. The expressed Melittin weakened the gut but did not add a synergistic effect to the protozoacidal action by gut necrosis. While Melittin could be applied for termite control via killing the cellulose-digesting protozoa in the termite gut, it is unlikely to be useful as a standalone product to control insects that do not rely on symbiotic protozoa for survival.

  10. Temporal and geographic variations in the morphology and chemical composition of the frontal gland in imagoes of Prorhinotermes species (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Piskorski, Rafal; Hanus, Robert; Kalinová, Blanka; Valterová, Irena; Křeček, J.; Bourguignon, T.; Roisin, Y.; Šobotník, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 2 (2009), s. 384-392 ISSN 0024-4066 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600550614 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : defensive secretion * nitroalkenes * sesquiterpene hydrocarbons * termites Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.040, year: 2009

  11. Neotenic Phenotype and Sex Ratios Provide Insight into Developmental Pathways in Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T. Forschler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Several thousand Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar including worker, nymph, soldier, neotenic and alate castes were collected from three pine logs brought into the laboratory on dates five years apart. The neotenics, all nymphoid, were divided into three groups based on the extent of cuticle pigmentation and termed regular neotenics (RN, black-headed neotenics (BHN or black neotenics (BN. All castes, from Log A, in 2008, provided a neutral sex ratio except BHN (N = 378 and BN (N = 51 which were exclusively male while the soldiers (N = 466 were female-biased. This information suggests that there is a sex-linked bifurcation along the path for termite development with a male-biased neotenic or female-biased soldier as the choice. In contrast, termites collected in 2004 from Log B provided sex ratios that included a female biased RN (N = 1017, a neutral soldier (N = 258 and male biased BHN (N = 99 and workers (N = 54. Log C, collected in 2009, provided female biased soldiers (N = 32, RNs (N = 18 and BHNs (N = 4 and only male BN (N = 5. Eight laboratory cultures, ranging in age from five to 14 years old, also were sampled and all castes sexed. The census included a 14-year old queen-right colony, an 8-year old polyandrous colony and six colonies provided nymphs and male-biased worker populations. Together these data indicate a flexible caste determination system providing a unique opportunity for a better understanding of the flexible developmental options available in R. flavipes that we discuss relative to the literature on Reticulitermes ontogeny.

  12. Long-Lived Termite Queens Exhibit High Cu/Zn-Superoxide Dismutase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisuke Tasaki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In most organisms, superoxide dismutases (SODs are among the most effective antioxidant enzymes that regulate the reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by oxidative energy metabolism. ROS are considered main proximate causes of aging. However, it remains unclear if SOD activities are associated with organismal longevity. The queens of eusocial insects, such as termites, ants, and honeybees, exhibit extraordinary longevity in comparison with the nonreproductive castes, such as workers. Therefore, the queens are promising candidates to study the underlying mechanisms of aging. Here, we found that queens have higher Cu/Zn-SOD activity than nonreproductive individuals of the termite Reticulitermes speratus. We identified three Cu/Zn-SOD sequences and one Mn-SOD sequence by RNA sequencing in R. speratus. Although the queens showed higher Cu/Zn-SOD activity than the nonreproductive individuals, there were no differences in their expression levels of the Cu/Zn-SOD genes RsSOD1 and RsSOD3A. Copper (Cu2+ and Cu+ is an essential cofactor for Cu/Zn-SOD enzyme activity, and the queens had higher concentrations of copper than the workers. These results suggest that the high Cu/Zn-SOD activity of termite queens is related to their high levels of the cofactor rather than gene expression. This study highlights that Cu/Zn-SOD activity contributes to extraordinary longevity in termites.

  13. Termite nests as an abundant source of cultivable actinobacteria for biotechnological purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujada, Nikhom; Sungthong, Rungroch; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2014-01-01

    A total of 118 actinobacterial isolates were collected from the three types of termite nests (mound, carton, and subterranean nests) to evaluate their potential as a source of bioactive actinobacteria with antimicrobial activity. The highest number (67 isolates) and generic abundance (7 known genera) of actinobacterial isolates were obtained from carton nests. Streptomyces was the dominant genus in each type of termite nest. In the non-Streptomyces group, Nocardia was the dominant genus detected in mound and carton nests, while Pseudonocardia was the dominant genus in subterranean nests. A discovery trend of novel species (nests examined. Each type of termite nest housed >20% of bioactive actinobacteria that could inhibit the growth of at least one test organism, while 12 isolates, belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Amycolatopsis, Pseudonocardia, Micromonospora and Nocardia, exhibited distinct antimicrobial activities. Streptomyces sp. CMU-NKS-3 was the most distinct bioactive isolate. It was closely related to S. padanus MITKK-103T, which was confirmed by 99% similarities in their 16S rRNA gene sequences. The highest level of extracellular antimicrobial substances was produced by the isolate CMU-NKS-3, which was grown in potato dextrose broth and exhibited a wide range (6.10×10(-4)-1.25 mg mL(-1)) of minimum inhibitory concentrations against diverse pathogens. We concluded that termite nests are an abundant source of bioactive strains of cultivable actinobacteria for future biotechnological needs.

  14. The evolution of symmetrical snapping in termite soldiers need not lead to reduced chemical defence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyjaková, Pavlína; Dolejšová, Klára; Krasulová, Jana; Bednárová, Lucie; Hadravová, Romana; Pohl, Radek; Hanus, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 4 (2015), s. 818-825 ISSN 0024-4066 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-25354P Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : termites * soldiers * chemical defence * diterpene * cavitene * frontal gland Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.984, year: 2015

  15. effects of rice husk ash and termite hill types on the physical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    water absorption of both brick types burnt at higher temperature of 900oC. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) study indicate no significance differences in the compressive strength of termite clay brick samples due to rice husk ash content, firing ... used in the making of structural components such as partition walls, building ...

  16. High Symbiont Relatedness Stabilizes Mutualistic Cooperation in Fungus-Growing Termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur K; de Fine Licht, Henrik H; Debets, Alfons J M

    2009-01-01

    of spore production in proportion to strain frequency. This positive reinforcement results in an exclusive lifetime association of each host colony with a single fungal symbiont and hinders the evolution of cheating. Our findings explain why vertical symbiont transmission in fungus-growing termites is rare...

  17. Secondary queens in the parthenogenetic termite Cavitermes tuberosus develop through a transitional helper stage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellemans, S.; Fournier, D.; Hanus, Robert; Roisin, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 6 (2017), s. 253-262 ISSN 1520-541X Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : facultative parthenogenesis * replacement queens * termites * asexual queen succession * ontogeny * Cavitermes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Developmental biology Impact factor: 2.243, year: 2016

  18. Termitomyces sp. associated with the termite Macrotermes natalensis has a heterothallic mating system and multinucleate cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Andersen, Anders; Aanen, Duur Kornelis

    2005-01-01

    Fungi of the genus Termitomyces live in an obligate symbiosis with termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae. Many species of Termitomyces frequently form fruit bodies, which develop from the fungus comb within the nest. In this study, we determined the mating system of a species of Termitomyces ...

  19. Chemical systematics of Neotropical termite genera with symmetrically snapping soldiers (Termitidae: Termitinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyjaková, Pavlína; Roy, V.; Jirošová, Anna; Krasulová, Jana; Dolejšová, Klára; Křivánek, Jan; Hadravová, Romana; Rybáček, Jiří; Pohl, Radek; Roisin, Y.; Sillam-Dusses, D.; Hanus, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 180, č. 1 (2017), s. 66-81 ISSN 0024-4082 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-25354P Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : chemical defence * frontal gland * termites * chemical systematics * Termitinae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Biodiversity conservation Impact factor: 2.711, year: 2016

  20. Decay and termite resistance, water absorption and swelling of thermally compressed wood panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner Unsal; S. Nami Kartal; Zeki Candan; Rachel A. Arango; Carol A. Clausen; Frederick Green

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated decay and termite resistance of thermally compressed pine wood panels under pressure at either 5 or 7 MPa and either 120 or 150 °C for 1 h. Wood specimens from the panels were exposed to laboratory decay resistance by using the wood degrading fungi, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Trametes versicolor. The thermal compression process caused increases in...

  1. Uncovering the Potential of Termite Gut Microbiome for Lignocellulose Bioconversion in Anaerobic Batch Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Auer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Termites are xylophages, being able to digest a wide variety of lignocellulosic biomass including wood with high lignin content. This ability to feed on recalcitrant plant material is the result of complex symbiotic relationships, which involve termite-specific gut microbiomes. Therefore, these represent a potential source of microorganisms for the bioconversion of lignocellulose in bioprocesses targeting the production of carboxylates. In this study, gut microbiomes of four termite species were studied for their capacity to degrade wheat straw and produce carboxylates in controlled bioreactors. All of the gut microbiomes successfully degraded lignocellulose and up to 45% w/w of wheat straw degradation was observed, with the Nasutitermes ephratae gut-microbiome displaying the highest levels of wheat straw degradation, carboxylate production and enzymatic activity. Comparing the 16S rRNA gene diversity of the initial gut inocula to the bacterial communities in lignocellulose degradation bioreactors revealed important changes in community diversity. In particular, taxa such as Spirochaetes and Fibrobacteres that were highly abundant in the initial gut inocula were replaced by Firmicutes and Proteobacteria at the end of incubation in wheat straw bioreactors. Overall, this study demonstrates that termite-gut microbiomes constitute a reservoir of lignocellulose-degrading bacteria that can be harnessed in artificial conditions for biomass conversion processes that lead to the production of useful molecules.

  2. Decay and termite resistance of medium density fiberboard (MDF) made from different wood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Nami Kartal; Frederick Green

    2003-01-01

    Medium density fiberboard (MDF) production worldwide is increasing due to the development of new manufacturing technologies. As a result, MDF products are increasingly utilized in traditional wood applications that require fungal and insect resistance. This study evaluated the ability of white and brown rot fungi and termites to decompose MDF consisting of different...

  3. Functional symbiosis and communication in microbial ecosystems. The case of wood-eating termites and cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlanga, Mercedes

    2015-09-01

    Animal hosts typically have strong specificity for microbial symbionts and their functions. The symbiotic relationships have enhanced the limited metabolic networks of most eukaryotes by contributing several prokaryotic metabolic capabilities, such as methanogenesis, chemolithoautotrophy, nitrogen assimilation, etc. This review will examine the characteristics that determine bacterial "fidelity" to certain groups of animals (e.g., xylophagous insects, such as termites and cockroaches) over generations and throughout evolution. The hindgut bacteria of wood-feeding termites and cockroaches belong to several phyla, including Proteobacteria, especially Deltaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Actinomycetes, Spirochetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Actinobacteria, as detected by 16S rRNA. Termites effectively feed on many types of lignocelluloses assisted by their gut microbial symbionts. Although the community structures differ between the hosts (termites and cockroaches), with changes in the relative abundances of particular bacterial taxa, the composition of the bacterial community could reflect at least in part the host evolution in that the microbiota may derive from the microbiota of a common ancestor. Therefore, factors other than host phylogeny, such as diet could have had strong influence in shaping the bacterial community structure. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  4. Olfactory Cues from Pathogenic Fungus Affect the Direction of Motion of Termites, Coptotermes formosanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Aya; Imai, Tomoya; Akino, Toshiharu; Toh, Yoshihiro; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus, tend to avoid pathogen odors when tested in Y-tube olfactometers, but approach and groom exposed nestmates to remove pathogens from their cuticle and maintain a healthy population. To better understand their differential reaction to pathogens and their odors, the relationship between odor cues and direction of motion was examined with the fungus Isaria fumosorosea K3 strain. The results indicate that nestmate odor was strongly attractive only in tests where fungal odors were present in both branches of the olfactometer. Termites generally avoid fungal odors when offered a choice without fungal odor. We also tested termite aversion to 3-octanone and 1-octen-3-ol, major surface chemical compounds of I. fumosorosea K3, and estimated the total mass of these compounds present on the conidial surface by direct extraction method. The total quantity of these chemicals on the surface of fungal conidia was estimated to be approximately 0.01 ng per 10(7) conidia. This study demonstrates a context dependent behavioral change in termites in response to the odors of pathogenic fungi.

  5. Termite and fungal resistance of in situ polymerized tributyltin acrylate and acetylated Indonesian and USA wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Yusuf Sudo. Hadi; Dodi. Nandika; Sulaeman. Yusuf; Yuliati. Indrayani

    2000-01-01

    Wood [Indonesian pine (IP), Indonesian Jabon (IJ) and USA southern yellow pine (USP)] was either in situ polymerized with tributyltin acrylate (TBTA) or acetylated and then exposed to termite and fungal degradation both in laboratory tests and field exposure. The TBTA woods had an average weight percent gain (WPG) of 11% for IP, 12% for IJ, and 10% for USP. The...

  6. Effects of extractives and ash on natural resistance of four woods to xylophogous termites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the natural resistance of wood of four tree species to Nasutitermes corniger Motsch. xylophogous termite attack and correlate the resistance with the amount of extract and ash in the chemical composition of the tested species. The species evaluated were Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan. var. cebil (Gris. Alts., Tabebuia aurea (Mart. Bureau., Amburana cearensis (Allem. A.C.Sm. and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Test samples with dimensions of 2.00 x 10.16 x 0.64 cm (radial x longitudinal x tangential were obtained at two positions (external heartwood and sapwood of each species. The samples were exposed to action of termites for 45 days in food preference assay. The content of wood extractives was obtained through the sawdust that went through sieve of 40 mesh and were retained in the 60 mesh. The natural resistance was not associated with wood extractive contents. The wood more resistant to termite attack was the Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil in the two positions (external heartwood and sapwood and Eucalyptus camaldulensis wood presented the greatest wear. The biological resistance of wood was correlated with ash content, i.e., the species with the highest levels was the most resistant to termite attack.

  7. Presumptive horizontal symbiont transmission in the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fine Licht, de H.H.; Boomsma, J.J.; Aanen, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    All colonies of the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis studied so far are associated with a single genetically variable lineage of Termitomyces symbionts. Such limited genetic variation of symbionts and the absence of sexual fruiting bodies (mushrooms) on M. natalensis mounds would be

  8. Termite Control: Results of Testing at the U.S. Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford M. Kard

    1998-01-01

    Liquid termiticide treatments to soil continue as the most widely used method to protect wooden structures from attack by both native and Formosan subterranean termites, and have been the mainstay of the pest control industry for decades. The Wood Products Insect Research Project was located at Gulfport, MS, until 1995, and is now headquartered on the Mississippi State...

  9. Fungus-Farming Termites Selectively Bury Weedy Fungi that Smell Different from Crop Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katariya, Lakshya; Ramesh, Priya B; Gopalappa, Thejashwini; Desireddy, Sathish; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Borges, Renee M

    2017-10-01

    Mutualistic associations such as the fungal farms of insects are prone to parasitism and are consequently vulnerable to attack by weeds and pests. Therefore, efficient farm management requires quick detection of weeds for their elimination. Furthermore, if the available weedicides are non-specific, then the ability of insects to discriminate between crop and weeds becomes essential for targeted application of such compounds. Here, we demonstrate for the first time in fungus-farming insects, that worker castes of the fungus-growing termite Odontotermes obesus discriminate between their crop (Termitomyces) and the weedy (Pseudoxylaria) fungi, even if exposed to only fungal scents. Termites respond to the presence of fungal mycelium or scent alone, by burying the weed with the offered material such as soil or agar, possibly anointing the weed with chemicals in the process. The scent profiles of crop and weedy fungi are distinct and the differences are likely exploited by termites to selectively mount their defences. Sesquiterpene compounds such as aristolene and viridiflorol, which are absent from crop odours, may constitute the "weedy scent". Our results provide a general mechanism of how other fungus-farming insects could avoid indiscriminate application of non-specific fungicides which could lead to poisoning their crops, and have bearing on the stability of the mutualism between termites and their crop fungus in the face of parasitism by weedy fungi.

  10. Complementary symbiont contributions to plant decomposition in a fungus-farming termite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poulsen, Michael; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai; Chen, Zhensheng; Xu, Luohao; Otani, Saria; Nygaard, Sanne; Nobre, Tania; Klaubauf, S.; Schindler, Philipp M; Hauser, Frank; Pan, Hailin; Yang, Zhikai; Sonnenberg, Anton S M; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Zhang, Yong; Wingfield, Michael J; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; de Vries, Ronald P; Korb, Judith; Aanen, Duur K; Wang, Jun; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Zhang, Guojie; van den Brink, J.

    2014-01-01

    Termites normally rely on gut symbionts to decompose organic matter but the Macrotermitinae domesticated Termitomyces fungi to produce their own food. This transition was accompanied by a shift in the composition of the gut microbiota, but the complementary roles of these bacteria in the symbiosis

  11. Preliminary evaluation of storax and its constituents: Fungal decay mold and termite resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Nami Kartal; Evren Terzi; Tsuyoshi Yoshimura; Rachel Arango; Carol A. Clausen; Frederick Green III

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils and their derivatives might be one of the promising preserving agents to prevent funga ldecay and termite/insect attack in wood since such compounds have a long history of safe usage as antimicrobial agents in various industries. Considerable research has focused on utilizing bioactive essential oils and wood extractives based on green technologies to...

  12. Pseudoxylaria as stowaway of the fungus-growing termite nest:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Anna A.; Kooij, Pepijn Wilhelmus; Debets, Alfons J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Though inconspicuous in healthy nests, Pseudoxylaria species are almost always present and overgrow deteriorating fungus-growing termite gardens. Whether these fungi are detrimental to the fungus-garden, benign, or even beneficial is unclear. We hypothesize that Pseudoxylaria is a stowaway...

  13. Termite- and mulch-mediated rehabilitation of vegetation on crusted soil in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mando, A.; Brussaard, L.; Stroosnijder, L.

    1999-01-01

    The rehabilitation of vegetation on structurally crusted soils by triggering termite activity through mulch was studied on three soil types in northern Burkina Faso, West Africa. A split-plot design was used in a fenced environment for the experiment. Insecticide (Dieldrin) was used at a rate of 500

  14. Uncovering cryptic species diversity of a termite community in a West African savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausberger, Barbara; Kimpel, Dorothea; van Neer, Abbo; Korb, Judith

    2011-12-01

    To uncover the termite species diversity of a natural African savanna ecosystem, we combined morphological analyses and sequencing of three gene fragments (cytochrome oxidase I, cytochrome oxidase II and 28SrDNA, total length about 2450 bp) to infer putative species from phylogenetic trees. We identified 18 putative species clusters with high support values and which we retrieved consistently. Samples from two genera (Ancistrotermes and Microcerotermes) were excluded from the mitochondrial phylogenetic analyses as they might represent nuclear mitochondrial sequences (NUMTs). In total, our data suggest a species richness of at least 20 species, all but one belonging to the Termitidae (higher termites), and among them the fungus-growing Macrotermitinae were most prevalent with at least nine putative species. Within the fungus-growers the most species-rich genus was Microtermes and its four putative species were all cryptic species. Their abundance in the samples suggests that they play an important ecological role which is completely unstudied also due to the lack of reliable identification means. Our study shows that morphological traits are unreliable means of species identification for several termite taxa. Yet reliable and consistent identification is necessary for studying the functional role of termites in ecosystem and global processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemistry and anatomy of the frontal gland in soldiers of the sand termite Psammotermes hybostoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasulová, Jana; Hanus, Robert; Kutalová, Kateřina; Šobotník, Jan; Sillam-Dussès, David; Tichý, Michal; Valterová, Irena

    2012-05-01

    A great diversity of defensive chemicals has been described in termite soldiers equipped with a unique defensive organ, the frontal gland. Along with the functional diversity of these compounds, reflecting the evolutionary history of particular lineages and their defensive strategies, a considerable degree of chemical variability often occurs among species and populations. Thus, the chemistry of termite defense may provide information on the phylogeny and geographic dispersal of species and populations. In this paper, we report on the anatomy of the frontal gland and on the diversity of soldier defensive chemicals in the sand termite, Psammotermes hybostoma, from nine colonies and five different localities in Egypt. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, a total of 30 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, or their oxygenated derivatives, were detected, and the chemical identity of most of them identified. In addition, a ketone, an ester, and a diterpene were identified in some colonies. Within colonies, the chemical composition was stable and did not differ among soldier size categories. However, there were pronounced quantitative and qualitative differences in frontal gland chemicals among colonies and geographic locations. The findings are discussed in a broader comparison with other termite taxa.

  16. Agricultural management affects earthworm and termite diversity across humid to semi-arid tropical zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayuke, F.O.; Pulleman, M.M.; Vanlauwe, B.; Goede, de R.G.M.; Six, J.; Csuzdi, C.; Brussaard, L.

    2011-01-01

    Earthworm and termite diversity were studied in 12 long-term agricultural field trials across the sub-humid to semi-arid tropical zones of Eastern and Western Africa. In each trial, treatments with high and low soil organic C were chosen to represent contrasts in long-term soil management effects,

  17. Phylogenetic diversity of 'Endomicrobia' and their specific affiliation with termite gut flagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda-Ohtsubo, Wakako; Desai, Mahesh; Stingl, Ulrich; Brune, Andreas

    2007-10-01

    'Endomicrobia', a distinct and diverse group of uncultivated bacteria in the candidate phylum Termite Group I (TG-1), have been found exclusively in the gut of lower termites and wood-feeding cockroaches. In a previous study, we had demonstrated that the 'Endomicrobia' clones retrieved from Reticulitermes santonensis represent intracellular symbionts of the two major gut flagellates of this termite. Here, we document that 'Endomicrobia' are present also in many other gut flagellates of lower termites. Phylogeny and host specificity of 'Endomicrobia' were investigated by cloning and sequencing of the small subunit rRNA genes of the flagellate and the symbionts, which originated from suspensions of individual flagellates isolated by micropipette. Each flagellate harboured a distinct phylogenetic lineage of 'Endomicrobia'. The results of fluorescent in situ hybridization with 'Endomicrobia'-specific oligonucleotide probes corroborated that 'Endomicrobia' are intracellular symbionts specifically affiliated with their flagellate hosts. Interestingly, the 'Endomicrobia' sequences obtained from flagellates belonging to the genus Trichonympha formed a monophyletic group, suggesting co-speciation between symbiont and host.

  18. Termite diversity across an anthropogenic disturbance gradient in the humid forest zone of West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggleton, P.; Bignell, D.E.; Hauser, S.; Dibog, L.; Norgrove, L.; Madong, B.

    2002-01-01

    Data are presented for termite assemblages across an anthropogenic disturbance gradient in the humid forest zone of West and Central Africa. Sampling was by standardised 100 mx2 m transects in: primary forest, several ages of regenerating forest, agroforestry plots, short fallows, mixed food crop

  19. Lignin-associated metagene expression in a lignocellulose-digesting termite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Amit; Slack, Jeffrey M; Kovaleva, Elena S; Buchman, George W; Scharf, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Lignin is a component of plant biomass that presents a significant obstacle to biofuel production. It is composed of a highly stable phenylpropanoid matrix that upon degradation, releases toxic metabolites. Termites have specialized digestive systems that overcome the lignin barrier in wood lignocellulose to efficiently release fermentable simple sugars; however, how termites specifically degrade lignin and tolerate its toxic byproducts remains unknown. Here, using the termite Reticulitermes flavipes and its symbiotic (protozoan) gut fauna as a model system, we used high throughput Roche 454-titanium pyrosequencing and proteomics approaches to (i) experimentally compare the effects of diets containing varying degrees of lignin complexity on host-symbiont digestome composition, (ii) deeply sample host and symbiont lignocellulase diversity, and (iii) identify promising lignocellulase candidates for functional characterization. In addition to revealing over 9500 differentially expressed transcripts related to a wide range of physiological processes, our findings reveal two detoxification enzyme families not generally considered in connection with lignocellulose digestion: aldo-keto reductases and catalases. Recombinant versions of two host enzymes from these enzyme families, which apparently play no roles in cellulose or hemicellulose digestion, significantly enhance lignocellulose saccharification by cocktails of host and symbiont cellulases. These hypothesis-driven results provide important new insights into (i) dietary lignin as a xenobiotic challenge, (ii) the complex mechanisms used by termites to cope with their lignin-rich diets, and (iii) novel lignin-targeted enzymatic approaches to enhance biofuel and biomaterial production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Is there a role for termite alates in colony expansion in Wisconsin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick Green III; Rachel A. Arango; Glenn R. Esenther; Thomas G. Shelton

    2014-01-01

    Termite colonies in Wisconsin tend to be large and widely spread out geographically, and separated by distances up to 1342km. We recently completed a study to determine the genetic diversity and population substructure of thirteen existing colonies of Reticulitermes flavipes using amplified fragment length polymorphism to determine patterns of...

  1. Uncovering the Potential of Termite Gut Microbiome for Lignocellulose Bioconversion in Anaerobic Batch Bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Lucas; Lazuka, Adèle; Sillam-Dussès, David; Miambi, Edouard; O'Donohue, Michael; Hernandez-Raquet, Guillermina

    2017-01-01

    Termites are xylophages, being able to digest a wide variety of lignocellulosic biomass including wood with high lignin content. This ability to feed on recalcitrant plant material is the result of complex symbiotic relationships, which involve termite-specific gut microbiomes. Therefore, these represent a potential source of microorganisms for the bioconversion of lignocellulose in bioprocesses targeting the production of carboxylates. In this study, gut microbiomes of four termite species were studied for their capacity to degrade wheat straw and produce carboxylates in controlled bioreactors. All of the gut microbiomes successfully degraded lignocellulose and up to 45% w/w of wheat straw degradation was observed, with the Nasutitermes ephratae gut-microbiome displaying the highest levels of wheat straw degradation, carboxylate production and enzymatic activity. Comparing the 16S rRNA gene diversity of the initial gut inocula to the bacterial communities in lignocellulose degradation bioreactors revealed important changes in community diversity. In particular, taxa such as Spirochaetes and Fibrobacteres that were highly abundant in the initial gut inocula were replaced by Firmicutes and Proteobacteria at the end of incubation in wheat straw bioreactors. Overall, this study demonstrates that termite-gut microbiomes constitute a reservoir of lignocellulose-degrading bacteria that can be harnessed in artificial conditions for biomass conversion processes that lead to the production of useful molecules.

  2. SPATIAL VARIABILITY AND VITALITY OF EPIGEOUS TERMITE MOUNDS IN PASTURES OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Santana Lima

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Epigeous termite mounds are frequently observed in pasture areas, but the processes regulating their population dynamics are poorly known. This study evaluated epigeous termite mounds in cultivated grasslands used as pastures, assessing their spatial distribution by means of geostatistics and evaluating their vitality. The study was conducted in the Cerrado biome in the municipality of Rio Brilhante, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In two pasture areas (Pasture 1 and Pasture 2, epigeous mounds (nests were georeferenced and analyzed for height, circumference and vitality (inhabited or not. The area occupied by the mounds was calculated and termite specimens were collected for taxonomic identification. The spatial distribution pattern of the mounds was analyzed with geostatistical procedures. In both pasture areas, all epigeous mounds were built by the same species, Cornitermes cumulans. The mean number of mounds per hectare was 68 in Pasture 1 and 127 in Pasture 2, representing 0.4 and 1 % of the entire area, respectively. A large majority of the mounds were active (vitality, 91 % in Pasture 1 and 84 % in Pasture 2. A “pure nugget effect” was observed in the semivariograms of height and nest circumference in both pastures reflecting randomized spatial distribution and confirming that the distribution of termite mounds in pastures had a non-standard distribution.

  3. Complementary symbiont contributions to plant decomposition in a fungus-farming termite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas-Poulsen, Michael; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai

    2014-01-01

    Termites normally rely on gut symbionts to decompose organic matter but the Macrotermitinae domesticated Termitomyces fungi to produce their own food. This transition was accompanied by a shift in the composition of the gut microbiota, but the complementary roles of these bacteria in the symbiosi...

  4. Chemistry and Anatomy of the Frontal Gland in Soldiers of the Sand Termite Psammotermes hybostoma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krasulová, Jana; Hanus, Robert; Kutalová, Kateřina; Šobotník, Jan; Sillam-Dusses, David; Tichý, Michal; Valterová, Irena

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 5 (2012), s. 557-565 ISSN 0098-0331 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : termites * frontal gland of soldiers * chemical defense * Rhinotermitidae * Psammotermes hybostoma Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.462, year: 2012

  5. Excavation and aggregation as organizing factors in de novo construction by mound-building termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ben; Bardunias, Paul; Turner, J Scott; Nagpal, Radhika; Werfel, Justin

    2017-06-14

    Termites construct complex mounds that are orders of magnitude larger than any individual and fulfil a variety of functional roles. Yet the processes through which these mounds are built, and by which the insects organize their efforts, remain poorly understood. The traditional understanding focuses on stigmergy, a form of indirect communication in which actions that change the environment provide cues that influence future work. Termite construction has long been thought to be organized via a putative 'cement pheromone': a chemical added to deposited soil that stimulates further deposition in the same area, thus creating a positive feedback loop whereby coherent structures are built up. To investigate the detailed mechanisms and behaviours through which termites self-organize the early stages of mound construction, we tracked the motion and behaviour of major workers from two Macrotermes species in experimental arenas. Rather than a construction process focused on accumulation of depositions, as models based on cement pheromone would suggest, our results indicated that the primary organizing mechanisms were based on excavation. Digging activity was focused on a small number of excavation sites, which in turn provided templates for soil deposition. This behaviour was mediated by a mechanism of aggregation, with termites being more likely to join in the work at an excavation site as the number of termites presently working at that site increased. Statistical analyses showed that this aggregation mechanism was a response to active digging, distinct from and unrelated to putative chemical cues that stimulate deposition. Agent-based simulations quantitatively supported the interpretation that the early stage of de novo construction is primarily organized by excavation and aggregation activity rather than by stigmergic deposition. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Patterns of interaction specificity of fungus-growing termites and Termitomyces symbionts in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Beer Z Wilhelm

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae live in a mutualistic symbiosis with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Termitomyces. Here, we explored interaction specificity in fungus-growing termites using samples from 101 colonies in South-Africa and Senegal, belonging to eight species divided over three genera. Knowledge of interaction specificity is important to test the hypothesis that inhabitants (symbionts are taxonomically less diverse than 'exhabitants' (hosts and to test the hypothesis that transmission mode is an important determinant for interaction specificity. Results Analysis of Molecular Variance among symbiont ITS sequences across termite hosts at three hierarchical levels showed that 47 % of the variation occurred between genera, 18 % between species, and the remaining 35 % between colonies within species. Different patterns of specificity were evident. High mutual specificity was found for the single Macrotermes species studied, as M. natalensis was associated with a single unique fungal haplotype. The three species of the genus Odontotermes showed low symbiont specificity: they were all associated with a genetically diverse set of fungal symbionts, but their fungal symbionts showed some host specificity, as none of the fungal haplotypes were shared between the studied Odontotermes species. Finally, bilaterally low specificity was found for the four tentatively recognized species of the genus Microtermes, which shared and apparently freely exchanged a common pool of divergent fungal symbionts. Conclusion Interaction specificity was high at the genus level and generally much lower at the species level. A comparison of the observed diversity among fungal symbionts with the diversity among termite hosts, indicated that the fungal symbiont does not follow the general pattern of an endosymbiont, as we found either similar diversity at both sides or higher diversity in the symbiont. Our results further challenge the

  7. DGGE detection and screening of lignocellulolytic bacteria from the termite gut of Coptotermes formosanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew, G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Termites thrive in terrestrial ecosystems and play an important role in the bio-recycling of lignocellulose. The objective of this study is to isolate and detect bacteria from the termite gut of Coptotermes formosanus and to screen their various enzyme activities by qualitative methods. In addition, this study was aimed to isolate lignin and furfural tolerant strains for various industrial bioprocesses.Methodology and Results: In this study, 50 worker termites of Coptotermes formosanus were collected from dead trees, from a forest in Taichung, Taiwan in June 2008 and the composition of the microbial flora from the termite guts was analyzed by DGGE analysis. The results proved that anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria consisting of Acinetobacter, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Escherichia coli, and Caulobacter readily existed in the guts of termites. Although the majority of these gut symbionts have not yet been cultivated or identified, some related bacteria were isolated. Two isolates 1-8 and 2-2 of Genus Bacillus, exhibited endocellulase, protease, lipase, amylase, peroxidase and lignin peroxidase activity. Under aerobic conditions, the growth density of isolate 1-8 cultured in 1000 ppm lignin containing MSM medium was two-folds higher than cultured in MSM medium without lignin. Furthermore, the isolate 1-8 was tolerant to 20 mM furfural supplemented in the MSM medium. HPLC analysis confirmed Bacillus isolate 1-8 could degrade up to 15 mM furfural.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Hind gut bacteria from C. formosanus were detected by culture independent DGGE method. Also, Bacillus isolates 1-8 and 2-2 obtained by culture dependent methods could withstand higher concentration of furfural and as well as lignin. These isolates may be co-cultured with ethanologenic bacteria and be used as an industrial biocatalyst for biofuel production.

  8. Use of phage battery to investigate the actinofloral layers of termite gut microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtböke, D I; French, J R J

    2007-09-01

    The termite gut microbiota can include a variety of micro-organisms from the three domains: Bacteria, Archaea and Eucarya. The bacterial groups from the gut systems are mainly affiliated to the proteobacteria, the Gram-positive groups Bacterioiodes/Flavobacterium branch and the spirochetes, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. However, culture independent molecular studies have revealed that the majority of these microbial gut symbionts have not yet been cultured, including actinobacterial clusters associated with termite guts. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to selectively isolate the actinofloral layers of gut associated microflora of the Coptotermes lacteus (Froggatt) species located at the Sunshine Coast Region of Queensland, Australia to increase our knowledge on the diversity of actinobacterial taxa present in the termite guts. Actinofloral layers associated with the guts of the wood-eating subterranean termite C. lacteus were investigated by exploiting the phage susceptibility of different gut associated bacteria which impede the growth of actinomycetes on isolation plates. These unwanted microbial taxa were removed by exposing the gut contents to polyvalent bacteriophages specifically targeting different background bacterial taxa and after their removal from the isolation plates previously undetected and novel actinomycetes were successfully cultured from the gut samples. Use of bacteriophages as a means of selective pressure successfully revealed the presence of novel actinomycete species within the guts of C. lacteus. Molecular ecology has undoubtedly revealed the fascinating diversity of micro-organisms, which cannot be cultured. However, these advances in the field still have not provided the ability to detect and isolate micro-organisms effectively from their ecological niches. Accordingly, studies like the one described here have importance in increasing the chances of uncultured taxa to be isolated to complement molecular microbial ecological

  9. EFFECTS OF FIVE DIVERSE LIGNOCELLULOSIC DIETS ON DIGESTIVE ENZYME BIOCHEMISTRY IN THE TERMITE Reticulitermes flavipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Zachary J; Scharf, Michael E

    2015-10-01

    Termites have recently drawn much attention as models for biomass processing, mainly due to their lignocellulose digestion capabilities and mutualisms with cellulolytic gut symbionts. This research used the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes to investigate gut enzyme activity changes in response to feeding on five diverse lignocellulosic diets (cellulose filter paper [FP], pine wood [PW], beech wood xylan [X], corn stover [CS], and soybean residue [SB]). Our objectives were to compare whole-gut digestive enzyme activity and host versus symbiont contributions to enzyme activity after feeding on these diets. Our hypothesis was that enzyme activities would vary among diets as an adaptive mechanism enabling termites and symbiota to optimally utilize variable resources. Results support our "diet-adaptation" hypothesis and further indicate that, in most cases, host contributions are greater than those of symbionts with respect to the enzymes and activities studied. The results obtained thus provide indications as to which types of transcriptomic resources, termite or symbiont, are most relevant for developing recombinant enzyme cocktails tailored to specific feedstocks. With regard to the agricultural feedstocks tested (CS and SB), our results suggest endoglucanase and exoglucanase (cellobiohydrolase) activities are most relevant for CS breakdown; whereas endoglucanase and xylosidase activities are relevant for SB breakdown. However, other unexplored activities than those tested may also be important for breakdown of these two feedstocks. These findings provide new protein-level insights into diet adaptation by termites, and also complement host-symbiont metatranscriptomic studies that have been completed for R. flavipes after FP, PW, CS, and SB feeding. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Apoptosis and autophagy in the midgut epithelium of Acheta domesticus (Insecta, Orthoptera, Gryllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena M; Poprawa, Izabela; Chachulska-Zymełka, Alina

    2010-09-01

    The midgut epithelium of Acheta domesticus (Insecta, Orthoptera, Gryllidae), which is composed of columnar digestive cells and regenerative crypts, degenerates in two manners: necrotic and apoptotic. While necrosis was described in our previous paper, programmed cell death was the aim of the present studies. The first morphological signs of programmed cell death in midgut epithelium cells are alterations in the cytoplasm connected with shrinkage of the cells. Gradual modifications in a cell's structure cause it to be discharged into the midgut lumen, where it disintegrates. Autophagy is involved in the disintegration of organelles. The transitions of apoptotic cells are described at the ultrastructural level. Immunostaining methods were used in order to indicate the early stages of apoptosis when DNA fragmentation, which results from apoptotic signaling cascades, occurs.

  11. Habitat-specific population structure in native western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Insecta, Thysanoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, P C; Frey, J E

    2010-04-01

    Invasions by pest organisms are among the main challenges for sustainable crop protection. They pose a serious threat to crop production by introducing a highly unpredictable element to existing crop protection strategies. The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Insecta, Thysanoptera) managed to invade ornamental greenhouses worldwide within < 25 years. To shed light on possible genetic and/or ecological factors that may have been responsible for this invasion success, we studied the population genetic structure of western flower thrips in its native range in western North America. Analysis of nucleotide sequence variation and variation at microsatellite loci revealed the existence of two habitat-specific phylogenetic lineages (ecotypes) with allopatric distribution. One lineage is associated with hot/dry climates, the second lineage is restricted to cool/moist climates. We speculate that the ecological niche segregation found in this study may be among the key factors determining the invasion potential of western flower thrips.

  12. Enzyme activities at different stages of plant biomass decomposition in three species of fungus-growing termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Costa, Rafael R.; Hu, Haofu; Pilgaard, Bo

    2018-01-01

    contributing to the success of the termites as the main plant decomposers in the Old World. Here we evaluate which plant polymers are decomposed and which enzymes are active during the decomposition process in two major genera of fungus-growing termites. We find a diversity of active enzymes at different......Fungus-growing termites rely on the mutualistic fungus Termitomyces and gut microbes for plant biomass degradation. Due to a certain degree of symbiont complementarity, this tripartite symbiosis has evolved as a complex bioreactor, enabling decomposition of nearly any plant polymer, likely...... stages of decomposition and a consistent decrease in plant components during the decomposition process. Furthermore, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that termites transport enzymes from the older mature parts of the fungus comb through young worker guts to freshly inoculated plant...

  13. Pycnoscelus surinamensis cockroach gut microbiota respond consistently to a fungal diet without mirroring those of fungus-farming termites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callum Richards

    Full Text Available The gut microbiotas of cockroaches and termites play important roles in the symbiotic digestion of dietary components, such as lignocellulose. Diet has been proposed as a primary determinant of community structure within the gut, acting as a selection force to shape the diversity observed within this "bioreactor", and as a key factor for the divergence of the termite gut microbiota from the omnivorous cockroach ancestor. The gut microbiota in most termites supports primarily the breakdown of lignocellulose, but the fungus-farming sub-family of higher termites has become similar in gut microbiota to the ancestral omnivorous cockroaches. To assess the importance of a fungus diet as a driver of community structure, we compare community compositions in the guts of experimentally manipulated Pycnoscelus surinamensis cockroaches fed on fungus cultivated by fungus-farming termites. MiSeq amplicon analysis of gut microbiotas from 49 gut samples showed a step-wise gradient pattern in community similarity that correlated with an increase in the proportion of fungal material provided to the cockroaches. Comparison of the taxonomic composition of manipulated communities to that of gut communities of a fungus-feeding termite species showed that although some bacteria OTUs shared by P. surinamensis and the farming termites increased in the guts of cockroaches on a fungal diet, cockroach communities remained distinct from those of termites. These results demonstrate that a fungal diet can play a role in structuring gut community composition, but at the same time exemplifies how original community compositions constrain the magnitude of such change.

  14. Saccharification of Agricultural Lignocellulose Feedstocks and Protein-Level Responses by a Termite Gut-Microbe Bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajarapu, Swapna Priya; Scharf, Michael E., E-mail: mscharf@purdue.edu [Department of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2017-04-07

    This study investigated saccharification and protein-level responses to the candidate biofuel feedstocks corn stover (CS) and soybean residue (SR) by the gut of a lower termite. The focus termite was Reticulitermes flavipes, which is a highly efficient digester of wood lignocellulose that houses a mixture of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes in its gut. Our specific objectives were to (i) measure saccharification potential of the CS and SR feedstocks by termite gut protein extracts, (ii) identify specific proteins in the termite gut responding to feeding on CS and SR diets, and (iii) evaluate gut lignocellulase and accessory enzyme activity responses to CS and SR feeding. Cellulose paper was the control diet. Although CS was saccharified at higher levels, termite gut protein extracts saccharified both CS and SR irrespective of feedstock loading. Consumption of the CS and SR feedstocks by termites resulted in surprisingly few differences in gut protein profiles, with the main exception being elevated myosin abundance with SR feeding. Activity of potential lignocellulases and accessory enzymes was generally similar between CS and SR fed guts as well; however, cellobiohydrolase/exoglucanase activity was higher with CS feeding and glutathione peroxidase activity with SR feeding. These findings have significance from two perspectives. First, SR feeding/digestion appears to cause physiological stress in the termite gut that likely would extend to other types of microbial environments including those within industrial bioreactors. Second, because termites can survive on exclusive CS and SR diets and their guts exhibit clear CS and SR saccharification activity, this validates the R. flavipes system as a potential source for CS and SR degrading enzymes; in particular, cellobiohydrolases/exoglucanases and glutathione peroxidases from this system may play roles in CS and SR breakdown.

  15. 454 Pyrosequencing-based assessment of bacterial diversity and community structure in termite guts, mounds and surrounding soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makonde, Huxley M; Mwirichia, Romano; Osiemo, Zipporah; Boga, Hamadi I; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Termites constitute part of diverse and economically important termite fauna in Africa, but information on gut microbiota and their associated soil microbiome is still inadequate. In this study, we assessed and compared the bacterial diversity and community structure between termites' gut, their mounds and surrounding soil using the 454 pyrosequencing-based analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. A wood-feeder termite (Microcerotermes sp.), three fungus-cultivating termites (Macrotermes michaelseni, Odontotermes sp. and Microtermes sp.), their associated mounds and corresponding savannah soil samples were analyzed. The pH of the gut homogenates and soil physico-chemical properties were determined. The results indicated significant difference in bacterial community composition and structure between the gut and corresponding soil samples. Soil samples (Chao1 index ranged from 1359 to 2619) had higher species richness than gut samples (Chao1 index ranged from 461 to 1527). The bacterial composition and community structure in the gut of Macrotermes michaelseni and Odontotermes sp. were almost identical but different from that of Microtermes and Microcerotermes species, which had unique community structures. The most predominant bacterial phyla in the gut were Bacteroidetes (40-58 %), Spirochaetes (10-70 %), Firmicutes (17-27 %) and Fibrobacteres (13 %) while in the soil samples were Acidobacteria (28-45 %), Actinobacteria (20-40 %) and Proteobacteria (18-24 %). Some termite gut-specific bacterial lineages belonging to the genera Dysgonomonas, Parabacteroides, Paludibacter, Tannerella, Alistipes, BCf9-17 termite group and Termite Treponema cluster were observed. The results not only demonstrated a high level of bacterial diversity in the gut and surrounding soil environments, but also presence of distinct bacterial communities that are yet to be cultivated. Therefore, combined efforts using both culture and culture-independent methods are suggested to

  16. Intra- and Interspecific Comparisons of Bacterial Diversity and Community Structure Support Coevolution of Gut Microbiota and Termite Host†

    OpenAIRE

    Hongoh, Yuichi; Deevong, Pinsurang; Inoue, Tetsushi; Moriya, Shigeharu; Trakulnaleamsai, Savitr; Ohkuma, Moriya; Vongkaluang, Charunee; Noparatnaraporn, Napavarn; Kudo, Toshiaki

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the bacterial gut microbiota from 32 colonies of wood-feeding termites, comprising four Microcerotermes species (Termitidae) and four Reticulitermes species (Rhinotermitidae), using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and clonal analysis of 16S rRNA. The obtained molecular community profiles were compared statistically between individuals, colonies, locations, and species of termites. Both analyses revealed that the bacterial community structure was rema...

  17. Functional structure of ant and termite assemblages in old growth forest, logged forest and oil palm plantation in Malaysian Borneo

    OpenAIRE

    Luke, Sarah H.; Fayle, Tom M.; Eggleton, Paul; Turner, Edgar C.; Davies, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Forested tropical landscapes around the world are being extensively logged and converted to agriculture, with serious consequences for biodiversity and potentially ecosystem functioning. Here we investigate associations between habitat disturbance and functional diversity of ants and termites – two numerically dominant and functionally important taxa in tropical rain forests that perform key roles in predation, decomposition, nutrient cycling and seed dispersal. We compared ant and termite oc...

  18. Functional traits of trees on and off termite mounds: Understanding the origin of biotically-driven heterogeneity in savannas

    OpenAIRE

    van der Plas, F.; Howison, R.; Reinders, J.; Fokkema, W.; Olff, H.

    2013-01-01

    Questions In African savannas, Macrotermes termites contribute to small-scale heterogeneity by constructing large mounds. Operating as islands of high nutrient and water availability and low fire frequency, these mounds support distinct, diverse communities of trees that have been shown to be highly attractive to browsers. However, the distinct traits of tree species on termite mounds have hardly been studied, even though this may help to understand processes determining (1) their characteris...

  19. Diversity and resilience of the wood?feeding higher termite Mironasutitermes shangchengensis gut microbiota in response to temporal and diet variations

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ying; Su, Lijuan; Huang, Shi; Bo, Cunpei; Yang, Sen; Li, Yan; Wang, Fengqin; Xie, Hui; Xu, Jian; Song, Andong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Termites are considered among the most efficient bioreactors, with high capacities for lignocellulose degradation and utilization. Recently, several studies have characterized the gut microbiota of diverse termites. However, the temporal dynamics of the gut microbiota within a given termite with dietary diversity are poorly understood. Here, we employed 16S rDNA barcoded pyrosequencing analysis to investigate temporal changes in bacterial diversity and richness of the gut microbiota ...

  20. The bacterial gut microbiota of wood- and humus-feeding termites: Diazotrophic populations and compartment-specific response of bacterial communities to environmental factors

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wanyang; Brune, Andreas (Prof. Dr.)

    2018-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the influence of the microenvironment on the symbiosis between higher termites and their intestinal bacteria. The gut environmental factors pH, hydrogen partial pressure, redox potential and nitrogen pool size were measured. Bacterial gut community structure from each highly compartmentalized gut section was investigated. Furthermore, one specific function, nitrogen fixation, was comparatively analyzed in lower termites, higher termites and cockroaches. Hydrogen...

  1. Evaluation of polyphenols-rich natural compounds as treatments to prevent attacks by subterranean and drywood termites: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Maistrello

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the view to find sustainable methods to prevent termite attacks to wooden objects and structural timbers, this study represents a preliminary step in the evaluation of some natural substances considered as effective by some African popular traditions. Dark shea cake, obtained from the kernels of Vitellaria paradoxa (Sapotaceae, is the phase just before the extraction of shea (= karitè butter. In some West African regions, by-products from this extraction are traditionally believed to protect houses from termites. To verify if this practice has scientific basis, shea cake was used in experiments with both subterranean and drywood termites, respectively Reticulitermes lucifugus (Rossi (Rhinotermitidae and Kalotermes flavicollis (Fabricius (Kalotermitidae. As shea nuts are extremely rich in polyphenols, the trials included a comparison with tannins from chestnut (Castanea sativa. Short-term experiments to evaluate repellency and feeding deterrence of the two compounds were performed. Results showed differences in the behavior of the two termites species and that shea cake is significantly more repellent than chestnut tannins, especially for K. flavicollis. No feeding deterrence activity was detected for either substance for either termite species. Further investigation is currently being performed to better clarify how these compounds affect termite biology.

  2. The candidate phylum 'Termite Group 1' of bacteria: phylogenetic diversity, distribution, and endosymbiont members of various gut flagellated protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkuma, Moriya; Sato, Tomoyuki; Noda, Satoko; Ui, Sadaharu; Kudo, Toshiaki; Hongoh, Yuichi

    2007-06-01

    The candidate phylum 'Termite Group 1' (TG1) of bacteria, which is abundant in termite guts but has no culturable representative, was investigated with respect to the in situ localization, distribution, and diversity. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and FISH in termite guts, a number of lineages of TG1 members were identified as endosymbionts of a variety of gut flagellated protists from the orders Trichonymphida, Cristamonadida, and Oxymonadida that are mostly unique to termites. However, the survey in various environments using specific PCR primers revealed that TG1 members were also present in termites, a cockroach, and the bovine rumen that typically lack these protist orders. Most of the TG1 members from gut flagellates, termites, cockroaches, and the rumen formed a monophyletic subcluster that showed a shallow branching pattern in the phylogenetic tree, suggesting their recent diversification. Although endosymbionts of the same protist genera tended to be closely related, the endosymbiont lineages were often independent of the higher level classifications of their host protist and were dispersed in the phylogenetic tree. It appears that their cospeciation is not the sole rule for the diversification of TG1 members of endosymbionts.

  3. RESISTANCE TO THE ATTACK OF DRY-WOOD TERMITES (Cryptotermes brevis OF SIX WOOD SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Gomes Gonçalves

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The dry wood termites are one of the largest causes of damages in wood used in Brazil. This work analyzed the attackof the Cryptotermes brevis in six commercials wood species in the north of the Rio de Janeiro and south of the Espírito Santo. The testobserved the number of holes, the percentage of died individuals and the damage of the pieces. When compared to the Pinus sp(reference, the species with less susceptibility to the attack were Cedrela fissilis, Cariocar brasiliense and Goupia glabra, that alsopresented the largest percentages of mortality of termites. The Schizolobium parahyba, Toona ciliata and the Tachigalia myrmecophyllawere the species with the highest level of damage.

  4. Farming termites determine the genetic population structure of Termitomyces fungal symbionts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nobre, Tânia; Fernandes, Cecília; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2011-01-01

    population structure of Termitomyces fungus gardens across 74 colonies of Macrotermes bellicosus in four west and central African countries. We confirm earlier, more limited, studies showing that the Termitomyces symbionts of M. bellicosus are normally transmitted vertically and clonally by dispersing males....... We also document that the symbionts associated with this termite species belong to three main lineages that do not constitute a monophyletic group. The most common lineage occurs over the entire geographical region that we studied, including west, central and southern Africa, where it is also...... associated with the alternative termite hosts Macrotermes subhyalinus and Macrotermes natalensis. While Termitomyces associated with these alternative hosts are horizontally transmitted and recombine freely, the genetic population structure of the same Termitomyces associated with M. bellicosus is consistent...

  5. Mutual Use of Trail-Following Chemical Cues by a Termite Host and Its Inquiline

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cristaldo, Paulo Fellipe; DeSouza, O.; Krasulová, Jana; Jirošová, Anna; Kutalová, Kateřina; Lima, E. R.; Šobotník, Jan; Sillam-Dusses, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2014), e85315/1-e85315/9 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : inquilinism * trail-following behaviour * termite association * Termitidae * chemical ecology Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014 http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0085315

  6. Physical and Chemical Properties of Some Imported Woods and their Degradation by Termites

    OpenAIRE

    Shanbhag, Rashmi R.; Sundararaj, R.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of physical and chemical properties of 20 species of imported wood on degradation of the wood by termites under field conditions was studied. The wood species studied were: Sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus L. (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) (from two countries), Camphor, Dryobalanops aromatic C.F.Gaertner (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), Beech, Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart (Fagales: Fagaceae), F. sylvatica L. (from two countries), Oak, Quercus robur L., Ash, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl (L...

  7. Measuring system for the study of termite control by a juvenogen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tykva, Richard; Hanus, Robert; Jakůbek, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 9 (2008), s. 1054-1057 ISSN 0263-2241 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/2146; GA ČR GA206/06/1643 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : termite control * laboratory system * normalization * juvenogen distribution Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.662, year: 2008

  8. Asexual queen succession mediates an accelerated colony life cycle in the termite Silvestritermes minutus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fougeyrollas, R.; Křivánek, Jan; Roy, V.; Dolejšová, Klára; Frechault, S.; Roisin, Y.; Hanus, Robert; Sillam-Dusses, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 12 (2017), s. 3295-3308 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12774S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : asexual queen succession * breeding system * life history * parthenogenesis * Silvestritermes minutus * termites Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 6.086, year: 2016

  9. Nonadecadienone, a New Termite Trail-Following Pheromone Identified in Glossotermes oculatus (Serritermitidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanus, Robert; Šobotník, Jan; Krasulová, Jana; Jiroš, Pavel; Žáček, Petr; Kalinová, Blanka; Dolejšová, Klára; Cvačka, Josef; Bourguignon, T.; Roisin, Y.; Lacey, M. J.; Sillam-Dusses, David

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2012), s. 55-63 ISSN 0379-864X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Glossotermes * Serritermitidae * sternal gland * termites * trail-following pheromone * (10Z,13Z)-nonadeca-10,13-dien-2-one Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.222, year: 2012

  10. Treponema isoptericolens sp. nov., a novel spirochaete from the hindgut of the termite Incisitermes tabogae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dröge, Stefan; Rachel, Reinhard; Radek, Renate; König, Helmut

    2008-05-01

    A novel spirochaete, Treponema sp. strain SPIT5T, was isolated from hindgut contents of the drywood termite Incisitermes tabogae (Snyder). The cells of strain SPIT5T were motile, helical in shape, 0.4-0.5 microm in diameter and generally 12-20 microm long. The strain is obligately anaerobic and ferments different mono-, di- and oligosaccharides by forming ethanol as the main liquid fermentation end product. Furthermore, strain SPIT5T was able to grow anaerobically with yeast extract as sole carbon and energy source. Fastest growth was obtained at 30 degrees C, the temperature at which the termites were also grown. The optimum pH for growth was 7.2, with a range of pH 6.5-8.0. The cells possessed various enzyme activities that are involved in the degradation of lignocellulose in the termite hindgut, such as beta-d-glucosidase, alpha-l-arabinosidase and beta-d-xylosidase. The G+C content of the DNA was 47.7 mol%. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain SPIT5T was shown to belong to the so-called 'termite cluster I' of the genus Treponema. The closest relative of strain SPIT5T was Treponema primitia ZAS-2T, with 92.3 % sequence similarity. On the basis of its phenotypic and genotypic properties, strain SPIT5T can be distinguished from other described species of the genus Treponema. Therefore, strain SPIT5T represents a novel species of Treponema, for which the name Treponema isoptericolens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain SPIT5T (=DSM 18056T =JCM 13955T).

  11. Anti-termite activity of essential oil and its components from Myristica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    termite activity test followed the method of (Kang et al. 1990). Samples of 10, 25, and 50 mg of fruit essential oil as well as 1 and 5 mg of each individual compound dissolved in 600 µl of acetone were applied to 1 g filter paper samples (What man #3, 8.5 cm in diam). A piece of filter paper treated with solvent only was used ...

  12. High throughput screening of hydrolytic enzymes from termites using a natural substrate derived from sugarcane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucena Severino A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The description of new hydrolytic enzymes is an important step in the development of techniques which use lignocellulosic materials as a starting point for fuel production. Sugarcane bagasse, which is subjected to pre-treatment, hydrolysis and fermentation for the production of ethanol in several test refineries, is the most promising source of raw material for the production of second generation renewable fuels in Brazil. One problem when screening hydrolytic activities is that the activity against commercial substrates, such as carboxymethylcellulose, does not always correspond to the activity against the natural lignocellulosic material. Besides that, the macroscopic characteristics of the raw material, such as insolubility and heterogeneity, hinder its use for high throughput screenings. Results In this paper, we present the preparation of a colloidal suspension of particles obtained from sugarcane bagasse, with minimal chemical change in the lignocellulosic material, and demonstrate its use for high throughput assays of hydrolases using Brazilian termites as the screened organisms. Conclusions Important differences between the use of the natural substrate and commercial cellulase substrates, such as carboxymethylcellulose or crystalline cellulose, were observed. This suggests that wood feeding termites, in contrast to litter feeding termites, might not be the best source for enzymes that degrade sugarcane biomass.

  13. Synthesis of AzPhchitosan-bifenthrin-PVC to protect cables against termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingkun; Cai, Weiwei; Chen, Wu-Ya; Zhang, Li; Hu, Kaikai; Guan, Yan-Qing

    2016-03-30

    The destruction of PVC cables by termites is a continuing and long-standing problem, which can lead to power leakage and power cut. Given the environmental demerits of insecticide overuse, alternative methods of addressing this problem are a highly desirable goal. In this study, we used photo-immobilization to develop a chitosan carrier system to help bifenthrin immobilize on the surface of the PVC substrate. The immobilization was analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), UV absorption, reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), Raman absorption spectroscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The surface structure and biological activity of the embedded and immobilized bifenthrin were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photon-electron spectroscopy (XPS). Its efficacy was assessed in pest experiments. The results indicate a successful embedding and immobilization of bifenthrin. Furthermore, the chemical bonding network between AzPhchitosan, bifenthrin, and PVC is stable, guaranteeing no environmental release of bifenthrin, and also providing more efficacious protection against termites. The evidence suggests that this photo-immobilization of bifenthrin-embedded chitosan on the surface of PVC substrates is a novel and environmentally friendly technique for termite control. This paper also reports a modification of chitosan with respect to its novel application in environmental protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Caste-Specific and Sex-Specific Expression of Chemoreceptor Genes in a Termite.

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    Yuki Mitaka

    Full Text Available The sophisticated colony organization of eusocial insects is primarily maintained through the utilization of pheromones. The regulation of these complex social interactions requires intricate chemoreception systems. The recent publication of the genome of Zootermopsis nevadensis opened a new avenue to study molecular basis of termite caste systems. Although there has been a growing interest in the termite chemoreception system that regulates their sophisticated caste system, the relationship between division of labor and expression of chemoreceptor genes remains to be explored. Using high-throughput mRNA sequencing (RNA-seq, we found several chemoreceptors that are differentially expressed among castes and between sexes in a subterranean termite Reticulitermes speratus. In total, 53 chemoreception-related genes were annotated, including 22 odorant receptors, 7 gustatory receptors, 12 ionotropic receptors, 9 odorant-binding proteins, and 3 chemosensory proteins. Most of the chemoreception-related genes had caste-related and sex-related expression patterns; in particular, some chemoreception genes showed king-biased or queen-biased expression patterns. Moreover, more than half of the genes showed significant age-dependent differences in their expression in female and/or male reproductives. These results reveal a strong relationship between the evolution of the division of labor and the regulation of chemoreceptor gene expression, thereby demonstrating the chemical communication and underlining chemoreception mechanism in social insects.

  15. Caste-Specific and Sex-Specific Expression of Chemoreceptor Genes in a Termite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitaka, Yuki; Kobayashi, Kazuya; Mikheyev, Alexander; Tin, Mandy M Y; Watanabe, Yutaka; Matsuura, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    The sophisticated colony organization of eusocial insects is primarily maintained through the utilization of pheromones. The regulation of these complex social interactions requires intricate chemoreception systems. The recent publication of the genome of Zootermopsis nevadensis opened a new avenue to study molecular basis of termite caste systems. Although there has been a growing interest in the termite chemoreception system that regulates their sophisticated caste system, the relationship between division of labor and expression of chemoreceptor genes remains to be explored. Using high-throughput mRNA sequencing (RNA-seq), we found several chemoreceptors that are differentially expressed among castes and between sexes in a subterranean termite Reticulitermes speratus. In total, 53 chemoreception-related genes were annotated, including 22 odorant receptors, 7 gustatory receptors, 12 ionotropic receptors, 9 odorant-binding proteins, and 3 chemosensory proteins. Most of the chemoreception-related genes had caste-related and sex-related expression patterns; in particular, some chemoreception genes showed king-biased or queen-biased expression patterns. Moreover, more than half of the genes showed significant age-dependent differences in their expression in female and/or male reproductives. These results reveal a strong relationship between the evolution of the division of labor and the regulation of chemoreceptor gene expression, thereby demonstrating the chemical communication and underlining chemoreception mechanism in social insects.

  16. Sex-specific inhibition and stimulation of worker-reproductive transition in a termite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qian; Haynes, Kenneth F.; Hampton, Jordan D.; Zhou, Xuguo

    2017-10-01

    In social insects, the postembryonic development of individuals exhibits strong phenotypic plasticity in response to the environment, thus generating the caste system. Different from eusocial Hymenoptera, in which queens dominate reproduction and inhibit worker fertility, the primary reproductive caste in termites (kings and queens) can be replaced by neotenic reproductives derived from functionally sterile individuals. Feedback regulation of nestmate differentiation into reproductives has been suggested, but the sex specificity remains inconclusive. In the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes, we tested the hypothesis that neotenic reproductives regulate worker-reproductive transition in a sex-specific manner. With this R. flavipes system, we demonstrate a sex-specific regulatory mechanism with both inhibitory and stimulatory functions. Neotenics inhibit workers of the same sex from differentiating into additional reproductives but stimulate workers of the opposite sex to undergo this transition. Furthermore, this process is not affected by the presence of soldiers. Our results highlight the reproductive plasticity of termites in response to social cues and provide insights into the regulation of reproductive division of labor in a hemimetabolous social insect.

  17. Toxicity of Turmeric Extracts to the Termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raje, Kapil R; Hughes, Gabriel P; Gondhalekar, Ameya D; Ginzel, Matthew D; Scharf, Michael E

    2015-08-01

    Turmeric is an important spice crop with documented human health benefits associated with chemicals called curcuminoids. In this study, the termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) was exposed to different solvent extracts of turmeric to investigate potential termiticidal properties. Treating termites with hexane extracts of purified lab-grade curcuminoids had no effect on termites. However, in continuous exposure assays, the LC(50) for hexane extracts of crude turmeric powder was 9.6 mg, or 1.0 mg starting material per square centimeter of filter paper substrate. These active components were soluble in a range of polar and apolar solvents, but only hexane could selectively fractionate active components away from the inactive curcuminoids. The active constituents of turmeric separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) fluoresced in short-wave UV light but were not visible in long-wave UV light. By re-extracting TLC-separated bands in hexane and performing bioassays and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we demonstrated that termiticidal components of turmeric are extractable as a blend containing mainly ar-turmerone, turmerone, and curlone. This determination is consistent with findings of preceding work by other researchers that investigated insecticidal properties of turmeric in other pest insects. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Ascomycete diversity in soil-feeding termite nests and soils from a tropical rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roose-Amsaleg, Céline; Brygoo, Yves; Harry, Myriam

    2004-05-01

    Molecular microbial ecology has revealed remarkable biodiversity - prokaryotic and eukaryotic - in numerous soil environments. However, no culture-independent surveys of the termitosphere exists, although termites dominate tropical rainforests. Here, we focused on soil feeders, building nests with their soil-born faeces, enriched with clay-organic complexes, thus contributing to the improvement of soil fertility. In order to assess the fungal community composition of these termitaries compared with soils not foraged by termites, samples of the two types were collected in the Lopé rainforest, Gabon, and processed for generation of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) clone libraries. Although primers were universal, most of the recovered sequences represented Ascomycete that were previously uncharacterized and the proportions of which reached 72.5% in soils and 80% in termitaries. Their affiliation with identified fungi was analysed in performing a phylogenetic tree based on 5.8S rDNA. Furthermore, the ascomycete communities of soil-feeding termitaries and soils shared only 6.3% of sequences. This discrepancy of composition between soil and nest may result from the building behaviour of termites, as the organic matter in the nest is chemically modified, and some vacant ecological microniches are available for more specialized fungi.

  19. Development of an ecophysiological model for Diplosphaera colotermitum TAV2, a termite hindgut Verrucomicrobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isanapong, Jantiya; Sealy Hambright, W; Willis, Austin G; Boonmee, Atcha; Callister, Stephen J; Burnum, Kristin E; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Nicora, Carrie D; Wertz, John T; Schmidt, Thomas M; Rodrigues, Jorge Lm

    2013-09-01

    Termite hindguts are populated by a dense and diverse community of microbial symbionts working in concert to transform lignocellulosic plant material and derived residues into acetate, to recycle and fix nitrogen, and to remove oxygen. Although much has been learned about the breadth of microbial diversity in the hindgut, the ecophysiological roles of its members is less understood. In this study, we present new information about the ecophysiology of microorganism Diplosphaera colotermitum strain TAV2, an autochthonous member of the Reticulitermes flavipes gut community. An integrated high-throughput approach was used to determine the transcriptomic and proteomic profiles of cells grown under hypoxia (2% O2) or atmospheric (20% O2) concentrations of oxygen. Our results revealed that genes and proteins associated with energy production and utilization, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, nitrogen fixation, and replication and recombination were upregulated under 2% O2. The metabolic map developed for TAV2 indicates that this microorganism may be involved in biological nitrogen fixation, amino-acid production, hemicellulose degradation and consumption of O2 in the termite hindgut. Variation of O2 concentration explained 55.9% of the variance in proteomic profiles, suggesting an adaptive evolution of TAV2 to the hypoxic periphery of the hindgut. Our findings advance the current understanding of microaerophilic microorganisms in the termite gut and expand our understanding of the ecological roles for members of the phylum Verrucomicrobia.

  20. Development of an ecophysiological model for Diplosphaera colotermitum TAV2, a termite hindgut Verrucomicrobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isanapong, Jantiya; Hambright, Sealy; Willis, Austin G.; Boonmee, Atcha; Callister, Stephen J.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Nicora, Carrie D.; Wertz, John T.; Schmidt, Thomas; Rodrigues, Jorge L.

    2013-09-01

    Termite hindguts are populated by a dense and diverse community of microbial symbionts working in concert to transform lignocellulosic plant material and derived residues into acetate, to recycle and fix nitrogen, and to remove oxygen. Although much has been learned about the breadth of microbial diversity in the hindgut, the ecophysiological roles of its members is less understood. In this study, we present new information about the ecophysiology of microorganism Diplosphaera colotermitum strain TAV2, an autochthonous member of the Reticulitermes flavipes gut community. An integrated high-throughput approach was used to determine the transcriptomic and proteomic profiles of cells grown under hypoxia (2% O2) or atmospheric (20% O2) concentrations of oxygen. Our results revealed that genes and proteins associated with energy production and utilization, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, nitrogen fixation, and replication and recombination were upregulated under 2% O2. The metabolic map developed for TAV2 indicates that this microorganism may be involved in biological nitrogen fixation, amino-acid production, hemicellulose degradation and consumption of O2 in the termite hindgut. Variation of O2 concentration explained 55.9% of the variance in proteomic profiles, suggesting an adaptive evolution of TAV2 to the hypoxic periphery of the hindgut. Our findings advance the current understanding of microaerophilic microorganisms in the termite gut and expand our understanding of the ecological roles for members of the phylum Verrucomicrobia.

  1. Synergistic effect of heartwood extractives and quaternary ammonium compounds on termite resistance of treated wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Won-Joung; Kartal, S Nami; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi; Imamura, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the synergistic effect of wood extractives and quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) on the resistance to termites of several treated wood species. Wood specimens from different natural durability classes were extracted with either hot water alone or hot water + ethanol/benzene. The extracted and unextracted wood specimens were treated with either didecyldimethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (DBF) or commercial didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) solutions and then exposed to subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, for 3 weeks under laboratory conditions. The results showed that extractives of the heartwood portions of the wood species contributed to increased resistance against termite attack in the presence of either DBF or DDAC wood preservatives. The synergistic effect of wood extractives and DBF was much clearer with Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco and Tsuga heterophylla Sarg wood samples. Further studies are needed for a better understanding of the synergism between wood extractives and either DBF or DDAC using both the sapwood and heartwood portions of the same wood species. Copyright (c) 2006 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Comparative Study of the Resistance of Six Hawaii-Grown Bamboo Species to Attack by the Subterranean Termites Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae

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    J. Kenneth Grace

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is widely grown and utilized as a construction material around the world, particularly in the tropics. At present, there are about 70 bamboo species and varieties recorded from Hawaii. The objective of our study was to determine the relative resistance of six Hawaii-grown bamboo species to attack by Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann. Four-week laboratory feeding trials were performed as described in standard E1-09 of the American Wood Protection Association (AWPA 2009. Samples of each of the six bamboo species were individually exposed to 200 termites (with 10% soldiers; and termite mortality, wood mass loss, and visual appearance of the samples (on a scale of 0–10 were recorded at the conclusion of the trail. Mean mass losses of the six species as a result of termite feeding ranged from 13–29%; with the two most resistant bamboo species, Gigantocholoa pseudoarundinacea and Bambusa oldhamii, demonstrating significantly greater resistance to termite attack than the most susceptible bamboo species, Guadua anguistifolia, with both termite species. Dendrocalamus brandisii, Dendrocalamus latiflorus, and Bambusa hirose were intermediate in their termite resistance. Overall, we observed very little difference in wood preference between C. formosanus and C. gestroi. Although bamboo is a very promising construction material, and species clearly differ in their susceptibility to termite attack, all six species evaluated in the present study would require additional protection for use under conditions of high termite pressure.

  3. On edge-aware path-based color spatial sampling for Retinex: from Termite Retinex to Light Energy-driven Termite Retinex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Gabriele; Cordone, Roberto; Serapioni, Raul Paolo; Lecca, Michela

    2017-05-01

    Retinex theory estimates the human color sensation at any observed point by correcting its color based on the spatial arrangement of the colors in proximate regions. We revise two recent path-based, edge-aware Retinex implementations: Termite Retinex (TR) and Energy-driven Termite Retinex (ETR). As the original Retinex implementation, TR and ETR scan the neighborhood of any image pixel by paths and rescale their chromatic intensities by intensity levels computed by reworking the colors of the pixels on the paths. Our interest in TR and ETR is due to their unique, content-based scanning scheme, which uses the image edges to define the paths and exploits a swarm intelligence model for guiding the spatial exploration of the image. The exploration scheme of ETR has been showed to be particularly effective: its paths are local minima of an energy functional, designed to favor the sampling of image pixels highly relevant to color sensation. Nevertheless, since its computational complexity makes ETR poorly practicable, here we present a light version of it, named Light Energy-driven TR, and obtained from ETR by implementing a modified, optimized minimization procedure and by exploiting parallel computing.

  4. Insetos (Arthropoda, Insecta) em inflorescências de Heliconia bihai (L.) L. (Heliconiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    THAIS RANIELLE SOUZA DE OLIVEIRA; DANYELLY CRYSTYNE DE ARAÚJO SENA; VIVIAN LOGES; CLAUDIO AUGUSTO GOMES DA CAMARA; ALEUNY COUTINHO REIS

    2010-01-01

    As espécies do gênero Heliconia L. (Heliconiaceae) se destacam por apresentar inflorescências eretas ou pendentes, muito apreciadas por sua beleza. São muito utilizadas no paisagismo, uma vez que exigem pouca manutenção e são adequadas para uso em vasos ou em canteiros. No entanto, vários grupos de insetos (Arthropoda, Insecta) estão associados à Heliconia, tais como besouros (Coleoptera), formigas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), pulgões (Hemiptera, Aphidoidea) e cochonilhas (Hemiptera, Coccoide...

  5. Treatment of black-tailed prairie dog burrows with deltamethrin to control fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) and plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seery, D.B.; Biggins, D.E.; Montenieri, J.A.; Enscore, R.E.; Tanda, D.T.; Gage, K.L.

    2003-01-01

    Burrows within black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado, were dusted with deltamethrin insecticide to reduce flea (Insecta: Siphonaptera) abundance. Flea populations were monitored pre- and posttreatment by combing prairie dogs and collecting fleas from burrows. A single application of deltamethrin significantly reduced populations of the plague vector Oropsylla hirsuta, and other flea species on prairie dogs and in prairie dog burrows for at least 84 d. A plague epizootic on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge caused high mortality of prairie dogs on some untreated colonies, but did not appear to affect nearby colonies dusted with deltamethrin.

  6. Advanced biorefinery in lower termite-effect of combined pretreatment during the chewing process

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    Ke Jing

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently the major barrier in biomass utilization is the lack of an effective pretreatment of plant cell wall so that the carbohydrates can subsequently be hydrolyzed into sugars for fermentation into fuel or chemical molecules. Termites are highly effective in degrading lignocellulosics and thus can be used as model biological systems for studying plant cell wall degradation. Results We discovered a combination of specific structural and compositional modification of the lignin framework and partial degradation of carbohydrates that occurs in softwood with physical chewing by the termite, Coptotermes formosanus, which are critical for efficient cell wall digestion. Comparative studies on the termite-chewed and native (control softwood tissues at the same size were conducted with the aid of advanced analytical techniques such as pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. The results strongly suggest a significant increase in the softwood cellulose enzymatic digestibility after termite chewing, accompanied with utilization of holocellulosic counterparts and an increase in the hydrolysable capacity of lignin collectively. In other words, the termite mechanical chewing process combines with specific biological pretreatment on the lignin counterpart in the plant cell wall, resulting in increased enzymatic cellulose digestibility in vitro. The specific lignin unlocking mechanism at this chewing stage comprises mainly of the cleavage of specific bonds from the lignin network and the modification and redistribution of functional groups in the resulting chewed plant tissue, which better expose the carbohydrate within the plant cell wall. Moreover, cleavage of the bond between the holocellulosic network and lignin molecule during the chewing process results in much better exposure of the biomass carbohydrate. Conclusion Collectively, these

  7. Effects of Erosion from Mounds of Different Termite Genera on Distinct Functional Grassland Types in an African Savannah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Cleo M; Cromsigt, Joris P G M; Mpanza, Nokukhanya; Olff, Han

    A key aspect of savannah vegetation heterogeneity is mosaics formed by two functional grassland types, bunch grasslands, and grazing lawns. We investigated the role of termites, important ecosystem engineers, in creating high-nutrient patches in the form of grazing lawns. Some of the ways termites can contribute to grazing lawn development is through erosion of soil from aboveground mounds to the surrounding soil surface. This may alter the nutrient status of the surrounding soils. We hypothesize that the importance of this erosion varies with termite genera, depending on feeding strategy and mound type. To test this, we simulated erosion by applying mound soil from three termite genera ( Macrotermes , Odontotermes , and Trinervitermes ) in both a field experiment and a greenhouse experiment. In the greenhouse experiment, we found soils with the highest macro nutrient levels (formed by Trinervitermes ) promoted the quality and biomass of both a lawn ( Digitaria longiflora ) and a bunch ( Sporobolus pyramidalis ) grass species. In the field we found that soils with the highest micro nutrient levels (formed by Macrotermes ) showed the largest increase in cover of grazing lawn species. By linking the different nutrient availability of the mounds to the development of different grassland states, we conclude that the presence of termite mounds influences grassland mosaics, but that the type of mound plays a crucial role in determining the nature of the effects.

  8. Dynamic environments of fungus-farming termite mounds exert growth-modulating effects on fungal crop parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katariya, Lakshya; Ramesh, Priya B; Borges, Renee M

    2017-12-13

    This study investigated for the first time the impact of the internal mound environment of fungus-growing termites on the growth of fungal crop parasites. Mounds of the termite Odontotermes obesus acted as (i) temperature and relative humidity (RH) 'stabilisers' showing dampened daily variation and (ii) 'extreme environments' exhibiting elevated RH and CO 2 levels, compared to the outside. Yet, internal temperatures exhibited seasonal dynamics as did daily and seasonal CO 2 levels. During in situ experiments under termite-excluded conditions within the mound, the growth of the crop parasite Pseudoxylaria was greater inside than outside the mound, i.e., Pseudoxylaria is 'termitariophilic'. Also, ex situ experiments on parasite isolates differing in growth rates and examined under controlled conditions in the absence of termites revealed a variable effect with fungal growth decreasing only under high CO 2 and low temperature conditions, reflecting the in situ parasite growth fluctuations. In essence, the parasite appears to be adapted to survive in the termite mound. Thus the mound microclimate does not inhibit the parasite but the dynamic environmental conditions of the mound affect its growth to varying extents. These results shed light on the impact of animal-engineered structures on parasite ecology, independent of any direct role of animal engineers. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Do epigeal termite mounds increase the diversity of plant habitats in a tropical rain forest in peninsular Malaysia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudrot, Lydia; Du, Yanjun; Rahman Kassim, Abdul; Rejmánek, Marcel; Harrison, Rhett D

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which environmental heterogeneity can account for tree species coexistence in diverse ecosystems, such as tropical rainforests, is hotly debated, although the importance of spatial variability in contributing to species co-existence is well recognized. Termites contribute to the micro-topographical and nutrient spatial heterogeneity of tropical forests. We therefore investigated whether epigeal termite mounds could contribute to the coexistence of plant species within a 50 ha plot at Pasoh Forest Reserve, Malaysia. Overall, stem density was significantly higher on mounds than in their immediate surroundings, but tree species diversity was significantly lower. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that location on or off mounds significantly influenced species distribution when stems were characterized by basal area. Like studies of termite mounds in other ecosystems, our results suggest that epigeal termite mounds provide a specific microhabitat for the enhanced growth and survival of certain species in these species-rich tropical forests. However, the extent to which epigeal termite mounds facilitate species coexistence warrants further investigation.

  10. Do epigeal termite mounds increase the diversity of plant habitats in a tropical rain forest in peninsular Malaysia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Beaudrot

    Full Text Available The extent to which environmental heterogeneity can account for tree species coexistence in diverse ecosystems, such as tropical rainforests, is hotly debated, although the importance of spatial variability in contributing to species co-existence is well recognized. Termites contribute to the micro-topographical and nutrient spatial heterogeneity of tropical forests. We therefore investigated whether epigeal termite mounds could contribute to the coexistence of plant species within a 50 ha plot at Pasoh Forest Reserve, Malaysia. Overall, stem density was significantly higher on mounds than in their immediate surroundings, but tree species diversity was significantly lower. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that location on or off mounds significantly influenced species distribution when stems were characterized by basal area. Like studies of termite mounds in other ecosystems, our results suggest that epigeal termite mounds provide a specific microhabitat for the enhanced growth and survival of certain species in these species-rich tropical forests. However, the extent to which epigeal termite mounds facilitate species coexistence warrants further investigation.

  11. Cloning and purification of the first termicin-like peptide from the cockroach Eupolyphaga sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zichao; Yuan, Kehua; Zhang, Ruopeng; Ren, Xuchen; Liu, Xiaolong; Zhao, Shuhua; Wang, Dingkang

    2016-01-01

    Termicin is an antimicrobial peptide with six cysteines forming three disulfide bridges that was firstly isolated from the salivary glands and hemocytes of the termite Pseudacanthotermes spiniger. In contrast to many broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides, termicin is most active against filamentous fungi. Although more than one hundred complementary DNAs (cDNAs) encoding termicin-like peptides have been reported to date, all these termicin-like peptides were obtained from Isoptera insects. The cDNA was cloned by combination of cDNA library construction kit and DNA sequencing. The polypeptide was purified by gel filtration and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Its amino acid sequence was determined by Edman degradation and mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial activity was tested against several bacterial and fungal strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by microdilution tests. A novel termicin-like peptide with primary structure ACDFQQCWVTCQRQYSINFISARCNGDSCVCTFRT was purified from extracts of the cockroach Eupolyphaga sinensis (Insecta: Blattodea). The cDNA encoding Es-termicin was cloned by cDNA library screening. This cDNA encoded a 60 amino acid precursor which included a 25 amino acid signal peptide. Amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA matched well with the result of protein Edman degradation. Susceptibility test indicated that Es-termicin showed strong ability to kill fungi with a MIC of 25 μg/mL against Candida albicans ATCC 90028. It only showed limited potency to affect the growth of Gram-positive bacteria with a MIC of 200 μg/mL against Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. It was inactive against gram-negative bacteria at the highest concentration tested (400 μg/mL). Es-termicin showed high sequence similarity with termicins from many species of termites (Insecta: Isoptera). This is the first report of a termicin-like peptide isolated from E. sinensis that belongs to the insect order Blattodea

  12. Pupal development and pigmentation process of a polka-dotted fruit fly, Drosophila guttifera (Insecta, Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutomi, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Keiji; Agata, Kiyokazu; Funayama, Noriko; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki

    2017-06-01

    Various organisms have color patterns on their body surfaces, and these color patterns are thought to contribute to physiological regulation, communication with conspecifics, and signaling with the environment. An adult fly of Drosophila guttifera (Insecta: Diptera: Drosophilidae) has melanin pigmentation patterns on its body and wings. Though D. guttifera has been used for research into color pattern formation, how its pupal development proceeds and when the pigmentation starts have not been well studied. In this study, we defined the pupal stages of D. guttifera and measured the pigment content of wing spots from the pupal period to the period after eclosion. Using a transgenic line which carries eGFP connected with an enhancer of yellow, a gene necessary for melanin synthesis, we analyzed the timing at which the yellow enhancer starts to drive eGFP. We also analyzed the distribution of Yellow-producing cells, as indicated by the expression of eGFP during pupal and young adult periods. The results suggested that Yellow-producing cells were removed from wings within 3 h after eclosion, and wing pigmentation continued without epithelial cells. Furthermore, the results of vein cutting experiments showed that the transport of melanin precursors through veins was necessary for wing pigmentation. These results showed the importance of melanin precursors transported through veins and of extracellular factors which were secreted from epithelial cells and left in the cuticle.

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of the navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zheng; Shen, Qing-Qing

    2016-11-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was assembled from Illumina sequencing reads (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). The genome is a double-stranded circular molecule of 15 205 bp, comprising 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), and one control region. All PCGs are initiated with ATN codons, except for COX1 with the putative CGA initiation codon. Six PCGs (COX1, COX2, CYTB, ND2, ND3, and ND4) harbor an incomplete termination codon T, while all the others are terminated with TAA (ATP6, ATP8, COX3, ND1, ND4, and ND6) or TAG (ND4L). The base composition is highly biased (37.9% A, 12.6% C, 7.8% G, and 41.7% T) with an overall A + T content of 79.6%. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that A. transitella is more phylogenetically related to its confamilial counterparts than to those from the family Crabidae.

  14. Zoogeographic distribution and habitat preferences of Orthoptera species (Insecta from Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupu Gabriel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Arthropods belonging to the class Insecta, Orthoptera species, develop a variety of preferences towards the type of habitat impressive for most of the time. They inhabit the majority of latitudinal (from the equator to the Polar Regions near and altitudinal (from the dry areas below sea level and up to the alpine region biotopes. On the other hand, the species of Orthoptera are very diversified in terms of geographical spread, with all major types of distribution – from the endemic forms, characteristic only of a certain areas (exp.: Isophya dobrogensis until holopalearctic forms with a wide spread across Europe, North Africa and Asia, Palearctic (Gryllus campestris,Tettigonia viridissima, Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa, Tetrix tenuicornis, Calliptamus italicus, Oedipoda caerulescens, Aiolopus thalassinus, Chorthippus brunneus etc.. The Romanian ortopterofauna it was classified in 5 principal classes, each from these containing from 2 to 5 types of near zoogeographic elements: Palearctic, European, central-Asiatic-European, Mediterranean, and Carpatic elements. The classification is based on the fundamental types of distribution, group items from the biogeographic macrozoning of Europe, most of the time, however, taking into account the areas of interference of biogeographic place. Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve territory characterized by the presence of a single endemic species (Isophya dobrogensis on Popina Island constitute an impressive reservoir of spontaneous genetic resources for an area with a relatively small surface area,Orthoptera species with widespread (at national level in some cases finding here favorable conditions for the manifestation of the presence.

  15. Brochosomal coats turn leafhopper (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) integument to superhydrophobic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2013-02-07

    Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with brochosomes, hollow proteinaceous spheres of usually 200-700 nm in diameter, with honeycombed walls. The coats have been previously suggested to act as a water-repellent and anti-adhesive protective barrier against the insect's own exudates. We estimated their wettability through contact angle (CA) measurements of water, diiodomethane, ethylene glycol and ethanol on detached wings of the leafhoppers Alnetoidia alneti, Athysanus argentarius and Cicadella viridis. Intact brochosome-coated integuments were repellent to all test liquids, except ethanol, and exhibited superhydrophobicity, with the average water CAs of 165-172°, and the apparent surface free energy (SFE) estimates not exceeding 0.74 mN m(-1). By contrast, the integuments from which brochosomes were removed with a peeling technique using fluid polyvinylsiloxane displayed water CAs of only 103-129° and SFEs above 20 mN m(-1). Observations of water-sprayed wings in a cryo-scanning electron microscope confirmed that brochosomal coats prevented water from contacting the integument. Their superhydrophobic properties appear to result from fractal roughness, which dramatically reduces the area of contact with high-surface-tension liquids, including, presumably, leafhopper exudates.

  16. Checklist of butterfly (Insecta: Lepidoptera fauna of Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

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    Farzana Khan Perveen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies (Insecta: Lepidopteraare well known insects, play an important role in the ecosystem as bioindicators and pollinators. They have bright colours, remarkable shapes and supple flight. The present study was conducted to prepare the checklist of butterfly fauna of Tehsil Tangi during August, 2014 to May, 2015. A total of 506 specimens were collected belong to 3 families with 18 genera and 23 species. The collected species are the common or lemon emigrant, Catopsila ponoma Fabricius; mottled emigrant, Catopsilia pyranthe Linnaeus; clouded yellow, Colias fieldii Fabricius; common grass yellow, Eurema hecabe Linnaeus; eastern pale clouded yellow butterfly, Colias erate Esper; Indian cabbage white, Pieris canidia Sparrman; Indian little orange tip, Colotis etrida Boisduval; pioneer white or African caper white, Belonias aurota Fabricius; plain tiger, Danaua chrysippus Linnaeus; blue tiger, Tirumala liminniace Cramer; peacock pansy, Junonia almanac Linnaeus; Indian fritillary, Argyreus hyperbius Linnaeus; Indian red admiral, Venesa indica Herbst; yellow pansy, Junonia hierta Fabricius; blue pansy, Junonia orytha Linnaeus; white edged rock brown, Hipparchia parisatis Kollar; banded tree brwon, Lethe confuse Aurivillius; common castor, Ariadne merione Cramer; painted lady, Caynthia cardui Linnaeus; Himalayan sailer, Neptis mahendra Moore; common boran, Euthalia garuda Hewitson; lime butterfly, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus and great black mormon butterfly, Papilio polytes Linnaeus. It was concluded that the family Nymphalidae has the highest numbers of individuals in the present checklist. It is recommended that butterfly fauna of the study area should be conserved and their habitat should be protected.

  17. Conservation of mayflies (Insecta, Ephemeroptera in Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil

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    Fabiana Criste Massariol

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of mayflies (Insecta, Ephemeroptera in Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Ephemeroptera exhibits great diversity among bodies of freshwater in the Atlantic Forest, a biome that is suffering from massive human impact. Within this context, the creation of conservation units using biological information is more recommended than economic, cultural, or political criteria. The distribution pattern of 76 Ephemeroptera species was analyzed using the biogeographical methods Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity and Network Analysis Method in order to infer relevant areas for conservation of the mayfly community in Espírito Santo. The results obtained from both analyses were largely congruent, and pointed out four relevant areas for conservation: two in the south of the state, where conservation units or priority areas for conservation are well established; and two in the north, a region in the state where little conservation efforts have been historically done. Therefore, based on our analyses on mayflies, we recommend the expansion of the existing APCs or the creation of new APCs on the north of Espírito Santo.

  18. Comparison of the Bacterial Symbiont Composition of the Formosan Subterranean Termite from its Native and Introduced Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husseneder, Claudia; Ho, Huei-Yang; Blackwell, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the bacterial composition in the gut of Formosan subterranean termites (FST), Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, collected from southern China (native range) vs. Louisiana, U. S. (introduced range) using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Overall, we identified 213 bacteria ribotypes from thirteen phyla. The enemy release hypothesis could not be invoked to explain invasion success of FST since no pathogens were found among the bacterial gut community regardless of geographic origin. Invasion of new habitats did not significantly change the bacteria composition. Apparently, the tight co-evolutionary link between termites and their gut flora maintains a certain association of species and functional groups. Ribotype richness, bacteria diversity, and proportions of detected phyla were not influenced by geographic origin of FST samples; however, these parameters were affected by storage of the samples. Ethanol storage of termite samples (5 yrs) increased the relative proportions of gram-positive bacteria versus gram-negative bacteria. PMID:21347207

  19. Bacterial communities in termite fungus combs are comprised of consistent gut deposits and contributions from the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Saria; Hansen, Lars H; Sørensen, Søren J; Poulsen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Fungus-growing termites (subfamily Macrotermitinae) mix plant forage with asexual spores of their plant-degrading fungal symbiont Termitomyces in their guts and deposit this blend in fungus comb structures, within which the plant matter is degraded. As Termitomyces grows, it produces nodules with asexual spores, which the termites feed on. Since all comb material passes through termite guts, it is inevitable that gut bacteria are also deposited in the comb, but it has remained unknown which bacteria are deposited and whether distinct comb bacterial communities are sustained. Using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we explored the bacterial community compositions of 33 fungus comb samples from four termite species (three genera) collected at four South African geographic locations in 2011 and 2013. We identified 33 bacterial phyla, with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Candidate division TM7 jointly accounting for 92 % of the reads. Analyses of gut microbiotas from 25 of the 33 colonies showed that dominant fungus comb taxa originate from the termite gut. While gut communities were consistent between 2011 and 2013, comb community compositions shifted over time. These shifts did not appear to be due to changes in the taxa present, but rather due to differences in the relative abundances of primarily gut-derived bacteria within fungus combs. This indicates that fungus comb microbiotas are largely termite species-specific due to major contributions from gut deposits and also that environment affects which gut bacteria dominate comb communities at a given point in time.

  20. Phylogenetic Diversity and Single-Cell Genome Analysis of "Melainabacteria", a Non-Photosynthetic Cyanobacterial Group, in the Termite Gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, Yuniar Devi; Kuwahara, Hirokazu; Murakami, Takumi; Morikawa, Takahiro; Sugaya, Kaito; Kihara, Kumiko; Yuki, Masahiro; Lo, Nathan; Deevong, Pinsurang; Hasin, Sasitorn; Boonriam, Warin; Inoue, Tetsushi; Yamada, Akinori; Ohkuma, Moriya; Hongoh, Yuichi

    2018-03-29

    Termite guts harbor diverse yet-uncultured bacteria, including a non-photosynthetic cyanobacterial group, the class "Melainabacteria". We herein reported the phylogenetic diversity of "Melainabacteria" in the guts of diverse termites and conducted a single-cell genome analysis of a melainabacterium obtained from the gut of the termite Termes propinquus. We performed amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from the guts of 60 termite and eight cockroach species, and detected melainabacterial sequences in 48 out of the 68 insect species, albeit with low abundances (0.02-1.90%). Most of the melainabacterial sequences obtained were assigned to the order "Gastranaerophilales" and appeared to form clusters unique to termites and cockroaches. A single-cell genome of a melainabacterium, designated phylotype Tpq-Mel-01, was obtained using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter and whole genome amplification. The genome shared basic features with other melainabacterial genomes previously reconstructed from the metagenomes of human and koala feces. The bacterium had a small genome (~1.6 Mb) and possessed fermentative pathways possibly using sugars and chitobiose as carbon and energy sources, while the pathways for photosynthesis and carbon fixation were not found. The genome contained genes for flagellar components and chemotaxis; therefore, the bacterium is likely motile. A fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed that the cells of Tpq-Mel-01 and/or its close relatives are short rods with the dimensions of 1.1±0.2 μm by 0.5±0.1 μm; for these bacteria, we propose the novel species, "Candidatus Gastranaerophilus termiticola". Our results provide fundamental information on "Melainabacteria" in the termite gut and expand our knowledge on this underrepresented, non-photosynthetic cyanobacterial group.

  1. Termites create spatial structure and govern ecosystem function by affecting N2 fixation in an East African savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Dobbs, Kena; Doak, Daniel F; Brody, Alison K; Palmer, Todd M

    2010-05-01

    The mechanisms by which even the clearest of keystone or dominant species exert community-wide effects are only partially understood in most ecosystems. This is especially true when a species or guild influences community-wide interactions via changes in the abiotic landscape. Using stable isotope analyses, we show that subterranean termites in an East African savanna strongly influence a key ecosystem process: atmospheric nitrogen fixation by a monodominant tree species and its bacterial symbionts. Specifically, we applied the 15N natural abundance method in combination with other biogeochemical analyses to assess levels of nitrogen fixation by Acacia drepanolobium and its effects on co-occurring grasses and forbs in areas near and far from mounds and where ungulates were or were not excluded. We find that termites exert far stronger effects than do herbivores on nitrogen fixation. The percentage of nitrogen derived from fixation in Acacia drepanolobium trees is higher (55-80%) away from mounds vs. near mounds (40-50%). Mound soils have higher levels of plant available nitrogen, and Acacia drepanolobium may preferentially utilize soil-based nitrogen sources in lieu of fixed nitrogen when these sources are readily available near termite mounds. At the scale of the landscape, our models predict that termite/soil derived nitrogen sources influence >50% of the Acacia drepanolobium trees in our system. Further, the spatial extent of these effects combine with the spacing of termite mounds to create highly regular patterning in nitrogen fixation rates, resulting in marked habitat heterogeneity in an otherwise uniform landscape. In summary, we show that termite-associated effects on nitrogen processes are not only stronger than those of more apparent large herbivores in the same system, but also occur in a highly regular spatial pattern, potentially adding to their importance as drivers of community and ecosystem structure.

  2. Nuevos Zygoptera y Anisoptera (Insecta: Odonata en el Cretácico inferior de España

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    Martínez-Delclos, X.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of sorne new Cretaceous insects found in the lithographic limestones outcrops of Spain has led to the recognition of three new forms of odonates (Insecta, üdonata. Nymphs of Zygoptera of the type-genus Samarura have been found, which have alredy been recognized in other outcrops in the world. Hoyaeshna cretacica n.gen. and n.sp. (Aeshnidae, Gomphaeshninae is described. This new species presents a psScP vein which begins in the nodus and follows partially the postnodal field, replacing the path that in sorne odonate groups the ScP vein realizes, as for example, in the Zygoptera Sieblosidae and in the Anisoptera Aeschnidiidae.El estudio de nuevos insectos cretácicos hallados en los yacimientos de calizas litográficas españoles ha dado como resultado el reconocimiento de tres nuevas formas de odonatos (Insecta, Odonata. Se han encontrado larvas de Zygoptera del género-tipo Samarura, ya reconocidas en otros yacimientos mundiales, y larvas de anisópteros Libelluloidea en los yacimientos mesozoicos españoles. Se describe Hoyaeshna cretacica n. gen y n. sp. (Aeshnidae Gomphaeschninae. Esta nueva especie presenta una vena psScP que nace en el nodo y recorre parcialmente el campo postnodal supliendo el recorrido que en algunos grupos de odonatos realiza la ScP, por ejemplo, en los Zygoptera Sieblosidae y en los Anisoptera Aeschnidiidae.

  3. Hymenopteran parasitoids associated with the banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae in Java, Indonesia

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    ERNIWATI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Erniwati, Ubaidillah R (2011 Hymenopteran parasitoids associated with the banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae in Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 12: 76-85. Hymenopteran parasitoids of banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae from Java, Indonesia are reviewed and an illustrated key to 12 species is presented to include Theronia zebra zebra, Xanthopimpla gamsura, Casinaria sp., Charops sp., Cotesia (Apanteles erionotae, Brachymeria lasus, B. thracis, Ooencyrtus pallidipes, Anastatus sp., Pediobius erionotae, Agiommatus sumatraensis and Sympiesis sp. The surveys of the natural enemies of the banana-skipper were conducted in 1990-2006 in several localities in Java. The aim of this study was to assess the native natural enemies of E. thrax, especially the parasitic Hymenoptera. Infested eggs, larvae and pupae of E. thrax were collected and reared in the laboratory. Emerging parasitoids were preserved in both dry mounting and in 80% alcohol for the species identification. Members of families Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, Encyrtidae, Pteromalidae, Chalcididae, Eupelmidae and Eulophidae were recorded as parasitoids of the banana skipper E. thrax from Java, Indonesia. Species distribution and alternative hosts of the parasitoids are presented.

  4. Bacterial communities in termite fungus combs are comprised of consistent gut deposits and contributions from the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otani, Saria; Hansen, Lars H.; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2016-01-01

    -throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we explored the bacterial community compositions of 33 fungus comb samples from four termite species (three genera) collected at four South African geographic locations in 2011 and 2013. We identified 33 bacterial phyla, with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria......, Actinobacteria, and Candidate division TM7 jointly accounting for 92 % of the reads. Analyses of gut microbiotas from 25 of the 33 colonies showed that dominant fungus comb taxa originate from the termite gut. While gut communities were consistent between 2011 and 2013, comb community compositions shifted over...

  5. Catalogue of type specimens of the Collection of Invertebrates of Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brazil. III. Hexapoda: Isoptera, Mantodea, Mecoptera, Orthoptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Zoraptera Catálogo dos espécimes-tipo de invertebrados da coleção do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brasil. III. Hexapoda: Isoptera, Mantodea, Mecoptera, Orthoptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera e Zoraptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moacir Ferreira Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A catalogue of the type specimens of Isoptera, Mantodea, Mecoptera, Orthoptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, and Zoraptera deposited in the Invertebrate Collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Brazil, is presented and updated to December, 2007. A total of eight holotypes and seven lots of paratypes of nine species of Isoptera; three holotypes and one paratype of three species of Mantodea; five holotypes and five lots of paratypes of five species of Mecoptera; eight holotypes and five lots of paratypes of eleven species of Orthoptera; three holotypes, three neotypes and two lots of paratypes of seven species of Plecoptera; six holotypes and seven lots of paratypes of ten species of Trichoptera; and two holotypes and three lots of paratypes of three species of Zoraptera, are listed. Specific names are listed alphabetically within the family, followed by bibliographic citation, original genus name, status of type, collection number, locality data and remarks when appropriate.É apresentado o catálogo dos espécimes-tipo de Isoptera, Mantodea, Orthoptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera e Zoraptera depositados na Coleção de Invertebrados do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Brasil, atualizado até dezembro de 2007. É relacionado um total de sete holótipos e sete lotes de parátipos de nove espécies de Isoptera; três holótipos e um parátipo de três espécies de Mantodea; cinco holótipos e cinco lotes de parátipos de cinco espécies de Mecoptera; oito holótipos e cinco lotes de parátipos de 11 espécies de Orthoptera; três holótipos, três neótipos e dois lotes de parátipos de sete espécies de Plecoptera; seis holótipos e sete lotes de parátipos de dez espécies de Trichoptera; e dois holótipos e três lotes de parátipos de três espécies de Zoraptera. São listados alfabeticamente em cada família os nomes das espécies, seguidos da citação bibliográfica, nome original do

  6. THE RESISTANCE OF WOOD PLASTIC COMPOSITE TO THE DRY-WOOD TERMITE Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light. AND THE SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren INFESTATION

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    Jasni Jasni

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Wood  plastic  composites   (WPC were made  by impregnating  monomer   and  vinyl acetate monomer  with addition  of  terbutyl peroxide  catalyst. This laboratory  scale experiment  aimed at looking into  the durability of  WPC polymerized  at varying mixture  ratios between  styrene and vinyl acetate monomers,  compared  to the natural   durability of  the corresponding   wood  treated with impralit CKB.  In this  regard,  wood  samples were dried until 10 % moisture  content,   and then  they were put in the tank under  20 mm Hg vacuum was being released.   Styrene  monomer with vinyl acetate  addition was flown to the tank, and the wood  samples were immersed  in the monomer   for  24 hours.   Furthermore,   the wood  samples  were taken  out,  and  wrapped  with aluminum  foil, and then were   put in the oven for 24 hours at 60° C. The  wraps were opened, and the samples were  conditioned.   The  samples were tested  to dry wood  termite  (Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light.,  and the Subterranean  termite (Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren..  Investigated factors were (i wood species consisting of sengon, pine, and rubber wood, and (ii ratio of styrene to vinyl acetate. i.e.  90/10;  80/20;  70/30;  and 60/40.   For comparison,  each wood samples  treated with  Impralit  CKB  3% and untreated   (unpolymerized    wood  samples  (a control  were  also prepared.  The  results showed  that polymer  loadings  in the  sengon, pine and rubber  wood were 118 %, 72 % and  44%  respectively. Increasing  of  vinyl acetate  to styrene  tended  to decrease polymer loading,  the addition  of  10% gave 96% polymer  loading,  20% gave 108%,  30% gave 71 %, and 30% gave 38 % respectively.  It appeared that treatment  of styrene with low vinyl acetate additions  (60:40 had resulted  in consecutively  95.67%  and 97.75 % mortality  of  the dry

  7. Termites as a factor of spatial differentiation of CO2 fluxes from the soils of monsoon tropical forests in Southern Vietnam

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    Lopes de Gerenyu, Valentin; Anichkin, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Termites play the key role in biogeochemical transformation of organic matter acting as "moderators" of fluxes of carbon and other nutrients. They destroy not only leave litter but also coarse woody debris. Termites translocate considerable masses of dead organic materials into their houses, which leads to significant accumulations of organic matter in termite mounds. We studied the impact of termite mounds on redistribution of CO2 fluxes from soils in semi-deciduous monsoon tropical forests of southern Vietnam. Field study was performed in the Cat Tien National Park (11°21'-11°48'N, 107°10'-107°34'E). The spatial and temporary dynamics of CO2 fluxes from soils (Andosols) populated by termites were studied in plain lagerstroemia (Lagerstroemia calyculata Kurz) monsoon tropical forests. The rate of CO2 emission from the soil surface was measured by closed chamber method two-three times per month from November 2010 to December 2011. Permanent cylindrical PVC chambers (9 cm in diameter and 15 cm in height) were installed beyond the areas occupied by termite mounds (5 replications). Litter was not removed from the soil surface before the measurements. To estimate the spatial heterogeneity of the CO2 emission fluxes from soils populated by termites, a special 'termite' plot (TerPl) was equipped. It was 10×10 m in size and included three termite mounds: one mound built up by Globitermes sulphureus and two mounds populated by termites of the Odontotermes genus. Overall, 52 PVC chambers were installed permanently on the 'termite' plot (ca. 1 m apart from one another). The CO2 emission rate from TerPl was also measured by chamber closed method once in the dry season (April) and twice through the wet season (July and August). The average rate of CO2 emission from termite mounds was two times higher than that from the surrounding area (SurAr). In the dry season, it comprised 91±7 mg C/m2/h from the surrounding soils and 196±16 mg C/m2/h from the termite mounds. In the

  8. Morphophysiological study of digestive system litter-feeding termite Cornitermes cumulans (Kollar, 1832).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Géssica; Dos Santos, Vânia Cristina; de Figueiredo Gontijo, Nelder; Constantino, Reginaldo; de Oliveira Paiva E Silva, Gabriela; Bahia, Ana Cristina; Gomes, Fabio Mendonça; de Alcantara Machado, Ednildo

    2017-06-01

    Termites are the major decomposers of lignocellulosic biomass on Earth and are commonly considered as biological reactor models for lignocellulose degradation. Despite their biotechnological potential, few studies have focused on the morphophysiological aspects of the termite digestive system. We therefore analyze the morphology, ultrastructure and gut luminal pH of the digestive system in workers of the litter-feeding termite Cornitermes cumulans (Blattodea: Termitidae). Their digestive system is composed of salivary glands and an alimentary canal with a pH ranging from neutral to alkaline. The salivary glands have an acinar structure and present cells with secretory characteristics. The alimentary canal is differentiated into the foregut, midgut, mixed segment and hindgut, which comprises the ileum (p1), enteric valve (p2), paunch (p3), colon (p4) and rectum (p5) segments. The foregut has a well-developed chewing system. The midgut possesses a tubular peritrophic membrane and two cell types: digestive cells with secretory and absorptive features and several regenerative cells in mitosis, both cell types being organized into regenerative crypts. The mixed segment exhibits cells rich in glycogen granules. Hindgut p1, p4 and p5 segments have flattened cells with a few apical invaginations related to mitochondria and a thick cuticular lining. Conversely, the hindgut p3 segment contains large cuboid cells with extensive apical invaginations associated with numerous mitochondria. These new insights into the morphophysiology of the digestive system of C. cumulans reveal that it mobilizes lignocellulose components as a nutritional source by means of a highly compartmentalized organization with specialized segments and complex microenvironments.

  9. An Efficient Antioxidant System in a Long-Lived Termite Queen.

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    Eisuke Tasaki

    Full Text Available The trade-off between reproduction and longevity is known in wide variety of animals. Social insect queens are rare organisms that can achieve a long lifespan without sacrificing fecundity. The extended longevity of social insect queens, which contradicts the trade-off, has attracted much attention because it implies the existence of an extraordinary anti-aging mechanism. Here, we show that queens of the termite Reticulitermes speratus incur significantly lower oxidative damage to DNA, protein and lipid and have higher activity of antioxidant enzymes than non-reproductive individuals (workers and soldiers. The levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (oxidative damage marker of DNA were lower in queens than in workers after UV irradiation. Queens also showed lower levels of protein carbonyls and malondialdehyde (oxidative damage markers of protein and lipid, respectively. The antioxidant enzymes of insects are generally composed of catalase (CAT and peroxiredoxin (Prx. Queens showed more than two times higher CAT activity and more than seven times higher expression levels of the CAT gene RsCAT1 than workers. The CAT activity of termite queens was also markedly higher in comparison with other solitary insects and the queens of eusocial Hymenoptera. In addition, queens showed higher expression levels of the Prx gene RsPRX6. These results suggested that this efficient antioxidant system can partly explain why termite queens achieve long life. This study provides important insights into the evolutionary linkage of reproductive division of labor and the development of queens' oxidative stress resistance in social insects.

  10. Reverse taxonomy for elucidating diversity of insect-associated nematodes: a case study with termites.

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    Natsumi Kanzaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The molecular operational taxonomic unit (MOTU has recently been applied to microbial and microscopic animal biodiversity surveys. However, in many cases, some of the MOTUs cannot be definitively tied to any of the taxonomic groups in current databases. To surmount these limitations, the concept of "reverse taxonomy" has been proposed, i.e. to primarily list the MOTUs with morphological information, and then identify and/or describe them at genus/species level using subsamples or by re-isolating the target organisms. Nevertheless, the application of "reverse taxonomy" has not been sufficiently evaluated. Therefore, the practical applicability of "reverse taxonomy" is tested using termite-associated nematodes as a model system for phoretic/parasitic organisms which have high habitat specificity and a potential handle (their termite host species for re-isolation attempts. METHODOLOGY: Forty-eight species (from 298 colonies of termites collected from the American tropics and subtropics were examined for their nematode associates using the reverse taxonomy method and culturing attempts (morphological identification and further sequencing efforts. The survey yielded 51 sequence types ( =  MOTUs belonging to 19 tentatively identified genera. Within these, four were identified based on molecular data with preliminary morphological observation, and an additional seven were identified or characterized from successful culturing, leaving eight genera unidentified. CONCLUSIONS: That 1/3 of the genera were not successfully identified suggests deficiencies in the depth of available sequences in the database and biological characters, i.e. usually isolated as phoretic/parasitic stages which are not available for morphological identification, and too many undiscovered lineages of nematodes. Although there still is the issue of culturability of nematodes, culturing attempts could help to make reverse taxonomy methods more effective. However

  11. Nonadecadienone, a new termite trail-following pheromone identified in Glossotermes oculatus (Serritermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanus, Robert; Šobotník, Jan; Krasulová, Jana; Jiroš, Pavel; Žáček, Petr; Kalinová, Blanka; Dolejšová, Klára; Cvačka, Josef; Bourguignon, Thomas; Roisin, Yves; Lacey, Michael J; Sillam-Dussès, David

    2012-01-01

    Within the multitude of chemical signals used by termites, the trail marking by means of pheromones is ubiquitous. Chemistry and biology of the trail-following communication have been described in more than 60 species from all families except for the Neotropical Serritermitidae. The chemical ecology of Serritermitidae is of special interest not only as a missing piece of knowledge on the diversity and evolution of isopteran pheromones but also because it may contribute to the debate on the phylogenetic position of this family, which is still unresolved. Therefore, we aimed in this study to identify the trail-following pheromone of the serritermitid Glossotermes oculatus. Based on a combined approach of analytical chemistry, electrophysiology, and behavioral bioassays, we propose (10Z,13Z)-nonadeca-10,13-dien-2-one to be the trail-following pheromone of G. oculatus, secreted by the sternal gland of pseudergates. Thus, we report on a new termite trail-following pheromone of an unexpected chemical structure, a ketone with 19 carbons, contrasting with unsaturated alcohols containing 12 carbons as trail-following pheromones in other advanced termite families. In addition to this unique trail-following pheromone, we also describe the sternal gland in pseudergates as an organ of unusual shape, size, and structure when compared with other isopteran species. These results underline the peculiarity of the family Serritermitidae and prompt our interest in the chemistry of pheromones in the other genus of the family, Serritermes. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  12. Termites and large herbivores influence seed removal rates in an African savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acanakwo, Erik Francis; Sheil, Douglas; Moe, Stein R

    2017-12-01

    Seed removal can influence plant community dynamics, composition, and resulting vegetation characteristics. In the African savanna, termites and large herbivores influence vegetation in various ways, likely including indirect effects on seed predators and secondary dispersers. However, the intensity and variation of seed removal rates in African savannas has seldom been studied. We experimentally investigated whether termites and large herbivores were important factors in the mechanisms contributing to observed patterns in tree species composition on and off mounds, in Lake Mburo National Park, Uganda. Within fenced (excluding large herbivores) and unfenced termite mound and adjacent savanna plots, we placed seeds of nine native tree species within small open "cages," accessed by all animals, roofed cages that only allowed access to small vertebrates and invertebrates, and closed cages that permitted access by smaller invertebrates only (5 mm wire mesh). We found that mean seed removal rate was high (up to 87.3% per 3 d). Mound habitats experienced significantly higher removal rates than off-mound habitats. The mean removal rate of native seeds from closed cages was 11.1% per 3 d compared with 19.4% and 23.3% removed per 3 d in the roofed and open cages, respectively. Smaller seeds experienced higher removal rates than larger seeds. Large herbivore exclusion on mounds reduced native seed removal rates by a mean of 8.8% in the open cages, but increased removal rates by 1.7% in the open cages when off-mound habitats were fenced. While removal rates from open cages were higher on active mounds (30.9%) than on inactive mounds (26.7%), the removal rates from closed cages were lower on active vs. inactive mounds (6.1% vs. 11.6%, respectively). Thus, we conclude that large herbivores and Macrotermes mounds influence seed removal rates, though these effects appear indirect. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  13. Nutrient composition of four species of winged termites consumed in western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinyuru, J N; Konyole, S O; Roos, Nanna

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to gain knowledge on the nutrient composition of Macrotermes subhylanus, Pseudacanthotermes militaris, Macrotermes bellicosus and P. spiniger termite species, which are consumed in western Kenya. Proximate, iron, zinc, calcium and fatty acid composition were analyzed...... in order to ascertain their potential in food-based strategies to improve nutritional health. The fat content was 44.82-47.31. g/100. g, protein 33.51-39.74. g/100. g, available carbohydrate 0.72-8.73. g/100. g, iron 53.33-115.97. mg/100. g and zinc 7.10-12.86. mg/100. g. The level of unsaturated fatty...

  14. Presumptive horizontal symbiont transmission in the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Aanen, Duur Kornelis

    2006-01-01

    All colonies of the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis studied so far are associated with a single genetically variable lineage of Termitomyces symbionts. Such limited genetic variation of symbionts and the absence of sexual fruiting bodies (mushrooms) on M. natalensis mounds would...... transmission mode among Macrotermes species implies that vertical symbiont transmission can evolve rapidly. The unexpected finding of horizontal transmission makes the apparent absence of Termitomyces mushrooms on M. natalensis mounds puzzling. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed study of the genetic...

  15. Hexadecyl ammonium chloride amylose inclusion complex to emulsify cedarwood oil and treat wood against termites and wood-decay fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedarwood oil (CWO) has a wide range of bioactivities, including insect repellency and toxicity as well as conferring resistance against termites and wood-rot fungi. In previous pressure treatment work, ethanol was used as the diluent/carrier for CWO. However, it is preferable to use a water-based ...

  16. Effects of caste on the expression of genes associated with septic injury and xenobiotic exposure in the Formosan subterranean termite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Husseneder

    Full Text Available As social insects, termites live in densely populated colonies with specialized castes under conditions conducive to microbial growth and transmission. Furthermore, termites are exposed to xenobiotics in soil and their lignocellulose diet. Therefore, termites are valuable models for studying gene expression involved in response to septic injury, immunity and detoxification in relation to caste membership. In this study, workers and soldiers of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus, were challenged by bacterial injection or by no-choice feeding with a sublethal concentration (0.5% of phenobarbital. Constitutive and induced expression of six putative immune response genes (two encoding for lectin-like proteins, one for a ficolin-precursor, one for the Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule, one for a chitin binding protein, and one for the gram-negative binding protein 2 and four putative detoxification genes (two encoding for cytochrome P450s, one for glutathione S-transferase, and one for the multi antimicrobial extrusion protein, were measured via quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and compared within and among 1 colonies, 2 treatment types and 3 castes via ANOVA. Eight genes were inducible by septic injury, feeding with phenobarbital or both. Colony origin had no effect on inducibility or differential gene expression. However, treatment type showed significant effects on the expression of the eight inducible genes. Caste effects on expression levels were significant in five of the eight inducible genes with constitutive and induced expression of most target genes being higher in workers than in soldiers.

  17. Influence de l'activité des termites sur les propriétés du sol dans la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence de l'activité des termites sur les propriétés du sol dans la région de Lamto (Côte d'Ivoire): mesure de la vitesse d'infiltration de l'eau et de la quantité de matière organique en conditions expérimentales.

  18. Prospection and Evaluation of (Hemi) Cellulolytic Enzymes Using Untreated and Pretreated Biomasses in Two Argentinean Native Termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Guerrero, Emiliano; Arneodo, Joel; Bombarda Campanha, Raquel; Abrão de Oliveira, Patrícia; Veneziano Labate, Mônica T; Regiani Cataldi, Thaís; Campos, Eleonora; Cataldi, Angel; Labate, Carlos A; Martins Rodrigues, Clenilson; Talia, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Saccharum officinarum bagasse (common name: sugarcane bagasse) and Pennisetum purpureum (also known as Napier grass) are among the most promising feedstocks for bioethanol production in Argentina and Brazil. In this study, both biomasses were assessed before and after acid pretreatment and following hydrolysis with Nasutitermes aquilinus and Cortaritermes fulviceps termite gut digestome. The chemical composition analysis of the biomasses after diluted acid pretreatment showed that the hemicellulose fraction was partially removed. The (hemi) cellulolytic activities were evaluated in bacterial culture supernatants of termite gut homogenates grown in treated and untreated biomasses. In all cases, we detected significantly higher endoglucanase and xylanase activities using pretreated biomasses compared to untreated biomasses, carboxymethylcellulose and xylan. Several protein bands with (hemi) cellulolytic activity were detected in zymograms and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Some proteins of these bands or spots were identified as xylanolytic peptides by mass spectrometry. Finally, the diversity of cultured cellulolytic bacterial endosymbionts associated to both Argentinean native termite species was analyzed. This study describes, for the first time, bacterial endosymbionts and endogenous (hemi) cellulases of two Argentinean native termites as well as their potential application in degradation of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production.

  19. Microtermolides A and B from termite-associated Streptomyces sp. and structural revision of vinylamycin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carr, Gavin; Poulsen, Michael; Klassen, Jonathan L.

    2012-01-01

    Microtermolides A (1) and B (2) were isolated from a Streptomyces sp. strain associated with fungus-growing termites. The structures of 1 and 2 were determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Structural elucidation of 1 led to the re-examination of the struct...

  20. Origin and alteration of organic matter in termite mounds from different feeding guilds of the Amazon rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebers, Nina; Martius, Christopher; Eckhardt, Kai-Uwe; Garcia, Marcos V B; Leinweber, Peter; Amelung, Wulf

    2015-01-01

    The impact of termites on nutrient cycling and tropical soil formation depends on their feeding habits and related material transformation. The identification of food sources, however, is difficult, because they are variable and changed by termite activity and nest construction. Here, we related the sources and alteration of organic matter in nests from seven different termite genera and feeding habits in the Terra Firme rainforests to the properties of potential food sources soil, wood, and microepiphytes. Chemical analyses comprised isotopic composition of C and N, cellulosic (CPS), non-cellulosic (NCPS), and N-containing saccharides, and molecular composition screening using pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS). The isotopic analysis revealed higher soil δ13C (-27.4‰) and δ15N (6.6‰) values in nests of wood feeding Nasutitermes and Cornitermes than in wood samples (δ13C = -29.1‰, δ15N = 3.4‰), reflecting stable-isotope enrichment with organic matter alterations during or after nest construction. This result was confirmed by elevated NCPS:CPS ratios, indicating a preferential cellulose decomposition in the nests. High portions of muramic acid (MurAc) pointed to the participation of bacteria in the transformation processes. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) revealed increasing geophagy in the sequence Termes rainforest termites shows variations and evidence of modification by microbial processes, but nevertheless it primarily reflects the trophic niches of the constructors.

  1. Molecular characterization and phylogeny of four new species of the genus trichonympha (Parabasalia, trichonymphea) from lower termite hindguts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boscaro, V.; James, E. R.; Fiorito, R.; Hehenberger, E.; Karnkowska, A.; del Campo, J.; Kolísko, Martin; Irwin, N. A.T.; Mathur, V.; Scheffrahn, R. H.; Keeling, P. J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 9 (2017), s. 3570-3575, č. článku 002169. ISSN 1466-5026 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : parabasalids * SSU rRNA phylogeny * termite symbionts * trichonympha Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 2.134, year: 2016

  2. Sphinganine-Like Biogenesis of (E)-1-Nitropentadec-1-ene in Termite Soldiers of the Genus Prorhinotermes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirošová, Anna; Majer, Pavel; Jančařík, Andrej; Dolejšová, Klára; Tykva, Richard; Šobotník, Jan; Jiroš, Pavel; Hanus, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 4 (2014), s. 533-536 ISSN 1439-4227 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-25137P Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : biosynthesis * natural products * nitro compounds * Prorhinotermes * termites Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.088, year: 2014

  3. Co-option of the sphingolipid metabolism for the production of nitroalkene defensive chemicals in termite soldiers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirošová, Anna; Jančařík, Andrej; Menezes, R. C.; Bazalová, Olga; Dolejšová, Klára; Vogel, H.; Jedlička, Pavel; Buček, Aleš; Brabcová, Jana; Majer, Pavel; Hanus, Robert; Svatoš, Aleš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 82, Mar (2017), s. 52-61 ISSN 0965-1748 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-25137P Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : biosynthesis * nitro compounds * chemical defence * termites * metabolomics * transcriptomics Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 3.756, year: 2016

  4. Prospection and Evaluation of (Hemi Cellulolytic Enzymes Using Untreated and Pretreated Biomasses in Two Argentinean Native Termites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Ben Guerrero

    Full Text Available Saccharum officinarum bagasse (common name: sugarcane bagasse and Pennisetum purpureum (also known as Napier grass are among the most promising feedstocks for bioethanol production in Argentina and Brazil. In this study, both biomasses were assessed before and after acid pretreatment and following hydrolysis with Nasutitermes aquilinus and Cortaritermes fulviceps termite gut digestome. The chemical composition analysis of the biomasses after diluted acid pretreatment showed that the hemicellulose fraction was partially removed. The (hemi cellulolytic activities were evaluated in bacterial culture supernatants of termite gut homogenates grown in treated and untreated biomasses. In all cases, we detected significantly higher endoglucanase and xylanase activities using pretreated biomasses compared to untreated biomasses, carboxymethylcellulose and xylan. Several protein bands with (hemi cellulolytic activity were detected in zymograms and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Some proteins of these bands or spots were identified as xylanolytic peptides by mass spectrometry. Finally, the diversity of cultured cellulolytic bacterial endosymbionts associated to both Argentinean native termite species was analyzed. This study describes, for the first time, bacterial endosymbionts and endogenous (hemi cellulases of two Argentinean native termites as well as their potential application in degradation of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production.

  5. Characterization of a new β-glucosidase/β-xylosidase from the gut microbiota of the termite (Reticulitermes santonensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattéotti, Christel; Haubruge, Eric; Thonart, Philippe; Francis, Frédéric; De Pauw, Edwin; Portetelle, Daniel; Vandenbol, Micheline

    2011-01-01

    The gut of the termite Reticulitermes santonensis contains an interesting diversity of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms not found elsewhere. These microorganisms produce many enzyme-digesting lignocellulosic compounds, probably in cooperation with endogenous enzymes. Regarding cellulose and hemicellulose digestion in the termite gut, much remains to be learned about the relative contributions of termite enzymes and enzymes produced by different microorganisms. Here we grew bacterial colonies from termite gut suspensions, identifying 11 of them after PCR amplification of their 16S rRNA genes. After constructing in Escherichia coli a genomic DNA library corresponding to all of the colonies obtained, we performed functional screening for α-amylase, xylanase, β-glucosidase, and endoglucanase activities. This screen revealed a clone producing β-glucosidase activity. Sequence analysis showed that the cloned genomic DNA fragment contained three complete ORFs (bglG, bglF, and bglB) organized in a putative bgl operon. The new β-glucosidase (BglB), identified with its regulators BglG and BglF, belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 1. The new β-glucosidase was expressed in E. coli and purified by affinity chromatography. The purified enzyme shows maximal activity at pH 6.0 and 40 °C. It also displays β-xylosidase activity. FEMS Microbiology Letters © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. No claim to original Belgian government works.

  6. Functional traits of trees on and off termite mounds : Understanding the origin of biotically-driven heterogeneity in savannas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plas, F.; Howison, R.; Reinders, J.; Fokkema, W.; Olff, H.

    Questions In African savannas, Macrotermes termites contribute to small-scale heterogeneity by constructing large mounds. Operating as islands of high nutrient and water availability and low fire frequency, these mounds support distinct, diverse communities of trees that have been shown to be highly

  7. Influence de l'activité des termites sur les propriétés du sol dans la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    amélioration de la fertilité en déterminant la vitesse d'infiltration de l'eau et ... abriter une macrofaune importante (tels que les vers de terre et les termites) dont l'activité lui apporte des nutriments et en améliore la structure physique ( ...

  8. Levy flights and self-similar exploratory behaviour of termite workers: beyond model fitting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Miramontes

    Full Text Available Animal movements have been related to optimal foraging strategies where self-similar trajectories are central. Most of the experimental studies done so far have focused mainly on fitting statistical models to data in order to test for movement patterns described by power-laws. Here we show by analyzing over half a million movement displacements that isolated termite workers actually exhibit a range of very interesting dynamical properties--including Lévy flights--in their exploratory behaviour. Going beyond the current trend of statistical model fitting alone, our study analyses anomalous diffusion and structure functions to estimate values of the scaling exponents describing displacement statistics. We evince the fractal nature of the movement patterns and show how the scaling exponents describing termite space exploration intriguingly comply with mathematical relations found in the physics of transport phenomena. By doing this, we rescue a rich variety of physical and biological phenomenology that can be potentially important and meaningful for the study of complex animal behavior and, in particular, for the study of how patterns of exploratory behaviour of individual social insects may impact not only their feeding demands but also nestmate encounter patterns and, hence, their dynamics at the social scale.

  9. Molecular basis for the reproductive division of labour in a lower termite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehli Michael

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyphenism, the expression of different phenotypes with the same genetic background, is well known for social insects. The substantial physiological and morphological differences among the castes generally are the result of differential gene expression. In lower termites, workers are developmentally flexible to become neotenic replacement reproductives via a single moult after the death of the founding reproductives. Thus, both castes (neotenics and workers are expected to differ mainly in the expression of genes linked to reproductive division of labour, which constitutes the fundamental basis of insect societies. Results Representational difference analysis of cDNAs was used to study differential gene expression between neotenics and workers in the drywood termite Cryptotermes secundus (Kalotermitidae. We identified and, at least partially cloned five novel genes that were highly expressed in female neotenics. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of all five genes in different castes (neotenics, founding reproductives, winged sexuals and workers of both sexes confirmed the differential expression patterns. In addition, the relative expression of these genes was determined in three body parts of female neotenics (head, thorax, and abdomen using quantitative real-time PCR. Conclusion The identified genes could be involved in the control and regulation of reproductive division of labour. Interestingly, this study revealed an expression pattern partly similar to social Hymenoptera indicating both common and species-specific regulatory mechanisms in hemimetabolous and holometabolous social insects.

  10. Composting of cow dung and crop residues using termite mounds as bulking agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karak, Tanmoy; Sonar, Indira; Paul, Ranjit K; Das, Sampa; Boruah, R K; Dutta, Amrit K; Das, Dilip K

    2014-10-01

    The present study reports the suitability of termite mounds as a bulking agent for composting with crop residues and cow dung in pit method. Use of 50 kg termite mound with the crop residues (stover of ground nut: 361.65 kg; soybean: 354.59 kg; potato: 357.67 kg and mustard: 373.19 kg) and cow dung (84.90 kg) formed a good quality compost within 70 days of composting having nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium as 20.19, 3.78 and 32.77 g kg(-1) respectively with a bulk density of 0.85 g cm(-3). Other physico-chemical and germination parameters of the compost were within Indian standard, which had been confirmed by the application of multivariate analysis of variance and multivariate contrast analysis. Principal component analysis was applied in order to gain insight into the characteristic variables. Four composting treatments formed two different groups when hierarchical cluster analysis was applied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Draft genome of the fungus-growing termite pathogenic fungus Ophiocordyceps bispora (Ophiocordycipitaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H. Conlon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article documents the public availability of genome sequence data and assembled contigs representing the partial draft genome of Ophiocordyceps bispora. As one of the few known pathogens of fungus-farming termites, a draft genome of O. bispora represents the opportunity to further the understanding of disease and resistance in these complex termite societies. With the ongoing attempts to resolve the taxonomy of the Hypocralaean family, more genetic data will also help to shed light on the phylogenetic relationship between sexual and asexual life stages. Next generation sequence data is available from the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA under accession PRJEB13655; run numbers: ERR1368522, ERR1368523, and ERR1368524. Genome assembly available from ENA under accession numbers: FKNF01000001–FKNF01000302. Gene prediction available as protein fasta, nucleotide fasta and GFF file from Mendeley Data with accession doi:10.17632/r99fd6g3s4.2 (http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/r99fd6g3s4.2.

  12. Nitrogen-fixing Enterobacter agglomerans isolated from guts of wood-eating termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrikus, C J; Breznak, J A

    1977-02-01

    Two strains of facultatively anaerobic, N2-fixing bacteria were isolated from guts of Coptotermes formosanus and identified as Enterobacter agglomerans. The deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of isolates was 52.6 and 53.1 mol% guanine plus cytosine. Both isolates and a known strain of E. agglomerans carried out a mixed acid type of glucose fermentation. N2 fixation by E. agglomerans was inhibited by O2; consequently, N2 served as an N source only for cells growing anaerobically in media lacking a major source of combined N. However, peptone, NH4Cl, or KNO3 served as an N source under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. It was estimated that 2 x 10(2) cells of E. agglomerans were present per termite gut. This value was 100-fold lower than expected, based on N2 fixation, low recoveries of E. agglomerans may be related to the marked decrease in N2 fixation rates observed when intact termites or their extracted guts were manipulated for the isolation of bacteria. It was concluded that the N2-fixing activity of E. agglomerans may be important to the N economy of C. formosanus.

  13. Chlorpyrifos causes decreased organic matter decomposition by suppressing earthworm and termite communities in tropical soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Silva, P. Mangala C.S., E-mail: msilva@falw.vu.n [Department of Animal Ecology, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Ruhuna, Matara (Sri Lanka); Pathiratne, Asoka [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Kelaniya, Kelaniya (Sri Lanka); Straalen, Nico M. van; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [Department of Animal Ecology, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-10-15

    Effects of pesticides on structural and functional properties of ecosystems are rarely studied under tropical conditions. In this study litterbag and earthworm field tests were performed simultaneously at the same tropical field site sprayed with chlorpyrifos (CPF). The recommended dose of CPF (0.6 kg a.i. ha{sup -1}) and two higher doses (4.4-8.8 kg a.i. ha{sup -1}) significantly decreased litter decomposition during the first 3 months after application, which could be explained from lower earthworm and termite abundances during this period. Species-specific effects of CPF on organism abundance and biomass were observed, with termites being mostly affected followed by the earthworm Perionyx excavatus; the earthworm Megascolex sp. was least affected. Recovery was completed within 6 months. Decomposition in the controls and lowest two treatments was completed within 4 months, which suggests the need for modification of standard test guidelines to comply with faster litter degradation under tropical conditions. - Effects of chlorpyrifos on functional and structural endpoints in soil.

  14. Raw material procurement for termite fishing tools by wild chimpanzees in the Issa valley, Western Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Warren, Katarina; Sommer, Volker; Piel, Alex K; Pascual-Garrido, Alejandra

    2017-10-01

    Chimpanzee termite fishing has been studied for decades, yet the selective processes preceding the manufacture of fishing tools remain largely unexplored. We investigate raw material selection and potential evidence of forward planning in the chimpanzees of Issa valley, western Tanzania. Using traditional archaeological methods, we surveyed the location of plants from where chimpanzees sourced raw material to manufacture termite fishing tools, relative to targeted mounds. We measured raw material abundance to test for availability and selection. Statistics included Chi-Squared, two-tailed Wilcoxon, and Kruskall-Wallace tests. Issa chimpanzees manufactured extraction tools only from bark, despite availability of other suitable materials (e.g., twigs), and selected particular plant species as raw material sources, which they often also exploit for food. Most plants were sourced 1-16 m away from the mound, with a maximum of 33 m. The line of sight from the targeted mound was obscured for a quarter of these plants. The exclusive use of bark tools despite availability of other suitable materials indicates a possible cultural preference. The fact that Issa chimpanzees select specific plant species and travel some distance to source them suggests some degree of selectivity and, potentially, forward planning. Our results have implications for the reconstruction of early hominin behaviors, particularly with regard to the use of perishable tools, which remain archaeologically invisible. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Metagenomic and functional analysis of hindgut microbiota of a wood-feeding higher termite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warnecke, Falk; Warnecke, Falk; Luginbuhl, Peter; Ivanova, Natalia; Ghassemian, Majid; Richardson, Toby H.; Stege, Justin T.; Cayouette, Michelle; McHardy, Alice C.; Djordjevic, Gordana; Aboushadi, Nahla; Sorek, Rotem; Tringe, Susannah G.; Podar, Mircea; Martin, Hector Garcia; Kunin, Victor; Dalevi, Daniel; Madejska, Julita; Kirton, Edward; Platt, Darren; Szeto, Ernest; Salamov, Asaf; Barry, Kerrie; Mikhailova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Matson, Eric G.; Ottesen, Elizabeth A.; Zhang, Xinning; Hernandez, Myriam; Murillo, Catalina; Acosta, Luis G.; Rigoutsos, Isidore; Tamayo, Giselle; Green, Brian D.; Chang, Cathy; Rubin, Edward M.; Mathur, Eric J.; Robertson, Dan E.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Leadbetter, Jared R.

    2007-10-01

    From the standpoints of both basic research and biotechnology, there is considerable interest in reaching a clearer understanding of the diversity of biological mechanisms employed during lignocellulose degradation. Globally, termites are an extremely successful group of wood-degrading organisms and are therefore important both for their roles in carbon turnover in the environment and as potential sources of biochemical catalysts for efforts aimed at converting wood into biofuels. Only recently have data supported any direct role for the symbiotic bacteria in the gut of the termite in cellulose and xylan hydrolysis. Here we use a metagenomic analysis of the bacterial community resident in the hindgut paunch of a wood-feeding Nasutitermes species to show the presence of a large, diverse set of bacterial genes for cellulose and xylan hydrolysis. Many of these genes were expressed in vivo or had cellulase activity in vitro, and further analyses implicate spirochete and fibrobacter species in gut lignocellulose degradation. New insights into other important symbiotic functions including H{sub 2} metabolism, CO{sub 2}-reductive acetogenesis and N{sub 2} fixation are also provided by this first system-wide gene analysis of a microbial community specialized towards plant lignocellulose degradation. Our results underscore how complex even a 1-{micro}l environment can be.

  16. Termite-Susceptible Species of Wood for Inclusion as a Reference in Indonesian Standardized Laboratory Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arinana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Standardized laboratory testing of wood and wood-based products against subterranean termites in Indonesia (SNI 01.7207-2006 (SNI has no requirement for the inclusion of a comparative reference species of wood (reference control. This is considered a weakness of the Indonesian standard. Consequently, a study was undertaken to identify a suitable Indonesian species of community wood that could be used as a reference control. Four candidate species of community woods: Acacia mangium, Hevea brasiliensis, Paraserianthes falcataria and Pinus merkusii were selected for testing their susceptibility to feeding by Coptotermes formosanus. Two testing methods (SNI and the Japanese standard method JIS K 1571-2004 were used to compare the susceptibility of each species of wood. Included in the study was Cryptomeria japonica, the reference control specified in the Japanese standard. The results of the study indicated that P. merkusii is a suitable reference species of wood for inclusion in laboratory tests against subterranean termites, conducted in accordance with the Indonesian standard (SNI 01.7207-2006.

  17. Facultative asexual reproduction and genetic diversity of populations in the humivorous termite Cavitermes tuberosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Denis; Hellemans, Simon; Hanus, Robert; Roisin, Yves

    2016-06-15

    Termite colonies are typically founded by a pair of sexually reproducing dispersers, which can sometimes be replaced by some of their offspring. Some Reticulitermes and Embiratermes species routinely practice asexual queen succession (AQS): the queen is replaced by neotenic daughters produced by parthenogenesis, which mate with the primary king. Here, to cast light on the evolution of AQS, we investigated another candidate species, Cavitermes tuberosus (Termitinae). Of 95 nests, 39 contained a primary queen and 28 contained neotenic females (2-667 individuals), usually with the primary king. Microsatellite analyses confirmed that colonies were initiated by single pairs after large dispersal flights. More than 80% of the neotenic females were of exclusively maternal origin and completely homozygous, suggesting automictic parthenogenesis with gamete duplication. Conversely, workers, soldiers, and most alates and primary reproductives were produced sexually. AQS often occurs late, after colonies have reached maturity, whereas early AQS in other species may boost the young colony's growth rate. We suggest additional benefits of AQS in C. tuberosus, related with a smaller size, lesser stability and higher mobility of colonies. Our data add to the phylogenetical dispersion and diversity of modalities of AQS in termites, supporting a multiple evolutionary origin of this process. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Metagenomic analysis of novel lignocellulose-degrading enzymes from higher termite guts inhabiting microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimchua, Thidarat; Thongaram, Taksawan; Uengwetwanit, Tanaporn; Pongpattanakitshote, Somchai; Eurwilaichitr, Lily

    2012-04-01

    A metagenomic fosmid library was constructed from genomic DNA isolated from the microbial community residing in hindguts of a wood-feeding higher termite (Microcerotermes sp.) collected in Thailand. The library was screened for clones expressing lignocellulolytic activities. Fourteen independent active clones (2 cellulases and 12 xylanases) were obtained by functional screening at pH 10.0. Analysis of shotgun-cloning and pyrosequencing data revealed six ORFs, which shared less than 59% identity and 73% similarity of their amino acid sequences with known cellulases and xylanases. Conserved domain analysis of these ORFs revealed a cellulase belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 5, whereas the other five xylanases showed significant identity to diverse families including families 8, 10, and 11. Interestingly, one fosmid clone was isolated carrying three contiguous xylanase genes that may comprise a xylanosome operon. The enzymes with the highest activities at alkaline pH from the initial activity screening were characterized biochemically. These enzymes showed a broad range of enzyme activities from pH 5.0 to 10.0, with pH optimal of 8.0 retaining more than 70% of their respective activities at pH 9.0. The optimal temperatures of these enzymes ranged from 50 degrees C to 55 degrees C. This study provides evidence for the diversity and function of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes in the termite gut microbial community, which could be of potential use for industrial processes such as pulp biobleaching and denim biostoning.

  19. Selenium controls transcription of paralogous formate dehydrogenase genes in the termite gut acetogen, Treponema primitia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Eric G; Zhang, Xinning; Leadbetter, Jared R

    2010-08-01

    The termite gut spirochete, Treponema primitia, is a CO(2)-reductive acetogen that is phylogenetically distinct from other distantly related and more extensively studied acetogens such as Moorella thermoacetica. Research on T. primitia has revealed details about the role of spirochetes in CO(2)-reductive acetogenesis, a process important to the mutualism occurring between termites and their gut microbial communities. Here, a locus of the T. primitia genome containing Wood-Ljungdahl pathway genes for CO(2)-reductive acetogenesis was sequenced. This locus contained methyl-branch genes of the pathway (i.e. for the reduction of CO(2) to the level of methyl-tetrahydrofolate) including paralogous genes for cysteine and selenocysteine (Sec) variants of formate dehydrogenase (FDH) and genes for Sec incorporation. The FDH variants affiliated phylogenetically with hydrogenase-linked FDH enzymes, suggesting that T. primitia FDH enzymes utilize electrons derived directly from molecular H(2). Sub-nanomolar concentrations of selenium decreased transcript levels of the cysteine variant FDH gene. Selenium concentration did not markedly influence the level of mRNA upstream of the Sec-codon in the Sec variant FDH; however, the level of transcript extending downstream of the Sec-codon increased incrementally with increasing selenium concentrations. The features and regulation of these FDH genes are an indication that T. primitia may experience dynamic selenium availability in its H(2)-rich gut environment. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Subterranean Termite Resistance of Polystyrene-Treated Wood from Three Tropical Wood Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Sudo Hadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the resistance of three Indonesian wood species to termite attack. Samples from sengon (Falcataria moluccana, mangium (Acacia mangium, and pine (Pinus merkusii were treated with polystyrene at loading levels of 26.0%, 8.6%, and 7.7%, respectively. Treated and untreated samples were exposed to environmental conditions in the field for 3 months. Untreated specimens of sengon, mangium, and pine had resistance ratings of 3.0, 4.6, and 2.4, respectively, based on a 10-point scale from 0 (no resistance to 10 (complete or near-complete resistance. Corresponding resistance values of 7.8, 7.2, and 8.2 were determined for specimens treated with polystyrene. Overall weight loss values of 50.3%, 23.3%, and 66.4% were found for untreated sengon, mangium, and pine samples, respectively; for treated samples, the values were 7.6%, 14.4%, and 5.1%, respectively. Based on the findings in this study, overall resistance to termite attack was higher for treated samples compared to untreated samples.

  1. Chlorpyrifos causes decreased organic matter decomposition by suppressing earthworm and termite communities in tropical soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Silva, P. Mangala C.S.; Pathiratne, Asoka; Straalen, Nico M. van; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van

    2010-01-01

    Effects of pesticides on structural and functional properties of ecosystems are rarely studied under tropical conditions. In this study litterbag and earthworm field tests were performed simultaneously at the same tropical field site sprayed with chlorpyrifos (CPF). The recommended dose of CPF (0.6 kg a.i. ha -1 ) and two higher doses (4.4-8.8 kg a.i. ha -1 ) significantly decreased litter decomposition during the first 3 months after application, which could be explained from lower earthworm and termite abundances during this period. Species-specific effects of CPF on organism abundance and biomass were observed, with termites being mostly affected followed by the earthworm Perionyx excavatus; the earthworm Megascolex sp. was least affected. Recovery was completed within 6 months. Decomposition in the controls and lowest two treatments was completed within 4 months, which suggests the need for modification of standard test guidelines to comply with faster litter degradation under tropical conditions. - Effects of chlorpyrifos on functional and structural endpoints in soil.

  2. Type specimens of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) collected from North Korea and adjacent regions deposited at Insect Collections of Chungnam National University (CNU) in Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunghoon; Kim, Junggon; Oh, Sumin; Heiss, Ernst

    2015-07-06

    A list of type specimens of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) collected from North Korea (mostly by the late Dr. Michail Josifov, Sofia, Bulgaria) acquired earlier by E. Heiss, now donated to and deposited in the insect collections of Chungnam National University (CNU), Deajeon, Korea, is presented. A total of 31 holotypes and 694 paratypes of 41 species and 1 subspecies in 6 families and 9 subfamilies are presented: Miridae (Deraeocorinae, Mirinae, Orthotylinae, Phylinae), Tingidae (Tinginae), Piesmatidae (Piesmatinae), Berytidae (Metacanthinae), Cymidae (Cyminae), Pentatomidae (Asopinae).

  3. jfewr ©2016 - jfewr Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    2016-09-03

    Sep 3, 2016 ... CONTROL AND PREVENTION OFBIODETERIORATION CAUSED BY TERMITES. (ISOPTERA). ⃰Oludairo, O. O.1. , Aiyedun J. O.. 1. , Adeyi, a. J. 2. , Ayeni, A. M. J.. 3 ... The right choice and application of termite preventive and control measures will be ... structures, bamboo artifacts, manuscripts, books ...

  4. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upadhyay, R. Vol 14, No 3 (2010) - Articles Anti-termite efficacy of Capparis decidua and its combinatorial mixtures for the control of Indian white termite Odontotermes obesus (Isoptera: Odontotermitidae) in Indian soil. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1119-8362. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers ...

  5. Caste-, sex-, and age-dependent expression of immune-related genes in a Japanese subterranean termite, Reticulitermes speratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitaka, Yuki; Kobayashi, Kazuya; Matsuura, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Insects protect themselves from microbial infections through innate immune responses, including pathogen recognition, phagocytosis, the activation of proteolytic cascades, and the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides. Termites, eusocial insects inhabiting microbe-rich wood, live in closely-related family groups that are susceptible to shared pathogen infections. To resist pathogenic infection, termite families have evolved diverse immune adaptations at both individual and societal levels, and a strategy of trade-offs between reproduction and immunity has been suggested. Although termite immune-inducible genes have been identified, few studies have investigated the differential expression of these genes between reproductive and neuter castes, and between sexes in each caste. In this study, we compared the expression levels of immune-related genes among castes, sexes, and ages in a Japanese subterranean termite, Reticulitermes speratus. Using RNA-seq, we found 197 immune-related genes, including 40 pattern recognition proteins, 97 signalling proteins, 60 effectors. Among these genes, 174 showed differential expression among castes. Comparing expression levels between males and females in each caste, we found sexually dimorphic expression of immune-related genes not only in reproductive castes, but also in neuter castes. Moreover, we identified age-related differential expression of 162 genes in male and/or female reproductives. In addition, although R. speratus is known to use the antibacterial peptide C-type lysozyme as an egg recognition pheromone, we determined that R. speratus has not only C-type, but also P-type and I-type lysozymes, as well as other termite species. Our transcriptomic analyses revealed immune response plasticity among all castes, and sex-biased expression of immune genes even in neuter castes, suggesting a sexual division of labor in the immune system of R. speratus. This study heightens the understanding of the evolution of antimicrobial

  6. Expanding the knowledge on lignocellulolytic and redox enzymes of worker and soldier castes from the lower termite Coptotermes gestroi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Lourenço Franco Cairo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Termites are considered one of the most efficient decomposers of lignocelluloses on Earth due to their ability to produce, along with its microbial symbionts, a repertoire of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes. Recently, a set of Pro-oxidant, Antioxidant, and Detoxification enzymes (PAD were also correlated with the metabolism of carbohydrates and lignin in termites. The lower termite Coptotermes gestroi is considered the main urban pest in Brazil, causing damage to wood constructions. Recently, analysis of the enzymatic repertoire of C. gestroi unveiled the presence of different CAZymes. Because the gene profile of CAZy/PAD enzymes endogenously synthesized by C. gestroi and also by their symbiotic protists remains unclear, the aim of this study was to explore the eukaryotic repertoire of these enzymes in worker and soldier castes of C. gestroi. Our findings showed that worker and soldier castes present similar repertoires of CAZy/PAD enzymes, and also confirmed that endo-glucanases (GH9 and beta-glucosidases (GH1 were the most important glycoside hydrolase families related to lignocellulose degradation in both castes. Classical cellulases such as exo-glucanases (GH7 and endo-glucanases (GH5 and GH45, as well as classical xylanases (GH10 and GH11, were found in both castes only taxonomically related to protists, highlighting the importance of symbiosis in C. gestroi. Moreover, our analysis revealed the presence of Auxiliary Activity enzyme families (AAs, which could be related to lignin modifications in termite digestomes. In conclusion, this report expanded the knowledge on genes and proteins related to CAZy/PAD enzymes from worker and soldier castes of lower termites, revealing new potential enzyme candidates for second-generation biofuel processes.

  7. Caste-, sex-, and age-dependent expression of immune-related genes in a Japanese subterranean termite, Reticulitermes speratus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Mitaka

    Full Text Available Insects protect themselves from microbial infections through innate immune responses, including pathogen recognition, phagocytosis, the activation of proteolytic cascades, and the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides. Termites, eusocial insects inhabiting microbe-rich wood, live in closely-related family groups that are susceptible to shared pathogen infections. To resist pathogenic infection, termite families have evolved diverse immune adaptations at both individual and societal levels, and a strategy of trade-offs between reproduction and immunity has been suggested. Although termite immune-inducible genes have been identified, few studies have investigated the differential expression of these genes between reproductive and neuter castes, and between sexes in each caste. In this study, we compared the expression levels of immune-related genes among castes, sexes, and ages in a Japanese subterranean termite, Reticulitermes speratus. Using RNA-seq, we found 197 immune-related genes, including 40 pattern recognition proteins, 97 signalling proteins, 60 effectors. Among these genes, 174 showed differential expression among castes. Comparing expression levels between males and females in each caste, we found sexually dimorphic expression of immune-related genes not only in reproductive castes, but also in neuter castes. Moreover, we identified age-related differential expression of 162 genes in male and/or female reproductives. In addition, although R. speratus is known to use the antibacterial peptide C-type lysozyme as an egg recognition pheromone, we determined that R. speratus has not only C-type, but also P-type and I-type lysozymes, as well as other termite species. Our transcriptomic analyses revealed immune response plasticity among all castes, and sex-biased expression of immune genes even in neuter castes, suggesting a sexual division of labor in the immune system of R. speratus. This study heightens the understanding of the evolution of

  8. Oligocene Termite Nests with In Situ Fungus Gardens from the Rukwa Rift Basin, Tanzania, Support a Paleogene African Origin for Insect Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Eric M.; Todd, Christopher N.; Aanen, Duur K.; Nobre, Tânia; Hilbert-Wolf, Hannah L.; O’Connor, Patrick M.; Tapanila, Leif; Mtelela, Cassy; Stevens, Nancy J.

    2016-01-01

    Based on molecular dating, the origin of insect agriculture is hypothesized to have taken place independently in three clades of fungus-farming insects: the termites, ants or ambrosia beetles during the Paleogene (66–24 Ma). Yet, definitive fossil evidence of fungus-growing behavior has been elusive, with no unequivocal records prior to the late Miocene (7–10 Ma). Here we report fossil evidence of insect agriculture in the form of fossil fungus gardens, preserved within 25 Ma termite nests from southwestern Tanzania. Using these well-dated fossil fungus gardens, we have recalibrated molecular divergence estimates for the origins of termite agriculture to around 31 Ma, lending support to hypotheses suggesting an African Paleogene origin for termite-fungus symbiosis; perhaps coinciding with rift initiation and changes in the African landscape. PMID:27333288

  9. Oligocene Termite Nests with In Situ Fungus Gardens from the Rukwa Rift Basin, Tanzania, Support a Paleogene African Origin for Insect Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Eric M; Todd, Christopher N; Aanen, Duur K; Nobre, Tânia; Hilbert-Wolf, Hannah L; O'Connor, Patrick M; Tapanila, Leif; Mtelela, Cassy; Stevens, Nancy J

    2016-01-01

    Based on molecular dating, the origin of insect agriculture is hypothesized to have taken place independently in three clades of fungus-farming insects: the termites, ants or ambrosia beetles during the Paleogene (66-24 Ma). Yet, definitive fossil evidence of fungus-growing behavior has been elusive, with no unequivocal records prior to the late Miocene (7-10 Ma). Here we report fossil evidence of insect agriculture in the form of fossil fungus gardens, preserved within 25 Ma termite nests from southwestern Tanzania. Using these well-dated fossil fungus gardens, we have recalibrated molecular divergence estimates for the origins of termite agriculture to around 31 Ma, lending support to hypotheses suggesting an African Paleogene origin for termite-fungus symbiosis; perhaps coinciding with rift initiation and changes in the African landscape.

  10. Muscidae (Insecta: Diptera) of Latin America and the Caribbean: geographic distribution and check-list by country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwenberg-Neto, Peter; De Carvalho, Claudio J B

    2013-01-01

    Here we provide a geographic database for the Muscidae (Insecta: Diptera) that are endemic to Latin America and the Caribbean and non-synanthropic. We summarize the geographic information provided by specimens from three entomological collections in Brazil (DZUP, MNRJ, and MZUEFS) as well as geographic information we compiled in the literature. The resulting 817 species were linked to their geographic records by country, state/province/department, locality, latitude and longitude, including source reference. When coordinates were not provided in specimens' labels, we used the locality information to search geographic coordinates in online gazetteers. We also separated the species by country for a country-species list. These data comprise 250 years of collections and taxonomic studies of Neotropical Muscidae and we expect that it provides a foundation and serves as guide for future studies of systematics and biogeography of the family.

  11. Profiling the Succession of Bacterial Communities throughout the Life Stages of a Higher Termite Nasutitermes arborum (Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae) Using 16S rRNA Gene Pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Michel; Roy, Virginie; Mora, Philippe; Frechault, Sophie; Lefebvre, Thomas; Hervé, Vincent; Rouland-Lefèvre, Corinne; Miambi, Edouard

    2015-01-01

    Previous surveys of the gut microbiota of termites have been limited to the worker caste. Termite gut microbiota has been well documented over the last decades and consists mainly of lineages specific to the gut microbiome which are maintained across generations. Despite this intimate relationship, little is known of how symbionts are transmitted to each generation of the host, especially in higher termites where proctodeal feeding has never been reported. The bacterial succession across life stages of the wood-feeding higher termite Nasutitermes arborum was characterized by 16S rRNA gene deep sequencing. The microbial community in the eggs, mainly affiliated to Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, was markedly different from the communities in the following developmental stages. In the first instar and last instar larvae and worker caste termites, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were less abundant than Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Fibrobacteres and the candidate phylum TG3 from the last instar larvae. Most of the representatives of these phyla (except Firmicutes) were identified as termite-gut specific lineages, although their relative abundances differed. The most salient difference between last instar larvae and worker caste termites was the very high proportion of Spirochaetes, most of which were affiliated to the Treponema Ic, Ia and If subclusters, in workers. The results suggest that termite symbionts are not transmitted from mother to offspring but become established by a gradual process allowing the offspring to have access to the bulk of the microbiota prior to the emergence of workers, and, therefore, presumably through social exchanges with nursing workers. PMID:26444989

  12. Determination of the major compounds in the extract of the subterranean termite Macrotermes gilvus Hagen digestive tract by GC-MS method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Subekti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of woody components by termites is associated with symbionts inside their digestive tract. In this study, the major compounds were determined in the extract of the termite guts by GC-MS method. Macrotermes gilvus Hagen (worker caste termites were collected and their dissected guts underwent methanol extraction. It was found that the gut of the termites has an alkaline environment (pH 8.83 ± 0.31 that supports the digestion of lignocellulose biomass and also helps to solubilize phenolic and recalcitrant compounds resul­ting from the depolymerization of woody components. The GC-MS analysis showed that termite guts contained hydrophobic organosilicon components including dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane, tetradecamethylcyclohexa­siloxane, hexadecamethylcyclooctasiloxane, and octasiloxane, 1,1,3,3,5,5,7,7,9,9,11,11,13,13,15,15-hexa­decamethyl. The guts also contained a phytosterol, which was identified as β-sitosterol. Further analysis of these water-insoluble compounds is needed to reveal their importance in termite digestion.

  13. Diversity and resilience of the wood-feeding higher termiteMironasutitermes shangchengensisgut microbiota in response to temporal and diet variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Su, Lijuan; Huang, Shi; Bo, Cunpei; Yang, Sen; Li, Yan; Wang, Fengqin; Xie, Hui; Xu, Jian; Song, Andong

    2016-11-01

    Termites are considered among the most efficient bioreactors, with high capacities for lignocellulose degradation and utilization. Recently, several studies have characterized the gut microbiota of diverse termites. However, the temporal dynamics of the gut microbiota within a given termite with dietary diversity are poorly understood. Here, we employed 16S rDNA barcoded pyrosequencing analysis to investigate temporal changes in bacterial diversity and richness of the gut microbiota of wood-feeding higher termite Mironasutitermes shangchengensis under three lignocellulose content-based diets that feature wood, corn stalks, and filter paper. Compositions of the predominant termite gut residents were largely constant among the gut microbiomes under different diets, but each diet caused specific changes in the bacterial composition over time. Notably, microbial communities exhibited an unexpectedly strong resilience during continuous feeding on both corn stalks and filter paper. Members of five bacterial phyla, that is, Spirochaetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Tenericutes, and Acidobacteria, were strongly associated with the resilience. These findings provide insights into the stability of the gut microbiota in higher termites and have important implications for the future design of robust bioreactors for lignocellulose degradation and utilization.

  14. Insetos (Arthropoda, Insecta em inflorescências de Heliconia bihai (L. L. (Heliconiaceae

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    THAIS RANIELLE SOUZA DE OLIVEIRA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As espécies do gênero Heliconia L. (Heliconiaceae se destacam por apresentar inflorescências eretas ou pendentes, muito apreciadas por sua beleza. São muito utilizadas no paisagismo, uma vez que exigem pouca manutenção e são adequadas para uso em vasos ou em canteiros. No entanto, vários grupos de insetos (Arthropoda, Insecta estão associados à Heliconia, tais como besouros (Coleoptera, formigas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, pulgões (Hemiptera, Aphidoidea e cochonilhas (Hemiptera, Coccoidea. Algumas espécies de helicônias acumulam exsudados, água em partes florais nas brácteas, formando um micro-habitat denominado de fitotelmata, que favorece a ocorrência destes insetos. O objetivo desse estudo foi determinar índices faunísticos para as principais ordens de insetos associados às inflorescências de Heliconia bihai (L. L colhidas em Paulista, estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, e identificar estes insetos em nível de família. Os insetos foram coletados de 72 inflorescências e acondionados em álcool a 70% para posterior identificação. A análise dos dados foi baseada nos índices de infestação, frequência, abundância e constância. O índice de infestação foi de 100% das inflorescências. Do total de 759 insetos coletados, 87,6% foram da ordem Diptera, 4,4% Hymenoptera, 4,2% Coleoptera e 3,8% Hemiptera. A ordem Diptera apresentou os maiores valores de infestação, frequência, abundância e constância. Foi observado que 51,1% dos insetos eram dípteros da família Psycodidae (duas morfoespécies e 19,5% da família Tipulidae (uma morfoespécie.

  15. Parallel metatranscriptome analyses of host and symbiont gene expression in the gut of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes

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    Zhou Xuguo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Termite lignocellulose digestion is achieved through a collaboration of host plus prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts. In the present work, we took a combined host and symbiont metatranscriptomic approach for investigating the digestive contributions of host and symbiont in the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes. Our approach consisted of parallel high-throughput sequencing from (i a host gut cDNA library and (ii a hindgut symbiont cDNA library. Subsequently, we undertook functional analyses of newly identified phenoloxidases with potential importance as pretreatment enzymes in industrial lignocellulose processing. Results Over 10,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs were sequenced from the 2 libraries that aligned into 6,555 putative transcripts, including 171 putative lignocellulase genes. Sequence analyses provided insights in two areas. First, a non-overlapping complement of host and symbiont (prokaryotic plus protist glycohydrolase gene families known to participate in cellulose, hemicellulose, alpha carbohydrate, and chitin degradation were identified. Of these, cellulases are contributed by host plus symbiont genomes, whereas hemicellulases are contributed exclusively by symbiont genomes. Second, a diverse complement of previously unknown genes that encode proteins with homology to lignase, antioxidant, and detoxification enzymes were identified exclusively from the host library (laccase, catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, carboxylesterase, cytochrome P450. Subsequently, functional analyses of phenoloxidase activity provided results that were strongly consistent with patterns of laccase gene expression. In particular, phenoloxidase activity and laccase gene expression are mostly restricted to symbiont-free foregut plus salivary gland tissues, and phenoloxidase activity is inducible by lignin feeding. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first time that a dual host-symbiont transcriptome sequencing effort

  16. Trail communication regulated by two trail pheromone components in the fungus-growing termite Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wen

    Full Text Available The eusocial termites are well accomplished in chemical communication, but how they achieve the communication using trace amount of no more than two pheromone components is mostly unknown. In this study, the foraging process and trail pheromones of the fungus-growing termite Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki were systematically studied and monitored in real-time using a combination of techniques, including video analysis, solid-phase microextraction, gas chromatography coupled with either mass spectrometry or an electroantennographic detector, and bioassays. The trail pheromone components in foraging workers were (3Z-dodec-3-en-1-ol and (3Z,6Z-dodeca-3,6-dien-1-ol secreted by their sternal glands. Interestingly, ratio of the two components changed according to the behaviors that the termites were displaying. This situation only occurs in termites whereas ratios of pheromone components are fixed and species-specific for other insect cuticular glands. Moreover, in bioassays, the active thresholds of the two components ranged from 1 fg/cm to 10 pg/cm according to the behavioral contexts or the pheromonal exposure of tested workers. The two components did not act in synergy. (3Z-Dodec-3-en-1-ol induced orientation behavior of termites that explore their environment, whereas (3Z,6Z-dodeca-3,6-dien-1-ol had both an orientation effect and a recruitment effect when food was discovered. The trail pheromone of O. formosanus was regulated both quantitatively by the increasing number of workers involved in the early phases of foraging process, and qualitatively by the change in ratio of the two pheromone components on sternal glandular cuticle in the food-collecting workers. In bioassays, the responses of workers to the pheromone were also affected by the variation in pheromone concentration and component ratio in the microenvironment. Thus, this termite could exchange more information with nestmates using the traces of the two trail pheromone components

  17. Dynamics of Foraging and Recruitment Behavior in the Asian Subterranean Termite Coptotermes gestroi (Rhinotermitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Arab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the trail-following behavior of the subterranean termite Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann Rhinotermitidae under laboratory conditions. The results showed that workers were the first to initiate the exploration to the food source. When food was discovered they returned to the nest laying a trail for recruiting nestmates to the food source. In this situation, workers always traveled significantly faster when returning from the arenas. Both workers and soldiers were recruited to the food source; however, the soldier/worker proportion was higher during the first phase of the recruitment. When no food was available, the number of recruited nestmates and the speed on their way back to the nest were significantly lower. The results also showed that scout foragers always laid trail pheromones when entering into unknown territories, and that chemical signals found in the food could induce workers of C. gestroi to increase their travel speed.

  18. Draft genome sequences of Pantoea agglomerans and Pantoea vagans isolates associated with termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Marike; de Maayer, Pieter; Thomas-Poulsen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The genus Pantoea incorporates many economically and clinically important species. The plant-associated species, Pantoea agglomerans and Pantoea vagans, are closely related and are often isolated from similar environments. Plasmids conferring certain metabolic capabilities are also shared amongst...... these two species. The genomes of two isolates obtained from fungus-growing termites in South Africa were sequenced, assembled and annotated. A high number of orthologous genes are conserved within and between these species. The difference in genome size between P. agglomerans MP2 (4,733,829 bp) and P....... vagans MP7 (4,598,703 bp) can largely be attributed to the differences in plasmid content. The genome sequences of these isolates may shed light on the common traits that enable P. agglomerans and P. vagans to co-occur in plant- and insect-associated niches....

  19. Draft genome sequences of Pantoea agglomerans and Pantoea vagans isolates associated with termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Marike; de Maayer, Pieter; Poulsen, Michael; Steenkamp, Emma T; van Zyl, Elritha; Coutinho, Teresa A; Venter, Stephanus N

    2016-01-01

    The genus Pantoea incorporates many economically and clinically important species. The plant-associated species, Pantoea agglomerans and Pantoea vagans, are closely related and are often isolated from similar environments. Plasmids conferring certain metabolic capabilities are also shared amongst these two species. The genomes of two isolates obtained from fungus-growing termites in South Africa were sequenced, assembled and annotated. A high number of orthologous genes are conserved within and between these species. The difference in genome size between P. agglomerans MP2 (4,733,829 bp) and P. vagans MP7 (4,598,703 bp) can largely be attributed to the differences in plasmid content. The genome sequences of these isolates may shed light on the common traits that enable P. agglomerans and P. vagans to co-occur in plant- and insect-associated niches.

  20. The true diversity of devescovinid flagellates in the termite Incisitermes marginipennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassert, Jürgen F H; Desai, Mahesh S; Brune, Andreas; Radek, Renate

    2009-11-01

    More than 40 years ago, ten species of devescovinid flagellates were described to occur in the gut content of the termite Incisitermes marginipennis. Based on light microscopic examinations, the flagellates were then classified into the two genera Devescovina and Metadevescovina. Here, we combined molecular phylogenetic analysis of the small subunit rRNA genes of the gut flagellates with the first ultrastructural investigation of the genus Metadevescovina. Our results suggest that I. marginipennis contains only one species of devescovinid flagellates, Metadevescovina modica, which comprises three variants of the same phylotype (> or =99.5% sequence similarity). Monophyly of all Metadevescovina sequences obtained from Pterotermes and Incisitermes species in this and previous studies and the absence of filamentous bacterial epibionts typical of Devescovina species (M. modica is densely colonized with spirochetes) corroborate the validity of the genus Metadevescovina and allow its differentiation from other genera of devescovinid flagellates.