WorldWideScience

Sample records for terminator regions

  1. Possibilities of Using Transport Terminals in South Bohemian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čejka, Jiří; Bartuška, Ladislav; Turinská, Libuše

    2017-03-01

    Currently, when there is a need for transport services adapted to the customer requirements and create a workable operational system, there is increasing talk about transport terminals. Since the South Bohemian region is one of those where this issue will be increasingly dealt with, this paper suggests ways to use transport terminals as important support systems for freight and passenger transport.

  2. Dusty plasma in the region of the lunar terminator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popel, S. I., E-mail: popel@iki.rssi.ru; Zelenyi, L. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation); Atamaniuk, B. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Space Research Center (Poland)

    2016-05-15

    Dusty plasma in the region of the lunar terminator is considered. It is shown that, in this region, a structure resembling a plasma sheath forms near the lunar surface. This sheath creates a potential barrier, due to which electrons over the illuminated part of the Moon are confined by electrostatic forces. The width of the sheath-like structure is on the order of the ion Debye length. In this structure, significant (about several hundred V/m) electric fields arise, which lift charged micron-size dust grains to heights of several tens of centimeters. The suggested effect may be used to explain the glow observed by the Surveyor spacecraft over the lunar terminator.

  3. The Kaarstoe gas terminal during operation - regional economic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiig, W.; Kristiansen, F.

    1995-02-01

    In the period 1981-1989 a comprehensive study was made of the impact on society of the establishment of Statoil's gas terminal at Kaarstoe, Norway. Some of this work is updated in the present report. The organization at Kaarstoe is Statoil's transport division for gas (GASS-T) and is described in Chapter 2. A survey is given in Chapter 3 of how the employees are associated with the local community, their distribution in age, sex and type of job. Chapter 4 treats the importance for the Haugesund region of the company's purchasing in the area, in particular from suppliers within the Tysvaer municipality. The development of the structure of industry in Tysvaer and the employment situation are described in Chapter 5. Population trends and housebuilding in Tysvaer are described in Chapter 6 and the impact of GASS-T on the municipal economy is described in Chapter 7. Finally, Chapter 8 discusses whether what is learned from Kaarstoe can be transferred to other regions where gas terminals have been established. 14 refs., 24 figs., 12 tabs

  4. Function of C-terminal hydrophobic region in fructose dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Yu; Kawai, Shota; Kitazumi, Yuki; Shirai, Osamu; Kano, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Fructose dehydrogenase (FDH) catalyzes oxidation of D-fructose into 2-keto-D-fructose and is one of the enzymes allowing a direct electron transfer (DET)-type bioelectrocatalysis. FDH is a heterotrimeric membrane-bound enzyme (subunit I, II, and III) and subunit II has a C terminal hydrophobic region (CHR), which was expected to play a role in anchoring to membranes from the amino acid sequence. We have constructed a mutated FDH lacking of CHR (ΔchrFDH). Contrary to the expected function of CHR, ΔchrFDH is expressed in the membrane fraction, and subunit I/III subcomplex (ΔcFDH) is also expressed in a similar activity level but in the soluble fraction. In addition, the enzyme activity of the purified ΔchrFDH is about one twentieth of the native FDH. These results indicate that CHR is concerned with the binding between subunit I(/III) and subunit II and then with the enzyme activity. ΔchrFDH has clear DET activity that is larger than that expected from the solution activity, and the characteristics of the catalytic wave of ΔchrFDH are very similar to those of FDH. The deletion of CHR seems to increase the amounts of the enzyme with the proper orientation for the DET reaction at electrode surfaces. Gel filtration chromatography coupled with urea treatment shows that the binding in ΔchrFDH is stronger than that in FDH. It can be considered that the rigid binding between subunit I(/III) and II without CHR results in a conformation different from the native one, which leads to the decrease in the enzyme activity in solution

  5. Technical Efficiency Analysis of Container Terminals in the Middle Eastern Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Sharaf Almawsheki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite an increasing number of studies on the efficiency of container terminals, their focus has mostly been on advanced and emerging markets. There are limited studies on container terminals in developing countries such as those of the Middle Eastern region, which are located in a critical geographic position in the international maritime route between the East and the West. Information on their potential for development relative to other terminals worldwide is thus not readily available. This study aims to evaluate the technical efficiency of 19 container terminals in the Middle Eastern region. The DEA approach is used to measure technical efficiency, and slack variable analysis identifies potential areas of improvement for inefficient terminals. The results show that the Jebel Ali, Salalah and Beirut container terminals are the most efficient terminals in the region, and that the least efficient is the terminal in Aden. The results provide valuable information for terminal managers, helping to develop resource utilisation for steady development in operational efficiency.

  6. Multi-decadal marine- and land-terminating glacier recession in the Ammassalik region, southeast Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Mernild

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Landsat imagery was applied to elucidate glacier fluctuations of land- and marine-terminating outlet glaciers from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS and local land-terminating glaciers and ice caps (GIC peripheral to the GrIS in the Ammassalik region, Southeast Greenland, during the period 1972–2011. Data from 21 marine-terminating glaciers (including the glaciers Helheim, Midgaard, and Fenris, the GrIS land-terminating margin, and 35 GIC were examined and compared to observed atmospheric air temperatures, precipitation, and reconstructed ocean water temperatures (at 400 m depth in the Irminger Sea. Here, we document that net glacier recession has occurred since 1972 in the Ammassalik region for all glacier types and sizes, except for three GIC. The land-terminating GrIS and GIC reflect lower marginal and areal changes than the marine-terminating outlet glaciers. The mean annual land-terminating GrIS and GIC margin recessions were about three to five times lower than the GrIS marine-terminating recession. The marine-terminating outlet glaciers had an average net frontal retreat for 1999–2011 of 0.098 km yr−1, which was significantly higher than in previous sub-periods 1972–1986 and 1986–1999. For the marine-terminating GrIS, the annual areal recession rate has been decreasing since 1972, while increasing for the land-terminating GrIS since 1986. On average for all the observed GIC, a mean net frontal retreat for 1986–2011 of 0.010 ± 0.006 km yr−1 and a mean areal recession of around 1% per year occurred; overall for all observed GIC, a mean recession rate of 27 ± 24% occurred based on the 1986 GIC area. Since 1986, five GIC melted away in the Ammassalik area.

  7. Mapping the transcription termination region of the mouse immunoglobulin kappa gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, M.; Garrard, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    To define the transcription termination region of the mouse immunoglobulin kappa gene, they have subcloned single copy DNA sequences corresponding to both the template and the non-template strands of this locus. In vitro nuclear transcription with isolated MPC-11 nuclei was performed and the resulting 32 P-labeled RNA was hybridized to slot-blotted, single-stranded M13 probes covering regions within and flanking the kappa gene. The hybridization pattern for the template-strand reveals that transcription terminates within the region between 1.1 to 2.3 kb downstream from the poly(A) site. Ten different short sequences (8-13 bp) reside within 460 bp of this region that exhibit homology with sequences found in the termination regions of mouse β-globin and chicken ovalbumin genes. Transcription of the non-template strand occurs on either side of this termination region. They note that no transcription is detectable on the non-template strand downstream of the enhancer, indicating that if RNA polymerase II enters at this site, it does not initiate transcription during transit to the promoter region. They conclude that transcription of the kappa gene passes the poly(A) addition site and terminates within 2.3 Kb downstream

  8. An intermediate region in C-terminal of phosphoprotein is required ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the region of P that binds to NPNC was mapped. To determine the binding region, 18 N- and C-terminally truncated P mutants were synthesized by in vitro translation in rabbit reticulocytes and mixed with purified NP (NPNC). The mutants which did not bind to NP were considered as mutants and they contain ...

  9. The influence of the N-terminal region of antimicrobial peptide pleurocidin on fungal apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyemin; Lee, Dong Gun

    2013-10-28

    In our previous study, the 25-mer antimicrobial peptide pleurocidin (Ple) had been thought to induce apoptosis in Candida albicans. This study demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was a major cause of Ple-induced apoptosis. Four truncated analogs were synthesized to understand the functional roles in the N- and C-terminal regions of Ple on the apoptosis. Ple, Ple (4-25), Ple (1-22), and Ple (1-19) produced ROS, including hydroxyl radicals, on the order of [Ple > Ple (1-22) > Ple (4-25) > Ple (1-19)], whereas Ple (7-25) did not induce any ROS production. The results suggested that the N-terminal deletion affected the ROS-inducing activities much more than that of the C-terminal deletion, and net hydrophobicity [Ple > Ple (1-22) > Ple (4-25) > Ple (1-19) > Ple (7-25)] was related to ROS generation rather than other primary factors like net charge. Hence, we focused on the N-terminal-truncated peptides, Ple (4-25) and Ple (7-25), and examined other apoptotic features, including mitochondrial membrane depolarization, caspase activation, phosphatidylserine externalization, and DNA and nuclear fragmentation. The results also confirmed the disappearance of apoptotic activity of Ple (7-25) by the truncation of the N-terminal region (1-6) and the specific activity patterns between Ple and analogs. In conclusion, the N-terminal region of Ple played an important role in apoptosis.

  10. Differential subcellular localization of insulin receptor substrates depends on C-terminal regions and importin β

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabuta, Tomohiro; Take, Kazumi; Kabuta, Chihana; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro

    2008-01-01

    Insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) play essential roles in signal transduction of insulin and insulin-like growth factors. Previously, we showed that IRS-3 is localized to the nucleus as well as the cytosol, while IRS-1 and 2 are mainly localized to the cytoplasm. In the present study, we found that importin β directly interacts with IRS-3 and is able to mediate nuclear transport of IRS-3. Importin β interacted with the pleckstrin homology domain, the phosphotyrosine binding domain and the C-terminal region of IRS-3; indeed all of these fragments exhibited predominant nuclear localization. By contrast, almost no interaction of importin β with IRS-1 and -2 was observed, and their C-terminal regions displayed discrete spotty images in the cytosol. In addition, using chimeric proteins between IRS-1 and IRS-3, we revealed that the C-terminal regions are the main determinants of the differing subcellular localizations of IRS-1 and IRS-3.

  11. Synchronisation of palaeoenvironmental events in the North Atlantic region during the last termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lowe, John J.; Rasmussen, Sune Olander; Björck, Svante

    2008-01-01

    The North Atlantic INTIMATE group of the INQUA Palaeoclimate Commission has previously recommended an Event Stratigraphy approach for the synchronisation of records of the Last Termination using the Greenland GRIP isotopic record as the regional stratotype and INTCAL98 for the calibration...

  12. Evolutionary analysis of a novel zinc ribbon in the N-terminal region of threonine synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurmeet; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2017-10-18

    Threonine synthase (TS) catalyzes the terminal reaction in the biosynthetic pathway of threonine and requires pyridoxal phosphate as a cofactor. TSs share a common catalytic domain with other fold type II PALP dependent enzymes. TSs are broadly grouped into two classes based on their sequence, quaternary structure, and enzyme regulation. We report the presence of a novel zinc ribbon domain in the N-terminal region preceding the catalytic core in TS. The zinc ribbon domain is present in TSs belonging to both classes. Our sequence analysis reveals that archaeal TSs possess all zinc chelating residues to bind a metal ion that are lacking in the structurally characterized homologs. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that TSs with an N-terminal zinc ribbon likely represents the ancestral state of the enzyme while TSs without a zinc ribbon must have diverged later in specific lineages. The zinc ribbon and its N- and C-terminal extensions are important for enzyme stability, activity and regulation. It is likely that the zinc ribbon domain is involved in higher order oligomerization or mediating interactions with other biomolecules leading to formation of larger metabolic complexes.

  13. Acute treatment with fluvoxamine elevates rat brain serotonin synthesis in some terminal regions: An autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muck-Seler, Dorotea; Pivac, Nela; Diksic, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: A considerable body of evidence indicates the involvement of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in the pathogenesis and treatment of depression. Methods: The acute effect of fluvoxamine, on 5-HT synthesis rates was investigated in rat brain regions, using α- 14 C-methyl-L-tryptophan as a tracer. Fluvoxamine (25 mg/kg) and saline (control) were injected intraperitoneally, one hour before the injection of the tracer (30 μCi). Results: There was no significant effect of fluvoxamine on plasma free tryptophan. After Benjamini–Hochberg False Discovery Rate correction, a significant decrease in the 5-HT synthesis rate in the fluvoxamine treated rats, was found in the raphe magnus (− 32%), but not in the median (− 14%) and dorsal (− 3%) raphe nuclei. In the regions with serotonergic axon terminals, significant increases in synthesis rates were observed in the dorsal (+ 41%) and ventral (+ 43%) hippocampus, visual (+ 38%), auditory (+ 65%) and parietal (+ 37%) cortex, and the substantia nigra pars compacta (+ 56%). There were no significant changes in the 5-HT synthesis rates in the median (+ 11%) and lateral (+ 24%) part of the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens (+ 5%), VTA (+ 16%) or frontal cortex (+ 6%). Conclusions: The data show that the acute administration of fluvoxamine affects 5-HT synthesis rates in a regionally specific pattern, with a general elevation of the synthesis in the terminal regions and a reduction in some cell body structures. The reasons for the regional specific effect of fluvoxamine on 5-HT synthesis are unclear, but may be mediated by the presynaptic serotonergic autoreceptors.

  14. Human terminal deoxyribonucleotidyltransferase: molecular cloning and structural analysis of the gene and 5' flanking region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, L.K.; Morrow, J.K.; Danton, M.J.; Coleman, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Human terminal deoxyribonucleotidyltransferase cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1530 base pairs (bp) corresponding to a protein containing 510 amino acids. The encoded protein is a template-independent DNA polymerase found only in a restricted population of normal and malignant prelymphocytes. To begin to investigate the genetic elements responsible for the tissue-specific expression of terminal deoxyribonucleotidyltransferase, genomic clones, containing the entire human gene were isolated and characterized. Initially, cDNA clones were isolated from a library generated from the human lymphoblastoid cell line, MOLT-4R. A cDNA clone containing the entire coding region of the protein was used to isolate a series of overlapping clones from two human genomic libraries. The gene comprises 11 exons and 10 introns and spans 49.4 kilobases. The 5' flanking region (709 bp) including exon 1 was sequenced. Several putative transcription initiation sites were mapped. Within 500 nucleotides of the translation start site, a series of promoter elements was detected. TATA and CAAT sequences, respectively, were found to start at nucleotides -185 and -204, -328 and -370, and -465 and -505. Start sites were found for a cyclic AMP-dependent promoter analog at nucleotide -121, an eight-base sequence corresponding to the IgG promoter enhancer (cd) at nucleotide -455, and an analog of the IgG promoter (pd) at nucleotide -159. These findings suggest that transcripts coding for terminal deoxyribonucleotidyltransferase may be variable in length and that transcription may be influenced by a variety of genetic elements

  15. Amino Terminal Region of Dengue Virus NS4A Cytosolic Domain Binds to Highly Curved Liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Fu Hung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is an important human pathogen causing millions of disease cases and thousands of deaths worldwide. Non-structural protein 4A (NS4A is a vital component of the viral replication complex (RC and plays a major role in the formation of host cell membrane-derived structures that provide a scaffold for replication. The N-terminal cytoplasmic region of NS4A(1–48 is known to preferentially interact with highly curved membranes. Here, we provide experimental evidence for the stable binding of NS4A(1–48 to small liposomes using a liposome floatation assay and identify the lipid binding sequence by NMR spectroscopy. Mutations L6E;M10E were previously shown to inhibit DENV replication and to interfere with the binding of NS4A(1–48 to small liposomes. Our results provide new details on the interaction of the N-terminal region of NS4A with membranes and will prompt studies of the functional relevance of the curvature sensitive membrane anchor at the N-terminus of NS4A.

  16. Molecular cloning and biologically active production of IpaD N-terminal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesaraki, Mahdi; Saadati, Mojtaba; Honari, Hossein; Olad, Gholamreza; Heiat, Mohammad; Malaei, Fatemeh; Ranjbar, Reza

    2013-07-01

    Shigella is known as pathogenic intestinal bacteria in high dispersion and pathogenic bacteria due to invasive plasmid antigen (Ipa). So far, a number of Ipa proteins have been studied to introduce a new candidate vaccine. Here, for the first time, we examined whether the N-terminal region of IpaD(72-162) could be a proper candidate for Shigella vaccine. Initially, the DNA sequence coding N-terminal region was isolated by PCR from Shigella dysenteriae type I and cloned into pET-28a expression vector. Then, the heterologous protein was expressed, optimized and purified by affinity Ni-NTA column. Western blot analysis using, His-tag and IpaD(72-162) polyclonal antibodies, confirmed the purity and specificity of the recombinant protein, respectively. Subsequently, the high immunogenicity of the antigen was shown by ELISA. The results of the sereny test in Guinea pigs showed that IpaD(72-162) provides a protective system against Shigella flexneri 5a and S. dysenteriae type I. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Submicroscopic duplication of the Wolf-Hirschhorn critical region with a 4p terminal deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselló, M; Monfort, S; Orellana, C; Ferrer-Bolufer, I; Quiroga, R; Oltra, S; Martínez, F

    2009-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements in the short arm of chromosome 4 can result in 2 different clinical entities: Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS), characterized by severe growth delay, mental retardation, microcephaly, 'Greek helmet' facies, and closure defects, or partial 4p trisomy, associated with multiple congenital anomalies, mental retardation, and facial dysmorphisms. We present clinical and laboratory findings in a patient who showed a small duplication in 4p16.3 associated with a subtle terminal deletion in the same chromosomal region. GTG-banding analyses, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analyses, and studies by array-based comparative genomic hybridization were performed. The results of the analyses revealed a de novo 1.3 Mb deletion of the terminal 4p and a 1.1 Mb duplication in our patient, encompassing the WHS critical region. Interestingly, this unusual duplication/deletion rearrangement results in an intermediate phenotype that shares characteristics of the WHS and the 4p trisomy syndrome. The use of novel technologies in the genetic diagnosis leads to the description of new clinical syndromes; there is a growing list of microduplication syndromes. Therefore, we propose that overexpression of candidate genes in WHS (WHSC1, WHSC2 and LETM1) due to a duplication causes a clinical entity different to both the WHS and 4p trisomy syndrome. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of human prion protein is mediated by its N-terminal region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Pasupuleti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cellular prion-related protein (PrP(c is a cell-surface protein that is ubiquitously expressed in the human body. The multifunctionality of PrP(c, and presence of an exposed cationic and heparin-binding N-terminus, a feature characterizing many antimicrobial peptides, made us hypothesize that PrP(c could exert antimicrobial activity. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Intact recombinant PrP exerted antibacterial and antifungal effects at normal and low pH. Studies employing recombinant PrP and N- and C-terminally truncated variants, as well as overlapping peptide 20mers, demonstrated that the antimicrobial activity is mediated by the unstructured N-terminal part of the protein. Synthetic peptides of the N-terminus of PrP killed the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as the fungus Candida parapsilosis. Fluorescence studies of peptide-treated bacteria, paired with analysis of peptide effects on liposomes, showed that the peptides exerted membrane-breaking effects similar to those seen after treatment with the "classical" human antimicrobial peptide LL-37. In contrast to LL-37, however, no marked helix induction was detected for the PrP-derived peptides in presence of negatively charged (bacteria-mimicking liposomes. PrP furthermore showed an inducible expression during wounding of human skin ex vivo and in vivo, as well as stimulation of keratinocytes with TGF-alpha in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: The demonstration of an antimicrobial activity of PrP, localisation of its activity to the N-terminal and heparin-binding region, combined with results showing an increased expression of PrP during wounding, indicate that PrPs could have a previously undisclosed role in host defense.

  19. Structure and function of C-terminal catalytic region of pasteurella multocida toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitadokoro, Kengo; Kamitami, Shigeki; Horiguchi, Yasuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) is one of virulence factors responsible for the pathogenesis in some Pasteurellosis. We determined the crystal structure of the C-terminal region of PMT (C-PMT), which carries an intracellularly active moiety. The overall structure of C-PMT displays three different domains designated C1, C2 and C3. We found in the C3 domain the Cys-His-Asp catalytic triad that is organized only when the Cys is released from a disulfide bond. The steric alignment of the triad corresponded well to that of papain or other enzymes carrying the Cys-His-Asp triad. Our results demonstrate that PMT is an enzymatic toxin carrying the cysteine-protease like catalytic triad, which is organized only under reducing conditions. (author)

  20. An N-terminal Region of Mot-2 Binds to p53 In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil C. Kaul

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The mouse mot-2 protein was earlier shown to bind to the tumor suppressor protein, p53. The mot-2 binding site of p53 was mapped to C-terminal amino acid residues 312–352, which includes the cytoplasmic sequestration domain. In the present study, we have found that both mot-1 and mot-2 bind to p53 in vitro. By using His-tagged deletion mutant proteins, the p53-binding domain of mot-2 was mapped to its Nterminal amino acid residues 253–282, which are identical in mot-1 and mot-2 proteins. Some peptides containing the p53-binding region of mot-2 were able to compete with the full-length protein for p53 binding. The data provided rationale for in vitro binding of mot-1 and mot-2 proteins to p53 and supported the conclusion that inability of mot-1 protein to bind p53 in vivo depends on secondary structure or its binding to other cellular factors. Most interestingly, the p53-binding region of mot-2 was common to its MKT-077, a cationic dye that exhibits antitumor activity, binding region. Therefore it is most likely that MKT-077-induced nuclear translocation and restoration of wild-type p53 function in transformed cells takes place by a competitional mechanism.

  1. The terminal region of the E. coli chromosome localises at the periphery of the nucleoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stouf Mathieu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial chromosomes are organised into a compact and dynamic structures termed nucleoids. Cytological studies in model rod-shaped bacteria show that the different regions of the chromosome display distinct and specific sub-cellular positioning and choreographies during the course of the cell cycle. The localisation of chromosome loci along the length of the cell has been described. However, positioning of loci across the width of the cell has not been determined. Results Here, we show that it is possible to assess the mean positioning of chromosomal loci across the width of the cell using two-dimension images from wide-field fluorescence microscopy. Observed apparent distributions of fluorescent-tagged loci of the E. coli chromosome along the cell diameter were compared with simulated distributions calculated using a range of cell width positioning models. Using this method, we detected the migration of chromosome loci towards the cell periphery induced by production of the bacteriophage T4 Ndd protein. In the absence of Ndd production, loci outside the replication terminus were located either randomly along the nucleoid width or towards the cell centre whereas loci inside the replication terminus were located at the periphery of the nucleoid in contrast to other loci. Conclusions Our approach allows to reliably observing the positioning of chromosome loci along the width of E. coli cells. The terminal region of the chromosome is preferentially located at the periphery of the nucleoid consistent with its specific roles in chromosome organisation and dynamics.

  2. The N-terminal, polybasic region is critical for prion protein neuroprotective activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie A Turnbaugh

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence suggest that the normal form of the prion protein, PrP(C, exerts a neuroprotective activity against cellular stress or toxicity. One of the clearest examples of such activity is the ability of wild-type PrP(C to suppress the spontaneous neurodegenerative phenotype of transgenic mice expressing a deleted form of PrP (Δ32-134, called F35. To define domains of PrP involved in its neuroprotective activity, we have analyzed the ability of several deletion mutants of PrP (Δ23-31, Δ23-111, and Δ23-134 to rescue the phenotype of Tg(F35 mice. Surprisingly, all of these mutants displayed greatly diminished rescue activity, although Δ23-31 PrP partially suppressed neuronal loss when expressed at very high levels. Our results pinpoint the N-terminal, polybasic domain as a critical determinant of PrP(C neuroprotective activity, and suggest that identification of molecules interacting with this region will provide important clues regarding the normal function of the protein. Small molecule ligands targeting this region may also represent useful therapeutic agents for treatment of prion diseases.

  3. C-terminal region of MAP7 domain containing protein 3 (MAP7D3 promotes microtubule polymerization by binding at the C-terminal tail of tubulin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Yadav

    Full Text Available MAP7 domain containing protein 3 (MAP7D3, a newly identified microtubule associated protein, has been shown to promote microtubule assembly and stability. Its microtubule binding region has been reported to consist of two coiled coil motifs located at the N-terminus. It possesses a MAP7 domain near the C-terminus and belongs to the microtubule associated protein 7 (MAP7 family. The MAP7 domain of MAP7 protein has been shown to bind to kinesin-1; however, the role of MAP7 domain in MAP7D3 remains unknown. Based on the bioinformatics analysis of MAP7D3, we hypothesized that the MAP7 domain of MAP7D3 may have microtubule binding activity. Indeed, we found that MAP7 domain of MAP7D3 bound to microtubules as well as enhanced the assembly of microtubules in vitro. Interestingly, a longer fragment MDCT that contained the MAP7 domain (MD with the C-terminal tail (CT of the protein promoted microtubule polymerization to a greater extent than MD and CT individually. MDCT stabilized microtubules against dilution induced disassembly. MDCT bound to reconstituted microtubules with an apparent dissociation constant of 3.0 ± 0.5 µM. An immunostaining experiment showed that MDCT localized along the length of the preassembled microtubules. Competition experiments with tau indicated that MDCT shares its binding site on microtubules with tau. Further, we present evidence indicating that MDCT binds to the C-terminal tail of tubulin. In addition, MDCT could bind to tubulin in HeLa cell extract. Here, we report a microtubule binding region in the C-terminal region of MAP7D3 that may have a role in regulating microtubule assembly dynamics.

  4. N-terminal region of gelsolin induces apoptosis of activated hepatic stellate cells by a caspase-dependent mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhaditya Mazumdar

    Full Text Available Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs are the major source for alteration of extracellular matrix in fibrosis and cirrhosis. Conditioned medium (CM collected from immortalized human hepatocytes (IHH have earlier been shown to be responsible for apoptosis of HSCs. In this study, we have shown that antibodies raised against a peptide derived from a linear B-cell epitope in the N-terminal region of gelsolin identified a gelsolin fragment in IHH CM. Analysis of activated stellate cell death by CM collected from Huh7 cells transfected with plasmids encoding gelsolin deletion mutants suggested that the N-terminal half of gelsolin contained sequences which were responsible for stellate cell death. Further analysis determined that this activity was restricted to a region encompassing amino acids 1-70 in the gelsolin sequence; antibody directed to an epitope within this region was able to neutralize stellate cell death. Gelsolin modulation of cell death using this fragment involved upregulation of TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2, and involved caspase 3 activation by extrinsic pathway. The apoptotic activity of N-terminal gelsolin fragments was restricted to activated but not quiescent stellate cells indicating its potential application in therapeutic use as an anti-fibrotic agent. Gelsolin fragments encompassing N-terminal regions in polypeptides of different molecular sizes were detected by N-terminal peptide specific antiserum in IHH CM immunoprecipitated with chronically HCV infected patient sera, suggesting the presence of autoantibodies generated against N-terminal gelsolin fragments in patients with chronic liver disease.

  5. C-terminal region of herpes simplex virus ICP8 protein needed for intranuclear localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Travis J; Knipe, David M.

    2003-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus single-stranded DNA-binding protein, ICP8, localizes initially to structures in the nucleus called prereplicative sites. As replication proceeds, these sites mature into large globular structures called replication compartments. The details of what signals or proteins are involved in the redistribution of viral and cellular proteins within the nucleus between prereplicative sites and replication compartments are poorly understood; however, we showed previously that the dominant-negative d105 ICP8 does not localize to prereplicative sites and prevents the localization of other viral proteins to prereplicative sites (J. Virol. 74 (2000) 10122). Within the residues deleted in d105 (1083 to 1168), we identified a region between amino acid residues 1080 and 1135 that was predicted by computer models to contain two α-helices, one with considerable amphipathic nature. We used site-specific and random mutagenesis techniques to identify residues or structures within this region that are required for proper ICP8 localization within the nucleus. Proline substitutions in the predicted helix generated ICP8 molecules that did not localize to prereplicative sites and acted as dominant-negative inhibitors. Other substitutions that altered the charged residues in the predicted α-helix to alanine or leucine residues had little or no effect on ICP8 intranuclear localization. The predicted α-helix was dispensable for the interaction of ICP8 with the U L 9 origin-binding protein. We propose that this C-terminal α-helix is required for localization of ICP8 to prereplicative sites by binding viral or cellular factors that target or retain ICP8 at specific intranuclear sites

  6. Functional analysis of the NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophobic region and BRICHOS domain of GKN1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jung Hwan; Choi, Yoo Jin; Choi, Won Suk; Nam, Suk Woo; Lee, Jung Young; Park, Won Sang, E-mail: wonsang@catholic.ac.kr

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •NH{sub 2}-terminal and BRICHOS domain of GKN1 inhibited tumor cell growth. •NH{sub 2}-terminal and BRICHOS domain of GKN1 regulated cell cycle. •NH{sub 2}-terminal and BRICHOS domain of GKN1 inhibited epigenetic regulators. -- Abstract: Gastrokine 1 (GKN1) protects the gastric antral mucosa and promotes healing by facilitating restitution and proliferation after injury. GKN1 is down-regulated in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells and loss of GKN1 expression is tightly associated with gastric carcinogenesis. However, the underlying mechanisms as a tumor suppressor are largely unknown. Presently, the hydrophobic region and BRICHOS domain of GKN1, pGKN1{sup D13N}, pGKN1{sup Δ68–199}, and pGKN1{sup Δ1–67,165–199} were shown to suppress gastric cancer cell growth and recapitulate GKN1 functions. As well, the hydrophobic region and BRICHOS domain of GKN1 had a synergistic anti-cancer effect with 5-FU on tumor cell growth, implying that the NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophobic region and BRICHOS domain of GKN1 are sufficient for tumor suppression, thereby suggesting a therapeutic intervention for gastric cancer. Also, its domain inducing endogenous miR-185 directly targeted the epigenetic effectors DNMT1 and EZH2 in gastric cancer cells. Our results suggest that the NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophobic region and BRICHOS domain of GKN1 are sufficient for its tumor suppressor activities.

  7. Insights into the Structure of Dimeric RNA Helicase CsdA and Indispensable Role of Its C-Terminal Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ling; Wang, Lijun; Peng, Junhui; Li, Fudong; Wu, Lijie; Zhang, Beibei; Lv, Mengqi; Zhang, Jiahai; Gong, Qingguo; Zhang, Rongguang; Zuo, Xiaobing; Zhang, Zhiyong; Wu, Jihui; Tang, Yajun; Shi, Yunyu

    2017-12-05

    CsdA has been proposed to be essential for the biogenesis of ribosome and gene regulation after cold shock. However, the structure of CsdA and the function of its long C-terminal regions are still unclear. Here, we solved all of the domain structures of CsdA and found two previously uncharacterized auxiliary domains: a dimerization domain (DD) and an RNA-binding domain (RBD). Small-angle X-ray scattering experiments helped to track the conformational flexibilities of the helicase core domains and C-terminal regions. Biochemical assays revealed that DD is indispensable for stabilizing the CsdA dimeric structure. We also demonstrate for the first time that CsdA functions as a stable dimer at low temperature. The C-terminal regions are critical for RNA binding and efficient enzymatic activities. CsdA_RBD could specifically bind to the regions with a preference for single-stranded G-rich RNA, which may help to bring the helicase core to unwind the adjacent duplex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Study of band terminating in the A {approx_equal} 100 by EUROGAM; Recherche de terminaisons de bandes dans la region A {approx_equal} 100 avec EUROGAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizon, J.; Gizon, A.; Genevey, J.; Santos, D. [Inst. des Sciences Nucleaires, Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 (France); Nyako, B.M.; Timar, J.; Zolnai, L. [Institute of Nuclear Research, Debrecen (Hungary); Boston, A.J.; Zoss, D.T.; Paul, E.S.; Semple, A.T. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); O`Brien, N.J.; Parry, C.M. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York (United Kingdom); Cata-Danil, Gh.; Bucurescu, D. [Horia Hulubei Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Afanasjev, A.V.; Ragnarsson, I. [Department of Mathematical Physics, University of Lund, Lund (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Terminating bands in nuclei in the A{approx_equal} 100 region have been investigated using the EUROGAM2 array. Results have been obtained for Pd (Z 46) and Rh (Z = 45) isotopes. In the nucleus {sup 102}Pd, eight terminating configurations are identified. It is the first nucleus where terminating bands built on the valence space configurations and on core excited configurations are observed. Terminating bands have been also found in {sup 103}Pd and {sup 102}Rh. For {sup 102}Rh it is the first case of band terminations identified in a doubly-odd nucleus below the Z = 50 shell closure. (authors) 9 refs., 2 figs.

  9. X-ray crystal structure of the N-terminal region of Moloney murine leukemia virus integrase and its implications for viral DNA recognition: N-Terminal Region of M-MuLV Integrase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Rongjin [Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Aiyer, Sriram [Department of Pharmacology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Cote, Marie L. [Department of Biochemistry, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, UMDNJ, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Xiao, Rong [Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Jiang, Mei [Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Acton, Thomas B. [Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Roth, Monica J. [Department of Pharmacology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Montelione, Gaetano T. [Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Department of Biochemistry, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, UMDNJ, Piscataway New Jersey 08854

    2017-02-03

    The retroviral integrase (IN) carries out the integration of a dsDNA copy of the viral genome into the host DNA, an essential step for viral replication. All IN proteins have three general domains, the N-terminal domain (NTD), the catalytic core domain, and the C-terminal domain. The NTD includes an HHCC zinc finger-like motif, which is conserved in all retroviral IN proteins. Two crystal structures of Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) IN N-terminal region (NTR) constructs that both include an N-terminal extension domain (NED, residues 1–44) and an HHCC zinc-finger NTD (residues 45–105), in two crystal forms are reported. The structures of IN NTR constructs encoding residues 1–105 (NTR1–105) and 8–105 (NTR8–105) were determined at 2.7 and 2.15 Å resolution, respectively and belong to different space groups. While both crystal forms have similar protomer structures, NTR1–105 packs as a dimer and NTR8–105 packs as a tetramer in the asymmetric unit. The structure of the NED consists of three anti-parallel β-strands and an α-helix, similar to the NED of prototype foamy virus (PFV) IN. These three β-strands form an extended β-sheet with another β-strand in the HHCC Zn2+ binding domain, which is a unique structural feature for the M-MuLV IN. The HHCC Zn2+ binding domain structure is similar to that in HIV and PFV INs, with variations within the loop regions. Differences between the PFV and MLV IN NEDs localize at regions identified to interact with the PFV LTR and are compared with established biochemical and virological data for M-MuLV. Proteins 2017; 85:647–656.

  10. THE CAPACITY AND CIRCULATION OF PASSENGER TERMINAL BUILDING IN REGIONAL AIRPORT (CASE: MINANGKABAU AND ADISUTJIPTO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORTS OF INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Defiani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The dissertation explains about capacity and flow inside terminal buildings in two regional airports in Indonesia: Minangkabau and Adisutjipto International Airports. Both airports have similar characteristics of passengers’ number and locations as tourism areas. Secondary data in the form of existing terminal layouts and air traffic numbers were gained from both airports authorities in Indonesia. The analysis was carried out using the formulas from Japan International Cooperation Agency – Directorate General of Civil Aviation of Indonesia(JICA-DGCA studies in 1996 for significant areas in the terminal building, Ashford and Wright formula for calculating aircraft movement per hour, Microsoft Excel for calculating the 10-year passenger growth rate, and SPSS for determining the linear equation for domestic departure resulted in the forecasted saturation in the near 2020 for both of airports, especially on passengers’ handling areas such as boarding lounge (for departure and baggage claim area (for arrival. The research resulted in ideas to overcome problems related to the increasing capacity by adding areas (if possible and changing layouts. Some other options such as implementation of more effective signage and the suggestion of centralizing security checking areas also are being brought—though needed further research. There should be an addition of numbers of security check lines, appropriately to the increasing number of passengers. If a single queuing line creates delays, then the need for extra line(s is a necessity Keywords: Airport, Terminal Building, Capacity, Flow, Minangkabau, Adisutjipto

  11. The N-terminal region of the dopamine D2 receptor, a rhodopsin-like GPCR, regulates correct integration into the plasma membrane and endocytic routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, DI; Min, C; Jung, KS; Cheong, SY; Zheng, M; Cheong, SJ; Oak, MH; Cheong, JH; Lee, BK; Kim, KM

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Functional roles of the N-terminal region of rhodopsin-like GPCR family remain unclear. Using dopamine D2 and D3 receptors as a model system, we probed the roles of the N-terminal region in the signalling, intracellular trafficking of receptor proteins, and explored the critical factors that determine the functionality of the N-terminal region. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The N-terminal region of the D2 receptor was gradually shortened or switched with that of the D3 receptor or a non-specific sequence (FLAG), or potential N-terminal glycosylation sites were mutated. Effects of these manipulations on surface expression, internalization, post-endocytic behaviours and signalling were determined. KEY RESULTS Shortening the N-terminal region of the D2 receptor enhanced receptor internalization and impaired surface expression and signalling; ligand binding, desensitization and down-regulation were not affected but their association with a particular microdomain, caveolae, was disrupted. Replacement of critical residues within the N-terminal region with the FLAG epitope failed to restore surface expression but partially restored the altered internalization and signalling. When the N-terminal regions were switched between D2 and D3 receptors, cell surface expression pattern of each receptor was switched. Mutations of potential N-terminal glycosylation sites inhibited surface expression but enhanced internalization of D2 receptors. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Shortening of N-terminus or mutation of glycosylation sites located within the N-terminus enhanced receptor internalization but impaired the surface expression of D2 receptors. The N-terminal region of the D2 receptor, in a sequence-specific manner, controls the receptor's conformation and integration into the plasma membrane, which determine its subcellular localization, intracellular trafficking and signalling properties. PMID:22117524

  12. Mutation of the N-Terminal Region of Chikungunya Virus Capsid Protein: Implications for Vaccine Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Adam; Liu, Xiang; Zaid, Ali; Goh, Lucas Y H; Hobson-Peters, Jody; Hall, Roy A; Merits, Andres; Mahalingam, Suresh

    2017-02-21

    Mosquito-transmitted chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus of the Togaviridae family responsible for frequent outbreaks of arthritic disease in humans. Capsid protein, a structural protein encoded by the CHIKV RNA genome, is able to translocate to the host cell nucleolus. In encephalitic alphaviruses, nuclear translocation induces host cell transcriptional shutoff; however, the role of capsid protein nucleolar localization in arthritogenic alphaviruses remains unclear. Using recombinant enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged expression constructs and CHIKV infectious clones, we describe a nucleolar localization sequence (NoLS) in the N-terminal region of capsid protein, previously uncharacterized in CHIKV. Mutation of the NoLS by site-directed mutagenesis reduced efficiency of nuclear import of CHIKV capsid protein. In the virus, mutation of the capsid protein NoLS (CHIKV-NoLS) attenuated replication in mammalian and mosquito cells, producing a small-plaque phenotype. Attenuation of CHIKV-NoLS is likely due to disruption of the viral replication cycle downstream of viral RNA synthesis. In mice, CHIKV-NoLS infection caused no disease signs compared to wild-type CHIKV (CHIKV-WT)-infected mice; lack of disease signs correlated with significantly reduced viremia and decreased expression of proinflammatory factors. Mice immunized with CHIKV-NoLS, challenged with CHIKV-WT at 30 days postimmunization, develop no disease signs and no detectable viremia. Serum from CHIKV-NoLS-immunized mice is able to efficiently neutralize CHIKV infection in vitro Additionally, CHIKV-NoLS-immunized mice challenged with the related alphavirus Ross River virus showed reduced early and peak viremia postchallenge, indicating a cross-protective effect. The high degree of CHIKV-NoLS attenuation may improve CHIKV antiviral and rational vaccine design. IMPORTANCE CHIKV is a mosquito-borne pathogen capable of causing explosive epidemics of incapacitating joint pain

  13. Structure of antigenetic determinants in the amino-terminal region of bovine fibrinogen Aα chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanswell, P.; Reiter, H.; Timpl, R.

    1978-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay was developed for peptide F-CB1α from the amino of bovine fibrinogen Aα chain, isolated after reduction and carboxymethylation of the multichain disulfide-linked cyanogen bromide peptide F-CB1. Seven out of twelve different rabbit antisera produced against fibrinogen, peptide F-CB1 or Aα chain showed distinct binding to 125 I-labelled F-CB1α. Thrombin cleavage of F-CB1α yielded two fragments: fibrinopeptide A (residues 1-19) and the carboxy-terminal fragment Th2 (residues 20-54). Antisera could be classified into three groups according to whether they recognized antigenic determinants on fibrinopeptide A, on peptide Th2 or as they showed diminished reactions with both fragments. Only little or no cross-reaction was observed with the amino-terminal cyanogen bromide peptides of Bβ and γ chain. Proteolytic fragments of fibrinopeptide A were isolated and tested for inhibitory activity with two antisera. One antiserum contained anitbodies binding selectively to the amino-terminal sequence (residues 4-11) and did not cross-react with human fibrinopeptide A. Another antiserum showed a specific binding restricted to the carboxy-terminal sequence (residues 11-18) and cross-reacted completely with human fibrinopeptide A. These results correlate well with the primary structures of the two fibrinopeptides. The antigenic activity of the peptide fragment Th2 was localized on a 15-residue tryptic peptide derived from the central portion of the sequence. These and further data indicate that at least six different antigenic determinants are present in peptide F-CB1α. (orig.) 891 AJ [de

  14. Asparagine 326 in the extremely C-terminal region of XRCC4 is essential for the cell survival after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanotayan, Rujira; Fukuchi, Mikoto; Imamichi, Shoji; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa, E-mail: yoshim@nr.titech.ac.jp

    2015-02-20

    XRCC4 is one of the crucial proteins in the repair of DNA double-strand break (DSB) through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). As XRCC4 consists of 336 amino acids, N-terminal 200 amino acids include domains for dimerization and for association with DNA ligase IV and XLF and shown to be essential for XRCC4 function in DSB repair and V(D)J recombination. On the other hand, the role of the remaining C-terminal region of XRCC4 is not well understood. In the present study, we noticed that a stretch of ∼20 amino acids located at the extreme C-terminus of XRCC4 is highly conserved among vertebrate species. To explore its possible importance, series of mutants in this region were constructed and assessed for the functionality in terms of ability to rescue radiosensitivity of M10 cells lacking XRCC4. Among 13 mutants, M10 transfectant with N326L mutant (M10-XRCC4{sup N326L}) showed elevated radiosensitivity. N326L protein showed defective nuclear localization. N326L sequence matched the consensus sequence of nuclear export signal. Leptomycin B treatment accumulated XRCC4{sup N326L} in the nucleus but only partially rescued radiosensitivity of M10-XRCC4{sup N326L}. These results collectively indicated that the functional defects of XRCC4{sup N326L} might be partially, but not solely, due to its exclusion from nucleus by synthetic nuclear export signal. Further mutation of XRCC4 Asn326 to other amino acids, i.e., alanine, aspartic acid or glutamine did not affect the nuclear localization but still exhibited radiosensitivity. The present results indicated the importance of the extremely C-terminal region of XRCC4 and, especially, Asn326 therein. - Highlights: • Extremely C-terminal region of XRCC4 is highly conserved among vertebrate species. • XRCC4 C-terminal point mutants, R325F and N326L, are functionally deficient in terms of survival after irradiation. • N326L localizes to the cytoplasm because of synthetic nuclear export signal. • Leptomycin B restores the

  15. Structure of the N-terminal region of Haemophilus Influenzae HI0017: Implications for function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Liping; Mack, Jamey; Hajduk, Phil; Fesik, Stephen W. [Abbott Laboratories, Pharmaceutical Discovery Division, D46Y, AP10/LL (United States)

    2001-06-15

    Haemophilus influenzae is a gram-negative pathogen that causes infections ranging from asymptomatic colonization of the human upper respiratory tract to serious invasive diseases such as meningitis. Although the genome of Haemophilus influenzae has been completely sequenced, the structure and function of many of these proteins are unknown. HI0017 is one of these uncharacterized proteins. Here we describe the three-dimensional solution structure of the N-terminal portion of HI0017 as determined by NMR spectroscopy. The structure consists of a five-stranded antiparallel {beta}-sheet and two short {alpha}-helices. It is similar to the C-terminal domain of Diphtheria toxin repressor (DtxR). The C-terminal portion of HI0017 has an amino acid sequence that closely resembles pyruvate formate-lyase - an enzyme that converts pyruvate and CoA into acetyl-CoA and formate by a radical mechanism. Based on structural and sequence comparisons, we propose that the C-terminus of HI0017 functions as an enzyme with a glycyl radical mechanism, while the N-terminus participates in protein/protein interactions involving an activase (iron-sulfur protein) and/or the substrate.

  16. Structure of the N-terminal region of Haemophilus Influenzae HI0017: Implications for function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Liping; Mack, Jamey; Hajduk, Phil; Fesik, Stephen W.

    2001-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a gram-negative pathogen that causes infections ranging from asymptomatic colonization of the human upper respiratory tract to serious invasive diseases such as meningitis. Although the genome of Haemophilus influenzae has been completely sequenced, the structure and function of many of these proteins are unknown. HI0017 is one of these uncharacterized proteins. Here we describe the three-dimensional solution structure of the N-terminal portion of HI0017 as determined by NMR spectroscopy. The structure consists of a five-stranded antiparallel β-sheet and two short α-helices. It is similar to the C-terminal domain of Diphtheria toxin repressor (DtxR). The C-terminal portion of HI0017 has an amino acid sequence that closely resembles pyruvate formate-lyase - an enzyme that converts pyruvate and CoA into acetyl-CoA and formate by a radical mechanism. Based on structural and sequence comparisons, we propose that the C-terminus of HI0017 functions as an enzyme with a glycyl radical mechanism, while the N-terminus participates in protein/protein interactions involving an activase (iron-sulfur protein) and/or the substrate

  17. Chromosomal microarray testing identifies a 4p terminal region associated with seizures in Wolf–Hirschhorn syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Sarah T; Lortz, Amanda; Hensel, Charles H; Sdano, Mallory R; Vanzo, Rena J; Martin, Megan M; Peiffer, Andreas; Lambert, Christophe G; Calhoun, Amy; Carey, John C; Battaglia, Agatino

    2016-01-01

    Background Wolf–Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a contiguous gene deletion syndrome involving variable size deletions of the 4p16.3 region. Seizures are frequently, but not always, associated with WHS. We hypothesised that the size and location of the deleted region may correlate with seizure presentation. Methods Using chromosomal microarray analysis, we finely mapped the breakpoints of copy number variants (CNVs) in 48 individuals with WHS. Seizure phenotype data were collected through parent-reported answers to a comprehensive questionnaire and supplemented with available medical records. Results We observed a significant correlation between the presence of an interstitial 4p deletion and lack of a seizure phenotype (Fisher's exact test p=3.59e-6). In our cohort, there were five individuals with interstitial deletions with a distal breakpoint at least 751 kbp proximal to the 4p terminus. Four of these individuals have never had an observable seizure, and the fifth individual had a single febrile seizure at the age of 1.5 years. All other individuals in our cohort whose deletions encompass the terminal 751 kbp region report having seizures typical of WHS. Additional examples from the literature corroborate these observations and further refine the candidate seizure susceptibility region to a region 197 kbp in size, starting 368 kbp from the terminus of chromosome 4. Conclusions We identify a small terminal region of chromosome 4p that represents a seizure susceptibility region. Deletion of this region in the context of WHS is sufficient for seizure occurrence. PMID:26747863

  18. Chromosomal microarray testing identifies a 4p terminal region associated with seizures in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Karen S; South, Sarah T; Lortz, Amanda; Hensel, Charles H; Sdano, Mallory R; Vanzo, Rena J; Martin, Megan M; Peiffer, Andreas; Lambert, Christophe G; Calhoun, Amy; Carey, John C; Battaglia, Agatino

    2016-04-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a contiguous gene deletion syndrome involving variable size deletions of the 4p16.3 region. Seizures are frequently, but not always, associated with WHS. We hypothesised that the size and location of the deleted region may correlate with seizure presentation. Using chromosomal microarray analysis, we finely mapped the breakpoints of copy number variants (CNVs) in 48 individuals with WHS. Seizure phenotype data were collected through parent-reported answers to a comprehensive questionnaire and supplemented with available medical records. We observed a significant correlation between the presence of an interstitial 4p deletion and lack of a seizure phenotype (Fisher's exact test p=3.59e-6). In our cohort, there were five individuals with interstitial deletions with a distal breakpoint at least 751 kbp proximal to the 4p terminus. Four of these individuals have never had an observable seizure, and the fifth individual had a single febrile seizure at the age of 1.5 years. All other individuals in our cohort whose deletions encompass the terminal 751 kbp region report having seizures typical of WHS. Additional examples from the literature corroborate these observations and further refine the candidate seizure susceptibility region to a region 197 kbp in size, starting 368 kbp from the terminus of chromosome 4. We identify a small terminal region of chromosome 4p that represents a seizure susceptibility region. Deletion of this region in the context of WHS is sufficient for seizure occurrence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. C-terminal region of DNA ligase IV drives XRCC4/DNA ligase IV complex to chromatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Sicheng; Liu, Xunyue; Kamdar, Radhika Pankaj; Wanotayan, Rujira; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Adachi, Noritaka; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Chromatin binding of XRCC4 is dependent on the presence of DNA ligase IV. •C-terminal region of DNA ligase IV alone can recruit itself and XRCC4 to chromatin. •Two BRCT domains of DNA ligase IV are essential for the chromatin binding of XRCC4. -- Abstract: DNA ligase IV (LIG4) and XRCC4 form a complex to ligate two DNA ends at the final step of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). It is not fully understood how these proteins are recruited to DSBs. We recently demonstrated radiation-induced chromatin binding of XRCC4 by biochemical fractionation using detergent Nonidet P-40. In the present study, we examined the role of LIG4 in the recruitment of XRCC4/LIG4 complex to chromatin. The chromatin binding of XRCC4 was dependent on the presence of LIG4. The mutations in two BRCT domains (W725R and W893R, respectively) of LIG4 reduced the chromatin binding of LIG4 and XRCC4. The C-terminal fragment of LIG4 (LIG4-CT) without N-terminal catalytic domains could bind to chromatin with XRCC4. LIG4-CT with W725R or W893R mutation could bind to chromatin but could not support the chromatin binding of XRCC4. The ability of C-terminal region of LIG4 to interact with chromatin might provide us with an insight into the mechanisms of DSB repair through NHEJ

  20. Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus C-terminal LANA concentrates at pericentromeric and peri-telomeric regions of a subset of mitotic chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley-Clarke, Brenna; Ballestas, Mary E.; Komatsu, Takashi; Kaye, Kenneth M.

    2007-01-01

    The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) tethers KSHV terminal repeat (TR) DNA to mitotic chromosomes to efficiently segregate episomes to progeny nuclei. LANA contains N- and C-terminal chromosome binding regions. We now show that C-terminal LANA preferentially concentrates to paired dots at pericentromeric and peri-telomeric regions of a subset of mitotic chromosomes through residues 996-1139. Deletions within C-terminal LANA abolished both self-association and chromosome binding, consistent with a requirement for self-association to bind chromosomes. A deletion abolishing TR DNA binding did not affect chromosome targeting, indicating LANA's localization is not due to binding its recognition sequence in chromosomal DNA. LANA distributed similarly on human and non-human mitotic chromosomes. These results are consistent with C-terminal LANA interacting with a cell factor that concentrates at pericentromeric and peri-telomeric regions of mitotic chromosomes

  1. The N-terminal region of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A signals to nuclear localization of the protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parreiras-e-Silva, Lucas T.; Gomes, Marcelo D.; Oliveira, Eduardo B.; Costa-Neto, Claudio M.

    2007-01-01

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is a ubiquitous protein of eukaryotic and archaeal organisms which undergoes hypusination, a unique post-translational modification. We have generated a polyclonal antibody against murine eIF5A, which in immunocytochemical assays in B16-F10 cells revealed that the endogenous protein is preferentially localized to the nuclear region. We therefore analyzed possible structural features present in eIF5A proteins that could be responsible for that characteristic. Multiple sequence alignment analysis of eIF5A proteins from different eukaryotic and archaeal organisms showed that the former sequences have an extended N-terminal segment. We have then performed in silico prediction analyses and constructed different truncated forms of murine eIF5A to verify any possible role that the N-terminal extension might have in determining the subcellular localization of the eIF5A in eukaryotic organisms. Our results indicate that the N-terminal extension of the eukaryotic eIF5A contributes in signaling this protein to nuclear localization, despite of bearing no structural similarity with classical nuclear localization signals

  2. Mutations in the C-terminal region affect subcellular localization of crucian carp herpesvirus (CaHV) GPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Gui, Lang; Chen, Zong-Yan; Zhang, Qi-Ya

    2016-08-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are known as seven transmembrane domain receptors and consequently can mediate diverse biological functions via regulation of their subcellular localization. Crucian carp herpesvirus (CaHV) was recently isolated from infected fish with acute gill hemorrhage. CaHV GPCR of 349 amino acids (aa) was identified based on amino acid identity. A series of variants with truncation/deletion/substitution mutation in the C-terminal (aa 315-349) were constructed and expressed in fathead minnow (FHM) cells. The roles of three key C-terminal regions in subcellular localization of CaHV GPCR were determined. Lysine-315 (K-315) directed the aggregation of the protein preferentially at the nuclear side. Predicted N-myristoylation site (GGGWTR, aa 335-340) was responsible for punctate distribution in periplasm or throughout the cytoplasm. Predicted phosphorylation site (SSR, aa 327-329) and GGGWTR together determined the punctate distribution in cytoplasm. Detection of organelles localization by specific markers showed that the protein retaining K-315 colocalized with the Golgi apparatus. These experiments provided first evidence that different mutations of CaHV GPCR C-terminals have different affects on the subcellular localization of fish herpesvirus-encoded GPCRs. The study provided valuable information and new insights into the precise interactions between herpesvirus and fish cells, and could also provide useful targets for antiviral agents in aquaculture.

  3. Identification of a Major Dimorphic Region in the Functionally Critical N-Terminal ID1 Domain of VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doritchamou, Justin; Sabbagh, Audrey; Jespersen, Jakob S

    2015-01-01

    The VAR2CSA protein of Plasmodium falciparum is transported to and expressed on the infected erythrocyte surface where it plays a key role in placental malaria (PM). It is the current leading candidate for a vaccine to prevent PM. However, the antigenic polymorphism integral to VAR2CSA poses...... a challenge for vaccine development. Based on detailed analysis of polymorphisms in the sequence of its ligand-binding N-terminal region, currently the main focus for vaccine development, we assessed var2csa from parasite isolates infecting pregnant women. The results reveal for the first time the presence...

  4. Comparison of the carboxy-terminal DP-repeat region in the co-chaperones Hop and Hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gregory M; Huffman, Holly; Smith, David F

    2003-01-01

    Functional steroid receptor complexes are assembled and maintained by an ordered pathway of interactions involving multiple components of the cellular chaperone machinery. Two of these components, Hop and Hip, serve as co-chaperones to the major heat shock proteins (Hsps), Hsp70 and Hsp90, and participate in intermediate stages of receptor assembly. In an effort to better understand the functions of Hop and Hip in the assembly process, we focused on a region of similarity located near the C-terminus of each co-chaperone. Contained within this region is a repeated sequence motif we have termed the DP repeat. Earlier mutagenesis studies implicated the DP repeat of either Hop or Hip in Hsp70 binding and in normal assembly of the co-chaperones with progesterone receptor (PR) complexes. We report here that the DP repeat lies within a protease-resistant domain that extends to or is near the C-terminus of both co-chaperones. Point mutations in the DP repeats render the C-terminal regions hypersensitive to proteolysis. In addition, a Hop DP mutant displays altered proteolytic digestion patterns, which suggest that the DP-repeat region influences the folding of other Hop domains. Although the respective DP regions of Hop and Hip share sequence and structural similarities, they are not functionally interchangeable. Moreover, a double-point mutation within the second DP-repeat unit of Hop that converts this to the sequence found in Hip disrupts Hop function; however, the corresponding mutation in Hip does not alter its function. We conclude that the DP repeats are important structural elements within a C-terminal domain, which is important for Hop and Hip function.

  5. Basic amino acid residues located in the N-terminal region of BEND3 are essential for its nuclear localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiheido, Hirokazu, E-mail: shiheido@ak.med.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Shimizu, Jun

    2015-02-20

    BEN domain-containing protein 3 (BEND3) has recently been reported to function as a heterochromatin-associated protein in transcriptional repression in the nucleus. BEND3 should have nuclear localization signals (NLSs) to localize to the nucleus in light of its molecular weight, which is higher than that allowed to pass through nuclear pore complexes. We here analyzed the subcellular localization of deletion/site-directed mutants of human BEND3 by an immunofluorescence assay in an attempt to identify the amino acids essential for its nuclear localization. We found that three basic amino acid residues located in the N-terminal region of BEND3 (BEND3{sub 56–58}, KRK) are essential, suggesting that these residues play a role as a functional NLS. These results provide valuable information for progressing research on BEND3. - Highlights: • BEND3 localizes to the nucleus. • The N-terminal 60 amino acids region of BEND3 contains NLS. • Amino acids located between 56 and 58 of BEND3 (KRK) are part of NLS. • KRK motif is highly conserved among BEND3 homologs.

  6. Crystal Structure of the Carboxy-Terminal Region of the Bacteriophage T4 Proximal Long Tail Fiber Protein Gp34

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Granell

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Long tail fibers of bacteriophage T4 are formed by proteins gp34, gp35, gp36, and gp37, with gp34 located at the phage-proximal end and gp37 at the phage-distal, receptor-binding end. We have solved the structure of the carboxy-terminal region of gp34, consisting of amino acids 894–1289, by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction and extended the structure to amino acids 744–1289 using data collected from crystals containing longer gp34-fragments. The structure reveals three repeats of a mixed α-β fibrous domain in residues 744 to 877. A triple-helical neck connects to an extended triple β-helix domain (amino acids 900–1127 punctuated by two β-prism domains. Next, a β-prism domain decorated with short helices and extended β-helices is present (residues 1146–1238, while the C-terminal end is capped with another short β-helical region and three β-hairpins. The structure provides insight into the stability of the fibrous gp34 protein.

  7. LARGE-scale forest fuel supply solution trough a regional terminal network; Terminaalitoimintoihin perustuvan metsaepolttoaineen hankintalogistiikkajaerjestelmaen kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaenen, T. [Etelae-Savon Energia Oy, Mikkeli (Finland)

    2006-12-19

    The aim of the study is to develop logistic systems for supply of forest fuel where a terminal is part of the supply chain. Operations in the terminal, supply chains of the forest fuel and joining them to the terminal network are testing and following p. Also operation and business models are under analyzing. Costs, cost factors, benefits and space requirement of the terminal and cost-effectiveness of the entrepreneurship of the terminal are carried out. (orig.)

  8. The outermost N-terminal region of tapasin facilitates folding of major histocompatibility complex class I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Gustav Andreas; Geironson, Linda; Darabi, Anna

    2009-01-01

    ). Using a biochemical peptide-MHC-I-binding assay, recombinant Tpn(1-87) was found to specifically facilitate peptide-dependent folding of HLA-A*0201. Furthermore, we used Tpn(1-87) to generate a monoclonal antibody, alphaTpn(1-87)/80, specific for natural human Tpn and capable of cellular staining of ER......Tapasin (Tpn) is an ER chaperone that is uniquely dedicated to MHC-I biosynthesis. It binds MHC-I molecules, integrates them into peptide-loading complexes, and exerts quality control of the bound peptides; only when an "optimal peptide" is bound will the MHC-I be released and exported to the cell...... surface for presentation to T cells. The exact mechanisms of Tpn quality control and the criteria for being an optimal peptide are still unknown. Here, we have generated a recombinant fragment of human Tpn, Tpn(1-87) (representing the 87 N-terminal and ER-luminal amino acids of the mature Tpn protein...

  9. DNA clasping by mycobacterial HU: the C-terminal region of HupB mediates increased specificity of DNA binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HU a small, basic, histone like protein is a major component of the bacterial nucleoid. E. coli has two subunits of HU coded by hupA and hupB genes whereas Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb has only one subunit of HU coded by ORF Rv2986c (hupB gene. One noticeable feature regarding Mtb HupB, based on sequence alignment of HU orthologs from different bacteria, was that HupB(Mtb bears at its C-terminal end, a highly basic extension and this prompted an examination of its role in Mtb HupB function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: With this objective two clones of Mtb HupB were generated; one expressing full length HupB protein (HupB(Mtb and another which expresses only the N terminal region (first 95 amino acid of hupB (HupB(MtbN. Gel retardation assays revealed that HupB(MtbN is almost like E. coli HU (heat stable nucleoid protein in terms of its DNA binding, with a binding constant (K(d for linear dsDNA greater than 1000 nM, a value comparable to that obtained for the HUalphaalpha and HUalphabeta forms. However CTR (C-terminal Region of HupB(Mtb imparts greater specificity in DNA binding. HupB(Mtb protein binds more strongly to supercoiled plasmid DNA than to linear DNA, also this binding is very stable as it provides DNase I protection even up to 5 minutes. Similar results were obtained when the abilities of both proteins to mediate protection against DNA strand cleavage by hydroxyl radicals generated by the Fenton's reaction, were compared. It was also observed that both the proteins have DNA binding preference for A:T rich DNA which may occur at the regulatory regions of ORFs and the oriC region of Mtb. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data thus point that HupB(Mtb may participate in chromosome organization in-vivo, it may also play a passive, possibly an architectural role.

  10. Structural and dynamic properties of the C-terminal region of the Escherichia coli RNA chaperone Hfq: integrative experimental and computational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bin; Wang, Weiwei; Zhang, Jiahai; Gong, Qingguo; Shi, Yunyu; Wu, Jihui; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2017-08-09

    In Escherichia coli, hexameric Hfq is an important RNA chaperone that facilitates small RNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation. The Hfq monomer consists of an evolutionarily conserved Sm domain (residues 1-65) and a flexible C-terminal region (residues 66-102). It has been recognized that the existence of the C-terminal region is important for the function of Hfq, but its detailed structural and dynamic properties remain elusive due to its disordered nature. In this work, using integrative experimental techniques, such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering, as well as multi-scale computational simulations, new insights into the structure and dynamics of the C-terminal region in the context of the Hfq hexamer are provided. Although the C-terminal region is intrinsically disordered, some residues (83-86) are motionally restricted. The hexameric core may affect the secondary structure propensity of the C-terminal region, due to transient interactions between them. The residues at the rim and the proximal side of the core have significantly more transient contacts with the C-terminal region than those residues at the distal side, which may facilitate the function of the C-terminal region in the release of double-stranded RNAs and the cycling of small non-coding RNAs. Structure ensembles constructed by fitting the experimental data also support that the C-terminal region prefers to locate at the proximal side. From multi-scale simulations, we propose that the C-terminal region may play a dual role of steric effect (especially at the proximal side) and recruitment (at the both sides) in the binding process of RNA substrates. Interestingly, we have found that these motionally restricted residues may serve as important binding sites for the incoming RNAs that is probably driven by favorable electrostatic interactions. These integrative studies may aid in our understanding of the functional role of the C-terminal region of Hfq.

  11. Regional contributions of ocean iron fertilization to atmospheric CO2 changes during the last glacial termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opazo, N. E.; Lambert, F.

    2017-12-01

    Mineral dust aerosols affect climate directly by changing the radiative balance of the Earth, and indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and by affecting biogeochemical cycles. The impact on marine biogeochemical cycles is primarily through the supply of micronutrients such as iron to nutrient-limited regions of the oceans. Iron fertilization of High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) regions of the oceans is thought to have significantly affected the carbon cycle on glacial-interglacial scales and contributed about one fourth of the 80-100 ppm lowering of glacial atmospheric CO2 concentrations.In this study, we quantify the effect of global dust fluxes on atmospheric CO2 using the cGENIE model, an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity with emphasis on the carbon cycle. Global Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) dust flux fields were obtained from both dust model simulations and reconstructions based on observational data. The analysis was performed in two stages. In the first instance, we produced 8 global intermediate dust flux fields between Holocene and LGM and simulated the atmospheric CO2 drawdown due to these 10 dust levels. In the second stage, we only changed dust flux levels in specific HNLC regions to isolate the effect of these ocean basins. We thus quantify the contribution of the South Atlantic, the South Pacific, the North Pacific, and the Central Pacific HNLC regions to the total atmospheric CO2 difference due to iron fertilization of the Earth's oceans.

  12. Substituting Both the N-Terminal and "Cord" Regions of a Xylanase from Aspergillus oryzae to Improve Its Temperature Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuang; Li, Jianfang; Wang, Rui; Li, Xueqing; Li, Jinping; Deng, Chao; Wu, Minchen

    2018-02-06

    To improve the temperature characteristics of AoXyn11A, a mesophilic glycoside hydrolase family (GHF) 11 xylanase from Aspergillus oryzae CICC40186, its N-terminal and "cord" regions were selected to be substituted by means of the computer-aided analysis and calculation. In brief, one mutant, named ATX11A 41 , possessing the lowest root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) value was designed based on the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation by substituting the N-terminal 41 amino acids of AoXyn11A with the corresponding 42 ones of pXYL11, a thermophilic GHF11 xylanase from Thermobifida fusca. On the basis of the primary structure alignment of pXYL11 with ATX11A 41 (or AoXyn11A), another mutant, named ATX11A 41/cord , was designed by substituting the cord region ( 93 GTYNPGSGG 101 ) of ATX11A 41 with the corresponding one ( 93 GTYRPTG 99 ) of pXYL11. Both mutant-encoding genes, ATx11A 41 and ATx11A 41/cord , were constructed as designed theoretically by a megaprimer PCR technique and were expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. The specific activities of recombinant (re) AoXyn11A, ATX11A 41 , and ATX11A 41/cord were 2916.7, 2667.6, and 2457.0 U/mg, respectively. The analysis of temperature characteristics displayed that the temperature optimum (T opt ) of reATX11A 41 or reATX11A 41/cord was 65 °C, which was 15 °C higher than that of reAoXyn11A. The thermal inactivation half-life (t 1/2 ) values of reATX11A 41 and reATX11A 41/cord at 60 °C were 55 and 83 min, respectively, whereas that of reAoXyn11A was only 18 min at 50 °C. The melting temperature (T m ) values of reAoXyn11A, reATX11A 41 , and reATX11A 41/cord were 54.2, 66.7, and 71.9 °C, respectively. In conclusion, the above findings indicated that the substitution of both the N-terminal and cord regions of a mesophilic AoXyn11A greatly contributed to its improved temperature characteristics.

  13. Highly potent antimicrobial peptides from N-terminal membrane-binding region of E. coli MreB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Karabi; Sravani, Yalavarthi Durga; Ramakrishnan, Vibin; Chaudhary, Nitin

    2017-02-23

    Microbial pathogenesis is a serious health concern. The threat escalates as the existing conventional antimicrobials are losing their efficacy against the evolving pathogens. Peptides hold promise to be developed into next-generation antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides adopt amphipathic structures that could selectively bind to and disrupt the microbial membranes. Interaction of proteins with membranes is central to all living systems and we reasoned that the membrane-binding domains in microbial proteins could be developed into efficient antimicrobials. This is an interesting approach as self-like sequences could elude the microbial strategies of degrading the antimicrobial peptides, one of the mechanisms of showing resistance to antimicrobials. We selected the 9-residue-long membrane-binding region of E. coli MreB protein. The 9-residue peptide (C-terminal amide) and its N-terminal acetylated analog displayed broad-spectrum activity, killing Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and fungi. Extension with a tryptophan residue at the N-terminus drastically improved the activity of the peptides with lethal concentrations ≤10 μM against all the organisms tested. The tryptophan-extended peptides caused complete killing of C. albicans as well as gentamicin and methicillin resistant S. aureus at 5 μM concentration. Lipid-binding studies and electron microscopic analyses of the peptide-treated microbes suggest membrane disruption as the mechanism of killing.

  14. The Drosophila Microtubule-Associated Protein Mars Stabilizes Mitotic Spindles by Crosslinking Microtubules through Its N-Terminal Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Beati, Hamze; Nilsson, Jakob; Wodarz, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Correct segregation of genetic material relies on proper assembly and maintenance of the mitotic spindle. How the highly dynamic microtubules (MTs) are maintained in stable mitotic spindles is a key question to be answered. Motor and non-motor microtubule associated proteins (MAPs) have been reported to stabilize the dynamic spindle through crosslinking adjacent MTs. Mars, a novel MAP, is essential for the early development of Drosophila embryos. Previous studies showed that Mars is required for maintaining an intact mitotic spindle but did not provide a molecular mechanism for this function. Here we show that Mars is able to stabilize the mitotic spindle in vivo. Both in vivo and in vitro data reveal that the N-terminal region of Mars functions in the stabilization of the mitotic spindle by crosslinking adjacent MTs. PMID:23593258

  15. The Drosophila microtubule-associated protein mars stabilizes mitotic spindles by crosslinking microtubules through its N-terminal region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhang

    Full Text Available Correct segregation of genetic material relies on proper assembly and maintenance of the mitotic spindle. How the highly dynamic microtubules (MTs are maintained in stable mitotic spindles is a key question to be answered. Motor and non-motor microtubule associated proteins (MAPs have been reported to stabilize the dynamic spindle through crosslinking adjacent MTs. Mars, a novel MAP, is essential for the early development of Drosophila embryos. Previous studies showed that Mars is required for maintaining an intact mitotic spindle but did not provide a molecular mechanism for this function. Here we show that Mars is able to stabilize the mitotic spindle in vivo. Both in vivo and in vitro data reveal that the N-terminal region of Mars functions in the stabilization of the mitotic spindle by crosslinking adjacent MTs.

  16. The Drosophila microtubule-associated protein mars stabilizes mitotic spindles by crosslinking microtubules through its N-terminal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Beati, Hamze; Nilsson, Jakob; Wodarz, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Correct segregation of genetic material relies on proper assembly and maintenance of the mitotic spindle. How the highly dynamic microtubules (MTs) are maintained in stable mitotic spindles is a key question to be answered. Motor and non-motor microtubule associated proteins (MAPs) have been reported to stabilize the dynamic spindle through crosslinking adjacent MTs. Mars, a novel MAP, is essential for the early development of Drosophila embryos. Previous studies showed that Mars is required for maintaining an intact mitotic spindle but did not provide a molecular mechanism for this function. Here we show that Mars is able to stabilize the mitotic spindle in vivo. Both in vivo and in vitro data reveal that the N-terminal region of Mars functions in the stabilization of the mitotic spindle by crosslinking adjacent MTs.

  17. Sequence diversity of the C-terminal region of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Zahra; Razavi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Sedigheh; Naddaf, Saeed; Pourfallah, Fatemeh; Mirkhani, Fatemeh; Arjmand, Mohammad; Feizhaddad, Hossein; Rad, Mina Ebrahimi; Ebrahimi Rad, Mina; Tameemi, Marzieh; Assmar, Mehdi

    2009-01-01

    The C-terminal region of the merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1) of Plasmodium falciparum is a strong vaccine candidate as it is associated with immunity to the parasite. This corresponds approximately to the conserved 17th block of the gene and is composed of two EGF- like domains. These domains exhibit only four single amino acid substitutions which show several potential variants in this region of the gene. As the variations might be important for a regional vaccine design, a study was carried out to determine the variations present in P. falciparum isolates from southern Iran. Besides the usual E-T-S-R-L and the Q-K-N-G-F types, we found Q-T-S-R-L, E-K-N-G-F, E-T-S-G-L, Z-T-S-G-L and Z-T-S-R-L types, where Z was E or Q signifying the presence of mixed clones in single isolates.

  18. The Structure of Martian Magnetosphere at the Dayside Terminator Region as Observed on MAVEN Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisberg, O. L.; Ermakov, V. N.; Shuvalov, S. D.; Zelenyi, L. M.; Halekas, J.; DiBraccio, G. A.; McFadden, J.; Dubinin, E. M.

    2018-04-01

    We analyzed 44 passes of the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN mission (MAVEN) spacecraft through the magnetosphere, arranged by the angle between electric field vector and the projection of spacecraft position radius vector in the plane perpendicular to the Mars-Sun line (θE). All passes were divided into three angular sectors near 0°, 90°, and 180° θE angles in order to estimate the role of the interplanetary magnetic field direction in plasma and magnetic properties of dayside Martian magnetosphere. The time interval chosen was from 17 January to 4 February 2016 when MAVEN was crossing the dayside magnetosphere at solar zenith angle 70°. Magnetosphere as the region with prevailing energetic planetary ions is always found between the magnetosheath and the ionosphere. The analysis of dayside interaction region showed that for each angular sector with different orientation of the solar wind electric field vector E = -1/c V × B one can find specific profiles of the magnetosheath, the magnetic barrier (Michel, 1971, https://doi.org/10.1029/RG009i002p00427; Zhang et al., 1991, https://doi.org/10.1029/91JA00088), and the magnetosphere. Magnetic barrier forms in front of the magnetosphere, and relative magnetic field magnitudes in these two domains vary. The average height of the boundary with ionosphere is 530 km, and the average height of the magnetopause is 730 km. We discuss the implications of the observed magnetosphere structure to the planetary ions loss mechanism.

  19. A Proline-Rich N-Terminal Region of the Dengue Virus NS3 Is Crucial for Infectious Particle Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhard, Leopoldo G; Iglesias, Néstor G; Byk, Laura A; Filomatori, Claudia V; De Maio, Federico A; Gamarnik, Andrea V

    2016-06-01

    Dengue virus is currently the most important insect-borne viral human pathogen. Viral nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) is a key component of the viral replication machinery that performs multiple functions during viral replication and participates in antiviral evasion. Using dengue virus infectious clones and reporter systems to dissect each step of the viral life cycle, we examined the requirements of different domains of NS3 on viral particle assembly. A thorough site-directed mutagenesis study based on solvent-accessible surface areas of NS3 revealed that, in addition to being essential for RNA replication, different domains of dengue virus NS3 are critically required for production of infectious viral particles. Unexpectedly, point mutations in the protease, interdomain linker, or helicase domain were sufficient to abolish infectious particle formation without affecting translation, polyprotein processing, or RNA replication. In particular, we identified a novel proline-rich N-terminal unstructured region of NS3 that contains several amino acid residues involved in infectious particle formation. We also showed a new role for the interdomain linker of NS3 in virion assembly. In conclusion, we present a comprehensive genetic map of novel NS3 determinants for viral particle assembly. Importantly, our results provide evidence of a central role of NS3 in the coordination of both dengue virus RNA replication and particle formation. Dengue virus is an important human pathogen, and its prominence is expanding globally; however, basic aspects of its biology are still unclear, hindering the development of effective therapeutic and prophylactic treatments. Little is known about the initial steps of dengue and other flavivirus particle assembly. This process involves a complex interplay between viral and cellular components, making it an attractive antiviral target. Unpredictably, we identified spatially separated regions of the large NS3 viral protein as determinants for

  20. Investigation of the N-terminal coding region of MUC7 alterations in dentistry students with and without caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koç Öztürk L

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human low-molecular weight salivary mucin (MUC7 is a small, secreted glycoprotein coded by MUC7. In the oral cavity, they inhibit the colonization of oral bacteria, including cariogenic ones, by masking their surface adhesions, thus helping saliva to avoid dental caries. The N-terminal domain is important for low-molecular weight (MG2 mucins to contact with oral microorganisms. In this study, we aimed to identify the N-terminal coding region of the MUC7 gene between individuals with and without caries. Forty-four healthy dental students were enrolled in this study; 24 of them were classified to have caries [decayed, missing, filled-teeth (DMFT = 5.6] according to the World Health Organization (WHO criteria, and 20 of them were caries-free (DMFT = 0. Simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S and gingival index (GI were used to determine the oral hygiene and gingival conditions. Total protein levels and salivary total protein levels and salivary buffer capacity (SBC were determined by Lowry and Ericsson methods. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood cells of all the participants and genotyping was carried out by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR-sequencing method. No statistical differences were found between two groups in the terms of salivary parameters, oral hygiene and gingival conditions. We detected one common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP that leads to a change of asparagine to lysine at codon 80. This substitution was found in 29.0 and 40.0%, respectively, of the groups with and without caries. No other sequence variations were detected. The SNP found in this study may be a specific polymorphism affecting the Turkish population. Further studies with extended numbers are necessary in order to clarify this finding.

  1. Functional analysis of the C-terminal region of human adenovirus E1A reveals a misidentified nuclear localization signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Michael J.; King, Cason R.; Dikeakos, Jimmy D. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Western Ontario, A4-833 London Regional Cancer Centre, 800 Commissioners Road E., London, Ontario, N6A 4L6 Canada (Canada); Mymryk, Joe S., E-mail: jmymryk@uwo.ca [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Western Ontario, A4-833 London Regional Cancer Centre, 800 Commissioners Road E., London, Ontario, N6A 4L6 Canada (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London Regional Cancer Centre, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-11-15

    The immortalizing function of the human adenovirus 5 E1A oncoprotein requires efficient localization to the nucleus. In 1987, a consensus monopartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) was identified at the C-terminus of E1A. Since that time, various experiments have suggested that other regions of E1A influence nuclear import. In addition, a novel bipartite NLS was recently predicted at the C-terminal region of E1A in silico. In this study, we used immunofluorescence microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation analysis with importin-α to verify that full nuclear localization of E1A requires the well characterized NLS spanning residues 285–289, as well as a second basic patch situated between residues 258 and 263 ({sup 258}RVGGRRQAVECIEDLLNEPGQPLDLSCKRPRP{sup 289}). Thus, the originally described NLS located at the C-terminus of E1A is actually a bipartite signal, which had been misidentified in the existing literature as a monopartite signal, altering our understanding of one of the oldest documented NLSs. - Highlights: • Human adenovirus E1A is localized to the nucleus. • The C-terminus of E1A contains a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS). • This signal was previously misidentified to be a monopartite NLS. • Key basic amino acid residues within this sequence are highly conserved.

  2. Functional analysis of the C-terminal region of human adenovirus E1A reveals a misidentified nuclear localization signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Michael J.; King, Cason R.; Dikeakos, Jimmy D.; Mymryk, Joe S.

    2014-01-01

    The immortalizing function of the human adenovirus 5 E1A oncoprotein requires efficient localization to the nucleus. In 1987, a consensus monopartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) was identified at the C-terminus of E1A. Since that time, various experiments have suggested that other regions of E1A influence nuclear import. In addition, a novel bipartite NLS was recently predicted at the C-terminal region of E1A in silico. In this study, we used immunofluorescence microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation analysis with importin-α to verify that full nuclear localization of E1A requires the well characterized NLS spanning residues 285–289, as well as a second basic patch situated between residues 258 and 263 ( 258 RVGGRRQAVECIEDLLNEPGQPLDLSCKRPRP 289 ). Thus, the originally described NLS located at the C-terminus of E1A is actually a bipartite signal, which had been misidentified in the existing literature as a monopartite signal, altering our understanding of one of the oldest documented NLSs. - Highlights: • Human adenovirus E1A is localized to the nucleus. • The C-terminus of E1A contains a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS). • This signal was previously misidentified to be a monopartite NLS. • Key basic amino acid residues within this sequence are highly conserved

  3. Insights into amyloid-like aggregation of H2 region of the C-terminal domain of nucleophosmin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Anna; Diaferia, Carlo; La Manna, Sara; Giannini, Cinzia; Sibillano, Teresa; Accardo, Antonella; Morelli, Giancarlo; Novellino, Ettore; Marasco, Daniela

    2017-02-01

    Nucleophosmin (NPM1) is a multifunctional protein involved in a variety of biological processes including the pathogenesis of several human malignancies and is the most frequently mutated gene in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). To deepen the role of protein regions in its biological activities, lately we reported on the structural behavior of dissected C-terminal domain (CTD) helical fragments. Unexpectedly the H2 (residues 264-277) and H3 AML-mutated regions showed a remarkable tendency to form amyloid-like assemblies with fibrillar morphology and β-sheet structure that resulted as toxic when exposed to human neuroblastoma cells. More recently NPM1 was found to be highly expressed and toxic in neurons of mouse models of Huntington's disease (HD). Here we investigate the role of each residue in the β-strand aggregation process of H2 region of NPM1 by performing a systematic alanine scan of its sequence and structural and kinetic analyses of aggregation of derived peptides by means of Circular Dichorism (CD) and Thioflavin T (Th-T) assay. These solution state investigations pointed out the crucial role exerted by the basic amyloidogenic stretch of H2 (264-271) and to shed light on the initial and main interactions involved in fibril formation we performed studies on fibrils deriving from the related Ala peptides through the analysis of fibrils with birefringence of polarized optical microscopy and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). This analysis suggested that the presence of branched Ile 269 conferred preferential packing patterns that, instead, appeared geometrically hampered by the aromatic side-chain of Phe 268 . Present investigations could be useful to deepen the knowledge of AML molecular mechanisms and the role of cytoplasmatic aggregates of NPM1c+. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Capillary electrophoresis of Big-Dye terminator sequencing reactions for human mtDNA Control Region haplotyping in the identification of human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesino, Marta; Prieto, Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    Cycle sequencing reaction with Big-Dye terminators provides the methodology to analyze mtDNA Control Region amplicons by means of capillary electrophoresis. DNA sequencing with ddNTPs or terminators was developed by (1). The progressive automation of the method by combining the use of fluorescent-dye terminators with cycle sequencing has made it possible to increase the sensibility and efficiency of the method and hence has allowed its introduction into the forensic field. PCR-generated mitochondrial DNA products are the templates for sequencing reactions. Different set of primers can be used to generate amplicons with different sizes according to the quality and quantity of the DNA extract providing sequence data for different ranges inside the Control Region.

  5. Osmostress induces autophosphorylation of Hog1 via a C-terminal regulatory region that is conserved in p38α.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inbal Maayan

    Full Text Available Many protein kinases require phosphorylation at their activation loop for induction of catalysis. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs are activated by a unique mode of phosphorylation, on neighboring Tyrosine and Threonine residues. Whereas many kinases obtain their activation via autophosphorylation, MAPKs are usually phosphorylated by specific, dedicated, MAPK kinases (MAP2Ks. Here we show however, that the yeast MAPK Hog1, known to be activated by the MAP2K Pbs2, is activated in pbs2Δ cells via an autophosphorylation activity that is induced by osmotic pressure. We mapped a novel domain at the Hog1 C-terminal region that inhibits this activity. Removal of this domain provides a Hog1 protein that is partially independent of MAP2K, namely, partially rescues osmostress sensitivity of pbs2Δ cells. We further mapped a short domain (7 amino acid residues long that is critical for induction of autophosphorylation. Its removal abolishes autophosphorylation, but maintains Pbs2-mediated phosphorylation. This 7 amino acids stretch is conserved in the human p38α. Similar to the case of Hog1, it's removal from p38α abolishes p38α's autophosphorylation capability, but maintains, although reduces, its activation by MKK6. This study joins a few recent reports to suggest that, like many protein kinases, MAPKs are also regulated via induced autoactivation.

  6. Osmostress induces autophosphorylation of Hog1 via a C-terminal regulatory region that is conserved in p38α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maayan, Inbal; Beenstock, Jonah; Marbach, Irit; Tabachnick, Shira; Livnah, Oded; Engelberg, David

    2012-01-01

    Many protein kinases require phosphorylation at their activation loop for induction of catalysis. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are activated by a unique mode of phosphorylation, on neighboring Tyrosine and Threonine residues. Whereas many kinases obtain their activation via autophosphorylation, MAPKs are usually phosphorylated by specific, dedicated, MAPK kinases (MAP2Ks). Here we show however, that the yeast MAPK Hog1, known to be activated by the MAP2K Pbs2, is activated in pbs2Δ cells via an autophosphorylation activity that is induced by osmotic pressure. We mapped a novel domain at the Hog1 C-terminal region that inhibits this activity. Removal of this domain provides a Hog1 protein that is partially independent of MAP2K, namely, partially rescues osmostress sensitivity of pbs2Δ cells. We further mapped a short domain (7 amino acid residues long) that is critical for induction of autophosphorylation. Its removal abolishes autophosphorylation, but maintains Pbs2-mediated phosphorylation. This 7 amino acids stretch is conserved in the human p38α. Similar to the case of Hog1, it's removal from p38α abolishes p38α's autophosphorylation capability, but maintains, although reduces, its activation by MKK6. This study joins a few recent reports to suggest that, like many protein kinases, MAPKs are also regulated via induced autoactivation.

  7. Roles of C-Terminal Region of Yeast and Human Rad52 in Rad51-Nucleoprotein Filament Formation and ssDNA Annealing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh V Khade

    Full Text Available Yeast Rad52 (yRad52 has two important functions at homologous DNA recombination (HR; annealing complementary single-strand DNA (ssDNA molecules and recruiting Rad51 recombinase onto ssDNA (recombination mediator activity. Its human homolog (hRAD52 has a lesser role in HR, and apparently lacks mediator activity. Here we show that yRad52 can load human Rad51 (hRAD51 onto ssDNA complexed with yeast RPA in vitro. This is biochemically equivalent to mediator activity because it depends on the C-terminal Rad51-binding region of yRad52 and on functional Rad52-RPA interaction. It has been reported that the N-terminal two thirds of both yRad52 and hRAD52 is essential for binding to and annealing ssDNA. Although a second DNA binding region has been found in the C-terminal region of yRad52, its role in ssDNA annealing is not clear. In this paper, we also show that the C-terminal region of yRad52, but not of hRAD52, is involved in ssDNA annealing. This suggests that the second DNA binding site is required for the efficient ssDNA annealing by yRad52. We propose an updated model of Rad52-mediated ssDNA annealing.

  8. The N-Terminal Flanking Region of the Invariant Chain Peptide Augments the Immunogenicity of a Cryptic “Self” Epitope from a Tumor-Associated Antigen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hess, A.D.; Thoburn, C.; Chen, W.; Miura, Y.; Wall, E. van der

    2001-01-01

    The N-terminal flanking region of the invariant chain peptide termed CLIP appears to have superagonistic properties interacting with the T cell receptor and the MHC class II molecule at or near the binding site for the bacterial superantigen Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). The present studies

  9. Investigation of functional aspects of the N-terminal region of elongation factor Tu from Escherichia coli using a protein engineering approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, M; Mansilla, Francisco; Clark, Brian F. C.

    1998-01-01

    The function of the N-terminal region of elongation factor Tu is still unexplained. Until recently, it has not been visible in electron density maps from x-ray crystallography studies, but the presence of several well conserved basic residues suggest that this part of the molecule is of structural...

  10. Unique C-terminal region of Hap3 is required for methanol-regulated gene expression in the methylotrophic yeast Candida boidinii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Saori; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Nitta, Nobuhisa; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

    2016-05-01

    The Hap complex of the methylotrophic yeast Candida boidinii was found to be required for methanol-regulated gene expression. In this study, we performed functional characterization of CbHap3p, one of the Hap complex components in C. boidinii. Sequence alignment of Hap3 proteins revealed the presence of a unique extended C-terminal region, which is not present in Hap3p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScHap3p), but is found in Hap3p proteins of methylotrophic yeasts. Deletion of the C-terminal region of CbHap3p (Δ256-292 or Δ107-237) diminished activation of methanol-regulated genes and abolished the ability to grow on methanol, but did not affect nuclear localization or DNA-binding ability. However, deletion of the N-terminal region of CbHap3p (Δ1-20) led to not only a growth defect on methanol and a decreased level of methanol-regulated gene expression, but also impaired nuclear localization and binding to methanol-regulated gene promoters. We also revealed that CbHap3p could complement the growth defect of the Schap3Δ strain on glycerol, although ScHap3p could not complement the growth defect of a Cbhap3Δ strain on methanol. We conclude that the unique C-terminal region of CbHap3p contributes to maximum activation of methanol-regulated genes, whilst the N-terminal region is required for nuclear localization and binding to DNA.

  11. Dual role of the carboxyl-terminal region of pig liver L-kynurenine 3-monooxygenase: mitochondrial-targeting signal and enzymatic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Kumiko; Kuroyanagi, Hidehito; Tatebayashi, Yoshitaka; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Hirabayashi-Takahashi, Kanako; Saito, Kuniaki; Haga, Seiich; Uemura, Tomihiko; Izumi, Susumu

    2010-12-01

    l-kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is an NAD(P)H-dependent flavin monooxygenase that catalyses the hydroxylation of l-kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine, and is localized as an oligomer in the mitochondrial outer membrane. In the human brain, KMO may play an important role in the formation of two neurotoxins, 3-hydroxykynurenine and quinolinic acid, both of which provoke severe neurodegenerative diseases. In mosquitos, it plays a role in the formation both of eye pigment and of an exflagellation-inducing factor (xanthurenic acid). Here, we present evidence that the C-terminal region of pig liver KMO plays a dual role. First, it is required for the enzymatic activity. Second, it functions as a mitochondrial targeting signal as seen in monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) or outer membrane cytochrome b(5). The first role was shown by the comparison of the enzymatic activity of two mutants (C-terminally FLAG-tagged KMO and carboxyl-terminal truncation form, KMOΔC50) with that of the wild-type enzyme expressed in COS-7 cells. The second role was demonstrated with fluorescence microscopy by the comparison of the intracellular localization of the wild-type, three carboxyl-terminal truncated forms (ΔC20, ΔC30 and ΔC50), C-terminally FLAG-tagged wild-type and a mutant KMO, where two arginine residues, Arg461-Arg462, were replaced with Ser residues.

  12. Contribution of the C-terminal tri-lysine regions of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase for efficient reverse transcription and viral DNA nuclear import

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowke Keith R

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to mediating the integration process, HIV-1 integrase (IN has also been implicated in different steps during viral life cycle including reverse transcription and viral DNA nuclear import. Although the karyophilic property of HIV-1 IN has been well demonstrated using a variety of experimental approaches, the definition of domain(s and/or motif(s within the protein that mediate viral DNA nuclear import and its mechanism are still disputed and controversial. In this study, we performed mutagenic analyses to investigate the contribution of different regions in the C-terminal domain of HIV-1 IN to protein nuclear localization as well as their effects on virus infection. Results Our analysis showed that replacing lysine residues in two highly conserved tri-lysine regions, which are located within previously described Region C (235WKGPAKLLWKGEGAVV and sequence Q (211KELQKQITK in the C-terminal domain of HIV-1 IN, impaired protein nuclear accumulation, while mutations for RK263,4 had no significant effect. Analysis of their effects on viral infection in a VSV-G pseudotyped RT/IN trans-complemented HIV-1 single cycle replication system revealed that all three C-terminal mutant viruses (KK215,9AA, KK240,4AE and RK263,4AA exhibited more severe defect of induction of β-Gal positive cells and luciferase activity than an IN class 1 mutant D64E in HeLa-CD4-CCR5-β-Gal cells, and in dividing as well as non-dividing C8166 T cells, suggesting that some viral defects are occurring prior to viral integration. Furthermore, by analyzing viral DNA synthesis and the nucleus-associated viral DNA level, the results clearly showed that, although all three C-terminal mutants inhibited viral reverse transcription to different extents, the KK240,4AE mutant exhibited most profound effect on this step, whereas KK215,9AA significantly impaired viral DNA nuclear import. In addition, our analysis could not detect viral DNA integration in each C-terminal

  13. Single point mutations distributed in 10 soluble and membrane regions of the Nicotiana plumbaginifolia plasma membrane PMA2 H+-ATPase activate the enzyme and modify the structure of the C-terminal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsomme, P; Dambly, S; Maudoux, O; Boutry, M

    1998-12-25

    The Nicotiana plumbaginifolia pma2 (plasma membrane H+-ATPase) gene is capable of functionally replacing the H+-ATPase genes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, provided that the external pH is kept above 5.0. Single point mutations within the pma2 gene were previously identified that improved H+-ATPase activity and allowed yeast growth at pH 4.0. The aim of the present study was to identify most of the PMA2 positions, the mutation of which would lead to improved growth and to determine whether all these mutations result in similar enzymatic and structural modifications. We selected additional mutants in total 42 distinct point mutations localized in 30 codons. They were distributed in 10 soluble and membrane regions of the enzyme. Most mutant PMA2 H+-ATPases were characterized by a higher specific activity, lower inhibition by ADP, and lower stimulation by lysophosphatidylcholine than wild-type PMA2. The mutants thus seem to be constitutively activated. Partial tryptic digestion and immunodetection showed that the PMA2 mutants had a conformational change making the C-terminal region more accessible. These data therefore support the hypothesis that point mutations in various H+-ATPase parts displace the inhibitory C-terminal region, resulting in enzyme activation. The high density of mutations within the first half of the C-terminal region suggests that this part is involved in the interaction between the inhibitory C-terminal region and the rest of the enzyme.

  14. Structural Insight into the Critical Role of the N-Terminal Region in the Catalytic Activity of Dual-Specificity Phosphatase 26.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Young Won

    Full Text Available Human dual-specificity phosphatase 26 (DUSP26 is a novel target for anticancer therapy because its dephosphorylation of the p53 tumor suppressor regulates the apoptosis of cancer cells. DUSP26 inhibition results in neuroblastoma cell cytotoxicity through p53-mediated apoptosis. Despite the previous structural studies of DUSP26 catalytic domain (residues 61-211, DUSP26-C, the high-resolution structure of its catalytically active form has not been resolved. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of a catalytically active form of DUSP26 (residues 39-211, DUSP26-N with an additional N-terminal region at 2.0 Å resolution. Unlike the C-terminal domain-swapped dimeric structure of DUSP26-C, the DUSP26-N (C152S monomer adopts a fold-back conformation of the C-terminal α8-helix and has an additional α1-helix in the N-terminal region. Consistent with the canonically active conformation of its protein tyrosine phosphate-binding loop (PTP loop observed in the structure, the phosphatase assay results demonstrated that DUSP26-N has significantly higher catalytic activity than DUSP26-C. Furthermore, size exclusion chromatography-multiangle laser scattering (SEC-MALS measurements showed that DUSP26-N (C152S exists as a monomer in solution. Notably, the crystal structure of DUSP26-N (C152S revealed that the N-terminal region of DUSP26-N (C152S serves a scaffolding role by positioning the surrounding α7-α8 loop for interaction with the PTP-loop through formation of an extensive hydrogen bond network, which seems to be critical in making the PTP-loop conformation competent for phosphatase activity. Our study provides the first high-resolution structure of a catalytically active form of DUSP26, which will contribute to the structure-based rational design of novel DUSP26-targeting anticancer therapeutics.

  15. First excited states in doubly-odd 110Sb: Smooth band termination in the A ∼ 110 region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, G.J.; Fossan, D.B.; Thorslund, I.

    1996-01-01

    Excited states have been identified for the first time in 110 Sb in a comprehensive series of γ-spectroscopy experiments, including recoil-mass and neutron-field measurements. Three high-spin decoupled bands with configurations based on 2p-2h excitations across the Z = 50 shell gap, are observed to show the features of smooth band termination, the first such observation in an odd-odd nucleus. The yrast intruder band has been connected to the low spin levels and is tentatively identified up to its predicred termination at I π = (45 + ). Detailed configuration assignments are made through comparison with configuration-dependent cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations; excellent agreement with experiment is obtained. The systematic occurrence of smoothly terminating bands in the neighboring isotopes is discussed

  16. Feline infectious peritonitis virus with a large deletion in the 5'-terminal region of the spike gene retains its virulence for cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Yutaka; Shiozaki, Yuto; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Mahmoud, Hassan Youssef Abdel Hamid; Noguchi, Keita; Nagao, Yumiko; Shimojima, Masayuki; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Mizuno, Takuya; Okuda, Masaru; Morimoto, Masahiro; Hayashi, Toshiharu; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Mochizuki, Masami; Maeda, Ken

    2012-09-01

    In this study, the Japanese strain of type I feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), C3663, was found to have a large deletion of 735 bp within the gene encoding the spike (S) protein, with a deduced loss of 245 aa of the N-terminal region of the S protein. This deletion is similar to that observed in porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCoV) when compared to transmissible gastroenteritis virus, which correlates with reduced virulence. By analogy to PRCoV, we expected that the pathogenicity of C3663 may be attenuated in cats. However, two of four cats inoculated with C3663 died of FIP, and a third C3663-inoculated cat showed FIP lesions at 91 days after challenge. These results indicate that the 5'-terminal region of the S gene is not essential for the development of FIP.

  17. Mutated but Not Deleted Ovine PrP(C) N-Terminal Polybasic Region Strongly Interferes with Prion Propagation in Transgenic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifé, Manal; Reine, Fabienne; Paquet-Fifield, Sophie; Castille, Johan; Herzog, Laetitia; Vilotte, Marthe; Moudjou, Mohammed; Moazami-Goudarzi, Katayoun; Makhzami, Samira; Passet, Bruno; Andréoletti, Olivier; Vilette, Didier; Laude, Hubert; Béringue, Vincent; Vilotte, Jean-Luc

    2016-02-01

    Mammalian prions are proteinaceous infectious agents composed of misfolded assemblies of the host-encoded, cellular prion protein (PrP). Physiologically, the N-terminal polybasic region of residues 23 to 31 of PrP has been shown to be involved in its endocytic trafficking and interactions with glycosaminoglycans or putative ectodomains of membrane-associated proteins. Several recent reports also describe this PrP region as important for the toxicity of mutant prion proteins and the efficiency of prion propagation, both in vitro and in vivo. The question remains as to whether the latter observations made with mouse PrP and mouse prions would be relevant to other PrP species/prion strain combinations given the dramatic impact on prion susceptibility of minimal amino acid substitutions and structural variations in PrP. Here, we report that transgenic mouse lines expressing ovine PrP with a deletion of residues 23 to 26 (KKRP) or mutated in this N-terminal region (KQHPH instead of KKRPK) exhibited a variable, strain-dependent susceptibility to prion infection with regard to the proportion of affected mice and disease tempo relative to findings in their wild-type counterparts. Deletion has no major effect on 127S scrapie prion pathogenesis, whereas mutation increased by almost 3-fold the survival time of the mice. Deletion marginally affected the incubation time of scrapie LA19K and ovine bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions, whereas mutation caused apparent resistance to disease. Recent reports suggested that the N-terminal polybasic region of the prion protein could be a therapeutic target to prevent prion propagation or toxic signaling associated with more common neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Mutating or deleting this region in ovine PrP completes the data previously obtained with the mouse protein by identifying the key amino acid residues involved. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. The C-terminal domain of the bacteriophage T4 terminase docks on the prohead portal clip region during DNA packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Aparna Banerjee; Ray, Krishanu; Thomas, Julie A.; Black, Lindsay W.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriophage ATP-based packaging motors translocate DNA into a pre-formed prohead through a dodecameric portal ring channel to high density. We investigated portal–terminase docking interactions at specifically localized residues within a terminase-interaction region (aa279–316) in the phage T4 portal protein gp20 equated to the clip domain of the SPP1 portal crystal structure by 3D modeling. Within this region, three residues allowed A to C mutations whereas three others did not, consistent with informatics analyses showing the tolerated residues are not strongly conserved evolutionarily. About 7.5 nm was calculated by FCS-FRET studies employing maleimide Alexa488 dye labeled A316C proheads and gp17 CT-ReAsH supporting previous work docking the C-terminal end of the T4 terminase (gp17) closer to the N-terminal GFP-labeled portal (gp20) than the N-terminal end of the terminase. Such a terminase–portal orientation fits better to a proposed “DNA crunching” compression packaging motor and to portal determined DNA headful cutting. PMID:24074593

  19. Role of N-terminal 28-amino-acid region of Rhizopus oryzae lipase in directing proteins to secretory pathway of Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Shinji; Tamalampudi, Sriappareddy; Shindo, Naoki; Numata, Takao; Yamaji, Hideki; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2008-07-01

    To develop a new approach for improving heterologous protein production in Aspergillus oryzae, we focused on the functional role of the N-terminal region of Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL). Several N-terminal deletion variants of ROL were expressed in A. oryzae. Interestingly, a segment of 28 amino acids from the C-terminal region of the propeptide (N28) was found to be critical for secretion of ROL into the culture medium. To further investigate the role of N28, the ROL secretory process was visualized in vivo using ROL-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins. In cells producing ROL with N28, fluorescence observations showed that the fusion proteins are transported through endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi, and cell wall, which is one of the typical secretory processes in a eukaryotic cell. Because the expression of the mature ROL-GFP fusion protein induced fluorescence accumulation without its translocation into the ER, N28 is considered to play a crucial role in protein transport. When N28 was inserted between the secretion signal and GFP, fluorescence observations showed that GFP, which is originally a cytoplasmic protein, was efficiently translocated into the ER of A. oryzae, resulting in an enhanced secretion of mature GFP after proteolytic cleavage of N28. These findings suggest that N28 facilitates protein translocation into ER and can be a promising candidate for improving heterologous protein production in A. oryzae.

  20. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 is found in skin and its C-terminal region encodes for antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papareddy, Praveen; Kalle, Martina; Sørensen, Ole E; Lundqvist, Katarina; Mörgelin, Matthias; Malmsten, Martin; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2012-01-01

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 (TFPI-2) is a matrix-associated serine protease inhibitor with an enigmatic function in vivo. Here, we describe that TFPI-2 is present in fibrin of wounds and also expressed in skin, where it is up-regulated upon wounding. Neutrophil elastase cleaved TFPI-2, and a C-terminal fragment was found to bind to bacteria. Similarly, a prototypic peptide representing this C-terminal part, EDC34, bound to bacteria and bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and induced bacterial permeabilization. The peptide also induced leakage in artificial liposomes, and displayed a random coil conformation upon interactions with liposomes as well as lipopolysaccharide. EDC34 was antibacterial against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in physiological buffer conditions. The results demonstrate that the C-terminus of TFPI-2 encodes for antimicrobial activity, and may be released during wounding.

  1. Carboxy terminal region of the Fanconi anemia protein, FANCG/XRCC9, is required for functional activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Y; Garcia-Higuera, I; Moran, A; Mondoux, M; Digweed, M; D'Andrea, A D

    2000-09-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive cancer susceptibility syndrome with eight complementation groups. Four of the FA genes have been cloned, and at least three of the encoded proteins, FANCA, FANCC, and FANCG/XRCC9, interact in a nuclear complex, required for the maintenance of normal chromosome stability. In the current study, mutant forms of the FANCA and FANCG proteins have been generated and analyzed with respect to protein complex formation, nuclear translocation, and functional activity. The results demonstrate that the amino terminal two-thirds of FANCG (FANCG amino acids 1-428) binds to the amino terminal nuclear localization signal (NLS) of the FANCA protein. On the basis of 2-hybrid analysis, the FANCA/FANCG binding is a direct protein-protein interaction. Interestingly, a truncated mutant form of the FANCG protein, lacking the carboxy terminus, binds in a complex with FANCA and translocates to the nucleus; however, this mutant protein fails to bind to FANCC and fails to correct the mitomycin C sensitivity of an FA-G cell line. Taken together, these results demonstrate that binding of FANCG to the amino terminal FANCA NLS sequence is necessary but not sufficient for the functional activity of FANCG. Additional amino acid sequences at the carboxy terminus of FANCG are required for the binding of FANCC in the complex. (Blood. 2000;96:1625-1632)

  2. Analysis of Ti valence states in resistive switching regions of a rutile TiO2‑ x four-terminal memristive device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Kengo; Takeuchi, Shotaro; Tohei, Tetsuya; Ikarashi, Nobuyuki; Sakai, Akira

    2018-06-01

    We have performed Ti valence state analysis of our four-terminal rutile TiO2‑ x single-crystal memristors using scanning transmission electron microscopy–electron energy loss spectroscopy (STEM–EELS). Analysis of Ti-L2,3 edge EELS spectra revealed that the electrocolored region formed by the application of voltage includes a valence state reflecting highly reduced TiO2‑ x due to the accumulation of oxygen vacancies. Such a valence state mainly exists within ∼50 nm from the crystal surface and extends along specific crystal directions. These electrically reduced surface layers are considered to directly contribute to the resistive switching (RS) in the four-terminal device. The present results add new insights into the microscopic mechanisms of the RS phenomena and should contribute to further development and improvements of TiO2‑ x based memristive devices.

  3. Structural diversity and evolution of the N-terminal isoform-specific region of ecdysone receptor-A and -B1 isoforms in insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubo Takeo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ecdysone receptor (EcR regulates various cellular responses to ecdysteroids during insect development. Insects have multiple EcR isoforms with different N-terminal A/B domains that contain the isoform-specific activation function (AF-1 region. Although distinct physiologic functions of the EcR isoforms have been characterized in higher holometabolous insects, they remain unclear in basal direct-developing insects, in which only A isoform has been identified. To examine the structural basis of the EcR isoform-specific AF-1 regions, we performed a comprehensive structural comparison of the isoform-specific region of the EcR-A and -B1 isoforms in insects. Results The EcR isoforms were newly identified in 51 species of insects and non-insect arthropods, including direct-developing ametabolous and hemimetabolous insects. The comprehensive structural comparison revealed that the isoform-specific region of each EcR isoform contained evolutionally conserved microdomain structures and insect subgroup-specific structural modifications. The A isoform-specific region generally contained four conserved microdomains, including the SUMOylation motif and the nuclear localization signal, whereas the B1 isoform-specific region contained three conserved microdomains, including an acidic activator domain-like motif. In addition, the EcR-B1 isoform of holometabolous insects had a novel microdomain at the N-terminal end. Conclusions Given that the nuclear receptor AF-1 is involved in cofactor recruitment and transcriptional regulation, the microdomain structures identified in the isoform-specific A/B domains might function as signature motifs and/or as targets for cofactor proteins that play essential roles in the EcR isoform-specific AF-1 regions. Moreover, the novel microdomain in the isoform-specific region of the holometabolous insect EcR-B1 isoform suggests that the holometabolous insect EcR-B1 acquired additional transcriptional

  4. Mutational analysis of Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu in search of a role for the N-terminal region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansilla, Francisco; Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Laurberg, M

    1998-01-01

    We have mutated lysine 2 and arginine 7 in elongation factor Tu from Escherichia coli separately either to alanine or glutamic acid. The aim of the work was to reveal the possible interactions between the conserved N-terminal part of the molecule, which is rich in basic residues and aminoacyl...... this activity. Furthermore, arginine 7 seems to play a role in regulating the binding of GTP. The three-dimensional structure of the ternary complex, EF-Tu:GTP:Phe-tRNAPhe, involving Thermus aquaticus EF-Tu and yeast Phe-tRNA(Phe), shows that Arg7 is in a position which permits salt bridge formation with Asp284...

  5. Crystal structures of the F and pSLT plasmid TraJ N-terminal regions reveal similar homodimeric PAS folds with functional interchangeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jun; Wu, Ruiying; Adkins, Joshua N.; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Glover, Mark

    2014-09-16

    In the F-family of conjugative plasmids, TraJ is an essential transcriptional activator of the tra operon that encodes most of the proteins required for conjugation. Here we report for the first time the X-ray crystal structures of the TraJ N-terminal regions from the prototypic F plasmid (TraJF11-130) and from the Salmonella virulence plasmid pSLT (TraJpSLT 1-128). Both proteins form similar homodimeric Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS) fold structures. Mutational analysis reveals that the observed dimeric interface is critical for TraJF transcriptional activation, indicating that dimerization of TraJ is required for its in vivo function. An artificial ligand (oxidized dithiothreitol) occupies a cavity in the TraJF dimer interface, while a smaller cavity in corresponding region of the TraJpSLT structure lacks a ligand. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-electron ionization analysis of dithiothreitol-free TraJF suggests indole may be the natural TraJ ligand; however, disruption of the indole biosynthetic pathway does not affect TraJF function. Heterologous PAS domains from pSLT and R100 TraJ can functionally replace the TraJF PAS domain, suggesting that TraJ allelic specificity is mediated by the region C-terminal to the PAS domain.

  6. Contribution of the C-terminal region within the catalytic core domain of HIV-1 integrase to yeast lethality, chromatin binding and viral replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belhumeur Pierre

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 integrase (IN is a key viral enzymatic molecule required for the integration of the viral cDNA into the genome. Additionally, HIV-1 IN has been shown to play important roles in several other steps during the viral life cycle, including reverse transcription, nuclear import and chromatin targeting. Interestingly, previous studies have demonstrated that the expression of HIV-1 IN induces the lethal phenotype in some strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we performed mutagenic analyses of the C-terminal region of the catalytic core domain of HIV-1 IN in order to delineate the critical amino acid(s and/or motif(s required for the induction of the lethal phenotype in the yeast strain HP16, and to further elucidate the molecular mechanism which causes this phenotype. Results Our study identified three HIV-1 IN mutants, V165A, A179P and KR186,7AA, located in the C-terminal region of the catalytic core domain of IN that do not induce the lethal phenotype in yeast. Chromatin binding assays in yeast and mammalian cells demonstrated that these IN mutants were impaired for the ability to bind chromatin. Additionally, we determined that while these IN mutants failed to interact with LEDGF/p75, they retained the ability to bind Integrase interactor 1. Furthermore, we observed that VSV-G-pseudotyped HIV-1 containing these IN mutants was unable to replicate in the C8166 T cell line and this defect was partially rescued by complementation with the catalytically inactive D64E IN mutant. Conclusion Overall, this study demonstrates that three mutations located in the C-terminal region of the catalytic core domain of HIV-1 IN inhibit the IN-induced lethal phenotype in yeast by inhibiting the binding of IN to the host chromatin. These results demonstrate that the C-terminal region of the catalytic core domain of HIV-1 IN is important for binding to host chromatin and is crucial for both viral replication and the promotion of

  7. Oxidative Unfolding of the Rubredoxin Domain and the Natively Disordered N-terminal Region Regulate the Catalytic Activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Protein Kinase G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Matthias; Luo, Qi; Kaila, Ville R I; Dames, Sonja A

    2016-12-30

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis escapes killing in human macrophages by secreting protein kinase G (PknG). PknG intercepts host signaling to prevent fusion of the phagosome engulfing the mycobacteria with the lysosome and, thus, their degradation. The N-terminal NORS (no regulatory secondary structure) region of PknG (approximately residues 1-75) has been shown to play a role in PknG regulation by (auto)phosphorylation, whereas the following rubredoxin-like metal-binding motif (RD, residues ∼74-147) has been shown to interact tightly with the subsequent catalytic domain (approximately residues 148-420) to mediate its redox regulation. Deletions or mutations in NORS or the redox-sensitive RD significantly decrease PknG survival function. Based on combined NMR spectroscopy, in vitro kinase assay, and molecular dynamics simulation data, we provide novel insights into the regulatory roles of the N-terminal regions. The NORS region is indeed natively disordered and rather dynamic. Consistent with most earlier data, autophosphorylation occurs in our assays only when the NORS region is present and, thus, in the NORS region. Phosphorylation of it results only in local conformational changes and does not induce interactions with the subsequent RD. Although the reduced, metal-bound RD makes tight interactions with the following catalytic domain in the published crystal structures, it can also fold in its absence. Our data further suggest that oxidation-induced unfolding of the RD regulates substrate access to the catalytic domain and, thereby, PknG function under different redox conditions, e.g. when exposed to increased levels of reactive oxidative species in host macrophages. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. The C-terminal MIR-containing region in the Pmt1 O-mannosyltransferase restrains sporulation and is dispensable for virulence in Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhangjiang; Luo, Linli; Keyhani, Nemat O; Yu, Xiaodong; Ying, Shenghua; Zhang, Yongjun

    2017-02-01

    Protein O-mannosyltransferases (Pmts) belong to a highly conserved protein family responsible for the initiation of O-glycosylation of many proteins. Pmts contain one dolichyl-phosphate-mannose-protein mannosyltransferases (PMT) domain and three MIR motifs (mannosyltransferase, inositol triphosphate, and ryanodine receptor) that are essential for activity in yeast. We report that in the insect fungal pathogen, Beauveria bassiana, deletion of the C-terminal Pmt1 MIR-containing region (Pmt1∆ 311-902 ) does not alter O-mannosyltransferase activity, but does increase total cell wall protein O-mannosylation levels and results in phenotypic changes in fungal development and cell wall stability. B. bassiana mutants harboring the Pmt1 ∆ 311-902 mutation displayed a significant increase in conidiation with up-regulation of conidiation-associated genes and an increase in biomass accumulation as compared to the wild-type parent. However, decreased vegetative growth and blastospore production was noted, and Pmt1 ∆ 311-902 mutants were altered in cell wall composition and cell surface features. Insect bioassays revealed little effect on virulence for the Pmt1 ∆ 311-902 strain via cuticle infection or intrahemocoel injection assays, although differences in hyphal body differentiation in the host hemolymph and up-regulation of virulence-associated genes were noted. These data suggest novel roles for Pmt1 in negatively regulating conidiation and demonstrate that the C-terminal Pmt1 MIR-containing region is dispensable for enzymatic activity and organismal virulence.

  9. The C-terminal region of A-kinase anchor protein 350 (AKAP350A) enables formation of microtubule-nucleation centers and interacts with pericentriolar proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolobova, Elena; Roland, Joseph T; Lapierre, Lynne A; Williams, Janice A; Mason, Twila A; Goldenring, James R

    2017-12-15

    Microtubules in animal cells assemble (nucleate) from both the centrosome and the cis-Golgi cisternae. A-kinase anchor protein 350 kDa (AKAP350A, also called AKAP450/CG-NAP/AKAP9) is a large scaffolding protein located at both the centrosome and Golgi apparatus. Previous findings have suggested that AKAP350 is important for microtubule dynamics at both locations, but how this scaffolding protein assembles microtubule nucleation machinery is unclear. Here, we found that overexpression of the C-terminal third of AKAP350A, enhanced GFP-AKAP350A(2691-3907), induces the formation of multiple microtubule-nucleation centers (MTNCs). Nevertheless, these induced MTNCs lacked "true" centriole proteins, such as Cep135. Mapping analysis with AKAP350A truncations demonstrated that AKAP350A contains discrete regions responsible for promoting or inhibiting the formation of multiple MTNCs. Moreover, GFP-AKAP350A(2691-3907) recruited several pericentriolar proteins to MTNCs, including γ-tubulin, pericentrin, Cep68, Cep170, and Cdk5RAP2. Proteomic analysis indicated that Cdk5RAP2 and Cep170 both interact with the microtubule nucleation-promoting region of AKAP350A, whereas Cep68 interacts with the distal C-terminal AKAP350A region. Yeast two-hybrid assays established a direct interaction of Cep170 with AKAP350A. Super-resolution and deconvolution microscopy analyses were performed to define the association of AKAP350A with centrosomes, and these studies disclosed that AKAP350A spans the bridge between centrioles, co-localizing with rootletin and Cep68 in the linker region. siRNA-mediated depletion of AKAP350A caused displacement of both Cep68 and Cep170 from the centrosome. These results suggest that AKAP350A acts as a scaffold for factors involved in microtubule nucleation at the centrosome and coordinates the assembly of protein complexes associating with the intercentriolar bridge.

  10. Distinct repeat motifs at the C-terminal region of CagA of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from diseased patients and asymptomatic individuals in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay Santanu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with Helicobacter pylori strains that express CagA is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric adenocarcinoma. The biological function of CagA depends on tyrosine phosphorylation by a cellular kinase. The phosphate acceptor tyrosine moiety is present within the EPIYA motif at the C-terminal region of the protein. This region is highly polymorphic due to variations in the number of EPIYA motifs and the polymorphism found in spacer regions among EPIYA motifs. The aim of this study was to analyze the polymorphism at the C-terminal end of CagA and to evaluate its association with the clinical status of the host in West Bengal, India. Results Seventy-seven H. pylori strains isolated from patients with various clinical statuses were used to characterize the C-ternimal polymorphic region of CagA. Our analysis showed that there is no correlation between the previously described CagA types and various disease outcomes in Indian context. Further analyses of different CagA structures revealed that the repeat units in the spacer sequences within the EPIYA motifs are actually more discrete than the previously proposed models of CagA variants. Conclusion Our analyses suggest that EPIYA motifs as well as the spacer sequence units are present as distinct insertions and deletions, which possibly have arisen from extensive recombination events. Moreover, we have identified several new CagA types, which could not be typed by the existing systems and therefore, we have proposed a new typing system. We hypothesize that a cagA gene encoding higher number EPIYA motifs may perhaps have arisen from cagA genes that encode lesser EPIYA motifs by acquisition of DNA segments through recombination events.

  11. The methylation of the C-terminal region of hnRNPQ (NSAP1) is important for its nuclear localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passos, Dario O.; Quaresma, Alexandre J.C.; Kobarg, Joerg

    2006-01-01

    Protein arginine methylation is an irreversible post-translational protein modification catalyzed by a family of at least nine different enzymes entitled PRMTs (protein arginine methyl transferases). Although PRMT1 is responsible for 85% of the protein methylation in human cells, its substrate spectrum has not yet been fully characterized nor are the functional consequences of methylation for the protein substrates well understood. Therefore, we set out to employ the yeast two-hybrid system in order to identify new substrate proteins for human PRMT1. We were able to identify nine different PRMT1 interacting proteins involved in different aspects of RNA metabolism, five of which had been previously described either as substrates for PRMT1 or as functionally associated with PRMT1. Among the four new identified possible protein substrates was hnRNPQ3 (NSAP1), a protein whose function has been implicated in diverse steps of mRNA maturation, including splicing, editing, and degradation. By in vitro methylation assays we were able to show that hnRNPQ3 is a substrate for PRMT1 and that its C-terminal RGG box domain is the sole target for methylation. By further studies with the inhibitor of methylation Adox we provide evidence that hnRNPQ1-3 are methylated in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate by immunofluorescence analysis of HeLa cells that the methylation of hnRNPQ is important for its nuclear localization, since Adox treatment causes its re-distribution from the nucleus to the cytoplasm

  12. Inhibition of muscle-specific gene expression by Id3: requirement of the C-terminal region of the protein for stable expression and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B; Han, B H; Sun, X H; Lim, R W

    1997-01-15

    We have examined the role of an Id-like protein, Id3 (also known as HLH462), in the regulation of muscle-specific gene expression. Id proteins are believed to block expression of muscle-specific genes by preventing the dimerization between ubiquitous bHLH proteins (E proteins) and myogenic bHLH proteins such as MyoD. Consistent with its putative role as an inhibitor of differentiation, Id3 mRNA was detected in proliferating skeletal muscle cells, was further induced by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and was down-regulated in differentiated muscle cultures. Overexpression of Id3 efficiently inhibited the MyoD-mediated activation of the muscle-specific creatine kinase (MCK) reporter gene. Deletion analysis indicated that the C-terminal 15 amino acids of Id3 are critical for the full inhibitory activity while deleting up to 42 residues from the C-terminus of the related protein, Id2, did not affect its ability to inhibit the MCK reporter gene. Chimeric protein containing the N-terminal region of Id3 and the C-terminus of Id2 was also non-functional in transfected cells. In contrast, wild-type Id3, the C-terminal mutants, and the Id3/Id2 chimera could all interact with the E-protein E47in vitro. Additional studies indicated that truncation of the Id3 C-terminus might have adversely affected the expression level of the mutant proteins but the Id3/Id2 chimera was stably expressed. Taken together, our results revealed a more complex requirement for the expression and proper function of the Id family proteins than was hitherto expected.

  13. Feline tetherin is characterized by a short N-terminal region and is counteracted by the feline immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celestino, Michele; Calistri, Arianna; Del Vecchio, Claudia; Salata, Cristiano; Chiuppesi, Flavia; Pistello, Mauro; Borsetti, Alessandra; Palù, Giorgio; Parolin, Cristina

    2012-06-01

    Tetherin (BST2) is the host cell factor that blocks the particle release of some enveloped viruses. Two putative feline tetherin proteins differing at the level of the N-terminal coding region have recently been described and tested for their antiviral activity. By cloning and comparing the two reported feline tetherins (called here cBST2(504) and cBST2*) and generating specific derivative mutants, this study provides evidence that feline tetherin has a shorter intracytoplasmic domain than those of other known homologues. The minimal tetherin promoter was identified and assayed for its ability to drive tetherin expression in an alpha interferon-inducible manner. We also demonstrated that cBST2(504) is able to dimerize, is localized at the cellular membrane, and impairs human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particle release, regardless of the presence of the Vpu antagonist accessory protein. While cBST2(504) failed to restrict wild-type feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) egress, FIV mutants, bearing a frameshift at the level of the envelope-encoding region, were potently blocked. The transient expression of the FIV envelope glycoprotein was able to rescue mutant particle release from feline tetherin-positive cells but did not antagonize human BST2 activity. Moreover, cBST2(504) was capable of specifically immunoprecipitating the FIV envelope glycoprotein. Finally, cBST2(504) also exerted its function on HIV-2 ROD10 and on the simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239. Taken together, these results show that feline tetherin does indeed have a short N-terminal region and that the FIV envelope glycoprotein is the predominant factor counteracting tetherin restriction.

  14. N-terminal aliphatic residues dictate the structure, stability, assembly, and small molecule binding of the coiled-coil region of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekar, Susheel K; Asnani, Mukta; Limbad, Chandani; Haghpanah, Jennifer S; Hom, Wendy; Barra, Hanna; Nanda, Soumya; Lu, Min; Montclare, Jin Kim

    2009-09-15

    The coiled-coil domain of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMPcc) assembles into a homopentamer that naturally recognizes the small molecule 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (vit D). To identify the residues critical for the structure, stability, oligomerization, and binding to vit D as well as two other small molecules, all-trans-retinol (ATR) and curcumin (CCM), here we perform an alanine scanning mutagenesis study. Ten residues lining the hydrophobic pocket of COMPcc were mutated into alanine; of the mutated residues, the N-terminal aliphatic residues L37, L44, V47, and L51 are responsible for maintaining the structure and function. Furthermore, two polar residues, T40 and Q54, within the N-terminal region when converted into alanine improve the alpha-helical structure, stability, and self-assembly behavior. Helical stability, oligomerization, and binding appear to be linked in a manner in which mutations that abolish helical structure and assembly bind poorly to vit D, ATR, and CCM. These results provide not only insight into COMPcc and its functional role but also useful guidelines for the design of stable, pentameric coiled-coils capable of selectively storing and delivering various small molecules.

  15. Genetic variation in N- and C-terminal regions of bovine DNAJA1 heat shock protein gene in African, Asian and American cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Oyeyemi O.; Peters, Sunday O.; De Donato, Marcos; Mujibi, F. Denis; Khan, Waqas A.; Hussain, Tanveer; Babar, Masroor E.; Imumorin, Ikhide G.; Thomas, Bolaji N.

    2018-01-01

    DNAJA1 or heat shock protein 40 (Hsp40) is associated with heat adaptation in various organisms. We amplified and sequenced a total of 1,142 bp of bovine Hsp40 gene representing the critical N-terminal (NTR) and C-terminal (CTR) regions in representative samples of African, Asian and American cattle breeds. Eleven and 9 different haplotypes were observed in the NTR in Asian and African breeds respectively while in American Brangus, only two mutations were observed resulting in two haplotypes. The CTR appears to be highly conserved between cattle and yak. In-silico functional analysis with PANTHER predicted putative deleterious functional impact of c.161 T>A; p. V54Q while alignment of bovine and human NTR-J domains revealed that p.Q19H, p.E20Q and p. E21X mutations occurred in helix 2 and p.V54Q missense mutation occurred in helix 3 respectively. The 124 bp insertion found in the yak DNAJA1 ortholog may have significant functional relevance warranting further investigation. Our results suggest that these genetic differences may be concomitant with population genetic history and possible functional consequences for climate adaptation in bovidae. PMID:29290829

  16. The C-terminal region (640-967) of Arabidopsis CPL1 interacts with the abiotic stress- and ABA-responsive transcription factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Woo Young; Kim, Se Won; Jeong, In Sil; Koiwa, Hisashi; Bahk, Jeong Dong

    2008-01-01

    Proteins in CPL1 family are unique to plants and contain a phosphatase catalytic domain and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding motifs (DRMs) in a single peptide. Though DRMs are important for the function of Arabidopsis CPL1 in vivo, the role of CPL1 DRM has been obscure. We have isolated two transcription factors, ANAC019 (At1g52890) and AtMYB3 (At1g22640), which specifically interact with the C-terminal region (640-967) of AtCPL1 containing two DRMs. Detailed interaction analysis indicated that AtMYB3 specifically interacted with the first DRM but not with the second DRM in CPL1 C-terminal fragment. GFP-fusion analysis indicated that AtMYB3 localized in nuclei-like CPL1, and its expression is induced by abiotic stress and ABA treatment. These results suggest that AtMYB3 function in abiotic stress signaling in concert with CPL1

  17. The heparin-binding site in tetranectin is located in the N-terminal region and binding does not involve the carbohydrate recognition domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentsen, R H; Graversen, J H; Caterer, N R; Thogersen, H C; Etzerodt, M

    2000-04-01

    Tetranectin is a homotrimeric plasma and extracellular-matrix protein that binds plasminogen and complex sulphated polysaccharides including heparin. In terms of primary and tertiary structure, tetranectin is related to the collectin family of Ca(2+)-binding C-type lectins. Tetranectin is encoded in three exons. Exon 3 encodes the carbohydrate recognition domain, which binds to kringle 4 in plasminogen at low levels of Ca(2+). Exon 2 encodes an alpha-helix, which is necessary and sufficient to govern the trimerization of tetranectin by assembling into a triple-helical coiled-coil structural element. Here we show that the heparin-binding site in tetranectin resides not in the carbohydrate recognition domain but within the N-terminal region, comprising the 16 amino acid residues encoded by exon 1. In particular, the lysine residues in the decapeptide segment KPKKIVNAKK (tetranectin residues 6-15) are shown to be of primary importance in heparin binding.

  18. Molecular cloning and recombinant expression of the VP28 carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic region from a brazilian white spot syndrome virus isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Braunig

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a fragment of the VP28 coding sequence from a Brazilian WSSV isolate (BrVP28 was cloned, sequenced and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3 pLysS strain in order to produce the VP28 carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic region. The expression resulted in a protein of about 21 kDa, which was purified under denaturing conditions, resulting in a final highly purified BrVP28 preparation. The recombinant protein obtained can be used in several biotechnology applications, such as the production of monoclonal antibodies which could be used in the development of diagnostic tools as well as in the studies on the characterization of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV isolated in Brazil.

  19. Involvement of the carboxyl-terminal region of the yeast peroxisomal half ABC transporter Pxa2p in its interaction with Pxa1p and in transporter function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yi Chuang

    Full Text Available The peroxisome is a single membrane-bound organelle in eukaryotic cells involved in lipid metabolism, including β-oxidation of fatty acids. The human genetic disorder X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene (encoding ALDP, a peroxisomal half ATP-binding cassette [ABC] transporter. This disease is characterized by defective peroxisomal β-oxidation and a large accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids in brain white matter, adrenal cortex, and testis. ALDP forms a homodimer proposed to be the functional transporter, whereas the peroxisomal transporter in yeast is a heterodimer comprising two half ABC transporters, Pxa1p and Pxa2p, both orthologs of human ALDP. While the carboxyl-terminal domain of ALDP is engaged in dimerization, it remains unknown whether the same region is involved in the interaction between Pxa1p and Pxa2p.Using a yeast two-hybrid assay, we found that the carboxyl-terminal region (CT of Pxa2p, but not of Pxa1p, is required for their interaction. Further analysis indicated that the central part of the CT (designated CT2 of Pxa2p was indispensable for its interaction with the carboxyl terminally truncated Pxa1_NBD. An interaction between the CT of Pxa2p and Pxa1_NBD was not detected, but could be identified in the presence of Pxa2_NBD-CT1. A single mutation of two conserved residues (aligned with X-ALD-associated mutations at the same positions in ALDP in the CT2 of the Pxa2_NBD-CT protein impaired its interaction with Pxa1_NBD or Pxa1_NBD-CT, resulting in a mutant protein that exhibited a proteinase K digestion profile different from that of the wild-type protein. Functional analysis of these mutant proteins on oleate plates indicated that they were defective in transporter function.The CT of Pxa2p is involved in its interaction with Pxa1p and in transporter function. This concept may be applied to human ALDP studies, helping to establish the pathological mechanism for CT-related X

  20. Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA coding for the amino-terminal region of human prepro. alpha. 1(III) collagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toman, P D; Ricca, G A [Rorer Biotechnology, Inc., Springfield, VA (USA); de Crombrugghe, B [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA)

    1988-07-25

    Type III Collagen is synthesized in a variety of tissues as a precursor macromolecule containing a leader sequence, a N-propeptide, a N-telopeptide, the triple helical region, a C-telopeptide, and C-propeptide. To further characterize the human type III collagen precursor, a human placental cDNA library was constructed in gt11 using an oligonucleotide derived from a partial cDNA sequence corresponding to the carboxy-terminal part of the 1(III) collagen. A cDNA was identified which contains the leader sequence, the N-propeptide and N-telopeptide regions. The DNA sequence of these regions are presented here. The triple helical, C-telopeptide and C-propeptide amino acid sequence for human type III collagen has been determined previously. A comparison of the human amino acid sequence with mouse, chicken, and calf sequence shows 81%, 81%, and 92% similarity, respectively. At the DNA level, the sequence similarity between human and mouse or chicken type III collagen sequences in this area is 82% and 77%, respectively.

  1. A Loop Region in the N-Terminal Domain of Ebola Virus VP40 Is Important in Viral Assembly, Budding, and Egress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Adu-Gyamfi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus (EBOV causes viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and can have clinical fatality rates of ~60%. The EBOV genome consists of negative sense RNA that encodes seven proteins including viral protein 40 (VP40. VP40 is the major Ebola virus matrix protein and regulates assembly and egress of infectious Ebola virus particles. It is well established that VP40 assembles on the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane of human cells to regulate viral budding where VP40 can produce virus like particles (VLPs without other Ebola virus proteins present. The mechanistic details, however, of VP40 lipid-interactions and protein-protein interactions that are important for viral release remain to be elucidated. Here, we mutated a loop region in the N-terminal domain of VP40 (Lys127, Thr129, and Asn130 and find that mutations (K127A, T129A, and N130A in this loop region reduce plasma membrane localization of VP40. Additionally, using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and number and brightness analysis we demonstrate these mutations greatly reduce VP40 oligomerization. Lastly, VLP assays demonstrate these mutations significantly reduce VLP release from cells. Taken together, these studies identify an important loop region in VP40 that may be essential to viral egress.

  2. Association of ω with the C-terminal region of β' subunit is essential for assembly of RNA polymerase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chunyou; Zhu, Yan; Lu, Pei; Feng, Lipeng; Chen, Shiyun; Hu, Yangbo

    2018-04-09

    The ω subunit is the smallest subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP). Although homologs of ω are essential in both eukaryotes and archaea, this subunit has been known to be dispensable for RNAP in Escherichia coli ( Eco ) and in other bacteria. In this study, we characterized an indispensable role of the ω subunit in Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ). Unlike the well-studied Eco RNAP, the Mtb RNAP core enzyme cannot be functionally assembled in the absence of the ω subunit. Importantly, substitution of Mtb ω with ω subunits from Eco or Thermus thermophiles ( Tth ) cannot restore the assembly of Mtb RNAP. Furthermore, by replacing different regions in Mtb ω with the corresponding regions from Eco ω, we found a non-conserved loop region in Mtb ω essential for its function in RNAP assembly. From RNAP structures, we noticed that the location of the C-terminal region of the β' subunit (β'CTD) in Mtb RNAP but not in Eco or Tth RNAP is close to the ω loop region. Deletion of this β'CTD in Mtb RNAP destabilized the binding of Mtb ω on RNAP and compromised Mtb core assembly, suggesting that these two regions may function together to play a role in ω-dependent RNAP assembly in Mtb Sequence alignment of the ω loop and the β'CTD regions suggests that the essential role of ω is probably restricted to mycobacteria. Together, our study characterized an essential role of Mtb ω and highlighted the importance of the ω loop region in Mtb RNAP assembly. Importance DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP), which is consisted of a multi-subunit core enzyme (α 2 ββ'ω) and a dissociable σ subunit, is the only enzyme in charge of transcription in bacteria. As the smallest subunit, the roles of ω remain the least well-studied. In Escherichia coli ( Eco ) and some other bacteria, the ω subunit is known to be non-essential for RNAP. In this study, we revealed an essential role of the ω subunit for RNAP assembly in the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis , and

  3. Roles of the conserved cytoplasmic region and non-conserved carboxy-terminal region of SecE in Escherichia coli protein translocase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontinen, V P; Yamanaka, M; Nishiyama, K; Tokuda, H

    1996-06-01

    SecE, an essential membrane component of the Escherichia coli protein translocase, consists of 127 amino acid residues. Only a part of the second putative cytoplasmic region comprising some 13 residues is essential for the SecE function as long as the proper topological arrangement is retained. The Trp84 and Pro85 residues of this region are conserved in all eubacterial SecE homologues. The conservation of positively charged residues corresponding to Arg80 and Lys81 is also substantial. We deleted or replaced these residues to assess their roles in the SecE function. Deletion of the Arg80-Lys81 dipeptide did not abolish the SecE function whereas that of Trp84 or Pro85 caused a loss of the function. Strikingly, however, replacement of Pro85 with either Gly, Ser, or Ala, and that of Trp84 with Lys did not abolish the SecE function. These results indicate that the strong conservation of these residues does not reflect their obligatory requirement for the SecE function. A chimeric SecE possessing the cytoplasmic region of the E. coli SecE and the following region of the Bacillus subtilis SecE was able to form the translocation machinery together with SecA, SecY, and SecG. Although a Leu to Arg mutation at position 108 has been thought to cause a loss of signal recognition fidelity and thereby suppress a signal sequence defect, the same mutation at position 111 caused a complete loss of the function. The levels of SecY and SecG in the secEcsE501 mutant, which expresses SecE at a decreased level and is sensitive to low temperature, increased upon the expression of functional SecE derivatives, irrespective of the site of mutation, suggesting that the levels of SecY and SecG are co-operatively determined by the level of functional, but not non-functional, SecE. Based on these results, the SecE function in the translocase is discussed.

  4. An overlapping region between the two terminal folding units of the outer surface protein A (OspA) controls its folding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makabe, Koki; Nakamura, Takashi; Dhar, Debanjan; Ikura, Teikichi; Koide, Shohei; Kuwajima, Kunihiro

    2018-04-27

    Although many naturally occurring proteins consist of multiple domains, most studies on protein folding to date deal with single-domain proteins or isolated domains of multi-domain proteins. Studies of multi-domain protein folding are required for further advancing our understanding of protein folding mechanisms. Borrelia outer surface protein A (OspA) is a β-rich two-domain protein, in which two globular domains are connected by a rigid and stable single-layer β-sheet. Thus, OspA is particularly suited as a model system for studying the interplays of domains in protein folding. Here, we studied the equilibria and kinetics of the urea-induced folding-unfolding reactions of OspA probed with tryptophan fluorescence and ultraviolet circular dichroism. Global analysis of the experimental data revealed compelling lines of evidence for accumulation of an on-pathway intermediate during kinetic refolding and for the identity between the kinetic intermediate and a previously described equilibrium unfolding intermediate. The results suggest that the intermediate has the fully native structure in the N-terminal domain and the single layer β-sheet, with the C-terminal domain still unfolded. The observation of the productive on-pathway folding intermediate clearly indicates substantial interactions between the two domains mediated by the single-layer β-sheet. We propose that a rigid and stable intervening region between two domains creates an overlap between two folding units and can energetically couple their folding reactions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The C-terminal region of the non-structural protein 2B from Hepatitis A Virus demonstrates lipid-specific viroporin-like activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Ashutosh; Dey, Debajit; Banerjee, Kamalika; Nain, Anshu; Banerjee, Manidipa

    2015-10-01

    Viroporins are virally encoded, membrane-active proteins, which enhance viral replication and assist in egress of viruses from host cells. The 2B proteins in the picornaviridae family are known to have viroporin-like properties, and play critical roles during virus replication. The 2B protein of Hepatitis A Virus (2B), an unusual picornavirus, is somewhat dissimilar from its analogues in several respects. HAV 2B is approximately 2.5 times the length of other 2B proteins, and does not disrupt calcium homeostasis or glycoprotein trafficking. Additionally, its membrane penetrating properties are not yet clearly established. Here we show that the membrane interacting activity of HAV 2B is localized in its C-terminal region, which contains an alpha-helical hairpin motif. We show that this region is capable of forming small pores in membranes and demonstrates lipid specific activity, which partially rationalizes the intracellular localization of full-length 2B. Using a combination of biochemical assays and molecular dynamics simulation studies, we also show that HAV 2B demonstrates a marked propensity to dimerize in a crowded environment, and probably interacts with membranes in a multimeric form, a hallmark of other picornavirus viroporins. In sum, our study clearly establishes HAV 2B as a bona fide viroporin in the picornaviridae family.

  6. N-terminal segments modulate the α-helical propensities of the intrinsically disordered basic regions of bZIP proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rahul K; Crick, Scott L; Pappu, Rohit V

    2012-02-17

    Basic region leucine zippers (bZIPs) are modular transcription factors that play key roles in eukaryotic gene regulation. The basic regions of bZIPs (bZIP-bRs) are necessary and sufficient for DNA binding and specificity. Bioinformatic predictions and spectroscopic studies suggest that unbound monomeric bZIP-bRs are uniformly disordered as isolated domains. Here, we test this assumption through a comparative characterization of conformational ensembles for 15 different bZIP-bRs using a combination of atomistic simulations and circular dichroism measurements. We find that bZIP-bRs have quantifiable preferences for α-helical conformations in their unbound monomeric forms. This helicity varies from one bZIP-bR to another despite a significant sequence similarity of the DNA binding motifs (DBMs). Our analysis reveals that intramolecular interactions between DBMs and eight-residue segments directly N-terminal to DBMs are the primary modulators of bZIP-bR helicities. We test the accuracy of this inference by designing chimeras of bZIP-bRs to have either increased or decreased overall helicities. Our results yield quantitative insights regarding the relationship between sequence and the degree of intrinsic disorder within bZIP-bRs, and might have general implications for other intrinsically disordered proteins. Understanding how natural sequence variations lead to modulation of disorder is likely to be important for understanding the evolution of specificity in molecular recognition through intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Deletion of the B-B' and C-C' regions of inverted terminal repeats reduces rAAV productivity but increases transgene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qingzhang; Tian, Wenhong; Liu, Chunguo; Lian, Zhonghui; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wu, Xiaobing

    2017-07-14

    Inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) of the adeno-associated virus (AAV) are essential for rescue, replication, packaging, and integration of the viral genome. While ITR mutations have been identified in previous reports, we designed a new truncated ITR lacking the B-B' and C-C' regions named as ITRΔBC and investigated its effects on viral genome replication, packaging, and expression of recombinant AAV (rAAV). The packaging ability was compared between ITRΔBC rAAV and wild-type (wt) ITR rAAV. Our results showed the productivity of ITRΔBC rAAV was reduced 4-fold, which is consistent with the 8-fold decrease in the replication of viral genomic DNA of ITRΔBC rAAV compared with wt ITR rAAV. Surprisingly, transgene expression was significantly higher for ITRΔBC rAAV. A preliminary exploration of the underlying mechanisms was carried out by inhibiting and degrading the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein and the Mre11 complex (MRN), respectively, since the rAAV expression was inhibited by the ATM and/or MRN through cis interaction or binding with wt ITRs. We demonstrated that the inhibitory effects were weakened on ITRΔBC rAAV expression. This study suggests deletion in ITR can affect the transgene expression of AAV, which provides a new way to improve the AAV expression through ITRs modification.

  8. Truncation of the C-terminal region of Toscana Virus NSs protein is critical for interferon-β antagonism and protein stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori Savellini, Gianni; Gandolfo, Claudia; Cusi, Maria Grazia

    2015-12-01

    Toscana Virus (TOSV) is a Phlebovirus responsible for central nervous system (CNS) injury in humans. The TOSV non-structural protein (NSs), which interacting with RIG-I leads to its degradation, was analysed in the C terminus fragment in order to identify its functional domains. To this aim, two C-terminal truncated NSs proteins, Δ1C-NSs (aa 1-284) and Δ2C-NSs (aa 1-287) were tested. Only Δ1C-NSs did not present any inhibitory effect on RIG-I and it showed a greater stability than the whole NSs protein. Moreover, the deletion of the TLQ aa sequence interposed between the two ΔC constructs caused a greater accumulation of the protein with a weak inhibitory effect on RIG-I, indicating some involvement of these amino acids in the NSs activity. Nevertheless, all the truncated proteins were still able to interact with RIG-I, suggesting that the domains responsible for RIG-I signaling and RIG-I interaction are mapped on different regions of the protein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Structure-activity relationships of the antimicrobial peptide arasin 1 - and mode of action studies of the N-terminal, proline-rich region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria S Paulsen

    Full Text Available Arasin 1 is a 37 amino acid long proline-rich antimicrobial peptide isolated from the spider crab, Hyas araneus. In this work the active region of arasin 1 was identified through structure-activity studies using different peptide fragments derived from the arasin 1 sequence. The pharmacophore was found to be located in the proline/arginine-rich NH(2 terminus of the peptide and the fragment arasin 1(1-23 was almost equally active to the full length peptide. Arasin 1 and its active fragment arasin 1(1-23 were shown to be non-toxic to human red blood cells and arasin 1(1-23 was able to bind chitin, a component of fungal cell walls and the crustacean shell. The mode of action of the fully active N-terminal arasin 1(1-23 was explored through killing kinetic and membrane permeabilization studies. At the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, arasin 1(1-23 was not bactericidal and had no membrane disruptive effect. In contrast, at concentrations of 5×MIC and above it was bactericidal and interfered with membrane integrity. We conclude that arasin 1(1-23 has a different mode of action than lytic peptides, like cecropin P1. Thus, we suggest a dual mode of action for arasin 1(1-23 involving membrane disruption at peptide concentrations above MIC, and an alternative mechanism of action, possibly involving intracellular targets, at MIC.

  10. MCM interference during licensing of DNA replication in Xenopus egg extracts-Possible Role of a C-terminal region of MCM3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Satoru; Kubota, Yumiko; Takisawa, Haruhiko

    2018-01-01

    The minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex, consisting of six subunits, Mcm2-7, is loaded onto replication origins through loading factors (origin recognition complex [ORC], Cdc6, and Cdt1) and forms an MCM double hexamer that licenses the initiation of DNA replication. Previous studies with Xenopus egg extracts showed that loading factors, especially Cdc6, dissociate from chromatin on MCM loading, but the molecular mechanism and physiological significance remain largely unknown. Using a cell-free system for MCM loading onto plasmid DNA in Xenopus egg extracts, we found that MCM loaded onto DNA prevents DNA binding of the loading factors ORC, Cdc6, and Cdt1. We further report that a peptide of the C-terminal region of MCM3 (MCM3-C), previously implicated in the initial association with ORC/Cdc6 in budding yeast, prevents ORC/Cdc6/Cdt1 binding to DNA in the absence of MCM loading. ATP-γ-S suppresses inhibitory activities of both the MCM loaded onto DNA and the MCM3-C peptide. Other soluble factors in the extract, but neither MCM nor Cdt1, are required for the activity. Conservation of the amino acid sequences of MCM3-C and its activity in vertebrates implies a novel negative autoregulatory mechanism that interferes with MCM loading in the vicinity of licensed origins to ensure proper origin licensing.

  11. Monoclonal Antibodies Directed toward the Hepatitis C Virus Glycoprotein E2 Detect Antigenic Differences Modulated by the N-Terminal Hypervariable Region 1 (HVR1), HVR2, and Intergenotypic Variable Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhammad, Yousef; Gu, Jun; Boo, Irene; Harrison, David; McCaffrey, Kathleen; Vietheer, Patricia T; Edwards, Stirling; Quinn, Charles; Coulibaly, Fásseli; Poumbourios, Pantelis; Drummer, Heidi E

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 form a heterodimer and mediate receptor interactions and viral fusion. Both E1 and E2 are targets of the neutralizing antibody (NAb) response and are candidates for the production of vaccines that generate humoral immunity. Previous studies demonstrated that N-terminal hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) can modulate the neutralization potential of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), but no information is available on the influence of HVR2 or the intergenotypic variable region (igVR) on antigenicity. In this study, we examined how the variable regions influence the antigenicity of the receptor binding domain of E2 spanning HCV polyprotein residues 384 to 661 (E2661) using a panel of MAbs raised against E2661 and E2661 lacking HVR1, HVR2, and the igVR (Δ123) and well-characterized MAbs isolated from infected humans. We show for a subset of both neutralizing and nonneutralizing MAbs that all three variable regions decrease the ability of MAbs to bind E2661 and reduce the ability of MAbs to inhibit E2-CD81 interactions. In addition, we describe a new MAb directed toward the region spanning residues 411 to 428 of E2 (MAb24) that demonstrates broad neutralization against all 7 genotypes of HCV. The ability of MAb24 to inhibit E2-CD81 interactions is strongly influenced by the three variable regions. Our data suggest that HVR1, HVR2, and the igVR modulate exposure of epitopes on the core domain of E2 and their ability to prevent E2-CD81 interactions. These studies suggest that the function of HVR2 and the igVR is to modulate antibody recognition of glycoprotein E2 and may contribute to immune evasion. This study reveals conformational and antigenic differences between the Δ123 and intact E2661 glycoproteins and provides new structural and functional data about the three variable regions and their role in occluding neutralizing and nonneutralizing epitopes on the E2 core domain. The variable regions may therefore function to

  12. Terminal Ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2012-01-01

    This book covers the important issues of terminal ballistics in a comprehensive way combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. The first chapter reviews the experimental equipment which are used for ballistic tests and the diagnostics for material characterization under impulsive loading conditions. The second chapter covers essential features of the codes which are used for terminal ballistics such as the Euler vs. Lagrange schemes and meshing techniques, as well as the most popular material models. The third chapter, devoted to the penetration mechanics of rigid penetrators, brings the update of modeling in this field. The fourth chapter deals with plate perforation and the fifth chapter deals with the penetration mechanics of shaped charge jets and eroding long rods. The last two chapters discuss several techniques for the disruption and defeating of the main threats in armor design. Throughout the book the authors demonstrate the advantages of numerical simulations in unde...

  13. Terminal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frank [Langenhagen, DE; Allais, Arnaud [Hannover, DE; Mirebeau, Pierre [Villebon sur Yvette, FR; Ganhungu, Francois [Vieux-Reng, FR; Lallouet, Nicolas [Saint Martin Boulogne, FR

    2009-10-20

    A terminal structure (2) for a superconducting cable (1) is described. It consists of a conductor (2a) and an insulator (2b) that surrounds the conductor (2a), wherein the superconducting cable (1) has a core with a superconducting conductor (5) and a layer of insulation that surrounds the conductor (5), and wherein the core is arranged in such a way that it can move longitudinally in a cryostat. The conductor (2a) of the terminal structure (2) is electrically connected with the superconducting conductor (5) or with a normal conductor (6) that is connected with the superconducting conductor (5) by means of a tubular part (7) made of an electrically conductive material, wherein the superconducting conductor (5) or the normal conductor (6) can slide in the part (7) in the direction of the superconductor.

  14. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  15. Deletion of a 197-Amino-Acid Region in the N-Terminal Domain of Spike Protein Attenuates Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus in Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yixuan; Lin, Chun-Ming; Yokoyama, Masaru; Yount, Boyd L; Marthaler, Douglas; Douglas, Arianna L; Ghimire, Shristi; Qin, Yibin; Baric, Ralph S; Saif, Linda J; Wang, Qiuhong

    2017-07-15

    We previously isolated a porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) strain, PC177, by blind serial passaging of the intestinal contents of a diarrheic piglet in Vero cell culture. Compared with the highly virulent U.S. PEDV strain PC21A, the tissue culture-adapted PC177 (TC-PC177) contains a 197-amino-acid (aa) deletion in the N-terminal domain of the spike (S) protein. We orally inoculated neonatal, conventional suckling piglets with TC-PC177 or PC21A to compare their pathogenicities. Within 7 days postinoculation, TC-PC177 caused mild diarrhea and lower fecal viral RNA shedding, with no mortality, whereas PC21A caused severe clinical signs and 55% mortality. To investigate whether infection with TC-PC177 can induce cross-protection against challenge with a highly virulent PEDV strain, all the surviving piglets were challenged with PC21A at 3 weeks postinoculation. Compared with 100% protection in piglets initially inoculated with PC21A, 88% and 100% TC-PC177- and mock-inoculated piglets had diarrhea following challenge, respectively, indicating incomplete cross-protection. To investigate whether this 197-aa deletion was the determinant for the attenuation of TC-PC177, we generated a mutant (icPC22A-S1Δ197) bearing the 197-aa deletion from an infectious cDNA clone of the highly virulent PEDV PC22A strain (infectious clone PC22A, icPC22A). In neonatal gnotobiotic pigs, the icPC22A-S1Δ197 virus caused mild to moderate diarrhea, lower titers of viral shedding, and no mortality, whereas the icPC22A virus caused severe diarrhea and 100% mortality. Our data indicate that deletion of this 197-aa fragment in the spike protein can attenuate a highly virulent PEDV, but the virus may lose important epitopes for inducing robust protective immunity. IMPORTANCE The emerging, highly virulent PEDV strains have caused substantial economic losses worldwide. However, the virulence determinants are not established. In this study, we found that a 197-aa deletion in the N-terminal region

  16. DNA requirements for interaction of the C-terminal region of Ku80 with the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Sarvan Kumar; Lees-Miller, Susan P

    2017-09-01

    Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is the major pathway for the repair of ionizing radiation induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in human cells. Critical to NHEJ is the DNA-dependent interaction of the Ku70/80 heterodimer with the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to form the DNA-PK holoenzyme. However, precisely how Ku recruits DNA-PKcs to DSBs ends to enhance its kinase activity has remained enigmatic, with contradictory findings reported in the literature. Here we address the role of the Ku80 C-terminal region (CTR) in the DNA-dependent interaction of Ku70/80 with DNA-PKcs using purified components and defined DNA structures. Our results show that the Ku80 CTR is required for interaction with DNA-PKcs on short segments of blunt ended 25bp dsDNA or 25bp dsDNA with a 15-base poly dA single stranded (ss) DNA extension, but this requirement is less stringent on longer dsDNA molecules (35bp blunt ended dsDNA) or 25bp duplex DNA with either a 15-base poly dT or poly dC ssDNA extension. Moreover, the DNA-PKcs-Ku complex preferentially forms on 25 bp DNA with a poly-pyrimidine ssDNA extension.Our work clarifies the role of the Ku80 CTR and dsDNA ends on the interaction of DNA-PKcs with Ku and provides key information to guide assembly and biology of NHEJ complexes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Watinglo mandible: a second terminal Pleistocene Homo sapiens fossil from tropical Sahul with a test on existing models for the human settlement of the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbeck, D; O'Connor, S

    2011-02-01

    This paper analyses a fossil human mandible, dated to circa 10ka, from Watinglo rockshelter on the north coast of Papua New Guinea. The fossil is metrically and morphologically similar to male mandibles of recent Melanesians and Australian Aborigines. It is distinguished from Kow Swamp and Coobool Creek male mandibles (Murray Valley, terminal Pleistocene) by being smaller and having different shape characteristics, as well as smaller teeth and a slower rate of tooth wear. It pairs with the Liang Lemdubu female (Late Glacial Maximum, Aru Islands) in suggesting that the morphology of the terminal Pleistocene inhabitants of tropical Sahul was gracile compared to their contemporaries within the southern Murray drainage. An explanatory scenario for this morphological contrast is developed in the context of the Homo sapiens early fossil record, Australasian mtDNA evidence, terminal Pleistocene climatic variation, and the possibility of multiple entry points into Sahul. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. The C-terminal region of Rad52 is essential for Rad52 nuclear and nucleolar localization, and accumulation at DNA damage sites immediately after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Manabu, E-mail: m_koike@nirs.go.jp [DNA Repair Gene Res., National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yutoku, Yasutomo [DNA Repair Gene Res., National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Yayoicho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Koike, Aki [DNA Repair Gene Res., National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2013-05-31

    Highlights: •Rad52 might play a key role in the repair of DSB immediately after irradiation. •EYFP-Rad52 accumulates rapidly at DSB sites and colocalizes with Ku80. •Accumulation of Rad52 at DSB sites is independent of the core NHEJ factors. •Localization and recruitment of Rad52 to DSB sites are dependent on the Rad52 CTR. •Basic amino acids in Rad52 CTR are highly conserved among vertebrate species. -- Abstract: Rad52 plays essential roles in homologous recombination (HR) and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, in vertebrates, knockouts of the Rad52 gene show no hypersensitivity to agents that induce DSBs. Rad52 localizes in the nucleus and forms foci at a late stage following irradiation. Ku70 and Ku80, which play an essential role in nonhomologous DNA-end-joining (NHEJ), are essential for the accumulation of other core NHEJ factors, e.g., XRCC4, and a HR-related factor, e.g., BRCA1. Here, we show that the subcellular localization of EYFP-Rad52(1–418) changes dynamically during the cell cycle. In addition, EYFP-Rad52(1–418) accumulates rapidly at microirradiated sites and colocalizes with the DSB sensor protein Ku80. Moreover, the accumulation of EYFP-Rad52(1–418) at DSB sites is independent of the core NHEJ factors, i.e., Ku80 and XRCC4. Furthermore, we observed that EYFP-Rad52(1–418) localizes in nucleoli in CHO-K1 cells and XRCC4-deficient cells, but not in Ku80-deficient cells. We also found that Rad52 nuclear localization, nucleolar localization, and accumulation at DSB sites are dependent on eight amino acids (411–418) at the end of the C-terminal region of Rad52 (Rad52 CTR). Furthermore, basic amino acids on Rad52 CTR are highly conserved among mammalian, avian, and fish homologues, suggesting that Rad52 CTR is important for the regulation and function of Rad52 in vertebrates. These findings also suggest that the mechanism underlying the regulation of subcellular localization of Rad52 is

  19. Terminal ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively discusses essential aspects of terminal ballistics, combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. Employing a unique approach to numerical simulations as a measure of sensitivity for the major physical parameters, the new edition also includes the following features: new figures to better illustrate the problems discussed; improved explanations for the equation of state of a solid and for the cavity expansion process; new data concerning the Kolsky bar test; and a discussion of analytical modeling for the hole diameter in a thin metallic plate impacted by a shaped charge jet. The section on thick concrete targets penetrated by rigid projectiles has now been expanded to include the latest findings, and two new sections have been added: one on a novel approach to the perforation of thin concrete slabs, and one on testing the failure of thin metallic plates using a hydrodynamic ram.

  20. Structure of the DNA-bound BRCA1 C-terminal region from human replication factor C p140 and model of the protein-DNA complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobayashi, M.; AB, E.; Bonvin, A.M.J.J.; Siegal, G.

    2010-01-01

    BRCA1 C-terminal domain (BRCT)-containing proteins are found widely throughout the animal and bacteria kingdoms where they are exclusively involved in cell cycle regulation and DNA metabolism. Whereas most BRCT domains are involved in protein-protein interactions, a small subset has bona fide DNA

  1. Termination unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traeholt, Chresten [Frederiksberg, DK; Willen, Dag [Klagshamn, SE; Roden, Mark [Newnan, GA; Tolbert, Jerry C [Carrollton, GA; Lindsay, David [Carrollton, GA; Fisher, Paul W [Heiskell, TN; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann [Jaegerspris, DK

    2014-01-07

    This invention relates to a termination unit comprising an end-section of a cable. The end section of the cable defines a central longitudinal axis and comprising end-parts of N electrical phases, an end-part of a neutral conductor and a surrounding thermally insulation envelope adapted to comprising a cooling fluid. The end-parts of the N electrical phases and the end-part of the neutral conductor each comprising at least one electrical conductor and being arranged in the cable concentrically around a core former with a phase 1 located relatively innermost, and phase N relatively outermost in the cable, phase N being surrounded by the neutral conductor, electrical insulation being arrange between neighboring electrical phases and between phase N and the neutral conductor, and wherein the end-parts of the neutral conductor and the electrical phases each comprise a contacting surface electrically connected to at least one branch current lead to provide an electrical connection: The contacting surfaces each having a longitudinal extension, and being located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section of the cable. The branch current leads being individually insulated from said thermally insulation envelope by individual electrical insulators.

  2. The C-terminal random coil region tunes the Ca²⁺-binding affinity of S100A4 through conformational activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Duelli

    Full Text Available S100A4 interacts with many binding partners upon Ca2+ activation and is strongly associated with increased metastasis formation. In order to understand the role of the C-terminal random coil for the protein function we examined how small angle X-ray scattering of the wild-type S100A4 and its C-terminal deletion mutant (residues 1-88, Δ13 changes upon Ca2+ binding. We found that the scattering intensity of wild-type S100A4 changes substantially in the 0.15-0.25 Å-1 q-range whereas a similar change is not visible in the C-terminus deleted mutant. Ensemble optimization SAXS modeling indicates that the entire C-terminus is extended when Ca2+ is bound. Pulsed field gradient NMR measurements provide further support as the hydrodynamic radius in the wild-type protein increases upon Ca2+ binding while the radius of Δ13 mutant does not change. Molecular dynamics simulations provide a rational explanation of the structural transition: the positively charged C-terminal residues associate with the negatively charged residues of the Ca2+-free EF-hands and these interactions loosen up considerably upon Ca2+-binding. As a consequence the Δ13 mutant has increased Ca2+ affinity and is constantly loaded at Ca2+ concentration ranges typically present in cells. The activation of the entire C-terminal random coil may play a role in mediating interaction with selected partner proteins of S100A4.

  3. Interaction between the C-terminal region of human myelin basic protein and calmodulin: analysis of complex formation and solution structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi Nobuhiro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The myelin sheath is a multilamellar membrane structure wrapped around the axon, enabling the saltatory conduction of nerve impulses in vertebrates. Myelin basic protein, one of the most abundant myelin-specific proteins, is an intrinsically disordered protein that has been shown to bind calmodulin. In this study, we focus on a 19-mer synthetic peptide from the predicted calmodulin-binding segment near the C-terminus of human myelin basic protein. Results The interaction of native human myelin basic protein with calmodulin was confirmed by affinity chromatography. The binding of the myelin basic protein peptide to calmodulin was tested with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC in different temperatures, and Kd was observed to be in the low μM range, as previously observed for full-length myelin basic protein. Surface plasmon resonance showed that the peptide bound to calmodulin, and binding was accompanied by a conformational change; furthermore, gel filtration chromatography indicated a decrease in the hydrodynamic radius of calmodulin in the presence of the peptide. NMR spectroscopy was used to map the binding area to reside mainly within the hydrophobic pocket of the C-terminal lobe of calmodulin. The solution structure obtained by small-angle X-ray scattering indicates binding of the myelin basic protein peptide into the interlobal groove of calmodulin, while calmodulin remains in an extended conformation. Conclusion Taken together, our results give a detailed structural insight into the interaction of calmodulin with a C-terminal segment of a major myelin protein, the myelin basic protein. The used 19-mer peptide interacts mainly with the C-terminal lobe of calmodulin, and a conformational change accompanies binding, suggesting a novel mode of calmodulin-target protein interaction. Calmodulin does not collapse and wrap around the peptide tightly; instead, it remains in an extended conformation in the solution structure

  4. The 14-3-3 protein interacts directly with the C-terminal region of the plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, T.; Fuglsang, A.T.; Olsson, A.

    1997-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that 14-3-3 proteins are involved in the regulation of plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity. However, it is not known whether the 14-3-3 protein interacts directly or indirectly with the H(+)-ATPase. In this study, detergent-solubilized plasma membrane H...... plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. We propose that the 14-3-3 protein is a natural ligand of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, regulating proton pumping by displacing the C-terminal autoinhibitory domain of the H(+)-ATPase....

  5. An N-terminal region of a Myb-like protein is involved in its intracellular localization and activation of a gibberellin-inducible proteinase gene in germinated rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutoh, Keita; Washio, Kenji; Imai, Ryozo; Wada, Masamitsu; Nakai, Tomonori; Yamauchi, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    The expression of the gene for a proteinase (Rep1) is upregulated by gibberellins. The CAACTC regulatory element (CARE) of the Rep1 promoter is involved in the gibberellin response. We isolated a cDNA for a CARE-binding protein containing a Myb domain in its carboxyl-terminal region and designated the gene Carboxyl-terminal Myb1 (CTMyb1). This gene encodes two polypeptides of two distinctive lengths, CTMyb1L and CTMyb1S, which include or exclude 213 N-terminal amino acid residues, respectively. CTMyb1S transactivated the Rep1 promoter in the presence of OsGAMyb, but not CTMyb1L. We observed an interaction between CTMyb1S and the rice prolamin box-binding factor (RPBF). A bimolecular fluorescence complex analysis detected the CTMyb1S and RPBF complex in the nucleus, but not the CTMyb1L and RPBF complex. The results suggest that the arrangement of the transfactors is involved in gibberellin-inducible expression of Rep1.

  6. High-resolution crystal structure reveals a HEPN domain at the C-terminal region of S. cerevisiae RNA endonuclease Swt1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Shuxia; Zhou, Ke; Wang, Wenjia; Gao, Zengqiang; Dong, Yuhui; Liu, Quansheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Crystal structure of the C-terminal (CT) domain of Swt1 was determined at 2.3 Å. • Structure of the CT domain was identified as HEPN domain superfamily member. • Low-resolution envelope of Swt1 full-length in solution was analyzed by SAXS. • The middle and CT domains gave good fit to SAXS structural model. - Abstract: Swt1 is an RNA endonuclease that plays an important role in quality control of nuclear messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) in eukaryotes; however, its structural details remain to be elucidated. Here, we report the crystal structure of the C-terminal (CT) domain of Swt1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which shares common characteristics of higher eukaryotes and prokaryotes nucleotide binding (HEPN) domain superfamily. To study in detail the full-length protein structure, we analyzed the low-resolution architecture of Swt1 in solution using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) method. Both the CT domain and middle domain exhibited a good fit upon superimposing onto the molecular envelope of Swt1. Our study provides the necessary structural information for detailed analysis of the functional role of Swt1, and its importance in the process of nuclear mRNP surveillance

  7. Rare RNF213 variants in the C-terminal region encompassing the RING-finger domain are associated with moyamoya angiopathy in Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guey, Stéphanie; Kraemer, Markus; Hervé, Dominique; Ludwig, Thomas; Kossorotoff, Manoëlle; Bergametti, Françoise; Schwitalla, Jan Claudius; Choi, Simone; Broseus, Lucile; Callebaut, Isabelle; Genin, Emmanuelle; Tournier-Lasserve, Elisabeth

    2017-08-01

    Moyamoya angiopathy (MMA) is a cerebral angiopathy affecting the terminal part of internal carotid arteries. Its prevalence is 10 times higher in Japan and Korea than in Europe. In East Asian countries, moyamoya is strongly associated to the R4810K variant in the RNF213 gene that encodes for a protein containing a RING-finger and two AAA+ domains. This variant has never been detected in Caucasian MMA patients, but several rare RNF213 variants have been reported in Caucasian cases. Using a collapsing test based on exome data from 68 European MMA probands and 573 ethnically matched controls, we showed a significant association between rare missense RNF213 variants and MMA in European patients (odds ratio (OR)=2.24, 95% confidence interval (CI)=(1.19-4.11), P=0.01). Variants specific to cases had higher pathogenicity predictive scores (median of 24.2 in cases versus 9.4 in controls, P=0.029) and preferentially clustered in a C-terminal hotspot encompassing the RING-finger domain of RNF213 (P<10 -3 ). This association was even stronger when restricting the analysis to childhood-onset and familial cases (OR=4.54, 95% CI=(1.80-11.34), P=1.1 × 10 -3 ). All clinically affected relatives who were genotyped were carriers. However, the need for additional factors to develop MMA is strongly suggested by the fact that only 25% of mutation carrier relatives were clinically affected.

  8. Sequence of the amino-terminal region of rat liver ribosomal proteins S4, S6, S8, L6, L7a, L18, L27, L30, L37, L37a, and L39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann-Liebold, B; Geissler, A W; Lin, A; Wool, I G

    1979-01-01

    The sequence of the amino-terminal region of eleven rat liver ribosomal proteins--S4, S6, S8, L6, L7a, L18, L27, L30, L37a, and L39--was determined. The analysis confirmed the homogeneity of the proteins and suggests that they are unique, since no extensive common sequences were found. The N-terminal regions of the rat liver proteins were compared with amino acid sequences in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in Escherichia coli ribosomal proteins. It seems likely that the proteins L37 from rat liver and Y55 from yeast ribosomes are homologous. It is possible that rat liver L7a or L37a or both are related to S cerevisiae Y44, although the similar sequences are at the amino-terminus of the rat liver proteins and in an internal region of Y44. A number of similarities in the sequences of rat liver and E coli ribosomal proteins have been found; however, it is not yet possible to say whether they connote a common ancestry.

  9. Improved Ohmic-contact to AlGaN/GaN using Ohmic region recesses by self-terminating thermal oxidation assisted wet etching technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, H.; Zhu, L.; Wu, W.

    2017-06-01

    Lower Ti/Al/Ni/Au Ohmic contact resistance on AlGaN/GaN with wider rapid thermal annealing (RTA) temperature window was achieved using recessed Ohmic contact structure based on self-terminating thermal oxidation assisted wet etching technique (STOAWET), in comparison with conventional Ohmic contacts. Even at lower temperature such as 650°C, recessed structure by STOAWET could still obtain Ohmic contact with contact resistance of 1.97Ω·mm, while conventional Ohmic structure mainly featured as Schottky contact. Actually, both Ohmic contact recess and mesa isolation processes could be accomplished by STOAWET in one process step and the process window of STOAWET is wide, simplifying AlGaN/GaN HEMT device process. Our experiment shows that the isolation leakage current by STOAWET is about one order of magnitude lower than that by inductivity coupled plasma (ICP) performed on the same wafer.

  10. Localization of Daucus carota NMCP1 to the nuclear periphery: the role of the N-terminal region and an NLS-linked sequence motif, RYNLRR, in the tail domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta eKimura

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent ultrastructural studies revealed that a structure similar to the vertebrate nuclear lamina exists in the nuclei of higher plants. However, plant genomes lack genes for lamins and intermediate-type filament proteins, and this suggests that plant-specific nuclear coiled-coil proteins make up the lamina-like structure in plants. NMCP1 is a protein, first identified in Daucus carota cells, that localizes exclusively to the nuclear periphery in interphase cells. It has a tripartite structure comprised of head, rod, and tail domains, and includes putative nuclear localization signal (NLS motifs. We identified the functional NLS of DcNMCP1 (carrot NMCP1 and determined the protein regions required for localizing to the nuclear periphery using EGFP-fused constructs transiently expressed in Apium graveolens epidermal cells. Transcription was driven under a CaMV35S promoter, and the genes were introduced into the epidermal cells by a DNA-coated microprojectile delivery system. Of the NLS motifs, KRRRK and RRHK in the tail domain were highly functional for nuclear localization. Addition of the N-terminal 141 amino acids from DcNMCP1 shifted the localization of a region including these NLSs from the entire nucleus to the nuclear periphery. Using this same construct, the replacement of amino acids in RRHK or its preceding sequence, YNL, with alanine residues abolished localization to the nuclear periphery, while replacement of KRRRK did not affect localization. The sequence R/Q/HYNLRR/H, including YNL and the first part of the sequence of RRHK, is evolutionarily conserved in a subclass of NMCP1 sequences from many plant species. These results show that NMCP1 localizes to the nuclear periphery by a combined action of a sequence composed of R/Q/HYNLRR/H, NLS, and the N-terminal region including the head and a portion of the rod domain, suggesting that more than one binding site is implicated in localization of NMCP1.

  11. Diverse amino acid changes at specific positions in the N-terminal region of the coat protein allow Plum pox virus to adapt to new hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Alberto; Maliogka, Varvara I; Pérez, José de Jesús; Salvador, Beatriz; León, David San; García, Juan Antonio; Simón-Mateo, Carmen

    2013-10-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV)-D and PPV-R are two isolates from strain D of PPV that differ in host specificity. Previous analyses of chimeras originating from PPV-R and PPV-D suggested that the N terminus of the coat protein (CP) includes host-specific pathogenicity determinants. Here, these determinants were mapped precisely by analyzing the infectivity in herbaceous and woody species of chimeras containing a fragment of the 3' region of PPV-D (including the region coding for the CP) in a PPV-R backbone. These chimeras were not infectious in Prunus persica, but systemically infected Nicotiana clevelandii and N. benthamiana when specific amino acids were modified or deleted in a short 30-amino-acid region of the N terminus of the CP. Most of these mutations did not reduce PPV fitness in Prunus spp. although others impaired systemic infection in this host. We propose a model in which the N terminus of the CP, highly relevant for virus systemic movement, is targeted by a host defense mechanism in Nicotiana spp. Mutations in this short region allow PPV to overcome the defense response in this host but can compromise the efficiency of PPV systemic movement in other hosts such as Prunus spp.

  12. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Primosomal DnaD Protein: Highly Conserved C-Terminal Region Is Crucial for ssDNA and PriA Helicase Binding but Not for DnaA Protein-Binding and Self-Tetramerization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hua Huang

    Full Text Available The role of DnaD in the recruitment of replicative helicase has been identified. However, knowledge of the DNA, PriA, and DnaA binding mechanism of this protein for the DnaA- and PriA-directed replication primosome assemblies is limited. We characterized the DNA-binding properties of DnaD from Staphylococcus aureus (SaDnaD and analyzed its interactions with SaPriA and SaDnaA. The gel filtration chromatography analysis of purified SaDnaD and its deletion mutant proteins (SaDnaD1-195, SaDnaD1-200 and SaDnaD1-204 showed a stable tetramer in solution. This finding indicates that the C-terminal region aa 196-228 is not crucial for SaDnaD oligomerization. SaDnaD forms distinct complexes with ssDNA of different lengths. In fluorescence titrations, SaDnaD bound to ssDNA with a binding-site size of approximately 32 nt. A stable complex of SaDnaD1-195, SaDnaD1-200, and SaDnaD1-204 with ssDNA dT40 was undetectable, indicating that the C-terminal region of SaDnaD (particularly aa 205-228 is crucial for ssDNA binding. The SPR results revealed that SaDnaD1-195 can interact with SaDnaA but not with SaPriA, which may indicate that DnaD has different binding sites for PriA and DnaA. Both SaDnaD and SaDnaDY176A mutant proteins, but not SaDnaD1-195, can significantly stimulate the ATPase activity of SaPriA. Hence, the stimulation effect mainly resulted from direct contact within the protein-protein interaction, not via the DNA-protein interaction. Kinetic studies revealed that the SaDnaD-SaPriA interaction increases the Vmax of the SaPriA ATPase fivefold without significantly affecting the Km. These results indicate that the conserved C-terminal region is crucial for ssDNA and PriA helicase binding, but not for DnaA protein-binding and self-tetramerization.

  13. The Chikungunya Virus Capsid Protein Contains Linear B Cell Epitopes in the N- and C-Terminal Regions that are Dependent on an Intact C-Terminus for Antibody Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Y. H. Goh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an arthropod-borne agent that causes severe arthritic disease in humans and is considered a serious health threat in areas where competent mosquito vectors are prevalent. CHIKV has recently been responsible for several millions of cases of disease, involving over 40 countries. The recent re-emergence of CHIKV and its potential threat to human health has stimulated interest in better understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of the virus, and requirement for improved treatment, prevention and control measures. In this study, we mapped the binding sites of a panel of eleven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs previously generated towards the capsid protein (CP of CHIKV. Using N- and C-terminally truncated recombinant forms of the CHIKV CP, two putative binding regions, between residues 1–35 and 140–210, were identified. Competitive binding also revealed that five of the CP-specific mAbs recognized a series of overlapping epitopes in the latter domain. We also identified a smaller, N-terminally truncated product of native CP that may represent an alternative translation product of the CHIKV 26S RNA and have potential functional significance during CHIKV replication. Our data also provides evidence that the C-terminus of CP is required for authentic antigenic structure of CP. This study shows that these anti-CP mAbs will be valuable research tools for further investigating the structure and function of the CHIKV CP.

  14. kosh Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. kpdt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. kewr Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. kiso Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. kpga Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. kbkw Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. ktcl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. pgwt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. kpsp Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. kbih Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. kdnl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. kart Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. kilm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. kpne Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. kabi Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. ptpn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. kblf Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. panc Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. kpbi Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. kgdv Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. kcmx Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. kdls Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. koaj Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. krhi Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. kbpk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. khuf Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. kbpi Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. ktrk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. kwmc Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. katy Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. tjmz Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. kdet Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. kcxp Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. kbur Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. krkd Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. pawg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. kloz Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. kcec Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. kdec Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. paor Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. kavl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. kdrt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. kstl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. kbfi Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. khsv Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. pafa Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. kekn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. tncm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. kith Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. kgnv Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. ktoi Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. kgso Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. nstu Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. kmgm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. khib Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. pavd Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. kfar Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. kluk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. kwwr Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. klse Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. ksts Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. koth Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. kbfl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. ksgf Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. kpkb Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. krog Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. kbjc Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. ksea Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. kbwi Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. kftw Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. kpuw Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. kabq Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. ksny Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. khio Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. klaf Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. kfoe Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. ksmx Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. kipt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. klch Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. Organizational Relationship Termination Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Geersbro, Jens

    2011-01-01

    termination are found to significantly affect a firm's relationship termination competence. The findings suggest that managers should regard termination as a legitimate option in customer relationship management. In order to decrease the number of unwanted customers, managers must accept termination......Most firms are involved in a number of customer relationships that drain the firm's resources. However, many firms are hesitant to address this problem. This paper investigates customer relationship termination at the organizational level. We develop and analyze the organizational dimensions...... of organizational termination in order to improve our understanding of the management of termination. The impact of these termination dimensions on the percentage of unwanted customers is developed and tested using PLS on data gathered from a cross-sectional survey of more than 800 sales representatives. We find...

  14. kink Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. krut Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. kbli Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. kaoo Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. klit Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. ktup Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. ktop Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. klax Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. kprc Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. katl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. kmcn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. kogb Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. kama Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. ptkk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. kiwa Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. kavp Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. kdca Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. kbwg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. kdfw Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. kssi Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. pahn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. ksrq Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. kpvd Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. kisp Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. kttd Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. pmdy Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. kont Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. kyng Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. kcwa Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. kflg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. krsw Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. kmyl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. krbg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. kril Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. ksus Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. padq Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. kbil Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. krfd Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. kdug Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. ktix Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. kcod Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. kslk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. kgfl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. kguc Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. kmlu Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. kbff Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. ksmn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. kdro Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. kmce Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. ktpa Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. kmot Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. kcre Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. klws Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. kotm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. khqm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. kabr Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. klal Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. kelp Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. kecg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. khbg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. kpbf Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. konp Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. pkwa Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. ktvf Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. paga Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. khks Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. kdsm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. kpsm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. kgrb Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. kgmu Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. papg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. kbgm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. pamc Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. klrd Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. ksan Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. patk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. kowb Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. klru Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. kfxe Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. kjct Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. kcrg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. paaq Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. kaex Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. klbx Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. kmia Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. kpit Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. kcrw Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. paen Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. kast Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. kuin Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. kmht Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. kcys Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. kflo Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. pakn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. pabt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. krdg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. khdn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. kjac Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. kphx Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. Application of field-bus to interface field instrumentation in hazardous areas of TRANSPETRO pipelines and terminals, Sao Paulo region; Aplicacao de barramento de campo (fieldbus) em areas classificadas nos dutos e terminais da TRANSPETRO, regiao de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcioli, Mario Sergio [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The following presentation focuses on the experiences that we have been adopting with success during the past seven (7) years at the TRANSPETRO Pipelines and Terminals, in the State of Sao Paulo region, to integrate the field instruments (switches, actuators, solenoid valves, motor starter and switchgear panels, and so on) installed in the hazardous areas, to Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) connected to Remote Input and Output Modules (I/O) in the hazardous area, designated to interface the field signals and condition them to communicate via a bus in the field (field bus), making use of a standard open type industrial communication bus - PROFIBUS DP V1, under which the independent manufacturers follow the industrial Standards EN50170 and EN50254, pointing out the advantages of the application of this instrumentation philosophy, that among other philosophies, allows the use of engineering tools for the asset management and to assist the maintenance and operation of industrial plants. (author)

  14. C-terminal region of the UV-B photoreceptor UVR8 initiates signaling through interaction with the COP1 protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloix, Catherine; Kaiserli, Eirini; Heilmann, Monika; Baxter, Katherine J.; Brown, Bobby A.; O’Hara, Andrew; Smith, Brian O.; Christie, John M.; Jenkins, Gareth I.

    2012-01-01

    UV-B light initiates photomorphogenic responses in plants. Arabidopsis UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) specifically mediates these responses by functioning as a UV-B photoreceptor. UV-B exposure converts UVR8 from a dimer to a monomer, stimulates the rapid accumulation of UVR8 in the nucleus, where it binds to chromatin, and induces interaction of UVR8 with CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1), which functions with UVR8 to control photomorphogenic UV-B responses. Although the crystal structure of UVR8 reveals the basis of photoreception, it does not show how UVR8 initiates signaling through interaction with COP1. Here we report that a region of 27 amino acids from the C terminus of UVR8 (C27) mediates the interaction with COP1. The C27 region is necessary for UVR8 function in the regulation of gene expression and hypocotyl growth suppression in Arabidopsis. However, UVR8 lacking C27 still undergoes UV-B–induced monomerization in both yeast and plant protein extracts, accumulates in the nucleus in response to UV-B, and interacts with chromatin at the UVR8-regulated ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) gene. The UV-B–dependent interaction of UVR8 and COP1 is reproduced in yeast cells and we show that C27 is both necessary and sufficient for the interaction of UVR8 with the WD40 domain of COP1. Furthermore, we show that C27 interacts in yeast with the REPRESSOR OF UV-B PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS proteins, RUP1 and RUP2, which are negative regulators of UVR8 function. Hence the C27 region has a key role in UVR8 function. PMID:22988111

  15. Problem-Solving Test: The Mechanism of Transcription Termination by the Rho Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2012-01-01

    Transcription termination comes in two forms in "E. coli" cells. Rho-dependent termination requires the binding of a termination protein called Rho factor to the transcriptional machinery at the terminator region, whereas Rho-independent termination is achieved by conformational changes in the transcript itself. This article presents a test…

  16. TWEAK-independent Fn14 self-association and NF-κB activation is mediated by the C-terminal region of the Fn14 cytoplasmic domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharron A N Brown

    Full Text Available The tumor necrosis factor (TNF superfamily member TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK is a pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic cytokine implicated in physiological tissue regeneration and wound repair. TWEAK binds to a 102-amino acid type I transmembrane cell surface receptor named fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14. TWEAK:Fn14 engagement activates several intracellular signaling cascades, including the NF-κB pathway, and sustained Fn14 signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. Although several groups are developing TWEAK- or Fn14-targeted agents for therapeutic use, much more basic science research is required before we fully understand the TWEAK/Fn14 signaling axis. For example, we and others have proposed that TWEAK-independent Fn14 signaling may occur in cells when Fn14 levels are highly elevated, but this idea has never been tested directly. In this report, we first demonstrate TWEAK-independent Fn14 signaling by showing that an Fn14 deletion mutant that is unable to bind TWEAK can activate the NF-κB pathway in transfected cells. We then show that ectopically-expressed, cell surface-localized Fn14 can self-associate into Fn14 dimers, and we show that Fn14 self-association is mediated by an 18-aa region within the Fn14 cytoplasmic domain. Endogenously-expressed Fn14 as well as ectopically-overexpressed Fn14 could also be detected in dimeric form when cell lysates were subjected to SDS-PAGE under non-reducing conditions. Additional experiments revealed that Fn14 dimerization occurs during cell lysis via formation of an intermolecular disulfide bond at cysteine residue 122. These findings provide insight into the Fn14 signaling mechanism and may aid current studies to develop therapeutic agents targeting this small cell surface receptor.

  17. CONTAINER TERMINALS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart W. WIEGMANS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the linkage between logistics (in particular, the management of marketing channel flows and transport markets, while also the interaction between these two markets and intermodal container terminals is analysed. The marketing channel theory is used to describe all relevant actors and flows that run through marketing channels, starting with customer needs and ending with customer satisfaction. Porter's theory of competitive advantages is used to review competitive forces in both markets. Finally, a competitor analysis is performed for the logistics and transport market. These theories are applied so as to be able to determine the competitive position of intermodal container terminals with a view to the management of marketing channel flows and the physical transport of freight flows. Hence, the central question of this paper is: Which markets are served by intermodal container terminals and with whom are they competing? At present, neither the maritime container terminals nor the continental container terminals appear to have a significant influence in the logistics service market; they concentrate mainly on the physical movement of containers (transshipment. Furthermore, maritime container terminals and continental container terminals are not dominant players in the transport service market. Our conclusion is that continental terminals are predominantly competing with unimodal road transport, with neighbouring continental terminals and with barge transport companies.

  18. Lazy Productivity via Termination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, J.; Hendriks, R.D.A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a procedure for transforming strongly sequential constructor-based term rewriting systems (TRSs) into context-sensitive TRSs in such a way that productivity of the input system is equivalent to termination of the output system. Thereby automated termination provers become available for

  19. Termination of cycle rewriting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantema, H.; König, B.; Bruggink, H.J.S.; Dowek, G.

    2014-01-01

    String rewriting can not only be applied on strings, but also on cycles and even on general graphs. In this paper we investigate termination of string rewriting applied on cycles, shortly denoted as cycle rewriting, which is a strictly stronger requirement than termination on strings. Most

  20. Kitimat LNG terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmaltz, I.; Boulton, R.

    2007-01-01

    Kitimat Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) terminal is a terminal development company owned by Galveston LNG, a privately owned Canadian energy development company. This presentation provided information on Kitimat LNG with particular reference to its terminal located in Bish Cove on the Douglas Channel in British Columbia. This LNG terminal is reported to be the only fully permitted regasification terminal on the west coast of Canada and the United States. The presentation addressed market fundamentals including several graphs, such as world natural gas proved reserves in 2006; LNG supplements to Canadian gas supplies; global LNG demand for 2005-2020; average annual United States LNG imports; and global LNG liquefaction projects. Other market fundamentals were described, including that Kitimat is the only other approved terminal aside from the Costa Azul terminal in Mexico; Kitimat is the only west coast LNG import terminal that connects to midwest and eastern North American markets through existing gas pipelines; LNG producers are looking for destination diversification; and markets and marketers are looking for supply diversification. The authors noted that by 2010, western Canadian gas demand will exceed Californian demand. Other topics that were discussed in the presentation included Canadian natural gas field receipts; unadjusted bitumen production outlook; oil sands gas demand; forward basis fundamentals; and the commercial drivers of the Kitimat LNG terminal. The presentation also discussed the pacific trail pipelines, a partnership between Galveston LNG and Pacific Northern Gas to develop the natural gas transmission line from Kitimat to Summit. The presentation concluded with a discussion of the benefits of Kitimat LNG terminal such as providing access to the largest natural gas markets in the world via major gas transmission lines with spare capacity. figs

  1. Direct comparison of mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide with N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide in the diagnosis of patients with atrial fibrillation and dyspnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Jens; Potocki, Mihael; Murray, Karsten; Breidthardt, Tobias; Ziller, Ronny; Mosimann, Tamina; Klima, Theresia; Hoeller, Rebeca; Moehring, Berit; Sou, Seoung Mann; Rubini Gimenez, Maria; Morgenthaler, Nils G; Mueller, Christian

    2012-10-01

    Due to different release mechanisms, mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR proANP) may be superior to N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT proBNP) in the diagnosis of acute heart failure (AHF) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We compared MR proANP and NT proBNP for their diagnostic value in patients with AF and sinus rhythm (SR). Prospective cohort study. University hospital, emergency department. 632 consecutive patients presenting with acute dyspnoea. MR proANP and NT proBNP plasma levels were determined. The diagnosis of AHF was adjudicated by two independent cardiologists using all available data. Patients received long-term follow-up. AF was present in 151 patients (24%). MR proANP and NT proBNP levels were significantly higher in the AF group compared with the SR group (385 (258-598) versus 201 (89-375) pmol/l for MR proANP, pvalue for the diagnosis of AHF. The rhythm at presentation has to be taken into account because plasma levels of both peptides are significantly higher in patients with AF compared with SR.

  2. Modular approach for satellite communication ground terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, G. R.

    1984-01-01

    The trend in satellite communications is toward completely digital, time division multiple access (TDMA) systems with uplink and downlink data rates dictated by the type of service offered. Trunking terminals will operate in the 550 MBPS (megabit per second) region uplink and downlink, whereas customer premise service (CPS) terminals will operate in the 25 to 10 MBPS region uplink and in the 200 MBPS region downlink. Additional criteria for the ground terminals will be to maintain clock sychronization with the system and burst time integrity to within a matter of nanoseconds, to process required order-fire information, to provide adaptive data scrambing, and to compensate for variations in the user input output data rates, and for changes in range in the satellite communications links resulting from satellite perturbations in orbit. To achieve the required adaptability of a ground terminal to the above mentioned variables, programmable building blocks can be developed that will meet all of these requirements. To maintain system synchronization, i.e., all bursted data arriving at the satellite within assigned TDMA windows, ground terminal transmit data rates and burst timing must be maintained within tight tolerances. With a programmable synchronizer as the heart of the terminal timing generation, variable data rates and burst timing tolerances are achievable. In essence, the unit inputs microprocessor generated timing words and outputs discrete timing pulses.

  3. Functional interactions of the AF-2 activation domain core region of the human androgen receptor with the amino-terminal domain and with the transcriptional coactivator TIF2 (transcriptional intermediary factor2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Berrevoets (Cor); P. Doesburg (Paul); K. Steketee (Karine); J. Trapman (Jan); A.O. Brinkmann (Albert)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractPrevious studies in yeast and mammalian cells showed a functional interaction between the amino-terminal domain and the carboxy-terminal, ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the human androgen receptor (AR). In the present study, the AR subdomains involved in

  4. Nonleaking battery terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45% KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a KOH electrolyte in a plastic case are considered.

  5. Nontraumatic terminal ileal perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wani Rauf A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is still confusion and controversy over the diagnosis and optimal surgical treatment of non traumatic terminal ileal perforation-a cause of obscure peritonitis. Methods This study was a prospective study aimed at evaluating the clinical profile, etiology and optimal surgical management of patients with nontraumatic terminal ileal perforation. Results There were 79 cases of nontraumatic terminal ileal perforation; the causes for perforation were enteric fever(62%, nonspecific inflammation(26%, obstruction(6%, tuberculosis(4% and radiation enteritis (1%. Simple closure of the perforation (49% and end to side ileotransverse anastomosis(42% were the mainstay of the surgical management. Conclusion Terminal ileal perforation should be suspected in all cases of peritonitis especially in developing countries and surgical treatment should be optimized taking various accounts like etiology, delay in surgery and operative findings into consideration to reduce the incidence of deadly complications like fecal fistula.

  6. Terminated Multifamily Mortgages Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This dataset includes all terminated HUD Multifamily mortgages except those from the Hospital Mortgage Insurance Program. It includes the Holder and Servicer at the...

  7. Coal terminal directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    The directory gives a comprehensive listing of the world's coal terminals, in a total of 50 countries including information on throughput, facilities, storage capacity, and vessel size limitation.

  8. Visual communication and terminal equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Cheol Hui

    1988-06-01

    This book is divided two parts about visual communication and terminal equipment. The first part introduces visual communication, which deals with foundation of visual communication, technique of visual communication, equipment of visual communication, a facsimile and pictorial image system. The second part contains terminal equipment such as telephone, terminal equipment for data transmission on constitution and constituent of terminal equipment for data transmission, input device and output device, terminal device and up-to-date terminal device.

  9. Visual communication and terminal equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Cheol Hui

    1988-06-15

    This book is divided two parts about visual communication and terminal equipment. The first part introduces visual communication, which deals with foundation of visual communication, technique of visual communication, equipment of visual communication, a facsimile and pictorial image system. The second part contains terminal equipment such as telephone, terminal equipment for data transmission on constitution and constituent of terminal equipment for data transmission, input device and output device, terminal device and up-to-date terminal device.

  10. Superficial disposition of the N-terminal region of the surfactant protein SP-C and the absence of specific SP-B-SP-C interactions in phospholipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plasencia, I; Cruz, A; Casals, C

    2001-01-01

    . The fluorescence emission spectrum of Dns-SP-C in phospholipid bilayers is similar to the spectrum of dansyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, and indicates that the N-terminal end of the protein is located at the surface of the membranes and is exposed to the aqueous environment. In membranes containing...... phosphatidylglycerol (PG), the fluorescence of Dns-SP-C shows a 3-fold increase with respect to the fluorescence of phosphatidylcholine (PC), suggesting that electrostatic lipid-protein interactions induce important effects on the structure and disposition of the N-terminal segment of the protein in these membranes...... of the N-terminal segment of the protein into less polar environments that originate during protein lateral segregation. This suggests that conformation and interactions of the N-terminal segment of SP-C could be important in regulating the lateral distribution of the protein in surfactant bilayers...

  11. C-terminal region of EBNA-2 determines the superior transforming ability of type 1 Epstein-Barr virus by enhanced gene regulation of LMP-1 and CXCR7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Cancian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV strains immortalize B lymphocytes in vitro much more efficiently than type 2 EBV, a difference previously mapped to the EBNA-2 locus. Here we demonstrate that the greater transforming activity of type 1 EBV correlates with a stronger and more rapid induction of the viral oncogene LMP-1 and the cell gene CXCR7 (which are both required for proliferation of EBV-LCLs during infection of primary B cells with recombinant viruses. Surprisingly, although the major sequence differences between type 1 and type 2 EBNA-2 lie in N-terminal parts of the protein, the superior ability of type 1 EBNA-2 to induce proliferation of EBV-infected lymphoblasts is mostly determined by the C-terminus of EBNA-2. Substitution of the C-terminus of type 1 EBNA-2 into the type 2 protein is sufficient to confer a type 1 growth phenotype and type 1 expression levels of LMP-1 and CXCR7 in an EREB2.5 cell growth assay. Within this region, the RG, CR7 and TAD domains are the minimum type 1 sequences required. Sequencing the C-terminus of EBNA-2 from additional EBV isolates showed high sequence identity within type 1 isolates or within type 2 isolates, indicating that the functional differences mapped are typical of EBV type sequences. The results indicate that the C-terminus of EBNA-2 accounts for the greater ability of type 1 EBV to promote B cell proliferation, through mechanisms that include higher induction of genes (LMP-1 and CXCR7 required for proliferation and survival of EBV-LCLs.

  12. Comparative analysis of the full genome sequence of European bat lyssavirus type 1 and type 2 with other lyssaviruses and evidence for a conserved transcription termination and polyadenylation motif in the G-L 3' non-translated region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, D A; McElhinney, L M; Johnson, N; Müller, T; Conzelmann, K K; Tordo, N; Fooks, A R

    2007-04-01

    We report the first full-length genomic sequences for European bat lyssavirus type-1 (EBLV-1) and type-2 (EBLV-2). The EBLV-1 genomic sequence was derived from a virus isolated from a serotine bat in Hamburg, Germany, in 1968 and the EBLV-2 sequence was derived from a virus isolate from a human case of rabies that occurred in Scotland in 2002. A long-distance PCR strategy was used to amplify the open reading frames (ORFs), followed by standard and modified RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) techniques to amplify the 3' and 5' ends. The lengths of each complete viral genome for EBLV-1 and EBLV-2 were 11 966 and 11 930 base pairs, respectively, and follow the standard rhabdovirus genome organization of five viral proteins. Comparison with other lyssavirus sequences demonstrates variation in degrees of homology, with the genomic termini showing a high degree of complementarity. The nucleoprotein was the most conserved, both intra- and intergenotypically, followed by the polymerase (L), matrix and glyco- proteins, with the phosphoprotein being the most variable. In addition, we have shown that the two EBLVs utilize a conserved transcription termination and polyadenylation (TTP) motif, approximately 50 nt upstream of the L gene start codon. All available lyssavirus sequences to date, with the exception of Pasteur virus (PV) and PV-derived isolates, use the second TTP site. This observation may explain differences in pathogenicity between lyssavirus strains, dependent on the length of the untranslated region, which might affect transcriptional activity and RNA stability.

  13. Cellulose microfibril crystallinity is reduced by mutating C-terminal transmembrane region residues CESA1{sup A903V} and CESA3{sup T942I} of cellulose synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Darby; Corbin, Kendall; Wang, Tuo; Gutierrez, Ryan; Bertolo, Ana; Petti, Caroalberto; Smilgies, Detlef-M; Estevez, Jose Manuel; Bonetta, Dario; Urbanowicz, Breeanna; Ehrhardt, David; Somerville, Chris; Rose, Jocelyn; Hong, Mei; DeBolt, Seth

    2012-01-08

    The mechanisms underlying the biosynthesis of cellulose in plants are complex and still poorly understood. A central question concerns the mechanism of microfibril structure and how this is linked to the catalytic polymerization action of cellulose synthase (CESA). Furthermore, it remains unclear whether modification of cellulose microfibril structure can be achieved genetically, which could be transformative in a bio-based economy. To explore these processes in planta, we developed a chemical genetic toolbox of pharmacological inhibitors and corresponding resistance-conferring point mutations in the C-terminal transmembrane domain region of CESA1{sup A903V} and CESA3{sup T942I} in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using {sup 13}C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, we show that the cellulose microfibrils displayed reduced width and an additional cellulose C4 peak indicative of a degree of crystallinity that is intermediate between the surface and interior glucans of wild type, suggesting a difference in glucan chain association during microfibril formation. Consistent with measurements of lower microfibril crystallinity, cellulose extracts from mutated CESA1{sup A903V} and CESA3{sup T942I} displayed greater saccharification efficiency than wild type. Using live-cell imaging to track fluorescently labeled CESA, we found that these mutants show increased CESA velocities in the plasma membrane, an indication of increased polymerization rate. Collectively, these data suggest that CESA1{sup A903V} and CESA3{sup T942I} have modified microfibril structure in terms of crystallinity and suggest that in plants, as in bacteria, crystallization biophysically limits polymerization.

  14. Tandem Terminal Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, G.C.; Lindner, C.E.; Myers, A.W.; Wechel, T.D. van

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 Tandem Terminal Ion Source. The terminal ion source (TIS) was used in several experiments during this reporting period, all for the 7 Be(γ) 8 B experiment. Most of the runs used 1 H + at terminal voltages from 0.3 MV to 1.5 MV. One of the runs used 2 H + at terminal voltage of 1.4 MV. The other run used 4 He + at a terminal voltage of 1.37 MV. The list of experiments run with the TIS to date is given in table 1 below. The tank was opened four times for unscheduled source repairs. On one occasion the tank was opened to replace the einzel lens power supply which had failed. The 10 kV unit was replaced with a 15 kV unit. The second time the tank was opened to repair the extractor supply which was damaged by a tank spark. On the next occasion the tank was opened to replace a source canal which had sputtered away. Finally, the tank was opened to replace the discharge bottle which had been coated with aluminum sputtered from the exit canal

  15. Tandem Terminal Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 Tandem Terminal Ion Source. The terminal ion source (TIS) was used in several experiments during this reporting period, all for the(sup 7)Be((gamma))(sup 8)B experiment. Most of the runs used(sup 1)H(sup+) at terminal voltages from 0.3 MV to 1.5 MV. One of the runs used(sup 2)H(sup+) at terminal voltage of 1.4 MV. The other run used(sup 4)He(sup+) at a terminal voltage of 1.37 MV. The list of experiments run with the TIS to date is given in table 1 below. The tank was opened four times for unscheduled source repairs. On one occasion the tank was opened to replace the einzel lens power supply which had failed. The 10 kV unit was replaced with a 15 kV unit. The second time the tank was opened to repair the extractor supply which was damaged by a tank spark. On the next occasion the tank was opened to replace a source canal which had sputtered away. Finally, the tank was opened to replace the discharge bottle which had been coated with aluminum sputtered from the exit canal

  16. Windows Terminal Servers Orchestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowiec, Sebastian; Gaspar, Ricardo; Smith, Tim

    2017-10-01

    Windows Terminal Servers provide application gateways for various parts of the CERN accelerator complex, used by hundreds of CERN users every day. The combination of new tools such as Puppet, HAProxy and Microsoft System Center suite enable automation of provisioning workflows to provide a terminal server infrastructure that can scale up and down in an automated manner. The orchestration does not only reduce the time and effort necessary to deploy new instances, but also facilitates operations such as patching, analysis and recreation of compromised nodes as well as catering for workload peaks.

  17. In vivo mutational analysis of the N-terminal region of HIV-1 Nef reveals critical motifs for the development of an AIDS-like disease in CD4C/HIV transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, Zaher; Priceputu, Elena; Kay, Denis G.; Poudrier, Johanne; Chrobak, Pavel; Jolicoeur, Paul

    2004-01-01

    HIV-1 Nef is a critical determinant of pathogenicity in humans and transgenic (Tg) mice. To gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which Nef induces an AIDS-like disease in Tg mice, a mutational analysis of the N-terminal domain, involved in anchoring Nef to the plasma membrane, was carried out. The pathogenic effects of these Nef mutant alleles were evaluated in Tg mice by FACS analysis and by histopathological assessment. Mutation of the myristoylation site (G2A) completely abrogated the development of the AIDS-like organ disease in Tg mice, although partial downregulation of the CD4 cell surface protein and depletion of peripheral CD4 + T-cells, but not of CD4 + CD8 + thymocytes, still occurred. Despite that, the peripheral CD4 + T cells expressing Nef G2A show normal spontaneous proliferation in vivo or after stimulation in vitro, including in an allogenic mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR). Three other internal deletion mutants of Nef, spanning amino acids 8-17 (Nef Δ8-17 ), 25-35 (Nef Δ25-35 ), and 57-66 (Nef Δ57-66 ), were also studied. Nef Δ8-17 retained full pathogenic potential, although Nef Δ25-35 and Nef Δ57-66 Tg mice were free of organ disease. However, Nef Δ25-35 Tg mice exhibited disorganization of thymic architecture and a partial depletion of peripheral CD4 + T cells. These data indicate that myristoylation and other regions at the N-terminus of Nef (aa 25-35 and 57-66) are involved in mediating severe T-cell phenotypes and organ disease, although residues 8-17 are dispensable for these Nef functions. In addition, these results indicate that at least some of the CD4 + T-cell phenotypes can develop independently of the other AIDS-like organ phenotypes. This apparent segregation of different Nef-mediated phenotypes suggests distinct mechanisms of Nef action in different populations of target cells, and may be relevant to human AIDS

  18. The Tiny Terminators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 5. The Tiny Terminators - Mosquitoes and Diseases. P K Sumodan. General Article Volume 6 Issue 5 May 2001 pp 48-55. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/05/0048-0055 ...

  19. Making Wireless Terminals Simpler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Skovgaard; Popovski, Petar; De Carvalho, Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    equalization in the downlink, which these requirements lead to. We propose to solve the problem by applying pre-processing at the base station, thereby rendering the terminal simple. We establish a general MIMO block transmission model, and derive different transmit/receive filters, based on the Linear Minimum...

  20. Trauma and termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, F

    1995-02-01

    The author suggests a particular reading of the thesis put forward by Freud in 'Analysis terminable and interminable' that an effective and more definitive conclusion may be expected in analyses of cases with traumatic aetiology. This reading shifts the emphasis from the patient's history to the possibility of its crystallising in focal nuclei emerging within the analytic relationship under the pressure of the termination. The revival of separation anxieties which cannot be worked through, and their crystallisation in precipitating traumatic events, may give rise to decisive psychic work allowing the analysis to be brought to a conclusion. Two case histories are presented to show how the end of the analysis assumes the form of a new trauma, which reactivates in the present, traumatic anxieties from the patient's own infantile history. In the first case a premature birth and in the second a miscarriage, originally experienced as isolated automatic events without time or history, are relived in the terminal phase as vicissitudes of the transference, so that new meaning can be assigned to them and they can be withdrawn from the somatic cycle of repetition. The powerful tendency to act out and the intense countertransference pressure on the analyst are discussed in the light of the specificities of this phase, which is crucial to the success of the analysis. This leads to a re-examination, in the concluding notes, of some theoretical questions inherent in the problem of the termination and, in particular, to a discussion of the ambiguous concept of a natural ending.

  1. Prematurely terminated slug tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasaki, K.

    1990-07-01

    A solution of the well response to a prematurely terminated slug test (PTST) is presented. The advantages of a PTST over conventional slug tests are discussed. A systematized procedure of a PTST is proposed, where a slug test is terminated in the midpoint of the flow point, and the subsequent shut-in data is recorded and analyzed. This method requires a downhole shut-in device and a pressure transducer, which is no more than the conventional deep-well slug testing. As opposed to slug tests, which are ineffective when a skin is present, more accurate estimate of formation permeability can be made using a PTST. Premature termination also shortens the test duration considerably. Because in most cases no more information is gained by completing a slug test to the end, the author recommends that conventional slug tests be replaced by the premature termination technique. This study is part of an investigation of the feasibility of geologic isolation of nuclear wastes being carried out by the US Department of Energy and the National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste of Switzerland

  2. NPOESS Field Terminal Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, G.; Route, G.

    2009-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD. The NPOESS satellites carry a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground data processing segment for NPOESS is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems. The IDPS processes NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products (aka, Environmental Data Records or EDRs) to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. The IDPS will process EDRs beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and continuing through the lifetime of the NPOESS system. IDPS also provides the software and requirements for the Field Terminal Segment (FTS). NPOESS provides support to deployed field terminals by providing mission data in the Low Rate and High Rate downlinks (LRD/HRD), mission support data needed to generate EDRs and decryption keys needed to decrypt mission data during Selective data Encryption (SDE). Mission support data consists of globally relevant data, geographically constrained data, and two line element sets. NPOESS provides these mission support data via the Internet accessible Mission Support Data Server and HRD/LRD downlinks. This presentation will illustrate and describe the NPOESS capabilities in support of Field Terminal users. This discussion will include the mission support data available to Field Terminal users, content of the direct broadcast HRD and LRD

  3. Antecedents of Customer Relationship Termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    To end business relationships, or to more actively terminate relationships, has long been acknowledged as part of customer relationship management. However, compared to other elements such as initiation and maintenance of relationships, little is known about the termination of business...... relationships as a managerial task. This paper contributes by (1) developing a conceptualization of relationship termination competence and (2) analyzing its antecedents. The empirical results identify termination acceptance, definition non-customers, organizational relationship termination routines......, and motivation as significant antecedents. Because of this, managers need to develop their organizations in order to use relationship termination as a vital strategy....

  4. Review paper. Terminal lucidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriboga-Oleszczak Boris Alejandro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Terminal lucidity is a term used in the medical literature to determine the improvement of mental functioning shortly before death, even among patients with serious and long-term disorders. In 19th century, cases of mind clarity recovery shortly before death, were often recognized by doctors and interpreted as a sign of an impending death. In 20th century, the interest in this phenomenon decreased and then, virtually disappear. In recent years, on the wave of publications concerning near death experiences and related events such as the end of life experiences, papers about the improvement of mental functioning shortly before death, exponentially grew and got a new name, terminal lucidity. In this paper, an overview of the available literature is presented to outline the historical, phenomenological and clinical picture of this phenomenon and its possible implications for medical care and future studies.

  5. Scandium Terminal Imido Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Erli; Chu, Jiaxiang; Chen, Yaofeng

    2018-02-20

    Research into transition metal complexes bearing multiply bonded main-group ligands has developed into a thriving and fruitful field over the past half century. These complexes, featuring terminal M═E/M≡E (M = transition metal; E = main-group element) multiple bonds, exhibit unique structural properties as well as rich reactivity, which render them attractive targets for inorganic/organometallic chemists as well as indispensable tools for organic/catalytic chemists. This fact has been highlighted by their widespread applications in organic synthesis, for example, as olefin metathesis catalysts. In the ongoing renaissance of transition metal-ligand multiple-bonding chemistry, there have been reports of M═E/M≡E interactions for the majority of the metallic elements of the periodic table, even some actinide metals. In stark contrast, the largest subgroup of the periodic table, rare-earth metals (Ln = Sc, Y, and lanthanides), have been excluded from this upsurge. Indeed, the synthesis of terminal Ln═E/Ln≡E multiple-bonding species lagged behind that of the transition metal and actinide congeners for decades. Although these species had been pursued since the discovery of a rare-earth metal bridging imide in 1991, such a terminal (nonpincer/bridging hapticities) Ln═E/Ln≡E bond species was not obtained until 2010. The scarcity is mainly attributed to the energy mismatch between the frontier orbitals of the metal and the ligand atoms. This renders the putative terminal Ln═E/Ln≡E bonds extremely reactive, thus resulting in the formation of aggregates and/or reaction with the ligand/environment, quenching the multiple-bond character. In 2010, the stalemate was broken by the isolation and structural characterization of the first rare-earth metal terminal imide-a scandium terminal imide-by our group. The double-bond character of the Sc═N bond was unequivocally confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Theoretical investigations revealed the presence

  6. Termination Criteria for Computerized Classification Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan A. Thompson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Computerized classification testing (CCT is an approach to designing tests with intelligent algorithms, similar to adaptive testing, but specifically designed for the purpose of classifying examinees into categories such as - pass- and - fail.- Like adaptive testing for point estimation of ability, the key component is the termination criterion, namely the algorithm that decides whether to classify the examinee and end the test or to continue and administer another item. This paper applies a newly suggested termination criterion, the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR, to CCT. It also explores the role of the indifference region in the specification of likelihood-ratio based termination criteria, comparing the GLR to the sequential probability ratio test. Results from simulation studies suggest that the GLR is always at least as efficient as existing methods.

  7. LNG TERMINAL SAFE OPERATION MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej ADAMKIEWICZ; Włodzimierz KAMIŃSKI

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the significance of LNG terminal safety issues in natural gas sea transport. It shows particular requirements for LNG transmission installations resulting from the specific properties of LNG. Out of the multi‐layer critical safety areas comprising structural elements of the terminal safety system, possibilities to decrease the risk of emergency occurrence on LNG terminals have been selected. Tasks performed by the LNG terminal, together with its own personnel and the out...

  8. Two separable functional domains of simian virus 40 large T antigen: carboxyl-terminal region of simian virus 40 large T antigen is required for efficient capsid protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornow, J; Polvino-Bodnar, M; Santangelo, G; Cole, C N

    1985-01-01

    The carboxyl-terminal portion of simian virus 40 large T antigen is essential for productive infection of CV-1 and CV-1p green monkey kidney cells. Mutant dlA2459, lacking 14 base pairs at 0.193 map units, was positive for viral DNA replication, but unable to form plaques in CV-1p cells (J. Tornow and C.N. Cole, J. Virol. 47:487-494, 1983). In this report, the defect of dlA2459 is further defined. Simian virus 40 late mRNAs were transcribed, polyadenylated, spliced, and transported in dlA2459-infected cells, but the level of capsid proteins produced in infected CV-1 green monkey kidney cells was extremely low. dlA2459 large T antigen lacks those residues known to be required for adenovirus helper function, and the block to productive infection by dlA2459 occurs at the same stage of infection as the block to productive adenovirus infection of CV-1 cells. These results suggest that the adenovirus helper function is required for productive infection by simian virus 40. Mutant dlA2459 was able to grow on the Vero and BSC-1 lines of African green monkey kidney cells. Additional mutants affecting the carboxyl-terminal portion of large T were prepared. Mutant inv2408 contains an inversion of the DNA between the BamHI and BclI sites (0.144 to 0.189 map units). This inversion causes transposition of the carboxyl-terminal 26 amino acids of large T antigen and the carboxyl-terminal 18 amino acids of VP1. This mutant was viable, even though the essential information absent from dlA2459 large T antigen has been transferred to the carboxyl terminus of VP1 of inv2408. The VP1 polypeptide carrying this carboxyl-terminal portion of large T could overcome the defect of dlA2459. This indicates that the carboxyl terminus of large T antigen is a separate and separable functional domain. Images PMID:2982029

  9. LNG TERMINAL SAFE OPERATION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej ADAMKIEWICZ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the significance of LNG terminal safety issues in natural gas sea transport. It shows particular requirements for LNG transmission installations resulting from the specific properties of LNG. Out of the multi‐layer critical safety areas comprising structural elements of the terminal safety system, possibilities to decrease the risk of emergency occurrence on LNG terminals have been selected. Tasks performed by the LNG terminal, together with its own personnel and the outside one, have been defined. General theses for LNG terminal safety have been formulated.

  10. Terminal weather information management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1990-01-01

    Since the mid-1960's, microburst/windshear events have caused at least 30 aircraft accidents and incidents and have killed more than 600 people in the United States alone. This study evaluated alternative means of alerting an airline crew to the presence of microburst/windshear events in the terminal area. Of particular interest was the relative effectiveness of conventional and data link ground-to-air transmissions of ground-based radar and low-level windshear sensing information on microburst/windshear avoidance. The Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator located at Ames Research Center was employed in a line oriented simulation of a scheduled round-trip airline flight from Salt Lake City to Denver Stapleton Airport. Actual weather en route and in the terminal area was simulated using recorded data. The microburst/windshear incident of July 11, 1988 was re-created for the Denver area operations. Six experienced airline crews currently flying scheduled routes were employed as test subjects for each of three groups: (1) A baseline group which received alerts via conventional air traffic control (ATC) tower transmissions; (2) An experimental group which received alerts/events displayed visually and aurally in the cockpit six miles (approx. 2 min.) from the microburst event; and (3) An additional experimental group received displayed alerts/events 23 linear miles (approx. 7 min.) from the microburst event. Analyses of crew communications and decision times showed a marked improvement in both situation awareness and decision-making with visually displayed ground-based radar information. Substantial reductions in the variability of decision times among crews in the visual display groups were also found. These findings suggest that crew performance will be enhanced and individual differences among crews due to differences in training and prior experience are significantly reduced by providing real-time, graphic display of terminal weather hazards.

  11. Circulating forms of immunoreactive parathyroid hormone-related protein for identifying patients with humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. A comparative study with C-terminal (109-141)- and N-terminal (1-86)-region-specific PTHrP radioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suehiro, Mitsuko; Murakami, Minoru; Fukuchi, Minoru

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated the circulating forms of immunoreactive parathyroid hormone-related protein(PTHrP) in 115 healthy subjects and 122 patients with malignant diseases by using radioassay systems (RAS) specific for the C-terminal (109-141) fragment of PTHrP (C-RAS) and for the N-terminal(1-86) (N-RAS). PTHrP levels in healthy controls ranged from 1.5 to 38.2 (mean: 24.5) pmol/L with the C-RAS and from 0.9 to 2.5 (mean: 1.7) pmol/L with the N-RAS. The ratio of circulating N-terminal fragment (N) to C-terminal fragment (C) of PTHrP was calculated to be about 1 : 14.4 in the healthy subjects. Of the 122 patients with malignant diseases, 40 (32.8%) had circulating PTHrP levels undetectable with the N-RAS, but only 11 (9.0%) patients had levels undetectable with the C-RAS. Of the former 122 patients, 41 (33.6%) had high PTHrP as determined with the C-RAS, and 10 (8.2%) had high PTHrP as determined with the N-RAS. The former of these included only 8 (19.5%) humoral hypercalcemia malignancy(HHM) patients, while the latter included 8 (80.0%) HHM patients. The circulating N to C ratio was about 1 : 70.7 in the HHM patients. The N and C obtained with the different RASs showed a close correlation (r=0.86). The values also showed a close correlation with serum Ca; r=0.75 for C-RAS and r=0.81 for N-RAS. In addition, the correlation between the PTHrP reading obtained with the different RASs and serum Cr were: r=0.42 with C-RAS and r=0.26 with N-RAS. The circulating form of immunoreactive PTHrP fragments is therefore comprised mainly of PTHrP (109-141). In contrast, circulating concentrations of the PTHrP (1-86) fragment are very low, but detection of the PTHrP (1-86) fragment with the N-RAS is a more useful indicator of HHM with fewer false positive results and is less likely to be influenced by renal function than the detection of the PHPrP (109-141) fragment with C-RAS. (author)

  12. The Heliospheric Termination Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokipii, J. R.

    2013-06-01

    The heliospheric termination shock is a vast, spheroidal shock wave marking the transition from the supersonic solar wind to the slower flow in the heliosheath, in response to the pressure of the interstellar medium. It is one of the most-important boundaries in the outer heliosphere. It affects energetic particles strongly and for this reason is a significant factor in the effects of the Sun on Galactic cosmic rays. This paper summarizes the general properties and overall large-scale structure and motions of the termination shock. Observations over the past several years, both in situ and remote, have dramatically revised our understanding of the shock. The consensus now is that the shock is quite blunt, is with the front, blunt side canted at an angle to the flow direction of the local interstellar plasma relative to the Sun, and is dynamical and turbulent. Much of this new understanding has come from remote observations of energetic charged particles interacting with the shock, radio waves and radiation backscattered from interstellar neutral atoms. The observations and the implications are discussed.

  13. The binding site for regulatory 14-3-3 protein in plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase: Involvement of a region promoting phosphorylation-independent interaction in addition to the phosphorylation-dependent C-terminal end

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Anja T; Borch, Jonas; Bych, Katrine

    2003-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins constitute a family of well conserved proteins interacting with a large number of phosphorylated binding partners in eukaryotic cells. The plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase is an unusual target in that a unique phosphothreonine motif (946YpTV, where pT represents phosphothreonine...... of the Arabidopsis plasma membrane H+-ATPase isoform 2 (AHA2). Following site-directed mutagenesis within the 45 C-terminal residues of AHA2, we conclude that, in addition to the 946YpTV motif, a number of residues located further upstream are required for phosphorylation-independent binding of 14-3-3. Among these...

  14. Resolution and termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina FOLTIŞ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The resolution, the termination and the reduction of labour conscription are regulated by articles 1549-1554 in the new Civil Code, which represents the common law in this matter. We appreciate that the new regulation does not conclusively clarify the issue related to whether the existence of liability in order to call upon the resolution is necessary or not, because the existence of this condition has been inferred under the previous regulation from the fact that the absence of liability shifts the inexecution issue on the domain of fortuitous impossibility of execution, situation in which the resolution of the contract is not in question, but that of the risk it implies.

  15. Mobile Termination and Mobile Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkens, Sjaak; Jeon, Doh-Shin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study how access pricing affects network competition when subscription demand is elastic and each network uses non-linear prices and can apply termination-based price discrimination. In the case of a fixed per minute termination charge, we find that a reduction of the termination charge below cost has two oppos- ing effects: it softens competition but helps to internalize network externalities. The former reduces mobile penetration while the latter boosts it. We find that fi...

  16. Mobile termination and mobile penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkens, Sjaak

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study how access pricing affects network competition when subscription demand is elastic and each network uses non-linear prices and can apply termination-based price discrimination. In the case of a fixed per minute termination charge, we find that a reduction of the termination charge below cost has two opposing effects: it softens competition but helps to internalize network externalities. The former reduces mobile penetration while the latter boosts it. We find that firm...

  17. Regional Hearing Clerk

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Regional Hearing Clerk receives filings for proceedings under the Consolidated Rules of Practice Governing the Administrative Assessment of Civil Penalties and the Revocation/Termination or Suspension of Permits, 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 22

  18. Selection of Air Terminal Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,......This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,...

  19. The practice of terminal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha Krishna, Lalit Kumar; Murugam, Vengadasalam; Quah, Daniel Song Chiek

    2017-01-01

    'Terminal discharges' are carried out in Singapore for patients who wish to die at home. However, if due diligence is not exercised, parallels may be drawn with euthanasia. We present a theoretical discussion beginning with the definition of terminal discharges and the reasons why they are carried out in Singapore. By considering the intention behind terminal discharges and utilising a multidisciplinary team to deliberate on the clinical, social and ethical intricacies with a patient- and context-specific approach, euthanasia is avoided. It is hoped that this will provide a platform for professionals in palliative medicine to negotiate challenging issues when arranging a terminal discharge, so as to avoid the pitfall of committing euthanasia in a country such as Singapore where euthanasia is illegal. It is hoped that a set of guidelines for terminal discharges may someday be realised to assist professionals in Singapore and around the world.

  20. ‘Overall Regional Planning, Whole Advancement, and Terminal Offer’is the Fundamental Outset for Prohibition of Burning Straw in Field and Total Utilization of Straws in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHANG Zhi-zhou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Straw burning is a serious problem, which draws high attention from the whole society. In this study, the issues of management, policy and techniques regarding to the straw burning and its integrated utilization were analyzed. Based on the analysis results, a novel strategy, i.e., overall regional planning, village basis, combination of collection and returning, policy guidance and market operation, was raised to inhibit straw burning and enhance the efficiency of straw utilization. In technology, the methods of regional control, balance of harvest and return, effective collection, improving application, creative mechanism were emphasized. In addition, the effect of total utilization replying on the method of overall regional planning and whole advancement was presented on the village-scale. The application results in Chemen Township, Sihong County, Jiangsu Province showed that the goal of total utilization of straws and prohibition of burning in the regional scale could be achieved according to the novel strategy.

  1. Ports and Terminals : Planning and Functional Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenveld, R.; Velsink, H.

    1993-01-01

    1. Maritime transport, means and commodities 3. Principles of integrated port planning 4. Planning and design of a port's water areas 5. Port terminals - introduction 6. Conventional general cargo terminals 7. Container terminals 8. Oil & liquid gas terminals 9. Dry bulk cargo terminals 10. Fishery

  2. The modification of the terminal electrostatic field of HI-13 tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tao; Guan Xialing

    1993-01-01

    The calculation of electrostatic field of terminal and its neighbour region for HI-13 tandem accelerator is made. The limit terminal voltage without tubes is evaluated. Using elliptical cross section in stead of circular ones for the first six equipotential rings, the electrostatic field of this region are modified

  3. Study of band terminating in the A ≅ 100 by EUROGAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gizon, J.; Gizon, A.; Genevey, J.; Santos, D.; Nyako, B.M.; Timar, J.; Zolnai, L.; Boston, A.J.; Zoss, D.T.; Paul, E.S.; Semple, A.T.; O'Brien, N.J.; Parry, C.M.; Cata-Danil, Gh.; Bucurescu, D.; Afanasjev, A.V.; Ragnarsson, I.

    1997-01-01

    Terminating bands in nuclei in the A≅ 100 region have been investigated using the EUROGAM2 array. Results have been obtained for Pd (Z 46) and Rh (Z = 45) isotopes. In the nucleus 102 Pd, eight terminating configurations are identified. It is the first nucleus where terminating bands built on the valence space configurations and on core excited configurations are observed. Terminating bands have been also found in 103 Pd and 102 Rh. For 102 Rh it is the first case of band terminations identified in a doubly-odd nucleus below the Z = 50 shell closure. (authors)

  4. Mechanisms of DNA replication termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, James M; Walter, Johannes C

    2017-08-01

    Genome duplication is carried out by pairs of replication forks that assemble at origins of replication and then move in opposite directions. DNA replication ends when converging replication forks meet. During this process, which is known as replication termination, DNA synthesis is completed, the replication machinery is disassembled and daughter molecules are resolved. In this Review, we outline the steps that are likely to be common to replication termination in most organisms, namely, fork convergence, synthesis completion, replisome disassembly and decatenation. We briefly review the mechanism of termination in the bacterium Escherichia coli and in simian virus 40 (SV40) and also focus on recent advances in eukaryotic replication termination. In particular, we discuss the recently discovered E3 ubiquitin ligases that control replisome disassembly in yeast and higher eukaryotes, and how their activity is regulated to avoid genome instability.

  5. Two-terminal video coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Stanković, Vladimir; Xiong, Zixiang; Zhao, Wei

    2009-03-01

    Following recent works on the rate region of the quadratic Gaussian two-terminal source coding problem and limit-approaching code designs, this paper examines multiterminal source coding of two correlated, i.e., stereo, video sequences to save the sum rate over independent coding of both sequences. Two multiterminal video coding schemes are proposed. In the first scheme, the left sequence of the stereo pair is coded by H.264/AVC and used at the joint decoder to facilitate Wyner-Ziv coding of the right video sequence. The first I-frame of the right sequence is successively coded by H.264/AVC Intracoding and Wyner-Ziv coding. An efficient stereo matching algorithm based on loopy belief propagation is then adopted at the decoder to produce pixel-level disparity maps between the corresponding frames of the two decoded video sequences on the fly. Based on the disparity maps, side information for both motion vectors and motion-compensated residual frames of the right sequence are generated at the decoder before Wyner-Ziv encoding. In the second scheme, source splitting is employed on top of classic and Wyner-Ziv coding for compression of both I-frames to allow flexible rate allocation between the two sequences. Experiments with both schemes on stereo video sequences using H.264/AVC, LDPC codes for Slepian-Wolf coding of the motion vectors, and scalar quantization in conjunction with LDPC codes for Wyner-Ziv coding of the residual coefficients give a slightly lower sum rate than separate H.264/AVC coding of both sequences at the same video quality.

  6. JCO criticality accident termination operation

    OpenAIRE

    金盛 正至

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, we summarized the circumstances surrounding termination of the JCO criticality accident based on testimony in the Mito District Court on December 17, 2001. JCO was the company for uranium fuels production in Japan. That document was assembled based on actual testimony in the belief that a description of the work involved in termination of the accident would be useful in some way for preventing nuclear disasters in the future. This year is the tenth year of the JCO criticality acciden...

  7. International Joint Venture Termination: An Empirical Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik B.; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Siersbæk, Nikolaj

    for the article stems from data from the project portfolio of a Danish Investment Fund for Developing Countries with a total of 773 investments. A number of hypotheses are established from the literature review and tested related to the empirical data. The result indicates that the most important factor...... in successful IJV termination is the length of the investment and to some extent the size of the investment. The psychic distance plays a negative role for investments in the African region while a general recession will lead to a lower success rate....

  8. Terminal Disease: A Biolaw Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rivas García

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous and varied pathologies that can lead to a state of terminal illness, provoking numerous bioethical dilemmas that are inherent and specific to each circumstance. The objective of the present work has been to provide a current and useful analysis that can help to understand the main bioethical problems, from the perspective of biolaw that must be solved in the inevitable path towards the end of life that any terminal illness implies. The methodology used included a study of bibliographic documentation in the main databases of interest in bioethics. It can be concluded that the biolaw is a very useful tool that helps health care professionals and relatives when it comes to the analysis and decision making regarding a terminal illness. Independently of medical practice based on protocols and scientific knowledge, it is necessary to ensure that not everything that can legally be carried out is accepted in the field of biolaw.

  9. Digital autonomous terminal access communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novacki, S.

    1987-01-01

    A significant problem for the Bus Monitor Unit is to identify the source of a given transmission. This problem arises from the fact that the label which identifies the source of the transmission as it is put into the bus is intercepted by the Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Communications (DATAC) terminal and removed from the transmission. Thus, a given subsystem will see only data associated with a label and never the identifying label itself. The Bus Monitor must identify the source of the transmission so as to be able to provide some type of error identification/location in the event that some problem with the data transmission occurs. Steps taken to alleviate this problem by modifications to the DATAC terminal are discussed.

  10. SIRKULASI TERMINAL PENUMPANG KAPAL LAUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsa Purnama Sari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wilayah Indonesia yang terdiri dari pulau dan perairan menjadikan angkutan laut menjadi salah satu sarana transportasi yang cukup efektif di negara ini. Daya angkut yang besar dan beragam serta biaya yang lebih murah dengan jarak jangkauan yang luas, membuat sarana ini banyak diminati oleh masyarakat sekaligus juga merupakan pendukung utama perkembangan kehidupan sosial budaya dan roda perekonomian. Untuk mendukung proses transportasi laut ini perlu sarana berupa pelabuhan. Pelabuhan dalam melakukan pelayanan terhadap kapal memiliki beberapa fasilitas pokok dan penunjang yang wajib dimiliki. Salah satunya adalah terminal penumpang kapal laut dengan berbagai kegiatan di dalamnya untuk kedatangan maupun keberangkatan. Masalah ketidaknyamanan dalam berkegiatan, jauhnya akses sirkulasi antara satu kegiatan dengan kegiatan kegiatan embarkasi dan debarkasi yang tidak teratur, pembagian jalur sirkulasi penumpang dan pengantar penumpang yang tidak jelas seringkali muncul akibat sirkulasi yang tidak direncanakan dengan baik pada terminal penumpang kapal laut. Bahkan tidak jarang dapat menimbulkan adanya calo tiket hingga adanya penumpang tanpa tiket yang dapat masuk ke dalam kapal hingga kapal berlayar. Perencanaan sebuah sirkulasi yang tepat pada terminal penumpang kapal laut memerlukan kajian terhadap unsur-unsur sirkulasi seperti pencapaian, pola sirkulasi, jalur sirkulasi, serta bentuk ruang sirkulasi. Kajian unsur-unsur ini selanjutnya diselidiki melalui penelusuran masalah dengan analisis deskriptif melalui penggambaran objek penelitian yang terdapat pada Terminal Penumpang Pelabuhan International Yokohama, Terminal Penumpang Pelabuhan Kobe dan Terminal Penumpang Pelabuhan Osanbashi Hall   As one of the largest archipelago country, sea transportation acts as one of the most effective means of transportation in Indonesia. Large and diverse carrying capacity, lower cost with wide range of distances, are factors which making sea

  11. What Determines Joint Venture Termination?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Joint venture (JV) research continues to flourish as researchers seek to advance our understanding of why so many JVs fail. Cui and Kumar (this issue) take a contingency approach to explain how and why business relatedness may provide new insights as to what determines JV termination. This commen......Joint venture (JV) research continues to flourish as researchers seek to advance our understanding of why so many JVs fail. Cui and Kumar (this issue) take a contingency approach to explain how and why business relatedness may provide new insights as to what determines JV termination...

  12. Planning of Terminal Construction at the Port of Ploce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čedomir Dundović

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a systematic and comprehensive analysisof both the technological justification for the constructionof a container/multi-purpose terminal and a dry bulk terminal,and the efficiency of loading/unloading facilities. The organisationof Croatian ports is inefficient and the technology usedin outdated. Traffic links with the mainland, the continent andthe world are unsatisfactory, with traffic infrastructure impactingadversely on operational efficiency. Analysis results of thepresent condition of port traffic and the influence of traffic onport operations and development indicate that the Port ofPlace lacks a multi-purpose terminal that would enable modemcontainer traffic. Because of the inefficient cargo-handlingprocedure and manner of storing bulk cargo in the Port ofPlace, it is necessary to plan the construction of a coal andiron ore terminal taking into account spatia~ technological,economic and ecological development factors. The authorsalso examine the importance of regional initiatives spurringthe development of Croatia and, in particular, the port systemas part of the EU's Pan-European transport corridor V BranchC. Research results are presented by a traffic and technologicaldesign for a container/multi-purpose terminal and dry bulkterminal capable of providing an appropriate level of servicefor all terminal users.

  13. A time-dependent vehicle routing problem in the service area of intermodal terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Braekers, K.; Caris, A.; Janssens, G.K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the operational planning of drayage operations in the service area of intermodal container terminals. Drayage operations refer to the full truckload container transpot activities that take place on a regional scale around these terminals. They involve the transport of loaded and empty containers between container terminals, container depots, consignees and shippers. Drayage operations are mostly performed by truck and constitute a large part of total costs of an intermo...

  14. Legal termination of pregnancy among teenagers and older women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Legal termination of pregnancy (TOP) was introduced in South Africa in 1996. No data are available to relate the numbers of TOPs to the total number of pregnancies in specific health regions. The level of use of TOPs by women of different age groups is not known. Objective. To determine the proportion of ...

  15. Morphology and distribution of chandelier cell axon terminals in the mouse cerebral cortex and claustroamygdaloid complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, M C; DeFelipe, J; Muñoz, A

    2009-01-01

    Chandelier cells represent a unique type of cortical gamma-aminobutityric acidergic interneuron whose axon terminals (Ch-terminals) only form synapses with the axon initial segments of some pyramidal cells. Here, we have used immunocytochemistry for the high-affinity plasma membrane transporter GAT-1 and the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin to analyze the morphology and distribution of Ch-terminals in the mouse cerebral cortex and claustroamygdaloid complex. In general, 2 types of Ch-terminals were distinguished on the basis of their size and the density of the axonal boutons that made up the terminal. Simple Ch-terminals were made up of 1 or 2 rows of labeled boutons, each row consisting of only 3-5 boutons. In contrast, complex Ch-terminals were tight cylinder-like structures made up of multiple rows of boutons. Simple Ch-terminals were detected throughout the cerebral cortex and claustroamygdaloid complex, the complex type was only occasionally found in certain regions, whereas in others they were very abundant. These results indicate that there are substantial differences in the morphology and distribution of Ch-terminals between different areas and layers of the mouse cerebral cortex. Furthermore, we suggest that the distribution of complex Ch-terminals may be related to the developmental origin of the different brain regions analyzed.

  16. The management of terminal delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macleod A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Delirium is a distressing and disturbing clinical event. Palliation of the symptoms by multi-component interventions can be effective. The goal of interventions is to raise the deliriant threshold by combined symptom relief, environmental, psychological and pharmacological interventions. Haloperidol remains the drug of choice for delirium. For intractable delirious symptoms at the end of life terminal sedation may be indicated.

  17. Stabilizing model predictive control : on the enlargement of the terminal set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunner, F.D.; Lazar, M.; Allgöwer, F.

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that a large terminal set leads to a large region where the model predictive control problem is feasible without the need for a long prediction horizon. This paper proposes a new method for the enlargement of the terminal set. Different from existing approaches, the method uses the

  18. Terminal nerve: cranial nerve zero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Duque Parra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been stated, in different types of texts, that there are only twelve pairs of cranial nerves. Such texts exclude the existence of another cranial pair, the terminal nerve or even cranial zero. This paper considers the mentioned nerve like a cranial pair, specifying both its connections and its functional role in the migration of liberating neurons of the gonadotropic hormone (Gn RH. In this paper is also stated the hypothesis of the phylogenetic existence of a cerebral sector and a common nerve that integrates the terminal nerve with the olfactory nerves and the vomeronasals nerves which seem to carry out the odors detection function as well as in the food search, pheromone detection and nasal vascular regulation.

  19. Three-terminal superconducting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    The transistor has a number of properties that make it so useful. The authors discuss these and the additional properties a transistor would need to have for high performance applications at temperatures where superconductivity could contribute advantages to system-level performance. These properties then serve as criteria by which to evaluate three-terminal devices that have been proposed for applications at superconducting temperatures. FETs can retain their transistor properties at low temperatures, but their power consumption is too large for high-speed, high-density cryogenic applications. They discuss in detail why demonstrated superconducting devices with three terminals -Josephson effect based devices, injection controlled weak links, and stacked tunnel junction devices such as the superconducting transistor proposed by K. Gray and the quiteron -- each fail to have true transistor-like properties. They conclude that the potentially very rewarding search for a transistor compatible with superconductivity in high performance applications must be in new directions

  20. JCO criticality accident termination operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, Masashi

    2001-12-01

    On September 30 at around 10:35 AM, criticality accident occurred at the JCO's conversion building in Tokai-mura. Since criticality accident had not been anticipated, neither devices for termination of criticality accident nor neutron detectors were available. Immediately after the information of the accident, our emergency staff (Japan Nuclear Cycle development institute staff) went to JCO site, to measure the intensity of neutrons and gammas. There were four main tasks, first one was to measure the radiation intensity, second one was to terminate the criticality accident, third one is to alert the residents surrounding the JCO site, fourth one is to evacuate the employees in the site. These tasks were successfully performed until October 1. This paper describes about how these operations were performed by the relevant staffs. (author)

  1. Regionalism, Regionalization and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu C. Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustained development is a concept associating other concepts, in its turn, in the EU practice, e.g. regionalism, regionalizing and afferent policies, here including structural policies. This below text, dedicated to integration concepts, will limit on the other hand to regionalizing, otherwise an aspect typical to Europe and to the EU. On the other hand, two aspects come up to strengthen this field of ideas, i.e. the region (al-regionalism-(regional development triplet has either its own history or precise individual outline of terms.

  2. Dictionary of nuclear energy termination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-04-15

    This book lists termination of nuclear energy such as abbreviation, symbol, unit of nuclear energy, radiological unit, the symbol for element, isotope chart and the periodic table. This book contains about 5500 words involving to nuclear energy with index in Korean and English. It arranges alphabetically. So, with this book, it is easy and fast to find out the glossary, unit and symbol on nuclear energy.

  3. Combining norms to prove termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genaim, S.; Codish, M.; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Automatic termination analysers typically measure the size of terms applying norms which are mappings from terms to the natural numbers. This paper illustrates howt o enable the use of size functions defined as tuples of these simpler norm functions. This approach enables us to simplify the probl...... of the recursive data-types in the program, is often a suitable choice. We first demonstrate the power of combining norm functions and then the adequacy of combining norms based on regular types....

  4. Dictionary of nuclear energy termination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This book lists termination of nuclear energy such as abbreviation, symbol, unit of nuclear energy, radiological unit, the symbol for element, isotope chart and the periodic table. This book contains about 5500 words involving to nuclear energy with index in Korean and English. It arranges alphabetically. So, with this book, it is easy and fast to find out the glossary, unit and symbol on nuclear energy.

  5. War Termination: A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    UA25 .L342 2009) Mandel, Robert . The Meaning of Military Victory. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2006. 190pp. (U163 .M266 2006) Marshall, Monty G., and...Ted Robert Gurr. Peace and Conflict 2005: A Global Survey of Armed Conflicts, Self-Determination Movements, and Democracy. College Park: Center for...18pp. (AD-A468-990) http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA468990 Raymer , James H. In Search of Lasting Results: Military War Termination Doctrine. Fort

  6. High Octane Fuel: Terminal Backgrounder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-11

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy sponsored a scoping study to assess the potential of ethanol-based high octane fuel (HOF) to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. When the HOF blend is made with 25%-40% ethanol by volume, this energy efficiency improvement is potentially sufficient to offset the reduced vehicle range often associated with the decreased volumetric energy density of ethanol. The purpose of this study is to assess the ability of the fuel supply chain to accommodate more ethanol at fuel terminals. Fuel terminals are midstream in the transportation fuel supply chain and serve to store and distribute fuels to end users. While there are no technical issues to storing more ethanol at fuel terminals, there are several factors that could impact the ability to deploy more ethanol. The most significant of these issues include the availability of land to add more infrastructure and accommodate more truck traffic for ethanol deliveries as well as a lengthy permitting process to erect more tanks.

  7. C-terminal domains of bacterial proteases: structure, function and the biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J; Wu, C; Liu, D; Yang, X; Wu, R; Zhang, J; Ma, C; He, H

    2017-01-01

    C-terminal domains widely exist in the C-terminal region of multidomain proteases. As a β-sandwich domain in multidomain protease, the C-terminal domain plays an important role in proteolysis including regulation of the secretory process, anchoring and swelling the substrate molecule, presenting as an inhibitor for the preprotease and adapting the protein structural flexibility and stability. In this review, the diversity, structural characteristics and biological function of C-terminal protease domains are described. Furthermore, the application prospects of C-terminal domains, including polycystic kidney disease, prepeptidase C-terminal and collagen-binding domain, in the area of medicine and biological artificial materials are also discussed. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Functionalization of hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CBDT), has been covalently attached at the terminal carbon atoms of the hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) backbone. The modification of HTPB backbone by CBDT molecule does not affect the unique physico-chemical properties such ...

  9. Efficiency analysis of container ports and terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Q.

    2010-01-01

    In the past two decades the steady growth of seaborne trade has resulted in the increase of container ships, container ports and their terminals. The structure of the shipping market is, moreover, continuously evolving. On the carrier side, shipping companies form consortia and alliances; on the port side, global terminal operators and dedicated container terminals are emerging. The aim of this research is to evaluate the efficiency of container ports and terminals and to study...

  10. Kajian Kinerja Terminal Batu Ampar Kota Balikpapan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randha Alief Chikita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Batu Ampar Terminal Balikpapan is the only type A passenger terminal in Balikpapan City. The purpose of this study is to determine the operational performance of the terminal at this time and also to determine the level of service in the terminal. The results of this study indicate that for FIFO queue discipline analysis on AKDP and AKAP bus lines, it is known that ρ <1 means that there is currently no queue in the terminal. For the analysis of terminal facilities it is known that there are still some terminal facilities that are not yet available from the main facilities and supporting facilities, therefore the need for additional facilities in order to meet the standard of passenger terminal type A. In the next 15 years analysis for traffic intensity value is approaching 1 which means in the future will cause the queue in the terminal, so it is necessary for the improvement of terminal performance. For the service performance with IPA method there are 35 variables that there are 7 variables that enter in quadrant I. In the next step to do analysis to know the priority of handling by using QFD method. Keywords: Batu Ampar Terminal Balikpapan, IPA, terminal performance, QFD

  11. Strategic technology alliance termination : an empirical investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadowski, B.M.; Duysters, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    There is growing consensus that overall alliance termination rates are high. However, despite this track record of termination and despite unsurpassed growth rates of strategic technology alliances, little is known about the reasons for their termination. Typically strategic alliances have been

  12. 49 CFR 374.309 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Terminal facilities. 374.309 Section 374.309... REGULATIONS Adequacy of Intercity Motor Common Carrier Passenger Service § 374.309 Terminal facilities. (a... attendants and be regularly patrolled. (b) Outside facilities. At terminals and stations that are closed when...

  13. 9 CFR 3.40 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminal facilities. 3.40 Section 3.40... Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.40 Terminal facilities. No person subject to the Animal... animal holding areas of a terminal facility where shipments of live guinea pigs or hamsters are...

  14. 9 CFR 3.91 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminal facilities. 3.91 Section 3.91... Primates 2 Transportation Standards § 3.91 Terminal facilities. (a) Placement. Any persons subject to the... with inanimate cargo or with other animals in animal holding areas of terminal facilities. Nonhuman...

  15. 9 CFR 3.65 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminal facilities. 3.65 Section 3.65... Transportation Standards § 3.65 Terminal facilities. No person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations shall commingle shipments of live rabbits with inanimate cargo. All animal holding areas of a terminal facility...

  16. 9 CFR 3.18 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminal facilities. 3.18 Section 3.18... Cats 1 Transportation Standards § 3.18 Terminal facilities. (a) Placement. Any person subject to the... inanimate cargo in animal holding areas of terminal facilities. (b) Cleaning, sanitization, and pest control...

  17. 46 CFR 525.2 - Terminal schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... domestic law and international conventions and agreements adopted by the United States; such terminal... their own negligence, or that impose upon others the obligation to indemnify or hold-harmless the terminals from liability for their own negligence. (2) Enforcement of terminal schedules. Any schedule that...

  18. 25 CFR 11.1114 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Minor-in-Need-of-Care Procedure § 11.1114 Termination. (a) Parental rights to a child may be terminated... rights if, following efforts to prevent or eliminate the need to remove the minor, it finds such efforts... alternatives: (1) If parental rights to a child are terminated, the children's court shall place the minor in a...

  19. A novel tandem reporter quantifies RNA polymerase II termination in mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayan Banerjee

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Making the correct choice between transcription elongation and transcription termination is essential to the function of RNA polymerase II, and fundamental to gene expression. This choice can be influenced by factors modifying the transcription complex, factors modifying chromatin, or signals mediated by the template or transcript. To aid in the study of transcription elongation and termination we have developed a transcription elongation reporter system that consists of tandem luciferase reporters flanking a test sequence of interest. The ratio of expression from the reporters provides a measure of the relative rates of successful elongation through the intervening sequence.Size matched fragments containing the polyadenylation signal of the human beta-actin gene (ACTB and the human beta-globin gene (HBB were evaluated for transcription termination using this new ratiometric tandem reporter assay. Constructs bearing just 200 base pairs on either side of the consensus poly(A addition site terminated 98% and 86% of transcription for ACTB and HBB sequences, respectively. The nearly 10-fold difference in read-through transcription between the two short poly(A regions was eclipsed when additional downstream poly(A sequence was included for each gene. Both poly(A regions proved very effective at termination when 1100 base pairs were included, stopping 99.6% of transcription. To determine if part of the increased termination was simply due to the increased template length, we inserted several kilobases of heterologous coding sequence downstream of each poly(A region test fragment. Unexpectedly, the additional length reduced the effectiveness of termination of HBB sequences 2-fold and of ACTB sequences 3- to 5-fold.The tandem construct provides a sensitive measure of transcription termination in human cells. Decreased Xrn2 or Senataxin levels produced only a modest release from termination. Our data support overlap in allosteric and torpedo mechanisms

  20. Deglaciation in the tropical Indian Ocean driven by interplay between the regional monsoon and global teleconnections

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saraswat, R.; Lea, D.W.; Nigam, R.; Mackensen, A.; Naik, Dinesh K.

    High resolution climate records of the ice age terminations from monsoon-dominated regions reveal the interplay of regional and global driving forces. Speleothem records from Chinese caves indicate that glacial terminations were interrupted...

  1. Intrinsic terminators in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Tiago Ebert; Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2015-04-08

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, an important pathogen of swine, exhibits a low guanine and cytosine (GC) content genome. M. hyopneumoniae genome is organised in long transcriptional units and promoter sequences have been mapped upstream of all transcription units. These analysis provided insights into the gene organisation and transcription initiation at the genome scale. However, the presence of transcriptional terminator sequences in the M. hyopneumoniae genome is poorly understood. In silico analyses demonstrated the presence of putative terminators in 82% of the 33 monocistronic units (mCs) and in 74% of the 116 polycistronic units (pCs) considering different classes of terminators. The functional activity of 23 intrinsic terminators was confirmed by RT-PCR and qPCR. Analysis of all terminators found by three software algorithms, combined with experimental results, allowed us to propose a pattern of RNA hairpin formation during the termination process and to predict the location of terminators in the M. hyopneumoniae genome sequence. The stem-loop structures of intrinsic terminators of mycoplasma diverge from the pattern of terminators found in other bacteria due the low content of guanine and cytosine. In M. hyopneumoniae, transcription can end after a transcriptional unit and before its terminator sequence and can also continue past the terminator sequence with RNA polymerases gradually releasing the RNA.

  2. Cold as ice. Baltic Sea's first liquefied natural gas terminal; Eiskalt verschifft. Erstes Fluessigerdgas-Terminal in der Ostsee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-07-01

    In liquid form, natural gas can be transported by ship or truck to remote areas that are not on a pipeline network. Near Stockholm, The Linde Group has now built the Baltic region's first LNG terminal. The company also provided the building blocks along the entire LNG value chain - from the liquefaction plants through the transport ship tanks to the actual terminal. (orig.)

  3. Termination of resuscitation in the prehospital setting: A comparison of decisions in clinical practice vs. recommendations of a termination rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaert, Dominique V M; Bonnes, Judith L; Nas, Joris; Keuper, Wessel; van Grunsven, Pierre M; Smeets, Joep L R M; de Boer, Menko Jan; Brouwer, Marc A

    2016-03-01

    Of the proposed algorithms that provide guidance for in-field termination of resuscitation (TOR) decisions, the guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) refer to the basic and advanced life support (ALS)-TOR rules. To assess the potential consequences of implementation of the ALS-TOR rule, we performed a case-by-case evaluation of our in-field termination decisions and assessed the corresponding recommendations of the ALS-TOR rule. Cohort of non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA)-patients who were resuscitated by the ALS-practising emergency medical service (EMS) in the Nijmegen area (2008-2011). The ALS-TOR rule recommends termination in case all following criteria are met: unwitnessed arrest, no bystander CPR, no shock delivery, no return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Of the 598 cases reviewed, resuscitative efforts were terminated in the field in 46% and 15% survived to discharge. The ALS-TOR rule would have recommended in-field termination in only 6% of patients, due to high percentages of witnessed arrests (73%) and bystander CPR (54%). In current practice, absence of ROSC was the most important determinant of termination [aOR 35.6 (95% CI 18.3-69.3)]. Weaker associations were found for: unwitnessed and non-public arrests, non-shockable initial rhythms and longer EMS-response times. While designed to optimise hospital transportations, application of the ALS-TOR rule would almost double our hospital transportation rate to over 90% of OHCA-cases due to the favourable arrest circumstances in our region. Prior to implementation of the ALS-TOR rule, local evaluation of the potential consequences for the efficiency of triage is to be recommended and initiatives to improve field-triage for ALS-based EMS-systems are eagerly awaited. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. JCO criticality accident termination operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, Masashi

    2010-07-01

    In 2001, we summarized the circumstances surrounding termination of the JCO criticality accident based on testimony in the Mito District Court on December 17, 2001. JCO was the company for uranium fuels production in Japan. That document was assembled based on actual testimony in the belief that a description of the work involved in termination of the accident would be useful in some way for preventing nuclear disasters in the future. The description focuses on the witness' own behavior, and what he saw and heard, and thus is written from the perspective of action by one individual. This was done simply because it was easier for the witness to write down his memories as he remembers them. Description of the activities of other organizations and people is provided only as necessary, to ensure that consistency in the descriptive approach is not lost. The essentials of this report were rewritten as a third-person objective description in the summary of the report by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). Since then, comments have been received from sources such as former members of the Nuclear Safety Commission (Dr. Kenji Sumita and Dr. Akira Kanagawa), concerned parties from the former Science and Technology Agency, and reports from the JCO Criticality Accident Investigation Committee of the AESJ, and thus this report was rewritten to correct incorrect information, and add material where that was felt to be necessary. This year is the tenth year of the JCO criticality accident. To mark this occasion we have decided to translate the record of what occurred at the accident site into English so that more people can draw lessons from this accident. This report is an English version of JAEA-Technology 2009-073. (author)

  5. Concept Layout Model of Transportation Terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Li-ya; Sun, Li-shan; Wang, Wu-hong; Xiong, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Transportation terminal is the key node in transport systems. Efficient terminals can improve operation of passenger transportation networks, adjust the layout of public transportation networks, provide a passenger guidance system, and regulate the development of commercial forms, as well as optimize the assembly and distribution of modern logistic modes, among others. This study aims to clarify the relationship between the function and the structure of transportation terminals and establish ...

  6. Coherent current states in mesoscopic four-terminal Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zareyan, M.; Omelyanchouk, A.N.

    1999-01-01

    A theory is offered for the ballistic 4-terminal Josephson junction. The studied system consist of a mesoscopic two-dimensional normal rectangular layer which is attached on each side to the bulk superconducting banks (terminals). A relation is obtained between the currents through the different terminals, that is valid for arbitrary temperatures and junction sizes. The nonlocal coupling of the supercurrent leads to a new effect, specific for the mesoscopic weak link between two superconducting rings; an applied magnetic flux through one of the rings produces a magnetic flux in the other ring even in the absence of an external flux through the other one. The phase dependent distributions of the local density of Andreev states, of the supercurrents and of the induced order parameter are obtained. The 'interference pattern' for the anomalous average inside the two-dimensional region cam be regulated by the applied magnetic fluxes or the transport currents. For some values of the phase differences between the terminals, the current vortex state and two-dimensional phase slip center appear

  7. PTEN C-Terminal Deletion Causes Genomic Instability and Tumor Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Sun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tumor suppressor PTEN controls genomic stability and inhibits tumorigenesis. The N-terminal phosphatase domain of PTEN antagonizes the PI3K/AKT pathway, but its C-terminal function is less defined. Here, we describe a knockin mouse model of a nonsense mutation that results in the deletion of the entire Pten C-terminal region, referred to as PtenΔC. Mice heterozygous for PtenΔC develop multiple spontaneous tumors, including cancers and B cell lymphoma. Heterozygous deletion of the Pten C-terminal domain also causes genomic instability and common fragile site rearrangement. We found that Pten C-terminal disruption induces p53 and its downstream targets. Simultaneous depletion of p53 promotes metastasis without influencing the initiation of tumors, suggesting that p53 mainly suppresses tumor progression. Our data highlight the essential role of the PTEN C terminus in the maintenance of genomic stability and suppression of tumorigenesis.

  8. Performance Evaluation and Modelling of Container Terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubbaiah, K.; Rao, K. Narayana; Rao, M. Malleswara; Challa, Suresh

    2018-02-01

    The present paper evaluates and analyzes the performance of 28 container terminals of south East Asia through data envelopment analysis (DEA), principal component analysis (PCA) and hybrid method of DEA-PCA. DEA technique is utilized to identify efficient decision making unit (DMU)s and to rank DMUs in a peer appraisal mode. PCA is a multivariate statistical method to evaluate the performance of container terminals. In hybrid method, DEA is integrated with PCA to arrive the ranking of container terminals. Based on the composite ranking, performance modelling and optimization of container terminals is carried out through response surface methodology (RSM).

  9. What is a "good enough" termination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Glen O

    2009-06-01

    In Freud's technique papers, he failed to develop a systematic approach to termination. Much of the existing literature is based on psychoanalytic mythologies about the way patients are expected to end analysis. The models described in the literature are often starkly at odds with what one sees in clinical practice. A wish for idealized versions of termination underlies much of what has been written, and we need to shift to a conceptual model involving "good enough" termination. A number of different endings to psychoanalysis may, in the long run, lead to productive outcomes; these models are examined, as are various approaches to the dilemmas presented at the time of termination.

  10. St. James marine terminal facility description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns and operates a marine terminal on the west bank of the Mississippi River at St. James, Louisiana. The St. James facility was constructed by the Department to provide marine services associated with the fill and drawdown of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) crude oil storage facilities located at Bayou Choctaw and Weeks Island, Louisiana. Although strategic to the mission of the SPR in the event of a national emergency, the St. James terminal is situated such that it has a high potential to also serve the commercial industry`s needs for crude oil terminalling and storage. The St. James terminal is located approximately 45 miles west of New Orleans and 30 miles southeast of Baton Rouge, and approximately 160 miles upstream from the mouth of the Mississippi River. Construction of the St. James terminal was initiated in 1978 and was completed in 1980. Since then, the terminal has received and transferred over 125 million barrels of crude oil to the SPR sites for storage. For crude oil distribution, the St. James terminal was connected to the neighboring LOCAP terminal by a 0.1 mile 36-inch pipeline in 1981 and to the Capline terminal by a 0.5 mile 30-inch pipeline in 1988. The terminal also has a 30-inch pipeline connection to the Koch oil terminal which was used for initial fill purposes; however, this pipeline has been disconnected and is currently inactive. A complete description of the St. James terminal facilities, operational capabilities, operational certifications, and future Government requirements are presented in Sections 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively.

  11. Quality management in intermodal terminals of the Brazilian grains logistics chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Foscaches

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intermodal terminals play a key role in the logistics system, since they are an important link between food production and distribution. In the agrifood chain, quality management isn´t seen as a competitive advantage, but as an issue of survival. This study thus aims to identify the quality management phase in which the intermodal terminals of the Brazilian grains logistics chain are found. To this end, interviews were conducted, using semi-structured questionnaires, with the managers of 28 intermodal terminals located in the Midwest, South, Southeast, Northeast and Northern regions. It was found that most terminals are in the Strategic Quality Management era, the fourth era of quality management. In addition, it was observed that the specific tools of the agrifood sector are widely used by terminals. In addition, many terminals use tools from the first and second quality era. Among the tools of the fourth era, product tracking is the most widely used. Finally, it was possible to determine that the terminals in the third quality era, Quality Assurance, have a higher average operating efficiency than terminals in the fourth era, Strategic Quality Management.

  12. The C-terminal domain of the Bloom syndrome DNA helicase is essential for genomic stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noonan James P

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bloom syndrome is a rare cancer-prone disorder in which the cells of affected persons have a high frequency of somatic mutation and genomic instability. Bloom syndrome cells have a distinctive high frequency of sister chromatid exchange and quadriradial formation. BLM, the protein altered in BS, is a member of the RecQ DNA helicase family, whose members share an average of 40% identity in the helicase domain and have divergent N-terminal and C-terminal flanking regions of variable lengths. The BLM DNA helicase has been shown to localize to the ND10 (nuclear domain 10 or PML (promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies, where it associates with TOPIIIα, and to the nucleolus. Results This report demonstrates that the N-terminal domain of BLM is responsible for localization of the protein to the nuclear bodies, while the C-terminal domain directs the protein to the nucleolus. Deletions of the N-terminal domain of BLM have little effect on sister chromatid exchange frequency and chromosome stability as compared to helicase and C-terminal mutations which can increase SCE frequency and chromosome abnormalities. Conclusion The helicase activity and the C-terminal domain of BLM are critical for maintaining genomic stability as measured by the sister chromatid exchange assay. The localization of BLM into the nucleolus by the C-terminal domain appears to be more important to genomic stability than localization in the nuclear bodies.

  13. 78 FR 5717 - Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal... Guard is establishing a safety zone in the navigable waters of Suisun Bay near Military Ocean Terminal Concord, CA in support of military onload and offload operations. This safety zone is established to...

  14. Irradiation from video display terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backe, S.; Hannevik, M.

    1987-01-01

    Video display terminals (VDT's) are in common use by computer operators. In the last years this group of workers has expressed growing concern about their work environment and possible hazardious effects in connection with radiation emission from VDT's. Radiation types and levels of emission and possible biological effects have been the subject of research activity in Norway and in other countries. This report summarizes the various radiation types and their levels of emission from VDT's. An overview of recent epidemiological studies and animal experiments, and the conclusions given by the research groups are also presented. The conclusions drawn in this report based on the current knowledge are: Radiation, other than low frequency pulsed magnetic fields, have low and negligible emission levels and will not represent any health hazard to VDT-operator or to the foetus of pregnant operators. The biological effects of low frequency pulsed mangetic fields have been the subject of epidemiological studies and animal experiments. Epidemiological studies carried out in Canada, Finland, Sweden and Norway gave no support for any correlation between pregnancy complications and operation of VDT's. From animal experiments it has so far been impossible to assert an effect on pregnancy outcome from low frequency pulsed magnetic fields

  15. 9 CFR 3.117 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminal facilities. 3.117 Section 3... Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.117 Terminal facilities. Carriers and intermediate handlers... facility of any carrier or intermediate handler where marine mammal shipments are maintained must be...

  16. Bargaining in Mergers and Termination Fees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitzel, U.; Rosenkranz, S.

    We model takeovers as a bargaining process and explain termination fees for, both, the target and the acquirer, subject to parties’ bargaining power and outside options. In equilibrium, termination fees are offered by firms with outside options in exchange for a greater share of merger synergies.

  17. [Terminal phase hydration, pain and delirium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heick, A.

    2009-01-01

    Hydration of the terminal patient may relieve confusion and complaints of "dry mouth". But it may worsen oedema of the brain, lungs, and extremities, worsen terminal rattling and cause a need for frequent changing of diapers. The decision of whether and how to treat a dying patient with fluids...

  18. 48 CFR 32.109 - Termination financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination financing. 32... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 32.109 Termination financing. To encourage contractors to invest their own funds in performance despite the susceptibility of...

  19. Diffractive optical elements for space communication terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Herzig, Hans-Peter; Ehbets, Peter; Teijido, Juan M.; Weible, Kenneth J.; Heimbeck, Hans-Joerg

    2007-01-01

    The potential of diffractive optical elements for advanced laser communication terminals has been investigated. Applications include beam shaping of high- power laser diode arrays, optical filter elements for position detection and hybrid (refractive/diffractive) elements. In addition, we present a design example of a miniaturized terminal including diffractive optics.

  20. Size-change termination and transition invariants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heizmann, Matthias; Jones, Neil; Podelski, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Two directions of recent work on program termination use the concepts of size-change termination resp. transition invariants. The difference in the setting has as consequence the inherent incomparability of the analysis and verification methods that result from this work. Yet, in order...

  1. 28 CFR 2.43 - Early termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... terminated because there is a likelihood that the parolee will engage in conduct violating any criminal law... shall review the status of the parolee to determine the need for continued supervision. The Commission shall also conduct a status review whenever the supervision officer recommends early termination of the...

  2. 14 CFR 272.12 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE TO THE FREELY ASSOCIATED STATES § 272.12 Termination. These provisions shall terminate on October 1, 1998, unless the program of essential air service to the Federated States of...

  3. 43 CFR 29.13 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Termination. Upon termination of operations of the Pipeline, the full disposition of all claims, and the... shall request that Congress provide for final disposition of the Fund. If Congress at any time establishes a comprehensive oil pollution liability fund which supersedes or repeals the Fund, the Fund assets...

  4. 75 FR 49510 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5411-N-02] Credit Watch Termination Initiative AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION... FHA Credit Watch Termination Initiative. This notice includes a list of mortgagees which have had...

  5. 75 FR 17944 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5411-N-01] Credit Watch Termination Initiative AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION... FHA Credit Watch Termination Initiative. This notice includes a list of mortgagees which have had...

  6. [Terminal phase hydration, pain and delirium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heick, A.

    2009-01-01

    Hydration of the terminal patient may relieve confusion and complaints of "dry mouth". But it may worsen oedema of the brain, lungs, and extremities, worsen terminal rattling and cause a need for frequent changing of diapers. The decision of whether and how to treat a dying patient with fluids sh...

  7. 7 CFR 983.89 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.89 Termination. (a) The Secretary may at any time..., That such majority has, during such representative period, produced for market more than fifty percent of the volume of such pistachios produced for market, but such termination shall be announced at...

  8. Untangling spider silk evolution with spidroin terminal domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garb Jessica E

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spidroins are a unique family of large, structural proteins that make up the bulk of spider silk fibers. Due to the highly variable nature of their repetitive sequences, spidroin evolutionary relationships have principally been determined from their non-repetitive carboxy (C-terminal domains, though they offer limited character data. The few known spidroin amino (N-terminal domains have been difficult to obtain, but potentially contain critical phylogenetic information for reconstructing the diversification of spider silks. Here we used silk gland expression data (ESTs from highly divergent species to evaluate the functional significance and phylogenetic utility of spidroin N-terminal domains. Results We report 11 additional spidroin N-termini found by sequencing ~1,900 silk gland cDNAs from nine spider species that shared a common ancestor > 240 million years ago. In contrast to their hyper-variable repetitive regions, spidroin N-terminal domains have retained striking similarities in sequence identity, predicted secondary structure, and hydrophobicity. Through separate and combined phylogenetic analyses of N-terminal domains and their corresponding C-termini, we find that combined analysis produces the most resolved trees and that N-termini contribute more support and less conflict than the C-termini. These analyses show that paralogs largely group by silk gland type, except for the major ampullate spidroins. Moreover, spidroin structural motifs associated with superior tensile strength arose early in the history of this gene family, whereas a motif conferring greater extensibility convergently evolved in two distantly related paralogs. Conclusions A non-repetitive N-terminal domain appears to be a universal attribute of spidroin proteins, likely retained from the origin of spider silk production. Since this time, spidroin N-termini have maintained several features, consistent with this domain playing a key role in silk

  9. Detection of prosecretory mitogen lacritin in nonprimate tears primarily as a C-terminal-like fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Diane E; Splan, Rebecca K; Green, Kari; Still, Katherine M; McKown, Robert L; Laurie, Gordon W

    2012-09-12

    Lacritin is a human tear glycoprotein that promotes basal tear protein secretion in cultured rat lacrimal acinar cells and proliferation of subconfluent human corneal epithelial cells. When topically added to rabbit eyes, lacritin promotes basal tearing. Despite these activities on several species, lacritin's presence in nonprimate tears or other tissues has not been explored. Here we probed for lacritin in normal horse tears. Sequences were collected from the Ensembl genomic alignment of human LACRT gene with high-quality draft horse genome (EquCab2.0) and analyzed. Normal horse tears were collected and assayed by Western blotting, ELISA, and mass spectrometry. Newly generated rabbit antibodies, respectively, against N- and C-terminal regions of human lacritin were employed. Identity was 75% and 45%, respectively, at nucleotide and protein levels. Structural features were conserved, including a C-terminal amphipathic α-helix. Anti-C-terminal antibodies strongly detected a ∼13 kDa band in horse tears that was validated by mass spectrometry. In human tears, the same antibody detected uncleaved lacritin (∼24 kDa) strongly and C-terminal fragments of ∼13 and ∼11 kDa weakly. Anti-N-terminal antibodies were slightly reactive with a ∼24 kDa horse antigen and showed no reaction with the anti-C-terminal-reactive ∼13 kDa species. Similar respective levels of horse C-terminal versus N-terminal immunoreactivity were apparent by ELISA. Lacritin is present in horse tears, largely as a C-terminal fragment homologous to the mitogenic and bactericidal region in human lacritin, suggesting potential benefit in corneal wound repair.

  10. Concept Layout Model of Transportation Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ya Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation terminal is the key node in transport systems. Efficient terminals can improve operation of passenger transportation networks, adjust the layout of public transportation networks, provide a passenger guidance system, and regulate the development of commercial forms, as well as optimize the assembly and distribution of modern logistic modes, among others. This study aims to clarify the relationship between the function and the structure of transportation terminals and establish the function layout design. The mapping mechanism of demand, function, and structure was analyzed, and a quantitative relationship between function and structure was obtained from a design perspective. Passenger demand and terminal structure were decomposed into several demand units and structural elements following the principle of reverse engineering. The relationship maps between these two kinds of elements were then analyzed. Function-oriented concept layout model of transportation terminals was established using the previous method. Thus, a technique in planning and design of transportation structures was proposed. Meaningful results were obtained from the optimization of transportation terminal facilities, which guide the design of the functional layout of transportation terminals and improve the development of urban passenger transportation systems.

  11. Compact Termination for Structural Soft-goods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Robert, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Glass fiber is unique in its ability to withstand atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation in-space environments. However, glass fiber is also difficult to terminate by traditional methods without decreasing its strength significantly. Glass fiber products are especially sensitive to bend radius, and do not work very well with traditional 'sewn loop on pin' type connections. As with most composites, getting applied loads from a metallic structure into the webbing without stress concentrations is the key to a successful design. A potted end termination has been shown in some preliminary work to out-perform traditional termination methods. It was proposed to conduct a series of tensile tests on structural webbing or cord to determine the optimum potting geometry, and to then be able to estimate a weight and volume savings over traditional sewn-overa- pin connections. During the course of the investigation into potted end terminations for glass fiber webbing, a new and innovative connection was developed that has lower weight, reduced fabrication time, and superior thermal tolerance over the metallic end terminations that were to be optimized in the original proposal. This end termination essentially transitions the flexible glass fiber webbing into a rigid fiberglass termination, which can be bolted/fastened with traditional methods

  12. The Practice of Hospital Intranet Terminal Access Control Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Shi-tao; TANG Li-ming

    2016-01-01

    Along with the increasingly urgent management needs of intranet terminals in hospital, and large scaled deployment of terminal management system, terminal access control has become one of the standard functions of terminal management. This paper mainly aims at some simple research for the system construction of hospital intranet terminal access control.

  13. 42 CFR 489.53 - Termination by CMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination by CMS. 489.53 Section 489.53 Public... Reinstatement After Termination § 489.53 Termination by CMS. (a) Basis for termination of agreement with any provider. CMS may terminate the agreement with any provider if CMS finds that any of the following failings...

  14. 7 CFR 1469.25 - Contract violations and termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... termination without delay. (c) If NRCS terminates a contract due to breach of contract, the participant will... terminates a contract due to breach of contract, or the participant voluntarily terminates the contract... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contract violations and termination. 1469.25 Section...

  15. Operational Optimization in Port Container Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    As a result of the significant increase in worldwide containerized transportation the development of efficient handling systems in marine terminals has become very important for port competitiveness. In order to optimize the productivity the total handling time for containers in the terminal must...... be minimized. An overview of the different operational problems in port container terminals is presented and an aggregated model and solution approach is shown. Next, there will be focused on the yard storage problem and a mathematical formulation and solution proposals will be presented....

  16. Termination of plastic-clad fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nance, W.R.

    1982-03-01

    Optical waveguides are ideal in a nuclear weapon environment because of their resistance to electromagnetic interference. Of the fibers on today's market, plastic-clad silica (PCS) is the most radiation resistant and therfore the best choice. Because terminating PCS is complex, this paper attemps to address the major problems associated with these terminations including selecting the proper connector and optimizing the terminating procedures. The sources of losses in the connectors are summarized and typical loss values are given for four connectors which were tested

  17. Terminal location planning in intermodal transportation with Bayesian inference method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In this project, we consider the planning of terminal locations for intermodal transportation systems. For a given number of potential terminals and coexisted multiple service pairs, we find the set of appropriate terminals and their locations that p...

  18. Terminal Area Conflict Detection and Resolution Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Savita Arora

    2011-01-01

    This poster will describe analysis of a conflict detection and resolution tool for the terminal area called T-TSAFE. With altitude clearance information, the tool can reduce false alerts to as low as 2 per hour.

  19. Conflict Termination: Every Conflict Must End

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garza, Mario

    1997-01-01

    .... The operational commander and his staff must understand the nature of conflict termination and the post-conflict activities so that they will be able to effectively translate the desired end state...

  20. Keerukas terminal valiti aasta betoonehitiseks / Aivo Vahemets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vahemets, Aivo

    2002-01-01

    Aasta Betoonehitise nimetuse võitis Muuga kuivpuisteainete terminal, projekteerija Randväli&Karema AS. Eriauhind arhitektuurse osa eest - Birgitta klooster Pirital. Eriauhind tellijale - büroohoone Tallinnas Toompuiestee 33. Eriauhind ehitajale - konteinerterminal Muugal, projekteerija AS Merin

  1. Compact Termination for Structural Soft-goods

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Glass fiber is unique in its ability to withstand atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation in-space environments. However, glass fiber is also difficult to terminate...

  2. Mandatory Compensation to Commercial Agents upon Termination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kamil Abdu Oumer

    the compensation due to the agent upon the termination of the commercial .... Virginia School of Law Legal Studies Working Papers Series, Working Paper No. ..... grant up to a one year commission if they find the circumstances equitable.67 In.

  3. 48 CFR 12.403 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... guidance to the extent that part 49 does not conflict with this section and the language of the termination... required to comply with the cost accounting standards or the contract cost principles in part 31. The...

  4. Multiemployer Pension Plan Terminations, Mergers, and Insolvencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — A listing of multiemployer pension plan terminations, mergers, and insolvencies reported to the PBGC for the current fiscal year. This data set will be updated...

  5. 29 CFR 402.5 - Terminal reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting labor organization through merger, consolidation or otherwise, shall file a report containing a... on Form LM-2 in connection with the terminal financial report required by § 403.5 of this chapter and...

  6. Cholesterol: the debate should be terminated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, David G

    2017-07-01

    Here, I offer personal perspectives on cholesterol homeostasis that reflect my belief that certain aspects of the debate have been overstated.-Nathan, D. G. Cholesterol: the debate should be terminated. © FASEB.

  7. Macro scale models for freight railroad terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-02

    The project has developed a yard capacity model for macro-level analysis. The study considers the detailed sequence and scheduling in classification yards and their impacts on yard capacities simulate typical freight railroad terminals, and statistic...

  8. 77 FR 21981 - Maher Terminal, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... continues to agree with another marine terminal operator or common carrier to boycott and/or unreasonably... costs and other undue and unreasonable payments, economic considerations, restrictions on transfers and...

  9. Modeling and Design of Container Terminal Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Roy (Debjit); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractDesign of container terminal operations is complex because multiple factors affect the operational perfor- mance. These factors include: topological constraints, a large number of design parameters and settings, and stochastic interactions that interplay among the quayside, vehicle

  10. Controlling S2 terminal using FS software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhuhe

    New S2FS software for controlling S2 terminal of Sheshan station has been developed. It works under Field System software. All S2 operation commands are incorporated in a station program. The interface of SWT computer and S2 terminal is RS232 interface. S2FS software is designed by using Shell and C language. It has been used in VSOP experiments.

  11. Intermodal terminals simulation for operation management

    OpenAIRE

    Baldassarra, Alessandro; Impastato, Stefano; Ricci, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    A freight terminal is a key node in a transportation network and the transit time of containers through this terminal represents one of the most relevant bottlenecks in logistic chains. The system performance reduction and the corresponding increase of transit time are often due to the increase of the freight flow without a corresponding increase of stacking and handling capacity. For this purpose it was decided to approach the problem by a discrete event simulation model, in order to reprodu...

  12. Minimum Efficient Scale (MES) and preferred scale of container terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Kaselimi, Evangelia N.; Notteboom, Theo E.; Pallis, Athanasios A.; Farrell, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: The decision on the scale of a port terminal affects the terminals managerial, operational and competitive position in all the phases of its life. It also affects competition structures in the port in which the terminal is operating, and has a potential impact on other terminals. Port authorities and terminal operators need to know the scale of the terminal when engaging in concession agreements. In economic theory the scale of a plant/firm is typically defined in relation to the Mi...

  13. Rotational bands terminating at maximal spin in the valence space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragnarsson, I.; Afanasjev, A.V. [Lund Institute of Technology (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    For nuclei with mass A {le} 120, the spin available in {open_quotes}normal deformation configurations{close_quotes} is experimentally accessible with present detector systems. Of special interest are the nuclei which show collective features at low or medium-high spin and where the corresponding rotational bands with increasing spin can be followed in a continuous way to or close to a non-collective terminating state. Some specific features in this context are discussed for nuclei in the A = 80 region and for {sup 117,118}Xe.

  14. Terminal Gold-Oxo Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, R.; Anderson, T.M.; Piccoli, P.M.B.; Schultz, A.J.; Koetzle, T.F.; Geletii, Y.V.; Slonkina, E.; Hedman, B.; Hodgson, K.O.; Hardcastle, K.I.; Fang, X.; Kirk, M.L.; Knottenbelt, S.; Kogerler, P.; Musaev, D.G.; Morokuma, K.; Takahashi, M.; Hill, C.L.; /Emory U. /Argonne /SLAC, SSRL /New Mexico U. /Iowa State U. /Toho U.

    2007-10-19

    In contradiction to current bonding paradigms, two terminal Au-oxo molecular complexes have been synthesized by reaction of AuCl{sub 3} with metal oxide-cluster ligands that model redox-active metal oxide surfaces. Use of K{sub 10}[{alpha}{sub 2}-P{sub 2}W{sub 17}O{sub 61}] x 20H{sub 2}O and K{sub 2}WO{sub 4} (forming the [A-PW{sub 9}O{sub 34}]{sup 9-} ligand in situ) produces K{sub 15}H{sub 2}[Au(O)(OH{sub 2})P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 68}] x 25H{sub 2}O (1); use of K{sub 10}[P{sub 2}W{sub 20}O{sub 70}(OH{sub 2}){sub 2}] x 22H{sub 2}O (3) produces K{sub 7}H{sub 2}[Au(O)(OH{sub 2})P{sub 2}W{sub 20}O{sub 70}(OH{sub 2}){sub 2}] x 27H{sub 2}O (2). Complex 1 crystallizes in orthorhombic Fddd, with a = 28.594(4) Angstroms, b = 31.866(4) Angstroms, c = 38.241(5) Angstroms, V = 34844(7) Angstroms{sup 3}, Z = 16 (final R = 0.0540), and complex 2 crystallizes in hexagonal P6(3)/mmc, with a = 16.1730(9) Angstroms, b = 16.1730(9) Angstroms, c = 19.7659(15) Angstroms, V = 4477.4(5) Angstroms{sup 3}, Z = 2 (final R = 0.0634). The polyanion unit in 1 is disorder-free. Very short ({approx}1.76 Angstroms) Au-oxo distances are established by both X-ray and 30 K neutron diffraction studies, and the latter confirms oxo and trans aqua (H2O) ligands on Au. Seven findings clarify that Au and not W is present in the Au-oxo position in 1 and 2. Five lines of evidence are consistent with the presence of d8 Au(III) centers that are stabilized by the flanking polytungstate ligands in both 1 and 2: redox titrations, electrochemical measurements, 17 K optical spectra, Au L2 edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and Au-oxo bond distances. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility data for crystalline 1 and 2 establish that both solids are diamagnetic, and {sup 31}P and {sup 17}O NMR spectroscopy confirm that both remain diamagnetic in solution. Both complexes have been further characterized by FT-IR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and other techniques.

  15. Valuation of electricity transmission systems in case of transfer to successor upon termination of a franchise agreement. OLG Celle (Celle Higher Regional Court), decision of 6 Nov. 1996 - Az. 13 U (Kart) 275/95; Wertbemessung bei Uebergang von Versorgungsanlagen nach Auslaufen eines Konzessionsvertrages. OLG Celle, Urteil vom 6.11.1996 - Az. 13 U (Kart) 275/95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-08-01

    (Appealable) head note: A termination clause in franchise agreements containing a mutually agreed title to transfer of ownership of power distribution systems against payment of the replacement value are legally effective. On the definition of the term ``replacement value``. (orig.) [Deutsch] Leitsatz (nicht amtlich): Eine Endschaftsklausel in Konzessionsvertraegen, in der ein Anspruch auf Uebertragung der Versorgungsanlagen zum sog. Sachzeitwert vereinbart wird, ist wirksam. Zur Inhaltsbestimmung des Sachzeitwertbegriffs. (orig.)

  16. GBNV encoded movement protein (NSm) remodels ER network via C-terminal coiled coil domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pratibha; Savithri, H.S., E-mail: bchss@biochem.iisc.ernet.in

    2015-08-15

    Plant viruses exploit the host machinery for targeting the viral genome–movement protein complex to plasmodesmata (PD). The mechanism by which the non-structural protein m (NSm) of Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) is targeted to PD was investigated using Agrobacterium mediated transient expression of NSm and its fusion proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana. GFP:NSm formed punctuate structures that colocalized with mCherry:plasmodesmata localized protein 1a (PDLP 1a) confirming that GBNV NSm localizes to PD. Unlike in other movement proteins, the C-terminal coiled coil domain of GBNV NSm was shown to be involved in the localization of NSm to PD, as deletion of this domain resulted in the cytoplasmic localization of NSm. Treatment with Brefeldin A demonstrated the role of ER in targeting GFP NSm to PD. Furthermore, mCherry:NSm co-localized with ER–GFP (endoplasmic reticulum targeting peptide (HDEL peptide fused with GFP). Co-expression of NSm with ER–GFP showed that the ER-network was transformed into vesicles indicating that NSm interacts with ER and remodels it. Mutations in the conserved hydrophobic region of NSm (residues 130–138) did not abolish the formation of vesicles. Additionally, the conserved prolines at positions 140 and 142 were found to be essential for targeting the vesicles to the cell membrane. Further, systematic deletion of amino acid residues from N- and C-terminus demonstrated that N-terminal 203 amino acids are dispensable for the vesicle formation. On the other hand, the C-terminal coiled coil domain when expressed alone could also form vesicles. These results suggest that GBNV NSm remodels the ER network by forming vesicles via its interaction through the C-terminal coiled coil domain. Interestingly, NSm interacts with NP in vitro and coexpression of these two proteins in planta resulted in the relocalization of NP to PD and this relocalization was abolished when the N-terminal unfolded region of NSm was deleted. Thus, the NSm

  17. Acetylation within the N- and C-Terminal Domains of Src Regulates Distinct Roles of STAT3-Mediated Tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Lihan; Lee, Hank W; Ayrapetov, Marina K; Zhao, Ting C; Hao, Yimei; Gao, Jinsong; Yang, Chunzhang; Mehta, Gautam U; Zhuang, Zhengping; Zhang, Xiaoren; Hu, Guohong; Chin, Y Eugene

    2018-06-01

    Posttranslational modifications of mammalian c-Src N-terminal and C-terminal domains regulate distinct functions. Myristoylation of G 2 controls its cell membrane association and phosphorylation of Y419/Y527 controls its activation or inactivation, respectively. We provide evidence that Src-cell membrane association-dissociation and catalytic activation-inactivation are both regulated by acetylation. In EGF-treated cells, CREB binding protein (CBP) acetylates an N-terminal lysine cluster (K5, K7, and K9) of c-Src to promote dissociation from the cell membrane. CBP also acetylates the C-terminal K401, K423, and K427 of c-Src to activate intrinsic kinase activity for STAT3 recruitment and activation. N-terminal domain phosphorylation (Y14, Y45, and Y68) of STAT3 by c-Src activates transcriptionally active dimers of STAT3. Moreover, acetyl-Src translocates into nuclei, where it forms the Src-STAT3 enhanceosome for gene regulation and cancer cell proliferation. Thus, c-Src acetylation in the N-terminal and C-terminal domains play distinct roles in Src activity and regulation. Significance: CBP-mediated acetylation of lysine clusters in both the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of c-Src provides additional levels of control over STAT3 transcriptional activity. Cancer Res; 78(11); 2825-38. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Regional utvikling og partnerskap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, H.; Gjertsen, A.

    2004-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, Danish regional policy has changed dramatically. As of January 1991, all central government incentive schemes were terminated, and since then the main components of spatial economic policy have been a host of subnational initiatives and the European Structural...... in European matters as envisaged in the ?Europe of the Regions? slogan. The aim of this chapter is to examine the transformation of regional policy in Denmark from the perspective of political decentralization and Europeanization in order to establish to what extent recent changes have increased the capacity...... of Danish regions to pursue their own agendas with regard to economic development, and explore the organizational strategies pursued by varies tiers of government in this process of rapid and profound policy change. The text is divided into three parts. The following section provides a brief outline...

  19. Terminal addition in a cellular world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torday, J S; Miller, William B

    2018-07-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of evolutionary development permit a reframed appraisal of Terminal Addition as a continuous historical process of cellular-environmental complementarity. Within this frame of reference, evolutionary terminal additions can be identified as environmental induction of episodic adjustments to cell-cell signaling patterns that yield the cellular-molecular pathways that lead to differing developmental forms. Phenotypes derive, thereby, through cellular mutualistic/competitive niche constructions in reciprocating responsiveness to environmental stresses and epigenetic impacts. In such terms, Terminal Addition flows according to a logic of cellular needs confronting environmental challenges over space-time. A reconciliation of evolutionary development and Terminal Addition can be achieved through a combined focus on cell-cell signaling, molecular phylogenies and a broader understanding of epigenetic phenomena among eukaryotic organisms. When understood in this manner, Terminal Addition has an important role in evolutionary development, and chronic disease might be considered as a form of 'reverse evolution' of the self-same processes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Training simulator for operations at LNG terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuta, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Tetsuka, S.; Koyama, K.

    1997-01-01

    The Tokyo Gas LNG terminals are among the major energy centers of the Tokyo area, supplying 8 million customers with city gas, and also supplying fuel for thermal power generation at the neighboring thermal power plant operated by the Tokyo Electric Power Company. For this reason, in the event of an emergency at the terminal operators have to be able to respond quickly and accurately to restore operations and prevent secondary damage. Modern LNG terminals are highly reliable and are equipped with backup systems, and occurrences of major trouble are now almost nil. Operators therefore have to be trained to respond to emergencies using simulators, in order to heighten their emergency response capabilities. Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. has long been aware of the need for simulators and has used them in training, but a new large-scale, real-time simulator has now developed in response to new training needs, applying previously accumulated expertise to create a model of an entire LNG terminal incorporating new features. The development of this new simulator has made possible training for emergencies affecting an entire terminal, and this has been very effective in raising the standards of operators. (au)

  1. Osteogenic cell differentiation on H-terminated and O-terminated nanocrystalline diamond films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liskova J

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jana Liskova,1 Oleg Babchenko,2 Marian Varga,2 Alexander Kromka,2 Daniel Hadraba,1 Zdenek Svindrych,1 Zuzana Burdikova,1 Lucie Bacakova1 1Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD films are promising materials for bone implant coatings because of their biocompatibility, chemical resistance, and mechanical hardness. Moreover, NCD wettability can be tailored by grafting specific atoms. The NCD films used in this study were grown on silicon substrates by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and grafted by hydrogen atoms (H-termination or oxygen atoms (O-termination. Human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells were used for biological studies on H-terminated and O-terminated NCD films. The adhesion, growth, and subsequent differentiation of the osteoblasts on NCD films were examined, and the extracellular matrix production and composition were quantified. The osteoblasts that had been cultivated on the O-terminated NCD films exhibited a higher growth rate than those grown on the H-terminated NCD films. The mature collagen fibers were detected in Saos-2 cells on both the H-terminated and O-terminated NCD films; however, the quantity of total collagen in the extracellular matrix was higher on the O-terminated NCD films, as were the amounts of calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity. Nevertheless, the expression of genes for osteogenic markers – type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin – was either comparable on the H-terminated and O-terminated films or even lower on the O-terminated films. In conclusion, the higher wettability of the O-terminated NCD films is promising for adhesion and growth of osteoblasts. In addition, the O-terminated surface also seems to support the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins and extracellular matrix

  2. 42 CFR 422.510 - Termination of contract by CMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination of contract by CMS. 422.510 Section 422... Advantage Organizations § 422.510 Termination of contract by CMS. (a) Termination by CMS. CMS may at any time terminate a contract if CMS determines that the MA organization meets any of the following: (1...

  3. 42 CFR 423.509 - Termination of contract by CMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination of contract by CMS. 423.509 Section 423... Contracts with Part D plan sponsors § 423.509 Termination of contract by CMS. (a) Termination by CMS. CMS may at any time terminate a contract if CMS determines that the Part D plan sponsor meets any of the...

  4. Ligand sphere conversions in terminal carbide complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsing, Thorbjørn Juul; Reinholdt, Anders; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Metathesis is introduced as a preparative route to terminal carbide complexes. The chloride ligands of the terminal carbide complex [RuC(Cl)2(PCy3)2] (RuC) can be exchanged, paving the way for a systematic variation of the ligand sphere. A series of substituted complexes, including the first...... example of a cationic terminal carbide complex, [RuC(Cl)(CH3CN)(PCy3)2]+, is described and characterized by NMR, MS, X-ray crystallography, and computational studies. The experimentally observed irregular variation of the carbide 13C chemical shift is shown to be accurately reproduced by DFT, which also...... demonstrates that details of the coordination geometry affect the carbide chemical shift equally as much as variations in the nature of the auxiliary ligands. Furthermore, the kinetics of formation of the sqaure pyramidal dicyano complex, trans-[RuC(CN)2(PCy3)2], from RuC has been examined and the reaction...

  5. Three-Terminal Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hung Tai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many defects exist within amorphous silicon since it is not crystalline. This provides recombination centers, thus reducing the efficiency of a typical a-Si solar cell. A new structure is presented in this paper: a three-terminal a-Si solar cell. The new back-to-back p-i-n/n-i-p structure increased the average electric field in a solar cell. A typical a-Si p-i-n solar cell was also simulated for comparison using the same thickness and material parameters. The 0.28 μm-thick three-terminal a-Si solar cell achieved an efficiency of 11.4%, while the efficiency of a typical a-Si p-i-n solar cell was 9.0%. Furthermore, an efficiency of 11.7% was achieved by thickness optimization of the three-terminal solar cell.

  6. Location of terminals in a communications network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A method (400, 500) of identifying nodes in a communications network is disclosed, the nodes being for use in locating wireless terminals within the network based upon reports from the wireless terminals of transmissions received from the nodes. The method (400, 500) comprises prioritising...... combinations of nodes in which at least three nodes are located around a reference node in a configuration satisfying similarity criteria to an idealised star configuration, wherein an idealised star configuration comprises three nodes evenly angularly distributed around, and at the same distance from......, a reference node. Also disclosed is a method (100, 200) for locating a plurality of wireless terminals in a communications network, the network comprising a plurality of network nodes at known locations, wherein the nodes emit wireless transmissions in an unsynchronised manner, such that a time difference...

  7. Selective termination, fetal reduction and analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, G

    2013-06-01

    Analogical reasoning is a basic method in bioethics. Its main purpose is to transfer the rule from an existing or known situation to a new and problematic situation. This commentary applies the lifeboat analogy to the context of selective termination and fetal reduction. It turns out that the analogy is only partially helpful as the main principle in the case of selective termination is the procreative beneficence principle. However, the wide person-affecting form of this principle doubly justifies selective termination: i.e. one prevents the harm caused by the birth of an affected child and one increases the life chances of the remaining fetuses. I conclude, however, that all analogies are basically flawed since they assume that fetuses as such have interests. I argue that fetuses only have interests to the extent that they are potential future persons. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Universal statistics of terminal dynamics before collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenner, Nicolas; Eule, Stephan; Wolf, Fred

    Recent biological developments have both drastically increased the precision as well as amount of generated data, allowing for a switching from pure mean value characterization of the process under consideration to an analysis of the whole ensemble, exploiting the stochastic nature of biology. We focus on the general class of non-equilibrium processes with distinguished terminal points as can be found in cell fate decision, check points or cognitive neuroscience. Aligning the data to a terminal point (e.g. represented as an absorbing boundary) allows to device a general methodology to characterize and reverse engineer the terminating history. Using a small noise approximation we derive mean variance and covariance of the aligned data for general finite time singularities.

  9. Automatic termination of a protective action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heil, P.H.

    1986-01-01

    Subcommittee 6 of NPEC is responsible for the development of IEEE Standard 603. The adequacy of requirements concerning control and termination of protective actions was raised during the balloting of IEEE Standard 603-1980. In essence, the concern dealt with the requirement for deliberate operator action to return the system to normal. It was questioned if control actions such as automatic termination of system operation were allowed. Changes in the standard were made to clarify that there was a distinction between control (including termination) and return to normal and also state that automatic control may be required. Additionally, an action item was identified in the forward of IEEE Standard 603-1980 to determine if any additional changes were needed. The purpose of the paper is to present the results of this additional work

  10. Fuzzy containers allocation problem in maritime terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Mohammad Seyed-Hosseini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal.dotm 0 0 1 140 799 UPC 6 1 981 12.0 0 false 18 pt 18 pt 0 0 false false false /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:??; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Containers allocation in terminals has attracted lots of research works due to practical & theoretical importance in transportation literature. In this paper, we developed a fuzzy mathematical programming model for solving problem of allocating the containers in terminal area. The objective is minimizing the total distance traversed by the containers from the ship to the terminal area they are assigned. Fuzzy set concepts are used to treat imprecision regarding the distances between berth and terminals area, number of containers in an arrived ship and estimation of available area in each terminal at a port. We proposed two types of models for optimistic and pessimistic situations. The proposed models have been coded in LINGO8.0 solver and a numerical example has been solved for illustration purpose. The full analysis of the proposed models can cause an optimum allocation of containers of several ships to different terminals of berths in fuzzy environment.

  11. Hydrogen terminal solubility in Zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizcaino, Pablo; Banchik, Abrahan D.

    1999-01-01

    Terminal solubility temperature of hydrogen in zirconium and its alloys is an important parameter because hydrides precipitation embrittled these materials making them susceptible to the phenomenon known as retarded hydrogen cracking. This work continues the study presented in the 25 AATN Meeting. Within this framework, a study focused on determining these curves in recrystallized Zircaloy-4, using scanning differential calorimetric technique. Terminal solubility curves for Zircaloy-4 were constructed within a concentration range from 40 to 640 ppm in hydrogen weight and comparisons with results obtained by other authors were made. (author)

  12. Memristive Systems Analysis of 3-Terminal Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Mouttet, Blaise

    2010-01-01

    Memristive systems were proposed in 1976 by Leon Chua and Sung Mo Kang as a model for 2-terminal passive nonlinear dynamical systems which exhibit memory effects. Such systems were originally shown to be relevant to the modeling of action potentials in neurons in regards to the Hodgkin-Huxley model and, more recently, to the modeling of thin film materials such as TiO2-x proposed for non-volatile resistive memory. However, over the past 50 years a variety of 3-terminal non-passive dynamical d...

  13. Terminating America's wars : the Gulf War and Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Musser, William G.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis asks two questions: 1) What factors have contributed to the termination of recent United States wars? and 2) How can elements of national power be applied successfully to terminate the future wars of the United States? To answer these questions, this thesis offers a model of war termination and applies it to cases of war termination, in the Gulf War and in Kosovo. These case studies indicate that termination of future wars ...

  14. Termination of Dynamic Contracts in an Equilibrium Labor Market Model

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Cheng

    2005-01-01

    I construct an equilibrium model of the labor market where workers and firms enter into dyamic contracts that can potentially last forever, but are subject to optimal terminations. Upon a termination, the firm hires a new worker, and the worker who is terminated receives a termination compensation from the firm and is then free to go back to the labor market to seek new employment opportunities and enter into new dynamic contracts. The model permits only two types of equilibrium terminations ...

  15. Climatic and environmental events over the Last Termination, as recorded in The Netherlands: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, W.Z.; Bohncke, S.J.P.

    The Last Termination, or Weichselian Lateglacial (ca 15-10 ka cal. BP), is a time period with rapid changes in climate and environment. The oxygen-isotope records of the Greenland ice-cores are regarded as the most complete climate proxy for the North Atlantic region. In The Netherlands several

  16. Siting considerations for LNG import terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meratla, Z. [CDS Research Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Site selection criteria for liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities and terminals were reviewed in this PowerPoint presentation. Onshore and offshore sites were discussed. Typical public opposition issues were examined, including public concerns over safety and the environment. Low key consultation processes with local communities was advised to assess levels of interest and opposition during initial stages. It was suggested that desirable LNG sites should not be visible from local communities. Remoteness from built-up areas was advised, as well as ensuring that sites meet the requirements of future expansion and large LNG carriers. Issues concerning waterway drawbacks and exclusion zones were examined, as well as the relative merits of onshore and offshore terminals. It was noted that onshore terminals are accessible to personnel as well as outside emergency response resources, and are less susceptible to weather related downtime. In addition, onshore spills are generally impounded. Offshore LNG import terminals are visible from shorelines and susceptible to stray marine traffic and abnormal events. Siting considerations for offshore facilities include sensitive areas; shipping channels; foundation issues; shipping lane access; and offshore pipeline lengths. Issues concerning loading arms, remote flare systems, integral ballast and process equipment for offshore facilities were discussed. Membrane type storage systems and tank construction details were presented as well as details of self supporting storage systems. A comparison of gravity-based structures and floating facilities was presented. It was concluded that floating LNG facilities have well developed security procedures, passive protection and automatic intruder detection alarms. tabs., figs.

  17. 9 CFR 3.141 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Warmblooded Animals Other Than Dogs, Cats, Rabbits, Hamsters, Guinea Pigs, Nonhuman Primates, and Marine... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminal facilities. 3.141 Section 3.141 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  18. Instorting Terminal 2e luchthaven Parijs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herwijnen, van F.

    2008-01-01

    Terminal 2E van luchthaven Charles de Gaulle, ontworpen voor de nieuwe Airbus A380, was bedoeld als kroonjuweel van Air France, maar bleek een constructieve miskleun. Mei 2004 ontstaan scheuren in het beton. Dat is de opmaat tot een kettingreactie, waarbij betonplaten, boogsegmenten en loopbruggen

  19. Functionalization of hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) used in this work was prepared by free radical polymerization using hydrogen peroxide as initiator and was received from HEMRL Pune, India, as a gift sample. The molecu- lar weight and polydispersity of the HTPB was deter- mined by using gel permeable chromatography ...

  20. Kolmveerand miljardit maksev terminal avatud / Koit Brinkmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brinkmann, Koit

    2006-01-01

    21. juulil avati 750 miljonit krooni maksma läinud AS-i Trendgate nafta ja tumedate naftaproduktide ümberlaadimise terminal. Avamisel viibisid ka majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Edgar Savisaar ja Vene transpordiminister Igor Levitin. Lisa: Trendigate'i neli aastat

  1. Terminating DNA Tile Assembly with Nanostructured Caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Deepak K; Jiang, Ruoyu; Reinhart, Seth; Mohammed, Abdul M; Jorgenson, Tyler D; Schulman, Rebecca

    2017-10-24

    Precise control over the nucleation, growth, and termination of self-assembly processes is a fundamental tool for controlling product yield and assembly dynamics. Mechanisms for altering these processes programmatically could allow the use of simple components to self-assemble complex final products or to design processes allowing for dynamic assembly or reconfiguration. Here we use DNA tile self-assembly to develop general design principles for building complexes that can bind to a growing biomolecular assembly and terminate its growth by systematically characterizing how different DNA origami nanostructures interact with the growing ends of DNA tile nanotubes. We find that nanostructures that present binding interfaces for all of the binding sites on a growing facet can bind selectively to growing ends and stop growth when these interfaces are presented on either a rigid or floppy scaffold. In contrast, nucleation of nanotubes requires the presentation of binding sites in an arrangement that matches the shape of the structure's facet. As a result, it is possible to build nanostructures that can terminate the growth of existing nanotubes but cannot nucleate a new structure. The resulting design principles for constructing structures that direct nucleation and termination of the growth of one-dimensional nanostructures can also serve as a starting point for programmatically directing two- and three-dimensional crystallization processes using nanostructure design.

  2. Heathrow Terminal 5 Excavation Archive (Data Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Framework Archaeology

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Framework Archaeology is a Joint Venture agreement between Oxford Archaeology (OA and Wessex Archaeology (WA to provide archaeological services to BAA (formerly British Airports Authority, now Heathrow Airport Holdings Ltd. Given the potential scale of some of BAA's projects, the joint venture enables Framework Archaeology to draw on the full resources of both OA and WA, including site staff, specialist managers, administrative support, and technical facilities. In 1993, BAA plc and Heathrow Airport Limited submitted a joint planning application to develop an additional passenger terminal complex (Terminal 5, together with the provision of aircraft aprons and taxiways, and include the realignment of rivers and landscaping. The resulting archaeological excavations were undertaken as three main phases of work. Excavations in 1996 by the Museum of London Archaeology Service of approximately 4 ha of sludge stockpile areas (site code POK96. Between 1999-2000 Framework Archaeology excavated approximately 21 ha in the Perry Oaks sludge works and adjacent areas (WPR98. Framework Archaeology also undertook excavations between 2002-2007 as part of the construction of Terminal 5 (PSH02, TEC05 covering a further 50 hectares. Importantly the aim of the Terminal 5 archaeological programme was to move beyond the description and recovery of archaeological remains and to arrive at an understanding of the history of human inhabitation and the practical ways in which people established their presence in the material, social and political conditions of their day.

  3. Nurses' attitudes to terminally ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, E M; Sorribes, E; Ezquerro, O

    2001-05-01

    The care of terminally ill patients is a challenge for nurses that has raised special interest in recent years. Several studies have shown a stereotyped negative attitude in nurses towards terminally ill patients. However, all have used methods with several limitations. The aim of the study presented in this paper was to identify the nurses' attitude to the terminally ill patient in Catalonia, Spain, and the relationship of this attitude to different socio-demographic data (type of centre, shift, years of experience, age and sex) by means of a new quantitative method based on the free word-association test. One hundred and seventy-five nurses working in 18 hospitals and hospices in Catalonia, Spain were included in the study. Data were analysed by the Associative Semantic Field Differential method by means of the computer programme CONTEXT and a quantitative evaluation of the degree of attitudes positivity was obtained. The study revealed a general slight negative trend in attitudes towards the terminally ill patient. A more positive attitude was observed in older caregivers and in women. The positivity in attitude decreased from morning to night shift. No differences were observed between nurses working in hospitals and those working in hospices. We conclude that nursing attitudes can be analysed by methods such as that used in this study. Attempts can be made to modify this attitude in caregivers by means of training programmes and stimulating awareness of an adequate professional approach.

  4. Self-Terminating, Oxidative Radical Cyclizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Wille

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The recently discovered novel concept of self-terminating, oxidative radical cyclizations, through which alkynes can be converted into carbonyl compounds under very mild reaction conditions using O-centered inorganic and organic radicals as oxidants, is described

  5. A Delay Discounting Model of Psychotherapy Termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Joshua K.; Callahan, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Delay discounting (DD) procedures are emerging as an important new method for psychotherapy researchers. In this paper a framework for conceptualizing existing, seemingly discrepant, research findings on termination is introduced and new directions for research are described. To illustrate the value of a DD framework, the common psychotherapy…

  6. Misoprostol alone for the termination of Pregnancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of Misoprostol for ter- mination of pregnancy has been approved by the Medicines Control. Council of South Africa. It is part of the approved protocol for termina- tion of pregnancy in public sector facilities in the Western Cape.1. Reference. 1. Provincial Administration: Western Cape: Termination of Pregnancy (Top):.

  7. Questions Students Ask: About Terminal Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Earl R.; Nelson, Jim

    1984-01-01

    If a ball were given an initial velocity in excess of its terminal velocity, would the upward force of air resistance (a function of velocity) be greater than the downward force of gravity and thus push the ball back upwards? An answer to this question is provided. (JN)

  8. Towards the N-terminal acetylome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xumin; Højrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Protein N-terminal acetylation (N(α)-acetylation) is observed widely from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. It gains increased importance in biological field, due to its multiple roles in many aspects of the protein life, such as assembly, stability, activity, and location. Today, mass spectrometry (MS...

  9. Size-change termination and bound analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, James Emil

    2006-01-01

    . The extended size-change principle is realized through combining abstract interpretation over the domain of convex polyhedra with the use of size-change graphs. In the cases when data types are well founded, the method handles every case that is handled by LJB size-change termination. The method has been...

  10. 48 CFR 801.690-7 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... should discuss a termination of contracting authority for cause with the servicing Human Resource Management Office to determine the impact, if any, on the contracting officer's continued employment. (c) All... OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and...

  11. A Systematic Approach to Terminal Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, John

    1980-01-01

    Describes the systematic approach used by the training department of the Canada Trust Company to develop a training program for operators of the new terminals for the online banking system to which the bank was converting, the Canadian On-Line Financial Information System (COFIS). (JD)

  12. 7 CFR 915.64 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... engaged in the production for market of avocados in the production area: Provided, That termination of... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Order... Secretary, produced more than 50 percent of the volume of the avocados produced within the production area...

  13. The terminal oxidases of Paracoccus denitrificans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gier, J.-W.; Lübben, M; Reijnders, W N; Tipker, C A; Slotboom, D.J.; van Spanning, R J; Stouthamer, A.H.; van der Oost, J.

    Three distinct types of terminal oxidases participate in the aerobic respiratory pathways of Paracoccus denitrificans. Two alternative genes encoding subunit I of the aa3-type cytochrome c oxidase have been isolated before, namely ctaDI and ctaDII. Each of these genes can be expressed separately to

  14. Optimizing yard operations in port container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallehauge, Louise Sibbesen

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of positioning containers in a yard block of a port container terminal. The objective of the container positioning problem (CPP) is to minimise the total handling time in the block, i.e. the time required for storage and reshuffling of containers. One...

  15. Tactical Conflict Detection in Terminal Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Huabin; Robinson, John E.; Denery, Dallas G.

    2010-01-01

    Air traffic systems have long relied on automated short-term conflict prediction algorithms to warn controllers of impending conflicts (losses of separation). The complexity of terminal airspace has proven difficult for such systems as it often leads to excessive false alerts. Thus, the legacy system, called Conflict Alert, which provides short-term alerts in both en-route and terminal airspace currently, is often inhibited or degraded in areas where frequent false alerts occur, even though the alerts are provided only when an aircraft is in dangerous proximity of other aircraft. This research investigates how a minimal level of flight intent information may be used to improve short-term conflict detection in terminal airspace such that it can be used by the controller to maintain legal aircraft separation. The flight intent information includes a site-specific nominal arrival route and inferred altitude clearances in addition to the flight plan that includes the RNAV (Area Navigation) departure route. A new tactical conflict detection algorithm is proposed, which uses a single analytic trajectory, determined by the flight intent and the current state information of the aircraft, and includes a complex set of current, dynamic separation standards for terminal airspace to define losses of separation. The new algorithm is compared with an algorithm that imitates a known en-route algorithm and another that imitates Conflict Alert by analysis of false-alert rate and alert lead time with recent real-world data of arrival and departure operations and a large set of operational error cases from Dallas/Fort Worth TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach Control). The new algorithm yielded a false-alert rate of two per hour and an average alert lead time of 38 seconds.

  16. Expression, purification, and functional analysis of the C-terminal domain of Herbaspirillum seropedicae NifA protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Rose A; Souza, Emanuel M; Geoffrey Yates, M; Steffens, M Berenice R; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Chubatsu, Leda S

    2003-02-01

    The Herbaspirillum seropedicae NifA protein is responsible for nif gene expression. The C-terminal domain of the H. seropedicae NifA protein, fused to a His-Tag sequence (His-Tag-C-terminal), was over-expressed and purified by metal-affinity chromatography to yield a highly purified and active protein. Band-shift assays showed that the NifA His-Tag-C-terminal bound specifically to the H. seropedicae nifB promoter region in vitro. In vivo analysis showed that this protein inhibited the Central + C-terminal domains of NifA protein from activating the nifH promoter of K. pneumoniae in Escherichia coli, indicating that the protein must be bound to the NifA-binding site (UAS site) at the nifH promoter region to activate transcription. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA)

  17. 48 CFR 49.105 - Duties of termination contracting officer after issuance of notice of termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Obligation of the contractor to furnish accurate, complete, and current cost or pricing data, and to certify... agreement, or a partial termination settlement agreement plus the estimate to complete the continued portion...

  18. Magnetic properties of smooth terminating dipole bands in 110,112Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.O.; Paul, E.S.; Boston, A.J.; Chantler, H.J.; Chiara, C.J.; Devlin, M.; Fletcher, A.M.; Fossan, D.B.; LaFosse, D.R.; Lane, G.J.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Nolan, P.J.; Sarantites, D.G.; Sears, J.M.; Semple, A.T.; Smith, J.F.; Starosta, K.; Vaman, C.; Afanasjev, A.V.; Ragnarsson, I.

    2006-01-01

    Three strongly coupled sequences have been established in 110,112 Te up to high spins. They are interpreted in terms of deformed structures built on proton 1-particle-1-hole excitations that reach termination at I∼40-bar . This is the first observation of smooth terminating dipole structures in this mass region. Lifetime measurements have allowed the extraction of experimental B(M1;I->I-1) and B(E2;I->I-2) reduced transition rates for one of the dipole bands in 110 Te. The results support the deformed interpretation

  19. Enhancements of energetic particles near the heliospheric termination shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Frank B; Stone, Edward C; Cummings, Alan C; Heikkila, Bryant; Lal, Nand; Webber, William R

    2003-11-06

    The spacecraft Voyager 1 is at a distance greater than 85 au from the Sun, in the vicinity of the termination shock that marks the abrupt slowing of the supersonic solar wind and the beginning of the extended and unexplored distant heliosphere. This shock is expected to accelerate 'anomalous cosmic rays', as well as to re-accelerate Galactic cosmic rays and low-energy particles from the inner Solar System. Here we report a significant increase in the numbers of energetic ions and electrons that persisted for seven months beginning in mid-2002. This increase differs from any previously observed in that there was a simultaneous increase in Galactic cosmic ray ions and electrons, anomalous cosmic rays and low-energy ions. The low-intensity level and spectral energy distribution of the anomalous cosmic rays, however, indicates that Voyager 1 still has not reached the termination shock. Rather, the observed increase is an expected precursor event. We argue that the radial anisotropy of the cosmic rays is expected to be small in the foreshock region, as is observed.

  20. An extremely high altitude plume seen at Mars morning terminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lavega, Agustin; Garcia-Muñoz, Antonio; Garcia-Melendo, Enrique; Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Gomez-Forrellad, Josep M.; Pellier, Christophe; Delcroix, Marc; Lopez-Valverde, Miguel Angel; Gonzalez-Galindo, Francisco; Jaeschke, Wayne; Parker, Donald C.; Phillips, James H.; Peach, Damian

    2014-11-01

    We report the occurrence in March and April 2012 of two bright very high altitude plumes at the Martian terminator at 250 km or more above the surface, thus well into the ionosphere and bordering on the exosphere. They were located at about 195 deg West longitude and -45 deg latitude (at Terra Cimmeria) and lasted for about 10 days. The features showed day-to-day variability, and were seen at the morning terminator but not at the evening limb, which indicates rapid evolution in less than 10 hours and a cyclic behavior. Photometric measurements are used to explore two possible scenarios to explain their nature. If the phenomenon is due to suspended particles (dust, CO2 or H2O ice clouds) reflecting solar radiation, the mean size is about 0.1 microns with a nadir optical depth > 0.06. Alternatively, the plume could be auroral emission above a region with a strong magnetic anomaly and where aurora has previously been detected. Importantly, both explanations defy our current understanding of the Mars upper atmosphere.AcknowledgementsThis work was supported by the Spanish MINECO projects AYA2012-36666 with FEDER support, CONSOLIDER program ASTROMOL CSD2009-00038 and AYA2011-30613-CO2-1. Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT765-13 and UPV/EHU UFI11/55.