WorldWideScience

Sample records for terminology developing dictionaries

  1. Development of the Multilingual Collaboration System for Farmers of Several Counntries (1) : Application of Basic Terminology Translation Dictionary

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kang Oh; Nakaji, Kei; Nada, Yoichi

    2004-01-01

    In order to share agricultural information through the Internet, the multilingual collaboratioin system of agricultural productioni was developed for farmers of many countries. The basic terminology translationi dictionary was developed by using several open source programs and free software to translate the basic terminology of multilingual collaboration system. The basic terminology translationi dictionaru was composed of about 4200 terms in Japanese, Korean and English including 2700 horti...

  2. Development of Foreign Language Lexical Competence on the Basis of a Learner's Terminological Thesaurus and Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chainikova, Galina R.; Zatonskiy, Andrey V.; Mitiukov, Nicholas W.; Busygina, Helena L.

    2018-01-01

    The article suggests a method of foreign language lexical competence development on the basis of a Learner's terminological thesaurus and dictionary of software terms which includes four main components: classification part demonstrating the inner logic of the subject area, glossary with definitions of key terms, thesaurus demonstrating logical…

  3. Dictionary of television and audiovisual terminology

    CERN Document Server

    Moshkovitz, Moshe

    2008-01-01

    "Recommended"--Booklist; "unique"--Reference Reviews; "handy"--Multimedia Information & Technology; "clear...descriptive"--Classic Images; "clear, practical definitions"--Rettig on Reference; "recommended"--E-Streams; "extensive and comprehensive"--ARBA; "a handy guide"--Communication Booknotes Quarterly. With television programming being broadcast worldwide in real time, the industry needs a common professional language. Constantly changing technology, however, has resulted in continuously changing terminology, sometimes leaving even the most knowledgeable broadcasters with a lack of understanding. In this dictionary over 1,500 terms and acronyms, both modern and classical, are presented. The definitions are designed to be straightforward and jargon-free (except where defining jargon), permitting ease of use to readers from a variety of fields. Ample cross-references are provided.

  4. ENLISH JURIDICAL TERMINOLOGY IN INDIAN DICTIONARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bytko Nataliya Sergeevna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The lexicography of India has a long and fruitful history with Sanskrit being the central object of lexicographic description. However, the development of linguistic and sociocultural situation in the region brought other languages, including English, to the attention of lexicographers. In this article, one of the first dictionaries representing the use of English in India A Glossary of Judicial and Revenue Terms and Useful Words is studied. The methodology consists in the complex lexicographic analysis of the dictionary in the context with the linguistic and sociocultural situation in India. The research revealed the correlation between macroand micro- parameters of the dictionary and linguistic and sociocultural situation of the time. At the macro-level the correlation manifests itself in the fact that the dictionary parameters and the content were determined by the board of directors of the East India Company; the boards recommendations were based on the necessities of the Companys employees around the Raj territory. The exigency of better understanding of the terms cultural components required the substantial use of encyclopedic information. As a result, the dictionary typological characteristics were changed. At the micro-level the correlation reveals itself in the unification of entries orthography, in the combination of alphabetical and net word ordering.

  5. Development of a Pediatric Adverse Events Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Debbie S; Kirkendall, Eric S; Gumbs-Petty, Brenda; Quinn, Theresa; Steen, A; Hicks, Amanda; McMahon, Ann; Nicholas, Savian; Zhao-Wong, Anna; Taylor-Zapata, Perdita; Turner, Mark; Herreshoff, Emily; Jones, Charlotte; Davis, Jonathan M; Haber, Margaret; Hirschfeld, Steven

    2017-01-01

    In 2009, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) established the Pediatric Terminology Harmonization Initiative to establish a core library of terms to facilitate the acquisition and sharing of knowledge between pediatric clinical research, practice, and safety reporting. A coalition of partners established a Pediatric Terminology Adverse Event Working Group in 2013 to develop a specific terminology relevant to international pediatric adverse event (AE) reporting. Pediatric specialists with backgrounds in clinical care, research, safety reporting, or informatics, supported by biomedical terminology experts from the National Cancer Institute's Enterprise Vocabulary Services participated. The multinational group developed a working definition of AEs and reviewed concepts (terms, synonyms, and definitions) from 16 pediatric clinical domains. The resulting AE terminology contains >1000 pediatric diseases, disorders, or clinical findings. The terms were tested for proof of concept use in 2 different settings: hospital readmissions and the NICU. The advantages of the AE terminology include ease of adoption due to integration with well-established and internationally accepted biomedical terminologies, a uniquely temporal focus on pediatric health and disease from conception through adolescence, and terms that could be used in both well- and underresourced environments. The AE terminology is available for use without restriction through the National Cancer Institute's Enterprise Vocabulary Services and is fully compatible with, and represented in, the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities. The terminology is intended to mature with use, user feedback, and optimization. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Terminological reference of a knowledge-based system: the data dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stausberg, J; Wormek, A; Kraut, U

    1995-01-01

    The development of open and integrated knowledge bases makes new demands on the definition of the used terminology. The definition should be realized in a data dictionary separated from the knowledge base. Within the works done at a reference model of medical knowledge, a data dictionary has been developed and used in different applications: a term definition shell, a documentation tool and a knowledge base. The data dictionary includes that part of terminology, which is largely independent of a certain knowledge model. For that reason, the data dictionary can be used as a basis for integrating knowledge bases into information systems, for knowledge sharing and reuse and for modular development of knowledge-based systems.

  7. Dictionary of terminology of property of matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    This book is a dictionary of term of property of matter. It indicates the items and way of arrangement which are written by the order ; first in English and then in Korean, and in alphabetical order. It gives descriptions of terms which are complied by directions of government of chosen by idiom and terms in of technical and scientific terms, symbols such as unit and sign and index and appendix which includes how to read mathematical sign, abbreviation of floor plan, terms of floor plan diagram of property of matter and conversion table.

  8. Terminology and Labelling Words by Subject in Monolingual Dictionaries – What Do Domain Labels Say to Dictionary Users?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nová, Jana; Mžourková, Hana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 2 (2017), s. 296-304 ISSN 0021-5597 Institutional support: RVO:68378092 Keywords : terminology * terms * lexicography * monolingual dictionary * e- dictionary * domain labels * Czech Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Linguistics http://www.juls.savba.sk/ediela/jc/2017/2/jc17-02.pdf

  9. Intellectualization through Terminology Development | Khumalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article will propose an improved model to cater for AnyTime Access, which is convenient for student needs between lec-tures, and improve the harvesting mechanism in the existing model. Keywords: Intellectualization, Terminology Development, Harvesting, Crowdsourcing, Consultation, Verification, Authentication, ...

  10. From data to knowledge through concept-oriented terminologies: experience with the Medical Entities Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, J J

    2000-01-01

    Knowledge representation involves enumeration of conceptual symbols and arrangement of these symbols into some meaningful structure. Medical knowledge representation has traditionally focused more on the structure than the symbols. Several significant efforts are under way, at local, national, and international levels, to address the representation of the symbols though the creation of high-quality terminologies that are themselves knowledge based. This paper reviews these efforts, including the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED) in use at Columbia University and the New York Presbyterian Hospital. A decade's experience with the MED is summarized to serve as a proof-of-concept that knowledge-based terminologies can support the use of coded patient data for a variety of knowledge-based activities, including the improved understanding of patient data, the access of information sources relevant to specific patient care problems, the application of expert systems directly to the care of patients, and the discovery of new medical knowledge. The terminological knowledge in the MED has also been used successfully to support clinical application development and maintenance, including that of the MED itself. On the basis of this experience, current efforts to create standard knowledge-based terminologies appear to be justified.

  11. Thesaurus of craft and professional terminology in Ukrainian bibliopegy: the issues of a special dictionary formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halchenko O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article covers terminological problems which arise when medieval manuscripts’ bindings are described for scientific catalogs and electronic databases. The author attempts to analyze the causes of these problems and ways to overcome them. Reviewed are handwritten and printed sources, which contain the terms dealing with manuscripts production, and substantiated is the relevance of formation of the national craft and professional terminology thesaurus in Ukrainian codicology and bibliopegy. We have also defined the basic steps of the dictionary creation, which are the following: collecting special terms and creating a glossary and card index; translation, editing and unification of borrowed terms; creation of a digital visual dictionary

  12. A dictionary of commonly used terms and terminologies in nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    A need for a comprehensive dictionary of cotton was assessed by the International Cotton Advisory Committee (ICAC), Washington, DC. The ICAC has selected the topics (from the fiber to fabric) to be covered in the dictionary. The ICAC has invited researchers/scientists from across the globe, to compi...

  13. Integrating nursing diagnostic concepts into the medical entities dictionary using the ISO Reference Terminology Model for Nursing Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jee-In; Cimino, James J; Bakken, Suzanne

    2003-01-01

    The purposes of the study were (1) to evaluate the usefulness of the International Standards Organization (ISO) Reference Terminology Model for Nursing Diagnoses as a terminology model for defining nursing diagnostic concepts in the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED) and (2) to create the additional hierarchical structures required for integration of nursing diagnostic concepts into the MED. The authors dissected nursing diagnostic terms from two source terminologies (Home Health Care Classification and the Omaha System) into the semantic categories of the ISO model. Consistent with the ISO model, they selected Focus and Judgment as required semantic categories for creating intensional definitions of nursing diagnostic concepts in the MED. Because the MED does not include Focus and Judgment hierarchies, the authors developed them to define the nursing diagnostic concepts. The ISO model was sufficient for dissecting the source terminologies into atomic terms. The authors identified 162 unique focus concepts from the 266 nursing diagnosis terms for inclusion in the Focus hierarchy. For the Judgment hierarchy, the authors precoordinated Judgment and Potentiality instead of using Potentiality as a qualifier of Judgment as in the ISO model. Impairment and Alteration were the most frequently occurring judgments. Nursing care represents a large proportion of health care activities; thus, it is vital that terms used by nurses are integrated into concept-oriented terminologies that provide broad coverage for the domain of health care. This study supports the utility of the ISO Reference Terminology Model for Nursing Diagnoses as a facilitator for the integration process.

  14. A cognitive analysis of metaphor in Shona terminological dictionaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well-known among linguists and lexicographers that metaphor plays a pivotal role in the creation of new terminology and its importance in the expansion of the Shona lexicon in response to scientific, technical and educational demands cannot be overemphasised. Like most languages, Shona is growing through the use ...

  15. Integrating Nursing Diagnostic Concepts into the Medical Entities Dictionary Using the ISO Reference Terminology Model for Nursing Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Jee-In; Cimino, James J.; Bakken, Suzanne

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The purposes of the study were (1) to evaluate the usefulness of the International Standards Organization (ISO) Reference Terminology Model for Nursing Diagnoses as a terminology model for defining nursing diagnostic concepts in the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED) and (2) to create the additional hierarchical structures required for integration of nursing diagnostic concepts into the MED.

  16. Integration of nursing assessment concepts into the medical entities dictionary using the LOINC semantic structure as a terminology model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslowski, B J; Wajngurt, D; Cimino, J J; Bakken, S

    2001-01-01

    Recent investigations have tested the applicability of various terminology models for the representing nursing concepts including those related to nursing diagnoses, nursing interventions, and standardized nursing assessments as a prerequisite for building a reference terminology that supports the nursing domain. We used the semantic structure of Clinical LOINC (Logical Observations, Identifiers, Names, and Codes) as a reference terminology model to support the integration of standardized assessment terms from two nursing terminologies into the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED), the concept-oriented, metadata dictionary at New York Presbyterian Hospital. Although the LOINC semantic structure was used previously to represent laboratory terms in the MED, selected hierarchies and semantic slots required revisions in order to incorporate the nursing assessment concepts. This project was an initial step in integrating nursing assessment concepts into the MED in a manner consistent with evolving standards for reference terminology models. Moreover, the revisions provide the foundation for adding other types of standardized assessments to the MED.

  17. Glossary of Organization Development Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krepner-Tregoe and Associates, Inc., Princeton, NJ.

    Ranging from Action Sequence to Zero Defects, this Kepner-Tregoe glossary defines 194 terms (including some specifically Kepner-Tregoe) relevant to the fields of management development, organization development, and industrial training. (LY)

  18. Natural Science and Technology Terminology in the Sesotho sa Leboa Monolingual Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Mojapelo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The main purpose of this article is to make a comparative analysis of the structural and the lexical differences between coinage and transliteration, as methods for the acquisition of foreign natural sci-ence and technology lexical items, which are meant for inclusion in the Sesotho sa Leboa comprehensive monolingual dictionary, Pukuntšutlhaloši ya Sesotho sa Leboa. With the exception of the multilingual glossaries ('dictionaries' as they are called, which are compiled by the National Language Service of the Department of Arts and Culture, the Sesotho sa Leboa National Lexicography Unit does not at present have any monolin-gual dictionary specializing in specific subjects like natural science and technology. As a start, the Lexicogra-phy Unit decided to include this specialized terminology in the second edition of its comprehensive monolin-gual dictionary. The main purpose for lemmatizing the natural science and technology terminology is to give these lexical items comprehensive definitions in Sesotho sa Leboa, instead of 'a one word translation defini-tion' as is the case in the bilingual and multilingual dictionaries.

    Keywords: TRANSLITERATION, COINAGE, COINED LEXICAL ITEM, LOAN WORD, ADOPTIVE, FOREIGN WORD, LEXICOGRAPHY, SOTHOIZED WORD, INDIGENOUS WORD, NATURAL SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, COMPOUND WORD, AMBIGUITY

    Opsomming: Natuurwetenskaplike en tegnologiese terminologie in die Sesotho sa Leboa eentalige woordeboek. Die hoofdoel van hierdie artikel is om 'n ver-gelykende ontleding te maak van die strukturele en die leksikale verskille tussen nuutskepping en transliterasie as metodes vir die verwerwing van vreemde natuurwetenskaplike en tegnologiese leksikale items wat bedoel is vir insluiting in die Sesotho sa Leboa omvattende eentalige woorde-boek Pukuntšutlhaloši ya Sesotho sa Leboa. Met die uitsondering van die meertalige woordelyste ("woordeboeke" soos hulle genoem word wat deur die Nasionale Taaldiens van die

  19. Terminology and Labelling Words by Subject in Monolingual Dictionaries – What Do Domain Labels Say to Dictionary Users ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nová Jana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on labelling words by subject in a non-specialized dictionary. We compare the existing monolingual dictionaries of Czech and their ways of labelling terms of medicine and related fields; besides apparent differences between dictionaries, there are also inconsistencies within one dictionary. We consider pros and cons of domain labels as such and their usability in the light of needs and limits of dictionary users, with the aim to motivate further discussion on related issues.

  20. Thoughts on ISO and the development of terminologies in Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The implications of language policy decisions on the development of technical languages, terminologies, general lexicography and the dissemination of information will also require special attention in a new South Africa. Keywords: standardisation, terminology, technical language, termbank, lexical data, networks, ...

  1. Developing a National-Level Concept Dictionary for EHR Implementations in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keny, Aggrey; Wanyee, Steven; Kwaro, Daniel; Mulwa, Edwin; Were, Martin C

    2015-01-01

    The increasing adoption of Electronic Health Records (EHR) by developing countries comes with the need to develop common terminology standards to assure semantic interoperability. In Kenya, where the Ministry of Health has rolled out an EHR at 646 sites, several challenges have emerged including variable dictionaries across implementations, inability to easily share data across systems, lack of expertise in dictionary management, lack of central coordination and custody of a terminology service, inadequately defined policies and processes, insufficient infrastructure, among others. A Concept Working Group was constituted to address these challenges. The country settled on a common Kenya data dictionary, initially derived as a subset of the Columbia International eHealth Laboratory (CIEL)/Millennium Villages Project (MVP) dictionary. The initial dictionary scope largely focuses on clinical needs. Processes and policies around dictionary management are being guided by the framework developed by Bakhshi-Raiez et al. Technical and infrastructure-based approaches are also underway to streamline workflow for dictionary management and distribution across implementations. Kenya's approach on comprehensive common dictionary can serve as a model for other countries in similar settings.

  2. Terminology Development at Tertiary Institutions: A South African

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Abstract: There is a dire need in South Africa for multilingual polythematic ..... The act of doing away with a practice such as capital punishment or slavery. .... institutions to start terminology development programmes at their institutions, such as ...

  3. Terminological dictionary of electrical power industry in range of generation, transmission and distribution of electric energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biernacki, T.; Cegla, S.; Ciszewski, W.

    1990-08-01

    The dictionary contains about 5000 terms about conventional and nuclear power plants, energy sources, transmission lines, automation, power systems, environment protection, statistics etc. Each term is given with definition and its equivalents in English, French, German and Russian. Indexes of Polish, English, French, German and Russian terms are provided at the back of dictionary. (A.S.)

  4. On development of “smart” dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Kit

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available On development of “smart” dictionaries The paper discusses the need for development of intelligent dictionaries that allow for two-way interaction with its users. Theoretical ground for such development is suggested. Practical implementation as LexSite lexical resource is shown, concepts for further improvement of the efficiency are proposed.

  5. PURE OR HYBRID? THE DEVELOPMENT OF MIXED DICTIONARY GENRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard R. K. Hartmann

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores 'hybrid' genres of dictionaries and other reference works. Against the tradition of general dictionaries becoming ever more specialised, there has also been a growing trend of mixing two or more 'pure' dictionary types for achieving specific purposes, e.g. the combination of alphabetic and thematic dictionary,general dictionary and technical glossary, dictionary and thesaurus, dictionary and encyclopedia, monolingual and bilingual dictionary, etc. Examples of these various sub-types are discussed (admitting that dictionary research has neglected their study,with the aim of determining overall trends and implications, particularly with regard to the possibility of their further development with the means of information technology.

  6. IAA Space Terminological Multilingual Data Bank Towards an On- Line Dictionary with Definitions in French and in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaid, R.

    2002-01-01

    It has been emphasized in previous papers that the bilingual "basic list" of the IAA multilingual terminological data bank (MTDB) needed improvement before beginning works on definitions. In this communication, in a first part, we report, on the works (corrections and additions) done to improve the scope of the "basic list" . These works have yet to be done by coordinators for the others twelve languages concerned by the IAA MTBD. In a second part, according to the decision of the IAA MTDB committee to complete the MTDB with definitions in French and in English, we describe the methodology adopted and the problems encountered to elaborate a mock-up of a space dictionary, including in a first step definitions in English and in French, of the English terms and expressions beginning by the letter "A" in the basic list.

  7. Development of terminology for mammographic techniques for radiological technologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagahara, Ayako; Yokooka, Yuki; Tsuji, Shintaro; Nishimoto, Naoki; Uesugi, Masahito; Muto, Hiroshi; Ohba, Hisateru; Kurowarabi, Kunio; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko

    2011-07-01

    We are developing a mammographic ontology to share knowledge of the mammographic domain for radiologic technologists, with the aim of improving mammographic techniques. As a first step in constructing the ontology, we used mammography reference books to establish mammographic terminology for identifying currently available knowledge. This study proceeded in three steps: (1) determination of the domain and scope of the terminology, (2) lexical extraction, and (3) construction of hierarchical structures. We extracted terms mainly from three reference books and constructed the hierarchical structures manually. We compared features of the terms extracted from the three reference books. We constructed a terminology consisting of 440 subclasses grouped into 19 top-level classes: anatomic entity, image quality factor, findings, material, risk, breast, histological classification of breast tumors, role, foreign body, mammographic technique, physics, purpose of mammography examination, explanation of mammography examination, image development, abbreviation, quality control, equipment, interpretation, and evaluation of clinical imaging. The number of terms that occurred in the subclasses varied depending on which reference book was used. We developed a terminology of mammographic techniques for radiologic technologists consisting of 440 terms.

  8. Development of Geography and Geology Terminology in British Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meara, Rhian; Cameron, Audrey; Quinn, Gary; O'Neill, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    The BSL Glossary Project, run by the Scottish Sensory Centre at the University of Edinburgh focuses on developing scientific terminology in British Sign Language for use in the primary, secondary and tertiary education of deaf and hard of hearing students within the UK. Thus far, the project has developed 850 new signs and definitions covering Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Astronomy and Mathematics. The project has also translated examinations into BSL for students across Scotland. The current phase of the project has focused on developing terminology for Geography and Geology subjects. More than 189 new signs have been developed in these subjects including weather, rivers, maps, natural hazards and Geographical Information Systems. The signs were developed by a focus group with expertise in Geography and Geology, Chemistry, Ecology, BSL Linguistics and Deaf Education all of whom are deaf fluent BSL users.

  9. Inflorescence development in petunia: through the maze of botanical terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Rob; Kusters, Elske; Koes, Ronald

    2010-05-01

    Flowering plants have developed many ways to arrange their flowers. A flower-bearing branch or system of branches is called an inflorescence. The number of flowers that an inflorescence contains ranges from a single flower to endless flower-clusters. Over the past centuries, botanists have classified inflorescences based on their morphology, which has led to an unfortunate maze of complex botanical terminology. With the rise of molecular developmental biology, research has become increasingly focused on how inflorescences develop, rather than on their morphology. It is the decisions taken by groups of stem cells at the growing tips of shoots, called meristems, on when and where to produce a flower or a shoot that specify the course of inflorescence development. Modelling is a helpful aid to follow the consequences of these decisions for inflorescence development. The so-called transient model can produce the broad inflorescence types: cyme, raceme, and panicle, into which most inflorescences found in nature can be classified. The analysis of several inflorescence branching mutants has led to a solid understanding of cymose inflorescence development in petunia (Petunia hybrida). The cyme of petunia is a distinct body plan compared with the well-studied racemes of Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum, which provides an excellent opportunity to study evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) related questions. However, thus far, limited use has been made of this opportunity, which may, at least in part, be due to researchers getting lost in the terminology. Some general issues are discussed here, while focusing on inflorescence development in petunia.

  10. Supporting infobuttons with terminological knowledge.

    OpenAIRE

    Cimino, J. J.; Elhanan, G.; Zeng, Q.

    1997-01-01

    We have developed several prototype applications which integrate clinical systems with on-line information resources by using patient data to drive queries in response to user information needs. We refer to these collectively as infobuttons because they are evoked with a minimum of keyboard entry. We make use of knowledge in our terminology, the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED) to assist with the selection of appropriate queries and resources, as well as the translation of patient data to fo...

  11. Terminology Standardization in Education and the Construction of Resources: The Welsh Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tegau Andrews

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes developments in Welsh-language terminology within the education system in Wales. Following an outline of historical terminology work, it concentrates on the consolidation of terminology standardization at the Language Technologies Unit, Bangor University, with particular reference to two projects, one concerned with terminology for school-age and further education, the second concerned with higher education. The developments described include the adoption of international standards in terminology standardization and their incorporation in an online terminology standardization environment and dissemination platform that enable access to the centralized terminological dictionaries via a number of sophisticated websites, portals and mobile apps featuring rich dictionary entries. Some of the issues in managing large term collections are explored, and usage statistics are presented for the resources described.

  12. Terminology development towards harmonizing multiple clinical neuroimaging research repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jessica A; Pasquerello, Danielle; Turner, Matthew D; Keator, David B; Alpert, Kathryn; King, Margaret; Landis, Drew; Calhoun, Vince D; Potkin, Steven G; Tallis, Marcelo; Ambite, Jose Luis; Wang, Lei

    2015-07-01

    Data sharing and mediation across disparate neuroimaging repositories requires extensive effort to ensure that the different domains of data types are referred to by commonly agreed upon terms. Within the SchizConnect project, which enables querying across decentralized databases of neuroimaging, clinical, and cognitive data from various studies of schizophrenia, we developed a model for each data domain, identified common usable terms that could be agreed upon across the repositories, and linked them to standard ontological terms where possible. We had the goal of facilitating both the current user experience in querying and future automated computations and reasoning regarding the data. We found that existing terminologies are incomplete for these purposes, even with the history of neuroimaging data sharing in the field; and we provide a model for efforts focused on querying multiple clinical neuroimaging repositories.

  13. Segmenting healthcare terminology users: a strategic approach to large scale evolutionary development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, C; Briggs, K; Brown, P J

    1999-01-01

    Healthcare terminologies have become larger and more complex, aiming to support a diverse range of functions across the whole spectrum of healthcare activity. Prioritization of development, implementation and evaluation can be achieved by regarding the "terminology" as an integrated system of content-based and functional components. Matching these components to target segments within the healthcare community, supports a strategic approach to evolutionary development and provides essential product differentiation to enable terminology providers and systems suppliers to focus on end-user requirements.

  14. Integration of nursing assessment concepts into the medical entities dictionary using the LOINC semantic structure as a terminology model.

    OpenAIRE

    Cieslowski, B. J.; Wajngurt, D.; Cimino, J. J.; Bakken, S.

    2001-01-01

    Recent investigations have tested the applicability of various terminology models for the representing nursing concepts including those related to nursing diagnoses, nursing interventions, and standardized nursing assessments as a prerequisite for building a reference terminology that supports the nursing domain. We used the semantic structure of Clinical LOINC (Logical Observations, Identifiers, Names, and Codes) as a reference terminology model to support the integration of standardized ass...

  15. Cognitive approach to the construction of three-language terminological thesaurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorij Chetverikov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive approach to the construction of three-language terminological thesaurus The paper is devoted to developing a lexicographic database of a three-language terminological dictionary. The detailed analysis of a relations scheme between tables and structures of tables with the help of three-layer decomposition predicate method is carried out, which has allowed to define ways of solving direct and reversible three-language electronic dictionaries creation problem.

  16. Fascial eponyms may help elucidate terminological and nomenclatural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adstrum, Sue

    2015-07-01

    It has been reported that at least 700 anatomical eponyms were in existence at the end of the 19th century, yet the number of eponyms expressly relating to fasciae is unknown, and these anatomical expressions have yet to be described as a group. This study accordingly aimed to assemble a comprehensive-as-possible list of these terms, to investigate their customary usage, and to consider whether their existence might usefully shed light on contemporary fascia-relating terminological development. A search for fascia-relating eponyms incorporated within a range of English language anatomical and medical publications during the past 400 years resulted in the discovery of 44 eponyms that explicitly refer to aspects of fascia. This article outlines and discusses the origin, meaning, and use of these terms, and concludes that an understanding of the history of fascial eponyms may be of value when addressing contemporary concerns with the language used to describe fascia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Delayed speech development in children: Introduction to terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Bobylova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been recently an increase in the number of children diagnosed with delayed speech development. There is delay compensation with age, but mild deficiency often remains for life. Delayed speech development is more common in boys than in girls. Its etiology is unknown in most cases, so a child should be followed up to make an accurate diagnosis. Genetic predisposition or environmental factors frequently influence speech development. The course of its delays is various. In the history of a number of disorders (childhood disintegrative disorder, Landau–Kleffner syndrome, there is evidence for the normal development of speech to a certain period and then stops or even regresses. By way of comparison, there are generally speech developmental changes in autism even during the preverbal stage (a complex of revival fails to form; babbling is poor, low emotional, gibberish; at the same time, the baby recipes whole phrases without using them to communicate. These speech disorders are considered not only as a delay, but also as a developmental abnormality. Speech disorders in children should be diagnosed as early as possible in order to initiative corrective measures in time. In this case, a physician makes a diagnosis and a special education teacher does corrective work. The successful collaboration and mutual understanding of the specialists in these areas will determine quality of life for a child in the future. This paper focusses on the terminology and classification of delays, which are necessary for physicians and teachers to speak the same language.

  18. Thoughts on ISO and the Development of Terminologies in Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cography and the dissemination of information will also require special .... of terminologies, the NTS implements the technical language model proposed ... been reached amongst technical language users and after further processing. ... recall v. herroep (argumente) but also, for example, by placing the synonyms in the ...

  19. Pediatric Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) works with NCI Enterprise Vocabulary Services (EVS) to provide standardized terminology for coding pediatric clinical trials and other research activities.

  20. Synonymy in the English-origin Romanian Medical Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana BADEA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian medical terminology has been enriched quite a lot lately. This phenomena was not only due to the significant influence of the English language, but also because of the relationships developed between the already existing terms and the new ones. Thus, the present study comprises the analysis on Romanian medical terms of Englsih origin and their native synonymous correspondents in the Romanian medical terminology. The dictionnaries used to select the synonymous pairs of medical terms were the Medical Dictionary (2010 and The Great Dictionary of Neologisms (2008

  1. Describing and developing terminology for multiple identity collections

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the start of a cataloguing project, involving research into terminology and description, controlled vocabulary, and ways to improve collections' searchability. This focuses on the Working Press archive, books by and about working class artists, 1986-1996, the related book and zine collections, whose authors are often unidentified, or with pseudonyms, and the Tessa Boffin, 1980s-1990s photography LGBTQ. These collections deal with multiple identities –subjects include rac...

  2. D1-3: Marshfield Dictionary of Clinical and Translational Science (MD-CTS): An Online Reference for Clinical and Translational Science Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finamore, Joe; Ray, William; Kadolph, Chris; Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Ye, Zhan; Jacqueline, Bohne; Tachinardi, Umberto; Mendonça, Eneida; Finnegan, Brian; Bartkowiak, Barbara; Weichelt, Bryan; Lin, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims New terms are rapidly appearing in the literature and practice of clinical medicine and translational research. To catalog real-world usage of medical terms, we report the first construction of an online dictionary of clinical and translational medicinal terms, which are computationally generated in near real-time using a big data approach. This project is NIH CTSA-funded and developed by the Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation in conjunction with University of Wisconsin - Madison. Currently titled Marshfield Dictionary of Clinical and Translational Science (MD-CTS), this application is a Google-like word search tool. By entering a term into the search bar, MD-CTS will display that term’s definition, usage examples, contextual terms, related images, and ontological information. A prototype is available for public viewing at http://spellchecker.mfldclin.edu/. Methods We programmatically derived the lexicon for MD-CTS from scholarly communications by parsing through 15,156,745 MEDLINE abstracts and extracting all of the unique words found therein. We then ran this list through several filters in order to remove words that were not relevant for searching, such as common English words and numeric expressions. We then loaded the resulting 1,795,769 terms into SQL tables. Each term is cross-referenced with every occurrence in all abstracts in which it was found. Additional information is aggregated from Wiktionary, Bioportal, and Wikipedia in real-time and displayed on-screen. From this lexicon we created a supplemental dictionary resource (updated quarterly) to be used in Microsoft Office® products. Results We evaluated the utility of MD-CTS by creating a list of 100 words derived from recent clinical and translational medicine publications in the week of July 22, 2013. We then performed comparative searches for each term with Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary, Stedman’s Medical Dictionary, Dorland’s Illustrated Medical Dictionary, Medical

  3. Supporting infobuttons with terminological knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, J J; Elhanan, G; Zeng, Q

    1997-01-01

    We have developed several prototype applications which integrate clinical systems with on-line information resources by using patient data to drive queries in response to user information needs. We refer to these collectively as infobuttons because they are evoked with a minimum of keyboard entry. We make use of knowledge in our terminology, the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED) to assist with the selection of appropriate queries and resources, as well as the translation of patient data to forms recognized by the resources. This paper describes the kinds of knowledge in the MED, including literal attributes, hierarchical links and other semantic links, and how this knowledge is used in system integration.

  4. Pronunciation dictionary development in resource-scarce environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The deployment of speech technology systems in the developing world is often hampered by the lack of appropriate linguistic resources. A suitable pronunciation dictionary is one such resource that can be difficult to obtain for lesser...

  5. Medical Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer County Community Coll., Trenton, NJ.

    This document is one of a series of student workbooks developed for workplace skill development courses or workshops by Mercer County Community College (New Jersey) and its partners. Designed to help employees of medical establishments learn medical terminology, this course provides information on basic word structure, body parts, suffixes and…

  6. CDISC Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) is an international, non-profit organization that develops and supports global data standards for medical research. CDISC is working actively with EVS to develop and support controlled terminology in several areas, notably CDISC's Study Data Tabulation Model (SDTM).

  7. The use of a medical dictionary for regulatory activities terminology (MedDRA) in prescription-event monitoring in Japan (J-PEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokotsuka, M; Aoyama, M; Kubota, K

    2000-07-01

    The Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Terminology (MedDRA) version 2.1 (V2.1) was released in March 1999 accompanied by the MedDRA/J V2.1J specifically for Japanese users. In prescription-event monitoring in Japan (J-PEM), we have employed the MedDRA/J for data entry, signal generation and event listing. In J-PEM, the lowest level terms (LLTs) in the MedDRA/J are used in data entry because the richness of LLTs is judged to be advantageous. A signal is generated normally at the preferred term (PT) level, but it has been found that various reporters describe the same event using descriptions that are potentially encoded by LLTs under different PTs. In addition, some PTs are considered too specific to generate the proper signal. In the system used in J-PEM, when an LLT is selected as a candidate to encode an event, another LLT under a different PT, if any, is displayed on the computer screen so that it may be coded instead of, or in addition to, the candidate LLT. The five-level structure of the MedDRA is used when listing events but some modification is required to generate a functional event list.

  8. Medical and dermatology dictionaries: an examination of unstructured definitions and a proposal for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, David Todd; Papier, Art; Byrnes, Jennifer; Goldsmith, Lowell A

    2004-01-01

    Medical dictionaries serve to describe and clarify the term set used by medical professionals. In this commentary, we analyze a representative set of skin disease definitions from 2 prominent medical dictionaries, Stedman's Medical Dictionary and Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary. We find that there is an apparent lack of stylistic standards with regard to content and form. We advocate a new standard form for the definition of medical terminology, a standard to complement the easy-to-read yet unstructured style of the traditional dictionary entry. This new form offers a reproducible structure, paving the way for the development of a computer readable "dictionary" of medical terminology. Such a dictionary offers immediate update capability and a fundamental improvement in the ability to search for relationships between terms.

  9. Nuclear operations dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In less than fifty years, a sophisticated technical language has developed worldwide around broad-ranging operations in the field of nuclear technology. In South Africa the need to adapt this new technical language in an orderly and acceptable manner for common use was identified. The aim of this dictionary is to promote the use of correct nuclear terminology in both Afrikaans and English, and to aid in the translation of nuclear terms from Afrikaans into English

  10. Medical Informatics Specialty in the Developed English-Speaking Countries: The Terminology Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobryn, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    The article studies the development process of medical informatics specialty terminology as the ground for further research into foreign countries' experience, including the Canadian one, of specialists' professional training in the field of MI. The study determines the origin and chief stages of the formation and development of the medical…

  11. Legal terminology in African languages | Alberts | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various aspects regarding the present project (such as financing, time-schedule, training and terminological problems encountered) are treated. Keywords: legal terminology, sociolinguistic factors, terminology development, african languages, indigenous languages, multilingualism, subject fields, terminology, translation, ...

  12. PURE OR HYBRID? THE DEVELOPMENT OF MIXED DICTIONARY GENRES

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhard R. K. Hartmann

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores 'hybrid' genres of dictionaries and other reference works. Against the tradition of general dictionaries becoming ever more specialised, there has also been a growing trend of mixing two or more 'pure' dictionary types for achieving specific purposes, e.g. the combination of alphabetic and thematic dictionary,general dictionary and technical glossary, dictionary and thesaurus, dictionary and encyclopedia, monolingual and bilingual dictionary, etc. Examples of these various...

  13. Transnational health care: from a global terminology towards transnational health region development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainil, Tomas; Van Loon, Francis; Dinnie, Keith; Botterill, David; Platenkamp, Vincent; Meulemans, Herman

    2012-11-01

    Within European cross-border health care, recent studies have identified several types of international patients. Within the Anglo-Saxon setting, the specific terminology of medical tourism is used. The analytical purpose of the paper is to resolve this semantic difference by suggesting an alternative terminology, 'transnational health care' that is understood as a 'context-controlled and coordinated network of health services'. For demand-driven trans-border access seekers and cross-border access searchers, there is a need to opt for regional health-policy strategies. For supply-driven sending context actors and receiving context actors, there would be organizational benefits to these strategies. Applying the terminology of trans-border access seekers, cross-border access searchers, sending context and receiving context actors results in a transnational patient mobility typology of twelve types of international patients, based on the criteria of geographical distance, cultural distance and searching efforts, public/private/no cover and private/public provision of health services. Finally, the normative purpose of the paper is to encourage the use of this terminology to promote a policy route for transnational health regions. It is suggested that the development of transnational health regions, each with their own medical and supportive service characteristics, could enhance governmental context-controlled decision power in applying sustainable health destination management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Remote sensing terminology: past experience and recent needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancheva, Rumiana

    2013-10-01

    Terminology is a key issue for a better understanding among people using various languages. Terminology accuracy is essential during all phases of international cooperation. It is crucial to keep up with the latest quantitative and qualitative developments and novelties of the terminology in advanced technology fields such as aerospace science and industry. This is especially true in remote sensing and geoinformatics which develop rapidly and have wide and ever extending applications in various domains of human activity. The importance of the correct use of remote sensing terms refers not only to people working in this field but also to experts in many disciplines who handle remote sensing data and information products. The paper is devoted to terminology issues that refer to all aspects of remote sensing research and application areas. The attention is drawn on the recent needs and peculiarities of compiling specialized dictionaries in the subject area of remote sensing. Details are presented about the work in progress on the preparation of an English-Bulgarian dictionary of remote sensing terms focusing on Earth observations and geoinformation science. Our belief is that the elaboration of bilingual and multilingual dictionaries and glossaries in this spreading, most technically advanced and promising field of human expertise is of great practical importance. Any interest in cooperation and initiating of suchlike collaborative multilingual projects is welcome and highly appreciated.

  15. On the development of scientific terminology in African languages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The real development of individual languages and the purposeful cultivation of language pride necessarily accentuate races and ethnical differences, which are contrary to the ideal of nation-building. Consequently, languages are subtly denied acknowledged constitutional rights in practice, which will impact negatively on ...

  16. Inflorescence development in petunia: through the maze of botanical terminology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castel, R.; Kusters, E.; Koes, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    Flowering plants have developed many ways to arrange their flowers. A flower-bearing branch or system of branches is called an inflorescence. The number of flowers that an inflorescence contains ranges from a single flower to endless flower-clusters. Over the past centuries, botanists have

  17. Nuclear terminology during forty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoestrand, N.G.

    1994-04-01

    In Sweden terminology work in the field of nuclear technology started in the early 1950s. Three dictionaries were completed in 1962, 1975 and 1990, respectively, mainly through cooperation between Swedish Mechanical Standards Institution (SMS) and Swedish Centre for Technical Terminology (TNC). In parallel to this, international work has been performed through the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). In conclusion, problems concerning some special terms are discussed. 17 refs

  18. Linguistic aspects of eponymic professional endocrinologic terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Bytsko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Special linguistic researches of terminological units of different branches of medicine allow analyzing in details the ways of creating the systems of clinical terminology from different aspects: historical, scientific, cultural, linguistic and semantic. There is a wide area of terminology related to the clinical and experimental endocrino­logy within general medical terminological system. The purpose of the study: to demonstrate the structure of endocrine medical terms — eponyms through the prism of systematization of methodological researches on eponymic vocabulary. Materials and methods. The actual material received as a result of a total choice of eponyms (there were 296 terms from the “Reference dictionary for endocrinologist”, which was composed by the scientists of V. Danilevsky Institute of Endocrine Pathology Problems and Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate education — A.V. Kozakov, N.A. Kravchun, I.M. Ilyina, M.I. Zubko, O.A. Goncharova, I.V. Cherniavska has 10,000 endocrine terms, the authors successfully streamlined medical terms of the clinical and experimental endocrinology into the vocabulary. The method of total choice of terms from professional literature, the descriptive method and distributive method were used in the study that allowed distinguishing lexical and semantic features of eponymic terms in the branch of endocrinology. Results. The obtained results point out to the modernity of studies in the field of clinical and experimental endocrinology, which is due to the fact that this is the oldest terminology, by the example of which it is possible to trace the ways of formation, development and improvement of terms, the realization of semantic processes, certain trends, ways and means of word formation. Conclusions. The results of the research on the above mentioned sublanguage of clinical medicine at the level of linguistic observations of the functio­ning in dictionaries and scientific works will

  19. Collaboration of the CMEA countries concerning the treatment of radiation protection terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhangel'skaya, G.V.; Rodnyanskaya, L.I.

    1986-01-01

    At present particular attention is directed to the terminology of radiation hygiene because of its intensive development and of the multitude of English terms integrated into it. The Leningrad Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene has elaborated a terminology list and characterized the terms of health physics. As to the cooperation in terminology by CMEA specialists it is proposed to elaborate a multilingual dictionary with previous drawing up of equivalent terms and coordination in defining them. Another proposal concerning cooperative publishing of compilations with terms to be recommended is made

  20. Contributions to the History of Library Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Fred R.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the historical method in lexicography, the general characteristics of library terminology, and the current state of library lexicography. Presents a glossary which lists quotations supplementing the coverage of library-related vocabulary in the "Oxford English Dictionary" (OED) and the "Dictionary of Americanisms"…

  1. Croatian Analytical Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastelan-Macan; M.

    2008-04-01

    oljić, I. Eškinja, M. Kaštelan-Macan, I. Piljac. Š. Cerjan-Stefanović and others translated Chromatographic nomenclature (IUPAC Compendium of Analytical Nomenclature. The related area is covered by books of V. Grdinić and F. Plavšić.During the project Croatian nomenclature of analytical chemistry there shall be an analysis of dictionaries, textbooks, handbooks, professional and scientific monographs and articles, official governmental and economic publications, regulations and instructions. The Compendium of Analytical Nomenclature is expected to have been translated and the translation mostly adjusted to the Croatian language standard. EUROLAB and EURACHEM documents related to quality assurance in analytical laboratories, especially in research and development have not yet been included in the Compendium, and due to the globalization of the information and service market, such documents need to be adjusted to the Croatian language standard in collaboration with consultants from the Institute for Croatian Language and Lingiustics. The terms shall be sorted according to the analytical process from sampling to final information.It is expected that the project's results shall be adopted by the Croatian scientific and professional community, so as to raise the awareness of the necessity of using Croatian terms in everyday professional communication and particularly in scientific and educational work. The Croatian language is rich enough for all analytical terms to be translated appropriately. This shall complete the work our predecessors began several times. We face a great challenge of contributing to the creation of the Croatian scientific terminology and believe we shall succeed.

  2. Terminology tools: state of the art and practical lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, J J

    2001-01-01

    As controlled medical terminologies evolve from simple code-name-hierarchy arrangements, into rich, knowledge-based ontologies of medical concepts, increased demands are placed on both the developers and users of the terminologies. In response, researchers have begun developing tools to address their needs. The aims of this article are to review previous work done to develop these tools and then to describe work done at Columbia University and New York Presbyterian Hospital (NYPH). Researchers working with the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED), the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), and NYPH's Medical Entities Dictionary (MED) have created a wide variety of terminology browsers, editors and servers to facilitate creation, maintenance and use of these terminologies. Although much work has been done, no generally available tools have yet emerged. Consensus on requirement for tool functions, especially terminology servers is emerging. Tools at NYPH have been used successfully to support the integration of clinical applications and the merger of health care institutions. Significant advancement has occurred over the past fifteen years in the development of sophisticated controlled terminologies and the tools to support them. The tool set at NYPH provides a case study to demonstrate one feasible architecture.

  3. Dictionary of forest structural terminology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Geldenhuys, CJ

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available This report lists and defines attributes (both functional and structural) that have been used in other structural classifications of forest vegetation. Field techniques are summarized. The recommended use of each attribute and technique is presented...

  4. Abstraction networks for terminologies: Supporting management of "big knowledge".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halper, Michael; Gu, Huanying; Perl, Yehoshua; Ochs, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    Terminologies and terminological systems have assumed important roles in many medical information processing environments, giving rise to the "big knowledge" challenge when terminological content comprises tens of thousands to millions of concepts arranged in a tangled web of relationships. Use and maintenance of knowledge structures on that scale can be daunting. The notion of abstraction network is presented as a means of facilitating the usability, comprehensibility, visualization, and quality assurance of terminologies. An abstraction network overlays a terminology's underlying network structure at a higher level of abstraction. In particular, it provides a more compact view of the terminology's content, avoiding the display of minutiae. General abstraction network characteristics are discussed. Moreover, the notion of meta-abstraction network, existing at an even higher level of abstraction than a typical abstraction network, is described for cases where even the abstraction network itself represents a case of "big knowledge." Various features in the design of abstraction networks are demonstrated in a methodological survey of some existing abstraction networks previously developed and deployed for a variety of terminologies. The applicability of the general abstraction-network framework is shown through use-cases of various terminologies, including the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine - Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED), and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). Important characteristics of the surveyed abstraction networks are provided, e.g., the magnitude of the respective size reduction referred to as the abstraction ratio. Specific benefits of these alternative terminology-network views, particularly their use in terminology quality assurance, are discussed. Examples of meta-abstraction networks are presented. The "big knowledge" challenge constitutes the use and maintenance of terminological structures that

  5. Review of Welding Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Petrėtienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses welding terms in accordance with the Lithuanian standard LST EN 1792 „Welding. The multilingual list of welding terms and similar processes”, „The Russian–Lithuanian dictionary of the terms of mechanical engineering technology and welding“ and the examples from postgraduates‘ final works. It analyses the infringement of lexical, word-building and morphological rules. First-year students should already be familiar with the standardized terms of their speciality. More active propagation of the terms should help to avoid terminology mistakes in various scientific spheres.

  6. The Development of a Temporal Information Dictionary for Social Media Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukkamala, Alivelu Manga; Beck, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Dictionaries have been used to analyse text even before the emergence of social media and the use of dictionaries for sentiment analysis there. While dictionaries have been used to understand the tonality of text, so far it has not been possible to automatically detect if the tonality refers...... to the present, past, or future. In this research, we develop a dictionary containing time-indicating words in a wordlist (T-wordlist). To test how the dictionary performs, we apply our T-wordlist on different disaster related social media datasets. Subsequently we will validate the wordlist and results...... by a manual content analysis. So far, in this research-in-progress, we were able to develop a first dictionary and will also provide some initial insight into the performance of our wordlist....

  7. Understanding terminological systems. I: Terminology and typology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Keizer, N. F.; Abu-Hanna, A.; Zwetsloot-Schonk, J. H.

    2000-01-01

    Terminological systems are an important research issue within the field of medical informatics. For precise understanding of existing terminological systems a referential framework is needed that provides a uniform terminology and typology of terminological systems themselves. In this article a

  8. The architecture of a distributed medical dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, J; Buffone, G; Moreau, D

    1995-01-01

    Exploiting high-speed computer networks to provide a national medical information infrastructure is a goal for medical informatics. The Distributed Medical Dictionary under development at Baylor College of Medicine is a model for an architecture that supports collaborative development of a distributed online medical terminology knowledge-base. A prototype is described that illustrates the concept. Issues that must be addressed by such a system include high availability, acceptable response time, support for local idiom, and control of vocabulary.

  9. Terminological synonyms in Czech and English sports terminologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Cocca

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The following paper deals with the concept and typology of terminological synonyms in English and Czech, focusing on the official sport terms codified in English and/or Czech dictionaries. The analysis focuses on Anglicisms as terminological doublets, hyposynonyms, stylistic synonyms, and false friends. Results show that a high number of synonyms were generated by the process of transshaping or translating English terms into Czech. Our analysis suggests that there may be found three types of sports synonyms in English (real, quasi-, and pseudo- synonyms and four main types in Czech (terminological doublets, Anglicisms as hyposynonyms, false friends, and stylistic synonyms. The use of synonyms is even more evident in modern or newly created sports; mass media and the accessibility of data through the Internet playing an essential role as they mediate an immense input of information to the target population.

  10. Development of a Model for the Representation of Nanotechnology-Specific Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, LeeAnn O.; Kennedy, Christopher H.; Fritts, Martin J.; Hartel, Francis W.

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an important, rapidly-evolving, multidisciplinary field [1]. The tremendous growth in this area necessitates the establishment of a common, open-source terminology to support the diverse biomedical applications of nanotechnology. Currently, the consensus process to define and categorize conceptual entities pertaining to nanotechnology is in a rudimentary stage. We have constructed a nanotechnology-specific conceptual hierarchy that can be utilized by end users to retrieve accurate, controlled terminology regarding emerging nanotechnology and corresponding clinical applications. PMID:17238469

  11. [Health, environment and nursing. Philosophical and theoretical foundations for the development and validation of a nursing interface terminology. Part III].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvé-Udina, Maria-Eulàlia

    2012-06-01

    This manuscript is the third of a triad of papers introducing the philosophical and theoretical approaches that support the development and validation of a nursing interface terminology as a standard vocabulary designed to ease data entry into electronic health records, to produce information and to generate knowledge. To analyze the philosophical and theoretical approaches considered in the development of a new nursing interface terminology called ATIC. Review, analysis and discussion of the main philosophical orientations, high and mid-range theories and nursing scientific literature to develop an interpretative conceptualization of the metaparadigm concepts "Health", "Environment" and "Nursing". In the 2 previous papers the ATIC terminology, its foundation on pragmatism, holism, post-positivism and constructivism and the construction of the meaning for the concept elndividualh is discussed. In this third paper, Health is conceptualized as a multidimensional balance state and the concepts of Partial health status, Disease and Being ill are explored within. The analysis of the Environment theories drives its conceptualization as a group of variables that has the potential to affect health status. In this orientation, Nursing is understood as the scientific discipline focused on the study of health status in the particular environment and experience of the individuals, groups, communities or societies. ATIC terminology is rooted on an eclectic philosophical and theoretical foundation, allowing it to be used from different trends within the totality paradigm.

  12. [Standardization of terminology in laboratory medicine I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Soo Young; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Min, Won Ki; Lim, Hwan Sub; Song, Junghan; Chae, Seok Lae; Lee, Chang Kyu; Kwon, Jung Ah; Lee, Kap No

    2007-04-01

    Standardization of medical terminology is essential for data transmission between health-care institutions or clinical laboratories and for maximizing the benefits of information technology. Purpose of our study was to standardize the medical terms used in the clinical laboratory, such as test names, units, terms used in result descriptions, etc. During the first year of the study, we developed a standard database of concept names for laboratory terms, which covered the terms used in government health care centers, their branch offices, and primary health care units. Laboratory terms were collected from the electronic data interchange (EDI) codes from National Health Insurance Corporation (NHIC), Logical Observation Identifier Names and Codes (LOINC) database, community health centers and their branch offices, and clinical laboratories of representative university medical centers. For standard expression, we referred to the English-Korean/ Korean-English medical dictionary of Korean Medical Association and the rules for foreign language translation. Programs for mapping between LOINC DB and EDI code and for translating English to Korean were developed. A Korean standard laboratory terminology database containing six axial concept names such as components, property, time aspect, system (specimen), scale type, and method type was established for 7,508 test observations. Short names and a mapping table for EDI codes and Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) were added. Synonym tables for concept names, words used in the database, and six axial terms were prepared to make it easier to find the standard terminology with common terms used in the field of laboratory medicine. Here we report for the first time a Korean standard laboratory terminology database for test names, result description terms, result units covering most laboratory tests in primary healthcare centers.

  13. Dictionary criticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2018-01-01

    Dictionary criticism is part of the lexicographical universe and reviewing of electronic and printed dictionaries is not an exercise in linguistics or in subject fields but an exercise in lexicography. It does not follow from this that dictionary reviews should not be based on a linguistic approach......, but that the linguistic approach is only one of several approaches to dictionary reviewing. Similarly, the linguistic and factual competences of reviewers should not be relegated to an insignificant position in the review process. Moreover, reviewers should define the object of their reviews, the dictionary, as a complex...... information tool with several components and in terms of significant lexicographical features: lexicographical functions, data and structures. This emphasises the fact that dictionaries are much more than mere vessels of linguistic categories, namely lexicographical tools that have been developed to fulfil...

  14. [AN ENTRY FOR A "DICTIONARY OF GENETICS" GENERATION AND ASPECTS OF HEREDITY FROM THE PRESOCRATICS TO GALEN: THE MAIN NOTIONS AND THE TECHNICAL TERMINOLOGY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgianni, Franco; Provenza, Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at dealing with the historical development and the terminology of the notion of generation in ancient Greece, taking as well into consideration several aspects of the notion of heredity, for, at present, research in this field lacks a consistent encyclopedic entry on such subjects. The Presocratic - mainly Empedoclean - notions of 'mixing' and 'separation' lurk behind the Hippocratic treatise De genitura/De natura pueri, in which the process of generation is explained through the 'mixing' mechanism of a female semen and a male one. Semen comes from each part of both parents, so it is sound from the sound parts, and unhealthy from the unhealthy parts. It is considered as the "foam of blood" (Diogenes, A 24 DK), gathering itself into a web of blood vessels that bring it to the genital organs. The mixed semen keeps on fixing itself in the womb thanks to pneuma ('breath'), until the embryo takes human shape. Generation is influenced by both the environment (Airs, Waters, Places) and dietetics (On Regimen, I). Male and female are on different levels in CH, since the former is characterized as hot and strong, and the latter is considered as cold and weak; as a consequence of this, the articulation takes longer in the case of a female embryo. On the other hand, the pangenesis and the preformism theory claim for a strong mutual relationship. Sex determination depends from the 'prevalence' of the male or female semen. The generation of twins of different sex depends from such 'prevalence', as well as from the conformation of the womb and its places (right/male, left/female). Both nature (physis) and use (nomos) have a role in the mechanism of inheritance, as the case of the Macrocephalians in Airs Waters Places shows. On the other hand, Plato's Timaeus exemplifies the theory according to which semen derives from the spinal marrow. The structures of the body - bones, flesh, nerves - aim at protecting marrow itself for the sake of maintaining the continuity

  15. Dictionary of Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Julian

    2005-10-01

    The past decade has seen huge advances in the application of microscopy in all areas of science. This welcome development in microscopy has been paralleled by an expansion of the vocabulary of technical terms used in microscopy: terms have been coined for new instruments and techniques and, as microscopes reach even higher resolution, the use of terms that relate to the optical and physical principles underpinning microscopy is now commonplace. The Dictionary of Microscopy was compiled to meet this challenge and provides concise definitions of over 2,500 terms used in the fields of light microscopy, electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, x-ray microscopy and related techniques. Written by Dr Julian P. Heath, Editor of Microscopy and Analysis, the dictionary is intended to provide easy navigation through the microscopy terminology and to be a first point of reference for definitions of new and established terms. The Dictionary of Microscopy is an essential, accessible resource for: students who are new to the field and are learning about microscopes equipment purchasers who want an explanation of the terms used in manufacturers' literature scientists who are considering using a new microscopical technique experienced microscopists as an aide mémoire or quick source of reference librarians, the press and marketing personnel who require definitions for technical reports.

  16. ''Hazardous'' terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, J.

    1991-01-01

    A number of terms (e.g., ''hazardous chemicals,'' ''hazardous materials,'' ''hazardous waste,'' and similar nomenclature) refer to substances that are subject to regulation under one or more federal environmental laws. State laws and regulations also provide additional, similar, or identical terminology that may be confused with the federally defined terms. Many of these terms appear synonymous, and it easy to use them interchangeably. However, in a regulatory context, inappropriate use of narrowly defined terms can lead to confusion about the substances referred to, the statutory provisions that apply, and the regulatory requirements for compliance under the applicable federal statutes. This information Brief provides regulatory definitions, a brief discussion of compliance requirements, and references for the precise terminology that should be used when referring to ''hazardous'' substances regulated under federal environmental laws. A companion CERCLA Information Brief (EH-231-004/0191) addresses ''toxic'' nomenclature

  17. From Data to Knowledge through Concept-oriented Terminologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, James J.

    2000-01-01

    Knowledge representation involves enumeration of conceptual symbols and arrangement of these symbols into some meaningful structure. Medical knowledge representation has traditionally focused more on the structure than the symbols. Several significant efforts are under way, at local, national, and international levels, to address the representation of the symbols though the creation of high-quality terminologies that are themselves knowledge based. This paper reviews these efforts, including the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED) in use at Columbia University and the New York Presbyterian Hospital. A decade's experience with the MED is summarized to serve as a proof-of-concept that knowledge-based terminologies can support the use of coded patient data for a variety of knowledge-based activities, including the improved understanding of patient data, the access of information sources relevant to specific patient care problems, the application of expert systems directly to the care of patients, and the discovery of new medical knowledge. The terminological knowledge in the MED has also been used successfully to support clinical application development and maintenance, including that of the MED itself. On the basis of this experience, current efforts to create standard knowledge-based terminologies appear to be justified. PMID:10833166

  18. Development of a Model for the Representation of Nanotechnology-Specific Terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, LeeAnn O.; Kennedy, Christopher H.; Fritts, Martin J.; Hartel, Francis W.

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an important, rapidly-evolving, multidisciplinary field [1]. The tremendous growth in this area necessitates the establishment of a common, open-source terminology to support the diverse biomedical applications of nanotechnology. Currently, the consensus process to define and categorize conceptual entities pertaining to nanotechnology is in a rudimentary stage. We have constructed a nanotechnology-specific conceptual hierarchy that can be utilized by end users to retrieve ac...

  19. Insurance dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Lutz, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    Special technical terms used in the world of insurance can hardly be found in general dictionaries. This is a gap which the 'Insurance dictionary' now presented is designed to fill. In view of its supplementary function, the number of terms covered is limited to 1200. To make this dictionary especially convenient for ready reference, only the most commonly used translations are given for each key word in any of the four languages. This dictionary is subdivided into four parts, each containing the translation of the selected terms in the three other languages. To further facilitate the use of the booklet, paper of different colours was used for the printing of the German, English, French and Greek sections. The present volume was developed from a Swedish insurance dictionary (Fickordbok Foersaekring), published in 1967, which - with Swedish as the key language- offers English, French and German translations of the basic insurance terms. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Terminology in the Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2017-01-01

    Pop art seems to be a more prevalent term in Sweden, whereas in Denmark the dominant term was minimalism. However, some of the problems of developing a terminology and agreeing on a description of the new art movements in the 1960s seem to exist in the American context as well....

  1. Terminology in South Africa*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper was presented at the Third International Conference of the African ... Various aspects relating to principles and methods of terminology and .... Standardization. Research and Development. Marketing. Communications ..... Exam- ple 8). This is an attempt at conveying to the user the meaning attached to the tenn.

  2. [Comments on "A practical dictionary of Chinese medicine" by Wiseman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Feng-li

    2006-02-01

    At least 24 Chinese-English dictionaries of Chinese Medicine have been published in China during the recent 24 years (1984-2003). This thesis comments on "A Practical Dictionary of Chinese Medicine" by Wiseman, agreeing on its establishing principles, sources and formation methods of the English system of Chinese medical terminology, and pointing out the defect. The author holds that study on the origin and development of TCM terms, standardization of Chinese medical terms in different layers, i.e. Chinese medical in classic, in commonly used modern TCM terms, and integrative medical texts, are prerequisites to the standardization of English translation of Chinese medical terms.

  3. The SMAP Dictionary Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin A.; Swan, Christoper A.

    2014-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Dictionary Management System is a web-based tool to develop and store a mission dictionary. A mission dictionary defines the interface between a ground system and a spacecraft. In recent years, mission dictionaries have grown in size and scope, making it difficult for engineers across multiple disciplines to coordinate the dictionary development effort. The Dictionary Management Systemaddresses these issues by placing all dictionary information in one place, taking advantage of the efficiencies inherent in co-locating what were once disparate dictionary development efforts.

  4. A Comparative Study of Legal Terminologies in French and Romanian. The Translation of International Contract Law Terminologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana SFERLE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our article is a comparative study investigating the main aspects of legal terminology in French and Romanian. In this context, the analysis aims at translating French - Romanian, Romanian - French, terminologies of international commercial contracts. With this study we intend to improve the knowledge of legal terminology in Romanian. Romania has been faced lately, particularly since January 1st 2007, when it joined the European Union, with a real need for terminological studies, for dictionaries and data bases in all fields relating to translation and interpreting.

  5. The Development of an Android-Based Anggah-Ungguhing Balinese Language Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Agus Wirawan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is an archipelago country with a variety of local languages; one of which is Balinese (mother tongue, used by the Balinese people in daily life and in certain ritual ceremonies. In Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha, Department of Balinese Language Education, students have been given Anggah-Ungguhing in speaking subjects where they are taught to understand the use of Balinese language based on social strata.  But in the process of learning the Anggah-Ungguhing, there are some problems, including: 1 There is no media that supports learning of Anggah-Ungguhing vocabulary. 2 The motivation of students when learning Anggah-Ungguhing by using books is low. Based upon the analysis on the problems and previous researches, this study aims to: 1 Development of mobile dictionary to support the learning process Angggah - Ungguhing anywhere and anytime. 2 Measuring the level of student’s motivation are using mobile dictionary while learning vocabulary Anggah - Ungguhing. The method used in this research is Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC with Waterfall based model. Based on the results of tests that have been done, mobile dictionaries can be declared successfully developed based on user needs. In this research has distributed about 60 questionnaires to measure the level of student’s motivation who use mobile dictionaries on learning Anggah - Ungguhing Balinese language. The result of the student’s motivation measurement shows that the motivation of the students that the learns Anggah - Ungguhing Balinese languange using mobile dictionary is in the positive category.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A DICTIONARY FOR INFORMATION SYSTEM OF AUTOMATED FIGURING OUT PERSON’S META-PROGRAMS PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valitova, Y.O.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the process of formation of a dictionary for automated figuring out person’s meta-programs profile. Analysis revealed that personal orientation in accordance with the meta-program is manifested not only in the content of speech, but also in morphological characteristics of a word, what makes it practically impossible to use already existing dictionaries. During the development of a dictionary it is also important to take into consideration the presence of shorten words, abbreviations and slang words in the text. In this paper, the process of formation of a dictionary is described in detail and is accompanied by examples.

  7. Unsupervised method for automatic construction of a disease dictionary from a large free text collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Supekar, Kaustubh; Morgan, Alex; Das, Amar; Garber, Alan

    2008-11-06

    Concept specific lexicons (e.g. diseases, drugs, anatomy) are a critical source of background knowledge for many medical language-processing systems. However, the rapid pace of biomedical research and the lack of constraints on usage ensure that such dictionaries are incomplete. Focusing on disease terminology, we have developed an automated, unsupervised, iterative pattern learning approach for constructing a comprehensive medical dictionary of disease terms from randomized clinical trial (RCT) abstracts, and we compared different ranking methods for automatically extracting con-textual patterns and concept terms. When used to identify disease concepts from 100 randomly chosen, manually annotated clinical abstracts, our disease dictionary shows significant performance improvement (F1 increased by 35-88%) over available, manually created disease terminologies.

  8. English-Chinese oil field dictionary. [English-Chinese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gow, S [comp.

    1979-01-01

    In this edition the original English-Chinese Oil Field Dictionary was modified line by line and major additions and deletions were made. A total of 37,000 terms and phrases were collected. The following disciplines were included: petroleum geology, earth physics and detection, well prospecting and measuring, development of oil fields, oil recovery, oil storage and transport, etc. In addition, a limited number of common scientific terms, phrases and terminologies were also included.

  9. Partitioning an object-oriented terminology schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, H; Perl, Y; Halper, M; Geller, J; Kuo, F; Cimino, J J

    2001-07-01

    Controlled medical terminologies are increasingly becoming strategic components of various healthcare enterprises. However, the typical medical terminology can be difficult to exploit due to its extensive size and high density. The schema of a medical terminology offered by an object-oriented representation is a valuable tool in providing an abstract view of the terminology, enhancing comprehensibility and making it more usable. However, schemas themselves can be large and unwieldy. We present a methodology for partitioning a medical terminology schema into manageably sized fragments that promote increased comprehension. Our methodology has a refinement process for the subclass hierarchy of the terminology schema. The methodology is carried out by a medical domain expert in conjunction with a computer. The expert is guided by a set of three modeling rules, which guarantee that the resulting partitioned schema consists of a forest of trees. This makes it easier to understand and consequently use the medical terminology. The application of our methodology to the schema of the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED) is presented.

  10. Online dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2012-01-01

    This article initially provides a panoramic overview and a preliminary typologization of present and future online dictionaries based upon their application of the available technologies and suggests that the future of lexicography will be the development of highly sophisticated tools which may......, need, consultation, and data. The article then proceeds to the discussion of some advanced information science techniques that may contribute to the desired individualization. Upon this basis, it finally discusses the interaction between online dictionaries and external sources like the Internet...

  11. Speak Clearly, If You Speak at All; Carve Every Word Before You Let It Fall: Problems of Ambiguous Terminology in eLearning System Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses issues associated with the development of eLearning software systems. The development of software systems in general is a highly complex process, and a number of methodologies and models have been developed to help address some of these complexities. Generally the first stage in most development processes is the gathering of requirements which involves elicitation from end-users. This process is made more complex by problems associated with ambiguous terminology. Types of ambiguous terminology include homonymous, polysemous and inaccurate terms. This range of ambiguous terminology can cause significant misunderstandings in the requirements gathering process, which in turn can lead to software systems that do not meet the requirements of the end-users. This research seeks to explore some of the more common terms that can be ambiguously interpreted in the development of eLearning systems, and suggests software engineering approaches to help alleviate the potentially erroneous outcomes of these ambiguities.

  12. Recent Development of Dual-Dictionary Learning Approach in Medical Image Analysis and Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bigong; Li, Liang

    2015-01-01

    As an implementation of compressive sensing (CS), dual-dictionary learning (DDL) method provides an ideal access to restore signals of two related dictionaries and sparse representation. It has been proven that this method performs well in medical image reconstruction with highly undersampled data, especially for multimodality imaging like CT-MRI hybrid reconstruction. Because of its outstanding strength, short signal acquisition time, and low radiation dose, DDL has allured a broad interest in both academic and industrial fields. Here in this review article, we summarize DDL's development history, conclude the latest advance, and also discuss its role in the future directions and potential applications in medical imaging. Meanwhile, this paper points out that DDL is still in the initial stage, and it is necessary to make further studies to improve this method, especially in dictionary training. PMID:26089956

  13. Recent Development of Dual-Dictionary Learning Approach in Medical Image Analysis and Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bigong; Li, Liang

    2015-01-01

    As an implementation of compressive sensing (CS), dual-dictionary learning (DDL) method provides an ideal access to restore signals of two related dictionaries and sparse representation. It has been proven that this method performs well in medical image reconstruction with highly undersampled data, especially for multimodality imaging like CT-MRI hybrid reconstruction. Because of its outstanding strength, short signal acquisition time, and low radiation dose, DDL has allured a broad interest in both academic and industrial fields. Here in this review article, we summarize DDL's development history, conclude the latest advance, and also discuss its role in the future directions and potential applications in medical imaging. Meanwhile, this paper points out that DDL is still in the initial stage, and it is necessary to make further studies to improve this method, especially in dictionary training.

  14. Terminology management at the national language service | Alberts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through the use of correct, standardised terminology, effective scientific and technical communication skills are developed. A brief overview is given of terminology development in South Africa, with special emphasis on the work of the Terminology Division of the National Language Service. Aspects of present terminology ...

  15. The role of local terminologies in electronic health records. The HEGP experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel-Le Bozec, Christel; Steichen, Olivier; Dart, Thierry; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2007-01-01

    Despite decades of work, there is no universally accepted standard medical terminology and no generally usable terminological tools have yet emerged. The local dictionary of concepts of the Georges Pompidou European Hospital (HEGP) is a Terminological System (TS) designed to support clinical data entry. It covers 93 data entry forms and contains definitions and synonyms of more than 5000 concepts, sometimes linked to reference terminologies such as ICD-10. In this article, we evaluate to which extend SNOMED CT could fully replace or rather be mapped to the local terminology system. We first describe the local dictionary of concepts of HEGP according to some published TS characterization framework. Then we discuss the specific role that a local terminology system plays with regards to reference terminologies.

  16. Dictionary of chemistry. English/German

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenske, G.

    1992-01-01

    This English/German dictionary covers more than 100.000 terms from chemistry, chemical engineering and related fields. It also contains molecular formulas, as well as numerous synonyms and areas of application. IUPAC terminology is emphasized, and outdated or rare terminology is indicated. (MM) [de

  17. Features of standardized nursing terminology sets in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagara, Kaoru; Abe, Akinori; Ozaku, Hiromi Itoh; Kuwahara, Noriaki; Kogure, Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the features and relationships between standardizes nursing terminology sets used in Japan. First, we analyzed the common parts in five standardized nursing terminology sets: the Japan Nursing Practice Standard Master (JNPSM) that includes the names of nursing activities and is built by the Medical Information Center Development Center (MEDIS-DC); the labels of the Japan Classification of Nursing Practice (JCNP), built by the term advisory committee in the Japan Academy of Nursing Science; the labels of the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP) translated to Japanese; the labels, domain names, and class names of the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) Nursing Diagnoses 2003-2004 translated to Japanese; and the terms included in the labels of Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) translated to Japanese. Then we compared them with terms in a thesaurus dictionary, the Bunrui Goihyo, that contains general Japanese words and is built by the National Institute for Japanese Language. 1) the level of interchangeability between four standardized nursing terminology sets is quite low; 2) abbreviations and katakana words are frequently used to express nursing activities; 3) general Japanese words are usually used to express the status or situation of patients.

  18. A feature dictionary supporting a multi-domain medical knowledge base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeymi-Rad, F

    1989-01-01

    Because different terminology is used by physicians of different specialties in different locations to refer to the same feature (signs, symptoms, test results), it is essential that our knowledge development tools provide a means to access a common pool of terms. This paper discusses the design of an online medical dictionary that provides a solution to this problem for developers of multi-domain knowledge bases for MEDAS (Medical Emergency Decision Assistance System). Our Feature Dictionary supports phrase equivalents for features, feature interactions, feature classifications, and translations to the binary features generated by the expert during knowledge creation. It is also used in the conversion of a domain knowledge to the database used by the MEDAS inference diagnostic sessions. The Feature Dictionary also provides capabilities for complex queries across multiple domains using the supported relations. The Feature Dictionary supports three methods for feature representation: (1) for binary features, (2) for continuous valued features, and (3) for derived features.

  19. Geologic repository work breakdown structure and dictionary---Development and evaluation phase (PE-02)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    Revision 2 of the OGR Work Breakdown Structure and Dictionary -- Development and Evaluation Phase (PE-02) supersedes Revision 1, August 1989, in its entirety. The revision is to delete the ''Exploratory Shaft Facility'' work scape and replace it with ''Exploratory Studies Facility'' work scape

  20. [On the role of army physicians in the creation of Ukrainian medical terminology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radysh, Ia F; Holyk, L A

    2002-01-01

    Tha article is devoted to the analysis of the role army surgeons had in creation of Ukrainean medical terminology. In the article, medical dictionaries are briefly analyzed, of which Ukrainean army surgeons are authors or co-authors.

  1. SYNONYMY IN TERMINOLOGY OF SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Zivanovic

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Synonyms entitle the same thing, but they connect this with different names and in this way through the name they uncover different features of the same thing. Synonyms consider words which identify one unique concept, word which are the same or similar in their meaning, which are, in the some way, interlocked in the language and serve for enhance of details and making difference in fine nuances of concept meaning. Different terms for the same concepts in terminology usually come from diffe- rent sources of terms derivation. Especially, there is a lot of terms in terminology which developed spontaneously, thereafter in more unorganized terminologies because in the process of organizing of terminology is intend to push out the synonyms. In the time of constitution of each science, actually constituting of concepts related to it, there is no systematical approach in selecting of their denotation, but they are accepting as they come in to the language.

  2. Radiological sciences dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Dowsett, David

    2009-01-01

    The Radiological Sciences Dictionary is a rapid reference guide for all hospital staff employed in diagnostic imaging, providing definitions of over 3000 keywords as applied to the technology of diagnostic radiology.Written in a concise and easy to digest form, the dictionary covers a wide variety of subject matter, including:· radiation legislation and measurement · computing and digital imaging terminology· nuclear medicine radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals· radiographic contrast agents (x-ray, MRI and ultrasound)· definitions used in ultrasound and MRI technology· statistical exp

  3. Terminology dictionary for physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Deuk

    1988-03-01

    This book introduces as many as terms covering from basic chemistry and applied chemistry to general industry and tries to explain them correctly. If it is not needed to explain the terms or they are not general, it omits explanation. However, it accurately and precisely, without omitting, describes elementary reaction and operation, representative materials, naming, idiom, and method of measurement. It also adds to supplement all the materials which are helpful in daily lives and are convenient to studying and understanding.

  4. Customization of biomedical terminologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homo, Julien; Dupuch, Laëtitia; Benbrahim, Allel; Grabar, Natalia; Dupuch, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Within the biomedical area over one hundred terminologies exist and are merged in the Unified Medical Language System Metathesaurus, which gives over 1 million concepts. When such huge terminological resources are available, the users must deal with them and specifically they must deal with irrelevant parts of these terminologies. We propose to exploit seed terms and semantic distance algorithms in order to customize the terminologies and to limit within them a semantically homogeneous space. An evaluation performed by a medical expert indicates that the proposed approach is relevant for the customization of terminologies and that the extracted terms are mostly relevant to the seeds. It also indicates that different algorithms provide with similar or identical results within a given terminology. The difference is due to the terminologies exploited. A special attention must be paid to the definition of optimal association between the semantic similarity algorithms and the thresholds specific to a given terminology.

  5. The Terminology of the Public Relations Field in the Slovenian Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kalin Golob

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article includes two starting points: (a the development of the Slovenian (and Croatian language in science and professions is being increasingly limited by the narrow comprehension of internationalised higher education and science; (b in the digital age, the fields of usage being lost in those languages are those not supported enough in terms of language technology. With the case of the Slovenian public relations terminology, we reveal that it is possible to confront both: on the basis of the previously formed corpus of professional texts, KoRP, which is linguistically earmarked and freely available online, and in the TERMIS project. We initially inferred one- or multi-word term candidates with the LUIZ programme, and then acquired the typical text environment and best dictionary examples automatically by means of the Sketch Engine tool and its application Word Sketches together with the GDEX tool. The infrastructure formed during the project will be freely available after the conclusion of the project (June 2013, and the dictionary, which will include 2,000 terms regarding public relations, may be understood as a model for the creation of modern terminology dictionaries of other professions as well.

  6. From Data to Dictionary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro; Almind, Richard

    2011-01-01

    definitions, thereby creating both monolingual and bilingual dictionaries. Users access the data through online dictionaries that allow them to make structured searches. The dictionaries mainly provide help in communicative situations such as understanding, producing and translating accounting texts, but also......Most online dictionaries are based on printed dictionaries or specially developed databases. However, these dictionaries do not fully satisfy the needs for help and knowledge users have, so a re-assessment of the practical and theoretical foundation is necessary. Based on the work on the Accounting...... help users acquire knowledge about general or specific accounting matters in cognitive user situations. This theoretical foundation allows lexicographers to develop dictionaries that search in structured data sets and then present data types selected because they provide help in specific situations...

  7. Computer Lexis and Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintautas Grigas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Computer becomes a widely used tool in everyday work and at home. Every computer user sees texts on its screen containing a lot of words naming new concepts. Those words come from the terminology used by specialists. The common vocabury between computer terminology and lexis of everyday language comes into existence. The article deals with the part of computer terminology which goes to everyday usage and the influence of ordinary language to computer terminology. The relation between English and Lithuanian computer terminology, the construction and pronouncing of acronyms are discussed as well.

  8. The Changes in Architecture Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Tran

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this research is to inspire a discussion about the changes in architecture terminologywith the revolution in communication and representation forms as a result of digitalisation.The blurred boundary between the virtual and the analogue worlds, the misunderstandings andthe confusion that appear with the interaction of these two worlds nowadays form the major problems facing architectural design, education and research. The researchers in this field arefocused on the interface, the meeting and the transformation point between the digital and analogue worlds in order to prevent those problems and confusions. One of the main reasonsof this ambiguity is the architectural terminology that changes according to the changing status of architectural representation i.e. new forms of representation; new forms of communicationi.e. the new role of the architect and the researcher.Whenever and wherever information and knowledge specialised is created, communicated ortransformed terminology is involved in a way or another. An absence of terminology is combined with an absence of an understanding of concepts. Therefore with the new information and communication technologies; new and developing subject areas the existence of terminology and its update is indispensable. Thus the changing status of the terminology must be analysed. As architecture terminology is essential to improve today’s challenging, multidisciplinary communication in order to clarify the problems of ambiguity and unawareness (as a result of shift of specific architectural vocabulary it is necessary to analyse the changes in the architectural terminology which will form the discussion point of the following paper.As this paper is the beginning step of a research project which started on the occasion of the conference proposed by EAAE/ARCC we will here present only the objectives of this research,its general problematics, the methods that we wish to develop and some provisional

  9. Dictionary of the fuel trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    A dictionary of liquid and solid fuels and applications for thermal engineering and heating, in understandable terms and explanations with a broad range of terminology, special aspects and definitions Annex: 1. International trade conditions, 2. tables of conversion relations, not calorific value, division of solids fuels etc.

  10. Pocket dictionary of laboratory equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junge, H.D.

    1987-01-01

    This pocket dictionary contains the 2500 most common terms for scientific and technical equipment in chemical laboratories. It is a useful tool for those who are used to communicating in German and English, but have to learn the special terminology in this field. (orig.) [de

  11. Electric Motors: Technical Terminology Bulletin. Terminotech, Vol. 1, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Quebec.

    This issue of a bulletin of technological terminology is devoted to electric motors. A brief narrative on the subject is included in both French and English. An English-French dictionary of terms comprises the bulk of the document. Explanatory illustrations are appended (JB).

  12. Natural science and technology terminology in the sesotho sa leboa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose for lemmatizing the natural science and technology terminology is to give these lexical items comprehensive definitions in Sesotho sa Leboa, instead of 'a one word translation definition' as is the case in the bilingual and multilingual dictionaries. Keywords: transliteration, coinage, coined lexical item, loan ...

  13. Power Transformers: Technical Terminology Bulletin. Terminotech, Vol.2, No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Quebec.

    This issue of a bulletin of technological terminology is devoted to power transformers. A brief narrative on the subject is presented in both French and English. An English-French dictionary of terms comprises the bulk of the document. Explanatory illustrations are appended. (JB)

  14. Iron Metallurgy: Technical Terminology Bulletin. Terminotech, Vol. 2, No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Quebec.

    This issue of a bulletin of technological terminology is devoted to iron metallurgy. Various aspects of iron production are described in both French and English. An English-French dictionary of terms comprises the bulk of the document. Explanatory illustrations are appended. (JB)

  15. Terminologie de Base de la Documentation. (Basic Terminology of Documentation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission des Communautes Europeennes (Luxembourg). Bureau de Terminologie.

    This glossary is designed to aid non-specialists whose activities require that they have some familiarity with the terminology of the modern methods of documentation. Definitions have been assembled from various dictionaries, manuals, etc., with particular attention being given to the publications of UNESCO and the International Standards…

  16. Unification of Sinonasal Anatomical Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voegels, Richard Louis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The advent of endoscopy and computed tomography at the beginning of the 1980s brought to rhinology a revival of anatomy and physiology study. In 1994, the International Conference of Sinus Disease was conceived because the official “Terminologia Anatomica”[1] had little information on the detailed sinonasal anatomy. In addition, there was a lack of uniformity of terminology and definitions. After 20 years, a new conference has been held. The need to use the same terminology led to the publication by the European Society of Rhinology of the “European Position Paper on the Anatomical Terminology of the Internal Nose and Paranasal Sinuses,” that can be accessed freely at www.rhinologyjournal.com. Professor Valerie Lund et al[2] wrote this document reviewing the anatomical terms, comparing to the “Terminology Anatomica” official order to define the structures without eponyms, while respecting the embryological development and especially universalizing and simplifying the terms. A must-read! The text's purpose lies beyond the review of anatomical terminology to universalize the language used to refer to structures of the nasal and paranasal cavities. Information about the anatomy, based on extensive review of the current literature, is arranged in just over 50 pages, which are direct and to the point. The publication may be pleasant reading for learners and teachers of rhinology. This text can be a starting point and enables searching the universal terminology used in Brazil, seeking to converge with this new European proposal for a nomenclature to help us communicate with our peers in Brazil and the rest of the world. The original text of the European Society of Rhinology provides English terms that avoided the use of Latin, and thus fall beyond several national personal translations. It would be admirable if we created our own cross-cultural adaptation of this new suggested anatomical terminology.

  17. Real-time variables dictionary (RTVD), and expert system for development of real-time applications in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senra Martinez, A.; Schirru, R.; Dutra Thome Filho, Z.

    1990-01-01

    It is presented in this paper a computerized methodology based on a data dictionary managed by an expert system called Real-Time Variables Dictionary (RTVD). This system is very usefull for development of real-time applications in nuclear power plants. It is described in details the RTVD functions and its implantation in a VAX 8600 computer. It is also pointed out the concepts of artificial intelligence used in teh RTVD

  18. Scientific journalism: questions of terminology and tendencies of the modern development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muravitskaya S.V.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available in the article such terms as «scientific journalism» and «popular-science mass media» are considered; questions of formation of effective dialogue between authorities, scientists, journalists and public are touched upon; tendencies of development of scientific journalism in Russia and on the West are pointed out.

  19. Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms set forth standard US military and associated terminology to encompass the joint activity of the Armed Forces of the United States...

  20. Management and Internal Standardization of Chemistry Terminology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This in turn implies the development, consolidation and especially ... This article describes the terminological processing of a technical source text prior to translation, ... functions, i.e. languages of learning and teaching, and also of scientific dis- ... tronic terminology management systems or translation memory systems.

  1. Dictionary of christian words: setting up the list of entries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrushina Ekaterina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the issues of compiling the entry list for the Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Russian Christian Words. It presents a fragment of the classifi cation of the terminology in the domain and suggests to use the frequency of a lexical item in relevant texts as a criterion of its terminologization. The paper also considers whether proper names should be included in the Dictionary.

  2. An architecture for standardized terminology services by wrapping and integration of existing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornet, Roland; Prins, Antoon K.

    2003-01-01

    Research on terminology services has resulted in development of applications and definition of standards, but has not yet led to widespread use of (standardized) terminology services in practice. Current terminology services offer functionality both for concept representation and lexical knowledge

  3. Evaluating standard terminologies for encoding allergy information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Foster R; Zhou, Li; Plasek, Joseph M; Broverman, Carol; Robinson, George; Middleton, Blackford; Rocha, Roberto A

    2013-01-01

    Allergy documentation and exchange are vital to ensuring patient safety. This study aims to analyze and compare various existing standard terminologies for representing allergy information. Five terminologies were identified, including the Systemized Nomenclature of Medical Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), National Drug File-Reference Terminology (NDF-RT), Medication Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA), Unique Ingredient Identifier (UNII), and RxNorm. A qualitative analysis was conducted to compare desirable characteristics of each terminology, including content coverage, concept orientation, formal definitions, multiple granularities, vocabulary structure, subset capability, and maintainability. A quantitative analysis was also performed to compare the content coverage of each terminology for (1) common food, drug, and environmental allergens and (2) descriptive concepts for common drug allergies, adverse reactions (AR), and no known allergies. Our qualitative results show that SNOMED CT fulfilled the greatest number of desirable characteristics, followed by NDF-RT, RxNorm, UNII, and MedDRA. Our quantitative results demonstrate that RxNorm had the highest concept coverage for representing drug allergens, followed by UNII, SNOMED CT, NDF-RT, and MedDRA. For food and environmental allergens, UNII demonstrated the highest concept coverage, followed by SNOMED CT. For representing descriptive allergy concepts and adverse reactions, SNOMED CT and NDF-RT showed the highest coverage. Only SNOMED CT was capable of representing unique concepts for encoding no known allergies. The proper terminology for encoding a patient's allergy is complex, as multiple elements need to be captured to form a fully structured clinical finding. Our results suggest that while gaps still exist, a combination of SNOMED CT and RxNorm can satisfy most criteria for encoding common allergies and provide sufficient content coverage.

  4. Explicatory Dictionary for Exact Sciences. Romanian/English/French

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragan, Gleb; Rapeanu, S.N.; Comsa, Olivia

    1999-01-01

    The explicative dictionary for general terminology for nuclear energy accomplished in the frame of the Commission for Scientific Terminology of the Romanian Academy represents the first issue in a series devoted to definition of most utilised terms in various fields of nuclear energy, nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle, radioactive waste, nuclear safety, radioprotection and dosimetry, nuclear reactors, safeguards, nuclear sciences and technologies, legal aspects and regulations, etc. The main body of the dictionary's contents was selected out by specialists working with the Center of Technology and Engineering for Nuclear Projects - CITON, based on their experience of more than 20 years in introducing and implementing nuclear power in Romania, as well as, on collaboration with research institutes of the nuclear physics and energy. Under the guidance of continuos build-up and evolution the present work is intended to be upgraded permanently. The explanation of the terms was based on SR ISO standards, terminology adopted by Organization for Economic and Cooperation Development, OECD/NEA, and IAEA. This series is targeting translators specialists, and the public at large

  5. Explicatory Dictionary for Exact Sciences. Nuclear Energy, EN2. Nuclear Power. Romanian/English/French

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragan, Gleb; Rapeanu, S.N.; Comsa, Olivia

    2002-01-01

    The explicative dictionary for nuclear power, accomplished in the frame of the Commission for Scientific Terminology of the Romanian Academy, represents the second issue in a series running from Nuclear Energy EN 1 through Nuclear Energy EN 10 covering the following fields: EN 1. General terminology; EN 2. Nuclear power; EN 3. Physical protection and nuclear safeguards; EN 4. Nuclear fuel cycle; EN 5. Radioactive wastes; EN 6. Safety of nuclear facilities and materials; EN 7. Radioprotection and dosimetry; EN 8. Nuclear reactors; EN 9. Nuclear sciences and engineering; EN 10. Nuclear law and legislation. The main body of the dictionary's contents was selected by specialists working with the Center of Technology and Engineering for Nuclear Projects - CITON, based on their experience of more than 20 years in introducing and implementing nuclear power in Romania, as well as, on collaboration with nuclear physics and engineering research institutes and physics departments of Romanian universities. The project of a nuclear dictionary in 10 issues aims at supporting the program of nuclear power development in Romania and is at the same time part of nuclear knowledge management policy boosted by IAEA which encourages publication of informative materials highly specialized but also accessible to the public at large. The project aims also to establish the Romanian standardized terminology in the nuclear domain as much in line as possible with the terminologies of the largest communities worldwide most active in nuclear science and technology. Under the guidance of continuos build-up and evolution of nuclear knowledge the present work is intended to be upgraded permanently. The explanation of the terms was based on SR ISO standards, terminology adopted by Organization for Economic and Cooperation Development, OECD/NEA, and IAEA. This series is targeting translators, specialists, students, and the public at large

  6. Improving Dictionary Skills in Ndebele

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Abstract: This article proposes ways of improving dictionary skills amongst the Ndebele. One way of accomplishing this is incorporating the teaching of dictionary skills into teacher training syllabi. Teachers can impart their knowledge to students and a dictionary culture can develop for enhancing effective use of current ...

  7. A Dictionary of Mining, Mineral and Related Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrush, Paul W., Comp.

    This dictionary contains about 55,000 terms with approximately 150,000 definitions. These terms are of both a technical and local nature and apply to metal mining, coal mining, quarrying, geology, metallurgy, ceramics and clays, glassmaking, minerals and mineralogy, and general terminology. Petroleum, natural gas, and legal mining terminology,…

  8. Improving dictionary skills in Ndebele | Hadebe | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article proposes ways of improving dictionary skills amongst the Ndebele. One way of accomplishing this is incorporating the teaching of dictionary skills into teacher trainingsyllabi. Teachers can impart their knowledge to students and a dictionary culture can develop for enhancing effective use of current dictionaries ...

  9. EMITEL: E-Encyclopaedia and E-Dictionary of Medical Imaging Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedec, M.; Kovacevic, N.; Magjarevic, R.

    2011-01-01

    EMITEL (European Medical Imaging Technology e-Encyclopaedia for Lifelong Learning) is an electronic encyclopaedia and multilingual dictionary related to medical imaging technologies. It is a result of the multi-annual international project which involved more than 250 contributors from 35 countries, aiming to foster development of medical physics and biomedical/clinical engineering by a lifelong e-learning web tool for all interested individuals or groups. Currently, the encyclopaedia is equivalent to about 2100 hard copy pages and includes about 3300 terms with an explanatory article for each term. The dictionary provides bidirectional cross-translation of terms between any two among 28 languages from its current database. Dictionary entries are divided into seven groups: diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, radiation protection and general terms. Croatian language was implemented in EMITEL dictionary in April 2010. There were 17 Croatian translators and reviewers from 8 institutions and 3 cities, ranging from medical physics experts to linguist. The basic terminological principles of translation were final intelligibility of terms, desirable Croatian origin and linguistic appropriateness. Croatian contribution in the actual phase of EMITEL project attempted to improve the quality and efficiency of the specific professional, scientific and teaching terminology. A sort of novel, consistent and verified pool of terms of emerging medical imaging technologies was built up, as a one small part of the process of developing information technologies and socio-cultural transition from the industrial society into the society of knowledge. (author)

  10. Dictionary of pressure vessel and piping technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jentgen, L.; Schmitz, H.P.

    1986-01-01

    A specialised dictionary has been compiled containing the appropriate English and German terms in the following technical fields: materials science, welding, destructive and non-destructive testing, thermal and mass transfer, the design and construction in particular of pressure vessels, tanks, heat exchangers, piping, expansion joints, valves, and components associated with the above fields. This dictionary is the result of many years spent in evaluating technical terminology from the relevant American and British regulations, technical rules, standards, and specifications (see bibliography) and correlating these with the terminology of comparable German regulations, rules and standards, together with the essential technical literature. (orig.) [de

  11. Power plant engineering dictionary. Vol. 2. English-German. Pt. 1: Dictionary. Pt. 2: Abbreviations. 4. rev. and enlarged ed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The dictionary is a compilation of 6000 German and English technical terms of power plant engineering as far as power plants, turbine-generators and assembly engineering are concerned. It is meant to form a basis for uniform terminology on technical documents. The dictionary is the result of a joint effort of KWU and UPC.

  12. BKSTS illustrated dictionary of moving image technology

    CERN Document Server

    Uren, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The fourth edition of the BKSTS dictionary provides clear and concise explanations of the terminology and acronyms encountered in the broadcasting and moving image industries.Convergence of these industries means that those practising within them are increasingly faced with unfamiliar terminology. Martin Uren has reflected this change in his extended choice of industry terms, acronyms and colloquialisms. He provides:- Over 3300 definitions covering film, television, sound and multimedia technologies, together with technical terms from the computing, networks and telecommunications industries.-

  13. Remote Sensing Terminology in a Global and Knowledge-Based World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancheva, Rumiana

    The paper is devoted to terminology issues related to all aspects of remote sensing research and applications. Terminology is the basis for a better understanding among people. It is crucial to keep up with the latest developments and novelties of the terminology in advanced technology fields such as aerospace science and industry. This is especially true in remote sensing and geoinformatics which develop rapidly and have ever extending applications in various domains of science and human activities. Remote sensing terminology issues are directly relevant to the contemporary worldwide policies on information accessibility, dissemination and utilization of research results in support of solutions to global environmental challenges and sustainable development goals. Remote sensing and spatial information technologies are an integral part of the international strategies for cooperation in scientific, research and application areas with a particular accent on environmental monitoring, ecological problems natural resources management, climate modeling, weather forecasts, disaster mitigation and many others to which remote sensing data can be put. Remote sensing researchers, professionals, students and decision makers of different counties and nationalities should fully understand, interpret and translate into their native language any term, definition or acronym found in papers, books, proceedings, specifications, documentation, and etc. The importance of the correct use, precise definition and unification of remote sensing terms refers not only to people working in this field but also to experts in a variety of disciplines who handle remote sensing data and information products. In this paper, we draw the attention on the specifics, peculiarities and recent needs of compiling specialized dictionaries in the area of remote sensing focusing on Earth observations and the integration of remote sensing with other geoinformation technologies such as photogrammetry, geodesy

  14. Merge of terminological resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration...... – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects....

  15. Federal Medication Terminologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Medication (FedMed) collaboration of 8 partner agencies agreed on a set of standard, comprehensive, freely and easily accessible FMT terminologies to improve the exchange and public availability of medication information.

  16. Interpratation and Adaptation of Dermoscopic Terminology to Our Language: Consensus Report of the Turkish Society of Dermatology Dermoscopy Working Group

    OpenAIRE

    Fezal Özdemir; Işıl Kılınç Karaarslan; Bengü Gerçeker Türk; Sedef Şahin; Mustafa Turhan Şahin; Oya Oğuz; Murat Orhan Öztaş; Ercan Arca; Tülin Mansur; Ayşe Anıl Karabulut; Nida Kaçar

    2013-01-01

    “Dermoscopic Terminology Consensus Meeting” was held at Ege University Medical Faculty Dermatology Department on the 24th of February in 2012 with the aim of establishing a common language in the translation of the dermoscopic terminology in English literature into Turkish. In this article, the Turkish terminology in which the consensus was reached at that meeting is presented together with the definitions and representative images as a dictionary.

  17. The Development of E-Dictionary for the Use with "Maharah Al-Qiraah" Textbook at a Matriculation Centre in a University in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Che Abdul Majid Bin Che; Dahan, Hassan Basri Awang Mat

    2011-01-01

    This is an action research to develop an E-Dictionary for the use with Maharah al-Qiraah (Reading skills) textbook at a matriculation centre. The research attempts to answer four research questions: a) What is the database model for an electronic dictionary using Microsoft Access for the use with Maharah al-Qiraah textbook? b) What are the…

  18. Terminologi og oversigtsplaner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else; Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2014-01-01

    Key to terminology used in the Aggersborg book relating to features of the rural settlement and the circular fortress, and information on excavation documentation and on the plans published in the book......Key to terminology used in the Aggersborg book relating to features of the rural settlement and the circular fortress, and information on excavation documentation and on the plans published in the book...

  19. How to Manage and Plan Terminology: Creating Management TDBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Jakić

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and technical terminology represents a very topical issue in economically and technologically dependent countries with small languages such as Serbian. The current terminological problems in the Serbian language, especially in specialized areas that are experiencing dynamic development, are: Anglicization of the language for special purposes, underdeveloped and unstable terminology, and lack of adequate and modern terminological and lexical resources. On the one hand, the terminological problems listed above are of concern to subject-field specialists, since inadequate and non-existent terminology significantly affects the representation, transfer and management of specialized knowledge and information. On the other hand, terminology and language planners point to the growing need for immediate and systematic intervention aimed at terminology harmonization, consolidation and standardization. In spite of the awareness, there is no systematic approach to the solving of terminological problems in Serbian. In addition, practical activities regarding the collection and organization of terminology are few and reduced to individual initiatives. Under the paradigm of language planning (LP-oriented terminology management (2, this paper is going to address a practical activity of terminology management: the creation of a Serbian management terminology database (TDB with equivalent terms in English. The paper will discuss the methodology of terminology work, potential obstacles in termbase creation, as well as potential benefits that such a resource would have on all its potential users: management specialists and practitioners, professional translators, and language and terminology planners. A particular focus will be placed on the potential significance that this kind of a database would have for terminology policy and planning in the Serbian language, on the one hand, and knowledge transfer and management, on the other hand.

  20. Dictionary of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel-Marie

    2006-01-01

    This book comes out of need and urgency (expressed especially in areas of Information Retrieval with respect to Image, Audio, Internet and Biology) to have a working tool to compare data.The book will provide powerful resource for all researchers using Mathematics as well as for mathematicians themselves. In the time when over-specialization and terminology fences isolate researchers, this Dictionary try to be ""centripedal"" and ""oikoumeni"", providing some access and altitude of vision but without taking the route of scientific vulgarisation. This attempted balance is the main philosophy

  1. TERMINOLOGY MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK DEVIATIONS IN PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Борисівна ДАНЧЕНКО

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews new approaches to managing projects deviations (risks, changes, problems. By offering integrated control these parameters of the project and by analogy with medical terminological systems building a new system for managing terminological variations in the projects. With an improved method of triads system definitions are analyzed medical terms that make up terminological basis. Using the method of analogy proposed new definitions for managing deviations in projects. By using triad integrity built a new system triad in project management, which will subsequently also analogous to develop a new methodology of deviations in projects.

  2. Terminology extraction from medical texts in Polish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Małgorzata; Mykowiecka, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Hospital documents contain free text describing the most important facts relating to patients and their illnesses. These documents are written in specific language containing medical terminology related to hospital treatment. Their automatic processing can help in verifying the consistency of hospital documentation and obtaining statistical data. To perform this task we need information on the phrases we are looking for. At the moment, clinical Polish resources are sparse. The existing terminologies, such as Polish Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), do not provide sufficient coverage for clinical tasks. It would be helpful therefore if it were possible to automatically prepare, on the basis of a data sample, an initial set of terms which, after manual verification, could be used for the purpose of information extraction. Using a combination of linguistic and statistical methods for processing over 1200 children hospital discharge records, we obtained a list of single and multiword terms used in hospital discharge documents written in Polish. The phrases are ordered according to their presumed importance in domain texts measured by the frequency of use of a phrase and the variety of its contexts. The evaluation showed that the automatically identified phrases cover about 84% of terms in domain texts. At the top of the ranked list, only 4% out of 400 terms were incorrect while out of the final 200, 20% of expressions were either not domain related or syntactically incorrect. We also observed that 70% of the obtained terms are not included in the Polish MeSH. Automatic terminology extraction can give results which are of a quality high enough to be taken as a starting point for building domain related terminological dictionaries or ontologies. This approach can be useful for preparing terminological resources for very specific subdomains for which no relevant terminologies already exist. The evaluation performed showed that none of the tested ranking procedures were

  3. Dictionary of applied energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kut, D

    1982-01-01

    The escalating cost of energy is drawing an ever increasing number of people into the planning and execution of energy conservation measures and programs and confronts them with the specialist terminology of the conservationist. The object of this illustrated dictionary is to list the generality of terms employed in energy conservation practice and to explain, with the aid of appropriate illustrations, the basic definitions and underlying techniques.

  4. Development of International Terminology and Definitions for Texture-Modified Foods and Thickened Fluids Used in Dysphagia Management: The IDDSI Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichero, Julie A Y; Lam, Peter; Steele, Catriona M; Hanson, Ben; Chen, Jianshe; Dantas, Roberto O; Duivestein, Janice; Kayashita, Jun; Lecko, Caroline; Murray, Joseph; Pillay, Mershen; Riquelme, Luis; Stanschus, Soenke

    2017-04-01

    Dysphagia is estimated to affect ~8% of the world's population (~590 million people). Texture-modified foods and thickened drinks are commonly used to reduce the risks of choking and aspiration. The International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative (IDDSI) was founded with the goal of developing globally standardized terminology and definitions for texture-modified foods and liquids applicable to individuals with dysphagia of all ages, in all care settings, and all cultures. A multi-professional volunteer committee developed a dysphagia diet framework through systematic review and stakeholder consultation. First, a survey of existing national terminologies and current practice was conducted, receiving 2050 responses from 33 countries. Respondents included individuals with dysphagia; their caregivers; organizations supporting individuals with dysphagia; healthcare professionals; food service providers; researchers; and industry. The results revealed common use of 3-4 levels of food texture (54 different names) and ≥3 levels of liquid thickness (27 different names). Substantial support was expressed for international standardization. Next, a systematic review regarding the impact of food texture and liquid consistency on swallowing was completed. A meeting was then convened to review data from previous phases, and develop a draft framework. A further international stakeholder survey sought feedback to guide framework refinement; 3190 responses were received from 57 countries. The IDDSI Framework (released in November, 2015) involves a continuum of 8 levels (0-7) identified by numbers, text labels, color codes, definitions, and measurement methods. The IDDSI Framework is recommended for implementation throughout the world.

  5. Dictionary of microelectronics and microcomputer technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attiyate, Y.H.; Shah, R.R.

    1984-01-01

    This bilingual dictionary (German-English and English-German) is to give the general public a clearer idea of the terminology of microelectronics, microcomputers, data processing, and computer science. Each part contains about 7500 terms frequently encountered in practice, about 2000 of which are supplemented by precise explanations. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Many general language dictionaries contain specialized terms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    used in England and Wales in the light of the change of structure of and terminology ... Legal Terms in General Dictionaries of English: The Civil Procedure Mystery ... (2015: 8), between 1.4 million and 2.1 million cases annually were brought.

  7. English/Russian terminology on radiometric calibration of space-borne optoelectronic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privalsky, V.; Zakharenkov, V.; Humpherys, T.; Sapritsky, V.; Datla, R.

    The efficient use of data acquired through exo-atmospheric observations of the Earth within the framework of existing and newly planned programs requires a unique understanding of respective terms and definitions. Yet, the last large-scale document on the subject - The International Electrotechnical Vocabulary - had been published 18 years ago. This lack of a proper document, which would reflect the changes that had occurred in the area since that time, is especially detrimental to the developing international efforts aimed at global observations of the Earth from space such as the Global Earth Observations Program proposed by the U.S.A. at the 2003 WMO Congress. To cover this gap at least partially, a bi-lingual explanatory dictionary of terms and definitions in the area of radiometric calibration of space-borne IR sensors is developed. The objectives are to produce a uniform terminology for the global space-borne observations of the Earth, establish a unique understanding of terms and definitions by the radiometric communities, including a correspondence between the Russian and American terms and definitions, and to develop a formal English/Russian reference dictionary for use by scientists and engineers involved in radiometric observations of the Earth from space. The dictionary includes close to 400 items covering basic concepts of geometric, wave and corpuscular optics, remote sensing technologies, and ground-based calibration as well as more detailed treatment of terms and definitions in the areas of radiometric quantities, symbols and units, optical phenomena and optical properties of objects and media, and radiometric systems and their properties. The dictionary contains six chapters: Basic Concepts, Quantities, Symbols, and Units, Optical phenomena, Optical characteristics of surfaces and media, Components of Radiometric Systems, Characteristics of radiometric system components, plus English/Russian and Russian/Inglish indices.

  8. Morphing Terminology Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Stuart J.; Brockman, Fred J.; Hart, Michelle L.; Engel, David W.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Calapristi, Augustin J.

    2010-06-28

    This study investigates methods of automatically identifying and characterizing significant transitions in term usage over time. Within scientific literature, the occurrence of terms reflects the use of technologies and techniques as well as the study of specific species and materials. Transitions in terminology usage may be a result of vocabulary standardization or specialization in which terms are replaced with their shorter form. They may also be a result of new applications, combinations, alternatives, or interests that result in the appearance of new or existing terminology in unexpected contexts.

  9. Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffstetler, J.K.; Dailey, N.S.; Rickert, L.W.; Chilton, B.D.

    1976-12-01

    The Information Center Complex (ICC), a centrally administered group of information centers, provides information support to environmental and biomedical research groups and others within and outside Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In-house data base building and development of specialized document collections are important elements of the ongoing activities of these centers. ICC groups must be concerned with language which will adequately classify and insure retrievability of document records. Language control problems are compounded when the complexity of modern scientific problem solving demands an interdisciplinary approach. Although there are several word lists, indexes, and thesauri specific to various scientific disciplines usually grouped as Environmental Sciences, no single generally recognized authority can be used as a guide to the terminology of all environmental science. If biomedical terminology for the description of research on environmental effects is also needed, the problem becomes even more complex. The building of a word list which can be used as a general guide to the environmental/biomedical sciences has been a continuing activity of the Information Center Complex. This activity resulted in the publication of the Environmental Biomedical Terminology Index (EBTI).

  10. Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffstetler, J.K.; Dailey, N.S.; Rickert, L.W.; Chilton, B.D.

    1976-12-01

    The Information Center Complex (ICC), a centrally administered group of information centers, provides information support to environmental and biomedical research groups and others within and outside Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In-house data base building and development of specialized document collections are important elements of the ongoing activities of these centers. ICC groups must be concerned with language which will adequately classify and insure retrievability of document records. Language control problems are compounded when the complexity of modern scientific problem solving demands an interdisciplinary approach. Although there are several word lists, indexes, and thesauri specific to various scientific disciplines usually grouped as Environmental Sciences, no single generally recognized authority can be used as a guide to the terminology of all environmental science. If biomedical terminology for the description of research on environmental effects is also needed, the problem becomes even more complex. The building of a word list which can be used as a general guide to the environmental/biomedical sciences has been a continuing activity of the Information Center Complex. This activity resulted in the publication of the Environmental Biomedical Terminology Index

  11. [Establishment of anatomical terminology in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kazuyuki

    2008-12-01

    The history of anatomical terminology in Japan began with the publication of Waran Naikei Ihan-teimŏ in 1805 and Chŏtei Kaitai Shinsho in 1826. Although the establishment of Japanese anatomical terminology became necessary during the Meiji era when many western anatomy books imported into Janan were translated, such terminology was not unified during this period and varied among translators. In 1871, Tsukumo Ono's Kaibŏgaku Gosen was published by the Ministry of Education. Although this book is considered to be the first anatomical glossary terms in Japan, its contents were incomplete. Overseas, the German Anatomical Society established a unified anatomical terminology in 1895 called the Basle Nomina Anatomica (B.N.A.). Based on this development, Kaibŏgaku Meishŭ which follows the BNA, by Buntarŏ Suzuki was published in 1905. With the subsequent establishment in 1935 of Jena Nomina Anatomica (J.N.A.), the unification of anatomical terminology was also accelerated in Japan, leading to the further development of terminology.

  12. Standardization of terminology in dermoscopy/dermatoscopy: Results of the third consensus conference of the International Society of Dermoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittler, Harald; Marghoob, Ashfaq A; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Carrera, Cristina; Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer; Malvehy, Josep; Menzies, Scott; Puig, Susana; Rabinovitz, Harold; Stolz, Wilhelm; Saida, Toshiaki; Soyer, H Peter; Siegel, Eliot; Stoecker, William V; Scope, Alon; Tanaka, Masaru; Thomas, Luc; Tschandl, Philipp; Zalaudek, Iris; Halpern, Allan

    2016-06-01

    Evolving dermoscopic terminology motivated us to initiate a new consensus. We sought to establish a dictionary of standardized terms. We reviewed the medical literature, conducted a survey, and convened a discussion among experts. Two competitive terminologies exist, a more metaphoric terminology that includes numerous terms and a descriptive terminology based on 5 basic terms. In a survey among members of the International Society of Dermoscopy (IDS) 23.5% (n = 201) participants preferentially use descriptive terminology, 20.1% (n = 172) use metaphoric terminology, and 484 (56.5%) use both. More participants who had been initially trained by metaphoric terminology prefer using descriptive terminology than vice versa (9.7% vs 2.6%, P terminologies are suitable, that metaphoric terms need definitions, that synonyms should be avoided, and that the creation of new metaphoric terms should be discouraged. The expert panel proposed a dictionary of standardized terms taking account of metaphoric and descriptive terms. A consensus seeks a workable compromise but does not guarantee its implementation. The new consensus provides a revised framework of standardized terms to enhance the consistent use of dermoscopic terminology. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Theoriebedingte Wörterbuchform-probleme und wörterbuchformbedingte Benutzerprobleme I. Ein Beitrag zur Wörterbuchkritik und zur Erweiterung der Theorie der Wörterbuchform Theory-determined Dictionary Structure Problems and Dictionary Structure Determined User Problems I. A Contribution to Dictionary Criticism and the Theory of Dictionary Structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Ernst Wiegand

    2012-01-01

    rterbuchartikel; theoriebedingtes Wörterbuchformproblem; wörterbuchformbedingtes Benutzerproblem; Wortfamilienfenster; zweifach komplexer Wörterbuchartikel

    The empirical domain of the subject matter of dictionary research changes, among others, due to the publication of new dictionaries. A noticeable trend seems to be the increasing occurrence of more new elements regarding dictionary structures in the front matter, central list and back matter. This makes dictionary structure more complex. For the theory of dictionary structures this leads to theory-determined dictionary structure problems: If the theory wants to take cognizance of the new developments it has to be expanded and becomes increasingly complex. If it is expanded one can recognise, in the light of the theory, the strengths and weaknesses of the new structural elements. This leads to dictionary criticism. The weaknesses, especially, lead to dictionary structure-determined user problems. In this first part of the contribution theory-determined article structure problems are treated that result from an investigation of an article type not previously examined, i.e. the complex dictionary articles in which two or more structurally identical words belonging to two or more part of speech classes are lexicographically treated. The theory-determined article structure problems prevail because there are no structural concept for articles of this type, no systematic terminology, no typology and partially no means and methods of presentation. The problems are thereby solved that the theory of dictionary structures is systematically expanded and the heuristics extended to provide for the missing elements.

    Keywords: article sequence with window; article structure scheme; article window; basic complex dictionary article; complex article structural image; complex dictionary article; dictionary structure determined user problem; noun-verb-adjective article; partial article; partial article external

  14. E-terminology*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    knowledge continue to increase in both quantity and quality. In the lively sci- entific ... making human–computer interfaces with environments available. Tools to sup- ... equivalents can then be pasted into the document being translated. Compound ..... Terminology can be used for artificial intelligence purposes (e.g. speech.

  15. Approximating terminological queries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuckenschmidt, Heiner; Van Harmelen, Frank

    2002-01-01

    Current proposals for languages to encode terminological knowledge in intelligent systems support logical reasoning for answering user queries about objects and classes. An application of these languages on the World Wide Web, however, is hampered by the limitations of logical reasoning in terms

  16. Terminology in South Africa*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    needs to facilitate international communication. Various aspects ... terminology would therefore form part of the special language of a particular ... teaching (see Figure 1). 2.2 .... a cognitive one, which relates the linguistic forms to their conceptual .... "to bear a burden, keep in custody", from bajulus "porter, load carrier".

  17. Common usage of cardiologic anatomical terminology: critical analysis and a trilingual discussion proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneck, Alexandre Lins; Batigália, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Terminology and Lexicography have been especially addressed to the Allied Health Sciences regarding discussion of case reports or concerning publication of scientific articles. The knowledge of Human Anatomy enables the understanding of medical terms and the refinement of Medical Terminology makes possible a better anatomicomedical communication in a highly technical level. Most of the scientific publications in both Anatomy and Medicine are found only in English and most of dictionaries or search resources available do not have specificity enough to explain anatomicomedical, terminological, or lexicographical occurrences. To design and produce a multilingual terminological dictionary (Latin-English-Portuguese-Spanish) containing a list of English anatomicomedical terms in common usage in cardiology subspecialties addressed to medical students and professionals, to other allied health sciences professionals, and to translators working in this specific field. Terms, semantical and grammatical components were selected to compose an anatomicocardiological corpus. The adequacy to the thematic terminological research requests and the translation reliability level will be settled from the terminology specificity in contrast to the semantics, as well as from a peer survey of the main terms used by national and international experts in specialized journals, Internet sites, and from text-books on Anatomy and Cardiology. The inclusion criteria will be the terms included in the English, Portuguese, and Spanish Terminologia Anatomica - the official terminology of the anatomical sciences; nonofficial technical commonly used terms which lead to terminology or translation misunderstanding often being a source of confusion. A table with a sample of the 508 most used anatomical cardiologic terms in English language peer-reviewed journals of cardiology and (pediatric and adult) thoracic surgery is shown. The working up of a multilingual terminological dictionary reduces the risk of

  18. Linked Heritage: a collaborative terminology management platform for a network of multilingual thesauri and controlled vocabularies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Veronique Leroi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminology and multilingualism have been one of the main focuses of the Athena Project. Linked Heritage as a legacy of this project also deals with terminology and bring theory to practice applying the recommendations given in the Athena Project. Linked Heritage as a direct follow-up of these recommendations on terminology and multilingualism is currently working on the development of a Terminology Management Platform (TMP. This platform will allow any cultural institution to register, SKOSify and manage its terminology in a collaborative way. This Terminology Management Platform will provide a network of multilingual and cross-domain terminologies.

  19. Developing a hybrid dictionary-based bio-entity recognition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Bio-entity extraction is a pivotal component for information extraction from biomedical literature. The dictionary-based bio-entity extraction is the first generation of Named Entity Recognition (NER) techniques. Methods This paper presents a hybrid dictionary-based bio-entity extraction technique. The approach expands the bio-entity dictionary by combining different data sources and improves the recall rate through the shortest path edit distance algorithm. In addition, the proposed technique adopts text mining techniques in the merging stage of similar entities such as Part of Speech (POS) expansion, stemming, and the exploitation of the contextual cues to further improve the performance. Results The experimental results show that the proposed technique achieves the best or at least equivalent performance among compared techniques, GENIA, MESH, UMLS, and combinations of these three resources in F-measure. Conclusions The results imply that the performance of dictionary-based extraction techniques is largely influenced by information resources used to build the dictionary. In addition, the edit distance algorithm shows steady performance with three different dictionaries in precision whereas the context-only technique achieves a high-end performance with three difference dictionaries in recall. PMID:26043907

  20. Developing a hybrid dictionary-based bio-entity recognition technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min; Yu, Hwanjo; Han, Wook-Shin

    2015-01-01

    Bio-entity extraction is a pivotal component for information extraction from biomedical literature. The dictionary-based bio-entity extraction is the first generation of Named Entity Recognition (NER) techniques. This paper presents a hybrid dictionary-based bio-entity extraction technique. The approach expands the bio-entity dictionary by combining different data sources and improves the recall rate through the shortest path edit distance algorithm. In addition, the proposed technique adopts text mining techniques in the merging stage of similar entities such as Part of Speech (POS) expansion, stemming, and the exploitation of the contextual cues to further improve the performance. The experimental results show that the proposed technique achieves the best or at least equivalent performance among compared techniques, GENIA, MESH, UMLS, and combinations of these three resources in F-measure. The results imply that the performance of dictionary-based extraction techniques is largely influenced by information resources used to build the dictionary. In addition, the edit distance algorithm shows steady performance with three different dictionaries in precision whereas the context-only technique achieves a high-end performance with three difference dictionaries in recall.

  1. Dictionary of heating and air conditioning. Woerterbuch der Heizungs- und Klimatechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laege, K

    1981-01-01

    This German-English and English-German dictionary includes some 4000 technical terms of the field of heating and air conditioning engineering. It represents the latest state of this technical terminology.

  2. THE TERMINOLOGY OF LIBRARY SCIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Љиљана Матић

    2014-01-01

    The master’s thesis entitled The Terminology of Library Science presents the general state of the terminology of library science in the Serbian language and analyses the terminological system which was formed in the last couple of decades in relation to library and information science. The terminology of library science is seen as a characteristic of professional language. The research is conducted on a corpus which excludes sources relating extremely to either library science or information ...

  3. Development of a Learners’ Dictionary of Polysemous Japanese Words and Some Proposals for Learners’ Lexicography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo IMAI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dictionary series Nihongo tagigo gakushū jiten (“A Learner’s Dictionary of Multi-sense Japanese Words” proposes a new approach to learners’ dictionaries, based on cognitive linguistics theory and on a corpus-based approach. Each entry is presented as a semantic network which follows the patterns of semantic extensions from a word's core meaning to derived meanings. A corpus, Sketch Engine, was consulted in order to select natural and frequently used examples, which were then edited to make them understandable to learners. Illustrations are also provided in an attempt to visualise the common meaning (schema shared by the various meanings of the word.

  4. Encyclopaedic dictionary on archaeology of Tatarstan:conceptual problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullin Khalim M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and methodological problems of creation the glossary for the preparation of encyclopedic dictionary, which is related to the Republic of Tatarstan archaeology are considered in this article. It is noticed that creation of such generalizing editions determines a new important stage of science and its theoretic and methodological basis development. Encyclopedias and dictionaries are the terminological thesaurus and functioning as a source of norms. They are forming the uniform, unifying and conventional approach to archaeological definitions and their content. They are also able to provide an insight into the basic archaeological concepts in the accessible form, to give the characteristic to archaeological monuments on Republic territory, to acquaint with archaeologists, who has ever worked on territory of Tatarstan, to present the last archaeological discoveries, and to popularize achievements of the Kazan Archaeology school. The complete information about archaeology in Republic is supposed to be included in the encyclopedic dictionary on archaeology of Tatarstan (the special attention will be focused on the conceptual system of archaeology, monuments and antiquity subjects, about objects and monuments of historic and archaeological heritage, as well as biographic data of all archaeologists who has ever worked in Tatarstan and information about all organizations related to archaeology in region. There are all preconditions to claim that the considerable source study and theoretical base for creation of the encyclopedic dictionary on archaeology of Tatarstan is created. It is gathered the significant experience on complex studying and generalization of considerable volume of a material which is referring to an ancient and medieval history of region and on research and ordering of archaeological monuments. It is suggested that at the first investigation phase will be created a glossary and after that the collective of authors can pass

  5. Data-Dictionary-Editing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, A. P.

    1989-01-01

    Access to data-dictionary relations and attributes made more convenient. Data Dictionary Editor (DDE) application program provides more convenient read/write access to data-dictionary table ("descriptions table") via data screen using SMARTQUERY function keys. Provides three main advantages: (1) User works with table names and field names rather than with table numbers and field numbers, (2) Provides online access to definitions of data-dictionary keys, and (3) Provides displayed summary list that shows, for each datum, which data-dictionary entries currently exist for any specific relation or attribute. Computer program developed to give developers of data bases more convenient access to the OMNIBASE VAX/IDM data-dictionary relations and attributes.

  6. Analysis of terminological literacy of dental lexicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Fejzrahmanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains the quantitative analysis of contextual lexical literacy of 9 magazines and 3 illustrated newspapers (218 articles on stomatology, 9 textbooks, 28 manuals for higher education institutions, 148 theses from the collections of scientific works. Besides, 126 headings of articles and 57 reports, lectures, seminars are analyzed. Calculations of relative and absolute measures were carried out by the formulas offered by authors of the work. Thus the rather high percent of the errors in written and oral speech of dentists was revealed in all tested editions. On the basis of the received results the authors drew the conclusion of the necessary inclusion of lexical and terminological courses in educational process and creation of active forms of standard highly specialized dictionaries which need to be used as manuals in training process.

  7. Dictionary learning in visual computing

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The last few years have witnessed fast development on dictionary learning approaches for a set of visual computing tasks, largely due to their utilization in developing new techniques based on sparse representation. Compared with conventional techniques employing manually defined dictionaries, such as Fourier Transform and Wavelet Transform, dictionary learning aims at obtaining a dictionary adaptively from the data so as to support optimal sparse representation of the data. In contrast to conventional clustering algorithms like K-means, where a data point is associated with only one cluster c

  8. The Oxford English Dictionary: A Brief History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritze, Ronald H.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the development of English dictionaries in general and the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) in particular. The discussion covers the decision by the Philological Society to create the dictionary, the principles that guided its development, the involvement of James Augustus Henry Murray, the magnitude and progress of the project, and the…

  9. Multilingualism and Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Paweł Sosnowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multilingualism and Dictionaries The Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary that we (Wojciech Sosnowski, Violetta Koseska-Toszewa and Anna Kisiel are currently developing has no precedent as far as its theoretical foundations and its structure are concerned. The dictionary offers a unique combination of three Slavic languages that belong to three different groups: a West Slavic language (Polish, a South Slavic language (Bulgarian and an East Slavic language (Russian. The dictionary describes semantic and syntactic equivalents of words between the languages. When completed, the dictionary will contain around 30,000 entries. The principle we build the dictionary on is that every language should be given equal status. Many of our data come from the Parallel Polish-Bulgarian-Russian corpus developed by us as part of the CLARIN-PL initiative. In the print version, the entries come in the order of the Cyrillic alphabet and they are not numbered (except for homonyms, which are disambiguated with Roman numbers. We selected the lemmas for the dictionary on the basis of their frequency in the corpus. Our dictionary is the first dictionary to include forms of address and most recent neologisms in the three languages. Faithful to the recent developments in contrastive linguistics, we begin with a form from the dictionary’s primary language and we define it in Polish. Subsequently, based on this definition, we try to find an equivalent in the second and the third language. Therefore, the meaning comes first and only then we look for the form (i.e. the equivalent that corresponds to this meaning. This principle, outlined in Gramatyka konfrontatywna języków polskiego i bułgarskiego (GKBP, allows us to treat data from multiple languages as equal. In the dictionary, we draw attention to the correct choice of equivalents in translation; we also provide categorisers that indicate the meaning of verbal tenses and aspects. The definitions of states, events and

  10. Development, dissemination, and applications of a new terminological resource, the Q-Code taxonomy for professional aspects of general practice/family medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamoulle, Marc; Resnick, Melissa; Grosjean, Julien; Ittoo, Ashwin; Cardillo, Elena; Vander Stichele, Robert; Darmoni, Stefan; Vanmeerbeek, Marc

    2018-12-01

    While documentation of clinical aspects of General Practice/Family Medicine (GP/FM) is assured by the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC), there is no taxonomy for the professional aspects (context and management) of GP/FM. To present the development, dissemination, applications, and resulting face validity of the Q-Codes taxonomy specifically designed to describe contextual features of GP/FM, proposed as an extension to the ICPC. The Q-Codes taxonomy was developed from Lamberts' seminal idea for indexing contextual content (1987) by a multi-disciplinary team of knowledge engineers, linguists and general practitioners, through a qualitative and iterative analysis of 1702 abstracts from six GP/FM conferences using Atlas.ti software. A total of 182 concepts, called Q-Codes, representing professional aspects of GP/FM were identified and organized in a taxonomy. Dissemination: The taxonomy is published as an online terminological resource, using semantic web techniques and web ontology language (OWL) ( http://www.hetop.eu/Q ). Each Q-Code is identified with a unique resource identifier (URI), and provided with preferred terms, and scope notes in ten languages (Portuguese, Spanish, English, French, Dutch, Korean, Vietnamese, Turkish, Georgian, German) and search filters for MEDLINE and web searches. This taxonomy has already been used to support queries in bibliographic databases (e.g., MEDLINE), to facilitate indexing of grey literature in GP/FM as congress abstracts, master theses, websites and as an educational tool in vocational teaching, Conclusions: The rapidly growing list of practical applications provides face-validity for the usefulness of this freely available new terminological resource.

  11. Medical radiology terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Standardization achievements in the field of radiology induced the IEC to compile the terminology used in its safety and application standards and present it in publication 788 (1984 issue), entitled 'Medical radiology terminology'. The objective pursued is to foster the use of standard terminology in the radiology standards. The value of publication 788 lies in the fact that it presents definitions of terms used in the French and English versions of IEC standards in the field of radiology, and thus facilitates adequate translation of these terms into other languages. In the glossary in hand, German-language definitions have been adopted from the DIN standards in cases where the French or English versions of definitions are identical with the German wording or meaning. The numbers of DIN standards or sections are then given without brackets, ahead of the text of the definition. In cases where correspondance of the various texts is not so good, or reference should be made to a term in a DIN standard, the numbers are given in brackets. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Hydraulic Turbines: The Francis Turbine. Technical Terminology Bulletin. Terminotech, Vol. 2, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Quebec.

    This issue of a bulletin of technological terminology is devoted to the Francis turbine. A brief narrative on the subject is presented in both French and English. An English-French dictionary of terms comprises the bulk of the document. An explanatory illustration is appended. (JB)

  13. Hydraulic Turbines: The Pelton Turbine. Technical Terminology Bulletin. Terminotech, Vol. 2, No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Quebec.

    This issue of a bulletin of technological terminology is devoted to the Pelton turbine. A brief narrative on the subject is presented in both French and English. An English-French dictionary of terms comprises the bulk of the document. Explanatory illustrations are appended. (JB)

  14. Training programming: revisiting terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário C. Marques

    2017-11-01

    and that these theories/conjectures are transformed in universal laws to the service of the training. Therefore, one of the major problems related to the design and programming of the training is that there exists an extensive, inappropriate and confused terminology, which does not help, per se, the correct organization of training loads and its implementation through concrete exercises.  Based on the above, we propose a bigger simplification of the terminology when we mention the training cycles. So, when we refer to the “cycle”, we are talking specifically about the extension of a certain period of time, which represents a periodic process repeated in an estimated time span. In this regard, a training cycle should express a set of training phases with certain characteristics that are repeated periodically, whose purpose is always the improvement of sports performance or of one or more motor skills. A “complete cycle” of training is the one where all the possible phases of a cycle are defined, which will be more or less numerous according to the features and the theory/ model adopted for the training programming. When the development of several physical capacities plays a significant role in the improvement of a certain sport discipline, the features of each training phase become more pronounced, with higher training intensity and/or volume. The opposite occurs when these sports needs are moderate or low. It should be further noted that each phase has its own specific goal that doesn’t vary much from the general goal. However, the way of developing each phase would be different according to the sport discipline, sport expertise, training background and the features of each individual. In our opinion, the load distribution throughout the training cycles is the content that has been scientifically less developed during the last couple of years. Many ways of programming have been proposed, with none or few scientific backups. Thus, we think that the way to

  15. The INL Dictionary Writing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Tiberius

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The INL-DWS is a Dictionary Writing System (DWS for compiling monolingual and bilingual dictionaries. It has been developed at the Institute of Dutch Lexicology (INL since 2007 and is now being used for the production of a monolingual dictionary at INL and a bilingual dictionary at the Fryske Akademy. This paper describes the functionalities of the system, on the one hand, from a lexicographical point of view, and on the other hand, from a more technical perspective. The paper concludes with a short evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of in-house systems versus off-the-shelf systems.

  16. Reconciliation of ontology and terminology to cope with linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, Robert H; Ceusters, Werner; Ruch, Patrick; Rassinoux, Anne-Marie; Lovis, Christian; Geissbühler, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    To discuss the relationships between ontologies, terminologies and language in the context of Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications in order to show the negative consequences of confusing them. The viewpoints of the terminologist and (computational) linguist are developed separately, and then compared, leading to the presentation of reconciliation among these points of view, with consideration of the role of the ontologist. In order to encourage appropriate usage of terminologies, guidelines are presented advocating the simultaneous publication of pragmatic vocabularies supported by terminological material based on adequate ontological analysis. Ontologies, terminologies and natural languages each have their own purpose. Ontologies support machine understanding, natural languages support human communication, and terminologies should form the bridge between them. Therefore, future terminology standards should be based on sound ontology and do justice to the diversities in natural languages. Moreover, they should support local vocabularies, in order to be easily adaptable to local needs and practices.

  17. TU-G-201-01: What Therapy Physicists Need to Know About CT and PET/CT: Terminology and Latest Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, C. [St. Jude Childrens Research Hospital (United States)

    2015-06-15

    This session will update therapeutic physicists on technological advancements and radiation oncology features of commercial CT, MRI, and PET/CT imaging systems. Also described are physicists’ roles in every stage of equipment selection, purchasing, and operation, including defining specifications, evaluating vendors, making recommendations, and optimal and safe use of imaging equipment in radiation oncology environment. The first presentation defines important terminology of CT and PET/CT followed by a review of latest innovations, such as metal artifact reduction, statistical iterative reconstruction, radiation dose management, tissue classification by dual energy CT and spectral CT, improvement in spatial resolution and sensitivity in PET, and potentials of PET/MR. We will also discuss important technical specifications and items in CT and PET/CT purchasing quotes and their impacts. The second presentation will focus on key components in the request for proposal for a MRI simulator and how to evaluate vendor proposals. MRI safety issues in radiation Oncology, including MRI scanner Zones (4-zone design), will be discussed. Basic MR terminologies, important functionalities, and advanced features, which are relevant to radiation therapy, will be discussed. In the third presentation, justification of imaging systems for radiation oncology, considerations in room design and construction in a RO department, shared use with diagnostic radiology, staffing needs and training, clinical/research use cases and implementation, will be discussed. The emphasis will be on understanding and bridging the differences between diagnostic and radiation oncology installations, building consensus amongst stakeholders for purchase and use, and integrating imaging technologies into the radiation oncology environment. Learning Objectives: Learn the latest innovations of major imaging systems relevant to radiation therapy Be able to describe important technical specifications of CT, MRI

  18. TU-G-201-01: What Therapy Physicists Need to Know About CT and PET/CT: Terminology and Latest Developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, C.

    2015-01-01

    This session will update therapeutic physicists on technological advancements and radiation oncology features of commercial CT, MRI, and PET/CT imaging systems. Also described are physicists’ roles in every stage of equipment selection, purchasing, and operation, including defining specifications, evaluating vendors, making recommendations, and optimal and safe use of imaging equipment in radiation oncology environment. The first presentation defines important terminology of CT and PET/CT followed by a review of latest innovations, such as metal artifact reduction, statistical iterative reconstruction, radiation dose management, tissue classification by dual energy CT and spectral CT, improvement in spatial resolution and sensitivity in PET, and potentials of PET/MR. We will also discuss important technical specifications and items in CT and PET/CT purchasing quotes and their impacts. The second presentation will focus on key components in the request for proposal for a MRI simulator and how to evaluate vendor proposals. MRI safety issues in radiation Oncology, including MRI scanner Zones (4-zone design), will be discussed. Basic MR terminologies, important functionalities, and advanced features, which are relevant to radiation therapy, will be discussed. In the third presentation, justification of imaging systems for radiation oncology, considerations in room design and construction in a RO department, shared use with diagnostic radiology, staffing needs and training, clinical/research use cases and implementation, will be discussed. The emphasis will be on understanding and bridging the differences between diagnostic and radiation oncology installations, building consensus amongst stakeholders for purchase and use, and integrating imaging technologies into the radiation oncology environment. Learning Objectives: Learn the latest innovations of major imaging systems relevant to radiation therapy Be able to describe important technical specifications of CT, MRI

  19. Power plant engineering dictionary. Vol. 2. 4. rev. and enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The dictionary is a compilation of 6000 German and English technical terms of power plant engineering as far as power plants, turbine-generators and assembly engineering are concerned. It is meant to form a basis for uniform terminology on technical documents. The dictionary is the result of a joint effort of KWU and UPC. (DG)

  20. Citizen Science Terminology Matters: Exploring Key Terms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eitzel, M.V.; Cappadonna, Jessica L.; Santos-Lang, Chris; Duerr, Ruth Ellen; Virapongse, Arika; West, Sarah Elizabeth; Kyba, Christopher Conrad Maximillian; Bowser, Anne; Cooper, Caren Beth; Sforzi, Andrea; Metcalfe, Anya Nova; Harris, Edward S.; Thiel, Martin; Haklay, Mordechai; Ponciano, Lesandro; Roche, Joseph; Ceccaroni, Luigi; Shilling, Fraser Mark; Dörler, Daniel; Heigl, Florian; Kiessling, Tim; Davis, Brittany Y.; Jiang, Qijun

    2017-01-01

    Much can be at stake depending on the choice of words used to describe citizen science, because terminology impacts how knowledge is developed. Citizen science is a quickly evolving field that is mobilizing people’s involvement in information development, social action and justice, and large-scale

  1. Extending the MEDAS Feature Dictionary to Support Access to Radiological Images

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, Bryan L.; Naeymi-Rad, Frank; Charletta, Dale A.; Kepic, Anna; Trace, David A.; Naeymirad, Shon; Carmony, Lowell; Spigos, Dimitrios; Evens, Martha

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses a method of adding a library of radiological images to MEDAS (the Medical Emergency Decision Assistance System). This library is interfaced with the MEDAS Feature Dictionary [1, 2], a dictionary containing terminology for MEDAS knowledge bases. The connections between the radiological images and the terms in the dictionary are used in two ways: 1) To retrieve the images with free text queries. 2) To help in the evaluation of radiological findings during the diagnostic cyc...

  2. Creating a medical English-Swedish dictionary using interactive word alignment.

    OpenAIRE

    Nyström , Mikael; Merkel , Magnus; Ahrenberg , Lars; Zweigenbaum , Pierre; Petersson , Håkan; Ahlfeldt , Hans

    2006-01-01

    Background: This paper reports on a parallel collection of rubrics from the medical terminology systems ICD-10, ICF, MeSH, NCSP and KSH97-P and its use for semi-automatic creation of an English-Swedish dictionary of medical terminology. The methods presented are relevant for many other West European language pairs than English-Swedish. Methods: The medical terminology systems were collected in electronic format in both English and Swedish and the rubrics were extracted in parallel language pa...

  3. Dictionary of nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sube, R.

    1985-01-01

    This dictionary covers nuclear engineering defined in its general sense as applied nuclear physics: industrial and other applications of nuclear power, isotopes and ionizing radiation, nuclear materials, nuclear facilities and nuclear weapons together with their scientific and technological fundamentals. During the compilation of terms, great attention was only given to generally valid basic expressions and to special terms where these occurred in all four languages. A great number of textbooks and monographs, as well as specialist journals covering many years, have been evaluated. Detailed attention has been paid to standards. Of importance in nuclear engineering are the international standards of the International Atomic Energy Organization (including the terminology employed by the International Nuclear Information System INIS), the International Organization of Standardization, the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, the World Energy Conference, the International Electrical Engineering Commission, and also a great many national standards which, unfortunately, frequently deviate from one another as regards definition and, in particular, designation. (orig.)

  4. Dictionary of modern technology. German-English. Vol. 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppermann, A.

    1987-01-01

    This book 'Dictionary of Modern Technology' represents the most recent status of modern developments and indicates the complexity of man's technical future. The dictionary contains more than 250.000 terms with the double or treble of translation possibilities for the fields of aerodynamics, statics, space operations, construction of aircrafts, helicopters, motors, turbines, rockets, cars, tools and machines, oil, nuclear physics, electro technics, electronics, data processing, cybernetics, radar engineering, plastics, plasma energy and laser. Further the total of the terminology new built by the ministerial committees concerning air traffic control, the total air traffic as well as the above mentioned fields. From the Federal Language Commission Cologne the complete military field concerning army, air force and naval forces could be added. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Management and Internal Standardization of Chemistry Terminology: A Northern Sotho Case Study Bestuur en interne standaardisering van chemieterminologie: 'n Noord-Sotho gevallestudie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsabé Taljard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    One of the many implications of the process of language democratization which started post-1994 in South Africa is the empowerment of the previously marginalized South African Bantu languages to become languages of higher functions, i.e. languages of learning and teaching, and also of scientific discourse. This in turn implies the development, consolidation and especially standardization of terminology for each of these languages, and the compilation of LSP dictionaries. This article describes the terminological processing of a technical source text prior to translation, which formed part of the compilation of a Quadrilingual Explanatory Dictionary of Chemistry. It reports on the model of terminology management that was utilized and explores strategies for the internal standardization of terms in the absence of readily available, standardized chemistry terminology.

    Een van die talle implikasies van die proses van taaldemokratisering wat na 1994 in Suid-Afrika plaasgevind het, is die bemagtiging van die voorheen benadeelde Suid-Afrikaanse Bantoetale om ook tale van hoër funksies te word, dit wil sê tale van onderrig en leer, en ook tale van wetenskaplike diskoers. Dit impliseer die ontwikkeling, konsolidasie en veral standaardisering van terminologie vir elkeen van hierdie tale, asook die saamstel van vakwoordeboeke. Hierdie artikel beskryf die terminologiese prosessering van 'n tegniese teks voor die vertaling daarvan. Die vertaling vorm deel van die samestelling van 'n Viertalige Verklarende Chemiewoordeboek. Die artikel lewer verslag oor die model van terminologiebestuur wat gebruik is en verken strategieë vir die interne standaardisering van terme in die afwesigheid van algemeen-beskikbare, gestandaardiseerde chemieterme.

     

  6. The Medical Terminology Course--Its Necessity and the Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Addresses difficulties faced by medical students in the acquisition of a technical terminology largely based on Greek or Latin, and explains how in recent years undergraduate Classics departments have met the challenge by offering a Medical Terminology course. Discusses course development and currently available instruction materials. (MES)

  7. Alternative Concepts and Terminologies for Teaching African Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Jacqueline

    1992-01-01

    Considers concepts and terminologies that focus on generalizations concerning traditional African art and cultures. Argues that alternative concepts and terminologies should be used in developing curriculum and in teaching non-Western art. Discusses traditional African religious beliefs, primitivism, and the function of African art objects. (KM)

  8. Explanatory Notes in LSP Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anne Lise

    2010-01-01

    Translators of LSP texts often have to face the problem of not being subject-field experts and not being able to make sufficient research of the domain in question because of short delivery deadlines. The common denominator often seems to be cognitive shortcomings.   Rita Temmerman (2000......) challenges the traditional terminology concept of 'definition' and suggests 'templates of understanding' with a varying number of modules of information for different units of understanding and different perspectives. The theory of lexicographic functions likewise operates with flexible dictionary concepts...... for specific users and user situations (Tarp 2004) advocating user-oriented subject-matter information as a natural category of translation dictionaries. Via further operational tools for selection and specification of subject-matter data, like the recommendations for adapting definitions to non-experts made...

  9. Terminology in South Africa Terminologie in Suid-Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariëtta Alberts

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This article deals with terminology and terminography in South Africa. It gives the different meanings attached to the term terminology and describes points of difference between terminology and terminography. It focuses on the dimensions of terminology, namely the cognitive, linguistic and communicative dimension. Since terminologists need to consult with subject specialists, linguists, language users and mother-tongue speakers during different phases of the terminography process, the role of consultation in terminology work is stressed. Various aspects such as cultural differences that need to be taken care of, are discussed. The current South African terminology and terminography situation regarding terminology work undertaken by the National Language Service is examined. Emphasis is placed on the database system being used and the National Termbank. Terminology training also receives attention.

    Keywords: terminology, terminography, terminologist, terminographer, cognitive dimension, linguistic dimension, communicative dimension, technical dictionary, subject specialist, subject field, subject-oriented, concept-oriented, language-oriented, standardisation, primary term formation, secondary term formation, loan words, borrowing, transliteration, neologism, extension of meaning, total embedding, transference

     

    Hierdie artikel handel oor terminologie en terminografie in Suid-Afrika. Dit verskaf die verskillende betekenisse wat aan die term terminologie geheg word en beskryf punte van verskil tussen terminologie en terminografie. Daar word gefokus op die dimensies van terminologie, naamlik die kognitiewe dimensie, die taaldimensie en die kommunikatiewe dimensie. Aangesien terminoloë vakspesialiste, linguiste, taalgebruikers en moedertaalsprekers gedurende verskillende fases van terminologiewerk moet raadpleeg, word die rol van konsultasie in terminologiewerk beklemtoon. Verskeie aspekte waaraan aandag gegee

  10. Dictionary: Welding, cutting and allied processes. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleiber, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    The dictionary contains approximately 40 000 entries covering all aspects of welding technology. It is based on the evaluation of numerous English, American and German sources. This comprehensive and up to date dictionary will be a reliable and helpful aid in evaluation and translating. The dictionary covers the following areas: Welding: gas welding, arc welding, gas shielded welding, resistance welding, welding of plastics, special welding processes; Cutting: flame cutting, arc cutting and special thermal cutting processes; Soldering: brazing and soldering; Other topics: thermal spraying, metal to metal adhesion, welding filler materials and other consumables, test methods, plant and equipment, accessories, automation, welding trade, general welding terminology. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Correspondence dictionary from free English term to INIS descriptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This dictionary is intended for the on-line users of INIS database who select controlled terms (INIS descriptors) starting from free terms. The purpose of terminology control is (1) to reduce the ambiguity of the term use among different subject fields, and (2) to improve the recall by coordinating the synonyms. The controlled terms are collected in the thesaurus, but it is not always easy to find suitable descriptors. This dictionary has been compiled by analyzing existing records, and provides the specialists' know-how of converting free terms to descriptors. Besides the compilation of this dictionary, the characteristics of the assigned descriptors were also clarified. (J.P.N.)

  12. The medical dictionary for regulatory activities (MedDRA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E G; Wood, L; Wood, S

    1999-02-01

    The International Conference on Harmonisation has agreed upon the structure and content of the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) version 2.0 which should become available in the early part of 1999. This medical terminology is intended for use in the pre- and postmarketing phases of the medicines regulatory process, covering diagnoses, symptoms and signs, adverse drug reactions and therapeutic indications, the names and qualitative results of investigations, surgical and medical procedures, and medical/social history. It can be used for recording adverse events and medical history in clinical trials, in the analysis and tabulations of data from these trials and in the expedited submission of safety data to government regulatory authorities, as well as in constructing standard product information and documentation for applications for marketing authorisation. After licensing of a medicine, it may be used in pharmacovigilance and is expected to be the preferred terminology for international electronic regulatory communication. MedDRA is a hierarchical terminology with 5 levels and is multiaxial: terms may exist in more than 1 vertical axis, providing specificity of terms for data entry and flexibility in data retrieval. Terms in MedDRA were derived from several sources including the WHO's adverse reaction terminology (WHO-ART), Coding Symbols for a Thesaurus of Adverse Reaction Terms (COSTART), International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 9 and ICD9-CM. It will be maintained, further developed and distributed by a Maintenance Support Services Organisation (MSSO). It is anticipated that using MedDRA will improve the quality of data captured on databases, support effective analysis by providing clinically relevant groupings of terms and facilitate electronic communication of data, although as a new tool, users will need to invest time in gaining expertise in its use.

  13. Defining Behavior-Environment Interactions: Translating and Developing An Experimental and Applied Behavior-Analytic Vocabulary in and to the National Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, Marti T.; Parkkinen, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    Verbal behavior, as in the use of terms, is an important part of scientific activity in general and behavior analysis in particular. Many glossaries and dictionaries of behavior analysis have been published in English, but few in any other language. Here we review the area of behavior analytic terminology, its translations, and development in…

  14. Electrochemical dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Bard, Allen J; Scholz, Fritz 0

    2014-01-01

    This comprehensive dictionary includes some 3000 common terms in electrochemistry and energy research, and related fields. Offers clear, precise definitions, references and more than 600 illustrations. The new edition adds more than 300 new and revised terms.

  15. Dictionary Snakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen

    2014-01-01

    for image segmentation that operates without training data. Our method is based on a probabilistic dictionary of image patches coupled with a deformable model inspired by snakes and active contours without edges. We separate the image into two classes based on the information provided by the evolving curve......, which moves according to the probabilistic information obtained from the dictionary. Initially, the image patches are assigned to the nearest dictionary element, where the image is sampled at each pixel such that patches overlap. The curve divides the image into an inside and an outside region allowing...... us to estimate the pixel-wise probability of the dictionary elements. In each iteration we evolve the curve and update the probabilities, which merges similar texture patterns and pulls dissimilar patterns apart. We experimentally evaluate our approach, and show how textured objects are precisely...

  16. Transformation of the Terminological Apparatus of Economic Development of Innovation Activity under Conditions of Dynamic Changes in the External Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharko Margarita V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyze the content interpretation of categorical concepts of economic development of production functioning under conditions of dynamic changes in the exploitation of the external environment. The article presents the author’s interpretation of the concepts of economic development and economic growth under conditions of dynamic changes in the external environment. The urgency of unification and systematization of the main interpretations of economic growth as a means of choosing and using certain management solutions under specific production conditions is substantiated. Based on the construction of the Ishikawa diagram, the reasons and difficulties of the economic growth of enterprises are graded. The conditions and factors of the conceptual apparatus of innovation activity under uncertainty are structured. It is shown that the complex application of iterative methods and methods of factor analysis provides a holistic perception of the dominant tendencies of economic development under conditions of dynamic changes in the external environment.

  17. Medical terminology in online patient-patient communication: evidence of high health literacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fage-Butler, Antoinette M; Nisbeth Jensen, Matilde

    2016-06-01

    Health communication research and guidelines often recommend that medical terminology be avoided when communicating with patients due to their limited understanding of medical terms. However, growing numbers of e-patients use the Internet to equip themselves with specialized biomedical knowledge that is couched in medical terms, which they then share on participatory media, such as online patient forums. Given possible discrepancies between preconceptions about the kind of language that patients can understand and the terms they may actually know and use, the purpose of this paper was to investigate medical terminology used by patients in online patient forums. Using data from online patient-patient communication where patients communicate with each other without expert moderation or intervention, we coded two data samples from two online patient forums dedicated to thyroid issues. Previous definitions of medical terms (dichotomized into technical and semi-technical) proved too rudimentary to encapsulate the types of medical terms the patients used. Therefore, using an inductive approach, we developed an analytical framework consisting of five categories of medical terms: dictionary-defined medical terms, co-text-defined medical terms, medical initialisms, medication brand names and colloquial technical terms. The patients in our data set used many medical terms from all of these categories. Our findings suggest the value of a situated, condition-specific approach to health literacy that recognizes the vertical kind of knowledge that patients with chronic diseases may have. We make cautious recommendations for clinical practice, arguing for an adaptive approach to medical terminology use with patients. © 2015 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Terminology for Achilles tendon related disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, C. N.; van Sterkenburg, M. N.; Wiegerinck, J. I.; Karlsson, J.; Maffulli, N.

    2011-01-01

    The terminology of Achilles tendon pathology has become inconsistent and confusing throughout the years. For proper research, assessment and treatment, a uniform and clear terminology is necessary. A new terminology is proposed; the definitions hereof encompass the anatomic location, symptoms,

  19. Development and perspectives of Slovenian medical terminology and lexicography - the historical role of Zdravniški vestnik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Sket

    2011-02-01

    Conclusions: Slovenian medicine has made important steps in the development of modern Slovenian medical language. The current state of the art enables Slovenian physicians and biomedical professionals to follow the progress of global medicine and to create adequate Slovenian expressions in all medical disciplines.

  20. Using SNOMED CT to Represent Two Interface Terminologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, S. Trent; Brown, Steven H.; Froehling, David; Bauer, Brent A.; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L.; Gregg, William M.; Elkin, Peter L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Interface terminologies are designed to support interactions between humans and structured medical information. In particular, many interface terminologies have been developed for structured computer based documentation systems. Experts and policy-makers have recommended that interface terminologies be mapped to reference terminologies. The goal of the current study was to evaluate how well the reference terminology SNOMED CT could map to and represent two interface terminologies, MEDCIN and the Categorical Health Information Structured Lexicon (CHISL). Design Automated mappings between SNOMED CT and 500 terms from each of the two interface terminologies were evaluated by human reviewers, who also searched SNOMED CT to identify better mappings when this was judged to be necessary. Reviewers judged whether they believed the interface terms to be clinically appropriate, whether the terms were covered by SNOMED CT concepts and whether the terms' implied semantic structure could be represented by SNOMED CT. Measurements Outcomes included concept coverage by SNOMED CT for study terms and their implied semantics. Agreement statistics and compositionality measures were calculated. Results The SNOMED CT terminology contained concepts to represent 92.4% of MEDCIN and 95.9% of CHISL terms. Semantic structures implied by study terms were less well covered, with some complex compositional expressions requiring semantics not present in SNOMED CT. Among sampled terms, those from MEDCIN were more complex than those from CHISL, containing an average 3.8 versus 1.8 atomic concepts respectively, pterms. PMID:18952944

  1. Using SNOMED CT to represent two interface terminologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, S Trent; Brown, Steven H; Froehling, David; Bauer, Brent A; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L; Gregg, William M; Elkin, Peter L

    2009-01-01

    Interface terminologies are designed to support interactions between humans and structured medical information. In particular, many interface terminologies have been developed for structured computer based documentation systems. Experts and policy-makers have recommended that interface terminologies be mapped to reference terminologies. The goal of the current study was to evaluate how well the reference terminology SNOMED CT could map to and represent two interface terminologies, MEDCIN and the Categorical Health Information Structured Lexicon (CHISL). Automated mappings between SNOMED CT and 500 terms from each of the two interface terminologies were evaluated by human reviewers, who also searched SNOMED CT to identify better mappings when this was judged to be necessary. Reviewers judged whether they believed the interface terms to be clinically appropriate, whether the terms were covered by SNOMED CT concepts and whether the terms' implied semantic structure could be represented by SNOMED CT. Outcomes included concept coverage by SNOMED CT for study terms and their implied semantics. Agreement statistics and compositionality measures were calculated. The SNOMED CT terminology contained concepts to represent 92.4% of MEDCIN and 95.9% of CHISL terms. Semantic structures implied by study terms were less well covered, with some complex compositional expressions requiring semantics not present in SNOMED CT. Among sampled terms, those from MEDCIN were more complex than those from CHISL, containing an average 3.8 versus 1.8 atomic concepts respectively, pterms.

  2. [Project HRANAFINA--Croatian anatomical and physiological terminology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodanović, Marin

    2012-01-01

    HRANAFINA--Croatian Anatomical and Physiological Terminology is a project of the University of Zagreb School of Dental Medicine funded by the Croatian Science Foundation. It is performed in cooperation with other Croatian universities with medical schools. This project has a two-pronged aim: firstly, building of Croatian anatomical and physiological terminology and secondly, Croatian anatomical and physiological terminology usage popularization between health professionals, medical students, scientists and translators. Internationally recognized experts from Croatian universities with medical faculties and linguistics experts are involved in the project. All project activities are coordinated in agreement with the National Coordinator for Development of Croatian Professional Terminology. The project enhances Croatian professional terminology and Croatian language in general, increases competitiveness of Croatian scientists on international level and facilitates the involvement of Croatian scientists, health care providers and medical students in European projects.

  3. Dictionary criticism and lexicographical function theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2017-01-01

    This contribution discusses dictionary criticism in the light of the function theory. It starts analyzing the objective of dictionary criticism and lists eight of the most important purposes with which criticism has been made by supporters of the function theory. It then discusses the two main...... types of dictionary criticism, namely criticism of other authors’ dictionaries and self-criticism of one’s own dictionaries. Based on this discussion, it proceeds to a definition of the concept of dictionary criticism which is above all considered a theory-based activity, the outcome of which may...... by the supporters of the function theory, and the way it could be presented in order to create debate. Finally, the contribution indicates the important role dictionary criticism has had in the development of the function theory and endorses an open and critical discussion culture within lexicography....

  4. Chest electrical impedance tomography examination, data analysis, terminology, clinical use and recommendations: consensus statement of the TRanslational EIT developmeNt stuDy group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, Inéz; Amato, Marcelo B P; van Kaam, Anton H; Tingay, David G; Zhao, Zhanqi; Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Bodenstein, Marc; Gagnon, Hervé; Böhm, Stephan H; Teschner, Eckhard; Stenqvist, Ola; Mauri, Tommaso; Torsani, Vinicius; Camporota, Luigi; Schibler, Andreas; Wolf, Gerhard K; Gommers, Diederik; Leonhardt, Steffen; Adler, Andy

    2017-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has undergone 30 years of development. Functional chest examinations with this technology are considered clinically relevant, especially for monitoring regional lung ventilation in mechanically ventilated patients and for regional pulmonary function testing in patients with chronic lung diseases. As EIT becomes an established medical technology, it requires consensus examination, nomenclature, data analysis and interpretation schemes. Such consensus is needed to compare, understand and reproduce study findings from and among different research groups, to enable large clinical trials and, ultimately, routine clinical use. Recommendations of how EIT findings can be applied to generate diagnoses and impact clinical decision-making and therapy planning are required. This consensus paper was prepared by an international working group, collaborating on the clinical promotion of EIT called TRanslational EIT developmeNt stuDy group. It addresses the stated needs by providing (1) a new classification of core processes involved in chest EIT examinations and data analysis, (2) focus on clinical applications with structured reviews and outlooks (separately for adult and neonatal/paediatric patients), (3) a structured framework to categorise and understand the relationships among analysis approaches and their clinical roles, (4) consensus, unified terminology with clinical user-friendly definitions and explanations, (5) a review of all major work in thoracic EIT and (6) recommendations for future development (193 pages of online supplements systematically linked with the chief sections of the main document). We expect this information to be useful for clinicians and researchers working with EIT, as well as for industry producers of this technology. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. INIS: Terminology charts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1970-08-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the INIS Reference Series. It is to be used in conjunction with the INIS indexing manual and the INIS thesaurus for the preparation of input to the INIS database. The thesaurus and terminology charts in their first edition (Rev.0) were produced as the result of an agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). Except for minor changes the terminology and the interrelationships between terms are those of the December 1969 edition of the Euratom Thesaurus. The purpose of the terminology harts is to display the descriptors of the thesaurus in the context of their hierarchical and other semantic relationships. Hierarchically related terms are grouped in clusters, each representing one of the principal concepts of a subject field. The descriptors are grouped around or under the broadest term of the clusters which is printed in upper case. The hierarchical relationships within the clusters are shown by the arrangement of the terms in smaller boxes within the larger boxes circumscribing the clusters. The clusters are connected by lines of various thickness, representing the other (mostly non-hierarchical) relationships. These connections are the equivalent to 'see also' and 'related term' cross-references. The thickness of the lines represents the strength of the semantic relations, or, in the practice of a retrieval system the probability that one term replacing a connected term in a query, will still yield pertinent references. The figures accompanying the descriptors represent their frequency of assignment to the first 987,000 documents stored in the Euratom system (May 1970). They are presented in order to show the relative importance of the descriptors within the subject field. The asterisks (*) accompanying descriptors in the charts refer to descriptors, for which a scope note can be found in the INIS: Thesaurus at the time the charts went

  6. INIS: Terminology charts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-08-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the INIS Reference Series. It is to be used in conjunction with the INIS indexing manual and the INIS thesaurus for the preparation of input to the INIS database. The thesaurus and terminology charts in their first edition (Rev.0) were produced as the result of an agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). Except for minor changes the terminology and the interrelationships between terms are those of the December 1969 edition of the Euratom Thesaurus. The purpose of the terminology harts is to display the descriptors of the thesaurus in the context of their hierarchical and other semantic relationships. Hierarchically related terms are grouped in clusters, each representing one of the principal concepts of a subject field. The descriptors are grouped around or under the broadest term of the clusters which is printed in upper case. The hierarchical relationships within the clusters are shown by the arrangement of the terms in smaller boxes within the larger boxes circumscribing the clusters. The clusters are connected by lines of various thickness, representing the other (mostly non-hierarchical) relationships. These connections are the equivalent to 'see also' and 'related term' cross-references. The thickness of the lines represents the strength of the semantic relations, or, in the practice of a retrieval system the probability that one term replacing a connected term in a query, will still yield pertinent references. The figures accompanying the descriptors represent their frequency of assignment to the first 987,000 documents stored in the Euratom system (May 1970). They are presented in order to show the relative importance of the descriptors within the subject field. The asterisks (*) accompanying descriptors in the charts refer to descriptors, for which a scope note can be found in the INIS: Thesaurus at the time the charts went

  7. Anatomical eponyms - unloved names in medical terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdan, F; Dworzański, W; Cendrowska-Pinkosz, M; Burdan, M; Dworzańska, A

    2016-01-01

    Uniform international terminology is a fundamental issue of medicine. Names of various organs or structures have developed since early human history. The first proper anatomical books were written by Hippocrates, Aristotle and Galen. For this reason the modern terms originated from Latin or Greek. In a modern time the terminology was improved in particular by Vasalius, Fabricius and Harvey. Presently each known structure has internationally approved term that is explained in anatomical or histological terminology. However, some elements received eponyms, terms that incorporate the surname of the people that usually describe them for the first time or studied them (e.g., circle of Willis, follicle of Graff, fossa of Sylvious, foramen of Monro, Adamkiewicz artery). Literature and historical hero also influenced medical vocabulary (e.g. Achilles tendon and Atlas). According to various scientists, all the eponyms bring colour to medicine, embed medical traditions and culture to our history but lack accuracy, lead of confusion, and hamper scientific discussion. The current article presents a wide list of the anatomical eponyms with their proper anatomical term or description according to international anatomical terminology. However, since different eponyms are used in various countries, the list could be expanded.

  8. [German influences on Romanian medical terminology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Răcilă, R G; Răileanu, Irena; Rusu, V

    2008-01-01

    The medical terminology plays a key part both in the study of medicine as well as in its practice. Moreover, understanding the medical terms is important not only for the doctor but also for the patients who want to learn more about their condition. For these reasons we believe that the study of medical terminology is one of great interest. The aim of our paper was to evaluate the German linguistic and medical influences on the evolution of the Romanian medical terminology. Since the Romanian-German cultural contacts date back to the 12th century we had reasons to believe that the number of German medical words in Romanian would be significant. To our surprise, the Romanian language has very few German words and even less medical terms of German origin. However, when we searched the list of diseases coined after famous medical personalities, we found out that 26 % of them bore the names of German doctors and scientists. Taken together this proves that the German medical school played an important role on the evolution of Romanian medicine despite the fact that the Romanian vocabulary was slightly influenced by the German language. We explain this fact on the structural differences between the Romanian and German languages, which make it hard for German loans to be integrated in the Romanian lexis. In conclusion we state that the German influence on the Romanian medical terminology is weak despite the important contribution of the German medical school to the development of medical education and healthcare in Romania. Key

  9. Dictionary of centrifugal pumps. 3. rev. ed. Kreiselpumpen Lexikon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzenberger, K; Jung, K [comps.

    1989-01-01

    This technical dictionary was brought up to date of the state of the art. The terminology was supplemented with terms referring to centrifugal pumps. There are now almost 700 terms, with their English and French translations. To facilitate usage all the terms of books are listed in alphabetical order at the end of the book. (RHM).

  10. Book Review: Dictionary of Geology/Geologiewoordeboek | Zawada ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Title: Dictionary of Geology/Geologiewoordeboek. Book Author: National Terminology Services of the Department of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology. English-Afrikaans/Afrikaans-Engels, 1996. cv + 795 pp. ISBN 1- 875061-23-1. Pretoria: Council for Geoscience of South Africa.

  11. A dictionary of astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This revised edition contains 4,000 up-to-date entries written by an expert team of contributors, under the editorship of Ian Ridpath, renowned author and broadcaster. Covering the most recent space exploration missions and latest technological development, this authoritative dictionary covers everything from astrophysics to galaxies and time. World-wide coverage of observatories and telescopes, and major entries on supernova, Big Bang theory, and stellar evolution, make this an invaluable reference source for students, professionals, and amateur astronomers. Appendices include tables of Apollo lunar landing missions and the constellations. The entries are supported by numerous tables and diagrams, and the dictionary also features biographical entries on eminent astronomers.

  12. Dictionary of pressure vessel and piping technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, H.P.

    1987-01-01

    This dictionary is the result of many years of evaluation of technical terminology taken from the salient non-German rules, regulations, standards and specifications such as ANSI, API, ASME, ASNT, ASTM, BSI, EJMA, TEMA, and WRC (see bibliography) and of comparing these with the corresponding German rules, regulations, etc., as well as examining relevant technical documentation. This dictionary fills the gap left by existing dictionaries. The following specialized factors are given special attention: pressure vessels, tanks, heat exchangers, piping, valves and fittings, expansion joints, flanges, giving particular consideration to the fields of materials, welding, strength calculation, design and construction, fracture mechanics, destructive and non-destructive testing, as well as heat and mass transfer. (orig./HP) [de

  13. World-Building Models of English and Spanish Business Terminology as Reflection of National Morphosyntactic Mentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Андреевна Литягина

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the comparative analysis of the word-building models of the English and Spanish business terminology. The aim of this article is to hold a contrastive analysis of such word-building models of the English and Spanish business terminology as abbreviation, composition, conversion, contamination, apocope, stress changing, sound alteration, to find out existing differences an similarities in the world-building process in both languages and to investigate the concept “global language” comparing the functioning of both English and Spanish languages as the tools of international business communication, that are maximally standardized examples with most used terminological word forms that should be classified as an international standard usage. In this article the author uses the method of theoretical and empirical analysis, for instance, the investigation of specialized dictionaries, of video conferences and mass media sources in order to collect business terminology, and as well the comparative method of study of business English and business Spanish. The work is based on the analysis of terminological units encountered in the data base of the United Nations, economics and business dictionaries of English Spanish and Russian authors and in of the monographs on the corresponding subject.

  14. Electronics and Lithuanian Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasys Zajankauskas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is found that the vacuum triode, transistor, monolithic circuit and microprocessor were the most important inventions of traditional electronics. Thus, the origins of the traditional electronics should be associated with the invention of the vacuum triode, but not with the invention of vacuum diode. It is shown that the science of electronics is not as young as computer science or up-to-date information technologies: electronics, including active electronics, had already celebrated the centenary, and the period of 2004–2008 is the period of numerous already solid jubilees. Thus, the terminology of electronics is not at initial stage of evolution as well – general terms should be already systematized and normalized. However, Lithuanian terms for electronic devices invented before tens of years and terms for old-defined notions associated with these devices are still varying, some are worsened. Especially, the incorrectly motivated terms used for variations of transistors and microcircuits are analyzed in the article. It is motivated which terms are preferable, systematic and exact. The paper is dedicated to the 50th anniversary of monolithic circuit, as well as the 60th anniversary of transistor, the 40th jubilee of microprocessor and centenary of electronics.

  15. Internet accounting dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro; Mourier, Lise

    2005-01-01

    An examination of existing accounting dictionaries on the Internet reveals a general need for a new type of dictionary. In contrast to the dictionaries now accessible, the future accounting dictionaries should be designed as proper Internet dictionaries based on a functional approach so they can...

  16. Considerations regarding nuclear medicine terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Als, C.

    2008-01-01

    This article through some examples shows us all the interest of the use of terminology in nuclear medicine. Each would find in it its interest, from the patient to the doctors in different disciplines. (N.C.)

  17. Automatic Detection of Terminology Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, Nina

    As archives contain documents that span over a long period of time, the language used to create these documents and the language used for querying the archive can differ. This difference is due to evolution in both terminology and semantics and will cause a significant number of relevant documents being omitted. A static solution is to use query expansion based on explicit knowledge banks such as thesauri or ontologies. However as we are able to archive resources with more varied terminology, it will be infeasible to use only explicit knowledge for this purpose. There exist only few or no thesauri covering very domain specific terminologies or slang as used in blogs etc. In this Ph.D. thesis we focus on automatically detecting terminology evolution in a completely unsupervised manner as described in this technical paper.

  18. Medical terminology in «Donish-name» Kadarkhon dictionary

    OpenAIRE

    ГИЯСОВ НУРУЛЛО ИСМАТОВИЧ; НИЗОМИДИНОВА РУХСОРА АБДУЦАМИЛОВНА

    2016-01-01

    В статье рассматриваются медицинские термины персидско-таджикского толкового словаря XV века «Донишнома-и Кадархон» Форуки. Данный словарь является одним из старинных персидских словарей, и в нем значительная часть вокабул являются медицинскими терминами. Автор-составитель словаря поставил перед собой задачу наряду с терминами строительства, поэтики, культуры и т.д. прокомментировать медицинские термины. 80 лексических единиц словаря относятся к частям человеческого тела. Медицинские термины,...

  19. Dictionary of Black Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Wade; Runes, Richard N.

    This dictionary is an encyclopedic survey of the cultural background and development of the black American, covering the basic issues, events, contributions and biographies germane to the subject. The author-compiler is Chairman of Classical Languages Department at Southeastern State College, Durant, Oklahoma. Richard Runes is practicing law as a…

  20. Bootstrapping pronunciation dictionaries: practical issues

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, MH

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Bootstrapping techniques are an efficient way to develop electronic pronunciation dictionaries, but require fast system response to be practical for medium-to-large lexicons. In addition, user errors are inevitable during this process...

  1. NCI Dictionary of Genetics Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    A dictionary of more than 150 genetics-related terms written for healthcare professionals. This resource was developed to support the comprehensive, evidence-based, peer-reviewed PDQ cancer genetics information summaries.

  2. Sport supporting act: terminology issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Vlček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The text deals with terminology issues from an interdisciplinary point of view. It is based on two different disciplines, law and kinanthropology, in an area of their overlap. AIM: The aim of the author is to point out some possible legislative problems, which could arise due to the current reading of the sport supporting act (Act no. 115/2001. The second aim of the author is to contribute to the discussion of kinantropologists (possibly also the educational researchers and lawyers and to stress the importance of the systematic approach to terminology formulation. METHODS: The author uses the method of language interpretation. We also use the basic analytical methods, induction and deduction, while we stress the systematic approach to the term formulation. RESULTS: The analysis of the sport supporting act terminology shows some specific legislative problems, which could arise due to the definition of sport in the sport supporting act. The author discusses a possible alternative solution. CONCLUSION: According to the opinion of the author, clear, obvious and unified terminology of kinantropologists as specialists in their discipline should represent a source, from which other sciences could derive their terminology. Defined and inexpert terminology used in other disciplines should not be used as an argument for its adopting in kinanthropology.

  3. A hospital-wide clinical findings dictionary based on an extension of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréant, C; Borst, F; Campi, D; Griesser, V; Momjian, S

    1999-01-01

    The use of a controlled vocabulary set in a hospital-wide clinical information system is of crucial importance for many departmental database systems to communicate and exchange information. In the absence of an internationally recognized clinical controlled vocabulary set, a new extension of the International statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD) is proposed. It expands the scope of the standard ICD beyond diagnosis and procedures to clinical terminology. In addition, the common Clinical Findings Dictionary (CFD) further records the definition of clinical entities. The construction of the vocabulary set and the CFD is incremental and manual. Tools have been implemented to facilitate the tasks of defining/maintaining/publishing dictionary versions. The design of database applications in the integrated clinical information system is driven by the CFD which is part of the Medical Questionnaire Designer tool. Several integrated clinical database applications in the field of diabetes and neuro-surgery have been developed at the HUG.

  4. Dictionary Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning

    2018-01-01

    in different projects. The same steps can be applied to lexicographic projects. In this field, by looking at finished and not finished dictionary projects, we find that: many are started but never finished; and many are planned to be carried out within a certain time frame, but it takes much longer than...... anticipated until the project is completed with the publication of one or more dictionaries. The reason for that is normally an unrealistic and much too optimistic planning. But it is also due to a missing knowledge about management planning according to a relevant overall lexicographic theory....... There is a long tradition of understanding lexicography as the compiling of dictionaries, especially among British scholars. But there is also a tradition of focusing on theoretical lexicography, especially among German scholars. In this contribution, I consider lexicography a discipline with two legs: (1...

  5. INTERVIEW: Knowledge and Terminology Management at Crisplant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Margrethe H.; Toft, Birthe

    2012-01-01

    that the terminological resources of the two enterprises are in the process of being integrated. The challenges presented by this process demonstrate the importance of adhering to terminological principles when recording terminology resources, while at the same time reminding us what an essential discipline terminology...

  6. A standard for terminology in chronic pelvic pain syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doggweiler, Regula; Whitmore, Kristene E; Meijlink, Jane M

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Terms used in the field of chronic pelvic pain (CPP) are poorly defined and often confusing. An International Continence Society (ICS) Standard for Terminology in chronic pelvic pain syndromes (CPPS) has been developed with the aim of improving diagnosis and treatment of patients affected...... domain from 1980 to 2014. Existing ICS Standards for terminology were utilized where appropriate to ensure transparency, accessibility, flexibility, and evolution. Consensus was based on majority agreement. RESULTS: The multidisciplinary CPPS Standard reports updated consensus terminology in nine domains...

  7. National Medical Terminology Server in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungin; Song, Seung-Jae; Koh, Soonjeong; Lee, Soo Kyoung; Kim, Hong-Gee

    Interoperable EHR (Electronic Health Record) necessitates at least the use of standardized medical terminologies. This paper describes a medical terminology server, LexCare Suite, which houses terminology management applications, such as a terminology editor, and a terminology repository populated with international standard terminology systems such as Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED). The server is to satisfy the needs of quality terminology systems to local primary to tertiary hospitals. Our partner general hospitals have used the server to test its applicability. This paper describes the server and the results of the applicability test.

  8. Dictionaries for text production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro; Bergenholtz, Henning

    2018-01-01

    Dictionaries for Text Production are information tools that are designed and constructed for helping users to produce (i.e. encode) texts, both oral and written texts. These can be broadly divided into two groups: (a) specialized text production dictionaries, i.e., dictionaries that only offer...... a small amount of lexicographic data, most or all of which are typically used in a production situation, e.g. synonym dictionaries, grammar and spelling dictionaries, collocation dictionaries, concept dictionaries such as the Longman Language Activator, which is advertised as the World’s First Production...... Dictionary; (b) general text production dictionaries, i.e., dictionaries that offer all or most of the lexicographic data that are typically used in a production situation. A review of existing production dictionaries reveals that there are many specialized text production dictionaries but only a few general...

  9. Nuclear engineering dictionary. Woerterbuch Kerntechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sube, R

    1985-01-01

    This dictionary treats the subject field of nuclear engineering as a field of applied nuclear physics: Industrial and other applications of nuclear energy, isotopes and ionizing radiation, and their, scientific-technical bases. Emphasis is placed on the terminology of the nuclear fuel cycle. Other applications of nuclear energy include military applications, nuclear fusion technology, and plasma physics, as well as methods and equipment of isotope and radiation technology, without the aspects of biological applications. High-energy physics is also excluded. The terminology presented primarily covers general and basic concepts, special terms have been included as far as available and ascertainable in all four languages. For selection of terms, numerous textbooks and monographies have been searched and compared, as well as various subject-related journals which have been regularly scanned for years. Standards have been a main source of information, as e.g. the international standards of the IAEA (including the INIS terminology), of the ISO, of the COMECON, and of the World Energy Conference and the IEC. Numerous national standards have been evaluated in search for definitions and designations. Users will appreciate the introduction of subject-field codes indicating the main field of usage of a term. Explanations and other hints are numerous and extensive in order to clearly define the terms chosen from other, similar terms, and in order to show homonyms.

  10. Making an Online Dictionary of New Zealand Sign Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is n example of a contemporary sign language dictionary that leverages the 21st ... informed development of this bilingual, bi-directional, multimedia dictionary. ... and dealing with sociolinguistic variation in the selection and performance of ...

  11. Compiling Dictionaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    This method results in a classified word list that can be efficiently ... standardized list of domains to classify multiple dictionaries opens up possibilities for cross-lin- .... part of speech, noun class, the plural form of each noun, and a simple gloss. ... But these mental links tend to cluster around a ... group, duet, trio, ensemble.

  12. Using Bilingual Dictionaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Geoff

    1987-01-01

    Monolingual dictionaries have serious disadvantages in many language teaching situations; bilingual dictionaries are potentially more efficient and more motivating sources of information for language learners. (Author/CB)

  13. Current procedural terminology; a primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Joshua A; Leslie-Mazwi, Thabele M; Nicola, Gregory N; Barr, Robert M; Bello, Jacqueline A; Donovan, William D; Tu, Raymond; Alson, Mark D; Manchikanti, Laxmaiah

    2015-04-01

    In 1966, The American Medical Association (AMA) working with multiple major medical specialty societies developed an iterative coding system for describing medical procedures and services using uniform language, the Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) system. The current code set, CPT IV, forms the basis of reporting most of the services performed by healthcare providers, physicians and non-physicians as well as facilities allowing effective, reliable communication among physician and other providers, third parties and patients. This coding system and its maintenance has evolved significantly since its inception, and now goes well beyond its readily perceived role in reimbursement. Additional roles include administrative management, tracking new and investigational procedures, and evolving aspects of 'pay for performance'. The system also allows for local, regional and national utilization comparisons for medical education and research. Neurointerventional specialists use CPT category I codes regularly--for example, 36,215 for first-order cerebrovascular angiography, 36,216 for second-order vessels, and 37,184 for acute stroke treatment by mechanical means. Additionally, physicians add relevant modifiers to the CPT codes, such as '-26' to indicate 'professional charge only,' or '-59' to indicate a distinct procedural service performed on the same day. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Synonymy in the English-origin Romanian Medical Terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Oana BADEA

    2013-01-01

    The Romanian medical terminology has been enriched quite a lot lately. This phenomena was not only due to the significant influence of the English language, but also because of the relationships developed between the already existing terms and the new ones. Thus, the present study comprises the analysis on Romanian medical terms of Englsih origin and their native synonymous correspondents in the Romanian medical terminology. The dictionnaries used to select the synonymous pairs of medical ter...

  15. Legal terms in general dictionaries of English: The civil procedure mystery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    examines four general dictionaries of English to see how they treat civil procedure terms used in England and Wales in the light of the change of structure of and terminology used in civil proceedings that took place in 1999. Despite being based on large, up-to-date corpora the dictionaries contain some......Many general language dictionaries contain specialized terms, including legal terms relating to civil lawsuits. The existing literature provides general discussions of scientific and technical terms in ordinary dictionaries but does not specifically address the inclusion of legal terms. This study...... of the old terms but fail to include the new terms that have been in use for more than 15 years. Why this is the case is a mystery. However, some clues indicate that if they pay more attention to the link between dictionary functions, corpora and the data presented in dictionaries, lexicographers may be able...

  16. New Proposals for the Design of Integrated Online Wine Industry Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leroyer, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: The specialised lexicographic treatment of oenology and viticulture usually consists in the compiling of articles describing the language of wine in general language dictionaries, or presenting professional knowledge of wine in specialised multi-field dictionaries and encyclopedias. Thi...... dictionaries should not stand alone, as they could benefit from a full integration with the websites of the wine industry, and consequently transform into genuine lexicographic information tools.......Abstract: The specialised lexicographic treatment of oenology and viticulture usually consists in the compiling of articles describing the language of wine in general language dictionaries, or presenting professional knowledge of wine in specialised multi-field dictionaries and encyclopedias....... This treatment also encompasses the terminological compilation of single field dictionaries describing the language and/or knowledge of wine. Lexicographically speaking, all this is but a fraction of the complete picture. Indeed, the specialised lexicography of oenology and viticulture is multifaceted and goes...

  17. Mistakes in the usage of anatomical terminology in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Bozdechova, Ivana; Cech, Pavel; Musil, Vladimir; Baca, Vaclav

    2009-06-01

    Anatomical terminology serves as a basic communication tool in all the medical fields. Therefore Latin anatomical nomenclature has been repetitively issued and revised from 1895 (Basiliensia Nomina Anatomica) until 1998, when the last version was approved and published as the Terminologia Anatomica (International Anatomical Terminology) by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology. A brief history of the terminology and nomenclature development is mentioned, along with the concept and contributions of the Terminologia Anatomica including the employed abbreviations. Examples of obsolete anatomical terms and their current synonyms are listed. Clinicians entered the process of the nomenclature revision and this aspect is demonstrated with several examples of terms used in clinical fields only, some already incorporated in the Terminologia Anatomica and a few obsolete terms still alive in non-theoretical communication. Frequent mistakes in grammar and orthography are stated as well. Authors of the article strongly recommend the use of the recent revision of the Latin anatomical nomenclature both in theoretical and clinical medicine.

  18. Terminology: A necessary tool for the Specialized Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura E. Navarro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Language disciplines, including Terminology and Specialized Translation, have made great strides after the second half of the twentieth century. This development, related to technological growth and international communication that occurred during this period, has resulted in a considerable increase of concepts. Thus, experts have become more and more aware of the importance of naming these new concepts. Specialized translators were among the first language professionals to recognize the need of mastering the terminology of specialized fields in order to perform their duties well (Antia et coll., 2005. In this work, we study the very close relationship between Terminology and Specialized Translation. We also study the theoretical and practical knowledge of Terminology that a specialized translator should have.

  19. User Experimentation with Terminological Ontologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pram Nielsen, Louise

    This paper outlines work-in-progress research suggesting that domain-specific knowledge in terminological resources can be transferred efficiently to end-users across different levels of expertise and by means of different information modes including articles (written mode) and concept diagrams...... (graph mode). An experimental approach is applied in an eye-tracking laboratory, where a natural user situation is replicated for Danish professional potential end-users of a ter-minology and knowledge bank in a chosen pilot domain (taxation)....

  20. Collections for terminology in chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-08-01

    This book describes terminology in chemistry, which is divided into seven chapters. The contents of this book are element name, names of an inorganic compound such as ion and radical and polyacid, an organic compound on general principle and names, general terminology 1 and 2, unit and description method on summary, unit and the symbol for unit, number and pH, Korean mark for people's name in chemistry, names of JUPAC organic compound of summary, hydrocarbons, fused polycyclic hydrocarbons, bridged hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons with side chains, terpenes hydrocarbons, fundamental heterocyclic systems and heterocyclic spiro compounds.

  1. Medical dictionary MedDRA: Used in over 60 countries, among which is Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugoša Snežana S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA is a medical coding dictionary which is designed in order to be used by regulatory authorities, pharmaceutical companies, clinical research organizations and health care professionals, i.e. all participants in the system of medicines safety monitoring. Methods: This article describes process which is used for medical coding in clinical data management and, in brief, most commonly used medical dictionary MedDRA. The purpose of this paper is a modest contribution to easier and more successful understanding of the encoding process in clinical data management in the field of pharmacovigilance. Topic: MedDRA Development, structure, multi-axiality, availability of foreign languages, as well as common problems faced by medical coding expert while coding were presented. Conclusion: MedDRA has become the standard medical terminology for drug regulators and pharmaceutical companies in Montenegro. Training should be provided to all coders in order to achieve the optimum level of coding and to ensure that all the parameters for quality are achieved. Coding should be treated as one of the most important function in clinical research.

  2. Implementing a dictionary culture for South Africa: attempt at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    This information should mainly be distributed through dictionary aware- .... could co-operate and share the costs of developing a marketing strategy which could be ... Pro (Sesotho sa Leboa Dictionary Project) online dictionary in South African ... Examples of teaching lexicographic theory are workshops at certain lexi-.

  3. Two Recent Major Afrikaans–English/English–Afrikaans Dictionaries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: When Pharos Dictionaries was established in 1996, its first order of business was to develop a comprehensive Afrikaans–English/English–Afrikaans dictionary that could succeed the standard-bearing but ageing TW (Tweetalige Woordeboek/Bilingual Dictionary by Bosman, Van der. Merwe and Hiemstra).

  4. Tensor Dictionary Learning for Positive Definite Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivalingam, Ravishankar; Boley, Daniel; Morellas, Vassilios; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos

    2015-11-01

    Sparse models have proven to be extremely successful in image processing and computer vision. However, a majority of the effort has been focused on sparse representation of vectors and low-rank models for general matrices. The success of sparse modeling, along with popularity of region covariances, has inspired the development of sparse coding approaches for these positive definite descriptors. While in earlier work, the dictionary was formed from all, or a random subset of, the training signals, it is clearly advantageous to learn a concise dictionary from the entire training set. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for dictionary learning over positive definite matrices. The dictionary is learned by alternating minimization between sparse coding and dictionary update stages, and different atom update methods are described. A discriminative version of the dictionary learning approach is also proposed, which simultaneously learns dictionaries for different classes in classification or clustering. Experimental results demonstrate the advantage of learning dictionaries from data both from reconstruction and classification viewpoints. Finally, a software library is presented comprising C++ binaries for all the positive definite sparse coding and dictionary learning approaches presented here.

  5. Alternatively Constrained Dictionary Learning For Image Superresolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoqiang; Yuan, Yuan; Yan, Pingkun

    2014-03-01

    Dictionaries are crucial in sparse coding-based algorithm for image superresolution. Sparse coding is a typical unsupervised learning method to study the relationship between the patches of high-and low-resolution images. However, most of the sparse coding methods for image superresolution fail to simultaneously consider the geometrical structure of the dictionary and the corresponding coefficients, which may result in noticeable superresolution reconstruction artifacts. In other words, when a low-resolution image and its corresponding high-resolution image are represented in their feature spaces, the two sets of dictionaries and the obtained coefficients have intrinsic links, which has not yet been well studied. Motivated by the development on nonlocal self-similarity and manifold learning, a novel sparse coding method is reported to preserve the geometrical structure of the dictionary and the sparse coefficients of the data. Moreover, the proposed method can preserve the incoherence of dictionary entries and provide the sparse coefficients and learned dictionary from a new perspective, which have both reconstruction and discrimination properties to enhance the learning performance. Furthermore, to utilize the model of the proposed method more effectively for single-image superresolution, this paper also proposes a novel dictionary-pair learning method, which is named as two-stage dictionary training. Extensive experiments are carried out on a large set of images comparing with other popular algorithms for the same purpose, and the results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed sparse representation model and the corresponding dictionary learning algorithm.

  6. Eucharistic Hospitality : Reconsidering the Terminology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casadei, Giulia; Wouda, Fokke

    2016-01-01

    Giulia Casadei MA and Fokke Wouda MA work on PhD projects about Eucharistic sharing in ecumenical relations; a pressing, yet controversial topic in Roman Catholic ecumenical engagement. As they both encounter questions concerning the terminology of this field, they decided on writing an article

  7. Representation of ophthalmology concepts by electronic systems: adequacy of controlled medical terminologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Michael F; Casper, Daniel S; Cimino, James J; Starren, Justin

    2005-02-01

    To assess the adequacy of 5 controlled medical terminologies (International Classification of Diseases 9, Clinical Modification [ICD9-CM]; Current Procedural Terminology 4 [CPT-4]; Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine, Clinical Terms [SNOMED-CT]; Logical Identifiers, Names, and Codes [LOINC]; Medical Entities Dictionary [MED]) for representing concepts in ophthalmology. Noncomparative case series. Twenty complete ophthalmology case presentations were sequentially selected from a publicly available ophthalmology journal. Each of the 20 cases was parsed into discrete concepts, and each concept was classified along 2 axes: (1) diagnosis, finding, or procedure and (2) ophthalmic or medical concept. Electronic or paper browsers were used to assign a code for every concept in each of the 5 terminologies. Adequacy of assignment for each concept was scored on a 3-point scale. Findings from all 20 case presentations were combined and compared based on a coverage score, which was the average score for all concepts in that terminology. Adequacy of assignment for concepts in each terminology, based on a 3-point Likert scale (0, no match; 1, partial match; 2, complete match). Cases were parsed into 1603 concepts. SNOMED-CT had the highest mean overall coverage score (1.625+/-0.667), followed by MED (0.974+/-0.764), LOINC (0.781+/-0.929), ICD9-CM (0.280+/-0.619), and CPT-4 (0.082+/-0.337). SNOMED-CT also had higher coverage scores than any of the other terminologies for concepts in the diagnosis, finding, and procedure categories. Average coverage scores for ophthalmic concepts were lower than those for medical concepts. Controlled terminologies are required for electronic representation of ophthalmology data. SNOMED-CT had significantly higher content coverage than any other terminology in this study.

  8. The National Terminology Services: A New Paradigm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    terminologies which are vital for meaningful interaction, thus protecting the ... taken that this situation does not counteract the goal and promotion of multi- .... touch with the changing terminology needs of society in a fast changing envi- ronment ...

  9. Nuclear operations dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In less than fifty years, a sophisticated technical language has developed worldwide around broad-ranging operations in the field of nuclear technology. In South Africa the need to adapt this new technical language in an orderly and acceptable manner for common use was identified. The aim of this dictionary is to promote the use of correct nuclear technology in both English and Afrikaans, and to aid in the translation of nuclear terms from English into Afrikaans

  10. Data Presentation Structures in Specialised Dictionaries: Law Dictionaries with Communicative Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    data stand out, lexicographers should prioritize functional data that are directly related to and support the function(s) of dictionaries on a need-to-have/nice-to have basis, because data presentation structures with functional focus may better help users achieve their intended goals, i.e. finding......Theoretical lexicographers have developed a range of elaborate structures to describe the arrangement of data inside dictionaries, in particular in dictionary articles. However, most of these structures have been developed on the basis of detailed analyses of print dictionaries and relatively...... little has been said about the arrangement of data in e-dictionaries. The relevant data types are lexicographical data providing help concerning the function(s) and use of dictionaries on search results pages. In order to create a visual hierarchy on screen that makes the most important search result...

  11. Should Terminology Principles be re-examined?

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Operationalization of terminology for IT applications has revived the Wüsterian approach. The conceptual dimension once more prevails after taking back seat to specialised lexicography. This is demonstrated by the emergence of ontology in terminology. While the Terminology Principles as defined in Felber's manual and the ISO standards remain at the core of traditional terminology , their computational implementation raises some issues. In this article, while reiteratin...

  12. From Polyfunctional to Monofunctional Accounting Dictionaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article describes the theoretical foundation of the accounting dictionaries as well as its practical results. Furthermore, the implementation of the project shows how the constant interaction of lexicographical theory with practical dictionary work over a period of 10 years has led to lexicographical development and ...

  13. Development of an Openmath Content Dictionary for Mathematical Knowledge of Materials Science and Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Ashino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Many relationships between parameters and physical properties in materials science and engineering are represented as mathematical expressions, such as empirical equations and regression expressions. Some materials databases handle such information with indirect methods: as a table of sets of parameters, as a list of statements of programming languages, and other ways. There is no standardized way to represent mathematical relationships, and that makes it difficult to exchange, process, and display such information. The AIST (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology in Japan thermophysical property database manages sets of parameter values for expressions and Fortran statements that represent relationships between physical parameters, e.g., temperature, pressure, etc. and thermophysical properties. However, in this method, it is not easy to add new parameters, to process expressions, and exchange information with other software tools. In this paper, we describe the current implementation of representing mathematical knowledge in the AIST thermophysical property database, and we also discuss its problems, sample implementations, and definitions of the OpenMath content dictionary for materials science and engineering.

  14. Fiber optics standard dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Weik, Martin H

    1997-01-01

    Fiber Optics Vocabulary Development In 1979, the National Communications System published Technical InfonnationBulle­ tin TB 79-1, Vocabulary for Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications, written by this author. Based on a draft prepared by this author, the National Communications System published Federal Standard FED-STD-1037, Glossary of Telecommunications Terms, in 1980 with no fiber optics tenns. In 1981, the first edition of this dictionary was published under the title Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications Standard Dictionary. In 1982, the then National Bureau of Standards, now the National Institute of Standards and Technology, published NBS Handbook 140, Optical Waveguide Communications Glossary, which was also published by the General Services Admin­ istration as PB82-166257 under the same title. Also in 1982, Dynamic Systems, Inc. , Fiberoptic Sensor Technology Handbook, co-authored and edited by published the this author, with an extensive Fiberoptic Sensors Glossary. In 1989, the handbook w...

  15. Managing terminology assets in Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kelly; Schneider, Sue; Scichilone, Rita

    2009-01-01

    Electronic Health Record (EHR)systems rely on standard terminologies and classification systems that require both Information Technology (IT) and Information Management (IM) skills. Convergence of perspectives is necessary for effective terminology asset management including evaluation for use, maintenance and intersection with software applications. Multiple terminologies are necessary for patient care communication and data capture within EHRs and other information management tasks. Terminology asset management encompasses workflow and operational context as well as IT specifications and software application run time requirements. This paper identifies the tasks, skills and collaboration of IM and IT approaches for terminology asset management.

  16. The genre tutorial and social networks terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Sales Santiago

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the terminology in the Internet social networks tutorials. A tutorial is a specialized text, full of terms, aiming to teach an individual or group of individuals who need some guidelines to operationalize a computerized tool, such as a social network. It is necessary to identify linguistic and terminological characteristics from the specialized lexical units in this digital genre. Social networks terminology is described and exemplified here. The results show that it is possible to refer to two specific terminologies in tutorials which help to determine the terminological profile of the thematic area, specifically from the point of view of denomination.

  17. Terminological Ontologies for Risk and Vulnerability Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Erdman Thomsen, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Risk and vulnerability analyses are an important preliminary stage in civil contingency planning. The Danish Emergency Management Agency has developed a generic model and a set of tools that may be used in the preparedness planning, i.e. for identifying and describing society’s critical functions......, for formulating threat scenarios and for assessing consequences. Terminological ontologies, which are systems of domain specific concepts comprising concept relations and characteristics, are useful, both when describing the central concepts of risk and vulnerability analysis (meta concepts), and for further...

  18. Transregionalism: Problems of Terminology and Conceptualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Kuznetsov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s world is witnessing the remarkable development of transregional ties between distinct regions and powers within the international system evolving towards multipolarity. However, the essence of transregionalism remains understudied to the extent that there is no clear consensus for which terminology should be used to define this phenomenon. The article compares existing approaches to transregionalism conceptualization, analyzes the differences in the use of terms, and discusses the global impact of transregional relations on world politics and economy. The author advocates a term transregionalism (instead of interregionalism, crossregionalism, macroregionalization etc. and suggests its definition.

  19. Radon: a problem of terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrini, D.; Demongeot, S.

    1995-01-01

    Here are detailed the difficulties to speak about the same thing if we don't use the same language. The example is the radon and what we want to tell about it; it is necessary to explain what words we are using and what mean we want to give them. Then, emanation and exhalation are given with their definitions. Also the terms as factor, flux and rate are redefined. It is a way to make scientific population sensitive to terminology

  20. INTERVIEW: Knowledge and Terminology Management at Crisplant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Margrethe H.; Toft, Birthe

    2012-01-01

    Margrethe H. Møller interviews Lisbeth Kjeldgaard Almsten (translator/coauthor: Birthe Toft) “If you think that terminology work is simply a matter of buying terminology management software and getting started, you are in for trouble” At Crisplant, we have been doing terminology management for th...... management really is, in enterprise practice as well as in education.......Margrethe H. Møller interviews Lisbeth Kjeldgaard Almsten (translator/coauthor: Birthe Toft) “If you think that terminology work is simply a matter of buying terminology management software and getting started, you are in for trouble” At Crisplant, we have been doing terminology management...... for the past 20 years. Today, term bases are used not just for terminology-oriented term management. Recording other types of master data needed by all kinds of professionals in the enterprise is equally important. Within the past year, Crisplant has been acquired by the German BEUMER group, which means...

  1. Dictionary of radiation protection, radiobiology and nuclear medicine: English, German, French and Russian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sube, R.

    1986-01-01

    This dictionary is a thematic enlargement of the four-language Dictionary of Nuclear Engineering, compiled by the same author. It comprises about 12,000 terms in each language. The subject matter dealt with is indicated in detail on the interleaves preceding each separate part of the dictionary. The majority of terms have been compiled from texts in the same language. Care has been taken to use standard terms. The terminology employed by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) as part of the International Atomic Energy Organization has been incorporated in full

  2. The Compilation of the Shona–English Biomedical Dictionary: Problems and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomalanga Mpofu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: The bilingual Shona–English dictionary of biomedical terms, Duramazwi reUrapi neUtano, was compiled with the aim of improving the efficiency of communication between doctor and patient. The dictionary is composed of terms from both modern and traditional medicinal practices. The article seeks to look at the methods of production of the dictionary, the presentation of entries in the dictionary and the problems and challenges encountered in the compilation proc-ess, namely, developing Shona medical terminology in the cultural context and especially the as-pect of equivalence between English and Shona biomedical terms.

    Keywords: BIOMEDICAL, ADOPTIVES, ENTRIES, SYNONYMS, CROSS-REFERENCES, IDIOMS, CIRCUMLOCUTION, STANDARDISATION, HEADWORD, EQUIVALENCE, VARI-ANTS, DEFINITION, CULTURE, EUPHEMISMS, MODERN, TRADITIONAL, MONOLINGUAL, BILINGUAL, CORPUS, BORROWING, SHONA, COMMUNICATION

    *****

    OPSOMMING: Die samestelling van die Sjona–Engelse biomediese woorde-boek: Probleme en uitdagings. Die tweetalige Sjona–Engelse woordeboek van biomediese terme, Duramazwi reUrapi neUtano, is saamgestel met die doel om die effektiwiteit van kommunika-sie tussen dokter en pasiënt te verbeter. Die woordeboek bestaan uit terme van sowel moderne as tradisionele geneeskundige praktyke. Die artikel wil die metodes van die totstandkoming van die woordeboek beskou, die aanbieding van die inskrywings in die woordeboek en die probleme en uitdagings wat in die samestellingsproses teëgekom is, naamlik, die ontwikkeling van Sjona- mediese terminolgie binne die kulturele konteks en veral die aspek van ekwivalensie tussen Engel-se en Sjona- biomediese terme.

    Sleutelwoorde: BIOMEDIES, LEENWOORDE, INSKRYWINGS, SINONIEME, KRUISVER-WYSINGS, IDIOME, OMSKRYWING, STANDAARDISASIE, TREFWOORD, EKWIVALENSIE, WISSELVORME, DEFINISIE, KULTUUR, EUFEMISMES, MODERN, TRADISIONEEL, EEN-TALIG, TWEETALIG, KORPUS, ONTLENING, KOMMUNIKASIE, SJONA

  3. The linguistic roots of Modern English anatomical terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmezei, Tom D

    2012-11-01

    Previous research focusing on Classical Latin and Greek roots has shown that understanding the etymology of English anatomical terms may be beneficial for students of human anatomy. However, not all anatomical terms are derived from Classical origins. This study aims to explore the linguistic roots of the Modern English terminology used in human gross anatomy. By reference to the Oxford English Dictionary, etymologies were determined for a lexicon of 798 Modern English gross anatomical terms from the 40(th) edition of Gray's Anatomy. Earliest traceable language of origin was determined for all 798 terms; language of acquisition was determined for 747 terms. Earliest traceable languages of origin were: Classical Latin (62%), Classical Greek (24%), Old English (7%), Post-Classical Latin (3%), and other (4%). Languages of acquisition were: Classical Latin (42%), Post-Classical Latin (29%), Old English (8%), Modern French (6%), Classical Greek (5%), Middle English (3%), and other (7%). While the roots of Modern English anatomical terminology mostly lie in Classical languages (accounting for the origin of 86% of terms), the anatomical lexicon of Modern English is actually much more diverse. Interesting and perhaps less familiar examples from these languages and the methods by which such terms have been created and absorbed are discussed. The author suggests that awareness of anatomical etymologies may enhance the enjoyment and understanding of human anatomy for students and teachers alike. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Standardized Aspect of the Dictionaries of Lithuanian Terms of Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelė Kaulakienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Single physical terms, words which became terms, can be found in the papers of our standard language founders J. Bretkūnas, M. Daukša, D. Kleinas, J. Rėza, S. Vaišnoras, B. Vilentas in the 16th–17th cc. K. Sirvydas’ trilingual (Polish-Latin-Lithuanian dictionary “Dictionarium trium linguarum”, the first edition of which appeared in1620, had a great influence on the development of standard language lexis. However, the terminology of physics began to develop much later. Its evolution can be divided in three stages:1 the middle of the 19th c – the end of the 19th c, when the first articles, published in Keleivis (1849–1880 and Aušra (1883–1886, and the first Lithuanian physics textbook of P. Vileišis “Populiariszkas rankvedis fyzikos” (1899 appeared; 2 the beginning of the 20th c – the middle of the 20th c, when the terminology of this stage was influenced by Ig. Končius’ manuscript of physics textbook for gymnasia, during preparation of which he consulted with K. Būga and J. Jablonskis in 1916–1919, Ig. Končius’ dictionary “Terminai fizikos reikalams”, published in Lithuania (1923–1924, K. Šakenis’ “Fizika” (1920, V. Čepinskis’ “Fizikos paskaitos” (1923–1926; 3 the middle of the 20th c – the beginning of the 21st c, when the majority of physical terms, which are still in use, were fixed. P. Brazdžiūnas’ normative work, which was performed by preparing the textbook for higher schools and colleges “Bendroji fizika” (1960–1965 and preparing and editing with his colleagues FTŽ1, FTŽ2, which became the basis of the newest FTŽ3, had influenced it. FTŽ3 terms are standardized most strongly of all terminographic physical publications. It was influenced by the normative aspect of previous dictionaries of physical terms, which changed at the same time, because the conceptions of different notions and terms changed, there were a lot of fixed terms. Consequently, it can be concluded that

  5. Standardized terminology for clinical trial protocols based on top-level ontological categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, B; Herre, H; Lippoldt, K; Loeffler, M

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a new method for the ontologically based standardization of concepts with regard to the quality assurance of clinical trial protocols. We developed a data dictionary for medical and trial-specific terms in which concepts and relations are defined context-dependently. The data dictionary is provided to different medical research networks by means of the software tool Onto-Builder via the internet. The data dictionary is based on domain-specific ontologies and the top-level ontology of GOL. The concepts and relations described in the data dictionary are represented in natural language, semi-formally or formally according to their use.

  6. The health terminology project glossaries` structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sátia Marini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Current paper was motivated by a Master´s degree in Translation Studies on one of the glossaries of the Health Terminology Project (PTS of the Ministry of Health (MS inBrazil, by which the products developed by the project were analyzed. The authors would like to forward their experience earned from the development of these instruments and from the evolution of the glossary´s layout and structure. Although within the same institution, each instrument is made suitable to the specific purpose of each area and the terminology project accumulates experience by the constant improvement of previously developed glossaries (adding new terms; providing the equivalent word in other languages for terms already defined and by the establishment of new ones. The evolution of the structure of the glossaries was qualitatively analyzed; remarks on the types of cross references were made; a quantitative survey of their main features was undertaken. Finally, the importance of this type of work should be underscored either within the government, or in the academy or in private companies, for the sharing of intellectual knowledge.

  7. English-Chinese oil refining dictionary. [English-Chinese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, P; Zing, Z [eds.

    1979-01-01

    The dictionary is a collection of many disciplines but specialized in the terminology related to petroleum refining. It contains terms in areas such as refining, factory equipment and installation, petroleum products and test analysis, and instrument automation. It also contains terms in areas of petrochemistry, oil storage and transport, computer technology, and environmental protection. The total number of terms collected was approximately 53,000.

  8. Construction of an Interface Terminology on SNOMED CT Generic Approach and Its Application in Intensive Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakhshi-Raiez, F.; Ahmadian, L.; Cornet, R.; de Jonge, E.; de Keizer, N. F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To provide a generic approach for developing a domain-specific interface terminology on SNOMED CT and to apply this approach to the domain of intensive care. Methods: The process of developing an interface terminology on SNOMED CT can be regarded as six sequential phases: domain analysis,

  9. Standardized Representation of Clinical Study Data Dictionaries with CIMI Archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak K; Solbrig, Harold R; Prud'hommeaux, Eric; Pathak, Jyotishman; Jiang, Guoqian

    2016-01-01

    Researchers commonly use a tabular format to describe and represent clinical study data. The lack of standardization of data dictionary's metadata elements presents challenges for their harmonization for similar studies and impedes interoperability outside the local context. We propose that representing data dictionaries in the form of standardized archetypes can help to overcome this problem. The Archetype Modeling Language (AML) as developed by the Clinical Information Modeling Initiative (CIMI) can serve as a common format for the representation of data dictionary models. We mapped three different data dictionaries (identified from dbGAP, PheKB and TCGA) onto AML archetypes by aligning dictionary variable definitions with the AML archetype elements. The near complete alignment of data dictionaries helped map them into valid AML models that captured all data dictionary model metadata. The outcome of the work would help subject matter experts harmonize data models for quality, semantic interoperability and better downstream data integration.

  10. Concept Systems and Ontologies: Recommendations for Basic Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Gunnar O.; Smith, Barry

    This essay concerns the problems surrounding the use of the term ``concept'' in current ontology and terminology research. It is based on the constructive dialogue between realist ontology on the one hand and the world of formal standardization of health informatics on the other, but its conclusions are not restricted to the domain of medicine. The term ``concept'' is one of the most misused even in literature and technical standards which attempt to bring clarity. In this paper we propose to use the term ``concept'' in the context of producing defined professional terminologies with one specific and consistent meaning which we propose for adoption as the agreed meaning of the term in future terminological research, and specifically in the development of formal terminologies to be used in computer systems. We also discuss and propose new definitions of a set of cognate terms. We describe the relations governing the realm of concepts, and compare these to the richer and more complex set of relations obtaining between entities in the real world. On this basis we also summarize an associated terminology for ontologies as representations of the real world and a partial mapping between the world of concepts and the world of reality.

  11. Greedy Deep Dictionary Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Tariyal, Snigdha; Majumdar, Angshul; Singh, Richa; Vatsa, Mayank

    2016-01-01

    In this work we propose a new deep learning tool called deep dictionary learning. Multi-level dictionaries are learnt in a greedy fashion, one layer at a time. This requires solving a simple (shallow) dictionary learning problem, the solution to this is well known. We apply the proposed technique on some benchmark deep learning datasets. We compare our results with other deep learning tools like stacked autoencoder and deep belief network; and state of the art supervised dictionary learning t...

  12. Dictionary of microelectronics and microcomputer technology. Woerterbuch der Mikroelektronik und Mikrorechnertechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attiyate, Y H; Shah, R R

    1984-01-01

    This bilingual dictionary (German-English and English-German) is to give the general public a clearer idea of the terminology of microelectronics, microcomputers, data processing, and computer science. Each part contains about 7500 terms frequently encountered in practice, about 2000 of which are supplemented by precise explanations.

  13. Pocket dictionary of laboratory equipment. English/German. Taschenwoerterbuch Laborausruestung. Deutsch/Englisch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junge, H D

    1987-01-01

    This pocket dictionary contains the 2500 most common terms for scientific and technical equipment in chemical laboratories. It is a useful tool for those who are used to communicating in German and English, but have to learn the special terminology in this field.

  14. Slovene specialized text corpus of Library and Information Science – An advanced lexicographic tool for library terminology research

    OpenAIRE

    Kanič, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    To support the research in the field of library and information science terminology and dictionary construction in Slovene language a specialized text corpus has been designed and constructed. The corpus has reached 3,6 million words extracted from 625 Slovene technical and scientific texts of the field. It supports a variety of specialized search methods, display of search results, and their statistic computation. The web based application is in open public access.

  15. International terminology on inclusive education

    OpenAIRE

    García Cedillo, Ismael; Romero Contreras, Silvia; Aguilar Orozco, Claudia Lucía; Lomeli Hernández, Karla Abril; Rodríguez Ugalde, Diana Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Gradualmente, la educación inclusiva se ha colocado en la agenda de los sistemas educativos en el mundo como una prioridad. Sin embargo, a pesar de utilizar una terminología común, no parece haber mucho acuerdo con respecto al significado de conceptos centrales. En el presente artículo se identificaron dos perspectivas teóricas en relación con la educación inclusiva, una con objetivos moderados, que toma en cuenta las condiciones locales, y otra con objetivos más ambiciosos, que busca la tran...

  16. Next generation terminology infrastructure to support interprofessional care planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sarah; Klinkenberg-Ramirez, Stephanie; Tsivkin, Kira; Mar, Perry L; Iskhakova, Dina; Nandigam, Hari; Samal, Lipika; Rocha, Roberto A

    2017-11-01

    Develop a prototype of an interprofessional terminology and information model infrastructure that can enable care planning applications to facilitate patient-centered care, learn care plan linkages and associations, provide decision support, and enable automated, prospective analytics. The study steps included a 3 step approach: (1) Process model and clinical scenario development, and (2) Requirements analysis, and (3) Development and validation of information and terminology models. Components of the terminology model include: Health Concerns, Goals, Decisions, Interventions, Assessments, and Evaluations. A terminology infrastructure should: (A) Include discrete care plan concepts; (B) Include sets of profession-specific concerns, decisions, and interventions; (C) Communicate rationales, anticipatory guidance, and guidelines that inform decisions among the care team; (D) Define semantic linkages across clinical events and professions; (E) Define sets of shared patient goals and sub-goals, including patient stated goals; (F) Capture evaluation toward achievement of goals. These requirements were mapped to AHRQ Care Coordination Measures Framework. This study used a constrained set of clinician-validated clinical scenarios. Terminology models for goals and decisions are unavailable in SNOMED CT, limiting the ability to evaluate these aspects of the proposed infrastructure. Defining and linking subsets of care planning concepts appears to be feasible, but also essential to model interprofessional care planning for common co-occurring conditions and chronic diseases. We recommend the creation of goal dynamics and decision concepts in SNOMED CT to further enable the necessary models. Systems with flexible terminology management infrastructure may enable intelligent decision support to identify conflicting and aligned concerns, goals, decisions, and interventions in shared care plans, ultimately decreasing documentation effort and cognitive burden for clinicians and

  17. Mapping protein information to disease terminologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mottaz Anaïs

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the accessibility of genomic and proteomic information to medical researchers, we have developed a procedure to link biological information on proteins involved in diseases to the MeSH and ICD-10 disease terminologies. For this purpose, we took advantage of the manually curated disease annotations in more than 2,000 human protein entries of the UniProt KnowledgeBase. We mapped disease names extracted from the entry comment lines or from the corresponding OMIM entry to the MeSH. The method was assessed on a benchmark set of 200 manually mapped disease comment lines. We obtained a recall of 54% for 91% precision. The same procedure was used to map the more than 3,000 diseases in Swiss-Prot to MeSH with comparable efficiency. Tested on ICD-10, the coverage of the mapped terms was lower, which could be explained by the coarse-grained structure of this terminology for hereditary disease description. The mapping is provided as supplementary material at http://research.isbsib.ch/unimed.

  18. Analyzing rare diseases terms in biomedical terminologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Pasceri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Rare disease patients too often face common problems, including the lack of access to correct diagnosis, lack of quality information on the disease, lack of scientific knowledge of the disease, inequities and difficulties in access to treatment and care. These things could be changed by implementing a comprehensive approach to rare diseases, increasing international cooperation in scientific research, by gaining and sharing scientific knowledge about and by developing tools for extracting and sharing knowledge. A significant aspect to analyze is the organization of knowledge in the biomedical field for the proper management and recovery of health information. For these purposes, the sources needed have been acquired from the Office of Rare Diseases Research, the National Organization of Rare Disorders and Orphanet, organizations that provide information to patients and physicians and facilitate the exchange of information among different actors involved in this field. The present paper shows the representation of rare diseases terms in biomedical terminologies such as MeSH, ICD-10, SNOMED CT and OMIM, leveraging the fact that these terminologies are integrated in the UMLS. At the first level, it was analyzed the overlap among sources and at a second level, the presence of rare diseases terms in target sources included in UMLS, working at the term and concept level. We found that MeSH has the best representation of rare diseases terms.

  19. Harmonising Nursing Terminologies Using a Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Kay; Kim, Tae Youn; Coenen, Amy; Saba, Virginia; Hardiker, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP®) and the Clinical Care Classification (CCC) System are standardised nursing terminologies that identify discrete elements of nursing practice, including nursing diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes. While CCC uses a conceptual framework or model with 21 Care Components to classify these elements, ICNP, built on a formal Web Ontology Language (OWL) description logic foundation, uses a logical hierarchical framework that is useful for computing and maintenance of ICNP. Since the logical framework of ICNP may not always align with the needs of nursing practice, an informal framework may be a more useful organisational tool to represent nursing content. The purpose of this study was to classify ICNP nursing diagnoses using the 21 Care Components of the CCC as a conceptual framework to facilitate usability and inter-operability of nursing diagnoses in electronic health records. Findings resulted in all 521 ICNP diagnoses being assigned to one of the 21 CCC Care Components. Further research is needed to validate the resulting product of this study with practitioners and develop recommendations for improvement of both terminologies.

  20. Correspondence dictionary from free English term to INIS descriptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This dictionary is intended for the on-line users of INIS database who select controlled terms (INIS descriptors) starting from free terms. The purpose of terminology control is (1) to reduce the ambiguity of the term use among different subject fields, and (2) to improve the recall by coordinating the synonyms. The controlled terms are collected in the thesaurus, but it is not always easy to find suitable descriptors. This dictionary has been compiled by analyzing existing records, and provides the specialists' know-how of converting free terms to descriptors. The 5,000 records in the physics field were selected, and analyzed by the physicists from the Department of Physics, Ibaraki University. Besides the compilation of this dictionary, the characteristics of the assigned descriptors were also clarified. (J.P.N.)

  1. Dictionary of pressure vessel and piping technology. English-German. Woerterbuch der Druckbehaelter- und Rohrleitungstechnik. Englisch-Deutsch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jentgen, L; Schmitz, H P

    1986-01-01

    A specialised dictionary has been compiled containing the appropriate English and German terms in the following technical fields: materials science, welding, destructive and non-destructive testing, thermal and mass transfer, the design and construction in particular of pressure vessels, tanks, heat exchangers, piping, expansion joints, valves, and components associated with the above fields. This dictionary is the result of many years spent in evaluating technical terminology from the relevant American and British regulations, technical rules, standards, and specifications (see bibliography) and correlating these with the terminology of comparable German regulations, rules and standards, together with the essential technical literature.

  2. Terminology standardisation in the nuclear engineering field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraut, A.

    1987-01-01

    Terminological standardisation is made for the purpose of unambiguous understanding, at least among experts in a given field of knowledge. The author explains a number of criteria and aspects to be taken into account in the process of standardisation by referring to the work of the Terminology Committee on Nuclear Engineering. He discusses the word formation in a technical language and the features of standardised terminology. Accepted terminology is a main factor in all procedures concerning design, testing, and approval and licensing of nuclear facilities, and also is of importance in terms of economics. (HP) [de

  3. Dictionary Visions, Research and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is about dictionaries and dictionary making. In six thematic sections it presents nineteen contributions covering a wide field within lexicography: Online Lexicography, Dictionary Structure, Phraseology in Dictionaries, LSP Lexicography, Dictionaries and the User, plus Etymology, History...... and Culture in Lexicography. Some chapters focus on theoretical aspects, others report on dictionary work in the making, and still others compare and analyze existing dictionaries. Common to all authors, however, is the concern for the dictionary user. Trivial as it may seem, the fact that dictionaries...

  4. Teaching Dictionary Skills through a Slang Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steed, Stanley M.

    A unit for teaching dictionary skills through the compilation of a slang dictionary was written with the purpose of providing an inductive learning situation. The students are to begin by defining slang usage and bringing in slang words and definitions on cards. Small groups are to be formed to evaluate the definitions and make additions. In…

  5. Dictionary of the energy-producing industry. Nuclear and non-nuclear energy sources. Vol. 1. Fachwoerterbuch zur Energiewirtschaft. Nukleare und nichtnukleare Energietraeger. Bd. 1. Deutsch-Englisch/Englisch-Deutsch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannhardt, K H

    1981-01-01

    This technical dictionary, compiled in everyday practice, gives an outline of the terminology and phraseology of a modern field of engineering. Users should have some basic knowledge of the English language and also of engineering as well as access to standard-language dictionaries. Core subjects of the dictionary are nuclear power, reactor engineering, fusion technology, solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy, radiation protection, nuclear safety, coal gasification and coal liquefaction, cooperative agreements and managerial problems.

  6. French Dictionaries. Series: Specialised Bibliographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaar, R. M.

    This is a list of French monolingual, French-English and English-French dictionaries available in December 1975. Dictionaries of etymology, phonetics, place names, proper names, and slang are included, as well as dictionaries for children and dictionaries of Belgian, Canadian, and Swiss French. Most other specialized dictionaries, encyclopedias,…

  7. The Search for Cognitive Terminology: An Analysis of Comparative Psychology Journal Titles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Whissell

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the employment of cognitive or mentalist words in the titles of articles from three comparative psychology journals (Journal of Comparative Psychology, International Journal of Comparative Psychology, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes; 8,572 titles, >100,000 words. The Dictionary of Affect in Language, coupled with a word search of titles, was employed to demonstrate cognitive creep. The use of cognitive terminology increased over time (1940–2010 and the increase was especially notable in comparison to the use of behavioral words, highlighting a progressively cognitivist approach to comparative research. Problems associated with the use of cognitive terminology in this domain include a lack of operationalization and a lack of portability. There were stylistic differences among journals including an increased use of words rated as pleasant and concrete across years for Journal of Comparative Psychology, and a greater use of emotionally unpleasant and concrete words in Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes.

  8. The search for cognitive terminology: an analysis of comparative psychology journal titles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whissell, Cynthia; Abramson, Charles I; Barber, Kelsey R

    2013-03-01

    This research examines the employment of cognitive or mentalist words in the titles of articles from three comparative psychology journals (Journal of Comparative Psychology, International Journal of Comparative Psychology, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes; 8,572 titles, >100,000 words). The Dictionary of Affect in Language, coupled with a word search of titles, was employed to demonstrate cognitive creep. The use of cognitive terminology increased over time (1940-2010) and the increase was especially notable in comparison to the use of behavioral words, highlighting a progressively cognitivist approach to comparative research. Problems associated with the use of cognitive terminology in this domain include a lack of operationalization and a lack of portability. There were stylistic differences among journals including an increased use of words rated as pleasant and concrete across years for Journal of Comparative Psychology, and a greater use of emotionally unpleasant and concrete words in Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes.

  9. Medical Terminology: A Phonological Analysis for Teaching English Pronunciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour-Lagocki, Judith

    1992-01-01

    A phonological analysis of medical terminology was developed as an answer to pleas from students in medical English courses in Austria. The analysis can serve as a model for other sciences in which a comparable predicament exists: Graeco-Latinate terms are readily understood when written, but not easily recognized when spoken. (JL)

  10. Do Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment Understand Driving Terminology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfe, Jessica M.; Wittke, Kacie; Spaulding, Tammie J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined if adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) understand driving vocabulary as well as their typically developing (TD) peers. Method: A total of 16 adolescents with SLI and 16 TD comparison adolescents completed a receptive vocabulary task focused on driving terminology derived from statewide driver's manuals.…

  11. Creating a medical English-Swedish dictionary using interactive word alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Mikael; Merkel, Magnus; Ahrenberg, Lars; Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Petersson, Håkan; Åhlfeldt, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper reports on a parallel collection of rubrics from the medical terminology systems ICD-10, ICF, MeSH, NCSP and KSH97-P and its use for semi-automatic creation of an English-Swedish dictionary of medical terminology. The methods presented are relevant for many other West European language pairs than English-Swedish. Methods The medical terminology systems were collected in electronic format in both English and Swedish and the rubrics were extracted in parallel language pairs. Initially, interactive word alignment was used to create training data from a sample. Then the training data were utilised in automatic word alignment in order to generate candidate term pairs. The last step was manual verification of the term pair candidates. Results A dictionary of 31,000 verified entries has been created in less than three man weeks, thus with considerably less time and effort needed compared to a manual approach, and without compromising quality. As a side effect of our work we found 40 different translation problems in the terminology systems and these results indicate the power of the method for finding inconsistencies in terminology translations. We also report on some factors that may contribute to making the process of dictionary creation with similar tools even more expedient. Finally, the contribution is discussed in relation to other ongoing efforts in constructing medical lexicons for non-English languages. Conclusion In three man weeks we were able to produce a medical English-Swedish dictionary consisting of 31,000 entries and also found hidden translation errors in the utilized medical terminology systems. PMID:17034649

  12. Creating a medical English-Swedish dictionary using interactive word alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zweigenbaum Pierre

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper reports on a parallel collection of rubrics from the medical terminology systems ICD-10, ICF, MeSH, NCSP and KSH97-P and its use for semi-automatic creation of an English-Swedish dictionary of medical terminology. The methods presented are relevant for many other West European language pairs than English-Swedish. Methods The medical terminology systems were collected in electronic format in both English and Swedish and the rubrics were extracted in parallel language pairs. Initially, interactive word alignment was used to create training data from a sample. Then the training data were utilised in automatic word alignment in order to generate candidate term pairs. The last step was manual verification of the term pair candidates. Results A dictionary of 31,000 verified entries has been created in less than three man weeks, thus with considerably less time and effort needed compared to a manual approach, and without compromising quality. As a side effect of our work we found 40 different translation problems in the terminology systems and these results indicate the power of the method for finding inconsistencies in terminology translations. We also report on some factors that may contribute to making the process of dictionary creation with similar tools even more expedient. Finally, the contribution is discussed in relation to other ongoing efforts in constructing medical lexicons for non-English languages. Conclusion In three man weeks we were able to produce a medical English-Swedish dictionary consisting of 31,000 entries and also found hidden translation errors in the utilized medical terminology systems.

  13. Creating a medical English-Swedish dictionary using interactive word alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Mikael; Merkel, Magnus; Ahrenberg, Lars; Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Petersson, Håkan; Ahlfeldt, Hans

    2006-10-12

    This paper reports on a parallel collection of rubrics from the medical terminology systems ICD-10, ICF, MeSH, NCSP and KSH97-P and its use for semi-automatic creation of an English-Swedish dictionary of medical terminology. The methods presented are relevant for many other West European language pairs than English-Swedish. The medical terminology systems were collected in electronic format in both English and Swedish and the rubrics were extracted in parallel language pairs. Initially, interactive word alignment was used to create training data from a sample. Then the training data were utilised in automatic word alignment in order to generate candidate term pairs. The last step was manual verification of the term pair candidates. A dictionary of 31,000 verified entries has been created in less than three man weeks, thus with considerably less time and effort needed compared to a manual approach, and without compromising quality. As a side effect of our work we found 40 different translation problems in the terminology systems and these results indicate the power of the method for finding inconsistencies in terminology translations. We also report on some factors that may contribute to making the process of dictionary creation with similar tools even more expedient. Finally, the contribution is discussed in relation to other ongoing efforts in constructing medical lexicons for non-English languages. In three man weeks we were able to produce a medical English-Swedish dictionary consisting of 31,000 entries and also found hidden translation errors in the utilized medical terminology systems.

  14. Readability of Healthcare Literature for Gastroparesis and Evaluation of Medical Terminology in Reading Difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meillier, Andrew; Patel, Shyam

    2017-02-01

    Gastroparesis is a chronic condition that can be further enhanced with patient understanding. Patients' education resources on the Internet have become increasingly important in improving healthcare literacy. We evaluated the readability of online resources for gastroparesis and the influence by medical terminology. Google searches were performed for "gastroparesis", "gastroparesis patient education material" and "gastroparesis patient information". Following, all medical terminology was determined if included on Taber's Medical Dictionary 22nd Edition. The medical terminology was replaced independently with "help" and "helping". Web resources were analyzed with the Readability Studio Professional Edition (Oleander Solutions, Vandalia, OH) using 10 different readability scales. The average of the 26 patient education resources was 12.7 ± 1.8 grade levels. The edited "help" group had 6.6 ± 1.0 and "helping" group had 10.4 ± 2.1 reading levels. In comparing the three groups, the "help" and "helping" groups had significantly lower readability levels (P Medical Association. Medical terminology was shown to be the cause for this elevated readability level with all, but four resources within the recommended grade levels following word replacement.

  15. Wine and Words: A Trilingual Wine Dictionary for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle F. van der Merwe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The South African wine industry identified the need for a special-field on-line dictionary on viticulture and oenology in Afrikaans, English and isi-Xhosa. The dictionary provides information on wine terminology as well as linguistic information on the use of such terminology. The purpose of this article is to give a description of the project. The process of compiling the dictionary is described, from the co-operation between the wine industry and lexicographers to the intended target users and the choice of languages of the dictionary. Functions of the dictionary are discussed, with reference to specific user situations, namely text production, text reception and translation. A system of labels has been designed for the dictionary and its benefit for the user is explained. In assisting the user to make an informed choice of a term, the notion of proscriptiveness has been followed in the presentation of information in the wine dictionary.

    Keywords: TRILINGUAL WINE DICTIONARY, SPECIALISED LEXICOGRAPHY, VITICULTUREAND OENOLOGY TERMS, ON-LINE DICTIONARY, TARGET USERS, USER SITUATIONS,FUNCTIONS, TEXT RECEPTION, TEXT PRODUCTION, TRANSLATION, LABELS, ENCYCLOPEDICKNOWLEDGE, LINGUISTIC KNOWLEDGE, PROSCRIPTION

    Opsomming: Wyn en woorde: 'n Drietalige Wynwoordeboek vir Suid-Afrika. Die Suid-Afrikaanse wynbedryf het die behoefte aan 'n aanlynvakwoordeboek oor wynenwingerdkunde in Afrikaans, Engels en isiXhosa geïdentifiseer. Die woordeboek verskaf inligtingoor wynterminologie, sowel as taalkundige inligting oor die gebruik van sulke terminologie. Diedoel van hierdie artikel is om 'n beskrywing van die projek te gee. Die samestellingsproses van diewoordeboek word beskryf, vanaf die samewerking tussen die wynbedryf en die leksikograwe, totdie voorgestelde teikengebruikers en die keuse van die tale van die woordeboek. Funksies van diewoordeboek word bespreek, met verwysing na spesifieke gebruikersituasies, naamlik teksproduksie

  16. INIS, CEA and nuclear terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surmont, J.; Brulet, C.; Constant, A.; Guille, N.; Le Blanc, A.; Mouffron, O.; Anguise, P.; Jouve, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    This poster, prepared for the fifth edition of the meetings of scientific and technical information professionals (RPIST, Nancy (France)), presents, first, the INIS information system, its content and coverage, the French participation to this system and the role of the CEA-Saclay as France's official representative for this system. Then it presents the INIS thesaurus with its different levels as a terminological tool for the indexing of documents and for searching documents inside the database. Finally, the very first electronic version of the multilingual thesaurus is introduced. Several national INIS centres, including the CEA-Saclay, have contributed to the translation of lists of new terms and of forbidden terms (synonyms). (J.S.)

  17. ON THE TERMINOLOGY OF SPONDYLOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. F. Erdes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the first decade of the 21st century, spondyloarthritis studies have accumulated a certain number of terms that are obsolete, but used by physicians in their everyday speech, on the one hand, and a great variety of different definitions, on the other hand. In January 2014, the first organizational meeting of the Expert Group on Spondyloarthritis, Association of Rheumatologists of Russia, decided that its primary task should be to order the terminology used in this area. The authors primarily collected the terms, which had been already used in medical vocabulary, and then divided them into two categories: obsolete definitions and terms to be finalized and unified. This publication gives guidelines for using the medical terms relevant to spondyloarthritis and separately discusses how to correctly write the term sacroiliitis.

  18. Medical terminology: Its size and typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharz, Eugeniusz Józef

    2015-01-01

    Medical terminology is one of the largest specialized terminologies and is estimated to contain over 250,000 items. Classification of medical terminology into six categories is proposed. The categories are as the following: (A) medical terms that are a part of general basic lexicon of average native speaker (0.02-0.03 % of all terms), (B) specialized medical terms known by average physician (about 45 % of all terms), (C) highly-specialized terms of subspecialties (about 15 % of all terms) (D) medical terms that primarily belong to other terminologies (e.g. biological, chemical, physical, statistical) (about 20 % of all terms), (E) medical slang (0.04-0.05 % of all terms), and (F) pharmaceutical terminology (about 20 % of all terms).

  19. Fast Low-Rank Shared Dictionary Learning for Image Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiep Huu Vu; Monga, Vishal

    2017-11-01

    Despite the fact that different objects possess distinct class-specific features, they also usually share common patterns. This observation has been exploited partially in a recently proposed dictionary learning framework by separating the particularity and the commonality (COPAR). Inspired by this, we propose a novel method to explicitly and simultaneously learn a set of common patterns as well as class-specific features for classification with more intuitive constraints. Our dictionary learning framework is hence characterized by both a shared dictionary and particular (class-specific) dictionaries. For the shared dictionary, we enforce a low-rank constraint, i.e., claim that its spanning subspace should have low dimension and the coefficients corresponding to this dictionary should be similar. For the particular dictionaries, we impose on them the well-known constraints stated in the Fisher discrimination dictionary learning (FDDL). Furthermore, we develop new fast and accurate algorithms to solve the subproblems in the learning step, accelerating its convergence. The said algorithms could also be applied to FDDL and its extensions. The efficiencies of these algorithms are theoretically and experimentally verified by comparing their complexities and running time with those of other well-known dictionary learning methods. Experimental results on widely used image data sets establish the advantages of our method over the state-of-the-art dictionary learning methods.

  20. Vocabulary of acid precipitation and air pollution. Terminology bulletin 175. Vocabulaire des precipitations acides et de la pollution atmospherique. Bulletin de terminologie 175

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, D

    1988-01-01

    This English-French vocabulary includes about 600 concepts on acid rain as well as general air pollution terminology. A large number of official names and their abbreviations have also been incorporated into the dictionary. The vocabulary is arranged alphabeticaly into a series of terminology files, each of which begins with a main entry in English and French. The main entry represents those terms selected as being of superior terminological quality. The main entry may be followed by sub-entries, which are synonyms, and may also be followed by a definition, an example of usage, a defining context, or a terminological observation. Sub-entries are in the same alphabetical sequence as the main entries, and refer the reader to the main entry. An index of French terms is also included. 243 refs.

  1. Mining dictionary: underground mining; open-cast mining; preparation and beneficiation; geology of mineral deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goergen, H; Stoll, R D; Vriesen, R D; Welzenberg, B

    1981-01-01

    The dictionary reflects the latest technical developments in the vocabulary of mining methods and the mining industry. Volume I of the dictionary is English to German, Volume II German to English. 36,000 entries are included.

  2. Mapping Partners Master Drug Dictionary to RxNorm using an NLP-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Plasek, Joseph M; Mahoney, Lisa M; Chang, Frank Y; DiMaggio, Dana; Rocha, Roberto A

    2012-08-01

    To develop an automated method based on natural language processing (NLP) to facilitate the creation and maintenance of a mapping between RxNorm and a local medication terminology for interoperability and meaningful use purposes. We mapped 5961 terms from Partners Master Drug Dictionary (MDD) and 99 of the top prescribed medications to RxNorm. The mapping was conducted at both term and concept levels using an NLP tool, called MTERMS, followed by a manual review conducted by domain experts who created a gold standard mapping. The gold standard was used to assess the overall mapping between MDD and RxNorm and evaluate the performance of MTERMS. Overall, 74.7% of MDD terms and 82.8% of the top 99 terms had an exact semantic match to RxNorm. Compared to the gold standard, MTERMS achieved a precision of 99.8% and a recall of 73.9% when mapping all MDD terms, and a precision of 100% and a recall of 72.6% when mapping the top prescribed medications. The challenges and gaps in mapping MDD to RxNorm are mainly due to unique user or application requirements for representing drug concepts and the different modeling approaches inherent in the two terminologies. An automated approach based on NLP followed by human expert review is an efficient and feasible way for conducting dynamic mapping. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Technical Features of the Architecture of an Electronic Trilingual Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grygorii Chetverikov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Technical Features of the Architecture of an Electronic Trilingual Dictionary This article is devoted to the development of the software system used to create an English-Russian-Ukrainian terminological dictionary. Scanned and recognized documents in MSWord format were the input data for the dictionary. Issues which appeared during the parsing of the input data are analyzed and solutions using regular expressions are identified. This article also describes the scheme of the dictionary’s lexicographical database, and its classes of models, views and view models. In addition, a detailed description of the software system from a user’s perspective is included, the prospects for the usage of the dictionary are discussed, and the methods used during the development of the system are described. The software system is built using the design pattern Model-View-View-Model. Through the use of this pattern, internal logic is separated from user interface, thus changes made in different parts of the software may be independent. The developed software system allows users to edit, to fill, and thus to create new thematic transferable electronic dictionaries. The main advantage of the system is the equality of languages, i.e. each user can decide which language is to be major.   Opracowanie oprogramowania trzyjęzycznego słownika elektronicznego Artykuł jest poświęcony opracowaniu oprogramowania rosyjsko-ukraińsko-angielskiego słownika terminologicznego. Za wejściowe dane autorzy przyjęli zeskanowane i rozpoznane dokumenty w formacie MSWord. Błędy powstałe w czasie analizy składniowej wejściowych danych zostały przeanalizowane, a autorzy wskazali drogę ich likwidacji za pomocą regularnych wyrażeń. W pracy została dokładnie opisana baza leksykograficzna danych słownika, zostały opisane klasy modelu danych i klasy modelu prezentacji systemu. Oprogramowanie jest zbudowane w taki sposób, aby można było wykorzystać szablon

  4. THE MIGHT OF RUSSIAN LANGUAGE ACCORDING TO SYNONYMIC DICTIONARY BY COMPUTER EVALUATION SYSTEM ASIS®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly N. Trishin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes electronic dictionary of synonyms in Russian language by ASIS® system (more than 500 000 words and collocations, 190 000 synonymic connections.The program can be used not just as a dictionary of synonyms and close meaning words, but also as spelling dictionary and definition dictionary of Russian language in order to check the orthography and define the meaning of unknown words. The dictionary is also designed to be an instrument of philological surveys and studies of the language trough the extensive query system on different characteristic of words (definition, composition, synonymy, etc.. Program’s lexical base includes words from dictionaries and guides in all subject areas - from astronomy to Japanese painting. Over compilation of dictionary developer used published dictionaries: spelling, synonymic, definition dictionaries, dictionary of collocations, dictionary of foreign words and etc. of 19-21 cc. Newspapers, magazines and web-resources were active used as well for appending the dictionary. This dictionary practically shows, that by the amount of words Russian language belongs with the most developed languages in the world, and by the scale and density of synonymic space, in the author’s opinion, it has no equal.

  5. Dictionary Based Machine Translation from Kannada to Telugu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, D. V.; Sagar, B. M.

    2017-08-01

    Machine Translation is a task of translating from one language to another language. For the languages with less linguistic resources like Kannada and Telugu Dictionary based approach is the best approach. This paper mainly focuses on Dictionary based machine translation for Kannada to Telugu. The proposed methodology uses dictionary for translating word by word without much correlation of semantics between them. The dictionary based machine translation process has the following sub process: Morph analyzer, dictionary, transliteration, transfer grammar and the morph generator. As a part of this work bilingual dictionary with 8000 entries is developed and the suffix mapping table at the tag level is built. This system is tested for the children stories. In near future this system can be further improved by defining transfer grammar rules.

  6. Expert`s dictionary of technical terminology in non-destructive materials testing. 1359 terms and definitions from A - Z used in non-destructive materials and workpiece testing - for vocational training, students and professionals; Expert-Praxislexikon Zerstoerungsfreie Materialpruefung. 1359 Begriffe von A bis Z zur zerstoerungsfreien Material- und Werkstueckuntersuchung - fuer Lehre, Studium und Beruf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steeb, S

    1998-12-31

    The monolingual, German dictionary is a compilation enhanced by figures and tables, of technical terms and definitions used in non-destructive materials testing and application of the following eight major testing methods: - Radiography using X-rays - radiography using isotope beams - crack examination with the magnetic particle method - magnetic stray field testing with scanning probe - penetration tests with light and uv radiation - ultrasonic tests including evaluation of results - eddy current testing, manual and automated - sound emission methods. (orig./MM) 179 figs., 8 tabs. [Deutsch] Die wichtigsten Begriffe aus dem Gebiet der folgenden acht Untersuchungsverfahren sind in diesem Woerterbuch zusammengestellt und erlaeutert: - Durchstrahlungsverfahren mit Roentgenstrahlen - Durchstrahlungsverfahren mit Isotopenstrahlen - Risspruefung nach dem Magnetpulververfahren - magnetische Streuflusspruefung mit Sondenabtastung - Eindringverfahren bei sichtbarem Licht und bei UV-Licht - Ultraschallverfahren mit Bewertung der Ergebnisse - Wirbelstromverfahren manuell und automatisch - Schallemissionsverfahren. (orig./MM)

  7. Terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, A M; Bernardi, L A; Christiansen, O B

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy loss prior to viability is common and research in the field is extensive. Unfortunately, terminology in the literature is inconsistent. The lack of consensus regarding nomenclature and classification of pregnancy loss prior to viability makes it difficult to compare study results from...... different centres. In our opinion, terminology and definitions should be based on clinical findings, and when possible, transvaginal ultrasound. With this Early Pregnancy Consensus Statement, it is our goal to provide clear and consistent terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability....

  8. Implementation of the Bulgarian-Polish online dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the Bulgarian-Polish online dictionary The paper describes the implementation of an online Bulgarian-Polish dictionary as a technological tool for applications in digital humanities. This bilingual digital dictionary is developed in the frame of the joint research project “Semantics and Contrastive Linguistics with a focus on a bilingual electronic dictionary” between IMI-BAS and ISS-PAS, supervised by L. Dimitrova (IMI-BAS and V. Koseska-Toszewa (ISS-PAS. In addition, the main software tools for web-presentation of the dictionary are described briefly.

  9. Which Dictionary? A Review of the Leading Learners' Dictionaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesi, Hilary

    Three major dictionaries designed for learners of English as a second language are reviewed, their elements and approaches compared and evaluated, their usefulness for different learners discussed, and recommendations for future dictionary improvement made. The dictionaries in question are the "Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary," the…

  10. National Drug File - Reference Terminology API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT) is produced by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration (VHA). NDF-RT is an...

  11. Terminology Management at the National Language Service

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The National Terminology Services (NTS) and State Language Services (SLS) of .... as CD-ROM and online (i.e. the National Termbank and, in future, the Inter- ... cal Engineering, Education, Olympic Games, Mammals, Dietetics, Frail Care,.

  12. Conceptual metaphors in computer networking terminology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lakoff & Johnson, 1980) is used as a basic framework for analysing and explaining the occurrence of metaphor in the terminology used by computer networking professionals in the information technology (IT) industry. An analysis of linguistic ...

  13. Marks, Spaces and Boundaries: Punctuation (and Other Effects) in the Typography of Dictionaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Dictionary compilers and designers use punctuation to structure and clarify entries and to encode information. Dictionaries with a relatively simple structure can have simple typography and simple punctuation; as dictionaries grew more complex, and encountered the space constraints of the printed page, complex encoding systems were developed,…

  14. Do Dictionaries Help Students Write?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesi, Hilary

    Examples are given of real lexical errors made by learner writers, and consideration is given to the way in which three learners' dictionaries could deal with the lexical items that were misused. The dictionaries were the "Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary," the "Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English," and the "Chambers Universal Learners'…

  15. The ABCs of Data Dictionaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Tate; Nicholas, Amy; Blandford, William; Ruggiero, Tony; Peters, Mary; Thayer, Sara

    2014-01-01

    This overview of the basic components of a data dictionary is designed to educate and inform IDEA Part C and Part B 619 state staff about the purpose and benefits of having up-to-date data dictionaries for their data systems. This report discusses the following topics: (1) What Is a Data Dictionary?; (2) Why Is a Data Dictionary Needed and How Can…

  16. Chest electrical impedance tomography examination, data analysis, terminology, clinical use and recommendations: Consensus statement of the TRanslational EIT developmeNt stuDy group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerichs, I. (Inéz); M.B.P. Amato (Marcelo); A.H. van Kaam (Anton); Tingay, D.G. (David G.); Zhao, Z. (Zhanqi); Grychtol, B. (Bartlomiej); Bodenstein, M. (Marc); Gagnon, H. (Hervé); S.H. Bohm; Teschner, E. (Eckhard); O. Stenqvist (Ola); Mauri, T. (Tommaso); Torsani, V. (Vinicius); Camporota, L. (Luigi); Schibler, A. (Andreas); Wolf, G.K. (Gerhard K.); D.A.M.P.J. Gommers (Diederik); S. Leonhardt (Steffen); Adler, A. (Andy); Fan, E. (Eddy); Lionheart, W.R.B. (William R.B.); Riedel, T. (Thomas); Rimensberger, P.C. (Peter C.); Suarez, F. (Fernando); Weiler, S.N. (Sipmann Norbert); H. Wrigge (Hermann)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractElectrical impedance tomography (EIT) has undergone 30 years of development. Functional chest examinations with this technology are considered clinically relevant, especially for monitoring regional lung ventilation in mechanically ventilated patients and for regional pulmonary function

  17. Chest electrical impedance tomography examination, data analysis, terminology, clinical use and recommendations: Consensus statement of the TRanslational EIT developmeNt stuDy group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerichs, I. (Inéz); M.B.P. Amato (Marcelo); A.H. van Kaam (Anton); Tingay, D.G. (David G.); Zhao, Z. (Zhanqi); Grychtol, B. (Bartlomiej); Bodenstein, M. (Marc); Gagnon, H. (Hervé); S.H. Bohm; Teschner, E. (Eckhard); O. Stenqvist (Ola); Mauri, T. (Tommaso); Torsani, V. (Vinicius); Camporota, L. (Luigi); Schibler, A. (Andreas); Wolf, G.K. (Gerhard K.); D.A.M.P.J. Gommers (Diederik); S. Leonhardt (Steffen); Adler, A. (Andy); Fan, E. (Eddy); Lionheart, W.R.B. (William R.B.); Riedel, T. (Thomas); Rimensberger, P.C. (Peter C.); Sipmann, F.S. (Fernando Suarez); Weiler, N. (Norbert); H. Wrigge (Hermann)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractElectrical impedance tomography (EIT) has undergone 30 years of development. Functional chest examinations with this technology are considered clinically relevant, especially for monitoring regional lung ventilation in mechanically ventilated patients and for regional pulmonary function

  18. Terminology and classification of muscle injuries in sport: the Munich consensus statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller-Wohlfahrt, Hans-Wilhelm; Haensel, Lutz; Mithoefer, Kai; Ekstrand, Jan; English, Bryan; McNally, Steven; Orchard, John; van Dijk, C. Niek; Kerkhoffs, Gino M.; Schamasch, Patrick; Blottner, Dieter; Swaerd, Leif; Goedhart, Edwin; Ueblacker, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To provide a clear terminology and classification of muscle injuries in order to facilitate effective communication among medical practitioners and development of systematic treatment strategies. Thirty native English-speaking scientists and team doctors of national and first division professional

  19. Dictionary of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    2012-04-01

    The actualized version (April 2012) of the dictionary on nuclear power includes all actualizations and new inputs since the last version of 2001. The original publication dates from 1980. The dictionary includes definitions, terms, measuring units and helpful information on the actual knowledge concerning nuclear power, nuclear facilities, and radiation protection.

  20. Dictionary as Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Derrick

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of dictionaries as databases focuses on the digitizing of The Oxford English dictionary (OED) and the use of Standard Generalized Mark-Up Language (SGML). Topics include the creation of a consortium to digitize the OED, document structure, relational databases, text forms, sequence, and discourse. (LRW)

  1. Dictionary of Multicultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Carl A., Ed.; Ladson-Billings, Gloria, Ed.

    The focus of this dictionary is the meanings and perspectives of various terms that are used in multicultural education. Contributors have often addressed the literal meanings of words and terms as well as contextual meanings and examples that helped create those meanings. Like other dictionaries, this one is arranged alphabetically, but it goes…

  2. Dictionary of Marketing Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhardt, Richard M.

    A listing of words and definitions compiled from more than 10 college and high school textbooks are presented in this dictionary of marketing terms. Over 1,200 entries of terms used in retailing, wholesaling, economics, and investments are included. This dictionary was designed to aid both instructors and students to better understand the…

  3. Standard Terminology Relating to Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This terminology pertains to photovoltaic (radiant-to-electrical energy conversion) device performance measurements and is not a comprehensive list of terminology for photovoltaics in general. 1.2 Additional terms used in this terminology and of interest to solar energy may be found in Terminology E 772.

  4. Dictionary of the energy-producing industry. Nuclear and non-nuclear energy sources. Vol. 3. Fachwoerterbuch zur Energiewirtschaft. Nukleare und nichtnukleare Energietraeger. - Diccionario tecnico de terminos de la industria de energia. Recursos energeticos nucleares y no nucleares. Bd. 3. Aleman-Espanol/Espanol-Aleman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannhardt, K H

    1981-01-01

    This technical dictionary, compiled in everyday practice, gives an outline of the terminology and phraseology of a modern field of engineering. Users should have some basic knowledge of the Spanish language and also of engineering as well as access to standard-language dictionaries. Core subjects of the dictionary are nuclear power, reactor engineering, fusion technology, solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy, radiation protection, nuclear safety, coal gasification and coal liquefaction, cooperative agreements and managerial problems.

  5. Dictionary of the energy-producing industry. Nuclear and non-nuclear energy sources. Vol. 2. Fachwoerterbuch zur Energiewirtschaft. Nukleare und nichtnukleare Energietraeger. - Dictionnaire technique de l'economie energetique. Sources d'energie nucleaire et autre que nucleaire. Bd. 2. Allemand-Francais/Francais-Allemand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannhardt, K H

    1981-01-01

    This technical dictionary, compiled in everyday practice, gives an outline of the terminology and phraseology of a modern field of engineering. Users should have some basic knowledge of the French language and also of engineering as well as access to standard-language dictionaries. Core subjects of the dictionary are nuclear power, reactor engineering, fusion technology, solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy, radiation protection, nuclear safety, coal gasification and coal liquefaction, cooperative agreements and managerial problems.

  6. Robust Multimodal Dictionary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Tian; Jojic, Vladimir; Modla, Shannon; Powell, Debbie; Czymmek, Kirk; Niethammer, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We propose a robust multimodal dictionary learning method for multimodal images. Joint dictionary learning for both modalities may be impaired by lack of correspondence between image modalities in training data, for example due to areas of low quality in one of the modalities. Dictionaries learned with such non-corresponding data will induce uncertainty about image representation. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic model that accounts for image areas that are poorly corresponding between the image modalities. We cast the problem of learning a dictionary in presence of problematic image patches as a likelihood maximization problem and solve it with a variant of the EM algorithm. Our algorithm iterates identification of poorly corresponding patches and re-finements of the dictionary. We tested our method on synthetic and real data. We show improvements in image prediction quality and alignment accuracy when using the method for multimodal image registration. PMID:24505674

  7. Usage Notes in the Oxford American Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, R. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Compares the "Oxford American Dictionary" with the "American Heritage Dictionary." Examines the dictionaries' differences in philosophies of language, introductory essays, and usage notes. Concludes that the "Oxford American Dictionary" is too conservative, paternalistic, and dogmatic for the 1980s. (DMM)

  8. An Electronic Translation of the LIWC Dictionary into Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wissen, Leon; Boot, P.

    LIWC (Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count) is a text analysis tool developed by social psychologists but now widely used outside of psychology. The tool counts words in certain categories, as defined in an accompanying (English-language) dictionary. The most recent version of the dictionary was

  9. L2 writing assistants and context-aware dictionaries: New ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dictionaries are increasingly integrated into other tools designed to assist the reading, writing and translation of texts. Write Assistant is a newly developed tool aimed at assisting people writing in a second language. It feeds on big data taken in from corpora and digital dictionaries. The paper discusses the philosophy ...

  10. Access Routes of Internet Finance Dictionaries: Present Solutions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lexicographers working on finance dictionaries have not properly exploited the fast development of the Internet. This is revealed by the poor utilization of the access routes found in current Internet finance dictionaries. Consequently, users cannot effectively and efficiently find answers to their lexicographical problems. Firstly ...

  11. Dictionary of terms and definitions used in radiation protection technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The dictionary contains terms and definitions used in radiation protection technology. This document is developed by the Section of CMEA Secretariat on peaceful atomic energy application on the basis of materials provided by member states. The dictionary contains versions of terms and definitions in the languages of member states. Total number of terms is 94. (I.T.)

  12. Terminology of pollination biology applied to fruit culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas de Almeida Pereira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to familiarize a target audience with the terminology of scientific communication in reproductive biology with emphasis on pollination in fruit trees. This is fundamental to the professional who aims to develop and publish technical and scientific writings in this important area of research. To this end, a glossary of the usual terms employed in scientific journals and research institutes is presented.

  13. Dictionary of modern technology. German-English. Vol. 3 and 4. Vol. 3: A-Kok. Vol. 4: Kok-Z. Woerterbuch der modernen Technik. Deutsch-Englisch. Bd. 3 und 4. Bd. 3: A-Kok. Bd. 4: Kok-Z

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppermann, A [comp.

    1987-01-01

    This book 'Dictionary of Modern Technology' represents the most recent status of modern developments and indicates the complexity of man's technical future. The dictionary contains more than 250.000 terms with the double or treble of translation possibilities for the fields of aerodynamics, statics, space operations, construction of aircrafts, helicopters, motors, turbines, rockets, cars, tools and machines, oil, nuclear physics, electro technics, electronics, data processing, cybernetics, radar engineering, plastics, plasma energy and laser. Further the total of the terminology new built by the ministerial committees concerning air traffic control, the total air traffic as well as the above mentioned fields. From the Federal Language Commission Cologne the complete military field concerning army, air force and naval forces could be added.

  14. Dictionary of electrochemistry. Lexikon Elektrochemie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbert, D B; James, A M

    1987-01-01

    Electrochemistry, officially a branch of physical chemistry, is an interdisciplinary field bordering on biology, physics, metallurgy and other fields of engineering. This glossary and dictionary presents information and basic knowledge on recent developments in electrochemistry, i.e. fuel cells, corrosion, energy conversion, electrode kinetics, ion-selective electrodes, and bioelectrochemistry. The user is given a short and precise definition of each term, its importance in different fields of science and, in case of measuring units, a description of the method of measurement. Electrochemical and thermodynamic equations are presented without formal proof, but with an indication of their applications and limitations. Access to relevant information is facilitated by drawings and tables. Bibliographic data are many, and SI units are used throughout the book. A dictionary in the annex makes it easier for the user to find English-language literature. The book may be a useful reference book for biologists, microbiologists, biochemists, chemists, pharmacists, geologists, physicists, technicians, and especially metallurgists.

  15. Bilingual Education Model in Prekmurje, and the Dictionary as a Teaching Aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutka Rudaš

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The model of bilingual education is one of the two-way models of preserving two languages and cultures. This paper describes the successful implementation of a bilingual education process, with a short developmental span and an emphasis on the key deficiencies of the model. By getting to know two cultures and two social relationships and by understanding them, pupils develop a positive attitude to cultural diversity as well as intercultural relationships. Within the framework of school subjects, we teach professional terminology in both languages and thus educate speakers in a way that they experience linguistic and cultural diversity in the ethnically mixed area of Prekmurje. The model of the two-way preservation of the mother tongue makes sense only if the community and the society benefit from bilingualism, and if important and above-average intercultural and social competences that contribute to peaceful coexistence of different cultures are allowed access. Practice shows that so far these goals have not been fully implemented, that there is no ideal relationship between the languages of instruction and that the desired results are not implemented. We have found that there are two shortcomings in this respect: the incomplete didactic aspect and the inadequate competence of teachers in bilingual educational institutions owing to the lack of possibility of acquiring the appropriate competences, particularly in the Hungarian language. Among the most important means for the efficiency of the language structure acquisition and language use are bilingual textbooks and other teaching aids. Based on these findings, this paper presents cognitive and other skills that enable the integration of a bilingual dictionary into the teaching process. As this is a demanding and important skill, it is crucial that teachers and pupils are trained in this activity. The dictionary as a didactic tool is not merely a means of information but also a basis for the

  16. Dictionaries: British and American. The Language Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, James Root

    An account of the dictionaries, great and small, of the English-speaking world is given in this book. Subjects covered include the origin of English dictionaries, early dictionaries, Noah Webster and his successors to the present, abridged dictionaries, "The Oxford English Dictionary" and later dictionaries patterned after it, the…

  17. Automatic creation of specialised multilingual dictionaries in new subject areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Moré

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a tool to automatically generate specialised dictionaries of multilingual equivalents in new subject areas. The tool uses resources that are available on the web to search for equivalents and verify their reliability. These resources are, on the one hand, the Wikipedias, which can be freely downloaded and processed, and, on the other, the materials that terminological institutions of reference make available. This tool is of use to teachers producing teaching materials and researchers preparing theses, articles or reference manuals. It is also of use to translators and terminologists working on terminological standardisation in a new subject area in a given language, as it helps them in their work to pinpoint concepts that have yet to receive a standardised denomination.

  18. Cross-terminology mapping challenges: A demonstration using medication terminological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitwal, Himali; Qing, David; Jones, Stephen; Bernstam, Elmer; Chute, Christopher G.; Johnson, Todd R.

    2015-01-01

    Standardized terminological systems for biomedical information have provided considerable benefits to biomedical applications and research. However, practical use of this information often requires mapping across terminological systems—a complex and time-consuming process. This paper demonstrates the complexity and challenges of mapping across terminological systems in the context of medication information. It provides a review of medication terminological systems and their linkages, then describes a case study in which we mapped proprietary medication codes from an electronic health record to SNOMED-CT and the UMLS Metathesaurus. The goal was to create a polyhierarchical classification system for querying an i2b2 clinical data warehouse. We found that three methods were required to accurately map the majority of actively prescribed medications. Only 62.5% of source medication codes could be mapped automatically. The remaining codes were mapped using a combination of semi-automated string comparison with expert selection, and a completely manual approach. Compound drugs were especially difficult to map: only 7.5% could be mapped using the automatic method. General challenges to mapping across terminological systems include (1) the availability of up-to-date information to assess the suitability of a given terminological system for a particular use case, and to assess the quality and completeness of cross-terminology links; (2) the difficulty of correctly using complex, rapidly evolving, modern terminologies; (3) the time and effort required to complete and evaluate the mapping; (4) the need to address differences in granularity between the source and target terminologies; and (5) the need to continuously update the mapping as terminological systems evolve. PMID:22750536

  19. Dictionary of agriculture. 5. rev. and enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haensch, G.; Haberkamp de Anton, G.

    1987-01-01

    The fifth edition of the 'Dictionary of Agriculture' has, like its predecessors, been set out in the proven and systematic way, namely according to linguistic subject matter. An alphabetical index in six languages and an additional index of Latin names and terms in current use means that the dictionary can be used as a technical dictionary as well as a systematic guide to terminology. Each term has been consecutively numbered throughout the systematic part of the dictionary. Since these numbers recur in every index, entries are both easy to find and easy to read. A natural selection had constantly to be made from the wealth of possible terms. Wherever possible, however, terms that are characteristic of a particular region have also been taken into account. The same is true of linguistic differences, e.g. between American and British English and between European and American Spanish as well as of regional peculiarities in language use in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, France and Belgium. Where popular plant names in addition to the scientific ones could not be ascertained - as was the case for Spanish, in particular - only the Latin names are listed, in accordance with general practice in Spanish specialist literature. (orig.) [de

  20. RUNTIME DICTIONARIES FOR ROOT

    CERN Document Server

    Wind, David Kofoed

    2013-01-01

    ROOT is the LHC physicists' common tool for data analysis; almost all data is stored using ROOT's I/O system. This system benefits from a custom description of types (a so-called dictionary) that is optimised for the I/O. Until now, the dictionary cannot be provided at run-time; it needs to be prepared in a separate prerequisite step. This project will move the generation of the dictionary to run-time, making use of ROOT 6's new just-in-time compiler. It allows a more dynamic and natural access to ROOT's I/O features especially for user code.

  1. Standard Terminology Relating to Wear and Erosion

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 The terms and their definitions given herein represent terminology relating to wear and erosion of solid bodies due to mechanical interactions such as occur with cavitation, impingement by liquid jets or drops or by solid particles, or relative motion against contacting solid surfaces or fluids. This scope interfaces with but generally excludes those processes where material loss is wholly or principally due to chemical action and other related technical fields as, for instance, lubrication. 1.2 This terminology is not exhaustive; the absence of any particular term from this collection does not necessarily imply that its use within this scope is discouraged. However, the terms given herein are the recommended terms for the concepts they represent unless otherwise noted. 1.3 Certain general terms and definitions may be restricted and interpreted, if necessary, to make them particularly applicable to the scope as defined herein. 1.4 The purpose of this terminology is to encourage uniformity and accuracy ...

  2. Dictionary: Welding, cutting and allied processes. Pt. 2. German/English. Fachwoerterbuch: Schweissen, Schneiden und verwandte Verfahren. Bd. 2. Deutsch/Englisch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleiber, A W

    1987-01-01

    The dictionary contains approximately 40 000 entries covering all aspects of welding technology. It is based on the evaluation of numerous English, American and German sources. This comprehensive and up to date dictionary will be a reliable and helpful aid in evaluation and translating. The dictionary covers the following areas: Welding: gas welding, arc welding, gas shielded welding, resistance welding, welding of plastics, special welding processes; Cutting: flame cutting, arc cutting and special thermal cutting processes; Soldering: brazing and soldering; Other topics: thermal spraying, metal to metal adhesion, welding filler materials and other consumables, test methods, plant and equipment, accessories, automation, welding trade, general welding terminology.

  3. Historical Dictionaries and Historical Dictionary Research: Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Resensies / Reviews. 309 ... and Historical Dictionary Research: Papers from the International ... "Cambridge, Trinity College Library MS 0.5.4: A Fifteenth-century ... There are among others ten types of manuscript collections that need attention, ..... The collection is rounded off by a selective index, supplementing the Table.

  4. The Use of Non-linguistic Data in a Terminology and Knowledge Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup

    2016-01-01

    is carried out at Copenhagen Business School, will be introduced. In order to illustrate the need for a taxonomy for terminological data, some examples from the Data Category Registry of ISO TC 37 (ISOcat) will be given, and the taxonomy which has been developed for the DanTermBank project will be compared...... to the structure of ISOcat, the first printed standard comprising data categories for terminology management, ISO 12620:1999, and other standards from ISO TC 37. Finally some examples of linguistic and non-linguistic representations of concepts which we plan to introduce into the DanTermBank will be presented.......This paper will discuss definitions and give examples of linguistic and non -linguistic representation of concepts in a terminology and knowledge bank, and it will be argued that there is a need for a taxonomy of terminological data categories. As a background the DanTermBank project, which...

  5. Auditing as Part of the Terminology Design Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hua; Perl, Yehoshua; Chen, Yan; Halper, Michael; Geller, James; Wang, Yue

    2006-01-01

    Objective To develop and test an auditing methodology for detecting errors in medical terminologies satisfying systematic inheritance. This methodology is based on various abstraction taxonomies that provide high-level views of a terminology and highlight potentially erroneous concepts. Design Our auditing methodology is based on dividing concepts of a terminology into smaller, more manageable units. First, we divide the terminology’s concepts into areas according to their relationships/roles. Then each multi-rooted area is further divided into partial-areas (p-areas) that are singly-rooted. Each p-area contains a set of structurally and semantically uniform concepts. Two kinds of abstraction networks, called the area taxonomy and p-area taxonomy, are derived. These taxonomies form the basis for the auditing approach. Taxonomies tend to highlight potentially erroneous concepts in areas and p-areas. Human reviewers can focus their auditing efforts on the limited number of problematic concepts following two hypotheses on the probable concentration of errors. Results A sample of the area taxonomy and p-area taxonomy for the Biological Process (BP) hierarchy of the National Cancer Institute Thesaurus (NCIT) was derived from the application of our methodology to its concepts. These views led to the detection of a number of different kinds of errors that are reported, and to confirmation of the hypotheses on error concentration in this hierarchy. Conclusion Our auditing methodology based on area and p-area taxonomies is an efficient tool for detecting errors in terminologies satisfying systematic inheritance of roles, and thus facilitates their maintenance. This methodology concentrates a domain expert’s manual review on portions of the concepts with a high likelihood of errors. PMID:16929044

  6. Calibration of personal dosimeters: Quantities and terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleinikov, V.E.

    1999-01-01

    The numerical results obtained in the interpretation of individual monitoring of external radiation depend not only on the accurate calibration of the radiation measurement instruments involved, but also on the definition of the quantities in term of which these instruments are calibrated The absence of uniformity in terminology not only makes it difficult to understand properly the scientific and technical literature but can also lead to incorrect interpretation of particular concepts and recommendations. In this paper, brief consideration is given to definition of radiation quantities and terminology used in calibration procedures. (author)

  7. Cross-View Action Recognition via Transferable Dictionary Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jingjing; Jiang, Zhuolin; Chellappa, Rama

    2016-05-01

    Discriminative appearance features are effective for recognizing actions in a fixed view, but may not generalize well to a new view. In this paper, we present two effective approaches to learn dictionaries for robust action recognition across views. In the first approach, we learn a set of view-specific dictionaries where each dictionary corresponds to one camera view. These dictionaries are learned simultaneously from the sets of correspondence videos taken at different views with the aim of encouraging each video in the set to have the same sparse representation. In the second approach, we additionally learn a common dictionary shared by different views to model view-shared features. This approach represents the videos in each view using a view-specific dictionary and the common dictionary. More importantly, it encourages the set of videos taken from the different views of the same action to have the similar sparse representations. The learned common dictionary not only has the capability to represent actions from unseen views, but also makes our approach effective in a semi-supervised setting where no correspondence videos exist and only a few labeled videos exist in the target view. The extensive experiments using three public datasets demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms recently developed approaches for cross-view action recognition.

  8. Bayesian nonparametric dictionary learning for compressed sensing MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Paisley, John; Lin, Qin; Ding, Xinghao; Fu, Xueyang; Zhang, Xiao-Ping

    2014-12-01

    We develop a Bayesian nonparametric model for reconstructing magnetic resonance images (MRIs) from highly undersampled k -space data. We perform dictionary learning as part of the image reconstruction process. To this end, we use the beta process as a nonparametric dictionary learning prior for representing an image patch as a sparse combination of dictionary elements. The size of the dictionary and patch-specific sparsity pattern are inferred from the data, in addition to other dictionary learning variables. Dictionary learning is performed directly on the compressed image, and so is tailored to the MRI being considered. In addition, we investigate a total variation penalty term in combination with the dictionary learning model, and show how the denoising property of dictionary learning removes dependence on regularization parameters in the noisy setting. We derive a stochastic optimization algorithm based on Markov chain Monte Carlo for the Bayesian model, and use the alternating direction method of multipliers for efficiently performing total variation minimization. We present empirical results on several MRI, which show that the proposed regularization framework can improve reconstruction accuracy over other methods.

  9. Multi-instance dictionary learning via multivariate performance measure optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2016-12-29

    The multi-instance dictionary plays a critical role in multi-instance data representation. Meanwhile, different multi-instance learning applications are evaluated by specific multivariate performance measures. For example, multi-instance ranking reports the precision and recall. It is not difficult to see that to obtain different optimal performance measures, different dictionaries are needed. This observation motives us to learn performance-optimal dictionaries for this problem. In this paper, we propose a novel joint framework for learning the multi-instance dictionary and the classifier to optimize a given multivariate performance measure, such as the F1 score and precision at rank k. We propose to represent the bags as bag-level features via the bag-instance similarity, and learn a classifier in the bag-level feature space to optimize the given performance measure. We propose to minimize the upper bound of a multivariate loss corresponding to the performance measure, the complexity of the classifier, and the complexity of the dictionary, simultaneously, with regard to both the dictionary and the classifier parameters. In this way, the dictionary learning is regularized by the performance optimization, and a performance-optimal dictionary is obtained. We develop an iterative algorithm to solve this minimization problem efficiently using a cutting-plane algorithm and a coordinate descent method. Experiments on multi-instance benchmark data sets show its advantage over both traditional multi-instance learning and performance optimization methods.

  10. Multi-instance dictionary learning via multivariate performance measure optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Tsang, Ivor Wai-Hung; Cui, Xuefeng; Lu, Zhiwu; Gao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The multi-instance dictionary plays a critical role in multi-instance data representation. Meanwhile, different multi-instance learning applications are evaluated by specific multivariate performance measures. For example, multi-instance ranking reports the precision and recall. It is not difficult to see that to obtain different optimal performance measures, different dictionaries are needed. This observation motives us to learn performance-optimal dictionaries for this problem. In this paper, we propose a novel joint framework for learning the multi-instance dictionary and the classifier to optimize a given multivariate performance measure, such as the F1 score and precision at rank k. We propose to represent the bags as bag-level features via the bag-instance similarity, and learn a classifier in the bag-level feature space to optimize the given performance measure. We propose to minimize the upper bound of a multivariate loss corresponding to the performance measure, the complexity of the classifier, and the complexity of the dictionary, simultaneously, with regard to both the dictionary and the classifier parameters. In this way, the dictionary learning is regularized by the performance optimization, and a performance-optimal dictionary is obtained. We develop an iterative algorithm to solve this minimization problem efficiently using a cutting-plane algorithm and a coordinate descent method. Experiments on multi-instance benchmark data sets show its advantage over both traditional multi-instance learning and performance optimization methods.

  11. Creating a medical dictionary using word alignment: The influence of sources and resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åhlfeldt Hans

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automatic word alignment of parallel texts with the same content in different languages is among other things used to generate dictionaries for new translations. The quality of the generated word alignment depends on the quality of the input resources. In this paper we report on automatic word alignment of the English and Swedish versions of the medical terminology systems ICD-10, ICF, NCSP, KSH97-P and parts of MeSH and how the terminology systems and type of resources influence the quality. Methods We automatically word aligned the terminology systems using static resources, like dictionaries, statistical resources, like statistically derived dictionaries, and training resources, which were generated from manual word alignment. We varied which part of the terminology systems that we used to generate the resources, which parts that we word aligned and which types of resources we used in the alignment process to explore the influence the different terminology systems and resources have on the recall and precision. After the analysis, we used the best configuration of the automatic word alignment for generation of candidate term pairs. We then manually verified the candidate term pairs and included the correct pairs in an English-Swedish dictionary. Results The results indicate that more resources and resource types give better results but the size of the parts used to generate the resources only partly affects the quality. The most generally useful resources were generated from ICD-10 and resources generated from MeSH were not as general as other resources. Systematic inter-language differences in the structure of the terminology system rubrics make the rubrics harder to align. Manually created training resources give nearly as good results as a union of static resources, statistical resources and training resources and noticeably better results than a union of static resources and statistical resources. The verified English

  12. Creating a medical dictionary using word alignment: the influence of sources and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Mikael; Merkel, Magnus; Petersson, Håkan; Ahlfeldt, Hans

    2007-11-23

    Automatic word alignment of parallel texts with the same content in different languages is among other things used to generate dictionaries for new translations. The quality of the generated word alignment depends on the quality of the input resources. In this paper we report on automatic word alignment of the English and Swedish versions of the medical terminology systems ICD-10, ICF, NCSP, KSH97-P and parts of MeSH and how the terminology systems and type of resources influence the quality. We automatically word aligned the terminology systems using static resources, like dictionaries, statistical resources, like statistically derived dictionaries, and training resources, which were generated from manual word alignment. We varied which part of the terminology systems that we used to generate the resources, which parts that we word aligned and which types of resources we used in the alignment process to explore the influence the different terminology systems and resources have on the recall and precision. After the analysis, we used the best configuration of the automatic word alignment for generation of candidate term pairs. We then manually verified the candidate term pairs and included the correct pairs in an English-Swedish dictionary. The results indicate that more resources and resource types give better results but the size of the parts used to generate the resources only partly affects the quality. The most generally useful resources were generated from ICD-10 and resources generated from MeSH were not as general as other resources. Systematic inter-language differences in the structure of the terminology system rubrics make the rubrics harder to align. Manually created training resources give nearly as good results as a union of static resources, statistical resources and training resources and noticeably better results than a union of static resources and statistical resources. The verified English-Swedish dictionary contains 24,000 term pairs in base

  13. A framework for evaluating and utilizing medical terminology mappings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Sajjad; Sun, Hong; Sinaci, Anil; Erturkmen, Gokce Banu Laleci; Mead, Charles; Gray, Alasdair J G; McGuinness, Deborah L; Prud'Hommeaux, Eric; Daniel, Christel; Forsberg, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    Use of medical terminologies and mappings across them are considered to be crucial pre-requisites for achieving interoperable eHealth applications. Built upon the outcomes of several research projects, we introduce a framework for evaluating and utilizing terminology mappings that offers a platform for i) performing various mappings strategies, ii) representing terminology mappings together with their provenance information, and iii) enabling terminology reasoning for inferring both new and erroneous mappings. We present the results of the introduced framework from SALUS project where we evaluated the quality of both existing and inferred terminology mappings among standard terminologies.

  14. Navajo-English Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Leon; Morgan, William

    A brief summary of the sound system of the Navajo language introduces this Navajo-English dictionary. Diacritical markings and an English definition are given for each Navajo word. Words are listed alphabetically by Navajo sound. (VM)

  15. Online Law Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Online dictionaries that assist users in writing legal texts in English as a foreign language are important lexicographic tools. They can help law students bridge the factual and linguistic gaps between the two legal universes involved. However, existing online law dictionaries with English...... as the target language primarily focus on terms, but students also need to write the remainder of the texts in factually and linguistically correct English. It is therefore important to have a sound theoretical foundation before embarking on a dictionary project that aims to help law students communicate...... in English as a foreign language. The function theory of lexicography offers an appropriate basis as it focuses on three key concepts: user needs, user competences, and user situations. It is proposed that online dictionaries should be designed to satisfy the lexicographically relevant user needs...

  16. A timeless music dictionary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    Abstract: A music dictionary for the Internet fulfils the same functions as printed .... This does not mean that there cannot be a cognitive gain through a communi- ... 2006, and has, since its completion in August 2006, been accessible free of.

  17. Dictionary of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    2012-06-01

    The actualized version (June 2012) of the dictionary on nuclear power includes all actualizations and new inputs since the last version of 2001. The original publication dates from 1980. The dictionary includes definitions, terms, measuring units and helpful information on the actual knowledge concerning nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear facilities, radioactive waste management, nuclear physics, reactor physics, isotope production, biological radiation effects, and radiation protection.

  18. Dictionary descent in optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Temlyakov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The problem of convex optimization is studied. Usually in convex optimization the minimization is over a d-dimensional domain. Very often the convergence rate of an optimization algorithm depends on the dimension d. The algorithms studied in this paper utilize dictionaries instead of a canonical basis used in the coordinate descent algorithms. We show how this approach allows us to reduce dimensionality of the problem. Also, we investigate which properties of a dictionary are beneficial for t...

  19. The Janus Head Article - How Much Terminology Theory Can Practical Terminology Management Use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Drewer

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The god Janus in Greek mythology was a two-faced god; each face had its own view of the world. Our idea behind the Janus Head article is to give you two different and maybe even contradicting views on a certain topic. This issue’s Janus Head Article, however, features not two but three different views on terminology work, as researchers, professionals and students (the professionals of tomorrow discuss “How Much Terminology Theory Can Practical Terminology Management Use?” at DaimlerChrysler AG.

  20. The Janus Head Article - How Much Terminology Theory Can Practical Terminology Management Use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Drewer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The god Janus in Greek mythology was a two-faced god; each face had its own view of the world. Our idea behind the Janus Head article is to give you two different and maybe even contradicting views on a certain topic. This issue’s Janus Head Article, however, features not two but three different views on terminology work, as researchers, professionals and students (the professionals of tomorrow discuss “How Much Terminology Theory Can Practical Terminology Management Use?” at DaimlerChrysler AG. 

  1. Weakly Supervised Dictionary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zeyu; Raich, Raviv; Fern, Xiaoli Z.; Kim, Jinsub

    2018-05-01

    We present a probabilistic modeling and inference framework for discriminative analysis dictionary learning under a weak supervision setting. Dictionary learning approaches have been widely used for tasks such as low-level signal denoising and restoration as well as high-level classification tasks, which can be applied to audio and image analysis. Synthesis dictionary learning aims at jointly learning a dictionary and corresponding sparse coefficients to provide accurate data representation. This approach is useful for denoising and signal restoration, but may lead to sub-optimal classification performance. By contrast, analysis dictionary learning provides a transform that maps data to a sparse discriminative representation suitable for classification. We consider the problem of analysis dictionary learning for time-series data under a weak supervision setting in which signals are assigned with a global label instead of an instantaneous label signal. We propose a discriminative probabilistic model that incorporates both label information and sparsity constraints on the underlying latent instantaneous label signal using cardinality control. We present the expectation maximization (EM) procedure for maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) of the proposed model. To facilitate a computationally efficient E-step, we propose both a chain and a novel tree graph reformulation of the graphical model. The performance of the proposed model is demonstrated on both synthetic and real-world data.

  2. Dictionary quality and dictionary design: a methodology for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although recent dictionaries for the ESL market have been praised for their innovative design features, the prime concern of users, lexicographers and metalexicographers is the functional quality of the dictionary products provided for the market. The functional quality of dictionaries and the scientific assessment thereof ...

  3. Reviewing printed and electronic dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    Dictionary reviewing is an integral part of the lexicographic universe. However, lexicographers have called for generally applicable principles embracing both printed and electronic dictionaries. I propose that scholarly reviews contain information that is useful to their intended audiences...

  4. Risk assessment terminology: risk communication part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Liuzzo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the terminology of risk communication in the view of food safety: the theory of stakeholders, the citizens’ involvement and the community interest and consultation are reported. Different aspects of risk communication (public communication, scientific uncertainty, trust, care, consensus and crisis communication are discussed.

  5. Medical Terminology: Prefixes. Health Occupations Education Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on medical terminology (prefixes) is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module consists of an introduction to prefixes, a list of resources needed, and three learning experiences. Each learning experience contains an…

  6. Medical Terminology: Suffixes. Health Occupations Education Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on medical terminology (suffixes) is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module consists of an introduction to the module topic, a list of resources needed, and three learning experiences. The first two learning…

  7. 21 CFR 25.5 - Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Terminology. 25.5 Section 25.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT...). (12) Legislation (40 CFR 1508.17). (13) Major Federal action (40 CFR 1508.18). (14) Mitigation (40 CFR...

  8. Using description logics for managing medical terminologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornet, R.; Abu-Hanna, A.

    2003-01-01

    Medical terminological knowledge bases play an increasingly important role in medicine. As their size and complexity are growing, the need arises for a means to verify and maintain the consistency and correctness of their contents. This is important for their management as well as for providing

  9. Revisiting the Global Software Engineering Terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tell, Paolo; Giuffrida, Rosalba; Shah, Hina

    2013-01-01

    Even though Global Software Engineering (GSE) has been a research topic of interest for many years, some of its ground terminology is still lacking a unified, coherent, and shared definition and/or classification. The purpose of this report is to collect, outline, and relate several fundamental...

  10. 9 CFR 101.2 - Administrative terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... toxic to microorganisms, e.g., antibiotics), or analogous products at any stage of production, shipment... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative terminology. 101.2 Section 101.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  11. Magnetism in meteorites. [terminology, principles and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, J. M.; Rowe, M. W.

    1974-01-01

    An overview of this subject is presented. The paper includes a glossary of magnetism terminology and a discussion of magnetic techniques used in meteorite research. These techniques comprise thermomagnetic analysis, alternating field demagnetization, thermal demagnetization, magnetic anisotropy, low-temperature cycling, and coercive forces, with emphasis on the first method. Limitations on the validity of paleointensity determinations are also discussed.

  12. Terminology supported archiving and publication of environmental science data in PANGAEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepenbroek, Michael; Schindler, Uwe; Huber, Robert; Pesant, Stéphane; Stocker, Markus; Felden, Janine; Buss, Melanie; Weinrebe, Matthias

    2017-11-10

    Exemplified on the information system PANGAEA, we describe the application of terminologies for archiving and publishing environmental science data. A terminology catalogue (TC) was embedded into the system, with interfaces allowing to replicate and to manually work on terminologies. For data ingest and archiving, we show how the TC can improve structuring and harmonizing lineage and content descriptions of data sets. Key is the conceptualization of measurement and observation types (parameters) and methods, for which we have implemented a basic syntax and rule set. For data access and dissemination, we have improved findability of data through enrichment of metadata with TC terms. Semantic annotations, e.g. adding term concepts (including synonyms and hierarchies) or mapped terms of different terminologies, facilitate comprehensive data retrievals. The PANGAEA thesaurus of classifying terms, which is part of the TC is used as an umbrella vocabulary that links the various domains and allows drill downs and side drills with various facets. Furthermore, we describe how TC terms can be linked to nominal data values. This improves data harmonization and facilitates structural transformation of heterogeneous data sets to a common schema. Technical developments are complemented by work on the metadata content. Over the last 20 years, more than 100 new parameters have been defined on average per week. Recently, PANGAEA has increasingly been submitting new terms to various terminology services. Matching terms from terminology services with our parameter or method strings is supported programmatically. However, the process ultimately needs manual input by domain experts. The quality of terminology services is an additional limiting factor, and varies with respect to content, editorial, interoperability, and sustainability. Good quality terminology services are the building blocks for the conceptualization of parameters and methods. In our view, they are essential for data

  13. A Review of Auditing Methods Applied to the Content of Controlled Biomedical Terminologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinxin; Fan, Jung-Wei; Baorto, David M.; Weng, Chunhua; Cimino, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Although controlled biomedical terminologies have been with us for centuries, it is only in the last couple of decades that close attention has been paid to the quality of these terminologies. The result of this attention has been the development of auditing methods that apply formal methods to assessing whether terminologies are complete and accurate. We have performed an extensive literature review to identify published descriptions of these methods and have created a framework for characterizing them. The framework considers manual, systematic and heuristic methods that use knowledge (within or external to the terminology) to measure quality factors of different aspects of the terminology content (terms, semantic classification, and semantic relationships). The quality factors examined included concept orientation, consistency, non-redundancy, soundness and comprehensive coverage. We reviewed 130 studies that were retrieved based on keyword search on publications in PubMed, and present our assessment of how they fit into our framework. We also identify which terminologies have been audited with the methods and provide examples to illustrate each part of the framework. PMID:19285571

  14. PHRASEOLOGY IN CHAKAVIAN DIALECTOLOGICAL DICTIONARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Bogović

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the presentation and processing of idioms in eight dictionaries of chakavian organic language systems. According to the systematicality of their presentation and elaboration, the dictionaries are divided into three groups: systematic, partially systematic and non-systematic. Their analysis has shown the prevalence of dictionaries with partially systematic presentation and processing of idioms. Based on the results of the analysis, the paper presents procedures for a systematic presentation of idioms in organic language dictionaries.

  15. The concept of 'dictionary usage'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Tarp, Sven

    2004-01-01

    that users that might have a bad dictionary culture feel that the dictionaries meet their needs. In doing so, you generate inbreeding and block the necessary innovation. This is the unavoidable result of a practice that pays excessive attention to the study of existing dictionaries and doesn't endeavour...... to produce new concepts and to introduce a new dictionary culture. It is, in other words, a poor lexicography....

  16. Dictionaries of Canadian English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Considine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The lexicographical record of English in Canada began with wordlists of the late eighteenth, nineteenth, and early twentieth centuries. From the beginning of the twentieth century onwards, the general vocabulary of English in Canada has been represented in bilingual and monolingual dictionaries, often adapted from American or British dictionaries. In the 1950s, several important projects were initiated, resulting in the publication of general dictionaries of English in Canada, and of dictionaries of Canadianisms and of the vocabulary of particular regions of Can-ada. This article gives an overview of these dictionaries and of their reception, contextualizing them in the larger picture of the lexicography of Canada's other official language, French, and of a number of its non-official languages. It concludes by looking at the future of English-language lexicography in Canada, and by observing that although it has, at its best, reached a high degree of sophistication, there are still major opportunities waiting to be taken.

    Keywords: DICTIONARY, LEXICOGRAPHY, CANADIAN ENGLISH, CANADIANISMS, NATIONAL DICTIONARIES, CANADIAN FRENCH, CANADIAN FIRST NATIONS LAN-GUAGES, BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES, REGIONAL DICTIONARIES, UNFINISHED DICTIONARY PROJECTS

    Opsomming: Woordeboeke van Kanadese Engels. Die leksikografiese optekening van Engels in Kanada begin met woordelyste van die laat agtiende, neëntiende en vroeë twintigste eeue. Van die begin van die twintigste eeu af en verder, is die algemene woordeskat van Engels weergegee in tweetalige en eentalige woordeboeke, dikwels met wysiginge ontleen aan Ameri-kaanse en Britse woordeboeke. In die 1950's is verskeie belangrike projekte onderneem wat gelei het tot die publikasie van algemene woordeboeke van Engels in Kanada, en van woordeboeke van Kanadeïsmes en van die woordeskat van bepaalde streke van Kanada. Hierdie artikel gee 'n oorsig van dié woordeboeke, en van hul ontvangs, deur

  17. Kirkeby's English–Swahili Dictionary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    largest Swahili dictionary is the Swahili–French dictionary of Sacleux (1939) with 1 112 pages. Kirkeby ... An entry in this dictionary could be a basic form, a derived or inflectional form of the ...... Cf. cook, boil, fry, roast, bake, etc. (cookery); ugali ...

  18. LZ-Compressed String Dictionaries

    OpenAIRE

    Arz, Julian; Fischer, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    We show how to compress string dictionaries using the Lempel-Ziv (LZ78) data compression algorithm. Our approach is validated experimentally on dictionaries of up to 1.5 GB of uncompressed text. We achieve compression ratios often outperforming the existing alternatives, especially on dictionaries containing many repeated substrings. Our query times remain competitive.

  19. More terminological clarity in the interprofessional field – a call for reflection on the use of terminologies, in both practice and research, on a national and international level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitzkat, Anika

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The terminology which has been used up until now within interprofessional healthcare has been characterised by a certain definitional weakness, which, among other factors, has been caused by an uncritical adoption of language conventions and a lack of theoretical reflection. However, as terminological clarity plays a significant role in the development and profiling of a discipline, the clarification and definition of commonly-used terminology has manifested itself as a considerable objective for the interprofessional research community. One of the most important journals for research in the area of interprofessional education and care, the Journal of Interprofessional Care, has expanded its author guidelines relating to terminology, modeled after the conceptual considerations of the research group around Barr et. al and Reeves et al. A German translation of the suggested terms therein has been presented in this contribution, and discussed in light of the challenges to a possible adaptation for the German-speaking world. The objective is to assist communication in practice and research in becoming clearer, while promoting an increasing awareness to and the transparency of determined definitions and terminologies.

  20. Technical dictionary power plant engineering. Vol. 1. 4. rev. and enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This dictionary is a compilation of German and English technical terms of power plant engineering as far as power plants, turbine-generators and assembly engineering are concerned. It is the result of a joint effort by the Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) and Utility Power Corp. (UPC). The entire content has been revised and approx. 6000 new terms have been added. The dictionary is meant to form a basis for uniform terminology on technical documents as well as correspondence between KWU, UPC and licensees. This computer aided dictionary is printed in capital/low case letters. Only nouns, terms with an article and proper names are capitalized in German. Some terms are written differently in American and British English and are marked with (US) or (GB). (orig./HP) [de

  1. Specialised Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Specialised translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain discourse in a foreign language in connection with translation. The most common type is the business dictionary covering several more or less related subject fields. However, business dictionaries...... the needs of learners, it is proposed that specialised translation dictionaries should be designed as augmented reference tools. It is argued that electronic and printed dictionaries should include sections or CD-ROMs with syntactic, translation etc. data as well as exercises and illustrative documents...

  2. The Role of Dictionaries in Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines assumptions about dictionaries, especially the bilingual dictionary, and suggests ways of integrating the monolingual dictionary into the second-language instructional process. Findings indicate that the monolingual dictionary can coexist with bilingual dictionaries within a foreign-language course if the latter are appropriately used as…

  3. Dictionaries of Canadian English | Considine | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... its best, reached a high degree of sophistication, there are still major opportunities waiting to be taken. keywords: dictionary, lexicography, canadian english, canadianisms, national dictionaries, canadian french, canadian first nations lan-guages, bilingual dictionaries, regional dictionaries, unfinished diction-ary projects ...

  4. Terminology Guideline for Classifying Offshore Wind Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this guideline is to establish a clear and consistent vocabulary for conveying offshore wind resource potential and to interpret this vocabulary in terms that are familiar to the oil and gas (O&G) industry. This involves clarifying and refining existing definitions of offshore wind energy resource classes. The terminology developed in this guideline represents one of several possible sets of vocabulary that may differ with respect to their purpose, data availability, and comprehensiveness. It was customized to correspond with established offshore wind practices and existing renewable energy industry terminology (e.g. DOE 2013, Brown et al. 2015) while conforming to established fossil resource classification as best as possible. The developers of the guideline recognize the fundamental differences that exist between fossil and renewable energy resources with respect to availability, accessibility, lifetime, and quality. Any quantitative comparison between fossil and renewable energy resources, including offshore wind, is therefore limited. For instance, O&G resources are finite and there may be significant uncertainty associated with the amount of the resource. In contrast, aboveground renewable resources, such as offshore wind, do not generally deplete over time but can vary significantly subhourly, daily, seasonally, and annually. The intent of this guideline is to make these differences transparent and develop an offshore wind resource classification that conforms to established fossil resource classifications where possible. This guideline also provides methods to quantitatively compare certain offshore wind energy resources to O&G resource classes for specific applications. Finally, this guideline identifies areas where analogies to established O&G terminology may be inappropriate or subject to misinterpretation.

  5. Reflections on the Proposed Ndebele–Shona/Shona–Ndebele Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samukele Hadebe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: The master plan of the ALLEX Project includes a Ndebele–Shona/Shona–Ndebele dictionary in its proposed dictionary projects. Bilingual dictionaries are common in Zimbabwe, especially earlier ones with the language pairs English–Ndebele/Shona and vice versa. The pro-posed Ndebele–Shona/Shona–Ndebele dictionary, however, raises some interesting challenges. It will be a different kind of bilingual dictionary in which two African languages, Ndebele and Shona form the language pair. In this article, it will be shown how different dictionary types for both Ndebele and Shona reflect the intentions of Zimbabwean language planners from different periods. A Ndebele–Shona/Shona–Ndebele dictionary, unimaginable to many, raises several questions, among others: Who needs such a dictionary? Who are the target users of such a dictionary? In addressing some of these questions, it will be attempted to show how the proposed Ndebele–Shona/Shona–Ndebele dictionary reflects the language planning needs of present-day Zimbabwe.


    Keywords: BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARY, NDEBELE, SHONA, NDEBELE–SHONA/SHONA–NDEBELE DICTIONARY, LANGUAGE PLANNING, LANGUAGE POLICY, LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT, SOCIOLINGUISTICS, ATTITUDES, REFERENCE NEEDS, USER NEEDS


    *****

    OPSOMMING: Gedagtes oor die voorgestelde Ndebele-Sjona/Sjona–Ndebe-lewoordeboek. Die totaalplan van die ALLEX-projek sluit 'n Ndebele–Sjona/Sjona–Ndebele-woordeboek by sy voorgestelde woordeboekprojekte in. Tweetalige woordeboeke is algemeen in Zimbabwe, veral vroeëres met die taalpare Engels–Ndebele/Sjona en andersom. Die voorgestelde Ndebele–Sjona/Sjona–Ndebelewoordeboek stel egter 'n aantal interessante uitdagings. Dit is 'n andersoortige tweetalige woordeboek waarin twee Afrikatale, Ndebele en Sjona, die taalpaar uit-maak. In hierdie artikel sal aangetoon word hoe verskillende woordeboeksoorte vir sowel Ndebele as Sjona die bedoelings

  6. Efficient generation of pronunciation dictionaries: human factors factors during bootstrapping

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, MH

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Bootstrapping techniques have significant potential for the efficient generation of linguistic resources such as electronic pronunciation dictionaries. The authors describe a system and an approach to bootstrapping for the development...

  7. Borrowing and Dictionary Compilation: The Case of the Indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Keywords: BORROWING, DICTIONARY COMPILATION, INDIGENOUS LANGUAGES,. LEXICON, MORPHEME, VOCABULARY, DEVELOPING LANGUAGES, LOAN WORDS, TER-. MINOLOGY, ETYMOLOGY, LEXICOGRAPHY. Opsomming: Ontlening en woordeboeksamestelling: Die geval van in- heemse Suid-Afrikaanse ...

  8. The Ideology of the Perfect Dictionary: How Efficient Can a Dictionary Be?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Abecassis

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Dictionaries have become essential tools of the modern world. Not only have dictionary sales dramatically increased, but the variety of dictionaries and the competition between editors are also very much on the rise. Monolingual dictionaries attract native speakers for several reasons. Some wish to capture the subtleties of their own language, others to speak the 'standard' language, and an 'ideologically' politically correct variety devoid of colloquialisms, hence the crucial role played by style labels. Furthermore, a large number of word enthusiasts enjoy linguistic curiosities, archaisms and other vestiges from the past conserved in dictionaries. Is the concept of a perfect dictionary a reality or an ideal? There is no perfect student. Language learners, for whom dictionaries are of great importance, seek user-friendly material which will improve both their fluency in and understanding of the target language, and embed acquired lexis in their long-term memory. Lexicographers, in their search for perfection and in compliance with users' wishes, are constantly innovating, and every dictionary hopes to become a landmark in lexicography and in second language acquisition. This article aims to look at the way dictionaries have evolved and assess the latest generation of computer-based dictionaries, as well as consider possible developments which will contribute to the compilation of future dictionaries.

    Keywords: LEXICOGRAPHY, LEXICAL ACQUISITION, VOCABULARY, STYLE LABELS,CORPUS/CORPORA, DICTIONARIES, IDEOLOGY, STANDARD, LANGUAGE LEARNING,FRENCH MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARIES, ELECTRONIC DICTIONARIES, CD-ROMS

    Opsomming: Die ideologie van die volmaakte woordeboek: Hoe doeltreffendkan 'n woordeboek wees? Woordeboeke het noodsaaklike werktuie van die modernewêreld geword. Nie alleen het woordeboekverkope dramaties vermeerder nie, maar die verskeidenheidwoordeboeke en die wedywering tussen redakteurs is ook aansienlik aan die

  9. Presentation of the verbs in Bulgarian-Polish electronic dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Presentation of the verbs in Bulgarian-Polish electronic dictionary This paper briefly discusses the presentation of the verbs in the first electronic Bulgarian-Polish dictionary that is currently being developed under a bilateral collaboration between IMI-BAS and ISS-PAS. Special attention is given to the digital entry classifiers that describe Bulgarian and Polish verbs. Problems related to the correspondence between natural language phenomena and their presentations are discussed. Some examples illustrate the different types of dictionary entries for verbs.

  10. Pecularities of Economic and Information Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvyra Vida Tadauskienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the pecularities of economic and information terminology and concludes their original source. As economic terms turn out to have appeared earlier than those of information, so the beginning of the emergence of them was influenced by the Greek and Latin languages. During the Soviet period economic terms were under the influence of the Russian language. A lot of information terms originated from the English language so the dominance of this language is still greatly felt. The common language can be considered to be the original source of some of the mentioned terminology when expanding the meaning of adequate terms. Translation of some of the terms creates problems related to the synonymous meaning of the terms or certain variations of the vocabulary meanings.

  11. Substance abuse: medical and slang terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Humera; El-Mallakh, Rif S; Vandeveir, Keith

    2005-03-01

    Substance abuse is among one of the major problems plaguing our society. It has come to the attention of several healthcare professionals that a communication gap exists between themselves and substance abusers. Most of the time the substance abusers are only familiar with the slang terms of abused substances, a terminology that medical professionals are usually unaware of. This paper is an attempt to close that communication gap, allowing health care professionals to understand the slang terminology that their patients use, thus enabling them to make appropriate treatment decisions. In addition, the article presents some key features (including active ingredient, pharmacological classification, medical use, abuse form, usage method, combinations used, effects sought, long-term possible effects, and detectability in urine) of the most commonly abused substances.

  12. Harmonizing intelligence terminologies in business: Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivave Mashingaidze

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this article is to do a literature review of different intelligence terminology with the aim of establishing the common attributes and differences, and to propose a universal and comprehensive definition of intelligence for common understanding amongst users. The findings showed that Competitive Intelligence has the broadest scope of intelligence activities covering the whole external operating environment of the company and targeting all levels of decision-making for instance; strategic intelligence, tactical intelligence and operative intelligence. Another terminology was found called Cyber IntelligenceTM which encompasses competitor intelligence, strategic intelligence, market intelligence and counterintelligence. In conclusion although CI has the broadest scope of intelligence and umbrella to many intelligence concepts, still Business Intelligence, and Corporate Intelligence are often used interchangeably as CI

  13. Oxford dictionary of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Alan

    The dictionary is derived from the Concise Science Dictionary, first published by Oxford University Press in 1984 (third edition, 1996). It consists of all the entries relating to physics in that dictionary, together with some of those entries relating to astronomy that are required for an understanding of astrophysics and many entries that relate to physical chemistry. It also contains a selection of the words used in mathematics that are relevant to physics, as well as the key words in metal science, computing, and electronics. For this third edition a number of words from quantum field physics and statistical mechanics have been added. Cosmology and particle physics have been updated and a number of general entries have been expanded.

  14. MR PROSTATE SEGMENTATION VIA DISTRIBUTED DISCRIMINATIVE DICTIONARY (DDD) LEARNING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanrong; Zhan, Yiqiang; Gao, Yaozong; Jiang, Jianguo; Shen, Dinggang

    2013-01-01

    Segmenting prostate from MR images is important yet challenging. Due to non-Gaussian distribution of prostate appearances in MR images, the popular active appearance model (AAM) has its limited performance. Although the newly developed sparse dictionary learning method[1, 2] can model the image appearance in a non-parametric fashion, the learned dictionaries still lack the discriminative power between prostate and non-prostate tissues, which is critical for accurate prostate segmentation. In this paper, we propose to integrate deformable model with a novel learning scheme, namely the Distributed Discriminative Dictionary ( DDD ) learning, which can capture image appearance in a non-parametric and discriminative fashion. In particular, three strategies are designed to boost the tissue discriminative power of DDD. First , minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance (mRMR) feature selection is performed to constrain the dictionary learning in a discriminative feature space. Second , linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is employed to assemble residuals from different dictionaries for optimal separation between prostate and non-prostate tissues. Third , instead of learning the global dictionaries, we learn a set of local dictionaries for the local regions (each with small appearance variations) along prostate boundary, thus achieving better tissue differentiation locally. In the application stage, DDDs will provide the appearance cues to robustly drive the deformable model onto the prostate boundary. Experiments on 50 MR prostate images show that our method can yield a Dice Ratio of 88% compared to the manual segmentations, and have 7% improvement over the conventional AAM.

  15. Terminology, the importance of defining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mil, J W Foppe; Henman, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Multiple terms and definitions exist to describe specific aspects of pharmacy practice and service provision. This commentary explores the reasons for different interpretations of words and concepts in pharmaceutical care and pharmacy practice research. Reasons for this variation can be found in language, culture, profession and may also depend on developments over time. A list of words is provided where the authors think that currently multiple interpretations are possible. To make sure that the reader understands the essence, it seems imperative that authors include a definition of the topics that they actually study in their papers, and that they clearly cite existing definitions or refer to collections of definitions such as existing glossaries. It is important that presenters, authors and reviewers of pharmacy practice papers pay more attention to this aspect of describing studies.

  16. Comparative Nivkh Dictionary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortescue, Michael David

    This dictionary undertakes to reconstruct the lexis and morphology of the Nivkh proto-language by marshaling and organizing all the data available in published form on the contemporary dialects. It builds upon a considerable body of descriptive and comparative work carried out by scholars who have...... World is a subject of continuing interest to both linguists and anthropologists. The dictionary does not address this question directly. Reconstructing the proto-language is an essential step, however, to any further comparative work – in particular to sorting out the relationship between Nivkh...

  17. Clinical dictionary of MRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herborn, C.U.; Zink, C.

    2007-01-01

    MRT is the method of choice in many clinical problems. It is also one of the most complex imaging procedures, requiring much technical and physical knowledge and also detailed knowledge of the signal response of physiological and pathological tissues in the many variants of contrast enhancement, image reconstruction and image processing. In 2006, the pocket dictionary of MRT was published by the same publisher. It met with much positive response, which induced the publication of this new dictionary. With more than 3000 terms and definitions elaborated in cooperation with an excellent practician, the clinical applications of MRT are illustrated by typical findings and examples. (orig.)

  18. The “Recasting capitalism”: Terminology study in the French and Spanish newspaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luna-Alonso

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Terminology is defined in relation to other subjects from which a set of concepts have been borrowed. Its scope of study is both interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary since it provides a set of terms for communicating and transmitting specialised knowledge in a study area (Cabré, 1998, p. 70. This paper focuses on a concrete meaning of terminology, known as vocabulary in a specialised field. Our research model is based on the specialised domain, i.e., it focuses on the set of terms used within an ordered domain of concepts and terms which in this case are related to the world economic crisis of capitalism experienced towards the end of the first decade of the 21st century. Therefore six general and specialised newspapers taken from the newspaper and periodicals library (2008-2015 were consulted to look into the use and translation (FR-ES of the phraseology unit: “refondation du capitalisme”, which in Spanish is translated as “refundación del capitalismo”, in order to obtain data to establish a definition of the said unit unavailable in dictionaries.

  19. The Making of the "Oxford English Dictionary."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Simon

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes remarks made to open the Gallaudet University conference on Dictionaries and the Standardization of languages. It concerns the making of what is arguably the world's greatest dictionary, "The Oxford English Dictionary." (VWL)

  20. Example sentences in bilingual specialised dictionaries assisting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Specialised lexicography, online dictionaries, printed dictionaries, technical dictionaries, specialised communication, examples, lexicographical functions, text production, user needs, writing, translation. Voorbeeldsinne in tweetalige vakwoordeboeke help met kommunikasie in 'n vreemde taal. Praktisyns ...

  1. A dictionary to identify small molecules and drugs in free text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettne, Kristina M; Stierum, Rob H; Schuemie, Martijn J; Hendriksen, Peter J M; Schijvenaars, Bob J A; Mulligen, Erik M van; Kleinjans, Jos; Kors, Jan A

    2009-11-15

    From the scientific community, a lot of effort has been spent on the correct identification of gene and protein names in text, while less effort has been spent on the correct identification of chemical names. Dictionary-based term identification has the power to recognize the diverse representation of chemical information in the literature and map the chemicals to their database identifiers. We developed a dictionary for the identification of small molecules and drugs in text, combining information from UMLS, MeSH, ChEBI, DrugBank, KEGG, HMDB and ChemIDplus. Rule-based term filtering, manual check of highly frequent terms and disambiguation rules were applied. We tested the combined dictionary and the dictionaries derived from the individual resources on an annotated corpus, and conclude the following: (i) each of the different processing steps increase precision with a minor loss of recall; (ii) the overall performance of the combined dictionary is acceptable (precision 0.67, recall 0.40 (0.80 for trivial names); (iii) the combined dictionary performed better than the dictionary in the chemical recognizer OSCAR3; (iv) the performance of a dictionary based on ChemIDplus alone is comparable to the performance of the combined dictionary. The combined dictionary is freely available as an XML file in Simple Knowledge Organization System format on the web site http://www.biosemantics.org/chemlist.

  2. Improving the human readability of Arden Syntax medical logic modules using a concept-oriented terminology and object-oriented programming expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeeyae; Bakken, Suzanne; Lussier, Yves A; Mendonça, Eneida A

    2006-01-01

    Medical logic modules are a procedural representation for sharing task-specific knowledge for decision support systems. Based on the premise that clinicians may perceive object-oriented expressions as easier to read than procedural rules in Arden Syntax-based medical logic modules, we developed a method for improving the readability of medical logic modules. Two approaches were applied: exploiting the concept-oriented features of the Medical Entities Dictionary and building an executable Java program to replace Arden Syntax procedural expressions. The usability evaluation showed that 66% of participants successfully mapped all Arden Syntax rules to Java methods. These findings suggest that these approaches can play an essential role in the creation of human readable medical logic modules and can potentially increase the number of clinical experts who are able to participate in the creation of medical logic modules. Although our approaches are broadly applicable, we specifically discuss the relevance to concept-oriented nursing terminologies and automated processing of task-specific nursing knowledge.

  3. Dr.Johnson's Dictionary in Miniature

    OpenAIRE

    Imazato, Chiaki

    1988-01-01

    More than hundred 'Johnson's' dictionaries have so far been published not only in English but in other countries, and there are numerous books and articles on Johnson's Dictionary. But few have referred to Johnson's Dictionary in Miniature; nor were there any books or articles on it. Fortunately, however, I've got one copy of Johnson's Dictionary in Miniature, which was published in 1806. Johnson's Dictionary (1755) has 41,677 entries, whereas Johnson's Dictionary in Miniature 23,439 entr...

  4. The Macquarie Dictionary, its History and its Editorial Practices Die Macquarie Dictionary, sy geskiedenis en sy redaksionele praktyke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Delbridge

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The Macquarie Dictionary, first published in Sydney in 1981, was intended to be the first comprehensive dictionary of Australian English. Now in its third edition it has been widely adopted by institutions and the general community as the national dictionary. This paper traces its development from a difficult birth to its present maturity, from a large set of cards to an electronic database, from a single book to a lexicographic library. The rationale and the methodology are laid out along with an account of the reception given to the dictionary in Australia and internationally.

    Keywords: dictionary; lexicography; macquarie dictionary; australianness; australianise; australian english; national dictionaries; phonology; international phonetic alphabet; lexical labels; lexicographic style; language style; colloquial; aboriginal words; electronic database; corpus; citation

     

    Die Macquarie Dictionary wat vir die eerste keer in 1981 in Sydney gepubliseer is, was bedoel om die eerste omvattende woordeboek van Australiese Engels te wees. Die woordeboek wat tans in sy derde uitgawe is, word reeds algemeen deur instansies en die algemene publiek as nasionale woordeboek aanvaar. Hierdie artikel skets sy ontwikkeling vanaf 'n moeilike geboorte tot sy huidige volwassenheid, vanaf 'n groot versameling kaartjies tot 'n elektroniese databasis, vanaf 'n enkele boek tot 'n leksikografiese biblioteek. Die grondbeginsels en metodologie word gegee saam met 'n verslag van die ontvangs wat dit in Australië en internasionaal gekry het.

    Sleutelwoorde: woordeboek; leksikografie; macquarie dictionary; australiesheid; australianiseer; australiese engels; nasionale woordeboeke; fonologie; internasionale fonetiese alfabet; leksikale etikette; leksikografiese styl; taalstyl; omgangstaal; aboriginele woorde; elektroniese databasis; korpus; aanhaling

     

  5. Translation Dictionaries and Bilingual Dictionaries. Two Different Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2002-01-01

    of dictionaries - and in some cases even not the best ones - to assist the translator who runs into problems in the translation process. In my paper, I will argue that monolingual dictionaries - together with bilingual dictionaries «the other way around«, e.g. L2-L1 dictionaries when translating from L1 into L2...... in relation to translation and what types of problems pop up during the translation process in order to clarify up to which point lexicography can assist translator. Finally, I will discuss in which types of dictionary (monolingual or bilingual) the assistance to the translator should be provided and......The starting point in any scientific process is always the formulation of the problem and then the search for a solution. In my opinion the question on the relaton between lexicography and translation should be put in this way: How can dictionaries assist translators in finding solutions...

  6. Dictionary Based Image Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method for weakly supervised segmentation of natural images, which may contain both textured or non-textured regions. Our texture representation is based on a dictionary of image patches. To divide an image into separated regions with similar texture we use an implicit level sets...

  7. Dictionary of machine terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    This book has introduction of dictionary of machine terms, and a compilation committee and introductory remarks. It gives descriptions of the machine terms in alphabetical order from a to Z and also includes abbreviation of machine terms and symbol table, way to read mathematical symbols and abbreviation and terms of drawings.

  8. MANDARIN CHINESE DICTIONARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, FRED FANGYU

    IN RESPONSE TO THE NEEDS OF THE GROWING NUMBER OF AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE STUDENTS LEARNING CHINESE, SETON HALL UNIVERSITY UNDERTOOK A CONTRACT WITH THE U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION TO COMPILE A BILINGUAL POCKET-SIZE DICTIONARY FOR BEGINNING STUDENTS OF SPOKEN MANDARIN CHINESE. THE PRESENT WORK IS THE CHINESE TO ENGLISH SECTION IN PRELIMINARY…

  9. Hashing, Randomness and Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Rasmus

    to the similarity to a bookshelf dictionary, which contains a set of words and has an explanation associated with each word. In the static version of the problem the set is fixed, whereas in the dynamic version, insertions and deletions of elements are possible. The approach taken is that of the theoretical...

  10. Dictionary of Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dictionary of Cotton has over 2,000 terms and definitions that were compiled by 33 researchers. It reflects the ongoing commitment of the International Cotton Advisory Committee, through its Technical Information Section, to the spread of knowledge about cotton to all those who have an interest ...

  11. Accessing the ANW dictionary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerdijk, F.; Tiberius, C.; Niestadt, J.; Zock, M.; Huang, C.-R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the functional design of an interface for an online scholarly dictionary of contemporary standard Dutch, the ANW. One of the main innovations of the ANW is a twofold meaning description: definitions are accompanied by ‘semagrams’. In this paper we focus on the strategies that

  12. Historical dictionary of librarianship

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, Mary Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Dictionary of Librarianship focuses on librarianship as a modern, organized profession, emphasizing the period beginning in the mid-nineteenth century. Author Mary Ellen Quinn relates the history of this profession through a chronology, an introductory essay, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography.

  13. Dictionary of Telecommunications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bones, R. A.

    A wide range of terms used in the telecommunications industry are defined in this dictionary. Many of the terms and definitions are either reproduced from, or based on, the "Glossary of Terms Used in Telecommunications (including Radio) and Electronics" prepared by the British Standards Institute. The principal entry for each term is found under…

  14. Defining Behavior–Environment Interactions: Translating and Developing an Experimental and Applied Behavior-Analytic Vocabulary in and to the National Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, Martti T; Parkkinen, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    Verbal behavior, as in the use of terms, is an important part of scientific activity in general and behavior analysis in particular. Many glossaries and dictionaries of behavior analysis have been published in English, but few in any other language. Here we review the area of behavior analytic terminology, its translations, and development in languages other than English. As an example, we use our own mother tongue, Finnish, which provides a suitable example of the process of translation and development of behavior analytic terminology, because it differs from Indo-European languages and entails specific advantages and challenges in the translation process. We have published three editions of a general dictionary of behavior analysis including 801 terms relevant to the experimental analysis of behavior and applied behavior analysis and one edition of a dictionary of applied and clinical behavior analysis containing 280 terms. Because this work has been important to us, we hope this review will encourage similar work by behavior analysts in other countries whose native language is not English. Behavior analysis as an advanced science deserves widespread international dissemination and proper translations are essential to that goal. PMID:22693363

  15. Production and manipulation of bovine embryos: techniques and terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machaty, Z; Peippo, J; Peter, A

    2012-09-15

    There are numerous publications regarding bovine embryos, ranging from descriptions of their appearance and development to emerging techniques in the field of assisted reproductive technology. Concurrently, several specialized terms have been developed to describe the bovine embryo. The purpose of the current review is two-fold; it is primarily to describe techniques involved in the in vivo and in vitro production of bovine embryos and their manipulation, and secondarily to summarize specialized terms used in these processes. The intention is not to review these techniques in detail, but instead to provide salient points and current knowledge regarding these techniques, with a focus on terminology. The first review dealt with classical and contemporary terminology used to describe morphologic aspects of ovarian dynamics in cattle. Subsequently, the terms and current understanding of processes involved in preattachment bovine embryos were described in the second review. As the third article in a series, this mini-review is focused on defining the production, manipulation, and transfer of bovine preattachment embryos. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The GRAIL concept modelling language for medical terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, A L; Bechhofer, S; Goble, C A; Horrocks, I; Nowlan, W A; Solomon, W D

    1997-02-01

    The GALEN representation and integration language (GRAIL) has been developed to support effective clinical user interfaces and extensible re-usable models of medical terminology. It has been used successfully to develop the prototype GALEN common reference (CORE) model for medical terminology and for a series of projects in clinical user interfaces within the GALEN and PEN&PAD projects. GRAIL is a description logic or frame language with novel features to support part-whole and other transitive relations and to support the GALEN modelling style aimed at re-use and application independence. GRAIL began as an experimental language. However, it has clarified many requirements for an effective knowledge representation language for clinical concepts. It still has numerous limitations despite its practical successes. The GRAIL experience is expected to form the basis for future languages which meet the same requirements but have greater expressiveness and more soundly based semantics. This paper provides a description and motivation for the GRAIL language and gives examples of the modelling paradigm which it supports.

  17. Routledge French technical dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    The French-English volume of this highly acclaimed set consists of some 100,000 keywords in both French and English, drawn from the whole range of modern applied science and technical terminology. Covers over 70 subject areas, from engineering and chemistry to packaging, transportation, data processing and much more.

  18. L2 write assistants and context-aware dictionaries: New challenges to lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven; Fisker, Kasper; Sepstrup, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Dictionaries are increasingly integrated into other tools designed to assist the reading, writing and translation of texts. Write Assistant is a newly developed tool aimed at assisting people writing in a second language. It feeds on big data taken in from corpora and digital dictionaries...... dictionaries need to be conceptionally adapted to the specific tool in order to optimize the service. All this poses new challenges to lexicography....

  19. Stochastic Learning of Multi-Instance Dictionary for Earth Mover's Distance based Histogram Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Jihong; Liang, Ru-Ze

    2016-01-01

    Dictionary plays an important role in multi-instance data representation. It maps bags of instances to histograms. Earth mover's distance (EMD) is the most effective histogram distance metric for the application of multi-instance retrieval. However, up to now, there is no existing multi-instance dictionary learning methods designed for EMD based histogram comparison. To fill this gap, we develop the first EMD-optimal dictionary learning method using stochastic optimization method. In the stoc...

  20. Making a dictionary without words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jette Hedegaard; Troelsgård, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses some of the particular problems connected with lemma representation and lemmatization in a sign language dictionary. The paper is mainly based on the authors' work experience from the Danish Sign Language Dictionary project. In a sign language dictionary sign representation...... constitutes a problem. as there is - at least for Danish Sign Language - no conventional notation used by native signers and the various other sign user groups. We look into the different possibilities of representing signs and present the solution that we chose for the Danish Sign Language Dictionary....... Defining the criteria for lernmatization is another area where sign language dictionaries differ from written language dictionaries. The criteria should obviously include the manual expression of the signs, but a sign's manual expression has features from several categories (e.g. handshape, place...

  1. Semantic equivalences in Romanian medical terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Lungu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to underline some aspects concerning the presence of synonymy semantic relationship in specialized medical terminology, having as object of study Romanian medical terms. For this study we use a descriptive, conceptual and lexical semantic research method to provide the understanding of different couples, groups or synonymic series where medical terms have several variations: specialized/common terms, syntagms and patronyms of French or different origin. We propose a classification scheme of synonyms of medical lexicon, terms or synonymic syntagms, total and partial, in order to meet the accessibility needs in scientific communication.

  2. Changes in Dictionary Subject Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2003-01-01

    The general content of the three editions of the Duden dictionary has undergone few changes. The most substantial changes are the addition of syllabification and the deletion of antonomy in respect of lemmata in the second and third editions. The concept of dictionary subject matter is questioned......, and it is argued that it is more appropriate to consider how the relationships between the classes of items interact with the function of the dictionary....

  3. STANDARDIZED TERMINOLOGY OF ADULT SPINE DEFORMITY FOR BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael de Rezende Pratali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To develop a consensus for translation of the most relevant terms used in the study of Adult Spinal Deformity, from their original languages into Brazilian Portuguese. Methods : A panel of 12 experts in spine surgery from the five Brazilian regions was constituted. To obtain the standardization of terminology, the Delphi method with an electronic questionnaire was administered to participants about their opinion on the translation of 13 relevant terms chosen by literature review. Each term was considered standard when there was consensus, that is, concordance higher than 80% among participants as to the suggestion to be adopted, and then on the acceptance of the term and its abbreviation in Portuguese. Results : Initially there was consensus (over 80% concordance on the translation of seven terms in the electronic questionnaire. The other six terms that have not reached consensus were discussed at a meeting among the participants, relying on the opinion of a specialized professional in simultaneous translation of orthopedic terms in Portuguese and other professional majored in Portuguese language. It was decided how these terms should be translated and there was a consensus among all participants regarding their acceptance. Finally, there was consensus among the participants, who agreed with the translation and abbreviation of the 13 propose terms, defining its standardization for Brazilian Portuguese. Conclusion : We present a standard terminology used in the study of Adult Spinal Deformity through consensus among experts, seeking uniformity in the use of these terms in Brazilian Portuguese.

  4. Terminology and methodology in modelling for water quality management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, J.; Vanrolleghem, P.; Rauch, W.

    1997-01-01

    There is a widespread need for a common terminology in modelling for water quality management. This paper points out sources of confusion in the communication between researchers due to misuse of existing terminology or use of unclear terminology. The paper attempts to clarify the context...... of the most widely used terms for characterising models and within the process of model building. It is essential to the ever growing society of researchers within water quality management, that communication is eased by establishing a common terminology. This should not be done by giving broader definitions...... of the terms, but by stressing the use of a stringent terminology. Therefore, the goal of the paper is to advocate the use of such a well defined and clear terminology. (C) 1997 IAWQ. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd....

  5. The Construction of a Term Database to Support the Compilation of Chinese-Slovene Slovene-Chinese Dictionary of Beekeeping Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anže SOBOČAN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the first step of making a multilingual specialized dictionary, which includes a selection of terms, their arrangement according to adequacy and the determination of synonymous relationships between the terms. The research was based of the first phase of compiling a Slovene-Chinese and Chinese-Slovene specialized beekeeping dictionary. The results of the research could, however, be applied to the making of specialized dictionaries for any research field. The focus areas of the paper are: the partial overlapping of everyday language and specialized terminology; the different arrangement approaches of existing dictionaries; the many synonyms that are often wrongly understood to denote different things; the coining of new terms when needed; the traps of literal translation.

  6. What should we demand from an online dictionary for specialized translation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2013-01-01

    combination of monolingual and bilingual lexicographical solutions and presents an overall concept of a specialised translation dictionary together with some general principles. Finally, it provides examples of how these principles can be applied in both printed and online dictionaries using already available......This contribution treats the concept of a specialised translation dictionary and argues that this concept is much broader than the traditional vision of a bilingual dictionary going from source language to target language. Based on a methodology developed in the framework of the function theory...

  7. Interoperable Archetypes With a Three Folded Terminology Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Rune; Ellingsen, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    The use of openEHR archetypes increases the interoperability of clinical terminology, and in doing so improves upon the availability of clinical terminology for both primary and secondary purposes. Where clinical terminology is employed in the EPR system, research reports conflicting a results for the use of structuring and standardization as measurements of success. In order to elucidate this concept, this paper focuses on the effort to establish a national repository for openEHR based archetypes in Norway where clinical terminology could be included with benefit for interoperability three folded.

  8. Terminology and definitions on groin pain in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weir, Adam; Hölmich, Per; Schache, Anthony G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Groin pain in athletes occurs frequently and can be difficult to treat, which may partly be due to the lack of agreement on diagnostic terminology. OBJECTIVE: To perform a short Delphi survey on terminology agreement for groin pain in athletes by a group of experts. METHODS: A selected...... taxonomy reflects only a slight agreement between the various diagnostic terms provided by the selected experts. CONCLUSIONS: This short Delphi survey of two 'typical, straightforward' cases demonstrated major inconsistencies in the diagnostic terminology used by experts for groin pain in athletes....... These results underscore the need for consensus on definitions and terminology on groin pain in athletes....

  9. Technical dictionary power plant engineering. Vol. 1. German - English. - Pt. 1: Dictionary. Pt. 2: Abbreviations. 4. rev. and enlarged ed. Technisches Woerterbuch Kraftwerkstechnik. Bd. 1. Deutsch - Englisch. - T. 1: Woerterbuch. T. 2: Abkuerzungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This dictionary is a compilation of German and English technical terms of power plant engineering as far as power plants, turbine-generators and assembly engineering are concerned. It is the result of a joint effort by the Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) and Utility Power Corp. (UPC). The entire content has been revised and approx. 6000 new terms have been added. The dictionary is meant to form a basis for uniform terminology on technical documents as well as correspondence between KWU, UPC and licensees. This computer aided dictionary is printed in capital/low case letters. Only nouns, terms with an article and proper names are capitalized in German. Some terms are written differently in American and British English and are marked with (US) or (GB).

  10. Dictionary of drilling, production and offshore operations. English-German and German-English. Woerterbuch der Bohr-, Foerder- und Offshore-Technik. Englisch-Deutsch und Deutsch-Englisch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathjen, H R; Schaumberg, G; Sickinger, W; Trentmann, A F [comps.

    1985-01-01

    This dictionary is to give users in the petroleum and natural gas industry, the offshore industry, the service industries, authorities, schools, and other interested readers access to the English-language terminology in this field. An alphabetic list of abbreviations and acronyms frequently used in reports and in telex services is presented in the appendix, along with tables of British and US measures.

  11. Tradurre nel contesto pluriglosso dell'arabo con l'aiuto di un nuovo dizionario bilingue. Riflessioni sull'Oxford Arabic Dictionary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Maria Tresso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Translating in the Arabic Plurilingual Context with the Help of a New Bilingual Dictionary. Some remarks on the Oxford Arabic Dictionary. A bilingual dictionary from English, the International language for communication, to Arabic nowadays represents one of the major challenges in the fields of translation studies and teaching. The Oxford Arabic Dictionary, with is corpus-based word list represents a good point of departure for future lexicographical works and for the development of teaching of Modern Standard Arabic.

  12. How Dictionary Users Choose Senses in Bilingual Dictionary Entries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    advanced Polish learners of English, consulted 26 Polish-to-English dictionary pages prompted with a sentence translation task. ... structural involvedness of dictionaries themselves, the quality of the data returned is questionable. In contrast ...... scans patterned differently. They tended to be more rapid and the landing.

  13. Dictionary of weighing terms a guide to the terminology of weighing

    CERN Document Server

    Nater, Roland; Reichmuth, Arthur; Schwartz, Roman; Zervos, Panagiotis

    2009-01-01

    This book explains over 1,000 terms from weighing technology and includes many illustrations. Terms used relate to the following topics: Fundamentals of Weighing, Using Scales, International Norms and Legal Requirements for Weighing, and Precision in Weighing.

  14. Energy dictionary. 1992 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This dictionary seeks to link the definitions of the various forms of energy in the different languages but makes no effort to be exhaustive, notably in the field of economics where only concepts related to energy have been included. This edition contains nearly 2000 defined concepts and an index of several thousands keywords selected from the concept definitions. Either as a dictionary or a glossary, it is given in four languages: English, French, German and Spanish. This new edition is based on the one published in 1986 which has been considerably expanded by including observations and suggestions received since 1986. Two sections have been added: one section dealing with ''district heating'' and one on ''units''. Internationally recognized, officially adopted and accepted definitions have been used in this edition. A short introduction to each section specifies the scope of its contents

  15. Dictionary of pressure vessel and piping technology. German-English. Woerterbuch der Druckbehaelter- und Rohrleitungstechnik. Deutsch-Englisch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, H P

    1987-01-01

    This dictionary is the result of many years of evaluation of technical terminology taken from the salient non-German rules, regulations, standards and specifications such as ANSI, API, ASME, ASNT, ASTM, BSI, EJMA, TEMA, and WRC (see bibliography) and of comparing these with the corresponding German rules, regulations, etc., as well as examining relevant technical documentation. This dictionary fills the gap left by existing dictionaries. The following specialized factors are given special attention: pressure vessels, tanks, heat exchangers, piping, valves and fittings, expansion joints, flanges, giving particular consideration to the fields of materials, welding, strength calculation, design and construction, fracture mechanics, destructive and non-destructive testing, as well as heat and mass transfer.

  16. Many general language dictionaries contain specialized terms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Lexikos 25 (AFRILEX-reeks/series 25: 2015): 246-261 ... attention to the link between dictionary functions, corpora and the data presented in dictionaries, ... technical words) in general language dictionaries is sparse and concerns terms .... civil procedure terms to focus on and in which dictionaries to look, I will go on.

  17. Nuclear energy dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-15

    This book is a dictionary for nuclear energy which lists the technical terms in alphabetical order. It adds four appendixes. The first appendix is about people involved with nuclear energy. The second one is a bibliography and the third one is a checklist of German, English and Korean. The last one has an index. This book gives explanations on technical terms of nuclear energy such as nuclear reaction and atomic disintegration.

  18. Nuclear energy dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    This book is a dictionary for nuclear energy which lists the technical terms in alphabetical order. It adds four appendixes. The first appendix is about people involved with nuclear energy. The second one is a bibliography and the third one is a checklist of German, English and Korean. The last one has an index. This book gives explanations on technical terms of nuclear energy such as nuclear reaction and atomic disintegration.

  19. Dictionary of materials testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedecke, W.

    1992-01-01

    This trilingual dictionary contains about 12000 terms from the field of non-destructive and destructive materials testing; the English and French terms can be looked up in two separate, alphabetical indexes. The compilation also presents terms from related fields such as quality control, production control, environmental protection and radiological protection, and wherever appropriate in the context from the fields of physics, chemistry, mathematics and electronic data processing. (HP) [de

  20. Product/Service-Systems: Proposal for models and terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Detlef; Tan, Adrian; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2005-01-01

    very blurred and ill defined. This paper will try to identify the fundamental characteristics of PSS and propose a system of concepts that can be used to describe and discuss the phenomenon, for the purpose of developing new PSS solutions. Coming from a tradition of product development research......Over recent years a growing number of studies and research programmes have been conducted on the issue of product/service-systems (PSS) [1, 2] and results have been presented at this row of symposia [3, 4]. These studies usually analyse the potential of integrated solutions to reduce...... the environmental impacts of human consumption activity or optimise a company’s ability to cope with the influences arising from the emerging globalisation of economic and business activities. Since there has not been worked on a coherent terminology for the terms and concepts used in PSS research, the area remains...

  1. Emotional or Behavioral Disorders: Background and Current Status of the E/BD Terminology and Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forness, Steven R.; Kavale, Kenneth A.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the development and current status of alternatives to the federal definition of emotional disturbance or behavior disorders. It notes that several states are now revising their own terminologies or definitions in response to the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act that dropped the term…

  2. An Analysis of the Students Enrolled in the Correspondence Study Course, "Medical Terminology."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Marvin A.

    A study was conducted to obtain information regarding students enrolled in a Medical Terminology correspondence course developed jointly by the Wisconsin Vocational, Technical and Adult Education System and the University of Wisconsin's Extension Division. Specifically, the study sought to gather information about student types and…

  3. Sparse decompositions in 'incoherent' dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribonval, R.; Nielsen, Morten

    2003-01-01

    a unique sparse representation in such a dictionary. In particular, it is proved that the result of Donoho and Huo, concerning the replacement of a combinatorial optimization problem with a linear programming problem when searching for sparse representations, has an analog for dictionaries that may...

  4. Trying Out a New Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Morton; Benson, Evelyn

    1988-01-01

    Describes the BBI Combinatory Dictionary of English and demonstrates its usefulness for advanced learners of English by administering a monolingual completion test, first without a dictionary and then with the BBI, to Hungarian and Russian English teachers. Both groups' scores improved dramatically on the posttest. (LMO)

  5. Improving the dictionary lookup approach for disease normalization using enhanced dictionary and query expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Jue, Toni Rose; Chang, Nai-Wen; Dai, Hong-Jie

    2016-01-01

    The rapidly increasing biomedical literature calls for the need of an automatic approach in the recognition and normalization of disease mentions in order to increase the precision and effectivity of disease based information retrieval. A variety of methods have been proposed to deal with the problem of disease named entity recognition and normalization. Among all the proposed methods, conditional random fields (CRFs) and dictionary lookup method are widely used for named entity recognition and normalization respectively. We herein developed a CRF-based model to allow automated recognition of disease mentions, and studied the effect of various techniques in improving the normalization results based on the dictionary lookup approach. The dataset from the BioCreative V CDR track was used to report the performance of the developed normalization methods and compare with other existing dictionary lookup based normalization methods. The best configuration achieved an F-measure of 0.77 for the disease normalization, which outperformed the best dictionary lookup based baseline method studied in this work by an F-measure of 0.13.Database URL: https://github.com/TCRNBioinformatics/DiseaseExtract. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Improving the dictionary lookup approach for disease normalization using enhanced dictionary and query expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Jue, Toni Rose; Chang, Nai-Wen; Dai, Hong-Jie

    2016-01-01

    The rapidly increasing biomedical literature calls for the need of an automatic approach in the recognition and normalization of disease mentions in order to increase the precision and effectivity of disease based information retrieval. A variety of methods have been proposed to deal with the problem of disease named entity recognition and normalization. Among all the proposed methods, conditional random fields (CRFs) and dictionary lookup method are widely used for named entity recognition and normalization respectively. We herein developed a CRF-based model to allow automated recognition of disease mentions, and studied the effect of various techniques in improving the normalization results based on the dictionary lookup approach. The dataset from the BioCreative V CDR track was used to report the performance of the developed normalization methods and compare with other existing dictionary lookup based normalization methods. The best configuration achieved an F-measure of 0.77 for the disease normalization, which outperformed the best dictionary lookup based baseline method studied in this work by an F-measure of 0.13. Database URL: https://github.com/TCRNBioinformatics/DiseaseExtract PMID:27504009

  7. Mediostructures in bilingual LSP dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues that the lexicographic mediostructure is a network structure that deals with a set or sets of relations that exist between different parts of data by way of cross-referencing, dictionary-internal as well as dictionary, external. The abstract mediostructure consists of all...... the possible sets of cross-referential relations, whether realised by concrete sets or not in the dictionary. The actual realisation of these referential networks may be function-related and the primary function of the dictionary may then be given priority. The actual cross-references at this level...... are then the concrete sets of relations depending on the function of the dictionary, the distribution structure and the search path involved in retrieving the information. The paper introduces a distinction between use-related and funtion-related corss-references and focuses on cross-references supporting...

  8. Medical Terminology: Root Words. Health Occupations Education Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on medical terminology (root words) is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module consists of an introduction to root words, a list of resources needed, procedures for using the module, a list of terminology used in the…

  9. Beyond teaching language: Towards terminological primacy in learners’ geometric conceptualisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey U. Atebe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a specific aspect of a broader geometry conceptualisation study that sought to explore and explicate learners’ knowledge of basic geometric terminology in selected Nigerian and South African high schools. It is framed by the notion that students’ acquisition of the correct terminology in school geometry is important for their success in the subject. The original study further aimed to determine the relationship that might exist between a learner’s ability in verbal geometry terminology tasks and his/her ability in visual geometry terminology tasks. A total of 144 learners (72 each from South Africa and Nigeria were selected for the study, using both the stratified and the fish‐bowl sampling techniques. A questionnaire consisting of a sixty‐item multiple‐choice objective test provided the data for the study. An overall percentage mean score of 44,17% obtained in the test indicated that learners in this study had only a limited knowledge of basic geometric terminology. The Nigerian subsample in the study had a weaker understanding of basic geometric terminology than their South African counterparts. Importantly, there were high positive correlations between participants’ ability in verbal geometry terminology tasks and their ability in visual geometry terminology tasks. These results are consistent with those of several earlier studies, and provide a reasonably firm basis for certain recommendations to be made.

  10. Similarity-based recommendation of new concepts to a terminology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandar, Praveen; Yaman, Anil; Hoxha, Julia; He, Zhe; Weng, Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    Terminologies can suffer from poor concept coverage due to delays in addition of new concepts. This study tests a similarity-based approach to recommending concepts from a text corpus to a terminology. Our approach involves extraction of candidate concepts from a given text corpus, which are

  11. On the terminology of the penumbra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, D.J.; Shea, M.A.; Smart, D.F.

    1981-01-01

    The classic studies of the motion of charged cosmic rays in the geomagnetic field laid the ground work for determing the form and characteristics of the regions allowed or forbidden to particles approaching points within the field. Because of the high precision now required of penumbral information, digital computer based mapping techniques are used universally in place of the earlier techniques. Some confusion has arisen in the application of terms such as main cone, Stormer cone, and shadow cone, to the regions distinguished by the computer technique. The criteria by which the various regions are distinguished are reviewed, and suggestions made in relation to modified terminology to be used in discussing and presenting results

  12. The latest dictionary of nuclear energy term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    This book is the latest dictionary of nuclear energy term. It deals with explanations of nuclear energy term in alphabetical order. It also lists abbreviation of nuclear energy term. This book contains symbol and unit, radiation units, greek letters, the symbol of for element, the table of an isotope and the periodic table on nuclear power term. It includes glossary of nuclear power in Korean and French and conceptual map about development of nuclear power.

  13. Dictionaries for Sparse Neural Network Approximation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kůrková, Věra; Sanguineti, M.

    submitted 27.12.2017 (2018) ISSN 2162-237X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-18108S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : measures of sparsity * fee dforward networks * binary classification * dictionaries of computational units * Chernoff-Hoeffding Bound Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 6.108, year: 2016

  14. Morphological assimilation of borrowed terminology (on the example of terminological units, borrowed from French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaneeva Anna Vitalievna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of morphological assimilation is an important and mandatory problem as far as the native speaker media will be comfortable using the term of the borrowing language in the flow of speech, without considering the specific grammatical forms, largely determines its subsequent semantic assimilation, its incorporation into a particular terminology system. The analysis clearly shows the place of French borrowings in the morphological system of the Russian language, helps to identify the most significant differences between the structures of the two languages. At the same time it suggests that many French terminology borrowings morphologically assimilated fairly well, there were some groups in the Russian language, which transformed morphologically French elements falling into Russian. This makes borrowings more smooth, and loan word, provided that it actually meets the needs of the language - receptor in the host language adapts quickly and easily absorbed by native speakers

  15. Dictionary Culture of University Students Learning English as a Foreign Language in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Sami; Mumcu, Muhsin

    2018-01-01

    Dictionaries, one of the oldest tools of language education, have continued to be a part of education although information technologies and concept of education has changed over time. Until today, with the help of the developments in technology both types of dictionaries have increased, and usage areas have expanded. Therefore, it is possible to…

  16. Preparing an online dictionary of business communication: from idea to design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the plan for an online English–Spanish dictionary of business communication based on the function theory. After a short overview of lexicographical traditions within this field, it focuses on the philosophy behind the overall dictionary concept, the methods applied to develop...

  17. Encyclopedic Information: Focus on the Structuring of Encyclopedic Information in the Articles of Modern LSP Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvå, Grete; Laursen, Anne Lise

    2001-01-01

    Modern LSP dictionaries differ from LGP dictionaries in many ways, one of which being that they include categories of information not found in traditional LGP dictionaryes. The development in the field lf LSP lexicography, which has taken place over the last ten years, has been based on the need ...

  18. Using the LOINC Semantic Structure to Integrate Community-based Survey Items into a Concept-based Enterprise Data Dictionary to Support Comparative Effectiveness Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co, Manuel C; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Quarles, Leigh; Wilcox, Adam; Bakken, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    In designing informatics infrastructure to support comparative effectiveness research (CER), it is necessary to implement approaches for integrating heterogeneous data sources such as clinical data typically stored in clinical data warehouses and those that are normally stored in separate research databases. One strategy to support this integration is the use of a concept-oriented data dictionary with a set of semantic terminology models. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the use of the semantic structure of Clinical LOINC (Logical Observation Identifiers, Names, and Codes) in integrating community-based survey items into the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED) to support the integration of survey data with clinical data for CER studies.

  19. Compiling Dictionaries Using Semantic Domains*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Moe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The task of providing dictionaries for all the world's languages is prodigious, re-quiring efficient techniques. The text corpus method cannot be used for minority languages lacking texts. To meet the need, the author has constructed a list of 1 600 semantic domains, which he has successfully used to collect words. In a workshop setting, a group of speakers can collect as many as 17 000 words in ten days. This method results in a classified word list that can be efficiently expanded into a full dictionary. The method works because the mental lexicon is a giant web or-ganized around key concepts. A semantic domain can be defined as an important concept together with the words directly related to it by lexical relations. A person can utilize the mental web to quickly jump from word to word within a domain. The author is developing a template for each domain to aid in collecting words and in de-scribing their semantics. Investigating semantics within the context of a domain yields many in-sights. The method permits the production of both alphabetically and semantically organized dic-tionaries. The list of domains is intended to be universal in scope and applicability. Perhaps due to universals of human experience and universals of linguistic competence, there are striking simi-larities in various lists of semantic domains developed for languages around the world. Using a standardized list of domains to classify multiple dictionaries opens up possibilities for cross-lin-guistic research into semantic and lexical universals.

    Keywords: SEMANTIC DOMAINS, SEMANTIC FIELDS, SEMANTIC CATEGORIES, LEX-ICAL RELATIONS, SEMANTIC PRIMITIVES, DOMAIN TEMPLATES, MENTAL LEXICON, SEMANTIC UNIVERSALS, MINORITY LANGUAGES, LEXICOGRAPHY

    Opsomming: Samestelling van woordeboeke deur gebruikmaking van se-mantiese domeine. Die taak van die voorsiening van woordeboeke aan al die tale van die wêreld is geweldig en vereis doeltreffende tegnieke. Die

  20. Dictionary of algebra, arithmetic, and trigonometry

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, Steven G

    2000-01-01

    Clear, rigorous definitions of mathematical terms are crucial to good scientific and technical writing-and to understanding the writings of others. Scientists, engineers, mathematicians, economists, technical writers, computer programmers, along with teachers, professors, and students, all have the need for comprehensible, working definitions of mathematical expressions. To meet that need, CRC Press proudly introduces its Dictionary of Algebra, Arithmetic, and Trigonometry- the second published volume in the CRC Comprehensive Dictionary of Mathematics. More than three years in development, top academics and professionals from prestigious institutions around the world bring you more than 2,800 detailed definitions, written in a clear, readable style, complete with alternative meanings, and related references.From Abelian cohomology to zero ring and from the very basic to the highly advanced, this unique lexicon includes terms associated with arithmetic, algebra, and trigonometry, with natural overlap into geom...

  1. Terminology and classification of muscle injuries in sport: The Munich consensus statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Wohlfahrt, Hans-Wilhelm; Haensel, Lutz; Mithoefer, Kai; Ekstrand, Jan; English, Bryan; McNally, Steven; Orchard, John; van Dijk, C Niek; Kerkhoffs, Gino M; Schamasch, Patrick; Blottner, Dieter; Swaerd, Leif; Goedhart, Edwin; Ueblacker, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide a clear terminology and classification of muscle injuries in order to facilitate effective communication among medical practitioners and development of systematic treatment strategies. Methods Thirty native English-speaking scientists and team doctors of national and first division professional sports teams were asked to complete a questionnaire on muscle injuries to evaluate the currently used terminology of athletic muscle injury. In addition, a consensus meeting of international sports medicine experts was established to develop practical and scientific definitions of muscle injuries as well as a new and comprehensive classification system. Results The response rate of the survey was 63%. The responses confirmed the marked variability in the use of the terminology relating to muscle injury, with the most obvious inconsistencies for the term strain. In the consensus meeting, practical and systematic terms were defined and established. In addition, a new comprehensive classification system was developed, which differentiates between four types: functional muscle disorders (type 1: overexertion-related and type 2: neuromuscular muscle disorders) describing disorders without macroscopic evidence of fibre tear and structural muscle injuries (type 3: partial tears and type 4: (sub)total tears/tendinous avulsions) with macroscopic evidence of fibre tear, that is, structural damage. Subclassifications are presented for each type. Conclusions A consistent English terminology as well as a comprehensive classification system for athletic muscle injuries which is proven in the daily practice are presented. This will help to improve clarity of communication for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes and can serve as the basis for future comparative studies to address the continued lack of systematic information on muscle injuries in the literature. What are the new things Consensus definitions of the terminology which is used in the field of muscle injuries

  2. Early Portuguese lexicographic tradition: equivalents and loans in Caetano de Lima’s dictionary manuscripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Silvestre

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The exhaustive comparison between Portuguese and the main modern languages is a late phenomenon. Only at the end of seventeenth century, did Portugal feel the need for a methodical learning of foreign languages and for didactic tools with a marked lexical component, in which we include the essential bilingual dictionaries. Nevertheless, it is in the first half of the eighteenth century that the first glossaries are published, while the first bilingual dictionaries with alphabetical order and an extensive nomenclature will appear only in the second half of the century. In order to overcome this lag, Vernacular-Latin dictionaries were imported and handwritten dictionaries were compiled and adapted according to the needs of each user. Research on the origins of Portuguese-Italian lexicography has provided important information on the development of the techniques used to compile dictionaries and the contrastive analysis of languages. The first printed dictionary is an addition to Caetano de Lima’s Grammatica Italiana (1734 and it contains an appendix of hard words (where semantic peculiarities and idiomatic expressions are explained and an onomasiologic dictionary of common words. It has been described as a basic albeit functional lexicographic tool, suitable for beginners’ needs. Recently, a manuscript version of this dictionary has been identified (Diccionario de Nomes Portuguezes e Italianos Dispostos por Materias, Biblioteca Pública de Évora, CXIII-1-33, as well as the manuscript of a larger general dictionary (Diccionario Italiano-Portuguez, Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal, cod. 3342. This impressive lexicographic corpus is compiled about fifty years before the first printed Italian-Portuguese dictionary. The analysis demonstrates that the author tried to compile a much wider dictionary than the version that was actually published. In the manuscript, we can identify problems in some areas, such as the definition of lexical domains (due

  3. EAU standardised medical terminology for urologic imaging: a taxonomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Tillmann; Carey, Brendan; Walz, Jochen; Fulgham, Pat Fox

    2015-05-01

    The terminology and abbreviations used in urologic imaging have generally been adopted on an ad hoc basis by different speciality groups; however, there is a need for shared nomenclature to facilitate clinical communication and collaborative research. This work reviews the current nomenclature for urologic imaging used in clinical practice and proposes a taxonomy and terminology for urologic imaging studies. A list of terms used in urologic imaging were compiled from guidelines published by the European Association of Urology and the American Urological Association and from the American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria. Terms searched were grouped into broad categories based on technology, and imaging terms were further stratified based on the anatomic extent, contrast or phases, technique or modifiers, and combinations or fusions. Terms that had a high degree of utilisation were classified as accepted. We propose a new taxonomy to define a more useful and acceptable nomenclature model acceptable to all health professionals involved in urology. The major advantage of a taxonomic approach to the classification of urologic imaging studies is that it provides a flexible framework for classifying the modifications of current imaging modalities and allows the incorporation of new imaging modalities. The adoption of this hierarchical classification model ranging from the most general to the most detailed descriptions should facilitate hierarchical searches of the medical literature using both general and specific terms. This work is limited in its scope, as it is not currently all-inclusive. This will hopefully be addressed by future modification as others embrace the concept and work towards uniformity in nomenclature. This paper provides a noncomprehensive list of the most widely used terms across different specialties. This list can be used as the basis for further discussion, development, and enhancement. In this paper we describe a classification system

  4. Dictionary of dissuasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodka-Gallien, P.

    2011-09-01

    With more than 300 head words, this dictionary covers, at the worldwide scale, the history of men (from Curie and Einstein to Barack Obama), the issues (secrecy and information, weapons rush, proliferation and counter-proliferation..), the strategies (massive or gradual counter-attacks), the organisations (IAEA, CEA, Greenpeace etc.) and the equipments in relation with nuclear dissuasion. If the main part of the book is devoted to military equipments and topics, some other aspects of the nuclear domain are also presented, like radioactivity, civil nuclear accidents, thermonuclear fusion, laboratory equipments, disarmament and others. (J.S.)

  5. Modern dictionary of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Rudolf F

    1999-01-01

    Included in this fully revised classic are well over 28,000 terms, phrases, acronyms, and abbreviations from the ever-expanding worlds of consumer electronics, optics, microelectronics, computers, communications, and medical electronics. From the basic elements of theory to the most cutting-edge circuit technology, this book explains it all in both words and pictures.For easy reference, the author has provided definitions for standard abbreviations and equations as well as tables of SI (International System of Units) units, measurements, and schematic symbolsModern Dictionary of Electronics is

  6. Standardizing terminology and definitions of medication adherence and persistence in research employing electronic databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raebel, Marsha A; Schmittdiel, Julie; Karter, Andrew J; Konieczny, Jennifer L; Steiner, John F

    2013-08-01

    To propose a unifying set of definitions for prescription adherence research utilizing electronic health record prescribing databases, prescription dispensing databases, and pharmacy claims databases and to provide a conceptual framework to operationalize these definitions consistently across studies. We reviewed recent literature to identify definitions in electronic database studies of prescription-filling patterns for chronic oral medications. We then develop a conceptual model and propose standardized terminology and definitions to describe prescription-filling behavior from electronic databases. The conceptual model we propose defines 2 separate constructs: medication adherence and persistence. We define primary and secondary adherence as distinct subtypes of adherence. Metrics for estimating secondary adherence are discussed and critiqued, including a newer metric (New Prescription Medication Gap measure) that enables estimation of both primary and secondary adherence. Terminology currently used in prescription adherence research employing electronic databases lacks consistency. We propose a clear, consistent, broadly applicable conceptual model and terminology for such studies. The model and definitions facilitate research utilizing electronic medication prescribing, dispensing, and/or claims databases and encompasses the entire continuum of prescription-filling behavior. Employing conceptually clear and consistent terminology to define medication adherence and persistence will facilitate future comparative effectiveness research and meta-analytic studies that utilize electronic prescription and dispensing records.

  7. LexGrid: a framework for representing, storing, and querying biomedical terminologies from simple to sublime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Jyotishman; Solbrig, Harold R; Buntrock, James D; Johnson, Thomas M; Chute, Christopher G

    2009-01-01

    Many biomedical terminologies, classifications, and ontological resources such as the NCI Thesaurus (NCIT), International Classification of Diseases (ICD), Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED), Current Procedural Terminology (CPT), and Gene Ontology (GO) have been developed and used to build a variety of IT applications in biology, biomedicine, and health care settings. However, virtually all these resources involve incompatible formats, are based on different modeling languages, and lack appropriate tooling and programming interfaces (APIs) that hinder their wide-scale adoption and usage in a variety of application contexts. The Lexical Grid (LexGrid) project introduced in this paper is an ongoing community-driven initiative, coordinated by the Mayo Clinic Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, designed to bridge this gap using a common terminology model called the LexGrid model. The key aspect of the model is to accommodate multiple vocabulary and ontology distribution formats and support of multiple data stores for federated vocabulary distribution. The model provides a foundation for building consistent and standardized APIs to access multiple vocabularies that support lexical search queries, hierarchy navigation, and a rich set of features such as recursive subsumption (e.g., get all the children of the concept penicillin). Existing LexGrid implementations include the LexBIG API as well as a reference implementation of the HL7 Common Terminology Services (CTS) specification providing programmatic access via Java, Web, and Grid services.

  8. Dictionary of radiation protection, radiobiology and nuclear medicine. English-German-French-Russian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sube, R.

    1985-01-01

    This multilingual dictionary covers the subject fields of radiation protection, radiobiology, and nuclear medicine with about 12,000 terms in each language. All terms are supplemented by one or more abbreviations of 22 special branches to assure the use of the very relevant terms. Special branches listed are for instance decontamination, dosimetry, atomic legislation, radiation detectors, radiography (medical), radiotherapy, safeguards, shielding, tansportation and storage. The terminology used in the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) of the IAEA has been completely taken into account

  9. On the necessity of an explanatory dictionary for specialists in gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernikov, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    The necessity to compile a defining dictionary for specialists in gravitation, so as the beginners can avoid misunderstanding, and philosophers can arrive at the right conclusions, is considered. In particular, it is shown, that it is quite impossible to achieve the correct understanding of the Einstein relativity general principle without the proper idea of a manifold. Cartographic terminology, used in the manifold theory, does not permit to confuse coordinate system with the reference system. Interpretation of special principle of relativity, operating in the world of Poincare, Newton and Galilei, is presented

  10. System semantics of explanatory dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Shyrokov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available System semantics of explanatory dictionaries Some semantic properties of the language to be followed from the structure of lexicographical systems of big explanatory dictionaries are considered. The hyperchains and hypercycles are determined as the definite kind of automorphisms of the lexicographical system of explanatory dictionary. Some semantic consequencies following from the principles of lexicographic closure and lexicographic completeness are investigated using the hyperchains and hypercycles formalism. The connection between the hypercyle properties of the lexicographical system semantics and Goedel’s incompleteness theorem is discussed.

  11. A dictionary learning approach for human sperm heads classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Fariba; Monadjemi, S Amirhassan; Alirezaie, Javad; Naghsh-Nilchi, Ahmad Reza

    2017-12-01

    To diagnose infertility in men, semen analysis is conducted in which sperm morphology is one of the factors that are evaluated. Since manual assessment of sperm morphology is time-consuming and subjective, automatic classification methods are being developed. Automatic classification of sperm heads is a complicated task due to the intra-class differences and inter-class similarities of class objects. In this research, a Dictionary Learning (DL) technique is utilized to construct a dictionary of sperm head shapes. This dictionary is used to classify the sperm heads into four different classes. Square patches are extracted from the sperm head images. Columnized patches from each class of sperm are used to learn class-specific dictionaries. The patches from a test image are reconstructed using each class-specific dictionary and the overall reconstruction error for each class is used to select the best matching class. Average accuracy, precision, recall, and F-score are used to evaluate the classification method. The method is evaluated using two publicly available datasets of human sperm head shapes. The proposed DL based method achieved an average accuracy of 92.2% on the HuSHeM dataset, and an average recall of 62% on the SCIAN-MorphoSpermGS dataset. The results show a significant improvement compared to a previously published shape-feature-based method. We have achieved high-performance results. In addition, our proposed approach offers a more balanced classifier in which all four classes are recognized with high precision and recall. In this paper, we use a Dictionary Learning approach in classifying human sperm heads. It is shown that the Dictionary Learning method is far more effective in classifying human sperm heads than classifiers using shape-based features. Also, a dataset of human sperm head shapes is introduced to facilitate future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Denoising of gravitational wave signals via dictionary learning algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Forné, Alejandro; Marquina, Antonio; Font, José A.; Ibáñez, José M.

    2016-12-01

    Gravitational wave astronomy has become a reality after the historical detections accomplished during the first observing run of the two advanced LIGO detectors. In the following years, the number of detections is expected to increase significantly with the full commissioning of the advanced LIGO, advanced Virgo and KAGRA detectors. The development of sophisticated data analysis techniques to improve the opportunities of detection for low signal-to-noise-ratio events is, hence, a most crucial effort. In this paper, we present one such technique, dictionary-learning algorithms, which have been extensively developed in the last few years and successfully applied mostly in the context of image processing. However, to the best of our knowledge, such algorithms have not yet been employed to denoise gravitational wave signals. By building dictionaries from numerical relativity templates of both binary black holes mergers and bursts of rotational core collapse, we show how machine-learning algorithms based on dictionaries can also be successfully applied for gravitational wave denoising. We use a subset of signals from both catalogs, embedded in nonwhite Gaussian noise, to assess our techniques with a large sample of tests and to find the best model parameters. The application of our method to the actual signal GW150914 shows promising results. Dictionary-learning algorithms could be a complementary addition to the gravitational wave data analysis toolkit. They may be used to extract signals from noise and to infer physical parameters if the data are in good enough agreement with the morphology of the dictionary atoms.

  13. Seismic classification through sparse filter dictionaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickmann, Kyle Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Srinivasan, Gowri [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-13

    We tackle a multi-label classi cation problem involving the relation between acoustic- pro le features and the measured seismogram. To isolate components of the seismo- grams unique to each class of acoustic pro le we build dictionaries of convolutional lters. The convolutional- lter dictionaries for the individual classes are then combined into a large dictionary for the entire seismogram set. A given seismogram is classi ed by computing its representation in the large dictionary and then comparing reconstruction accuracy with this representation using each of the sub-dictionaries. The sub-dictionary with the minimal reconstruction error identi es the seismogram class.

  14. [Defining AIDS terminology. A practical approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locutura, Jaime; Almirante, Benito; Berenguer, Juan; Muñoz, Agustín; Peña, José María

    2003-01-01

    Since the appearance of AIDS, the study of this disease has generated a large amount of information and an extensive related vocabulary comprised of new terms or terms borrowed from other scientific fields. The urgent need to provide names for newly described phenomena and concepts in this field has resulted in the application of terms that are not always appropriate from the linguistic and scientific points of view. We discuss the difficulties in attempting to create adequate AIDS terminology in the Spanish language, considering both the general problems involved in building any scientific vocabulary and the specific problems inherent to this activity in a field whose defining illness has important social connotations. The pressure exerted by the predominance of the English language in reporting scientific knowledge is considered, and the inappropriate words most often found in a review of current literature are examined. Finally, attending to the two most important criteria for the creation of new scientific terms, accuracy and linguistic correction, we propose some well thought-out alternatives that conform to the essence of the Spanish language.

  15. Insurance dictionary. German-English-French-Greek. Versicherungswoerterbuch. Deutsch-Englisch-Franzoesisch-Griechisch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Lutz, H L [ed.

    1984-01-01

    Special technical terms used in the world of insurance can hardly be found in general dictionaries. This is a gap which the 'Insurance dictionary' now presented is designed to fill. In view of its supplementary function, the number of terms covered is limited to 1200. To make this dictionary especially convenient for ready reference, only the most commonly used translations are given for each key word in any of the four languages. This dictionary is subdivided into four parts, each containing the translation of the selected terms in the three other languages. To further facilitate the use of the booklet, paper of different colours was used for the printing of the German, English, French and Greek sections. The present volume was developed from a Swedish insurance dictionary (Fickordbok Foersaekring), published in 1967, which - with Swedish as the key language- offers English, French and German translations of the basic insurance terms.

  16. Dictionary Based Segmentation in Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerson, Monica Jane; Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for supervised volumetric segmentation based on a dictionary of small cubes composed of pairs of intensity and label cubes. Intensity cubes are small image volumes where each voxel contains an image intensity. Label cubes are volumes with voxelwise probabilities for a given...... label. The segmentation process is done by matching a cube from the volume, of the same size as the dictionary intensity cubes, to the most similar intensity dictionary cube, and from the associated label cube we get voxel-wise label probabilities. Probabilities from overlapping cubes are averaged...... and hereby we obtain a robust label probability encoding. The dictionary is computed from labeled volumetric image data based on weighted clustering. We experimentally demonstrate our method using two data sets from material science – a phantom data set of a solid oxide fuel cell simulation for detecting...

  17. A Dictionary of Disaster Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Olivier; Dahlberg, Rasmus

    A Dictionary of Disaster Management offers over 200 terms covering different disasters from a social science perspective, brining together insights from many different disciplines including sociology, political science, history, anthropology, and natural science. It also features practical terms...

  18. TWRS privatization support project waste characterization resource dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patello, G.K.; Wiemers, K.D.

    1996-09-01

    A single estimate of waste characteristics for each underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site is not available. The information that is available was developed for specific programmatic objectives and varies in format and level of descriptive detail, depending on the intended application. This dictionary reflects an attempt to define what waste characterization information is available. It shows the relationship between the identified resource and the original data source and the inter-relationships among the resources; it also provides a brief description of each resource. Developed as a general dictionary for waste characterization information, this document is intended to make the user aware of potenially useful resources

  19. Kirkeby's English?Swahili Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Mdee

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Kirkeby's English–Swahili Dictionary is a bilingual dictionary of more than 50 000entries. The most laudable feature of the dictionary is its attempt to be user-friendly especially inthe way the entry words have been arranged and the amount of information given. However, aclear objective for the compilation of the ditionary is lacking. The compilers do not seem to knowthe lexicographical gap they want to fill, the users they are targeting, and their dictionary-usingskills. In discussing the strong and weak points of the dictionary, the article will refer to theories ofdictionary criticism. Three criteria set by McMillan (1949 will guide this review article: (1 thequantity of the information in the dictionary; (2 the quality of the information presented; and (3the effectiveness of the presentation of the information. Questions posed in the course of this articlewill include: Does the dictionary give the information required by the user? Is the informationtransparently accessible? How is the information presented?

    Keywords: DICTIONARY EVALUATION, USER-FRIENDLY, DICTIONARY-USINGSKILLS, LEXICOGRAPHICAL ENTRIES, GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES, SUBGRAMMATICALCATEGORIES, WORD COMBINATIONS, COLLOCATIONS, TRANSLATION EQUIVALENTS

    Opsomming: Kirkeby se English–Swahili Dictionary. Kirkeby se English–SwahiliDictionary is 'n tweetalige woordeboek met meer as 50 000 inskrywings. Die mees prysenswaardigekenmerk van die woordeboek is sy poging om gebruikersvriendelik te wees, veral deur die manierwaarop die trefwoorde gerangskik is en die hoeveelheid inligting wat verskaf word. 'n Duidelikedoelwit vir die samestelling van die woordeboek ontbreek egter. Die samestellers is skynbaaronseker oor die leksikografiese leemte wat hulle wil vul, en die gebruikers vir wie dit bedoel is enhul woordeboekgebruikersvaardighede. In die bespreking van die sterk en die swak eienskappevan die woordeboek sal die artikel verwys na teorieë van

  20. [Pilot study of domain-specific terminology adaptation for morphological analysis: research on unknown terms in national examination documents of radiological technologists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Shintarou; Nishimoto, Naoki; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko

    2008-07-20

    Although large medical texts are stored in electronic format, they are seldom reused because of the difficulty of processing narrative texts by computer. Morphological analysis is a key technology for extracting medical terms correctly and automatically. This process parses a sentence into its smallest unit, the morpheme. Phrases consisting of two or more technical terms, however, cause morphological analysis software to fail in parsing the sentence and output unprocessed terms as "unknown words." The purpose of this study was to reduce the number of unknown words in medical narrative text processing. The results of parsing the text with additional dictionaries were compared with the analysis of the number of unknown words in the national examination for radiologists. The ratio of unknown words was reduced 1.0% to 0.36% by adding terminologies of radiological technology, MeSH, and ICD-10 labels. The terminology of radiological technology was the most effective resource, being reduced by 0.62%. This result clearly showed the necessity of additional dictionary selection and trends in unknown words. The potential for this investigation is to make available a large body of clinical information that would otherwise be inaccessible for applications other than manual health care review by personnel.

  1. About the use of reflectance terminology in imaging spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaepman-Strub, G.; Schaepman, M.E.; Dangel, S.; Painter, T.; Martonchik, J.

    2005-01-01

    Analysing databases, field and airborne spectrometer data, modelling studies and publications, a lack of consistency in the use of definitions and terminology of reflectance quantities can be observed. One example is the term `BRDF¿ (bidirectional reflectance distribution function) assigned to

  2. Terminology of economics in Albanian: Current state, problems and tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Mulaj, Isa

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of this paper was to analyze the state of terminology of economics in Albanian language, and depending on the problems identified, to address some recommendations as tasks that are deemed necessary for future research that would contribute to its standardization. The paper begun from the hypothesis that the terminology in question is relatively rich, but finds that academic and scientific research are very limited or largely neglected, thus creating a vacuum in its broader and...

  3. Polish Academy of Sciences Great Dictionary of Polish [Wielki słownik języka polskiego PAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Žmigrodzki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a lexicographical project involving the development of the newest general dictionary of the Polish language: the Polish Academy of Sciences Great Dictionary of Polish [Wielki słownik języka polskiego PAN]. The project is coordinated by the Institute of Polish Language at the Polish Academy of Sciences and carried out in collaboration with linguists and lexicographers from several other Polish academic centres. The paper offers a brief description of the genesis of the project and the scope of information included in the dictionary, the organisation of work, the life of the dictionary on the Web as well as the plans for the future.

  4. The concept of a bilingual dictionary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2005-01-01

    The term bilingual dictionary is widely used, not only by librarians and dictionary users en general but also by professional lexicographers dedicated to the theory and practice of dictionary making. For this reason it should be expected that there were a common and well-established definition...... of the concept of a bilingual dictionary. It is evident that most people has an intuitive idea of what is meant by «bilingual dictionary». But science-based lexicographic theory - at least if it wants to be considered as such - must go beyond intuition and furnish precise definitions of the concepts used...... chapters, various definitions will be discussed and related to dictionary practice and, subsequently, the very concept of a bilingual dictionary will be examined in the light of a dictionary typology based upon the modern theory of lexicographic functions....

  5. The Pocket Dictionary: A Textbook for Spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, Maran

    1982-01-01

    Reports on a productive approach to secondary-school spelling instruction--one that emphasizes how and when to use the dictionary. Describes two of the many class activities that cultivate student use of the dictionary. (RL)

  6. Cheap Words: A Paperback Dictionary Roundup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kister, Ken

    1979-01-01

    Surveys currently available paperback editions in three classes of dictionaries: collegiate, abridged, and pocket. A general discussion distinguishes among the classes and offers seven consumer tips, followed by an annotated listing of dictionaries now available. (SW)

  7. Namibian University Entrants' Concepts of 'a Dictionary'*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    , nor is it ..... Rather, it indicates the effect of OUP's marketing efforts ..... tionary pedagogy it might not be sufficient to merely state that a dictionary ... To determine if the variables of exposure to dictionary pedagogy at school, fre-.

  8. Terminology of the public relations field: corpus — automatic term recognition — terminology database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Logar Berginc

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes an analysis of automatic term recognition results performed for single- and multi-word terms with the LUIZ term extraction system. The target application of the results is a terminology database of Public Relations and the main resource the KoRP Public Relations Corpus. Our analysis is focused on two segments: (a single-word noun term candidates, which we compare with the frequency list of nouns from KoRP and evaluate termhood on the basis of the judgements of two domain experts, and (b multi-word term candidates with verb and noun as headword. In order to better assess the performance of the system and the soundness of our approach we also performed an analysis of recall. Our results show that the terminological relevance of extracted nouns is indeed higher than that of merely frequent nouns, and that verbal phrases only rarely count as proper terms. The most productive patterns of multi-word terms with noun as a headword have the following structure: [adjective + noun], [adjective + and + adjective + noun] and [adjective + adjective + noun]. The analysis of recall shows low inter-annotator agreement, but nevertheless very satisfactory recall levels.

  9. Neologisms in bilingual digital dictionaries (on the example of Bulgarian-Polish dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Neologisms in bilingual digital dictionaries (on the example of Bulgarian-Polish dictionary The paper discusses the presentation of neologisms in the recent version of the Bulgarian-Polish digital dictionary. We also continue the discussion of important problems related to the classifiers of the verbs as headwords of the digital dictionary entries. We analyze some examples from ongoing experimental version of the Bulgarian-Polish digital dictionary.

  10. Toward semantic interoperability in home health care: formally representing OASIS items for integration into a concept-oriented terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeungok; Jenkins, Melinda L; Cimino, James J; White, Thomas M; Bakken, Suzanne

    2005-01-01

    The authors aimed to (1) formally represent OASIS-B1 concepts using the Logical Observation Identifiers, Names, and Codes (LOINC) semantic structure; (2) demonstrate integration of OASIS-B1 concepts into a concept-oriented terminology, the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED); (3) examine potential hierarchical structures within LOINC among OASIS-B1 and other nursing terms; and (4) illustrate a Web-based implementation for OASIS-B1 data entry using Dialogix, a software tool with a set of functions that supports complex data entry. Two hundred nine OASIS-B1 items were dissected into the six elements of the LOINC semantic structure and then integrated into the MED hierarchy. Each OASIS-B1 term was matched to LOINC-coded nursing terms, Home Health Care Classification, the Omaha System, and the Sign and Symptom Check-List for Persons with HIV, and the extent of the match was judged based on a scale of 0 (no match) to 4 (exact match). OASIS-B1 terms were implemented as a Web-based survey using Dialogix. Of 209 terms, 204 were successfully dissected into the elements of the LOINC semantics structure and integrated into the MED with minor revisions of MED semantics. One hundred fifty-one OASIS-B1 terms were mapped to one or more of the LOINC-coded nursing terms. The LOINC semantic structure offers a standard way to add home health care data to a comprehensive patient record to facilitate data sharing for monitoring outcomes across sites and to further terminology management, decision support, and accurate information retrieval for evidence-based practice. The cross-mapping results support the possibility of a hierarchical structure of the OASIS-B1 concepts within nursing terminologies in the LOINC database.

  11. Comparison of Japanese notation and meanings among three terminologies in radiological technology domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagahara, Ayako; Tsuji, Shintaro; Fukuda, Akihisa; Nishimoto, Naoki; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the differences in the notation of technical terms and their meanings among three terminologies in Japanese radiology-related societies. The three terminologies compared in this study were 'radiological technology terminology' and its supplement published by the Japan Society of Radiological Technology, 'medical physics terminology' published by the Japan Society of Medical Physics, and 'electric radiation terminology' published by the Japan Radiological Society. Terms were entered into spreadsheets and classified into the following three categories: Japanese notation, English notation, and meanings. In the English notation, terms were matched to character strings in the three terminologies and were extracted and compared. The Japanese notations were compared among three terminologies, and the difference between the meanings of the two terminologies radiological technology terminology and electric radiation terminology were compared. There were a total of 14,982 terms in the three terminologies. In English character strings, 2,735 terms were matched to more than two terminologies, with 801 of these terms matched to all the three terminologies. Of those terms in English character strings matched to three terminologies, 752 matched to Japanese character strings. Of the terms in English character strings matched to two terminologies, 1,240 matched to Japanese character strings. With regard to the meanings category, eight terms had mismatched meanings between the two terminologies. For these terms, there were common concepts between two different meaning terms, and it was considered that the derived concepts were described based on domain. (author)

  12. Using lexical and logical methods for the alignment of medical terminologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Michel; Aleksovski, Zharko

    2005-01-01

    Standardized medical terminologies are often used for the registration of patient data. In several situations there is a need to align these terminologies to other terminologies. Even when the terminologies cover the same domain, this is often a non-trivial task. The task is even more complicated

  13. Mobile-Based Dictionary of Information and Communication Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liando, O. E. S.; Mewengkang, A.; Kaseger, D.; Sangkop, F. I.; Rantung, V. P.; Rorimpandey, G. C.

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to design and build mobile-based dictionary of information and communication technology applications to provide access to information in the form of glossary of terms in the context of information and communication technologies. Applications built in this study using the Android platform, with SQLite database model. This research uses prototype model development method which covers the stages of communication, Quick Plan, Quick Design Modeling, Construction of Prototype, Deployment Delivery & Feedback, and Full System Transformation. The design of this application is designed in such a way as to facilitate the user in the process of learning and understanding the new terms or vocabularies encountered in the world of information and communication technology. Mobile-based dictionary of Information And Communication Technology applications that have been built can be an alternative to learning literature. In its simplest form, this application is able to meet the need for a comprehensive and accurate dictionary of Information And Communication Technology function.

  14. Tensor-Dictionary Learning with Deep Kruskal-Factor Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Andrew J.; Pu, Yunchen; Sun, Yannan; Spell, Gregory; Carin, Lawrence

    2017-04-20

    We introduce new dictionary learning methods for tensor-variate data of any order. We represent each data item as a sum of Kruskal decomposed dictionary atoms within the framework of beta-process factor analysis (BPFA). Our model is nonparametric and can infer the tensor-rank of each dictionary atom. This Kruskal-Factor Analysis (KFA) is a natural generalization of BPFA. We also extend KFA to a deep convolutional setting and develop online learning methods. We test our approach on image processing and classification tasks achieving state of the art results for 2D & 3D inpainting and Caltech 101. The experiments also show that atom-rank impacts both overcompleteness and sparsity.

  15. Dictionary of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Counihan, M

    1981-01-01

    Every aspect of energy - production, conversion and use - is discussed and explained. Comprehensive and well-illustrated entries cover fossil and other types of chemical fuel; hydroelectric and nuclear power; energy conservation; solar energy of every kind; wind, wave and tidal power. Every type of nuclear reactor is described, with emphasis on the energy technologies that have the greatest present relevance and future promise. The first section is devoted to an explanation of the units used, with conversion tables; key concepts are defined. The closing sections comprise tables of international energy statistics and a short bibliography. This dictionary is an introduction and reference book for general readers, students and all workers in energy and energy-related fields. It is fully metricated.

  16. Lexicography Problems and Theoretical Interpretation of Mini-Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jūratė Butkienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with principles of the word selection while compiling a mini-dictionary (containing a minimal number of words as well as with criteria and theoretical background thereof. The development of such principles is being analysed in Lithuania and abroad. The word selection while compiling a mini-dictionary of German language dedicated to the students of Civil engineering is being detailed. Furthermore, the article provides recommendations. The word selection has to be based on the linguistic statistics and on the thorough text analysis.

  17. THE PROPOSED NDEBELE-SHONA DICTIONARY: PROSPECTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    Ndebele and Shona reflect the intentions of Zimbabwean language planners from different periods. .... The inclusion of the bilingual dictionary in the ALLEX master plan for dictionaries implies that the importance of the dictionary was already felt at that very early .... among others, patriotism, moral values and national unity.

  18. Elaboration of a dictionary for radiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Roberto A.; Huff, Stanley M.; Haug, Peter J.

    1996-01-01

    The process for creating a dictionary to represent chest radiologic findings is summarized. The dictionary is built from different sources of terms, including medical vocabularies and chest X-ray reports. The relevance of each source is estimated using the proportions with which they can be found in the final edition of the dictionary

  19. The New Unabridged English-Persian Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanpur, Abbas; Saleh, Jahan Shah

    This five-volume English-Persian dictionary is based on Webster's International Dictionary (1960 and 1961) and The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (1959); it attempts to provide Persian equivalents of all the words of Oxford and all the key-words of Webster. Pronunciation keys for the English phonetic transcription and for the difficult Persian…

  20. Methods in Lexicography and Dictionary Research | Schierholz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods are used in every stage of dictionary-making and in every scientific analysis which is carried out in the field of dictionary research. This article presents some general considerations on methods in philosophy of science, gives an overview of many methods used in linguistics, in lexicography, dictionary research as ...