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Sample records for terminalis central nucleus

  1. Central projections of the nervus terminalis in four species of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, M H; Meyer, D L

    1989-01-01

    The central projections of the nervus terminalis were investigated in two anuran and two urodele species by means of horseradish peroxidase injections into one nasal cavity. In anurans, the nervus terminalis projects to the medial septum, to the preoptic nucleus, to the nucleus of the anterior commissure and to the hypothalamus. In addition to these structures, the dorsal thalamus, the infundibulum and the mesencephalic tegmentum are innervated in urodeles. The structure containing the highest density of terminals in the amphibians investigated is the hypothalamus. In one anuran and one urodele species, the contralateral hypothalamus is primarily innervated, whereas in the other two species the majority of fibers remain ipsilateral. A comparison with other vertebrates shows that the terminalis system in urodeles has the greatest diversity of connections. Anurans, in contrast, lack some connections that are present in urodeles and fishes. These findings have implications for a possible relation of the nervus terminalis to an aquatic habitat.

  2. Neuronal Correlates of Fear Conditioning in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufler, Darrell; Nagy, Frank Z.; Pare, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Lesion and inactivation studies indicate that the central amygdala (CeA) participates in the expression of cued and contextual fear, whereas the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is only involved in the latter. The basis for this functional dissociation is unclear because CeA and BNST form similar connections with the amygdala and…

  3. Central projections of the nervus terminalis and the nervus praeopticus in the lungfish brain revealed by nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, A; Meyer, D L; Von Bartheld, C S

    1994-11-01

    Lungfishes possess two cranial nerves that are associated with the olfactory system: the nervus terminalis enters the telencephalon with the olfactory nerve, and the nervus praeopticus enters the diencephalon at the level of the optic nerve. We investigated the central projections of the nervus terminalis and the nervus praeopticus in the Australian lungfish (Neoceratodus forsteri) and in the African lungfish (Protopterus dolloi) by NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry (nitric oxide synthase; NOS) and compared them with the projections of the nervus terminalis of the frog (Xenopus laevis). In Neoceratodus, NOS-positive fascicles of the nervus terminalis divide and project with a ventral component through the septum and with a dorsal component through the pallium; fibers of both trajectories extend caudally beyond the anterior commissure and join the lateral forebrain bundle. In the nervus praeopticus, about 300 fibers contain NOS; they innervate the preoptic nucleus and continue their course through the diencephalon; many fibers cross in the commissure of the posterior tuberculum. In Protopterus, ganglion cells of the nervus terminalis and of the nervus praeopticus contain NOS. NOS-positive fibers of the nervus terminalis project through the septal region but not through the pallium. Several major fascicles cross in the rostral part of the anterior commissure, where they are joined by a small number of NOS-containing fibers of the nervus praeopticus. Both nerves innervate the preoptic nucleus. The number and pathways of the fascicles of the nervus terminalis are not always symmetric between the two sides. The nervus terminalis fascicles remain in a ventral position, whereas the nervus praeopticus gives rise to the more dorsal fascicles. Many fibers of the two nerves extend throughout the diencephalon and cross in the commissure of the posterior tuberculum. These findings demonstrate many similarities but also significant differences between the contributions of the

  4. Apoptosis during sexual differentiation of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the rat brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chung, W. C.; Swaab, D. F.; de Vries, G. J. [=Geert J.

    2000-01-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) in the rat forebrain differs between males and females. To test whether apoptosis may contribute to the development of sex differences in the BST, the incidence of apoptosis was determined in sham-treated males and sham-treated females sacrificed on

  5. Primary olfactory projections and the nervus terminalis in the African lungfish: implications for the phylogeny of cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bartheld, C S; Claas, B; Münz, H; Meyer, D L

    1988-08-01

    Primary olfactory and central projections of the nervus terminalis were investigated by injections of horseradish peroxidase into the olfactory epithelium in the African lungfish. In addition, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) immunoreactivity of the nervus terminalis system was investigated. The primary olfactory projections are restricted to the olfactory bulb located at the rostral pole of the telencephalon; they do not extend into caudal parts of the telencephalon. A vomeronasal nerve and an accessory olfactory bulb could not be identified. The nervus terminalis courses through the dorsomedial telencephalon. Major targets include the nucleus of the anterior commissure and the nucleus praeopticus pars superior. some fibers cross to the contralateral side. A few fibers reach the diencephalon and mesencephalon. No label is present in the "posterior root of the nervus terminalis" (= "Pinkus's nerve" or "nervus praeopticus"). GnRH immunoreactivity is lacking in the "anterior root of the nervus terminalis," whereas it is abundant in nervus praeopticus (Pinkus's nerve). These findings may suggest that the nervus terminalis system originally consisted of two distinct cranial nerves, which have fused-in evolution-in most vertebrates. Theories of cranial nerve phylogeny are discussed in the light of the assumed "binerval origin" of the nervus terminalis system.

  6. Desipramine and citalopram attenuate pretest swim-induced increases in prodynorphin immunoreactivity in the dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the lateral division of the central nucleus of the amygdala in the forced swimming test.

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    Chung, Sung; Kim, Hee Jeong; Kim, Hyun Ju; Choi, Sun Hye; Cho, Jin Hee; Cho, Yun Ha; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Kyung Ho

    2014-10-01

    Dynorphin in the nucleus accumbens shell plays an important role in antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test (FST), but it is unclear whether desipramine and citalopram treatments alter prodynorphin levels in other brain areas. To explore this possibility, we injected mice with desipramine and citalopram 0.5, 19, and 23 h after a 15-min pretest swim and observed changes in prodynorphin expression before the test swim, which was conducted 24 h after the pretest swim. The pretest swim increased prodynorphin immunoreactivity in the dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBNST) and lateral division of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeL). This increase in prodynorphin immunoreactivity in the dBNST and CeL was blocked by desipramine and citalopram treatments. Similar changes in prodynorphin mRNA levels were observed in the dBNST and CeL, but these changes did not reach significance. To understand the underlying mechanism, we assessed changes in phosphorylated CREB at Ser(133) (pCREB) immunoreactivity in the dBNST and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Treatment with citalopram but not desipramine after the pretest swim significantly increased pCREB immunoreactivity only in the dBNST. These results suggest that regulation of prodynorphin in the dBNST and CeL before the test swim may be involved in the antidepressant-like effect of desipramine and citalopram in the FST and suggest that changes in pCREB immunoreactivity in these areas may not play an important role in the regulation of prodynorphin in the dBNST and CeA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development-dependent behavioral change toward pups and synaptic transmission in the rhomboid nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Taiju; Shindo, Sayaka; Yoshihara, Chihiro; Tsuneoka, Yousuke; Uki, Haruka; Minami, Masabumi; Kuroda, Kumi O

    2017-05-15

    Sexually naïve male C57BL/6 mice aggressively bite unfamiliar pups. This behavior, called infanticide, is considered an adaptive reproductive strategy of males of polygamous species. We recently found that the rhomboid nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTrh) is activated during infanticide and that the bilateral excitotoxic lesions of BSTrh suppress infanticidal behavior. Here we show that 3-week-old male C57BL/6 mice rarely engaged in infanticide and instead, provided parental care toward unfamiliar pups, consistent with observations in rats and other rodent species. This inhibition of infanticide at the periweaning period is functional because the next litter will be born at approximately the time of weaning of the previous litter through maternal postpartum ovulation. However, the mechanism of this age-dependent behavioral change is unknown. Therefore, we performed whole-cell patch clamp recordings of BSTrh and compared evoked neurotransmission in response to the stimulation of the stria terminalis of adult and 3-week-old male mice. Although we were unable to detect a significant difference in the amplitudes of inhibitory neurotransmission, the amplitudes and the paired-pulse ratio of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents differed between adult and 3-week-old mice. These data suggest that maturation of the synaptic terminal in BSTrh that occurred later than 3 weeks after birth may mediate by the adaptive change from parental to infanticidal behavior in male mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Neurogenetic and morphogenetic heterogeneity in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Neurogenesis and morphogenesis in the rat bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (strial bed nucleus) were examined with [ 3 H]thymidine autoradiography. For neurogenesis, the experimental animals were the offspring of pregnant females given an injection of [ 3 H]thymidine on 2 consecutive gestational days. Nine groups of embryos were exposed to [ 3 H]thymidine on E13-E14, E14-E15,... E21-E22, respectively. On P60, the percentage of labeled cells and the proportion of cells originating during 24-hour periods were quantified at six anteroposterior levels in the strial bed nucleus. On the basis of neurogenetic gradients, the strial bed nucleus was divided into anterior and posterior parts. The anterior strial bed nucleus shows a caudal (older) to rostral (younger) neurogenetic gradient. Cells in the vicinity of the anterior commissural decussation are generated mainly between E13 and E16, cells just posterior to the nucleus accumbens mainly between E15 and E17. Within each rostrocaudal level, neurons originate in combined dorsal to ventral and medial to lateral neurogenetic gradients so that the oldest cells are located ventromedially and the youngest cells dorsolaterally. The most caudal level has some small neurons adjacent to the internal capsule that originate between E17 and E20. In the posterior strial bed nucleus, neurons extend ventromedially into the posterior preoptic area. Cells are generated simultaneously along the rostrocaudal plane in a modified lateral (older) to medial (younger) neurogenetic gradient. Ventrolateral neurons originate mainly between E13 and E16, dorsolateral neurons mainly between E15 and E16, and medial neurons mainly between E15 and E17. The youngest neurons are clumped into a medial core area just ventral to the fornix

  9. Opposite roles for neuropeptide S in the nucleus accumbens and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in learned helplessness rats.

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    Shirayama, Yukihiko; Ishima, Tamaki; Oda, Yasunori; Okamura, Naoe; Iyo, Masaomi; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2015-09-15

    The role of neuropeptide S (NPS) in depression remains unclear. We examined the antidepressant-like effects of NPS infusions into the shell or core regions of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) of learned helplessness (LH) rats (an animal model of depression). Infusions of NPS (10 pmol/side) into the NAc shell, but not the NAc core and BNST, exerted antidepressant-like effects in the LH paradigm. Implying that behavioral deficits could be improved in the conditioned avoidance test. Coinfusion of SHA68 (an NPS receptor antagonist, 100 pmol/side) with NPS into the NAc shell blocked these effects. In contrast, NPS receptor antagonism by SHA68 in the BNST induced antidepressant-like effects. Infusions of NPS into the NAc shell or SHA68 into the BNST did not produce memory deficits or locomotor activation in the passive avoidance and open field tests. These results suggest that excitatory and inhibitory actions by the NPS system are integral to the depression in LH animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Emerging Role for Corticotropin Releasing Factor Signaling in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis at the Intersection of Stress and Reward

    OpenAIRE

    Silberman, Yuval; Winder, Danny G.

    2013-01-01

    Stress and anxiety play an important role in the development and maintenance of drug and alcohol addiction. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a brain region involved in the production of long-term stress-related behaviors, plays an important role in animal models of relapse, such as reinstatement to previously extinguished drug-seeking behaviors. While a number of neurotransmitter systems have been suggested to play a role in these behaviors, recent evidence points to the neurop...

  11. Amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis circuitry: Implications for addiction-related behaviors.

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    Stamatakis, Alice M; Sparta, Dennis R; Jennings, Joshua H; McElligott, Zoe A; Decot, Heather; Stuber, Garret D

    2014-01-01

    Complex motivated behavioral processes, such as those that can go awry following substance abuse and other neuropsychiatric disorders, are mediated by a distributive network of neurons that reside throughout the brain. Neural circuits within the amygdala regions, such as the basolateral amygdala (BLA), and downstream targets such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), are critical neuroanatomical structures for orchestrating emotional behavioral responses that may influence motivated actions such as the reinstatement of drug seeking behavior. Here, we review the functional neurocircuitry of the BLA and the BNST, and discuss how these circuits may guide maladaptive behavioral processes such as those seen in addiction. Thus, further study of the functional connectivity within these brain regions and others may provide insight for the development of new treatment strategies for substance use disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ontogenetic organization of the FMRFamide immunoreactivity in the nervus terminalis of the lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri.

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    Fiorentino, Maria; D'Aniello, Biagio; Joss, Jean; Polese, Gianluca; Rastogi, Rakesh K

    2002-08-19

    The development of the nervus terminalis system in the lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, was investigated by using FMRFamide as a marker. FMRFamide immunoreactivity appears first within the brain, in the dorsal hypothalamus at a stage around hatching. At a slightly later stage, immunoreactivity appears in the olfactory mucosa. These immunoreactive cells move outside the olfactory organ to form the ganglion of the nervus terminalis. Immunoreactive processes emerge from the ganglion of the nervus terminalis in two directions, one which joins the olfactory nerve to travel to the brain and the other which courses below the brain to enter at the level of the preoptic nucleus. Neither the ganglion of the nervus terminalis nor the two branches of the nervus terminalis form after surgical removal of the olfactory placode at a stage before the development of FMRFamide immunoreactivity external to the brain. Because this study has confirmed that the nervus terminalis in lungfish comprises both an anterior and a posterior branch, it forms the basis for discussion of homology between these branches and the nervus terminalis of other anamniote vertebrates. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Immunocytochemical localization of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) in the nervus terminalis and brain of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus.

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    Oelschläger, H A; Northcutt, R G

    1992-01-15

    Little is known about the immunohistochemistry of the nervous system in bats. This is particularly true of the nervus terminalis, which exerts strong influence on the reproductive system during ontogeny and in the adult. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) was visualized immunocytochemically in the nervus terminalis and brain of juvenile and adult big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). The peripheral LHRH-immunoreactive (ir) cells and fibers (nervus terminalis) are dispersed along the basal surface of the forebrain from the olfactory bulbs to the prepiriform cortex and the interpeduncular fossa. A concentration of peripheral LHRH-ir perikarya and fibers was found at the caudalmost part of the olfactory bulbs, near the medioventral forebrain sulcus; obviously these cells mediate between the bulbs and the remaining forebrain. Within the central nervous system (CNS), LHRH-ir perikarya and fibers were distributed throughout the olfactory tubercle, diagonal band, preoptic area, suprachiasmatic and supraoptic nuclei, the bed nuclei of stria terminalis and stria medullaris, the anterior lateral and posterior hypothalamus, and the tuber cinereum. The highest concentration of cells was found within the arcuate nucleus. Fibers were most concentrated within the median eminence, infundibular stalk, and the medial habenula. The data obtained suggest that this distribution of LHRH immunoreactivity may be characteristic for microchiropteran (insectivorous) bats. The strong projections of LHRH-containing nuclei in the basal forebrain (including the arcuate nucleus) to the habenula, may indicate close functional contact between these brain areas via feedback loops, which could be important for the processing of thermal and other environmental stimuli correlated with hibernation.

  14. Classifiers for centrality determination in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions

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    Altsybeev Igor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Centrality, as a geometrical property of the collision, is crucial for the physical interpretation of nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus experimental data. However, it cannot be directly accessed in event-by-event data analysis. Common methods for centrality estimation in A-A and p-A collisions usually rely on a single detector (either on the signal in zero-degree calorimeters or on the multiplicity in some semi-central rapidity range. In the present work, we made an attempt to develop an approach for centrality determination that is based on machine-learning techniques and utilizes information from several detector subsystems simultaneously. Different event classifiers are suggested and evaluated for their selectivity power in terms of the number of nucleons-participants and the impact parameter of the collision. Finer centrality resolution may allow to reduce impact from so-called volume fluctuations on physical observables being studied in heavy-ion experiments like ALICE at the LHC and fixed target experiment NA61/SHINE on SPS.

  15. Tracing of single fibers of the nervus terminalis in the goldfish brain.

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    von Bartheld, C S; Meyer, D L

    1986-01-01

    Central projections of the nervus terminalis (n.t.) in the goldfish were investigated using cobalt- and horseradish peroxidase-tracing techniques. Single n.t. fibers were identified after unilateral application of cobalt chloride-lysine to the rostral olfactory bulb. The central course and branching patterns of individual n.t. fibers were studied in serial sections. Eight types of n.t. fibers are differentiated according to pathways and projection patterns. Projection areas of the n.t. include the contralateral olfactory bulb, the ipsilateral periventricular preoptic nucleus, both retinae, the caudal zone of the periventricular hypothalamus bilaterally, and the rostral optic tectum bilaterally. N.t. fibers cross to contralateral targets in the anterior commissure, the optic chiasma, the horizontal commissure, the posterior commissure, and possibly the habenular commissure. We propose criteria that differentiate central n.t. fibers from those of the classical secondary olfactory projections. Branching patterns of eight n.t. fiber types are described. Mesencephalic projections of the n.t. and of secondary olfactory fibers are compared and discussed with regard to prior reports on the olfactory system of teleosts. Further fiber types for which the association with the n.t. could not be established with certainty were traced to the torus longitudinalis, the torus semicircularis, and to the superior reticular nucleus on the ipsilateral side.

  16. Activity alterations in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and amygdala during threat anticipation in generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buff, Christine; Brinkmann, Leonie; Bruchmann, Maximilian; Becker, Michael P I; Tupak, Sara; Herrmann, Martin J; Straube, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Sustained anticipatory anxiety is central to Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). During anticipatory anxiety, phasic threat responding appears to be mediated by the amygdala, while sustained threat responding seems related to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). Although sustained anticipatory anxiety in GAD patients was proposed to be associated with BNST activity alterations, firm evidence is lacking. We aimed to explore temporal characteristics of BNST and amygdala activity during threat anticipation in GAD patients. Nineteen GAD patients and nineteen healthy controls (HC) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a temporally unpredictable threat anticipation paradigm. We defined phasic and a systematic variation of sustained response models for blood oxygen level-dependent responses during threat anticipation, to disentangle temporally dissociable involvement of the BNST and the amygdala. GAD patients relative to HC responded with increased phasic amygdala activity to onset of threat anticipation and with elevated sustained BNST activity that was delayed relative to the onset of threat anticipation. Both the amygdala and the BNST displayed altered responses during threat anticipation in GAD patients, albeit with different time courses. The results for the BNST activation hint towards its role in sustained threat responding, and contribute to a deeper understanding of pathological sustained anticipatory anxiety in GAD. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Persistence of the nervus terminalis in adult bats: a morphological and phylogenetical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelschläger, H A

    1988-01-01

    The presence of the terminalis system in adult bats is demonstrated by light microscopical investigation of several species of Microchiroptera. In late embryonic and fetal stages of the mouse-eared bat (Myotis myotis) the compact central terminalis ganglion gradually differentiates into a three-dimensional network of cord-like ganglia and fiber bundles. Rostrally the terminalis system is in immediate contact with the medial-most fila olfactoria; caudally terminalis rootlets attach near the border between the olfactory bulb and the septum of the brain. With respect to the findings presented here it seems likely that all mammals develop a terminalis system in early ontogenesis and retain it until the adult stage. However, considerable differences concerning the number of persisting neurons may be found among some mammalian orders.

  18. Afferent and efferent projections of the anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus in the mouse.

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    Cádiz-Moretti, Bernardita; Abellán-Álvaro, María; Pardo-Bellver, Cecília; Martínez-García, Fernando; Lanuza, Enrique

    2017-09-01

    The anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus (ACo) is a chemosensory area of the cortical amygdala that receives afferent projections from both the main and accessory olfactory bulbs. The role of this structure is unknown, partially due to a lack of knowledge of its connectivity. In this work, we describe the pattern of afferent and efferent projections of the ACo by using fluorogold and biotinylated dextranamines as retrograde and anterograde tracers, respectively. The results show that the ACo is reciprocally connected with the olfactory system and basal forebrain, as well as with the chemosensory and basomedial amygdala. In addition, it receives dense projections from the midline and posterior intralaminar thalamus, and moderate projections from the posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, mesocortical structures and the hippocampal formation. Remarkably, the ACo projects moderately to the central nuclei of the amygdala and anterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and densely to the lateral hypothalamus. Finally, minor connections are present with some midbrain and brainstem structures. The afferent projections of the ACo indicate that this nucleus might play a role in emotional learning involving chemosensory stimuli, such as olfactory fear conditioning. The efferent projections confirm this view and, given its direct output to the medial part of the central amygdala and the hypothalamic 'aggression area', suggest that the ACo can initiate defensive and aggressive responses elicited by olfactory or, to a lesser extent, vomeronasal stimuli. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Development of the nervus terminalis in mammals including toothed whales and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelschläger, H A; Buhl, E H; Dann, J F

    1987-01-01

    The early ontogenesis and topography of the mammalian terminalis system was investigated in 43 microslide series of toothed whale and human embryos and fetuses. In early embryonal stages the development of the nasal pit, the olfacto-terminalis placode, and the olfactory bulb anlage is rather similar in toothed whales and humans. However, toothed whales do not show any trace of the vomeronasalis complex. In early fetal stages the olfactory bulb anlage in toothed whales is reduced and leaves the isolated future terminalis ganglion (ganglia) which contains the greatest number of cells within Mammalia. The ganglion is connected with the nasal mucosa via peripheral fiber bundles and with the telencephalon via central terminalis rootlets. The functional implications of the terminalis system in mammals and its evolution in toothed whales are discussed. Obviously, the autonomic component has been enlarged in the course of perfect adaptation to an aquatic environment.

  20. Allopregnanolone induces state-dependent fear via the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acca, Gillian M; Mathew, Abel S; Jin, Jingji; Maren, Stephen; Nagaya, Naomi

    2017-03-01

    Gonadal steroids and their metabolites have been shown to be important modulators of emotional behavior. Allopregnanolone (ALLO), for example, is a metabolite of progesterone that has been linked to anxiety-related disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder. In rodents, it has been shown to reduce anxiety in a number of behavioral paradigms including Pavlovian fear conditioning. We have recently found that expression of conditioned contextual (but not auditory) freezing in rats can be suppressed by infusion of ALLO into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). To further explore the nature of this effect, we infused ALLO into the BNST of male rats prior to both conditioning and testing. We found that suppression of contextual fear occurred when the hormone was present during either conditioning or testing but not during both procedures, suggesting that ALLO acts in a state-dependent manner within the BNST. A shift in interoceptive context during testing for animals conditioned under ALLO provided further support for this mechanism of hormonal action on contextual fear. Interestingly, infusions of ALLO into the basolateral amygdala produced a state-independent suppression of both conditioned contextual and auditory freezing. Altogether, these results suggest that ALLO can influence the acquisition and expression of fear memories by both state-dependent and state-independent mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ontogenesis of neurons producing luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) in the nervus terminalis of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanzel-Fukuda, M; Morrell, J I; Pfaff, D W

    1985-08-15

    Immunoreactive luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) was first detected at 15 days of gestation in ganglion cells associated with the peripheral, intracranial, and central parts of the nervus terminalis of the rat. LHRH was not detected in any other structure of the central nervous system at this age. In the 17-day-old fetal rat, 62% of the total LHRH-reactive neuronal population was found in ganglion cells of the nervus terminalis. At this same age, immunoreactive beta-luteinizing hormone (beta-LH) was first seen in gonadotropes of the anterior pituitary gland. At 19 days of gestation, 31% of the total number of LHRH-reactive neurons observed in the rat brain was found in the nervus terminalis, and immunoreactive processes were first seen in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and in the median eminence. Our data indicate that from 15 to 19 days of gestation the nervus terminalis is a principal source of LHRH in the fetal rat. Presence of the decapeptide in the nervus terminalis prior to appearance of beta-LH in the anterior pituitary suggests a possible role for LHRH in this system on maturation of the gonadotropes and differentiation of the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis.

  2. Passive immunization of fetal rats with antiserum to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) or transection of the central roots of the nervus terminalis does not affect rat pups' preference for home nest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanzel-Fukuda, M; Pfaff, D W

    1987-01-01

    Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) is found immunocytochemically in cell bodies and fibers of the nervus terminalis, a cranial nerve which courses from the nasal septum through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone (medial to the olfactory and vomeronasal nerves) and enters the forebrain, caudal to the olfactory bulbs. Immunoreactive LHRH is first detected in the nervus terminalis of the fetal rat at 15 days of gestation, preceding its detection by immunocytochemistry in any other area of the brain, including the median eminence, and preceding detection of immunoreactive luteinizing hormone (LH) in the anterior pituitary. During development of the rat fetus, the nervus terminalis is the principal source of LHRH in the nervous system from days 15 through 19 of a 21 day gestation period. We tested the notion that the LHRH system of the nervus terminalis is important for olfactory performance by examining the effects of administration of antisera to LHRH during fetal development (versus saline controls), or medial olfactory peduncle transections, in the neonatal rat, which would sever the central projections of the nervus terminalis (versus lateral peduncle transection, complete transection of the olfactory peduncles and the central nervus terminalis or controls) on preferences of rat pups for home nest. The hypothesis that LHRH is important for this chemosensory response was not confirmed. Neither antisera to LHRH nor medical olfactory peduncle transection disrupted preference for home shavings. Only complete olfactory peduncle transection had a significant effect compared to unoperated and sham-operated controls.

  3. Effect of acupuncture on adrenocortical hormone production in rabbits with a central lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Y.Y.; Seto, K.; Saitoh, H.; Kawakami, M.

    A study was made of adrenocortical hormone production under electroacupuncture stimulation of the Tsu-San-Li locus in rabbits with a lesion in the fornix, stria terminalis, ventromedial nucleus or arcuate nucleus. In rabbits with a lesion in the stria terminalis or ventromedial nucleus, electroacupuncture stimulation of Tsu-San-Li resulted in no increase in phase 1 but an increase in phase 2 of adrenocortical hormone production. In rabbits with a lesion in the fornix or arcuate nucleus electroacupuncture stimulation of Tsu-San-Li was followed by increased adrenocortical hormone production in the both phases. These results show that the stria terminalis and the ventromedial nucleus play a major role in the augmentation of adrenocortical hormone production by electroacupuncture stimulation of Tsu-San-Li.

  4. α(2A)-adrenergic receptors filter parabrachial inputs to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavin, Stephanie A; Matthews, Robert T; Wang, Qin; Muly, E Chris; Winder, Danny G

    2014-07-09

    α2-adrenergic receptors (AR) within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) reduce stress-reward interactions in rodent models. In addition to their roles as autoreceptors, BNST α(2A)-ARs suppress glutamatergic transmission. One prominent glutamatergic input to the BNST originates from the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) and consists of asymmetric axosomatic synapses containing calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and vGluT2. Here we provide immunoelectron microscopic data showing that many asymmetric axosomatic synapses in the BNST contain α(2A)-ARs. Further, we examined optically evoked glutamate release ex vivo in BNST from mice with virally delivered channelrhodopsin2 (ChR2) expression in PBN. In BNST from these animals, ChR2 partially colocalized with CGRP, and activation generated EPSCs in dorsal anterolateral BNST neurons that elicited two cell-type-specific outcomes: (1) feedforward inhibition or (2) an EPSP that elicited firing. We found that the α(2A)-AR agonist guanfacine selectively inhibited this PBN input to the BNST, preferentially reducing the excitatory response in ex vivo mouse brain slices. To begin to assess the overall impact of α(2A)-AR control of this PBN input on BNST excitatory transmission, we used a Thy1-COP4 mouse line with little postsynaptic ChR2 expression nor colocalization of ChR2 with CGRP in the BNST. In slices from these mice, we found that guanfacine enhanced, rather than suppressed, optogenetically initiated excitatory drive in BNST. Thus, our study reveals distinct actions of PBN afferents within the BNST and suggests that α(2A)-AR agonists may filter excitatory transmission in the BNST by inhibiting a component of the PBN input while enhancing the actions of other inputs. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/349319-13$15.00/0.

  5. Correlation of catecholamine levels in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and reduced sexual behavior in middle-aged male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Joyce C; Tsai, Houng-Wei; Yeh, Kuei-Ying; Tai, Mei-Yun; Tsai, Yuan-Feen

    2008-07-01

    The correlation between dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) levels in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and male sexual behavior was examined in middle-aged rats. Male rats (18-19 months) were divided into: (a) Group MIE, consisting of rats showing mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations; (b) Group MI, composed of rats showing mounts and intromissions, but no ejaculation; and (c) Group NC, consisting of noncopulators. Young adult rats (4-5 months) displaying complete copulatory behavior were used as the control. Tissue levels of DA, NE, and DA metabolites in the BNST were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. DA, but not NE, levels in MIE rats were significantly lower than those in young controls. DA and NE levels in MIE rats were significantly higher than those in NC rats. These results suggest that DA and NE in the BNST might play an important role in the control of male sexual behavior in middle-aged rats.

  6. Neuropeptide Y in the central nucleus of amygdala regulates the anxiolytic effect of agmatine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taksande, Brijesh G; Kotagale, Nandkishor R; Gawande, Dinesh Y; Bharne, Ashish P; Chopde, Chandrabhan T; Kokare, Dadasaheb M

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, modulation of anxiolytic action of agmatine by neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) is evaluated employing Vogel's conflict test (VCT) in rats. The intra-CeA administration of agmatine (0.6 and 1.2µmol/rat), NPY (10 and 20pmol/rat) or NPY Y1/Y5 receptors agonist [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY (30 and 60pmol/rat) significantly increased the number of punished drinking licks following 15min of treatment. Combination treatment of subeffective dose of NPY (5pmol/rat) or [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY (15pmol/rat) and agmatine (0.3µmol/rat) produced synergistic anxiolytic-like effect. However, intra-CeA administration of selective NPY Y1 receptor antagonist, BIBP3226 (0.25 and 0.5mmol/rat) produced anxiogenic effect. In separate set of experiment, pretreatment with BIBP3226 (0.12mmol/rat) reversed the anxiolytic effect of agmatine (0.6µmol/rat). Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of intraperitoneal injection of agmatine (40mg/kg) on NPY-immunoreactivity in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), lateral part of bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNSTl) and CeA. While agmatine treatment significantly decreased the fibers density in BNSTl, increase was noticed in AcbSh. In addition, agmatine reduced NPY-immunoreactive cells in the AcbSh and CeA. Immunohistochemical data suggest the enhanced transmission of NPY from the AcbSh and CeA. Taken together, this study suggests that agmatine produced anxiolytic effect which might be regulated via modulation of NPYergic system particularly in the CeA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  7. Allopregnanolone in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis modulates contextual fear in rats.

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    Nagaya, Naomi; Acca, Gillian M; Maren, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Trauma- and stress-related disorders are among the most common types of mental illness affecting the U.S. population. For many of these disorders, there is a striking sex difference in lifetime prevalence; for instance, women are twice as likely as men to be affected by posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Gonadal steroids and their metabolites have been implicated in sex differences in fear and anxiety. One example, allopregnanolone (ALLO), is a neuroactive metabolite of progesterone that allosterically enhances GABAA receptor activity and has anxiolytic effects. Like other ovarian hormones, it not only occurs at different levels in males and females but also fluctuates over the female reproductive cycle. One brain structure that may be involved in neuroactive steroid regulation of fear and anxiety is the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). To explore this question, we examined the consequences of augmenting or reducing ALLO activity in the BNST on the expression of Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats. In Experiment 1, intra-BNST infusions of ALLO in male rats suppressed freezing behavior (a fear response) to the conditioned context, but did not influence freezing to a discrete tone conditioned stimulus (CS). In Experiment 2, intra-BNST infusion of either finasteride (FIN), an inhibitor of ALLO synthesis, or 17-phenyl-(3α,5α)-androst-16-en-3-ol, an ALLO antagonist, in female rats enhanced contextual freezing; neither treatment affected freezing to the tone CS. These findings support a role for ALLO in modulating contextual fear via the BNST and suggest that sex differences in fear and anxiety could arise from differential steroid regulation of BNST function. The susceptibility of women to disorders such as PTSD may be linked to cyclic declines in neuroactive steroid activity within fear circuitry.

  8. Allopregnanolone in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis modulates contextual fear in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi eNagaya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trauma- and stress-related disorders are among the most common types of mental illness affecting the U.S. population. For many of these disorders, there is a striking sex difference in lifetime prevalence; for instance, women are twice as likely as men to be affected by posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Gonadal steroids and their metabolites have been implicated in sex differences in fear and anxiety. One example, allopregnanolone (ALLO, is a neuroactive metabolite of progesterone that allosterically enhances GABAA receptor activity and has anxiolytic effects. Like other ovarian hormones, it not only occurs at different levels in males and females but also fluctuates over the female reproductive cycle. One brain structure that may be involved in neuroactive steroid regulation of fear and anxiety is the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST. To explore this question, we examined the consequences of augmenting or reducing ALLO activity in the BNST on the expression of Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats. In Experiment 1, intra-BNST infusions of ALLO in male rats suppressed freezing behavior (a fear response to the conditioned context, but did not influence freezing to a discrete tone conditioned stimulus (CS. In Experiment 2, intra-BNST infusion of either finasteride, an inhibitor of ALLO synthesis, or 17-phenyl-(3α,5α-androst-16-en-3-ol, an ALLO antagonist, in female rats enhanced contextual freezing; neither treatment affected freezing to the tone CS. These findings support a role for ALLO in modulating contextual fear via the BNST and suggest that sex differences in fear and anxiety could arise from differential steroid regulation of BNST function. The susceptibility of women to disorders such as PTSD may be linked to cyclic declines in neuroactive steroid activity within fear circuitry.

  9. Mechanisms of Neuroplasticity and Ethanol’s Effects on Plasticity in the Striatum and Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovinger, David M.; Kash, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Long-lasting changes in synaptic function (i.e., synaptic plasticity) have long been thought to contribute to information storage in the nervous system. Although synaptic plasticity mainly has adaptive functions that allow the organism to function in complex environments, it is now clear that certain events or exposure to various substances can produce plasticity that has negative consequences for organisms. Exposure to drugs of abuse, in particular ethanol, is a life experience that can activate or alter synaptic plasticity, often resulting in increased drug seeking and taking and in many cases addiction. Two brain regions subject to alcohol’s effects on synaptic plasticity are the striatum and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), both of which have key roles in alcohol’s actions and control of intake. The specific effects depend on both the brain region analyzed (e.g., specific subregions of the striatum and BNST) and the duration of ethanol exposure (i.e., acute vs. chronic). Plastic changes in synaptic transmission in these two brain regions following prolonged ethanol exposure are thought to contribute to excessive alcohol drinking and relapse to drinking. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this plasticity may lead to new therapies for treatment of these and other aspects of alcohol use disorder. PMID:26259092

  10. Sex differences in stress-induced social withdrawal: role of brain derived neurotrophic factor in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Gian D; Laman-Maharg, Abigail; Campi, Katharine L; Voigt, Heather; Orr, Veronica N; Schaal, Leslie; Trainor, Brian C

    2013-01-01

    Depression and anxiety disorders are more common in women than men, and little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to this disparity. Recent data suggest that stress-induced changes in neurotrophins have opposing effects on behavior by acting in different brain networks. Social defeat has been an important approach for understanding neurotrophin action, but low female aggression levels in rats and mice have limited the application of these methods primarily to males. We examined the effects of social defeat in monogamous California mice (Peromyscus californicus), a species in which both males and females defend territories. We demonstrate that defeat stress increases mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein but not mRNA in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in females but not males. Changes in BDNF protein were limited to anterior subregions of the BNST, and there were no changes in the adjacent nucleus accumbens (NAc). The effects of defeat on social withdrawal behavior and BDNF were reversed by chronic, low doses of the antidepressant sertraline. However, higher doses of sertraline restored social withdrawal and elevated BDNF levels. Acute treatment with a low dose of sertraline failed to reverse the effects of defeat. Infusions of the selective tyrosine-related kinase B receptor (TrkB) antagonist ANA-12 into the anterior BNST specifically increased social interaction in stressed females but had no effect on behavior in females naïve to defeat. These results suggest that stress-induced increases in BDNF in the anterior BNST contribute to the exaggerated social withdrawal phenotype observed in females.

  11. Title: Sex differences in stress-induced social withdrawal: role of brain derived neurotrophic factor in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian David Greenberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression and anxiety disorders are more common in women than men, and little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to this disparity. Recent data suggest that stress-induced changes in neurotrophins have opposing effects on behavior by acting in different brain networks. Social defeat has been an important approach for understanding neurotrophin action, but low female aggression levels in rats and mice have limited the application of these methods primarily to males. We examined the effects of social defeat in monogamous California mice (Peromyscus californicus, a species in which both males and females defend territories. We demonstrate that defeat stress increases mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF protein but not mRNA in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST in females but not males. Changes in BDNF protein were limited to anterior subregions of the BNST, and there were no changes in the adjacent nucleus accumbens (NAc. The effects of defeat on social withdrawal behavior and BDNF were reversed by chronic, low doses of the antidepressant sertraline. However, higher doses of sertraline restored social withdrawal and elevated BDNF levels. Acute treatment with a low dose of sertraline failed to reverse the effects of defeat. Infusions of the selective tyrosine-related kinase B receptor (TrkB antagonist ANA-12 into the anterior BNST specifically increased social interaction in stressed females but had no effect on behavior in females naïve to defeat. These results suggest that stress-induced increases in BDNF in the anterior BNST contribute to the exaggerated social withdrawal phenotype observed in females.

  12. Emerging Role for Corticotropin Releasing Factor Signaling in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis at the Intersection of Stress and Reward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval eSilberman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress and anxiety play an important role in the development and maintanence of drug and alcohol addiction. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST, a brain region involved in the production of long-term stress related behaviors, plays an important role in animal models of relapse, such as reinstatement to previously extinguished drug-seeking behaviors. While a number of neurotransmitter systems have been suggested to play a role in these behaviors, recent evidence points to the neuropeptide corticotropin releasing factor (CRF as being critically important in BNST mediated reinstatement behaviors. The BNST is a complex brain region with multiple afferent and efferent systems and a variety of cell types and there has only been limited work trying to understand how CRF modulates this complex neuronal system. Recent work from our lab and others have begun to unravel these BNST neurocircuits and explore their roles in CRF-related reinstatement behaviors. This review will examine the role of BNST CRF signaling in drug addiction and reinstatment with an emphasis on critical neurocircuitry within the BNST that may offer new insights into treatments for addiction.

  13. Emerging role for corticotropin releasing factor signaling in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis at the intersection of stress and reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Yuval; Winder, Danny G

    2013-01-01

    Stress and anxiety play an important role in the development and maintenance of drug and alcohol addiction. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a brain region involved in the production of long-term stress-related behaviors, plays an important role in animal models of relapse, such as reinstatement to previously extinguished drug-seeking behaviors. While a number of neurotransmitter systems have been suggested to play a role in these behaviors, recent evidence points to the neuropeptide corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) as being critically important in BNST-mediated reinstatement behaviors. Although numerous studies indicate that the BNST is a complex brain region with multiple afferent and efferent systems and a variety of cell types, there has only been limited work to determine how CRF modulates this complex neuronal system at the circuit level. Recent work from our lab and others have begun to unravel these BNST neurocircuits and explore their roles in CRF-related reinstatement behaviors. This review will examine the role of CRF signaling in drug addiction and reinstatement with an emphasis on critical neurocircuitry within the BNST that may offer new insights into treatments for addiction.

  14. Activation of Hypocretin-1/Orexin-A Neurons Projecting to the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis and Paraventricular Nucleus Is Critical for Reinstatement of Alcohol Seeking by Neuropeptide S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaldi, Massimo; Giordano, Antonio; Severi, Ilenia; Li, Hongwu; Kallupi, Marsida; de Guglielmo, Giordano; Ruggeri, Barbara; Stopponi, Serena; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Cannella, Nazzareno

    2016-03-15

    Environmental conditioning is a major trigger for relapse in abstinent addicts. We showed that activation of the neuropeptide S (NPS) system exacerbates reinstatement vulnerability to cocaine and alcohol via stimulation of the hypocretin-1/orexin-A (Hcrt-1/Ox-A) system. Combining pharmacologic manipulations with immunohistochemistry techniques, we sought to determine how NPS and Hcrt-1/Ox-A systems interact to modulate reinstatement of alcohol seeking in rats. Intrahypothalamic injection of NPS facilitated discriminative cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking. This effect was blocked by the selective Hcrt-1/Ox-A antagonist SB334867 microinjected into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) but not into the ventral tegmental area or the locus coeruleus. Combining double labeling and confocal microscopy analyses, we found that NPS-containing axons are in close apposition to hypothalamic Hcrt-1/Ox-A positive neurons, a significant proportion of which express NPS receptors, suggesting a direct interaction between the two systems. Retrograde tracing experiments showed that intra-PVN or intra-BNST red fluorobead unilateral injection labeled bilaterally Hcrt-1/Ox-A somata, suggesting that NPS could recruit two distinct neuronal pathways. Confirming this assumption, intra-BNST or PVN Hcrt-1/Ox-A injection enhanced alcohol seeking similarly to hypothalamic NPS injection but to a lesser degree. Results suggest that the Hcrt-1/Ox-A neurocircuitry mediating the facilitation of cue-induced reinstatement by NPS involves structures critically involved in stress regulation such as the PVN and the BNST. These findings open to the tempting hypothesis of a role of the NPS system in modulating the interactions between stress and environmental conditioning factors in drug relapse. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Endogenous oxytocin is necessary for preferential Fos expression to male odors in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in female Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Luis A; Levy, Marisa J; Petrulis, Aras

    2013-09-01

    Successful reproduction in mammals depends on proceptive or solicitational behaviors that enhance the probability of encountering potential mates. In female Syrian hamsters, one such behavior is vaginal scent marking. Recent evidence suggests that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) may be critical for regulating this behavior. Blockade of OT receptors in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) or the medial preoptic area (MPOA) decreases vaginal marking responses to male odors; lesion data suggest that BNST, rather than MPOA, mediates this effect. However, how OT interacts with sexual odor processing to drive preferential solicitation is not known. To address this issue, intact female Syrian hamsters were exposed to male or female odors and their brains processed for immunohistochemistry for Fos, a marker of recent neuronal activation, and OT. Additional females were injected intracerebroventricularly (ICV) with an oxytocin receptor antagonist (OTA) or vehicle, and then tested for vaginal marking and Fos responses to sexual odors. Colocalization of OT and Fos in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus was unchanged following exposure to male odors, but decreased following exposure to female odors. Following injections of OTA, Fos expression to male odors was decreased in BNST, but not in MPOA or the medial amygdala (MA). Fos expression in BNST may be functionally relevant for vaginal marking, given that there was a positive correlation between Fos expression and vaginal marking for BNST, but not MPOA or MA. Together, these data suggest that OT facilitation of neuronal activity in BNST underlies the facilitative effects of OT on solicitational responses to male odors. © 2013.

  16. Distinct phasic and sustained brain responses and connectivity of amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis during threat anticipation in panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, L; Buff, C; Feldker, K; Tupak, S V; Becker, M P I; Herrmann, M J; Straube, T

    2017-11-01

    Panic disorder (PD) patients are constantly concerned about future panic attacks and exhibit general hypersensitivity to unpredictable threat. We aimed to reveal phasic and sustained brain responses and functional connectivity of the amygdala and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) during threat anticipation in PD. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated 17 PD patients and 19 healthy controls (HC) during anticipation of temporally unpredictable aversive and neutral sounds. We used a phasic and sustained analysis model to disentangle temporally dissociable brain activations. PD patients compared with HC showed phasic amygdala and sustained BNST responses during anticipation of aversive v. neutral stimuli. Furthermore, increased phasic activation was observed in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Insula and PFC also showed sustained activation. Functional connectivity analyses revealed partly distinct phasic and sustained networks. We demonstrate a role for the BNST during unpredictable threat anticipation in PD and provide first evidence for dissociation between phasic amygdala and sustained BNST activation and their functional connectivity. In line with a hypersensitivity to uncertainty in PD, our results suggest time-dependent involvement of brain regions related to fear and anxiety.

  17. Ontogenetic development of the nervus terminalis in toothed whales. Evidence for its non-olfactory nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, E H; Oelschläger, H A

    1986-01-01

    For the first time in cetaceans, the development of the terminalis system and its continuity between the olfactory placode and the telencephalon has been demonstrated by light microscopy. In the early development of toothed whales (Odontoceti) this system is partially incorporated within the fila olfactoria which grow out from the olfactory placode. As the peripheral olfactory system is reduced in later stages, a strongly developed ganglionlike structure (terminalis ganglion) remains within the primitive meninx. Peripherally it is connected via the cribriform plate with ganglionic cell clusters near the septal mucosa. Centrally it is attached to the telencephalon (olfactory tubercle, septal region) by several nerve fibre bundles. In contrast to all other mammalian groups, toothed whales and dolphins are anosmatic while being totally adapted to aquatic life. Therefore the remaining ganglion and plexus must have non-olfactory properties. They may be responsible for the autonomic innervation of intracranial arteries and of the large mucous epithelia in the accessory nasal air sacs. The morphology, evolution and functional implications of the terminalis system in odontocetes and other mammals are discussed.

  18. Acute engagement of Gq-mediated signaling in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis induces anxiety-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzone, C M; Pati, D; Michaelides, M; DiBerto, J; Fox, J H; Tipton, G; Anderson, C; Duffy, K; McKlveen, J M; Hardaway, J A; Magness, S T; Falls, W A; Hammack, S E; McElligott, Z A; Hurd, Y L; Kash, T L

    2018-01-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a brain region important for regulating anxiety-related behavior in both humans and rodents. Here we used a chemogenetic strategy to investigate how engagement of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling cascades in genetically defined GABAergic BNST neurons modulates anxiety-related behavior and downstream circuit function. We saw that stimulation of vesicular γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter (VGAT)-expressing BNST neurons using hM3Dq, but neither hM4Di nor rM3Ds designer receptors exclusively activated by a designer drug (DREADD), promotes anxiety-like behavior. Further, we identified that activation of hM3Dq receptors in BNST VGAT neurons can induce a long-term depression-like state of glutamatergic synaptic transmission, indicating DREADD-induced changes in synaptic plasticity. Further, we used DREADD-assisted metabolic mapping to profile brain-wide network activity following activation of G q -mediated signaling in BNST VGAT neurons and saw increased activity within ventral midbrain structures, including the ventral tegmental area and hindbrain structures such as the locus coeruleus and parabrachial nucleus. These results highlight that G q -mediated signaling in BNST VGAT neurons can drive downstream network activity that correlates with anxiety-like behavior and points to the importance of identifying endogenous GPCRs within genetically defined cell populations. We next used a microfluidics approach to profile the receptorome of single BNST VGAT neurons. This approach yielded multiple G q -coupled receptors that are associated with anxiety-like behavior and several potential novel candidates for regulation of anxiety-like behavior. From this, we identified that stimulation of the G q -coupled receptor 5-HT 2C R in the BNST is sufficient to elevate anxiety-like behavior in an acoustic startle task. Together, these results provide a novel profile of receptors within genetically defined BNST VGAT

  19. Cystic dilatation of ventriculus terminalis in adults: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubayashi, R.; Uchino, A.; Kato, A.; Kudo, S.; Sakai, S.; Murata, S.

    1998-01-01

    We report the MRI findings in two patients with cystic dilatation of the ventriculus terminalis. The latter is usually a tiny ependyma-lined cavity of the conus medullaris. In both cases the markedly dilated ventriculus terminalis was seen as a rounded cavity with regular margins, the content of which gave the same signal as cerebrospinal fluid with all MR pulse sequences. No contrast enhancement was seen. (orig.)

  20. Localization and function of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor in the anterolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

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    Nagore Puente

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST is involved in behaviors related to natural reward, drug addiction and stress. In spite of the emerging role of the endogenous cannabinoid (eCB system in these behaviors, little is known about the anatomy and function of this system in the anterolateral BNST (alBNST. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed morphological characterization of the localization of the cannabinoid 1 (CB1 receptor a necessary step toward a better understanding of the physiological roles of the eCB system in this region of the brain. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have combined anatomical approaches at the confocal and electron microscopy level to ex-vivo electrophysiological techniques. Here, we report that CB1 is localized on presynaptic membranes of about 55% of immunopositive synaptic terminals for the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGluT1, which contain abundant spherical, clear synaptic vesicles and make asymmetrical synapses with alBNST neurons. About 64% of vGluT1 immunonegative synaptic terminals show CB1 immunolabeling. Furthermore, 30% and 35% of presynaptic boutons localize CB1 in alBNST of conditional mutant mice lacking CB1 mainly from GABAergic neurons (GABA-CB1-KO mice and mainly from cortical glutamatergic neurons (Glu-CB1-KO mice, respectively. Extracellular field recordings and whole cell patch clamp in the alBNST rat brain slice preparation revealed that activation of CB1 strongly inhibits excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study supports the anterolateral BNST as a potential neuronal substrate of the effects of cannabinoids on stress-related behaviors.

  1. Revalidation of Ceresa terminalis walker and its placement in Stictocephala Stål (Hemiptera, Membracidae Revalidação de Ceresa terminalis walker e sua alocação em Stictocephala Stål (Hemiptera, Membracidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel S. de Andrade

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Ceresa terminalis Walker, 1851 is reinstated and transferred to Stictocephala Stål, 1869: Stictocephala terminalis (Walker, 1851 sp. rev., comb. nov.Ceresa terminalis Walker, 1851 é revalidada e transferida para Stictocephala Stål, 1869: Stictocephala terminalis (Walker, 1851 sp. rev., comb. nov.

  2. Prominent crista terminalis mimicking a right atrial mass: case report

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    Lange Peter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The crista terminalis is a normal anatomical structure within the right atrium that is not normally visualised in the standard views obtained while performing a transthoracic echocardiogram. In this case report, transthoracic echocardiography suggested the presence of a right atrial mass in a patient with end stage renal disease. However, subsequent transesophageal echocardiography revealed that the right atrial mass was actually a thick muscular bridge in the right atrium consistent with a prominent crista terminalis. An understanding of the anatomy and the echocardiographic appearance of a prominent crista terminalis will minimize the misdiagnosis of this structure avoiding unnecessary expensive additional tests.

  3. Distribution of FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the brain, retina and nervus terminalis of the sockeye salmon parr, Oncorhynchus nerka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostholm, T; Ekström, P; Ebbesson, S O

    1990-09-01

    Neurons displaying FMRFamide(Phe - Met - Arg - Phe - NH2)-like immunoreactivity have recently been implicated in neural plasticity in salmon. We now extend these findings by describing the extent of the FMRF-like immunoreactive (FMRF-IR) system in the brain, retina and olfactory system of sockeye salmon parr using the indirect peroxidase anti-peroxidase technique. FMRF-IR perikarya were found in the periventricular hypothalamus, mesencephalic laminar nucleus, nucleus nervi terminalis and retina (presumed amacrine cells), and along the olfactory nerves. FMRF-IR fibers were distributed throughout the brain with highest densities in the ventral area of the telencephalon, in the medial forebrain bundle, and at the borders between layers III/IV and IV/V in the optic tectum. High densities of immunoreactive fibers were also observed in the area around the torus semicircularis, in the medial hypothalamus, median raphe, ventromedial tegmentum, and central gray. In the retina, immunopositive fibers were localized to the inner plexiform layer, but several fiber elements were also found in the outer plexiform layer. The olfactory system displayed FMRF-IR fibers in the epithelium and along the olfactory nerves. These findings differ from those reported in other species as follows: (i) FMRF-IR cells in the retina have not previously been reported in teleosts; (ii) the presence of FMRF-IR fibers in the outer plexiform layer of the retina is a new finding for any species; (iii) the occurrence of immunopositive cells in the mesencephalic laminar nucleus has to our knowledge not been demonstrated previously.

  4. How Human Amygdala and Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis May Drive Distinct Defensive Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpers, Floris; Kroes, Marijn C W; Baas, Johanna M P; Fernández, Guillén

    2017-10-04

    The ability to adaptively regulate responses to the proximity of potential danger is critical to survival and imbalance in this system may contribute to psychopathology. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is implicated in defensive responding during uncertain threat anticipation whereas the amygdala may drive responding upon more acute danger. This functional dissociation between the BNST and amygdala is however controversial, and human evidence scarce. Here we used data from two independent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies [ n = 108 males and n = 70 (45 females)] to probe how coordination between the BNST and amygdala may regulate responses during shock anticipation and actual shock confrontation. In a subset of participants from Sample 2 ( n = 48) we demonstrate that anticipation and confrontation evoke bradycardic and tachycardic responses, respectively. Further, we show that in each sample when going from shock anticipation to the moment of shock confrontation neural activity shifted from a region anatomically consistent with the BNST toward the amygdala. Comparisons of functional connectivity during threat processing showed overlapping yet also consistently divergent functional connectivity profiles for the BNST and amygdala. Finally, childhood maltreatment levels predicted amygdala, but not BNST, hyperactivity during shock anticipation. Our results support an evolutionary conserved, defensive distance-dependent dynamic balance between BNST and amygdala activity. Shifts in this balance may enable shifts in defensive reactions via the demonstrated differential functional connectivity. Our results indicate that early life stress may tip the neural balance toward acute threat responding and via that route predispose for affective disorder. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Previously proposed differential contributions of the BNST and amygdala to fear and anxiety have been recently debated. Despite the significance of understanding their

  5. Involvement of the oxytocin system in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the sex-specific regulation of social recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumais, Kelly M.; Alonso, Andrea G.; Immormino, Marisa A.; Bredewold, Remco; Veenema, Alexa H.

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in the oxytocin (OT) system in the brain may explain why OT often regulates social behaviors in sex-specific ways. However, a link between sex differences in the OT system and sex-specific regulation of social behavior has not been tested. Here, we determined whether sex differences in the OT receptor (OTR) or in OT release in the posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (pBNST) mediates sex-specific regulation of social recognition in rats. We recently showed that, compared to female rats, male rats have a three-fold higher OTR binding density in the pBNST, a sexually dimorphic area implicated in the regulation of social behaviors. We now demonstrate that OTR antagonist (5 ng/0.5 μl/side) administration into the pBNST impairs social recognition in both sexes, while OT (100 pg/0.5 μl/side) administration into the pBNST prolongs the duration of social recognition in males only. These effects seem specific to social recognition, as neither treatment altered total social investigation time in either sex. Moreover, baseline OT release in the pBNST, as measured with in vivo microdialysis, did not differ between the sexes. However, males showed higher OT release in the pBNST during social recognition compared to females. These findings suggest a sex-specific role of the OT system in the pBNST in the regulation of social recognition. PMID:26630388

  6. Involvement of the oxytocin system in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the sex-specific regulation of social recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumais, Kelly M; Alonso, Andrea G; Immormino, Marisa A; Bredewold, Remco; Veenema, Alexa H

    2016-02-01

    Sex differences in the oxytocin (OT) system in the brain may explain why OT often regulates social behaviors in sex-specific ways. However, a link between sex differences in the OT system and sex-specific regulation of social behavior has not been tested. Here, we determined whether sex differences in the OT receptor (OTR) or in OT release in the posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (pBNST) mediates sex-specific regulation of social recognition in rats. We recently showed that, compared to female rats, male rats have a three-fold higher OTR binding density in the pBNST, a sexually dimorphic area implicated in the regulation of social behaviors. We now demonstrate that OTR antagonist (5 ng/0.5 μl/side) administration into the pBNST impairs social recognition in both sexes, while OT (100 pg/0.5 μl/side) administration into the pBNST prolongs the duration of social recognition in males only. These effects seem specific to social recognition, as neither treatment altered total social investigation time in either sex. Moreover, baseline OT release in the pBNST, as measured with in vivo microdialysis, did not differ between the sexes. However, males showed higher OT release in the pBNST during social recognition compared to females. These findings suggest a sex-specific role of the OT system in the pBNST in the regulation of social recognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The nervus terminalis in the mouse: light and electron microscopic immunocytochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennes, L

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-containing neurons and fibers in the olfactory bulb was studied with light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry in combination with retrograde transport of "True Blue" and horseradish peroxidase and lesion experiments. GnRH-positive neurons are found in the septal roots of the nervus terminalis, in the ganglion terminale, intrafascicularly throughout the nervus terminalis, in a dorso-ventral band in the caudal olfactory bulb, in various layers of the main and accessory olfactory bulb, and in the basal aspects of the nasal epithelium. Electron microscopic studies show that the nerve fibers in the nervus terminalis are not myelinated and are not surrounded by Schwann cell sheaths. In the ganglion terminale, "smooth" GnRH neurons are seen in juxtaposition to immunonegative neurons. Occasionally, axosomatic specializations are found in the ganglion terminale, but such synaptic contacts are not seen intrafascicularly in the nervus terminalis. Retrograde transport studies indicate that certain GnRH neurons in the septal roots of the nervus terminalis were linked to the amygdala. In addition, a subpopulation of nervus terminalis-related GnRH neurons has access to fenestrated capillaries whereas other GnRH neurons terminate at the nasal epithelium. Lesions of the nervus terminalis caudal to the ganglion terminale result in sprouting of GnRH fibers at both sites of the knife cut. The results suggest that GnRH in the olfactory system of the mouse can influence a variety of target sites either via the blood stream, via the external cerebrospinal fluid or via synaptic/asynaptic contacts with, for example, the receptor cells in the nasal mucosa.

  8. Oxytocin induces penile erection and yawning when injected into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis: Involvement of glutamic acid, dopamine, and nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Fabrizio; Bratzu, Jessica; Argiolas, Antonio; Melis, Maria Rosaria

    2017-11-01

    Oxytocin (5-100ng), but not Arg 8 -vasopressin (100ng), injected unilaterally into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) induces penile erection and yawning in a dose-dependent manner in male rats. The minimal effective dose was 20ng for penile erection and 5ng for yawning. Oxytocin responses were abolished not only by the oxytocin receptor antagonist d(CH 2 ) 5 Tyr(Me) 2 -Orn 8 -vasotocin (1μg), but also by (+) MK-801 (1μg), an excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) subtype, SCH 23390 (1μg), a D1 receptor antagonist, but not haloperidol (1μg), a D2 receptor antagonist, and SMTC (40μg), an inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase, injected into the BNST 15min before oxytocin. Oxytocin-induced penile erection, but not yawning, was also abolished by CNQX (1μg), an excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist of the AMPA subtype. In contrast, oxytocin responses were not reduced by bicuculline (20ng), a GABA A receptor antagonist, phaclofen (5μg), a GABA B receptor antagonist, CP 376395, a CRF receptor-1 antagonist (5μg), or astressin 2B, a CRF receptor-2 antagonist (150ng). Considering the ability of NMDA (100ng) to induce penile erection and yawning when injected into the BNST and the available evidence showing possible interaction among oxytocin, glutamic acid, and dopamine in the BNST, oxytocin possibly activates glutamatergic neurotransmission in the BNST. This in turn leads to the activation of neural pathways projecting back to the paraventricular nucleus, medial preoptic area, ventral tegmental area, and/or ventral subiculum/amygdala, thereby inducing penile erection and yawning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular phenotyping of transient postnatal tyrosine hydroxylase neurons in the rat bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, David A

    2017-07-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a complex integrative centre in the forebrain, composed of multiple sub-nuclei, each with discrete populations of neurons. Progress in understanding BNST function, both in the adult and during postnatal maturation, is dependent upon a more complete characterization of neuronal phenotypes in the BNST. The aim of the current study was to define the molecular phenotype of one postnatal BNST neuronal population, in order to identify molecular factors that may underlie both (protein marker-related) immaturity, and secondly, the transience of this phenotype. This BNST population was originally identified by high, but transient expression of the EGR1 transcription factor (TF) in postnatal rat lateral intermediate BNST (BNSTLI). The current results confirm a high level of Egr1 activation in postnatal day 10 (PN10) male BNSTLI that is lost at PN40, and now demonstrate a similar pattern of transient activation in female brains. Apparent cellular immaturity in this population, as indicated by low levels of the adult neuronal marker NeuN/RBFOX3, was found to be uncorrelated with both key neuronal regulator protein expression (SOX2 and REST), and also RBFOX2 protein levels. The BNSTLI neurons have a partial catecholaminergic phenotype (tyrosine hydroxylase-positive/dopa decarboxylase-negative; TH+ve/DDC-ve) that is lost at PN40. In contrast, the co-expressed neuropeptide, somatostatin, is maintained, albeit at lower levels, at PN40. The transcriptional basis of the transient and partial catecholaminergic phenotype was investigated by analysing TFs known to maintain adult dopaminergic (TH+ve/DDC+ve) neuronal phenotypes. The BNSTLI neurons were shown to lack forkhead TFs including FOXA1, FOXA2 and FOXO1. In addition, the BNSTLI neurons had low, primarily cytoplasmic, expression of NR4A2/NURR1, an orphan nuclear receptor that is critical for adult maintenance of midbrain dopamine neurons. These results detail the molecular features

  10. Development of the nervus terminalis: origin and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Kathleen E

    2004-09-01

    The origin of the nervus terminalis is one of the least well understood developmental events involved in generating the cranial ganglia of the forebrain in vertebrate animals. This cranial nerve forms at the formidable interface of the anteriormost limits of migrating cranial neural crest cells, the terminal end of the neural tube and the differentiating olfactory and adenohypophyseal placodes. The complex cellular interactions that give rise to the various structures associated with the sensory placode (olfactory) and endocrine placode (adenohypophysis) surround and engulf this enigmatic cranial nerve. The tortured history of nervus terminalis development (see von Bartheld, this issue, pages 13-24) reflects the lack of consensus on the origin (or origins), as well as the experimental difficulties in uncovering the origin, of the nervus terminalis. Recent technical advances have allowed us to make headway in understanding the origin(s) of this nerve. The emergence of the externally fertilized zebrafish embryo as a model system for developmental biology and genetics has shed new light on this century-old problem. Coupled with new developmental models are techniques that allow us to trace lineage, visualize gene expression, and genetically ablate cells, adding to our experimental tools with which to follow up on studies provided by our scientific predecessors. Through these techniques, a picture is emerging in which the origin of at least a subset of the nervus terminalis cells lies in the cranial neural crest. In this review, the data surrounding this finding will be discussed in light of recent findings on neural crest and placode origins. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. An autoradiographic study of the projections of the central nucleus of the monkey amygdala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.L.; Amaral, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    The efferent connections of the central nucleus of the monkey amygdala have been studied using the autoradiographic method for tracing axonal projections. Small injections of 3H-amino-acids which are largely confined to the central nucleus lead to the labeling of several brainstem nuclei as far caudally as the spinomedullary junction. A number of intra-amygdaloid connections between the basal and lateral nuclei of the amygdala and the central nucleus are also described. The present findings, taken together with recently reported widespread projections from the temporal association cortex to the amygdala, point out a potentially trisynaptic route between neocortical association regions and a variety of brainstem nuclei, many of which are related to autonomic function

  12. Noradrenergic neurotransmission within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis modulates the retention of immobility in the rat forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Michelly M; Gomes, Felipe V; Crestani, Carlos C; Resstel, Leonardo B M; Joca, Sâmia R L

    2013-06-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a limbic structure that has a direct influence on the autonomic, neuroendocrine, and behavioral responses to stress. It was recently reported that reversible inactivation of synaptic transmission within this structure causes antidepressant-like effects, indicating that activation of the BNST during stressful situations would facilitate the development of behavioral changes related to the neurobiology of depression. Moreover, noradrenergic neurotransmission is abundant in the BNST and has an important role in the regulation of emotional processes related to the stress response. Thus, this study aimed to test the hypothesis that activation of adrenoceptors within the BNST facilitates the development of behavioral consequences of stress. To investigate this hypothesis, male Wistar rats were stressed (forced swimming, 15 min) and 24 h later received intra-BNST injections of vehicle, WB4101, RX821002, CGP20712, or ICI118,551, which are selective α(1), α(2), β(1), and β(2) adrenoceptor antagonists, respectively, 10 min before a 5-min forced swimming test. It was observed that administration of WB4101 (10 and 15 nmol), CGP20712 (5 and 10 nmol), or ICI118,551 (5 nmol) into the BNST reduced the immobility time of rats subjected to forced swimming test, indicating an antidepressant-like effect. These findings suggest that activation of α(1), β(1), and β(2) adrenoceptors in the BNST could be involved in the development of the behavioral consequences of stress. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  13. Acute reversible inactivation of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis induces antidepressant-like effect in the rat forced swimming test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) is a limbic forebrain structure involved in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation and stress adaptation. Inappropriate adaptation to stress is thought to compromise the organism's coping mechanisms, which have been implicated in the neurobiology of depression. However, the studies aimed at investigating BNST involvement in depression pathophysiology have yielded contradictory results. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of temporary acute inactivation of synaptic transmission in the BNST by local microinjection of cobalt chloride (CoCl2) in rats subjected to the forced swimming test (FST). Methods Rats implanted with cannulae aimed at the BNST were submitted to 15 min of forced swimming (pretest). Twenty-four hours later immobility time was registered in a new 5 min forced swimming session (test). Independent groups of rats received bilateral microinjections of CoCl2 (1 mM/100 nL) before or immediately after pretest or before the test session. Additional groups received the same treatment and were submitted to the open field test to control for unspecific effects on locomotor behavior. Results CoCl2 injection into the BNST before either the pretest or test sessions reduced immobility in the FST, suggesting an antidepressant-like effect. No significant effect of CoCl2 was observed when it was injected into the BNST immediately after pretest. In addition, no effect of BNST inactivation was observed in the open field test. Conclusion These results suggest that acute reversible inactivation of synaptic transmission in the BNST facilitates adaptation to stress and induces antidepressant-like effects. PMID:20515458

  14. Acute reversible inactivation of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis induces antidepressant-like effect in the rat forced swimming test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joca Sâmia RL

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST is a limbic forebrain structure involved in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation and stress adaptation. Inappropriate adaptation to stress is thought to compromise the organism's coping mechanisms, which have been implicated in the neurobiology of depression. However, the studies aimed at investigating BNST involvement in depression pathophysiology have yielded contradictory results. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of temporary acute inactivation of synaptic transmission in the BNST by local microinjection of cobalt chloride (CoCl2 in rats subjected to the forced swimming test (FST. Methods Rats implanted with cannulae aimed at the BNST were submitted to 15 min of forced swimming (pretest. Twenty-four hours later immobility time was registered in a new 5 min forced swimming session (test. Independent groups of rats received bilateral microinjections of CoCl2 (1 mM/100 nL before or immediately after pretest or before the test session. Additional groups received the same treatment and were submitted to the open field test to control for unspecific effects on locomotor behavior. Results CoCl2 injection into the BNST before either the pretest or test sessions reduced immobility in the FST, suggesting an antidepressant-like effect. No significant effect of CoCl2 was observed when it was injected into the BNST immediately after pretest. In addition, no effect of BNST inactivation was observed in the open field test. Conclusion These results suggest that acute reversible inactivation of synaptic transmission in the BNST facilitates adaptation to stress and induces antidepressant-like effects.

  15. Interacting gluon model for hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions in the central rapidity region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, G.N.; Navarra, F.S.; Plumer, M.; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, California 94720); Vourdas, A.; Weiner, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    The interacting gluon model developed to describe the inelasticity distribution in hadron-nucleon collisions has been generalized and applied to hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions. Leading particle spectra and energy distributions in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions are calculated

  16. Radioautography of the central nervous system and pituitary after 3H steroid hormones injection into different mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warembourg, M.

    1977-01-01

    The central nervous system and pituitary of various mammals were examined by radioautography after injection of different tritiated steroid hormones. After injection of 3 H estradiol into ovariectomized mice, radioautograms revealed a significant labelling in cells of the amygdala, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the nucleus preopticus medialis, the nuclei arcuatus and ventro-medialis. After injection of 3 H testosterone into castrated rats, the central nervous system and the anterior pituitary contained labelled cells. In the hypothalamus, the distribution pattern of androgen-neurons appears to be similar from the estrogen-neuron areas. After injection of 3 H progesterone into castrated estrogen-primed guinea-pigs, labelled neurons have been in the regions of nucleus arcuatus and nucleus preopticus suprachiasmaticus. After injection of 3 H corticosterone into adrenalectomized male rats, radioactivity was found to be selectively concentrated in neurons of septum, hippocampal complex indusium griseum, amygdala and in certain areas of the cortex. Most of the silver grains were localized in the nuclei of labelled cells. On the other hand, after injection of 3 H dexamethasone radioactivity concentration was high in the medial basal hypothalamus, in the anterior pituitary and in the pineal gland. Differences appear to exist in the topographic distribution of dexamethasone and corticosterone-concentrating cells [fr

  17. FMRFamide-like immunoreactive neurons of the nervus terminalis of teleosts innervate both retina and pineal organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, P; Honkanen, T; Ebbesson, S O

    1988-09-13

    The tetrapeptide FMRFamide (Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2) was first isolated from molluscan ganglia. Subsequently, it has become clear that vertebrate brains also contain endogenous FMRFamide-like substances. In teleosts, the neurons of the nervus terminalis contain an FMRFamide-like substance, and provide a direct innervation to the retina (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 81 [1984] 940-944). Here we report the presence of FMRFamide-immunoreactive axonal bundles in the pineal organ of Coho salmon and three-spined sticklebacks. The largest numbers of axons were observed proximal to the brain, in the pineal stalk, while the distal part of the pineal organ contained only few axons. No FMRFamide-like-immunoreactive (IR) cell bodies were observed in the pineal organ. In adult fish it was not possible to determine the origin of these axons, due to the large numbers of FMRFamide-like IR axons in the teleost brain. However, by following the development of FMRFamide-like IR neurons in the embryonic and larval stickleback brain, it was possible to conclude that, at least in newly hatched fish, FMRFamide-like IR axons that originate in the nucleus nervus terminalis reach the pineal organ. Thus, it seems there is a direct connection between a specialized part of the chemosensory system and both the retina and the pineal organ in teleost fish.

  18. [Morphometric features of the structure of the central nucleus of the amygdala in men and women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antyukhov, A D

    2015-01-01

    To identify the interhemispheric asymmetry in the structure of the central nucleus of the amygdala in men and women. Morphometric features of the structure of neurons of the central nucleus amygdala complex were studied in histological sections of the brain of 6 men and 6 women (24 hemispheres), aged 19 to 55 years, with no lifetime diagnosis of mental or neurological disease. The value of the profile fields of neurons of the central nucleus amygdala complex in the left and right hemispheres of the brain were investigated. In women, the average value of neurons in the left hemisphere was somewhat greater than in the right hemisphere, while in men this value was greater in the right hemisphere. The interhemispheric morphometric differences were not significant regardless of gender. In addition, the quantity of relevant fields of neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala in women was significantly larger than that of men in both hemispheres. The authors attempted to associate the results obtained in the study with emotional perception in men and women.

  19. Study of Λ-production in central nucleus-nucleus interactions at the momentum of 4.6 GeV/c per incident nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikina, M.; Golokhvastov, A.; Goncharova, L.

    1983-01-01

    Transverse momenta and rapidities of Λ particles produced in central nucleus-nucleus collisions at 4.5 GeV/c per nucleon (cC, CNe, ONe, CCu, CZr, CPb, OPb) have been studied and compared with those from ineiolastic He-Li interactns at the same incident momentum. Polarization of Λ hyperons was found to be consistent (within the errors) with zero (αP=-0.06+-0.11) for 224 Λ particles from central collisions. The upper limit of anti Λ/Λ production ratio was estimated to be less than 10 -2 at a 90% confidence level. The analyzed experimental data were obtained using the triggered 2 m streamer spectrometer SKM-200

  20. Recovery of stress-impaired social behavior by an antagonist of the CRF binding protein, CRF6-33, in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Mailton; Stein, Dirson J; Albrechet-Souza, Lucas; Miczek, Klaus A; de Almeida, Rosa Maria M

    2018-01-09

    Social stress is recognized to promote the development of neuropsychiatric and mood disorders. Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) is an important neuropeptide activated by social stress, and it contributes to neural and behavioral adaptations, as indicated by impaired social interactions and anhedonic effects. Few studies have focused on the role of the CRF binding protein (CRFBP), a component of the CRF system, and its activity in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST), a limbic structure connecting amygdala and hypothalamus. In this study, animals' preference for sweet solutions was examined as an index of stress-induced anhedonic responses in Wistar rats subjected to four brief intermittent episodes of social defeat. Next, social approach was assessed after local infusions of the CRFBP antagonist, CRF fragment 6-33 (CRF 6-33 ) into the BNST. The experience of brief episodes of social defeat impaired social approach behaviors in male rats. However, intra-BNST CRF 6-33 infusions restored social approach in stressed animals to the levels of non-stressed rats. CRF 6-33 acted selectively on social interaction and did not alter general exploration in nether stressed nor non-stressed rats. These findings suggest that BNST CRFBP is involved in the modulation of anxiety-like responses induced by social stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptors Modulate Oxytocin Release in the Dorsolateral Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis (BNST in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy Martinon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT plays an important role in the regulation of social and anxiety-like behavior. Our previous studies have shown that OT neurons send projections from the hypothalamus to the dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTdl, a forebrain region critically involved in the modulation of anxiety-like behavior. Importantly, these OT terminals in the BNSTdl express presynaptic corticotropin releasing factor (CRF receptor type 2 (CRFR2. This suggests that CRFR2 might be involved in the modulation of OT release. To test this hypothesis, we measured OT content in microdialysates collected from the BNSTdl of freely-moving male Sprague-Dawley rats following the administration of a selective CRFR2 agonist (Urocortin 3 or antagonist (Astressin 2B, As2B. To determine if type 1 CRF receptors (CRFR1 are also involved, we used selective CRFR1 antagonist (NBI35965 as well as CRF, a putative ligand of both CRFR1 and CRFR2. All compounds were delivered directly into the BNSTdl via reverse dialysis. OT content in the microdialysates was measured with highly sensitive and selective radioimmunoassay. Blocking CRFR2 with As2B caused an increase in OT content in BNSTdl microdialysates, whereas CRFR2 activation by Urocortin 3 did not have an effect. The As2B-induced increase in OT release was blocked by application of the CRFR1 antagonist demonstrating that the effect was dependent on CRFR1 transmission. Interestingly, CRF alone caused a delayed increase in OT content in BNSTdl microdialysates, which was dependent on CRF2 but not CRF1 receptors. Our results suggest that members of the CRF peptide family modulate OT release in the BNSTdl via a fine-tuned mechanism that involves both CRFR1 and CRFR2. Further exploration of mechanisms by which endogenous OT system is modulated by CRF peptide family is needed to better understand the role of these neuropeptides in the regulation of anxiety and the stress response.

  2. Synaptic Plasticity in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis: Underlying Mechanisms and Potential Ramifications for Reinstatement of Drug- and Alcohol-Seeking Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Nicholas A; Winder, Danny G

    2018-06-13

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a component of the extended amygdala that shows significant changes in activity and plasticity through chronic exposure to drugs and stress. The region is critical for stress- and cue-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behaviors and is thus a candidate region for the plastic changes that occur in abstinence that prime addicted patients for reinstatement behaviors. Here, we discuss the various forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in the rodent BNST and highlight the way that these changes in excitatory transmission interact with exposure to alcohol and other drugs of abuse, as well as other stressors. In addition, we highlight potential areas for future research in this area, including investigating input- and cell-specific bidirectional changes in activity. As we continue to accrue foundational knowledge in the mechanisms and effects of plasticity in the BNST, molecular targets and treatment strategies that are relevant to reinstatement behaviors will also begin to emerge. Here, we briefly discuss the effects of catecholamine receptor modulators on synaptic plasticity in the BNST due to the role of norepinephrine in LTD and dopamine on the short-term component of LTP as well as the role that signaling at these receptors plays in reinstatement of drug- and alcohol-seeking behaviors. We hope that insights gained on the specific changes in plasticity that occur within the BNST during abstinence from alcohol and other drugs of abuse will provide insight into the biological underpinnings of relapse behavior in human addicts and inform future treatment modalities for addiction that tackle this complex biological problem.

  3. Consistency and diversity of spike dynamics in the neurons of bed nucleus of stria terminalis of the rat: a dynamic clamp study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Szücs

    Full Text Available Neurons display a high degree of variability and diversity in the expression and regulation of their voltage-dependent ionic channels. Under low level of synaptic background a number of physiologically distinct cell types can be identified in most brain areas that display different responses to standard forms of intracellular current stimulation. Nevertheless, it is not well understood how biophysically different neurons process synaptic inputs in natural conditions, i.e., when experiencing intense synaptic bombardment in vivo. While distinct cell types might process synaptic inputs into different patterns of action potentials representing specific "motifs" of network activity, standard methods of electrophysiology are not well suited to resolve such questions. In the current paper we performed dynamic clamp experiments with simulated synaptic inputs that were presented to three types of neurons in the juxtacapsular bed nucleus of stria terminalis (jcBNST of the rat. Our analysis on the temporal structure of firing showed that the three types of jcBNST neurons did not produce qualitatively different spike responses under identical patterns of input. However, we observed consistent, cell type dependent variations in the fine structure of firing, at the level of single spikes. At the millisecond resolution structure of firing we found high degree of diversity across the entire spectrum of neurons irrespective of their type. Additionally, we identified a new cell type with intrinsic oscillatory properties that produced a rhythmic and regular firing under synaptic stimulation that distinguishes it from the previously described jcBNST cell types. Our findings suggest a sophisticated, cell type dependent regulation of spike dynamics of neurons when experiencing a complex synaptic background. The high degree of their dynamical diversity has implications to their cooperative dynamics and synchronization.

  4. Congenital Generalized Hypertrichosis Terminalis with Gingival Hyperplasia and a Coarse Face: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazandjieva Jana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenital generalized hypertrichosis, in its most common form, is idiopathic. In the absence of underlying endocrine or metabolic disorders, congenital generalized hypertrichosis is rare in humans, affecting as few as one in a billion individuals and may be an isolated condition of the skin, or a component feature of other disorders or syndromes. Congenital generalized hypertrichosis terminalis is an extremely rare condition, a distinct subset of disorders with congenital hypertrichosis, presenting with excessive hair as the primary clinical feature. Congenital generalized hypertrichosis terminalis is characterized by universal excessive growth of pigmented terminal hair and often accompanied with gingival hyperplasia and/or a coarse face. Gingival hyperplasia may be delayed even until puberty. Its pathogenesis may be caused by one of the following mechanisms: conversion of vellus to terminal hairs and/or prolonged anagenetic stage, and/or increase in the number of hair follicles. Since the Middle Ages, less than 60 individuals with congenital hypertrichosis terminalis have been described, and, according to the most recent estimates, less than 40 cases were documented adequately and definitively in the literature. Recent articles identified congenital generalized hypertrichosis terminalis as a genomic disorder.

  5. High energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhalla, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain nucleus-nucleus collisions based on nuclear emulsion experiments. Peripheral and central collisions are described in detail. Assuming the fireball model, the concepts of geometry, kinematics and thermodynamics in this model are discussed. Projectile and target fragmentations are studied. The advantages of using nuclear emulsions as detectors, are mentioned. Proton-nucleus collisions and nucleus-nucleus collisions are compared. Interactions, of projectiles such as Ca, B and C on targets such as Pb, Ag, Br etc. at very high energies (approximately 300 to 1700 Gev) are listed. A comparison of the near multiplicities in these interactions is given. A generalized explanation is given on the processes involved in these interactions. (A.K.)

  6. Deconfinement of quarks and gluons in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    The energy dependence of hadron production in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions reveals the anomalies. They were predicted as the signals of the deconfinement phase transition and observed by NA49 collaboration in Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS. This indicates the onset of the deconfinement in central nucleus-nucleus collisions at about 30 AGeV.

  7. Efferent connections and nigral afferents of the nucleus accumbens septi in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nauta, W J.H.; Smith, G P; Faull, R L.M.; Domesick, V B [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (USA). Dept. of Psychology

    1978-01-01

    The results of this study by the methods of autoradiographic fiber-tracing and retrograde cell-labelling confirm earlier reports of accumbens projections to the globus pallidus and to dorsal strata of the medial half of the substantia nigra. Also in accord with previous autoradiographic evidence, sparser projections could be traced to a variety of subcortical structures implicated in the circuitry of the limbic system: bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, septum, preoptic region, hypothalamus, ventral tegmental area, nuclei paratenialis and mediodorsalis thalami, and lateral habenular nucleus. Contrary to earlier reports, striatopallidal fibers from the accumbens were found to be distributed largely to the subcommissural part of the external pallidal segment and to avoid almost entirely the internal pallidal segment. Mesencephalic projections from the accumbens largely coincide with those from the preoptic region and hypothalamus; like the latter they prominantly involve the region of the out-lying nigral cell groups A10 and A8 and extend caudally beyond the nigral complex to the cuneiform and parabrachial regions of the tegmentum as well as to caudoventral parts of the central grey substance. Horseradish peroxidase injected into the nucleus accumbens labels numerous neurons in the region of cell group A10 and in the supralemniscal 'retrorubral nucleus', but only sporadic cells in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra proper. It thus appears that the accumbens projects to a region of the nigral complex considerably larger than that from which it receives nigrostriatal fibers, and hence, that the nigro-striato-nigral circuit associated with the accumbens is not organized in a mode of simple point-for-point reciprocity. The problem of delimiting the accumbens from the rest of the striatum is examined by comparing cases of tracer injection into various discrete loci within the ventral zone of the striatum.

  8. Extending the amygdala in theories of threat processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Andrew S.; Oler, Jonathan A.; Tromp, Do P.M.; Fudge, Julie L.; Kalin, Ned H.

    2015-01-01

    The central extended amygdala is an evolutionarily conserved set of interconnected brain regions that play an important role in threat processing to promote survival. Two core components of the central extended amygdala, the central nucleus of the amygdala (Ce) and the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) are highly similar regions that serve complimentary roles by integrating fear- and anxiety-relevant information. Survival depends on the central extended amygdala's ability to rapidly integrate and respond to threats that vary in their immediacy, proximity, and characteristics. Future studies will benefit from understanding alterations in central extended amygdala function in relation to stress-related psychopathology. PMID:25851307

  9. Potential damages, seasonal abundance and distribution of Empoasca terminalis Distant (Homoptera: Cicadellidae on soybean in South Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Nasruddin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant damages caused by leafhopper, Empoasca terminalis Distant (Homoptera: Cicadellidae on soybean were first encountered in 2007 in Makassar, South Sulawesi. The insect has been constantly associated with soybean crops in the province ever since. The purposes of the present study were to (i evaluate potential yield loss attributable to the leafhopper in an experimental set up, (ii seasonal abundance of E. terminalis, and (iii distribution of E. terminalis in all major soybean-producing areas in the province. Potential yield loss due to the leafhopper was assessed in a field experiment using two large plots. One of the plots was kept leafhopper-free by weekly insecticide sprays; and the other plot was left unsprayed to allow leafhopper infestation to occur. Adult abundance was weekly monitored using a sweep net throughout the season. Nymph abundance was determined by direct count on the plant leaves. Leafhopper distribution was assessed through surveys conducted in all major soybean-producing areas in South Sulawesi, from 2009–2013. The results of the study showed that E. terminalis caused an average yield loss of 26% on susceptible crops without insecticide use. First leafhopper infestation in all planting seasons occurred two weeks after the plant emergence. Rainfall negatively correlated with the leafhopper abundance. The leafhopper existed in all major soybean production areas in the province. Therefore, our results confirmed the status of E. terminalis as an important soybean pest in the region. In addition, crops planted early in the dry season could escape from heavy leafhopper infestation.

  10. Using the trans-lamina terminalis route via a pterional approach to resect a retrochiasmatic craniopharyngioma involving the third ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Alexander G; Robert, Thomas; Alsaiari, Sultan; Obaid, Sami; Bojanowski, Michel W

    2016-01-01

    Retrochiasmatic craniopharyngiomas involving the anterior third ventricle are challenging to access. Although the pterional approach is a common route for suprasellar lesions, when the craniopharyngioma extends behind the chiasma into the third ventricle, access is even more difficult, and the lamina terminalis may offer a good working window. The translamina terminalis approach provides direct access to the retrochiasmatic portion of the tumor with minimal brain retraction and no manipulation of the visual nerves. In this video, we emphasize the utility of using the lamina terminalis corridor to resect the retrochiasmatic intraventricular portion of a craniopharyngioma. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/hrLNC0hDKe4 .

  11. Global features of nucleus-nucleus collisions in ultrarelativistic domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savina, M.V.; Shmatov, S.V.; Slavin, N.V.; Zarubin, P.I.

    1998-01-01

    HIJING generator simulation of nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultrarelativistic energies is presented. It is shown that the global characteristics of nucleus-nucleus collisions, such as distribution of a charged multiplicity, total and electromagnetic transverse energy over pseudorapidity are rather sensitive to some predictions of models of high-exited nuclear medium formation, namely parton energy losses in dense nuclear matter. These losses result in appearance of a broad maximum in global variable distributions over pseudorapidity. The most profound of this effect occurs at central heavy ion collisions at LHC energy

  12. Oxytocin receptor neurotransmission in the dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis facilitates the acquisition of cued fear in the fear-potentiated startle paradigm in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moaddab, Mahsa; Dabrowska, Joanna

    2017-07-15

    Oxytocin (OT) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that modulates fear and anxiety-like behaviors. Dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST dl ) plays a critical role in the regulation of fear and anxiety, and expresses high levels of OT receptor (OTR). However, the role of OTR neurotransmission within the BNST dl in mediating these behaviors is unknown. Here, we used adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to investigate the role of OTR neurotransmission in the BNST dl in the modulation of the acoustic startle response, as well as in the acquisition and consolidation of conditioned fear using fear potentiated startle (FPS) paradigm. Bilateral intra-BNST dl administration of OT (100 ng) did not affect the acquisition of conditioned fear response. However, intra-BNST dl administration of specific OTR antagonist (OTA), (d(CH 2 ) 5 1 , Tyr(Me) 2 , Thr 4 , Orn 8 , des-Gly-NH 2 9 )-vasotocin, (200 ng), prior to the fear conditioning session, impaired the acquisition of cued fear, without affecting a non-cued fear component of FPS. Neither OTA, nor OT affected baseline startle or shock reactivity during fear conditioning. Therefore, the observed impairment of cued fear after OTA infusion resulted from the specific effect on the formation of cued fear. In contrast to the acquisition, neither OTA nor OT affected the consolidation of FPS, when administered after the completion of fear conditioning session. Taken together, these results reveal the important role of OTR neurotransmission in the BNST dl in the formation of conditioned fear to a discrete cue. This study also highlights the role of the BNST dl in learning to discriminate between threatening and safe stimuli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The organizational effects of oxytocin on the central expression of estrogen receptor α and oxytocin in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papademetriou Eros

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have demonstrated that neonatal manipulation of oxytocin (OT has effects on the expression of estrogen receptor α (ERα and the central production of oxytocin observed in juveniles (at weaning, 21 days of age. The goal of this study was to determine whether the effects of neonatal manipulation of OT last into adulthood, and if the effects differ from those observed during the early postnatal period. On the first day of life, prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster received one of three doses of OT (High, 3 μg; Med, 0.3 μg; Low, 0.03 μg, an OT antagonist, or isotonic saline. Another group was handled, but not injected. Then as adults, brains were collected, sectioned, and stained for ERα or OT using immunocytochemistry. Results In females, treatment with OT increased the expression of ERα immunoreactivity in the ventral lateral septum (0.03 μg and the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus and central amygdala (0.3 μg. In males, OT antagonist increased ERα expression in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. There was no apparent effect of OT on the number of cells producing OT in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Conclusion The current results suggest that neonatal manipulation of OT has long-term organizational effects on the expression of ERα in both males and females. The lack of effect on OT neurons in the paraventricular nucleus suggests that some developmental effects of OT previously observed in weanlings do not persist into adulthood. Developmental effects of OT on ERα patterns were sexually dimorphic, dose-dependent, and site-specific.

  14. The central extended amygdala in fear and anxiety: Closing the gap between mechanistic and neuroimaging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Andrew S; Shackman, Alexander J

    2017-11-30

    Anxiety disorders impose a staggering burden on public health, underscoring the need to develop a deeper understanding of the distributed neural circuits underlying extreme fear and anxiety. Recent work highlights the importance of the central extended amygdala, including the central nucleus of the amygdala (Ce) and neighboring bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST). Anatomical data indicate that the Ce and BST form a tightly interconnected unit, where different kinds of threat-relevant information can be integrated to assemble states of fear and anxiety. Neuroimaging studies show that the Ce and BST are engaged by a broad spectrum of potentially threat-relevant cues. Mechanistic work demonstrates that the Ce and BST are critically involved in organizing defensive responses to a wide range of threats. Studies in rodents have begun to reveal the specific molecules, cells, and microcircuits within the central extended amygdala that underlie signs of fear and anxiety, but the relevance of these tantalizing discoveries to human experience and disease remains unclear. Using a combination of focal perturbations and whole-brain imaging, a new generation of nonhuman primate studies is beginning to close this gap. This work opens the door to discovering the mechanisms underlying neuroimaging measures linked to pathological fear and anxiety, to understanding how the Ce and BST interact with one another and with distal brain regions to govern defensive responses to threat, and to developing improved intervention strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. The nervus terminalis ganglion in Anguilla rostrata: an immunocytochemical and HRP histochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grober, M S; Bass, A H; Burd, G; Marchaterre, M A; Segil, N; Scholz, K; Hodgson, T

    1987-12-08

    Immunocytochemistry and retrograde horseradish peroxidase (HRP) transport were used to study the ganglion of the nervus terminalis in the American eel, Anguilla rostrata. Luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) like immunoreactivity was found in large, ganglion-like cells located ventromedially at the junction of the telencephalon and olfactory bulb and in fibers within the retina and olfactory epithelium. HRP transport from the retina demonstrated direct connections with both the ipsi- and contralateral populations of these ganglion-like cells. Given the well-documented role of both olfaction and vision during migratory and reproductive phases of the life cycle of eels, the robust nature of a nervus terminalis system in these fish may present a unique opportunity to study the behavioral correlates of structure-function organization in a discrete population of ganglion-like cells.

  16. GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors blockade rescues bidirectional synaptic plasticity in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of cocaine self-administering rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deBacker, Julian; Hawken, Emily R; Normandeau, Catherine P; Jones, Andrea A; Di Prospero, Cynthia; Mechefske, Elysia; Gardner Gregory, James; Hayton, Scott J; Dumont, Éric C

    2015-01-01

    Drugs of abuse have detrimental effects on homeostatic synaptic plasticity in the motivational brain network. Bidirectional plasticity at excitatory synapses helps keep neural circuits within a functional range to allow for behavioral flexibility. Therefore, impaired bidirectional plasticity of excitatory synapses may contribute to the behavioral hallmarks of addiction, yet this relationship remains unclear. Here we tracked excitatory synaptic strength in the oval bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (ovBNST) using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in brain slices from rats self-administering sucrose or cocaine. In the cocaine group, we measured both a persistent increase in AMPA to NMDA ratio (A:N) and slow decay time of NMDA currents throughout the self-administration period and after withdrawal from cocaine. In contrast, the sucrose group exhibited an early increase in A:N ratios (acquisition) that returned toward baseline values with continued self-administration (maintenance) and after withdrawal. The sucrose rats also displayed a decrease in NMDA current decay time with continued self-administration (maintenance), which normalized after withdrawal. Cocaine self-administering rats exhibited impairment in NMDA-dependent long-term depression (LTD) that could be rescued by GluN2B-containing NMDA receptor blockade. Sucrose self-administering rats demonstrated no impairment in NMDA-dependent LTD. During the maintenance period of self-administration, in vivo (daily intraperitoneally for 5 days) pharmacologic blockade of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors did not reduce lever pressing for cocaine. However, in vivo GluN2B blockade did normalize A:N ratios in cocaine self-administrating rats, and dissociated the magnitude of ovBNST A:N ratios from drug-seeking behavior after protracted withdrawal. Altogether, our data demonstrate when and how bidirectional plasticity at ovBNST excitatory synapses becomes dysfunctional with cocaine self-administration and that NMDA

  17. Corticotropin Releasing Factor in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis in Socially Defeated and Non-stressed Mice with a History of Chronic Alcohol Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Albrechet-Souza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stress exposure has been identified as one risk factor for alcohol abuse that may facilitate the transition from social or regulated use to the development of alcohol dependence. Preclinical studies have shown that dysregulation of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF neurotransmission has been implicated in stress-related psychopathologies such as depression and anxiety, and may affect alcohol consumption. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST contains CRF-producing neurons which seem to be sensitive to stress. In this study, adult male C57BL/6 mice previously defeated in resident-intruder confrontations were evaluated in the elevated plus-maze and tail suspension test. Mice were also tested for sweet solution intake before and after social stress. After having had continuous access to ethanol (20% weight/volume for 4 weeks, control and stressed mice had CRF type 1 (CRFR1 or type 2 (CRFR2 receptor antagonists infused into the BNST and then had access to ethanol for 24 h. In separate cohorts of control and stressed mice, we assessed mRNA levels of BNST CRF, CRFR1 and CRFR2. Stressed mice increased their intake of sweet solution after ten sessions of social defeat and showed reduced activity in the open arms of the elevated plus-maze. When tested for ethanol consumption, stressed mice persistently drank significantly more than controls during the 4 weeks of access. Also, social stress induced higher BNST CRF mRNA levels. The selective blockade of BNST CRFR1 with CP376,395 effectively reduced alcohol drinking in non-stressed mice, whereas the selective CRFR2 antagonist astressin2B produced a dose-dependent increase in ethanol consumption in both non-stressed controls and stressed mice. The 10-day episodic defeat stress used here elicited anxiety- but not depressive-like behaviors, and promoted an increase in ethanol drinking. CRF-CRFR1 signaling in the BNST seems to underlie ethanol intake in non-stressed mice, whereas CRFR2 modulates

  18. Corticotropin Releasing Factor in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis in Socially Defeated and Non-stressed Mice with a History of Chronic Alcohol Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrechet-Souza, Lucas; Viola, Thiago W; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Miczek, Klaus A; de Almeida, Rosa M M

    2017-01-01

    Stress exposure has been identified as one risk factor for alcohol abuse that may facilitate the transition from social or regulated use to the development of alcohol dependence. Preclinical studies have shown that dysregulation of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) neurotransmission has been implicated in stress-related psychopathologies such as depression and anxiety, and may affect alcohol consumption. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) contains CRF-producing neurons which seem to be sensitive to stress. In this study, adult male C57BL/6 mice previously defeated in resident-intruder confrontations were evaluated in the elevated plus-maze and tail suspension test. Mice were also tested for sweet solution intake before and after social stress. After having had continuous access to ethanol (20% weight/volume) for 4 weeks, control and stressed mice had CRF type 1 (CRFR1) or type 2 (CRFR2) receptor antagonists infused into the BNST and then had access to ethanol for 24 h. In separate cohorts of control and stressed mice, we assessed mRNA levels of BNST CRF, CRFR1 and CRFR2 . Stressed mice increased their intake of sweet solution after ten sessions of social defeat and showed reduced activity in the open arms of the elevated plus-maze. When tested for ethanol consumption, stressed mice persistently drank significantly more than controls during the 4 weeks of access. Also, social stress induced higher BNST CRF mRNA levels. The selective blockade of BNST CRFR1 with CP376,395 effectively reduced alcohol drinking in non-stressed mice, whereas the selective CRFR2 antagonist astressin2B produced a dose-dependent increase in ethanol consumption in both non-stressed controls and stressed mice. The 10-day episodic defeat stress used here elicited anxiety- but not depressive-like behaviors, and promoted an increase in ethanol drinking. CRF-CRFR1 signaling in the BNST seems to underlie ethanol intake in non-stressed mice, whereas CRFR2 modulates alcohol

  19. Noradrenergic Activation of Hypoglossal Nucleus Modulates the Central Regulation of Genioglossus in Chronic Intermittent Hypoxic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuromuscular compensation of the genioglossus muscle can be induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH in obstructive sleep apnea to maintain upper airway stability. Noradrenergic activation of hypoglossal nucleus plays a critical role in the central control of the genioglossus. However, it remains unknown whether norepinephrine takes part in the central regulation of the genioglossus during CIH. Adult male Wistar rats (n = 32 were studied to explore the influence of noradrenergic activation of hypoglossal nucleus on the central control of the genioglossus at different stages of CIH. The rats were divided into four groups: normal control or normoxic (NO group, CIH group, CIH + normal saline (NS group, and CIH + prazosin (PZ, α1-adrenergic antagonist group. PZ (0.2 mM, 60 nl and NS (0.9%, 60 nl were microinjected into the hypoglossal nucleus. The responses of the genioglossus corticomotor area to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS were recorded on the 1st, 7th, 14th, and 21st day of CIH. The CIH group showed significantly shorter TMS latencies on days 1, 7, and 14 (3.85 ± 0.37 vs. 4.58 ± 0.42, 3.93 ± 0.17 vs. 4.49 ± 0.55, 3.79 ± 0.38 vs. 4.39 ± 0.30 ms, P < 0.05, and higher TMS amplitudes on day 1 (2.74 ± 0.87 vs. 1.60 ± 0.52 mV, P < 0.05 of CIH than the NO group. Compared to the CIH + NS group, the CIH + PZ group showed decreased TMS responses (longer latencies and lower amplitudes only on the 14th day of CIH (3.99 ± 0.28 vs. 4.61 ± 0.48 ms, 2.51 ± 0.67 vs. 1.18 ± 0.62 mV, P < 0.05. These results indicated that noradrenergic activation of the hypoglossal nucleus played a role in the central compensation of genioglossus through α1-adrenoceptor on the 14th day of CIH.

  20. Extrahypothalamic vasopressin and oxytocin in the human brain; presence of vasopressin cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliers, E.; Guldenaar, S. E.; van de Wal, N.; Swaab, D. F.

    1986-01-01

    In the present study, the distribution of extrahypothalamic vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OXT) in the human brain was investigated by means of immunocytochemistry. In the septum verum, few VP fibers were found in the nucleus septalis lateralis and medialis (NSL and NSM), and in the bed nucleus of

  1. Hearing assessment during deep brain stimulation of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus and dentate cerebellar nucleus in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper V. Smit

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Recently it has been shown in animal studies that deep brain stimulation (DBS of auditory structures was able to reduce tinnitus-like behavior. However, the question arises whether hearing might be impaired when interfering in auditory-related network loops with DBS. Methods The auditory brainstem response (ABR was measured in rats during high frequency stimulation (HFS and low frequency stimulation (LFS in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CIC, n = 5 or dentate cerebellar nucleus (DCBN, n = 5. Besides hearing thresholds using ABR, relative measures of latency and amplitude can be extracted from the ABR. In this study ABR thresholds, interpeak latencies (I–III, III–V, I–V and V/I amplitude ratio were measured during off-stimulation state and during LFS and HFS. Results In both the CIC and the CNBN groups, no significant differences were observed for all outcome measures. Discussion DBS in both the CIC and the CNBN did not have adverse effects on hearing measurements. These findings suggest that DBS does not hamper physiological processing in the auditory circuitry.

  2. Dimuon enhancement in nucleus-nucleus ultrarelativistic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordalo, Paula; Abreu, M.C.; Alessandro, B.; Alexa, C.; Arnaldi, R.; Astruc, J.; Atayan, M.; Baglin, C.; Baldit, A.; Bedjidian, M.; Bellaiche, F.; Beole, S.; Bohrani, A.; Boldea, V.; Bussiere, A.; Capelli, L.; Caponi, V.; Casagrande, L.; Castor, J.; Chambon, T.; Chaurand, B.; Chevrot, I.; Cheynis, B.; Chiavassa, E.; Cicalo, C.; Comets, M.P.; Constans, N.; Constantinescu, S.; Contardo, D.; Cruz, J.; De Falco, A.; De Marco, N.; Dellacasa, G.; Devaux, A.; Dita, S.; Drapier, O.; Ducroux, L.; Espagnon, B.; Fargeix, J.; Ferreira, R.; Filippov, S.N.; Fleuret, F.; Force, P.; Gallio, M.; Gavrilov, Y.K.; Gerschel, C.; Giubellino, P.; Golubeva, M.B.; Gonin, M.; Gorodetzky, P.; Grigorian, A.A.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Guber, F.F.; Guichard, A.; Gulkanyan, H.; Hakobyan, R.; Haroutunian, R.; Idzik, M.; Jouan, D.; Karavitcheva, T.L.; Kluberg, L.; Kossakowski, R.; Kurepin, A.B.; Landau, G.; Le Bornec, Y.; Lourenco, C.; Luquin, L.; Macciotta, P.; Mac Cormick, M.; Mandry, R.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Monteno, M.; Mourgues, S.; Musso, A.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Petiau, P.; Piccotti, A.; Pizzi, J.R.; Prado da Silva, W.L.; Puddu, G.; Quintans, C.; Racca, C.; Ramello, L.; Ramos, S.; Rato-Mendes, P.; Riccati, L.; Romana, A.; Ropotar, I.; Saturnini, P.; Scomparin, E.; Serci, S.; Shahoyan, R.; Silva, S.; Sitta, M.; Soave, C.; Sonderegger, P.; Tarrago, X.; Topilskaya, N.S.; Usai, G.L.; Varela, J.; Vercellin, E.; Villatte, L.

    1999-01-01

    The study of muon pairs in the mass region 1.5 μμ 2 in 450 GeV/c p-A, 200 GeV/nucleon S-U and 158 GeV/nucleon Pb-Pb collisions is presented. In p-A interactions, the dimuon signal mass spectra are well described by a superposition of Drell-Yan and charmed meson semi-leptonic decay contributions, in agreement with previous experiments when considering a linear A dependence. In nucleus-nucleus reactions, taking only into account these two physical ingredients, a dimuon enhancement both with increasing A·B and centrality is observed

  3. Effects of perinatal daidzein exposure on subsequent behavior and central estrogen receptor α expression in the adult male mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chengjun; Tai, Fadao; Zeng, Shuangyan; Zhang, Xia

    2013-06-03

    Daidzein is one of the most important isoflavones present in soy and it is unique as it can be further metabolized to equol, a compound with greater estrogenic activity than other isoflavones. The potential role of daidzein in the prevention of some chronic diseases has drawn public attention and increased its consumption in human, including in pregnant women and adolescent. It is unclear whether perinatal exposure to daidzein through maternal diets affects subsequent behavior and central estrogen receptor α (ERα) expression in male adults. Following developmental exposure to daidzein through maternal diets during perinatal period, subsequent anxiety-like behavior, social behavior, spatial learning and memory of male mice at adulthood were assessed using a series of tests. The levels of central ER α expression were also examined using immunocytochemistry. Compared with the controls, adult male mice exposed to daidzein during the perinatal period showed significantly less exploration, higher levels of anxiety and aggression. They also displayed more social investigation for females and a tendency to improve spatial learning and memory. The mice with this early daidzein treatment demonstrated significantly higher levels of ERα expression in several brain regions such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial preoptic, arcuate hypothalamic nucleus and central amygdaloid mucleus, but decreased it in the lateral septum. Our results indicated that perinatal exposure to daidzein enhanced masculinization on male behaviors which is assocciated with alterations in ERα expression levels led by perinatal daidzein exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of bed nucleus of the stria terminalis corticotrophin-releasing factor receptors in frustration stress-induced binge-like palatable food consumption in female rats with a history of food restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Romano, Adele; Bossert, Jennifer M; Rice, Kenner C; Ubaldi, Massimo; St Laurent, Robyn; Gaetani, Silvana; Massi, Maurizio; Shaham, Yavin; Cifani, Carlo

    2014-08-20

    We developed recently a binge-eating model in which female rats with a history of intermittent food restriction show binge-like palatable food consumption after 15 min exposure to the sight of the palatable food. This "frustration stress" manipulation also activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis. Here, we determined the role of the stress neurohormone corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in stress-induced binge eating in our model. We also assessed the role of CRF receptors in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a brain region implicated in stress responses and stress-induced drug seeking, in stress-induced binge eating. We used four groups that were first exposed or not exposed to repeated intermittent cycles of regular chow food restriction during which they were also given intermittent access to high-caloric palatable food. On the test day, we either exposed or did not expose the rats to the sight of the palatable food for 15 min (frustration stress) before assessing food consumption for 2 h. We found that systemic injections of the CRF1 receptor antagonist R121919 (2,5-dimethyl-3-(6-dimethyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-7 dipropylamino pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine) (10-20 mg/kg) and BNST (25-50 ng/side) or ventricular (1000 ng) injections of the nonselective CRF receptor antagonist D-Phe-CRF(12-41) decreased frustration stress-induced binge eating in rats with a history of food restriction. Frustration stress also increased Fos (a neuronal activity marker) expression in ventral and dorsal BNST. Results demonstrate a critical role of CRF receptors in BNST in stress-induced binge eating in our rat model. CRF1 receptor antagonists may represent a novel pharmacological treatment for bingeing-related eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3411316-09$15.00/0.

  5. Target dependence of central rapidity Λ production in sulfur-nucleus collisions at 200 GeV/c per nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, E.; Barnes, P.D.; Blaes, R.; Braun, H.; Brom, J.M.; Castano, B.; Cherney, M.; Cohler, M.; Cruz, B. de la; Diebold, G.E.; Fernandez, C.; Franklin, G.; Garabatos, C.; Garzon, J.A.; Geist, W.M.; Greiner, D.; Gruhn, C.; Hafidouni, M.; Hrubec, J.; Huss, D.; Jacquot, J.L.; Jones, P.G.; Kuipers, J.P.M.; Ladrem, M.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Liko, D.; Lopez-Ponte, S.; Lovhoiden, G.; MacNaughton, J.; Maher, C.J.; Michalon, A.; Michalon-Mentzer, M.E.; Mosquera, J.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nelson, J.M.; Neuhofer, G.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Plo, M.; Porth, P.; Powell, B.; Quinn, B.; Ramil, A.; Riester, J.L.; Rohringer, H.; Sakrejda, G.; Sakrejda, I.; Thorsteinsen, T.; Traxler, J.; Voltolini, C.; Yanez, A.; Yepes, P.; Zybert, R.

    1992-01-01

    Central rapidity Λ production has been measured in sulfur collisions with Cu, Ag, and Pb at 200 GeV/c per nucleon. Lambdas produced in these collisions were identified by their charged decays recorded by a time projection chamber. The Λ yields are compared as a function of target mass. For each target, the yields are reported as a function of Λ transverse kinetic energy and zero degree energy (a measure of collision centrality). In each system, the data exceed predictions of the VENUS size-2(4.02) model of sulfur-nucleus collisions. The observed excesses show no obvious variation with collision centrality from moderate to highly central collisions

  6. Dynamics of hadronization in ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friman, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    One of the main problems in the search for quark-gluon plasma in ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is finding a reliable signature for deconfinement. Several signatures have been suggested, e.g., dileptons with a spectrum characteristic of the plasma, an increase in the number of strange particles and effects due to the hadronization of the plasma. In this talk I will describe some recent work on the effects of the hadronization transition in the central rapidity region within the hydrodynamic model of Bjorken, Kajantie and McLerran. (orig.)

  7. Particle production in high energy nucleus--nucleus experiments at Berkeley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, L.S.

    1976-09-01

    A review of high energy nucleus-nucleus experiments performed at the Berkeley Bevalac is presented. Earlier results on projectile and target fragmentation and pion production are briefly summarized. More recent results on Coulomb effects in projectile fragmentation, heavy ion total cross-sections, γ-ray production, and charged particle multiplicities are presented. Also, recent experiments which may shed light on phenomena arising from the central collision of two energetic nuclei, including recent evidence for and against the observation of nuclear shock waves, are reviewed

  8. The median preoptic nucleus exhibits circadian regulation and is involved in food anticipatory activity in rabbit pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, María Luisa; Meza, Enrique; Ortega, Arturo; Caba, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Rabbit pups are a natural model to study food anticipatory activity (FAA). Recently, we reported that three areas in the forebrain - the organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis, median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) and medial preoptic area - exhibit activation during FAA. Here, we examined the PER1 protein profile of these three forebrain regions in both nursed and fasted subjects. We found robust PER1 oscillations in the MnPO in nursed subjects, with high PER1 levels during FAA that persisted in fasted subjects. In conclusion, our data indicate that periodic nursing is a strong signal for PER1 oscillations in MnPO and future experiments are warranted to explore the specific role of this area in FAA.

  9. The nervus terminalis of the guinea pig: a new luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neuronal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanzel-Fukuda, M; Silverman, A J

    1980-05-15

    Immunoreactive LHRH-like material has been found in the cells and fibers of the nervus terminalis in fetal and adult guinea pig brains. LHRH-containing neurons and axons are seen in the nasal mucosa intermingled with fibers of the olfactory nerves, in ganglia along the ventromedial surfaces of the olfactory bulbs and forebrain, and in clusters surrounding perforating branches of the anterior cerebral artery in the regions of the septal nuclei and olfactory tubercle. Nonreactive neurons are found adjacent to the LHRH-positive cells in all of the ganglia. LHRH-immunoreactive cells and axons of the nervus terminalis are in intimate contact with cerebral blood vessels and the cerebrospinal fluid along the intracranial course of this nerve, deep to the meninges. The possible involvement of these structures in the neural mechanisms of sexual behavior and the neurohormonal regulation of reproductive function are discussed.

  10. Sexual behavior reduces hypothalamic androgen receptor immunoreactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Guasti, Alonso; Swaab, Dick; Rodríguez-Manzo, Gabriela

    2003-01-01

    Male sexual behavior is regulated by limbic areas like the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), the nucleus accumbens (nAcc) and the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN). Neurons in these brain areas are rich in androgen receptors (AR) and express

  11. Thermal Bremsstrahlung probing nuclear multifragmentation in nucleus-nucleus collisions around the Fermi energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Enterria, D.G.

    2000-05-01

    The thermodynamical properties of nuclear matter at moderate temperatures and densities, in the vicinity of the predicted nuclear liquid-gas phase transition, are studied using as experimental probe the hard-photons (E γ > 30 MeV) emitted in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Photon and charged-particle production in four different heavy-ion reactions (Ar 36 + Au 197 , Ag 107 , Ni 58 , C 12 at 60 A*MeV) is measured exclusively and inclusively coupling the TAPS photon spectrometer with two charged-particle and intermediate-mass-fragment detectors covering nearly 4π. We confirm that Bremsstrahlung emission in first-chance (off-equilibrium) proton-neutron collisions (pnγ) is the dominant origin of hard photons. We also firmly establish the existence of a thermal radiation component emitted in second-chance proton-neutron collisions. This thermal Bremsstrahlung emission takes place in semi-central and central nucleus-nucleus reactions involving heavy targets. We exploit this observation i) to demonstrate that thermal equilibrium is reached during the reaction, ii) to establish a new thermometer of nuclear matter based on Bremsstrahlung photons, iii) to derive the thermodynamical properties of the excited nuclear sources and, in particular, to establish a 'caloric curve' (temperature versus excitation energy), and iv) to assess the time-scales of the nuclear break-up process. (author)

  12. Lesions of the amygdala central nucleus abolish lipoprivic-enhanced responding during oil-predicting conditioned stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, S C; Morell, J R; Davidson, T L

    1999-12-01

    T. L. Davidson, A. M. Altizer, S. C. Benoit, E. K. Walls, and T. L. Powley (1997) reported that rats show facilitated responding to conditioned stimuli (CSs) that predict oil, after administration of the lipoprivic agent, Na-2-mercaptoacetate (MA). This facilitation was blocked by vagal deafferentation. The present article extends that investigation to another structure, the amygdala central nucleus (CN). The CN receives inputs from dorsal vagal nuclei, and neurotoxic lesions of this nucleus are reported to abolish feeding in response to lipoprivic challenges. In Experiment 1, rats with ibotenic acid (IBO) lesions of the CN failed to show enhanced appetitive responding during oil-predicting CSs after administration of MA. Experiment 2 used a conditioned taste-aversion procedure to establish that rats with IBO lesions of the CN were able to discriminate the tastes of sucrose and peanut oil and had intact CS-US representations. It is concluded that the amygdala CN is a necessary structure for the detection of lipoprivic challenges.

  13. Effects of selective excitotoxic lesions of the nucleus accumbens core, anterior cingulate cortex, and central nucleus of the amygdala on autoshaping performance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Rudolf N; Parkinson, John A; Lachenal, Guillaume; Halkerston, Katherine M; Rudarakanchana, Nung; Hall, Jeremy; Morrison, Caroline H; Howes, Simon R; Robbins, Trevor W; Everitt, Barry J

    2002-08-01

    The nucleus accumbens core (AcbC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) are required for normal acquisition of tasks based on stimulus-reward associations. However, it is not known whether they are involved purely in the learning process or are required for behavioral expression of a learned response. Rats were trained preoperatively on a Pavlovian autoshaping task in which pairing a visual conditioned stimulus (CS+) with food causes subjects to approach the CS+ while not approaching an unpaired stimulus (CS-). Subjects then received lesions of the AcbC, ACC, or CeA before being retested. AcbC lesions severely impaired performance; lesioned subjects approached the CS+ significantly less often than controls, failing to discriminate between the CS+ and CS-. ACC lesions also impaired performance but did not abolish discrimination entirely. CeA lesions had no effect on performance. Thus, the CeA is required for learning, but not expression, of a conditioned approach response, implying that it makes a specific contribution to the learning of stimulus-reward associations.

  14. Calcitonin gene-related peptide erases the fear memory and facilitates long-term potentiation in the central nucleus of the amygdala in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Zhang, Jie-Ting; Liu, Jue; Yang, Si; Chen, Tao; Chen, Jian-Guo; Wang, Fang

    2015-11-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37 amino acid neuropeptide, which plays a critical role in the central nervous system. CGRP binds to G protein-coupled receptors, including CGRP1, which couples positively to adenylyl cyclase (AC) and protein kinase A (PKA) activation. CGRP and CGRP1 receptors are enriched in central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), the main part of the amygdala, which regulates conditioned fear memories. Here, we reported the importance of CGRP and CGRP1 receptor for synaptic plasticity in the CeA and the extinction of fear memory in rats. Our electrophysiological and behavioral in vitro and in vivo results showed exogenous application of CGRP induced an immediate and lasting long-term potentiation in the basolateral nucleus of amygdala-CeA pathway, but not in the lateral nucleus of amygdala-CeA pathway, while bilateral intra-CeA infusion CGRP (0, 5, 13 and 21 μM/side) dose dependently enhanced fear memory extinction. The effects were blocked by CGRP1 receptor antagonist (CGRP8-37 ), N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors antagonist MK801 and PKA inhibitor H89. These results demonstrate that CGRP can lead to long-term potentiation of basolateral nucleus of amygdala-CeA pathway through a PKA-dependent postsynaptic mechanism that involved N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors and enhance the extinction of fear memory in rats. Together, the results strongly support a pivotal role of CGRP in the synaptic plasticity of CeA and extinction of fear memory. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) plays an essential role in synaptic plasticity in the amygdala and fear memory. We found that CGRP-induced chemical long-term potentiation (LTP) in a dose-dependent way in the BLA-CeA (basolateral and central nucleus of amygdala, respectively) pathway and enhanced fear memory extinction in rats through a protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent postsynaptic mechanism that involved NMDA receptors. These results support a pivotal role of CGRP in amygdala. © 2015 International

  15. Composición fitoquímica del extracto de raíz de Ichthyothere terminalis de dos regiones geográficas de Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz-Rojas, Luz Yineth; Chaves-Bedoya, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Resumen Se reporta el análisis fitoquímico de dos extractos de raíz de Ichthyothere terminalis, colectadas en las localidades de Cumaral (Meta) y Abrego (Norte de Santander), Colombia. Los extractos se obtuvieron en etanol por destilación a presión reducida y fueron caracterizados por pruebas cualitativas, así como por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC-MS). El análisis GC-MS reveló diferencias en los compuestos en Ichthyothere terminalis de acuerdo al lugar de proc...

  16. Distinct BOLD activation profiles following central and peripheral oxytocin administration in awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig F Ferris

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of literature has suggested that intranasal oxytocin (OT or other systemic routes of administration can alter prosocial behavior, presumably by directly activating OT sensitive neural circuits in the brain. Yet there is no clear evidence that OT given peripherally can cross the blood-brain-barrier at levels sufficient to engage the OT receptor. To address this issue we examined changes in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal intensity in response to peripheral OT injections (0.1, 0.5 or 2.5 mg/kg during functional magnetic resonance (fMRI in awake rats imaged at 7.0 tesla. These data were compared to OT (1ug/5 µl given directly to the brain via the lateral cerebroventricle. Using a 3D annotated MRI atlas of the rat brain segmented into 171 brain areas and computational analysis we reconstructed the distributed integrated neural circuits identified with BOLD fMRI following central and peripheral OT. Both routes of administration caused significant changes in BOLD signal within the first 10 min of administration. As expected, central OT activated a majority of brain areas known to express a high density of OT receptors e.g., lateral septum, subiculum, shell of the accumbens, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. This profile of activation was not matched by peripheral OT. The change in BOLD signal to peripheral OT did not show any discernible dose-response. Interestingly, peripheral OT affected all subdivisions of the olfactory bulb, in addition to the cerebellum and several brainstem areas relevant to the autonomic nervous system, including the solitary tract nucleus. The results from this imaging study do not support a direct central action of peripheral OT on the brain. Instead, the patterns of brain activity suggest that peripheral OT may interact at the level of the olfactory bulb and through sensory afferents from the autonomic nervous system to influence brain activity.

  17. Distinct BOLD Activation Profiles Following Central and Peripheral Oxytocin Administration in Awake Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Craig F; Yee, Jason R; Kenkel, William M; Dumais, Kelly Marie; Moore, Kelsey; Veenema, Alexa H; Kulkarni, Praveen; Perkybile, Allison M; Carter, C Sue

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature has suggested that intranasal oxytocin (OT) or other systemic routes of administration can alter prosocial behavior, presumably by directly activating OT sensitive neural circuits in the brain. Yet there is no clear evidence that OT given peripherally can cross the blood-brain barrier at levels sufficient to engage the OT receptor. To address this issue we examined changes in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity in response to peripheral OT injections (0.1, 0.5, or 2.5 mg/kg) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in awake rats imaged at 7.0 T. These data were compared to OT (1 μg/5 μl) given directly to the brain via the lateral cerebroventricle. Using a 3D annotated MRI atlas of the rat brain segmented into 171 brain areas and computational analysis, we reconstructed the distributed integrated neural circuits identified with BOLD fMRI following central and peripheral OT. Both routes of administration caused significant changes in BOLD signal within the first 10 min of administration. As expected, central OT activated a majority of brain areas known to express a high density of OT receptors, e.g., lateral septum, subiculum, shell of the accumbens, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. This profile of activation was not matched by peripheral OT. The change in BOLD signal to peripheral OT did not show any discernible dose-response. Interestingly, peripheral OT affected all subdivisions of the olfactory bulb, in addition to the cerebellum and several brainstem areas relevant to the autonomic nervous system, including the solitary tract nucleus. The results from this imaging study do not support a direct central action of peripheral OT on the brain. Instead, the patterns of brain activity suggest that peripheral OT may interact at the level of the olfactory bulb and through sensory afferents from the autonomic nervous system to influence brain activity.

  18. Fluctuations and correlations in nucleus-nucleus collisions within transport approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konchakovski, Volodymyr P.

    2009-01-01

    The current thesis is devoted to a systematic study of fluctuations and correlations in heavy-ion collisions, which might be considered as probes for the phase transition and the critical point in the phase diagram, within the Hadron-String- Dynamics (HSD) microscopic transport approach. This is a powerful tool to study nucleus-nucleus collisions and allows to completely simulate experimental collisions on an event-by-event basis. Thus, the transport model has been used to study fluctuations and correlations including the influence of experimental acceptance as well as centrality, system size and collision energy. The comparison to experimental data can separate the effects induced by a phase transition since there is no phase transition in the HSD version used here. Firstly the centrality dependence of multiplicity fluctuations has been studied. Different centrality selections have been performed in the analysis in correspondence to the experimental situation. For the fixed target experiment NA49 events with fixed numbers of the projectile participants have been studied while in the collider experiment PHENIX centrality classes of events have been defined by the multiplicity in certain phase space region. A decrease of participant number fluctuations (and thus volume fluctuations) in more central collisions for both experiments has been obtained. Another area of this work addresses to transport model calculations of multiplicity fluctuations in nucleus-nucleus collisions as a function of colliding energy and system size. This study is in full correspondence to the experimental program of the NA61 Collaboration at the SPS. Central C+C, S+S, In+In, and Pb+Pb nuclear collisions at Elab = 10, 20, 30, 40, 80, 158 AGeV have been investigated. The expected enhanced fluctuations - attributed to the critical point and phase transition - can be observed experimentally on top of a monotonic and smooth 'hadronic background'. These findings should be helpful for the optimal

  19. Fluctuations and correlations in nucleus-nucleus collisions within transport approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konchakovski, Volodymyr P.

    2009-10-01

    The current thesis is devoted to a systematic study of fluctuations and correlations in heavy-ion collisions, which might be considered as probes for the phase transition and the critical point in the phase diagram, within the Hadron-String- Dynamics (HSD) microscopic transport approach. This is a powerful tool to study nucleus-nucleus collisions and allows to completely simulate experimental collisions on an event-by-event basis. Thus, the transport model has been used to study fluctuations and correlations including the influence of experimental acceptance as well as centrality, system size and collision energy. The comparison to experimental data can separate the effects induced by a phase transition since there is no phase transition in the HSD version used here. Firstly the centrality dependence of multiplicity fluctuations has been studied. Different centrality selections have been performed in the analysis in correspondence to the experimental situation. For the fixed target experiment NA49 events with fixed numbers of the projectile participants have been studied while in the collider experiment PHENIX centrality classes of events have been defined by the multiplicity in certain phase space region. A decrease of participant number fluctuations (and thus volume fluctuations) in more central collisions for both experiments has been obtained. Another area of this work addresses to transport model calculations of multiplicity fluctuations in nucleus-nucleus collisions as a function of colliding energy and system size. This study is in full correspondence to the experimental program of the NA61 Collaboration at the SPS. Central C+C, S+S, In+In, and Pb+Pb nuclear collisions at Elab = 10, 20, 30, 40, 80, 158 AGeV have been investigated. The expected enhanced fluctuations - attributed to the critical point and phase transition - can be observed experimentally on top of a monotonic and smooth 'hadronic background'. These findings should be helpful for the

  20. Characterization of central and peripheral components of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in the inbred Roman rat strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Javier; Márquez, Cristina; Nadal, Roser; Tobeña, Adolfo; Fernández-Teruel, Albert; Armario, Antonio

    2008-05-01

    Several studies performed in outbred Roman high- and low-avoidance lines (RHA and RLA, respectively) have demonstrated that the more anxious line (RLA) is characterized by a higher hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response to certain stressors than the less anxious one (RHA). However, inconsistent results have also been reported. Taking advantage of the generation of an inbred colony of RLA and RHA rats (RHA-I and RLA-I, respectively), we have characterized in the two strains not only resting and stress levels of peripheral HPA hormones but also central components of the HPA axis, including CRF gene expression in extra-hypothalamic areas. Whereas resting levels of ACTH and corticosterone did not differ between the strains, a greater response to a novel environment was found in RLA-I as compared to RHA-I rats. RLA-I rats showed enhanced CRF gene expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, with normal arginin-vasopressin gene expression in both parvocellular and magnocellular regions of the PVN. This enhanced CRF gene expression is not apparently related to altered negative corticosteroid feedback as similar levels of expression of brain glucorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors were found in the two rat strains. CRF gene expression tended to be higher in the central amygdala and it was significantly higher in the dorsal region of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) of RLA-I rats, while no differences appeared in the ventral region of BNST. Considering the involvement of CRF and the BNST in anxiety and stress-related behavioral alterations, the present data suggest that the CRF system may be a critical neurobiological substrate underlying differences between the two rat strains.

  1. Recent results on (anti)nucleus and (anti)hyperon production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at CERN SPS energies

    CERN Document Server

    Melkumov, G L; Anticic, T; Baatar, B; Barna, D; Bartke, J; Betev, L; Bialkowska, H; Blume, C; Boimska, B; Botje, M; Bracinik, J; Bramm, R; Buncic, P; Cerny, V; Christakoglou, P; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Dinkelaker, P; Eckardt, V; Flierl, D; Fodor, Z; Foka, P; Friese, V; Gál, J; Gazdzicki, M; Genchev, V; Georgopoulos, G; Grebieszkow, K; Hegyi, S; Höhne, C; Kadija, K; Karev, A; Kikola, D; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Kliemant, M; Kniege, S; Kolesnikov, V I; Kornas, E; Korus, R; Kowalski, M; Kraus, I; Kreps, M; Laszlo, A; Lacey, R; Van Leeuwen, M; Lvai, P; Litov, L; Lungwitz, B; Makariev, M; Malakhov, A I; Mateev, M; Melkumov, G L; Mischke, A; Mitrovski, M; Molnár, J; Mrówczynski, S; Nicolic, V; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Panayotov, D; Petridis, A; Peryt, W; Pikna, M; Pluta, J; Prindle, D; Pühlhofer, F; Renfordt, R; Roland, C; Roland5, G; Rybczynski, M; Rybicki, A; Sandoval, A; Schmitz, N; Schuster, T; Siklér, F; Sitár, B; Skrzypczak, E; Slodkowski, M; Stefanek, G; Stock, R; Seyboth, P; Strabel, C; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szentpetery, I; Sziklai, J; Szuba, M; Szymanski, P; Trubnikov, V; Varga, D; Vassiliou, M; Veres, G I; Vesztergombi, G; Vranic, D; Wlodarczyk, Z; Wojtaszek11, A; Yoo, I K; Zimnyi, J; Wetzler, A

    2007-01-01

    The NA49 experiment has collected comprehensive data on particle production in nucleus-nucleus collisions over the whole SPS beam energies range, the critical energy domain where the expected phase transition to a deconfined phase is expected to occur. The latest results from Pb+Pb collisions between 20$A$ GeV and 158$A$ GeV on baryon stopping and light nuclei production as well as those for strange hyperons are presented. The measured data on $p$, $\\bar{p}$, $\\Lambda$, $\\bar{\\Lambda}$, $\\Xi^-$ and $\\bar{\\Xi}^+$ production were used to evaluate the rapidity distributions of net-baryons at SPS energies and to compare with the results from the AGS and the RHIC for central Pb+Pb (Au+Au) collisions. The dependence of the yield ratios and the inverse slope parameter of the $m_t$ spectra on the collision energy and centrality, and the mass number of the produced nuclei $^3He$, $t$, $d$ and $\\bar{d}$ are discussed within coalescence and statistical approaches. Analysis of the total multiplicity exhibits remarkable a...

  2. Biochemical evidence for glutamate as a transmitter in hippocampal efferents to the basal forebrain and hypothalamus in the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walaas, I; Fonnum, F

    1980-01-01

    The effects of bilateral transection of the fornix bundle on the high affinity uptake of glutamate and on the amino acid content in several nuclei of rat forebrain and hypothalamus were studied in order to investigate the possible role of glutamate as a transmitter of these fibres. This lesion decreased the high affinity uptake of L-glutamate by 60 to 70% in the mammillary body and lateral septum, and by 40 to 50% in the anterior diagonal band nucleus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the mediobasal hypothalamus and the nucleus accumbens. The content of endogenous glutamate in samples dissected from freeze-dried tissue also decreased significantly in these regions. Endogenous aspartate was slightly decreased in the anterior diagonal band nucleus and the mammillary body, but unchanged in the other regions. No significant changes were seen in the levels of serine, ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid, glutamine and taurine, except for an increase in glutamine and taurine in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. The high affinity uptake of ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid, tested in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the mediobasal hypothalamus and the mammillary body, was unchanged after the lesion. The results indicate that allocortical efferents innervating subcortial nuclei through the fornix might use glutamate as a transmitter. The study further supports the concept that glutamate plays an important role as transmitter of several different corticofugal fibre systems in mammalian brain.

  3. Light-modulated release of RFamide-like neuropeptides from nervus terminalis axon terminals in the retina of goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, A J; Stell, W K

    1997-03-01

    The nervus terminalis of teleosts, a cranial nerve anatomically associated with the olfactory system, projects to visual system targets including retina and optic tectum. It is known to contain gonadotropin-releasing hormone and RFamide-like peptides, but its function remains unknown. We have probed nervus terminalis function in goldfish by measuring peptide content in retina and tectum with a radioimmunoassay for A18Famide (neuropeptide AF; bovine morphine-modulating peptide). We found that retinal peptide content increased in the dark and decreased in the light, whereas tectal peptide content decreased in the dark and increased in the light. In addition, RFamide-like peptide content in the retina was transiently decreased by severing both olfactory tracts, increased in light-adapted eyes treated with a GABAergic agonist (isoguvacine), and decreased in dark-adapted eyes treated with GABAergic antagonists (bicuculline and picrotoxin). We also found that RFamide-like peptide release could be induced in dark-adapted isolated-superfused retinas by exposure to light or a high concentration (102.5 mM) of potassium ions. We interpret the increase and decrease in peptide content as reflecting a decrease and increase, respectively, in rate of peptide release. We propose that the release and accumulation of RFamide-like peptides in axon terminals of nervus terminalis processes in the retina are modulated primarily by neurons intrinsic to the retina and regulated by light. Peptide release appears to be inhibited tonically in the dark by GABA acting through GABAA receptors; light facilitates peptide release by disinhibition due to a reduction in GABA release. In addition, we propose that electrical signals originating outside the retina can override these intrinsic release-modulating influences.

  4. Particle correlations in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, Sh.

    1981-01-01

    Particle correlations in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at energies of 1-2 GeV/nucleon are investigated. The problems of measurement of the mean free path lambda of protons inside the nucleus and the interaction radius of nucleus-nucleus collisions is considered. The value of lambda has been determined in two-proton coincidence experiment in proton-nucleus interaction at 800 MeV. The observed value of lambda is slightly longer than the expected from free nucleon-nucleon collisions. Some preliminary results on proton emission beyond free nucleon-nucleon kinemaics are given

  5. Diabatic emission of neutrons: A probe for the energy dissipation mechanism in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noerenberg, W.; Cassing, W.

    1984-05-01

    The precompound emission of neutrons in central nucleus-nucleus collisions is investigated within the framework of dissipative diabatic dynamics. For 92 Mo + 92 Mo at bombarding energies between 7.5 and 20 MeV/u the differential neutron multiplicities dMsub(n)/dEsub(n) are estimated from the decay of highly excited diabatic single-particle states. The energy spectra have an almost exponential high-energy tail with effective temperatures up to 10 MeV for 20 MeV/u bombarding energy. (orig.)

  6. Nucleus-nucleus potential with repulsive core and elastic scattering. Part 1. Nucleus-nucleus interaction potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidovs'ka, O.Yi.; Denisov, V.Yu.; Nesterov, V.O.

    2010-01-01

    Various approaches for nucleus-nucleus interaction potential evaluation are discussed in details. It is shown that the antisymmetrization of nucleons belonging to different nuclei and the Pauli principle give the essential contribution into the nucleus-nucleus potential at distances, when nuclei are strongly overlapping, and lead to appearance of the repulsive core of nucleus nucleus interaction at small distances between nuclei.

  7. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide in stress-related disorders: data convergence from animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammack, Sayamwong E; May, Victor

    2015-08-01

    The maladaptive expression and function of several stress-associated hormones have been implicated in pathological stress and anxiety-related disorders. Among these, recent evidence has suggested that pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has critical roles in central neurocircuits mediating stress-related emotional behaviors. We describe the PACAPergic systems, the data implicating PACAP in stress biology, and how altered PACAP expression and signaling may result in psychopathologies. We include our work implicating PACAP signaling within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in mediating the consequences of stressor exposure and relatedly, describe more recent studies suggesting that PACAP in the central nucleus of the amygdala may impact the emotional aspects of chronic pain states. In aggregate, these results are consistent with data suggesting that PACAP dysregulation is associated with posttraumatic stress disorder in humans. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nervus terminalis ganglion of the bonnethead shark (Sphyrna tiburo): evidence for cholinergic and catecholaminergic influence on two cell types distinguished by peptide immunocytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J; Meredith, M

    1995-01-16

    The nervus terminalis is a ganglionated vertebrate cranial nerve of unknown function that connects the brain and the peripheral nasal structures. To investigate its function, we have studied nervus terminalis ganglion morphology and physiology in the bonnethead shark (Sphyrna tiburo), where the nerve is particularly prominent. Immunocytochemistry for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and Leu-Pro-Leu-Arg-Phe-NH2 (LPLRFamide) revealed two distinct populations of cells. Both were acetylcholinesterase positive, but LPLR-Famide-immunoreactive cells consistently stained more darkly for acetylcholinesterase activity. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunocytochemistry revealed fibers and terminal-like puncta in the ganglion, primarily in areas containing GnRH-immunoreactive cells. Consistent with the anatomy, in vitro electrophysiological recordings provided evidence for cholinergic and catecholaminergic actions. In extracellular recordings, acetylcholine had a variable effect on baseline ganglion cell activity, whereas norepinephrine consistently reduced activity. Electrical stimulation of the nerve trunks suppressed ganglion activity, as did impulses from the brain in vivo. During electrical suppression, acetylcholine consistently increased activity, and norepinephrine decreased activity. Muscarinic and, to a lesser extent, alpha-adrenergic antagonists both increased activity during the electrical suppression, suggesting involvement of both systems. Intracellular recordings revealed two types of ganglion cells that were distinguishable pharmacologically and physiologically. Some cells were hyperpolarized by cholinergic agonists and unaffected by norepinephrine; these cells did not depolarize with peripheral nerve trunk stimulation. Another group of cells did depolarize with peripheral trunk stimulation; a representative of this group was depolarized by carbachol and hyperpolarized by norepinephrine. These and other data suggest that the bonnethead nervus terminalis ganglion

  9. Ultrastructure of the central subnucleus of the nucleus tractus solitarii and the esophageal afferent terminals in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Tetsu; Takanaga, Akinori; Tanaka, Koichi; Maeda, Seishi; Seki, Makoto

    2003-03-01

    The central subnucleus of the nucleus tractus solitarii (ceNTS) receives afferent projections from the esophageal wall and projects to the nucleus ambiguus, thus serving as a relay nucleus for peristalsis of the esophagus. Here we examine the synaptic organization of the ceNTS, and its esophageal afferents by using transganglionic anterograde transport of cholera toxin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase (CT-HRP). When CT-HRP was injected into the subdiaphragmatic esophagus, many anterogradely labeled terminals were found only in the ceNTS. The ceNTS was composed of round or oval-shaped, small neurons (14.7x8.7 micro m) containing sparse organelles and an irregularly shaped nucleus. The average number of axosomatic terminals was only 1.3 per section cut through the nucleolus. Most of them (92%) contained round vesicles and formed asymmetric synaptic contacts (Gray's type I), and a few (8%) contained pleomorphic vesicles and formed symmetric synaptic contacts (Gray's type II). All anterogradely labeled terminals contacted dendrites but not the neuronal somata. The labeled terminals were large (2.55+/-0.07 micro m) and exclusively Gray's type I. More than half of them (60%) contacted small dendrites (less than 1 micro m in diameter), and contained dense-cored vesicles. More than 40% of the labeled terminals contacted two to four dendrites, thus forming a synaptic glomerulus. Sometimes a labeled terminal that contacted an unlabeled terminal by an adherent junction was found within the glomerulus. The large terminals and these complex synaptic relations appeared to characterize the esophageal afferent projections in the ceNTS.

  10. Coping with stress in rats and mice : Differential peptidergic modulation of the amygdala-lateral septum complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, J.M.; Everts, H.G J; de Ruiter, A.J.H.; de Boer, S.F.; Bohus, B.G J

    1998-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the parvicellular vasopressin (VP) system originating from the medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). The vasopressinergic fibers of these nuclei innervate a number of limbic brain areas including the septum-hippocampal complex.

  11. Manifestation of jet quenching in differential distributions of the total transverse energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savina, M.V.; Shmatov, S.V.; Slavin, N.V.; Zarubin, P.I.

    1998-01-01

    In the framework of the HIJING model, global characteristics of nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied for a Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energy scale. An interesting model prediction is the presence of a central bump over a pseudorapidity plateau of a total transverse energy distribution. The bump is induced by a jet quenching effect in a dense nuclear matter. It is shown that a wide acceptance calorimeter with a pseudorapidity coverage -5<η<5 allows one to obtain experimental confirmation of such an effect

  12. Momentum loss in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, F.; Townsend, L.W.

    1993-12-01

    An optical model description, based on multiple scattering theory, of longitudinal momentum loss in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions is presented. The crucial role of the imaginary component of the nucleon-nucleon transition matrix in accounting for longitudinal momentum transfer is demonstrated. Results obtained with this model are compared with Intranuclear Cascade (INC) calculations, as well as with predictions from Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (VUU) and quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations. Comparisons are also made with experimental data where available. These indicate that the present model is adequate to account for longitudinal momentum transfer in both proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions over a wide range of energies

  13. Mechanisms of High Energy Hadron-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Collision Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1994-01-01

    Mechanisms of high energy hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collision processes are depicted qualitatively, as prompted experimentally. In hadron-nucleus collisions the interaction of the incident hadron in intranuclear matter is localized in small cylindrical volume, with the radius as large as the strong interaction range is, centered on the hadron course in the nucleus. The nucleon emission is induced by the hadron in its passing through the nucleus; particles are produced via intermediate objects produced in 2 → 2 endoergic reactions of the hadron and its successors with downstream nucleons. In nucleus-nucleus collisions, the outcome of the reaction appears as the composition of statistically independent hadron-nucleus collision outcomes at various impact parameters. Observable effects supporting such mechanisms are discussed. 51 refs

  14. Genoarchitecture of the extended amygdala in zebra finch, and expression of FoxP2 in cell corridors of different genetic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Alba; Mendoza, Ezequiel; Abellán, Antonio; Scharff, Constance; Medina, Loreta

    2017-01-01

    We used a battery of genes encoding transcription factors (Pax6, Islet1, Nkx2.1, Lhx6, Lhx5, Lhx9, FoxP2) and neuropeptides to study the extended amygdala in developing zebra finches. We identified different components of the central extended amygdala comparable to those found in mice and chickens, including the intercalated amygdalar cells, the central amygdala, and the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Many cells likely originate in the dorsal striatal domain, ventral striatal domain, or the pallidal domain, as is the case in mice and chickens. Moreover, a cell subpopulation of the central extended amygdala appears to originate in the prethalamic eminence. As a general principle, these different cells with specific genetic profiles and embryonic origin form separate or partially intermingled cell corridors along the extended amygdala, which may be involved in different functional pathways. In addition, we identified the medial amygdala of the zebra finch. Like in the chickens and mice, it is located in the subpallium and is rich in cells of pallido-preoptic origin, containing minor subpopulations of immigrant cells from the ventral pallium, alar hypothalamus and prethalamic eminence. We also proposed that the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis is composed of several parallel cell corridors with different genetic profile and embryonic origin: preoptic, pallidal, hypothalamic, and prethalamic. Several of these cell corridors with distinct origin express FoxP2, a transcription factor implicated in synaptic plasticity. Our results pave the way for studies using zebra finches to understand the neural basis of social behavior, in which the extended amygdala is involved.

  15. Antiproton production in nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at the CERN-SPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadija, K.; Schmitz, N.; Seyboth, P.

    1996-01-01

    A model for antiproton production in nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at 200 GeV per nucleon, based on the wounded nucleon model is developed. The predictions are compared to published nucleon-nucleus and sulphur-nucleus data. The results suggest the presence of similar antiproton production processes in nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions near midrapidity. (orig.)

  16. Nucleus-nucleus total reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVries, R.M.; Peng, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    We compare sigma/sub R/(E) for nucleus-nucleus systems (obtained from existing direct measurements and derived from elastic scattering data) with nucleon-nucleon and nucleon-nucleus data. The energy dependence of sigma/sub R/(E) for nucleus-nucleus systems is found to be quite rapid; there appears to be no evidence for an energy independent, geometric sigma/sub R/. Simple parameter free microscopic calculations are able to quantitatively reproduce the data and thus, emphasize the dominance of nucleon-nucleon interactions in medium energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

  17. Nucleus-Nucleus Collision as Superposition of Nucleon-Nucleus Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlova, G.I.; Adamovich, M.I.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Alexandrov, Y.A.; Andreeva, N.P.; Badyal, S.K.; Basova, E.S.; Bhalla, K.B.; Bhasin, A.; Bhatia, V.S.; Bradnova, V.; Bubnov, V.I.; Cai, X.; Chasnikov, I.Y.; Chen, G.M.; Chernova, L.P.; Chernyavsky, M.M.; Dhamija, S.; Chenawi, K.El; Felea, D.; Feng, S.Q.; Gaitinov, A.S.; Ganssauge, E.R.; Garpman, S.; Gerassimov, S.G.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Grote, J.; Gulamov, K.G.; Gupta, S.K.; Gupta, V.K.; Henjes, U.; Jakobsson, B.; Kanygina, E.K.; Karabova, M.; Kharlamov, S.P.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Krasnov, S.A.; Kumar, V.; Larionova, V.G.; Li, Y.X.; Liu, L.S.; Lokanathan, S.; Lord, J.J.; Lukicheva, N.S.; Lu, Y.; Luo, S.B.; Mangotra, L.K.; Manhas, I.; Mittra, I.S.; Musaeva, A.K.; Nasyrov, S.Z.; Navotny, V.S.; Nystrand, J.; Otterlund, I.; Peresadko, N.G.; Qian, W.Y.; Qin, Y.M.; Raniwala, R.; Rao, N.K.; Roeper, M.; Rusakova, V.V.; Saidkhanov, N.; Salmanova, N.A.; Seitimbetov, A.M.; Sethi, R.; Singh, B.; Skelding, D.; Soderstrem, K.; Stenlund, E.; Svechnikova, L.N.; Svensson, T.; Tawfik, A.M.; Tothova, M.; Tretyakova, M.I.; Trofimova, T.P.; Tuleeva, U.I.; Vashisht, Vani; Vokal, S.; Vrlakova, J.; Wang, H.Q.; Wang, X.R.; Weng, Z.Q.; Wilkes, R.J.; Yang, C.B.; Yin, Z.B.; Yu, L.Z.; Zhang, D.H.; Zheng, P.Y.; Zhokhova, S.I.; Zhou, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    Angular distributions of charged particles produced in 16 O and 32 S collisions with nuclear track emulsion were studied at momenta 4.5 and 200 A GeV/c. Comparison with the angular distributions of charged particles produced in proton-nucleus collisions at the same momentum allows to draw the conclusion, that the angular distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions can be seen as superposition of the angular distributions in nucleon-nucleus collisions taken at the same impact parameter b NA , that is mean impact parameter between the participating projectile nucleons and the center of the target nucleus

  18. Nucleus-Nucleus Collision as Superposition of Nucleon-Nucleus Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlova, G I; Adamovich, M I; Aggarwal, M M; Alexandrov, Y A; Andreeva, N P; Badyal, S K; Basova, E S; Bhalla, K B; Bhasin, A; Bhatia, V S; Bradnova, V; Bubnov, V I; Cai, X; Chasnikov, I Y; Chen, G M; Chernova, L P; Chernyavsky, M M; Dhamija, S; Chenawi, K El; Felea, D; Feng, S Q; Gaitinov, A S; Ganssauge, E R; Garpman, S; Gerassimov, S G; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Grote, J; Gulamov, K G; Gupta, S K; Gupta, V K; Henjes, U; Jakobsson, B; Kanygina, E K; Karabova, M; Kharlamov, S P; Kovalenko, A D; Krasnov, S A; Kumar, V; Larionova, V G; Li, Y X; Liu, L S; Lokanathan, S; Lord, J J; Lukicheva, N S; Lu, Y; Luo, S B; Mangotra, L K; Manhas, I; Mittra, I S; Musaeva, A K; Nasyrov, S Z; Navotny, V S; Nystrand, J; Otterlund, I; Peresadko, N G; Qian, W Y; Qin, Y M; Raniwala, R; Rao, N K; Roeper, M; Rusakova, V V; Saidkhanov, N; Salmanova, N A; Seitimbetov, A M; Sethi, R; Singh, B; Skelding, D; Soderstrem, K; Stenlund, E; Svechnikova, L N; Svensson, T; Tawfik, A M; Tothova, M; Tretyakova, M I; Trofimova, T P; Tuleeva, U I; Vashisht, Vani; Vokal, S; Vrlakova, J; Wang, H Q; Wang, X R; Weng, Z Q; Wilkes, R J; Yang, C B; Yin, Z B; Yu, L Z; Zhang, D H; Zheng, P Y; Zhokhova, S I; Zhou, D C

    1999-03-01

    Angular distributions of charged particles produced in {sup 16}O and {sup 32}S collisions with nuclear track emulsion were studied at momenta 4.5 and 200 A GeV/c. Comparison with the angular distributions of charged particles produced in proton-nucleus collisions at the same momentum allows to draw the conclusion, that the angular distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions can be seen as superposition of the angular distributions in nucleon-nucleus collisions taken at the same impact parameter b{sub NA}, that is mean impact parameter between the participating projectile nucleons and the center of the target nucleus.

  19. Nucleus-nucleus collision as superposition of nucleon-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlova, G.I.; Adamovich, M.I.; Aggarwal, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    Angular distributions of charged particles produced in 16 O and 32 S collisions with nuclear track emulsion were studied at momenta 4.5 and 200 A GeV/c. Comparison with the angular distributions of charged particles produced in proton-nucleus collisions at the same momentum allows to draw the conclusion, that the angular distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions can be seen as superposition of the angular distributions in nucleon-nucleus collisions taken at the same impact parameter b NA , that is mean impact parameter between the participating projectile nucleons and the center of the target nucleus. (orig.)

  20. Some experimental results of the investigation of hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azimov, S.A.; Gulamov, K.G.; Chernov, G.M.

    1978-01-01

    Recent experimental data on the hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus inelastic interactions are analyzed. A particular attention is paid to the description of the leading hadron spectra and of the spectra of nucleon recoils in hadron-nucleus interactions. Some of the results of the experimental studies of correlations between secondary particles are discussed. This discussion demonstrates that an analysis of the multiparticle phenomena is very promising regarding the discrimination between the different models for the hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions. It is pointed out that the actual mechanism of the hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions is a rather complex one and can be described comprehensively by none of the existing models

  1. Experimental problems of search for quark-gluon plasma in nucleus-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okonov, Eh.O.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental problems for searching for quark-gluon (quagma) plasma in nucleus-nucleus interactions (NbNb,CaCa, ArPb, CnE, ONe) in the energy range E=0.4-1 GeV/A and 3.67 GeV/A and 200 GeV/A energies are discussed. Peculiarities of performing experiments on Dubna synchrophasotron and SPS Bevalac are discussed. The first results prove hadron matter thermalization sufficient for quagma manifestation. It is found that such characteristics of studied interactions as relative λ-hyperon yield, spectral (temperature) characteristics of λ k -hyperons (with higher values of transferred transverse momenta) and associatively produced peons are of greatest interest. The necessity of precise establishment of λ-hyperon group as excessive and differing in its origin from the other particles of the hadron phase is noted. It is shown that experimental approach used in Dubna research proved efficient and requires further development. It includes : selection of rare events (fluctuations) in central interactions of nuclei with high local excitation; search and research of peculiarities in the production of strange particles and in associative pion production; use of streamer spectrometer with a trigger system of rigid selection of central interactions

  2. Transverse-momentum distribution of produced particles in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban-Hao, S.; Wong, C.

    1985-01-01

    In order to discern coherent or collective processes from incoherent processes in nucleus-nucleus reactions at high energies, we study the transverse-momentum distribution of the produced particles with an incoherent-multiple-collision model. In this model, the projectile nucleon makes successive inelastic collisions with nucleons in the target nucleus, the probability of such collisions being given by the thickness function and the nucleon-nucleon inelastic cross section. It is assumed that each baryon-baryon collision produces particles and degrades momenta just as a baryon-baryon collision in free space, and that there are no secondary collisions between the produced particles and the nucleons. We found that the average transverse momentum and the charged-multiplicity data at Fermilab and CERN ISR energies can be well explained by such a model. However, the average transverse momentum for some events observed by the Japanese-American cooperative emulsion experiment (JACEE) associated with large energy density in the central rapidity region differ markedly from the model results. Such a deviation indicates the presence of coherent or collective effects for these collisions and may indicate the possibility of a formation of quark-gluon plasma

  3. Role of amygdala central nucleus in feature negative discriminations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Consistent with a popular theory of associative learning, the Pearce-Hall (1980) model, the surprising omission of expected events enhances cue associability (the ease with which a cue may enter into new associations), across a wide variety of behavioral training procedures. Furthermore, previous experiments from this laboratory showed that these enhancements are absent in rats with impaired function of the amygdala central nucleus (CeA). A notable exception to these assertions is found in feature negative (FN) discrimination learning, in which a “target” stimulus is reinforced when it is presented alone but nonreinforced when it is presented in compound with another, “feature” stimulus. According to the Pearce-Hall model, reinforcer omission on compound trials should enhance the associability of the feature relative to control training conditions. However, prior experiments have shown no evidence that CeA lesions affect FN discrimination learning. Here we explored this apparent contradiction by evaluating the hypothesis that the surprising omission of an event confers enhanced associability on a cue only if that cue itself generates the disconfirmed prediction. Thus, in a FN discrimination, the surprising omission of the reinforcer on compound trials would enhance the associability of the target stimulus but not that of the feature. Our data confirmed this hypothesis, and showed this enhancement to depend on intact CeA function, as in other procedures. The results are consistent with modern reformulations of both cue and reward processing theories that assign roles for both individual and aggregate error terms in associative learning. PMID:22889308

  4. Probing gluon saturation with next-to-leading order photon production at central rapidities in proton-nucleus collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benić, Sanjin [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb,Zagreb 10000 (Croatia); Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo,7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Fukushima, Kenji [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo,7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Garcia-Montero, Oscar [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg,Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Venugopalan, Raju [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory,Bldg. 510A, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2017-01-26

    We compute the cross section for photons emitted from sea quarks in proton-nucleus collisions at collider energies. The computation is performed within the dilute-dense kinematics of the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) effective field theory. Albeit the result obtained is formally at next-to-leading order in the CGC power counting, it provides the dominant contribution for central rapidities. We observe that the inclusive photon cross section is proportional to all-twist Wilson line correlators in the nucleus. These correlators also appear in quark-pair production; unlike the latter, photon production is insensitive to hadronization uncertainties and therefore more sensitive to multi-parton correlations in the gluon saturation regime of QCD. We demonstrate that k{sub ⊥} and collinear factorized expressions for inclusive photon production are obtained as leading twist approximations to our result. In particular, the collinearly factorized expression is directly sensitive to the nuclear gluon distribution at small x. Other results of interest include the realization of the Low-Burnett-Kroll soft photon theorem in the CGC framework and a comparative study of how the photon amplitude is obtained in Lorenz and light-cone gauges.

  5. Study of Strange and Multistrange Particles in Ultrarelativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    Vande vyvre, P; Feofilov, G; Snoeys, W; Hetland, K F; Campbell, M; Klempt, W

    2002-01-01

    % NA57\\\\ \\\\ The goal of the experiment is to study the production of strange and multi-strange particles in nucleus-nucleus collisions. This study was initiated at the OMEGA spectrometer, where three ion experiments have been performed: WA85 (S-W and p-W collisions at 200 A GeV/c), WA94 (S-S and p-S collisions at 200 A GeV/c) and WA97 (Pb-Pb, p-Pb and p-Be collisions at 160 A GeV/c).\\\\ \\\\ The experiment aims at extending the scope of WA97 by:\\\\ \\\\ - investigating the beam energy dependence of the enhancements of multi-strange particle production reported by the previous experiments, and by\\\\ \\\\\\\\ \\\\- measuring the yields of strange and multi-strange particles over an extended centrality range compared with the previous experiments.\\\\ \\\\ The apparatus consists mainly of silicon pixel detector planes.

  6. High energy nucleus-nucleus scattering and matter radius of unstable nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, H.; Okuhara, Y.

    1985-07-01

    The interaction cross sections of high energy nucleus-nucleus scattering have been studied with the Glauber Model and Hartree-Fock like variational calculation for the nuclear structure. It is found that the experimental interaction cross sections of the light unstable nucleus-stable nucleus scatterings measured by INS-LBL collaboration are well reproduceable. (author)

  7. Brief pup exposure induces Fos expression in the lateral habenula and serotonergic caudal dorsal raphe nucleus of paternally experienced male California mice (Peromyscus californicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, T R; Measor, K R; Chauke, M; Harris, B N; Saltzman, W

    2010-09-01

    Fathers play a substantial role in infant care in a small but significant number of mammalian species, including humans. However, the neural circuitry controlling paternal behavior is much less understood than its female counterpart. In order to characterize brain areas activated by paternal care, male California mice were separated from their female mate and litter for 3 h and then exposed to a pup or a control object (a glass pebble with the approximate size and oblong shape of a newborn pup) for 10 min. All males receiving a pup showed a strong paternal response towards it, whereas males receiving a pebble interacted with it only occasionally. Despite the clear behavioral differences, exposure to a pup did not increase Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LIR) compared to a pebble in brain areas previously found to be associated with parental care, including the medial preoptic nucleus and medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Pup exposure did, however, significantly increase Fos-LIR in the lateral habenula (LHb) and in predominantly serotonergic neurons in the caudal dorsal raphe nucleus (DRC), as compared to pebble exposure. Both the LHb and DRC are known to be involved in the behavioral responses to strong emotional stimuli; therefore, these areas might play a role in controlling parental behavior in male California mice. Copyright (c) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. NaCl and osmolarity produce different responses in organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis neurons, sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, Brian J; Browning, Kirsteen N; Stocker, Sean D

    2017-09-15

    Changes in extracellular osmolarity stimulate thirst and vasopressin secretion through a central osmoreceptor; however, central infusion of hypertonic NaCl produces a greater sympathoexcitatory and pressor response than infusion of hypertonic mannitol/sorbitol. Neurons in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) sense changes in extracellular osmolarity and NaCl. In this study, we discovered that intracerebroventricular infusion or local OVLT injection of hypertonic NaCl increases lumbar sympathetic nerve activity, adrenal sympathetic nerve activity and arterial blood pressure whereas equi-osmotic mannitol/sorbitol did not alter any variable. In vitro whole-cell recordings demonstrate the majority of OVLT neurons are responsive to hypertonic NaCl or mannitol. However, hypertonic NaCl stimulates a greater increase in discharge frequency than equi-osmotic mannitol. Intracarotid or intracerebroventricular infusion of hypertonic NaCl evokes a greater increase in OVLT neuronal discharge frequency than equi-osmotic sorbitol. Collectively, these novel data suggest that subsets of OVLT neurons respond differently to hypertonic NaCl versus osmolarity and subsequently regulate body fluid homeostasis. These responses probably reflect distinct cellular mechanisms underlying NaCl- versus osmo-sensing. Systemic or central infusion of hypertonic NaCl and other osmolytes readily stimulate thirst and vasopressin secretion. In contrast, central infusion of hypertonic NaCl produces a greater increase in arterial blood pressure (ABP) than equi-osmotic mannitol/sorbitol. Although these responses depend on neurons in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), these observations suggest OVLT neurons may sense or respond differently to hypertonic NaCl versus osmolarity. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis in Sprague-Dawley rats. First, intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion (5 μl/10 min) of 1.0 m NaCl produced a significantly greater

  9. Multifragmentation in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trautmann, W.; Adloff, J.C.; Bouissou, P.; Hubele, J.; Imme, G.; Iori, I.; Kreutz, P.; Leray, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Liu, Z.; Lynen, U.; Meijer, R.J.; Milkau, U.; Moroni, A.; Mueller, W.F.J.; Ngo, C.; Ogilvie, C.A.; Pochodzalla, J.; Raciti, G.; Rudolf, G.; Schuettauf, A.; Stuttge, L.

    1993-10-01

    The complete fragmentation of highly excited nuclear systems into fragments of intermediate mass is observed in heavy-ion reactions at relativistic bombarding energies in the range of several hundreds of MeV per nucleon. Similar features are found for peripheral collisions between heavy nuclei and for more central collisions between a heavy and a light nucleus. The partition space explored in multifragment decays is well described by the statistical multifragmentation models. The expansion before breakup is confirmed by the analysis of the measured fragment energies of ternary events in their own rest frame. Collective radial flow is confined to rather small values in these peripheral-type reactions. Many conceptually different models seem to be capable of reproducing the charge correlations measured for the multifragment decays. (orig.)

  10. Angiotensin II and CRF Receptors in the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala Mediate Hemodynamic Response Variability to Cocaine in Conscious Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Mari A.; Kucenas, Sarah; Bowman, Tamara A.; Ruhlman, Melissa; Knuepfer, Mark M.

    2009-01-01

    Stress or cocaine evokes either a large increase in systemic vascular resistance (SVR) or a smaller increase in SVR accompanied by an increase in cardiac output (designated vascular and mixed responders, respectively) in Sprague-Dawley rats. We hypothesized that the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) mediates this variability. Conscious, freely-moving rats, instrumented for measurement of arterial pressure and cardiac output and for drug delivery into the CeA, were given cocaine (5 mg/kg, ...

  11. Charged particle production in proton-, deuteron-, oxygen- and sulphur-nucleus collisions at 200 GeV per nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Alber, T.; Bachler, J.; Bartke, J.; Bialkowska, H.; Bloomer, M.A.; Bock, R.; Braithwaite, W.J.; Brinkmann, D.; Brockmann, R.; Buncic, P.; Chan, P.; Cramer, J.G.; Cramer, P.B.; Derado, I.; Eckardt, V.; Eschke, J.; Favuzzi, C.; Ferenc, D.; Fleischmann, B.; Foka, P.; Freund, P.; Fuchs, M.; Gazdzicki, M.; Gladysz, E.; Grebieszkow, J.; Gunther, J.; Harris, J.W.; Hoffmann, M.; Jacobs, P.; Kabana, S.; Kadija, K.; Keidel, R.; Kowalski, M.; Kuhmichel, A.; Lee, J.Y.; Ljubicic, A, Jr.; Margetis, S.; Mitchell, J.T.; Morse, R.; Nappi, E.; Odyniec, G.; Paic, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Petridis, A.; Piper, A.; Posa, F.; Poskanzer, Arthur M.; Puhlhofer, F.; Rauch, W.; Renfordt, R.; Retyk, W.; Rohrich, D.; Roland, G.; Rothard, H.; Runge, K.; Sandoval, A.; Schmitz, N.; Schmoetten, E.; Sendelbach, R.; Seyboth, P.; Seyerlein, J.; Skrzypczak, E.; Spinelli, P.; Stock, R.; Strobele, H.; Teitelbaum, L.; Tonse, S.; Trainor, T.A.; Vasileiadis, G.; Vassiliou, M.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vranic, D.; Wenig, S.; Wosiek, B.; Zhu, X.

    1998-01-01

    The transverse momentum and rapidity distributions of net protons and negatively charged hadrons have been measured for minimum bias proton-nucleus and deuteron-gold interactions, as well as central oxygen-gold and sulphur-nucleus collisions at 200 GeV per nucleon. The rapidity density of net protons at midrapidity in central nucleus-nucleus collisions increases both with target mass for sulphur projectiles and with the projectile mass for a gold target. The shape of the rapidity distributions of net protons forward of midrapidity for d+Au and central S+Au collisions is similar. The average rapidity loss is larger than 2 units of rapidity for reactions with the gold target. The transverse momentum spectra of net protons for all reactions can be described by a thermal distribution with `temperatures' between 145 +- 11 MeV (p+S interactions) and 244 +- 43 MeV (central S+Au collisions). The multiplicity of negatively charged hadrons increases with the mass of the colliding system. The shape of the transverse mom...

  12. Diffractive ''semioptical'' model for nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, V.S.; Musulmanbekov, Zh.Zh.

    1979-01-01

    Diffraction Glauber theory for nucleus-nucleus collisions is considered in approximation when the initial nucleus interacts as a whole with nucleons of the target nucleus. Such an approach, being intermediate between precise Glauber theory and its optical limit, essentially simplifies numerical calculations and gives a good agreement with experiments as well. (author)

  13. Synaptology of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH)-immunoreactive cells in the nervus terminalis of the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, L M; Pfaff, D W; Schwanzel-Fukuda, M

    1990-05-08

    Light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry were used to examine the structure of LHRH neurons and fibers in the nervus terminalis of the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica). LHRH-immunoreactive neurons and fibers form a loose plexus within the fascicular network of the ganglion terminale on the median surface of the olfactory bulb. There are at least two populations of LHRH-immunoreactive neurons within the network of the ganglion terminale: fusiform and round neurons similar to those described in the forebrain. At the ultrastructural level, axosomatic and axodendritic contacts were seen between LHRH-immunoreactive and nonimmunoreactive elements in the ganglion terminale. These contacts were classified as 1) synaptic input, with asymmetric synapses seen between a nonimmunoreactive axon terminal and a LHRH-immunoreactive cell body or a nonimmunoreactive axon terminal and a LHRH-immunoreactive dendritic process. 2) synaptic output, with symmetric synapses seen between LHRH-immunoreactive and nonimmunoreactive processes. This study is the first systematic examination of the ultrastructure of the LHRH-immunoreactive neurons and their synaptic contacts in the nervus terminalis. The possible integrative roles for this LHRH-immunoreactive system are discussed.

  14. Increasing brain angiotensin converting enzyme 2 activity decreases anxiety-like behavior in male mice by activating central Mas receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; de Kloet, Annette D; Pati, Dipanwita; Hiller, Helmut; Smith, Justin A; Pioquinto, David J; Ludin, Jacob A; Oh, S Paul; Katovich, Michael J; Frazier, Charles J; Raizada, Mohan K; Krause, Eric G

    2016-06-01

    Over-activation of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) inhibits RAS activity by converting angiotensin-II, the effector peptide of RAS, to angiotensin-(1-7), which activates the Mas receptor (MasR). Whether increasing brain ACE2 activity reduces anxiety by stimulating central MasR is unknown. To test the hypothesis that increasing brain ACE2 activity reduces anxiety-like behavior via central MasR stimulation, we generated male mice overexpressing ACE2 (ACE2 KI mice) and wild type littermate controls (WT). ACE2 KI mice explored the open arms of the elevated plus maze (EPM) significantly more than WT, suggesting increasing ACE2 activity is anxiolytic. Central delivery of diminazene aceturate, an ACE2 activator, to C57BL/6 mice also reduced anxiety-like behavior in the EPM, but centrally administering ACE2 KI mice A-779, a MasR antagonist, abolished their anxiolytic phenotype, suggesting that ACE2 reduces anxiety-like behavior by activating central MasR. To identify the brain circuits mediating these effects, we measured Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, subsequent to EPM exposure and found that ACE2 KI mice had decreased Fos in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis but had increased Fos in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Within the BLA, we determined that ∼62% of GABAergic neurons contained MasR mRNA and expression of MasR mRNA was upregulated by ACE2 overexpression, suggesting that ACE2 may influence GABA neurotransmission within the BLA via MasR activation. Indeed, ACE2 overexpression was associated with increased frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (indicative of presynaptic release of GABA) onto BLA pyramidal neurons and central infusion of A-779 eliminated this effect. Collectively, these results suggest that ACE2 may reduce anxiety-like behavior by activating central MasR that facilitate GABA release onto pyramidal neurons within the

  15. Effects of lesions of the amygdala central nucleus on autoshaped lever pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Stephen E.; Wheeler, Daniel S.; Holland, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Neutral cues paired with rewards often appear to acquire motivational significance, as if the incentive motivational value of the reward is transferred to the cue. Such cues have been reported to modulate the performance of instrumental action (Pavlovian-instrumental transfer, PIT), serve as conditioned reinforcers in the establishment of new learning, and be the targets of approach and other cue-directed behaviors. Here we examined the effects of lesions of the amygdala central nucleus (CeA) on the acquisition of discriminative autoshaped lever-pressing. Insertion of one lever into the experimental chamber was reinforced by sucrose delivery, but insertion of another lever was not reinforced. Although sucrose delivery was not contingent on lever pressing, both CeA- and sham-lesioned rats rapidly came to press the reinforced but not the nonreinforced lever. Despite their showing little evidence of impairments in autoshaped lever pressing, these same CeA-lesioned rats showed significant deficits in the expression of PIT in a subsequent phase of the experiment. The lack of impaired autoshaping in CeA-lesioned rats contrasts with effects previously reported for conditioned orienting responses (ORs) and for other putative measures of incentive learning including PIT and conditioned approach to visual cues. PMID:22386516

  16. Photoproduction of lepton pairs in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, B. D.; Goncalves, V. P.; De Santana Amaral, J. T. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Instituto de Fisica e Matematica (Brazil)

    2013-03-25

    In this contribution we study coherent interactions as a probe of the nonlinear effects in the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED). In particular, we study the multiphoton effects in the production of leptons pairs for proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions for heavy nuclei. In the proton-nucleus we assume the ultrarelativistic proton as a source of photons and estimate the photoproduction of lepton pairs on nuclei at RHIC and LHC energies considering the multiphoton effects associated to multiple rescattering of the projectile photon on the proton of the nucleus. In nucleus - nucleus colllisions we consider the two nuclei as a source of photons. As each scattering contributes with a factor {alpha}Z to the cross section, this contribution must be taken into account for heavy nuclei. We consider the Coulomb corrections to calculate themultiple scatterings and estimate the total cross section for muon and tau pair production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC energies.

  17. Model for nucleus-nucleus, hadron-nucleus and hadron-proton multiplicity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, C.P.; Shyam, M.; Tuli, S.K.

    1986-07-01

    A model relating hadron-proton, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus multiplicity distributions is proposed and some interesting consequences are derived. The values of the parameters are the same for all the processes and are given by the QCD hypothesis of ''universal'' hadronic multiplicities which are found to be asymptotically independent of target and beam in hadronic and current induced reactions in particle physics. (author)

  18. Higgs-boson production in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Cross section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider

  19. Higgs-Boson Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Cross section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  20. Central and peripheral contributions to dynamic changes in nucleus accumbens glucose induced by intravenous cocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Taro Wakabayashi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of neural, physiological and behavioral effects induced by cocaine is consistent with metabolic neural activation, yet direct attempts to evaluate central metabolic effects of this drug have produced controversial results. Here, we used enzyme-based glucose sensors coupled with high-speed amperometry in freely moving rats to examine how intravenous cocaine at a behaviorally active dose affects extracellular glucose levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc, a critical structure within the motivation-reinforcement circuit. In drug-naive rats, cocaine induced a bimodal increase in glucose, with the first, ultra-fast phasic rise appearing during the injection (latency 6-8 s; ~50 µM or ~5% of baseline followed by a larger, more prolonged tonic elevation (~100 µM or 10% of baseline, peak ~15 min. While the rapid, phasic component of the glucose response remained stable following subsequent cocaine injections, the tonic component progressively decreased. Cocaine-methiodide, cocaine’s peripherally acting analog, induced an equally rapid and strong initial glucose rise, indicating cocaine’s action on peripheral neural substrates as its cause. However, this analog did not induce increases in either locomotion or tonic glucose, suggesting direct central mediation of these cocaine effects. Under systemic pharmacological blockade of dopamine transmission, both phasic and tonic components of the cocaine-induced glucose response were only slightly reduced, suggesting a significant role of non-dopamine mechanisms in cocaine-induced accumbal glucose influx. Hence, intravenous cocaine induces rapid, strong inflow of glucose into NAc extracellular space by involving both peripheral and central, non-dopamine drug actions, thus preventing a possible deficit resulting from enhanced glucose use by brain cells.

  1. Angular momentum and incident-energy dependence of nucleus-nucleus interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to understand intuitively the origin of the angular momentum and incident-energy dependence of the nucleus-nucleus interaction on the basis of the totally- antisymmetrized many-body theory. With the aim of understanding the structure of the nucleus-nucleus interaction, we show first that the nucleus-nucleus interaction can be written by the use of the density-distribution function and the phase-space distribution function instead of using the many-body wave function itself. And we show that the structure change of the density-distribution function with the increase of the angular momentum causes the angular momentum dependence of the nucleus-nucleus interaction and that the incident-energy dependence of the nucleus-nucleus interaction originates from the structure change of the phase-space distribution function

  2. New results on nuclear multifragmentation in nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besliu, Calin; Jipa, Alexandru; Iliescu, Bogdan; Felea, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Some new aspects on the multifragmentation processes in nucleus-nucleus and nucleon-nucleus collisions at high energies are discussed in this work. Experimental data obtained in international collaborations (for example, MULTI Collaboration with KEK Tsukuba (Japan) and SKM 200 Collaboration with JINR Dubna (Russia)) are used to discuss new mechanisms in the target nucleus fragmentation. Correlations with stopping power, participant region size and energy density are included. Comparisons of the experimental results with the predictions of a phenomenological geometric model of intermediate mass fragment multiplicity, caloric curves and angular distributions are also presented. These results are used for global description of the multifragmentation processes in nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energies. The size of the participant region and the average intermediate mass fragments multiplicity are taken into consideration using the free space probability. A few correlations between the deposited energy in the participant region and stability state of the intermediate mass fragments are presented in this work. The importance of the collision geometry in the multifragmentation processes is stressed. The results suggest different time moments for the incident nucleus fragmentation and for the target nucleus fragmentation. The associated entropies are distinct. (authors)

  3. Oriented heavy ions and the choice of a cool compound nucleus reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aroumougame, R.; Gupta, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    Potential energy surfaces are calculated within the mechanism of fragmentation theory with a view to selecting the target-projectile combinations for producing new elements through cool compound nucleus formation. The orientation of the colliding nuclei is also included. It is shown that both the reaction partners of a cool compound nucleus, formed in either a central or a nearly central collision, should preferably be spherical and either nearly symmetric or extremely asymmetric. For reactions with deformed nuclei, it is suggested that polarised targets should be used. The calculations are illustrated for the compound nuclei 258 104 and 260 106. (author)

  4. Formation of proton-fragments in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazarov, E.Kh.; Olimov, K.; Petrov, V.I.; Lutpullaev, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The investigation of production of protons in hadron- and nucleus-nucleus interactions is a key problem allowing one to establish the singularities of dynamics of nuclear interactions. The formation of proton-fragments at high energies of colliding particles proceeds within both the interaction of hadrons with nuclei and in the process of decay of the nucleus or its de-excitation at peripheral interactions. At different stages of interaction of impinging particle with target nucleus, the different mechanisms of formation of proton-fragments: the direct knock-out of intranuclear nucleons in the process of high energy cascade of an initial hadron, intranuclear cascade of produced particles, decay of the excited multi-nucleon fragments and of the thermalized remnant nucleus, and the coalescence of nuclear fragments to the new clusters are realized with the certain probability, connected to the interaction parameters (the interaction energy, the parameter of collision, the intranuclear density, the configuration of Fermi momentum of nucleons and clusters of target nucleus et al.). In its turn, the mechanisms of formation of the final nuclear fragments are closely related to the type of excitation of an initial nucleus. The peripheral interactions proceed at small transfers of the momentum of an impinging particle and represent the wide class of reactions covering the processes from diffractive or coulomb collective excitations of the whole nucleus to the direct quasi-elastic knock-out of the separate nucleons. Non-peripheral interactions are caused by comparatively high local transfers of momentum to the intranuclear clusters allowing the development of intranuclear cascade and the asymmetric redistribution of energy of an impinging particle. The central collisions causing the full decay of nucleus on nucleons or few-nucleon fragments, are the limiting case of the maximal development of the intranuclear cascade. The interaction of the initial particles with

  5. Effects of pelvic, pudendal, or hypogastric nerve cuts on Fos induction in the rat brain following vaginocervical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaus, James G; Manitt, Colleen; Coopersmith, Carol B

    2006-12-30

    In the female rat, genitosensory input is conveyed to the central nervous system predominantly through the pelvic, pudendal, and hypogastric nerves. The present study examined the relative contribution of those three nerves in the expression of Fos immunoreactivity within brain regions previously shown to be activated by vaginocervical stimulation (VCS). Bilateral transection of those nerves, or sham neurectomy, was conducted in separate groups of ovariectomized, sexually-experienced females. After recovery, females were primed with estrogen and progesterone and given either 50 manual VCSs with a lubricated glass rod over the course of 1 h. VCS increased the number of neurons expressing Fos immunoreactivity in the medial preoptic area, lateral septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, ventromedial hypothalamus, and medial amygdala of sham neurectomized females. Transection of the pelvic nerve reduced Fos immunoreactivity in the medial preoptic area, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, ventromedial hypothalamus, and medial amygdala, whereas transection of the pudendal nerve had no effect. In contrast, transection of the hypogastric nerve increased Fos immunoreactivity in the medial preoptic area and lateral septum, whereas transaction of the pelvic nerve increased Fos immunoreactivity in the lateral septum, following VCS. All females given VCS, except those with pelvic neurectomy, displayed a characteristic immobility during each application. These data confirm that the pelvic nerve is largely responsible for the neural and behavioral effects of VCS, and support a separate function for the hypogastric nerve.

  6. Brain reward circuitry beyond the mesolimbic dopamine system: a neurobiological theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemoto, Satoshi

    2010-11-01

    Reductionist attempts to dissect complex mechanisms into simpler elements are necessary, but not sufficient for understanding how biological properties like reward emerge out of neuronal activity. Recent studies on intracranial self-administration of neurochemicals (drugs) found that rats learn to self-administer various drugs into the mesolimbic dopamine structures-the posterior ventral tegmental area, medial shell nucleus accumbens and medial olfactory tubercle. In addition, studies found roles of non-dopaminergic mechanisms of the supramammillary, rostromedial tegmental and midbrain raphe nuclei in reward. To explain intracranial self-administration and related effects of various drug manipulations, I outlined a neurobiological theory claiming that there is an intrinsic central process that coordinates various selective functions (including perceptual, visceral, and reinforcement processes) into a global function of approach. Further, this coordinating process for approach arises from interactions between brain structures including those structures mentioned above and their closely linked regions: the medial prefrontal cortex, septal area, ventral pallidum, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, preoptic area, lateral hypothalamic areas, lateral habenula, periaqueductal gray, laterodorsal tegmental nucleus and parabrachical area. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Resting-state functional connectivity of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in post-traumatic stress disorder and its dissociative subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabellino, Daniela; Densmore, Maria; Harricharan, Sherain; Jean, Théberge; McKinnon, Margaret C; Lanius, Ruth A

    2018-03-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminals (BNST) is a subcortical structure involved in anticipatory and sustained reactivity to threat and is thus essential to the understanding of anxiety and stress responses. Although chronic stress and anxiety represent a hallmark of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), to date, few studies have examined the functional connectivity of the BNST in PTSD. Here, we used resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to investigate the functional connectivity of the BNST in PTSD (n = 70), its dissociative subtype (PTSD + DS) (n = 41), and healthy controls (n = 50). In comparison to controls, PTSD showed increased functional connectivity of the BNST with regions of the reward system (ventral and dorsal striatum), possibly underlying stress-induced reward-seeking behaviors in PTSD. By contrast, comparing PTSD + DS to controls, we observed increased functional connectivity of the BNST with the claustrum, a brain region implicated in consciousness and a primary site of kappa-opioid receptors, which are critical to the dynorphin-mediated dysphoric stress response. Moreover, PTSD + DS showed increased functional connectivity of the BNST with brain regions involved in attention and salience detection (anterior insula and caudate nucleus) as compared to PTSD and controls. Finally, BNST functional connectivity positively correlated with default-mode network regions as a function of state identity dissociation, suggesting a role of BNST networks in the disruption of self-relevant processing characterizing the dissociative subtype. These findings represent an important first step in elucidating the role of the BNST in aberrant functional networks underlying PTSD and its dissociative subtype. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Seasonal changes of fructans in dimorphic roots of Ichthyothere terminalis (Spreng.) Blake (Asteraceae) growing in Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Lorrayne Veloso; Ferri, Pedro Henrique; Seraphin, José Carlos; de Moraes, Moemy Gomes

    2017-11-15

    Cerrado is a floristically rich savanna in Brazil, whose vegetation consists of a physiognomic mosaic, influenced by rainfall seasonality. In the dry season rainfall is substantially lower and reduces soil water supply, mainly for herbs and subshrubs. Climatic seasonal variations may well define phenological shifts and induce fluctuations of plant reserve pools. Some Cerrado native species have thickened underground organs that bear buds and store reserves, as adaptive features to enable plant survival following environmental stresses. Asteraceae species accumulate fructans in storage organs, which are not only reserve, but also protecting compounds against the effects of cold and drought. Ichthyothere terminalis is one Asteraceae species abundant in cerrado rupestre, with underground organs consisting of thickened orthogravitropic and diagravitropic roots. The objectives of this study were to analyze how abiotic environmental factors and plant phenology influence fructan dynamics in field grown plants, and verify if fructan metabolism differs in both root types for one year. I. terminalis accumulates inulin-type fructans in 10-40% of the dry mass in both root types. Fructan dynamics have similar patterns described for other Asteraceae species, exhibiting a proportional increase of polysaccharides with the senescence of the aerial organs. Multivariate analyzes showed that, as rainfall decreased, environmental factors had a stronger influence on metabolite levels than phenological shifts in both root types. Only slight differences were found in fructan dynamics between orthogravitropic and diagravitropic roots, suggesting they may have similar fructan metabolism regulation. However, these small differences may reflect distinct microclimatic conditions in both root types and also represent the influence of sink strength. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Phytophthora terminalis sp. nov. and Phytophthora occultans sp. nov., two invasive pathogens of ornamental plants in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man In 't Veld, Willem A; Rosendahl, Karin C H M; van Rijswick, Patricia C J; Meffert, Johan P; Westenberg, Marcel; van de Vossenberg, Bart T L H; Denton, Geoff; van Kuik, Fons A J

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade several Phytophthora strains were isolated from diseased Pachysandra terminalis plants suffering stem base and root rot, originating from the Netherlands and Belgium. All isolates were homothallic and had a felt-like colony pattern, produced semi-papillate sporangia, globose oogonia and had a maximum growth at ~ 27 C. Several additional Phytophthora strains were isolated from diseased Buxus sempervirens plants, originating from the Netherlands and Belgium, which had sustained stem base and root rot; similar strains also were isolated from Acer palmatum, Choisya ternata and Taxus in the United Kingdom. All isolates were homothallic and had a stellate colony pattern, produced larger semi-papillate sporangia and smaller globose oogonia than the isolates from Pa. terminalis and had a maximum growth temperature of ~ 30 C. Phylogenetic analyses of both species using the internal transcribed spacer region of the nuc rDNA (ITS), mt cytochrome oxidases subunit I gene (CoxI) and nuc translation elongation factor 1-α gene (TEF1α) revealed that all sequences of each species were identical at each locus and unique to that species, forming two distinct clusters in subclade 2a. Sequence analysis of partial β-tubulin genes showed that both taxa share an identical sequence that is identical to that of Ph. himalsilva, a species originating from Asia, suggesting a common Asian origin. Pathogenicity trials demonstrated disease symptoms on their respective hosts, and re-isolation and re-identification of the inoculated pathogens confirmed Koch's postulates. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  10. Autoradiographic localization of (125I-Tyr4)bombesin-binding sites in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarbin, M.A.; Kuhar, M.J.; O'Donohue, T.L.; Wolf, S.S.; Moody, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    The binding of ( 125 I-Tyr 4 )bombesin to rat brain slices was investigated. Radiolabeled (Tyr 4 )bombesin bound with high affinity (K/sub d/ . 4 nM) to a single class of sites (B/sub max/ . 130 fmol/mg of protein); the ratio of specific to nonspecific binding was 6/1. Also, pharmacology studies indicated that the C-terminal of bombesin was important for the high affinity binding activity. Autoradiographic studies indicated that the ( 125 I-Tyr4)bombesin-binding sites were discretely distributed in certain gray but not white matter regions of rat brain. Highest grain densities were present in the olfactory bulb and tubercle, nucleus accumbens, suprachiasmatic and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, central medial thalamic nucleus, medial amygdaloid nucleus, hippocampus, dentate gyrus, subiculum, nucleus of the solitary tract, and substantia gelatinosa. Moderate grain densities were present in the parietal cortex, deep layers of the neocortex, rhinal cortex, caudate putamen, stria terminalis, locus ceruleus, parabrachial nucleus, and facial nucleus. Low grain densities were present in the globus pallidus, lateral thalamus, and midbrain. Negligible grain densities were present in the cerebellum, corpus callosum, and all regions treated with 1 microM unlabeled bombesin. The discrete regional distribution of binding suggests that endogenous bombesin-like peptides may function as important regulatory agents in certain brain loci

  11. Connections of the corticomedial amygdala in the golden hamster. II. Efferents of the ''olfactory amygdala''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevetter, G.A.; Winans, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    The anterior cortical (C1) and posterolateral cortical (C2) nuclei of the amygdala are designated the ''olfactory amygdala'' because they each receive direct projections from the main olfactory bulb. The efferents of these nuclei were traced after stereotaxic placement of 1-5 muCi tritiated proline in the corticomedial amygdala of the male golden hamsters. Following survival times of 12, 24, or 48 hours, 20 micron frozen sections of the brains were processed for light microscopic autoradiography. Efferents from C2 terminate in layers II and III of the olfactory tubercle and in layer Ib of pars ventralis and pars medialis of the anterior olfactory nucleus. Fibers from this nucleus also project to layers I and II of the infralimbic cortex and to the molecular layer of the agranular insular cortex. More posteriorly, fibers from C2 terminate in layer I of the dorsolateral entorhinal cortex, and in the endopiriform nucleus. From C1, efferent fibers travel in the stria terminalis and terminate in the precommissural bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and in the mediobasal hypothalamus. Efferents from C1 also innervate the molecular layer of C2, the amygdalo-hippocampal area, and the adjacent piriform cortex. Neurons in both C1 and C2 project to the molecular layer of the medial amygdaloid nucleus and the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala, the plexiform layer of the ventral subiculum, and the molecular layer of the lateral entorhinal cortex

  12. Study of Hadron Production in Hadron-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at the CERN SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    Klochkov, V; Herve, A E; Kowalski, S; Kaptur, E A; Kowalik, K L; Dominik, W M; Matulewicz, T N; Krasnoperov, A; Feofilov, G; Vinogradov, L; Kovalenko, V; Johnson, S R; Planeta, R J; Rubbia, A; Marton, K; Messerly, B A; Puzovic, J; Bogomilov, M V; Bravar, A; Renfordt, R A E; Deveaux, M; Engel, R R; Grzeszczuk, A; Davis, N; Kuich, M; Lyubushkin, V; Kondratev, V; Kadija, K; Diakonos, F; Slodkowski, M A; Rauch, W H; Pistillo, C; Laszlo, A; Nakadaira, T; Hasegawa, T; Sadovskiy, A; Morozov, S; Petukhov, O; Mathes, H; Roehrich, D; Marcinek, A J; Marino, A D; Grebieszkow, K; Di luise, S; Wlodarczyk, Z; Rybczynski, M A; Wojtaszek-szwarc, A; Nirkko, M C; Sakashita, K; Golubeva, M; Kurepin, A; Manic, D; Kolev, D I; Kisiel, J E; Koziel, M E; Rondio, E; Larsen, D T; Czopowicz, T R; Seyboth, P; Turko, L; Guber, F; Marin, V; Busygina, O; Strikhanov, M; Taranenko, A; Cirkovic, M; Roth, M A; Pulawski, S M; Aduszkiewicz, A M; Bunyatov, S; Vechernin, V; Nagai, Y; Anticic, T; Dynowski, K M; Mackowiak-pawlowska, M K; Stefanek, G; Pavin, M; Fodor, Z P; Nishikawa, K; Tada, M; Blondel, A P P; Stroebele, H W; Posiadala, M Z; Kolesnikov, V; Andronov, E; Zimmerman, E D; Antoniou, N; Majka, Z; Dumarchez, J; Naskret, M; Ivashkin, A; Tsenov, R V; Koziel, M G; Schmidt, K J; Melkumov, G; Popov, B; Panagiotou, A; Richter-was, E M; Morgala, S J; Paolone, V; Damyanova, A; Gazdzicki, M; Unger, M T; Wilczek, A G; Stepaniak, J M; Seryakov, A; Susa, T; Staszel, P P; Brzychczyk, J; Maksiak, B; Tefelski, D B

    2007-01-01

    The NA61/SHINE (SHINE = SPS Heavy Ion and Neutrino Experiment) experiment is a large acceptance hadron spectrometer at the CERN SPS for the study of the hadronic final states produced in interactions of various beam particles (pions, protons, C, S and In) with a variety of fixed targets at the SPS energies. The main components of the current detector were constructed and used by the NA49 experiment. The physics program of NA61/SHINE consists of three main subjects. In the first stage of data taking (2007-2009) measurements of hadron production in hadron-nucleus interactions needed for neutrino (T2K) and cosmic-ray (Pierre Auger and KASCADE) experiments will be performed. In the second stage (2009-2011) hadron production in proton-proton and proton-nucleus interactions needed as reference data for a better understanding of nucleus-nucleus reactions will be studied. In the third stage (2009-2013) energy dependence of hadron production properties will be measured in nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as in p+p a...

  13. Pion production in nucleus--nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, L.S.

    1975-06-01

    Current work on pion production in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions is reviewed. The majority of existing data are of the inclusive variety in which a single final state pion is detected. Experimental data are compared and their possible contributions to obtaining new information on nuclear structure is discussed. Various models which attempt to explain the observed single-inclusive-pion spectra either on the basis of a nucleon-nucleus interaction in which Fermi motion is included or on some type of cooperative model are examined. Other areas of interest involving pion production include tests of charge symmetry and pion multiplicities. (9 figures, 1 table) (U.S.)

  14. Beyond the Classic VTA: Extended Amygdala Projections to DA-Striatal Paths in the Primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudge, Julie L; Kelly, Emily A; Pal, Ria; Bedont, Joseph L; Park, Lydia; Ho, Brian

    2017-07-01

    The central extended amygdala (CEA) has been conceptualized as a 'macrosystem' that regulates various stress-induced behaviors. Consistent with this, the CEA highly expresses corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), an important modulator of stress responses. Stress alters goal-directed responses associated with striatal paths, including maladaptive responses such as drug seeking, social withdrawal, and compulsive behavior. CEA inputs to the midbrain dopamine (DA) system are positioned to influence striatal functions through mesolimbic DA-striatal pathways. However, the structure of this amygdala-CEA-DA neuron path to the striatum has been poorly characterized in primates. In primates, we combined neuronal tracer injections into various arms of the circuit through specific DA subpopulations to assess: (1) whether the circuit connecting amygdala, CEA, and DA cells follows CEA intrinsic organization, or a more direct topography involving bed nucleus vs central nucleus divisions; (2) CRF content of the CEA-DA path; and (3) striatal subregions specifically involved in CEA-DA-striatal loops. We found that the amygdala-CEA-DA path follows macrostructural subdivisions, with the majority of input/outputs converging in the medial central nucleus, the sublenticular extended amygdala, and the posterior lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. The proportion of CRF+ outputs is >50%, and mainly targets the A10 parabrachial pigmented nucleus (PBP) and A8 (retrorubal field, RRF) neuronal subpopulations, with additional inputs to the dorsal A9 neurons. CRF-enriched CEA-DA projections are positioned to influence outputs to the 'limbic-associative' striatum, which is distinct from striatal regions targeted by DA cells lacking CEA input. We conclude that the concept of the CEA is supported on connectional grounds, and that CEA termination over the PBP and RRF neuronal populations can influence striatal circuits involved in associative learning.

  15. Perspective of ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns the lectures given at the International School of nuclear physics, Erice, 1985, which survey the expectations for the field of ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. The primary motivation for the field, the organization of the lectures, and a description of the NA 34 experiment, are all briefly given. (U.K.)

  16. [Calcium distribution in the central cell of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) before and after pollination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yi Lan; Liu, Ru Shi; Ye, Lv; Tian, Hui

    2008-02-01

    Potassium antimonite precipitation was used to locate calcium in the central cell of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) before and after pollination. At 3d before anthesis, two polar nuclei of central cell separately located at two polarity of the cell, and few calcium precipitates (ppts) appeared in the polar nuclei and cytoplasm, but some ppts in its small vacuoles. At 2d before anthesis, two polar nuclei moved toward the middle of the cell and fused to form a secondary nucleus, and the ppts evidently increased in the nucleus and cytoplasm. At 1d before anthesis, secondary nucleus again moved toward micropylar end and located near the egg to prepare for fertilization. Calcium precipitates were mainly accumulated in the secondary nucleus. After pollination and before fertilization, the distribution of calcium ppts was similar to that before pollination. At 4h after pollination, the central cell was fertilized, and calcium ppts evidently increased in the cell and numerous were accumulated in its nucleus and cytoplasm. At 6h after pollination, the primary endosperm nucleus completed its first division and formed two dissociate endosperm nuclei, and still many calcium precipitates appeared in the nucleus and cytoplasm. With endosperm development, calcium ppts decreased in the endosperm cell. At 1d after emasculated and without pollination, the secondary nucleus of the cell still bordered on the egg and some calcium ppts appeared in the secondary nucleus. The results indicated that the temporal and spatial changes of calcium in the central cell may play an important physiological role during the development of the central cell and endosperm.

  17. Formation of light particles in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagrebaev, V.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.

    1993-01-01

    The principal experimental results on the yield of the light charged particles in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the low and intermediate energies are reviewed. Inclusive spectra of light particles and their coincidences with the characteristic KX-rays, γ-rays, neutrons, projectile-like fragments, other light particles, fission fragments, and evaporation residues are analyzed. The main theoretical models used for the description of the light particle formation are briefly outlined together with their merits and shortcomings. The unsolved problems of fast light particle formation, in particular, and of nucleus-nucleus interaction dynamics, on the whole, are discussed with the outlooks of new experiments able to clear up some of these problems. (author) 144 refs., 40 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Scaling phenomenon in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.Y.; Blankenbecler, R.

    1980-01-01

    New scaling variables for proton and pion production in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions are introduced which are the generalizations of the Feynmann scaling variable. They allow a simple description of the cross sections at forward and backward angles. 2 figures

  19. Nucleus--nucleus potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaqaman, H.R.

    1977-01-01

    The nucleus--nucleus interaction is studied within the framework of the generator coordinate method that permits an easy incorporation of the full effects of antisymmetrization. It is found that the interaction, as far as the elastic scattering problem is concerned, can be described by a simple effective potential that is equivalent to the original many-body (and hence non-local) problem. The potential is obtained by dividing the wavefunction into a long-range part and a short-range part and requiring the former to satisfy a Schroedinger equation. This enables avoiding dealing with the troublesome short-range part of the wavefunction and provides a direct link with the optical model so that the potential obtained here is equivalent to the real part of the optical potential (the imaginary part is not investigated). The effective potential is found to consist of three parts: an interaction term between the nucleons belonging to different nuclei, a kinetic energy term due to the change in the intrinsic kinetic energy of the system as a result of the antisymmetrization, and finally an l-dependent part. The kinetic energy term is found to be very repulsive and effectively gives a hard core, and is calculated for the α--α and 16 O-- 16 O cases. The full potential is calculated for the α--α case for the S, D, and G partial waves and then used to calculate the corresponding phase shifts that are then compared with experimental results and other microscopic calculations. Finally, some recent results and analyses of fusion and deep inelastic reactions are reviewed that seem to indicate the presence of a hard core in the nucleus--nucleus potential. Such a hard core is present in the potential obtained in the sudden approximation

  20. Hadron-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Qualitative picture of high energy hadron-nucleus collision process, emerging from the analysis of experimental data, is presented. Appropriate description procedure giving a possibility of reproducing various characteristics of this process in terms of the data on elementary hadron-nucleon interaction is proposed. Formula reproducing hadron-nucleus collision cross sections is derived. Inelastic collision cross sections for pion-nucleus and proton-nucleus reactions at wide energy interval are calculated for Pb, Ag, and Al targets. A-dependence of cross sections for pion-nucleus and proton-nucleus collisions at nearly 50 GeV/c momentum were calculated and compared with existing experimental data. Energy dependence of cross sections for hadron-nucleus collisions is determined simply by energy dependence of corresponding cross sections for hadron-nucleon collisions; A-dependence is determined simply by nuclear sizes and nucleon density distributions in nuclei

  1. The nucleus is an intracellular propagator of tensile forces in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Samer G.; Lovett, David; Kim, Dae In; Roux, Kyle J.; Dickinson, Richard B.; Lele, Tanmay P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nuclear positioning is a crucial cell function, but how a migrating cell positions its nucleus is not understood. Using traction-force microscopy, we found that the position of the nucleus in migrating fibroblasts closely coincided with the center point of the traction-force balance, called the point of maximum tension (PMT). Positioning of the nucleus close to the PMT required nucleus–cytoskeleton connections through linker of nucleoskeleton-to-cytoskeleton (LINC) complexes. Although the nucleus briefly lagged behind the PMT following spontaneous detachment of the uropod during migration, the nucleus quickly repositioned to the PMT within a few minutes. Moreover, traction-generating spontaneous protrusions deformed the nearby nucleus surface to pull the nuclear centroid toward the new PMT, and subsequent retraction of these protrusions relaxed the nuclear deformation and restored the nucleus to its original position. We propose that the protruding or retracting cell boundary transmits a force to the surface of the nucleus through the intervening cytoskeletal network connected by the LINC complexes, and that these forces help to position the nucleus centrally and allow the nucleus to efficiently propagate traction forces across the length of the cell during migration. PMID:25908852

  2. The imaginary part of the nucleus - nucleus optical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phatak, S.C.; Sinha, B.

    1978-01-01

    The contribution to the imaginary nucleus - nucleus optical potential has been estimated by evaluating the energy - conserving seocond-order term in the perturbation series. The incoming nuclear field is supposed to excite nucleons in a nucleus in this calculation and the nuclear excitations are approximated by particle-hole excitations in a Fermi gas. The resulting imaginary potential compares favourably with phenomenological potentials. (author)

  3. Infralimbic cortex projects to all parts of the pontine and medullary lateral tegmental field in cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Rutger; Mensinga, Gabe M.; Boers, Jose; Klop, Esther Marije; Holstege, Gert

    The infralimbic cortex (ILc) in cat is the ventralmost part of the anterior cingulate gyrus. The ILc, together with the amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and lateral hypothalamus, is involved in the regulation of fear behavior. The latter three structures are thought to take part in

  4. Study of the peculiarities of multiparticle production via event-by-event analysis in asymmetric nucleus-nucleus interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedosimova, Anastasiya; Gaitinov, Adigam; Grushevskaya, Ekaterina; Lebedev, Igor

    2017-06-01

    In this work the study on the peculiarities of multiparticle production in interactions of asymmetric nuclei to search for unusual features of such interactions, is performed. A research of long-range and short-range multiparticle correlations in the pseudorapidity distribution of secondary particles on the basis of analysis of individual interactions of nuclei of 197 Au at energy 10.7 AGeV with photoemulsion nuclei, is carried out. Events with long-range multiparticle correlations (LC), short-range multiparticle correlations (SC) and mixed type (MT) in pseudorapidity distribution of secondary particles, are selected by the Hurst method in accordance with Hurst curve behavior. These types have significantly different characteristics. At first, they have different fragmentation parameters. Events of LC type are processes of full destruction of the projectile nucleus, in which multicharge fragments are absent. In events of mixed type several multicharge fragments of projectile nucleus are discovered. Secondly, these two types have significantly different multiplicity distribution. The mean multiplicity of LC type events is significantly more than in mixed type events. On the basis of research of the dependence of multiplicity versus target-nuclei fragments number for events of various types it is revealed, that the most considerable multiparticle correlations are observed in interactions of the mixed type, which correspond to the central collisions of gold nuclei and nuclei of CNO-group, i.e. nuclei with strongly asymmetric volume, nuclear mass, charge, etc. Such events are characterised by full destruction of the target-nucleus and the disintegration of the projectile-nucleus on several multi-charged fragments.

  5. Study of the peculiarities of multiparticle production via event-by-event analysis in asymmetric nucleus-nucleus interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedosimova Anastasiya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the study on the peculiarities of multiparticle production in interactions of asymmetric nuclei to search for unusual features of such interactions, is performed. A research of long-range and short-range multiparticle correlations in the pseudorapidity distribution of secondary particles on the basis of analysis of individual interactions of nuclei of 197 Au at energy 10.7 AGeV with photoemulsion nuclei, is carried out. Events with long-range multiparticle correlations (LC, short-range multiparticle correlations (SC and mixed type (MT in pseudorapidity distribution of secondary particles, are selected by the Hurst method in accordance with Hurst curve behavior. These types have significantly different characteristics. At first, they have different fragmentation parameters. Events of LC type are processes of full destruction of the projectile nucleus, in which multicharge fragments are absent. In events of mixed type several multicharge fragments of projectile nucleus are discovered. Secondly, these two types have significantly different multiplicity distribution. The mean multiplicity of LC type events is significantly more than in mixed type events. On the basis of research of the dependence of multiplicity versus target-nuclei fragments number for events of various types it is revealed, that the most considerable multiparticle correlations are observed in interactions of the mixed type, which correspond to the central collisions of gold nuclei and nuclei of CNO-group, i.e. nuclei with strongly asymmetric volume, nuclear mass, charge, etc. Such events are characterised by full destruction of the target-nucleus and the disintegration of the projectile-nucleus on several multi-charged fragments.

  6. Quasi-elastic shadowing in nucleus-nucleus elastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dymarz, R; Malecki, A [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Gluski, K [Institute of Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland); Picchi, P [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica)

    1979-01-06

    The complete evaluation of the Glauber multiple-scattering series for nucleus-nucleus collisions is a very difficult task and that is why various approximate formulae were proposed. In this work some of these approximations are discussed.

  7. High density QCD and nucleus-nucleus scattering deeply in the saturation region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormilitzin, Andrey; Levin, Eugene; Miller, Jeremy S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we solve the equations that describe nucleus-nucleus scattering, in high density QCD, in the framework of the BFKL Pomeron Calculus. We found that (i) the contribution of short distances to the opacity for nucleus-nucleus scattering dies at high energies, (ii) the opacity tends to unity at high energy, and (iii) the main contribution that survives comes from soft (long distance) processes for large values of the impact parameter. The corrections to the opacity Ω(Y,b)=1 were calculated and it turns out that they have a completely different form, namely (1-Ω→exp(-Const√(Y))) than the opacity that stems from the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation, which is (1-Ω→exp(-ConstY 2 )). We reproduce the formula for the nucleus-nucleus cross section that is commonly used in the description of nucleus-nucleus scattering, and there is no reason why it should be correct in the Glauber-Gribov approach.

  8. Thermal Bremsstrahlung probing nuclear multifragmentation in nucleus-nucleus collisions around the Fermi energy; Bremsstrahlung thermique comme sonde de la multifragmentation nucleaire dans les collisions noyau-noyau aux energies de Fermi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Enterria, D.G

    2000-05-15

    The thermodynamical properties of nuclear matter at moderate temperatures and densities, in the vicinity of the predicted nuclear liquid-gas phase transition, are studied using as experimental probe the hard-photons (E{sub {gamma}} > 30 MeV) emitted in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Photon and charged-particle production in four different heavy-ion reactions (Ar{sup 36} + Au{sup 197}, Ag{sup 107}, Ni{sup 58}, C{sup 12} at 60 A*MeV) is measured exclusively and inclusively coupling the TAPS photon spectrometer with two charged-particle and intermediate-mass-fragment detectors covering nearly 4{pi}. We confirm that Bremsstrahlung emission in first-chance (off-equilibrium) proton-neutron collisions (pn{gamma}) is the dominant origin of hard photons. We also firmly establish the existence of a thermal radiation component emitted in second-chance proton-neutron collisions. This thermal Bremsstrahlung emission takes place in semi-central and central nucleus-nucleus reactions involving heavy targets. We exploit this observation i) to demonstrate that thermal equilibrium is reached during the reaction, ii) to establish a new thermometer of nuclear matter based on Bremsstrahlung photons, iii) to derive the thermodynamical properties of the excited nuclear sources and, in particular, to establish a 'caloric curve' (temperature versus excitation energy), and iv) to assess the time-scales of the nuclear break-up process. (author)

  9. A population of kisspeptin/neurokinin B neurons in the arcuate nucleus may be the central target of the male effect phenomenon in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kohei; Wakabayashi, Yoshihiro; Yamamura, Takashi; Tanaka, Tomomi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji; Okamura, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of females to a male pheromone accelerates pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion in goats. Recent evidence has suggested that neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) containing kisspeptin and neurokinin B (NKB) play a pivotal role in the control of GnRH secretion. Therefore, we hypothesized that these neurons may be the central target of the male pheromone. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether NKB signaling is involved in the pheromone action, and whether ARC kisspeptin/NKB neurons receive input from the medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA)--the nucleus suggested to relay pheromone signals. Ovariectomized goats were implanted with a recording electrode aimed at a population of ARC kisspeptin/NKB neurons, and GnRH pulse generator activity, represented by characteristic increases in multiple-unit activity (MUA) volleys, was measured. Pheromone exposure induced an MUA volley and luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse in control animals, whereas the MUA and LH responses to the pheromone were completely suppressed by the treatment with an NKB receptor antagonist. These results indicate that NKB signaling is a prerequisite for pheromone action. In ovariectomized goats, an anterograde tracer was injected into the MeA, and possible connections between the MeA and ARC kisspeptin/NKB neurons were examined. Histochemical observations demonstrated that a subset of ARC kisspeptin/NKB neurons receive efferent projections from the MeA. These results suggest that the male pheromone signal is conveyed via the MeA to ARC kisspeptin neurons, wherein the signal stimulates GnRH pulse generator activity through an NKB signaling-mediated mechanism in goats.

  10. Infrared spectrophotometry of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock (1983d) - A bare nucleus revealed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanner, M. S.; Aitken, D. K.; Knacke, R.; Mccorkle, S.; Roche, P. F.; Tokunaga, A. T.

    1985-01-01

    Spectra of the central core and surrounding coma of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock (1983d) were obtained at 8-13 microns on May 11 and 2-4 microns on May 12, 1983. Spatially resolved measurements at 10 microns with a 4-arcsec beam showed that the central core was more than 100 times brighter than the inner coma only 8 arcsec away; for radially outflowing dust, the brightness ratio would be a factor of 8. The observations of the central core are consistent with direct detection of a nucleus having a radius of approximately 5 km. The temperature of the sunlit hemisphere was greater than 300 K. Spectra of the core are featureless, while spectra of the coma suggest weak silicate emission. The spectra show no evidence for icy grains. The dust production rate on May 11.4 was about 100,000 g/sec, assuming that the gas flux from the dust-producing areas on the nucleus was about 0.00001 g/sq cm per sec.

  11. Nervus terminalis, olfactory nerve, and optic nerve representation of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkin, J W

    1987-01-01

    The luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) system was examined immunocytochemically in olfactory bulbs of adult monkeys, including two New World species (squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus and owl monkey, Aotus trivirgatus) and one Old World species (cynomolgus macaque, Macaca fasciculata), and in the brain and nasal region of a fetal rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta. LHRH neurons and fibers were found sparsely distributed in the olfactory bulbs in all adult monkeys. There was more LHRH in the accessory olfactory bulb (which is absent in Old World monkeys). In the fetal macaque there was a rich distribution of LHRH neurons and fibers along the pathway of the nervus terminalis, anterior and ventral to the olfactory bulb, and in the nasal septum, with fibers branching into the olfactory epithelium. In addition, there were LHRH neurons and fibers in the optic nerve.

  12. The cellular mastermind(?) – Mechanotransduction and the nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Ashley; Fedorchak, Gregory R.; Lammerding, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Cells respond to mechanical stimulation by activation of specific signaling pathways and genes that allow the cell to adapt to its dynamic physical environment. How cells sense the various mechanical inputs and translate them into biochemical signals remains an area of active investigation. Recent reports suggest that the cell nucleus may be directly implicated in this cellular mechanotransduction process. In this chapter, we discuss how forces applied to the cell surface and cytoplasm induce changes in nuclear structure and organization, which could directly affect gene expression, while also highlighting the complex interplay between nuclear structural proteins and transcriptional regulators that may further modulate mechanotransduction signaling. Taken together, these findings paint a picture of the nucleus as a central hub in cellular mechanotransduction—both structurally and biochemically—with important implications in physiology and disease. PMID:25081618

  13. Sex-Dependent Effects of Prenatal Stress on Social Memory in Rats: A Role for Differential Expression of Central Vasopressin-1a Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundwald, N J; Benítez, D P; Brunton, P J

    2016-04-01

    Prenatal stress (PNS) affects a number of traits in the offspring, including stress axis regulation, emotionality and cognition; however, much less is known about the effects of PNS on social memory and the underlying central mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated social preference, social memory under basal and stress conditions and olfactory memory for social and nonsocial odours in the adult offspring of dams exposed to social stress during late pregnancy. Given the key roles that the central oxytocin and vasopressin systems play in facilitating social memory, we further investigated the effects of PNS on the central expression of mRNA for oxytocin (Oxtr) and vasopressin-1a (Avpr1a) receptors. PNS did not affect social preference in either sex; however, social memory was impaired under basal conditions in PNS females but not PNS males. Accordingly, Avpr1a mRNA expression in the lateral septum and bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) was unaltered in males but was significantly lower in PNS females compared to controls. No differences in Oxtr mRNA expression were detected between control and PNS offspring in either sex in any of the brain regions examined. Social memory deficits in PNS females persisted when social odours were used; however, this does not appear to be a result of impaired olfaction because memory for nonsocial odours was similar in control and PNS females. Under acute stress conditions, deficits in social memory were observed in both male and female control offspring; however, PNS males were unaffected. Moreover, acute stress facilitated social memory in PNS females and this was associated with an up-regulation of Avpr1a mRNA in the lateral septum and BNST. Our data support a role for altered signalling via central Avpr1a in PNS-induced sex-dependent changes in social memory and may have implications for understanding the aetiology of neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by social behaviour deficits in humans. © 2015 The

  14. Evolution of the central black hole in an active galactic nucleus. I. Evolution with a constant mass influx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.J.; Vishniac, E.T.

    1988-01-01

    The long-term evolution of the central black hole in an active galactic nucleus (AGN), whose rotational energy is being extracted by the Blandford-Znajek process, was analyzed. The model is based on previous axisymmetric, stationary descriptions of the black hole and its magnetosphere, but includes the secular effects of the mass accretion rate. The properties of the black hole and the nonthermal radiation from its environment are calculated under the assumption that the mass influx is constant. It is noted that this model fails to explain the correlation of evolutionary time scale with luminosity or the extremely rapid evolution required for the most luminous sources. It is concluded that the evolution of AGNs is driven by a rapid decrease in mass accretion rate. Since the nature of an AGN is dependent on the ratio mass accretion/total mass, this leads to a conclusion that AGNs evolve from QSOs into the nuclei of Seyfert or radio galaxies. 20 references

  15. Onuf's nucleus X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D

    1981-01-01

    in the length of the nucleus was observed. Based on the cytoarchitecture the nucleus could be divided in three parts, a cranial, a dorsomedial and a ventrolateral. All parts of the nucleus consisted of chromatin-rich medium-sized neurons, and apparent direct appositions between different cells bodies as well...

  16. `The Iranian connection`: the geo-economics of exporting Central Asian energy via Iran; La geoeconomia delle esportazioni asiatiche: `l`iranian connection`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, T.R.

    1998-03-01

    Of the possible routes to connect Caucasian and Central Asian oil to market, the `Iranian connection` is the most interesting. The economic attraction of the Iranian route is clear: large transport capacities exist in the various pieces of Iran`s existing network, large refining centers are located near the Caspian and there ate unutilized export terminals. [Italiano] Tra le vie possibili per assicurare uno sbocco ai mercati al petrolio caucasico e dell`Asia centrale, la `via iraniana` e` la piu` interessante. L`attrazione economica di questa via e` chiara: nel sistema di oleodotti dell`Iran sussistono ampie capacita` di trasporto, grandi centri de raffinazione sono localizzati vicino al Caspio e ci sono terminali di esportazione non utilizzati.

  17. Antisense-mediated isoform switching of steroid receptor coactivator-1 in the central nucleus of the amygdala of the mouse brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalachoras Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antisense oligonucleotide (AON-mediated exon skipping is a powerful tool to manipulate gene expression. In the present study we investigated the potential of exon skipping by local injection in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA of the mouse brain. As proof of principle we targeted the splicing of steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1, a protein involved in nuclear receptor function. This nuclear receptor coregulator exists in two splice variants (SRC-1a and SRC-1e which display differential distribution and opposing activities in the brain, and whose mRNAs differ in a single SRC-1e specific exon. Methods For proof of principle of feasibility, we used immunofluorescent stainings to study uptake by different cell types, translocation to the nucleus and potential immunostimulatory effects at different time points after a local injection in the CeA of the mouse brain of a control AON targeting human dystrophin with no targets in the murine brain. To evaluate efficacy we designed an AON targeting the SRC-1e-specific exon and with qPCR analysis we measured the expression ratio of the two splice variants. Results We found that AONs were taken up by corticotropin releasing hormone expressing neurons and other cells in the CeA, and translocated into the cell nucleus. Immune responses after AON injection were comparable to those after sterile saline injection. A successful shift of the naturally occurring SRC-1a:SRC-1e expression ratio in favor of SRC-1a was observed, without changes in total SRC-1 expression. Conclusions We provide a proof of concept for local neuropharmacological use of exon skipping by manipulating the expression ratio of the two splice variants of SRC-1, which may be used to study nuclear receptor function in specific brain circuits. We established that exon skipping after local injection in the brain is a versatile and useful tool for the manipulation of splice variants for numerous genes that are relevant

  18. Tuning the brain for motherhood: prolactin-like central signalling in virgin, pregnant, and lactating female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salais-López, Hugo; Lanuza, Enrique; Agustín-Pavón, Carmen; Martínez-García, Fernando

    2017-03-01

    Prolactin is fundamental for the expression of maternal behaviour. In virgin female rats, prolactin administered upon steroid hormone priming accelerates the onset of maternal care. By contrast, the role of prolactin in mice maternal behaviour remains unclear. This study aims at characterizing central prolactin activity patterns in female mice and their variation through pregnancy and lactation. This was revealed by immunoreactivity of phosphorylated (active) signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (pSTAT5-ir), a key molecule in the signalling cascade of prolactin receptors. We also evaluated non-hypophyseal lactogenic activity during pregnancy by administering bromocriptine, which suppresses hypophyseal prolactin release. Late-pregnant and lactating females showed significantly increased pSTAT5-ir resulting in a widespread pattern of immunostaining with minor variations between pregnant and lactating animals, which comprises nuclei of the sociosexual and maternal brain, including telencephalic (septum, nucleus of the stria terminalis, and amygdala), hypothalamic (preoptic, paraventricular, supraoptic, and ventromedial), and midbrain (periaqueductal grey) regions. During late pregnancy, this pattern was not affected by the administration of bromocriptine, suggesting it to be elicited mostly by non-hypophyseal lactogenic agents, likely placental lactogens. Virgin females displayed, instead, a variable pattern of pSTAT5-ir restricted to a subset of the brain nuclei labelled in pregnant and lactating mice. A hormonal substitution experiment confirmed that estradiol and progesterone contribute to the variability found in virgin females. Our results reflect how the shaping of the maternal brain takes place prior to parturition and suggest that lactogenic agents are important candidates in the development of maternal behaviours already during pregnancy.

  19. The nervus terminalis in amphibians: anatomy, chemistry and relationship with the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muske, L E; Moore, F L

    1988-01-01

    The nervus terminalis (TN), a component of the olfactory system, is found in most vertebrates. The TN of some fishes and mammals contains neurons immunoreactive (ir) to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (LHRH), and to several other neuropeptides and neurotransmitter systems, but there is little information on TN chemistry in other vertebrate taxa. Using immunocytochemical techniques, we found LHRH-ir neurons in amphibian TNs. In anurans, but not in a urodele, the TN was also found to contain Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 (FMRFamide) immunoreactivity. LHRH-ir neurons of the TN and those of the septal-hypothalamic system are morphologically homogeneous and form a distinct anatomical continuum in amphibians. Based upon topographical and cytological criteria, we hypothesize that LHRH-ir systems in vertebrates might derive embryonically from the TN.

  20. Partial inelasticity coefficients of negative pions produced in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OLIMOV, K.; LUTPULLAEV, S.L.; PETROV, V.I.; OLIMOV, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    New experimental data on the partial inelasticity coefficients of negative pions produced in "1"6Op-collisions at 3.25 A GeV/s, pC-interactions at 4.2 and 9.9 GeV/s, and d,α,C(C)-collisions at 4.2 A GeV/s are presented. It is established that the behavior of partial inelasticity coefficients of pions at intermediate energies (<10 GeV) in hadron-nucleus collisions has a transitional character, reaching the limiting value at ultrahigh energies. It is shown that the mean values of partial inelasticity coefficients of pions produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions decrease with an increase in mass number of the projectile nucleus. (authors)

  1. Three-hadron angular correlations in high-energy proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus collisions from perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala, Alejandro; Ortiz, Antonio; Paic, Guy; Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Magnin, J.; Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena

    2011-01-01

    We study three-hadron azimuthal angular correlations in high-energy proton-proton and central nucleus-nucleus collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the CERN Large Hadron Collider at midrapidity. We use the leading-order parton matrix elements for 2→3 processes and include the effect of parton energy loss in the quark-gluon plasma using the modified fragmentation function approach. For the case when the produced hadrons have either the same or not too different momenta, we observe two away-side peaks at 2π/3 and 4π/3. We consider the dependence of the angular correlations on energy loss parameters that have been used in studies of single inclusive hadron production at RHIC. Our results on the angular dependence of the cross section agree well with preliminary data by the PHENIX Collaboration. We comment on the possible contribution of 2→3 processes to dihadron angular correlations and how a comparison of the two processes may help characterize the plasma further.

  2. Diabatic interaction potential for nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noerenberg, W.; Lukasiak, A.

    1984-01-01

    Within a refined method for the construction of diabatic states allowing for the treatment of the full spin-orbit coupling, characteristic features of the diabatic potential for nucleus-nucleus collisions are investigated. Approximately 90% of the strong repulsion results from diabatic particle-hole excitations, while only 10% is due to compression. The diabatic interaction potential describes a physical situation intermediate between adiabatic and sudden approximations. (orig.)

  3. Central transport and distribution of labelled glutamic and aspartic acids to the cochlear nucleus in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, E.S.

    1979-01-01

    Tritiated L-glutamic acid or L-aspartic acid was injected unilaterally into the cochleas of adult cats, and 4 h-7 days later the localization of label was studied by light-microscopic autoradiography in sections of the brain stem. Consistent differences in labelling after glutamate and after aspartate suggest differences in their uptake, metabolic conversion and/or transport to the cochlear nucleus by cochlear fibers. The morphological differences shown here agree with the distribution of those two amino acids in the cat cochlear nucleus as shown by microchemical analyses. (author)

  4. Classical gluon production amplitude for nucleus-nucleus collisions:First saturation correction in the projectile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirilli, Giovanni A.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Wertepny, Douglas E.

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the classical single-gluon production amplitude in nucleus-nucleus collisions including the first saturation correction in one of the nuclei (the projectile) while keeping multiple-rescattering (saturation) corrections to all orders in the other nucleus (the target). In our approximation only two nucleons interact in the projectile nucleus: the single-gluon production amplitude we calculate is order-g"3 and is leading-order in the atomic number of the projectile, while resumming all order-one saturation corrections in the target nucleus. Our result is the first step towards obtaining an analytic expression for the first projectile saturation correction to the gluon production cross section in nucleus-nucleus collisions.

  5. K+-nucleus interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    The K + -nucleus system is reviewed and comparison with data is made. The principal conclusions are that the theoretical uncertainties in relating the K + -nucleus interaction to the K + -nucleon interaction are very small and hence the positive kaon makes an excellent probe of the nucleus. It is suggested that this particle may be more sensitive to non-nucleonic degrees of freedom (especially quarks) than classical probes

  6. TWO-PHOTON PHYSICS IN NUCLEUS-NUCLEUS COLLISIONS AT RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystrand, J.; Klein, S.

    1998-01-01

    Ultra-relativistic heavy-ions carry strong electromagnetic and nuclear fields. Interactions between these fields in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions can probe many interesting physics topics. This presentation will focus on coherent two-photon and photonuclear processes at RHIC. The rates for these interactions will be high. The coherent coupling of all the protons in the nucleus enhances the equivalent photon flux by a factor Z 2 up to an energy of ∼ 3 GeV. The plans for studying coherent interactions with the STAR experiment will be discussed. Experimental techniques for separating signal from background will be presented

  7. Two-photon physics in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystrand, J.; Klein, S.

    1998-01-01

    Ultra-relativistic heavy-ions carry strong electromagnetic and nuclear fields. Interactions between these fields in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions can probe many interesting physics topics. This presentation will focus on coherent two-photon and photonuclear processes at RHIC. The rates for these interactions will be high. The coherent coupling of all the protons in the nucleus enhances the equivalent photon flux by a factor Z 2 up to an energy of ∼ 3 GeV. The plans for studying coherent interactions with the STAR experiment will be discussed. Experimental techniques for separating signal from background will be presented

  8. Functionalized active-nucleus complex sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Alexander; Wemmer, David E.; Spence, Megan; Rubin, Seth

    2003-11-25

    A functionalized active-nucleus complex sensor that selectively associates with one or more target species, and a method for assaying and screening for one or a plurality of target species utilizing one or a plurality of functionalized active-nucleus complexes with at least two of the functionalized active-nucleus complexes having an attraction affinity to different corresponding target species. The functionalized active-nucleus complex has an active-nucleus and a targeting carrier. The method involves functionalizing an active-nucleus, for each functionalized active-nucleus complex, by incorporating the active-nucleus into a macromolucular or molecular complex that is capable of binding one of the target species and then bringing the macromolecular or molecular complexes into contact with the target species and detecting the occurrence of or change in a nuclear magnetic resonance signal from each of the active-nuclei in each of the functionalized active-nucleus complexes.

  9. Antinucleon-nucleus elastic and inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dover, C.B.; Millener, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    A general overview of the utility of antinucleon (anti N)-nucleus inelastic scattering studies is presented, emphasizing both the sensitivity of the cross sections to various components of the N anti N transition amplitudes and the prospects for the exploration of some novel aspects of nuclear structure. We start with an examination of the relation between NN and N anti N potentials, focusing on the coherences predicted for the central, spin-orbit and tensor components, and how these may be revealed by measurements of two-body spin observables. We next discuss the role of the nucleus as a spin and isospin filter, and show how, by a judicious choice of final state quantum numbers (natural or unnatural parity states, isospin transfer ΔT = 0 or 1) and momentum transfer q, one can isolate different components of the N anti N transition amplitude. Various models for the N anti N interaction which give reasonable fits to the available two-body data are shown to lead to strikingly different predictions for certain spin-flip nuclear transitions. We suggest several possible directions for future anti N-nucleus inelastic scattering experiments, for instance the study of spin observables which would be accessible with polarized anti N beams, charge exchange reactions, and higher resolution studies of the (anti p, anti p') reaction. We compare the antinucleon and the nucleon as a probe of nuclear modes of excitation. 40 refs., 13 figs

  10. Increased glutamic acid decarboxylase expression in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus in depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Xueyan; Balesar, R.A.; Lu, Jing; Farajnia, Sahar; Zhu, Qiongbin; Huang, Manli; Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, D.F.

    2017-01-01

    In depression, disrupted circadian rhythms reflect abnormalities in the central circadian pacemaker, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Although many SCN neurons are said to be GABAergic, it was not yet known whether and how SCN GABA changes occur in the SCN in depression. We,

  11. Sexually dimorphic effects of a prenatal immune challenge on social play and vasopressin expression in juvenile rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Patrick V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious diseases and inflammation during pregnancy increase the offspring’s risk for behavioral disorders. However, how immune stress affects neural circuitry during development is not well known. We tested whether a prenatal immune challenge interferes with the development of social play and with neural circuits implicated in social behavior. Methods Pregnant rats were given intraperitoneal injections of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS – 100 μg /kg or saline on the 15th day of pregnancy. Offspring were tested for social play behaviors between postnatal days 26–40. Brains were harvested on postnatal day 45 and processed for arginine vasopressin (AVP mRNA in situ hybridization. Results In males, LPS treatment reduced the frequency of juvenile play behavior and reduced AVP mRNA expression in the medial amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. These effects were not found in females. LPS treatment did not change AVP mRNA expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, or supraoptic nucleus of either sex, nor did it affect the sex difference in the size of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area. Conclusions Given AVP’s central role in regulating social behavior, the sexually dimorphic effects of prenatal LPS treatment on male AVP mRNA expression may contribute to the sexually dimorphic effect of LPS on male social play and may, therefore, increase understanding of factors that contribute to sex differences in social psychopathology.

  12. Strangeness production in hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions in the dual parton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehring, H.; Ranft, J.; Capella, A.; Tran Thanh Van, J.

    1993-01-01

    Λ, bar Λ, and K S 0 production is studied in a Monte Carlo dual parton model for hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions with an SU(3) symmetric sea for chain formation (chain ends) but strangeness suppression in the chain fragmentation process. Additionally, (qq)-(bar q bar q) production from the sea was introduced into the chain formation process with the same probability as for the q→qq branching within the chain decay process. With these assumptions, multiplicity ratios and Feynman-x distributions for strange particles in h-h and multiplicity ratios in heavy ion collisions are reasonably well reproduced

  13. The nuclear response and the imaginary potential for nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phatak, S.C.; Sinha, B.

    1983-01-01

    The Fermi-gas model is used in this paper to study the nucleus-nucleus collision. The field produced by one of the nuclei is considered to act on nucleons in the other nucleus, which is treated as a Fermi gas of radius R. The imaginary part of the (non-local) nucleus-nucleus potential is then computed by evaluating the energy-conserving second-order term in which the intermediate states are particle-hole excitations produced in the Fermi gas. The equivalent local potential, obtained by using the Perey-Saxon method, is compared with phenomenological imaginary potentials. Later it is shown that, in the limit of small range of non-locality, the imaginary potential can be related to the nuclear response function. With this, one can write the nuclear friction coefficient that is used in phenomenological analyses of heavy-ion collisions in terms of the imaginary potential. (orig.)

  14. Multiplicity of secondaries in hadron-nucleus collisions and constituent quark rescattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabelsky, Yu.M.; Shekhter, V.M.

    1980-01-01

    A ratio of the relativistic secondary multiplicities for hadron-nucleus and hadron-nucleon interactions, Rsub(s)(hA), is considered in the central region and a part of the target nucleus fragmentation region. The multiplicities are obtained from the experimental average numbers of relativistic charged or negative particles by subtraction of the projectile fragment numbers estimated theoretically. Two hypotheses on the A dependence of the secondary multiplicity in a constituent quark interaction with a nucleus are discussed. An assumption that this multiplicity is independent of A leads to Rsub(s)(hA) = antiνsub(hA)/antiνsub(qA). An alternative assumption that the qA multiplicity increases with A due to quark rescattering from several nucleons gives Rsub(s)(hA) = antiνsub(hA). Comparison with experiment in the former case requires a great number of positively charged hadrons, probably protons, emitted from the nucleus. This number must rise significantly with both A and incident energy. The latter hypothesis is consistent with all data on as well as in pA collisions but disagrees by approximately 20% with in π - A interactions. (author)

  15. Effective nucleus-nucleus potentials derived from the generator coordinate method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, H; Canto, L F [Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Theoretical Physics

    1977-11-07

    The equivalence of the generator coordinate method (GCM) and the resonating group method (RGM) and the formal equivalence of the RGM and the orthogonality condition model (OCM) lead to a relation connecting the effective nucleus-nucleus potentials of the OCM with matrix elements of the GCM. This relation may be used to derive effective nucleus-nucleus potentials directly from GCM matrix elements without explicit reference to the potentials of the RGM. In a first application local and l-independent effective potentials are derived from diagonal GCM matrix elements which represent the energy surfaces of a two-centre shell model. Using these potentials the OCM can reproduce the results of a full RGM calculation very well for the elastic scattering of two ..cap alpha..-particles and fairly well for elastic /sup 16/O-/sup 16/O scattering.

  16. Experimental search for compression phenomena in fast nucleus--nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schopper, E.; Baumgardt, H.G.; Obst, E.

    1977-01-01

    The occurrence of compression phenomena and shock waves, connected with the increase of the density of the nuclear matter during the interpenetration of two fast nuclei, are discussed. Current experiments dealing with this problem are reviewed. Before considering the mechanism of the interpenetration of two fast nuclei it may be useful to look at more simple situations, i.e., proton-proton interactions, then to envelop them with nuclear matter, considering proton-nucleus interactions. Only very general features are described, which may give suggestions for the understanding of the nucleus-nucleus impact

  17. The mechanism of nuclear energy release in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.; Strugalska-Gola, E.

    1998-01-01

    The mechanism of intranuclear energy release in reactions induced by nucleus-nucleus collisions at energies higher than ∼ 0.5 GeV/nucl. is presented - as prompted experimentally. The intranuclear energy release goes through local damages of the colliding nuclei

  18. The correlation between the transverse polarization and transverse momentum of lambda produced in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Yunxiu; Zhou Xin; Ji Gang; Su Shufang; Zhu Guohuai

    1996-01-01

    The transverse polarization of lambda produced in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is determined. The effect from the interaction between spin moment and magnetic field is corrected. The near zero transverse polarization and non-correlation between transverse polarization and transverse momentum are obtained and compared to ones obtained from the nucleus-nucleus interactions at lower energies. This comparison shows that the production mechanism of lambdas in the relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is different from one in the nucleus-nucleus reactions at lower energies

  19. A new F-actin structure in fungi: actin ring formation around the cell nucleus of Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopecká, Marie; Kawamoto, Susumu; Yamaguchi, Masashi

    2013-04-01

    The F-actin cytoskeleton of Cryptococcus neoformans is known to comprise actin cables, cortical patches and cytokinetic ring. Here, we describe a new F-actin structure in fungi, a perinuclear F-actin collar ring around the cell nucleus, by fluorescent microscopic imaging of rhodamine phalloidin-stained F-actin. Perinuclear F-actin rings form in Cryptococcus neoformans treated with the microtubule inhibitor Nocodazole or with the drug solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or grown in yeast extract peptone dextrose (YEPD) medium, but they are absent in cells treated with Latrunculin A. Perinuclear F-actin rings may function as 'funicular cabin' for the cell nucleus, and actin cables as intracellular 'funicular' suspending nucleus in the central position in the cell and moving nucleus along the polarity axis along actin cables.

  20. Nucleus-nucleus interactions in the transition energy regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volant, C.

    1985-02-01

    There are at least two ways for studying large interactions in nucleus-nucleus collisions. One way is to use the method of angular correlations between fission fragments. The aim of the experiments presented here was to make a survey on the role of the various experimental parameters. In that respect three targets have been studied and different projectiles and bombarding energies have been used. Results are presented and discussed

  1. Descending projections from the nucleus accumbens shell excite activity of taste-responsive neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract in the hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Shu; Lu, Da-Peng; Cho, Young K

    2015-06-01

    The nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) and the parabrachial nuclei (PbN) are the first and second relays in the rodent central taste pathway. A series of electrophysiological experiments revealed that spontaneous and taste-evoked activities of brain stem gustatory neurons are altered by descending input from multiple forebrain nuclei in the central taste pathway. The nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) is a key neural substrate of reward circuitry, but it has not been verified as a classical gustatory nucleus. A recent in vivo electrophysiological study demonstrated that the NAcSh modulates the spontaneous and gustatory activities of hamster pontine taste neurons. In the present study, we investigated whether activation of the NAcSh modulates gustatory responses of the NST neurons. Extracellular single-unit activity was recorded from medullary neurons in urethane-anesthetized hamsters. After taste response was confirmed by delivery of sucrose, NaCl, citric acid, and quinine hydrochloride to the anterior tongue, the NAcSh was stimulated bilaterally with concentric bipolar stimulating electrodes. Stimulation of the ipsilateral and contralateral NAcSh induced firings from 54 and 37 of 90 medullary taste neurons, respectively. Thirty cells were affected bilaterally. No inhibitory responses or antidromic invasion was observed after NAcSh activation. In the subset of taste cells tested, high-frequency electrical stimulation of the NAcSh during taste delivery enhanced taste-evoked neuronal firing. These results demonstrate that two-thirds of the medullary gustatory neurons are under excitatory descending influence from the NAcSh, which is a strong indication of communication between the gustatory pathway and the mesolimbic reward pathway. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Multiplicity distributions in small phase-space domains in central nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baechler, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Runge, K.; Schmoetten, E.; Bartke, J.; Gladysz, E.; Kowalski, M.; Stefanski, P.; Bialkowska, H.; Bock, R.; Brockmann, R.; Sandoval, A.; Buncic, P.; Ferenc, D.; Kadija, K.; Ljubicic, A. Jr.; Vranic, D.; Chase, S.I.; Harris, J.W.; Odyniec, G.; Pugh, H.G.; Rai, G.; Teitelbaum, L.; Tonse, S.; Derado, I.; Eckardt, V.; Gebauer, H.J.; Rauch, W.; Schmitz, N.; Seyboth, P.; Seyerlein, J.; Vesztergombi, G.; Eschke, J.; Heck, W.; Kabana, S.; Kuehmichel, A.; Lahanas, M.; Lee, Y.; Le Vine, M.; Margetis, S.; Renfordt, R.; Roehrich, D.; Rothard, H.; Schmidt, E.; Schneider, I.; Stock, R.; Stroebele, H.; Wenig, S.; Fleischmann, B.; Fuchs, M.; Gazdzicki, M.; Kosiec, J.; Skrzypczak, E.; Keidel, R.; Piper, A.; Puehlhofer, F.; Nappi, E.; Posa, F.; Paic, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Petridis, A.; Vassileiadis, G.; Pfenning, J.; Wosiek, B.

    1992-10-01

    Multiplicity distributions of negatively charged particles have been studied in restricted phase space intervals for central S + S, O + Au and S + Au collisions at 200 GeV/nucleon. It is shown that multiplicity distributions are well described by a negative binomial form irrespectively of the size and dimensionality of phase space domain. A clan structure analysis reveals interesting similarities between complex nuclear collisions and a simple partonic shower. The lognormal distribution agrees reasonably well with the multiplicity data in large domains, but fails in the case of small intervals. No universal scaling function was found to describe the shape of multiplicity distributions in phase space intervals of varying size. (orig.)

  3. The application of a phenomenological model to inelastic nucleus-nucleus interactions for laboratory momenta below 5 GeV/c per nucleon of the incident nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishin, V.G.; Kladnitskaya, E.N.

    1985-01-01

    A phenomenological model for inelastic nucleus-nucleus interactions at momenta below 5 GeV/c per nucleon is described. Particle interactions inside the interacting nuclei are described by phenomenological models of hadron-nucleus and hadron-nucleon interactions. The Monte-Carlo model provides the kinematic variables for a set of events under study. The comparison of the model inclusive distri-- butions for different particles and nucleus-nucleus interactions agrees well with the experimental data

  4. Nucleus Ruber of Actinopterygians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tomoya; Miyajima, Satoshi; Nishino, Hirotaka; Narita, Junya; Abe, Hideki; Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Nucleus ruber is known as an important supraspinal center that controls forelimb movements in tetrapods, and the rubral homologue may serve similar functions in fishes (motor control of pectoral fin). However, two apparently different structures have been identified as 'nucleus ruber' in actinopterygians. One is nucleus ruber of Goldstein (1905) (NRg), and the other nucleus ruber of Nieuwenhuys and Pouwels (1983) (NRnp). It remains unclear whether one of these nuclei (or perhaps both) is homologous to tetrapod nucleus ruber. To resolve this issue from a phylogenetic point of view, we have investigated the distribution of tegmental neurons retrogradely labeled from the spinal cord in eight actinopterygian species. We also investigated the presence/absence of the two nuclei with Nissl- or Bodian-stained brain section series of an additional 28 actinopterygian species by comparing the morphological features of candidate rubral neurons with those of neurons revealed by the tracer studies. Based on these analyses, the NRg was identified in all actinopterygians investigated in the present study, while the NRnp appears to be absent in basal actinopterygians. The phylogenetic distribution pattern indicates that the NRg is the more likely homologue of nucleus ruber, and the NRnp may be a derived nucleus that emerged during the course of actinopterygian evolution. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Review of high energy hadron-nucleus data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, D.

    1987-01-01

    In this review we will summarize new data on hardron-nucleus interactions. The possibility that quark-gluon plasma may be created in heavy ion collisions has led to renewed interest in hadron-nucleus collisions. In particular one hopes that understanding the energy loss of hadrons in h-A collissions will allow us to estimate the optimum energy in AA collisions in order to achieve maximum baryon and/or maximum energy density. This will allow us to choose the optimal experimental environment in the search for quark-gluon plasma. This review will thus omit many interesting results from hadron-nucleus collisions, such as the A dependence of lepton pair production, EMC effect and others. We will focus our attention on the following: (i) Estimating the rate of energy loss of the incident hadron as it propagates through the target. (ii) Determining where the enmergy is deposited in central hadron-nucleus collisions. It is clear that there is no direct or unique method of extrapolating our knowledge of h-A collisions to predict what will happen in AA-collisions. The knowledge and understanding of pp and pA collisions is, however, a useful and necessary guide to what one can expect in AA collisions. In this review we will concentrate on three experimental approaches to the study of h-A collisions. In Section 1 we will discuss the present status of pA → p + X inclusive measurements. In Section 2 measurements from visual detectors, in this case results from the 30″ hybrid spectrometer, which allows investigations of global event properties will be presented. In Section 3 data using 2π calorimeters, where one can trigger and measure transverse energy and energy flow over a given rapidity region, will be discussed. The conclusions will be given in Section 4.

  6. Description of inelastic nucleus-nucleus interactions at medium energy using dual parton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polanski, A.; Shmakov, S.Yu.; Uzhinskij, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the dual parton model taking into account the processes of diffraction dissociation to the low mass states and finite energy corrections to the asymptotic Abramovski-Gribov-Kancheli cutting rules allows satisfactory description of existing experimental data on hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions at medium energy. (orig.)

  7. Distinct neuronal activation patterns are associated with PCP-induced social withdrawal and its reversal by the endocannabinoid-enhancing drug URB597.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matricon, Julien; Seillier, Alexandre; Giuffrida, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    The fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor, URB597, an endocannabinoid enhancing drug, reverses social withdrawal in the sub-chronic PCP rat model of schizophrenia, but reduces social interaction (SI) in controls. To identify the anatomical substrates associated with PCP-induced social withdrawal and the contrasting effects of URB597 on SI in PCP- versus saline-treated rats, we analyzed SI-induced c-Fos expression in 28 brain areas relevant to schizophrenia and/or social behavior following vehicle or URB597 administration. In saline-treated rats, SI was accompanied by changes in c-Fos expression in the infralimbic and orbitofrontal cortices, dorsomedial caudate putamen, ventrolateral nucleus of the septum, dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (dlPAG) and central amygdala. Except for the dlPAG, these changes were not observed in PCP-treated rats or in saline-treated rats receiving URB597. In the dorsomedial part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dmBNST), SI-induced c-Fos expression was observed only in PCP-treated rats. Interestingly, URB597 in PCP-treated rats restored a similar c-Fos expression pattern as observed in saline-treated rats: activation of the orbitofrontal cortex, inhibition of the central amygdala and suppression of activation of the dmBNST. These data suggest that orbitofrontal cortex, central amygdala and dmBNST play a critical role in the reversal of PCP-induced social withdrawal by URB597. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Nucleus and nucleus-cytoskeleton connections in 3D cell migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lingling, E-mail: liulingling2012@163.com; Luo, Qing, E-mail: qing.luo@cqu.edu.cn; Sun, Jinghui, E-mail: sunjhemail@163.com; Song, Guanbin, E-mail: song@cqu.edu.cn

    2016-10-15

    Cell migration plays an important role in many physiological and pathological settings, ranging from embryonic development to cancer metastasis. Currently, accumulating data suggest that cells migrating in three-dimensional (3D) environments show well-defined differences compared to their well-established two-dimensional (2D) counterparts. During 3D migration, the cell body and nucleus must deform to allow cellular passage through the available spaces, and the deformability of the relatively rigid nucleus may constitute a limiting step. Here, we highlight the key evidence regarding the role of the nuclear mechanics in 3D migration, including the molecular components that govern the stiffness of the nucleus and review how the nuclear dynamics are connected to and controlled by cytoskeleton-based migration machinery. Intriguingly, nuclear movement must be coordinated with the cytoskeletal dynamics at the leading and trailing edges, which in turn impact the cytoplasmic dynamics that affect the migration efficiency. Thus, we suggest that alterations in the nuclear structure may facilitate cellular reorganizations that are necessary for efficient migration. - Graphical abstract: Schematic representations of a cell migrating on a 2D substrate and a cell migrating in a 3D extracellular matrix environment. (A) Nucleus-cytoskeleton connections are essential to 3D migration. Mechanical signals are transduced by integrins at the cell surface and channeled to cytoskeletal proteins, which generates prestress. The nucleus-cytoskeleton connections can either act as a stable skeleton to anchor the nuclei or provide active force to move the nuclei. The LINC complex is responsible for the nucleo-cytoskeletal coupling. Nesprins connect the cytoskeletal proteins to the inner nuclear membrane proteins SUN1 and SUN2. The SUN proteins connect to the lamins that form the lamina, which attaches to the chromatin. This physical connectivity transmits the mechanical signals from receptors at

  9. Nucleus and nucleus-cytoskeleton connections in 3D cell migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Lingling; Luo, Qing; Sun, Jinghui; Song, Guanbin

    2016-01-01

    Cell migration plays an important role in many physiological and pathological settings, ranging from embryonic development to cancer metastasis. Currently, accumulating data suggest that cells migrating in three-dimensional (3D) environments show well-defined differences compared to their well-established two-dimensional (2D) counterparts. During 3D migration, the cell body and nucleus must deform to allow cellular passage through the available spaces, and the deformability of the relatively rigid nucleus may constitute a limiting step. Here, we highlight the key evidence regarding the role of the nuclear mechanics in 3D migration, including the molecular components that govern the stiffness of the nucleus and review how the nuclear dynamics are connected to and controlled by cytoskeleton-based migration machinery. Intriguingly, nuclear movement must be coordinated with the cytoskeletal dynamics at the leading and trailing edges, which in turn impact the cytoplasmic dynamics that affect the migration efficiency. Thus, we suggest that alterations in the nuclear structure may facilitate cellular reorganizations that are necessary for efficient migration. - Graphical abstract: Schematic representations of a cell migrating on a 2D substrate and a cell migrating in a 3D extracellular matrix environment. (A) Nucleus-cytoskeleton connections are essential to 3D migration. Mechanical signals are transduced by integrins at the cell surface and channeled to cytoskeletal proteins, which generates prestress. The nucleus-cytoskeleton connections can either act as a stable skeleton to anchor the nuclei or provide active force to move the nuclei. The LINC complex is responsible for the nucleo-cytoskeletal coupling. Nesprins connect the cytoskeletal proteins to the inner nuclear membrane proteins SUN1 and SUN2. The SUN proteins connect to the lamins that form the lamina, which attaches to the chromatin. This physical connectivity transmits the mechanical signals from receptors at

  10. Physical meaning of the yields from hadron-nucleon, hadron-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions observed in experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1995-01-01

    A physical meaning of the outcomes from hadronic and nuclear collision processes at high energies is presented, as prompted experimentally. The fast and slow stages in hadron-nucleus collisions are distinguished. Hadrons are produced via intermediate objects observed in hadron-nucleus collisions. The intermediate objects may be treated as the groups of quarks or the quark bags. 37 refs

  11. Mammal-like organization of the avian midbrain central gray and a reappraisal of the intercollicular nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcy A Kingsbury

    Full Text Available In mammals, rostrocaudal columns of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG regulate diverse behavioral and physiological functions, including sexual and fight-or-flight behavior, but homologous columns have not been identified in non-mammalian species. In contrast to mammals, in which the PAG lies ventral to the superior colliculus and surrounds the cerebral aqueduct, birds exhibit a hypertrophied tectum that is displaced laterally, and thus the midbrain central gray (CG extends mediolaterally rather than dorsoventrally as in mammals. We therefore hypothesized that the avian CG is organized much like a folded open PAG. To address this hypothesis, we conducted immunohistochemical comparisons of the midbrains of mice and finches, as well as Fos studies of aggressive dominance, subordinance, non-social defense and sexual behavior in territorial and gregarious finch species. We obtained excellent support for our predictions based on the folded open model of the PAG and further showed that birds possess functional and anatomical zones that form longitudinal columns similar to those in mammals. However, distinguishing characteristics of the dorsal/dorsolateral PAG, such as a dense peptidergic innervation, a longitudinal column of neuronal nitric oxide synthase neurons, and aggression-induced Fos responses, do not lie within the classical avian CG, but in the laterally adjacent intercollicular nucleus (ICo, suggesting that much of the ICo is homologous to the dorsal PAG.

  12. Updating appetitive memory during reconsolidation window: critical role of cue-directed behavior and amygdala central nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshavsky, Megan E; Song, Bryan J; Powell, Daniel J; Jones, Carolyn E; Monfils, Marie-H; Lee, Hongjoo J

    2013-01-01

    When presented with a light cue followed by food, some rats simply approach the foodcup (Nonorienters), while others first orient to the light in addition to displaying the food-cup approach behavior (Orienters). Cue-directed orienting may reflect enhanced attentional and/or emotional processing of the cue, suggesting divergent natures of cue-information processing in Orienters and Nonorienters. The current studies investigate how differences in cue processing might manifest in appetitive memory retrieval and updating using a paradigm developed to persistently attenuate fear responses (Retrieval-extinction paradigm; Monfils et al., 2009). First, we examined whether the retrieval-extinction paradigm could attenuate appetitive responses in Orienters and Nonorienters. Next, we investigated if the appetitive memory could be updated using reversal learning (fear conditioning) during the reconsolidation window (as opposed to repeated unreinforced trials, i.e., extinction). Both extinction and new fear learning given within the reconsolidation window were effective at persistently updating the initial appetitive memory in the Orienters, but not the Nonorienters. Since conditioned orienting is mediated by the amygdala central nucleus (CeA), our final experiment examined the CeA's role in the retrieval-extinction process. Bilateral CeA lesions interfered with the retrieval-extinction paradigm-did not prevent spontaneous recovery of food-cup approach. Together, our studies demonstrate the critical role of conditioned orienting behavior and the CeA in updating appetitive memory during the reconsolidation window.

  13. Central amygdalar nucleus treated with orexin neuropeptides evoke differing feeding and grooming responses in the hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alò, Raffaella; Avolio, Ennio; Mele, Maria; Di Vito, Anna; Canonaco, Marcello

    2015-04-15

    Interaction of the orexinergic (ORXergic) neuronal system with the excitatory (glutamate, l-Glu) or the inhibitory (GABA) neurosignaling complexes evokes major homeostatic physiological events. In this study, effects of the two ORXergic neuropeptides (ORX-A/B) on their receptor (ORX-2R) expression changes were correlated to feeding and grooming actions of the hibernating hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Infusion of the central amygdala nucleus (CeA) with ORX-A caused hamsters to consume notable quantities of food, while ORX-B accounted for a moderate increase. Interestingly the latter neuropeptide was responsible for greater frequencies of grooming with respect to both controls and the hamsters treated with ORX-A. These distinct behavioral changes turned out to be even greater in the presence of l-Glu agonist (NMDA) while the α1 GABAA receptor agonist (zolpidem, Zol) greatly reduced ORX-A-dependent feeding bouts. Moreover, ORX-A+NMDA mainly promoted greater ORX-2R expression levels with respect to ORX-A-treated hamsters while ORX-B+Zol was instead largely responsible for a down-regulatory trend. Overall, these features point to CeA ORX-2R sites as key sensory limbic elements capable of regulating eating and grooming responses, which may provide useful insights regarding the type of molecular mechanism(s) operating during feeding bouts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Meson-nucleus potentials and the search for meson-nucleus bound states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metag, V.; Nanova, M.; Paryev, E. Ya.

    2017-11-01

    Recent experiments studying the meson-nucleus interaction to extract meson-nucleus potentials are reviewed. The real part of the potentials quantifies whether the interaction is attractive or repulsive while the imaginary part describes the meson absorption in nuclei. The review is focused on mesons which are sufficiently long-lived to potentially form meson-nucleus quasi-bound states. The presentation is confined to meson production off nuclei in photon-, pion-, proton-, and light-ion induced reactions and heavy-ion collisions at energies near the production threshold. Tools to extract the potential parameters are presented. In most cases, the real part of the potential is determined by comparing measured meson momentum distributions or excitation functions with collision model or transport model calculations. The imaginary part is extracted from transparency ratio measurements. Results on K+ ,K0 ,K- , η ,η‧ , ω, and ϕ mesons are presented and compared with theoretical predictions. The interaction of K+ and K0 mesons with nuclei is found to be weakly repulsive, while the K- , η ,η‧ , ω and ϕ meson-nucleus potentials are attractive, however, with widely different strengths. Because of meson absorption in the nuclear medium the imaginary parts of the meson-nucleus potentials are all negative, again with a large spread. An outlook on planned experiments in the charm sector is given. In view of the determined potential parameters, the criteria and chances for experimentally observing meson-nucleus quasi-bound states are discussed. The most promising candidates appear to be the η and η‧ mesons.

  15. Mapping the co-localization of the circadian proteins PER2 and BMAL1 with enkephalin and substance P throughout the rodent forebrain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Frederick

    Full Text Available Despite rhythmic expression of clock genes being found throughout the central nervous system, very little is known about their function outside of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Determining the pattern of clock gene expression across neuronal subpopulations is a key step in understanding their regulation and how they may influence the functions of various brain structures. Using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, we quantified the co-expression of the clock proteins BMAL1 and PER2 with two neuropeptides, Substance P (SubP and Enkephalin (Enk, expressed in distinct neuronal populations throughout the forebrain. Regions examined included the limbic forebrain (dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, stria terminalis, thalamus medial habenula of the thalamus, paraventricular nucleus and arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and the olfactory bulb. In most regions examined, BMAL1 was homogeneously expressed in nearly all neurons (~90%, and PER2 was expressed in a slightly lower proportion of cells. There was no specific correlation to SubP- or Enk- expressing subpopulations. The olfactory bulb was unique in that PER2 and BMAL1 were expressed in a much smaller percentage of cells, and Enk was rarely found in the same cells that expressed the clock proteins (SubP was undetectable. These results indicate that clock genes are not unique to specific cell types, and further studies will be required to determine the factors that contribute to the regulation of clock gene expression throughout the brain.

  16. Effective number of inelastically interacting nucleons in rare nucleus-nucleus production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkikh, V.L.; Lokhtin, I.P.

    1992-01-01

    A model of nucleus-nucleus interaction using one inelastic NN-interaction is suggested for the exclusive production processes with small cross-section. A-dependence nuclear coherent and incoherent production cross-section are predicted. 20 refs.; 4 figs

  17. Extrabulbar olfactory system and nervus terminalis FMRFamide immunoreactive components in Xenopus laevis ontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Claudia; D'Aniello, Biagio; Polese, Gianluca; Rastogi, Rakesh K

    2004-09-01

    The extrabulbar olfactory system (EBOS) is a collection of nerve fibers which originate from primary olfactory receptor-like neurons and penetrate into the brain bypassing the olfactory bulbs. Our description is based upon the application of two neuronal tracers (biocytin, carbocyanine DiI) in the olfactory sac, at the cut end of the olfactory nerve and in the telencephalon of the developing clawed frog. The extrabulbar olfactory system was observed already at stage 45, which is the first developmental stage compatible with our techniques; at this stage, the extrabulbar olfactory system fibers terminated diffusely in the preoptic area. A little later in development, i.e. at stage 50, the extrabulbar olfactory system was maximally developed, extending as far caudally as the rhombencephalon. In the metamorphosing specimens, the extrabulbar olfactory system appeared reduced in extension; caudally, the fiber terminals did not extend beyond the diencephalon. While a substantial overlapping of biocytin/FMRFamide immunoreactivity was observed along the olfactory pathways as well as in the telencephalon, FMRFamide immunoreactivity was never observed to be colocalized in the same cellular or fiber components visualized by tracer molecules. The question whether the extrabulbar olfactory system and the nervus terminalis (NT) are separate anatomical entities or represent an integrated system is discussed.

  18. Double folding model of nucleus-nucleus potential: formulae, iteration method and computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk'yanov, K.V.

    2008-01-01

    Method of construction of the nucleus-nucleus double folding potential is described. Iteration procedure for the corresponding integral equation is presented. Computer code and numerical results are presented

  19. Theory of and effects from elastoplasticity in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noerenberg, W.; Technische Hochschule Darmstadt

    1985-02-01

    Elastoplasticity of finite Fermi systems results from a coherent coupling between collective and intrinsic degrees of freedom and subsequent equilibration essentially due to two-body collisions. Within a non-markovian transport-theoretical approach referred to as dissipative diabatic dynamics (DDD), elastoplastical forms the link between giant vibrations and overdamped motion of nuclear. Obersvable effects resulting from this non-markovian behaviour in nucleus-nucleus collisions are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Centrality Dependence of Hadron Multiplicities in Nuclear Collisions in the Dual Parton Model

    CERN Document Server

    Capella, A

    2001-01-01

    We show that, even in purely soft processes, the hadronic multiplicity in nucleus-nucleus interactions contains a term that scales with the number of binary collisions. In the absence of shadowing corrections, this term dominates at mid rapidities and high energies. Shadowing corrections are calculated as a function of impact parameter and the centrality dependence of mid-rapidity multiplicities is determined. The multiplicity per participant increases with centrality with a rate that increases between SPS and RHIC energies, in agreement with experiment.

  1. Study of η-nucleus interaction through the formation of η-nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Answer to this question will deeply enrich our understanding of -nucleus interaction which is not so well-understood. We review the experimental efforts for the search of -mesic nuclei and describe the physics motivation behind it. We present the description of an experiment for the search of -nucleus bound state using ...

  2. Central amygdala, stress and adaption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, Benno

    1992-01-01

    In this thesis the results were presented of studies that were designed to provide more insight in the role of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) in the adaptation to environmental demands. The experiments were performed in several situations, in which rats react either directly to aversive

  3. Structures and functions in the crowded nucleus: new biophysical insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald eHancock

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Concepts and methods from the physical sciences have catalysed remarkable progress in understanding the cell nucleus in recent years. To share this excitement with physicists and encourage their interest in this field, this review offers an overview of how the physics which underlies structures and functions in the nucleus is becoming more clear thanks to methods which have been developed to simulate and study macromolecules, polymers, and colloids. The environment in the nucleus is very crowded with macromolecules, making entropic (depletion forces major determinants of interactions. Simulation and experiments are consistent with their key role in forming membraneless compartments such as nucleoli, PML and Cajal bodies, and discrete territories for chromosomes. The chromosomes, giant linear polyelectrolyte polymers, exist in vivo in a state like a polymer melt. Looped conformations are predicted in crowded conditions, and have been confirmed experimentally and are central to the regulation of gene expression. Polymer theory has revealed how the chromosomes are so highly compacted in the nucleus, forming a crumpled globule with fractal properties which avoids knots and entanglements in DNA while allowing facile accessibility for its replication and transcription. Entropic repulsion between looped polymers can explain the confinement of each chromosome to a discrete region of the nucleus. Crowding and looping are predicted to facilitate finding the specific targets of factors which modulate activities of DNA. Simulation shows that entropic effects contribute to finding and repairing potentially lethal double-strand breaks in DNA by increasing the mobility of the broken ends, favouring their juxtaposition for repair. Signaling pathways are strongly influenced by crowding, which favours a processive mode of response (consecutive reactions without releasing substrates. This new information contributes to understanding the sometimes counter

  4. Differential efferent projections of the anterior, posteroventral and posterodorsal subdivisions of the medial amygdala in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília ePardo-Bellver

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The medial amygdaloid nucleus (Me is a key structure in the control of sociosexual behaviour in mice. It receives direct projections from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, as well as an important hormonal input. To better understand its behavioural role, in this work we investigate the structures receiving information from the Me, by analysing the efferent projections from its anterior (MeA, posterodorsal (MePD and posteroventral (MePV subdivisions, using anterograde neuronal tracing with biotinylated and tetrametylrhodamine-conjugated dextranamines.The Me is strongly interconnected with the rest of the chemosensory amygdala, but shows only moderate projections to the central nucleus and light projections to the associative nuclei of the basolateral amygdaloid complex. In addition, the MeA originates a strong feedback projection to the deep mitral cell layer of the accessory olfactory bulb, whereas the MePV projects to its granule cell layer. The medial amygdaloid nucleus (especially the MeA has also moderate projections to different olfactory structures, including the piriform cortex. The densest outputs of the Me target the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST and the hypothalamus. The MeA and MePV project to key structures of the circuit involved in the defensive response against predators (medial posterointermediate BST, anterior hypothalamic area, dorsomedial aspect of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, although less dense projections also innervate reproductive-related nuclei. In contrast, the MePD projects mainly to structures that control reproductive behaviours (medial posteromedial BST, medial preoptic nucleus, and ventrolateral aspect of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, although less dense projections to defensive-related nuclei also exist. These results confirm and extend previous results in other rodents and suggest that the medial amygdala is anatomically and functionally compartmentalized.

  5. Effects of lidocaine injections into the lateral parabrachial nucleus on dipsogenic and pressor response to central angiotensin 2 in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menani, Jose Vanderlei; Beltz, Terry G.

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of bilateral injections of the local anesthetic, lidocaine, into the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) on the dipsogenic and pressor responses induced by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of angiotensin 2 (ANG 2). Centrally injected ANG 2 (50 ng/1 microliter) induced water intake ( IO.2 +/- 0.8 ml/h) and pressor responses (22 +/- 1 mmHg). Prior bilateral injection of 10% lidocaine (200 nl) into the LPBN increased the water intake (14.2 +/- 1.4 ml/h), but did not change the pressor response (17 +/- 1 mmHg) to i.c.v. ANG 2. Lidocaine alone injected into the LPBN also induced a pressor response (23 +/- 3 mmHg). These results showing that bilateral LPBN injection of lidocaine increase water intake induced bv i.c.v. ANG 2 are consistent with electrolytic and neurotoxic lesion studies and suggest that the LPBN is associated with inhibitory mechanisms controlling water intake induced by ANG 2. These results also provide evidence that it is feasible to reversibly anesthetize this brain area to facilitate fluid-related ingestive behavior.

  6. MRI manifestation of Wilson's disease accompanied with central pontine myelinolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingsong; Huan Yi; Chang Yingjuan; Chang Yingjuan; Ge Yali; Zhang Guangyun; Han Yuedong; Zhao Haitao; Yang Chunmin; Yang Yan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To discuss MRI manifestation of Wilson's disease accompanied with central pontine myelinolysis (CPM), and to especially detect the value of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) in this disease. Methods: Two cases of Wilson's disease accompanied with CPM were performed with sequent MR examination including T 1 WI, T 2 WI, FLAIR, DWI, and contrast-enhanced MRI (CE MRI) by a 1.5 T magnetic resonance system (Philips gyroscan master). Results: Symmetric long T 1 and T 2 signals were found in central pontine region, lenticular nucleus, caudate nucleus, and thalamus. CEMRI showed no apparent enhanced lesions. DWI showed obviously high signal intensities in central pontine region with apparent diffusion coefficient values fluctuated between (100-300) x 10 -6 mm 2 /s while FLAIR images just showed slightly high signal in the same area, which suggested that cytotoxic edema did in fact exist in CPM. Meanwhile, DWI also showed high signals in bilateral lenticular nucleus with apparent diffusion coefficient values fluctuated between (300-600) x 10 -6 mm 2 /s, however, FLAIR images showed heterogeneous high signals and one case presented low DWI signals in bilateral head of caudate nucleus, all these signs might be explained by mixed-changes of cytotoxic edema and vasogenic edema in long period of Wilson's disease. Conclusion: Wilson's disease and CPM have characteristic MRI manifestation and DWI may be a very useful way to confirm a correct diagnosis. (authors)

  7. The myth of nitric oxide in central cardiovascular control by the nucleus tractus solitarii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talman W.T.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable evidence suggests that nitroxidergic mechanisms in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS participate in cardiovascular reflex control. Much of that evidence, being based on responses to nitric oxide precursors or inhibitors of nitric oxide synthesis, has been indirect and circumstantial. We sought to directly determine cardiovascular responses to nitric oxide donors microinjected into the NTS and to determine if traditional receptor mechanisms might account for responses to certain of these donors in the central nervous system. Anesthetized adult Sprague Dawley rats that were instrumented for recording arterial pressure and heart rate were used in the physiological studies. Microinjection of nitric oxide itself into the NTS did not produce any cardiovascular responses and injection of sodium nitroprusside elicited minimal depressor responses. The S-nitrosothiols, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO, S-nitrosoacetylpenicillamine (SNAP, and S-nitroso-D-cysteine (D-SNC produced no significant cardiovascular responses while injection of S-nitroso-L-cysteine (L-SNC elicited brisk, dose-dependent depressor and bradycardic responses. In contrast, injection of glyceryl trinitrate elicited minimal pressor responses without associated changes in heart rate. It is unlikely that the responses to L-SNC were dependent on release of nitric oxide in that 1 the responses were not affected by injection of oxyhemoglobin or an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis prior to injection of L-SNC and 2 L- and D-SNC released identical amounts of nitric oxide when exposed to brain tissue homogenates. Although GSNO did not independently affect blood pressure, its injection attenuated responses to subsequent injection of L-SNC. Furthermore, radioligand binding studies suggested that in rat brain synaptosomes there is a saturable binding site for GSNO that is displaced from that site by L-SNC. The studies suggest that S-nitrosocysteine, not nitric oxide, may be an

  8. Urocortin-1 within the centrally-projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus is critical for ethanol preference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Giardino

    Full Text Available Converging lines of evidence point to the involvement of neurons of the centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EWcp containing the neuropeptide Urocortin-1 (Ucn1 in excessive ethanol (EtOH intake and EtOH sensitivity. Here, we expanded these previous findings by using a continuous-access, two-bottle choice drinking paradigm (3%, 6%, and 10% EtOH vs. tap water to compare EtOH intake and EtOH preference in Ucn1 genetic knockout (KO and wild-type (WT mice. Based on previous studies demonstrating that electrolytic lesion of the EWcp attenuated EtOH intake and preference in high-drinking C57BL/6J mice, we also set out to determine whether EWcp lesion would differentially alter EtOH consumption in Ucn1 KO and WT mice. Finally, we implemented well-established place conditioning procedures in KO and WT mice to determine whether Ucn1 and the corticotropin-releasing factor type-2 receptor (CRF-R2 were involved in the rewarding and aversive effects of EtOH (2 g/kg, i.p.. Results from these studies revealed that (1 genetic deletion of Ucn1 dampened EtOH preference only in mice with an intact EWcp, but not in mice that received lesion of the EWcp, (2 lesion of the EWcp dampened EtOH intake in Ucn1 KO and WT mice, but dampened EtOH preference only in WT mice expressing Ucn1, and (3 genetic deletion of Ucn1 or CRF-R2 abolished the conditioned rewarding effects of EtOH, but deletion of Ucn1 had no effect on the conditioned aversive effects of EtOH. The current findings provide strong support for the hypothesis that EWcp-Ucn1 neurons play an important role in EtOH intake, preference, and reward.

  9. Quark matter formation in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions - predictions and observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterlund, I.

    1983-01-01

    In this talk I give a short summary of the recent discussion around predictions and possible observations of quark-gluon plasma and fireballs in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. In particular this talk is focused on heavy ion reactions at 200 A GeV. (orig./HSI)

  10. Contrasting expressions of aggressive behavior released by lesions of the central nucleus of the amygdala during wakefulness and rapid eye movement sleep without atonia in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagrodzka, J; Hedberg, C E; Mann, G L; Morrison, A R

    1998-06-01

    Whether damage to the central nucleus of the amygdala (Ace) contributes to the predatorylike attack sometimes observed in rapid eye movement sleep without atonia (REM-A), created in cats by bilateral pontine lesions, was examined. Such lesions eliminate REM sleep skeletal muscle atonia and release elaborate behavior. Unilateral damage to the Ace alone increased affective defensive aggressive behavior toward humans and conspecifics without altering predatory behavior in wakefulness. Pontine lesions added at loci normally not leading to aggression induced predatorylike attacks in REM-A as well as the waking affective defense. Alterations of autonomic activity, the absence of relevant environmental stimuli in REM-A, or both may explain the state-related differences.

  11. Evidence of central repulsion potential from pionic decay of s-shell Λ-hypernuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai-Fuse, I.; Okabe, S.; Akaishi, Y.

    1994-10-01

    Pionic decays of A=4 and 5 hypernuclei are discussed to obtain information about a nucleus-Λ potential. Results for the available decay widths support as a whole that the nucleus-Λ potential has central repulsion not only in A=5 but also in A=4 hypernuclei. (author)

  12. The intercalatus nucleus of Staderini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascella, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Rutilio Staderini was one of the leading Italian anatomists of the twentieth century, together with some scientists, such as Giulio Chiarugi, Giovanni Vitali, and others. He was also a member of a new generation of anatomists. They had continued the tradition of the most famous Italian scientists, which started from the Renaissance up until the nineteenth century. Although he carried out important studies of neuroanatomy and comparative anatomy, as well as embryology, his name is rarely remembered by most medical historians. His name is linked to the nucleus he discovered: the Staderini nucleus or intercalated nucleus, a collection of nerve cells in the medulla oblongata located lateral to the hypoglossal nucleus. This article focuses on the biography of the neuroanatomist as well as the nucleus that carries his name and his other research, especially on comparative anatomy and embryology.

  13. Target fragmentation in proton-nucleus and16O-nucleus reactions at 60 and 200 GeV/nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, R.; Awes, T. C.; Baktash, C.; Beckmann, P.; Claesson, G.; Berger, F.; Bock, R.; Dragon, L.; Ferguson, R. L.; Franz, A.; Garpman, S.; Glasow, R.; Gustafsson, H. Å.; Gutbrod, H. H.; Kampert, K. H.; Kolb, B. W.; Kristiansson, P.; Lee, I. Y.; Löhner, H.; Lund, I.; Obenshain, F. E.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.; Peitzmann, T.; Persson, S.; Plasil, F.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Purschke, M.; Ritter, H. G.; Santo, R.; Schmidt, H. R.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Sorensen, S. P.; Stenlund, E.; Young, G. R.

    1988-03-01

    Target remnants with ZPlastic Ball detector. The excitation energy of the target spectator matter in central oxygen-induced collisions is found to be high enough to allow for complete disintegration of the target nucleus into fragments with Z<3. The average longitudinal momentum transfer per proton to the target in central collisions is considerably higher in the case of16O-induced reactions (≈300 MeV/c) than in proton-induced reactions (≈130 MeV/c). The baryon rapidity distributions are roughly in agreement with one-fluid hydrodynamical calculations at 60 GeV/nucleon16O+Au but are in disagreement at 200 GeV/nucleon, indicating the higher degree of transparency at the higher bombarding energy. Both, the transverse momenta of target spectators and the entropy produced in the target fragmentation region are compared to those attained in head-on collisions of two heavy nuclei at Bevalac energies. They are found to be comparable or do even exceed the values for the participant matter at beam energies of about 1 2 GeV/nucleon.

  14. Central Au on Au collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alard, J.P.; Amouroux, V. [Labo de Phys. Corp., IN2P3-CRNS, Univ. Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Fd. (France); Basrak, Z. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia)] [and others; FOPI-Collaboration

    1995-02-06

    In nucleus-nucleus collisions the initial relative kinetic energy of target and projectile is available for internal excitation of the interacting system; it is however still not well established to what extent local equilibrium and thermalisation occur. Local equilibrium is of interest to derive, within the formalism of transport equations and of the equation of state, (EOS), general properties of compressed and excited nuclear matter. Such approach describes in relatively simple terms the complex many body interactions occuring within extended baryonic and hadronic (or quark) matter. For a basic microscopic understanding it is highly desirable to investigate the elementary in-medium interactions in relation to the free elementary processes. Excitation function measurements of central collisions between the heaviest available nuclei (like Au on Au), supply the best ground for such studies: the highest degree of thermalisation and compression is expected for such reactions. The consideration presented here of energy thermalisation and of an expanding system clusterizing at freeze-out in a situation close to the liquid gas phase transition can be of interest to astrophysics as well as to the quark gluon plasma deconfinement studied in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the higher energy regime of CERN and Brookhaven. (orig.).

  15. The picture of the nuclei disintegration mechanism - from hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions experimental investigations at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalska-Gola, E.; Strugalski, Z.; Chmielowski, W.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of the nuclei disintegration process in collisions of high-energy hadrons with nuclei is revealed experimentally. The disintegration appears as a complicated nuclear process developing in time and space in intranuclear matter, consisting at least of three stages which last together about 10 -24 - 10 -17 s after the impact. At the first stage, which lasts about 10 -24 - 10 -22 s, fast nucleons are densely emitted and the target-nucleus is locally damaged. At the second stage, lasting about 10 -22 - 10 -1 7 s, the damaged and unstable residual target nucleus uses to evaporate light fragments - mainly nucleons, deuterons, tritons, α-particles. At the final stage, the residual target-nucleus uses to split sometimes into two or more nuclear fragments

  16. Central transport and distribution of labelled glutamic and aspartic acids to the cochlear nucleus in cats. An autoradiographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, E S [University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA (USA). Dept. of Anatomy

    1979-01-01

    Tritiated L-glutamic acid or L-aspartic acid was injected unilaterally into the cochleas of adult cats, and 4 h-7 days later the localization of label was studied by light-microscopic autoradiography in sections of the brain stem. Consistent differences in labelling after glutamate and after aspartate suggest differences in their uptake, metabolic conversion and/or transport to the cochlear nucleus by cochlear fibers. The morphological differences shown here agree with the distribution of those two amino acids in the cat cochlear nucleus as shown by microchemical analyses.

  17. Proton rapidity distribution in nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, F.H.

    2002-01-01

    The proton rapidity distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) energies are analysed by the revised thermalized cylinder model. The calculated results are compared and found to he in agreement with the experimental data of Si-AI and Si-Pb collisions at 14.6 A GeV/c, Pb-Pb collisions at 158 A GeV/c, and S-S collisions at 200 A GeV/c. (Author)

  18. ψ' and J/ψ suppression in high-energy nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin.

    1995-01-01

    The observed features of ψ' to J/ψ suppression in pA and nucleus-nucleus collisions can be explained in terms of a two-component absorption model. For the hard component of the absorption due to the interaction of the produced c bar c systems with baryons at high relative energies, the absorption cross sections are insensitive to the radii of the c bar c systems, as described by the Additive Quark Model. For the soft component due to the low energy c bar c interactions with soft particles produced by other baryon-baryon collisions, the absorption cross sections are greater for ψ' than for J/ψ, because the breakup threshold for ψ' is much smaller than for ψ

  19. Lateralized kappa opioid receptor signaling from the amygdala central nucleus promotes stress-induced functional pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Kelsey M; De Felice, Milena; Hernandez, Pablo I; Dodick, David W; Neugebauer, Volker; Navratilova, Edita; Porreca, Frank

    2018-05-01

    The response of diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC) is often decreased, or lost, in stress-related functional pain syndromes. Because the dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) pathway is activated by stress, we determined its role in DNIC using a model of stress-induced functional pain. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats were primed for 7 days with systemic morphine resulting in opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Fourteen days after priming, when hyperalgesia was resolved, rats were exposed to environmental stress and DNIC was evaluated by measuring hind paw response threshold to noxious pressure (test stimulus) after capsaicin injection in the forepaw (conditioning stimulus). Morphine priming without stress did not alter DNIC. However, stress produced a loss of DNIC in morphine-primed rats in both hind paws that was abolished by systemic administration of the KOR antagonist, nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI). Microinjection of nor-BNI into the right, but not left, central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) prevented the loss of DNIC in morphine-primed rats. Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls were not modulated by bilateral nor-BNI in the rostral ventromedial medulla. Stress increased dynorphin content in both the left and right CeA of primed rats, reaching significance only in the right CeA; no change was observed in the rostral ventromedial medulla or hypothalamus. Although morphine priming alone is not sufficient to influence DNIC, it establishes a state of latent sensitization that amplifies the consequences of stress. After priming, stress-induced dynorphin/KOR signaling from the right CeA inhibits DNIC in both hind paws, likely reflecting enhanced descending facilitation that masks descending inhibition. Kappa opioid receptor antagonists may provide a new therapeutic strategy for stress-related functional pain disorders.

  20. MR Imaging of Ventriculus Terminalis of The Conus Medullaris. A report of two operated patients and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dullerud, Reidar; Server, A. [Ullevaal Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Div. of Radiology; Berg-Johnsen, J. [The National Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Neurosurgery

    2003-07-01

    We report on 2 patients in whom a cystic dilation of the conus medullaris was incidentally found at MR imaging carried out in the work-up for sciatica. The cysts were well circumscribed and had signal intensity identical to the CSF on both T1- and T2-weighted images. There was no evidence of contrast enhancement. None of the patients had specific symptoms related to the spinal cord. At surgery, no evidence of malignancy was seen in any of the patients. A benign cystic dilation, also called dilated ventriculus terminalis, occasionally can be seen in the conus medullaris as an incidental finding at thoracolumbar MR imaging. Unless the expansion per se indicates cyst drainage, these patients may be monitored by clinical and MR follow-up, avoiding surgery in a substantial number of cases.

  1. MR Imaging of Ventriculus Terminalis of The Conus Medullaris. A report of two operated patients and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dullerud, Reidar; Server, A.; Berg-Johnsen, J.

    2003-01-01

    We report on 2 patients in whom a cystic dilation of the conus medullaris was incidentally found at MR imaging carried out in the work-up for sciatica. The cysts were well circumscribed and had signal intensity identical to the CSF on both T1- and T2-weighted images. There was no evidence of contrast enhancement. None of the patients had specific symptoms related to the spinal cord. At surgery, no evidence of malignancy was seen in any of the patients. A benign cystic dilation, also called dilated ventriculus terminalis, occasionally can be seen in the conus medullaris as an incidental finding at thoracolumbar MR imaging. Unless the expansion per se indicates cyst drainage, these patients may be monitored by clinical and MR follow-up, avoiding surgery in a substantial number of cases

  2. Biochemical evidence for. gamma. -aminobutyrate containing fibres from the nucleus accumbens to the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walaas, I; Fonnum, F

    1980-01-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase activity, a specific marker for ..gamma..-aminobutyrate-containing neurons, has been analysed in microdissected samples from rat mesencephalon following unilateral electrocoagulations of the nucleus accumbens. This lesion resulted in a consistent decrease of 50% in the enzyme activity in the rostromedial substantia nigra, and a slight, but insignificant decrease (- 15%) in the medial parts of the caudal pars compacta of the substantia nigra. No change was found in the lateral pars compacta or the central pars reticulata. In the ventral tegmental area, the highest activity was found in the rostromedial part, adjacent to the mammillary body. At this level, a significant decrease of 20% was found in the ventral tegmental area on the lesioned side. In contrast, the activities in the medial accessory optic nucleus and the caudal ventral tegmental area adjacent to the interpenduncular nucleus were unchanged. The results indicate that the nucleus accumbens sends ..gamma..-aminobutyrate-containing fibres to the rostromedial substantia nigra and to the rostral ventral tegmental area. The caudal ventral tegmental area, the lateral pars compacta and the central pars reticulata do not receive measurable amounts of such fibres.

  3. In Vivo Dentate Nucleus Gamma-aminobutyric Acid Concentration in Essential Tremor vs. Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D; Hernandez, Nora; Dyke, Jonathan P; Ma, Ruoyun E; Dydak, Ulrike

    2018-04-01

    Despite its high prevalence, essential tremor (ET) is among the most poorly understood neurological diseases. The presence and extent of Purkinje cell (PC) loss in ET is the subject of controversy. PCs are a major storehouse of central nervous system gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), releasing GABA at the level of the dentate nucleus. It is therefore conceivable that cerebellar dentate nucleus GABA concentration could be an in vivo marker of PC number. We used in vivo 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to quantify GABA concentrations in two cerebellar volumes of interest, left and right, which included the dentate nucleus, comparing 45 ET cases to 35 age-matched controls. 1 H MRS was performed using a 3.0-T Siemens Tim Trio scanner. The MEGA-PRESS J-editing sequence was used for GABA detection in two cerebellar volumes of interest (left and right) that included the dentate nucleus. The two groups did not differ with respect to our primary outcome of GABA concentration (given in institutional units). For the right dentate nucleus, [GABA] in ET cases = 2.01 ± 0.45 and [GABA] in controls = 1.86 ± 0.53, p = 0.17. For the left dentate nucleus, [GABA] in ET cases = 1.68 ± 0.49 and [GABA] controls = 1.80 ± 0.53, p = 0.33. The controls had similar dentate nucleus [GABA] in the right vs. left dentate nucleus (p = 0.52); however, in ET cases, the value on the right was considerably higher than that on the left (p = 0.001). We did not detect a reduction in dentate nucleus GABA concentration in ET cases vs. One interpretation of the finding is that it does not support the existence of PC loss in ET; however, an alternative interpretation is the observed pattern could be due to the effects of terminal sprouting in ET (i.e., collateral sprouting from surviving PCs making up for the loss of GABA-ergic terminals from PC degeneration). Further research is needed.

  4. The Baryon Production and Baryon Number Transfer in Hadron-Hadron, Hadron-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanski, P.

    2006-09-01

    This work concerns soft hadronic interactions which in the Standard Model carry most of the observable cross-section but are not amenable to quantitative predictions due to the very nature of the QCD (Theory of Strong Interactions). In the low momentum transfer region the evolving coupling constant caused perturbation theory to break down. In this situation better experimental understanding of the physics phenomena is needed. One aspect of the soft hadronic interactions will be discussed in this work: transfer of the baryon number from the initial to the final state of the interaction. The past experimental knowledge on this process is presented, reasons for its unsatisfactory status are discussed and condition necessary for improvement are outlined: that is experimental apparatus with superior performance over the full range of available interactions: hadron-hadron collision, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions. A consistent model-independent picture of the baryon number transfer process emerging from the data on the full range of interactions is shown. It offers serious challenge to theory to provide quantitative and detailed explanation of the measurements. (author)

  5. Production of strange and multistrange hadrons in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the SPS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antinori, F.; Bakke, H.; Beusch, W.; Staroba, Pavel; Závada, Petr

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 661, - (1999), 130c-139c ISSN 0375-9474 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010920 Keywords : production * nucleus-nucleus collisions * hadrons * strangeness * model predictions Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 2.088, year: 1999

  6. Kaonic nuclei and kaon-nucleus interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ikuta, K; Masutani, K

    2002-01-01

    Although kaonic atoms provide valuable information concerning the K sup - -nucleus interaction at low energies, they cannot fully determine the K sup - - nucleus optical potential. We demonstrate that K sup - nuclear bound states, if they exist, can be useful in investigating the K sup - -nucleus interaction, especially in the interior of the nucleus. In order to show this possibility, we calculate the double differential cross sections for (K sup - , P) using the Green function method. (author)

  7. Distribution of oxytocin and co-localization with arginine vasopressin in the brain of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-García, Marcos; Agustín-Pavón, Carmen; Lanuza, Enrique; Martínez-García, Fernando

    2016-09-01

    Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) play a major role in social behaviours. Mice have become the species of choice for neurobiology of social behaviour due to identification of mouse pheromones and the advantage of genetically modified mice. However, neuroanatomical data on nonapeptidergic systems in mice are fragmentary, especially concerning the central distribution of OT. Therefore, we analyse the immunoreactivity for OT and its neurophysin in the brain of male and female mice (strain CD1). Further, we combine immunofluorescent detection of OT and AVP to locate cells co-expressing both peptides and their putative axonal processes. The results indicate that OT is present in cells of the neurosecretory paraventricular (Pa) and supraoptic hypothalamic nuclei (SON). From the anterior SON, OTergic cells extend into the medial amygdala, where a sparse cell population occupies its ventral anterior and posterior divisions. Co-expression of OT and AVP in these nuclei is rare. Moreover, a remarkable OTergic cell group is found near the ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), distributed between the anterodorsal preoptic nucleus and the nucleus of anterior commissure (ADP/AC). This cell group, the rostral edge of the Pa and the periventricular hypothalamus display frequent OT + AVP double labelling, with a general dominance of OT over AVP immunoreactivity. Fibres with similar immunoreactivity profile innervate the accumbens shell and core, central amygdala and portions of the intervening BST. These data, together with data in the literature on rats, suggest that the projections of ADP/AC nonapeptidergic cells onto these brain centres could promote pup-motivated behaviours and inhibit pup avoidance during motherhood.

  8. The nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marano, S.

    1998-01-01

    In 1911 E.Rutherford discovered the nucleus. Since then the nucleus has been investigated with more and more powerful tools but it remains the main field of study of nuclear physics. As it is impossible to take into account the interaction of all the nucleons, a theory based on the hypothesis that each nucleon undergoes an average interaction force has been set up. 2 representations have emerged: the Skyrme force and the Gogny force. Both representations match experimental results but are unable to describe fission yields or the multi-fragmentation of very hot nuclei. The mean-field theory can predict the shape of the nuclei according to its energy level. An experimental program involving the Vivitron accelerator and the Euroball detector is due to begin to validate it. By bombarding targets with exotic nuclei nuclear physicists detect new structures and test their collision models. About ten years ago nuclear halos were observed with lithium 11 nuclei. In this nucleus 2 neutrons move in a space larger than the nucleus itself. This discovery has triggered the elaboration of new theories based on nuclear clusters. At very high temperatures the mean-field theory predicts that nuclear matter acts as a fluid. Following the nuclei temperature different ways of decay appear: first evaporation then multi-fragmentation and vaporization. This ultimate stage occurs around 100 milliard celsius degree temperature when the nuclei decays in a multitude of light particles. Isomeric states are studied and could be seen as a way of storing energy. In a very pedagogical way this article gives information to understand the challenges that face nuclear physics today and highlights the contributions of Cea in this field. (A.C.)

  9. A central neural circuit for itch sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Di; Deng, Juan; Liu, Ke-Fei; Wu, Zhen-Yu; Shi, Yu-Feng; Guo, Wei-Min; Mao, Qun-Quan; Liu, Xing-Jun; Li, Hui; Sun, Yan-Gang

    2017-08-18

    Although itch sensation is an important protective mechanism for animals, chronic itch remains a challenging clinical problem. Itch processing has been studied extensively at the spinal level. However, how itch information is transmitted to the brain and what central circuits underlie the itch-induced scratching behavior remain largely unknown. We found that the spinoparabrachial pathway was activated during itch processing and that optogenetic suppression of this pathway impaired itch-induced scratching behaviors. Itch-mediating spinal neurons, which express the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor, are disynaptically connected to the parabrachial nucleus via glutamatergic spinal projection neurons. Blockade of synaptic output of glutamatergic neurons in the parabrachial nucleus suppressed pruritogen-induced scratching behavior. Thus, our studies reveal a central neural circuit that is critical for itch signal processing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  10. Galactic spiral arms formed by central explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havnes, O.

    1978-01-01

    Calculations have been made of spiral arm formation due to central explosions in a nucleus surrounded by a disc containing most of the galactic mass with the purpose of obtaining estimates on lifetimes of arms and the requirements on the energy involved in the process. The ejected gas is taken to be a few percent, or less, of the central nucleus and is ejected with velocities of the order of 1000 km s -1 . The gas, considered to be in forms of blobs, moves under the gravitational force from the disc and the nucleus and the drag force by the gas in the disc. The orbits of the blobs evolve towards the circular orbits of the disc due to this drag force and the velocities in the arms will therefore, after some time, approach those of a normal rotation curve. A relatively open structure will last 8 years. Stable ring structures with longer lifetimes may be formed by some explosions. With an energy of approximately 5 x 10 57 erg in the initial gas-blob motion and a duration of the explosion of approximately 10 7 years, the energy output in such explosions has to be > 10 43 erg s -1 . (Auth.)

  11. Increase in cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in specific areas of the mouse brain by acute caffeine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin Hee; Cho, Yun Ha; Kim, Hyo Young; Cha, Seung Ha; Ryu, Hyun; Jang, Wooyoung; Shin, Kyung Ho

    2015-04-01

    Caffeine produces a variety of behavioral effects including increased alertness, reduced food intake, anxiogenic effects, and dependence upon repeated exposure. Although many of the effects of caffeine are mediated by its ability to block adenosine receptors, it is possible that other neural substrates, such as cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), may be involved in the effects of caffeine. Indeed, a recent study demonstrated that repeated caffeine administration increases CART in the mouse striatum. However, it is not clear whether acute caffeine administration alters CART in other areas of the brain. To explore this possibility, we investigated the dose- and time-dependent changes in CART immunoreactivity (CART-IR) after a single dose of caffeine in mice. We found that a high dose of caffeine (100 mg/kg) significantly increased CART-IR 2 h after administration in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBNST), central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (Arc), and locus coeruleus (LC), and returned to control levels after 8 h. But this increase was not observed in other brain areas. In addition, caffeine administration at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg appears to produce dose-dependent increases in CART-IR in these brain areas; however, the magnitude of increase in CART-IR observed at a dose of 50 mg/kg was similar or greater than that observed at a dose of 100 mg/kg. This result suggests that CART-IR in AcbSh, dBNST, CeA, PVN, Arc, and LC is selectively affected by caffeine administration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation does not influence basal glucose metabolism or insulin sensitivity in patients with Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, Nicolette M.; Sondermeijer, Brigitte M.; Twickler, Th B. Marcel; de Bie, Rob M.; Ackermans, Mariëtte T.; Fliers, Eric; Schuurman, P. Richard; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Serlie, Mireille J.

    2014-01-01

    Animal studies have shown that central dopamine signaling influences glucose metabolism. As a first step to show this association in an experimental setting in humans, we studied whether deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), which modulates the basal ganglia circuitry,

  13. The study of the nucleus as a theme in contemporary physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottelson, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    Niels Bohr was just eleven years old when Becquerel discovered the first hint of the existence of the atomic nucleus in those faintly glowing ashes from the ancient cosmic fireworks that created the elements of which our solid earth and our living bodies are made; fifteen years later Rutherford was to exploit the natural radioactivity as a marvelous extension of the human sense organs able to resolve the atomic systems into their open, planetary electronic structures surrounding the dense, small, enigmatic atomic nucleus. This report is an attempt to characterize and review the shifting questions and the physical problems that motivated them in the studies that have led to a growing understanding of this unexpected new form of matter occurring in atomic nuclei. The author hopes to be able to indicate how some of these historically important issues have reappeared, transformed, as central issues in current research. (Auth.)

  14. Urotensin II promotes vagal-mediated bradycardia by activating cardiac-projecting parasympathetic neurons of nucleus ambiguus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailoiu, Gabriela Cristina; Deliu, Elena; Rabinowitz, Joseph E; Tilley, Douglas G; Koch, Walter J; Brailoiu, Eugen

    2014-05-01

    Urotensin II (U-II) is a cyclic undecapeptide that regulates cardiovascular function at central and peripheral sites. The functional role of U-II nucleus ambiguus, a key site controlling cardiac tone, has not been established, despite the identification of U-II and its receptor at this level. We report here that U-II produces an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in retrogradely labeled cardiac vagal neurons of nucleus ambiguus via two pathways: (i) Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum via inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor; and (ii) Ca(2+) influx through P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels. In addition, U-II depolarizes cultured cardiac parasympathetic neurons. Microinjection of increasing concentrations of U-II into nucleus ambiguus elicits dose-dependent bradycardia in conscious rats, indicating the in vivo activation of the cholinergic pathway controlling the heart rate. Both the in vitro and in vivo effects were abolished by the urotensin receptor antagonist, urantide. Our findings suggest that, in addition, to the previously reported increase in sympathetic outflow, U-II activates cardiac vagal neurons of nucleus ambiguus, which may contribute to cardioprotection. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  15. Differential efferent projections of the anterior, posteroventral, and posterodorsal subdivisions of the medial amygdala in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Bellver, Cecília; Cádiz-Moretti, Bernardita; Novejarque, Amparo; Martínez-García, Fernando; Lanuza, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    The medial amygdaloid nucleus (Me) is a key structure in the control of sociosexual behavior in mice. It receives direct projections from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs (AOB), as well as an important hormonal input. To better understand its behavioral role, in this work we investigate the structures receiving information from the Me, by analysing the efferent projections from its anterior (MeA), posterodorsal (MePD) and posteroventral (MePV) subdivisions, using anterograde neuronal tracing with biotinylated and tetrametylrhodamine-conjugated dextranamines. The Me is strongly interconnected with the rest of the chemosensory amygdala, but shows only moderate projections to the central nucleus and light projections to the associative nuclei of the basolateral amygdaloid complex. In addition, the MeA originates a strong feedback projection to the deep mitral cell layer of the AOB, whereas the MePV projects to its granule cell layer. The Me (especially the MeA) has also moderate projections to different olfactory structures, including the piriform cortex (Pir). The densest outputs of the Me target the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the hypothalamus. The MeA and MePV project to key structures of the circuit involved in the defensive response against predators (medial posterointermediate BST, anterior hypothalamic area, dorsomedial aspect of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus), although less dense projections also innervate reproductive-related nuclei. In contrast, the MePD projects mainly to structures that control reproductive behaviors [medial posteromedial BST, medial preoptic nucleus, and ventrolateral aspect of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus], although less dense projections to defensive-related nuclei also exist. These results confirm and extend previous results in other rodents and suggest that the medial amygdala is anatomically and functionally compartmentalized.

  16. Distribution of angiotensin converting enzyme in sheep hypothalamus and medulla oblongata visualized by in vitro autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, S.Y.; McKinley, M.J.; Mendelsohn, F.A.

    1987-01-01

    In vitro autoradiographic mapping of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in sheep brain using the specific ACE inhibitor, 125 I-351A, revealed very high densities of binding in large blood vessels and choroid plexus. In the a very high density of labelling occurred in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and median eminence and a high density in the subfornical organ and moderate density in supraoptic, suprachiasmatic, arcuate and paraventricular nuclei. All fiber tracts were unlabelled. In the medulla oblongata, a very high density of binding was detected in the area postrema and a high density in the nucleus of the solitary tract and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus; a moderate density was found in the substantia gelatinosa of the spinal tract and the inferior olivary nucleus

  17. Dissipation in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santanu Pal

    1984-01-01

    This paper deals with the mechanism of one- and two-body dissipations in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The average energy transferred to nuclear excitations is calculated using a time-dependent density matrix approach with lowest-order approximations. Considering the nuclei as Fermi gases, and using a gaussian-type NN interaction as the basic perturbation, simplified expressions are obtained for energy dissipations. These expressions are quite instructive to follow a number of interesting aspects of one- and two-body dissipations. It is theoretically observed that the memory time for the two-body dissipation is significantly smaller than that of one-body dissipation. A threshold-type dependence of the transferred energy on the relative velocity between the two nuclei is also observed. This threshold velocity is found to be related with the intrinsic nucleon kinetic energy for two-body dissipation and with the nuclear size for the one-body case. This observation further suggests that the total dissipated energy is shared between the two nuclei approximately in the ratio of their masses. The physical origin of these observations is also explained. Numerical calculations further illustrate some characteristic features of one- and two-body dissipations. (orig.)

  18. Single nucleon emission in relativistic nucleus-nucleus reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Significant discrepancies between theory and experiment have previously been noted for nucleon emission via electromagnetic processes in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. The present work investigates the hypothesis that these discrepancies have arisen due to uncertainties about how to deduce the experimental electromagnetic cross section from the total measured cross section. An optical-model calculation of single neutron removal is added to electromagnetic cross sections and compared to the total experimental cross sections. Good agreement is found thereby resolving some of the earlier noted discrepancies. A detailed comparison to the recent work of Benesh, Cook, and Vary is made for both the impact parameter and the nuclear cross section. Good agreement is obtained giving an independent confirmation of the parameterized formulas developed by those authors

  19. Effect of desipramine and citalopram treatment on forced swimming test-induced changes in cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) immunoreactivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung; Kim, Hee Jeong; Kim, Hyun Ju; Choi, Sun Hye; Kim, Jin Wook; Kim, Jeong Min; Shin, Kyung Ho

    2014-05-01

    Recent study demonstrates antidepressant-like effect of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the forced swimming test (FST), but less is known about whether antidepressant treatments alter levels of CART immunoreactivity (CART-IR) in the FST. To explore this possibility, we assessed the treatment effects of desipramine and citalopram, which inhibit the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into the presynaptic terminals, respectively, on changes in levels of CART-IR before and after the test swim in mouse brain. Levels of CART-IR in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBNST), and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were significantly increased before the test swim by desipramine and citalopram treatments. This increase in CART-IR in the AcbSh, dBNST, and PVN before the test swim remained elevated by desipramine treatment after the test swim, but this increase in these brain areas returned to near control levels after test swim by citalopram treatment. Citalopram, but not desipramine, treatment increased levels of CART-IR in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and the locus ceruleus (LC) before the test swim, and this increase was returned to control levels after the test swim in the CeA, but not in the LC. These results suggest common and distinct regulation of CART by desipramine and citalopram treatments in the FST and raise the possibility that CART in the AcbSh, dBNST, and CeA may be involved in antidepressant-like effect in the FST.

  20. Direct projection from the suprachiasmatic nucleus to hypophysiotrophic corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus demonstrated...

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrang, N.; Larsen, P.J.; Mikkelsen, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, circadian rhythms, phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin, corticotropin-releasing factor, dual immunocytochemistry......Suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, circadian rhythms, phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin, corticotropin-releasing factor, dual immunocytochemistry...

  1. Neuropeptide Y infusion into the shell region of the rat nucleus accumbens increases extracellular levels of dopamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gunnar; Wegener, Gregers; Hasselstrøm, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Increases in extracellular dopamine in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens are centrally involved in mediating reinforcement of addictive drugs. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and its receptors are present in the nucleus accumbens and have been implicated in addiction mechanisms. This study further...... explored the potential role of NPY in addiction mechanisms using microdialysis to measure extracellular dopamine in vivo after infusion of NPY directly into the accumbal shell region of adult rats. NPY was found to dose-dependently increase extracellular dopamine levels, indicating that NPY could play...... an important role in drug reinforcement by modulating accumbal dopamine levels...

  2. Star Formation in the Central Regions of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Mengchun

    2015-08-01

    The galactic central region connects the galactic nucleus to the host galaxy. If the central black hole co-evolved with the host galaxies, there should be some evidence left in the central region. We use the environmental properties in the central regions such as star-forming activity, stellar population and molecular abundance to figure out a possible scenario of the evolution of galaxies. In this thesis at first we investigated the properties of the central regions in the host galaxies of active and normal galaxies. We used radio emission around the nuclei of the host galaxies to represent activity of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and used infrared ray (IR) emission to represent the star-forming activity and stellar population of the host galaxies. We determined that active galaxies have higher stellar masses (SMs) within the central kiloparsec radius than normal galaxies do independent of the Hubble types of the host galaxies; but both active and normal galaxies exhibit similar specific star formation rates (SSFRs). We also discovered that certain AGNs exhibit substantial inner stellar structures in the IR images; most of the AGNs with inner structures are Seyferts, whereas only a few LINERs exhibit inner structures. We note that the AGNs with inner structures show a positive correlation between the radio activity of the AGNs and the SFRs of the host galaxies, but the sources without inner structures show a negative correlation between the radio power and the SFRs. These results might be explained with a scenario of starburst-AGN evolution. In this scenario, AGN activities are triggered following a nuclear starburst; during the evolution, AGN activities are accompanied by SF activity in the inner regions of the host galaxies; at the final stage of the evolution, the AGNs might transform into LINERs, exhibiting weak SF activity in the central regions of the host galaxies. For further investigation about the inner structure, we choose the most nearby and luminous

  3. MR findings of degenerative changes of nucleus pulposus in lumbar spine: sequential changes after disc herniation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Joon [Choong-Ang Gil Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Yoo Mi; Hwang, Hee Young [College of Medicine, Dankook University, Chenoan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-04-15

    To evaluate the relationship between MR changes of the nucleus pulposus and the time interval after traumatic disc herniation. T2-weighted MR images of 132 patients with back pain and/or sciatica were reviewed. The changes of signal intensity, central cleft and height of the nucleus pulposus were used as criteria of disc degeneration and they were graded as normal, mild, moderate and severe degree of degeneration. Putting these criteria together we provided integrated grade of degeneration of the nucleus pulposus(grade 0-3). To get the preliminary data for normal and age-related disc degeneration, we measured the disc height by age groups and disc levels and analyzed the relationship between the age of the patients and the signal intensity, cleft and height in normal disc levels of the 132 patients. In 68 patients of 88 levels disc herniation, we analyzed the relationship between symptom duration and the degree of degeneration. Among these 68 patients we selected 14 patients(16 levels) who were under 30 years of age and had history of recent trauma to minimize data distortion from age related degeneration and ambiguity of initiation point of degeneration. In this group we analyzed the relationship between the time period after traumatic disc herniation and the degree of degeneration. The age of the patient had close relationship with the grade of signal intensity, central cleft, and disc height and grade of degeneration of the nucleus pulposus in normal discs. In 88 levels of herniated discs, the duration of symptom and degree of degeneration showed moderate correlation. In 14 patients of disc herniation who were under 30 years old and had trauma history in recent 2 years, grade 1 disc degeneration occurred in average 3.7 months after trauma. Although it was difficult to proceed statistical analysis in the last group because of small patients number, the degree of degeneration of nucleus pulposus had close relationship with the duration after traumas or duration of

  4. MR findings of degenerative changes of nucleus pulposus in lumbar spine: sequential changes after disc herniation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Joon; Cha, Yoo Mi; Hwang, Hee Young

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between MR changes of the nucleus pulposus and the time interval after traumatic disc herniation. T2-weighted MR images of 132 patients with back pain and/or sciatica were reviewed. The changes of signal intensity, central cleft and height of the nucleus pulposus were used as criteria of disc degeneration and they were graded as normal, mild, moderate and severe degree of degeneration. Putting these criteria together we provided integrated grade of degeneration of the nucleus pulposus(grade 0-3). To get the preliminary data for normal and age-related disc degeneration, we measured the disc height by age groups and disc levels and analyzed the relationship between the age of the patients and the signal intensity, cleft and height in normal disc levels of the 132 patients. In 68 patients of 88 levels disc herniation, we analyzed the relationship between symptom duration and the degree of degeneration. Among these 68 patients we selected 14 patients(16 levels) who were under 30 years of age and had history of recent trauma to minimize data distortion from age related degeneration and ambiguity of initiation point of degeneration. In this group we analyzed the relationship between the time period after traumatic disc herniation and the degree of degeneration. The age of the patient had close relationship with the grade of signal intensity, central cleft, and disc height and grade of degeneration of the nucleus pulposus in normal discs. In 88 levels of herniated discs, the duration of symptom and degree of degeneration showed moderate correlation. In 14 patients of disc herniation who were under 30 years old and had trauma history in recent 2 years, grade 1 disc degeneration occurred in average 3.7 months after trauma. Although it was difficult to proceed statistical analysis in the last group because of small patients number, the degree of degeneration of nucleus pulposus had close relationship with the duration after traumas or duration of

  5. LM1-64: a Newly Reported Lmc-Pn with WR Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, M.; Olguin, L.; Ruiz, M. T.; Torres-Peimbert, S.

    1993-05-01

    The object LM1-64 was reported by Lindsay & Mullan (1963, Irish Astron. J., 5, 51) as a probable PN in the LMC. Optical and UV spectra taken by us confirm that suggestion. LM1-64 is a high excitation planetary nebulae which shows evidence of having a WC central star. Broad stellar emission at lambda 4650 is detected in the optical spectrum obtained with the CTIO 4m telescope, in 1989. A UV spectrum in the range from 1200 Angstroms to 2000 Angstroms was obtained with IUE in 1990. We have measured all the emission line fluxes available and determined values for the physical conditions and chemical abundances of the nebular ionized gas. The derived values are T(OIII) = 14000K, log He/H = 11.05, log C/H = 9.48, log O/H = 8.55 and log Ne/H = 7.94. LM1-64 shows a large C enhancement in the envelope as result of the central star activity, while He, O and Ne are comparable to the average values reported for the LMC-PNe (Monk, Barlow & Clegg, 1988, MNRAS, 234, 583). We have estimated the He II Zanstra temperature of the central star to be ~ 80,000 K. This temperature is much higher than the values reported for the known LMC-PNe with WR nucleus that Monk et al. have classified as W4 to W8. The only other high temperature WR nucleus in a LMC-PN is N66 which recently showed evidence of undergoing a WR episode (Torres-Peimbert, Ruiz, Peimbert & Pe\\ na, 1993, IAU Symp. 155, eds. A. Acker & R. Weinberger, in press).

  6. Serotonin projection patterns to the cochlear nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A M; Thompson, G C

    2001-07-13

    The cochlear nucleus is well known as an obligatory relay center for primary auditory nerve fibers. Perhaps not so well known is the neural input to the cochlear nucleus from cells containing serotonin that reside near the midline in the midbrain raphe region. Although the specific locations of the main, if not sole, sources of serotonin within the dorsal cochlear nucleus subdivision are known to be the dorsal and median raphe nuclei, sources of serotonin located within other cochlear nucleus subdivisions are not currently known. Anterograde tract tracing was used to label fibers originating from the dorsal and median raphe nuclei while fluorescence immunohistochemistry was used to simultaneously label specific serotonin fibers in cat. Biotinylated dextran amine was injected into the dorsal and median raphe nuclei and was visualized with Texas Red, while serotonin was visualized with fluorescein. Thus, double-labeled fibers were unequivocally identified as serotoninergic and originating from one of the labeled neurons within the dorsal and median raphe nuclei. Double-labeled fiber segments, typically of fine caliber with oval varicosities, were observed in many areas of the cochlear nucleus. They were found in the molecular layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus, in the small cell cap region, and in the granule cell and external regions of the cochlear nuclei, bilaterally, of all cats. However, the density of these double-labeled fiber segments varied considerably depending upon the exact region in which they were found. Fiber segments were most dense in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (especially in the molecular layer) and the large spherical cell area of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus; they were moderately dense in the small cell cap region; and fiber segments were least dense in the octopus and multipolar cell regions of the posteroventral cochlear nucleus. Because of the presence of labeled fiber segments in subdivisions of the cochlear nucleus other than the

  7. Actomyosin contractility rotates the cell nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Maitra, Ananyo; Sumit, Madhuresh; Ramaswamy, Sriram; Shivashankar, G V

    2014-01-21

    The cell nucleus functions amidst active cytoskeletal filaments, but its response to their contractile stresses is largely unexplored. We study the dynamics of the nuclei of single fibroblasts, with cell migration suppressed by plating onto micro-fabricated patterns. We find the nucleus undergoes noisy but coherent rotational motion. We account for this observation through a hydrodynamic approach, treating the nucleus as a highly viscous inclusion residing in a less viscous fluid of orientable filaments endowed with active stresses. Lowering actin contractility selectively by introducing blebbistatin at low concentrations drastically reduced the speed and coherence of the angular motion of the nucleus. Time-lapse imaging of actin revealed a correlated hydrodynamic flow around the nucleus, with profile and magnitude consistent with the results of our theoretical approach. Coherent intracellular flows and consequent nuclear rotation thus appear to be an intrinsic property of cells.

  8. Multi-quark effects in high energy nucleon-nucleon and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besliu, C.; Caraciuc, I.; Jipa, A.; Olariu, A.; Topor-Pop, R.; Cotorobai, F.; Pantea, D.; Popa, L.; Popa, V.; Topor-Pop, V.

    1988-02-01

    Recent data obtained in two experiments performed in the framework of the Bucharest-Dubna collaboration are presented, i.e.: the observation of narrow dibaryonic resonances is neutron-proton interactions in 1mHBC at different momenta of incident neutrons in the range 1-5 GeV/c, and the cumulative production of negative pions in nucleus-nucleus interactions in SKM-200 streamer chamber at 4.5 GeV/c. (authors)

  9. Microscopic model of nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, B.G.

    1986-04-01

    The collision of two nuclei is treated as a collection of collisions between the nucleons of the projectile and those of the target nucleus. The primary projectile fragments contain only those nucleons that did not undergo a collision. The inclusive and coincidence cross sections result from the decay of the excited primary fragments. 15 refs., 5 figs

  10. [Emotion and basal ganglia (II): what can we learn from subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péron, J; Dondaine, T

    2012-01-01

    The subthalamic nucleus deep-brain stimulation Parkinson's disease patient model seems to represent a unique opportunity for studying the functional role of the basal ganglia and notably the subthalamic nucleus in human emotional processing. Indeed, in addition to constituting a therapeutic advance for severely disabled Parkinson's disease patients, deep brain stimulation is a technique, which selectively modulates the activity of focal structures targeted by surgery. There is growing evidence of a link between emotional impairments and deep-brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus. In this context, according to the definition of emotional processing exposed in the companion paper available in this issue, the aim of the present review will consist in providing a synopsis of the studies that investigated the emotional disturbances observed in subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation Parkinson's disease patients. This review leads to the conclusion that several emotional components would be disrupted after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease: subjective feeling, neurophysiological activation, and motor expression. Finally, after a description of the limitations of this study model, we discuss the functional role of the subthalamic nucleus (and the striato-thalamo-cortical circuits in which it is involved) in emotional processing. It seems reasonable to conclude that the striato-thalamo-cortical circuits are indeed involved in emotional processing and that the subthalamic nucleus plays a central in role the human emotional architecture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. K+ nucleus total cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawafta, R.

    1990-01-01

    The scattering of K + mesons from nuclei has attracted considerable interest in the last few years. The K + holds a very special position as the weakest of all strongly interaction probes. The average cross section is not larger than about 10 mb at lab momenta below 800 MeV/c, corresponding to a mean free path in the nucleus larger than 5 fm. Thus the K + is capable of probing the entire volume of the nucleus. Single scattering of the K + with a nucleon in the nucleus dominates the nuclear scattering, and only small and calculable higher order corrections are needed. The nucleon is a dynamical entity and its internal structure can, in principle, be altered by its surrounding nuclear environment. This work reports an experiment in which the K + is used to compare the nucleon in the nucleus with a free nucleon

  12. Random matrix theory and analysis of nucleus-nucleus collision at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahaliev, E.I.; Inst. of Radiation Problems, Baku; ); Kuznetsov, A.A.; Suleymanov, M.K.; ); Teryaev, O.V.; )

    2006-01-01

    A novel method for analysis of experimental data obtained at relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is proposed. The method, based on the ideas of Random Matrix Theory, is applied to detect systematic errors that occur at measurements of momentum distributions of emitted particles. The unfolded momentum distribution is well described by the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble of random matrices, when the uncertainty in the momentum distribution is maximal. The method is free from unwanted background contributions [ru

  13. Color oscillations of nucleons in a nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, V.A.; Smirnov, A.Yu.

    1987-01-01

    Possibility of nucleus description as an object consisting of quarks and gluons is considered. A model of two-nucleon interaction in a nucleus is presented and analytical expressions for the nucleus nucleon ground state wave functions and also for nuclear nucleon structure functions are obtained. The carried out analysis shows that the suggested model permits to express the nucleus structure functions at quark level only by means of nucleon and Δ-isobaric degrees of freedom

  14. Change of central cholinergic receptors following lesions of nucleus basalis magnocellularis in rats: search for an imaging index suitable for the early detection of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Mikako; Iida, Yasuhiko; Nakagawa, Masaki; Kuge, Yugi; Kawashima, Hidekazu; Tominaga, Akiko; Ueda, Masashi; Magata, Yasuhiro; Saji, Hideo

    2006-01-01

    Cholinergic system in the central nervous system is involved in the memory function. Thus, because the dysfunction of cholinergic system that project to the cerebral cortex from nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM) would be implicated in the memory function deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD), evaluating cholinergic function may be useful for the early detection of AD. In this study, because the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) in rats is equivalent to nbM in human, we investigated the change in cholinergic receptors in the frontal cortex of rats with unilateral lesion to the NBM to find an appropriate index for the early detection of AD using techniques of nuclear medicine. The right NBM was injected with ibotenic acid. [ 18 F]FDG-PET images were obtained 3 days later. Some rats were sacrificed at 1 week, whereas others were subjected to a second [ 18 F]FDG-PET at 4 weeks then sacrificed for membrane preparation. The prepared membranes were subjected to radioreceptor assays to measure the density of nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Glucose metabolism had decreased on the damaged side compared to the control side at 3 days, but at 4 weeks, there was no difference between the sides. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors had significantly decreased in density compared to the control side at both 1 and 4 weeks. However, muscarinic receptors were not affected. These results suggested that neuronal dysfunction in AD could be diagnosed at an early stage by imaging nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

  15. Percolation Model of Nuclear Multifragmentation in High Energy Nucleus-Nucleus Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Waged, Kh.

    1994-01-01

    A hybrid model based on Reggeon theory inspired model of nuclear distribution, which was successful in explaining the cascading of particles in high energy nucleus-nucleus interactions, and percolation model is proposed. In the framework of this model the yield of the fragment in p + Ag, Au at 350 GeV and C + Ag, Au at 3.6 GeV/nucleon as well as the charge distribution of fragments in Kr, Xe and U interactions with emulsion at ∼ 1 GeV/nucleon is correctly described. 32 refs., 3 figs

  16. Angiotensin converting enzyme 1 in the median preoptic nucleus contributes to chronic intermittent hypoxia hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulk, Katelynn E; Nedungadi, T Prashant; Cunningham, J Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Chronic intermittent hypoxia is used to model the arterial hypoxemia seen in sleep apnea patients and is associated with increased sympathetic nerve activity and a sustained diurnal increase in blood pressure. The renin angiotensin system has been associated with hypertension seen in chronic intermittent hypoxia. Angiotensin converting enzyme 1, which cleaves angiotensin I to the active counterpart angiotensin II, is present within the central nervous system and has been shown to be regulated by AP-1 transcription factors, such as ΔFosB. Our previous study suggested that this transcriptional regulation in the median preoptic nucleus contributes to the sustained blood pressure seen following chronic intermittent hypoxia. Viral mediated delivery of a short hairpin RNA against angiotensin converting enzyme 1 in the median preoptic nucleus was used along with radio-telemetry measurements of blood pressure to test this hypothesis. FosB immunohistochemistry was utilized in order to assess the effects of angiotensin converting enzyme 1 knockdown on the activity of nuclei downstream from median preoptic nucleus. Angiotensin converting enzyme 1 knockdown within median preoptic nucleus significantly attenuated the sustained hypertension seen in chronic intermittent hypoxia. Angiotensin converting enzyme 1 seems to be partly responsible for regulating downstream regions involved in sympathetic and blood pressure control, such as the paraventricular nucleus and the rostral ventrolateral medulla. The data suggest that angiotensin converting enzyme 1 within median preoptic nucleus plays a critical role in the sustained hypertension seen in chronic intermittent hypoxia. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  17. Probabilistic somatotopy of the spinothalamic pathway at the ventroposterolateral nucleus of the thalamus in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J H; Kwon, H G; Jang, S H

    2011-08-01

    The STP has been regarded as the most plausible neural tract responsible for pathogenesis of central poststroke pain. The VPL nucleus has been a target for neurosurgical procedures for control of central poststroke pain. However, to our knowledge, no DTI studies have been conducted to investigate the somatotopic location of the STP at the VPL nucleus of the thalamus. In the current study, we attempted to investigate this location in the human brain by using a probabilistic tractography technique of DTI. DTI was performed at 1.5T by using a Synergy-L SENSE head coil. STPs for both the hand and leg were obtained by selection of fibers passing through 2 regions of interest (the area of the spinothalamic tract in the posterolateral medulla and the postcentral gyrus) for 41 healthy volunteers. Somatotopic mapping was obtained from the highest probabilistic location at the ACPC level. The highest probabilistic locations for the hand and leg were an average of 16.86 and 16.37 mm lateral to the ACPC line and 7.53 and 8.71 mm posterior to the midpoint of the ACPC line, respectively. Somatotopic locations for the hand and leg were different in the anteroposterior direction (P .05). We found the somatotopic locations for hand and leg of the STP at the VPL nucleus; these somatotopies were arranged in the anteroposterior direction.

  18. Energy loss, range and fluence distributions, total reaction and projectile fragment production cross sections for proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sihver, L.; Kanai, T.

    1992-07-01

    We have developed a computer code for calculations of energy loss (dE/dx) and range distributions for heavy ions in any media. The results from our calculations are in very good agreement with previous calculations. We have developed semiempirical total reaction cross section formulae for proton-nucleus (with Z p ≤26) and nucleus-nucleus (with Z p and Z t ≤26) reactions. These formulae apply for incident energies above 15 MeV and 100 MeV/nucleon respectively. From the total reaction cross sections, we can calculate the mean free paths and the fluence distributions of protons and heavy ions in any media. We have compared all the calculated reaction cross sections and the mean free paths with experimental data, and the agreement is good. We have also constructed a procedure for calculating projectile fragment production cross sections, by scaling semiempirical proton-nucleus partial cross section systematics. The scaling is performed using a scaling parameter deduced from our reaction cross sections formulae, and additional enhancements factors. All products with atomic number ranging from that of the projectile (Z p ) down to Z=2 can be calculated. The agreement between the calculated cross sections and the experimental data is better than earlier published results. (author)

  19. Receptors for GRP/bombesin-like peptides in the rat forebrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, S.S.; Moody, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    Binding sites in the rat forebrain were characterized using ( 125 I-Tyr4)bombesin as a receptor probe. Pharmacology experiments indicate that gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) and the GRP fragments GRP as well as Ac-GRP inhibited radiolabeled (Tyr4)bombesin binding with high affinity. Biochemistry experiments indicated that heat, N-ethyl maleimide or trypsin greatly reduced radiolabeled (Tyr4)bombesin binding. Also, autoradiographic studies indicated that highest grain densities were present in the stria terminalis, periventricular and suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, dorsomedial and rhomboid thalamus, dentate gyrus, hippocampus and medial amygdaloid nucleus. The data suggest that CNS protein receptors, which are discretely distributed in the rat forebrain, may mediate the action of endogenous GRP/bombesin-like peptides

  20. The Host Galaxy and Central Engine of the Dwarf Active Galactic Nucleus POX 52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Carol E.; Barth, Aaron J.; Ho, Luis C.; Rutledge, Robert E.; Greene, Jenny E.

    2008-10-01

    We present new multiwavelength observations of the dwarf Seyfert 1 galaxy POX 52 in order to investigate the properties of the host galaxy and the active nucleus and to examine the mass of its black hole, previously estimated to be ~105 M⊙. HST ACS HRC images show that the host galaxy has a dwarf elliptical morphology (MI = - 18.4 mag, Sérsic index n = 4.3) with no detected disk component or spiral structure, confirming previous results from ground-based imaging. X-ray observations from both Chandra and XMM-Newton show strong (factor of 2) variability over timescales as short as 500 s, as well as a dramatic decrease in the absorbing column density over a 9 month period. We attribute this change to a partial covering absorber, with a 94% covering fraction and NH = 58+ 8.4-9.2 × 1021 cm -2, that moved out of the line of sight in between the XMM-Newton and Chandra observations. Combining these data with observations from the VLA, Spitzer, and archival data from 2MASS and GALEX, we examine the SED of the active nucleus. Its shape is broadly similar to typical radio-quiet quasar SEDs, despite the very low bolometric luminosity of Lbol = 1.3 × 1043 ergs s-1. Finally, we compare black hole mass estimators, including methods based on X-ray variability, and optical scaling relations using the broad Hβ line width and AGN continuum luminosity, finding a range of black hole mass from all methods to be MBH = (2.2-4.2) × 105 M⊙, with an Eddington ratio of Lbol/LEdd ≈ 0.2-0.5.

  1. Transverse Energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tincknell, M.

    1988-01-01

    The status of Transverse Energy (E/sub T/) in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Brookhaven AGS and the CERN SPS is reviewed. The definition of E/sub T/ and its physical significance are discussed. The basic techniques and limitations of the experimental measurements are presented. The acceptances of the major experiments to be discussed are shown, along with remarks about their idiosyncrasies. The data demonstrate that the nuclear geometry of colliding spheres primarily determines the shapes of the observed spectra. Careful account of the acceptances is crucial to comparing and interpreting results. It is concluded that nuclear stopping power is high, and that the amount of energy deposited into the interaction volume is increasing with beam energy even at SPS energies. The energy densities believed to be obtained at the SPS are close to the critical values predicted for the onset of a quark-gluon plasma. 25 refs., 8 figs

  2. Effects of VPAC1 activation in nucleus ambiguus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherghina, Florin Liviu; Tica, Andrei Adrian; Deliu, Elena; Abood, Mary E; Brailoiu, G Cristina; Brailoiu, Eugen

    2017-02-15

    The pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its G protein-coupled receptors, PAC1, VPAC1 and VPAC2 form a system involved in a variety of biological processes. Although some sympathetic stimulatory effects of this system have been reported, its central cardiovascular regulatory properties are poorly characterized. VPAC1 receptors are expressed in the nucleus ambiguus (nAmb), a key center controlling cardiac parasympathetic tone. In this study, we report that selective VPAC1 activation in rhodamine-labeled cardiac vagal preganglionic neurons of the rat nAmb produces inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-mediated Ca 2+ mobilization, membrane depolarization and activation of P/Q-type Ca 2+ channels. In vivo, this pathway converges onto transient reduction in heart rate of conscious rats. Therefore we demonstrate a VPAC1-dependent mechanism in the central parasympathetic regulation of the heart rate, adding to the complexity of PACAP-mediated cardiovascular modulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Central visual system of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crish, Samuel D; Dengler-Crish, Christine M; Catania, Kenneth C

    2006-02-01

    Naked mole-rats are fossorial rodents native to eastern Africa that spend their lives in extensive subterranean burrows where visual cues are poor. Not surprisingly, they have a degenerated eye and optic nerve, suggesting they have poor visual abilities. However, little is known about their central visual system. To investigate the organization of their central visual system, we injected a neuronal tracer into the eyes of naked mole-rats and mice to compare the neural structures mediating vision. We found that the superior colliculus and lateral geniculate nucleus were severely atrophied in the naked mole-rat. The olivary pretectal nucleus was reduced but still retained its characteristic morphology, possibly indicating a role in light detection. In addition, the suprachiasmatic nucleus is well innervated and resembles the same structure in other rodents. The naked mole-rat appears to have selectively lost structures that mediate form vision while retaining structures needed for minimal entrainment of circadian rhythms. Similar results have been reported for other mole-rat species. Taken together, these data suggest that light detection may still play an important role in the lives of these "blind" animals: most likely for circadian entrainment or setting seasonal rhythms.

  4. Aspects of Coulomb dissociation and interference in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystrand, Joakim; Baltz, Anthony; Klein, Spencer R.

    2001-01-01

    Coherent vector meson production in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions is discussed. These interactions may occur for impact parameters much larger than the sum of the nuclear radii. Since the vector meson production is always localized to one of the nuclei, the system acts as a two-source interferometer in the transverse plane. By tagging the outgoing nuclei for Coulomb dissociation it is possible to obtain a measure of the impact parameter and thus the source separation in the interferometer. This is of particular interest since the life-time of the vector mesons are generally much shorter than the impact parameters of the collisions

  5. Neutrino-nucleus collision at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosmas, T.S.; Oset, E.

    1999-01-01

    Neutrino-nucleus reactions at low and intermediate energy up to E ν = 500 MeV are studied for the most interesting nuclei from an experimental point of view. We focus on neutrino-nucleus cross-sections of semi-inclusive processes, for which recent measurements from radiochemical experiments at LAMPF and KARMEN laboratories are available. The method employed uses the modified Lindhard function for the description of the particle-hole excitations of the final nucleus via a local density approximation. (authors)

  6. Transverse and radial flow in intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestfall, D. Gary

    1997-01-01

    We have studied transverse and radial flow in nucleus-nucleus collisions ranging in energy from 15 to 155 MeV/nucleon. We have measured the impact parameter dependence of the balance energy for Ar + Sc and compared the results with Quantum Molecular Dynamics calculations with and without momentum dependence. We have shown that transverse flow and the balance energy dependence on the isospin of the system using the systems 58 Fe + 58 Fe, 58 Ni + 58 Ni, and 58 Mn + 58 Fe. These results are compared with Boltzmann-Uehling-Uehlenbeck calculations incorporating isospin-dependence. We have measured radial flow for Ar + Sc and find that about 50% of the observed energy is related to radial flow. (author)

  7. Nuclear energy release in hadron-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.; Strugalska-Gola, E.

    1998-01-01

    Energy release process in nuclear reactions induced by fast hadrons in hadron-nucleus collisions is discussed. Some portion of the internal nuclear energy is released when the locally damaged in a collision, and instable therefore, residual target nucleus transits itself into light nuclear fragments (nucleons, D, T) and a stable lighter final nucleus or some number of stable lighter nuclei. It is not excluded that in some of the collisions the induced intranuclear nuclear reactions may be energy overcompensating. Corresponding reconnaissance should be made - in analysing the nuclear reactions induced in hadron-nucleus collisions

  8. Target fragmentation in proton-nucleus and /sup 16/O-nucleus reactions at 60 and 200 GeVnucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, H R; Albrecht, R; Awes, T C; Baktash, C; Beckmann, P; Claesson, G; Berger, F; Bock, R; Dragon, L; Ferguson, R L; Franz, A; Garpman, S; Glasow, R; Gustafsson, H A; Gutbrod, H H; Kampert, K H; Kolb, B W; Kristiansson, P; Lee, I Y; Loehner, H; Lund, I; Obenshain, F E; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Peitzmann, T; Persson, S; Plasil, F; Poskanzer, A M; Purschke, M; Ritter, H G; Santo, R; Siemiarczuk, T; Sorensen, S P; Stenlund, E; Young, G R

    1987-01-01

    Target remnants with Z<3 from proton-nucleus and /sup 16/O-nulceus reactions at 60 and 200 GeVnucleon were measured in the angular range from 30)degree) to 160)degree) (-1.7<)eta)1.3) employing the Plastic Ball detector. The excitation energy of the target spectator matter in central oxygen-induced collisions is found to be high enough to allow for complete disintegration of the target nucelus into fragments with Z<3. The average longtitudinal momentum transfer per proton to the target in central collisions is considerably higher in the case of /sup 16/O-induced reactions (approx.300 MeVc) than in proton-induced reactions (approx.130 MeVc). The baryon rapidity distributions are roughly in agreement with one-fluid hydrodynamical calcualtions at 60 GeVnucleon /sup 16/O)plus)Au but are in disagreement at 200 GeVnucleon, indicating the higher degree of transparency at the higher bombarding energy. Both, the transverse moments of target spectators and the entropy produced in the target gfragmentation region are compared to those attained in head-on collisions of two heavy nuclei at Bevalac energies. They are found to be comparable or do even exceed the values for the participant matter at beam energies of about 1-2 GeVnucleon. 18 refs., 112 figs

  9. Central GLP-1 receptor activation modulates cocaine-evoked phasic dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Samantha M; Roitman, Mitchell F

    2017-07-01

    Drugs of abuse increase the frequency and magnitude of brief (1-3s), high concentration (phasic) dopamine release events in terminal regions. These are thought to be a critical part of drug reinforcement and ultimately the development of addiction. Recently, metabolic regulatory peptides, including the satiety signal glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), have been shown to modulate cocaine reward-driven behavior and sustained dopamine levels after cocaine administration. Here, we use fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to explore GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) modulation of dynamic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) during cocaine administration. We analyzed dopamine release events in both the NAc shell and core, as these two subregions are differentially affected by cocaine and uniquely contribute to motivated behavior. We found that central delivery of the GLP-1R agonist Exendin-4 suppressed the induction of phasic dopamine release events by intravenous cocaine. This effect was selective for dopamine signaling in the NAc core. Suppression of phasic signaling in the core by Exendin-4 could not be attributed to interference with cocaine binding to one of its major substrates, the dopamine transporter, as cocaine-induced increases in reuptake were unaffected. The results suggest that GLP-1R activation, instead, exerts its suppressive effects by altering dopamine release - possibly by suppressing the excitability of dopamine neurons. Given the role of NAc core dopamine in the generation of conditioned responses based on associative learning, suppression of cocaine-induced dopamine signaling in this subregion by GLP-1R agonism may decrease the reinforcing properties of cocaine. Thus, GLP-1Rs remain viable targets for the treatment and prevention of cocaine seeking, taking and relapse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nucleon molecular orbitals and the transition mechanism between molecular orbitals in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanishi, B.; Misono, S.; von Oertzen, W.; Voit, H.

    1988-08-01

    The molecular orbitals of the nucleon(s) in nucleus-nucleus collisions are dynamically defined as a linear combination of nucleon single-particle orbits (LCNO) in a rotating frame by using the coupled-reaction-channel (CRC) theory. Nucleon molecular orbitals and the promotions of nucleon, - especially due to the Landau-Zener radial coupling are discussed with the method above mentioned. (author)

  11. Fast detector for triggering on charged particle multiplicity for relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agakishiev, G.; Man'yakov, P.K.; Drees, A.

    1997-01-01

    The simple and fast detector of charged particle multiplicity for relativistic nucleus-nucleus collision studies is performed. The multiplicity detector has been designed for the first level trigger of the CERES/NA45 experiment to study Pb-Au collisions at CERN SPS energies. The detector has allowed a realization of the 40 ns trigger for selection of events with definite impact parameter. The construction, operation characteristics, method of calibration, and testing results are described in detail

  12. Ventriculus Terminalis in Adults: Unusual Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features and Review of the Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Sang Hyun; Chung, Tae Sub; Cho, Yong Eun; Kim, Keun Su [Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seong Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The ventriculus terminalis (VT) in adults is a rare pathology. We report various MR imaging features of the adult VT. Ten patients were included in this retrospective review.. All patients had undergone magnetic resonance (MR imaging with a surface coil that used two different 1.5T MR systems. All patients had undergone initial and follow-up MR imaging with contrast enhancement using gadopentate dimeglumine. Three patients underwent additional MR imaging using the echocardiogram-gated spatial modulation of magnetization (SPAMM) technique. If a shift in tagging band during the systolic phase was less than half of the band space, it was defined as a 'non-pulsatile fluid'. Two neuroradiologists independently reviewed these images, while clinical symptoms and outcomes were statistically analyzed between the treated and non-treated group. All cases presented an intramedullary cystic lesion in the conus medullaris and showed the same signal intensity as CSF. Three VTs had intracystic septation and cord edema, which were pathologically confirmed after surgery; two of these were associated with kyphotic deformity and spinal arteriovenous malformation. SPAMM-MRI of 3 patients demonstrated non-pulsatile fluid motion within the VT. In the treated group, clinical symptoms improved better than the non-treated group. The adult VT shows some unusual imaging features, including septation, cord edema, and coexistence of a spinal AVM, as well as the typical findings. Surgical maneuvers may be considered as a treatment option in adult VT with progressive neurological symptoms.

  13. Electromagnetic processes in nucleus-nucleus collisions relating to space radiation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Most of the papers within this report deal with electromagnetic processes in nucleus-nucleus collisions which are of concern in the space radiation program. In particular, the removal of one and two nucleons via both electromagnetic and strong interaction processes has been extensively investigated. The theory of relativistic Coulomb fission has also been developed. Several papers on quark models also appear. Finally, note that the theoretical methods developed in this work have been directly applied to the task of radiation protection of astronauts. This has been done by parameterizing the theoretical formalism in such a fashion that it can be used in cosmic ray transport codes.

  14. Changes in central sodium and not osmolarity or lactate induce panic-like responses in a model of panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molosh, Andre I; Johnson, Philip L; Fitz, Stephanie D; Dimicco, Joseph A; Herman, James P; Shekhar, Anantha

    2010-05-01

    Panic disorder is a severe anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent panic attacks that can be consistently provoked with intravenous (i.v.) infusions of hypertonic (0.5 M) sodium lactate (NaLac), yet the mechanism/CNS site by which this stimulus triggers panic attacks is unclear. Chronic inhibition of GABAergic synthesis in the dorsomedial hypothalamus/perifornical region (DMH/PeF) of rats induces a vulnerability to panic-like responses after i.v. infusion of 0.5 M NaLac, providing an animal model of panic disorder. Using this panic model, we previously showed that inhibiting the anterior third ventricle region (A3Vr; containing the organum vasculosum lamina terminalis, the median preoptic nucleus, and anteroventral periventricular nucleus) attenuates cardiorespiratory and behavioral responses elicited by i.v. infusions of NaLac. In this study, we show that i.v. infusions of 0.5 M NaLac or sodium chloride, but not iso-osmolar D-mannitol, increased 'anxiety' (decreased social interaction) behaviors, heart rate, and blood pressure responses. Using whole-cell patch-clamp preparations, we also show that bath applications of NaLac (positive control), but not lactic acid (lactate stimulus) or D-mannitol (osmolar stimulus), increases the firing rates of neurons in the A3Vr, which are retrogradely labeled from the DMH/PeF and which are most likely glutamatergic based on a separate study using retrograde tracing from the DMH/PeF in combination with in situ hybridization for vesicular glutamate transporter 2. These data show that hypertonic sodium, but not hyper-osmolarity or changes in lactate, is the key stimulus that provokes panic attacks in panic disorder, and is consistent with human studies.

  15. Model of homogeneous nucleus. Total and inelastic cross sections of nucleon-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev, L.A.; Smorodinskaya, N.Ya.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the nucleon-nuckleus scattering amplitude at high energy can be easily calculated by generalization of the nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude and satisfies a simple factorization relation. As distinct from the Glauber model, the suggested approach makes no use of the nucleonic structure of the nucleus and the hadron-nucleus scattering amplitude is not expressed in terms of hadron-nucleon scattering amplitudes. The energy dependence of total and inelastic cross sections is successfully described for a number of nuclei

  16. Structure and function of the amygdaloid NPY system: NPY Y2 receptors regulate excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in the centromedial amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J; Verma, D; Lach, G; Bonaventure, P; Herzog, H; Sperk, G; Tasan, R O

    2016-09-01

    The amygdala is essential for generating emotional-affective behaviors. It consists of several nuclei with highly selective, elaborate functions. In particular, the central extended amygdala, consisting of the central amygdala (CEA) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is an essential component actively controlling efferent connections to downstream effectors like hypothalamus and brain stem. Both, CEA and BNST contain high amounts of different neuropeptides that significantly contribute to synaptic transmission. Among these, neuropeptide Y (NPY) has emerged as an important anxiolytic and fear-reducing neuromodulator. Here, we characterized the expression, connectivity and electrophysiological function of NPY and Y2 receptors within the CEA. We identified several NPY-expressing neuronal populations, including somatostatin- and calretinin-expressing neurons. Furthermore, in the main intercalated nucleus, NPY is expressed primarily in dopamine D1 receptor-expressing neurons but also in interspersed somatostatin-expressing neurons. Interestingly, NPY neurons did not co-localize with the Y2 receptor. Retrograde tract tracing experiments revealed that NPY neurons reciprocally connect the CEA and BNST. Functionally, the Y2 receptor agonist PYY3-36, reduced both, inhibitory as well as excitatory synaptic transmission in the centromedial amygdala (CEm). However, we also provide evidence that lack of NPY or Y2 receptors results in increased GABA release specifically at inhibitory synapses in the CEm. Taken together, our findings suggest that NPY expressed by distinct populations of neurons can modulate afferent and efferent projections of the CEA via presynaptic Y2 receptors located at inhibitory and excitatory synapses.

  17. Interesting correlations among various parameters of charged secondaries in nucleus - nucleus interactions at 4.5 A GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. Saleem; Shukla, Praveen Prakash; Khushnood, H.

    2015-01-01

    The study of the characteristic of charged secondaries was the aim of most of the experiments on high energy nucleon-nucleon and nucleus-nucleus collisions. Investigation are carried out on the produced secondary charged particles with a common belief that these particles are more informative about the collisional dynamics and thus, could be effective in revealing the underlying physics of high energy relativistic interactions. So for understanding the mechanism of multiparticle production in high energy hadron-nucleus collisions, the correlations amongst the secondary charged particles are studied. Several workers have attempted to study the multiplicity correlations over widely different incident energies with different projectiles. The AALMT collaboration have also studied the multiplicity correlations in 200 GeV proton-nucleus collisions

  18. c-Fos expression in the supraoptic nucleus is the most intense during different durations of restraint water-immersion stress in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Yu; Zhu, Wen-Xing; Cao, Guo-Hong; Cui, Xi-Yun; Ai, Hong-Bin

    2009-09-01

    Restraint water-immersion stress (RWIS) can induce anxiety, hypothermia, and severe vagally-mediated gastric dysfunction. The present work explored the effects of different durations of RWIS on neuronal activities of the forebrain by c-Fos expression in conscious rats exposed to RWIS for 0, 30, 60, 120, or 180 min. The peak of c-Fos induction was distinct for different forebrain regions. The most intense c-Fos induction was always observed in the supraoptic nucleus (SON), and then in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), posterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus (PCoA), central amygdaloid nucleus (CeA), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Moreover, body temperature was reduced to the lowest degree after 60 min of RWIS, and the gastric lesions tended to gradually worsen with the prolonging of RWIS duration. These data strongly suggest that these nuclei participate in the organismal response to RWIS to different degrees, and may be involved in the hypothermia and gastric lesions induced by RWIS.

  19. The ventral premammillary nucleus links leptin action and reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose eDonato

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The amount of body fat and the energy balance are important factors that influence the timing of puberty and the normal reproductive function. Leptin is a key hormone that conveys to the central nervous system information about the individual energy reserve and modulates the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis. Recent findings suggest that the ventral premammillary nucleus (PMV mediates the effects of leptin as a permissive factor for the onset of puberty and the coordinated secretion of luteinizing hormone during conditions of negative energy balance. Thus, in this review we will summarize the existing literature about the potential role played by PMV neurons in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis.

  20. K sup + nucleus total cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawafta, R.

    1990-01-01

    The scattering of K{sup +} mesons from nuclei has attracted considerable interest in the last few years. The K{sup +} holds a very special position as the weakest of all strongly interaction probes. The average cross section is not larger than about 10 mb at lab momenta below 800 MeV/c, corresponding to a mean free path in the nucleus larger than 5 fm. Thus the K{sup +} is capable of probing the entire volume of the nucleus. Single scattering of the K{sup +} with a nucleon in the nucleus dominates the nuclear scattering, and only small and calculable higher order corrections are needed. The nucleon is a dynamical entity and its internal structure can, in principle, be altered by its surrounding nuclear environment. This work reports an experiment in which the K{sup +} is used to compare the nucleon in the nucleus with a free nucleon.

  1. Microtubules move the nucleus to quiescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Damien; Sagot, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The nucleus is a cellular compartment that hosts several macro-molecular machines displaying a highly complex spatial organization. This tight architectural orchestration determines not only DNA replication and repair but also regulates gene expression. In budding yeast microtubules play a key role in structuring the nucleus since they condition the Rabl arrangement in G1 and chromosome partitioning during mitosis through their attachment to centromeres via the kinetochore proteins. Recently, we have shown that upon quiescence entry, intranuclear microtubules emanating from the spindle pole body elongate to form a highly stable bundle that spans the entire nucleus. Here, we examine some molecular mechanisms that may underlie the formation of this structure. As the intranuclear microtubule bundle causes a profound re-organization of the yeast nucleus and is required for cell survival during quiescence, we discuss the possibility that the assembly of such a structure participates in quiescence establishment.

  2. High energy nucleus-nucleus collisions at CERN: Signatures, physical observables and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.W.

    1988-02-01

    Experimental results on high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions have become available with the recent experiments at CERN utilizing 200 GeV/n oxygen and sulfur beams. Physics motivations for these experiments are presented: a description of predicted signatures for possible formation of a quark-gluon plasma and physical observables that are expected to provide important information for understanding the dynamics of these collisions. A presentation will be made of some of the first experimental results to emerge from this new field. 28 refs., 9 figs

  3. The isospin dependence of the nucleus-nucleus inelastic cross-section at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashdan, M.; Farhan, A.M.; Hassib, E.; Kareem, W. Abdel

    2006-01-01

    The isospin dependence of the nucleus-nucleus inelastic cross-section at high energy is investigated within the multiple scattering theory. The multiple integrals are evaluated by Monte Carlo method as well as by the optical limit approximation of the Glauber model. Calculations are performed for 14-23 N, 16-24 O and 18-26 F isotopes colliding with carbon target around 1 GeV. It is found that rms radii and the density distributions show a halo structure of 22 N, 23 O and 24 F

  4. Strangeness and charm production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at beam energies near the thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senger, P.

    2001-01-01

    The creation of strangeness and charm in nucleus-nucleus collisions at threshold beam energies is discussed as a probe for compressed baryonic matter. Experimental data on strangeness production at SIS energies indicate that the properties of kaons and antikaons are modified in the dense nuclear medium. An experiment is proposed to explore the QCD phase diagram in the region of highest baryon densities. An important observable will be charm production close to threshold. (orig.)

  5. Anti p-nucleus interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, J.C.

    1986-05-01

    Status and future prospects of antiproton-nucleus scattering experiments are presented. These scattering experiments were conducted at antiproton beam momentums of 300 and 600 MeV/c on target nuclei of 6 Li, 12 C, 16 O, 18 O, 40 Ca, 48 Ca, and 208 Pb. Antiproton-proton reactions investigated antiproton-nucleus bound or resonant states in antiproton reactions with d, 6 Li, 12 C, 63 Cu, and 209 Bi. Inelastic scattering experiments investigated the spin-isospin dependence of the NN interactions. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. Hadron-nucleus interactions with a small target-nucleus excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzon, Z.V.; Chasnikov, I.Ya.; Shakhova, Ts.I.

    1981-01-01

    Hadron inelastic interactions in nuclear emulsion with a small target-nucleus excitation in the energy range 7.5-200 GeV have been studied. Possible reasons for the differences in production cross-section for events with even and odd number of S-particles are analysed

  7. Formation, structure, and evolution of boiling nucleus and interfacial tension between bulk liquid phase and nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Peng, Xiao-Feng; Tian, Yong; Wang, Bu-Xuan

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, the concept of the molecular free path is introduced to derive a criterion distinguishing active molecules from inactive molecules in liquid phase. A concept of the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) of active molecules is proposed to describe the physical configuration before the formation of a nucleus during vapor-liquid phase transition. All active molecules exist as monomers when the concentration of active molecules is lower than CAC, while the active molecules will generate aggregation once the concentration of the active molecules reaches CAC. However, these aggregates with aggregation number, N, smaller than five can steadily exist in bulk phase. The other excess active molecules can only produce infinite aggregation and form a critical nucleus of vapor-liquid phase transition. Without any outer perturbation the state point of CAC corresponds to the critical superheated or supercooled state. Meanwhile, a model of two-region structure of a nucleus is proposed to describe nucleus evolution. The interfacial tension between bulk liquid phase and nucleus is dependent of the density gradient in the transition region and varies with the structure change of the transition region. With the interfacial tension calculated using this model, the predicted nucleation rate is very close to the experimental measurement. Furthermore, this model and associated analysis provides solid theoretical evidences to clarify the definition of nucleation rate and understand nucleation phenomenon with the insight into the physical nature.

  8. On the possible detection of quantum-mechanical interferences between gravitational forces and nucleus-nucleus Coulomb forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, R. da

    1996-07-01

    Possible effects of quantum-mechanical interferences between gravitational forces and the nucleus-nucleus Coulomb interaction are discussed. It is shown that, although very small, these effects could be measured using low energy scattering between identical heavy nuclei, e.g. for the system 208 Pb + 208 Pb (E L = 5 MeV). (author)

  9. Dynamics of hadron-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, S.J.

    1981-07-01

    Recent progress in diffraction theory shows that proton-nucleus scattering at nonforward angles is dominated by the interference of waves from two or more bright spots. Analytic formulas based on asymptotic theories of diffraction yield valuable new insights into the scattering and these formulas can be readily extended to illuminate the role of dynamical ingredients, i.e., the nucleon-nucleon amplitudes. The governing parameters of the diffraction and some direct connections between the observed cross sections and the input dynamics are reviewed. New information regarding the nucleon-nucleon parameters based on recent phase shift analyses show some systematic differences from the effective NN amplitudes which produce fits to proton-nucleus diffraction data. Recent progress in understanding the role of Δ-isobars in proton-nucleus dynamics is reviewed. 126 references

  10. Transport of glutathione into the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queval, Guillaume; Foyer, Christine

    2014-10-01

    The tripeptide thiol glutathione (GSH) is present in the nucleus of plant and animal cells. However, the functions of GSH in the nucleus remain poorly characterised. GSH appears to become sequestered in the nucleus at the early stages of the cell cycle. As part of our search for proteins that may be involved in GSH transport into the nucleus, we studied the functions of the nucleoporin called Alacrima Achalasia aDrenal Insufficiency Neurologic disorder (ALADIN). ALADIN is encoded by the Achalasia-Addisonianism-Alacrimia (AAAS) gene in mammalian cells. Defects in ALADIN promote adrenal disorders and lead to the triple A syndrome in humans. The ALADIN protein localizes to the nuclear envelope in Arabidopsis thaliana and interacts with other components of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). We characterised the functions of the ALADIN protein in an Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA insertion knockout mutant, which shows slow growth compared to the wild type. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Negative Energy Balance Blocks Neural and Behavioral Responses to Acute Stress by "Silencing" Central Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Signaling in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniscalco, James W; Zheng, Huiyuan; Gordon, Patrick J; Rinaman, Linda

    2015-07-29

    Previous reports indicate that caloric restriction attenuates anxiety and other behavioral responses to acute stress, and blunts the ability of stress to increase anterior pituitary release of adrenocorticotropic hormone. Since hindbrain glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) neurons and noradrenergic prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) neurons participate in behavioral and endocrine stress responses, and are sensitive to the metabolic state, we examined whether overnight food deprivation blunts stress-induced recruitment of these neurons and their downstream hypothalamic and limbic forebrain targets. A single overnight fast reduced anxiety-like behavior assessed in the elevated-plus maze and acoustic startle test, including marked attenuation of light-enhanced startle. Acute stress [i.e., 30 min restraint (RES) or 5 min elevated platform exposure] robustly activated c-Fos in GLP-1 and PrRP neurons in fed rats, but not in fasted rats. Fasting also significantly blunted the ability of acute stress to activate c-Fos expression within the anterior ventrolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (vlBST). Acute RES stress suppressed dark-onset food intake in rats that were fed ad libitum, whereas central infusion of a GLP-1 receptor antagonist blocked RES-induced hypophagia, and reduced the ability of RES to activate PrRP and anterior vlBST neurons in ad libitum-fed rats. Thus, an overnight fast "silences" GLP-1 and PrRP neurons, and reduces both anxiety-like and hypophagic responses to acute stress. The partial mimicking of these fasting-induced effects in ad libitum-fed rats after GLP-1 receptor antagonism suggests a potential mechanism by which short-term negative energy balance attenuates neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to acute stress. The results from this study reveal a potential central mechanism for the "metabolic tuning" of stress responsiveness. A single overnight fast, which markedly reduces anxiety-like behavior in rats, reduces or blocks the ability of

  12. Hadron-nucleus interactions in the nucleon resonance region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gessler, Stefanie

    2017-06-15

    Experiments with high-energy hadron beams have found renewed attention. In the near future nuclear studies with hadron beams are planned at least at two facilities, namely J-PARC in Japan and GSI/FAIR. The aim of this work is an exploratory investigation of interactions of mesons and baryons with nuclei at energies of interest for future research with antiprotons at FAIR. The theoretical discussion is started with an introductory presentation of the optical model and Eikonal theory as appropriate tools for the description of scattering processes at high energies. In antiproton interactions with nucleons and nuclei, annihilation processes into pions are playing the major role for the reaction dynamics. Therefore, we consider first the interactions of pions with nuclei by deriving an extended selfenergy scheme for a large range of incident pion energies. In order to have a uniform description over a broad energy interval, the existing approaches had to be reconsidered and in essential parts reformulated and extended. A central result is the treatment of pion-nucleus self-energies from high lying N{sup *} resonances. Only by including those channels in a proper manner into the extended pion optical potential, pion-nucleus scattering could be described over the required large energy range. At low energies the well known Kisslinger potential is recapped. Next, the same type of reaction theory is used to analyze antiproton-nucleon and nucleus scattering from low to highly relativistic energies. The reaction dynamics of antiproton interactions with nuclear targets is discussed. We start with a new approach to antiproton-nucleon scattering. A free-space antiproton-nucleon T-matrix is derived, covering an energy range as wide as from 100 MeV up to 15 GeV. Eikonal theory is used to describe the antiproton scattering amplitudes in momentum and in coordinate space. We consider, in particular, interactions with nuclei at energies around and well above 1 GeV. The antiproton-nucleus

  13. Hadron-nucleus interactions in the nucleon resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gessler, Stefanie

    2017-06-01

    Experiments with high-energy hadron beams have found renewed attention. In the near future nuclear studies with hadron beams are planned at least at two facilities, namely J-PARC in Japan and GSI/FAIR. The aim of this work is an exploratory investigation of interactions of mesons and baryons with nuclei at energies of interest for future research with antiprotons at FAIR. The theoretical discussion is started with an introductory presentation of the optical model and Eikonal theory as appropriate tools for the description of scattering processes at high energies. In antiproton interactions with nucleons and nuclei, annihilation processes into pions are playing the major role for the reaction dynamics. Therefore, we consider first the interactions of pions with nuclei by deriving an extended selfenergy scheme for a large range of incident pion energies. In order to have a uniform description over a broad energy interval, the existing approaches had to be reconsidered and in essential parts reformulated and extended. A central result is the treatment of pion-nucleus self-energies from high lying N * resonances. Only by including those channels in a proper manner into the extended pion optical potential, pion-nucleus scattering could be described over the required large energy range. At low energies the well known Kisslinger potential is recapped. Next, the same type of reaction theory is used to analyze antiproton-nucleon and nucleus scattering from low to highly relativistic energies. The reaction dynamics of antiproton interactions with nuclear targets is discussed. We start with a new approach to antiproton-nucleon scattering. A free-space antiproton-nucleon T-matrix is derived, covering an energy range as wide as from 100 MeV up to 15 GeV. Eikonal theory is used to describe the antiproton scattering amplitudes in momentum and in coordinate space. We consider, in particular, interactions with nuclei at energies around and well above 1 GeV. The antiproton-nucleus

  14. Nucleus management with irrigating vectis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Aravind

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective in modern cataract surgery is to achieve a better unaided visual acuity with rapid post-surgical recovery and minimal surgery-related complications. Early visual rehabilitation and better unaided vision can be achieved only by reducing the incision size. In manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS, incision is between 5.5 to 7 mm. Once the nucleus is prolapsed into the anterior chamber, it can be extracted through the tunnel. Nucleus extraction with an irrigating vectis is a very simple technique, which combines mechanical and hydrostatic forces to express out the nucleus. This technique is time-tested with good results and more than 95% of nuclei in MSICS are extracted in this way offering all the merits of phacoemulsification with the added benefits of having wider applicability, better safety, shorter learning curve and lower cost.

  15. Construct and face validity of a new model for the three-hit theory of depression using PACAP mutant mice on CD1 background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, József; Kovács, László Á; Gáspár, László; Nafz, Anna; Gaszner, Tamás; Ujvári, Balázs; Kormos, Viktória; Csernus, Valér; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Reglődi, Dóra; Gaszner, Balázs

    2017-06-23

    Major depression is a common cause of chronic disability. Despite decades of efforts, no equivocally accepted animal model is available for studying depression. We tested the validity of a new model based on the three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience. Genetic predisposition (hit 1, mutation of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, PACAP gene), early-life adversity (hit 2, 180-min maternal deprivation, MD180) and chronic variable mild stress (hit 3, CVMS) were combined. Physical, endocrinological, behavioral and functional morphological tools were used to validate the model. Body- and adrenal weight changes as well as corticosterone titers proved that CVMS was effective. Forced swim test indicated increased depression in CVMS PACAP heterozygous (Hz) mice with MD180 history, accompanied by elevated anxiety level in marble burying test. Corticotropin-releasing factor neurons in the oval division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis showed increased FosB expression, which was refractive to CVMS exposure in wild-type and Hz mice. Urocortin1 neurons became over-active in CMVS-exposed PACAP knock out (KO) mice with MD180 history, suggesting the contribution of centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus to the reduced depression and anxiety level of stressed KO mice. Serotoninergic neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus lost their adaptation ability to CVMS in MD180 mice. In conclusion, the construct and face validity criteria suggest that MD180 PACAP HZ mice on CD1 background upon CVMS may be used as a reliable model for the three-hit theory. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Estrogenic suppression of binge-like eating elicited by cyclic food restriction and frustrative-nonreward stress in female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria Micioni; Lutz, Thomas A.; Romano, Adele; Pucci, Mariangela; Geary, Nori; Asarian, Lori; Cifani, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Objective Because binge eating and emotional eating vary through the menstrual cycle in human females, we investigated cyclic changes in binge-like eating in female rats and their control by estrogens. Method Binge-like eating was elicited by three cycles of 4 days of food restriction and 4 days of free feeding followed by a single frustrative nonreward-stress episode (15 min visual and olfactory exposure to a familiar palatable food) immediately before presentation of the palatable food. Results Intact rats showed binge-like eating during the diestrous and proestrous phases of the ovarian cycle, but not during the estrous (peri-ovulatory) phase. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats not treated with estradiol (E2) displayed binge-like eating, whereas E2-treated OVX rats did not. The procedure did not increase signs of anxiety in an open-field test. OVX rats not treated with E2 that were subjected to food restriction and sacrificed immediately after frustrative nonreward had increased numbers of cells expressing phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN), and dorsal and ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) compared with non-restricted or E2-treated rats. Discussion These data suggest that this female rat model is appropriate for mechanistic studies of some aspects of menstrual-cycle effects on emotional and binge eating in human females, that anxiety is not a sufficient cause of binge-like eating, and that the PVN, CeA and BNST may contribute to information processing underlying binge-like eating. PMID:28230907

  17. Purinergic A2b Receptor Activation by Extracellular Cues Affects Positioning of the Centrosome and Nucleus and Causes Reduced Cell Migration*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Young; Chan, Gordon; Zuo, Jeremy; Rattner, Jerome B.; van der Hoorn, Frans A.

    2016-01-01

    The tight, relative positioning of the nucleus and centrosome in mammalian cells is important for the regulation of cell migration. Under pathophysiological conditions, the purinergic A2b receptor can regulate cell motility, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Expression of A2b, normally low, is increased in tissues experiencing adverse physiological conditions, including hypoxia and inflammation. ATP is released from such cells. We investigated whether extracellular cues can regulate centrosome-nucleus positioning and cell migration. We discovered that hypoxia as well as extracellular ATP cause a reversible increase in the distance between the centrosome and nucleus and reduced cell motility. We uncovered the underlying pathway: both treatments act through the A2b receptor and specifically activate the Epac1/RapGef3 pathway. We show that cells lacking A2b do not respond in this manner to hypoxia or ATP but transfection of A2b restores this response, that Epac1 is critically involved, and that Rap1B is important for the relative positioning of the centrosome and nucleus. Our results represent, to our knowledge, the first report demonstrating that pathophysiological conditions can impact the distance between the centrosome and nucleus. Furthermore, we identify the A2b receptor as a central player in this process. PMID:27226580

  18. Kisspeptin Expression in the Human Infundibular Nucleus in Relation to Sex, Gender Identity, and Sexual Orientation.

    OpenAIRE

    Taziaux, Mélanie; Staphorsius, Annemieke S.; Ghatei, Mohammad A.; Bloom, Stephen R.; Swaab, Dick F.; Bakker, Julie

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Since the discovery of its central role in reproduction, our functional neuroanatomical knowledge of the hypothalamic kisspeptin system is predominantly based on animal studies. Although sex differences in kisspeptin expression have been shown in humans in adulthood, the developmental origin of this sex difference is unknown. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to determine the following: 1) when during development the sex difference in kisspeptin expression in the infundibular nucleus w...

  19. Open-nucleus theory for beef cattle breeding systems: A revisitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.; Packer, I.U.; Tenorio Vasconselos, M.

    1990-07-01

    A theoretical model for Open-Nucleus Systems is herein described in the case of beef cattle breeding. One of the starting points is the observation that the majority of the standard theoretical models for open-nucleus breeding systems were constructed for the case of discrete generations, i.e. for the cases in which the dam average fertility coefficient is f>2. In the case of cattle herds, when only a fraction of the breeding dams can be replaced, it is therefore worthwhile to build up anew a rather rigorous theoretical model, with overlapping generations, and check its predictions. Namely, we apply the new formulae - explicitly depending on β F , ν F , ν M , K and R - to the system in which all breeding sires are in the Nucleus (and are reared in the nucleus itself), and are mated to both Nucleus and Base dams via artificial insemination. Optimal system design has been looked for by the NAG and MINOS computation programs, operated on Vax computers. Opening the nucleus in this situation results to be very effective since the (optimum) asymptotic genetic gain per generation for ''closed nucleus'' systems (x=0) results to be, when e.g. R≡F/M≅200, more than 40% lower than the (optimum) asymptotic genetic gain, G*, for open nucleus systems. Optimal design corresponds to: (i) having a fraction p≅16% of the female population in the nucleus; (ii) replacing practically all the (nucleus) breeding sires by the best (nucleus born) males: ν M =97/98%; (iii) using for dam replacement all (b≅100%) the (base and nucleus born) females; (iv) implementing a high upward gene migration (x≅80%), while all the surplus nucleus-born females are to be used as base replacements. This corresponds to replace, at each generation, also almost all the nucleus dams (ν F ≅95/100%), and the largest possible fraction of base dams (β F ≅30%, a value changing with p). 17 refs

  20. Calculations of nucleus-nucleus microscopic optical potentials at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, K.M.; Kuhtina, I.N.; Lukyanov, K.V.; Lukyanov, V.K.; Zemlyanaya, E.V.; Slowinski, B.

    2006-01-01

    Three types of microscopic nucleus-nucleus optical potentials are constructed using three patterns for their real and imaginary parts. Two of these patterns are the real V H and imaginary W H parts of the potential which reproduces the high-energy amplitude of scattering in the microscopic Glauber-Sitenko theory. Another template VDF is calculated within the standard double-folding model with the exchange term included. For either of the three tested potentials, the contribution of real and imaginary patterns is adjusted by introducing two fitted factors. Correspondingly, using numerical code ECIS, the elastic differential cross-sections were fitted to the experimental data on scattering of the 16,17 O heavy-ions at about hundred Mev/nucleon on various target-nuclei. The relativization effect is also included. The tables of the obtained factors which renormalize the strengths of the real and (or) imaginary parts of the calculated microscopic potentials are given

  1. The momentum distribution inside nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, T.

    1985-01-01

    Discussions are made on several reactions which can determine the momentum distribution inside nucleus. The first reaction discussed is the high energy heavy ion collision. This reaction involves many nucleons which interact strongly. Therefore, one must be careful for any possible final state interactions. The expression for the single particle momentum distribution is given. And it can be said that the expression is consistent with the description of the energetic neutrons from muon capture by heavy nucleus. The best way to determine the momentum distribution would be the lepton-nucleus scattering since it does not involve the strong interaction in the initial channel. Another reaction discussed is the backward proton production, which is governed by quite complicated reaction processes. Therefore, the determination of the momentum distribution is only indirect. Noverthless, it is found that this reaction presents a very interesting and important information on the momentum distribution. (Aoki, K.)

  2. CENTRAL AMYGDALOID INVOLVEMENT IN NEUROENDOCRINE CORRELATES OF CONDITIONED STRESS RESPONSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROOZENDAAL, B; KOOLHAAS, JM; BOHUS, B

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of bilateral electrolytic lesions of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) in comparison with sham lesions on neuroendocrine responses during conditioned emotional stress in male Wistar rats. Lesions in the CEA, made either before or after the

  3. Influence of oculomotor nerve afferents on central endings of primary trigeminal fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manni, E; Bortolami, R; Pettorossi, V E; Lucchi, M L; Callegari, E; Draicchio, F

    1987-12-01

    Painful fibers running in the third nerve and originating from the ophthalmic trigeminal area send their central projections at level of substantia gelatinosa of nucleus caudalis trigemini. The central endings of these fibers form axoaxonic synapses with trigeminal fibers entering the brain stem through the trigeminal root. The effect of electrical stimulation of the third nerve central stump on the central endings of trigeminal afferent fibers consists in an increased excitability, possibly resulting in a presynaptic inhibition. This inhibitory influence is due to both direct and indirect connections of the third nerve afferent fibers with the trigeminal ones.

  4. Angiotensin II and CRF receptors in the central nucleus of the amygdala mediate hemodynamic response variability to cocaine in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Mari A; Kucenas, Sarah; Bowman, Tamara A; Ruhlman, Melissa; Knuepfer, Mark M

    2010-01-14

    Stress or cocaine evokes either a large increase in systemic vascular resistance (SVR) or a smaller increase in SVR accompanied by an increase in cardiac output (designated vascular and mixed responders, respectively) in Sprague-Dawley rats. We hypothesized that the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) mediates this variability. Conscious, freely-moving rats, instrumented for measurement of arterial pressure and cardiac output and for drug delivery into the CeA, were given cocaine (5 mg/kg, iv, 4-6 times) and characterized as vascular (n=15) or mixed responders (n=10). Subsequently, we administered cocaine after bilateral microinjections (100 nl) of saline or selective agents in the CeA. Muscimol (80 pmol), a GABA(A) agonist, or losartan (43.4 pmol), an AT(1) receptor antagonist, attenuated the cocaine-induced increase in SVR in vascular responders, selectively, such that vascular responders were no longer different from mixed responders. The corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) antagonist, alpha-helical CRF(9-41) (15.7 pmol), abolished the difference between cardiac output and SVR in mixed and vascular responders. We conclude that greater increases in SVR observed in vascular responders are dependent on AT(1) receptor activation and, to a lesser extent on CRF receptors. Therefore, AT(1) and CRF receptors in the CeA contribute to hemodynamic response variability to intravenous cocaine.

  5. In vitro autoradiographic localization of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) binding sites in the rat central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, J.; Dussaillant, M.; Marie, J.C.; Rostene, W.; Rosselin, G.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the autoradiographic distribution of VIP binding sites in the rat central nervous system using monoiodinated 125I-labeled VIP. High densities of VIP binding sites are observed in the granular layer of the dorsal dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, the dorsolateral and median geniculate nuclei of the thalamus as well as in the ventral part of the hypothalamic dorsomedial nucleus

  6. Central melanopsin projections in the diurnal rodent, Arvicanthis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lou Langel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The direct effects of photic stimuli on behavior are very different in diurnal and nocturnal species, as light stimulates an increase in activity in the former and a decrease in the latter. Studies of nocturnal mice have implicated a select population of retinal ganglion cells that are intrinsically photosensitive (ipRGCs in mediation of these acute responses to light. ipRGCs are photosensitive due to the expression of the photopigment melanopsin; these cells use glutamate and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP as neurotransmitters. PACAP is useful for the study of central ipRGC projections because, in the retina, it is found exclusively within melanopsin cells. Little is known about the central projections of ipRGCs in diurnal species. Here, we first characterized these cells in the retina of the diurnal Nile grass rat using immunohistochemistry (IHC. The same basic subtypes of melanopsin cells that have been described in other mammals were present, but nearly 25% of them were displaced, primarily in its superior region. PACAP was present in 87.7% of all melanopsin cells, while 97.4% of PACAP cells contained melanopsin. We then investigated central projections of ipRGCs by examining the distribution of immunoreactive PACAP fibers in intact and enucleated animals. This revealed evidence that these cells project to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN, pretectum and superior colliculus. This distribution was confirmed with injections of cholera toxin subunit β coupled with Alexa Fluor 488 in one eye and Alexa Flour 594 in the other, combined with IHC staining of PACAP. These studies also revealed that the ventral and dorsal LGN and the caudal olivary pretectal nucleus receive less innervation from ipRGCs than that reported in nocturnal rodents. Overall, these data suggest that although ipRGCs and their projections are very similar in diurnal and nocturnal rodents, they may not be identical.

  7. Structural dynamics of the cell nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegert, Simon; Bading, Hilmar

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal morphology plays an essential role in signal processing in the brain. Individual neurons can undergo use-dependent changes in their shape and connectivity, which affects how intracellular processes are regulated and how signals are transferred from one cell to another in a neuronal network. Calcium is one of the most important intracellular second messengers regulating cellular morphologies and functions. In neurons, intracellular calcium levels are controlled by ion channels in the plasma membrane such as NMDA receptors (NMDARs), voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and certain α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) as well as by calcium exchange pathways between the cytosol and internal calcium stores including the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Synaptic activity and the subsequent opening of ligand and/or voltage-gated calcium channels can initiate cytosolic calcium transients which propagate towards the cell soma and enter the nucleus via its nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) embedded in the nuclear envelope. We recently described the discovery that in hippocampal neurons the morphology of the nucleus affects the calcium dynamics within the nucleus. Here we propose that nuclear infoldings determine whether a nucleus functions as an integrator or detector of oscillating calcium signals. We outline possible ties between nuclear mophology and transcriptional activity and discuss the importance of extending the approach to whole cell calcium signal modeling in order to understand synapse-to-nucleus communication in healthy and dysfunctional neurons. PMID:21738832

  8. Neuroanatomical pathways underlying the effects of hypothalamo-hypophysial-adrenal hormones on exploratory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Robert; Strazielle, Catherine

    2017-07-26

    When injected via the intracerebroventricular route, corticosterone-releasing hormone (CRH) reduced exploration in the elevated plus-maze, the center region of the open-field, and the large chamber in the defensive withdrawal test. The anxiogenic action of CRH in the elevated plus-maze also occurred when infused in the basolateral amygdala, ventral hippocampus, lateral septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, nucleus accumbens, periaqueductal grey, and medial frontal cortex. The anxiogenic action of CRH in the defensive withdrawal test was reproduced when injected in the locus coeruleus, while the amygdala, hippocampus, lateral septum, nucleus accumbens, and lateral globus pallidus contribute to center zone exploration in the open-field. In addition to elevated plus-maze and open-field tests, the amygdala appears as a target region for CRH-mediated anxiety in the elevated T-maze. Thus, the amygdala is the principal brain region identified with these three tests, and further research must identify the neural circuits underlying this form of anxiety.

  9. Strangeness production in nucleus-nucleus collisions: An experimental review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odyniec, G.

    1990-12-01

    In experiments with oxygen (60 and 200 GeV/N) and sulphur (200 GeV/N) ions at CERNSPS, large energy densities of the order of 2--3 GeV/fm 3 have been observed, which according to QCD calculations, satisfy necessary conditions for the formation of a quark gluon plasma (QGP) phase. Under such conditions, colour would no longer be confined to hadronic dimensions, and quarks and gluons will propagate freely throughout an extended volume. Somehow lower energy densities, of the order of 0.7--1 GeV/fm 3 , were observed in AGS experiments with 15 GeV/N silicon beams and heavy targets. These energy densities might be adequate for investigations of the pre-equilibrium stage, during which the momentum space distribution has been degradated from its initial value but is not yet thermal. First experimental results, available now, show promise of seeing signs of a new phase of matter. In this review the current status of the selective experimental results on strange-particle production, which are relevant to equilibration and QGP formation in nucleus-nucleus collisions, is presented

  10. Applying the elastic model for various nucleus-nucleus fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HASSAN, G.S.; RAGAB, H.S.; SEDDEEK, M.K.

    2000-01-01

    The Elastic Model of two free parameters m,d given by Scalia has been used for wider energy regions to fit the available experimental data for potential barriers and cross sections. In order to generalize Scalia's formula in both sub- and above-barrier regions, we calculated m, d for pairs rather than those given by Scalia and compared the calculated cross sections with the experimental data. This makes a generalization of the Elastic Model in describing fusion process. On the other hand, Scalia's range of interacting systems was 24 ≤ A ≤194 where A is the compound nucleus mass number. Our extension of that model includes an example of the pairs of A larger than his final limit aiming to make it as a general formula for any type of reactants: light, intermediate or heavy systems. A significant point is the comparison of Elastic Model calculations with the well known methods studying complete fusion and compound nucleus formation, namely with the resultants of using Proximity potential with either Sharp or Smooth cut-off approximations

  11. Microsurgical anatomy of the central core of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Eduardo Carvalhal; Yağmurlu, Kaan; de Oliveira, Evandro; Ribas, Guilherme Carvalhal; Rhoton, Albert

    2017-12-22

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to describe in detail the cortical and subcortical anatomy of the central core of the brain, defining its limits, with particular attention to the topography and relationships of the thalamus, basal ganglia, and related white matter pathways and vessels. METHODS The authors studied 19 cerebral hemispheres. The vascular systems of all of the specimens were injected with colored silicone, and the specimens were then frozen for at least 1 month to facilitate identification of individual fiber tracts. The dissections were performed in a stepwise manner, locating each gray matter nucleus and white matter pathway at different depths inside the central core. The course of fiber pathways was also noted in relation to the insular limiting sulci. RESULTS The insular surface is the most superficial aspect of the central core and is divided by a central sulcus into an anterior portion, usually containing 3 short gyri, and a posterior portion, with 2 long gyri. It is bounded by the anterior limiting sulcus, the superior limiting sulcus, and the inferior limiting sulcus. The extreme capsule is directly underneath the insular surface and is composed of short association fibers that extend toward all the opercula. The claustrum lies deep to the extreme capsule, and the external capsule is found medial to it. Three fiber pathways contribute to form both the extreme and external capsules, and they lie in a sequential anteroposterior disposition: the uncinate fascicle, the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle, and claustrocortical fibers. The putamen and the globus pallidus are between the external capsule, laterally, and the internal capsule, medially. The internal capsule is present medial to almost all insular limiting sulci and most of the insular surface, but not to their most anteroinferior portions. This anteroinferior portion of the central core has a more complex anatomy and is distinguished in this paper as the "anterior perforated

  12. Nucleus-size pinning for determination of nucleation free-energy barriers and nucleus geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhishek K.; Escobedo, Fernando A.

    2018-05-01

    Classical Nucleation Theory (CNT) has recently been used in conjunction with a seeding approach to simulate nucleation phenomena at small-to-moderate supersaturation conditions when large free-energy barriers ensue. In this study, the conventional seeding approach [J. R. Espinosa et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 034501 (2016)] is improved by a novel, more robust method to estimate nucleation barriers. Inspired by the interfacial pinning approach [U. R. Pedersen, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 104102 (2013)] used before to determine conditions where two phases coexist, the seed of the incipient phase is pinned to a preselected size to iteratively drive the system toward the conditions where the seed becomes a critical nucleus. The proposed technique is first validated by estimating the critical nucleation conditions for the disorder-to-order transition in hard spheres and then applied to simulate and characterize the highly non-trivial (prolate) morphology of the critical crystal nucleus in hard gyrobifastigia. A generalization of CNT is used to account for nucleus asphericity and predict nucleation free-energy barriers for gyrobifastigia. These predictions of nuclei shape and barriers are validated by independent umbrella sampling calculations.

  13. Do migrating cells need a nucleus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Rhoda J

    2018-03-05

    How the nucleus affects cell polarity and migration is unclear. In this issue, Graham et al. (2018. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201706097) show that enucleated cells polarize and migrate in two but not three dimensions and propose that the nucleus is a necessary component of the molecular clutch regulating normal mechanical responses. © 2018 Hawkins.

  14. Study of high energy densities over extended nuclear volumes via nucleus-nucleus collisions at the SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment examines in detail the characteristics of ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus interactions using $^{16}$O beams of 200 GeV/A from the SPS. The experiment combines 4$\\pi$ calorimeter coverage with measurements of inclusive particle spectra, two-particle correlations, low and high-mass lepton pairs and photons. A multiwire active target allows maximum interaction rates with a minimum of secondary interactions. Additional data are taken with an emulsion target.

  15. International Halley Watch: Discipline specialists for near-nucleus studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, S.; Sekanina, Z.; Rahe, J.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the Near-Nucleus Studies Net is to study the processes taking place in the near-nucleus environment as they relate to the nature of nucleus. This is accomplisghed by measuring the spatial and temporal distribution of dust, gases and ions in the coma on high resolution images taken from many observatories around the world. By modeling the motions of discrete dust features in Comet Halley, it is often possible to determine the locations of the emission sources on the surface and learn about the nucleus structure. In addition to the general goals shared by all IHW nets, the scientific goals of the net has been to determine (1)the gross surface structure of the nucleus, (2)the nucleus spin vector, (3)the distribution and evolution of jet sources and (4)the interrelationships between the gas, dust and ion components of the coma. An additional Comet Giacobini-Zinner watch was carried out by the NNSN in support of the NASA International Cometary Explorer flyby.

  16. The role of hypothalamus tuberomammillary nucleus on the regulation of respiratory movement of rats with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen CHEN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the role of central histaminergic neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN of posterior hypothalamus on asthma. Methods  Seventy-two healthy male SD rats were served as study objects. Sixty-four rats were sensitized with ovalbumin (OA solution intraperitoneally and challenged with OA aerosol inhalation to prepare asthma model. Asthma attack was evoked in asthmatic rats by OA solution injected intravenously, the electrical activities of TMN in posterior hypothalamus were recorded with biological signal collecting system and the power spectra were analyzed. TMN was lesioned or stimulated electrically by central stereo positioning technology. Histamine H3 receptor agonist R-(α-methylhistamine (RMHA or antagonist thioperamide (THIO was microinjected into TMN by central nuclear group microinjection technology, and the pulmonary function indexes were detected including diaphragm electromyography (EMGdi frequency, EMGdi integral, minute ventilation volume (MVV, expiratory time/inspiratory time (TE/TI, airway resistance (Raw and dynamic pulmonary compliance (Cdyn. Results  Compared with control group, the percentage of α, β1 and β2 wave in the electrical activities of TMN of asthmatic rats increased significantly, while the percentage of δ and θ wave decreased and the total discharge power increased. Compared with the corresponding control group, electric lesion of TMN or TMN microinjected with histamine H3 receptor antagonist increased EMGdi frequency, TE/TI, Raw, and decreased EMGdi integral, MVV and Cdyn. Compared with the corresponding control group, electric stimulation of TMN or TMN microinjected with histamine H3 receptor agonist decreased EMGdi frequency, TE/TI, Raw, and increased EMGdi integral, MVV and Cdyn. Conclusion  Central histaminergic neurons in tuberomammillary nucleus of posterior hypothalamus are activated in asthmatic rats. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.12.09

  17. Sex-Specific Effects of Stress on Oxytocin Neurons Correspond With Responses to Intranasal Oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Michael Q; Duque-Wilckens, Natalia; Greenberg, Gian D; Hao, Rebecca; Campi, Katharine L; Laredo, Sarah A; Laman-Maharg, Abigail; Manning, Claire E; Doig, Ian E; Lopez, Eduardo M; Walch, Keenan; Bales, Karen L; Trainor, Brian C

    2016-09-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is considered to be a stress-buffering hormone, dampening the physiologic effects of stress. However, OT can also be anxiogenic. We examined acute and long-lasting effects of social defeat on OT neurons in male and female California mice. We used immunohistochemistry for OT and c-fos cells to examine OT neuron activity immediately after defeat (n = 6-9) and 2 weeks (n = 6-9) and 10 weeks (n = 4-5) later. We quantified Oxt messenger RNA with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (n = 5-9). Intranasal OT was administered to naïve and stressed mice tested in social interaction and resident-intruder tests (n = 8-14). Acute exposure to a third episode of defeat increased OT/c-fos colocalizations in the paraventricular nucleus of both sexes. In the medioventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, defeat increased Oxt messenger RNA, total OT neurons, and OT/c-fos colocalizations in female mice but not male mice. Intranasal OT failed to reverse stress-induced social withdrawal in female mice and reduced social interaction behavior in female mice naïve to defeat. In contrast, intranasal OT increased social interaction in stressed male mice and reduced freezing in the resident-intruder test. Social defeat induces long-lasting increases in OT production and OT/c-fos cells in the medioventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of female mice but not male mice. Intranasal OT largely reversed the effects of stress on behavior in male mice, but effects were mixed in female mice. These results suggest that changes in OT-sensitive networks contribute to sex differences in behavioral responses to stress. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Social interaction and cocaine conditioning in mice increase spontaneous spike frequency in the nucleus accumbens or septal nuclei as revealed by multielectrode array recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummer, Kai K; El Rawas, Rana; Kress, Michaela; Saria, Alois; Zernig, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Both cocaine and social interaction place preference conditioning lead to increased neuronal expression of the immediate early gene EGR1 in the nucleus accumbens, a central region of the reward pathway, suggesting that both drug and natural rewards may be processed in similar brain regions. In order to gain novel insights into the intrinsic in vitro electrical activity of the nucleus accumbens and adjacent brain regions and to explore the effects of reward conditioning on network activity, we performed multielectrode array recordings of spontaneous firing in acute brain slices of mice conditioned to either cocaine or social interaction place preference. Cocaine conditioning increased the spike frequency of neurons in the septal nuclei, whereas social interaction conditioning increased the spike frequency in the nucleus accumbens compared to saline control animals. In addition, social interaction conditioning decreased the amount of active neuron clusters in the nucleus accumbens. Our findings suggest that place preference conditioning for both drug and natural rewards may induce persistent changes in neuronal network activity in the nucleus accumbens and the septum that are still preserved in acute slice preparations. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Multimodal Regulation of Circadian Glucocorticoid Rhythm by Central and Adrenal Clocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Gi Hoon; Cha, Hyo Kyeong; Chung, Sooyoung; Kim, Kyungjin

    2018-05-01

    Adrenal glucocorticoids (GCs) control a wide range of physiological processes, including metabolism, cardiovascular and pulmonary activities, immune and inflammatory responses, and various brain functions. During stress responses, GCs are secreted through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, whereas circulating GC levels in unstressed states follow a robust circadian oscillation with a peak around the onset of the active period of a day. A recent advance in chronobiological research has revealed that multiple regulatory mechanisms, along with classical neuroendocrine regulation, underlie this GC circadian rhythm. The hierarchically organized circadian system, with a central pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus and local oscillators in peripheral tissues, including the adrenal gland, mediates periodicities in physiological processes in mammals. In this review, we primarily focus on our understanding of the circadian regulation of adrenal GC rhythm, with particular attention to the cooperative actions of the suprachiasmatic nucleus central and adrenal local clocks, and the clinical implications of this rhythm in human diseases.

  20. A Heuristic Model for the Active Galactic Nucleus Based on the Planck Vacuum Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The standard explanation for an active galactic nucleus (AGN is a "central engine" consisting of a hot accretion disk surrounding a supermassive black hole. Energy is generated by the gravitational infall of material which is heated to high temperatures in this dissipative accretion disk. What follows is an alternative model for the AGN based on the Planck vacuum (PV theory, where both the energy of the AGN and its variable luminosity are explained in terms of a variable photon flux emanating from the PV.

  1. Glutamate Receptors in the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala Mediate Cisplatin-Induced Malaise and Energy Balance Dysregulation through Direct Hindbrain Projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadeff, Amber L; Holland, Ruby A; Nelson, Alexandra; Grill, Harvey J; De Jonghe, Bart C

    2015-08-05

    Cisplatin chemotherapy is used commonly to treat a variety of cancers despite severe side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and anorexia that compromise quality of life and limit treatment adherence. The neural mechanisms mediating these side effects remain elusive despite decades of clinical use. Recent data highlight the dorsal vagal complex (DVC), lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN), and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) as potential sites of action in mediating the side effects of cisplatin. Here, results from immunohistochemical studies in rats identified a population of cisplatin-activated DVC neurons that project to the lPBN and a population of cisplatin-activated lPBN calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, a marker for glutamatergic neurons in the lPBN) neurons that project to the CeA, outlining a neuroanatomical circuit that is activated by cisplatin. CeA gene expressions of AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptor subunits were markedly increased after cisplatin treatment, suggesting that CeA glutamate receptor signaling plays a role in mediating cisplatin side effects. Consistent with gene expression results, behavioral/pharmacological data showed that CeA AMPA/kainate receptor blockade attenuates cisplatin-induced pica (a proxy for nausea/behavioral malaise in nonvomiting laboratory rodents) and that CeA NMDA receptor blockade attenuates cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss in addition to pica, demonstrating that glutamate receptor signaling in the CeA is critical for the energy balance dysregulation caused by cisplatin treatment. Together, these data highlight a novel circuit and CGRP/glutamatergic mechanism through which cisplatin-induced malaise and energy balance dysregulation are mediated. To treat cancer effectively, patients must follow prescribed chemotherapy treatments without interruption, yet most cancer treatments produce side effects that devastate quality of life (e.g., nausea, vomiting, anorexia, weight loss). Although hundreds of

  2. Glutamate Receptors in the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala Mediate Cisplatin-Induced Malaise and Energy Balance Dysregulation through Direct Hindbrain Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadeff, Amber L.; Holland, Ruby A.; Nelson, Alexandra; Grill, Harvey J.

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin chemotherapy is used commonly to treat a variety of cancers despite severe side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and anorexia that compromise quality of life and limit treatment adherence. The neural mechanisms mediating these side effects remain elusive despite decades of clinical use. Recent data highlight the dorsal vagal complex (DVC), lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN), and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) as potential sites of action in mediating the side effects of cisplatin. Here, results from immunohistochemical studies in rats identified a population of cisplatin-activated DVC neurons that project to the lPBN and a population of cisplatin-activated lPBN calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, a marker for glutamatergic neurons in the lPBN) neurons that project to the CeA, outlining a neuroanatomical circuit that is activated by cisplatin. CeA gene expressions of AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptor subunits were markedly increased after cisplatin treatment, suggesting that CeA glutamate receptor signaling plays a role in mediating cisplatin side effects. Consistent with gene expression results, behavioral/pharmacological data showed that CeA AMPA/kainate receptor blockade attenuates cisplatin-induced pica (a proxy for nausea/behavioral malaise in nonvomiting laboratory rodents) and that CeA NMDA receptor blockade attenuates cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss in addition to pica, demonstrating that glutamate receptor signaling in the CeA is critical for the energy balance dysregulation caused by cisplatin treatment. Together, these data highlight a novel circuit and CGRP/glutamatergic mechanism through which cisplatin-induced malaise and energy balance dysregulation are mediated. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To treat cancer effectively, patients must follow prescribed chemotherapy treatments without interruption, yet most cancer treatments produce side effects that devastate quality of life (e.g., nausea, vomiting, anorexia, weight loss

  3. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone reduces sexual motivation but not lordosis behavior in female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piekarski, David J; Zhao, Sheng; Jennings, Kimberly J

    2013-01-01

    with GnIH or saline. The effect of GnIH on sexual motivation, vaginal scent marking, and lordosis was examined. Following mating, FOS activation was quantified in brain regions implicated in the regulation of female sexual behavior. Intracerebroventricular administration of GnIH reduced sexual motivation...... and vaginal scent marking, but not lordosis behavior. GnIH administration altered FOS expression in key neural loci implicated in female reproductive behavior, including the medial preoptic area, medial amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, independent of changes in circulating gonadal steroids...

  4. The picture of the nuclei disintegration mechanism - from nucleus-nucleus collision experimental data at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalska-Gola, E.; Strugalski, Z.

    1997-01-01

    Experimental data on nuclear collisions at high energies, mainly obtained from photographic emulsions, are considered from the point of view of the picture of the nuclear collision processes mechanisms prompted experimentally. In fact, the disintegration products of each nucleus involved in a nuclear collision, in its own rest-frame, are similar to that produced by the impact of a number of nucleons of velocity equal to that of the moving primary nucleus

  5. The nucleus in Finland - The second report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurela, Jorma; Korteniemi, Virpi; Halme-Tapanainen, Kristina

    1993-01-01

    The Finnish Nuclear Society (FNS) started the distribution of the Nucleus bulletin at the beginning of 1988. The volume of distribution has been extended since, including today nearly 1,000 persons. Both the English and the Finnish version of the bulletin is sent to various opinion leaders of society, i.e. the members of the parliament, ministries, the media, representatives of industry and other decision-makers of the energy field. After the five-year history of the Nucleus in Finland, it is time to look back and sum up the present status of the Nucleus. This report gives a short summary concerning the present distribution and its efficiency, the experiences gained and the influence of the bulletin in Finland. The first questionnaire was sent in November 1988, and the survey was repeated among the Finnish readers of the Nucleus in autumn 1992. The results of the latter survey are given in this report

  6. Identification of regeneration-associated genes after central and peripheral nerve injury in the adult rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brook Gary A

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that neurons of the peripheral nervous system have the capacity to regenerate a severed axon leading to functional recovery, whereas neurons of the central nervous system do not regenerate successfully after injury. The underlying molecular programs initiated by axotomized peripheral and central nervous system neurons are not yet fully understood. Results To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of regeneration in the nervous system, differential display polymerase chain reaction has been used to identify differentially expressed genes following axotomy of peripheral and central nerve fibers. For this purpose, axotomy induced changes of regenerating facial nucleus neurons, and non-regenerating red nucleus and Clarke's nucleus neurons have been analyzed in an intra-animal side-to-side comparison. One hundred and thirty five gene fragments have been isolated, of which 69 correspond to known genes encoding for a number of different functional classes of proteins such as transcription factors, signaling molecules, homeobox-genes, receptors and proteins involved in metabolism. Sixty gene fragments correspond to genomic mouse sequences without known function. In situ-hybridization has been used to confirm differential expression and to analyze the cellular localization of these gene fragments. Twenty one genes (~15% have been demonstrated to be differentially expressed. Conclusions The detailed analysis of differentially expressed genes in different lesion paradigms provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of regeneration and may lead to the identification of genes which play key roles in functional repair of central nervous tissues.

  7. Projections of the central medial nucleus of the thalamus in the rat: Node in cortical, striatal and limbic forebrain circuitry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vertes, R. P.; Hoover, W. B.; Rodríguez Arellano, Jose Julio

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 219, 6 SEP (2012), s. 120-136 ISSN 0306-4522 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/09/1696 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : medial prefrontal cortex * insular cortex * nucleus acc umbens Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.122, year: 2012

  8. Experimental and phenomenological investigations of QCD matter in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronic, Anton

    2014-07-15

    This thesis is heterogeneous, comprising experimental papers at low energies (SIS-18 at GSI) and at the LHC, papers on phenomenology of high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions, and papers on detectors. The overview covers the experimental papers and those on phenomenology. I have chosen to write it in a general manner, intended to be accessible to non-experts. It emphasizes recent measurements and their understanding at the LHC. The detector papers, which address many principle aspects of gaseous detectors, are summarized and placed in context in the review I co-wrote and which closes the stack. The detector papers included here are the outcome of an R and D program for the Transition Radiation Detector of ALICE.

  9. Experimental and phenomenological investigations of QCD matter in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronic, Anton

    2014-07-01

    This thesis is heterogeneous, comprising experimental papers at low energies (SIS-18 at GSI) and at the LHC, papers on phenomenology of high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions, and papers on detectors. The overview covers the experimental papers and those on phenomenology. I have chosen to write it in a general manner, intended to be accessible to non-experts. It emphasizes recent measurements and their understanding at the LHC. The detector papers, which address many principle aspects of gaseous detectors, are summarized and placed in context in the review I co-wrote and which closes the stack. The detector papers included here are the outcome of an R and D program for the Transition Radiation Detector of ALICE.

  10. Functional neuroanatomy of the central noradrenergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabadi, Elemer

    2013-08-01

    The central noradrenergic neurone, like the peripheral sympathetic neurone, is characterized by a diffusely arborizing terminal axonal network. The central neurones aggregate in distinct brainstem nuclei, of which the locus coeruleus (LC) is the most prominent. LC neurones project widely to most areas of the neuraxis, where they mediate dual effects: neuronal excitation by α₁-adrenoceptors and inhibition by α₂-adrenoceptors. The LC plays an important role in physiological regulatory networks. In the sleep/arousal network the LC promotes wakefulness, via excitatory projections to the cerebral cortex and other wakefulness-promoting nuclei, and inhibitory projections to sleep-promoting nuclei. The LC, together with other pontine noradrenergic nuclei, modulates autonomic functions by excitatory projections to preganglionic sympathetic, and inhibitory projections to preganglionic parasympathetic neurones. The LC also modulates the acute effects of light on physiological functions ('photomodulation'): stimulation of arousal and sympathetic activity by light via the LC opposes the inhibitory effects of light mediated by the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus on arousal and by the paraventricular nucleus on sympathetic activity. Photostimulation of arousal by light via the LC may enable diurnal animals to function during daytime. LC neurones degenerate early and progressively in Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, leading to cognitive impairment, depression and sleep disturbance.

  11. The olfactory gonadotropin-releasing hormone immunoreactive system in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennes, L

    1986-10-29

    to the ganglion terminale induced sprouting mostly at the distal site of the knife cut while most but not all GnRH fibers proximal to the lesion had disappeared. The results of the present study indicate that the olfactory GnRH system is mostly associated with the nervus terminalis. This cranial nerve apparently projects to the central nervous system as well as the periphery. The results of the HRP uptake studies suggest that the GnRH neurons in the nervus terminalis have access to fenestrated capillaries in the subepithelial connective tissue of the nasal mucosa, to the nasal epithelium proper, and to the subarachnoid space.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  12. Dissipation and fluctuation of the relative momentum in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmeier, H.; Spangenberger, H.

    1984-07-01

    The dissipation of the relative momentum in nucleus-nucleus collisions is treated in terms of a Langevin equation with a fluctuating force. Equations of motion for first and second moments of the macroscopic variables are derived directly from the Langevin equation. The properties of the fluctuating force which results from random particle exchange are investigated in detail. Drift and diffusion coefficients are calculated microscopically and analytical expressions are given which can be used in any trajectory calculation. An important feature of the model is that the Einstein relation between dissipation and fluctuation turns out to be only a limiting case of a more general expression which included nonthermal fluctuations. By treating the two nuclei as intrinsically equilibrated but not in thermal equilibrium with respect to each other several important aspects of the dissipative behaviour, seen in heavy ion collisions with final energies above the Coloumb barrier, can be understood. (orig.)

  13. Nitric oxide in the nucleus raphe magnus modulates cutaneous blood flow in rats during hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arami, Masoumeh Kourosh; Zade, Javad Mirnajafi; Komaki, Alireza; Amiri, Mahmood; Mehrpooya, Sara; Jahanshahi, Ali; Jamei, Behnam

    2015-10-01

    Nucleus Raphe Magnus (NRM) that is involved in the regulation of body temperature contains nitric oxide (NO) synthase. Considering the effect of NO on skin blood flow control, in this study, we assessed its thermoregulatory role within the raphe magnus. To this end, tail blood flow of male Wistar rats was measured by laser doppler following the induction of hypothermia. Intra-NRM injection of SNP (exogenous NO donor, 0.1- 0.2 μl, 0.2 nM) increased the blood flow. Similarly, unilateral microinjection of glutamate (0.1- 0.2 μl, 2.3 nM) into the nucleus increased the blood flow. This effect of L-glutamate was reduced by prior intra NRM administration of NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-methyl-L-arginine or N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 0.1 µl, 100 nM). It is concluded that NO modulates the thermoregulatory response of NRM to hypothermia and may interact with excitatory amino acids in central skin blood flow regulation.

  14. Dynamical and statistical aspects in nucleus-nucleus collisions around the Fermi energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamain, B.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire; Assenard, M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees; Auger, G.; Benlliure, J. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Bacri, C.O.; Borderie, B. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Bisquer, E. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Nucleus-nucleus collisions at low incident energy are mainly governed by statistical dissipative processes, fusion and deep inelastic reactions being the most important ones. Conversely, in the relativistic energy regime, dynamical effects play a dominant role and one should apply a participant-spectator picture in order to understand the data. In between, the intermediate energy region is a transition one in which it is necessary to disentangle dynamics from statistical effects. Moreover, the Fermi energy region corresponds to available energies comparable with nuclear binding energies and one may except to observe phase transition effects. Experiments performed recently with 4{pi} devices have given quite new data and a much better insight into involved mechanisms and hot nuclear matter properties. INDRA data related to reaction mechanisms and multifragmentation are presented. (author) 53 refs.

  15. Dynamical and statistical aspects in nucleus-nucleus collisions around the Fermi energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamain, B.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Bacri, C.O.; Borderie, B.; Bisquer, E.

    1997-01-01

    Nucleus-nucleus collisions at low incident energy are mainly governed by statistical dissipative processes, fusion and deep inelastic reactions being the most important ones. Conversely, in the relativistic energy regime, dynamical effects play a dominant role and one should apply a participant-spectator picture in order to understand the data. In between, the intermediate energy region is a transition one in which it is necessary to disentangle dynamics from statistical effects. Moreover, the Fermi energy region corresponds to available energies comparable with nuclear binding energies and one may except to observe phase transition effects. Experiments performed recently with 4π devices have given quite new data and a much better insight into involved mechanisms and hot nuclear matter properties. INDRA data related to reaction mechanisms and multifragmentation are presented. (author)

  16. Neural correlates underlying naloxone-induced amelioration of sexual behavior deterioration due to an alarm pheromone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya eKobayashi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sexual behavior is suppressed by various types of stressors. We previously demonstrated that an alarm pheromone released by stressed male Wistar rats is a stressor to other rats, increases the number of mounts needed for ejaculation, and decreases the hit rate (described as the number of intromissions/sum of the mounts and intromissions. This deterioration in sexual behavior was ameliorated by pretreatment with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. However, the neural mechanism underlying this remains to be elucidated. Here, we examined Fos expression in 31 brain regions of pheromone-exposed rats and naloxone-pretreated pheromone-exposed rats 60 min after 10 intromissions. As previously reported, the alarm pheromone increased the number of mounts and decreased the hit rate. In addition, Fos expression was increases in the anterior medial division, anterior lateral division and posterior division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, parvocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, dorsolateral and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, and nucleus paragigantocellularis. Fos expression decreased in the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Pretreatment with naloxone blocked the pheromone-induced changes in Fos expression in the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, and nucleus paragigantocellularis. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the alarm pheromone deteriorated sexual behavior by activating the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray-nucleus paragigantocellularis cluster and suppressing the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus via the opioidergic pathway.

  17. Leptin Mediate High Fat Diet Sensitization of Angiotensin II-elicited Hypertension by Upregulating the Brain Renin-Angiotensin System and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Baojian; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Zhongming; Guo, Fang; Beltz, Terry G.; Thunhorst, Robert L.; Felder, Robert B.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by increased circulating levels of the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin, which can increase sympathetic nerve activity and raise blood pressure. A previous study revealed that rats fed a high fat diet (HFD) have an enhanced hypertensive response to subsequent angiotensin (Ang) II administration that is mediated at least in part by increased activity of brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and proinflammatory cytokines (PICs). The present study tested whether leptin mediates this HFD-induced sensitization of Ang II-elicited hypertension by interacting with brain RAS and PICs mechanisms. Rats fed a HFD for 3 weeks had significant increases in white adipose tissue mass, plasma leptin levels and mRNA expression of leptin and its receptors in the lamina terminalis (LT) and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Central infusion of a leptin receptor antagonist during HFD feeding abolished HFD sensitization of Ang II-elicited hypertension. Furthermore, central infusion of leptin mimicked the sensitizing action of HFD. Concomitant central infusions of the AT1-R antagonist irbesartan, the TNF-α synthesis inhibitor pentoxifylline, or the inhibitor of microglial activation minocycline prevented the sensitization produced by central infusion of leptin. RT-PCR analysis indicated that either HFD or leptin administration upregulated mRNA expression of several components of the RAS and PICs in the LT and PVN. The leptin antagonist and the inhibitors of AT1-R, TNF-α synthesis and microglial activation all reversed the expression of these genes. The results suggest that HFD-induced sensitization of Ang II-elicited hypertension is mediated by leptin through upregulation of central RAS and PICs. PMID:27021010

  18. New quasibound states of the compound nucleus in α -particle capture by the nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maydanyuk, Sergei P.; Zhang, Peng-Ming; Zou, Li-Ping

    2017-07-01

    We generalize the theory of nuclear decay and capture of Gamow that is based on tunneling through the barrier and internal oscillations inside the nucleus. In our formalism an additional factor is obtained, which describes distribution of the wave function of the the α particle inside the nuclear region. We discover new most stable states (called quasibound states) of the compound nucleus (CN) formed during the capture of α particle by the nucleus. With a simple example, we explain why these states cannot appear in traditional calculations of the α capture cross sections based on monotonic penetrabilities of a barrier, but they appear in a complete description of the evolution of the CN. Our result is obtained by a complete description of the CN evolution, which has the advantages of (1) a clear picture of the formation of the CN and its disintegration, (2) a detailed quantum description of the CN, (3) tests of the calculated amplitudes based on quantum mechanics (not realized in other approaches), and (4) high accuracy of calculations (not achieved in other approaches). These peculiarities are shown with the capture reaction of α +44Ca . We predict quasibound energy levels and determine fusion probabilities for this reaction. The difference between our approach and theory of quasistationary states with complex energies applied for the α capture is also discussed. We show (1) that theory does not provide calculations for the cross section of α capture (according to modern models of the α capture), in contrast with our formalism, and (2) these two approaches describe different states of the α capture (for the same α -nucleus potential).

  19. The atomic nucleus as a target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.; Pawlak, T.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to characterize the atomic nucleus used as a target in hadron-nucleus collision experiments. The atomic nucleus can be treated as a lens-shaped ''slab'' of nuclear matter. Such ''slab'' should be characterized by the nuclear matter layer thickness at any impact parameter, by its average thickness, and by its maximal thickness. Parameters characterizing atomic nuclei as targets are given for the elements: 6 12 C, 7 14 N, 8 16 O, 9 19 F, 10 20 Ne, 13 27 Al, 14 28 Si, 16 32 S, 18 40 Ar, 24 52 Cr, 26 54 Fe, 27 59 Co, 29 64 Cu, 30 65 Zn, 32 73 Ge, 35 80 Br, 47 100 Ag, 53 127 I, 54 131 Xe, 73 181 Ta, 74 184 W, 79 197 Au, 82 207 Pb, 92 -- 238 U [ru

  20. A plausible picture of high-energy proton-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.O.

    1976-01-01

    Results experimentally obtained from jets of E(p)=10-10 3 GeV in nuclear emulsion show that the target nucleus in proton-nucleus collisions seems to present ''limiting fragmentation''. In the same energy range, proton-nucleus collisions resemble closely proton-proton collisions and asymmetric shape of rapidities is only caused by the break-up products of heavy targets [fr

  1. New aspects of the atomic nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    We are at last just beginning to identify convincing evidence for what we have long believed, namely that the nucleus is more than the sum of its neutron-proton parts taken pairwise because, for example, a cluster of three nucleons interacts differently from the sum of the interactions of its three pairs; there is an important collectivism in the life of a nucleus even before we ask what its nucleons are doing. (orig./WL)

  2. Advances in hard nucleus cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cui

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Security and perfect vision and fewer complications are our goals in cataract surgery, and hard-nucleus cataract surgery is always a difficulty one. Many new studies indicate that micro-incision phacoemulsification in treating hard nucleus cataract is obviously effective. This article reviews the evolution process of hard nuclear cataract surgery, the new progress in the research of artificial intraocular lens for microincision, and analyse advantages and disadvantages of various surgical methods.

  3. Afferent projections to the deep mesencephalic nucleus in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veazey, R.B.; Severin, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    Afferent projections to the deep mesencephalic nucleus (DMN) of the rat were demonstrated with axonal transport techniques. Potential sources for projections to the DMN were first identified by injecting the nucleus with HRP and examining the cervical spinal cord, brain stem, and cortex for retrogradely labeled neurons. Areas consistently labeled were then injected with a tritiated radioisotope, the tissue processed for autoradiography, and the DMN examined for anterograde labeling. Afferent projections to the medial and/or lateral parts of the DMN were found to originate from a number of spinal, bulbar, and cortical centers. Rostral brain centers projecting to both medial and lateral parts of the DMN include the ipsilateral motor and somatosensory cortex, the entopeduncular nucleus, and zona incerta. at the level of the midbrain, the ipsilateral substantia nigra and contralateral DMN likewise project to the DMN. Furthermore, the ipsilateral superior colliculus projects to the DMN, involving mainly the lateral part of the nucleus. Afferents from caudal centers include bilateral projections from the sensory nucleus of the trigeminal complex and the nucleus medulla oblongata centralis, as well as from the contralateral dentate nucleus. The projections from the trigeminal complex and nucleus medullae oblongatae centralis terminate in the intermediate and medial parts of the DMN, whereas projections from the contralateral dentate nucleus terminate mainly in its lateral part. In general, the afferent connections of the DMN arise from diverse areas of the brain. Although most of these projections distribute throughout the entire extent of the DMN, some of them project mainly to either medial or lateral parts of the nucleus, thus suggesting that the organization of the DMN is comparable, at least in part, to that of the reticular formation of the pons and medulla, a region in which hodological differences between medial and lateral subdivisions are known to exist

  4. High-energy elastic and quasi-elastic deuteron-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekou, Amouzou

    1974-01-01

    A study is made of deuteron-nucleus elastic and quasi-elastic scattering and the connection between the opaque nucleus model and the Glauber model is pointed out. The contributions to different cross-sections of the collisions in which the nucleus, excited by one of the nucleons of the deuteron, is brought back to the ground state by the other nucleon is analysed. Coherent deuteron disintegration is found to be highly improbable when the target nucleus is heavy and incoherent disintegration accounts for nearly all the deuteron disintegration. Thus a correct comparison between theoretical and experimental data on proton stripping must take the incoherent deuteron disintegration into consideration

  5. Attributed relational graphs for cell nucleus segmentation in fluorescence microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Salim; Ersahin, Tulin; Cetin-Atalay, Rengul; Gunduz-Demir, Cigdem

    2013-06-01

    More rapid and accurate high-throughput screening in molecular cellular biology research has become possible with the development of automated microscopy imaging, for which cell nucleus segmentation commonly constitutes the core step. Although several promising methods exist for segmenting the nuclei of monolayer isolated and less-confluent cells, it still remains an open problem to segment the nuclei of more-confluent cells, which tend to grow in overlayers. To address this problem, we propose a new model-based nucleus segmentation algorithm. This algorithm models how a human locates a nucleus by identifying the nucleus boundaries and piecing them together. In this algorithm, we define four types of primitives to represent nucleus boundaries at different orientations and construct an attributed relational graph on the primitives to represent their spatial relations. Then, we reduce the nucleus identification problem to finding predefined structural patterns in the constructed graph and also use the primitives in region growing to delineate the nucleus borders. Working with fluorescence microscopy images, our experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm identifies nuclei better than previous nucleus segmentation algorithms.

  6. Investigating the dynamics of the brain response to music: A central role of the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Karsten; Fritz, Thomas; Mildner, Toralf; Richter, Maxi; Schulze, Katrin; Lepsien, Jöran; Schroeter, Matthias L; Möller, Harald E

    2015-08-01

    Ventral striatal activity has been previously shown to correspond well to reward value mediated by music. Here, we investigate the dynamic brain response to music and manipulated counterparts using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Counterparts of musical excerpts were produced by either manipulating the consonance/dissonance of the musical fragments or playing them backwards (or both). Results show a greater involvement of the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens both when contrasting listening to music that is perceived as pleasant and listening to a manipulated version perceived as unpleasant (backward dissonant), as well as in a parametric analysis for increasing pleasantness. Notably, both analyses yielded a ventral striatal response that was strongest during an early phase of stimulus presentation. A hippocampal response to the musical stimuli was also observed, and was largely mediated by processing differences between listening to forward and backward music. This hippocampal involvement was again strongest during the early response to the music. Auditory cortex activity was more strongly evoked by the original (pleasant) music compared to its manipulated counterparts, but did not display a similar decline of activation over time as subcortical activity. These findings rather suggest that the ventral striatal/nucleus accumbens response during music listening is strongest in the first seconds and then declines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Interaction with the Arcuate Nucleus; Essential for Organizing Physiological Rhythms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Frederik N.; Guzmán-Ruiz, Mara; León-Mercado, Luis; Basualdo, Mari Carmen; Escobar, Carolina; Kalsbeek, Andries; Buijs, Ruud M.

    2017-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is generally considered the master clock, independently driving all circadian rhythms. We recently demonstrated the SCN receives metabolic and cardiovascular feedback adeptly altering its neuronal activity. In the present study, we show that microcuts effectively

  8. GABAergic projections to the oculomotor nucleus in the goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Angeles eLuque

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian oculomotor nucleus receives a strong -aminobutyric acid (GABAergic synaptic input, whereas such projections have rarely been reported in fish. In order to determine whether this synaptic organization is preserved across vertebrates, we investigated the GABAergic projections to the oculomotor nucleus in the goldfish by combining retrograde transport of biotin dextran amine, injected into the antidromically identified oculomotor nucleus, and GABA immunohistochemistry. The main source of GABAergic afferents to the oculomotor nucleus was the ipsilateral anterior octaval nucleus, with only a few, if any, GABAergic neurons being located in the contralateral tangential and descending nuclei of the octaval column. In mammals there is a nearly exclusive ipsilateral projection from vestibular neurons to the oculomotor nucleus via GABAergic inhibitory inputs; thus, the vestibulooculomotor GABAergic circuitry follows a plan that appears to be shared throughout the vertebrate phylogeny. The second major source of GABAergic projections was the rhombencephalic reticular formation, primarily from the medial area but, to a lesser extent, from the inferior area. A few GABAergic oculomotor projecting neurons were also observed in the ipsilateral nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. The GABAergic projections from neurons located in both the reticular formation surrounding the abducens nucleus and the nucleus of the medial reticular formation have primarily been related to the control of saccadic eye movements. Finally, all retrogradely labeled internuclear neurons of the abducens nucleus, and neurons in the cerebellum (close to the caudal lobe, were negative for GABA. These data suggest that the vestibuloocular and saccadic inhibitory GABAergic systems appear early in vertebrate phylogeny to modulate the firing properties of the oculomotor nucleus motoneurons.

  9. Qualitative analysis neurons in the adult human dentate nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Dušica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although many relevant findings regarding to the morphology and cytoarchitectural development of the dentate nucleus have been presented so far, very little qualitative information has been collected on neuronal morphology in the adult human dentate nucleus. The neurons were labelled by Golgi staining from thirty human cerebella, obtained from medico-legal forensic autopsies of adult human bodies and free of significant brain pathology. The human dentate neurons were qualitatively analyzed and these cells were classified into two main classes: the small and the large multipolar neurons. Considering the shape of the cell body, number of the primary dendrites, shape of the dendritic tree and their position within the dentate nucleus, three subclasses of the large multipolar neurons have been recognized. The classification of neurons from the human dentate nucleus has been qualitatively confirmed in fetuses and premature infants. This study represents the first qualitative analysis and classification of the large multipolar neurons in the dentate nucleus of the adult human.

  10. Correlations between projectile and target breakup: a comparative study of nucleus-nucleus collisions at 75, 175 and 2000A MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjarle, C.; Herrstroem, N.Y.; Kullberg, R.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.

    1982-01-01

    Nucleus-nucleus collision in three different energy intervals: 50-100, 150-200 and 1900-2100A MeV have been studied in nuclear emulsion. The reactions were 16 O + average emulsion target (H, C, N, O, Ag, Br). In each event, all emitted charged particles were recorded, projectile fragments with Z>=2 identifed and the number of charged particles from the target nucleus was determined. The results are discussed in terms of the geometrical aspects of Heavy Ion collisions and direct comparisons are made with the Coldhaber fragmentation model

  11. Measurement of low mass muon pairs in sulphur-nucleus collisions with an optimized HELIOS muon spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Dileptons provide a unique and specific tool to detect collective behaviour and to probe for signs of quark gluon plasma formation in nucleus-nucleus interactions. In particular, in the low transverse mass region, below the rho meson, dimuons probe the thermal nature of the interaction while their multiplicity dependence can indicate nuclear volume effects. \\\\\\\\This experiment uses the (almost) unchanged HELIOS muon spectrometer and a combination of a new carefully designed light absorber, at an optimized distance from the target, and multiplicity measurements provided by new Silicon ring detectors, covering more than the muon rapidity acceptance. It intends to improve in quality and quantity on the low mass, low $p_{T}$ dimuon signal already observed in the NA34/2 experiment. The wide range of rapidity from 3.5 to 6.0 will enable us to explore the rapidity dependence of the signal from high energy density at nearly central rapidity up to very forward rapidities. \\\\\\\\The commissioning of the new apparatus (...

  12. Neurons from the adult human dentate nucleus: neural networks in the neuron classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grbatinić, Ivan; Marić, Dušica L; Milošević, Nebojša T

    2015-04-07

    Topological (central vs. border neuron type) and morphological classification of adult human dentate nucleus neurons according to their quantified histomorphological properties using neural networks on real and virtual neuron samples. In the real sample 53.1% and 14.1% of central and border neurons, respectively, are classified correctly with total of 32.8% of misclassified neurons. The most important result present 62.2% of misclassified neurons in border neurons group which is even greater than number of correctly classified neurons (37.8%) in that group, showing obvious failure of network to classify neurons correctly based on computational parameters used in our study. On the virtual sample 97.3% of misclassified neurons in border neurons group which is much greater than number of correctly classified neurons (2.7%) in that group, again confirms obvious failure of network to classify neurons correctly. Statistical analysis shows that there is no statistically significant difference in between central and border neurons for each measured parameter (p>0.05). Total of 96.74% neurons are morphologically classified correctly by neural networks and each one belongs to one of the four histomorphological types: (a) neurons with small soma and short dendrites, (b) neurons with small soma and long dendrites, (c) neuron with large soma and short dendrites, (d) neurons with large soma and long dendrites. Statistical analysis supports these results (pneurons can be classified in four neuron types according to their quantitative histomorphological properties. These neuron types consist of two neuron sets, small and large ones with respect to their perykarions with subtypes differing in dendrite length i.e. neurons with short vs. long dendrites. Besides confirmation of neuron classification on small and large ones, already shown in literature, we found two new subtypes i.e. neurons with small soma and long dendrites and with large soma and short dendrites. These neurons are

  13. 3D Protein Dynamics in the Cell Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anand P; Galland, Rémi; Finch-Edmondson, Megan L; Grenci, Gianluca; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Studer, Vincent; Viasnoff, Virgile; Saunders, Timothy E

    2017-01-10

    The three-dimensional (3D) architecture of the cell nucleus plays an important role in protein dynamics and in regulating gene expression. However, protein dynamics within the 3D nucleus are poorly understood. Here, we present, to our knowledge, a novel combination of 1) single-objective based light-sheet microscopy, 2) photoconvertible proteins, and 3) fluorescence correlation microscopy, to quantitatively measure 3D protein dynamics in the nucleus. We are able to acquire >3400 autocorrelation functions at multiple spatial positions within a nucleus, without significant photobleaching, allowing us to make reliable estimates of diffusion dynamics. Using this tool, we demonstrate spatial heterogeneity in Polymerase II dynamics in live U2OS cells. Further, we provide detailed measurements of human-Yes-associated protein diffusion dynamics in a human gastric cancer epithelial cell line. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nucleus-Nucleus Scattering in the High-Energy Approximation and the Optical Folding Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Lukyanov, V K; Lukyanov, K V

    2004-01-01

    For the nucleus-nucleus scattering, the complex potential is obtained which corresponds to the eikonal phase of an optical limit of the Glauber-Sitenko high-energy approximation. The potential does not include free parameters, its real and imaginary parts depend on energy and are determined by the reported data on the nuclear density distributions and nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude. Alternatively, for the real part, the folding potential can be utilized which includes the effective NN-forces and the exchange term, as well. As a result, the microscopic optical potential is constructed where contributions of the calculated real and imaginary parts are formed by fitting the two respective factors. An efficient of the approach is confirmed by agreements of calculations with the experimental data on elastic scattering cross-sections.

  15. Formin' actin in the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baarlink, Christian; Grosse, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Many if not most proteins can, under certain conditions, change cellular compartments, such as, for example, shuttling from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Thus, many proteins may exert functions in various and very different subcellular locations, depending on the signaling context. A large amount of actin regulatory proteins has been detected in the mammalian cell nucleus, although their potential roles are much debated and are just beginning to emerge. Recently, members of the formin family of actin nucleators were also reported to dynamically localize to the nuclear environment. Here we discuss our findings that specific diaphanous-related formins can promote nuclear actin assembly in a signal-dependent manner.

  16. On the geometric nature of high energy nucleus-nucleus reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, L.W.; Wilson, J.W.; Bidasaria, H.B.

    1982-01-01

    Within the context of a high energy double-folding optical potential approximation to the exact nucleus-nucleus multiple-scattering series, eikonal scattering theory is used to investigate the validity of geometric reaction cross sections in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The potential used includes a finite range interaction and nuclear single-particle densities extracted from nuclear charge distributions by unfolding the proton charge distribution. Pauli correlation effects are also included in an approximate way. The sensitivity of the predictions to be assumed interaction, Pauli correlation approximation, and nuclear density distributions is investigated. These results are in agreement with early predictions concerning the geometric nature of relativistic heavy ion collisions and in disagreement with a recent analysis, utilizing the zero range approximation, which suggested otherwise. Reasons for the lack of agreement between the analyses are also presented. Finally, approximate applicability for geometric reaction cross sections are determined

  17. Study of various models of nuclear interaction potentials: nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, H.

    1984-01-01

    Several models, performed within a mean field theory, are developed for the calculation of nucleon-nucleus interaction potentials. The first part of the thesis deals with the nucleon-nucleus average interaction. It is mainly devoted to the calculation of dynamical corrections to the Hartree-Fock approximation. Two approaches are used: a microscopic model performed in the framework of the nuclear structure approach and a semi-phenomenological one, based on the application of the dispersion relations to the empirical imaginary potential. Both models take into account finite size effects like collectivity or threshold effects which are important at low energy. The Green's function properties are used for both models. The second part of this work is devoted to the interaction potential between two heavy ions. This calculation, which is performed in the framework of the sudden approximation, uses the energy density formalism (Thomas-Fermi approximation). It has been extended to finite temperature. At T=0 the experimental fusion barriers of heavy systems are reproduced within 4%. Their temperature dependence is studied. The proximity scaling is checked and a universal function is obtained at T=0 and at finite temperature. It is found that the proximity theorem is well satisfied on the average. The dispersion around the mean behaviour increases with increasing temperature. At last, P+A* and α+A* interaction potentials are calculated within a double folding model using a schematic effective interaction [fr

  18. Mechano-adaptation of the stem cell nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Su-Jin; Cosgrove, Brian D; Dai, Eric N; Mauck, Robert L

    2018-01-01

    Exogenous mechanical forces are transmitted through the cell and to the nucleus, initiating mechanotransductive signaling cascades with profound effects on cellular function and stem cell fate. A growing body of evidence has shown that the force sensing and force-responsive elements of the nucleus adapt to these mechanotransductive events, tuning their response to future mechanical input. The mechanisms underlying this "mechano-adaptation" are only just beginning to be elucidated, and it remains poorly understood how these components act and adapt in tandem to drive stem cell differentiation. Here, we review the evidence on how the stem cell nucleus responds and adapts to physical forces, and provide a perspective on how this mechano-adaptation may function to drive and enforce stem cell differentiation.

  19. Nucleus fingerprinting for the unique identification of Feulgen-stained nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, David; Brozio, Matthias; Bell, André; Biesterfeld, Stefan; Böcking, Alfred; Aach, Til

    2012-03-01

    DNA Image Cytometry is a method for non-invasive cancer diagnosis which measures the DNA content of Feulgen-stained nuclei. DNA content is measured using a microscope system equipped with a digital camera as a densitometer and estimating the DNA content from the absorption of light when passing through the nuclei. However, a DNA Image Cytometry measurement is only valid if each nucleus is only measured once. To assist the user in preventing multiple measurements of the same nucleus, we have developed a unique digital identifier for the characterization of Feulgen-stained nuclei, the so called Nucleus Fingerprint. Only nuclei with a new fingerprint can be added to the measurement. This fingerprint is based on basic nucleus features, the contour of the nucleus and the spatial relationship to nuclei in the vicinity. Based on this characterization, a classifier for testing two nuclei for identity is presented. In a pairwise comparison of ~40000 pairs of mutually different nuclei, 99.5% were classified as different. In another 450 tests, the fingerprints of the same nucleus recorded a second time were in all cases judged identical. We therefore conclude that our Nucleus Fingerprint approach robustly prevents the repeated measurement of nuclei in DNA Image Cytometry.

  20. Study of η-nucleus interaction through the formation of η-nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The question of possible existence of η-mesic nuclei is quite intriguing. An- swer to this question will deeply enrich our understanding of η-nucleus interaction which is not so well-understood. We review the experimental efforts for the search of η-mesic nuclei and describe the physics motivation behind it.

  1. High energy cosmic ray events of ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, T.H.; Dake, S.; Derricson, J.H.; Fountain, W.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J.C.; Hayashi, T.; Hayashi, T.; Holynski, R.; Iwai, J.; Jones, W.V.; Jurak, A.; Lord, J.J.; Meegan, C.A.; Miyamura, O.; Oda, H.; Ogata, T.; Parnell, T.A.; Roberts, E.; Saito, T.; Strauss, S.; Tabuki, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Tominaga, T.; Watts, J.W.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilkes, R.J.; Wolter, W.; Bosiek, B.

    1985-01-01

    Japanese American Cooperative Emulsion Experiment (JACEE) has been measuring ultrarelativistic comic ray nucleus and sampling the events in the energy regions both 10 to 100 GeV/A and above TeV/A by balloon emulsion chamber since 1979. In this report main results obtained up to now will be described. (orig./HSI)

  2. Analysis of the thematic content of review Nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra Valdes, Ramiro

    2007-01-01

    A computer programme for performing standardized analysis of research areas and key concepts of nuclear science and technology under development at Cubaenergia is presented. Main components of the information processing system, as well as computational methods and modules for thematic content analysis of INIS Database record files are described. Results of thematic content analysis of review Nucleus from 1986 to 2005 are shown. Furthermore, results of demonstrative study Nucleus, Science, Technology and Society are also shown. The results provide new elements to asses the significance of the thematic content of review Nucleus in the context of innovation in interrelated multidisciplinary research areas

  3. Proceedings of the Galactic Center Workshop 2002: The Central 300 Parsecs of the Milky Way. Astronomische Nachrichten Supplementary Issue 1/2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotera, Angela; Markoff, Sera; Geballe, T. R.; Falcke, Heino

    2004-03-01

    Our knowledge of the environment of the nucleus of our galaxy has been greatly enhanced, by more extensive and sensitive observations at radio and infrared wavelengths, the advent of high resolution x-ray imaging and spectroscopy, and considerable theoretical activity to understand the nucleus and its components, and their activity. The Galactic Center Workshop 2002 was organized to review recent research on the galactic center, including the latest state-of-the-art observations and important theoretical developments. The workshop covered phenomena on scales ranging from the central several hundred parsecs to the central parsec and within. Each topic was approached from both multi-wavelength observational and theoretical perspectives.

  4. Semiclassical model for single-particle transitions in nucleus-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milek, B.; Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna; Technische Univ., Dresden; Reif, R.; Pham Khan Van; Revai, J.

    1990-04-01

    A previously elaborated semiclassical one-body model for the dynamics of a single particle, moving in two potentials, in heavy-ion reactions or in fissioning systems has been extended with respect to the inclusion of angular momenta and more realistic separable potentials. The collective relative motion is assumed to proceed along a trajectory which is calculated from classical equations of motion including conservative and phenomenological friction forces. The formalism has been derived involving three-dimensional trajectories for symmetric as well as for asymmetric nucleus-nucleus systems. The model allows for the calculation of correct quantum mechanical transition amplitudes to final bound and continuum states. It has been applied for the investigation of the excitation of a neutron during a fission process, covering also non-statistical differential emission probabilities. From the numerical calculations, using parameters adapted to 252 Cf(sf), one can conclude that in the underlying model without 'sudden' processes the energy spectrum consists of two parts. The low lying component is created in the neck region while a high lying part seems to be governed mainly by the dynamics of the underlying collective motion rather than by the specific initial conditions. (orig.)

  5. Estimation of nuclear destruction in high energy nucleus-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzhinskij, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    It is assumed that: 1) a projectile particle invokes into target nucleus a cascade of quark-gluon exchanges; 2) the nucleons involved in the cascade are ejected from the nucleus which leads to the nuclear destruction. On these bases a simple model to estimate the nuclear destruction at the fast stage of the interaction is proposed. The allowed region of the model parameters is determined at the proton-emulsion high-energy interaction data analysis: an analysis of gold interactions with nuclei at an energy of 600 MeV/nucleon fixes the parameter values. The distributions on the energy in zero degree calorimeter (T ZDC ) in the interactions of Si+Al, Cu, Pb (14 GeV/nucleon) and Au+Au (10 GeV/nucleon) calculated in the framework of the model and in the cascade-evaporation model (CEM) are presented. The proposed model describes the nuclear destruction at intermediate and high energies better than CEM does. The estimation of the average values of impact parameter and the number of intra-nuclear collisions for Au+Au interactions in the events with different T ZDC is given. 34 refs., 11 figs

  6. Different expressions of high voltage-activated Ca2+ channel types in the rostral reticular thalamic nucleus of the absence epileptic WAG/Rij rat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenkamp-Janssen, M.C. van de; Scheenen, W.J.J.M.; Kuijpers-Kwant, F.J.; Kozicz, L.T.; Veening, J.G.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; McEnery, M.W.; Roubos, E.W.

    2004-01-01

    In the WAG/Rij rat, a model for human absence epilepsy, spike-wave discharges (SWD) and absence epileptic behavior develop after the age of 3 months. The rostral part of the reticular thalamic nucleus (rRTN) is involved in SWD. Ca(2+) channels play a central role in the initiation and maintenance of

  7. On studies of the hadron-nucleus collision processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1992-01-01

    A new way of hadron-nucleus collision process investigations in experiments is described. It is based on the properties of the hadron passage through layers of the intranuclear matter. The picture of the hadron-nucleus collision mechanism, as prompted experimentally, is presented. 37 refs.; 1 tab

  8. Antiproton-nucleus interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Several facets of antinucleon-nucleus interactions are explored. The topics treated are: coherent interactions, production of unusual states and particles in the nuclear medium, and the creation of extreme states of matter by antimatter annihilation. It is found that temperatures of the magnitude necessary to achieve the predicted quark-gluon phase transition are obtained. 20 references

  9. Testing string dynamics in lepton nucleus reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulassy, M.; Pluemer, M.

    1989-10-01

    The sensitivity of nuclear attenuation of 10-100 GeV lepton nucleus (ell A) reactions to space-time aspects of hadronization is investigated within the context of the Lund string model. We consider two mechanisms for attenuation in a nucleus: final state cascading and string flip excitations. Implications for the evolution of the energy density in nuclear collisions are discussed. 16 refs., 10 figs

  10. Inclusive jet production in ultrarelativistic proton-nucleus collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Perepelitsa, Dennis

    High-$p_\\mathrm{T}$ processes in proton- and deuteron-nucleus collisions at TeV energies are the best presently available way to study the partonic structure of the nucleus in a high-density regime. Jet production over a wide range of phase space can significantly constrain the current knowledge of nuclear parton distribution functions (nPDFs), which are substantially less well understood than the corresponding PDFs in protons and which have only recently begun to be treated in a spatially-dependent way. An accurate knowledge of nPDFs is crucial for a definitive control of perturbative processes in a cold nuclear environment, since high-$p_\\mathrm{T}$ probes are used to quantitatively investigate the hot QCD matter created in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. Furthermore, jets from low Bjorken-$x$ partons can probe the transition from the dilute to saturated nuclear regimes. Jet production is investigated in $d$+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 200$ GeV with the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Hea...

  11. Long-term effects of a single exposure to immobilization: a c-fos mRNA study of the response to the homotypic stressor in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallès, Astrid; Martí, Octavi; Armario, Antonio

    2006-05-01

    A single exposure to a severe emotional stressor such as immobilization in wooden boards (IMO) causes long-term (days to weeks) peripheral and central desensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response to the same (homotypic) stressor. However, the brain areas putatively involved in long-term desensitization are unknown. In the present experiment, adult male rats were subjected to 2 h of IMO and, 1 or 4 weeks later, exposed again to 1 h IMO together with stress-naive rats. C-fos mRNA activation just after IMO and 1 h after the termination of IMO (post-IMO) were evaluated by in situ hybridization. Whereas in most brain areas c-fos mRNA induction caused by the last IMO session was similar in stress-naive (controls) and previously immobilized rats, a few brain areas showed a reduced c-fos mRNA response: ventral lateral septum (LSv), medial amygdala (MeA), parvocellular region of the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (pPVN), and locus coeruleus (LC). In contrast, an enhanced expression was observed in the medial division of the bed nucleus stria terminalis (BSTMv). The present work demonstrates that a previous experience with a stressor can induce changes in c-fos mRNA expression in different brain areas in response to the homotypic stressor and suggests that LSv, MeA, and BSTMv may be important for providing signals to lower diencephalic (pPVN) and brainstem (LC) nuclei, which results in a lower physiological response to the homotypic stressor.

  12. Nucleus accumbens and impulsivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basar, K.; Sesia, T.; Groenewegen, H.J.; Steinbusch, H.W.; Visser-vandewalle, V.; Temel, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The multifaceted concept of impulsivity implies that different impulsivity aspects, mediated by different neural processes, influence behavior at different levels. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a key component of the neural processes regulating impulsivity. In this review, we discuss the findings

  13. NuSTEC White Paper: Status and Challenges of Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Ruso, L.; et al.

    2017-06-12

    The precise measurement of neutrino properties is among the highest priorities in fundamental particle physics, involving many experiments worldwide. Since the experiments rely on the interactions of neutrinos with bound nucleons inside atomic nuclei, the planned advances in the scope and precision of these experiments requires a commensurate effort in the understanding and modeling of the hadronic and nuclear physics of these interactions, which is incorporated as a nuclear model in neutrino event generators. This model is essential to every phase of experimental analyses and its theoretical uncertainties play an important role in interpreting every result. In this White Paper we discuss in detail the impact of neutrino-nucleus interactions, especially the nuclear effects, on the measurement of neutrino properties using the determination of oscillation parameters as a central example. After an Executive Summary and a concise Overview of the issues, we explain how the neutrino event generators work, what can be learned from electron-nucleus interactions and how each underlying physics process - from quasi-elastic to deep inelastic scattering - is understood today. We then emphasize how our understanding must improve to meet the demands of future experiments. With every topic we find that the challenges can be met only with the active support and collaboration among specialists in strong interactions and electroweak physics that include theorists and experimentalists from both the nuclear and high energy physics communities.

  14. Nitric oxide in the nucleus raphe magnus modulates cutaneous blood flow in rats during hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Kourosh Arami

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Nucleus Raphe Magnus (NRM that is involved in the regulation of body temperature contains nitric oxide (NO synthase. Considering the effect of NO on skin blood flow control, in this study, we assessed its thermoregulatory role within the raphe magnus. Materials and Methods: To this end, tail blood flow of male Wistar rats was measured by laser doppler following the induction of hypothermia. Results: Intra-NRM injection of SNP (exogenous NO donor, 0.1- 0.2 μl, 0.2 nM increased the blood flow. Similarly, unilateral microinjection of glutamate (0.1- 0.2 μl, 2.3 nM into the nucleus increased the blood flow. This effectof L-glutamate was reduced by prior intra NRM administrationof NO synthase inhibitor NG-methyl-L-arginine or NG-nitro-L-argininemethyl ester (L-NAME, 0.1 µl, 100 nM. Conclusion: It is concluded that NO modulates the thermoregulatory response of NRM to hypothermia and may interactwith excitatory amino acids in central skin blood flow regulation.

  15. Mechanism of energy release from nucleus-target in hadron-nucleus collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.; Strugalska-Gola, E.

    2000-01-01

    The collisions of hadrons (protons, mesons) with 131 Xe nucleus and arising light nuclear fragments as nuclear refraction products have been observed in bubble chamber. Mechanism of energy release during these collisions has been discussed. The quantitative calculations has proved that this phenomena can be treated as potential energy source with use of many different target materials

  16. Nucleus of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock (1983 VII)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1988-01-01

    Optical, radar, infrared, UV, and microwave-continuum observations of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcok were obtained in May 1983, the week of the comet's close approach to earth. The comet has a nucleus dimension and a rotation period which are similar to those of Comet Halley, but a different morphological signature (a persisting sunward fan-shaped coma). Time variations are noted in the projected nucleus cross section. Results suggest significant limb-darkening effects in the relevant domains of radio waves, and that the comet's interior must be extremely cold. It is found that the thermal-infrared fluxes from the inner coma of the comet are dominated by the nucleus. 63 references

  17. On slow particle production in hadron-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenlund, E.; Otterlund, I.

    1982-01-01

    A model for slow particle production in hadron-nucleus interactions is presented. The model succesfully predicts correlations between the number of knock-on particles and the number of particles associated with the evaporation process as well as correlations with the number of collisions, ν, between the incident hadron and the nucleons inside the target nucleus. The model provides two independent possibilities to determine the number of primary intranuclear collisions, ν, i.e. by its correlation to the number of knock-on particles or to the number of evaporated particles. The good agreement indicates that the model gives an impact-parameter sensitive description of hardron nucleus reactions. (orig.)

  18. Finite element study of a lumbar intervertebral disc nucleus replacement device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica S Coogan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nucleus replacement technologies are a minimally invasive alternative to spinal fusion and total disc replacement that have the potential to reduce pain and restore motion for patients with degenerative disc disease. Finite element modeling can be used to determine the biomechanics associated with nucleus replacement technologies. The current study focuses on a new nucleus replacement device designed as a conforming silicone implant with an internal void. A validated finite element model of the human lumbar L3-L4 motion segment was developed and used to investigate the influence of the nucleus replacement device on spine biomechanics. In addition, the effect of device design changes on biomechanics was determined. A 3D, L3-L4 finite element model was constructed from medical imaging data. Models were created with the normal intact nucleus, the nucleus replacement device, and a solid silicone implant. Probabilistic analysis was performed on the normal model to provide quantitative validation metrics. Sensitivity analysis was performed on the silicone Shore A durometer of the device. Models were loaded under axial compression followed by flexion/extension, lateral bending, or axial rotation. Compressive displacement, endplate stresses, reaction moment, and annulus stresses were determined and compared between the different models. The novel nucleus replacement device resulted in similar compressive displacement, endplate stress, and annulus stress and slightly higher reaction moment compared with the normal nucleus. The solid implant resulted in decreased displacement, increased endplate stress, decreased annulus stress, and decreased reaction moment compared with the novel device. With increasing silicone durometer, compressive displacement decreased, endplate stress increased, reaction moment increased, and annulus stress decreased. Finite element analysis was used to show that the novel nucleus replacement device results in similar biomechanics

  19. 5-HT2C receptors in the BNST are necessary for the enhancement of fear learning by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelrine, Eliza; Pasik, Sara Diana; Bayat, Leyla; Goldschmiedt, Debora; Bauer, Elizabeth P

    2016-12-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely prescribed to treat anxiety and depression, yet they paradoxically increase anxiety during initial treatment. Acute administration of these drugs prior to learning can also enhance Pavlovian cued fear conditioning. This potentiation has been previously reported to depend upon the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). Here, using temporary inactivation, we confirmed that the BNST is not necessary for the acquisition of cued or contextual fear memory. Systemic administration of the SSRI citalopram prior to fear conditioning led to an upregulation of the immediate early gene Arc (activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein) in the oval nucleus of the BNST, and a majority of these neurons expressed the 5-HT2C receptor. Finally, local infusions of a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist directly into the oval nucleus of the BNST prevented the fear memory-enhancing effects of citalopram. These findings highlight the ability of the BNST circuitry to be recruited into gating fear and anxiety-like behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Antiproton-nucleus inelastic scattering and the spin-isospin dependence of the N anti N interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dover, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    A general overview of the utility of antinucleon (anti N)-nucleus inelastic scattering studies is presented, emphasizing both the sensitivity of the cross sections to various components of the N anti N transition amplitudes and the prospects for the exploration of some novel aspects of nuclear structure. We start with an examination of the relation between NN and N anti N potentials, focusing on the coherences predicted for the central, spin-orbit and tensor components, and how these may be revealed by measurements of two-body spin observables. We next discuss the role of the nucleus as a spin and isospin filter, and show how, by a judicious choice of final state quantum numbers (natural or unnatural parity states, isospin transfer ΔT=0 or 1) and momentum transfer q, one can isolate different components of the N anti N transition amplitude. Various models for the N anti N interaction which give reasonable fits to the available two-body data are shown to lead to strikingly different predictions for certain spin-flip nuclear transitions. We suggest several possible directions for future anti N-nucleus inelastic scattering experiments at LEAR, for instance the study of spin observables which would be accessible with polarized anti N beams, charge exchange reactions, and higher resolution studies of the (anti p, anti p') reaction. We compare the antinucleon and the nucleon as a probe of nuclear modes of excitation. 34 refs

  1. Near-nucleus optical observations of P/Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Near-Nucleus Studies Net of the International Halley Watch has obtained an extensive series of high resolution optical images of P/Halley during its most active phases in 1985-86 which may be useful in interpreting radio observations of Comet Halley. They often show coma structure resulting from anisotropic emission of dust and gas from the inhomogeneous nucleus. Images were obtained in broadband spectral regions to study dust coma morphology, and in medium to narrow spectral bands to isolate the principal emissions of CN, C 3 , C 2 , CO + and H 2 O + . The goals and methods of near-nucleus studies are discussed and recent studies of 1910 images are briefly reviewed. The role of dust jets and cometary activity in P/Halley is discussed and several examples of anisotropic emission of dust during the current apparition are shown. 12 references

  2. [Central nervous system control of energy homeostasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machleidt, F; Lehnert, H

    2011-03-01

    The brain is continuously supplied with information about the distribution and amount of energy stores from the body periphery. Endocrine, autonomic and cognitive-hedonic signals are centrally integrated and exert effects on the whole organism via anabolic and catabolic pathways. The adiposity signals insulin and leptin reflect the amount of body fat and are part of a negative feedback mechanism between the periphery and the central nervous system. The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus is the most important central nervous structure, which integrates this information. Furthermore, the CNS is able to directly measure and to respond to changes in the concentration of certain nutrients. In order to develop effective therapies for the treatment of disorders of energy balance the further elucidation of these neuro-biological processes is of crucial importance. This article provides an overview of the CNS regulation of metabolism and its underlying molecular mechanisms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. What can an antiproton and a nucleus learn from each other

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garreta, D.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter attempts to show that the - p-nucleus interaction may provide very useful information, both about the elementary - NN interaction and about nuclear structure. Topics covered include simple features which make a low-energy antiproton an interesting probe of the nucleus; simple features which make a nucleus an interesting target for an antiproton; antiproton-nucleus elastic scattering; antiproton-nucleus inelastic scattering; proton knock-out reactions on nuclei; and annihilation of the antiprotons in nuclei. The aim of experiment PS184 at the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) is to provide accurate data with regard to the - p-nucleus interaction in the following areas: the angular distribution of antiprotons elastically scattered from 12 C, 40 Ca, and 208 Pb; the excitation energy spectra and some angular distributions of antiprotons inelastically scattered from 12 C, 40 Ca, and 208 Pb; and the excitation energy spectra for proton knock-out reaction on 6 Li, 45 Sc, 123 Sb, and 209 B; at forward angles

  4. Semi classical model of the neutron resonance compound nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Makio

    1995-01-01

    A Semi-classical model of compound nucleus is developed, where time evolution and recurrence for many degrees of freedom (oscillators) excited simultaneously are explicitly considered. The effective number of oscillators plays the role in the compound nucleus, and the nuclear temperatures are derived, which are in good agreement with the traditional values. Time structures of the compound nucleus at resonance are considered, from which equidistant level series with an envelope of strength function of giant resonance nature is obtained. S-matrix formulation for fine structure resonance is derived. (author)

  5. Estradiol modulates the anorexic response to central glucagon-like peptide 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, Calyn B; Jackson, Christine M; Terrill, Sarah J; Eckel, Lisa A; Williams, Diana L

    2017-07-01

    Estrogens suppress feeding in part by enhancing the response to satiation signals. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) acts on receptor populations both peripherally and centrally to affect food intake. We hypothesized that modulation of the central GLP-1 system is one of the mechanisms underlying the effects of estrogens on feeding. We assessed the anorexic effect of 0, 1, and 10μg doses of GLP-1 administered into the lateral ventricle of bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX) female rats on a cyclic regimen of either 2μg β-estradiol-3-benzoate (EB) or oil vehicle 30min prior to dark onset on the day following hormone treatment. Central GLP-1 treatment significantly suppressed food intake in EB-treated rats at both doses compared to vehicle, whereas only the 10μg GLP-1 dose was effective in oil-treated rats. To follow up, we examined whether physiologic-dose cyclic estradiol treatment influences GLP-1-induced c-Fos in feeding-relevant brain areas of OVX females. GLP-1 significantly increased c-Fos expression in the area postrema (AP) and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), and the presence of estrogens may be required for this effect in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Together, these data suggest that modulation of the central GLP-1 system may be one of the mechanisms by which estrogens suppress food intake, and highlight the PVN as a region of interest for future investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Confined Hydrogen Atom with a Moving Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2010-01-01

    We study the hydrogen atom confined to a spherical box with impenetrable walls but, unlike earlier pedagogical articles on the subject, we assume that the nucleus also moves. We obtain the ground-state energy approximately by means of first-order perturbation theory and show that it is greater than that for the case in which the nucleus is clamped…

  7. PREFACE: 11th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bao-An; Natowitz, Joseph B.

    2013-03-01

    The 11th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2012) was held from 27 May to 1 June 2012, in San Antonio, Texas, USA. It was jointly organized and hosted by The Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University, College Station and The Department of Physics and Astronomy at Texas A&M University-Commerce. Among the approximately 300 participants were a large number of graduate students and post-doctoral fellows. The Keynote Talk of the conference, 'The State of Affairs of Present and Future Nucleus-Nucleus Collision Science', was given by Dr Robert Tribble, University Distinguished Professor and Director of the TAMU Cyclotron Institute. During the conference a very well-received public lecture on neutrino astronomy, 'The ICEcube project', was given by Dr Francis Halzen, Hilldale and Gregory Breit Distinguished Professor at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. The Scientific program continued in the general spirit and intention of this conference series. As is typical of this conference a broad range of topics including fundamental areas of nuclear dynamics, structure, and applications were addressed in 42 plenary session talks, 150 parallel session talks, and 21 posters. The high quality of the work presented emphasized the vitality and relevance of the subject matter of this conference. Following the tradition, the NN2012 International Advisory Committee selected the host and site of the next conference in this series. The 12th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2015) will be held 21-26 June 2015 in Catania, Italy. It will be hosted by The INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania and the Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia of the University of Catania. The NN2012 Proceedings contains the conference program and 165 articles organized into the following 10 sections 1. Heavy and Superheavy Elements 2. QCD and Hadron Physics 3. Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions 4. Nuclear Structure 5. Nuclear Energy and Applications of

  8. The pion-nucleus interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afnan, I.R.

    1977-04-01

    The latest developments in the construction of pion-nucleus optical potential are presented and a comparison with the latest data on π+ 12 C is made. The suggested mechanisms for the (p,π) reaction are discussed with a comparison of the theoretical results with experiment. (Author)

  9. QMD and JAM calculations for high energy nucleon-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niita, Koji

    2002-01-01

    We describe the two simulation codes, QMD and JAM (Jet AA Microscopic Transport Model), for high energy nuclear reactions. QMD can treat the nucleus-nucleus reactions as well as nucleon-nucleus reactions based on the molecular dynamics. We have applied the QMD code intensively to nucleon-nucleus reactions and checked its validity. The cross sections obtained by the QMD are now used for evaluation of high energy nuclear data in JAERI. JAM is a hadronic cascade code including the resonance and string model for the hadron-hadron collisions at high energy up to 200 GeV. We have developed a high energy particle transport code NMTC/JAM by including the JAM code for the intra-nuclear cascade part. (author)

  10. Proton-Nucleus Collisions at the LHC: Scientific Opportunities and Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Salgado, C A; Arleo, F; Armesto, N; Botje, M; Cacciari, M; Campbell, J; Carli, C; Cole, B; D'Enterria, D; Gelis, F; Guzey, V; Hencken, K; Jacobs, P; Jowett, J M; Klein, S R; Maltoni, F; Morsch, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Qiu, J W; Satogata, T; Sikler, F; Strikman, M; Takai, H; Vogt, R; Wessels, J P; White, S N; Wiedemann, U A; Wyslouch, B; Zhalov, M

    2012-01-01

    Proton-nucleus (p+A) collisions have long been recognized as a crucial component of the physics programme with nuclear beams at high energies, in particular for their reference role to interpret and understand nucleus-nucleus data as well as for their potential to elucidate the partonic structure of matter at low parton fractional momenta (small-x). Here, we summarize the main motivations that make a proton-nucleus run a decisive ingredient for a successful heavy-ion programme at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and we present unique scientific opportunities arising from these collisions. We also review the status of ongoing discussions about operation plans for the p+A mode at the LHC.

  11. The mechanisms of the hadron-nucleus collision processes and of the hadron-nucleus collision induced nuclear reactions - in the light of experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.; Strugalska-Gola, E.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms of the hadron-nucleus collision processes and of the hadron-nucleus collision induced nuclear reactions are described - as experimentally based. The target nuclei are damaged definitely and locally in the collisions and the configurations of the nucleons in them became instable. The configuration must transit into stable stages of the nuclear transition reaction products. The difference between the initial internal energy of the unstable residual nucleus and the total final energy of the stable products of the nuclear transition reaction may be released in some cases

  12. Polarization and alignment of nucleus fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabanov, A.L.; Grechukhin, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Correlation of fragment orientation with orientation axis of fissile nucleus and with n-vector f vector of fragment divergence is considered. Estimations of polarization and alignment of fission fragments of preliminarily oriented nuclei in correlation (with n-vector f recording) and integral (with n-vector f averaging) experiments were conducted. It is shown that high sensitivity of polarization and fragment alignment to the character of nucleus movement at the stage of descent from barrier to rupture point exists

  13. The dynamic landscape of the cell nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Christopher M; Bellini, Michel

    2010-01-01

    While the cell nucleus was described for the first time almost two centuries ago, our modern view of the nuclear architecture is primarily based on studies from the last two decades. This surprising late start coincides with the development of new, powerful strategies to probe for the spatial organization of nuclear activities in both fixed and live cells. As a result, three major principles have emerged: first, the nucleus is not just a bag filled with nucleic acids and proteins. Rather, many distinct functional domains, including the chromosomes, resides within the confines of the nuclear envelope. Second, all these nuclear domains are highly dynamic, with molecules exchanging rapidly between them and the surrounding nucleoplasm. Finally, the motion of molecules within the nucleoplasm appears to be mostly driven by random diffusion. Here, the emerging roles of several subnuclear domains are discussed in the context of the dynamic functions of the cell nucleus.

  14. The calculation of nucleus-nucleus interaction cross sections at high energy in the Glauber approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal'perin, A.G.; Uzhinskij, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Total, inelastic and elastic cross sections of nucleus-nucleus (AA)-interactions at high energy (HE) are calculated on the base of Glauber approach. The calculation scheme is realized as a set of routines. The statistical average method is used in calculations. Program runs in an interactive regime. User is prompted about charge and mass numbers of nuclei and NN-interaction characters at the energy he is interested in: total cross section, the slope parameter of differential cross section of elastic scattering and ratio of real part to imaginary part of elastic scattering amplitude at zero momentum transfer. These data can be extracted from proper compilations. Results of calculations are displayed and are written on user defined output file. The program runs on PC. 21 refs., 1 tab

  15. Silk fibroin porous scaffolds for nucleus pulposus tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Chao; Yang, Qiang; Zhu, Meifeng; Du, Lilong; Zhang, Jiamin; Ma, Xinlong; Xu, Baoshan; Wang, Lianyong

    2014-01-01

    Intervertebral discs (IVDs) are structurally complex tissue that hold the vertebrae together and provide mobility to spine. The nucleus pulposus (NP) degeneration often results in degenerative IVD disease that is one of the most common causes of back and neck pain. Tissue engineered nucleus pulposus offers an alternative approach to regain the function of the degenerative IVD. The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of porous silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds fabricated by paraffin-sphere-leaching methods with freeze-drying in the application of nucleus pulposus regeneration. The prepared scaffold possessed high porosity of 92.38 ± 5.12% and pore size of 165.00 ± 8.25 μm as well as high pore interconnectivity and appropriate mechanical properties. Rabbit NP cells were seeded and cultured on the SF scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy, histology, biochemical assays and mechanical tests revealed that the porous scaffolds could provide an appropriate microstructure and environment to support adhesion, proliferation and infiltration of NP cells in vitro as well as the generation of extracellular matrix. The NP cell–scaffold construction could be preliminarily formed after subcutaneously implanted in a nude mice model. In conclusion, The SF porous scaffold offers a potential candidate for tissue engineered NP tissue. - Highlights: • Paraffin microsphere-leaching method is used to fabricate silk fibroin scaffold. • The scaffold has appropriate mechanical property, porosity and pore size • The scaffold supports growth and infiltration of nucleus pulposus cells. • Nucleus pulposus cells can secrete extracellular matrix in the scaffolds. • The scaffold is a potential candidate for tissue engineered nucleus pulposus

  16. Silk fibroin porous scaffolds for nucleus pulposus tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Chao; Yang, Qiang [Department of Spine Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Zhu, Meifeng [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Du, Lilong [Department of Spine Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Zhang, Jiamin [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Ma, Xinlong [Department of Spine Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Xu, Baoshan, E-mail: xubaoshan99@126.com [Department of Spine Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Wang, Lianyong, E-mail: wly@nankai.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Intervertebral discs (IVDs) are structurally complex tissue that hold the vertebrae together and provide mobility to spine. The nucleus pulposus (NP) degeneration often results in degenerative IVD disease that is one of the most common causes of back and neck pain. Tissue engineered nucleus pulposus offers an alternative approach to regain the function of the degenerative IVD. The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of porous silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds fabricated by paraffin-sphere-leaching methods with freeze-drying in the application of nucleus pulposus regeneration. The prepared scaffold possessed high porosity of 92.38 ± 5.12% and pore size of 165.00 ± 8.25 μm as well as high pore interconnectivity and appropriate mechanical properties. Rabbit NP cells were seeded and cultured on the SF scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy, histology, biochemical assays and mechanical tests revealed that the porous scaffolds could provide an appropriate microstructure and environment to support adhesion, proliferation and infiltration of NP cells in vitro as well as the generation of extracellular matrix. The NP cell–scaffold construction could be preliminarily formed after subcutaneously implanted in a nude mice model. In conclusion, The SF porous scaffold offers a potential candidate for tissue engineered NP tissue. - Highlights: • Paraffin microsphere-leaching method is used to fabricate silk fibroin scaffold. • The scaffold has appropriate mechanical property, porosity and pore size • The scaffold supports growth and infiltration of nucleus pulposus cells. • Nucleus pulposus cells can secrete extracellular matrix in the scaffolds. • The scaffold is a potential candidate for tissue engineered nucleus pulposus.

  17. Exact multiple scattering theory of two-nucleus collisions including the Pauli principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurvitz, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    Exact equations for two-nucleus scattering are derived in which the effects of the Pauli principle are fully included. Our method exploits a modified equation for the scattering of two identical nucleons, which is obtained at the beginning. Considering proton-nucleus scattering we found that the resulting amplitude has two components, one resembling a multiple scattering series for distinguishable particles, and the other a distorted (A-1) nucleon cluster exchange. For elastic pA scattering the multiple scattering amplitude is found in the form of an optical potential expansion. We show that the Kerman-McManus-Thaler theory of the optical potential could be easily modified to include the effects of antisymmetrization of the projectile with the target nucleons. Nucleus-nucleus scattering is studied first for distinguishable target and beam nucleus. Afterwards the Pauli principle is included, where only the case of deuteron-nucleus scattering is discussed in detail. The resulting amplitude has four components. Two of them correspond to modified multiple scattering expansions and the others are distorted (A-1)- and (A-2)- nucleon cluster exchange. The result for d-A scattering is extended to the general case of nucleus-nucleus scattering. The equations are simple to use and as such constitute an improvement over existing schemes

  18. Theoretical interpretation of medium energy nucleon nucleus inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagrange, Christian

    1970-06-01

    A theoretical study is made of the medium energy nucleon-nucleus inelastic scattering (direct interaction), by applying the distorted wave Born approximation such as can be deduced from the paired equation method. It is applied to the interpretation of the inelastic scattering of 12 MeV protons by 63 Cu; this leads us to make use of different sets of wave functions to describe the various states of the target nucleus. We analyze the nature of these states and the shape of the nucleon-nucleus interaction potential, and we compare the results with those obtained from other theoretical and experimental work. (author) [fr

  19. Central collisions of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, Sun-yiu.

    1991-10-01

    This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. During this period, our program focuses on particle production at AGS energies, and correlation studies at the Bevalac in nucleus central collisions. We participated in the preparation of letters of intent for two RHIC experiments -- the OASIS proposal and the Di-Muon proposal -- and worked on two RHIC R ampersand D efforts -- a silicon strip detector project and a muon-identifier project. A small fraction of time was also devoted to physics programs outside the realm of heavy ion reactions by several individuals

  20. J/$\\psi$ production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, M C; Alexa, C; Arnaldi, R; Ataian, M R; Baglin, C; Baldit, A; Bedjidian, Marc; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Borges, G; Bussière, A; Capelli, L; Castanier, C; Castor, J I; Chaurand, B; Chevrot, I; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Claudino, T; Comets, M P; Constans, N; Constantinescu, S; Cortese, P; De Falco, A; De Marco, N; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Drapier, O; Ducroux, L; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, J; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gavrilov, Yu K; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Gonin, M; Grigorian, A A; Grossiord, J Y; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Gulkanian, H R; Hakobyan, R S; Haroutunian, R; Idzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavitcheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenço, C; Macciotta, P; MacCormick, M; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Monteno, M; Musso, A; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prado da Silva, W L; Prino, F; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Rato-Mendes, P; Riccati, L; Romana, A; Santos, H; Saturnini, P; Scalas, E; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sigaudo, F; Silva, S; Sitta, M; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, Ermanno; Villatte, L; Willis, N

    2002-01-01

    The NA38 and NA50 experiments at the CERN SPS have measured charmonium production in different colliding systems with the aim of observing a phase transition from ordinary hadronic matter towards a state in which quarks and gluons are deconfined (quark-gluon plasma, QGP). This experimental research is based on the prediction that the J/ psi yield should be suppressed in deconfined matter. The analysis of the data collected by the NA50 experiment with Pb-Pb collisions at 158 GeV/c per nucleon shows that the J/ psi is anomalously suppressed with respect to the pattern observed in proton-nucleus and light ion reactions. (9 refs).

  1. What can an antiproton and a nucleus learn from each other

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garreta, D.

    1982-05-01

    Simple features which make a low-energy antiproton an interesting probe of the nucleus, and a nucleus an interesting target for an antiproton are presented. Then antiproton-nucleus inelastic and elastic scattering, proton knock-out reactions on nuclei, annihilation of the antiproton in nuclei are reviewed. The aims of the experiment PS184 at LEAR are given

  2. Numerical Simulation of the Kinetic Critical Nucleus

    OpenAIRE

    Sanada, Masaaki; Nishioka, Kazumi; Okada, Masahumi; Maksimov, Igor, L.

    1997-01-01

    Our main interest is to see whether the number density indicates a peak at the kinetically stable critical nucleus due to its kinetical stability. We have numerically calculated the time evolution of the number densities of clusters in the case of water vapor nucleation. We employ the condition in which the difference between the size of the thermodynamic crtitical nucleus and that of the kinetic one is appreciable. The results show that the peak does not appear in the number densities of clu...

  3. Kaon-nucleus reactions and hypernuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dover, C.B.

    1987-01-01

    Recent advances in hypernuclear physics and kaon-nucleus scattering are discussed, with emphasis on the spectroscopy of Λ single particle states in heavy systems, as revealed by the (π + ,K + ) reaction. 26 refs., 8 figs

  4. A study of the nucleus-nucleus total reaction cross section of stable systems at intermediate energies: An application to 12C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liyuan; Song, Yushou; Hou, Yingwei; Liu, Huilan; Li, Hui

    2018-07-01

    A semi-microscopic analytical expression of the nucleus-nucleus total reaction cross section (σR) was proposed based on the strong absorption model. It is suitable for stable nuclei at intermediate energies. The matter density distributions of nuclei and the nucleon-nucleon total cross section were both considered. Particularly, the Fermi motion effect of the nucleons in a nucleus was also taken into account. The parametrization of σR was applied to the colliding systems including 12C. The experimental data at energies from 30 to 1000 MeV/nucleon were well reproduced, according to which an approach of deriving σR without adjustable parameters was developed. The necessity of considering the Fermi motion effect in the parametrization was discussed.

  5. NuSTEC1 White Paper: Status and challenges of neutrino-nucleus scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ruso, L.; Sajjad Athar, M.; Barbaro, M. B.; Cherdack, D.; Christy, M. E.; Coloma, P.; Donnelly, T. W.; Dytman, S.; de Gouvêa, A.; Hill, R. J.; Huber, P.; Jachowicz, N.; Katori, T.; Kronfeld, A. S.; Mahn, K.; Martini, M.; Morfín, J. G.; Nieves, J.; Perdue, G. N.; Petti, R.; Richards, D. G.; Sánchez, F.; Sato, T.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Zeller, G. P.

    2018-05-01

    The precise measurement of neutrino properties is among the highest priorities in fundamental particle physics, involving many experiments worldwide. Since the experiments rely on the interactions of neutrinos with bound nucleons inside atomic nuclei, the planned advances in the scope and precision of these experiments require a commensurate effort in the understanding and modeling of the hadronic and nuclear physics of these interactions, which is incorporated as a nuclear model in neutrino event generators. This model is essential to every phase of experimental analyses and its theoretical uncertainties play an important role in interpreting every result. In this White Paper we discuss in detail the impact of neutrino-nucleus interactions, especially the nuclear effects, on the measurement of neutrino properties using the determination of oscillation parameters as a central example. After an Executive Summary and a concise Overview of the issues, we explain how the neutrino event generators work, what can be learned from electron-nucleus interactions and how each underlying physics process - from quasi-elastic to deep inelastic scattering - is understood today. We then emphasize how our understanding must improve to meet the demands of future experiments. With every topic we find that the challenges can be met only with the active support and collaboration among specialists in strong interactions and electroweak physics that include theorists and experimentalists from both the nuclear and high energy physics communities.

  6. Neuronal plasticity in the hedgehog supraoptic nucleus during hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Toscano, F; Caminero, A A; Machin, C; Abella, G

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify processes of plasticity in the receptive field of neurosecretory neurons of the supraoptic nucleus during hibernation in the hedgehog, in order to correlate them with the increased neurosecretory activity observed in this nucleus during this annual period. Using the Rapid Golgi method, a quantitative study was conducted in the receptive field of bipolar and multipolar neurons (the main components of the nucleus). Results indicate a generalized increase in the following characteristics: (1) number of dendritic spines per millimeter along the dendritic shafts; (2) degree of branching in the dendritic field; and (3) dendritic density around the neuronal soma. These data demonstrate modification of the dendritic field in the supraoptic nucleus during hibernation, a change undoubtedly related to functional conditions. Since the observed changes affect structures such as dendritic spines which are directly related to the arrival of neural afferences, the discussion is centered on the types of stimuli which may be responsible for the observed processes.

  7. Reward deficiency and anti-reward in pain chronification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsook, D; Linnman, C; Faria, V; Strassman, A M; Becerra, L; Elman, I

    2016-09-01

    Converging lines of evidence suggest that the pathophysiology of pain is mediated to a substantial degree via allostatic neuroadaptations in reward- and stress-related brain circuits. Thus, reward deficiency (RD) represents a within-system neuroadaptation to pain-induced protracted activation of the reward circuits that leads to depletion-like hypodopaminergia, clinically manifested anhedonia, and diminished motivation for natural reinforcers. Anti-reward (AR) conversely pertains to a between-systems neuroadaptation involving over-recruitment of key limbic structures (e.g., the central and basolateral amygdala nuclei, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the lateral tegmental noradrenergic nuclei of the brain stem, the hippocampus and the habenula) responsible for massive outpouring of stressogenic neurochemicals (e.g., norepinephrine, corticotropin releasing factor, vasopressin, hypocretin, and substance P) giving rise to such negative affective states as anxiety, fear and depression. We propose here the Combined Reward deficiency and Anti-reward Model (CReAM), in which biopsychosocial variables modulating brain reward, motivation and stress functions can interact in a 'downward spiral' fashion to exacerbate the intensity, chronicity and comorbidities of chronic pain syndromes (i.e., pain chronification). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Preservation of the nucleus X-pelvic floor motosystem in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D; Reske-Nielsen, E

    1984-01-01

    to the neuropathological findings, and the observations are compared with previous neuropathological studies concerning Onuf's nucleus X as well with experimental studies including this nucleus. It is pointed out that structural and biochemical differences must exist between nucleus X neurons and other motoneurons....

  9. Pion-nucleus cross sections approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, V.S.; Polanski, A.; Sosnin, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    Analytical approximation of pion-nucleus elastic and inelastic interaction cross-section is suggested, with could be applied in the energy range exceeding several dozens of MeV for nuclei heavier than beryllium. 3 refs.; 4 tabs

  10. Presence of corticotrophin-releasing factor and/or tyrosine hydroxylase in cells of a neural brain-testicular pathway that are labelled by a transganglionic tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P; Rivier, C; Lee, S

    2008-02-01

    Our laboratory has shown that male testosterone levels are not solely controlled by the release of hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone and pituitary luteinising hormone, but are also regulated by a multisynaptic pathway connecting the brain and the testis that interferes with the testosterone response to gonadotrophins. This pathway, which is independent of the pituitary gland, is activated by an i.c.v. injection of either the stress-related peptide corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) or of beta-adrenoceptor agonists, both of which alter androgen release and decrease levels of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor and the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein within Leydig cells. Our original studies used the retrograde transganglionic tracer pseudorabies virus (PRV) to map progression of the virus from the testes to upper brain levels. The present study aimed to extend this work by identifying the regions where CRF and catecholamine neurones represented components of the stress-activated, brain-testicular pathway that prevents testosterone increases. To this end, anaesthetised adult male rats received an intra-testicular injection of PRV. Using immunofluorescence, we identified co-labelling of PRV and either CRF or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the enzyme responsible for biogenic amine synthesis. Co-labelling of PRV and CRF was found in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and the central amygdala. Co-labelling of PRV and TH was found in the PVN, substantia nigra, A7/Kölliker-Fuse area, area of A5, locus coeruleus, nucleus of solitary tract, area of C3, area of C2 and the area of C1/A1. These results indicate that most cell groups of the ventral noradrenergic pathway have neurones that are a part of the brain-testicular pathway. This suggests that the stress hormones CRF and catecholamines may act as neurotransmitters that signal the pathway to inhibit increases in plasma testosterone levels.

  11. Overlapping neurobiology of learned helplessness and conditioned defeat: implications for PTSD and mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammack, Sayamwong E; Cooper, Matthew A; Lezak, Kimberly R

    2012-02-01

    Exposure to traumatic events can increase the risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and pharmacological treatments for these disorders often involve the modulation of serotonergic (5-HT) systems. Several behavioral paradigms in rodents produce changes in behavior that resemble symptoms of MDD and these behavioral changes are sensitive to antidepressant treatments. Here we review two animal models in which MDD-like behavioral changes are elicited by exposure to an acute traumatic event during adulthood, learned helplessness (LH) and conditioned defeat. In LH, exposure of rats to inescapable, but not escapable, tailshock produces a constellation of behavioral changes that include deficits in fight/flight responding and enhanced anxiety-like behavior. In conditioned defeat, exposure of Syrian hamsters to a social defeat by a more aggressive animal leads to a loss of territorial aggression and an increase in submissive and defensive behaviors in subsequent encounters with non-aggressive conspecifics. Investigations into the neural substrates that control LH and conditioned defeat revealed that increased 5-HT activity in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is critical for both models. Other key brain regions that regulate the acquisition and/or expression of behavior in these two paradigms include the basolateral amygdala (BLA), central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). In this review, we compare and contrast the role of each of these neural structures in mediating LH and conditioned defeat, and discuss the relevance of these data in developing a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying trauma-related depression. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Recent Developments in Neutrino/Antineutrino-Nucleus Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge G. Morfín

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental results and developments in the theoretical treatment of neutrino-nucleus interactions in the energy range of 1–10 GeV are discussed. Difficulties in extracting neutrino-nucleon cross sections from neutrino-nucleus scattering data are explained and significance of understanding nuclear effects for neutrino oscillation experiments is stressed. Detailed discussions of the status of two-body current contribution in the kinematic region dominated by quasielastic scattering and specific features of partonic nuclear effects in weak DIS scattering are presented.

  13. Method of a fast selection of inelastic nucleus-nucleus collisions for the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnov, V.A.; Malakhov, A.I.; Savina, M.V.; Shmatov, S.V.; Zarubin, P.I.

    1998-01-01

    On the basis of the HIJING generator simulation of heavy ion collisions at ultrarelativistic energy scale, a method of a fast selection of inelastic nucleus-nucleus interactions is proposed for the CMS experiment at LHC. The basic idea is to use the time coincidence of signals with resolution better than 1 ns from the two very forward calorimeter arms covering the acceptance 3<|η|<5. The method efficiency is investigated by variation of energy thresholds in the calorimeters for different colliding ion species, namely, PbPb, NbNb, CaCa, OO, pPb, pCa, pp. It is shown that a stable efficiency of event selection (∼98%) is provided in an energy threshold range up to 100 GeV for nuclear collisions at 5 TeV/nucleon in the centre of mass system. In the pp collision case the relevant efficiency drops from 93% down to 80%

  14. Analysis of a deep nucleus of Tehuantepec Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez R, E.; Lopez M, J.; Ramirez T, J. J.; Machain C, M. L.

    2009-10-01

    A nucleus of sediments obtained in the deep of Tehuantepec Gulf is analyzed; this nucleus has the particularity of to be a sampling of longitude of 18.3 m that include the total of last period glacial, few times obtained in our country. The physical chemistry composition of 10 selected fractions are analyzed with the purpose of to understand the formation processes of deep ocean along the period of 120 000 years, that includes the extracted fraction. Crystallography analysis, morphology, physical chemistry characterization and activity gamma were made. Finding that the content of organic matter falls as the superficial area increases, also was found the presence of natural uranium in similar concentration and balance with its radiogenic descendants along the nucleus profile what suggests the uranium migration to interior of mineral grains. (Author)

  15. Angular distributions of nucleons emitted in high energy hadron-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1983-01-01

    Angular distributions of ''fast'' protons, of kinetic energy from about 20 to about 400 MeV, emitted in pion-xenon nucleus collisions at 3.5 GeV/c momentum were studied in two groups of events - when particles are produced and when particle production does not occur. The distributions are practically the same in both the groups of events and in subgroups of events with various multiplicities of emitted protons. Comparison of angular distributions of protons emitted in pion-xenon nucleus collisions at 3.5 GeV/c momentum with corresponding angular distributions of protons emitted in proton-emulsion collisions at 300-400 GeV/c momentum is performed. Results obtained allow to conclude that average value of the nucleon emission angle and the nucleon angular distributions do not depend practically on the nuclear matter layer thickness the incident hadron collided with. Fast nucleons emitted from the target nucleus seem did not interact inside the parent nucleus. Fast nucleon angular distributions do not depend on the energy of incident hadron, they are the same for pion-nucleus and for proton-nucleus collisions as well

  16. The Mathematical Model High Energy Collisions Process Hadron-Nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojciechowski, A.; Strugalska-Gola, E.; Strugalski, Z.

    2002-01-01

    During the passage high energy hadron by the heavy nucleus emitted are nucleons and many other particles from which most more group are nucleons and mesons π + π - π 0 . in this work we will present the mathematical model which is a simplified description of basic processes in the interior of the nucleus during passing of the hadron by the nucleus. Result of calculations we will compare with experimental results. Experimental data are based on photographs of 180 litre xenon bubble chambers (180 1 KKP) of Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics in Moscow (ITEF, Moscow) irradiated with the beam of mesons π - with momentum 3.5 GeV/c. (author)

  17. What is a cometary nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyttleton, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Descriptions of actual observed comets associate a range of ill-defined meanings with the term nucleus. In recent years use of the word has been even further extended (or contracted) to mean a postulated solid core constituting the permanent element of a comet and necessarily of size far below resolution and measurability. It is maintained by the postulants that this core, acted upon by solar radiation and the solar wind, is the fount and origin of practically the whole great variety of observed cometary physical phenomena. In order that this micro-nucleus shall 'explain' observed properties, it is endowed with a large number of entirely ad-hoc qualities specially devised to produce the very effects it is wished to explain, but the processes so proffered rely almost entirely on purely verbal asseverations that they will work in the way required. No source or mechanism of origin for the imaginary micro-nucleus, of which there would need to be myriads, is in sight, nor can the assumption explain the dynamical properties of long-period comets and their association with the galactic plane and the solar apex. The postulate is in any event ruled out by Occam's principle as having no basis in fact or theory and is not required to explain the observed properties of comets. The large number of additional special assumptions introduced mean that the structure as a whole does not constitute a proper scientific theory. (author)

  18. Stress-induced changes in the expression of the clock protein PERIOD1 in the rat limbic forebrain and hypothalamus: role of stress type, time of day, and predictability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherin Al-Safadi

    Full Text Available Stressful events can disrupt circadian rhythms in mammals but mechanisms underlying this disruption remain largely unknown. One hypothesis is that stress alters circadian protein expression in the forebrain, leading to functional dysregulation of the brain circadian network and consequent disruption of circadian physiological and behavioral rhythms. Here we characterized the effects of several different stressors on the expression of the core clock protein, PER1 and the activity marker, FOS in select forebrain and hypothalamic nuclei in rats. We found that acute exposure to processive stressors, restraint and forced swim, elevated PER1 and FOS expression in the paraventricular and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei and piriform cortex but suppressed PER1 and FOS levels exclusively in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEAl and oval nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTov. Conversely, systemic stressors, interleukin-1β and 2-Deoxy-D-glucose, increased PER1 and FOS levels in all regions studied, including the CEAl and BNSTov. PER1 levels in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, the master pacemaker, were unaffected by any of the stress manipulations. The effect of stress on PER1 and FOS was modulated by time of day and, in the case of daily restraint, by predictability. These results demonstrate that the expression of PER1 in the forebrain is modulated by stress, consistent with the hypothesis that PER1 serves as a link between stress and the brain circadian network. Furthermore, the results show that the mechanisms that control PER1 and FOS expression in CEAl and BNSTov are uniquely sensitive to differences in the type of stressor. Finally, the finding that the effect of stress on PER1 parallels its effect on FOS supports the idea that Per1 functions as an immediate-early gene. Our observations point to a novel role for PER1 as a key player in the interface between stress and circadian rhythms.

  19. Patterns of Brain Activation and Meal Reduction Induced by Abdominal Surgery in Mice and Modulation by Rikkunshito.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Wang

    Full Text Available Abdominal surgery inhibits food intake and induces c-Fos expression in the hypothalamic and medullary nuclei in rats. Rikkunshito (RKT, a Kampo medicine improves anorexia. We assessed the alterations in meal microstructure and c-Fos expression in brain nuclei induced by abdominal surgery and the modulation by RKT in mice. RKT or vehicle was gavaged daily for 1 week. On day 8 mice had no access to food for 6-7 h and were treated twice with RKT or vehicle. Abdominal surgery (laparotomy-cecum palpation was performed 1-2 h before the dark phase. The food intake and meal structures were monitored using an automated monitoring system for mice. Brain sections were processed for c-Fos immunoreactivity (ir 2-h after abdominal surgery. Abdominal surgery significantly reduced bouts, meal frequency, size and duration, and time spent on meals, and increased inter-meal interval and satiety ratio resulting in 92-86% suppression of food intake at 2-24 h post-surgery compared with control group (no surgery. RKT significantly increased bouts, meal duration and the cumulative 12-h food intake by 11%. Abdominal surgery increased c-Fos in the prelimbic, cingulate and insular cortexes, and autonomic nuclei, such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, central amygdala, hypothalamic supraoptic (SON, paraventricular and arcuate nuclei, Edinger-Westphal nucleus (E-W, lateral periaqueduct gray (PAG, lateral parabrachial nucleus, locus coeruleus, ventrolateral medulla and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS. RKT induced a small increase in c-Fos-ir neurons in the SON and E-W of control mice, and in mice with surgery there was an increase in the lateral PAG and a decrease in the NTS. These findings indicate that abdominal surgery inhibits food intake by increasing both satiation (meal duration and satiety (meal interval and activates brain circuits involved in pain, feeding behavior and stress that may underlie the alterations of meal pattern and food intake inhibition

  20. Centrality dependence of baryon and meson momentum distributions in proton-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwa, Rudolph C.; Yang, C.B.

    2002-01-01

    The proton and neutron inclusive distributions in the projectile fragmentation region of pA collisions are studied in the valon model. Momentum degradation and flavor changes due to the nuclear medium are described at the valon level using two parameters. Particle production is treated by means of the recombination subprocess. The centrality dependences of the net proton and neutron spectra of the NA49 data are satisfactorily reproduced. The effective degradation length is determined to be 17 fm. Pion inclusive distributions can be calculated without any adjustable parameters

  1. Trpv4 Mediates Hypotonic Inhibition of Central Osmosensory Neurons via Taurine Gliotransmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorana Ciura

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The maintenance of hydromineral homeostasis requires bidirectional detection of changes in extracellular fluid osmolality by primary osmosensory neurons (ONs in the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT. Hypertonicity excites ONs in part through the mechanical activation of a variant transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 channel (dn-Trpv1. However, the mechanism by which local hypotonicity inhibits ONs in the OVLT remains unknown. Here, we show that hypotonicity can reduce the basal activity of dn-Trpv1 channels and hyperpolarize acutely isolated ONs. Surprisingly, we found that mice lacking dn-Trpv1 maintain normal inhibitory responses to hypotonicity when tested in situ. In the intact setting, hypotonicity inhibits ONs through a non-cell-autonomous mechanism that involves glial release of the glycine receptor agonist taurine through hypotonicity activated anion channels (HAAC that are activated subsequent to Ca2+ influx through Trpv4 channels. Our study clarifies how Trpv4 channels contribute to the inhibition of OVLT ONs during hypotonicity in situ. : Ciura et al. show that osmosensory neurons in organum vasculosum lamina terminalis are inhibited by hypotonicity. This effect is triggered by activation of Trpv4 channels and Ca2+ accumulation in astrocytes, causing these cells to release taurine through anion channels. Taurine inhibits firing by activating glycine receptors on the osmosensory neurons. Keywords: hyptonicity, taurine, TRPV, osmosensitive, gliotransmission, swelling

  2. The interaction of central nitrergic and GABAergic systems on food intake in neonatal layer-type chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarpouriani, Kasra; Zendehdel, Morteza; Jonaidi, Hossein; Babapour, Vahab; Shayan, Parviz

    2016-05-01

    Most physiological behaviors such as food intake are controlled by the hypothalamus and its nuclei. It has been demonstrated that injection of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus with nitric oxide (NO) donors elicited changes in the concentration of some amino acids, including GABA. Also, central nitrergic and GABAergic systems are known to provide inputs to the paraventricular nucleus and are involved in food intake control. Therefore, the present study examines the probable interaction of central nitrergic and GABAergic systems on food intake in neonatal layer-type chicks. The results of this study showed that intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of L-arginine (400 and 800 nmol), as a NO donor, significantly decreased food intake (P 0.05). Also, the hypophagic effect of L-arginine (800 nmol) was significantly amplified in ICV co-injection of picrotoxin (0.5 µg), a GABAA antagonist, or CGP54626 (21 ng), a GABAB antagonist, with L-arginine (800 nmol) (P < 0.001). These results probably suggest an interaction of central nitrergic and GABAergic systems on food intake in neonatal layer-type chicks and GABAA receptors play a major role in this interaction.

  3. The Compact Radio Sources in the Nucleus of NGC 1068

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A. L.; Colbert, E. J. M.; Wilson, A. S.; Ulvestad, J. S.

    1998-09-01

    We report VLBA images of the nucleus of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068 at 1.7, 5, and 15 GHz, with resolutions between 3 and 10 mas (0.2-0.7 pc) and a sensitivity of ~106 K at all three frequencies. Our goals are to study the morphology of the radio emission at subparsec resolution and to investigate thermal gas in the putative obscuring disk or torus and in the narrow-line region clouds through free-free absorption of the radio emission. All four known radio components in the central arcsecond (S2, S1, C, and NE, from south to north) have been detected at either 1.7 or 5 GHz, or both. No radio emission was detected at 15 GHz. Component S1 is probably associated with the active nucleus, with radio emission originating from the inner edge of the obscuring torus according to Gallimore et al. Our observed flux densities at 1.7 and 5 GHz are in agreement with their thermal bremsstrahlung emission model, and we find that the nuclear radiation may be strong enough to heat the gas in S1 to the required temperature of ~4 × 106 K. The bremsstrahlung power would be 0.15(frefl/0.01) times the bolometric luminosity of the nucleus between 1014.6 and 1018.4 Hz (where frefl is the fraction of radiation reflected into our line of sight by the electron-scattering mirror) and so the model is energetically reasonable. We also discuss two other models for S1 that also match the observed radio spectrum: electron scattering by the torus of radio emission from a compact synchrotron self-absorbed source and synchrotron radiation from the torus itself. Components NE and S2 have spectra consistent with optically thin synchrotron emission, without significant absorption. Both of these components are elongated roughly perpendicular to the larger scale radio jet, suggesting that their synchrotron emission is related to transverse shocks in the jet or to bow shocks in the external medium. Component C has a nonthermal spectrum absorbed at low frequency. This absorption is consistent with free

  4. The role of the nucleus basalis of Meynert and reticular thalamic nucleus in pathogenesis of genetically determined absence epilepsy in rats : A lesion study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berdiev, R. K.; Chepurnov, S. A.; Veening, J. G.; Chepurnova, N. E.; van Luiftelaar, G.

    2007-01-01

    The role of cholinergic nucleus basalis (of Meynert) and the reticular thalamic nucleus in mechanisms of the generation spontaneous spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) was investigated in the WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy. Selective lesions were affected by local unilateral intraparenchymal

  5. Close entrainment of massive molecular gas flows by radio bubbles in the central galaxy of Abell 1795

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, H. R.; McNamara, B. R.; Fabian, A. C.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Combes, F.; Edge, A. C.; Hogan, M. T.; McDonald, M.; Salomé, P.; Tremblay, G.; Vantyghem, A. N.

    2017-12-01

    We present new ALMA observations tracing the morphology and velocity structure of the molecular gas in the central galaxy of the cluster Abell 1795. The molecular gas lies in two filaments that extend 5-7 kpc to the N and S from the nucleus and project exclusively around the outer edges of two inner radio bubbles. Radio jets launched by the central active galactic nucleus have inflated bubbles filled with relativistic plasma into the hot atmosphere surrounding the central galaxy. The N filament has a smoothly increasing velocity gradient along its length from the central galaxy's systemic velocity at the nucleus to -370 km s^{-1}, the average velocity of the surrounding galaxies, at the furthest extent. The S filament has a similarly smooth but shallower velocity gradient and appears to have partially collapsed in a burst of star formation. The close spatial association with the radio lobes, together with the ordered velocity gradients and narrow velocity dispersions, shows that the molecular filaments are gas flows entrained by the expanding radio bubbles. Assuming a Galactic XCO factor, the total molecular gas mass is 3.2 ± 0.2 × 109 M⊙. More than half lies above the N radio bubble. Lifting the molecular clouds appears to require an infeasibly efficient coupling between the molecular gas and the radio bubble. The energy required also exceeds the mechanical power of the N radio bubble by a factor of 2. Stimulated feedback, where the radio bubbles lift low-entropy X-ray gas that becomes thermally unstable and rapidly cools in situ, provides a plausible model. Multiple generations of radio bubbles are required to lift this substantial gas mass. The close morphological association then indicates that the cold gas either moulds the newly expanding bubbles or is itself pushed aside and shaped as they inflate.

  6. Agmatine attenuates nicotine induced conditioned place preference in mice through modulation of neuropeptide Y system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotagale, Nandkishor R; Walke, Sonali; Shelkar, Gajanan P; Kokare, Dadasaheb M; Umekar, Milind J; Taksande, Brijesh G

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of agmatine on nicotine induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in male albino mice. Intra-peritoneal (ip) administration of nicotine (1mg/kg) significantly increased time spent in drug-paired compartment. Agmatine (20 and 40 mg/kg, ip) co-administered with nicotine during the 6 days conditioning sessions completely abolished the acquisition of nicotine-induced CPP in mice. Concomitant administration of neuropeptide Y (NPY) (1 pg/mouse, icv) or [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY (0.1 pg/mouse, icv), selective NPY Y1 receptor agonist potentiated the inhibitory effect of agmatine (10 mg/kg, ip) on nicotine CPP. Conversely, pretreatment with NPY Y1 receptor antagonist, BIBP3226 (0.01 ng/mouse, icv) blocked the effect of agmatine (20 mg/kg, ip) on nicotine induced CPP. In immunohistochemical study, nicotine decreased NPY-immunoreactivity in nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), bed nucleus of stria terminalis, lateral part (BNSTl), arcuate nucleus (ARC) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Conversely, administration of agmatine prior to the nicotine significantly reversed the effect of nicotine on NPY-immunoreactivity in the above brain nuclei. This data indicate that agmatine attenuate nicotine induced CPP via modulation of NPYergic neurotransmission in brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Charged-particle multiplicity density at mid-rapidity in central Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

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Real, J; Redlich, K; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Rettig, F; Revol, J P; Reygers, K; Ricaud, H; Riccati, L; Ricci, R A; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M; Rohr, D; Rohrich, D; Romita, R; Ronchetti, F; Rosinsky, P; Rosnet, P; Rossegger, S; Rossi, A; Roukoutakis, F; Rousseau, S; Roy, C; Roy, P; Rubio Montero, A J; Rui, R; Rivetti, A; Rusanov, I; Ryabinkin, E; Rybicki, A; Sadovsky, S; Safarik, K; Sahoo, R; Sahu, P K; Saini, J; Saiz, P; Sakai, S; Sakata, D; Salgado, C A; Samanta, T; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Sanchez Castro, X; Sandor, L; Sandoval, A; Sano, M; Sano, S; Santo, R; Santoro, R; Sarkamo, J; Saturnini, P; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schreiner, S; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Scott, P A; Scott, R; Segato, G; Selyuzhenkov, I; Senyukov, S; Seo, J; Serci, S; Serradilla, E; Sevcenco, A; Sgura, I; Shabratova, G; Shahoyan, R; Sharma, N; Sharma, S; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siciliano, M; Sicking, E; Siemiarczuk, T; Silenzi, A; Silvermyr, D; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singh, R; Singhal, V; Sinha, B C; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Skjerdal, K; Smakal, R; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sogaard, C; Soloviev, A; Soltz, R; Son, H; Song, J; Song, M; Soos, C; Soramel, F; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M; Srivastava, B K; Stachel, J; Stan, I; Stefanek, G; Stefanini, G; Steinbeck, T; Steinpreis, M; Stenlund, E; Steyn, G; Stocco, D; Stock, R; Stokkevag, C H; Stolpovskiy, M; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Subieta Vasquez, M A; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sukhorukov, M; Sumbera, M; Susa, T; Swoboda, D; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarka, I; Szostak, A; Tagridis, C; Takahashi, J; Tapia Takaki, J D; Tauro, A; Tavlet, M; Tejeda Munoz, G; Telesca, A; Terrevoli, C; Thader, J; Thomas, D; Thomas, J H; Tieulent, R; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Toia, A; Torii, H; Toscano, L; Tosello, F; Traczyk, T; Truesdale, D; Trzaska, W H; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Turvey, A J; Tveter, T S; Ulery, J; Ullaland, K; Uras, A; Urban, J; Urciuoli, G M; Usai, G L; Vacchi, A; Vajzer, M; Vala, M; Valencia Palomo, L; Vallero, S; van der Kolk, N; van Leeuwen, M; Vande Vyvre, P; Vannucci, L; Vargas, A; Varma, R; Vasileiou, M; Vasiliev, A; Vechernin, V; Veldhoen, M; Venaruzzo, M; Vercellin, E; Vergara, S; Vernekohl, D C; Vernet, R; Verweij, M; Vickovic, L; Viesti, G; Vikhlyantsev, O; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, L; Vinogradov, Y; Virgili, T; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopyanov, A; Voloshin, K; Voloshin, S; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vranic, D; Ovrebekk, G; Vrlakova, J; Vulpescu, B; Vyushin, A; Wagner, B; Wagner, V; Wan, R; Wang, D; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Watanabe, K; Wessels, J P; Westerhoff, U; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilde, M; Wilk, A; Wilk, G; Williams, M C S; Windelband, B; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, L; Yang, H; Yang, S; Yasnopolskiy, S; Yi, J; Yin, Z; Yokoyama, H; Yoo, I K; Yu, W; Yuan, X; Yushmanov, I; Zabrodin, E; Zach, C; Zampolli, C; Zaporozhets, S; Zarochentsev, A; Zavada, P; Zaviyalov, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zelnicek, P; Zenin, A; Zgura, I; Zhalov, M; Zhang, X; Zhou, D; Zichichi, A; Zinovjev, G; Zoccarato, Y; Zynovyev, M

    2010-01-01

    The first measurement of the charged-particle multiplicity density at mid-rapidity in Pb-Pb collisions at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair sqrt(sNN) = 2.76 TeV is presented. For an event sample corresponding to the most central 5% of the hadronic cross section the pseudo-rapidity density of primary charged particles at mid-rapidity is 1584 +- 4 (stat) +- 76 (sys.), which corresponds to 8.3 +- 0.4 (sys.) per participating nucleon pair. This represents an increase of about a factor 1.9 relative to pp collisions at similar collision energies, and about a factor 2.2 to central Au-Au collisions at sqrt(sNN) = 0.2 TeV. This measurement provides the first experimental constraint for models of nucleus-nucleus collisions at LHC energies.

  8. Protein quality control in the nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofie V.; Poulsen, Esben Guldahl; Rebula, Caio A.

    2014-01-01

    to aggregate, cells have evolved several elaborate quality control systems to deal with these potentially toxic proteins. First, various molecular chaperones will seize the misfolded protein and either attempt to refold the protein or target it for degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system...... to be particularly active in protein quality control. Thus, specific ubiquitin-protein ligases located in the nucleus, target not only misfolded nuclear proteins, but also various misfolded cytosolic proteins which are transported to the nucleus prior to their degradation. In comparison, much less is known about...... these mechanisms in mammalian cells. Here we highlight recent advances in our understanding of nuclear protein quality control, in particular regarding substrate recognition and proteasomal degradation....

  9. Alteration of Paramecium candatum germinal nucleus morphology after UV irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fokin, S.I. (Leningradskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Biologicheskij Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst.)

    1982-09-01

    A study was made on morphologic changes of micronucleus (Mi) after whole-body ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of paramecia as well as after local irradiation of this nucleus or the area of macronucleus (Ma). The whole-body irradiation of its Ma part leads to generative nucleus growth in sizes and chromatin structure change, which is expressed in occurence of large chromatin bodies. Aftereffects of local action on Mi for viable descendants are expressed in nucleus size transformation (usually in reduction), gaining ''comet-shaped'' form and probably in reduction of dna amount. Irradiation of Ma and total effect on cell cause Mi changes of reversible character. All morphologic changes of Mi after local ultraviolet irradiation are conserved in descendants and are not photoreactivated. Possible reasons for this phenomenon are discussed. The results obtained make it possible to speak about different mechanisms of action on Mi in the case of local and whole-body UV irradiation of cell. The effect of irradiated Ma on generative nucleus, but not direct damage of this nucleus is the reason for Mi morphologic reconstruction after whole-body action on paramecium.

  10. Collision dynamics and particle production in relativistic nucleus- nucleus collisions at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.W.

    1990-03-01

    The possibility of forming a quark-gluon plasma is the primary motivation for studying nucleus-nucleus collisions at very high energies. Various ''signatures'' for the existence of a quark-gluon plasma in these collisions have been proposed. These include an enhancement in the production of strange particles, suppression of J/Ψ production, observation of direct photons from the plasma, event-by-event fluctuations in the rapidity distributions of produced particles, and various other observables. However, the system will evolve dynamically from a pure plasma or mixed phase through expansion, cooling, hadronization and freezeout into the final state particles. Therefore, to be able to determine that a new, transient state of matter has been formed it will be necessary to understand the space-time evolution of the collision process and the microscopic structure of hadronic interactions, at the level of quarks and gluons, at high temperatures and densities. In this talk I will review briefly the present state of our understanding of the dynamics of these collisions and, in addition, present a few recent results on particle production from the NA35 experiment at CERN. 21 refs., 5 figs

  11. Cochlear nucleus neuron analysis in individuals with presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Raul; Nelson, Erik G

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the cochlear nucleus neuron population in individuals with normal hearing and presbycusis. Retrospective study of archival human temporal bone and brain stem tissues. Using strict inclusion criteria, the temporal bones and cochlear nuclei from six normal hearing individuals and four individuals with presbycusis were selected for analysis. The spiral ganglion cell population, the cochlear nucleus neuron population, and the cell body size of the neurons were quantified in these cases. A relationship was not observed between age and the spiral ganglion cell population in the normal hearing group. Presbycusis subjects exhibited a reduced spiral ganglion cell population. The mean cochlear nucleus neuron population was observed to be significantly higher in the presbycusis group (mean ± standard deviation: 114,170 ± 10,570) compared to the normal hearing group (91,470 ± 9,510) (P = .019). This difference was predominantly the result of greater multipolar and granule cell neuron populations. Only the fusiform neuron type exhibited a significantly different mean cell body cross-sectional area between the normal hearing group (242 ± 27) and the presbycusis group (300 ± 37) (P = .033). This investigation is the first time, to our knowledge, that the populations of the eight neuron types in the cochlear nucleus have been quantified in both normal hearing individuals and individuals with presbycusis. The data support the concept that presbycusis is not an effect of aging alone but instead may be a condition that predisposes one to hearing loss with advancing age and is characterized by a congenitally elevated cochlear nucleus neuron population. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. The nucleus as a laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blin-Stoyle, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    The nucleus is a complicated many-body structure whose properties when carefully studied can frequently give important information about the underlying elementary particle interactions. This article reviews progress in research of this kind over the last twenty-five years. (author)

  13. Percolation picture of disintegration of nuclei in the proton-nucleus interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botvina, A.S.; Lanin, L.V.

    1992-01-01

    Breakup of nuclei into fragments in the proton-nucleus interaction is studied. It is assumed that breakup occurs in two stages. During the first stage the incident particle interacts with individual nucleons of the nucleus, and high-energy reaction products are emitted from the nucleus. This stage is described by means of the intranuclear-cascade model. During the second stage some of the nuclei, whose excitation energy is high, or whose density is very inhomogeneous, break up. This breakup is described by means of a percolation model which takes into account the spatial distribution of nucleons in the nucleus and which generalizes the percolation description of the 'liquid-gas' phase transition for finite nuclei. Features of this breakup mechanism are studied. The analysis of the experimental data indicates that it is not sufficient to consider percolation only in the coordinate space, and that the momentum distribution of the nucleons in the nucleus must be taken into account

  14. Loss of Cdk5 function in the nucleus accumbens decreases wheel running and may mediate age‐related declines in voluntary physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N.; Toedebusch, Ryan G.; Childs, Thomas E.; Grigsby, Kolter B.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Physical inactivity, which drastically increases with advancing age, is associated with numerous chronic diseases.The nucleus accumbens (the pleasure and reward ‘hub’ in the brain) influences wheel running behaviour in rodents.RNA‐sequencing and subsequent bioinformatics analysis led us to hypothesize a potential relationship between the regulation of dendritic spine density, the molecules involved in synaptic transmission, and age‐related reductions in wheel running. Upon completion of follow‐up studies, we developed the working model that synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens is central to age‐related changes in voluntary running.Testing this hypothesis, inhibition of Cdk5 (comprising a molecule central to the processes described above) in the nucleus accumbens reduced wheel running.The results of the present study show that reductions in synaptic transmission and Cdk5 function are related to decreases in voluntary running behaviour and provide guidance for understanding the neural mechanisms that underlie age‐dependent reductions in the motivation to be physically active. Abstract Increases in age are often associated with reduced levels of physical activity, which, in turn, associates with the development of numerous chronic diseases. We aimed to assess molecular differences in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) (a specific brain nucleus postulated to influence rewarding behaviour) with respect to wheel running and sedentary female Wistar rats at 8 and 14 weeks of age. RNA‐sequencing was used to interrogate transcriptomic changes between 8‐ and 14‐week‐old wheel running rats, and select transcripts were later analysed by quantitative RT‐PCR in age‐matched sedentary rats. Voluntary wheel running was greatest at 8 weeks and had significantly decreased by 12 weeks. From 619 differentially expressed mRNAs, bioinformatics suggested that cAMP‐mediated signalling, dopamine‐ and cAMP‐regulated neuronal phosphoprotein of 32

  15. What can we learn from high-energy hadron-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tow, D.M.

    1979-12-01

    High-energy hadron-nucleus (hA) collisions provide the exciting possibility of giving information about the spacetime development of hadron-hadron interactions and therefore differentiating various multiparticle production models. Some of the major developments in this field during the past decade, both experimentally and theoretically are reviewed. Several general features of the data are pointed out, and several classes of models are discussed. A recently proposed simple spacetime model for high-energy hA collisions is elaborated. Comments are made on the extension to nucleus-nucleus interactions and the future outlook

  16. Molecular orbitals of nucleons in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanishi, B.; Oertzen, W. von.

    1986-05-01

    A formalism for the dynamical treatment of the molecular orbitals of valence nucleons in nucleus-nucleus collisions at low bombarding energy is developed with the use of the coupled-reaction-channel (CRC) method. The Coriolis coupling effects as well as the finite mass effects of the nucleon are taken into account in this model, of rotating molecular orbitals, RMO. First, the validity of the concept is examined from the view point of the multi-step processes in a standard CRC calculation for systems containing two identical [core] nuclei. The calculations show strong CRC effects particularly in the case where the mixing of different l-parity orbitals - called hybridization in atomic physics - occurs. Then, the RMO representation for active nucleons is applied to the same systems and compared to the CRC results. Its validity is investigated with respect to the radial motion (adiabaticity) and the rotation of the molecular axis (radial and rotational coupling). Characteristic molecular orbitals of covalent molecules appear as rotationally stable states (K = 1/2) with good adiabaticity. Using the RMO's we obtain a new interpretation of various scattering phenomena. Dynamically induced changes in the effective Q-values (or scaling of energies), dynamically induced moments of inertia and an dynamically induced effective (L · S) interaction are obtained as a result of the molecular orbital formation. Various experimental data on transfer and subbarrier fusion reactions are understood in terms of the RMO's and their adiabatic potentials. Landau-Zener transitions, which strongly depend on the total angular momentum of the system, definitely predict the observation of characteristic changes in the cross sections for the inelastic scattering 13 C( 12 C, 12 C) 13 C* (3.086 MeV, 1/2 + ) with the change of the bombarding energy. (author)

  17. Nuclear sizes and intranuclear matter distribution -- from hadron-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalska-Gola, E.; Strugalski, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The method of intranuclear matter studies by hadronic projectiles is found and worked out. It is tested on the pion-xenon nucleus collision events. Target-nucleus size and nucleon density distributions in it were estimated and described by formulas prompted experimentally

  18. Production of Kaon and Λ in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at Ultrarelativistic Energy from a Blast-Wave Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J. H.; Zhang, S.; Ma, Y. G.; Zhong, C.

    2015-01-01

    The particle production of Kaon and Λ is studied in nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energy based on a chemical equilibrium blast-wave model. The transverse momentum spectra of Kaon and Λ at the kinetic freeze-out stage from our model are in good agreement with the experimental results. The kinetic freeze-out parameters of temperature (T kin ) and radial flow parameter ρ 0 are presented for the FOPI, RHIC, and LHC energies. And the resonance decay effect is also discussed. The systematic study for beam energy dependence of the strangeness particle production will help us to better understand the properties of the matter created in heavy-ion collisions at the kinetic freeze-out stage

  19. Raman microspectroscopy of nucleus and cytoplasm for human colon cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjing; Wang, Hongbo; Du, Jingjing; Jing, Chuanyong

    2017-11-15

    Subcellular Raman analysis is a promising clinic tool for cancer diagnosis, but constrained by the difficulty of deciphering subcellular spectra in actual human tissues. We report a label-free subcellular Raman analysis for use in cancer diagnosis that integrates subcellular signature spectra by subtracting cytoplasm from nucleus spectra (Nuc.-Cyt.) with a partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model. Raman mapping with the classical least-squares (CLS) model allowed direct visualization of the distribution of the cytoplasm and nucleus. The PLS-DA model was employed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of five types of spectral datasets, including non-selective, nucleus, cytoplasm, ratio of nucleus to cytoplasm (Nuc./Cyt.), and nucleus minus cytoplasm (Nuc.-Cyt.), resulting in diagnostic sensitivity of 88.3%, 84.0%, 98.4%, 84.5%, and 98.9%, respectively. Discriminating between normal and cancerous cells of actual human tissues through subcellular Raman markers is feasible, especially when using the nucleus-cytoplasm difference spectra. The subcellular Raman approach had good stability, and had excellent diagnostic performance for rectal as well as colon tissues. The insights gained from this study shed new light on the general applicability of subcellular Raman analysis in clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. CORTICOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE MICROINFUSION IN THE CENTRAL AMYGDALA DIMINISHES A CARDIAC PARASYMPATHETIC OUTFLOW UNDER STRESS-FREE CONDITIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIERSMA, A; BOHUS, B; KOOLHAAS, JM

    1993-01-01

    The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is known to be involved in the regulation of autonomic, neuroendocrine and behavioural responses in stress situations. The CeA contains large numbers of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) cell bodies. Neuroanatomical studies revealed that the majority of

  1. The suprachiasmatic nucleus-paraventricular nucleus interactions: a bridge to the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, R. M.; Hermes, M. H.; Kalsbeek, A.

    1998-01-01

    Vasopressin (VP) is one of the principal neurotransmitters of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). By means of anatomical, physiological and electrophysiological techniques we have demonstrated that VP containing pathways from the SCN serve to affect neuroendocrine and 'autonomic' neurons in the

  2. High energy hadron-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koplik, J.; Mueller, A.H.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical expectations for hadron-nucleus scattering at high energy if the basic hadron-hadron interaction is due to Regge poles and cuts arising in multiperipheral or soft field theory models are described. Experiments at Fermilab may provide a critical test of such models

  3. Hummingbird Comet Nucleus Analysis Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojiro, Daniel; Carle, Glenn C.; Lasher, Larry E.

    2000-01-01

    Hummingbird is a highly focused scientific mission, proposed to NASA s Discovery Program, designed to address the highest priority questions in cometary science-that of the chemical composition of the cometary nucleus. After rendezvous with the comet, Hummingbird would first methodically image and map the comet, then collect and analyze dust, ice and gases from the cometary atmosphere to enrich characterization of the comet and support landing site selection. Then, like its namesake, Hummingbird would carefully descend to a pre-selected surface site obtaining a high-resolution image, gather a surface material sample, acquire surface temperature and then immediately return to orbit for detailed chemical and elemental analyses followed by a high resolution post-sampling image of the site. Hummingbird s analytical laboratory contains instrumentation for a comprehensive molecular and elemental analysis of the cometary nucleus as well as an innovative surface sample acquisition device.

  4. Nucleus retroambiguus projections to the periaqueductal gray in the cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, EM; Mouton, LJ; Holstege, G

    2002-01-01

    The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) of the caudal medulla is a relay nucleus by which neurons of the mesencephalic periaqueductal gray (PAG) reach motoneurons of pharynx, larynx, soft palate, intercostal and abdominal muscles, and several muscles of the hindlimbs. These PAG-NRA-motoneuronal projections

  5. Chronic ethanol exposure decreases CB1 receptor function at GABAergic synapses in the rat central amygdala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varodayan, Florence P.; Soni, Neeraj; Bajo, Michal

    2016-01-01

    release, and GABAergic dysregulation in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is critical in the transition to alcohol dependence. We investigated possible disruptions in CB1 signaling of rat CeA GABAergic transmission following intermittent ethanol exposure. In the CeA of alcohol-naive rats, CB1...

  6. Pion inelastic scattering and the pion-nucleus effective interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    This work examines pion inelastic scattering with the primary purpose of gaining a better understanding of the properties of the pion-nucleus interaction. The main conclusion of the work is that an effective interaction which incorporates the most obvious theoretical corrections to the impulse approximation does a good job of explaining pion elastic and inelastic scattering from zero to 200 MeV without significant adjustments to the strength parameters of the force. Watson's multiple scattering theory is used to develop a theoretical interaction starting from the free pion-nucleon interaction. Elastic scattering was used to calibrate the isoscalar central interaction. It was found that the impulse approximation did poorly at low energy, while the multiple scattering corrections gave good agreement with all of the data after a few minor adjustments in the force. The distorted wave approximation for the inelastic transition matrix elements are evaluated for both natural and unnatural parity excitations. The isoscalar natural parity transitions are used to test the reaction theory, and it is found that the effective interaction calibrated by elastic scattering produces good agreement with the inelastic data. Calculations are also shown for other inelastic and charge exchange reactions. It appears that the isovector central interaction is reasonable, but the importance of medium corrections cannot be determined. The unnatural parity transitions are also reasonably described by the theoretical estimate of the spin-orbit interaction, but not enough systematic data exists to reach a firm conclusion

  7. A parton description of the nucleus fragmentation region in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwa, R.C.; Oregon Univ., Eugene

    1984-01-01

    In nucleus-nucleus collisions, the rapidity distribution of partons in the nucleus fragmentation region is highly asymmetrical. Thermalization that randomizes the momenta of partons far apart in rapidity cannot be expected. A local thermalization model is introduced which relates temperature to the range of parton interaction in rapidity. The parton number density and energy density are then calculated. (orig.)

  8. Comparison of Hi-C results using in-solution versus in-nucleus ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Takashi; Várnai, Csilla; Schoenfelder, Stefan; Javierre, Biola-Maria; Wingett, Steven W; Fraser, Peter

    2015-08-26

    Chromosome conformation capture and various derivative methods such as 4C, 5C and Hi-C have emerged as standard tools to analyze the three-dimensional organization of the genome in the nucleus. These methods employ ligation of diluted cross-linked chromatin complexes, intended to favor proximity-dependent, intra-complex ligation. During development of single-cell Hi-C, we devised an alternative Hi-C protocol with ligation in preserved nuclei rather than in solution. Here we directly compare Hi-C methods employing in-nucleus ligation with the standard in-solution ligation. We show in-nucleus ligation results in consistently lower levels of inter-chromosomal contacts. Through chromatin mixing experiments we show that a significantly large fraction of inter-chromosomal contacts are the result of spurious ligation events formed during in-solution ligation. In-nucleus ligation significantly reduces this source of experimental noise, and results in improved reproducibility between replicates. We also find that in-nucleus ligation eliminates restriction fragment length bias found with in-solution ligation. These improvements result in greater reproducibility of long-range intra-chromosomal and inter-chromosomal contacts, as well as enhanced detection of structural features such as topologically associated domain boundaries. We conclude that in-nucleus ligation captures chromatin interactions more consistently over a wider range of distances, and significantly reduces both experimental noise and bias. In-nucleus ligation creates higher quality Hi-C libraries while simplifying the experimental procedure. We suggest that the entire range of 3C applications are likely to show similar benefits from in-nucleus ligation.

  9. Effect of cochlear nerve electrocautery on the adult cochlear nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseli, Claire E; Merwin, William H; Klatt-Cromwell, Cristine; Hutson, Kendall A; Ewend, Matthew G; Adunka, Oliver F; Fitzpatrick, Douglas C; Buchman, Craig A

    2015-04-01

    Electrocauterization and subsequent transection of the cochlear nerve induce greater injury to the cochlear nucleus than sharp transection alone. Some studies show that neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2) patients fit with auditory brainstem implants (ABIs) fail to achieve speech perception abilities similar to ABI recipients without NF2. Reasons for these differences remain speculative. One hypothesis posits poorer performance to surgically induced trauma to the cochlear nucleus from electrocautery. Sustained electrosurgical depolarization of the cochlear nerve may cause excitotoxic-induced postsynaptic nuclear injury. Equally plausible is that cautery in the vicinity of the cochlear nucleus induces necrosis. The cochlear nerve was transected in anesthetized adult gerbils sharply with or without bipolar electrocautery at varying intensities. Gerbils were perfused at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days postoperatively; their brainstem and cochleas were embedded in paraffin and sectioned at 10 μm. Alternate sections were stained with flourescent markers for neuronal injury or Nissl substance. In additional experiments, anterograde tracers were applied directly to a sectioned eighth nerve to verify that fluorescent-labeled profiles seen were terminating auditory nerve fibers. Cochlear nerve injury was observed from 72 hours postoperatively and was identical across cases regardless of surgical technique. Postsynaptic cochlear nucleus injury was not seen after distal transection of the nerve. By contrast, proximal transection was associated with trauma to the cochlear nucleus. Distal application of bipolar electrocautery seems safe for the cochlear nucleus. Application near the root entry zone must be used cautiously because this may compromise nuclear viability needed to support ABI stimulation.

  10. Shape study of the N=Z waiting-point nucleus 72Kr via beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Briz Monago, Jose Antonio; Nácher González, Enrique

    The Ph.D. thesis entitled “Shape study of the N=Z waiting-point nucleus 72Kr via beta decay” is devoted to the study of the shape of the ground state of the 72Kr nucleus. It is an N=Z nucleus in the mass region A~70-80 where shape transitions and the shape coexistence phenomena have been identified. Furthermore, this nucleus participates in the rp-process as a waiting point due to the slowdown of the process taking place at the arrival to this nucleus. The study of the properties of this nucleus is interesting from the Nuclear Structure point of view, for the phenomena occurring in its mass region and have been predicted for it, and from the Nuclear Astrophysics for the accurate performance of astrophysical calculations. The β+/EC decay of the 72Kr nucleus has been studied through two complementary experiments at the ISOLDE facility at CERN in Geneva (Switzerland). In one of them, the low-spin structure of the daughter nucleus, 72Br, has been revised via conversion electron spectroscopy where the convers...

  11. Colour, albedo and nucleus size of Halley's comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Tholen, D. J.; Hartmann, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    Photometry of Halley's comet in the B, J, V, and K broadband filters during a time when the coma was very weak and presumed to contribute negligibly to the broadband photometry is reported. The V-J and J-K colors suggest that the color of the nucleus of Halley's comet is similar to that of the D-type asteroids, which in turn suggests that the surface of the nucleus has an albedo less than 0.1.

  12. Correlations in hadron-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wosiek, B.

    1976-09-01

    The correlations between the particles produced in interactions of hadrons with emulsion nuclei were investigated. The data are in qualitative agreement with the models which describe the interactions with nuclei as subsequent collisions of the fast part of excited hadronic matter inside the nucleus. (author)

  13. On angular distribution of nucleus fission fragments by fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabanov, A.L.; Grechukhin, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of amplitudes of quadrupole and hexadecapole components of angular distribution of nucleus fission fragments by neutrons with the energies E n < or approx. 6 MeV is conducted. Stability of this amplitude to permeability optical coefficient variations for neutrons is revealed. It is shown, that the ratio of these amplitudes as well as the character of their dependence on the target nucleus orientation degree are sensitive to the type of fission probability distribution along K projection if fissile nucleus J spin to the fragment scattering axis. This sensitivity may be used for fragment angular distribution anisotropy formation statistical model verification

  14. M2-9 - a planetary nebula with an eruptive nucleus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balick, B.

    1989-01-01

    M2-9 is a striking bipolar, or butterfly, planetary nebula (PN) whose nuclear spectrum is uncharacteristic of PN nuclei. Narrow lines ranging in ionization from O I, Fe II, forbidden Fe II, and Si II through forbidden O III are observed in the stellar spectrum. The H-alpha emission line has wings extending nearly 11,000 km/s at the base, and there is a deep self-absorption feature near the H-alpha line peak at the same velocity as nebular gas observed in one of the two bipolar lobes. The spectrum of M2-9's nucleus is more similar to the slow nova RR Tel, some symbiotic stars, and Seyfert (type 1.9) galactic nuclei than the central stars of most other PNs. Although its morphology, size, and nebular spectrum share many similarities with other PNs, M2-9 may not share a common evolutionary history with that class of objects. 31 references

  15. The alteration of Paramecium candatum germinal nucleus morphology after UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fokin, S.I.

    1982-01-01

    A study was made on morphologic changes of micronucleus (Mi) after whole-body ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of paramecia as well as after local irradiation of this nucleus or the area of macronucleus (Ma). The whole-body irradiation of its Ma part leads to generative nucleus growth in sizes and chromatin structure change, which is expressed in occurence of large chromatin bodies. Aftereffects of local action on Mi for viaable descendants are expressed in nucleus size transformation (usually in reduction), gaining ''comet-shaped'' form and probably in reduction of dna amount. Irradiation of Ma and total effect on cell cause Mi changes of reversible character. All morphologic changes of Mi after local ultraviolet irradiation are conserved in descendants and are not photoreactivated. Possible reasons for this phenomenon are discussed. The results obtained make it possible to speak about different mechanisms of action on Mi in the case of local and whole-body UV irradiation of cell. The effect of irradiated Ma on generative nucleus, but not direct damage of this nucleus is the reason for Mi morphologic reconstruction after whole-body action on paramecium

  16. Tolerance to non-opioid analgesics is opioid-sensitive in nucleus raphe magnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merab G Tsagareli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Repeated injection of opioid analgesics can lead to a progressive loss of its effect. This phenomenon is known as tolerance. Several lines of investigations have shown that systemic, intraperitoneal administration or the microinjection of non-opioid analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs in the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter induces antinociception with some effects of tolerance. Our recent study has revealed that microinjection of three drugs analgin, ketorolac and xefocam into the central nucleus of amygdala produce tolerance to them and cross-tolerance to morphine. Here we report that repeated administrations of these NSAIDs into the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM in the following four days result in progressively less antinociception, i.e. produce the development of tolerance to these drugs in mail rats. Special control experiments showed that post-treatment with μ-opioid antagonist naloxone in NRM significantly decreased antinociceptive effects of NSAIDs at the first day in behavioral tail flick reflex (TF and hot plate (HP latencies. At the second day, naloxone generally had trend effects in both TF and HP tests impeded the development of tolerance to the antinociceptive effect of non-opioid analgesics. These findings strongly support the suggestion on endogenous opioid involvement in NSAIDs antinociception and tolerance in the descending pain control system. Moreover, repeated injections of NSAIDs progressively lead to tolerance to them, cross-tolerance to morphine and the risk of a withdrawal syndrome. Therefore, these results are important for human medicine too.

  17. Design of an equilibrium nucleus of a BWR type reactor based in a Thorium-Uranium fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, J.L.; Nunez C, A.

    2003-01-01

    In this work the design of the reactor nucleus of boiling water using fuel of thorium-uranium is presented. Starting from an integral concept based in a type cover-seed assemble is carried out the design of an equilibrium reload for the nucleus of a reactor like that of the Laguna Verde Central and its are analyzed some of the main design variables like the cycle length, the reload fraction, the burnt fuel, the vacuum distribution, the generation of lineal heat, the margin of shutdown, as well as a first estimation of the fuel cost. The results show that it is feasible to obtain an equilibrium reload, comparable to those that are carried out in the Laguna Verde reactors, with a good behavior of those analyzed variables. The cost of the equilibrium reload designed with the thorium-uranium fuel is approximately 2% high that the uranium reload producing the same energy. It is concluded that it is convenient to include burnable poisons, type gadolinium, in the fuel with the end of improving the reload design, the fuel costs and the margin of shutdown. (Author)

  18. A Neural Correlate of Predicted and Actual Reward-Value Information in Monkey Pedunculopontine Tegmental and Dorsal Raphe Nucleus during Saccade Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Ken-ichi; Nakamura, Kae; Kobayashi, Yasushi

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine, acetylcholine, and serotonin, the main modulators of the central nervous system, have been proposed to play important roles in the execution of movement, control of several forms of attentional behavior, and reinforcement learning. While the response pattern of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and its specific role in reinforcement learning have been revealed, the role of the other neuromodulators remains rather elusive. Here, we review our recent studies using extracellular recording from neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, where many cholinergic neurons exist, and the dorsal raphe nucleus, where many serotonergic neurons exist, while monkeys performed eye movement tasks to obtain different reward values. The firing patterns of these neurons are often tonic throughout the task period, while dopaminergic neurons exhibited a phasic activity pattern to the task event. The different modulation patterns, together with the activity of dopaminergic neurons, reveal dynamic information processing between these different neuromodulator systems. PMID:22013541

  19. Pain-related increase of excitatory transmission and decrease of inhibitory transmission in the central nucleus of the amygdala are mediated by mGluR1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neugebauer Volker

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neuroplasticity in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA, particularly its latero-capsular division (CeLC, is an important contributor to the emotional-affective aspects of pain. Previous studies showed synaptic plasticity of excitatory transmission to the CeLC in different pain models, but pain-related changes of inhibitory transmission remain to be determined. The CeLC receives convergent excitatory inputs from the parabrachial nucleus in the brainstem and from the basolateral amygdala (BLA. In addition, feedforward inhibition of CeA neurons is driven by glutamatergic projections from the BLA area to a cluster of GABAergic neurons in the intercalated cell masses (ITC. Using patch-clamp in rat brain slices we measured monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs and polysynaptic inhibitory currents (IPSCs that were evoked by electrical stimulation in the BLA. In brain slices from arthritic rats, input-output functions of excitatory synaptic transmission were enhanced whereas inhibitory synaptic transmission was decreased compared to control slices from normal untreated rats. A non-NMDA receptor antagonist (NBQX blocked the EPSCs and reduced the IPSCs, suggesting that non-NMDA receptors mediate excitatory transmission and also contribute to glutamate-driven feed-forward inhibition of CeLC neurons. IPSCs were blocked by a GABAA receptor antagonist (bicuculline. Bicuculline increased EPSCs under normal conditions but not in slices from arthritic rats, which indicates a loss of GABAergic control of excitatory transmission. A metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 (mGluR1 antagonist (LY367385 reversed both the increase of excitatory transmission and the decrease of inhibitory transmission in the arthritis pain model but had no effect on basal synaptic transmission in control slices from normal rats. The inhibitory effect of LY367385 on excitatory transmission was blocked by bicuculline suggesting the involvement of a GABAergic

  20. A comparative analysis of mechanisms of fast light particles production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at low and intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Denikin, A S

    2002-01-01

    The dynamics and the mechanisms of formation of pre-equilibrium light particles in nucleus-nucleus collisions at low and intermediate energies are discussed in terms of a classical four-body model. The energy and angular distributions of light particles have been calculated. It has been found that at energies lower than 50A MeV the formation of the most high-energy part of the nuclear spectrum occurs at the expense of the acceleration of light target particles with the mean field of the projectile. The obtained data are in good agreement with available experimental data

  1. Sociality and the telencephalic distribution of corticotrophin-releasing factor, urocortin 3, and binding sites for CRF type 1 and type 2 receptors: A comparative study of eusocial naked mole-rats and solitary Cape mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coen, Clive W; Kalamatianos, Theodosis; Oosthuizen, Maria K; Poorun, Ravi; Faulkes, Christopher G; Bennett, Nigel C

    2015-11-01

    Various aspects of social behavior are influenced by the highly conserved corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) family of peptides and receptors in the mammalian telencephalon. This study has mapped and compared the telencephalic distribution of the CRF receptors, CRF1 and CRF2 , and two of their ligands, CRF and urocortin 3, respectively, in African mole-rat species with diametrically opposed social behavior. Naked mole-rats live in large eusocial colonies that are characterized by exceptional levels of social cohesion, tolerance, and cooperation in burrowing, foraging, defense, and alloparental care for the offspring of the single reproductive female. Cape mole-rats are solitary; they tolerate conspecifics only fleetingly during the breeding season. The telencephalic sites at which the level of CRF1 binding in naked mole-rats exceeds that in Cape mole-rats include the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, hippocampal CA3 subfield, and dentate gyrus; in contrast, the level is greater in Cape mole-rats in the shell of the nucleus accumbens and medial habenular nucleus. For CRF2 binding, the sites with a greater level in naked mole-rats include the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus and dentate gyrus, but the septohippocampal nucleus, lateral septal nuclei, amygdalostriatal transition area, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and medial habenular nucleus display a greater level in Cape mole-rats. The results are discussed with reference to neuroanatomical and behavioral studies of various species, including monogamous and promiscuous voles. By analogy with findings in those species, we speculate that the abundance of CRF1 binding in the nucleus accumbens of Cape mole-rats reflects their lack of affiliative behavior. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Development of global medium-energy nucleon-nucleus optical model potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madland, D.G.; Sierk, A.J.

    1997-01-01

    The authors report on the development of new global optical model potentials for nucleon-nucleus scattering at medium energies. Using both Schroedinger and Dirac scattering formalisms, the goal is to construct a physically realistic optical potential describing nucleon-nucleus elastic scattering observables for a projectile energy range of (perhaps) 20 meV to (perhaps) 2 GeV and a target mass range of 16 to 209, excluding regions of strong nuclear deformation. They use a phenomenological approach guided by conclusions from recent microscopic studies. The experimental database consists largely of proton-nucleus elastic differential cross sections, analyzing powers, spin-rotation functions, and total reaction cross sections, and neutron-nucleus total cross sections. They will use this database in a nonlinear least-squares adjustment of optical model parameters in both relativistic equivalent Schroedinger (including relativistic kinematics) and Dirac (second-order reduction) formalisms. Isospin will be introduced through the standard Lane model and a relativistic generalization of that model

  3. Deconvolving the Nucleus of Centaurus A Using Chandra PSF Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karovska, Margarita

    2000-01-01

    Centaurus A (NGC 5128) is a giant early-type galaxy containing the nearest (at 3.5 Mpc) radio-bright Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN). Cen A was observed with the High Resolution Camera (HRC) on the Chandra X-ray Observatory on several occasions since the launch in July 1999. The high-angular resolution (less than 0.5 arcsecond) Chandra/HRC images reveal X ray multi-scale structures in this object with unprecedented detail and clarity, including the bright nucleus believed to be associated with a supermassive black hole. We explored the spatial extent of the Cen A nucleus using deconvolution techniques on the full resolution Chandra images. Model point spread functions (PSFs) were derived from the standard Chandra raytrace PSF library as well as unresolved point sources observed with Chandra. The deconvolved images show that the Cen A nucleus is resolved and asymmetric. We discuss several possible causes of this extended emission and of the asymmetries.

  4. Interaction between hypothalamic dorsomedial nucleus and the suprachiasmatic nucleus determines intensity of food anticipatory behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acosta-Galvan, Guadalupe; Yi, Chun-Xia; van der Vliet, Jan; Jhamandas, Jack H.; Panula, Pertti; Angeles-Castellanos, Manuel; del Carmen Basualdo, María; Escobar, Carolina; Buijs, Ruud M.

    2011-01-01

    Food anticipatory behavior (FAA) is induced by limiting access to food for a few hours daily. Animals anticipate this scheduled meal event even without the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the biological clock. Consequently, a food-entrained oscillator has been proposed to be responsible for meal time

  5. HIJET: a Monte Carlo event generator for P-nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludlam, T.; Pfoh, A.; Shor, A.

    1985-01-01

    Comparisons are shown for the HIJET generated data and measured data for average multiplicities, rapidity distributions, and leading proton spectra in proton-nucleus and heavy ion reactions. The algorithm for the generator is one of an incident particle on a target of uniformly distributed nucleons. The dynamics of the interaction limit secondary interactions in that only the leading baryon may re-interact with the nuclear volume. Energy and four momentum are globally conserved in each event. 6 refs., 6 figs

  6. Final State Interactions Effects in Neutrino-Nucleus Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golan, Tomasz [Univ. of Wroctaw (Poland); Juszczak, Cezary [Univ. of Wroctaw (Poland); Sobczyk, Jan T. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Final State Interactions effects are discussed in the context of Monte Carlo simulations of neutrino-nucleus interactions. A role of Formation Time is explained and several models describing this effect are compared. Various observables which are sensitive to FSI effects are reviewed including pion-nucleus interaction and hadron yields in backward hemisphere. NuWro Monte Carlo neutrino event generator is described and its ability to understand neutral current $\\pi^0$ production data in $\\sim 1$ GeV neutrino flux experiments is demonstrated.

  7. Comet Halley: nucleus and jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, R.Z.; Avanesov, G.A.; Barinov, I.V.

    1986-06-01

    The VEGA-1 and VEGA-2 spacecrafts made their closest approach to Comet Halley on 6 and 9 March, respectively. In this paper results of the onboard imaging experiment are discussed. The nucleus of the comet was clearly identifyable as an irregularly shaped object with overall dimensions of (16+-1)x(8+-1)x(8+-1) km. The nucleus rotates around its axis which is nearly perpendicular to the orbital plane, with a period of 53+-2 hours. Its albedo is only 0.04+-002. Most of the jet features observed during the second fly-by were spatially reconstructed. These sources form a quasi-linear structure on the surface. The dust above the surface is shown to be optically thin except certain specific dust jets. Brightness features on the surface are clearly seen. Correlating the data with other measurements it is concluded that the dirty snow-ball model probably has to be revised. (author)

  8. SU-E-T-494: Influence of Proton Track-Cell Nucleus Incidence Angle On Relative Biological Effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pater, P; Backstrom, G; Enger, S; Seuntjens, J; El Naqa, I [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Villegas, F; Ahnesjo, A [Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To explain a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation artifact whereby differences in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in the induction of initial double strand breaks are observed as a function of the proton track incidence angles in a geometric cell nucleus model. Secondly, to offer an alternative isotropic irradiation procedure to mitigate this effect. Methods: MC tracks of 1 MeV protons were generated in an event-by-event mode. They were overlaid on a cylindrical model of a cell nucleus containing 6×109 nucleotide base pairs. The tracks incidence angle θ with respect to the cell nucleus’s axis was varied in 10 degrees intervals, each time generating one hundred fractions of ∼2 Gy. Strand breaks were scored in the modeled DNA sugar-phosphate groups and further sub-classified into single or double strand breaks (ssbs or dsbs). For each angle, an RBE for the induction of initial dsbs with reference to Co-60 was calculated. Results: Our results show significant angular dependencies of RBE, with maximum values for incidence angles parallel to the nucleus central axis. Further examination shows that the higher cross-sections for the creation of dsbs is due to the preferential alignment of tracks with geometrical sub-parts of the cell nucleus model, especially the nucleosomes containing the sugar-phosphate groups. To alleviate the impact of this simulation artifact, an average RBE was calculated with a procedure based on a weighted sampling of the angular data. Conclusion: This work demonstrates a possible numerical artifact in estimated RBE if the influence of the particle incidence angle is not correctly taken into account. A correction procedure is presented to better conform the simulations to real-life experimental conditions. We would like to acknowledge support from the Fonds de recherche du Quebec Sante (FRQS), from the CREATE Medical Physics Research Training Network grant (number 432290) of NSERC, support from NSERC under grants RGPIN 397711-11 and

  9. Fine structure of long-term changes in the cochlear nucleus after acoustic overstimulation: chronic degeneration and new growth of synaptic endings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J J; Gross, J; Potashner, S J; Morest, D K

    2004-09-15

    The companion study showed that acoustic overstimulation of adult chinchillas, with a noise level sufficient to damage the cochlea, led to cytological changes and degeneration of synaptic endings in the cochlear nucleus within 1-16 weeks. In the present study, the same stimulus was used to study the long-term effects on the fine structure of synaptic endings in the cochlear nucleus. For periods of 6 and 8 months after a single exposure to a damaging noise level, there ensued a chronic, continuing process of neurodegeneration involving excitatory and inhibitory synaptic endings. Electron microscopic observations demonstrated freshly occurring degeneration even as late as 8 months. Degeneration was widespread in the neuropil and included the synapses on the globular bushy cell, which forms part of the main ascending auditory pathway. Neurodegeneration was accompanied by newly formed synaptic endings, which repopulated some of the sites vacated previously by axosomatic endings on globular bushy cells. Many of these synaptic endings must arise from central interneurons. The findings suggest that overstimulation can induce a self-sustaining condition of progressive neurodegeneration accompanied by a new growth of synaptic endings. Noise-induced hearing loss thus may progress as a neurodegenerative disease with the capacity for synaptic reorganization within the cochlear nucleus.

  10. Dietary grape seed polyphenols repress neuron and glia activation in trigeminal ganglion and trigeminal nucleus caudalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durham Paul L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation and pain associated with temporomandibular joint disorder, a chronic disease that affects 15% of the adult population, involves activation of trigeminal ganglion nerves and development of peripheral and central sensitization. Natural products represent an underutilized resource in the pursuit of safe and effective ways to treat chronic inflammatory diseases. The goal of this study was to investigate effects of grape seed extract on neurons and glia in trigeminal ganglia and trigeminal nucleus caudalis in response to persistent temporomandibular joint inflammation. Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated with 200 mg/kg/d MegaNatural-BP grape seed extract for 14 days prior to bilateral injections of complete Freund's adjuvant into the temporomandibular joint capsule. Results In response to grape seed extract, basal expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 was elevated in neurons and glia in trigeminal ganglia and trigeminal nucleus caudalis, and expression of the glutamate aspartate transporter was increased in spinal glia. Rats on a normal diet injected with adjuvant exhibited greater basal levels of phosphorylated-p38 in trigeminal ganglia neurons and spinal neurons and microglia. Similarly, immunoreactive levels of OX-42 in microglia and glial fibrillary acidic protein in astrocytes were greatly increased in response to adjuvant. However, adjuvant-stimulated levels of phosphorylated-p38, OX-42, and glial fibrillary acidic protein were significantly repressed in extract treated animals. Furthermore, grape seed extract suppressed basal expression of the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide in spinal neurons. Conclusions Results from our study provide evidence that grape seed extract may be beneficial as a natural therapeutic option for temporomandibular joint disorders by suppressing development of peripheral and central sensitization.

  11. Pion production and fragmentation of nuclei in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oskarsson, A.

    1983-01-01

    In collisions between nuclei at high energies one can study the behaviour of nuclear matter under extreme conditions, regarding nuclear density and temperature. The Bevalac and the CERN SC beams have been used and nuclear emulsion and scintillation telescopes have measured the reaction products. Collisions at 50A-200A MeV and at 2A GeV have been investigated. Proton spectra from 12 C induced reactions at 85A MeV have been recorded for different targets. Energetic protons at large angles can be assumed to be emitted from a source moving with half the beam velocity and a temperature between 13 and 17 MeV, depending on the target. In collisions between nuclei, pions can be produced below 290A MeV due to the internal Fermi motion of the nucleons. Subthreshold pion production has been studied for 12 C induced reactions at 85A and 75A Mev. The cross-sections are consistent with a quasi-free nucleon-nucleon scattering picture, involving Fermi motion, Pauli blocking and pion reabsorption. 16 C induced reactions in emulsion have been studied at 75A, 175A and 2000A MeV. It is shown that the excitation of the parts of the nuclei which are not overlapping (the spectators) increases with the beam energy. The 16 O projectile frequently breaks up into multiple He fragments. These events are associated with large impact parameters. Central collisions with Ag, Br target at 50A-110A MeV have been analysed separately. It is shown that the momentum transfer to the target nucleus is limited to a value considerably lower than the full momentum transfer in a fusion reactions. Events are observed where there are numerous fragments with 3< Z<8. These multifragmentation events cannot be understood in a thermal approach. (author)

  12. Gross and Fine Structure of Pion Production Excitation Functions in {bold {ital p}}-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobsson, B.; Berg, M.; Carlen, L.; Elmer, R.; Fokin, A.; Ghetti, R.; Martensson, J.; Noren, B.; Oskarsson, A.; Whitlow, H.J. [Department of Physics, University of Lund, Lund (Sweden); Ekstroem, C.; Ericsson, G.; Romanski, J.; van Veldhuizen, E.J.; Westerberg, L. [The Svedberg Laboratory and Department of Neutron Physics, University of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden); Julien, J. [Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay (France); Skeppstedt, O. [Department of Physics, Chalmers Institute of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Nyboe, K.; Thorsteinsen, T.F.; Amirelmi, S. [Department of Physics, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Guttormsen, M.; Lo/vho/iden, G. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Bellini, V.; Palazzolo, F.; Sperduto, M.L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare/Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Bondorf, J.P.; Mishustin, I. [Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Avdeichikov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russia); Lozhkin, O.V.; Murin, Y. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St.Petersburg (Russia)

    1997-05-01

    Slow ramping of the CELSIUS storage ring has been utilized to measure the yield of charged pions in proton and heavy ion induced collisions with continuously varying beam energy. Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck predictions, including Fermi momenta of nucleons in nuclei, follow the general shape of the p-nucleus excitation functions quite well except for a general overestimation of the backward emission. For heavy ion reactions the calculated yield also falls off faster with decreasing beam energy than the data. No statistically significant narrow resonances are observed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Models of the atomic nucleus. With interactive software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.D.

    2006-01-01

    This book-and-CD-software package supplies users with an interactive experience for nuclear visualization via a computer-graphical interface, similar in principle to the molecular visualizations already available in chemistry. Models of the Atomic Nucleus, a largely non-technical introduction to nuclear theory, explains the nucleus in a way that makes nuclear physics as comprehensible as chemistry or cell biology. The book/software supplements virtually any of the current textbooks in nuclear physics by providing a means for 3D visual display of the diverse models of nuclear structure. For the first time, an easy-to-master software for scientific visualization of the nucleus makes this notoriously ''non-visual'' field become immediately 'visible.' After a review of the basics, the book explores and compares the competing models, and addresses how the lattice model best resolves remaining controversies. The appendix explains how to obtain the most from the software provided on the accompanying CD. (orig.)

  14. Immobility, inheritance and plasticity of shape of the yeast nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrulis Erik D

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since S. cerevisiae undergoes closed mitosis, the nuclear envelope of the daughter nucleus is continuous with that of the maternal nucleus at anaphase. Nevertheless, several constitutents of the maternal nucleus are not present in the daughter nucleus. The present study aims to identify proteins which impact the shape of the yeast nucleus and to learn whether modifications of shape are passed on to the next mitotic generation. The Esc1p protein of S. cerevisiae localizes to the periphery of the nucleoplasm, can anchor chromatin, and has been implicated in targeted silencing both at telomeres and at HMR. Results Upon increased Esc1p expression, cell division continues and dramatic elaborations of the nuclear envelope extend into the cytoplasm. These "escapades" include nuclear pores and associate with the nucleolus, but exclude chromatin. Escapades are not inherited by daughter nuclei. This exclusion reflects their relative immobility, which we document in studies of prezygotes. Moreover, excess Esc1p affects the levels of multiple transcripts, not all of which originate at telomere-proximal loci. Unlike Esc1p and the colocalizing protein, Mlp1p, overexpression of selected proteins of the inner nuclear membrane is toxic. Conclusion Esc1p is the first non-membrane protein of the nuclear periphery which – like proteins of the nuclear lamina of higher eukaryotes – can modify the shape of the yeast nucleus. The elaborations of the nuclear envelope ("escapades" which appear upon induction of excess Esc1p are not inherited during mitotic growth. The lack of inheritance of such components could help sustain cell growth when parental nuclei have acquired potentially deleterious characteristics.

  15. Three-body approach to the nucleon-nucleus optical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandy, P.C.; Redish, E.F.; Bolle, D.

    1976-01-01

    In the Watson single scattering theory of the optical potential it is customary to approximate the propagation by two-body Green functions in order to simplify calculations. The reaction mechanism being described, however, is decidedly three-body in character. The central difficulty in building three-body models for nucleon-nucleus elastic scattering is to find the proper way of imbedding the superposed three-body reaction mechanism in the many-body problem without introducing serious overcounting effects. One would also like an explicit description of the intermediate state processes responsible for absorption. In this paper a three-body approximation to the optical potential theory is presented which overcomes the overcounting problem and is capable of including the following effects: (1) the proper kinematics of the struck nucleon, (2) its binding potential, (3) the identity of target nucleons, and (4) realistic wave functions and spectroscopic factors. The three-body model for the optical potential can be extended using unitarity methods to yield a unified three-body-like model of elastic scattering, pickup, and single nucleon knockout. (Auth.)

  16. WIMP-nucleus scattering in chiral effective theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Graesser, Michael L.; Ovanesyan, Grigory

    2012-10-01

    We discuss long-distance QCD corrections to the WIMP-nucleon(s) interactions in the framework of chiral effective theory. For scalar-mediated WIMP-quark interactions, we calculate all the next-to-leading-order corrections to the WIMP-nucleus elastic cross-section, including two-nucleon amplitudes and recoil-energy dependent shifts to the single-nucleon scalar form factors. As a consequence, the scalar-mediated WIMP-nucleus cross-section cannot be parameterized in terms of just two quantities, namely the neutron and proton scalar form factors at zero momentum transfer, but additional parameters appear, depending on the short-distance WIMP-quark interaction. Moreover, multiplicative factorization of the cross-section into particle, nuclear and astro-particle parts is violated. In practice, while the new effects are of the natural size expected by chiral power counting, they become very important in those regions of parameter space where the leading order WIMP-nucleus amplitude is suppressed, including the so-called "isospin-violating dark matter" regime. In these regions of parameter space we find order-of-magnitude corrections to the total scattering rates and qualitative changes to the shape of recoil spectra.

  17. Nucleus-nucleus interaction constants at energies of 0.1-1.0 GeV/nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudkin, V.E.; P'yanov, I.I.; Stepnov, V.D.

    1979-01-01

    A method for calculating nucleus-nuclear reactions being a further development of the cascade model is proposed. The nucleus-nucleus interaction is represented as a superposition of a series of synchronous cascades initiated by nucleous and α-clusters getting into the nuclei overlapping region. Determination of an interaction partner and calculation of an elementary nucleon and α-cluster collision act are carried out using the same method as for calculation of the nucleon-nuclear cascade. Inelastic channels are not considered. The cross section values of cascade particle interaction, as well as of free particle interaction are given from the published literature. The experiment for verification of the calculation method is carried out. An emulsion chamber of the 0.3 l volume has been exposed at the 35 km height in the vicinity of the 64 deg nothern latitude during 8.5 hr. 223 disintegrations of nuclear emulsion by cosmic radiation nuclei at the 0.1-1.0 GeV/nucleon energy and the >2 charge are investigated. 147 interactions on photoemulsion light nuclei are singled out from these disintegrations. The average multiplicity of all the charged pions is 0.22+-0.05 for light and 0.44+-0.09 for heavy photoemulsion nuclei. The calculation is carried out for nitrogen nuclei interaction at the 0.35 GeV/nucleon energy. Parametric analysis of the calculation method has shown that the clusterization coefficients and the nuclear parameter effect secondary particle multiplicity (SPM) and weakly influence on their energy and angular distributions. The nuclear parameter change from 1.1 to 1.6 F decreases average SPM in different energy ranges down to 25-40%. The comparison of the calculation data with the experimental one obtained in the given paper and other ones, shows satisfactory agreement both for differential and average characteristics of secondary charged particles

  18. Proton decay in a nucleus: Nonrelativistic treatment of nuclear effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, L.A.; Alvarez-Estrada, R.F.; Sanchez-Gomez, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, proton decay in a large nucleus is studied in the framework of SU(5) grand unification theory (GUT). By using a method based upon the Green's-function technique of many-body physics, nuclear effects on spectator and pole terms are computed. The decay width in the nucleus is found to be practically the same as in free space. However, nuclear effects are of considerable importance concerning the positron spectrum. A density-correlation expansion is introduced which is useful for carrying out a systematic study of nuclear effects in proton decay in a large nucleus. The method presented here can be easily extended to other GUT's or supersymmetric GUT's

  19. Transport theory applied to hadron and light fragment production in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuermann, B.; Malfliet, R.; Mies, S.; Zwermann, W.

    1984-01-01

    Foundations of the transport theory for studying K + , K - , π - and light fragment production in nucleus-nucleus interactions at high energies are given. Inclusive production of protons, K + and π - in the Ne+NaF reaction at 400 MeV and 21 GeV/nucleon is consdered, their differential cross sections are caculated. Differential cross sections of K - and π - production in Si+Si → K + +X and Ne+NaF → π - +X reactions at the energy of 2.1 GeV/nucleon, their energy dependence are estimated. Comparison of the calculated and experimental data is graphically presented. The model of the transport theory is shown to successfully reproduce inclusive spectra of different particles (p, d, π, K + , K - ) in a wide energy range of incident particles (from 400 MeV to 2 GeV/nucleon). This approach can be generalized for lower energies by generating a mean nuclear potentiasl field

  20. Non-compound nucleus fission in actinide and pre-actinide regions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-07-22

    Jul 22, 2015 ... In this article, some of our recent results on fission fragment/product angular distributions are discussed in the context of non-compound nucleus fission. Measurement of fission fragment angular distribution in 28Si+176Yb reaction did not show a large contribution from the non-compound nucleus fission.