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Sample records for terminalia fagifolia mart

  1. Gastric Antiulcerogenic and Hypokinetic Activities of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Humberto M. Nunes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxicity, the antioxidant activity, and the pharmacological activity on the gastrointestinal tract of rodents of the ethanolic extract (TFEE from the bark of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae and of its aqueous (TFAqF, hydroalcoholic (TFHAF, and hexanic (TFHEXF partition fractions have been evaluated. TFEE presented low acute toxicity, antioxidant, and antiulcerogenic activity against ethanol-induced ulcers, which was partially blocked by pretreatment with L-NAME and indomethacin. It reduced the total acidity and raised the pH of gastric secretion. Additionally, TFEE delayed gastric emptying and slightly inhibited the small intestinal transit and also presented a weakly antidiarrheal activity. The antiulcerogenic and antioxidant activity were also detected in TFAqF and TFHAF but not in TFHEXF. The antisecretory and gastroprotective activity of TFEE partially involve the nitric oxide and prostaglandin participation. Nevertheless, TFEE, TFAqF, and TFHAF drastically reduced the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall of rats treated with ethanol or indomethacin. Complementary studies are required in order to clarify the paradox of the presence of a gastroprotector activity in this plant that, at the same time, reduces the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall.

  2. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity from leaves extracts of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. et Zucc; Constituintes quimicos e atividade antioxidante de extratos das folhas de Terminalia fagifolia Mart. et Zucc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, Mariane Cruz Costa; Chaves, Mariana H. [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], e-mail: mariana@ufpi.br; Rinaldo, Daniel; Vilegas, Wagner; Vieira Junior, Gerardo Magela [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica

    2009-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of ethanolic leaves extracts of T. fagifolia led to the isolation of (+)-catechin, sitosterol-3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, {alpha} and {beta} tocopherol, a mixture of lupeol, {alpha} and {beta}-amyrin, sitosterol and a mixture of glucoside flavonoids (CP-13). The structures of these compounds were identified by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data. Absolute configuration of the catechin was determinate by circular dichroism. Antioxidant activity (EC{sub 50}), evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH) assay system, decreased in the order: (+)-catechin > hydroalcoholic fraction > CP-13 > aqueous fraction > EtOH extract. (author)

  3. TERMINALIA SUPERBA MINALIA SUPERBA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    2010-04-01

    Apr 1, 2010 ... determined. This timber specie gained wide acceptance by Nigerian construction industry, especially for roof truss construction. The strength class of Terminalia superba according to NCP 2 [14] is N6. ..... Grown Abura Timber Bridge Beam Subjected to. Bending and Deflection Forces”, Nigerian Journal of.

  4. Triterpenoids from two Terminalia species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytochemical investigations of Terminalia arjuna bark and Terminalia chebula fruits resulted in the isolations of 12 triterpenoids including two new oleanane type triterpene glucosyl esters ajunglucosides IV (1) and V (2) from the n-BuOH layer of MeOH extract of the bark of T. arjuna as well as nin...

  5. Terminalia arjuna, a herbal remedy against environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 429 due to AFB1 to 141 due to 5th concentration of Terminalia extracts at 32 h of exposure. Conclusion: The ameliorating potential of Terminalia extracts was dose and time dependant. Keywords: Ayurvedic medicine; Carcinogen; Chromosomal aberration; Sister chromatid exchange; Replication index; Terminalia arjuna ...

  6. ANTISICKLING ACTIVITY OF TERMINALIA CATAPPA LEAVES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Terminalia catappa L. family Combretaceae, a fruit bearing tree, popular in folkloric medicine for the treatment of sickle ... The method employed involved the inhibition of sodium metabisulphite-induced sickling of HbSS red blood cells collected from confirmed non-crisis sickle cell ...

  7. Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activities of Terminalia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The powdered leaf of Terminalia catappa was extracted using ethanol and partitioned into n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous methanol fractions. Test for the presence of secondary metabolites showed the presence of alkaloids, reducing sugars, saponins, tannins, resins and steroids in ethanol soluble ...

  8. Identification of Allelochemicals from Terminalia Chebula

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Develop a method of weed control by using allelopathic plant. (ii). Quantify the allelopathic potential of Terminalia Chebula on weeds. (iii). Identify the plant parts that are the most important source of allelopathic substances. (iv). Identification of phenolic acids (Allelochemicals). Methodology. Mature fresh leaves and barks of ...

  9. Identification of Allelochemicals from Terminalia Chebula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was an experiental research to identify the chemicals contained in terminalia chebula.The dried leaves and barks were ground to a fine powder in a Wiley Mill (40 mesh), using this powder for aqueous extract prepared by the method of Heisey (1990). Bioassay studies were also carried out following the method of ...

  10. Terminalia arjuna, a herbal remedy against environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammad Sultan Ahmad

    2013-11-23

    Nov 23, 2013 ... Biol Interact 2004;149:107–15. [20] Loeb LA, Loeb KR, Anderson JP. Multiple mutations and · cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003;100:776–81. [21] Saxena M, Faridi U, Mishra R, Gupta MM, Singh D. Cytotoxic · agents from Terminalia arjuna. Planta Med 2007;73(14):1486–90. [22] Scassellati-Sforzolini G, ...

  11. Phytochemical and Anti-sickling Activities of Terminalia catappa Linn.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ethnobotanical survey revealed that the dried fallen leaves of Terminalia catappa Linn. are used locally in various parts of Nigeria for the management of sickle cell anaemia. This research investigated if Terminalia catappa leaf interferes with the basic mechanism of erythrocyte sickling. Powdered dried fallen leaves of ...

  12. Litterfall and Nutrient Returns in Isolated Stands of Terminalia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Litterfall and Nutrient Returns in Isolated Stands of Terminalia catappa Trees in the Rainforest Area of Southern Nigeria. ... has implications in returning nutrient elements to the soils of the rainforest ecosystem. Keywords: Litterfall, Nutrient returns, Seasonal variation, Southern Nigeria, Terminalia catappa, Tropical rainforest.

  13. Potential therapeutic applications for Terminalia chebula in Iranian traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokar, Assie; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Sadeghpour, Omid; Nassiri-Toosi, Mohsen; Hamedi, Shokouhsadat

    2016-04-01

    Terminalia chebula (family: Combretaceae) is widely used in the traditional medicine of India and Iran to treat diseases that include dementia, constipation, and diabetes. This tree is known in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) as halileh or halilaj and the fruit is used to develop treatments. It is described in ITM as an astringent that has a "cold" and "dry" temperament. References to the medicinal properties of Terminalia chebula were collected from important ITM sources and from modern medical databases (PubMed, Scirus, ScienceDirect, and Scopus). The medicinal properties described for this tree in ITM were compared with those reported in studies of modern phytotherapy. The results confirm that the tree referred to as halileh in traditional books is the Terminalia chebula used in present-day studies. Treatments that have not been evaluated in modern phytotherapy but have been traditionally treated with Terminalia chebula include fever, and psychological and psychiatric issues. This article confirms the medicinal uses of Terminalia chebula.

  14. AQS Data Mart

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AQS Data Mart is a database that contains all of the information from the AQS system. It is a storehouse of air quality information that allows users to make...

  15. Mart Laar : impeeriumi enesepettus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Parlamendiliige Mart Laar kirjutab USA mõjukas päevalehes The Wall Street Journal, et naftadollarite toel ja lääneriikide leeris valitseva korratuse tingimustes loodab Venemaa taastada oma kadunud impeeriumi

  16. P-Mart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-10-07

    P-Mart was designed specifically to allow cancer researchers to perform robust statistical processing of publicly available cancer proteomic datasets. To date an online statistical processing suite for proteomics does not exist. The P-Mart software is designed to allow statistical programmers to utilize these algorithms through packages in the R programming language as well as offering a web-based interface using the Azure cloud technology. The Azure cloud technology also allows the release of the software via Docker containers.

  17. Biological activity of Terminalia arjuna on Human Pathogenic Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Javed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available World’s population relies chiefly on traditional medicinal plants, using their extracts or active constituents. Terminalia arjuna of family Combretaceae reported to be effective as aphrodisiac, expectorant, tonic, styptic, antidysenteric, sweet, acrid, purgative, laxative, astringent, diuretic, astringent, cirrhosis, cardioprotective and cancer treatment.   In present study, antibacterial, antifungal, brine shrimp lethality and phytotoxic effect of Terminalia arjuna was performed. Our results showed that methanolic extract of Terminalia arjuna leaves has moderate antifungal effect against Microsporm canis and fruit extract possess good antibacterial activity against Staphylococus aureus  and  Preudomonas aeroginosa. Moreover, Dichloromethane extract of Terminalia arjuna bark and fruit posses moderate phytotoxic activity. 

  18. Kunstiga Eestimaad avastamas / Mart Helme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Helme, Mart, 1949-

    2006-01-01

    Kirjastuselt "Kunst" ilmunud uued raamatud: "Eestimaa. Looduse teejuht", tekst ja fotod Tiit Hunt; "Eestimaa. Linnuste teejuht", tekst Mart Helme; "Eestimaa. Kirikute teejuht", tekst Mart Helme, fotod Peeter Säre; "Eestimaa. Kultuurituristi teejuht", koostaja Tiiu Viirand; "Eestimaa. Ranniku teejuht", tekst Tiiu Viirand; "Eestimaa mõisate teejuht", fotod Peeter Säre, tekst Mart Helme, Alfred Wells

  19. Viisitamm ikka võimul / Mart Laar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laar, Mart, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Parlamendiliige on üllatunud, et Reformierakonna saadikud seisid Pärnu linnavolikogus toimunud umbusaldusavaldusel linnapea Mart Viisitamme eest. Tekst pärineb Mart Laari veebipäevikust blog.irl.ee/Mart_Laar/

  20. Use of wood characters in the Identification of Terminalia spp in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ND Ruwanpathirana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available 250 timber species are being used by the timber industry in Sri Lanka and among them major timber consumers are housing developer, furniture manufacturer and wood fabricators.  Once the tree is felled, the identification of the tree become very difficult and need of relying on their macroscopic/ microscopic features and physical properties of timber become necessary. Timber identification is necessary for right use of timber and to check on fraud in timber trading as some timber traders   mix or sell low price different type of timber species deceiving customers implying them to be valuble timbers in order to increase their profit margin. 0 Five timber species of Terminalia namely Terminalia arjuna (Kumbuk, Terminalia bellirica (Bulu, Terminalia catappa (Kottamba, Terminalia chebula (Aralu and  Terminalia parviflora (Hampalanda of the family of Combretaceae were studied anatomically in search of sufficient  features  by which one Terminalia sp can be separated from the other . The examination of the transverse section of wood with a hand lens (x25 does not provide adequate reliable information to differentiate one species from the other for identification due to resemblance of wood structure of five Terminalia spp. Hence for the anatomical examination, transverse section (T.S., radial longitudinal section (R.L.T. and tangential longitudinal section (T.L.S. were obtained using the microtome. In this study, some important wood anatomical and non anatomical features were studied according to IAWA ( 1989. It was found that all the Terminalia spp had diffuse porous wood having vessels mainly solitary and occasionally in 2 -3 vessels of radial multiples. Mean vessel diameter and vessel diameter range were recorded respectively  as 241  µm and 172-331 µm in  Terminallia arjuna,  169 µm and 107-204 µm in Terminalia bellirica , 240 µm and 169-309 µm in Terminallia catappa, 115 µm and 68-175 µm inTerminalia chebula and 124 µm and 75

  1. Restauratsioon / Mart Velsker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Velsker, Mart, 1966-

    1998-01-01

    Arvustus: Üheksavägine. Tartu : Erakkond, 1997.Märka, Veiko. Tühja aju korinad; Rahman, Jan. Vasõst vask; Rüütle, Indrek. Lahkumine Puhjast; Serpent, Franȯis. Ka jumal on inimene (kõik EK$i Kaasaegse Kirjanduse Keskuse väljaanded, Tartu, 1997). Vastukaja: Pilv, Aare. Vastuseks Mart Velskri 'Restauratsioonile' // Vikerkaar (1998) nr. 4-5, lk. 185-186

  2. Mart Laar tagasi reel / Mart Laar ; interv. Paavo Kangur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laar, Mart, 1960-

    2007-01-01

    Riigikogu liige Mart Laar vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema sissetulekuid ja investeeringuid, perekonda, tööd Swedpanki nõukogus, Gruusia, Montenegro ja Serbia nõustamist, sõprust Suurbritannia endise peaministri Margaret Thatcheriga ning suhteid mitmete Eesti poliitikutega. Lisa: Mart Laar kui investor

  3. Pharmacognostic studies of the leaves of terminalia macroptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... extractive value, 12.7%w/w, water soluble extractive value, 17.0%w/w. These results can be used in the identification and preparation of a monograph on the plant. Keywords: Terminalia macroptera, combretaceae, leaves, pharmacognostic evaluation. Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine Vol. 9 2005: 14-18 ...

  4. Study on osteopotential activity of Terminalia arjuna bark extract ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bark extract of Terminalia arjuna (TA) possesses potent medical properties and therefore, holds a reputed position in both Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine. Bone substitutes play an inevitable role in traumatic bone damages. Growth factors induce osteoinductivity, but suffer from limitations such as high cost and ...

  5. Ursane Triterpenoids from the Bark of Terminalia arjuna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five ursane type triterpene glucosyl esters including a new one, 2a,3ß-dihydroxyurs-12,18-dien-28-oic acid 28-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1) were isolated from the bark of Terminalia arjuna, along with two known phenolic compounds. It is the first report of ursane type of triterpenoids from this spi...

  6. Fusarium Damping-off of two Timber Species ( Terminalia Ivorensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of the damping–off disease of two timber species Terminalia ivorensis and Nauclea diderrichii sown in ground granite, sharp river sand, topsoil and sawdust was assessed at the nursery site of the Department of. Forestry and Wildlife Management, University of Port Harcourt. The experiment was laid out in a ...

  7. 1 Antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of Terminalia stenostachya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dropsy, enteralgia, eye diseases, general fatigue, hiccups, jaundice, loss of appetite, malaria, menorrhagia ... T. stenostachya is a small tree or shrub 4-5m high, usually found in wooded grassland of Malawi ... Roots and stem barks of Terminalia spinosa, (voucher specimen with collection No: 3602) were collected from ...

  8. Immunomodulatory Activity of Alcohol Extract of Terminalia chebula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cytokines, namely, IL-2, IL-10 and TNF-α expression in spleen cells, were determined by real time polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) Results: Terminalia chebula extract (100 mg/kg/p.o.) increased the level of liver mitochondrial enzymes CAT and SO) as well as GSH but decreased the level of LPO in the liver when ...

  9. Antibacterial properties studies of trunk barks of terminalia ivorensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus infections are a worldwide concern. Terminalia ivorensis, of Combretaceae family plant, is widely used traditional medicinal in Côte d'Ivoire to treat dermal diseases (affection in which ...

  10. Effect of Terminalia chebula fruit extract on lipid peroxidation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of aqueous extract of the Terminalia chebula was studied in male albino rats to explore its activities on testis. 1.0 ml of aqueous extract of T. chebula (500 mg/kg body weight) was given orally for 45 days. The activity of lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase were significantly increased but the concentration ...

  11. Effects of dietary levels of chemically treated Terminalia catappa fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment to investigate the replacement value of Terminalia catappa fruit waste (TCFW) for maize in the diet of pullet chicks was carried out. ... TCFW was subjected to povidone to detoxify the phytotoxins and supplemented with or without Xylanase to degrade the high fibre and included in diets at 0, 30.6 and 63.52% ...

  12. Phytochemical, antimicrobial and antiplasmodial investigations of Terminalia brownii

    Science.gov (United States)

    The stem bark of Terminalia brownii was collected from Machakos county, Kenya, in November 2011, and identified at the University Herbarium, School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, where a voucher specimen (JM2011/502) was deposited. The stem bark was air dried in shade and pulverized....

  13. Neuroprotective effect of Terminalia chebula extracts and ellagic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the common neurodegenerative disorders among elderly. The purpose of this study was to determine the neuroprotective effect and mechanisms of action underlying the Terminalia chebula extracts and ellagic acid by using beta-amyloid25-35 (Aβ25-35)-induced cell toxicity ...

  14. Effect of Terminalia chebula fruit extract on lipid peroxidation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-20

    Aug 20, 2007 ... 100 g of powdered nuts of T. chebula were extracted in 200 ml of water by ... to dryness. The dried extract (20 g) was dissolved in 40 ml of water ... Table 1. Changes in the biochemical and antioxidant enzyme contents in. Terminalia chebula extract treated rats. Parameters. Control. Treatment. Proteina.

  15. Comparisons of nutritional potentials of Terminalia catapa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports experiments designed to assess the performance of goats fed Terminalia catappa (Indian almond) and Acalypha wilkesiana (Red acalypha) and an appraisal of the nutrient contents of each plant. Ten West African dwarf goats (bucks) aged 10 – 12 months weighing 5.50 to 9.25kg body weight were ...

  16. Rahvusvaheline mees Mart Laar = Mart Laar, international man / Ingvar Bärenklau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bärenklau, Ingvar, 1967-

    2006-01-01

    Eesti ekspeaministri Mart Laari uutest väljakutsetest pärast Milton Friedmani nimelise auhinna saamist. Lisad: Fakte Mart Laari kohta; Teised Mart Laarist. Vt. samas: Laar soovitab suvisel Eestimaal ringi sõita

  17. Mart Kalmu elutöö valmis / Mart Kalm ; interv. Ene Läkk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalm, Mart, 1961-

    2002-01-01

    Arhitektuuriajaloolane Mart Kalm räägib oma tööst ja äsjailmunud raamatust "Eesti 20. sajandi arhitektuur". Karin Hallase ja Triin Ojari repliigid Mart Kalmust, Mart Kalmu biograafilised lühiandmed

  18. Mart Humala väärtteosest / Mart Jaanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jaanson, Mart, 1966-

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia poolt välja antavas sarjas "Töid muusikateooria alalt II" ilmunud Mart Humala uurimustööst "Kõigi intervallidega dodekafoonilised seeriad ja nende teisendused", 2005

  19. Investigations on the Potential of Indian Almond Tree ( Terminalia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potentials of Indian almond tree leaf (Terminalia catappa) as anaesthetic agent in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were investigated. Juvenile (mean length 26.64 cm ± 3.11SD; mean weight 356.21 g ±12.91SD) and adult fish (mean length 52.13 cm ± 12.91SD; mean weight 1100.30 g ± 41.61SD) were exposed to the ...

  20. Chemical, morphological, and thermogravimetric of Terminalia catappa Linn

    OpenAIRE

    SANTOS,Orquídea Vasconcelos dos; LORENZO,Natasha Dantas; Lannes,Suzana Caetano da Silva

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the chemical composition, morphology, and the thermogravimetric behavior of the pulp of Terminalia catappa, also known as tropical almond. The analytical results show, based mainly on its lipid content, that this fruit has a considerable energy value. Its fiber content contributes to enhance the functional properties of the fruit. Morphological characteristics show a spongy-like structure with dispersion of starch granules and high concentration of f...

  1. The development of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) in clinical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, Anwesa; Bhattacharyya, Subir Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Rabi Ranjan

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants are part and parcel of human society to combat diseases from the dawn of civilization. Terminalia chebula Retz. (Fam. Combretaceae), is called the ‘King of Medicine’ in Tibet and is always listed at the top of the list of ‘Ayurvedic Materia Medica’ because of its extraordinary power of healing. The whole plant possesses high medicinal value and traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments for human beings. Some of the folklore people used this plant in the treatment of asthma, sore throat, vomiting, hiccough, diarrhea, dysentery, bleeding piles, ulcers, gout, heart and bladder diseases. The plant has been demonstrated to possess multiple pharmacological and medicinal activities, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antiproliferative, radioprotective, cardioprotective, antiarthritic, anticaries, gastrointestinal motility and wound healing activity. But no systematic updated information on the therapeutic effectiveness of Terminalia chebula, a popular herbal remedy in India and South-East Asia has so far been reported. This review highlights an updated information particularly on the phytochemistry and various pharmacological and medicinal properties of Terminalia chebula Retz. and some of its isolated compounds, along with their safety evaluation. This may provide incentive for proper evaluation of the plant as medicinal agent against the human diseases and also to bridge the lacunae in the existing literature and future scope which may offer immense opportunity for researchers engaged in validation of the traditional claims and development of safe and effective botanical medicine. PMID:23620847

  2. Mart Laar imedemaalt / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    Milton Friedmani vabaduse edendamise preemia pälvinud Mart Laari arvamusi teiste laureaatide ja Eesti edu kohta. Lisa: Friedmani preemia. Vt. samas intervjuud Salvadori ekspresidendi Fransisco Florese ja Londoni majandusinstituudi peadirektori John Blundelliga

  3. Terminalia arjuna in Chronic Stable Angina: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navjot Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Terminalia arjuna is a popular Indian medicinal plant with its bark been used for over centuries as cardiotonic. The bark has been found to contain several bioactive compounds including saponins and flavonoids. A number of experimental and clinical studies have been conducted to explore therapeutic potential of Terminalia arjuna in cardiovascular ailments specially in patients of coronary heart disease. A number of narrative reviews have been done but no systematic review has been conducted to date. Objective. To systematically review and conduct a meta-analysis on the available literature evaluating the efficacy of Terminalia arjuna in patients of chronic stable angina. Study selection. We included randomised, pseudo-randomized and before-after comparative studies which compared Terminalia arjuna/commercial preparation of Terminalia arjuna with current standard/ conventional treatment regimens in patients with chronic stable angina. Findings. Studies were found to be of poor methodological design. We found no significant difference in the Terminalia arjuna group as compared to control arm in the outcomes for which we were able to pool data and undertake meta-analysis. Conclusions. Currently, the evidence is insufficient to draw any definite conclusions in favour of or against Terminalia arjuna in patients of chronic stable angina. Further, well-controlled multicentric clinical trials need to be conducted in large number of patients to explore the therapeutic potential of Terminalia arjuna if any.

  4. In vivo Anti-plasmodial Activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Terminalia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Terminalia catappa (Tropical almond) is used traditionally in the management of fever, cough, wounds and various ulceration. Oral acute toxicity of the ethanolic leaf extract of Terminalia catappa was evaluated in mice using modified Lorke's method. The ethanolic leaf extract was evaluated for in vivo anti-plasmodial activity ...

  5. Does Wal-Mart Sell Inferior Goods?

    OpenAIRE

    Emek Basker

    2008-01-01

    I estimate the aggregate income elasticity of Wal-Mart's and Target's revenues using quarterly data for 1997-2006. I find that Wal-Mart's revenues increase during bad times, whereas Target's revenues decrease, consistent with Wal-Mart selling "inferior goods" in the technical sense of the term. An upper bound on the aggregate income elasticity of demand for Wal-Mart's wares is -0.5.

  6. Establecimiento in vitro de Terminalia amazonia (Gmel.) Excell

    OpenAIRE

    Méndez-Álvarez, Dawa; Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica; Abdelnour-Esquivel, Ana; Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica

    2014-01-01

    Terminalia amazonia es una especie nativa utilizada para la reforestación por sus características de rápido crecimiento y madera de buena calidad. El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue determinar la condiciones necesarias para el establecimiento in vitro de dicha especie, por lo cual se trabajó con plantas provenientes de campo y de invernadero, a estas últimas se les establecieron condiciones sanitarias, posteriormente se evaluó el efecto de dos agentes desinfectantes, hipocloritode sodi...

  7. Bioinspired reduced graphene oxide nanosheets using Terminalia chebula seeds extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddinedi, Sireesh Babu; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Vankayala, Raviraj; Kalluru, Poliraju; Pamanji, Sreedhara Reddy

    2015-06-01

    A green one step facile synthesis of graphene nanosheets by Terminalia chebula (T. chebula) extract mediated reduction of graphite oxide (GO) is reported in this work. This method avoids the use of harmful toxic reducing agents. The comparative results of various characterizations of GO and T. chebula reduced graphene oxide (TCG) provide a strong indication of the exclusion of oxygen containing groups from graphene oxide and successive stabilization of the formed reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The functionalization of reduced graphene oxide with the oxidized polyphenols causes their stability by preventing the aggregation. We also have proposed how the oxidized polyphenols are accountable for the stabilization of the formed graphene sheets.

  8. Comparison of pharmacokinetic profiles of Terminalia phenolics after intragastric administration of the aqueous extracts of the fruit of Terminalia chebula and a Mongolian compound medicine-Gurigumu-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Ajala, Olusegun S; Wang, Chun-Ying; Xu, Hai-Yan; Yao, Jia-Huan; Zhang, Hai-Peng; Jukov, Azzaya; Ma, Chao-Mei

    2016-06-05

    The dried fruit of Terminalia chebula (fructus chebulae) is an important Traditional Medicine used for intestinal and hepatic detoxification. Gurigumu-7 which is made of fructus chebulae and 6 other traditional medicines is one of the most frequently used compound Mongolian and Tibet medicines for liver diseases. Terminalia phenolics are considered as the bioactive constituents of fructus chebulae and consequently of Gurigumu-7. To compare the pharmacokinetic profiles of Terminalia phenolics after intragastric administration of the aqueous extracts of fructus chebulae and Gurigumu-7 and to evaluate the possible influence of intestinal bacterial metabolism on these pharmacokinetic profiles. An ultra performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method was established and validated for simultaneously determining the pharmacokinetic profiles of seven Terminalia phenolics after intragastric administration of pure compounds, fructus chebulae extract, and Gurigumu-7 extract. In vitro rat fecal lysates experiments were carried out to explore the metabolic discrepancy between fructus chebulae and Gurigumu-7. Seven Terminalia phenolics were detected in rat plasma after intragastric administration of the aqueous extracts of fructus chebulae and Gurigumu-7. Administration of Gurigumu-7 could promote the absorption and increase the Cmax and AUC values of these phenolic constituents compared to fructus chebulae administration. The fecal lysates studies showed that the Terminalia phenolics in Gurigumu-7 were less rapidly bio-transformed than those in fructus chebulae. This may be a contributing factor to the pharmacokinetic discrepancy between the phenolics in fructus chebulae and Gurigumu-7. Administration of Gurigumu-7 could increase the absorption of Terminalia phenolics through slowing down the intestinal bacteria metabolism. These results provide, in part, an in vivo rationale for the formulation of the traditional Mongolia / Tibet medicine

  9. Mart Nikluse avaldus Vabariigi Presidendile

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Vabadusvõitleja Mart-Olav Niklus tegi 16. detsembril 2008 avaliku avalduse president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele ettepanekuga autasustada Eesti Vabariigi eelseisva 91. aastapäeva puhul teenetemärgiga Läti Vabariigi kodanikku Edvins Snoret. Poliitiliste teaduste magistri Edvins Snore raamatu "Nõukogude lugu" ainetel on valminud rahvusvaheliselt tunnustatud dokumentaalfilm "The Soviet Story"

  10. Burnout / Mart Jürisoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jürisoo, Mart, 1950-2014

    2004-01-01

    Rootsi eestlase Mart Jürisoo peagi eestikeelsena ilmuva raamatu "Burnout - miks juhid läbi põlevad?" põhjal kokkuvõtlikult läbipõlemisest, ühiskondlikest nähtustest, mis sellele kaasa aitavad ning sellest hoidumise võimalustest

  11. Búsqueda de vida en Marte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Navarro-González

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La misión astrobiológica más importante que se ha realizado hasta la fecha ha sido sin duda el proyecto Vikingo de la NASA. Esta misión consistió en tres experimentos biológicos especialmente diseñados para la búsqueda de indicadores de vida en las capas superficiales del suelo marciano. Los tres experimentos dieron resultados positivos. Sin embargo, el análisis de materia orgánica en el suelo marciano demostró la ausencia total de carbono orgánico. Este hallazgo fue utilizado como uno de los argumentos más sólidos en contra de la existencia de vida en la superficie del planeta Marte. Como preparación para futuras misiones a Marte en búsqueda de vida es necesario probar los instrumentos en localidades terrestres que pudieran ser ambientes análogos a Marte. Uno de los desiertos más áridos del planeta es el de Atacama, en el norte de Chile. Estudios químicos y microbiológicos del suelo de Atacama sugieren que el corazón del desierto es en realidad un buen análogo de Marte, ya que no posee vida macroscópica y microscópica, tiene niveles muy bajos de materia orgánica, y sus suelos son muy reactivos. En colaboración con científicos franceses y estadounidenses, estamos preparando una misión robótica dirigida por la NASA para la búsqueda de vida pasada o presente en Marte por lo que el Desierto de Atacama en Chile es el escenario para la preparación de esta misión espacial.

  12. In vitro studies reveal antiurolithic effect of Terminalia arjuna using quantitative morphological information from computerized microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mittal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: For most cases, urolithiasis is a condition where excessive oxalate is present in the urine. Many reports have documented free radical generation followed by hyperoxaluria as a consequence of which calcium oxalate (CaOx deposition occurs in the kidney tissue. The present study is aimed to exam the antilithiatic potency of the aqueous extract (AE of Terminalia arjuna (T. arjuna. Materials and Methods: The antilithiatic activity of Terminalia arjuna was investigated in vitro nucleation, aggregation and growth of the CaOx crystals as well as the morphology of CaOx crystals using the inbuilt software ‘Image-Pro Plus 7.0’ of Olympus upright microscope (BX53. Antioxidant activity of AE of Terminalia arjuna bark was also determined in vitro. Results: Terminalia arjuna extract exhibited a concentration dependent inhibition of nucleation and aggregation of CaOx crystals. The AE of Terminalia arjuna bark also inhibited the growth of CaOx crystals. At the same time, the AE also modified the morphology of CaOx crystals from hexagonal to spherical shape with increasing concentrations of AE and reduced the dimensions such as area, perimeter, length and width of CaOx crystals in a dose dependent manner. Also, the Terminalia arjuna AE scavenged the DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals with an IC50 at 13.1µg/mL. Conclusions: The study suggests that Terminalia arjuna bark has the potential to scavenge DPPH radicals and inhibit CaOx crystallization in vitro. In the light of these studies, Terminalia arjuna can be regarded as a promising candidate from natural plant sources of antilithiatic and antioxidant activity with high value.

  13. Mart Laar : sahkerdamine ja tegevusetus peab lõppema / Mart Laar ; interv. Kai Kalamees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laar, Mart, 1960-

    2006-01-01

    Endine peaminister Mart Laar vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema otsust kandideerida Isamaa ja Res Publica juhiks, tema peakonkurenti Jaak Aaviksood, samuti tipp-poliitikast eemaloldud aastaid. Vt. samas: Ekspeaminister Mart Laar otsustas naasta suurde poliitikasse

  14. Mart Laar : Politika eto mojo pobotshnoje zanjatije / Mart Laar ; interv. Jevgenija Garanzha

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laar, Mart, 1960-

    2007-01-01

    Intervjuu Riigikogu liikme, IRL esimehe Mart Laariga erakonna poliitilistest ja majanduslikest eesmärkidest, Eesti suhetest Venemaaga, rahvussuhetest Eestis, eestlaste ja venelaste erinevast ajalookäsitlusest. Vt. samas: Mart Laar: eluloolisi andmeid

  15. Mart Relve : kõik tahavad uut klienti / Mart Relve ; interv. Paavo Kangur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Relve, Mart, 1973-

    2006-01-01

    AS-i Estonian Air turundusjuht Mart Relve selgitab, miks on lennufirma sel aastal Tallinnast avanud juba kolm uut lennuliini; ettevõtte edukusest. Lisad: Mart Relve; Estonian Airi majandusnäitajad 2005

  16. Vaba mees Mart Laar / Mart Laar ; interv. Toomas Sildam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laar, Mart, 1960-

    2006-01-01

    Riigikogu saadik, Rootsi Swedpanki nõukogu liige vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad temale CATO Instituudi poolt omistatud Milton Friedmani auhinda, osalemist poliitikas, vabaduse tähendust, võimalust saada taas peaministriks, Eesti iseseisvuse eest hääletanud Illar Hallaste ja Indrek Toome väljajäämist ordenisaajate nimekirjast, Isamaaliidu ja Res Publica ühinemist ning uue partei võimalikku juhti. Lisa: Mart Laar. Kommenteerib Tiit Pruuli

  17. Mart Ustav : me ei pruugi HI-viirusest kunagi vabaneda / Mart Ustav ; interv. Riho Laurisaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ustav, Mart, 1949-

    2006-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli teadlane Mart Ustav töötab välja HI-viiruse vaktsiini. Kui enamik seniseid aidsiravimeid on keemilised, siis Mart Ustav usub, et on võimalik luua ka looduslik preparaat, mida on lihtne toota ja mis tulevikus võiks abivajajale maksta kõigest mõnisada krooni. Lisaks: Teised Mart Ustavist: Mart Loog, Toivo Maimets

  18. Utilization of barks of terminalia species from Uttar Pradesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, K.; Lal, J.; Swalen, M.

    1977-01-01

    Terminalia crenulata bark is being used to produce oxalic acid on a commercial scale in Maharashtra and Gujarat states in India. Investigation of potential for oxalic production from the bark of a related species indicated that T. arjuna and T. alata were most suitable, with oxalic acid content ranging 13 to 21% for samples from various locations. T. Bellirica was also suitable, with an oxalic acids content of 12 to 19%. Bark of T. chebula had a lower content of oxalic acid, 7 to 5%. For each sample, MC, ash content, and tannin content were also measured. Variation in tannin and oxalic acid contents within the same species could not be directly related to regional factors such as soil and climate.

  19. Siinmaa maja õppetunde / Mart Kalm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalm, Mart, 1961-

    2007-01-01

    Pärnus Rüütli 1a asuva linnaarhitekt Olev Siinmaa villa (1931-1933), mille 1997. a. ostis ärimees Toomas Truuvert, restaureerimisest. Muinsuskaitse eritingimused, muinsuskaitseline järelevalve: Mart Kalm. Uuringud: Marika Kätsi. Tehniline projekt: Indrek Reino. Sisearhitektuurne projekt: Taso Mähar. Säilinud sisseehitatud mööbli restaureeris Ado Talimaa firma. 5 vaadet

  20. Marte Meo Metode som magtteknologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nelli Øvre

    2015-01-01

    Pårørendeskole til pårørende for at forbedre kommunikation og samvær med familiemedlemmer med demens. Ægtefæller fortalte, at de oplevede at skulle påtage sig større ansvar, end de allerede havde, og at de gjorde modstand mod undervisernes formidlingsmåde og fortolkning af Marte Meo, der blev...

  1. Mart Habakuk viis esimese Eesti ettevõtte Londoni börsile / Mart Habakuk ; interv. Jaanika Merilo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Habakuk, Mart, 1969-

    2007-01-01

    Metro Capital Managementi juhatuse esimees Mart Habakuk tutvustab kinnisvarainvesteerimisfirma Metro Baltic Horizons noteerimist Londoni alternatiivnimekirja AIM. Lisa: Metro Capital Management; Mart Habakuk

  2. Kõrge majandusauhind Mart Laarile / Martin Hanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanson, Martin, 1984-

    2006-01-01

    Cato instituut premeeris Mart Laari majandusteadlase Milton Friedmani nimelise auhinnaga ja üle 6 miljoni krooniga. Vt. samas: Mart Laari varasemad autasud; Milton Friedmani auhind anti kätte kolmandat korda. Kommenteerivad: Ivari Padar, Tiit Vähi, Tiit Tammsaar, Linnar Viik ja Andres Lipstok

  3. Marina Martín Garcia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Blaeij, T.; Van Manen, T.R.W.; Van Mechelen, J.; Pijpers, R.; Pleijter, G.; Rubke, T.

    2011-01-01

    Isla Martín Garcia is founded on a rock outcrop in the Río de la Plata which is a natural protected area between Argentina and Uruguay. Due to the extension of the runway at the local airport, wetlands between Isla Timoteo Domínguez and Isla Martín Garcia developed during the last decades. The bay,

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of Terminalia paniculata bark extract against acute and chronic inflammation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Sahil; Nandakumar, K; Nayak, Pawan G; Bansal, Punit; Mudgal, Jayesh; Mor, Vijay; Rao, Chamallamudi Mallikarjuna; Lobo, Richard

    2011-03-24

    Terminalia paniculata Roxb. (Family-Combretaceae) is a wild tree commonly used in traditional ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of inflammation of parotid glands and in menstrual disorders. To explore the folk use of Terminalia paniculata on pharmacological grounds to evaluate the scientific basis of anti-inflammatory activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of Terminalia paniculata was studied against carrageenan-induced hind paw edema, air pouch inflammation and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats. The aqueous extract of Terminalia paniculata bark (TPW) was administered at the concentrations of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg body weight. TPW showed significant (p400mg/kg) also reduced the carrageenan-induced leukocyte migration (50.92 ± 5.71%) and myeloperoxidase activity (49.31 ± 5.24%) in air pouch exudates. TPW (200mg/kg) exhibits anti-rheumatic and analgesic activities by improving the altered haematological milieu (ESR, CRP, RF, WBC, RBC and Hb) and also by inhibiting the flexion scores and radiographic changes in CFA-induced arthritis. This extract also had significant (p<0.05) effects on the occurrence of secondary lesions compared to CFA control. Terminalia paniculata bark may be a potential preventive or therapeutic candidate for the treatment of chronic inflammation and arthritis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Revisiting Terminalia arjuna – An Ancient Cardiovascular Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shridhar Dwivedi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Terminalia arjuna, commonly known as arjuna, belongs to the family of Combretaceae. Its bark decoction is being used in the Indian subcontinent for anginal pain, hypertension, congestive heart failure, and dyslipidemia, based on the observations of ancient physicians for centuries. The utility of arjuna in various cardiovascular diseases needs to be studied further. Therefore, the present review is an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature summarizing the experimental and clinical studies pertinent to arjuna in cardiovascular disorders, which were particularly performed during the last decade. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and clinical studies of arjuna were retrieved through the use of PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases. Most of the studies, both experimental and clinical, have suggested that the crude drug possesses anti-ischemic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and antiatherogenic activities. Its useful phytoconstituents are: Triterpenoids, β-sitosterol, flavonoids, and glycosides. Triterpenoids and flavonoids are considered to be responsible for its beneficial antioxidant cardiovascular properties. The drug has shown promising effect on ischemic cardiomyopathy. So far, no serious side effects have been reported with arjuna therapy. However, its long-term safety still remains to be elucidated. Though it has been found quite useful in angina pectoris, mild hypertension, and dyslipidemia, its exact role in primary/secondary coronary prevention is yet to be explored.

  6. Formulation and characterization of a cream containing terminalia chebula extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Naveed; Khan, Ali B; Muhammad, Said; Ahmed, Mahmood; Khan, Haji M Shoaib; Rasool, Fatima; Saeed, Tariq

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to formulate a water-in-oil emulsion (formulation) of Terminalia chebula versus its vehicle (base) as control, and investigate its effects on skin melanin, skin erythema, skin moisture content, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Base containing no active material, and formulation containing 5% concentrated extract of T. chebula, were developed. Different stability parameters were monitored at 8, 25, and 40 °C, as well as 40 °C + 75% relative humidity, for a period of 4 weeks. It was concluded that the creams remained stable at all storage conditions. Both base and formulation were applied to the cheeks of human volunteers for a period of 8 weeks. Different skin parameters were monitored every week to measure any effect produced by these creams. Changes in TEWL produced by base and formulation were insignificant (p > 0.05) with respect to time while significant (p ≤ 0.05) with respect to base and formulation. The skin moisture content increased after the application of formulation throughout the study period; this effect was insignificant (p > 0.05) with respect to time while significant (p ≤ 0.05) with respect to base and formulation. Both base and formulation showed insignificant (p > 0.05) effects on skin melanin content with respect to time. Skin erythema was reduced by the formulation. Both base and formulation produced statistically insignificant (p > 0.05) effects on skin sebum. Both creams were aesthetic with respect to sensory evaluation. T. chebula topical cream showed a positive rejuvenating effect on human skin. Hopefully, this study will encourage more attention towards the research and utilization of herbal medicines. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Sallimatuse juured / Mart Nutt, Mikko Lagerspetz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nutt, Mart, 1962-

    2004-01-01

    Euroopa Nõukogu rassismi ja ja sallimatuse vastase komisjoni liige Mart Nutt ning Eesti Humanitaarinstituudi sotsioloogia professor Mikko Lagerspetz arutlevad Eesti internetiportaalides levivate rassistlike ja antisemiitlike kommentaaride põhjuste ning tagajärgede üle

  8. Antikommunistid tulid kokku Prahas / Mart Niklus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niklus, Mart-Olav, 1934-

    2007-01-01

    22.-25 juunini Prahas toimunud poliitvangide ja kommunismiohvrite rahvusvahelise assotsiatsiooni (INTER-ASSO) 15. kongressist. Eestit esindasid kongressil Mart Niklus ja Kalju Mätik. Lisa: Ka Tšehhis oli oma Gulag

  9. Paneeldiskussioon [veebipõhisest õpikeskkonnast] / Mart Laanpere

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laanpere, Mart

    2003-01-01

    Maire Salundi (projekt Learning for Sharing) juhtimisel läbi viidud paneeldiskussioon, milles osalesid Mart Laanepere, Kerttu Lõhmus (AS Trainator Training), Mall Maasik (Audentes Ariko AS) ja Anne Villems (Tartu Ülikool)

  10. Noore kirjanduse potentsiaalist / Juko-Mart Kõlar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõlar, Juko-Mart

    2002-01-01

    Vastukaja Berk Vaheri arvustusele (kogumikule 4 x 4 / Tiit Kuuskmäe, Henrik Sova, Jarno Edur, Juko-Mart Kõlar. Tallinn, 2002) "Noormeeste kvartett kihutab neljarattaveol kirjandusse" (Postimees, 2002, 2. sept., lk. 17)

  11. A data mart for operations analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isken, M W; Littig, S J; West, M

    2001-01-01

    In this article we describe the evolution and architecture of a data mart developed to address the modeling and analysis needs of healthcare operations analysts. More specifically, the data mart is used in projects relating to demand analysis, forecasting, capacity planning, and service system design for a healthcare system consisting of a large tertiary care hospital and a smaller community hospital. The primary focus of the mart is on the detailed movement of inpatients through each hospital, although most component data tables include outpatient information such as emergency center visits, surgical cases, cardiac catheterization cases, and short-stay visits. We show that the data mart goes well beyond consolidating data from different sources by including a number of complex, precalculated fields, data structures, and function libraries that are specific to the needs of operations analysts. We discuss several outstanding and challenging design issues that should be of interest to the data warehouse vendor community.

  12. Comparative study of the antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging properties in the extracts of the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Santanu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS has been implicated in several diseases, and hence natural antioxidants have significant importance in human health. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis fruit extracts. Methods The 70% methanol extracts were studied for in vitro total antioxidant activity along with phenolic and flavonoid contents and reducing power. Scavenging ability of the extracts for radicals like DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen, hypochlorous acid were also performed to determine the potential of the extracts. Results The ability of the extracts of the fruits in exhibiting their antioxative properties follow the order T. chebula >E. officinalis >T. belerica. The same order is followed in their flavonoid content, whereas in case of phenolic content it becomes E. officinalis >T. belerica >T. chebula. In the studies of free radicals' scavenging, where the activities of the plant extracts were inversely proportional to their IC50 values, T. chebula and E. officinalis were found to be taking leading role with the orders of T. chebula >E. officinalis >T. belerica for superoxide and nitric oxide, and E. officinalis >T. belerica >T. chebula for DPPH and peroxynitrite radicals. Miscellaneous results were observed in the scavenging of other radicals by the plant extracts, viz., T. chebula >T. belerica >E. officinalis for hydroxyl, T. belerica >T. chebula >E. officinalis for singlet oxygen and T. belerica >E. officinalis >T. chebula for hypochlorous acid. In a whole, the studied fruit extracts showed quite good efficacy in their antioxidant and radical scavenging abilities, compared to the standards. Conclusions The evidences as can be concluded from the study of the 70% methanol extract of the fruits of

  13. New anti-HIV-1, antimalarial, and antifungal compounds from Terminalia bellerica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsaraj, R; Pushpangadan, P; Smitt, U W

    1997-01-01

    A bioactivity-guided fractionation of an extract of Terminalia bellerica fruit rind led to the isolation of two new lignans named termilignan (1) and thannilignan (2), together with 7-hydroxy-3',4'-(methylenedioxy)flavan (3) and anolignan B (4). All four compounds possessed demonstrable anti-HIV-...

  14. Terminalia gum as a directly compressible excipient for controlled drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamiro, Oluyemisi A; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A; Sinha, Vivek R; Kumar, Ruchita

    2012-03-01

    The exudates from the incised trunk of Terminalia randii has been evaluated as controlled release excipient in comparison with xanthan gum and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) using carvedilol (water insoluble) and theophylline (water soluble) as model drugs. Matrix tablets were prepared by direct compression and the effects of polymer concentration and excipients-spray dried lactose, microcrystalline cellulose and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate on the mechanical (crushing strength (CS) friability (F) and crushing strength-friability ratio (CSFR)) and drug release properties of the matrix tablets were evaluated. The drug release data were fitted into different release kinetics equations to determine the drug release mechanism(s) from the matrix tablets. The results showed that the CS and CSFR increased with increase in polymer concentration while F decreased. The ranking of CS and CSFR was HPMC > terminalia > xanthan while the ranking was reverse for F. The ranking for t(25) (i.e. time for 25% drug release) at a polymer concentration of 60% was xanthan > terminalia = HPMC. The dissolution time, t(25), of theophylline matrices was significantly lower (p excipients used with the release mechanisms varying from Fickian to anomalous. Terminalia gum compared favourably with standard polymers when used in controlled release matrices and could serve as a suitable alternative to the standard polymers in drug delivery.

  15. Ultrastructure of the male terminalia of Cochliomyia hominivorax and C. macellaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Cesar Rios Leite

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Cochliomyia hominivorax and C. macellaria are species that cause primary and secondary myiasis, respectively of medical and veterinary importance in the New World. The male terminalia of both insects show morphological differences that are now described from scanning electron microscope (SEM observations.

  16. Ultrastructure of the male terminalia of Cochliomyia hominivorax and C. macellaria

    OpenAIRE

    Antônio Cesar Rios Leite

    1995-01-01

    Cochliomyia hominivorax and C. macellaria are species that cause primary and secondary myiasis, respectively of medical and veterinary importance in the New World. The male terminalia of both insects show morphological differences that are now described from scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations.

  17. Hepatoprotective activity of Terminalia paniculata against paracetamol induced hepatocellular damage in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eesha, B R; Mohanbabu Amberkar, V; Meena Kumari, K; Sarath, Babu; Vijay, M; Lalit, M; Rajput, R

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Terminalia paniculata against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats. The plant material was shade dried, powdered and extracted with ethanol. Liv 52 and silymarin were used as standard drugs and 2% gum acacia as a control (vehicle). Alteration in the levels of biochemical markers of hepatic damage like AST, ALT, ALP and lipid peroxides were tested, and phytochemical tests were also performed. Paracetamol (2 g/kg) increased the serum levels of alanine aminotransfer (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the lipid peroxides. Treatment of Liv 52, silymarin and ethanolic extract of Terminalia paniculata (200 mg/kg) altered levels of biochemical marker and showed significant hepatoprotective activity. Ethanolic extract revealed the presence of phenolic compound and flavanoids. Our findings suggested that ethanolic bark extract of Terminalia paniculata possessed hepatoprotective activity in a dose dependent manner. Terminalia paniculata possesses hepatoprotective activity. It could be an effective and promising preventive agent against PCT induced hepatotoxicity. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of oral administration of Terminalia chebula on gastric emptying: an experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamhane M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminalia chebula is a commonly advocated agent in Ayurveda for improving gastrointestinal motility. Charles Foster rats (150-200 gms of either sex were divided into four groups as follows--Group 1 (n = 15 normal animals; Group II (n = 6 rats administered metoclopramide (1.35 mg/kg; Group III (n = 8 rats given atropine (0.45 mg/kg. These agents were injected intramuscularly, 30 mins before the experiment. Rats from Group IV (n = 8 were administered Terminalia chebula (100 mg/kg/day for 15 days orally. Metoclopramide and atropine have established prokinetic and antikinetic activities respectively and are therefore included for comparison. All rats were then given a test meal of methyl cellulose (1.5% mixed with phenol red (50 mg/100 ml orally and gastric emptying was measured 20 mins later. Gastric emptying of normal rats (Group I was found to be 51.6 +/- 7.79%. Metoclopramide significantly increased the gastric emptying (76.33 +/- 12.37%; p < 0.01 and atropine inhibited the motility (% gastric emptying being 7.26 +/- 19.76%; p < 0.01. Terminalia chebula was found to increase the percent gastric emptying (86.57 +/- 6.65%; p < 0.01. Thus from this study it appears that Terminalia chebula can serve as an useful alternative to prokinetic drugs available today.

  19. Terminalia catappa L. (tropical almond) ofCombretaceae is a large ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Terminalia catappa L. (tropical almond) ofCombretaceae is a large handsome deciduous tree which branches in horizontal whorls. Leaves are simple and large which turn red before falling. Flowers are small, both bisexual and male, are borne in spike inflorescences. Fruits are ellipsoidal, slightly bilaterally compressed ...

  20. 2009. aasta eelarvest 2010. aastasse vaadates / Mart Laar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laar, Mart, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Erakonna Isamaa ja Res Publica Liit esimees avalikustab 2009.aasta eelarve arutelul välja käidud ettepanekud ja teavitab arutelu tulemused. Tekst pärineb Mart Laari blogist http://blog.irl.ee/Mart_ Laar/

  1. Millest kõneleb koreograaf Mart Kangro? / Heili Lindepuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lindepuu, Heili

    2011-01-01

    Festivali POT raames 5. ja 6. mail Kanuti Gildi saalis taasetendunud Mart Kangro soololavastusest "Start. Based on a True Story". 27. mail Kalevi Spordihallis esietenduvast Mart Kangro lavastusest "Open Tallinn", kus on ühendatud teater, reality show ja multimeedia

  2. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of five medicinal plant; Fenois totais e atividade antioxidante de cinco plantas medicinais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Cleyton Marcos de M.; Silva, Hilris Rocha e; Vieira-Junior, Gerardo Magela; Ayres, Mariane Cruz C.; Costa, Charllyton Luis S. da; Araajo, Delton Servulo; Cavalcante, Luis Carlos D.; Barros, Elcio Daniel S.; Araujo, Paulo Breitner de M.; Brandao, Marcela S.; Chaves, Mariana H. [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mariana@ufpi.br

    2007-03-15

    This paper describes total phenolics content and antioxidant activity in the ethanolic extract of leaves, bark and roots of five medicinal plants: Terminalia brasiliensis Camb., Terminalia fagifolia Mart. and Zucc., Copernicia cerifera (Miller) H.E. Moore, Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. var. acuminata Teles Freire and Qualea grandiflora Mart. The total phenolics content of the plant extracts, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, varied from 250.0 {+-}8,2 to 763,63 {+-}13.03 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g dry EtOH extract. The antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay system. Extract of bark from T. brasiliensis, the most active, with an EC{sub 50} value of 27.59 {+-} 0.82 {mu}g/mL, was comparable to rutin (EC{sub 50} = 27.80 {+-} 1.38) and gallic acid (EC{sub 50} = 24.27 {+-} 0.31), used as positive controls. The relationship between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was positive and significant for T. brasiliensis, C. macrophyllum and C. cerifera. (author)

  3. Painting the Town Red? Wal-Mart and Values

    OpenAIRE

    Carden, Art; Courtemanche, Charles; Meiners, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    This essay explores the relationship between commerce and culture in the context of the recent debate over the social effect of Wal-Mart. In spite of much public debate, little is known about how Wal-Mart affects values. Using data collected from multiple sources, we show there is little evidence that Wal-Mart makes communities more conservative or more progressive.

  4. Biosynthesis of Gold Nanoparticles (Green-gold Using Leaf Extract of Terminalia Catappa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaprasad Ankamwar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of eco-friendly nanoparticles is evergreen branch of nanoscience for biomedical application. Low cost of synthesis and non toxicity are main features make it more attractive potential option for biomedical field and elsewhere. Here, we report the synthesis of gold nanoparticles in aqueous medium using Terminalia catappa (Almond leaf extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. On treating chloroauric acid solutions with Terminalia catappa (TC leaf extract rapid reduction of chloroaurate ions is observed leading to the formation of highly stable gold nanoparticles in solution. TEM analysis of the gold nanoparticles indicated that they ranged in size from 10 to 35 nm with average size of 21.9 nm.

  5. Mart Laar : "On saabunud valusate reformide aeg" / Mart Laar ; interv. Erik Kalda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laar, Mart, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje 17. mai, lk. 4. Valitsuskoalitsiooni kuuluva IRL esimees, parlamendiliige Mart Laar Eesti ja Ida-Virumaa majanduse hetkeseisust ning valitsuse võimalikest edasistest sammudest

  6. Studies on Flowability, Compressibility and In-vitro Release of Terminalia Chebula Fruit Powder Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satya Prakash, Singh; Patra, Ch Niranjan; Santanu, Chakraborty; Hemant Kumar, Pandit; Patro, V Jagannath; Devi, M Vimala

    2011-01-01

    The dried fruit of Terminalia chebula is widely used for its laxative properties. The objective of the present study was to examine the flowability and compressibility of Terminalia chebula fruit powder, subsequently developing its tablet formulations by utilizing wet granulation and direct compression technology. Initial studies on flowability and compressibility revealed that the fruit powder flows poorly, is poorly compressible and mucilaginous in nature. The consolidation behaviors of the fruit powder and of its tablet formulations were studied using the Kawakita, Heckel and Leuenberger equations. Kawakita analysis revealed reduced cohesiveness hence improved flowability was achieved in formulations prepared by direct compression and the wet granulation technique. The Heckel plot showed that the Terminalia chebula fruit powder when formulated using direct compression showed initial fragmentation followed by plastic deformation and that the granules exhibited plastic deformation without initial fragmentation. The compression susceptibility parameter obtained from the Leuenberger equation for compacts formed by using the direct compression and wet granulation techniques indicated that the maximum crushing strength is reached faster and at lower compression pressures. The Tannin content (with reference to standard tannin) in fruit powder and tablet formulations was determined by UV spectrophotometry at 273 nm. The in-vitro dissolution study in simulated SGF (without enzymes) showed more than a 90% release of tannin from the tablets with in 1 h. The brittle fracture index value revealed that tablets prepared from granules showed less fracture tendency in comparison to those formed by direct compression formulation. From this study, it was concluded that the desired flowability, compressibility and compactibility of Terminalia chebula fruit powder can be obtained by using the direct compression and wet granulation techniques. PMID:24250371

  7. Cytoprotective role of the aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula on renal epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tayal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Kidney stone is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. Calcium oxalate (CaOx has been shown to be the main component of the majority of stones formed in the urinary system of the patients with urolithiasis. The present study evaluates the antilithiatic properties of Terminalia chebula commonly called as "harad" which is often used in ayurveda to treat various urinary diseases including kidney stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antilithiatic activity of Terminalia chebula was investigated on nucleation and growth of the calcium oxalate crystals. The protective potency of the plant extract was also tested on oxalate induced cell injury of both NRK-52E and MDCK renal epithelial cells. RESULTS: The percentage inhibition of CaOx nucleation was found 95.84% at 25µg/mL of Terminalia chebula aqueous extract which remained almost constant with the increasing concentration of the plant extract; however, plant extract inhibited CaOx crystal growth in a dose dependent pattern. When MDCK and NRK-52E cells were injured by exposure to oxalate for 48 hours, the aqueous extract prevented the injury in a dose-dependent manner. On treatment with the different concentrations of the plant extract, the cell viability increased and lactate dehydrogenase release decreased in a concentration dependent manner. CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that Terminalia chebula is a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis as it not only has a potential to inhibit nucleation and the growth of the CaOx crystals but also has a cytoprotective role.

  8. Complement Fixing Polysaccharides from Terminalia macroptera Root Bark, Stem Bark and Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan-Feng Zou; Bing-Zhao Zhang; Hilde Barsett; Kari Tvete Inngjerdingen; Drissa Diallo; Terje Einar Michaelsen; Berit Smestad Paulsen

    2014-01-01

    The root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera were sequentially extracted with ethanol, 50% ethanol-water, and 50 °C and 100 °C water using an accelerated solvent extractor. Ten bioactive purified polysaccharide fractions were obtained from those crude extracts after anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The polysaccharides and their native extracts were characterized with respect to molecular weight, chemical compositions and effects in the complement assay. The ch...

  9. Merging Areas In Timber Mart South Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; John M. Pye

    1999-01-01

    For over twenty years, Timber Mart-South (TMS) has been distributing prices of various wood products from Southern forests. These long-term price series have been a critical resource for research into timber price and supply trends in the southern United States. Such analyses rely on consistent temporal and spatial reporting units, but these units have not always been...

  10. Mart Laar tuleb peatada / Villu Reiljan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reiljan, Villu, 1953-

    2001-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Vooremaa, 8. dets. 2001, lk. 2; Nädaline, 8. dets. 2001, lk. 4; Võrumaa Teataja, 11. dets. 2001, lk. 2; Järva Teataja, 13. dets. 2001, lk. 2. Kuigi ca 70% Eesti rahvast on elektrijaamade erastamise vastu, on Mart Laari valitsus ignoreerinud rahva tahet, talle on kogu aeg sekundeerinud Mihkel Pärnoja. Autor: ERL. Parlamendisaadik

  11. Mart Remmeli "geograafilised figuurid" / Arvo Krikmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krikmann, Arvo, 1939-2017

    2005-01-01

    Refereeritakse broshüüri Remmel, Mart. Large data bases in quantitative history : some handling techniques. Tallinn : Academy of Sciences of the Estonian S.S.R., 1979. (Preprint ; KKI-12) inimgeograafia teooria vaatevinklist ning kommenteeritakse seda Eesti folkloorinähtuste geograafilist levikut puutuva materjaliga

  12. MARTe at FTU: The new feedback control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boncagni, Luca, E-mail: luca.boncagni@enea.it [EURATOM - ENEA Fusion Association, Frascati Research Centre, Division of Fusion Physics, Rome, Frascati (Italy); Sadeghi, Yahya; Carnevale, Daniele; Di Geronimo, Andrea; Varano, Gianluca; Vitelli, Riccardo [Department of Computer Science, Systems and Production, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Galperti, Critsian [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, CNR, EURATOM-ENEA Association, Milan (Italy); Zarfati, Emanuele; Pucci, Daniele [Department Antonio Ruberti, University of Rome La Sapienza, Rome (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that the MARTe is a candidate for ITER PSH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We replace the old real-time feedback software using the MARTe framework. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We describe all the work done for the integration. - Abstract: Keeping in mind the necessities of a modern control system for fusion devices, such as modularity and a distributed architecture, an upgrade of the present FTU feedback control system was planned, envisaging also a possible reutilization in the proposed FAST experiment [1]. For standardization and efficiency purposes we decided to adopt a pre-existent ITER-relevant framework called MARTe [2], already used with success in other European Tokamak devices [3]. Following the developments shown in [4], in this paper we report on the structure of the new feedback system, and how it was integrated in the current control structure and pulse programming interface, and in the other MARTe systems already in FTU: RT-ODIN [5] and the ECRH and LH [6] satellite stations. The new feedback system has been installed in the FTU backup station (known as 'Feedback B'), which shares the input signals with the actual feedback system, in order to simplify the validation and debug of the new controller by testing it in parallel with the current one. Experimental results are then presented.

  13. Sõnumeid Ungarist ja ungarlastest / Mart Niklus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niklus, Mart-Olav, 1934-

    2006-01-01

    20.-23. oktoobril 2006. a. Budapestis toimunud Endiste Poliitvangide ja Kommunismiohvrite Rahvusvahelise Assotsiatsiooni (INTER-ASSO) 14. kongressist. Eestit esindasid Mart Niklus ja Kalju Mätik. Vt. samas. Tõnu Kalvet. Ungari Jüri Estam - Tamas "Lõvi" Pinter. Ungari Jüri Liim - György Budahazy

  14. Mart Susi tegevust uurib keskkriminaalpolitsei / Sigrid Laev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laev, Sigrid

    2003-01-01

    Keskkriminaalpolitsei algatas Concordia ülikooliga seotu uurimiseks kaks kriminaalasja, millest üks käsitleb endise rektori Mart Susi ja endise prorektori Mari-Ann Susi võimalikku ametiseisundi kuritarvitamist, teise sisuks on Concordia varade ilmne varjamine

  15. Ethnobotany, phytochemistry, toxicology and pharmacological properties of Terminalia sericea Burch. ex DC. (Combretaceae) - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongalo, N I; McGaw, L J; Segapelo, T V; Finnie, J F; Van Staden, J

    2016-12-24

    The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of infections is ancient. A wide variety of ethnotherapeutic properties and pharmacological actions has been attributed to Terminalia sericea. Studies by various groups of investigators reveal that it is a multipurpose medicinal plant used mostly in the treatment of diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, skin rashes, tuberculosis and other infections. The current paper is aimed at providing an overview of the ethnomedicinal uses, toxicology, pharmacology and the phytochemistry of Terminalia sericea. Information was retrieved using various search engines, including Pubmed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Scielo, SciFinder and Scopus. The key words used included Terminalia sericea, secondary metabolites, phytochemistry, biological activity, pharmacology, ethnobotanical survey, medicinal uses, safety, toxicology and other related words. Terminalia sericea is an important medicinal plant which possesses anti-HIV, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anticancer, lipolytic, wound healing, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity, as the most valuable biological activities, thus lending pharmacological support to the plant's folkloric uses in indigenous medicine. Toxicologically, the extracts and isolated compounds from the plant species may have mild toxic effects. Phytochemically, the plant species possesses valuable compounds including triterpenes, alkaloids and flavonoids which may well contribute to its biological activity. Terminalia sericea contains secondary metabolites which are valuable in the treatment of a variety of human infections, including community acquired infections which may be prevalent in developing countries. The degree of toxicity reported in various extracts warrants further exploration of the cytotoxicity of the plant species, both against normal human cell lines and in vivo. Moreover, the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and anti-inflammatory effects also need to be further

  16. Entry of Wal-Mart Supercenters and Supermarkets’ Profit Margins

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoou Liu; Rigoberto A. Lopez

    2011-01-01

    This article quantifies the impact of Wal-Mart Supercenters on supermarkets’ profitability via a two-stage dynamic entry game, using method of simulated moments and milk scanner data from Dallas/Fort Worth supermarkets. The empirical findings show that the entry of Wal-Mart Supercenters accounts for about an average 50% decrease in milk profit margins for incumbent supermarkets. Effects of scale are found to be more significant for Wal-Mart Supercenters than for incumbent supermarkets, granti...

  17. Ettevaatust! Läbipõlemisoht! / Mart Raudsaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudsaar, Mart, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    Raamatu "Burnout - läbipõlemine" autor Mart Jürisoo räägib läbipõlemise olulisematest põhjustest ja tunnustest, võrdleb Eesti ja Rootsi juhtide juhtimisstiile ning analüüsib stressitegureid Eesti organisatsioonides ja ühiskonnas. Lisa: Läbipõlemise olulisemad sümptomid; Difuusse ehk Marshmallow-organisatsiooni tunnused ja probleemid

  18. Preliminary research on some ecological and biometric aspects of the Sardinian pine marten (Martes martes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Murgia

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The coat colour and the biometric measurements of 13 Sardinian pine martens (Martes martes were similar to the Italian peninsular specimens. The diet was constituted by vegetables (mainly Rosaceae fruits, mammals (rodents and birds. On the basis of the collecting sites of martens, different habitats were frequented by the species, from woods to anthropic areas. Riassunto Indagine preliminare su alcuni aspetti ecologici e biometrici della martora (Martes martes in Sardegna - La colorazione del mantello e i dati biometrici di 13 esemplari di martora sarda (Martes martes erano simili a quelli riportati per esemplari dell'Italia peninsulare. La dieta era composta soprattutto da vegetali (frutti delle Rosaceae, da mammiferi (in particolare roditori e da uccelli. Sulla base dei siti di ritrovamento degli animali si riscontra che la specie frequenta ambienti diversi, dai boschi alle zone antropizzate.

  19. Pembentukan Data Mart Menggunakan Metode Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gede Sugita Aryandana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology today causing the data needs of an agency or company to process the data or analyze data quickly, dense and higher. Companies or institutions want the data analysis process can save time as much as possible. The data warehouse is a data analysis technology that is useful to resolve the issue. The data warehouse is a repository of data that is useful to accommodate all the history data held by agencies or companies. Data marts are small part of the data warehouse. Data mart is focused on a single subject. This study uses a generalization method to perform the process of establishing a data mart. Generalization is a useful method to reduce or narrow the differences in the data based Subclass. Subclass were integrated into a Superclass useful to collect some data from the Subclass. Subclass is the data that is more descriptive. Superclass is more general in nature of data. The result obtained is a collection of some Subclass predetermined or selected later formed a Superclass useful to accommodate the resources of the Subclass.

  20. Induction of Biomolecules in Mature Leaves of Terminalia arjuna Due to Feeding of Antheraea mylitta Drury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Abraham

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminalia arjuna is an important food plant of the tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta Drury. In this study, we investigated the induction of biomolecules in mature leaves of these plants subjected to insect feeding. Increase in total tannin content, lipid peroxidation, and trypsin inhibitor activity have been observed in mature leaves damaged by the insects. The growth rate of Vth instar larvae of A. mylitta fed on previously damaged foliage reduced by 87.1%. Induction of biomolecules for defense mechanisms in relation to herbivore damage has been discussed.

  1. Physicochemical properties of Terminalia catappa seed oil as a novel dietary lipid source

    OpenAIRE

    Janporn, Supatcha; Ho, Chi-Tang; Chavasit, Visith; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Chittrakorn, Sasivimon; Ruttarattanamongkol, Khanitta; Weerawatanakorn, Monthana

    2015-01-01

    Terminalia catappa Linn (TC) is an ornamental tree planted extensively in many countries. It has been known for a long time that the seeds are edible but no research has focused on the realm of its use as food. Our previous data showed that the seed contains high levels of oil content (600 g/kg) and possesses the optimum fatty acid balance indicated in fat dietary guidelines. This study aims to investigate the physical and chemical properties and the possibility of using TC seed oil as a new ...

  2. Evaluation of antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and anxiolytic activities of methanolic extract of Terminalia citrina leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narhari Das

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and anxiolytic effects of methanolic extracts of Terminalia citrina (T. citrina leaves (Family: Combretaceae. Methods: The antinociceptive activity was evaluated by acetic acid induced writhing method and radiant heat tail flick method while anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by human red blood cell membrane stabilization method and anxiolytic activity by elevated plus maze model. Results: The methanolic extract of T. citrina leaves showed significant antinociceptive, antiinflammatory and anxiolytic effects in dose dependent manner compared to their respective standard drugs. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that T. citrina possesses antinociceptive, antiinflammatory and anxiolytic effects.

  3. Hypoglycemic Effect of Terminalia Chebula Retz. Fruit on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ei Pye Phyo Aung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of ethanolic extract of terminalia chebula Retz. fruits on alloxaninduced diabetic rats compared with standard oral hypoglycemic drug, metformin. Methods: A randomized controlled experimental animal study was done. 30 Wistar albino rats were induced diabetes by alloxan (100 mg/kg. 80%-ethanolic extraction of fruits of terminalia chebula Retz. was performed by using Soxhlet extraction method. Group 1 was normal control. Group 2 was alloxan-induced diabetic control, group 3 was metformin 100 mg/kg standard group, groups 4, 5 and 6 were extracts 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg orally administered fruit extract for 28-days, respectively. Fasting blood glucose (FBG levels were measured at the end of the first, second, third and fourth weeks by using standardized glucometer. Results: At the end of first, second, third and fourth weeks, the FBG levels of diabetic control were 325.7±28.2, 308.5±69.8, 322.7±65.8 and 369.2±57.4 mg/dL, those of metformin (100 mg/kg were 76.2±9.5, 92.5±14.9, 94.5±17.9 and 90.8±9.9 mg/dL, those of the terminalia chebula Retz. extract 100 mg/kg were 232.5±78.6, 122.8±41.4, 109.2±33.6 and 132.3±41.1 mg/dL, extract 200 mg/kg were 82.7±8.2, 82.7±8.2, 89.7±9.8 and 89±15.2 mg/dL, and extract 400 mg/kg were 80.2±9, 83.5±7.1, 91±11.5 and 82.7±5.9 mg/dL, respectively. When all treatment groups were compared with diabetic control, the FBG levels were significantly reduced (p<0.001. There was no significant difference in FBG levels between standard group and extract (200 and 400 mg/kg groups. Conclusion: The 80%-ethanolic extract of terminalia chebula Retz. has significant hypoglycemic effect on alloxaninduced diabetic rats and it was comparable with standard drug, metformin. The effective dose was 200 to 400 mg/kg.

  4. Anti-colon cancer activity of endophytic fungal strains from Terminalia chebula Rezt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shoeb

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic microorganisms are fungi or bacteria that live inside the healthy tissues of the host plants causing no apparent symptoms of diseases. Five endophytic fungal strains labeled as IR-1, IR-2, IR-4, IR-6 and IR-7 (identified as Penicillium thiomii were isolated from the medicinal plant of Terminalia chebula Retz by culture and sub-culture. The ethyl acetate extract of fungal strains, IR-4, IR-6 and IR-7 inhibited the growth of CaCo-2 colon cancer cell lines in MTT assay with IC50 values of 55, 44 and 67 µg/mL, respectively.

  5. Hypolipidemic activity of Haritaki (Terminalia chebula in atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Maruthappan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Haritaki (Terminalia chebula family Combretaceae is an important plant used traditionally for medicinal purposes. It is component of the classic Ayurvedic combination called "Triphala". Hyperlipidemia was induced by treated orally with atherogemc diet. In atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemic model, the rats receiving treatment with Haritaki showed significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein and elevation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Haritaki was found to possess significant hypolipidemic activity. The results also suggest that Haritaki at 1.05 and 2.10 mg/kg b.wt. concentrations are an excellent lipid-lowering agent.

  6. HYPOLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF HARITAKI (TERMINALIA CHEBULA IN ATHEROGENIC DIET INDUCED HYPERLIPIDEMIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Maruthappan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Haritaki (Terminalia chebula family Combretaceae is an important plant used traditionally for medicinal purposes. It is component of the classic Ayurvedic combination called “Triphala”. Hyperlipidemia was induced by treated orally with atherogenic diet. In atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemic model, the rats receiving treatment with Haritaki showed significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein and elevation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Haritaki was found to possess significant hypolipidemic activity. The results also suggest that Haritaki at 1.05 and 2.10 mg/kg b.wt. concentrations are an excellent lipid-lowering agent.

  7. Riigikogu palk külma! / Mart Laar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laar, Mart, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Parlamendiliikme sõnul kavatsetakse 2007. aasta lõpu tasemel külmutada Riigikogu liikmete, ministrite, presidendi, eurosaadikute, õiguskantsleri, riigikontrolöri ja teiste kõrgemate ametiisikute palk. Artikkel pärineb Mart Laari veebipäevikust http://blog.irl.ee/Mart_Laar/

  8. Mart Laar dilemma köidikus / Abdul Turay

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Turay, Abdul, 1967-

    2009-01-01

    Autor imetleb Isamaa ja Res Publica Liidu esimeest Mart Laari ning märgib, et kaks monetarismi koolkonda, mida ta toetab, asuvad nüüd diametraalselt vastupidistel seisukohtadel ja Mart Laar peaks nüüd valima, keda ta edaspidi toetab

  9. Mart Sander ja Julie Hagen-Schwarz / Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Ants, 1956-2016

    2009-01-01

    Mart Sanderi galerii "Galerii" (Sakala 18, Tallinn) avanäitusest. Eksponeeritud baltisaksa naiskunstniku Julie Wilhelmine Hagen-Schwarzi maalid, mis on pärit erakogudest. Väljas on ka Mart Sanderi tehtud koopia Julie Hagen-Schwarzi autoportreest (1855). Julie Hagen-Schwarzist ja tema loomingust

  10. Skred i marts: S minus seks mandater, SF plus ni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Søren Risbjerg

    2008-01-01

    NYHED: "Tilslutningen til S går ad helvede til", skriver professor Søren Risbjerg Thomsen om snittet af meningsmålinger i marts.......NYHED: "Tilslutningen til S går ad helvede til", skriver professor Søren Risbjerg Thomsen om snittet af meningsmålinger i marts....

  11. Mart Laar : Strategija taktitsheskoi igrõ / Mart Laar ; interv. Ella Agranovskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laar, Mart, 1960-

    2007-01-01

    IRL-i peaministrikandidaat, Riigikokku valitud Mart Laar vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema poliitikukarjääri jooksul tehtud otsuseid, Eesti majandusedu, majanduspreemia saamist, IRL-i peaministrikandidaadiks saamist, Vene-Eesti suhteid, pronkssõdurit, ajaloolase elukutset, huvi kunsti ja spordi vastu, Gruusia presidendi Mikheil Saakashvili nõustamist

  12. Mart Laar : presidendi soovitud piirilepingu preambuli arutelu ei tule / Mart Laar ; interv. Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laar, Mart, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    IRL-i esimees vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad haldusreformi, ametnike koondamist, IRL-i koostatud majanduse tervendamise plaani, vanemapalga võimalikku ülevaatamist, eelarvekärpeid, kaitsekulutuste külmutamise plaani, Euroopa Parlamendi valimisi, võidusamba rajamist. Mart Laar ei toeta president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese ettepanekut, et Riigikogu arutaks Vene-Eesti piirilepingu preambulit

  13. Variations des apports de litière et d'éléments minéraux dans les plantations de limba (Terminalia superba au Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokolo, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in Litter Production and Nutrient Supply in Plantations of Limba (Terminalia superba in Congo. A study was carried out in a chronosequence of Terminalia superba (7, 12 and 48 years and a nearby natural forest. The results show that the peaks of litterfall take place in rainy season contrary to the majority of the forest formations of the humid tropical zone. The return of nutrients to the soil via the leaf litter is higher in plantations than in forest. The calcium released from the leaf litter was up to 175 kg.ha-1.year1. The values obtained indicate a moderate nutrient use efficiency by Terminalia superba.

  14. Analysis of phytochemical profile of Terminalia arjuna bark extract with antioxidative and antimicrobial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shreya; Patra, Arpita; Samanta, Animesh; Roy, Suchismita; Mandal, Arpita; Mahapatra, Tapasi Das; Pradhan, Shrabani; Das, Koushik; Nandi, Dilip Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate phytochemical screening, antimicrobial activity and qualitative thin layer chromatographic separation of flavonoid components, antioxidant activity and total flavonoid compound of Terminalia arjuna. Methods For phytochemical screening, some common and available standard tests were done. Antimicrobial bioassay was done through agar well diffusion method. Detection of antioxidant activity and flavonoid compounds were done through thin layer chromatography. Total antioxidant activity was measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in colorimetric method. Aluminum chloride colorimetric method was used for total flavonoid determination. Results Phytochemical screening showed the active compounds presence in high concentration, such as phytosterol, lactones, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and tannins and glycosides. The antimicrobial activity of extract showed that greater inhibition zone against Gram negative bacteria than Gram positive bacteria. This methanolic extract showed a promising antioxidant activity, as absorption of DPPH redicles decreased in DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Flavonoids components having antioxidant property present in the methanol extract at a level of 199.00 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dried methanol extract in colorimetric method. Conclusions The Terminalia arjuna bark extract revealed the presence of bio-active constituents which are known to exhibit medicinal as well as physiological activities. PMID:24093787

  15. Variação estrutural quantitativa no lenho de Terminalia ivorensis A. Chev., Combretaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbinati Cláudia V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de analisar a variação anatômica ao longo do caule de Terminalia ivorensis, estudaram-se amostras de madeira de três indivíduos, nos planos radial e axial. Para tal, corpos de prova foram obtidos a partir de discos de madeira, de 2 em 2cm, no sentido medula-câmbio. A metodologia usada para desenvolver o trabalho foi aquela tradicionalmente recomendada para estudos em anatomia vegetal. A descrição anatômica realizada seguiu as recomendações do IAWA Committee. No sentido radial do caule, alguns elementos anatômicos apresentaram tendências de variação definidas e significativas estatisticamente quando aplicado o teste Tukey para comparação de médias. São eles: freqüência, diâmetro e comprimento dos elementos de vaso, freqüência de raios/mm linear, comprimento dos raios em número de células, e comprimento e espessura da parede das fibras. Já no sentido axial, todas as variáveis analisadas não se mostraram estatisticamente significativas. Os resultados observados devemse, principalmente, à caracterização bem definida dos lenhos juvenil e adulto na madeira de Terminalia ivorensis.

  16. Terminalia catappa as bioindicator of environmental pollution in Cubatao city by SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Geraldo, Simoni Michetti, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Dept. de Saneamento e Ambiente; Barroso, Regina Cely, E-mail: cely_barroso@hotmail.co [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de, E-mail: aesvives@unimep.b [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo; Cardoso, Simone Coutinho, E-mail: simone@if.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Inst. de Fisica

    2009-07-01

    Fertilizer industries are considered the main environmental polluting of fluoride (F) and the industrial complex of the city of Cubatao, SP, Brazil, is an important fertilizer producer. This study aimed to evaluate the local pollution for toxic elements and its comparison with fluoride concentration using the urban vegetation as biomarker. For this, leaves of Terminalia catappa (popularly known for Hat-of-sun or Almond tree of the beach) were tested. The leaves were collected in the winter of 2007 in the industrial region around the fertilizer plants and other industries, in the municipal urban areas of Cubatao and Santos cities. The samples were dehydrated, powdered and submitted to an acid digestion for multi-elemental determination by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF). All the measurements were performed at Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory. The results obtained by SR-TXRF were compared to fluoride determinations. The variance analysis showed the correlation between F and S concentrations (p<0.05). The concentrations of these elements are concentrated around the fertilizer industries (p< 0.05). Using SR-TXRF was possible to determine several elements as: Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb in the leaves of Terminalia catappa. Chromium in the areas near to fertilizer industries and also in Santos city which is considered as a control area, present concentrations higher than 18 mg kg{sup -1}, this is considered a toxic value (author)

  17. Analysis of phytochemical profile of Terminalia arjuna bark extract with antioxidative and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shreya; Patra, Arpita; Samanta, Animesh; Roy, Suchismita; Mandal, Arpita; Mahapatra, Tapasi Das; Pradhan, Shrabani; Das, Koushik; Nandi, Dilip Kumar

    2013-12-01

    To investigate phytochemical screening, antimicrobial activity and qualitative thin layer chromatographic separation of flavonoid components, antioxidant activity and total flavonoid compound of Terminalia arjuna. For phytochemical screening, some common and available standard tests were done. Antimicrobial bioassay was done through agar well diffusion method. Detection of antioxidant activity and flavonoid compounds were done through thin layer chromatography. Total antioxidant activity was measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in colorimetric method. Aluminum chloride colorimetric method was used for total flavonoid determination. Phytochemical screening showed the active compounds presence in high concentration, such as phytosterol, lactones, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and tannins and glycosides. The antimicrobial activity of extract showed that greater inhibition zone against Gram negative bacteria than Gram positive bacteria. This methanolic extract showed a promising antioxidant activity, as absorption of DPPH redicles decreased in DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Flavonoids components having antioxidant property present in the methanol extract at a level of 199.00 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dried methanol extract in colorimetric method. The Terminalia arjuna bark extract revealed the presence of bio-active constituents which are known to exhibit medicinal as well as physiological activities. Copyright © 2013 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bioactivity guided isolation of the antifungal components in sawdust extracts of Piptadeniatrum africanum, and Terminalia ivorensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajuyigbe A.O

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The antifungal activities of extracts from fresh sawdust of Piptadeniatrum africanum,and Terminalia ivorensis was determined using the agar well diffusion method. Aqueous, methanol, chloroform,and n-hexane extracts obtained from the sawdust samples were tested against fungi isolated from some decayed wood samples.Methodology and Results: Fungal isolates included: Aspergillus. niger, Aspergillus. flavus, Aspergillus. fumigates, Aspergillus. wentii, Aspergillus. tamari, and Penicillium. chrysogenum (please write the microorganisms’ name in full when first time introducing them. Results of inhibitory activities showed that the chloroform extracts showed the highest inhibitory abilities with zones of inhibition ranging from 14 mm-24 mm for P. africanum, and 11 mm-15 mm for T. ivorensis. However, the aqueous extracts exhibited the least antifungal activity with zones of inhibition ranging between 10 mm-13 mm and 8 mm-11 mm respectively.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The major secondary plant metabolites identified are alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthraglycosides, arbutin, glycosides, flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, coumarins and valepotriates. The antifungal components in P. africanum were identified to be 3, 7, 8, 3'–Tetramethoxy-6–C-methyl-5, 4'–dihydroxyflavone and 3–methoxy–6–C–methyl–3',4',5,7,8–pentahydroxyflavone while Terminalia ivorensis contained 5,7,8-Trihydroxy-2′5′-methoxy-3′,4′-methylenedioxyisoflavanone as the bioactive component.

  19. Use of ethanol extracts of Terminalia chebula to prevent periodontal disease induced by dental plaque bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongsung; Nho, Youn Hwa; Yun, Seok Kyun; Hwang, Young Sun

    2017-02-16

    The fruit of the Terminalia chebula tree has been widely used for the treatment of various disorders. Its anti-diabetic, anti-mutagenic, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-viral effects have been studied. Dental plaque bacteria (DPB) are intimately associated with gingivitis and periodontitis. In the quest for materials that will prove useful in the treatment and prevention of periodontal disease, we investigated the preventive effects of an ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula (EETC) on DPB-induced inflammation and bone resorption. The anti-bacterial effect of EETC was analyzed using the disc diffusion method. The anti-inflammatory effect of EETC was determined by molecular biological analysis of the DPB-mediated culture cells. Prevention of osteoclastic bone resorption by EETC was explored using osteoclast formation and pit formation assays. EETC suppressed the growth of oral bacteria and reduced the induction of inflammatory cytokines and proteases, abolishing the expression of PGE2 and COX-2 and inhibiting matrix damage. By stimulating the DPB-derived lipopolysaccharides, EETC inhibited both osteoclast formation in osteoclast precursors and RANKL expression in osteoblasts, thereby contributing to the prevention of bone resorption. EETC may be a beneficial supplement to help prevent DPB-mediated periodontal disease.

  20. Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. fruit mitigates CCl4 induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriakose, Jayesh; Lal Raisa, Helen; A, Vysakh; Eldhose, Binil; M S, Latha

    2017-09-01

    Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of various ailments in the traditional system of medicine like Ayurveda where it has been prescribed as a rejuvenator and general health tonic. The fruit of the plant is one of the components of the age old ayurvedic formulation-'Triphala'. The present study evaluates curative effect of aqueous acetone extract of Terminalia bellirica fruits (AATB) against CCl4 induced oxidative stress and liver damage in an animal model. Two doses of the fruit extract (200mg/kg body weight and 400mg/kg body weight) were investigated for the beneficial effects. At the end of the treatment, liver function markers (ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, LDH, total bilirubin, total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin-globulin ratio) as well as hepatic oxidative stress markers (SOD, CAT, GSH) were evaluated. Treatment with AATB significantly restored the parameters towards normal level as compared to the elevated biochemical markers in the CCl4 treated animals. Reversal to normal tissue architecture was observed in histological evaluation. The results of AATB (400mg/kg) were found comparable with that of standard drug silymarin in all the parameters. The above findings suggest the therapeutic potential of the plant in alleviating hepatic oxidative stress and tissue damage, hence the traditional use of the plant in this regard stands justified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Terminalia Chebula (Haritaki on Serum Aspartate Aminotransferase, Alanine Aminotransferase in Paracetemol induced liver damage in Wister Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Yeasmin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liver plays a major role in detoxification and excretion of many endogenous and exogenous compounds. Any injury may lead to severe liver damage and impairment of liver function. Harbal plants such as Terminalia chebula (Haritaki may have free radical scavenging activity thereby can be used for the prevention and treatment of liver damage. Objective: To observe the effect of Terminalia chebula on paracetamol induced changes of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in Wister albino rats. Methods: This experimental study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka from January to December’ 2013. Total 44 rats with age 90 to 120 days, weighing between 150 to 200 gm were selected. After acclimatization for 14 days, they were divided into base line control (BC, n=11, paracetamol treated control (PC, n=11,Terminalia chebula pretreated and paracetamol treated (TCP-PCT n=11 and paracetamol pretreated and Terminalia chebula treated group (PCP-TCT, n=11. All groups received basal diet for 21 consecutive days. In addition to basal diet, rats of BC received propylene glycol (2ml/kg body weight, orally and PC received single dose of paracetamol suspension (750mg/kg body weight, orally on 21st day. Rats of TCP-PCT received Terminalia chebula extract (200 mg/kg body weight, orally for 21 consecutive days and paracetamol suspension (750mg/kg body weight, orally on 21st day. Again, rats of PCP-TCT received paracetamol suspension (750mg/kg body weight, orally on the 1st day and Terminalia chebula extract (200 mg/kg body weight orally for 21 consecutive days. All rats were sacrificed on 22nd day and then blood samples were collected. For assessment of liver function serum AST and ALT levels were estimated by using standard laboratory kits. The statistical analysis was done by one way ANOVA and post hoc Bonferroni test as applicable. Results: The mean serum AST and ALT levels were

  2. Parallel Task Management Library for MARTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcarcel, Daniel F.; Alves, Diogo; Neto, Andre; Reux, Cedric; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Felton, Robert; Lomas, Peter J.; Sousa, Jorge; Zabeo, Luca

    2014-06-01

    The Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) is a real-time framework with increasing popularity and support in the thermonuclear fusion community. It allows modular code to run in a multi-threaded environment leveraging on the current multi-core processor (CPU) technology. One application that relies on the MARTe framework is the Joint European Torus (JET) tokamak WAll Load Limiter System (WALLS). It calculates and monitors the temperature on metal tiles and plasma facing components (PFCs) that can melt or flake if their temperature gets too high when exposed to power loads. One of the main time consuming tasks in WALLS is the calculation of thermal diffusion models in real-time. These models tend to be described by very large state-space models thus making them perfect candidates for parallelisation. MARTe's traditional approach for task parallelisation is to split the problem into several Real-Time Threads, each responsible for a self-contained sequential execution of an input-to-output chain. This is usually possible, but it might not always be practical for algorithmic or technical reasons. Also, it might not be easily scalable with an increase in the number of available CPU cores. The WorkLibrary introduces a “GPU-like approach” of splitting work among the available cores of modern CPUs that is (i) straightforward to use in an application, (ii) scalable with the availability of cores and all of this (iii) without rewriting or recompiling the source code. The first part of this article explains the motivation behind the library, its architecture and implementation. The second part presents a real application for WALLS, a parallel version of a large state-space model describing the 2D thermal diffusion on a JET tile.

  3. Preemiad said Rein Raud, fs, Mart Kivastik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Kultuurkapitali 2004. aasta kirjanduse aastapreemia laureaadid on: Rein Raud ("Hector ja Bernard"), fs (luulekogu "2004"), Mart Kivastik (näidend "Külmetava kunstniku portree"), Jaan Rannap ("Nelja nimega koer"), Toomas Haug ("Troojamäe tõotus"), Harald Rajamets (tõlkeluule kogumik "Pegasos ja peegel"), Antoine Chalvin ("Kalevipoja" tõlge prantsuse keelde"), Ilmar Talve ("Eesti kultuurilugu"), Lauri Sommer (artikkel Uku Masingu käsikirja "Saadik Magellani pilvest" vaimne, ajalis-ruumiline ja elulooline taust), Boris Tuch ("Gorjatshaja desjatka estonskihh pisatelei")

  4. Anti Bacterial Efficacy of Terminalia Chebula, Terminalia Bellirica, Embilica Officinalis and Triphala on Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Count - A Linear Randomized Cross Over Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Smariti; Lakshminarayan, Nagesh; Gudli, Shanmukha; Kumar, Manish

    2017-02-01

    From the oral health perspective, it is well established that microorganisms have an important role in caries aetiology. From the dawn of civilization, herbal plants have served an array of roles. Triphala a tradtional herbal Ayurvedic formula consists of three native fruits of india including Terminalia Chebula (T. chebula), Terminalia Bellirica (T. bellirica) and Embilica Officinalis (E. officinalis). As per Ayurvedic Formulary of India (AFI) Triphala is prepared by combining a 1:1:1 mixture of ground dry fruits called myrobalans. Till date, an inadequate number of clinical researches on herb based mouth rinses have been reported in Asia, especially in India and other Southeast Asian countries (where these products are most accepted and widely used). The present study was planned to assess the effectiveness of Triphala with its three constituents. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Triphala, T. chebula, T. bellirica and E. officinalis aqueous extract rinses separately on Streptococcusmutans count at various time intervals. This is a double-blind, linear cross over, within group experimental trial conducted among subjects visiting the Department of Public Health Dentistry aged 15 to 40 years. In this design, subjects received all of the treatments sequentially in time. The independent variables to be assessed in this study were all the four interventions of herbal preparations used and the dependent variable assessed is anti bacterial efficacy. Each subject receives two or more different treatments. All the subjects were exposed to all four interventions: 1) T. chebula; 2) T. bellirica; 3) E. officinalis; and 4) Triphala and were provided 15 ml of the freshly prepared 10% rinse. The subjects were instructed not to eat or drink between salivary samples collection. Post rinse unstimulated salivary samples were collected at five minutes and 60 minutes intervals. All the salivary samples were transferred immediately to microbiological

  5. Toward building a comprehensive data mart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulware, Douglas; Salerno, John; Bleich, Richard; Hinman, Michael L.

    2004-04-01

    To uncover new relationships or patterns one must first build a corpus of data or what some call a data mart. How can we make sure we have collected all the pertinent data and have maximized coverage? There are hundreds of search engines that are available for use on the Internet today. Which one is best? Is one better for one problem and a second better for another? Are meta-search engines better than individual search engines? In this paper we look at one possible approach in developing a methodology to compare a number of search engines. Before we present this methodology, we first provide our motivation towards the need for increased coverage. We next investigate how we can obtain ground truth and what the ground truth can provide us in the way of some insight into the Internet and search engine capabilities. We then conclude our discussion by developing a methodology in which we compare a number of the search engines and how we can increase overall coverage and thus a more comprehensive data mart.

  6. Physicochemical properties of Terminalia catappa seed oil as a novel dietary lipid source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supatcha Janporn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Terminalia catappa Linn (TC is an ornamental tree planted extensively in many countries. It has been known for a long time that the seeds are edible but no research has focused on the realm of its use as food. Our previous data showed that the seed contains high levels of oil content (600 g/kg and possesses the optimum fatty acid balance indicated in fat dietary guidelines. This study aims to investigate the physical and chemical properties and the possibility of using TC seed oil as a new dietary lipid. The effects of extraction conditions, partial refining process, and storage stability on TC oil properties were conducted compared with soybean oil. The results showed that physicochemical properties including the density, refractive index, melting point, acidity, free fatty acid, saponification value, unsaponifiable, peroxide, and fatty acid composition of the extracted oil were comparable with soybean oil and their values followed the dietary standard of edible oil.

  7. A Review on Potential Mechanisms of Terminalia chebula in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir R. Afshari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current management of Alzheimer’s disease (AD focuses on acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs and NMDA receptor antagonists, although outcomes are not completely favorable. Hence, novel agents found in herbal plants are gaining attention as possible therapeutic alternatives. The Terminalia chebula (Family: Combretaceae is a medicinal plant with a wide spectrum of medicinal properties and is reported to contain various biochemicals such as hydrolysable tannins, phenolic compounds, and flavonoids, so it may prove to be a good therapeutic alternative. In this research, we reviewed published scientific literature found in various databases: PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Scirus, and Google Scholar, with the keywords: T. chebula, AD, neuroprotection, medicinal plant, antioxidant, ellagitannin, gallotannin, gallic acid, chebulagic acid, and chebulinic acid. This review shows that T. chebula extracts and its constituents have AChEI and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, all of which are currently relevant to the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.

  8. Tannin extracts from immature fruits of Terminalia chebula Fructus Retz. promote cutaneous wound healing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Diao, Yunpeng; Zhang, Houli; Wang, Shouyu; Zhang, Zhen; Yu, Bo; Huang, Shanshan; Yang, Hong

    2011-10-07

    Tannins extracted from immature fruits of Terminalia chebula Fructus Retz. are considered as effective components promoting the process of wound healing. The objective of this study is to explore the optimal extraction and purification technology (OEPT) of tannins, while studying the use of this drug in the treatment of a cutaneous wound of rat as well as its antibacterial effects. The content of tannin extracts was measured by the casein method, and antibacterial ability was studied by the micro-dilution method in vitro. In wound healing experiment, animals in group Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ were treated with vaseline ointment, tannin extracts (tannin content: 81%) and erythromycin ointment, respectively (5 mg of ointment were applied on each wound). To evaluate the process of wound healing, selected pharmacological and biochemical parameters were applied. After optimal extraction and purification, content of tannin extracts was increased to 81%. Tannin extracts showed the inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella Pneumonia in vitro. After excision of wounds, on days 7 and 10, the percent of wound contraction of group Ⅱ was higher than that of group Ⅰ. After being hurt with wounds, on days 3, 7, and 10, the wound healing quality of group Ⅱ was found to be better than that of group Ⅰ in terms of granulation formation and collagen organization. After wound creation, on day 3, the vascular endothelial growth factor expression of group Ⅱ was higher than that of group Ⅰ. The results suggest that tannin extracts from dried immature fruits of Terminalia chebula Fructus Retz. can promote cutaneous wound healing in rats, probably resulting from a powerful anti-bacterial and angiogenic activity of the extracts.

  9. Tannin extracts from immature fruits of Terminalia chebula Fructus Retz. promote cutaneous wound healing in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Bo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tannins extracted from immature fruits of Terminalia chebula Fructus Retz. are considered as effective components promoting the process of wound healing. The objective of this study is to explore the optimal extraction and purification technology (OEPT of tannins, while studying the use of this drug in the treatment of a cutaneous wound of rat as well as its antibacterial effects. Methods The content of tannin extracts was measured by the casein method, and antibacterial ability was studied by the micro-dilution method in vitro. In wound healing experiment, animals in group Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ were treated with vaseline ointment, tannin extracts (tannin content: 81% and erythromycin ointment, respectively (5 mg of ointment were applied on each wound. To evaluate the process of wound healing, selected pharmacological and biochemical parameters were applied. Results After optimal extraction and purification, content of tannin extracts was increased to 81%. Tannin extracts showed the inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella Pneumonia in vitro. After excision of wounds, on days 7 and 10, the percent of wound contraction of group Ⅱ was higher than that of group Ⅰ. After being hurt with wounds, on days 3, 7, and 10, the wound healing quality of group Ⅱ was found to be better than that of group Ⅰ in terms of granulation formation and collagen organization. After wound creation, on day 3, the vascular endothelial growth factor expression of group Ⅱ was higher than that of group Ⅰ. Conclusion The results suggest that tannin extracts from dried immature fruits of Terminalia chebula Fructus Retz. can promote cutaneous wound healing in rats, probably resulting from a powerful anti-bacterial and angiogenic activity of the extracts.

  10. Antioxidant and Hypoglycemic Activities of Leaf Extracts of Three Popular Terminalia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Arya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to ascertain the antioxidant and hypoglycemic activity of methanolic extracts of the leaves of Terminalia arjuna, T. bellerica, and T. chebula. Extracts were evaluated for total phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin content, and in vitro antioxidant potential with DPPH, ORAC, and FRAP assays. The extracts' hypoglycemic activities were evaluated by hypoglycemic screening and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in normal rats. The methanolic extracts of T. chebula leaves exhibited the highest quantity of total phenolic and flavonoid content, followed by those of T. bellerica and T. arjuna. T. arjuna contained more tannin than T. bellerica did, but less than that of T. chebula. The scavenging capacity of T. chebula for the antioxidant DPPH was the highest of the extracts tested, as it recorded the lowest IC50 value of all 3 extracts. Likewise, the results attributed the T. chebula extract with the highest oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC. In the FRAP assay, the extracts' ferric reducing antioxidant abilities were T. arjuna > T. chebula > T. bellerica. This correlates the potential of polyphenolic content enriched with antioxidant capabilities and substantiates the results of the hypoglycemic screening and OGTT, which determined that the T. chebula extract had a better hypoglycemic effect in normal and glucose-induced hyperglycemic rats (p <0.001 than that of T. bellerica and T. arjuna, respectively. The use of these Terminalia species as food supplements may help in reducing oxidative stress and related diabetic complications. The phytoconstituents responsible for the hypoglycemic activity need to be isolated to elucidate the relationship between the extracts' antioxidant capacity and their hypoglycemic effects.

  11. Motion tracking-enhanced MART for tomographic PIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novara, M.; Batenburg, K.J.; Scarano, F.

    A novel technique to increase the accuracy of multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) reconstruction from tomographic particle image velocimetry (PIV) recordings at higher seeding density than currently possible is presented. The motion tracking enhancement (MTE) method is based on

  12. Teadlastele on Saksamaa kogemus hindamatu / Mart Min, Jaan Aru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Min, Mart, 1943-

    2012-01-01

    Oma muljeid Saksamaalt jagavad Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli professor Mart Min, kes on viibinud õppejõuna Saksamaal ja Frankfurdis Max Plancki instituudis doktorantuuris aju ja teadvust uuriv noorteadlane Jaan Aru

  13. Milline on Eesti õiguslik mõte? / Mart Susi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Susi, Mart, 1965-

    1996-01-01

    Concordia Ülikooli rektori, vandeadvokaat Mart Susi arvamus Eesti õigusliku mõtte olemusest ja arengusuundadest, sealhulgas ka Eesti Akadeemilise Õigusteaduse Seltsi ja Eesti Juristide Liidu ühisest aastakoosolekust

  14. Concordia elas tuleviku arvelt / Mart Susi ; interv. Krister Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Susi, Mart, 1965-

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Infopress 21. märts nr. 12 lk. 30-31. Concordia Ülikooli rektor Mart Susi räägib kooli senisest juhtimisest ning asjaoludest, mis on põhjustanud pankroti. Tabel: Concordia kronoloogia

  15. FIT-MART: Quantum Magnetism with a Gentle Learning Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Larry; Garland, Scott C.; Rainey, Cameron; Freeman, Ray A.

    We present a new open-source software package, FIT-MART, that allows non-experts to quickly get started sim- ulating quantum magnetism. FIT-MART can be downloaded as a platform-idependent executable Java (JAR) file. It allows the user to define (Heisenberg) Hamiltonians by electronically drawing pictures that represent quantum spins and operators. Sliders are automatically generated to control the values of the parameters in the model, and when the values change, several plots are updated in real time to display both the resulting energy spectra and the equilibruim magnetic properties. Several experimental data sets for real magnetic molecules are included in FIT-MART to allow easy comparison between simulated and experimental data, and FIT-MART users can also import their own data for analysis and compare the goodness of fit for different models.

  16. Terminalia (Combretaceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    utilized for different purposes such as environmental conservation, beautification, parks and habitat and as shade creating plants and domestic source of fuel in the Central Niger Delta. .... (salt mangrove forest, and fresh water raffia swamp forest) and the tropical rainforest. The ecological amplitude of the two species of.

  17. Sorption study of methylene blue on activated carbon prepared from Jatropha curcas and Terminalia catappa seed coats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaila Olalekan Saheed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work targets the effectiveness of the prepared activated carbon from Jatropha curcas and Terminalia catappa seed coats for the sorption of methylene blue (MB from aqueous solution. The prepared Jatropha activated carbon (JAC and Terminalia activated carbon (TAC were characterised using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Branauer- Emmett-Teller (BET surface area analysis. Effect of initial concentration, pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and temperature on the sorption experiments were studied and the adsorption capacity of these adsorbents were found to be 37.84 mg/g and 17.44 mg/g for methylene blue uptake by JAC and TAC respectively. The experimental data were analysed using Langmuir, Fruendlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The data fitted best into Langmuir isotherm for Methylene blue-JAC and Methylene blue-TAC systems. The kinetic studies fitted into pseudo second order kinetics model. The process chemistry was exothermic.

  18. Effect of microwave irradiation time on the physical properties of Terminalia catappa fruit shells-based activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awitdrus, Annur, Al; Farma, Rakhmawati; Iwantono, Deraman, Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) from Terminalia catappa fruit shells has been produced through microwave irradiation assisted chemical activation. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) was used as activating agent with ratio of mass percentage of pre-carbonized of Terminalia catappa fruit shells and KOH of 2:1. The AC was irradiated using microwave with the output power of 630 Watt and different irradiation time of 15, 20, and 25 minutes. The physical properties of ACs i.e. microstructures, surface morphology, and BET surface area were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm, respectively. Interlayer spacing d002 and d100, and stack width La increased, and stack height Lc decreased with increasing irradiation time. The N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm data of the ACs showed the BET surface area of 365 and 300 m2/g for AC15 and AC25, respectively.

  19. Montachusett Area Regional Transit Authority (MART) automatic vehicle location and mobile data terminal (AVL/MDT) pilot program report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-14

    The Montachusett Area Regional Transit Authority (MART) MART was established in 1978 to provide public transportation to the 18 Massachusetts communities. MART fixed-route service operates with 26 buses. Its paratransit services are more extensive, a...

  20. Mart Meri : tegelikult ei lahkunud Lennart Meri "hõbevalgetelt" radadelt kunagi / Mart Meri ; interv. Tiiu Laks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meri, Mart, 1959-

    2008-01-01

    Täna ilmus Eesti Päevalehe ja Akadeemia uue raamatusarja avaraamat, Lennart Meri "Hõbevalge", mille on kahest suurteosest, "Hõbevalgest" ja "Hõbevalgemast" kokku toimetanud Urmas Sutrop ja Lennart Meri poeg Mart Meri

  1. Preliminary research on some ecological and biometric aspects of the Sardinian pine marten (Martes martes)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo Murgia; Elisabetta Secci; Anna Deiana

    1995-01-01

    Abstract The coat colour and the biometric measurements of 13 Sardinian pine martens (Martes martes) were similar to the Italian peninsular specimens. The diet was constituted by vegetables (mainly Rosaceae fruits), mammals (rodents) and birds. On the basis of the collecting sites of martens, different habitats were frequented by the species, from woods to anthropic areas. Riassunto Indagine prelim...

  2. Variabilità microsatellitare in popolazioni italiane di martora, Martes martes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licia Colli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available La martora, Martes martes, è un mustelide storicamente presente su gran parte del territorio italiano, soprattutto dove siano presenti foreste mature altamente strutturate e ricche di risorse. Nel corso dei decenni passati, cause quali la deforestazione con conseguente frammentazione dell'habitat, la caccia e la persecuzione da parte dell'uomo hanno portato ad un sensibile declino sia nel numero d'individui sia di popolazioni in tutta l'Europa. Frammentazione degli areali e diminuzione del numero di soggetti costituiscono le cause principali di un limitato flusso genico con conseguente formazione di popolazioni isolate di martora e perdita di variabilità genetica (Kyle et al., 2003. Per queste ragioni la martora risulta attualmente tutelata secondo quanto previsto dalla Convenzione di Berna (appendice III e dalla Direttiva europea 92/43/CEE "Habitats & Species". Di fronte a prospettive di tipo conservazionistico, diventa necessario disporre di metodologie per la valutazione della variabilità residua nella specie a livello d'individui e di popolazioni. Secondo numerosi Autori, i microsatelliti costituiscono marcatori molto efficaci nella descrizione della struttura genetica e della storia demografica di specie (Beaumont & Bruford, 1999; Linares, 1999. Il presente lavoro propone i risultati ottenuti attraverso il confronto di due campioni costituiti da individui di Martes martes provenienti dalla Sardegna (25 esemplari e dal territorio italiano (6 esemplari. L'analisi è stata condotta a livello di 7 loci microsatellitari dinucleotidici polimorfici. Il valore di FST calcolato dal confronto dei due gruppi è risultato pari a 0,102 e ricade nel range di variazione identificato di recente in popolazioni nord-europee di martora (Kyle et al., 2003. L'analisi della varianza molecolare (AMOVA, condotta a due livelli gerarchici, ha permesso in particolare di ripartire la varianza del campione

  3. Lignanas de Strychnos guianensis (Aublet Mart. Lignans of Strychnos guianensis (Aublet Mart.

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    Maria Lúcia B. Pinheiro

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The present communication reports the isolation and identification of three lignans from metanolic root extracts of Strychnos guianensis (Aublet Mart.: olivil (1, cycloolivil (2 and the unknown derivative cycloolivil carbonate (3. From hexane extracts was identified a long chain fatty acid mixture and the triterpene lupeol. The analyses were based on chromatographic and spectroscopy techniques (IR, MS, GC/MS, ¹H-NMR and 13C-NMR, 1D (BB, DEPT 135 and 2D (¹H, ¹ H-COSY, ¹H, 13C-COSY, ¹H, 13C-COSY-LR, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY and comparison with literature data.

  4. Effects of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) and Terminalia arjuna (Arjuna) on physical performance and cardiorespiratory endurance in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Jaspal Singh; Shah, Biren; Shenoy, Shweta; Chauhan, Suresh; Lavekar, G S; Padhi, M M

    2010-07-01

    Several medicinal plants have been described to be beneficial for cardiac ailments in Ayurveda like Ashwagandha and Arjuna. Ashwagandha-categorised as Rasayanas, and described to promote health and longevity and Arjuna primarily for heart ailments. coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypercholesterolemia, anginal pain and can be considered as a useful drug for coronary artery disease, hypertension and ischemic cardiomyopathy. There are no scientific clinical studies showing effect of both these drugs on exercise performance after regular administration when given as supplements The present study was therefore designed and performed to assess the effects of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) and Terminalia arjuna (Arjuna) individually and as a combination on maximum velocity, average absolute and relative Power, balance, maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max) and blood pressure in humans. Forty normal healthy. Subjects (either sex, mean age 20.6 ± 2.5yrs and mean Body Mass Index 21.9 ± 2.2) were recruited after written informed consent was obtained. Institutional Ethics Committee permission was also obtained. Thirty participants were assigned to experimental group of which 10 received standardized root extracts of Withania somnifera, 10 received standardized bark extract of Terminalia arjuna and the rest of the 10 received standardized root extract of Withania somnifera in addition to bark extract of Terminalia arjuna both. Both the drugs were given in the form of capsules (dosage 500mg/day for both the drugs). Ten participants received placebo (capsules filled with flour). All the subjects continued the regimen for 8 weeks. All variables were assessed before and after the course of drug administration Our study showed that Withania somnifera increased velocity, power and VO2 max whereas Terminalia arjuna increased VO2 max and lowered resting systolic blood pressure. When given in combination, the improvement was seen in all parameters except balance and diastolic

  5. Simultaneous determination and characterization of tannins and triterpene saponins from the fruits of various species of terminalia and phyllantus emblica using UPLC-UV-MS method: application to triphala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terminalia is a genus of large trees of the flowering plant family Combretaceae, comprising around 100 species distributed in tropical regions of the world. The fruits and bark of different species of Terminalia have been used since ancient times for the treatment of various ailments. Some of its sp...

  6. Noored lavastajad ületavad valdkondade piirid / Uku Uusberg, Mart Kase ; intervjueerinud Eero Epner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uusberg, Uku, 1984-

    2009-01-01

    Noored lavastajad Uku Uusberg ja Mart Kase oma vastvalminud lavastustest. 19. mail esietendub NO99 teatris Uku Uusbergi kirjutatud ja lavastatud "Pea vahetus" ja Niine 11 kontorihoones Mart Kase kirjutatud ja lavastatud "Startup"

  7. El viaje a Marte de Modesto Brocos

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    Jaureguízar, Agustín

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Modesto Brocos (1852-1936 was a remarkable painter from Santiago de Compostela who emigrated at an early age to Brazil, where he lived, held in high regard, up to his death. In 1930 he published in Valencia, in Castilian, his only work of fiction, an unobtainable Voyage To Mars which is a true socialist utopia. That whole world is established as a single global state, of which he details all that goes from a Constitution to Municipal Ordinances, through the administration of justice, education, health and Women’s Rights, with only one race and one language, and as peculiar a institution as the Agricultural Army or the Humanitarian Sisters.Modesto Brocos (1852-1936 fue un notable pintor compostelano que emigró joven a Brasil y allí vivió respetado hasta su muerte. En 1930 publicó en Valencia, en castellano, su única obra de ficción, un inencontrable Viaje a Marte que es una auténtica utopía socialista. Todo ese mundo está constituido en un solo estado planetario, del que detalla cuanto va de una Constitución a unas Ordenanzas Municipales, pasando por la administración de justicia, la educación, la sanidad y la igualdad de derechos entre los sexos, con una raza única y una lengua única, contando con instituciones tan peculiares como el Ejercito Agrícola o las Hermanas Humanitarias.

  8. Näljane Wal-Mart tahab ka smiley alla kugistada / Erik Aru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aru, Erik

    2006-01-01

    USA jaekaubanduskett Wal-Mart tahab oma kaubamärgina registreerida smiley' - kollase naerunäo kujutise. Smiley' leiutajaks peab end Suurbritannias asuva ühemehefirma SmileyWorld omanik Franklin Loufrani. Lisa: Wal-Mart üritab jõukamaid kundesid meelitada. Tabel: Wal-Mart

  9. An efficient and accurate approach to MTE-MART for time-resolved tomographic PIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynch, K.P.; Scarano, F.

    2015-01-01

    The motion-tracking-enhanced MART (MTE-MART; Novara et al. in Meas Sci Technol 21:035401, 2010) has demonstrated the potential to increase the accuracy of tomographic PIV by the combined use of a short sequence of non-simultaneous recordings. A clear bottleneck of the MTE-MART technique has been its

  10. An efficient and accurate approach to MTE-MART for time-resolved tomographic PIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynch, KP; Scarano, F.

    2015-01-01

    The motion-tracking-enhanced MART (MTE-MART; Novara et al. in Meas Sci Technol 21:035401, 2010) has demonstrated the potential to increase the accuracy of tomographic PIV by the combined use of a short sequence of non-simultaneous recordings. A clear bottleneck of the MTE-MART technique has been

  11. Use of an aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula as an anticaries agent: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carounanidy Usha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-derived medicines have been a part of our traditional health care system, and the antimicrobial properties of plant-derived compounds are well documented. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of an aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula (a medicinal plant on salivary samples and its potential for use as an anticaries agent in the form of mouthwash. A concentrated aqueous extract was prepared from the fruit of T. chebula . A mouth rinse of 10% concentration was prepared by diluting the extract in sterile distilled water. The efficacy of the mouth rinse was assessed by testing on 50 salivary samples. Salivary samples were collected from subjects assessed to be at high risk for caries. Salivary pH, buffering capacity, and microbial activity were assessed before rinsing, immediately after, and 10 min, 30 min, and 1 h after rinsing. There was an increase in the pH and buffering capacity and decrease in microbial count. An aqueous extract of T. chebula used as a mouth rinse seems to be an effective anticaries agent.

  12. Physicochemical properties of Terminalia catappa seed oil as a novel dietary lipid source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janporn, Supatcha; Ho, Chi-Tang; Chavasit, Visith; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Chittrakorn, Sasivimon; Ruttarattanamongkol, Khanitta; Weerawatanakorn, Monthana

    2015-06-01

    Terminalia catappa Linn (TC) is an ornamental tree planted extensively in many countries. It has been known for a long time that the seeds are edible but no research has focused on the realm of its use as food. Our previous data showed that the seed contains high levels of oil content (600 g/kg) and possesses the optimum fatty acid balance indicated in fat dietary guidelines. This study aims to investigate the physical and chemical properties and the possibility of using TC seed oil as a new dietary lipid. The effects of extraction conditions, partial refining process, and storage stability on TC oil properties were conducted compared with soybean oil. The results showed that physicochemical properties including the density, refractive index, melting point, acidity, free fatty acid, saponification value, unsaponifiable, peroxide, and fatty acid composition of the extracted oil were comparable with soybean oil and their values followed the dietary standard of edible oil. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Effects of Terminalia bellerica Roxb. methanolic extract on mouse immune response in vitro

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    Aurasorn Saraphanchotiwitthaya1

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of Terminalia bellerica methanolic extract (0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 500 g/ml on the mouse immune system were investigated in vitro. Phagocytic activity and lymphocyte proliferation were assayed. The results indicated the effect of the extract (500 g/ml on the stimulation of macrophage phagocytosis, through the production of superoxide anions and acid phosphatase, with a phagocytic index (PI value of approximately 1.5 and 1.3, respectively. For the lymphocyte proliferation assay, the extract (500 g/ml with phytohemagglutinin exhibited maximal activation, with a stimulation index (SI value of approximately 5.8. With concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide, and pokeweed mitogen, similar activation (SI 4.5 of lymphocyte proliferation was observed. However, at low concentrations (0.1 g/ml, T. bellerica extract with concanavalin A and pokeweed mitogen caused suppressant activity (SI 0.7. The results suggested that the effect of extract on T-lymphocyte proliferation occurred through the same mechanism as phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A and B-lymphocyte proliferation through T-cell independent and T-cell dependent mechanisms, in manners similar to lipopolysaccharide and pokeweed mitogen respectively. It might be concluded that the methanolic extract of T. bellerica affected the mouse immune system, specifically both the cellular and humoral immune response in vitro, corresponding with its folklore applications. These results can be further applied to the treatment of human immune mediated diseases.

  14. In Vitro Anticancer Activities of Anogeissus latifolia, Terminalia bellerica, Acacia catechu and Moringa oleiferna Indian Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Kawthar A E; Guru, Santosh Kumar; Bhushan, Shashi; Saxena, Ajit K

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate in vitro anti-proliferative potential of extracts from four Indian medicinal plants, namely Anogeissus latifolia, Terminalia bellerica, Acacia catechu and Moringa oleiferna. Their cytotoxicity was tested in nine human cancer cell lines, including cancers of lung (A549), prostate (PC-3), breast (T47D and MCF-7), colon (HCT-16 and Colo-205) and leukemia (THP-1, HL-60 and K562) by using SRB and MTT assays. The findings showed that the selected plant extracts inhibited the cell proliferation of nine human cancer cell lines in a concentration dependent manner. The extracts inhibited cell viability of leukemia HL-60 and K562 cells by blocking G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Interestingly, A. catechu extract at 100 μg/mL induced G2/M arrest in K562 cells. DNA fragmentation analysis displayed the appearance of a smear pattern of cell necrosis upon agarose gel electrophoresis after incubation of HL-60 cells with these extracts for 24 h.

  15. Antifungal activity of gallic acid purified from Terminalia nigrovenulosa bark against Fusarium solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dang-Minh-Chanh; Seo, Dong-Jun; Lee, Hyang-Burm; Kim, In-Seon; Kim, Kil-Yong; Park, Ro-Dong; Jung, Woo-Jin

    2013-03-01

    The antifungal activities of methanolic extracts from Terminalia nigrovenulosa bark (TNB) was investigated for effects on the initial growth of mycelia against Fusarium solani. The ethyl acetate fraction separated from TNB demonstrated the highest antifungal activity against F. solani. The antifungal compound was isolated from TNB using silica gel column and Sephadex LH-20 chromatography combined with thin-layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. Structural identification of the antifungal compound was conducted using (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The purified antifungal compound was gallic acid (GA) or 3,4,5-trihydroxy benzoic acid. Purified-GA possesses the high antifungal activity against F. solani, and that antifungal activity was dosage-dependent. The hyphae became collapsed and shrunken after 24 h incubation with GA (500 ppm). In pot experiments, the application of TNB crude extract was found to be effective in controlling the cucumber Fusarium root rot disease by enhancing activities of chitinase, peroxidase thereby promoting the growth of plants. The applied TNB extract significantly suppressed root rot disease compared to control. It resulted in 33, 75 and 81% disease suppression with 100, 500 and 1000 ppm of TNB crude extract, respectively. The study effectively demonstrated biological activities of the TNB extract, therefore suggesting the application of TNB for the control of soil-borne diseases of cucumber plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Terminalia chebula extract at room temperature and their antimicrobial studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan Kumar, Kesarla; Sinha, Madhulika; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Ghosh, Asit Ranjan; Siva Kumar, Koppala; Sreedhara Reddy, Pamanji

    2012-06-01

    A green rapid biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using Terminalia chebula (T. chebula) aqueous extract was demonstrated in this present study. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) at 452 nm using UV-visible spectrophotometer. The reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles by T. chebula extract was completed within 20 min which was evidenced potentiometrically. Synthesised nanoparticles were characterised using UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The hydrolysable tannins such as di/tri-galloyl-glucose present in the extract were hydrolyzed to gallic acid and glucose that served as reductant while oxidised polyphenols acted as stabilizers. In addition, it showed good antimicrobial activity towards both Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus ATCC 25923) and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli ATCC 25922). Industrially it may be a smart option for the preparation of silver nanoparticles.

  17. Modulatory effects of Terminalia arjuna against domoic acid induced toxicity in Caco-2 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, E M; Kumar, G Phani; Anand, T; Anilakumar, K R

    2017-08-01

    Domoic acid is a potent marine algal toxin produced by diatomic genus of Pseudo-nitzschia causing amnesic shell fish poisoning. Domoic acid toxicosis mainly involves excitotoxic effects coupled with oxidative stress. The present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Terminalia arjuna (TA) against domoic acid induced toxic effects in Caco-2 cell line. It was observed that the toxicity induced by domoic acid in Caco-2 cells was mediated by oxidative insult leading to morphological changes, DNA damage and apoptosis. In our study pre-treatment of the cells with TA (10, 20 and 30 μg/ml) showed significant protection against domoic acid induced morphological, oxidative and apoptotic damages in a dose dependent manner. The effect of phytocompounds present in TA viz., kaempferol and arjungenin showed significant protection against domoic acid induced toxicity in Caco-2 cell line. Hence, it could be inferred that the protective effect of TA extract against domoic acid induced toxicity could be due to the individual or synergistic effects of kaempferol and argungenin. However, further clinical studies are warranted to consider TA as a natural remedy to prevent amnesic shell fish poisoning.

  18. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and Neuroprotective Effect of Terminalia chebula Retzius Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia Lin Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine phytochemical compositions, chemiluminescence antioxidant activities, and neuroprotective effects on PC12 cells for water, methanol, and 95% ethanol extracts of the air-dried fruit of Terminalia chebula Retzius. The water extract afforded the greatest yield, and total phenolic and tannin content. The methanol extract yielded the greatest total triterpenoid content. Based on four chemiluminescence antioxidant assays, the three extracts showed various degrees of antioxidant activity. The methanol extract showed good antioxidant activity based on the horseradish peroxidase-luminol-hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 assay. The water extract appeared to have good antioxidant activities in cupric sulfate-Phen-Vc-H2O2 and luminol-H2O2 assays. Pyrogallol-luminol assay showed the 95% ethanol extract to have good antioxidant activity. The methanol and water extracts presented neuroprotective activities on H2O2-induced PC12 cell death at 0.5–5.0 μg/mL. Further investigations are necessary to verify these activities in vivo.

  19. Complement Fixing Polysaccharides from Terminalia macroptera Root Bark, Stem Bark and Leaves

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    Yuan-Feng Zou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera were sequentially extracted with ethanol, 50% ethanol-water, and 50 °C and 100 °C water using an accelerated solvent extractor. Ten bioactive purified polysaccharide fractions were obtained from those crude extracts after anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The polysaccharides and their native extracts were characterized with respect to molecular weight, chemical compositions and effects in the complement assay. The chemical compositions showed that the polysaccharides are of pectic nature. The results indicated that there was no great difference of the complement fixation activities in the crude extracts from the different plant parts when extracting with the accelerated solvent extraction system. The purified polysaccharide fractions 100WTSBH-I-I and 100WTRBH-I-I isolated from the 100 °C water extracts of stem and root bark respectively, showed the highest complement fixation activities. These two fractions have rhamnogalacturonan type I backbone, but only 100WTSBH-I-I contains side chains of both arabinogalactan type I and II. Based on the yield and activities of the fractions studied those from the root bark gave highest results, followed by those from leaves and stem bark. But in total, all plant materials are good sources for fractions containing bioactive polysaccharides.

  20. Complement fixing polysaccharides from Terminalia macroptera root bark, stem bark and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuan-Feng; Zhang, Bing-Zhao; Barsett, Hilde; Inngjerdingen, Kari Tvete; Diallo, Drissa; Michaelsen, Terje Einar; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2014-06-06

    The root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera were sequentially extracted with ethanol, 50% ethanol-water, and 50 °C and 100 °C water using an accelerated solvent extractor. Ten bioactive purified polysaccharide fractions were obtained from those crude extracts after anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The polysaccharides and their native extracts were characterized with respect to molecular weight, chemical compositions and effects in the complement assay. The chemical compositions showed that the polysaccharides are of pectic nature. The results indicated that there was no great difference of the complement fixation activities in the crude extracts from the different plant parts when extracting with the accelerated solvent extraction system. The purified polysaccharide fractions 100WTSBH-I-I and 100WTRBH-I-I isolated from the 100 °C water extracts of stem and root bark respectively, showed the highest complement fixation activities. These two fractions have rhamnogalacturonan type I backbone, but only 100WTSBH-I-I contains side chains of both arabinogalactan type I and II. Based on the yield and activities of the fractions studied those from the root bark gave highest results, followed by those from leaves and stem bark. But in total, all plant materials are good sources for fractions containing bioactive polysaccharides.

  1. Anatomy of pneumatophore of Mauritia vinifera mart

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    Luiz Alfredo Rodrigues Pereira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatophores of Mauritia vinifera Mart. were collected from six month-old plants maintained submerged in fresh water to induce pneumatophore formation. Twenty day-old pneumatophores had a quite prominent root cap. The epidermis was composed of hexagonal cells, tangentially distributed along the cylindric surface of the organ. In transverse section these pneumatophores had a simple epidermis over several layers of sclerified parenchyma, which covered an aerenchyma with large intercellular spaces. The endodermal cells had Casparian strips. The vascular cylinder was polyarch, with a pith and surrounded by a unisseriate pericycle. Anatomically the 4 month-old pneumatophores were similar to the younger ones, except for the absence of the epidermis. The epidermis is replaced by a protective tissue, whose lignified and suberized cells projected themselves outwards, giving it a filamentous aspect. There was no accumulation of starch or tannins in the pneumatophores, except for the presence of statoliths in the root cap. No lenticels were observed in pneumatophores of M. vinifera. The main function of the pneumatophores of M. vinifera is to allow gas exchange, facilitating the supply of oxygen to the submerged root portions.Pneumatóforos de Mauritia vinifera Mart. foram coletados de plantas com seis meses de idade mantidas submersas em água com o objetivo de induzir a formação de pneumatóforos. Peumatóforos com 20 dias de idade possuem uma coifa bastante proeminente na raiz. A epiderme é composta de células hexagonais, tangencialmente distribuídas ao longo da superfície cilíndrica do orgão. Em seção transversal os pneumatóforos possuem epiderme simples. O córtex é formado por um parênquima esclerificado, um aerênquima com espaços grandes intercelulares e uma endoderme cujas células possuem estrias de Caspary. O cilindro vascular é poliarco, com medula e cercado por um periciclo unisseriado. Anatomicamente os pneumatóforos com 4

  2. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-, and positive-controlled clinical pilot study to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of standardized aqueous extracts of Terminalia chebula and Terminalia bellerica in subjects with hyperuricemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usharani P

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pingali Usharani,1 Chandrasekhar Nutalapati,1 Venkata Kishan Pokuri,1 Chiranjeevi Uday Kumar,1 Gangadhar Taduri,21Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2Department of Nephrology, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Panjagutta, Hyderabad, India Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of standardized aqueous extracts of Terminalia chebula and Terminalia bellerica versus febuxostat and placebo on reduction in serum uric acid levels in subjects with hyperuricemia. Materials and methods: A total of 110 eligible subjects with hyperuricemia were enrolled and randomized to either of the five treatment groups – T. chebula 500 mg twice a day (BID, T. bellerica 250 mg BID, T. bellerica 500 mg BID, placebo BID, and febuxostat 40 mg once daily plus an identical placebo – for a duration of 24 weeks. Serum uric acid levels were measured at baseline and at the end of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks. Statistical analysis was done using GraphPad Prism Software 4. Results and interpretation: All active treatment groups showed a reduction in serum uric acid levels compared to baseline and placebo. Significant reduction in mean serum uric acid levels started as early as 4 weeks following treatment, compared to baseline, with T. bellerica (500 and 250 mg, febuxostat (P<0.001, and T. chebula 500 mg (P<0.01; an increase in serum uric acid levels was seen with placebo (P<0.05. The serum uric acid levels became steady after 16 weeks of treatment and remained the same until the end of 24 weeks. The reduction of serum uric acid levels in the T. bellerica 500 mg group was nearly twice that of the T. chebula 500 mg group as well as T. bellerica 250 mg group at all time points. T. bellerica 500 mg reduced serum uric acid levels from 8.07±0.87 to 5.78±0.25 compared to febuxostat, which reduced serum uric acid levels from 8.53±0.97 to 4.28±0.67 (P<0.001 at the end of 24 weeks. The efficacy of T. bellerica appeared to be dose dependent

  3. Antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts of Terminalia brownii roots and stem

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    Kapingu Modest C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ternimalia brownii Fresen (Combretaceae is widely used in traditional medicine to treat bacterial, fungal and viral infections. There is a need to evaluate extracts of this plant in order to provide scientific proof for it's wide application in traditional medicine system. Methods Extraction of stem bark, wood and whole roots of T. brownii using solvents of increasing polarity, namely, Pet ether, dichloromethane, dichloromethane: methanol (1:1, methanol and aqua, respectively, afforded dry extracts. The extracts were tested for antifungal and antibacterial activity and for brine shrimp toxicity test. Results Extracts of the stem bark, wood and whole roots of T. brownii exhibited antibacterial activity against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus anthracis and the fungi, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Aqueous extracts exhibited the strongest activity against both bacteria and fungi. Extracts of the roots and stem bark exhibited relatively mild cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp larvae with LC50 values ranging from 113.75–4356.76 and 36.12–1458.81 μg/ml, respectively. The stem wood extracts exhibited the highest toxicity against the shrimps (LC50 values 2.58–14.88 μg/ml, while that of cyclophosphamide, a standard anticancer drug, was 16.33 (10.60–25.15 μg/ml. Conclusion These test results support traditional medicinal use of, especially, aqueous extracts for the treatment of conditions such as diarrhea, and gonorrhea. The brine shrimp results depict the general trend among plants of the genus Terminalia, which are known to contain cytotoxic compounds such as hydrolysable tannins. These results warrant follow-up through bioassay-directed isolation of the active principles.

  4. Antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts of Terminalia brownii roots and stem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbwambo, Zakaria H; Moshi, Mainen J; Masimba, Pax J; Kapingu, Modest C; Nondo, Ramadhani SO

    2007-01-01

    Background Ternimalia brownii Fresen (Combretaceae) is widely used in traditional medicine to treat bacterial, fungal and viral infections. There is a need to evaluate extracts of this plant in order to provide scientific proof for it's wide application in traditional medicine system. Methods Extraction of stem bark, wood and whole roots of T. brownii using solvents of increasing polarity, namely, Pet ether, dichloromethane, dichloromethane: methanol (1:1), methanol and aqua, respectively, afforded dry extracts. The extracts were tested for antifungal and antibacterial activity and for brine shrimp toxicity test. Results Extracts of the stem bark, wood and whole roots of T. brownii exhibited antibacterial activity against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus anthracis and the fungi, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Aqueous extracts exhibited the strongest activity against both bacteria and fungi. Extracts of the roots and stem bark exhibited relatively mild cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp larvae with LC50 values ranging from 113.75–4356.76 and 36.12–1458.81 μg/ml, respectively. The stem wood extracts exhibited the highest toxicity against the shrimps (LC50 values 2.58–14.88 μg/ml), while that of cyclophosphamide, a standard anticancer drug, was 16.33 (10.60–25.15) μg/ml. Conclusion These test results support traditional medicinal use of, especially, aqueous extracts for the treatment of conditions such as diarrhea, and gonorrhea. The brine shrimp results depict the general trend among plants of the genus Terminalia, which are known to contain cytotoxic compounds such as hydrolysable tannins. These results warrant follow-up through bioassay-directed isolation of the active principles. PMID:17394672

  5. Effect of Terminalia chebula and Allium sativum on in vivo methane emission by sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, A K; Kamra, D N; Bhar, R; Kumar, R; Agarwal, N

    2011-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate some plant parts (already tested for their antimethanogenic activity in in vitro gas production test in the authors' laboratory) as feed additive to combat methane emission from sheep. Sixteen male sheep with average body weight of 29.96±1.69 kg (22 months of age) were divided into four groups in a randomized block design. The animals were fed on a diet containing forage to concentrate ratio of 1:1. The concentrate fraction composed (in parts) of maize grain, 32; wheat bran, 45; deoiled soybean meal, 20; mineral mixture, 2 and common salt, 1. The four treatments were control (without additive), seed pulp of Terminalia chebula (Harad), bulb of Allium sativum (Garlic) and a mixture (Mix) of the latter two in equal proportions at the rate of 1% of dry matter (DM) intake. There was no effect on DM intake due to the inclusion of these feed additives. The digestibilities of DM and organic matter tended to be higher (pMethane emission (L/kg digested DM intake) as estimated by open circuit respiration chamber and methane energy loss as per cent of digestible energy intake tended to be lower in T. chebula (p=0.09) and Mix (p=0.08) groups compared with control. The data indicated that T. chebula showed antimethanogenic activity, whereas both T. chebula and A. sativum improved nutrient digestibility. Therefore, these two plants appear to be suitable candidates for use as feed additive to mitigate methane emission and to improve nutrient utilization by sheep. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Anti-Atherogenic Activity of Ethanolic Fraction of Terminalia arjuna Bark on Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Subramaniam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis which results from gradual deposition of lipids in medium and large arteries is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Terminalia arjuna is a herb of Combretaceae family which contains hypolipidemic compounds and flavonoids with high antioxidative properties. This study was conducted to determine the effect of ethanolic fraction of T. arjuna on blood lipids and atherosclerosis in rabbits fed with high fat diet (HFD. Twenty New Zealand rabbits of either sex were randomly divided into five groups: the first two were normal diet group and HFD (21% fat group and the remaining three groups received high cholesterol diet supplemented with standard drug (Atorvastatin 10 mg kg−1 body weight, T. arjuna ethanolic fraction (100 and 200 mg kg−1 body weight, respectively. The concentration of total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol was determined in rabbits at the start of the experiment, at the 14th, 30th days and at the end of the study. Anti-atherogenic index was calculated from the lipid profile of the rabbits before sacrifice. At the end of the experimental period, the aorta was removed for assessment of atherosclerotic plaques. Results show that T. arjuna significantly decreases TC, LDL and TG levels and increases HDL and lessens atherosclerotic lesion in aorta (P < .05. Hence T. arjuna extract can effectively prevent the progress of atherosclerosis. This is likely due to the effect of T. arjuna on serum lipoproteins and its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  7. Phytochemical Characterization of Terminalia catappa Linn. Extracts and Their antifungal Activities against Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terças, Analucia G.; Monteiro, Andrea de Souza; Moffa, Eduardo B.; dos Santos, Julliana R. A.; de Sousa, Eduardo M.; Pinto, Anna R. B.; Costa, Paola C. da Silva; Borges, Antonio C. R.; Torres, Luce M. B.; Barros Filho, Allan K. D.; Fernandes, Elizabeth S.; Monteiro, Cristina de Andrade

    2017-01-01

    Terminalia catappa Linn bark is used to treat dysentery by various populations in Southeast Asian countries, and its leaves have also been used in traditional medicine to treat hepatitis in India and the Philippines. Here, the antifungal actions of crude hydro-alcoholic extract (TcHE) and fractions from T. catappa leaves were assessed via the agar diffusion and microdilution tests on Candida reference strains and clinical isolates from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Additionally, the potential cytotoxic effects of TcHE were assessed on cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). T. catappa fractions and sub-fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with electron impact (GC/MS/EI), high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry “electrospray” ionization in positive mode (HPLC/MS/MS/ESI+) and hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR). TcHE and its fractions were able to inhibit the growth of all tested Candida strains with the n-butanol (FBuOH) fraction presenting the best antifungal activity. Testing of different FBuOH sub-fractions (SF) showed that SF10 was the most active against Candida spp. Fractioning of SF10 demonstrated that 5 out of its 15 sub-fractions were active against Candida spp., with SF10.5 presenting the highest activity. Chemical analysis of SF10 detected hydrolysable tannins (punicalin, punicalagin), gallic acid and flavonoid C-glycosides. Overall, the results showed that T. catappa L. leaf extract, fractions and sub-fractions were antifungal against Candida spp. and may be useful to treat diseases caused by this fungus. PMID:28443078

  8. In vitro propagation, encapsulation, and genetic fidelity analysis of Terminalia arjuna: a cardioprotective medicinal tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amit K; Harish; Rai, Manoj K; Phulwaria, Mahendra; Agarwal, Tanvi; Shekhawat, N S

    2014-07-01

    The present study described an improved and reproducible in vitro regeneration system for Terminalia arjuna using nodal segment explants obtained from a mature plant. Shoot tips excised from in vitro proliferated shoots were encapsulated in 3 % sodium alginate and 100 mM CaCl2[Symbol: see text]2H2O for the development of synthetic seeds which may be applicable in short-term storage and germplasm exchange of elite genotype. Shoot multiplication was significantly influenced by a number of factors, namely types and concentrations of plant growth regulators, medium composition, repeated transfer of mother explants, subculturing of in vitro regenerated shoot clumps, agar concentrations, and temperature. Maximum numbers of shoots (16.50 ± 3.67) were observed on modified Murashige and Skoog (MMS) medium containing 0.5 mg l(-1) of benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0.1 mg l(-1) of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). To shortening the regeneration pathway, rooting of micropropagated shoots under in vitro condition was excluded and an experiment on ex vitro rooting was conducted and it was observed that the highest percentage of shoots rooted ex vitro when treated with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA, 250 mg l(-1)) + 2-naphthoxy acetic acid (NOA, 250 mg l(-1)) for 5 min. The well-developed ex vitro rooted shoots were acclimatized successfully in soilrite under greenhouse conditions with 80 % survival of plants. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis confirmed that all the regenerated plants were genetically identical to the mother plant, suggesting the absence of detectable genetic variation in the regenerated plantlets. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on synthetic seed production as well as ex vitro rooting and genetic fidelity assessment of micropropagated shoots of T. arjuna.

  9. Study of reproductive toxicity of Combretum leprosum Mart and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most plants culturally used in Brazil for medicine do not have pre-clinical studies of reproductive toxicity, therefore risks of using such products on the reproductive system are unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate possible reproductive toxicity of ethanolic extract of Combretum leprosum Mart and Eicher (EECL) in ...

  10. Nitrogen phytoremediation by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, L.J.; Struik, P.C.; Appleton, B.L.; Rule, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    The phytoremediation potential of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, was examined in two independent studies under nitrogen (N) rates of 0, 40, 80, 100, 150, 200, and 300 ppm. A modified Hoagland solution was added to ponds containing water hyacinths which were rated and measured

  11. Mart Sander ei tea oma saate tulevikku / Heili Sibrits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sibrits, Heili, 1977-

    2002-01-01

    Muusikasaatest "Tähed muusikas". Mart Sanderi juhitav MTÜ Bel-Etage suurprojektidest 2002. aasta maist augustini: Sir Arthur Sullivani koomilisest ooperist "Trial by Jury" ("Vandekohus") ja Lionel Moncktoni muusikalist "The Arcadians" ("Arkaadlased"). Sander juhib BBC Eurovisioni-eelset saadet eesti muusikast

  12. “RÔNIER” (Borassus aethiopum Mart.) of Togo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The “rônier” or Borassus aethiopum Mart is a wood material which is used as an element for construction and public works in Togo. The goal of this study was to determine its mechanical characteristics and its reaction to fire which are the fundamental parameters of works dimensioning. The analyses and tests of.

  13. growth and development of gomphrena celosioides mart under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF GOMPHRENA CELOSIOIDES MART UNDER SCREEN. HOUSE CONDITIONS IN ILORIN, SOUTHERN GUINEA SAVANNA ZONE OF NIGERIA. *Takim, F. O., Olawoyin, O. K. and Olanrewaju, W. A.. Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture,University of Ilorin, PMB 1515, Ilorin, ...

  14. Respuesta a Raúl Martínez Santos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natàlia Balagué Serre

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Las autoras del trabajo titulado “Unificar las cièncias del deporte” (núm. 114, julio-sep. 2013, responden a la réplica enviada por el Prof. Raúl Martínez Santos titulada “Reflexiones y condiciones para una unificación de las ciencias del deporte” .

  15. La historia orbital de Deimos y la oblicuidad de Marte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunini, A.; Yokoyama, T.

    Recientemente, se ha demostrado mediante extensas integraciones numéricas, que la rotación de Marte pasó repetidamente por estados caóticos de movimiento, debido al pasaje por zonas de resonancia spin - órbita. En dichas circunstancias, la oblicuidad marciana pudo haber sufrido grandes excursiones de varias decenas de grados. Las consecuencias de dichas variaciones son de extrema importancia en el contexto de la búsqueda de manifestaciones de vida fósil en dicho planeta. El estudio de la dinámica orbital del satélite más exterior de Marte, Deimos, nos ha permitido comprobar, en el marco de las distintas teorías sobre su orígen, que la oblicuidad de Marte dificilmente pudo haber sufrido variaciones que la aparten más de 10o respecto de actual valor. Este resultado parece ser mucho más robusto que las simulaciones numéricas de Touma y Wisdom asi como las de Laskar y Robutel, lo que permite poner cotas más severas a la evolución paleoclimática de Marte.

  16. Utilisation sociale de Borassus aethiopum Mart et de ses habitats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilisation sociale de Borassus aethiopum Mart et de ses habitats dans les Communes de Savè et de Glazoué au Bénin. ... Data were collected on the perception of the people, power, and fears of actors over the sustainability of the services provided on the species and its habitats. B. aethiopum proved to be a resource to ...

  17. Potential of Water Hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential of Water Hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) for the Removal of Chromium from ... Based on the above data, it could be concluded that water hyacinth can potentially be used for the removal of Cr from tannery effluents which is a major environmental problem in Ethiopia. However, further investigation is ...

  18. Mart Laar : teatavad erimeelsused on parteis olnud juba mõnda aega / Mart Laar ; interv. Kerttu Rannamäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laar, Mart, 1960-

    2007-01-01

    Küsimused puudutavad Mart Laari ilmajäämist välisministri kohast, erimeelsusi IRL-is, Riigikogu spiikri ja ministrikohtade jagamist, ministrikandidaate Jaak Aaviksood ja Jüri Pihli, koalitsioonilepingut ja Keskerakonna arvamust selle kohta, Milton Friedmani auhinnaraha. M. Laar peab õigeks, et riigikogu võimu ja autoriteeti tuleb tugevdada ning edendada parlamentaarset mõtteviisi

  19. Development of U-Mart System with Plural Brands and Plural Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Yoshihito; Mori, Naoki; Ono, Isao; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Kita, Hajime; Matsumoto, Keinosuke

    In this paper, we first discuss the notion that artificial market systems should meet the requirements of fidelity, transparency, reproducibility, and traceability. Next, we introduce history of development of the artificial market system named U-Mart system that meet the requirements well, which have been developed by the U-Mart project. We have already developed the U-Mart system called “U-Mart system version 3.0” to solve problems of old U-Mart systems. In version 3.0 system, trading process is modularized and universal market system can be easily introduced.However, U-Mart system version 3.0 only simulates the single brand futures market. The simulation of the plural brands and plural markets has been required by lot of users. In this paper, we proposed a novel U-Mart system called “U-Mart system version 4.0” to solve this problem of U-Mart system version 3.0. We improve the server system, machine agents and GUI in order to simulate plural brands and plural markets in U-Mart system version 4.0. The effectiveness of the proposed system is confirmed by statistical analysis of results of spot market simulation with random agents.

  20. Comparison of MART-1 frozen sections to permanent sections using a rapid 19-minute protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherpelis, Basil S; Moore, Richard; Ladd, Sharron; Chen, Ren; Glass, L Frank

    2009-02-01

    The use of melanoma-associated antigen recognized by T cells (MART-1) immunostain has been proposed as a useful adjunct to overcome the inherent difficulties in the use of frozen sections during Mohs surgery for the treatment of melanoma, but no studies have compared MART-1 frozen sections with MART-1 permanent sections. Current MART-1 1-hour protocols add significant time to the procedure. To determine whether there is a significant difference between frozen and permanent MART-1 immunostained sections using a rapid 19-minute protocol. Frozen and permanent sections stained with MART-1 were made from dog-ears excised during 25 reconstructions. A rapid 19-minute protocol was used to stain the frozen tissue. The sections were examined blinded, and statistical analysis was performed to analyze the data. No significant difference was found in number of keratinocytes, nuclear diameter of keratinocytes, number of melanocytes, melanocytic nuclear diameter, confluence, pagetoid spread, melanocytic nesting, or atypical melanocytes. The 19-minute protocol is a rapid and effective MART-1 immunostain. Frozen sections stained with MART-1 provide information equivalent to that obtained from MART-1 stained permanent sections. Mohs surgeons using MART-1 can feel confident that they have the same information as they would have obtained using permanent sections using the slow Mohs method.

  1. Micropropagação de Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. Micropropagation of Croton antisyphiliticus Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taíce Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. ex M. Arg., conhecido popularmente como pé-de-perdiz, é uma planta medicinal nativa do Cerrado, cuja raiz é utilizada na forma de decoctos para combater infecções do aparelho reprodutor masculino e feminino. A coleta da planta é realizada de forma extrativista e não há trabalhos a respeito da sua conservação. O objeto do trabalho foi estabelecer um protocolo de micropropagação de Croton antisyphiliticus. Foram avaliados o efeito de diferentes concentrações das citocininas, o tamanho do recipiente para o cultivo in vitro, o co-cultivo e a posição da gema em relação ao desenvolvimento dos explantes, bem como a influência do AIB no enraizamento in vitro e a aclimatização dos explantes. O melhor desenvolvimento in vitro foi obtido com explantes do tipo gema apical, co-cultivadas em meio MS suplementado com BAP (1µM, em frasco tipo pote. O enraizamento foi obtido em meio MS sem regulador vegetal e a aclimatização pode ser realizada em solo do cerrado com brotações sem a presença de raízes desenvolvidas in vitro.Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. ex M. Arg., popularly known as "pé-de-perdiz", is a native medicinal plant of Cerrado, whose root is used in the form of decoctions against infections of the male and female reproductive. The collection of the plant is carried through of extractives form and there are no studies regarding its conservation. The aim of this study was to establish a micropropagation protocol of C. antisyphiliticus. The effect of different concentrations of cytokinins, the size of the container for the in vitro culture, co-cultivation and bud position in relation to the development of the explants, as well as the influence of AIB on in vitro rooting and acclimatization of explants were evaluated. The best development in vitro was obtained with apical explants co-cultivated on MS medium supplemented with BAP (1µM in bottle type pot. Rooting was achieved on MS medium without

  2. FLAVONOIDS AND ANTI-OXIDANT ACTIVITY MEDIATED GASTROPROTECTIVE ACTION OF LEATHERY MURDAH, TERMINALIA CORIACEA (ROXB.) WIGHT & ARN. LEAF METHANOLIC EXTRACT IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Khan, Mohammed Safwan; Nazan, Shaaz; Mat Jais, Abdul Manan

    2017-01-01

    Leathery Murdah, Terminalia coriacea (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. from family Combretaceae is used in Ayurveda and Siddha traditional systems of medicine to heal ulcers. The present study was conducted to assess the gastroprotective effect and understand the fundamental mechanism of action of Leathery Murdah, Terminalia coriacea (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. Leaf Methanolic Extract. The test extract was screened for anti-ulcer activity by Aspirin induced ulcerogenesis in pyloric ligation and ethanol induced gastric ulcers at three doses - 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg, p.o. using Ranitidine 50 mg/kg and Misoprostol 100 μg/kg as standard drug in respective models. Seven parameters were carefully examined, that is, ulcer index, total protein, mucin, catalase, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase levels and histopathology. High Performance Liquid Chromatographic - Ultra Violet profiling and Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectral analysis of crude Terminalia coriacea leaves methanolic extract were carried out as a part of chemical characterization to identify bioactive compounds. All the test doses exhibited significant gastroprotective function, particularly the higher doses demonstrated improved action. The results revealed a significant increase in the levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and Mucin with reduction in ulcer index, the levels of total protein, and malondialdehyde. Histopathological observations also illustrated the gastroprotective effect of Terminalia coriacea leaves methanolic extract. Terminalia coriacea leaves methanolic extract exhibited strong anti-oxidant and anti-secretory activities mediated gastroprotection besides inducing the gastric mucosal production. The observed pharmacological response can be attributed to the flavonoidal compounds namely - Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, Luteolin-7-O-glucoside, Myricetin hexoside, Quercetin-3-O-glucoside, Isorhamnetin-3-O-rhamnosylglucoside and Isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside identified in the extract for the first time with

  3. FLAVONOIDS AND ANTI-OXIDANT ACTIVITY MEDIATED GASTROPROTECTIVE ACTION OF LEATHERY MURDAH, TERMINALIA CORIACEA (ROXB. WIGHT & ARN. LEAF METHANOLIC EXTRACT IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Safwan ALI KHAN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Leathery Murdah, Terminalia coriacea (Roxb. Wight & Arn. from family Combretaceae is used in Ayurveda and Siddha traditional systems of medicine to heal ulcers. OBJECTIVE The present study was conducted to assess the gastroprotective effect and understand the fundamental mechanism of action of Leathery Murdah, Terminalia coriacea (Roxb. Wight & Arn. Leaf Methanolic Extract. METHODS The test extract was screened for anti-ulcer activity by Aspirin induced ulcerogenesis in pyloric ligation and ethanol induced gastric ulcers at three doses - 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg, p.o. using Ranitidine 50 mg/kg and Misoprostol 100 μg/kg as standard drug in respective models. Seven parameters were carefully examined, that is, ulcer index, total protein, mucin, catalase, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase levels and histopathology. High Performance Liquid Chromatographic - Ultra Violet profiling and Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectral analysis of crude Terminalia coriacea leaves methanolic extract were carried out as a part of chemical characterization to identify bioactive compounds. RESULTS All the test doses exhibited significant gastroprotective function, particularly the higher doses demonstrated improved action. The results revealed a significant increase in the levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and Mucin with reduction in ulcer index, the levels of total protein, and malondialdehyde. Histopathological observations also illustrated the gastroprotective effect of Terminalia coriacea leaves methanolic extract. CONCLUSION Terminalia coriacea leaves methanolic extract exhibited strong anti-oxidant and anti-secretory activities mediated gastroprotection besides inducing the gastric mucosal production. The observed pharmacological response can be attributed to the flavonoidal compounds namely - Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, Luteolin-7-O-glucoside, Myricetin hexoside, Quercetin-3-O-glucoside, Isorhamnetin-3-O-rhamnosylglucoside and

  4. The "Martes complex"-- an opportunity to bring together marten, fisher, sable, wolverine, and tayra biologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert Proulx; Keith B. Aubry

    2014-01-01

    Recent phylogenetic studies have shown that the genus Martes is polyphyletic with respect to the Fisher (Pekania pennanti), which is more closely related to the Wolverine (Gulo gulo) and Tayra (Eira barbara) than it is to the martens. We refer to the 11 species in the genera Martes, Pekania, Gulo, and Eira as the “Martes Complex”. Because the species comprising the...

  5. Construction,expression,purification and identification of prokaryotic expression vector of MART-1 fusion protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-ting MENG

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To construct a prokaryotic expression plasmid containing a fusion gene of MART-1 expressing the His-MART-1 fusion protein in E.coli,and to purify the protein and identify the immunogenicity of His-MART-1.Methods The MART-1 coding sequence was amplified by polymerase chain reaction(PCR,and then cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector(pET-28b containing His tag.The constructed vector,verified by restriction endonuclease digestion,PCR and DNA sequencing,was then transformed into E.coli for expression.The expression of MART-1 recombinant protein was induced by IPTG in E.coli,purified with Ni2+-NTA affinity chromatography method,and identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting.ELISA was used to detect the IFN-γ expression secreted by the His-MART-1 specific CD4+ T cells which recognized the His-MART-1 fusion protein presented by dendritic cells(DCs.Results The successful construction of recombinant plasmid was confirmed by restriction digestion,PCR and sequencing.The molecular weight of the purified fusion protein was identified as 13kD by SDS-PAGE,which was identical to the expected value.It was confirmed by western blotting that His-MART-1 fusion protein could be recognized by His monoclonal antibody.ELISA analysis showed that His-MART-1 fusion protein presented by DCs could induce IFN-γ secretion of MART-1 specific CD4+ T cells.Conclusion The recombinant plasmid of pET-28b-MART-1 has been successfully constructed.The expressed His-MART-1 fusion protein has been purified and the immunogenicity of inducing responses between DCs and CD4+ T cells has been determined.

  6. Using BioMart as a framework to manage and query pancreatic cancer data

    OpenAIRE

    Cutts, Rosalind J.; Gadaleta, Emanuela; Lemoine, Nicholas R.; Chelala, Claude

    2011-01-01

    We describe the Pancreatic Expression Database (PED), the first cancer database originally designed based on the BioMart infrastructure. The PED portal brings together multidimensional pancreatic cancer data from the literature including genomic, proteomic, miRNA and gene expression profiles. Based on the BioMart 0.7 framework, the database is easily integrated with other BioMart-compliant resources, such as Ensembl and Reactome, to give access to a wide range of annotations alongside detaile...

  7. ¿Visitó Martí las ruinas mayas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Jorge Abdala-Franco

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Las detalladas descripciones de José Martí de los sitios arqueológicos más importantes de la península de Yucatán han llevado a pensar a algunos autores que el Apóstol estuvo en ellos en el año 1877, cuando efectuó una breve estancia en Mérida, de paso hacia Guatemala. ¿Visitó realmente Martí las ruinas mayas de Chichén Itzá y Uxmal? De no ser así, ¿qué se lo impidió y cómo fue posible entonces que las describiera tan vívidamente?

  8. Design and implementation of fishery rescue data mart system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jun; Huang, Haiguang; Liu, Yousong

    A novel data mart based system for fishery rescue field was designed and implemented. The system runs ETL process to deal with original data from various databases and data warehouses, and then reorganized the data into the fishery rescue data mart. Next, online analytical processing (OLAP) are carried out and statistical reports are generated automatically. Particularly, quick configuration schemes are designed to configure query dimensions and OLAP data sets. The configuration file will be transformed into statistic interfaces automatically through a wizard-style process. The system provides various forms of reporting files, including crystal reports, flash graphical reports, and two-dimensional data grids. In addition, a wizard style interface was designed to guide users customizing inquiry processes, making it possible for nontechnical staffs to access customized reports. Characterized by quick configuration, safeness and flexibility, the system has been successfully applied in city fishery rescue department.

  9. Data mart based research in heart surgery: challenges and benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnrich, Bert; Walter, Jörg; Albert, Alexander; Ennker, Jürgen; Ritter, Helge

    2004-01-01

    For many new medical research questions in heart surgery comprehensive and large data bases are essential. We discuss typical challenges for the integration of real-time and legacy data stored in multiple unconnected hospital information systems (HIS). Furthermore the HIS are often operated by autonomous departments whose data base structures are subject to occasional modifications. We present a solution which integrates and consolidates all research relevant data in a data mart without imposing any considerable operational or maintenance contract liability risk for the existing HIS. The problems of partial consistency and partial redundancy in the data are discussed. The data mart system serves multiple purposes: beside clinical reporting and quality assessment, the preparation steps for comprehensive studies are enormously simplified.

  10. MARTE based modeling approach for Partial Dynamic Reconfigurable FPGAs

    OpenAIRE

    Quadri, Imran Rafiq; Meftali, Samy; Dekeyser, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    International audience; As System-on-Chip (SoC) architectures become pivotal for designing embedded systems, the SoC design complexity continues to increase exponentially necessitating the need to find new design methodologies. In this paper we present a novel SoC co-design methodology based on Model Driven Engineering using the MARTE (Modeling and Analysis of Real-time and Embedded Systems) standard. This methodology is utilized to model fine grain reconfigurable architectures such as FPGAs ...

  11. Maytensifolone, a new triterpene from Maytenus distichophylla Mart. ex Reissek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Marcelo Cavalcante; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Madeiro, Sara Alves L.; Costa, Vicente Carlos O.; Barbosa Filho, Jose Maria; Silva, Marcelo Sobral da, E-mail: marcelosobral.ufpb@gmail.com [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Agra, Maria de Fatima [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia. Departamento de Biotecnologia; Braz Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas

    2013-10-15

    Phytochemical study of the leaves of Maytenus distichophylla Mart. ex Reissek led to the isolation of the new triterpene 3,16,21-trioxo-6{beta},12{alpha}-dihydroxy-1-en-friedelane, named maytensifolone, along with the known triterpenes 3-oxofriedelane, 3,12-dioxofriedelane, 3{beta}-hydroxyfriedelane, 3-oxo-29-hydroxyfriedelane, 3-oxo-12{alpha}-hydroxyfriedelane and 3-oxo- 30-hydroxyfriedelane. Their structural identification was based on spectroscopic methods and comparison with literature data. (author)

  12. Using a diabetes data mart in individualizing diabetes management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-sheikh, Youssef T; Haug, Peter J; Wong, Anthony; Warner, Homer R; Morris, Alan H; Sward, Katherine

    2008-11-06

    Constantly changing diabetes care standards makes it challenging to deliver care adapted to the unique condition of the individual patient. The availability of large amounts of data from patient's electronic medical records makes it possible to individualize diabetes management. Initial design of a "patient-specific" hybrid system (physiological-causal probabilistic) of adaptive diabetes models and insulin treatment algorithms will be presented. The system is uniquely derived and tested using a diabetes data mart of about 33,000 patients.

  13. Mart Jaanson. Nikaia-Konstantinoopoli usutunnistuse ladinakeelse normteksti grammatiline, teoloogiline ja muusikaline liigendamine / Toomas Siitan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Siitan, Toomas, 1958-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Jaanson, Mart. Nikaia-Konstantinoopoli usutunnistuse ladinakeelse normteksti grammatiline, teoloogiline ja muusikaline liigendamine. Tartu : University of Tartu Press, 2014 (Dissertationes theologiae universitatis Tartuensis ; 30)

  14. Trichinella britovi biomass in naturally infected pine martens (Martes martes) of Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirjušina, Muza; Bakasejevs, Eduards; Pezzotti, Patrizio; Pozio, Edoardo

    2016-11-15

    Parasites of the genus Trichinella are cosmopolitan nematodes infecting primarily wild animals, which represent the main reservoirs of these zoonotic pathogens. To investigate the transmission patterns of Trichinella spp. from wild to domestic animals and to humans and for the risk assessment of these parasites in a geographical area, it is important to know the number of possible transmission events deriving from carcasses of infected hosts. For this purpose, the evaluation of the larval biomass in reservoir hosts is needed. No data is available on how to estimate the biomass of Trichinella spp. larvae in muscles of naturally infected animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larval biomass in naturally infected pine martens (Martes martes) of Latvia, in which the prevalence of Trichinella britovi infection was over 50%. Single muscles or group of muscles (abdomen, back, diaphragm, intercostal muscles, muscles from the head, left and right shoulders, lower and upper parts of the forelimbs and hind limbs, neck, rump with tail, and base and tip of the tongue) were collected from five skinned and eviscerated carcasses of T. britovi infected pine martens. Muscles were entirely removed from the bones and weighted. Each muscle or group of muscles was separately digested to detect the larvae per gram (LPG). Using linear regression, the larval burden in each muscle or group of muscles was evaluated to measure the possible prediction of the total animal larval burden (both as total number of larvae and as average LPG). All muscles were significantly predictive of the total burden with high "goodness of fit" (all adjusted R2>0.80; P≤0.01), and the left shoulder provided the highest adjusted R2 (0.999). Then, to estimate the Trichinella britovi biomass in the pine marten population of Latvia, recent literature data on prevalence (56.2%, 95% CI: 47.8-64.3) and geometric mean LPG (1.26, 95% CI: 0.89-1.79) in the limb muscles of a sample representative of the whole

  15. Molecular identification of Trichinella britovi in martens (Martes martes) and badgers (Meles meles); new host records in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskwa, Bożena; Goździk, Katarzyna; Bień, Justyna; Bogdaszewski, Marek; Cabaj, Władysław

    2012-12-01

    Trichinella larvae were detected in a marten (Martes martes) and a badger (Meles meles) in Poland. The animals were found dead following car accidents. All examined animals derived from the Mazurian Lake district, north-east Poland, near the village Kosewo Górne where Trichinella infection were earlier confirmed in wildlife; red foxes and wild boars. The muscle samples were examined by artificial pepsin-HCl digestion method. The parasites were identified as Trichinella britovi by multiplex polymerase chain reaction method. Larvae were found in two out of three martens and one out of seven examined badgers. This is the first report of the identification of Trichinella britovi larvae from martens and badgers in Poland.

  16. Partial characterization of protein extracted from Terminalia catappa seed behaving as lectin that is capable of mouse sperm agglutination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, Hery; Kamilah, Santi Nurul

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this research is to partially characterize proteins extracted from Terminalia catappa seeds that behave like lectin, being capable of mouse sperm agglutination. Cotyledons of the seed were extracted in homogenizing PBS buffer. The supernatant was precipitated with ammonium sulfate to a final concentration of 50% (w/v), then dialyzed with 2 kinds of dialysis tubes, i.e. 6000 and 12000 MWCO. The precipitated proteins were then diluted in 0.9% (w/v) NaCl. Next, dialysis fractions of the precipitated protein were used for the mouse sperm agglutination test. Protein from the dialysis fraction of 6000 MWCO tube could agglutinate mouse sperm. The quantitation of protein was carried out by using the Bradford Coomassie kit from crude extract to dialyzed fractions. Both dialyzed fractions were also run on SDS-PAGE to see the protein profiles.

  17. Trial Germination of Coastal Vegetation (Terminalia catappa, Calophyllum inophylum L., and Barringtonia asiatica in the Kima Atas Permanent Nursery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ady Suryawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It was estimated that North Sulawesi needs 9,870,093.33 coastal vegetation seeds to rehabilitate the damage of coastal ecosystems which reach 14,805.14 ha, where the largest area 13.884 ha located in other land use. This study aims to provide information of seed germination techniques in Permanent Nursery Kima Atas, Manado. Research was arranged in complete randomized design as factorial with three replications. Ketapang (Terminalia cattapa will obtain high viability in fluctuation of temperature and humidity, i.e used sand media, without wildlings and placed under 25% shade and rain. Keben (Baringtonia asiatica through the incision and decay that placed in the open location will obtain viability until 90% within 2 months. Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum requires shell splitting in order to improve the viability and it can be done by cracking and stripping.

  18. Green synthesis of zinc oxide nano-sized spherical particles using Terminalia chebula fruits extract for their photocatalytic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, N.; Chand, Subhash; Gathania, Arvind K.

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes the green synthesis of ZnO nano-sized spherical particles (ZnO-NPs) using aqueous fruits extract of Terminalia chebula. The Structural, morphological and optical properties of green-synthesized ZnO-NPs are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, field emission-scanning electron microscope, ultraviolet-visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy techniques. The results show that the synthesized nanoparticles have stable hexagonal wurtzite structure, and roughly spherical in shape. To explore the photocatalytic activity of the ZnO-NPs the photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) dye is investigated. The results reveal that ZnO-NPs prepared through green synthesis route are found to be efficient in the degradation of RhB dye.

  19. Sucrose fatty esters from underutilized seed oil of Terminalia catappa as potential steel corrosion inhibitor in acidic medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale Adewuyi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion of metals is a common problem which requires definite attention. In response to this, the oil was extracted from the seed of Terminalia catappa and used to synthesize sucrose fatty esters via simple reaction mechanism which was considered eco-friendly and sustainable. The corrosion inhibition capacity of sucrose fatty esters for mild steel in 1 M HCl was studied using the weight loss method. It was shown that sucrose fatty ester inhibited corrosion process of mild steel and obeyed Langmuir isotherm. Corrosion rate and inhibition efficiency of sucrose fatty esters were found to reduce with increase of immersion time. The study presented sucrose fatty ester as a promising inhibitor of mild steel corrosion in acidic medium.

  20. Review of Nuria del Campo Martínez: Illocutionary Constructions in English: Cognitive Motivation and Linguistic Realization (2013)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2014-01-01

    A review of Nuria del Campo Martínez: Illocutionary Constructions in English: Cognitive Motivation and Linguistic Realization (2013)......A review of Nuria del Campo Martínez: Illocutionary Constructions in English: Cognitive Motivation and Linguistic Realization (2013)...

  1. Literatura y realidad histórica. Un reencuentro con Ezequiel Martínez Estrada y su interpretación del Martín Fierro

    OpenAIRE

    Amán Rosales Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to critically review some of the main theoretical tenets in Ezequiel Martínez Estrada’s pessimistic stance about the Argentinean history and society of his time. Focusing on his critical remarks about the so-called «literatura o poesía gauchesca» as well as on his enthusiastic assessment of José Hernández’ Martín Fierro, the achievements and missing points in Martínez Estrada’s skeptical diagnosis will be underlined and put in broader philosophical context. ...

  2. Evaluation of the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Terminalia chebula fruits on diazinon-induced liver toxicity and oxidative stress in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Ahmadi-Naji

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diazinon causes oxidative stress and dysfunction of the liver. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Terminalia chebula, on some biochemical and histopathological parameters of liver tissue in diazinon-administered rats. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats were orally administered with 25 mg/kg body weight diazinon. Vehicle (distilled water and silymarin (50 mg/kg body weight were used as the negative and positive control groups, respectively. Diazinon-administered groups were treated with T.chebula (Terminalia chebula fruit extract (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg. After 15 days of treatment, the blood specimens and liver samples were examined. Results: In diazinon-treated group, the levels of serum urea, high density lipoprotein (HDL, and liver superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and vitamin C significantly decreased (p

  3. Sustaining Higher Education Using Wal-Mart's Best Supply Chain Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comm, Clare L.; Mathaisel, Dennis F. X.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The costs in higher education are increasing and need to be controlled. This paper aims to demonstrate what lessons higher education could learn from Wal-Mart's reasons for its financial success with its focus on efficient and effective supply chain management (SCM) best practices. Design/methodology/approach: Wal-Mart's best practices in…

  4. SUPERMARKET PRICING AND GAME THEORY: THE PRESENCE OF WAL-MART

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Eugene

    2004-01-01

    Wal-Mart is a giant in the grocery industry and its influence is growing at a rapid pace. Despite Wal-Mart's success with Everyday Low Pricing (EDLP), there is little to no evidence to suggest that other supermarket chains wish to follow a similar path. Why? This research addresses this question.

  5. Mart Laar - visionäärina kuulsam välismaal / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Maailmas on kümneid riike, kes imetlevad meie endise peaministri Mart Laari reforme Eestis. Kommenteerivad Margaret Thatcher, Alfredo Arias-King ja Tiit Vähi. Vt. samas: Väljavõtteid Mart Laari kohta ajakirjandusest; Laia haardega tegutseja: Liikmelisus

  6. Mart Kangro: uhkete dekoratsioonide taga peab olema elus hetk / intervjueerinud Tanel Veenre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kangro, Mart, 1974-

    2011-01-01

    Intervjuu koreograafi, lavastaja ja tantsija Mart Kangroga, kes kindlustab end pigem vaimses plaanis, kui loob endale müüre ümber. Ta leiab, et oluline on olla mobiilne, olla kulgemises, olla teel. Kanuti Gildi saalis etendub 24., 26. ja 27. septembril Mart Kangro tantsulavastus "Talk to Me"

  7. The use of radio telemetry in Martes research: techniques and technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Thompson; Rebecca A. Green; Joel Sauder; Kathryn L. Purcell; Richard Sweitzer; Jon. Armeno

    2012-01-01

    Radiotelemetry was fi rst used on a Martes species in 1972, when 5 American martens ( Martes americana ) captured incidentally during a snowshoe hare ( Lepus americanus ) research project in Minnesota were radio-collared. Since then, at least 128 research projects have used radiotelemetry to investigate...

  8. A Technique for Merging Areas in Timber Mart-South Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; John M. Pye

    2000-01-01

    For over 20 yr, TimberMart-South (TMS) has been distributing prices of various wood products from southern forests. In the beginning of 1988, the reporting frequency changed from monthly to quarterly, a change readily addressed through a variety established statistical techniques. A more significant statistical challenge is Timber Mart-South's change in 1992 from...

  9. Uji Aktivitas Antioksidan Dengan Metode Linoleat-tiosianat Serta Penentuan Kadar Fenolik Dan Flavonoid Total Ekstrak Etanol Daun Ketapang (Terminalia Catappa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Muryati, Sri; Yuniawati, Devi Ray; Mutiara, Erlita Verdia

    2009-01-01

    Antioxidant is a chemical compound that can prevent free radical reactions in the body. Ethanolic extract of ketapang leaves (Terminalia catappa L.) contain some phenolic compounds among others tannin, phenolic acids and flavonoid that can act as antioxidants. The aim of this research is to know the antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract of ketapang leaves based on linoleanic-thiocyanic method. The determination of the total phenolic flavonoid content was done to know the effect of the...

  10. Study on antifungal potency of Terminalia cattapa, Piper betle, Psidium guajava, and Andrographis peniculata on the growth of Aphanomyces in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Nuryati

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available An effort to prevent aquatic fungi  Aphanomyces sp. infection on fish using natural material can be an economically way, easy to find the materials, easy to apply and safe for environment.  The antifungal potency and efficacy of scalded-leaf extract of Terminalia cattapa, Piper betle, Psidium guajava and Andrographis peniculata on prevention of Aphanomyces sp. growth in vitro in GYA medium.  Scalding was performed in the water at 50°C. Concentration of leaf extracts tested was 0, 10, 20, 40 and 80 g/L.  The results of study showed that Terminalia cattapa in a dosage of 40 g/L had the best prevention activity, followed by Piper betle in the same dosage.  Psidium guajava and Andrographis peniculata had no prevention activity on growth of Aphanomyces sp. Keywords: antifungal, Terminalia cattapa, Piper betle, Psidium guajava, Andrographis peniculata growth, Aohanomyces sp.   ABSTRAK Upaya penanggulangan infeksi cendawan akuatik Aphanomyces sp. pada ikan menggunakan bahan alami dapat menjadi cara yang ekonomis ekonomis, bahan mudah didapat, mudah diterapkan dan aman bagi lingkungan. Potensi antifungi dan efektivitas ekstrak seduh daun ketapang (Terminalia cattapa, sirih (Piper betle, jambu biji (Psidium guajava dan sambiloto (Andrographis peniculata terhadap penghambatan pertumbuhan Aphanomyces sp. dilakukan secara in vitro dalam media biakan GYA. Penyeduhan dilakukan menggunakan pelarut air dengan suhu 50°C. Konsentrasi yang diuji adalah 0, 10, 20, 40 dan 80 gr/L untuk masing-masing bahan. Aktivitas penghambatan paling baik terhadap cendawan diperoleh dari ekstrak seduh daun ketapang 40 g/L dan diikuti oleh ekstrak seduh daun sirih dengan konsentrasi yang sama.  Jambu biji dan sambiloto tidak menunjukkan aktivitas penghambatan terhadap pertumbuhan Aphanomyces sp. Kata kunci: antifungi, ketapang, sirih, jambu biji, sambiloto dan Aphanomyces sp.

  11. Literatura y realidad histórica. Un reencuentro con Ezequiel Martínez Estrada y su interpretación del Martín Fierro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amán Rosales Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to critically review some of the main theoretical tenets in Ezequiel Martínez Estrada’s pessimistic stance about the Argentinean history and society of his time. Focusing on his critical remarks about the so-called «literatura o poesía gauchesca» as well as on his enthusiastic assessment of José Hernández’ Martín Fierro, the achievements and missing points in Martínez Estrada’s skeptical diagnosis will be underlined and put in broader philosophical context. For the Argentinean writer the controversial notion of a “superimposed reality” – as he infers its existence from the Martín Fierro – captures a kind of ambivalent metaphysical concurrence among the literary creation, the geographical setting and the sociopolitical state of the country.

  12. Has Wal-Mart Buried Mom and Pop?: The Impact of Wal-Mart on Self Employment and Small Establishments in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Sobel, Russell S.; Andrea M. Dean

    2006-01-01

    Saving traditional small ‘mom and pop’ businesses has been a justification for political and court decisions preventing Wal-Mart from opening new stores virtually everywhere across the United States. We present the first rigorous econometric investigation of how Wal-Mart actually impacts the small business sector. We examine the rate of self-employment and the number of smallemployer establishments using both time-series and cross-sectional data. Contrary to popular belief, our results sugges...

  13. Somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos of Euterpe oleracea Mart.

    OpenAIRE

    Ledo Ana da Silva; Lameira Osmar Alves; Benbadis Abdellatif Kemaleddine; Menezes Ilmarina Campos de; Oliveira Maria do Socorro Padilha de; Medeiros Filho Sebastião

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the morphogenetic responses of zygotic embryos of açai palm (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) submitted to several conditions of in vitro culture. Several research experiments were conducted, in laboratory, using vegetable material collected from açai palm plants at Embrapa Amazon Oriental, Belém-PA, Brazil. It was possible to verify the expression of a direct, repetitive and no-synchronized model of somatic embryogenesis in mature zygotic embryos cultivated in primar...

  14. Morphology and anatomy of Esenbeckia grandiflora Mart. seeds (Rutaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Linda Lacerda da; Paoli, Adelita Aparecida Sartori [UNESP

    2006-01-01

    Foram descritos e ilustrados aspectos morfo-anatômicos das sementes de Esenbeckia grandiflora Mart., visando o conhecimento dos tegumentos, endosperma e embrião. As sementes são de elipsóides a piramidais, marrom-escuras, anátropas, mesotestais, sem tégmem, exariladas e exalbuminosas. O embrião é axial, reto, total, branco, com cotilédones carnosos de reserva lipo-protéica, eixo hipocótilo-radícula curto e plúmula reduzida. The morphology and anatomy of the seeds of Esenbeckia grandiflora ...

  15. Semente de amendoeira (Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae como substrato para o cultivo de orquídeas epífitas = Tropical almond seeds (Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae as a substrate for epiphytic orchid cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Nascimento Santos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O uso de semente de Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae como substrato para o cultivo de orquídeas das espécies Oncidium flexuosum Sims, Dendrobium nobile Lindl. e Brassavola tuberculata Hook. foi comparado ao do xaxim (Dicksonia sellowiana Hook. Esta espécie é muito usada para o cultivo de orquídeas, mas está ameaçada de extinção e com a sua exploração proibida por lei. Ao final de 12 meses de cultivo, foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: altura da parte aérea, diâmetro dos pseudobulbos, número de pseudobulbos e pH.Não houve interação significativa entre substratos e espécies para as variáveis avaliadas. As orquídeas desenvolvidas em substrato de T. catappa e em xaxim apresentaram alturas da parte aérea, diâmetro dos pseudobulbos e número de pseudobulbos equivalentes. O substrato de T. catappa apresentou baixa velocidade de decomposição, o que manteve a sua boa capacidade de aeração, desenvolvimento das raízes e valor de pH próximo ao encontrado para o xaxim. O uso de T. catappa apresentou-se viável como substituto ao xaxim para o cultivo das orquídeas avaliadas.The use of Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae seeds as a substrate for growing orchids of the species Oncidium flexuosum Sims, Dendrobium nobile Lindl. and Brassavola tuberculata Hook was compared to the tree fern fiber Dicksonia sellowiana Hook, largely used for that purpose. This species is endangered and its exploitation is prohibited by law. After twelve months, the following parameters were evaluated: aerial part height, pseudo bulb diameter, number of pseudo bulbs and pH of substrate. There was no significant interaction between substrates and species for the evaluated parameters. The orchids developed on T. catappa substrate and tree fern fiber showed similar aerial parts, diameter and number of pseudo bulbs. T. catappa substrate showed a low rate of decomposition, which maintained good aeration capacity, root development and pH values close to

  16. Enzyme inhibition, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities, and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts from the root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuan-Feng; Ho, Giang Thanh Thi; Malterud, Karl Egil; Le, Nhat Hao Tran; Inngjerdingen, Kari Tvete; Barsett, Hilde; Diallo, Drissa; Michaelsen, Terje Einar; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2014-09-11

    The root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera have been traditionally used against a variety of ailments such as wounds, hepatitis, malaria, fever, cough, and diarrhea as well as tuberculosis and skin diseases in African folk medicine. Boiling water extracts of Terminalia macroptera, administered orally, are the most common preparations of this plant used by the traditional healers in Mali. This study aimed to investigate the inhibition of the activities of α-glucosidase, 15-lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase, DPPH scavenging activity, complement fixation activity and brine shrimp toxicity of different extracts obtained by boiling water extraction (BWE) and by ASE (accelerated solvent extraction) with ethanol, ethanol-water and water as extractants from different plant parts of Terminalia macroptera. 27 different crude extracts were obtained by BWE and ASE from root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera. The total phenolic and carbohydrate contents, enzyme inhibition activities (α-glucosidase, 15-lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase), DPPH scavenging activity, complement fixation activity and brine shrimp toxicity of these extracts were evaluated. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied for total biological activities evaluation. Several of the extracts from root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera obtained by BWE and ASE showed potent enzyme inhibition activities, radical-scavenging properties and complement fixation activities. None of the extracts are toxic against brine shrimp larvae in the test concentration. Based on the results from PCA, the ASE ethanol extracts of root bark and stem bark and the low molecular weight fraction of the 50% ethanol-water extract of leaves showed the highest total biological activities. The boiling water extracts were less active, but the bark extracts showed activity as α-glucosidase inhibitors and radical scavengers, the leaf extract being less active. The observed enzyme

  17. Mart Laar : Eestit ohustab kõige rohkem klikivõim ja semukapitalism / Mart Laar ; interv. Ingvar Bärenklau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laar, Mart, 1960-

    2007-01-01

    Isamaa ja Res Publica Liidu peaministrikandidaat Mart Laar vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema kohtumisi Euroopa Parlamendi juhi Hans Pötteringi ja Euroopa Komisjoni asepresidendi Günter Verheugeniga, meetmeid inflatsiooni ohjeldamiseks, Eesti-Vene suhteid, IRL-i madalat reitingut valijate hulgas, IRL-i valimisprogrammi, roheliste kasvavat populaarsust, Reformierakonna ja Keskerakonna koalitsiooni võimalikku jätkumist pärast valimisi ning Eesti senist arengut. Lisad: 3 mõtet; 3 küsimust; Isamaa ja Res Publica valimislubadusi

  18. Retrieving HapMap Data Using HapMart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Albert Vernon

    2008-07-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe primary goal of the International Haplotype Map Project has been to develop a haplotype map of the human genome that describes the common patterns of genetic variation, in order to accelerate the search for the genetic causes of human disease. Within the project, ~3.9 million distinct single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been genotyped in 270 individuals from four worldwide populations. The project data are available for unrestricted public use at the HapMap Web site. This site, which is the primary portal to genotype data produced by the project, offers bulk downloads of the data set, as well as interactive data browsing and analysis tools that are not available elsewhere. Because of performance considerations, interactive access to HapMap data via the genome browser on the HapMap Web site is limited to regions no more than 5 Mb wide. Researchers who wish to obtain data for chromosome- or genome-wide data have two choices: Bulk download or HapMart access. HapMart, described in this protocol, allows researchers to select SNPs using diverse criteria and to display just those aspects of the data set that they are interested in.

  19. José Martí y la ciencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Suárez Lezcano

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro José Martí, ejemplo de una formación humanística integral, escribió en una carta a María Mantilla:”Donde yo encuentro poesía mayor es en los libros de ciencia…” Martí vio la ciencia como un fenómeno social y consideró que el desarrollo científico técnico debía estar en función de la satisfacción de las necesidades de las grandes mayorías. Su sistemática voluntad  de cultivarse, de tratar de entender al mundo y no sólo de vivirlo, de razonarlo, fue el motor principal que llevaría a Martí a hacerse de una cultura científica y técnica poco común entre los hombres de su época. También el hecho de vivir durante muchos años en los Estados Unidos le permitió analizar con  profundidad y realismo la sociedad de la época, y por tanto llegó a tener una visión muy avanzada de la relación hombre – naturaleza - sociedad, llegando a convertirse en un gran divulgador de los avances de la ciencia y la técnica de aquella época. La originalidad del periodismo de nuevo tipo que inicia José Martí como vehículo para la divulgación científico - técnica encuentra una de sus más altas expresiones en la revista “La América”. Esta publicación había comenzado en abril de 1882, en Nueva York, bajo la dirección de Rafael de Castro Palomino, quien solicita la colaboración del poeta. A partir del mes de marzo de 1883, el Maestro redacta “La América” en su totalidad, desde los titulares hasta los artículos ensayísticos. Martí caracteriza “La América” como “periódico útil”, pues se dedicó a divulgar los adelantos de la industria, comercio y agricultura de los productores de la América del Norte, y en el avisador prudente de los compradores de la América del Sur. Este carácter de la publicación permite a José Martí tratar desde las páginas de “La América” los recientes descubrimientos científicos, la reseña detallada de las exposiciones que exhibían los últimos logros de la t

  20. Los testimonios de Marte en la Meseta Meridional

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    Julián Hurtado Aguña

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Marte, fue una de las más importantes divinidades romanas presentes en Híspanla. Dentro de la Meseta meridional sus testimonios aparecen en algunas localidades de la provincia de Madrid, como Alcalá de Henares, Talamanca del Jarama o Collado Villalba, estando ausentes en otras partes de esta región. Especialmente importante es la presencia de inscripciones dedicadas a Marte en la ciudad romana de Complutum (Alcalá de Henares, donde sus dedicantes pudieran pertenecer en algún caso al grupo social de los libertos.One oí the most important román divinities in Híspanla was Mars. His testimonies in the Meridional Plateau are in some villages of Madrid's province, as Alcalá de Henares, Talamanca del Jarama or Collado Villalba, and they are not in other places of this reglan. Specially important is ttie presence of inscriptions to Mars in ttie román town of Complutum (Alcalá de Henares, wtiere his devotes could belong to the social freedmans group.

  1. Reducing power and iron chelating property of Terminalia chebula (Retz. alleviates iron induced liver toxicity in mice

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    Sarkar Rhitajit

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 70% methanol extract of Terminalia chebula Retz. fruit (TCME was investigated for its in vitro iron chelating property and in vivo ameliorating effect on hepatic injury of iron overloaded mice. Methods The effect of fruit extract on Fe2+-ferrozine complex formation and Fe2+ mediated pUC-18 DNA breakdown was studied in order to find the in vitro iron chelating activity. Thirty-six Swiss Albino mice were divided into six groups of: blank, patient control and treated with 50, 100, 200 mg/kg b.w. of TCME and desirox (standard iron chelator drug with Deferasirox as parent compound. Evaluations were made for serum markers of hepatic damage, antioxidant enzyme, lipid per oxidation and liver fibrosis levels. The reductive release of ferritin iron by the extract was further studied. Results In vitro results showed considerable iron chelation with IC50 of 27.19 ± 2.80 μg/ml, and a significant DNA protection with [P]50 of 1.07 ± 0.03 μg/ml along with about 86% retention of supercoiled DNA. Iron-dextran injection (i.p. caused significant increase in the levels of the serum enzymes, viz., alanine aminotransferase (ALAT, aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and Bilirubin, which were subsequently lowered by oral administration of 200 mg/kg b.w. dose of the fruit extract by 81.5%, 105.88%, 188.08% and 128.31%, respectively. Similarly, treatment with the same dose of the extract was shown to alleviate the reduced levels of liver antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and non-enzymatic reduced glutathione, by 49.8%, 53.5%, 35.4% and 11% respectively, in comparison to the iron overloaded mice. At the same time, the fruit extract effectively lowered the iron-overload induced raised levels of lipid per oxidation, protein carbonyl, hydroxyproline and liver iron by 49%, 67%, 67% and 26%, respectively, with oral treatment of 200 mg/kg b.w. dose of TCME. The fruit extract

  2. The Vitamin D Analog, MART-10, Attenuates Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells Metastatic Potential

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    Kun-Chun Chiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Regarding breast cancer treatment, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC is a difficult issue. Most TNBC patients die of cancer metastasis. Thus, to develop a new regimen to attenuate TNBC metastatic potential is urgently needed. MART-10 (19-nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl-1α,25(OH2D3, the newly-synthesized 1α,25(OH2D3 analog, has been shown to be much more potent in cancer growth inhibition than 1α,25(OH2D3 and be active in vivo without inducing obvious side effect. In this study, we demonstrated that both 1α,25(OH2D3 and MART-10 could effectively repress TNBC cells migration and invasion with MART-10 more effective. MART-10 and 1α,25(OH2D3 induced cadherin switching (upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of N-cadherin and downregulated P-cadherin expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. The EMT(epithelial mesenchymal transition process in MDA-MB-231 cells was repressed by MART-10 through inhibiting Zeb1, Zeb2, Slug, and Twist expression. LCN2, one kind of breast cancer metastasis stimulator, was also found for the first time to be repressed by 1α,25(OH2D3 and MART-10 in breast cancer cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 activity was also downregulated by MART-10. Furthermore, F-actin synthesis in MDA-MB-231 cells was attenuated as exposure to 1α,25(OH2D3 and MART-10. Based on our result, we conclude that MART-10 could effectively inhibit TNBC cells metastatic potential and deserves further investigation as a new regimen to treat TNBC.

  3. Mining User Demanded Data From Data Mart Using Inductive Rule Mining

    OpenAIRE

    M Paulraj; Sivaprakasam P

    2012-01-01

    A data warehouse is a database used for reporting and analyzing the data stored in the repositories. A data mart acts as the accessing form of the data warehouse situation used to obtain the data out to the users. Accessing of data in the data warehouse is a challenging approach since the user needs better understanding of the data structure stored in the repositories. To handle this issue, data mart is introduced. Data marts built separate functional data repository layers based on the requi...

  4. Effects of an oil spill on the leaf anatomical characteristics of a beach plant (Terminalia catappa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punwong, Paramita; Juprasong, Yotin; Traiperm, Paweena

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the short-term impacts of an oil spill on the leaf anatomical structures of Terminalia catappa L. from crude oil leakage in Rayong province, Thailand, in 2013. Approximately 3 weeks after the oil spill, leaves of T. catappa were collected along the coastline of Rayong from one affected site, five adjacent sites, and a control site. Slides of the leaf epidermis were prepared by the peeling method, while leaf and petiole transverse sections were prepared by paraffin embedding. Cell walls of adaxial epidermal cell on leaves in the affected site were straight instead of the jigsaw shape found in leaves from the adjacent and control sites. In addition, the stomatal index of the abaxial leaf surface was significantly lower in the affected site. Leaf and petiole transverse sections collected from the affected site showed increased cuticle thickness, epidermal cell diameter on both sides, and palisade mesophyll thickness; in contrast, vessel diameter and spongy mesophyll thickness were reduced. These significant changes in the leaf anatomy of T. catappa correspond with previous research and demonstrate the negative effects of oil spill pollution on plants. The anatomical changes of T. catappa in response to crude oil pollution are discussed as a possible indicator of pollution and may be used in monitoring crude oil pollution.

  5. Effect of Extracts of Terminalia chebula on Proliferation of Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts Cells: An Alternative Approach for Wound Healing

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    Dolly Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminalia chebula is one of the traditional medicines used in the treatment of many diseases. In the present work, different concentrations of various organic and aqueous extracts (solvent-free of T. chebula were tested on fibroblast (L929 and keratinocytes cells to evaluate its biocompatible concentration by using MTT and live-dead viability/cytotoxic assay. These extracts were found to be effective in decreasing the ammonia accumulation in the media, thereby reducing its toxic effect on cells. DPPH assay further confirmed the free-radical scavenging ability of the extracts which increased with the increase in concentration of each extract. Cell proliferation/apoptosis, cytoskeletal structure, and ECM production were further evaluated by live-dead assay and phalloidin/cytokeratin staining, respectively. The cytoskeletal structure and ECM secretion of the cells treated with extracts showed higher cellular activity in comparison to control. In conclusion, we have demonstrated the effect of these extracts of T. chebula on both types of skin cells and optimized concentration in which it could be used as a bioactive component for wound healing applications by increasing cell proliferation and decreasing free-radical production without affecting the normal cellular matrix. It can also find applications in other therapeutics applications where ammonia toxicity is a limiting factor.

  6. New polyhydroxytriterpenoid derivatives from fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. and their α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Young; Yang, Heejung; Kim, Hyun Woo; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Three new polyhydroxytriterpenoid derivatives, 23-O-neochebuloylarjungenin 28-O-β-d-glycopyranosyl ester (1), 23-O-4'-epi-neochebuloylarjungenin (2), and 23-O-galloylpinfaenoic acid 28-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl ester (17) were isolated from the fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. along with fourteen known ones. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data and acid hydrolysis. After evaluating for Baker's yeast α-glucosidase, rat intestinal α-glucosidase, and porcine pancreatic α-amylase inhibitory activities of all the isolated compounds, 23-O-galloylarjunolic acid (11, IC50 21.7μM) and 23-O-galloylarjunolic acid 28-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl ester (12, IC50 64.2μM) showed potent inhibitory activities against Baker's yeast α-glucosidase compared to the positive control, acarbose (IC50 174.0μM). However, all the tested compounds except for the positive control, acarbose, had no or only weak inhibitory activity against rat intestinal α-glucosidase and porcine pancreatic α-amylase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Antitussive Activity of the Water-Extracted Carbohydrate Polymer from Terminalia chebula on Citric Acid-Induced Cough

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    Gabriela Nosalova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminalia chebula, a medicinal plant, is widely used in the management of various diseases. As the water extract of its dried ripe fruit is a frequently used preparation, we decided to look for bioactive polysaccharide in this extract. We demonstrate that the obtained polysaccharide fraction, CP, contained a highly branched arabinogalactan protein having a 1→3-, 1→6- and 1→3,6-linked β-D-Galp together with 1→5- and 1→3-linked α-L-Araf and nonreducing end units of α-L-Araf. This polymer possesses strong antitussive property. Our results showed that the number of citric acid-induced cough efforts decreased significantly after the oral application of polysaccharide fraction in a dose of 50 mg kg−1 body weight. Its antitussive efficacy was higher than cough suppressive effect of standard drug codeine. Therefore, traditional aqueous extraction method provides a major polysaccharide, which induces a pharmacological effect: this could represent an attractive approach in phytotherapeutic managements.

  8. Terminalia Chebula provides protection against dual modes of necroptotic and apoptotic cell death upon death receptor ligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoonjung; Byun, Hee Sun; Seok, Jeong Ho; Park, Kyeong Ah; Won, Minho; Seo, Wonhyoung; Lee, So-Ra; Kang, Kidong; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Lee, Ill Young; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Son, Chang Gue; Shen, Han-Ming; Hur, Gang Min

    2016-01-01

    Death receptor (DR) ligation elicits two different modes of cell death (necroptosis and apoptosis) depending on the cellular context. By screening a plant extract library from cells undergoing necroptosis or apoptosis, we identified a water extract of Terminalia chebula (WETC) as a novel and potent dual inhibitor of DR-mediated cell death. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms of its anti-necroptotic and anti-apoptotic action revealed that WETC or its constituents (e.g., gallic acid) protected against tumor necrosis factor-induced necroptosis via the suppression of TNF-induced ROS without affecting the upstream signaling events. Surprisingly, WETC also provided protection against DR-mediated apoptosis by inhibition of the caspase cascade. Furthermore, it activated the autophagy pathway via suppression of mTOR. Of the WETC constituents, punicalagin and geraniin appeared to possess the most potent anti-apoptotic and autophagy activation effect. Importantly, blockage of autophagy with pharmacological inhibitors or genetic silencing of Atg5 selectively abolished the anti-apoptotic function of WETC. These results suggest that WETC protects against dual modes of cell death upon DR ligation. Therefore, WETC might serve as a potential treatment for diseases characterized by aberrantly sensitized apoptotic or non-apoptotic signaling cascades. PMID:27117478

  9. Beach almond (Terminalia catappa, Combretaceae) seed production and predation by scarlet macaws (Ara macao) and variegated squirrels (Sciurus variegatoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Jonathan J; McCoy, Michael B; Vaughan, Christopher S

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of ecological impacts of exotic beach almond (Terminalia catappa) in the central Pacific of Costa Rica are little known, but studies have found this species to be a potentially important food source for endangered scarlet macaws (Ara macao). In this study, reproductive phenology and seed predation by variegated squirrels (Sciurus variegatoides) and scarlet macaws were measured during March and April 2011 on beaches of central Pacific coastal Costa Rica. Seed productivity and predation levels were quantified on a weekly basis for 111 beach almond trees to assess the importance of beach almond as a food source for scarlet macaws and the extent of resource partitioning between seed predators. Seed production of the trees was great (about 194 272 seeds) and approximately 67% of seeds were predated by seed predators. Macaws consumed an estimated 49% of seeds while squirrels consumed 18%. Additionally, evidence of resource partitioning between squirrels and macaws was found. Scarlet macaws preferred to feed on the northern side and edge of the canopy while squirrels preferred to feed on the southern and inside parts of the canopy. Both species ate most seeds on the ocean side of the tree. Despite the status of this tree as an exotic species, the beach almond appears to be an important resource for scarlet macaw population recovery. The resource produced by this tree should be taken into account as reforestation efforts continue in Costa Rica.

  10. Antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic activities of Terminalia pallida Linn. fruits in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats

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    M T Sampathkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia contributes significantly in the manifestation and development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD. Although synthetic lipid-lowering drugs are useful in treating hyperlipidemia, there are number of adverse effects. So the current interest has stimulated the search for new lipid-lowering agents with minimal side effects from natural sources. The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic potentiality of ethanolic extract of Terminalia pallida fruits in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. T. pallida fruits ethanolic extract (TPEt was prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. Sprague-Dawley male rats were made hyperlipidemic by giving high fat diet, supplied by NIN (National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, India. TPEt was administered in a dose of 100 mg/kg.b.w./day for 30 days in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. The body weights, plasma lipid, and lipoprotein levels were measured before and after the treatment. TPEt showed significant antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic activities as evidenced by significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels coupled together with elevation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and diminution of atherogenic index in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. There was a significantly reduced body weight gain in TPEt-treated hyperlipidemic rats than in the control group. The present study demonstrates that TPEt possesses significant antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic properties, thus suggesting its beneficial effect in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Terminalia cuneata and its catalytic action in reduction of direct yellow-12 dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Lee, Yong Rok; Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan

    2016-05-01

    Facile green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous bark extract of Terminalia cuneata has been reported in this article. The effects of concentration of the extract, reaction time and pH were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Appearance of yellow color with λmax around ~ 420 nm suggested the formation of AgNPs. The stable AgNPs were further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) with zeta potential and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in the size range of 25-50 nm with a distorted spherical shape identified from HR-TEM analysis. The catalytic activity of AgNPs on the reduction of direct yellow-12 using NaBH4 was analyzed using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. This study showed the efficacy of biogenic AgNPs in catalyzing the reduction of direct yellow-12.

  12. Preparation and properties of cellulose nanocomposite films with in situ generated copper nanoparticles using Terminalia catappa leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthulakshmi, L; Rajini, N; Nellaiah, H; Kathiresan, T; Jawaid, M; Rajulu, A Varada

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) were in situ generated inside cellulose matrix using Terminalia catappa leaf extract as a reducing agent. During this process, some CuNPs were also formed outside the matrix. The CuNPs formed outside the matrix were observed with transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Majority of the CuNPs formed outside the matrix were in the size range of 21-30nm. The cellulose/CuNP composite films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic, X-Ray diffraction and thermogravimetric techniques. The crystallinity of the cellulose/CuNP composite films was found to be lower than that of the matrix indicating rearrangement of cellulose molecules by in situ generated CuNPs. Further, the expanded diffractogram of the composite films indicated the presence of a mixture of Cu, CuO and Cu2O nanoparticles. The thermal stability of the composites was found to be lower than that of the composites upto 350°C beyond which a reverse trend was observed. This was attributed to the catalytic behaviour of CuNPs for early degradation of the composites. The composite films possessed sufficient tensile strength which can replace polymer packaging films like polyethylene. Further, the cellulose/CuNP composite films exhibited good antibacterial activity against E.coli bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hepatoprotective Effect of Terminalia chebula against t-BHP-Induced Acute Liver Injury in C57/BL6 Mice

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    Min-Kyung Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify the hepatoprotective effects of Terminalia chebula water extract (TCW and its corresponding pharmacological actions using C57/BL6 mice model of tert-butylhydroperoxide-(t-BHP- induced acute liver injury. Mice were orally administered with TCW (0, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg or gallic acid (100 mg/kg for 5 days before t-BHP (2.5 mM/kg injection. Liver enzymes, histopathology, oxidative stress parameters, antioxidant components, and inflammatory cytokines were examined 18 h after t-BHP injection. t-BHP injection caused dramatic elevation of serum AST, ALT, and LDH level, while TCW pretreatment notably attenuated these elevations. Inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were notably increased in hepatic tissues, and then these were efficiently attenuated by TCW pretreatment. t-BHP injection notably increased malondialdehyde, total reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide in the liver tissue, while it markedly dropped the antioxidant activities including total antioxidant capacity, total glutathione contents, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. TCW pretreatment remarkably ameliorated these alterations, and these effects were relevant to gene expressions. Histopathological examinations supported the above findings. Collectively, these findings well prove that TCW beneficially prevents acute and severe liver injury and clarify its corresponding mechanisms involved in the inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines.

  14. Terminalia chebula Extract Protects OGD-R Induced PC12 Cell Death and Inhibits LPS Induced Microglia Activation

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    Hocheol Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Terminalia chebula, native to Southeast Asia, is a popular medicinal plant in Ayurveda. It has been previously reported to have strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory efficacy. In this study, we aimed to investigate if fruit extract from T. chebula might protect neuronal cells against ischemia and related diseases by reduction of oxidative damage and inflammation in rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 using in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reoxygenation (OGD-R ischemia and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 induced cell death. Cell survival was evaluated by a 2-(4,5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Free radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide inhibition were measured by diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, thiobarbituric acid (TBA and Griess reagent, respectively. We found that T. chebula extract: (1 increases the survival of cells subjected to OGD-R by 68%, and H2O2 by 91.4%; (2 scavenges the DPPH free radical by 96% and decreases malondialdehyde (MDA levels from 237.0 ± 15.2% to 93.7 ± 2.2%; (3 reduces NO production and death rate of microglia cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. These results suggest that T. chebula extract has the potential as a natural herbal medicine, to protect the cells from ischemic damage and the possible mechanism might be the inhibition of oxidative and inflammatory processes.

  15. Aqueous Extract of Terminalia chebula Induces Apoptosis in Lung Cancer Cells Via a Mechanism Involving Mitochondria-mediated Pathways

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    Meiling Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to evaluate the aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula activity, and the main pathway was detected on lung cancer by extracts of T. chebula. Aqueous extract of T. chebula was separated using a zeolite, and five fractions of T. chebula extract were obtained and analyzed by ultraviolet (UV and infrared (IR spectroscopy. Antiproliferative activity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT methods against human lung cancer (A549 and mouse lung cancer cell line LLC. T. chebula acts by regulating the Bcl-2 family protein-mediated mitochondrial pathway detected by western blot. Fraction 4 of the T. chebula extract showed much function and was thus studied further. Fraction 4 increased the activation of caspase-3, induced PARP cleavage, and promoted cytochrome c release into the cytoplasm. These data suggest that T. chebula acts by regulating the Bcl-2 family protein-mediated mitochondrial pathway and provide evidence that T. chebula deserves further investigation as a natural agent for treating and preventing cancer.

  16. Evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial potential and GC–MS analysis of Camellia sinensis and Terminalia arjuna

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    Divya Gupta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, Camellia sinensis and Terminalia arjuna are being used widely to cure various diseases like cardiovascular diseases, cancer etc. In the present study, extracts of these plants were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against some human pathogenic bacteria viz. E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and fungus C. albicans. In-vitro inhibition of these pathogenic microorganisms produced inhibition zone ranging from 9 to 18 mm. MIC values of these plant extracts ranged from 6.25 to 12.5 mg/ml. MBC of C. sinensis for E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus was found to be 50 and 12.5 mg/ml, respectively. In case of T. arjuna, the MBC of all the tested microorganisms was found to be 25 mg/ml. The MFC of C. sinensis and T. arjuna against C. albicans was observed to be 50 and 25 mg/ml, respectively. GC–MS analysis of C. sinensis and T. arjuna extract identified 13 and 21 compounds, respectively.

  17. Immunomodulating pectins from root bark, stem bark, and leaves of the Malian medicinal tree Terminalia macroptera, structure activity relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuan-Feng; Barsett, Hilde; Ho, Giang Thanh Thi; Inngjerdingen, Kari Tvete; Diallo, Drissa; Michaelsen, Terje Einar; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2015-02-11

    The root bark, stem bark, and leaves of Terminalia macroptera were sequentially extracted with ethanol, 50% ethanol-water, and 50°C water using an accelerated solvent extractor (ASE). Six bioactive purified pectic polysaccharide fractions were obtained from the 50°C crude water extracts after anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The root bark, stem bark, and leaves of T. macroptera were all good sources for fractions containing bioactive polysaccharides. The high molecular weight fraction 50WTRBH-I-I, being the most active fraction in the complement fixation test, has a highly ramified rhamnogalacturonan type I (RG-I) region with arabinogalactan type II (AG-II) side chains. The most abundant fractions from each plant part, 50WTRBH-II-I, 50WTSBH-II-I, and 50WTLH-II-I, were chosen for pectinase degradation. The degradation with pectinase revealed that the main features of these fractions are that of pectic polysaccharides, with hairy regions (RG-I regions) and homogalacturonan regions. The activity of the fractions obtained after pectinase degradation and separation by gel filtration showed that the highest molecular weight fractions, 50WTRBH-II-Ia, 50WTSBH-II-Ia, and 50WTLH-II-Ia, had higher complement fixation activity than their respective native fractions. These results suggest that the complement fixation activities of these pectins are expressed mainly by their ramified regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Propagação vegetativa de Hyptis leucocephala Mart. ex Benth. e Hyptis platanifolia Mart. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae Vegetative propagation of Hyptis leucocephala Mart. ex Benth. and Hyptis platanifolia Mart. ex Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Hyptis (Lamiaceae apresenta metabolismo especial de notável variabilidade, possuindo predominância de óleos essenciais, que têm muito valor junto a diversas comunidades que utilizam essas plantas pelas propriedades terapêuticas. Diversos estudos com esse gênero têm demonstrado que os óleos essenciais apresentam propriedades antimicrobiana, antifúngica, citotóxica, antiinflamatória, anti-HIV e inseticida, entretanto, poucos são os estudos voltados para a exploração sustentável dessas espécies. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes tipos de estaca e diferentes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (AIB sobre a taxa de sobrevivência, crescimento e enraizamento de estacas de Hyptis leucocephala Mart. ex Benth. e Hyptis platanifolia Mart. ex Benth., espécies endêmicas do semi-árido nordestino cujo valor medicinal tem sido amplamente comprovado. O experimento teve duração de quatro meses. Foram utilizadas estacas apicais, médio-apicais, médio-basais e basais tratadas com soluções de 0, 1000, 2000 e 4000 mg L-1 de ácido indolbutírico (AIB, durante 5 minutos. A utilização de estacas apicais, médio/apicais e médio/basais induzidas com 2000 e 4000 mg L-1 de AIB possibilitaram melhores resultados para propagação vegetativa de Hyptis leucocephala. Para Hyptis platanifolia os melhores resultados foram obtidos com a utilização de estacas médio/basais e basais tratadas com AIB na concentração de 2000 e 4000 mg L-1.The genus Hyptis (Lamiaceae has a special metabolism with remarkable variability and predominance of essential oils of great value to the various communities that use these plants due to their therapeutic properties. A number of studies on this genus have demonstrated that its essential oils present antimicrobial, antifungal, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV and insecticidal activities. However, few studies have focused on the sustainable exploitation of these species

  19. El hombre borrado. Mart Stam y la creatividad colectiva

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    Pablo López Martín

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available El arquitecto holandés Mart Stam fue un outsider del Movimiento Moderno. Comúnmente encasillado en su papel de instigador del ala más dura e intransigente del determinismo racionalista, fue sin embargo un creador original, dotado de un particular talento en todas las escalas. Su propia idea de la disciplina, cercana a la actividad científica, cuya meta es la contribución desinteresada y anónima a un saber universal, ha resultado ser crucial para que su participación en algunas de las páginas más brillantes de la modernidad haya sido relegada a un papel testimonial.

  20. BioMart: a data federation framework for large collaborative projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junjun; Haider, Syed; Baran, Joachim; Cros, Anthony; Guberman, Jonathan M; Hsu, Jack; Liang, Yong; Yao, Long; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2011-01-01

    BioMart is a freely available, open source, federated database system that provides a unified access to disparate, geographically distributed data sources. It is designed to be data agnostic and platform independent, such that existing databases can easily be incorporated into the BioMart framework. BioMart allows databases hosted on different servers to be presented seamlessly to users, facilitating collaborative projects between different research groups. BioMart contains several levels of query optimization to efficiently manage large data sets and offers a diverse selection of graphical user interfaces and application programming interfaces to ensure that queries can be performed in whatever manner is most convenient for the user. The software has now been adopted by a large number of different biological databases spanning a wide range of data types and providing a rich source of annotation available to bioinformaticians and biologists alike.

  1. Kuidas ohjeldada netikommentaatoreid? / Mart Laanpere, Peeter Normak, Jaanus Lillenberg, Kristi Kasper-Semidor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad TLÜ haridustehnoloogia keskuse juhataja Mart Laanpere, TLÜ informaatika instituudi direktor Peeter Normak, Postimees Online’i arendus- ja turundusjuht Jaanus Lillenberg ja haridusveebi Koolielu toimetaja Kristi Kasper-Semidor

  2. Enterprise Human Resources Integration-Statistical Data Mart (EHRI-SDM) Dynamics Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Enterprise Human Resources Integration-Statistical Data Mart (EHRI-SDM) is a statistically cleansed sub-set of the data contained in the EHRI data warehouse. It...

  3. Clinical Trials Using Adenovirus Encoding Tyrosinase/MART-1/MAGEA6-transduced Autologous Dendritic Cell Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI supports clinical trials that test new and more effective ways to treat cancer. Find clinical trials studying adenovirus encoding tyrosinase/mart-1/magea6-transduced autologous dendritic cell vaccine.

  4. Enterprise Human Resources Integration-Statistical Data Mart (EHRI-SDM) Status Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Enterprise Human Resources Integration-Statistical Data Mart (EHRI-SDM) is a statistically cleansed sub-set of the data contained in the EHRI data warehouse. It...

  5. P-MartCancer–Interactive Online Software to Enable Analysis of Shotgun Cancer Proteomic Datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Bramer, Lisa M.; Jensen, Jeffrey L.; Kobold, Markus A.; Stratton, Kelly G.; White, Amanda M.; Rodland, Karin D.

    2017-10-31

    P-MartCancer is a new interactive web-based software environment that enables biomedical and biological scientists to perform in-depth analyses of global proteomics data without requiring direct interaction with the data or with statistical software. P-MartCancer offers a series of statistical modules associated with quality assessment, peptide and protein statistics, protein quantification and exploratory data analyses driven by the user via customized workflows and interactive visualization. Currently, P-MartCancer offers access to multiple cancer proteomic datasets generated through the Clinical Proteomics Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) at the peptide, gene and protein levels. P-MartCancer is deployed using Azure technologies (http://pmart.labworks.org/cptac.html), the web-service is alternatively available via Docker Hub (https://hub.docker.com/r/pnnl/pmart-web/) and many statistical functions can be utilized directly from an R package available on GitHub (https://github.com/pmartR).

  6. Kunstjäsemetega inimsööjad / Mart Kalvet, Alvo Aabloo, Kristjan Port

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalvet, Mart, 1975-

    2011-01-01

    Inimene, meditsiin ja biotehnoloogia aastal 2031. Ennustavad tõlkija Mart Kalvet, Tartu Ülikooli arukate materjalide ja süsteemide labori professor Alvo Aabloo ja Tallinna Ülikooli Terviseteaduste ja Spordi Instituudi direktor Kristjan Port

  7. P-MartCancer-Interactive Online Software to Enable Analysis of Shotgun Cancer Proteomic Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M; Bramer, Lisa M; Jensen, Jeffrey L; Kobold, Markus A; Stratton, Kelly G; White, Amanda M; Rodland, Karin D

    2017-11-01

    P-MartCancer is an interactive web-based software environment that enables statistical analyses of peptide or protein data, quantitated from mass spectrometry-based global proteomics experiments, without requiring in-depth knowledge of statistical programming. P-MartCancer offers a series of statistical modules associated with quality assessment, peptide and protein statistics, protein quantification, and exploratory data analyses driven by the user via customized workflows and interactive visualization. Currently, P-MartCancer offers access and the capability to analyze multiple cancer proteomic datasets generated through the Clinical Proteomics Tumor Analysis Consortium at the peptide, gene, and protein levels. P-MartCancer is deployed as a web service (https://pmart.labworks.org/cptac.html), alternatively available via Docker Hub (https://hub.docker.com/r/pnnl/pmart-web/). Cancer Res; 77(21); e47-50. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Rol mezhdu proshlõm i budushtshim / Mart Laar ; interv. Josef Kats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laar, Mart, 1960-

    2006-01-01

    Parlamendisaadik ning ekspeaminister Mart Laarile meeldib kõige enam tema roll ajaloolasena, otsusest esitada oma kandidatuur peaministri kohale kevadistel parlamendivalimistel, 1940. a. sündmuste mõju Eesti arengule, venelased Eestis

  9. Mart ja Mari-Ann Susi taotlevad omanikena Concordia pankrotti / Andri Maimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maimets, Andri, 1979-

    2003-01-01

    Concordia Ülikooli rektor Mart Susi esitas kohtule avalduse, milles taotleb ülikooli pidanud Concordia Varahalduse OÜ pankroti väljakuulutamist. Vt. samas: Mari-Ann Susi õigustas ülikooli raha kasutamist

  10. Znat russkii jazõk polezno / Mart Laar ; interv. Viktor Sokolov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laar, Mart, 1960-

    2000-01-01

    Peaminister Mart Laari intervjuu ajalehele "Nezavissimaja Gazeta" ئ vene keele kasutamisest Eestis, Eesti-Vene suhetest, liitumisest NATO-ga. Art. refereerib T. Kallas, PM Jan/7 lk. 11. Allikas: Nezavissimaja gazeta

  11. BioMart: a data federation framework for large collaborative projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junjun; Haider, Syed; Baran, Joachim; Cros, Anthony; Guberman, Jonathan M.; Hsu, Jack; Liang, Yong; Yao, Long; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2011-01-01

    BioMart is a freely available, open source, federated database system that provides a unified access to disparate, geographically distributed data sources. It is designed to be data agnostic and platform independent, such that existing databases can easily be incorporated into the BioMart framework. BioMart allows databases hosted on different servers to be presented seamlessly to users, facilitating collaborative projects between different research groups. BioMart contains several levels of query optimization to efficiently manage large data sets and offers a diverse selection of graphical user interfaces and application programming interfaces to ensure that queries can be performed in whatever manner is most convenient for the user. The software has now been adopted by a large number of different biological databases spanning a wide range of data types and providing a rich source of annotation available to bioinformaticians and biologists alike. Database URL: http://www.biomart.org PMID:21930506

  12. An efficient and accurate approach to MTE-MART for time-resolved tomographic PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, K. P.; Scarano, F.

    2015-03-01

    The motion-tracking-enhanced MART (MTE-MART; Novara et al. in Meas Sci Technol 21:035401, 2010) has demonstrated the potential to increase the accuracy of tomographic PIV by the combined use of a short sequence of non-simultaneous recordings. A clear bottleneck of the MTE-MART technique has been its computational cost. For large datasets comprising time-resolved sequences, MTE-MART becomes unaffordable and has been barely applied even for the analysis of densely seeded tomographic PIV datasets. A novel implementation is proposed for tomographic PIV image sequences, which strongly reduces the computational burden of MTE-MART, possibly below that of regular MART. The method is a sequential algorithm that produces a time-marching estimation of the object intensity field based on an enhanced guess, which is built upon the object reconstructed at the previous time instant. As the method becomes effective after a number of snapshots (typically 5-10), the sequential MTE-MART (SMTE) is most suited for time-resolved sequences. The computational cost reduction due to SMTE simply stems from the fewer MART iterations required for each time instant. Moreover, the method yields superior reconstruction quality and higher velocity field measurement precision when compared with both MART and MTE-MART. The working principle is assessed in terms of computational effort, reconstruction quality and velocity field accuracy with both synthetic time-resolved tomographic images of a turbulent boundary layer and two experimental databases documented in the literature. The first is the time-resolved data of flow past an airfoil trailing edge used in the study of Novara and Scarano (Exp Fluids 52:1027-1041, 2012); the second is a swirling jet in a water flow. In both cases, the effective elimination of ghost particles is demonstrated in number and intensity within a short temporal transient of 5-10 frames, depending on the seeding density. The increased value of the velocity space

  13. Pengaruh Strategi Bauran Pemasaran Ritel terhadap Kepuasan dan Loyalitas Pelanggan Minimarket MES Mart Syariah Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Pasaribu, Dheafani Arnila

    2015-01-01

    The formulation of the case in this research is how far the effect of retail marketing mix strategy which consist of product, price, place, promotion, personality, and presentation on customer satisfaction of minimarket MES Mart syariah and how far the effect of customer satisfaction on MES Mart customer loyalty. The goal of this research is to know and analize the effect of retail marketing mix strategy which consist of product, price, place, promotion, personality, and presentation on custo...

  14. Atividade microbiana de solo e serapilheira em áreas povoadas com Pinus elliottii e Terminalia ivorensis Microbial activity of soil and litter in areas with forest stands of Pinus elliottii e Terminalia ivorensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mundstock Xavier de Carvalho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, as espécies Pinus elliottii e Terminalia ivorensis vêm sendo indicadas para reflorestamento. No entanto, pouco se sabe sobre as características ecológicas destas florestas, o ciclo de nutrientes e suas conseqüências sobre a produtividade e sustentabilidade sob condições tropicais. Visando melhor compreender a dinâmica do C nestes ecossistemas, objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a atividade microbiana do solo, serapilheira e da mistura solo + serapilheira em povoamentos florestais de P. elliottii e T. ivorensis. Amostras de solos e serapilheira foram incubadas e a atividade microbiana avaliada por meio da evolução de CO2. Ao final da incubação, a respiração acumulada foi superior para a serapilheira de T. ivorensis. Os demais substratos com serapilheira não diferiram entre si, mas diferiram do solo sob T. ivorensis, que, por sua vez, diferiu do solo sob P. elliottii. Nas condições testadas, a incorporação de solo à serapilheira, bem como a incorporação alternada de solo de um povoamento à serapilheira de outro, não promoveu aumentos significativos na respiração da serapilheira, mostrando que as características químicas da própria serapilheira alteram mais fortemente sua velocidade de degradação que as características químicas e microbianas do solo onde é incorporada.In Brazil, the species Pinus elliottii and Terminalia ivorensis are being recommended for reforestation. However, little is known about the ecological characteristics of such forests, the nutrient cycle and possible consequences on yields and sustainability under tropical conditions. For a better understanding of the C dynamic in these ecosystems, this study aimed to evaluate the microbial activity of soil, litter, and the mixture of soil + litter in forest stands of P. elliottii and T. ivorensis. Samples of soil, litter and mixture were incubated and the microbial activity was evaluated on the basis of CO2 released. At the end of

  15. [Population aspects of sexual dimorphism in guild of the Mustelidae: Mustela lutreola, Neovison vison, Mustela putorius, Martes martes as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korablev, M P; Korablev, N P; Korablev, P N

    2013-01-01

    Size sexual dimorphism was investigated on 695 skulls of four Mustelidae species. By extent of increasing of differences between sexes the species are placed in following order: European pine marten (Martes martes), European mink (Mustela lutreola), American mink (Neovison vison), and European polecat (Mustela putorius). Extent of the dimorphism characterizes ecological plasticity of the species and is population characteristic. It is shown that M. martes takes specific and relatively narrow ecological niche of forest ecosystems, entering into weak competitive relationships with smaller Mustelidae species. The level of sexual dimorphism of M. lutreola, N. vison and M. putorius reflects intensity of its interspecific relationships within study area. High level of sexual dimorphism of M. putorius is determined by further divergence of ecological niches of males and females, and also appears to be compensatory mechanism reducing consequences of hardened environmental requirements.

  16. Folk medicine Terminalia catappa and its major tannin component, punicalagin, are effective against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P S; Li, J H; Liu, T Y; Lin, T C

    2000-05-01

    Terminalia catappa L. is a popular folk medicine for preventing hepatoma and treating hepatitis in Taiwan. In this paper, we examined the protective effects of T. catappa leaf water extract (TCE) and its major tannin component, punicalagin, on bleomycin-induced genotoxicity in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells. Pre-treatment with TCE or punicalagin prevented bleomycin-induced hgprt gene mutations and DNA strand breaks. TCE and punicalagin suppressed the generation of bleomycin-induced intracellular free radicals, identified as superoxides and hydrogen peroxides. The effectiveness of TCE and punicalagin against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity could be, at least in part, due to their antioxidative potentials.

  17. Consumo de almendro de playa (Terminalia catappa) y uso de hojas como herramienta por parte del ave Ara ambiguus (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Villegas-Retana, Sergio A; Araya-H, David

    2017-01-01

    Hay pocos estudios sobre la dieta en aves neotropicales, incluidos lo psitácidos. La lapa verde (Ara ambiguus) se alimenta de las semillas del almendro de montaña (Dipteryx panamensis), titor (Sacoglottis trichogyna) y otras especies. Sin embargo no hay reportes de esta especie alimentándose de almendro de playa (Terminalia catappa). Aquí informamos que lo hace y que usa hojas como herramienta. Su consumo podría deberse a la falta de frutos de D. panamensis y S. trichogyna, y al alto valor nu...

  18. Facing global markets – usage changes in Western Amazonian plants: the example of Euterpe precatoria Mart. and E. oleracea Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer W. Bussmann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Palms (Arecaceae are one of the most important families of useful plants, and indigenous societies have developed very distinct ways of utilizing this resource. The clonal Euterpe oleracea Mart. has long been used for the preparation of frothy beverages in the eastern Amazon, in particular by colonists and caboclos, but to a much lesser extent by the indigenous population. Euterpe precatoria Mart., which grows in the western Amazon, is traditionally reported as resource for construction and thatch, but not as important species in alimentation. Our recent work indicates that the use of both species has dramatically shifted in the recent past. Prices for Euterpe products have increased dramatically due to the global commodization first of palm hearts and “Açaí berry juice” as nutritional supplement. This is especially evident in western Amazonia: In Bolivia and Peru, where older indigenous informants mostly reported thatch and houseposts as regular use for E. precatoria and did not know E. oleracea. Younger informants most commonly reported to a large extent on E. precatoria being used for the production of palm hearts, but less for other, while the youngest informants in many cases only knew E. precatoria fruits as source of beverages, as commercial fruit, and as source for handicrafts, and indicated that E. oleracea was being introduced because the species yielded higher harvests. In addition, many mid-age and younger informants reported Euterpe sp. as medicinal species, a less frequently mentioned by older informants. The local mestizo population in contrast had a broader distributed knowledge with regard to “food” uses of Euterpe sp., and mentioned the species as source of construction material less frequently.

  19. Optimization of the volume reconstruction for classical Tomo-PIV algorithms (MART, BIMART and SMART): synthetic and experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, L.; Tremblais, B.; David, L.

    2014-03-01

    Optimization of multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART), simultaneous MART and block iterative MART reconstruction techniques was carried out on synthetic and experimental data. Different criteria were defined to improve the preprocessing of the initial images. Knowledge of how each reconstruction parameter influences the quality of particle volume reconstruction and computing time is the key in Tomo-PIV. These criteria were applied to a real case, a jet in cross flow, and were validated.

  20. Intracellular and membrane-damaging activities of methyl gallate isolated from Terminalia chebula against multidrug-resistant Shigella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharyya, Saurabh; Sarkar, Prodipta; Saha, Dhira R; Patra, Amarendra; Ramamurthy, T; Bag, Prasanta K

    2015-08-01

    Shigella spp. (Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, Shigella boydii and Shigella sonnei) cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis), which is characterized by bloody mucous diarrhoea. Although a variety of antibiotics have been effective for treatment of shigellosis, options are becoming limited due to globally emerging drug resistance. In the present study, in vitro antibacterial activity of methyl gallate (MG) isolated from Terminalia chebula was determined by performing MIC, minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill kinetic studies. Bacterial membrane-damaging activity of MG was determined by membrane perturbation and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cellular drug accumulation, cell infection and assessment of intracellular activities of MG and reference antibiotics were performed using HeLa cell cultures. The bactericidal activity of MG against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Shigella spp. in comparison with other commonly used drugs including fluoroquinolone was demonstrated here. TEM findings in the present study revealed that MG caused the total disintegration of inner and outer membranes, and leakage of the cytoplasmic contents of S. dysenteriae. The level of accumulation of MG and tetracycline in HeLa cells incubated for 24  h was relatively higher than that of ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid (ratio of intracellular concentration/extracellular concentration of antibiotic for MG and tetracycline>ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid). The viable number of intracellular S. dysenteriae was decreased in a time-dependent manner in the presence of MG (4 × MBC) and reduced to zero within 20  h. The significant intracellular activities of MG suggested that it could potentially be used as an effective antibacterial agent for the treatment of severe infections caused by MDR Shigella spp.

  1. Compounds from Terminalia mantaly L. (Combretaceae Stem Bark Exhibit Potent Inhibition against Some Pathogenic Yeasts and Enzymes of Metabolic Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthe Aimée Tchuente Tchuenmogne

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pathogenic yeasts resistance to current drugs emphasizes the need for new, safe, and cost-effective drugs. Also, new inhibitors are needed to control the effects of enzymes that are implicated in metabolic dysfunctions such as cancer, obesity, and epilepsy. Methods: The anti-yeast extract from Terminalia mantaly (Combretaceae was fractionated and the structures of the isolated compounds established by means of spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. Activity was assessed against Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. krusei using the microdilution method, and against four enzymes of metabolic significance: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, human erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase I and II, and glutathione S-transferase. Results: Seven compounds, 3,3′-di-O-methylellagic acid 4′-O-α-rhamnopyranoside; 3-O-methylellagic acid; arjungenin or 2,3,19,23-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oïc acid; arjunglucoside or 2,3,19,23-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oïc acid glucopyranoside; 2α,3α,24-trihydroxyolean-11,13(18-dien-28-oïc acid; stigmasterol; and stigmasterol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside were isolated from the extract. Among those, 3,3′-di-O-methylellagic acid 4′-O-α-rhamnopyranoside, 3-O-methylellagic acid, and arjunglucoside showed anti-yeast activity comparable to that of reference fluconazole with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC below 32 µg/mL. Besides, Arjunglucoside potently inhibited the tested enzymes with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50 below 4 µM and inhibitory constant (Ki <3 µM. Conclusions: The results achieved indicate that further SAR studies will likely identify potent hit derivatives that should subsequently enter the drug development pipeline.

  2. Analysis of sea almond (Terminalia catappa) cracking sites used by wild Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falótico, Tiago; Spagnoletti, Noemi; Haslam, Michael; Luncz, Lydia V; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Gumert, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Nut-cracking is shared by all non-human primate taxa that are known to habitually use percussive stone tools in the wild: robust capuchins (Sapajus spp.), western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), and Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea). Despite opportunistically processing nuts, Burmese long-tailed macaques predominantly use stone tools to process mollusks in coastal environments. Here, we present the first comprehensive survey of sea almond (Terminalia catappa) nut-cracking sites created by macaques. We mapped T. catappa trees and nut-cracking sites that we encountered along the intertidal zone and forest border on the coasts of Piak Nam Yai Island, Thailand. For each nut-cracking site, we measured the physical properties (i.e., size, weight, use-wear) of hammer stones and anvils. We found that T. catappa trees and nut-cracking sites primarily occurred on the western coast facing the open sea, and cracking sites clusters around the trees. We confirmed previous results that nut cracking tools are among the heaviest tools used by long-tailed macaques; however, we found our sample of T. catappa stone tools lighter than a previously collected sea almond sample that, unlike our sample, was collected immediately after use within the intertidal zone. The difference was likely the result of tidal influences on tool-use sites. We also found that tool accumulations above the intertidal region do not resemble those within them, possibly leading to incomplete assessments of macaque stone tools through archaeological techniques that would use these durable sites. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Anti-Hyperglycemic Effect of Chebulagic Acid from the Fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we firstly compared rat intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity by different ethanol-aqueous extractions from the dried fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. The enzymatic assay showed that the 80% ethanol extract was more potent against maltase activity than both 50% and 100% ethanol extracts. By HPLC analysis, it was determined that the 80% ethanol extract had a higher content of chebulagic acid than each of 50% or 100% ethanol extract. Next, we investigated how efficiently chebulagic acid could inhibit sugar digestion by determining the glucose level on the apical side of the Caco-2 cell monolayer. The result showed that the maltose-hydrolysis activity was down-regulated by chebulagic acid, which proved to be a reversible inhibitor of maltase in Caco-2 cells. On the other hand, chebulagic acid showed a weak inhibition of sucrose-hydrolysis activity. Meanwhile, chebulagic acid did not have an obvious influence on intestinal glucose uptake and was not effective on glucose transporters. Further animal studies revealed that the oral administration of chebulagic acid (100 mg/kg body weight significantly reduced postprandial blood glucose levels by 11.1% in maltose-loaded Sprague-Dawley (SD rats compared with the control group, whereas the oral administration of chebulagic acid did not show a suppressive effect on postprandial hyperglycemia in sucrose- or glucose-loaded SD-rats. The results presented here suggest that chebulagic acid from T. chebula can be used to control blood glucose and manage type 2 diabetes, although clinical trials are needed.

  4. Quercus infectoria and Terminalia chebula decrease melanin content and tyrosinase activity in B16/F10 cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Jamshidzadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: One of the most complained skin cares in ethnic skin like Asian women is hyperpigmentation, and lightening preparations have been long-standing desired. Due to the side effects of current drugs, medicinal plants have attracted more attentions as a source of novel drugs. Mazo (Quercus infectoria galls and Terminalia chebula fruits have been suggested in Persian Traditional Medicine as a safe treatment for hyperpigmentation. Aims: To evaluate the cytotoxicity and the effect on melanin synthesis in B16/F10 melanoma of Q. infectoria and T. chebula extracts. Methods: After collection and scientific authentication, plants were extracted by maceration method with methanol and were standardized based on total phenolic content. MTT assay and colorimetric method were used for cytotoxicity and determination of melanin content and tyrosinase activity in B16/F10 cells, respectively. Kojic acid was used as a reference compound. Results: Total phenolic content of Q. infectoria and T. chebula was determined as 287.34 ± 4.21 and 172.61 ± 8.67 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract, respectively. Both plants decreased cell viability at 100 µg/mL and significantly reduced intercellular melanin to 66.25% and 71.1%, respectively in comparison to kojic acid (56.63% at 50 µg/mL. In the same concentration, 65.7% and 71.2% tyrosinase activity was inhibited by Q. infectoria and T. chebula, which significantly were different from control (p<0.001. Conclusions: These findings suggest that both plants especially Q. infectoria could inhibit melanogenesis in non-toxic concentrations and would be a good candidate for further studies.

  5. Modeling and analysis of real-time and embedded systems with UML and MARTE developing cyber-physical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Selic, Bran

    2013-01-01

    Modeling and Analysis of Real-Time and Embedded Systems with UML and MARTE explains how to apply the complex MARTE standard in practical situations. This approachable reference provides a handy user guide, illustrating with numerous examples how you can use MARTE to design and develop real-time and embedded systems and software. Expert co-authors Bran Selic and Sébastien Gérard lead the team that drafted and maintain the standard and give you the tools you need apply MARTE to overcome the limitations of cyber-physical systems. The functional sophistication required of modern cyber-physical

  6. Terminalia chebula Fructus Inhibits Migration and Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and Production of Inflammatory Mediators in RAW 264.7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Ho Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and neointima formation after angioplasty involves vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs migration and proliferation followed by inflammatory responses mediated by recruited macrophages in the neointima. Terminalia chebula is widely used traditional medicine in Asia for its beneficial effects against cancer, diabetes, and bacterial infection. The study was designed to determine whether Terminalia chebula fructus water extract (TFW suppresses VSMC migration and proliferation and inflammatory mediators production in macrophage (RAW 264.7. Our results showed that TFW possessed strong antioxidative effects in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH scavenging and lipid peroxidation assays. In addition, TFW reduced nitric oxide (NO production, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression in RAW 264.7 cells. Also, TFW inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB induced VSMC migration as determined by wound healing and Boyden chamber assays. The antimigratory effect of TFW was due to its inhibitory effect on metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 expression, focal adhesion kinase (FAK activation, and Rho-family of small GTPases (Cdc42 and RhoA expression in VSMCs. Furthermore, TFW suppressed PDGF-BB induced VSMC proliferation by downregulation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs signaling molecules. These results suggest that TFW could be a beneficial resource in the prevention of atherosclerosis.

  7. Antidepressant like effects of hydrolysable tannins of Terminalia catappa leaf extract via modulation of hippocampal plasticity and regulation of monoamine neurotransmitters subjected to chronic mild stress (CMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Y; Ramya, E M; Navya, K; Phani Kumar, G; Anilakumar, K R

    2017-02-01

    Terminalia catappa L. belonging to Combretaceae family is a folk medicine, known for its multiple pharmacological properties, but the neuro-modulatory effect of TC against chronic mild stress was seldom explored. The present study was designed to elucidate potential antidepressant-like effect of Terminalia cattapa (leaf) hydro-alcoholic extract (TC) by using CMS model for a period of 7 weeks. Identification of hydrolysable tannins was done by using LC-MS. After the CMS exposure, mice groups were administered with imipramine (IMP, 10mg/kg, i.p.) and TC (25, 50 and 100mg/kg of TC, p.o.). Behavioural paradigms used for the study included forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and sucrose preference test (SPT). After behavioural tests, monoamine neurotransmitter, cortisol, AchE, oxidative stress levels and mRNA expression studies relevant to depression were assessed. TC supplementation significantly reversed CMS induced immobility time in FST and other behavioural paradigms. Moreover, TC administration significantly restored CMS induced changes in concentrations of hippocampal neurotransmitters (5-HT, DA and NE) as well as levels of acetyl cholinesterase, cortisol, monoamine oxidases (MAO-A, MAO-B), BDNF, CREB, and p-CREB. It suggests that TC supplementation could supress stress induced depression by regulating monoamine neurotransmitters, CREB, BDNF, cortisol, AchE level as well as by amelioration of oxidative stress. Hence TC can be used as a complementary medicine against depression-like disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Rural maternity care: can we learn from Wal-Mart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Teijlingen, E R; Pitchforth, E

    2010-03-01

    In many countries rural maternity care is under threat. Consequently rural pregnant women will have to travel further to attend larger maternity units to receive care and deliver their babies. This trend is not dissimilar from the disappearance of other rural services, such as village shops, banks, post offices and bus services. We use a comparative approach to draw an analogy with large-scale supermarkets, such as the Wal-Mart and Tesco and their effect on the viability of smaller rural shops, depersonalisation of service and the wider community. The closure of a community-maternity unit leads to women attending a different type of hospital with a different approach to maternity care. Thus small community-midwifery units are being replaced, not by a very similar unit that happens to be further away, but by a larger obstetric unit that operates on different models, philosophy and notions of risk. Comparative analysis allows a fresh perspective on the provision of rural maternity services. We argue that previous discussions focusing on medicalisation and change in maternity services can be enhanced by drawing on experience in other sectors and taking a wider societal lens. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. GERMINAÇAO DE SEMENTES DE Combretum leprosum MART.

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    MAURO VASCONCELOS PACHECO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combretum leprosum Mart. is a tree species native of the Caatinga, used in the restoration of degraded areas and in folk medicine. Thus, this research aimed to evaluate the germination and vigor of the seeds subjecting them to different pre-germinative treatments, temperatures and substrates. In the first experi- ment, we tested the pre-germinative treatments: mechanical scarification with sandpaper, chemical scarification with H2SO4 for 1, 5, 10 and 20 minutes, immersion in water at 80 oC and imbibition in distilled water for 24 hours, beyond of the control. In the second experiment, after treatment of imbibition in water for 24 hours, the experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 5 x 4 (five substrates: into paper, sand, coconut fiber, vermiculite and paper towel organized in the form of rolls; and four temperatures: 25, 30, 35 and 20-30 oC. The following parameters were evalueted: seed moisture content, germination, germination speed index, first germination count and seedling length and dry matter weight. The seeds of Combretum leprosum have not coat dormancy. However, pre-germinative treatments of mechanical scarification with sandpaper and imbibi- tion in water for 24 hours allows better expression of seeds vigor. The paper towel and the temperatures of 25, 30 and 20-30 oC provide adequate conditions for evaluating the germination of Combretum leprosum seeds.

  10. Characterization and development of marolo (Annona crassiflora, Mart.

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    Edson Pablo da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study was the physical, chemical, and physiological characterization of marolo (Annona crassiflora, Mart. during its development. The fruits were harvested 12 Km off Itumirim, Southern Minas Gerais, Brazil, at 20-d intervals from anthesis to fruit maturity. The first fruits were harvested within 60 days. The total development of the fruit took 140 days starting from anthesis. At 140 days after anthesis, the fruit reached its maximum size, with mass of 1.380g, transverse diameter of 13.0 cm, and longitudinal diameter of 11.5 cm. During its development, the fruit showed increase in mass and in traverse and longitudinal diameters. The changes during maturation and ripening, such as: pH reduction and starch degradation, pectic solubilization, and increase in total sugars, soluble solids (ºB, respiratory rate (CO2, titratable acidity, vitamin C, and β-caroteno were observed from the 120th day of marolo development. A decrease in ability to sequester free radicals was observed up the 120th day, followed by an increase. The volatile compounds identified at the end of the development included the esters group only.

  11. Geochemical Investigation of Clay Minerals in Marte, Borno State, Nigeria

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    F. D. Adams

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Clay deposit collected from various locations in Marte (Northern Borno, were studied to determine their physical and chemical characteristics in order to evaluate their suitability for industrial uses. Major and trace element analyses were carried out on clay samples using Inductively Couple Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES and X- Ray Fluorescence (XRF. The result of the chemical analysis of the ten (10 samples collected showed significant amounts of SiO2 and Al2O3. Silica content ranges from 51.48 to 62.44 % while alumina varies from 12.49 to 19.00 %. The calcium oxide ranges from 1.17 to 3.39 %, Na2O ranges from 1.1 to 8.61 %, K2O from 1.54 to 3.66 %, MgO varies from 0.04 to0.14 %, Fe2O3 varies from 0.3 to 2.7 % and MnO ranges from 0.01 to 1.03 %. The result showed that the clays are mainly smectite with quartz and felspar as the main non-clay minerals. Generally, the geochemical results of the samples do not meet the standard for industrial utilization when compared to the Industrial specifications. However, for industrial utilization, some of the clay samples may be used after necessary beneficiations.

  12. Somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos of Euterpe oleracea Mart.

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    Ledo Ana da Silva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the morphogenetic responses of zygotic embryos of açai palm (Euterpe oleracea Mart. submitted to several conditions of in vitro culture. Several research experiments were conducted, in laboratory, using vegetable material collected from açai palm plants at Embrapa Amazon Oriental, Belém-PA, Brazil. It was possible to verify the expression of a direct, repetitive and no-synchronized model of somatic embryogenesis in mature zygotic embryos cultivated in primary MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D (339.36 muM and transferred to a secondary MS medium in the presence of NAA (0.537 muM and 2iP (12.30 muM. The conversion of somatic embryos into seedlings was reached after 210 days with the transfer of the cultures to a third medium with sucrose and mineral salts concentrations reduced to a half, without growth regulators.

  13. Martí y la psicología Martí e a psicologia Marti’s psychological ideas

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    Diego Jorge González Serra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo es demostrar que existe un pensamiento psicológico en José Martí. Se señala el criterio martiano de la unidad de observación y reflexión como base de la ciencia, su pensamiento multilateral y sintético, su promoción explícita de la ciencia del espíritu, su concepción sobre la unidad de lo general, lo particular y lo individual en el hombre, sus ideas sobre el pensamiento, la imaginación, la inteligencia, la afectividad, sobre la unidad del conocimiento y el afecto y sobre el espíritu de los pueblos.O objetivo deste trabalho é demonstrar que existe um pensamento psicológico de José Martí. Destacam-se o critério martiano da unidade de observação e reflexão como base da ciência, o seu pensamento multilateral e sintético, sua promoção explícita da ciência do espírito, sua concepção sobre a unidade do geral, o particular e o individual no homem, suas ideias sobre o pensamento, a imaginação, a inteligência, a afetividade, sobre a unidade do conhecimento e do afeto e sobre o espírito dos povos.The aim of the present paper is to bring to light Marti's psychological ideas. The paper discusses Marti's concepts on the science of the spirit. It deals with his beliefs on the unity of observation and thinking as the basis of science; with his multilateral and synthetic thinking; with his ideas regarding the unity of the general, the particular and the individual in man; with his concepts of thinking, imagination and intelligence, moral and motivation; with his beliefs on the unity of cognition and affection, and with his ideas on the spirit of peoples.

  14. The socioeconomic context of the use of Euterpe precatoria Mart. and E. oleracea Mart. in Bolivia and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua-Zambrana, Narel; Bussmann, Rainer W; Macía, Manuel J

    2017-06-02

    Traditional knowledge (TK) has enabled communities to adapt to changes in life conditions over centuries. However, this local context is being dramatically affected by recent changes through globalization and modernization of societies. In this paper we seek to identify socio-economic factors that are related to the knowledge and use of two palm species in mestizo and indigenous communities in the Amazonian of Peru and Bolivia. Both species are known in the region under the main vernacular name of Asaí, and are source of two highly commercialized resources: palm-hearts and fruits. Euterpe precatoria Mart. is native to the region whereas E. oleracea Mart. is being introduced for the use of both resources. We compare TK about the two Euterpe species in both countries in relation to 14 socioeconomic factors in seven use categories. We performed a Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to elucidate the influence of each socioeconomic factor on the overall palm knowledge or on individual use categories. In the two countries, we found that mestizos, speaking only Spanish, and migrants in the same ecoregion, knew more uses in all use categories for E. precatoria than for E. oleracea, even in use categories such as Medicinal and veterinary and Construction, for which indigenous participants had more uses in case of other species. In Peru, the use of E. precatoria was higher among participants with greater wealth, which could be related to the commercial importance that both the fruits and the palm-hearts have had in the markets of the region. In contrast, in Bolivia, although some income generation from Euterpe sp. was observed, the use of E. precatoria was much more homogeneously distributed. The use of E. oleracea in Bolivia is recent, and although its most important uses are related to the consumption of fruits and palm-hearts (Human food), it is now being slowly used for Medicinal and Construction purposes, similar to E. precatoria. The use of each of the species

  15. n-alkanes from Paepalanthus Mart. species (Eriocaulaceae n-alcanos de espécies de Paepalanthus Mart. (Eriocaulaceae

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    Lourdes Campaner dos Santos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the study of nonpolar compounds from plants belonging to the genus Paepalanthus Mart. (Eriocaulaceae. Long-chain linear aliphatic hydrocarbons were identified by GC-FID and GC-MS. The results indicate that Paepalanthus subg. Platycaulon species present a very homogenous profile, with carbon chains of n-alkanes ranging from C25 to C31, most samples presenting higher frequencies of C27 and C29 homologues. Paepalanthus subg. Paepalocephalus species may be distinguished from one another by the distribution of main n-alkanes. P. macrocephalus, subsect. Aphorocaulon species, presents alkanes with odd-carbon numbers and P. denudatus and P. polyanthus, Actinocephalus species, present alkanes with quite distinctive profiles, with many shorter chains and a high frequency of even-carbon number, especially P. polyanthus. The results obtained indicate that the distribution of alkanes can be a useful taxonomic character, as do polar compounds like flavonoid glycosides.Este trabalho apresenta o estudo de substâncias apolares obtidas a partir de plantas pertencentes ao gênero Paepalanthus Mart. (Eriocaulaceae. Hidrocarbonetos alifáticos de cadeias longas lineares foram identificados por CG-DIC e CG-EM. Os resultados indicam que as espécies de Paepalanthus subg. Platycaulon apresentam perfil homogêneo, com cadeias carbônicas de n-alcanos variando de C25 a C31, com a maioria das amostras apresentando freqüências maiores dos homólogos C27 e C29. As espécies do subgênero Paepalocephalus podem ser diferenciadas pela distribuição dos n-alcanos principais. P. macrocephalus, uma espécie da subseção Aphorocaulon, apresenta perfil com alcanos de cadeia ímpar, enquanto P. denudatus e P. polyanthus, espécies da seção Actinocephalus, apresentam perfil bem distinto, com grande número de cadeias mais curtas e alta freqüência de cadeias com número par de carbonos, especialmente P. polyanthus. Os resultados obtidos indicam que a

  16. Occurrence of internal parasites in stone martens (Martes foina) from Cracow and suburbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornaś, Sławomir; Wierzbowska, Izabela A; Górski, Paweł; Okarma, Henryk

    2013-01-01

    The pine marten Martes martes and the stone marten Martes foina are the only representatives of the genus Martes in Poland. During the last few decades, an intensive synurbisation of stone martens has been recorded. The aim of the study was to assess the level of infection by internal parasites of Martes foina in the Cracow urban area. Eleven necropsies were performed of stone martens killed during animal-vehicle collisions. Additionally, coprological examination of 129 stone marten scats was included. For further analysis, two standard methods, i.e. flotation and decantation, were used. The intensity of infection by parasites was low. Taenia martis was found to be present in one marten individual by necropsy, while Taeniidae helminths and two genera of nematodes, Capillaria and Toxocara, were identified during coprodiagnosis. The diet analysis of stone marten scats revealed a high proportion of two food categories. Percentage frequency of occurrence for plant material and anthropogenic was calculated as 42.3% and 15.4%, respectively. This type of food composition might suggest lower infection by internal parasites in particular species, especially with an indirect life cycle.

  17. Annona crassiflora Mart. fruit pulp effects on biochemical parameters and rat colon carcinogenesis

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    Vinícius Paula Venâncio

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A. crassiflora Mart. a Brazilian savannah fruit, is a source of phytochemical compounds that possess a wide array of biological activities, including free radical scavenging. This native fruit proved to potentialize the mutagenic process in previous in vivo investigations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of A. crassiflora Mart. pulp intake on colonic cell proliferation and on the development of Aberrant Crypt Foci (ACF in male Wistar rats. The animals were fed with either a commercial diet or a diet supplemented with A. crassiflora Mart. pulp mixed in 1%, 10% or 20% (w/w for 4 weeks or 20 weeks. The carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (4 doses, 40 mg kg-1 each was used to induce colonic ACF. After euthanasia, the blood, liver and colon samples were collected for biochemical determinations, oxidative stress or ACF development analysis, respectively. Immunohistochemical analyses of the colonic mucosa were performed using antibodies against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA in normal-appearing colonic crypt and β-catenin in ACF. There was no ACF development in the colon from groups treated with A. crassiflora Mart. pulp. Also, the biochemical and oxidative stress analysis, PCNA labeling and ACF development (number, multiplicity or cellular localization of β-catenin were unchanged as a result of marolo pulp intake. Thus, the present results suggest that A. crassiflora Mart. pulp intake did not exert any protective effect in the colon carcinogenesis induced by DMH in rats.

  18. S-MART, a software toolbox to aid RNA-Seq data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zytnicki, Matthias; Quesneville, Hadi

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing is now routinely performed in many experiments. But the analysis of the millions of sequences generated, is often beyond the expertise of the wet labs who have no personnel specializing in bioinformatics. Whereas several tools are now available to map high-throughput sequencing data on a genome, few of these can extract biological knowledge from the mapped reads. We have developed a toolbox called S-MART, which handles mapped RNA-Seq data. S-MART is an intuitive and lightweight tool which performs many of the tasks usually required for the analysis of mapped RNA-Seq reads. S-MART does not require any computer science background and thus can be used by all of the biologist community through a graphical interface. S-MART can run on any personal computer, yielding results within an hour even for Gb of data for most queries. S-MART may perform the entire analysis of the mapped reads, without any need for other ad hoc scripts. With this tool, biologists can easily perform most of the analyses on their computer for their RNA-Seq data, from the mapped data to the discovery of important loci.

  19. Antidiabetic and renoprotective effects of the chloroform extract of Terminalia chebula Retz. seeds in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Rao Nalamolu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Terminalia chebula (Combretaceae has been widely used in Ayurveda for the treatment of diabetes. In the present investigation, the chloroform extract of T. chebula seed powder was investigated for its antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using short term and long term study protocols. The efficacy of the extract was also evaluated for protection of renal functions in diabetic rats. Methods The blood glucose lowering activity of the chloroform extract was determined in streptozotocin-induced (75 mg/kg, i.p.; dissolved in 0.1 M acetate buffer; pH 4.5 diabetic rats, after oral administration at the doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg in short term study. Blood samples were collected from the eye retro-orbital plexus of rats before and also at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 h after drug administration and the samples were analyzed for blood glucose by using glucose-oxidase/peroxidase method using a visible spectrophotometer. In long term study, the extract (300 mg/kg was administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, daily for 8 weeks. Blood glucose was measured at weekly intervals for 4 weeks. Urine samples were collected before the induction of diabetes and at the end of 8 weeks of treatments and analyzed for urinary protein, albumin and creatinine levels. The data was compared statistically using one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Dunnet's t-test. Results The chloroform extract of T. chebula seeds produced dose-dependent reduction in blood glucose of diabetic rats and comparable with that of standard drug, glibenclamide in short term study. It also produced significant reduction in blood glucose in long term study. Significant renoprotective activity is observed in T. chebula treated rats. The results indicate a prolonged action in reduction of blood glucose by T. chebula and is probably mediated through enhanced secretion of insulin from the β-cells of Langerhans or through extra pancreatic mechanism. The

  20. A study on fatty acids in seeds of Euterpe oleracea Mart seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshiharu; Motoya, Tomoyuki; Tanimoto, Shinichi; Nomura, Masato

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acids of Euterpe oleracea Mart seeds were analyzed in hexane and diethyl ether extracts. The hexane extract contained dodecanoic acid (3), tetradecanoic acid (4), hexadecanoic acid (7), and 9-octadecenoic acid (10). The diethyl ether extract contained (10). The oil of Mart seeds was obtained firstly by methanol extract and further extracted with diethyl ether. The hexane and diethyl ether extracts were then analyzed for antioxidant effects. Both extracts demonstrated a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical elimination effect similar to that of α-tocopherol and an active oxygen inhibition effect. Significant quantities (0.6212 mg/mL) of polyphenol, in comparison to the standard rejected gallic acid, were found in the extract oil of Mart seeds by the methanol extraction.

  1. Estimation of aerial biomass of Lychnophora ericoides (Mart.

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    Brunno Santana de Andrade

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available For sustainable use of native plant species, knowledge of the amount of harvestable biomass is necessary. This study presents data on allometric relationships of Lychnophora ericoides Mart. (Asteraceae, an extractive resource in the Cerrado region of Brazil. On the Fazenda Água Limpa (15º 45'S, 47º 57'W of the Universidade de Brasilia, 38 individuals of this species were measured in the field, the parts above ground were harvested, separated into components and oven dried. The best regression equations to estimate biomass were geometric and the best fit was between total height and total biomass (r² = 0.923. The economically useful portions, the leaves and branches accounted for approximately 20% of total above ground dry weight, but when used as the dependent variable, the strength of the relationship decreased (r² = 0.694. The relationship between branch diameter and leaf biomass was similar to that between height and leaf dry weight (r² = 0.600. The relation between the number of leaves and their biomass was linear but weak. The development of these equations is the first step towards the implementation of plans for sustainable use of this species.Para o uso sustentável das espécies vegetais nativas o conhecimento da quantidade de biomassa disponível é necessário. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar as relações alométricas para Lychnophora ericoides Mart., um recurso extrativista importante na região dos Cerrados. Na Fazenda Água Limpa da Universidade de Brasília, 38 indivíduos desta espécie foram medidas no campo, a parte aérea foi cortada, separada em componentes de folhas, galhos e tronco e estas componentes foram secas e pesadas. As melhores equações de regressão para estimar a biomassa foram geométricas e o melhor ajuste foi entre altura total e biomassa total (r² = 0,923. As partes economicamente exploradas, as folhas e ramos, contribuíram com aproximadamente 20% do peso seco total desta espécie, mas a equa

  2. José Martí, Viajes y Apreciación del Pueblo Maya

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    Carlos Eduardo Bojórquez Urzaiz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo expone y examina los cambios de percepción que experimentó José Martí sobre el papel de los pueblos originarios de América, entre 1875 y 1878, años en los que vivió en México y Guatemala, con intensa escala en Yucatán, lugares donde conoció directamente la cultura y el pueblo maya. Martí resume una visión inicial de nuestra América en la figura lítica de Chacmool cuando después de ser expropiada por el gobierno yucateco, el Apóstol cubano la admira en la ciudad de Mérida y expresa que es la síntesis de las culturas americanas. Aspecto poco estudiado en la obra de Martí es este acercamiento etnográfico a la realidad maya de Yucatán y Guatemala.   This paper aims at presenting and examining the change of perception José Martí underwent in relation to the role of the native peoples of America between 1875 and 1878, the years he lived in Mexico and Guatemala, during which he spent a large amount of time in Yucatan, where he was able to get to know the Mayan culture and its people first hand. Martí summarized his initial vision of our America in the lithic figure of Chacmool, which he was able to admire in the city of Merida, after it had been expropriated by the government of Yucatan. The Cuban apostle described this as a synthesis of American cultures. This ethnographic insight into the Mayan reality in Yucatan and Guatemala represents a scarcely explored aspect of Martí's work.

  3. Text data extraction for a prospective, research-focused data mart: implementation and validation

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    Hinchcliff Monique

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Translational research typically requires data abstracted from medical records as well as data collected specifically for research. Unfortunately, many data within electronic health records are represented as text that is not amenable to aggregation for analyses. We present a scalable open source SQL Server Integration Services package, called Regextractor, for including regular expression parsers into a classic extract, transform, and load workflow. We have used Regextractor to abstract discrete data from textual reports from a number of ‘machine generated’ sources. To validate this package, we created a pulmonary function test data mart and analyzed the quality of the data mart versus manual chart review. Methods Eleven variables from pulmonary function tests performed closest to the initial clinical evaluation date were studied for 100 randomly selected subjects with scleroderma. One research assistant manually reviewed, abstracted, and entered relevant data into a database. Correlation with data obtained from the automated pulmonary function test data mart within the Northwestern Medical Enterprise Data Warehouse was determined. Results There was a near perfect (99.5% agreement between results generated from the Regextractor package and those obtained via manual chart abstraction. The pulmonary function test data mart has been used subsequently to monitor disease progression of patients in the Northwestern Scleroderma Registry. In addition to the pulmonary function test example presented in this manuscript, the Regextractor package has been used to create cardiac catheterization and echocardiography data marts. The Regextractor package was released as open source software in October 2009 and has been downloaded 552 times as of 6/1/2012. Conclusions Collaboration between clinical researchers and biomedical informatics experts enabled the development and validation of a tool (Regextractor to parse, abstract and assemble

  4. Text data extraction for a prospective, research-focused data mart: implementation and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchcliff, Monique; Just, Eric; Podlusky, Sofia; Varga, John; Chang, Rowland W; Kibbe, Warren A

    2012-09-13

    Translational research typically requires data abstracted from medical records as well as data collected specifically for research. Unfortunately, many data within electronic health records are represented as text that is not amenable to aggregation for analyses. We present a scalable open source SQL Server Integration Services package, called Regextractor, for including regular expression parsers into a classic extract, transform, and load workflow. We have used Regextractor to abstract discrete data from textual reports from a number of 'machine generated' sources. To validate this package, we created a pulmonary function test data mart and analyzed the quality of the data mart versus manual chart review. Eleven variables from pulmonary function tests performed closest to the initial clinical evaluation date were studied for 100 randomly selected subjects with scleroderma. One research assistant manually reviewed, abstracted, and entered relevant data into a database. Correlation with data obtained from the automated pulmonary function test data mart within the Northwestern Medical Enterprise Data Warehouse was determined. There was a near perfect (99.5%) agreement between results generated from the Regextractor package and those obtained via manual chart abstraction. The pulmonary function test data mart has been used subsequently to monitor disease progression of patients in the Northwestern Scleroderma Registry. In addition to the pulmonary function test example presented in this manuscript, the Regextractor package has been used to create cardiac catheterization and echocardiography data marts. The Regextractor package was released as open source software in October 2009 and has been downloaded 552 times as of 6/1/2012. Collaboration between clinical researchers and biomedical informatics experts enabled the development and validation of a tool (Regextractor) to parse, abstract and assemble structured data from text data contained in the electronic health

  5. Molecular ecology of european mustelids: Unraveling evolutionary and ecological patterns in Martes and Lutra genera

    OpenAIRE

    Vergara Rosa, María

    2016-01-01

    208 p. El objetivo principal de esta tesis es la aplicación de técnicas moleculares para estudiar la genética de poblaciones, la idoneidad y uso de hábitat (habitat suitability) o la filogenia intraespecífica de tres mustélidos europeos; la nutria (Lutra lutra), la marta europea (Martes martes) y la garduña (M. foina). La tesis está dividida en cuatro capítulos. La introducción (capítulo 1) proporciona un marco general de la tesis, en la que se describen y relacionan las principales subdis...

  6. Separation and characterization of phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attioua

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... Phytochemical and antifungal studies on Terminalia mollis and. Terminalia brachystemma. Fitoterapia 80:369-373. Martino V, Morales J, Martínez-Irujo JJ, Font M, Monge A, Coussio S. (2004). Two ellagitannins from the leaves of Terminalia tri[fllig]ora · with inhibitory activity on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

  7. Martí y los conocimientos médicos Martí and the medical knowledge

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    Sonia Socarrás Sánchez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es una revisión de fuentes bibliográficas donde aparecen elementos de una de las disciplinas científicas a las que prestó Martí gran atención: las ciencias médicas. Se realizó en el Instituto Superior de Ciencias Médicas de Camagüey en los meses comprendidos entre octubre y diciembre del curso 2004- 2005 y su contenido se ha empleado para su análisis en los turnos de reflexión y debate en algunos grupos del primer año de la carrera de Medicina. La escasa divulgación de esta esfera del conocimiento y la necesidad de popularizarla fue lo que motivó la realización del trabajo .Su objetivo es analizar las valoraciones martianas sobre los conocimientos médicos para incidir en la integridad cultural del profesional de la salud. .En el material se brinda una breve caracterización del desarrollo de la medicina en Cuba en el siglo XIX, se recogen las valoraciones realizadas por Martí sobre el desarrollo de los conocimientos médicos en esta etapa y que fueron tratados a través de comentarios en artículos de periódicos, revistas, en sus cuadernos de apuntes y en su Diario de Cabo Haitiano a Dos Ríos. Entre los resultados más importantes se destacan: la información que se brinda sobre el empleo de la medicina verde, el análisis de diversas enfermedades, técnicas terapéuticas, quirúrgicas y su valoración de la salud pública como problemática social ,sirviendo como una vía para formar profesionales creativos y de amplio perfilThis work is a revision of bibliographical sources where we expose some elements about one of those scientific disciplines that Marti paid more attention to: the medical sciences. It was carried out in the Medical Sciences Institute of Camaguey during the 2004-2205 and its contents have been used in reflection and discussion classes in some groups of the first year of the medicine carer. The poor popularisation of this knowledge sphere and the necessity to popularize it, motivated the

  8. The structure and musculature of male terminalia in the tribe Xanthorhoini Pierce and related tribes (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Larentiinae), with particular reference to the Palaearctic and Australian regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The musculature of the male genitalia was reviewed for the tribe Xanthorhoini and related tribes (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Larentiinae). The genitalia morphology of males of 11 species was discussed and illustrated, and nine paired and unpaired genital muscles identified. Muscles m1, m2(10), m5(7), m6(5), m7(6), m8(3) and m21 have similar position in all species considered in the paper. Comparative morphology of the male terminalia and position of extensors of the valvae m3(2) and flexors m4 confirmed the previously uncertain separation of Euphyiini and Scotopterygini. Cataclysmini share musculature characters with the tribe Xanthorhoini. The generic affiliation of Xanthorhoe biriviata (Borkhausen) is questionable considering an unusual location of muscles m4. Generally, the places of attachment of the muscles m3(2) and m4 to the sclerites afford valuable characters for the higher classification of this group.

  9. From Sarmiento to Martí and Hostos: Extricating the Nation from Coloniality

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    Thomas Ward

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article examines constructions of  race, nation and mestizaje in work of Domingo  Faustino Sarmiento, José Martí and Eugenio  Maria de Hostos. The first championed the prevailing nineteenth-century view that humanity  was being debilitated by a constant battle between  civilization and barbarism while the two Antilleans questioned it in their search for a society  liberated from coloniality. Martí denied the notion  of privilege based on Europeanness, proclaiming  that whites, blacks, indigenous and mixed-race  peoples could all claim equal rights under natural  law. Hostos agreed with Martí but took his recommendation one step further by proposing race  mixing, with all ethnic groups equally forming a  new society. Therefore Martí’s negation of racial  differences becomes with Hostos a quest for a  society that would eventually become homogeneous through miscegenation. The study concludes  that there is a timelessness inherent to Martí and  Hostos’s work that still speaks to us today in the  midst of a new awareness of ethnicity’s impact on  society. Resumen:De Sarmiento a Martí y Hostos: Rescatando al país de la colonialidadEl presente artículo examina las construcciones de  raza, nación y mestizaje en las obras de Domingo  Faustino Sarmiento, José Martí y Eugenio María de  Hostos. El primero defendía la construcción deci monónica de que la humanidad había sido debilitada por una constante batalla entre civilización y  barbarie mientras los dos antillanos la cuestionaban  en su búsqueda de una sociedad libre de la colonialidad. Martí niega la noción de privilegio basado en  lo europeo y proclama que los blancos, negros,  indígenas y personas de raza mezclada podrían  reclamar la igualdad de derechos bajo leyes naturales. Hostos estuvo de acuerdo con Martí pero llevó  su recomendación un paso más allá, proponiendo  que la mezcla de razas, con todos los grupos

  10. APROVECHAMIENTO DE LAS CARACTERÍSTICAS NUTRICIONALES DEL ALMENDRO DE LA INDIA (Terminalia catappa L. COMO SUPLEMENTO EN LA ALIMENTACIÓN ANIMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Arrázola P

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar nutricionalmente la semilla del almendro de la india (Terminalia catappa para tres estados de madurez: E1 verde; E2 intermedio y E3 maduro, como una alternativa de suplemento en la alimentación animal. Materiales y métodos. Se determinaron las características fisicoquímicas de la pulpa de los frutos y se les extrajo la semilla a la cual se les realizó el análisis bromatológico mediante los métodos oficiales de análisis químico AOAC. A la grasa extraída de la semilla se le realizó un perfil de composición de ácidos grasos por medio de la técnica de cromatografía gaseosa acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Resultados. Para la semilla se obtuvo en promedio: grasa 54%, proteína 24%, ceniza 4%, fibra 12% y humedad 45%. Los datos se procesaron utilizando un análisis de varianza (ANOVA. Los estados de madurez, presentaron diferencias estadísticas (p£0,05 de composición para la semilla; mientras que para las variables fisicoquímicas de la pulpa, pH, acidez y grados Brix, arrojaron resultados no significativos. El perfil de ácidos grasos del aceite de la semilla para E1, E2 y E3, mostraron similitud en ciertos componentes. Conclusión. Teniendo en cuenta la composición nutricional de la semilla de almendro (Terminalia catappa y su elevado valor en proteína (24%, grasa (54%, fibra (12%, es posible su aprovechamiento para la industrialización e inclusión en concentrados para la alimentación animal.

  11. The Effects of Terminalia catappa L. Leaves Extract on the Water Quality Properties, Survival and Blood Profile of Ornamental fish (Betta sp Cultured

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Agung Nugroho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determine the phytochemicals content of Terminalia catappa leaves extract (TCL and its effects on the survival and blood profiles of ornamental fish (Betta sp Ninety fish were randomly assigned into six triplicates groups and reared in various concentration of TCL: 0 (control, 125, 250, 375, 500, 625 ppm for 30 days. Temperature, Dissolve oxygen (DO, and pH were monitored during the trial. After 30 days, survival, Red Blood Cells (RBC, White Blood Cells (WBC, haemoglobin (Hb, lymphocyte, and total protein serum (TPS were analyzed. Based on the phytochemicals test, saponin, triterpenoid, quinon, phenolic, tannin, and flavonoid were detected on the TCL. Temperature and DO were not affected by any concentration of TCL. The lowest pH (5.05 was found in fish medium immersed with 625 ppm of TCL. Adding TCL above 375 ppm resulted in significantly higher survival, RBC, and Hb. The highest WBC was found in fish immersed with 625 ppm whereas the lowest lymphocyte was found in fish immersed with 375 of TCL. However, immersing any various concentration of TCL did not affect on the TPS. In summary, immersing TCL above 375 ppm is beneficial to enhance survival, RBC, WBC, and Hb of Betta sp.How to CiteNugroho, R. A., Manurung, H., Saraswati, D., Ladyescha, D. & Nur, F. M. (2016. The Effects of Terminalia catappa L. Leaves Extract on the Water Quality Properties, Survival and Blood Profile of Ornamental fish (Betta sp Cultured. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(2, 240-247.

  12. Effect of compression pressure, preservative, and storage with potassium chloride on the microbiological quality of tablets formulated with Terminalia randii Gum (Combretaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluremi, Bolaji Bosede; Bamiro, Oluyemisi Adebowale; Idowu, Abel Olusola; Oduneye, Olayinka Annegret

    2012-10-01

    Gums are used as binders in tablets and also as emulsion stabilisers, suspending agents and thickeners in syrups. The need for other natural gums apart from the conventional gums to be employed as binding agents in tablets formulation led to this study. A gum obtained from the incised trunk of Terminalia randii (Combretaceae) was evaluated for the effect of compression pressure, methyl paraben preservative and storage with potassium chloride, on the microbial load of tablets formulated with the gum. The microbial load was determined by surface spread method on the processed gum at suitable dilutions, and tablets formulated from the gum at different compression pressures. The formulated tablets were evaluated for microbial load, also when stored in potassium chloride for 8 and 12 weeks with and without preservation with 1% Methyl Paraben. In each case the compressed tablets were incubated in 0.1% peptone water as control. The microbial load recorded reflected generally, reduction in microbial counts in tablets formulated with the gum as a binder both in terms of compression at different pressures and when the different compression pressures were associated with or without 1% methyl paraben in the presence of potassium chloride. Comparatively, the processed gum showed higher microbial load than the pressure compressed tablets. Besides the different compression pressures, duration of storage was also found to cause reduction of microbial load, particularly in the formulated tablets compressed with methyl paraben stored in potassium chloride such that after 8 weeks, the microbial load was zero. The studies showed that compression pressures and duration of storage caused marked reduction in microbial load of the tablets formulated with the processed gum of Terminalia randii as a binder.

  13. Evaluación de la calidad de vida en personas con discapacidades significativas: aplicación de la Escala San Martín en la Fundación Obra San Martín

    OpenAIRE

    Hierro, I.

    2015-01-01

    La Escala San Martín es un instrumento que permite evaluar la calidad de vida de personas con discapacidades significativas con evidencias adecuadas de fiabilidad y validez. En 2012 se administró la Escala San Martín a 85 personas con discapacidad intelectual que acudían a alguno de los centros de la Fundación Obra San Martín. El presente artículo recoge los resultados obtenidos agregados en el mesosistema, un ejemplo del microsistema y las líneas de trabajo puestas en marcha a partir de los ...

  14. Cytotoxic effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart. in malignant cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Dulcelena Ferreira; Vidal, Flávia Castello Branco; Santos, Debora; Costa, Maria Célia Pires; Morgado-Díaz, José Andrés; do Desterro Soares Brandão Nascimento, Maria; de Moura, Roberto Soares

    2014-05-29

    Euterpe oleracea Mart., a plant from the Amazon region, is commonly known as açaí or juçara; it has high nutritional value and elevated levels of lipids, proteins, and minerals. Açaí is an abundant and much consumed fruit by the Amazon local population, and studies have demonstrated that it is rich in phytochemicals with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test this plant for anticancer activity in different human malignant cell lines. Cell lines derived from breast and colorectal adenocarcinomas were treated with 10, 20, and 40 μg/mL of bark, seed, and total açaí fruit hydroalcoholic extracts for 24 and 48 h. After treatment, cell viability was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, and cell morphological features were observed by light and transmission electron microscopy. The type of cell death was also evaluated. The data were analyzed statistically by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Dunnett's or Tukey's post hoc tests, as appropriate. We observed that of all the cell lines tested, MCF-7 was the only line that responded to açaí treatment. The extracts caused significant reduction (p<0.01) in cell viability and altered cell morphological features by inducing the appearance of autophagic vacuoles, as observed by transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, increased expression of LC3BII, a protein marker of autophagosome formation, was observed by western blotting. Caspase Glo™ assays and morphologic observations by DAPI nuclear staining and transmission electron microscopy did not indicate any apoptotic events. The present study demonstrated that açaí possesses antitumorigenic potential in the MCF-7 cell line. Further studies are needed to identify the compound (s) responsible for this cytotoxic activity and the molecular target in the cell. This discovery of the anticancer potential of açaí may help in the

  15. Valmib valus lavalugu perest : Athenas jõuab vaatajate ette Mart Kivastiku suhtedraama / Raimu Hanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanson, Raimu, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    SA Eesti Teatri Festival esietendab 4. mail Athena keskuses Margus Kasterpalu lavastuses Mart Kivastiku näidendit "Meie isa, kes sa oled ..." Mängivad Vanemuise näitlejad Marika Aidla, Hannes Kaljujärv, Tanel Jonas ning Leino Rei

  16. Sobre carnes y vidas desnudas en Tiempo de Silencio de Luis Martín-Santos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erika Almenara

    2015-01-01

    .... A partir de la lectura de Tiempo de Silencio de Luis Martín-Santos, el artículo intenta demostrar que el Estado franquista redujo al sujeto y su cuerpo en carne moldeable a partir de la cual dar nacimiento al nuevo sujeto español...

  17. Homme algab valge olümpia / Mart Siimann, Paavo Kivine ; interv. Sulev Valner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Siimann, Mart, 1946-

    2002-01-01

    Salt Lake City olümpiamängude eelõhtul olid Maalehe vestlusringis spordist, olümpiast ja ausast mängust mõtteid avaldamas publitsist Paavo Kivine ja Eesti Olümpiakomitee president, parlamendisaadik Mart Siimann

  18. Wal-Mart tõmbab USA elatustaset alla / Eva Rüütel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rüütel, Eva

    2005-01-01

    USA majanduskriitikud väidavad, et riigi suurim tööandja jaekaubanduskett Wal-Mart kisub ameeriklaste elatustaset alla. Püüdes laialtlevinud arusaama kummutada, palkas ettevõte majanduskonsultatsioonifirma Global Insight'i, et uurida firma mõju ulatust Ameerika majandusele

  19. Management of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solms) using bioagents in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebregiorgis, Firehun Yirefu

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents a study on management of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solms) using insects and fungal pathogens as bioagents. The main goal was to develop an effective biocontrol strategy for water hyacinth in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. To this end, a field survey was

  20. Performance Comparison of EPICS IOC and MARTe in a Hard Real-Time Control Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbalace, Antonio; Manduchi, Gabriele; Neto, A.; De Tommasi, G.; Sartori, F.; Valcarcel, D. F.

    2011-12-01

    EPICS is used worldwide mostly for controlling accelerators and large experimental physics facilities. Although EPICS is well fit for the design and development of automation systems, which are typically VME or PLC-based systems, and for soft real-time systems, it may present several drawbacks when used to develop hard real-time systems/applications especially when general purpose operating systems as plain Linux are chosen. This is in particular true in fusion research devices typically employing several hard real-time systems, such as the magnetic control systems, that may require strict determinism, and high performance in terms of jitter and latency. Serious deterioration of important plasma parameters may happen otherwise, possibly leading to an abrupt termination of the plasma discharge. The MARTe framework has been recently developed to fulfill the demanding requirements for such real-time systems that are alike to run on general purpose operating systems, possibly integrated with the low-latency real-time preemption patches. MARTe has been adopted to develop a number of real-time systems in different Tokamaks. In this paper, we first summarize differences and similarities between EPICS IOC and MARTe. Then we report on a set of performance measurements executed on an x86 64 bit multicore machine running Linux with an IO control algorithm implemented in an EPICS IOC and in MARTe.

  1. Nõukogude modernism : perifeeria rääkimata lood / Mart Kalm ; intervjueerinud Sille Pihlak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalm, Mart, 1961-

    2012-01-01

    Näitus "Nõukogude modernism 1955-1991. Rääkimata lood" Viini Arhitektuurikeskuses. Kuraatorid: Katharina Ritter, Ekaterina Shapiro-Obermair, Alexandra Wachter. Näitusega kaasneb publikatsioon. Näituselt puudub Venemaa. Arhitektuuriajaloolane Mart Kalm eesti arhitektuurist ja oma ettekandest konverentsil

  2. Numerical Simulations to Assess ART and MART Performance for Ionospheric Tomography of Chapman Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prol, Fabricio S; Camargo, Paulo O; Muella, Marcio T A H

    2017-01-01

    The incomplete geometrical coverage of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) makes the ionospheric tomographic system an ill-conditioned problem for ionospheric imaging. In order to detect the principal limitations of the ill-conditioned tomographic solutions, numerical simulations of the ionosphere are under constant investigation. In this paper, we show an investigation of the accuracy of Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) and Multiplicative ART (MART) for performing tomographic reconstruction of Chapman profiles using a simulated optimum scenario of GNSS signals tracked by ground-based receivers. Chapman functions were used to represent the ionospheric morphology and a set of analyses was conducted to assess ART and MART performance for estimating the Total Electron Content (TEC) and parameters that describes the Chapman function. The results showed that MART performed better in the reconstruction of the electron density peak and ART gave a better representation for estimating TEC and the shape of the ionosphere. Since we used an optimum scenario of the GNSS signals, the analyses indicate the intrinsic problems that may occur with ART and MART to recover valuable information for many applications of Telecommunication, Spatial Geodesy and Space Weather.

  3. Ilu võitlus koleduse välja vastu / Rebekka Lotman ; kommenteerinud Mart Anderson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lotman, Rebekka, 1978-

    2009-01-01

    Konkursside "25 kauneimat Eesti raamatut" ja "Viis kauneimat Eesti lasteraamatut" võidutööde näitus Eesti Rahvusraamatukogus. Võidutööde valikut kommenteerib žürii esimees Mart Anderson. Loetletud 2008. aasta 25 kaunimat raamatut. Nimekiri: 2008. aasta 25 kauneimat raamatut

  4. 78 FR 46952 - Relief-Mart, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... comment at https://ftcpublic.commentworks.com/ftc/reliefmartincconsent online or on paper, by following... ``Relief Mart, File No. 122 3128'' on your comment and file your comment online at https://ftcpublic... calling (202) 326-2222. You can file a comment online or on paper. For the Commission to consider your...

  5. A Study of the Discount Retail Industry and Wal-Mart Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-05

    lilith /no- wal/index.html.; Internet, accessed 14 August 1997. 115 Deirdre McMurdy, "Baffling Bentonville: Executives from the Arkansas-based Retail...December 1997. "Up Against the Wal! Facts You Should Know About Wal-Mart," http://tdg.uoguelph.ca? lilith /no-wal/index.html; Internet; accessed 14

  6. Screening a core collection of citrus genetic resources for resistance to Fusarium solani (Mart) Sacc

    Science.gov (United States)

    A causal agent for Dry root rot (DRR) of citrus has not been definitively identified, but the organism most consistently associated with DRR is Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. To efficiently screen a citrus germplasm collection for resistance to F. solani, a core subset of the collection was evaluated...

  7. Multi scale habitat relationships of Martes americana in northern Idaho, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeidle N. Wasserman; Samuel A. Cushman; David O. Wallin; Jim Hayden

    2012-01-01

    We used bivariate scaling and logistic regression to investigate multiple-scale habitat selection by American marten (Martes americana). Bivariate scaling reveals dramatic differences in the apparent nature and strength of relationships between marten occupancy and a number of habitat variables across a range of spatial scales. These differences include reversals in...

  8. Pensamiento político y partidos. Francesc Romeu i Martí PSPV-PSOE

    OpenAIRE

    Innodret, Grupo

    2010-01-01

    Pensamiento político y partidos. Francesc Romeu i Martí PSPV-PSOE. Historia del Pensamiento Político Moderno. Prof. Benito Sanz Díaz. Licenciatura en Ciencias Políticas y de la Administración. Facultat de Dret Universitat de Valencia

  9. Mart Siimann asus tööle presidendi sisenõunikuna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka Sakala (2003/Sep/30) lk. 7 ;Virumaa Teataja (2003/Sep/30) lk. 1. Eesti Olümpiakomitee president ja endine peaminister Mart Siimann asus veerandi kohaga tööle presidendi sisenõunikuna. Senine sisenõunik Jüri Kaljuvee asus julgeolekunõuniku kohale

  10. Mart ja Mari-Ann Susi taotlevad omanikena Concordia pankrotti / Andri Maimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maimets, Andri

    2003-01-01

    Concordia Ülikooli rektori kohast loobunud Mart Susi ning prorektori ametikohalt lahkunud Mari-Ann Susi taotlevad neile kuuluvat ülikooli pidanud miljonivõlgades firma pankrotti. Hiljuti loodi õppejõududest, tudengitest js töötajatest mittetulundusühing Concordia Akadeemiline Ühisus (CAU), selle nõukogu esimees on Hagi Šein

  11. Kõige raskem oli öelda heale kolleegile, et ta peab lahkuma / Mart Kadastik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kadastik, Mart, 1955-

    2007-01-01

    Muutuste juhtimisest ajalehes Postimees John Kotteri kaheksat kuldreeglit järgides. Lehetoimetuse Tartust Tallinna kolimise põhjused, Tallinna organisatsiooni loomine. Lisa: Mart Kadastik. Vt samal teemal: Eva Palu. Muutuste tango. Kotteri 8 kuldset muutumisreeglit. Direktor nr. 3 lk. 14-19

  12. Concordia ülikooli õppejõud nõuavad rektor Mart Susi lahkumist / Andri Maimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maimets, Andri

    2003-01-01

    Concordia Ülikooli õppejõud ja tudengid esitasid senisele rektorile Mart Susile palve oma kohalt lahkuda, nad ei pea õigeks, et ülikooli juhib ülikooli rahaga patustanud inimene. Susi väitis üliõpilaste ees peetud pressikonverentsil, et jutud ülikooli võlgadest ja tema enda ametikoha kuritarvitustest ei vasta tõele

  13. Is Maxima a Wal-Mart in sheep's clothing? / Todd Graham

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Graham, Todd

    2007-01-01

    Nii USA-s kui Leedus tegutsev teadlane Randy Richards uuris Ida-Euroopas jõudsalt laienenud kaubaketi Maxima ja USA Wal-Mart-i turu hõivamise, -positsiooni ja -strateegiate sarnasusi ja erinevusi. Vt. samas: Baltic retail continues to thrive. Kaubanduskeskuste ehitusbuum Eestis, Lätis ja Leedus

  14. Camera trapping estimates of density and survival of fishers (Martes pennanti)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Jordan; Reginald H. Barrett; Kathryn L. Purcell

    2011-01-01

    Developing efficient monitoring strategies for species of conservation concern is critical to ensuring their persistence. We have developed a method using camera traps to estimate density and survival in mesocarnivores and tested it on a population of fishers Martes pennanti in an area of approximately 300 km2 of the southern...

  15. Genetic diversity and conservation of Picea chihuahuana Martínez ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conservation of genetic diversity in tree populations is an essential component of sustainable forest management. Picea chihuahuana Martínez is an endemic conifer species in Mexico and is considered to be endangered. P. chihuahuana covers a total area of no more than 300 ha at the Sierra Madre Occidental, ...

  16. Kui mälestada, siis väärikalt / Mart Kalm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalm, Mart, 1961-

    2008-01-01

    Tallinnasse kavandatavat diletantlikku monumenti võrreldakse professionaalsete lahendustega linnaruumis - vabadusmonumendiga Pärnus Rüütli platsil (Mart Aas, Kaarel Eelma, Mikk Mutso) ja Narva Kolledzhi projektiga (Indrek Peil, Siiri Vallner, Katrin Koov) hävinud börsihoone mälestamiseks

  17. Penerapan Data Mart Penjualan Hypermarket XYZ Menggunakan Metode From Enterprise Models to Dimensional Models

    OpenAIRE

    P, Dyah Paramita; -, Firdaus; Afrina, Mira

    2012-01-01

    Data warehouse merupakan tempat penyimpanan data tunggal yang lengkap dan konsisten dengan karakteristik berorientasi subjek, terintegrasi, tidak volatil, dan bervariasi waktu yang dapat digunakan untuk mendukung keputusan, sedangkan Data mart adalah subset dari data warehouse yang mendukung kebutuhan informasi dari departemen atau fungsi bisnis tertentu. Hypermarket XYZ memiliki histori transaksi penjualan yang belum dimanfaatkan secara optimal sehingga akan sangat berguna jika data tersebut...

  18. Mart Kivastik: filmis on asi esimese kahe minutiga selge / intervjueerinud Kaarel Kressa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivastik, Mart, 1963-

    2011-01-01

    Mart Kivastik oma esimesest täispikast mängufilmist "Üks mu sõber", eesti filmi ummikseisust, tugevatest stsenaristidest, oma stsenaristitööst "Taarkas" ja "Vashas", filmidest, mida ta tahaks teha, endast, oma tõekspidamistest

  19. Omavalitsusjuhid šokis riigivalitsuse rahalõigetest / Mart Viisitamm, Kersti Sarapuu, Jaanus Karilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viisitamm, Mart, 1980-

    2009-01-01

    Küsimusele, mida tähendab valitsuse poolt omavalitsustele laekuva üksikisiku tulumaksu määra vähendamine 0,8% võrra, vastavad Pärnu linnapea Mart Viisitamm, Paide linnapea Kersti Sarapuu ja Haapsalu linnavolikogu liige Jaanus Karilaid

  20. Etnocentrismo, racismo y miedo: los indígenas y los incultos en Martí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Camacho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the following article I return to the idea of ethnicity and liberalism in Latin America during the last part of the 19th century. I also discuss Martí’s view of the Indians after 1885, when his chronicles were fueled by the rhetoric of pro-indigenous groups such as the Friends of Indians Association. I propose to look at other ways in which Martí’s ethnocentric view of culture and race intertwined with his agenda of “defending” the Indians, especially in his essay “Nuestra América.” For that purpose I retrace some of my previous arguments and discuss other essays that have recently elaborated on Martí’s “other side”, the one that imposes on the Indians his own liberal agenda, and the vision of modernity that the elites were constructing in Latin America at the end of 19th century. In my previous articles I discussed Martí’s chronicles on the Guatemalan, Mexican and American Indians and here I will focus on the similarities between the positivists in Mexico and Martí’s emphasis on “scientific politics” as well as his fear that those that were at the lowest level of society could one day revolt against the republic and destroy the justice “accumulated in books.” For books symbolized for Martí the “lettered elite”, those that had power and exercised it to their own advantage. He talked about this fear in Mexico, and in his most famous essay he returned to it again with a somewhat different perspective, but still with the conviction that within a democracy everything could be solved and a revolt from the “unlettered” masses was not justified. I argue that even if “Nuestra América” meant a more positive view of the “Indian problem”, Martí still considers the Indians, the “gauchos” and the rest of the “incultos” as a threat. They were the natural ally of the “caudillos” that ruled for so long Latin America, charismatic caudillos such as Juan Manuel de Rosas.

  1. QUALIDADE DE FRUTOS PROCESSADOS ARTESANALMENTE DE AÇAÍ (Euterpe oleracea MART. E BACABA (Oenocarpus bacaba MART.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEANDRO TIMONI BUCHDID CAMARGO NEVES

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Os frutos do açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea Mart. e da bacabeira ( MOenocarpus bacabaart, duas palmeiras tropicais nativas e socioeconomicamente importantes para os estados Amazônicos, são utilizados na produção de polpas processadas em sistemas agrofamiliares. Nesse sentido, o presente estudo objetivou a avaliação da qualidade físico-química e funcional de polpas de açaí e bacaba processadas artesanalmente. Os frutos foram coletados em propriedades rurais do município do Cantá/Roraima (bacaba e Boa Vista/ Roraima (açaí. Para a constituição do experimento, as polpas processadas foram armazenadas em pequenas embalagens de politereftalato de etileno (PET transparente e com tampa (mesmo material, com capacidade de 145 mL e refrigeradas a 3 ± 0,2°C e 45% de U.R., durante 5 dias. Foram analisados os seguintes parâmetros: pH, acidez titulável (AT, sólidos solúveis (SS, relação SS/AT, açúcares totais e redutores, pectinas totais e solúveis, teor de antocianinas e fenólicos totais. Ao final, para as polpas de açaí, levando-se em consideração os limites estabelecidos pelo Padrão de Identidade e Qualidade (PIQ, apenas o parâmetro AT apresentou-se fora da instrução normativa. Entretanto, a inexistência de padrões para bacaba inviabilizou tal comparação. Quanto ao teor das pectinas totais, pode-se concluir que ambas as polpas apresentam baixas concentrações desse componente, não sendo indicadas para produção de doces e geleias sem adição de agentes geleificantes. Os teores de compostos fenólicos e de antocianinas, em ambas as polpas, apesar de diminuir com o período de armazenamento refrigerado, apresentam altas concentrações quando em comparação a outros alimentos com apelo funcional.

  2. Mart Humal, "Uuringuid tonaalsusstruktuuridest. Sissejuhatus ja neliteist analüütilist etüüdi" / Kerri Kotta

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kotta, Kerri, 1969-

    2007-01-01

    Rets. rmt. : Humal, Mart. Uuringuid tonaalstruktuuridest : sissejuhatus ja neliteist analüütilist etüüdi = Studies on tonal structures : introduction and fourteen analytical studies. Tallinn : Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia, 2007. - Töid muusikateooria alalt ; 3

  3. Bioprospecção de atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana da casca de Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville (Leguminosae-Mimosoidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    T. M. SOUZA; J. A. SEVERI; V. Y.A. SILVA; E. SANTOS; R. C.L.R. PIETRO

    2009-01-01

    O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a classe de metabólitos secundários responsável pela atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana de extratos da casca de Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville...

  4. Olev Siinmaa elamu (Rüütli 1a, Pärnu) restaureerimine. / Olev Siinmaa, Mart Kalm, Aado Talimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Siinmaa, Olev, 1881-1948

    2007-01-01

    Välisvaade (foto: Vallo Kruuser), sisevaade enne (Eesti Arhitektuurimuusem) ja pärast restaureerimist (foto: Mart Kalm). Omanik Toomas Truuvert. EK arhitektuuri sihtkapitali 2006. a. parima restaureeritud objekti preemia

  5. Mida arvatakse omavalitsustes koolivõrgu optimeerimisest? / Mart Järvik, Maris Liiders, Peeter Aas, Kaarin Veinbergs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Arvamust avaldasid Järvakandi vallavanem, Raplamaa omavalitsuste liidu esimees Mart Järvik, Harju maavalitsuse haridus- ja sotsiaalosakonna juhataja Maris Liiders, Põlva maavalitsuse haridus- ja sotsiaalosakonna juhataja Peeter Aas, Ida-Viru maavalitsuse haridus- ja sotsiaalosakonna juhataja Kaarin Veinbergs

  6. Hodorkovski - Venemaa kuulsaim vang / Cyril Tuschi, Vladimir Juškin, Mart Helme ; vestlust juhtis Tunne Kelam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuschi, Cyril, 1969-

    2011-01-01

    Dokumentaalfilmi "Hodorkovsky" režissöör Cyril Tuschi, Balti Vene Uuringute Keskuse direktor Vladimir Juškin ja suursaadik Mart Helme filmi peategelasest Mihhail Hodorkovskist ja Venemaa sisepoliitlisest olukorrast

  7. The Use of Megamelus scutellaris Berg in the Southern United States as a Biocontrol Agent of Waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.))

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    United States as a Biocontrol Agent of Waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.)) by Michael J. Grodowitz,1 Seth Johnson,2 and Nathan E. Harms1...Establishment of Neochetina spp. has been widespread, and the biocontrol agents are now ubiquitous in the Southeast. More recently, South American... Biocontrol Agent of Waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.)) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  8. Efeito de diferentes substratos e condições ambientais na germinação de sementes de Euterpe edulis Mart. e Geonoma schottiana Mart Effects of different substrates and environmental conditions upon the germination of seeds of Euterpe edulis Mart, and Geonoma schottiana Mart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francismar Francisco Alves Aguiar

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Duas espécies da família Palmae: Euterpe edulis Mart. (palmiteiro e Geonoma schottiana Mart. (guaricanga, ambas com potencial ornamental e em vias de extinção, estão sendo estudadas no Instituto de Botânica de São Paulo, quanto à germinação de suas sementes. Testes de germinação foram realizados em diferentes condições ambientais (casa de vegetação e laboratório e substratos (terra vegetal, areia, esfagno natural, esfagno seco moído e vermiculita. O efeito dos substratos e dos ambientes na germinação das sementes, foi avaliado através da porcentagem de germinação e velocidade de germinação (V.G.. Considerando-se os resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que o melhor substrato para germinação de Euterpe edulis Mart. em casa de vegetação foi o esfagno natural. Já em condições controlada (25ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 horas, o melhor substrato para germinação das duas espécies investigadas foi a vermiculita.Two species of the family Palmae: Euterpe edulis Mart, (palmiteiro and Geonoma schottiana Mart, (guaricanga, both potentially ornamental and threatened by extinction, are being studied for seed germination. Tests were undertaken in different environmental conditions (greenhouse and laboratory and substrates (organic soil, sand, green sphagnum moss, dry, ground spahgnum and vermiculite. The effect of environmental conditions and substrates upon the germination of seeds was evaluated by the percentage germination and rate of germination (V.G. percentages. The best substrate for the germination of Euterpe edulis Mart., in greenhouse was green sphagnum moss. Under controlled conditions (25ºC and 12 hours photoperiod, the best substrate for germination of both species investigated was vermiculite.

  9. Antioxidant and Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activities of Ethyl Acetate Extract ofTerminalia chebula: Cell-freeIn vitroandIn silicoStudies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajmohamed, Mohamed Asik; Natarajan, Suganthy; Palanisamy, Premkumar; Abdulkader, Akbarsha Mohammad; Govindaraju, Archunan

    2017-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder clinically characterized by memory loss and impaired cognitive function. Cholinergic enzyme deficiency and oxidative stress are the two major factors implicated in the pathogenesis of AD. The symptomatic treatment, as of now, is the use of cholinesterase inhibitors toward cholinergic "downturn." Therefore, there is a search for compounds that will be useful in focused therapies. There has been suggestion that Terminalia chebula fruit would be a potential source. To assess the anticholinesterase and antioxidant activities of T. chebula fruit which is widely practiced in the Ayurvedic medicines for memory enhancement. Ethyl acetate extract of T. chebula fruit (TCEA) was subjected to phytochemical investigation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitory activities and cell-free antioxidant activity. TCEA was further subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS) analysis. The bioactive compounds were analyzed for molecular docking with AChE and BuChE proteins. TCEA exhibited potent AChE and BuChE inhibitory activities comparable to the standard drug donepezil. In vitro cell-free antioxidant assays demonstrated that TCEA possesses excellent free radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and potent metal-chelating activity. Total polyphenolic content of TCEA was 596.75 ± 0.35 µg gallic acid equivalents/mg of extract, which correlates with the antioxidant activity of TCEA. Molecular docking of compounds expounded in GC-MS analysis for AChE and BuChE enzyme activities revealed that methyl N-(N-benzyloxycarbonyl-beta-l-aspartyl)-beta-d-glucosaminide as the most potent compound with good predicted activities. Overall, the results revealed that the bioactive molecule methyl N-(N-benzyloxycarbonyl-beta-l-aspartyl)-beta-d-glucosaminide present in TCEA is a potential depressant for the treatment of AD and related neurodegenerative disorders. The present study was

  10. El doble testimoni de Miquel Martí i Pol (1957-1972

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Carbó

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Resum: The essay offers a revisión of Miquel Martí i Pol’s poetry written between 1957 and 1971. This poetry has been regarded by critics as linked to historical realism, and in our opinión consitutes the literary consolidation of the Roda de Ter-born poet after his his apprenticeship in existential poetry. Throughout five books and a long poem, the authorembodies a double social dimensión in his verse: on the one hand, extemal and collective history, especially achieved through the universe of the village and the factory; on the other hand, the inner and personal history dealing with aspects of his most intérnate experience in themes such as love or the function of poetry.  Paraules clau: Miquel Martí i Pol; poesia existencial; poesia catalana contemporània

  11. Sobre carnes y vidas desnudas en Tiempo de Silencio de Luis Martín-Santos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Almenara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bajo el contexto del franquismo, este ensayo analiza la des-subjetivización del sujeto español que dicho periodo se propuso efectuar. A partir de la lectura de Tiempo de Silencio de Luis Martín-Santos, el artículo intenta demostrar que el Estado franquista redujo al sujeto y su cuerpo en carne moldeable a partir de la cual dar nacimiento al nuevo sujeto español. Under the context of the historical period known as “franquismo español,” this essay analizes the desubjectification of the Spanish subject. Through an examination of the novel Tiempo de silencio by Luis Martín-Santos, this essay demonstrates that the Franquista State, reduced the subject and its body in maleable and collective flesh to allow the emergence of the new Spanish subject.

  12. La palabra sentenciosa del gaucho. Ejemplos elocuentes: Blau Nunes y Martín Fierro

    OpenAIRE

    Sisca, Alicia Lidia

    2014-01-01

    João Simões Lopes Neto y José Hernández tradujeron, en Blau Nunes y en Martín Fierro, la expresión sentenciosa del gaucho elevando a plano universal las experiencias regionales de sus vidas paradigmáticas. El lenguaje propio del hombre de la región gaucha, sea en la prosa de Contos Gauchescos o en los versos del Martín Fierro, confiere valor de realidad y perdurable eficacia al contenido de ese hablar sentencioso. La sabiduría del gaucho es fruto y síntesis de sus dramáticas vivencias que por...

  13. José Martí entre los Hilos Ocultos del Reformismo Cubano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Caridad Pacheco González

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo discute hasta qué punto, tras la muerte de Martí, se generaliza en la isla de Cuba el desconocimiento de su obra literaria, la oposición a su pensamiento político y en consecuencia, un abandono a su discurso revolucionario y popular. Se describe el proceso con el que se generalizan las contradicciones entre los independentistas, en medio de la recuperación de su legado a manos de los emigrados. Luego de décadas de debates, se presentan las manifestaciones que exaltan su lucha nacionalista, la difusión de sus obras y la defensa de sus postulados e ideas, convirtiéndose los criterios martianos en la base ideológica de la nación cubana y del reformismo, en su tránsito de colonia a república.   This article discusses the extent to which, after his death, the literary output of José Martí became generally unknown, opposition to his political thought as well, resulting in the abandonment of his popular and revolutionary discourse. The contradictions among those in favor of Cuban independence is examined, with the recovery of Martí’s legacy left to emigrants. After decades of debate, praise of his nationalist struggle reappears, along with the diffusion of his oeuvre and the defense of his propositions and ideas, transforming the tenets of Martí’s thought into the ideological base of Cuban nationalism and reform, in the island's transition from colony to republic.

  14. WAL-MART AS A LEADING RETAILER IN THE SUPPLY CHAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Li Hu; Tsung-Fu Han; Fang-Tai Tseng

    2011-01-01

    The Wal-Mart effect has a dramatic impact on upstream manufacturers in a supply chain. This study applies a game-theoretic approach to analyze the effects of the leading retailer in a supply chain. We propose three models relating to the interactions between upstream duopolistic manufacturers and a downstream retailer: The first model represents that both manufacturers react simultaneously and independently to the retailer‟s price decision. The second model describes both manufacturers re...

  15. Martín de Andújar y la Virgen de los Afligidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodríguez Morales

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El arquitecto y escultor Martín de Andújar Cantos se estableció entre 1634 y 1641 en Canarias procedente de Sevilla, donde se había formado a la sombra del maestro Juan Martínez Montañés. Con él llegaron a las Islas los novedosos planteamientos de la escuela hispalense de imaginería y también los modos de trabajo que regían sus obradores, que pudo trasmitir a aprendices locales en Garachico. La localización en las escribanías tinerfeñas de un documento inédito nos permite respaldar su autoría respecto a la desaparecida imagen de la Virgen de los Afligidos, que realizó junto al Nazareno para la Orden Tercera del Convento franciscano de Los Realejos en 1637.The architect and sculptor Martín de Andújar Cantos moved from Seville, where he had worked under the guidance of Juan Martínez Montañés, to the Canary Islands, where he lived from 1634 to 1641. Novel proposals from the Seville School of religious imagery arrived with him at the islands, as well as the new working methods employed at his workshopds, which he was able to transmit to the Garachico local apprentices. The finding at the Island’s Court Clerkships of an unpublished document allows us to back his authorship of the dissapeared image of the Virgen de los Afligidos, made next to the Nazarene in 1637 by commission of the Third Order of Los Realejos franciscan convent.

  16. Disain tähendab julgust tavapärasest erineda / Mart Jõhvikas ; interv. Ketlin Priilinn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõhvikas, Mart

    2007-01-01

    Pehmet disainmööblit tootva firma Borg OÜ juhataja Mart Jõhvikas tutvustab firma poolt pakutavat mööblit ja kasutatavaid materjale. 60% ulatuses valmistatakse mööblit eriprojektide järgi restoranidele, hotellidele, klubidele ja kohvikutele, ülejäänud toodang jõuab kodudesse läbi sisearhitektide ja edasimüüjate

  17. Mart Laar murrab ikkagi Andrus Ansipi valitsusse / Tuuli Koch, Kai Kalamees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 28. märts 2007, lk. 2. Koalitsiooniläbirääkimistel Reformierakonna, IRL-i ja SDE vahel kujunes tüliõunaks haridusministri koht, mida soovivad nii Peeter Kreitzberg kui Tõnis Lukas. Mart Laar võib saada kaitseministriks. Lisa: Võimalik uus valitsus ja riigikogu juhatus. Vt. samas: Savisaar: rohelistele näidati ust, sest nad nõudsid võrdset kohtlemist

  18. Micropropagation, seed propagation and germplasm bank of Mandevilla velutina (Mart.) Woodson

    OpenAIRE

    Biondo,Ronaldo; Souza,Ana Valéria; Bertoni,Bianca Waléria; Soares,Andreimar Martins; França,Suzelei Castro; Pereira,Ana Maria Soares

    2007-01-01

    Mandevilla velutina (Mart.) Woodson (Apocynaceae) is a medicinal plant species with antivenom properties, native from Brazilian Savanna regions (Cerrado), which due to overexploitation and habitat deforestation is in danger of extinction. As an initiative for conserving this endangered but economically important plant species, a micropropagation protocol was developed and genotypes were stored in the Germplasm Bank "Cerrado In vitro". For the in vitro propagation of M. velutina, nodal segment...

  19. Analysis of an Optimized MLOS Tomographic Reconstruction Algorithm and Comparison to the MART Reconstruction Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Foy, Roderick; Vlachos, Pavlos

    2011-11-01

    An optimally designed MLOS tomographic reconstruction algorithm for use in 3D PIV and PTV applications is analyzed. Using a set of optimized reconstruction parameters, the reconstructions produced by the MLOS algorithm are shown to be comparable to reconstructions produced by the MART algorithm for a range of camera geometries, camera numbers, and particle seeding densities. The resultant velocity field error calculated using PIV and PTV algorithms is further minimized by applying both pre and post processing to the reconstructed data sets.

  20. RESPON LINGKUNGAN BELANJA SEBAGAI STIMULUS PEMBELIAN TIDAK BERENCANA PADA MINI MARKET MAMI MART PAINAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareta Kemala Sari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research planning not purchase the mami mini market mart visits from customer response to environmental spending as a stimulus, a customer case study on mini market mart mom Painan. Research using response variables shopping environment consisting of Pleasure, Arousal, Dominance.as mediator variable, hedonic shopping value, utilitarian shopping value, resources expenditure on the purchase was not planned (Impulse Buying. Data were collected using questionnaires distributed during the 2 weeks to the respondents who never shop at mini market. The study population is that they all are a mini market mami mart customers aged 18-55 years and have never shopped with a minimum of 2 times the transaction, the methods used by the descriptive analysis, and processing research model with smartPLS program. Mengunggapkan research results that the response variable dominance shopping environment positive effect on resources expenditure. Shopping environment arousal response variable positive effect on resources expenditure. Also revealed that spending resources poengalaman variable expenditure not a mediator between the response variable shopping environment and other variables shopping experience, as well as the negative effect on the purchase was not planned. But the expenditure of resources affect the shopping experience more variables such as the hedonic shopping value, utilitarian shopping value, resources expenditure

  1. El Profesor Académico, Dr. Pablo Gómez Martínez.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoilo Cuéllar-Montoya

    2007-12-01

    Más adelante, en la misma Presidencia de la Academia del Profesor Pedro José Almánzar Vargas (1963 – 1965, fue promovido Gómez Martínez a la categoría de Miembro de Número(2,10 con el trabajo “Ilio-cisto-plastia con colgajo sero-muscular invertido y reconstrucción de vejigas funcionales” (2,11. En la sesión ordinaria de la Academia del día 12 de marzo de 1964, el Académico Correspondiente Gómez Martínez presentó el trabajo mencionado(2,12 y, en la sesión ordinaria del día 14 de mayo de 1964, en virtud de haber quedado vacantes las sillas de los Señores Académicos de Número Jaime Jaramillo Arango, fallecido en Bogotá, el 31 de julio de 1962(2,13, Manuel José Luque Guevara, retirado por precarias condiciones de salud(2,14, y Fernando Torres Restrepo, trasladado definitivamente a los Estados Unidos(2,15, la Academia, en votación secreta, eligió, como Miembros de Número, a los Señores Académicos Correspondientes Pablo Gómez Martínez, Alfredo Artunduaga y J. Hernando Hernández Garay(2,16...

  2. Evaluation of anti-obesity activities of ethanolic extract of Terminalia paniculata bark on high fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mopuri, Ramgopal; Ganjayi, Muniswamy; Banavathy, Kruthika S; Parim, Brahma Naidu; Meriga, Balaji

    2015-03-24

    The prevalence and severity of obesity and associated co-morbidities are rapidly increasing across the world. Natural products-based drug intervention has been proposed as one of the crucial strategies for management of obesity ailments. This study was designed to investigate the anti-obesity activities of ethanolic extract of Terminalia paniculata bark (TPEE) on high fat diet-induced obese rats. LC-MS/MS analysis was done for ethanolic extract of T. paniculata bark. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into six groups of six each, normal diet fed (NC), high fat diet-fed (HFD), HFD+ orlistat (standard drug control) administered, and remaining three groups were fed with HFD + TPEE in different doses (100,150 and 200 mg/kg b. wt). For induction of obesity rats were initially fed with HFD for 9 weeks, then, (TPEE) was supplemented along with HFD for 42 days. Changes in body weight, body composition, blood glucose, insulin, tissue and serum lipid profiles, atherogenic index, liver markers, and expression of adipogenesis-related genes such as leptin, adiponectin, FAS, PPARgamma, AMPK-1alpha and SREBP-1c, were studied in experimental rats. Also, histopathological examination of adipose tissue was carried out. Supplementation of TPEE reduced significantly (P obesity activities of TPEE promoting it as a formidable candidate to develop anti obesity drug.

  3. The use of a rat model to evaluate the in vivo toxicity and wound healing activity of selected Combretum and Terminalia (Combretaceae species extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Masoko

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing is a fundamental response to tissue injury and several natural products have been shown to accelerate the healing process. The present study was undertaken to determine the safety and efficacy of the topical treatment of acetone leaf extracts of Combretum imberbe, Combretum nelsonii,Combretum albopuntactum and Terminalia sericea based on their in vitro antimicrobial activity. Four circular full-thickness skin wounds were made on the backs of eight anaesthetised Wistar rats using aseptic techniques. The treatments were administrated topically using 10% and 20% concentrations of each extract in aqueous cream in separate treatments. Indications of erythema, exudate, crust formation,swelling and ulceration were used to determine the wound healing process. All of the wounds closed completely within 17 days. Throughout the experiment, a subcutaneous probe was used to determine that the body temperature and body weight of the rats were within the normal range. C. imberbe and C. nelsonii extracts accelerated wound healing, but there was no significant difference in wound contraction using 10% and 20% concentrations of the extracts in cream. The results also showed the potential usefulness of this model to measure accelerating wound healing.The extracts could perhaps overcome defects associated with healing failure in chronic wounds and prevent secondary bacterial and fungal infections.

  4. Chemopreventive effect of punicalagin, a novel tannin component isolated from Terminalia catappa, on H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pin-Shern; Li, Jih-Heng

    2006-05-05

    Terminalia catappa and its major tannin component, punicalagin, have been characterized to possess antioxidative and anti-genotoxic activities. However, their effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated carcinogenesis are still unclear. In the present study, H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells were used to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of T. catappa water extract (TCE) and punicalagin. In the cell proliferation assay, TCE and punicalagin suppressed the proliferation of H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells with a dose-dependent manner but only partially affected non-transformed NIH3T3 cells proliferation. The differential cytotoxicity of TCE/punicalagin on the H-ras-transformed and non-transformed NIH3T3 cells indicated the selectivity of TCE/punicalagin against H-ras induced transformation. TCE or punicalagin treatment reduced anchorage-independent growth that could be due to a cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. The intracellular superoxide level, known to modulate downstream signaling of Ras protein, was decreased by punicalagin treatments. The levels of phosphorylated JNK-1 and p38 were also decreased with punicalagin treatments. Thus, the chemopreventive effect of punicalagin against H-ras induced transformation could result from inhibition of the intracellular redox status and JNK-1/p38 activation.

  5. Characterization and Quantification of Compounds in the Hydroalcoholic Extract of the Leaves from Terminalia catappa Linn. (Combretaceae and Their Mutagenic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Mininel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminalia is a genus of Combretaceous plants widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Thus, the aim of this study was to quantify the majority compounds of the hydroalcoholic extract (7 : 3, v/v of the leaves from T. catappa by HPLC-PDA, chemically characterize by hyphenated techniques (HPLC-ESI-IT-MSn and NMR, and evaluate its mutagenic activity by the Salmonella/microsome assay on S. typhimurium strains TA98, TA97a, TA100, and TA102. The quantification of analytes was performed using an external calibration standard. Punicalagin is the most abundant polyphenol found in the leaves. The presence of this compound as a mixture of anomers was confirmed using HPLC-PDA and 1H and 13C NMR. Mutagenic activity was observed in strains TA100 and TA97a. As the extract is a complex mixture of punicalagin, its derivatives, and several other compounds, the observed mutagenicity may be explained in part by possible synergistic interaction between the compounds present in the extract. These studies show that mutagenic activity of T. catappa in the Ames test can only be observed when measured at high concentrations. However, considering the mutagenic effects observed for T. catappa, this plant should be used cautiously for medicinal purposes.

  6. Characterization and Quantification of Compounds in the Hydroalcoholic Extract of the Leaves from Terminalia catappa Linn. (Combretaceae) and Their Mutagenic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mininel, Francisco José; Leonardo Junior, Carlos Sérgio; Espanha, Lívia Greghi; Resende, Flávia Aparecida; Varanda, Eliana Aparecida; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; Vilegas, Wagner; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner

    2014-01-01

    Terminalia is a genus of Combretaceous plants widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Thus, the aim of this study was to quantify the majority compounds of the hydroalcoholic extract (7 : 3, v/v) of the leaves from T. catappa by HPLC-PDA, chemically characterize by hyphenated techniques (HPLC-ESI-IT-MSn) and NMR, and evaluate its mutagenic activity by the Salmonella/microsome assay on S. typhimurium strains TA98, TA97a, TA100, and TA102. The quantification of analytes was performed using an external calibration standard. Punicalagin is the most abundant polyphenol found in the leaves. The presence of this compound as a mixture of anomers was confirmed using HPLC-PDA and 1H and 13C NMR. Mutagenic activity was observed in strains TA100 and TA97a. As the extract is a complex mixture of punicalagin, its derivatives, and several other compounds, the observed mutagenicity may be explained in part by possible synergistic interaction between the compounds present in the extract. These studies show that mutagenic activity of T. catappa in the Ames test can only be observed when measured at high concentrations. However, considering the mutagenic effects observed for T. catappa, this plant should be used cautiously for medicinal purposes. PMID:24734110

  7. Curative effect of Terminalia chebula extract on acetic acid-induced experimental colitis: role of antioxidants, free radicals and acute inflammatory marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, M K; Goel, Shalini; Ghatule, R R; Singh, A; Nath, G; Goel, R K

    2013-10-01

    The present study has evaluated the healing effects of extract of dried fruit pulp of Terminalia chebula (TCE) on acetic acid (AA)-induced colitis in rats. TCE (600 mg/kg) showed healing effects against AA-induced colonic damage score and weight when administered orally daily for 14 days. TCE was further studied for its effects on various physical (mucus/blood in stool and stool frequency, food and water intake and body weight changes), histology, antibacterial activity and free radicals (NO and LPO), antioxidants (SOD, CAT and GSH) and myeloperoxidase in colonic tissue. Intra-colonic AA administration increased colonic mucosal damage and inflammation, mucus/bloody diarrhoea, stool frequency, but decreased body weight which were reversed by TCE and sulfasalazine (SS, positive control) treatments. TCE showed antibacterial activity and both TCE and SS enhanced the antioxidants, but decreased free radicals and myeloperoxidase activities affected in acetic acid-induced colitis. TCE indicated the presence of active principles with proven antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and free radical scavenging and healing properties. Thus, TCE seemed to be safe and effective in healing experimental colitis.

  8. An in vitro analysis of the total phenolic content, antioxidant power, physical, physicochemical, and chemical composition of Terminalia Catappa Linn fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigues Marques

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the antioxidant, total phenolic, and physicochemical properties of in vitro Terminalia Catappa Linn (locally called castanhola using the DPPH assay. The castanhola fruits had an average weight of 19.60 ± 0.00 g, combining shell, pulp, and seed weight, and a soluble solids content of 8 °Brix. The chemical composition was determined with predominance of carbohydrates (76,88 ± 0,58%.The titration method was used to determine Vitamin C content using 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCFI, known as reactive Tillmans resulting in no significant levels. Aqueous extracts of castanhola pulp showed a higher concentration of phenolics, 244.33 ± 18.86 GAE.g-1 of fruit, and alcoholic extracts, 142.84 ± 2.09 GAE.g-1 of fruit. EC50 values of the aqueous extract showed a greater ability to scavenge free radicals than the alcoholic extracts. The fruit had a significant content of phenolic compounds and high antioxidant capacity.

  9. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF OILS EXTRACTED BY TRADITIONAL AND HEXANE METHODS FROM TERMINALIA CATAPPA L. KERNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bérenger A. L. Ladele

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The comparative study of physico-chemical characteristics of Terminalia catappa L. kernel oils extracted by two methods has been done. The oil yields were 28.13 % and 61.78 % respectively for traditional and hexane methods and the fatty acid profiles showed palmitic acid (40.79 % and 40.03 % respectively oleic acid (25.55 % and 26.09 % respectively, linoleic acid (26.72 % and 26.64 % respectively and stearic acid (4.35 % and 4.49 % respectively as major components. The oils extracted by the two ways showed similar physico-chemical properties, good calorific values and non-toxicity against Artemia salina L. Oil obtained by traditional method exhibited more antioxidant capacity (1.40 than the hexane one (0.15. This traditional method helps to extract 45 % of the total oil. It gives oil free of organic solvent, with good physico-chemical properties that could be useful as edible oil and for industrial applications.

  10. Longitudinal immune monitoring of patients receiving intratumoral injection of a MART-1 T-cell receptor-transduced cell line (C-Cure 709)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køllgaard, Tania; Duval, Lone; Schmidt, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    ) into HLA-A2(+) melanoma patients. The C-Cure 709 cell line is cytotoxic against MART-1(+) HLA-A2(+) melanoma cell lines and secretes several immune stimulatory cytokines upon stimulation. METHODS: Anti-tumor immune responses against the commonly expressed tumor antigen (Ag) MART-1 were longitudinally...

  11. The immunodominant HLA-A2-restricted MART-1 epitope is not presented on the surface of many melanoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Rikke Baek; Junker, Niels; Kirkin, Alexei; Voigt, Heike; Svane, Inge Marie; Becker, Jürgen C; thor Straten, Per; Andersen, Mads Hald

    2009-05-01

    Among the relatively large number of known tumor-associated antigens (TAA) which are recognized by human CD8 T-cells, Melan-A/MART-1 is one of the most-if not the most-frequently used target for anti-cancer vaccines in HLA-A2 + melanoma patients. In this study, we analyzed the killing of a large panel of melanoma cells by a high avidity, MART-1-specific T-cell clone or a MART-1-specific, polyclonal T-cell culture. Strikingly, we observed that the MART-1-specific T-cells only killed around half of the analyzed melanoma cell lines. In contrast a Bcl-2-specific T-cell clone killed all melanoma cell lines, although the T-cell avidity of this clone was significantly lower. The MART-1-specific T-cell clone expressed NKG-2D and was fully capable of releasing both perforin and Granzyme B. Notably, the resistance to killing by the MART-1-specific T-cells could be overcome by pulsing of the melanoma cells with the MART-1 epitope. Thus, the very frequently used MART-1 epitope was not expressed on the surface of many melanoma cell lines. Our data emphasize that the selected tumor antigens and/or epitopes are critical for the outcome of anti-cancer immunotherapy.

  12. Chemical constituents from roots and leaf stalks of acai (Euterpe precatoria Mart., Arecaceae); Constituintes quimicos da raiz e do talo da folha do acai (Euterpe precatoria Mart., Arecaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galotta, Ana Lucia Queiroz de Assis [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica; Boaventura, Maria Amelia Diamantino [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: dianadb@dedalus.lcc.ufmg.br

    2005-07-15

    Phytochemical investigation of the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of roots and leaf stalks of Euterpe precatoria Mart. (acai), afforded stigmast-4-en-6{beta}-ol-3-one (3); p-hydroxy benzoic acid (4); 3{beta}-O-D-glucopyranosyl-sitosterol (5); {beta}-sitosterol palmitate (6); mixtures of {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol (1 and 2), {alpha}-, {beta}-amyrin and lupeol (7, 8 and 9), friedelin-3-one and 28-hydroxy-friedelin-3-one (10 and 11) and {alpha}-, {beta}-D-glucose (12, 13). Except for 1, 2 and 4, the other isolated constituents are described in the genus for the first time. Compounds 3 and 5 gave good results in the brine shrimp bioassay, which detects compounds with potential uses as antitumor agents, pesticides, etc.. (author)

  13. Antioxidant activity of extracts and condensed tannins from Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reiss; Atividade antioxidante de extratos e taninos condensados das folhas de Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessuto, Monica Bordin; Costa, Isis Casemiro da; Souza, Angelita Boldieri de; Nicoli, Fernanda Michely; Mello, Joao Carlos Palazzo de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia e Farmacologia]. E-mail: mello@uem.br; Petereit, Frank [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet, Muenster (Germany). Inst. for Pharmaceutical Biology and Phytochemistry; Luftmann, Heinrich [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet, Muenster (Germany). Inst. for Organic Chemistry

    2009-07-01

    Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reiss. Maytenus ilicifolia (Celastraceae) is a native plant of South America and popularly known as 'espinheira-santa'. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of extracts and isolated compounds from this plant. The antioxidant activity of the crude and semipurified extracts and isolated compounds was evaluated through DPPH-radical and phosphomolybdenum-complex assays. By both methods, the ethyl-acetate fraction demonstrated better antioxidant capacity compared with vitamin C and trolox. In the compounds, the higher the number of hydroxyls, the greater the antioxidant activity. In addition, stereochemistry influenced antioxidant activity, i.e., compounds with 2 R,3 R showed greater activity than those with 2 R,3 S. (author)

  14. Influencia da intensidade luminosa e do substrato no crescimento, no conteudo de clorofila e na fotossintese de Cabralea canjerana (Vell.) Mart. Subsp. canjerana, Calophyllum brasiliense Camb. e centrolobium robustum (Vell.) Mart. Ex Benth., na fase ju

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Paulo Ernani Ramalho, 1946-

    2013-01-01

    Visando estudar a auto-ecologia de três espécies florestais brasileiras; Cabralea canjerana (Vell.) Mart. subsp. canjerana (canjarana); Callophyllum brasiliense Camb. (guanandi) e Centrolobium robustum (VelI.) Mart. ex Benth. (araribá-rosa), estudou-se o comportamento na fase juvenil de mudas envasadas em dois substratos (Colombo e Santa Helena) e sob intensidades luminosas de 10%, 30%, 50% e 100%. Para todas as espécies, foram estudados vários parâmetros ecofisiológicos: altura, diâmetro do ...

  15. Evaluating the quality of life of people with profound and multiple disabilities: Use of the San Martín Scale at the Obra San Martín Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Hierro Zorrilla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The San Martín Scale is an instrument used to measure the quality of life of people with significant disabilities with adequate levels reliability and validity. In 2012, the San Martín Scale was administered to 85 adults with intellectual disabilities who were provided supports at Obra San Martin Foundation (Santander. In this article, we describe the results obtained at the mesosystem level, an example at the microsystem level, and future areas of work identified from the results.

  16. GC-MS analysis of leaf extracts of Terminalia macroptera and Dioclea reflexa, two medicinal plants used for the treatment of respiratory tract disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Ibibia Edewor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the phytochemicals that are present in two medicinal plants which are used for the treatment of respiratory tract infections by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Methods: The plant leaves were extracted with n-hexane and methanol separately. Both extracts were analyzed for present phytochemicals using the method described by Harborne, 1985 while only methanol extracts were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis. Results: Phytochemical screening of the methanolic extracts of Terminalia macroptera (T. macroptera revealed the presence of glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, saponins and steroids while that of Dioclea reflexa (D. reflexa showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins and steroids. The n-hexane extracts were devoid of the screened phytochemicals. Twelve and twenty-five compounds were identified in the leaves of T. macroptera and D. reflexa respectively. These compounds were fatty acids, fatty acid esters, other esters, heterocyclics and phenolics. The most abundant compound in T. macroptera was benzenetriol (53.30% while the predominant compounds in D. reflexa were dodecanoic acid, methyl ester (15.31%, 5, 5, 8a-trimethyl-3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 8a-hexahydro-2H-chromene (9.73%, 10-octadecenoic acid, methyl ester and 2-hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (8.95%. Benzofuran, 2, 3-dihydro, 3, 7, 11, 15- tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol and hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester were common in both plant extracts. The antimicrobial properties of the leaves of these plants could be responsible for their use in the treatment of respiratory tract infections. Conclusions: Some of the identified phytochemicals in the plant leaves are responsible for its use in the treatment of respiratory tract infections.

  17. Sodium metabisulfite–induced polymerization of sickle cell hemoglobin incubated in the extracts of three medicinal plants (Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikezie, Paul Chidoka

    2011-01-01

    Background: The exploitation and utilization of vast varieties of herbal extracts may serve as alternative measures to deter aggregation of deoxygenated sickle cell hemoglobin (deoxyHbS) molecules. Objective: The present in vitro study ascertained the capacity of three medicinal plants, namely, Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa, to alter polymerization of HbS. Materials and Methods: Spectrophotometric method was used to monitor the level of polymerization of hemolysate HbS molecules treated with sodium metabisulfite (Na2 S2 O5) at a regular interval of 30 s for a period of 180 s in the presence of separate aqueous extracts of A. occidentale, P. guajava, and T. catappa. At time intervals of 30 s, the level of polymerization was expressed as percentage of absorbance relative to the control sample at the 180th s. Results: Although extracts of the three medicinal plants caused significant (P guajava exhibited the highest capacity to reduced polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules. Whereas at t > 60 s, extract concentration of 400 mg% of A. occidentale activated polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules by 6.23±1.34, 14.53±1.67, 21.15±1.89, and 24.42±1.09%, 800 mg% of T. catappa at t > 30 s gave values of 2.50±1.93, 5.09±1.96, 10.00±0.99, 15.38±1.33, and 17.31±0.97%. Conclusion: The capacity of the three medicinal plants to interfere with polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules depended on the duration of incubation and concentration of the extracts. PMID:21716622

  18. 1α,25(OH)2D3Analog, MART-10, Inhibits Neuroendocrine Tumor Cell Metastasis After VEGF-A Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Hsu, Jun-Te; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Chen, Li-Wei; Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Takano, Masashi; Chen, Tai C; Kittaka, Atsushi; Hsieh, Po-Jen; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2017-11-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) are usually diagnosed in an advanced stage. Most patients with PanNETs die of metastasis. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is a strong stimulator of angiogenesis and tumor metastasis. We aimed to investigate the effect of MART-10 [19-nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 ], a 1α,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 (1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 ) analog, on PanNET cell metastasis after VEGF-A stimulation. Migration and invasion assays, western blot, and immunofluorescent staining were applied in this study. VEGF-A increased PanNET cell migration and invasion, which was attenuated by 1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 and MART-10. VEGF-A treatment stimulated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of PanNET cells. During this process, expression of snail family transcriptional repressor 1 and 2, and fibronectin was up-regulated. 1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 and MART-10 counteracted VEGF-A-induced EMT. In addition, expression of neuropilin 1, a key protein in VEGF-A signaling, was down-regulated by 1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 and MART-10. Furthermore, synthesis of F-actin was increased by VEGF-A and reduced by 1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 and MART-10. Our data indicate that MART-10 could be deemed a promising drug for PanNET treatment. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  19. Composite ciment/bois de borassus aethiopum mart : étude de l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le présent travail concerne un composite à matrice cimentaire renforcée par des fibres de borassus aethiopum mart communément appelé « rônier ». Il a été examiné la possibilité d'utiliser les fibres de rônier comme renfort dans la pâte de ciment. A cet effet, des études de formulations, de compatibilité du ciment avec les ...

  20. Ezequiel Martínez Estrada: el profesor al servicio de las ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Lourdes Gasillón

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ezequiel Martínez Estrada was an important essayist in the cultural field thanks to to his descriptions and analyses of Argentine and Latin American reality. However, he also reflected on Argentine and foreign intellectuals and he worked as a teacher. In this paper, we focus on the compilation En torno a Kafka y otros ensayos [Regarding Kafka, and other essays] to establish a connection between his concept of education and the writer's own teaching practice, starting from his literary influences, Franz Kafka and Pedro Henríquez Ureña

  1. Proteccionismo, filibusterismo, libre comercio: José Martí y los tratados comerciales

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Díaz Naranjo

    2014-01-01

    Aun cuando los tratados de libre comercio se han constituido en los principales instrumentos de regulación en lo comercial, entre países, en los últimos 25 años, estos han sido un referente constante en los procesos bilaterales y multilaterales de negociación en esta materia. Como práctica se remonta al siglo XIX. En este sentido José Martí, héroe cubano, desarrolla un análisis del acuerdo comercial entre México y los Estados Unidos, propuesto en 1883, que mantiene vigencia, sobre la base de ...

  2. Inconsciente genérico, feminismo y Nubosidad variable de Carmen Martín Gaite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zecchi, Barbara

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In a context of marked tensions between gynocritics and contemporary Spanish women writers, Carmen Martín Gaite’s novel Nubosidad variable (Variable Cloud,1992 stands out as a curious paradox. As is well known, Martín Gaite repeatedly declared not to be a feminist and even scorned women who fought for equality between both sexes. This article argues that Nubosidad variable, however, constitutes one of the best examples of a consciously feminist text. In this novel Martín Gaite applies some of the most prominent paradigms of feminist literary theory, such as the construction of a non-linear and a-chronological narration (Julia Kristeva, the attempt to create a “language of the body” (Helène Cixous, the foregrounding of a mother-daughter bond (Luisa Muraro, as well as the use of female writing as a means of self-discovery (Elaine Showalter.En un contexto de falta de comunicación entre ginocrítica y escritura femenina, la novela Nubosidad variable (1992 de Carmen Martín Gaite se presenta como una significativa paradoja. Si por un lado su autora declaró repetidas veces no ser feminista —y hasta menospreció con ironía a las mujeres que han luchado por la igualdad—, Nubosidad variable es una innegable aplicación de algunos de los más conocidos paradigmas de la teoría literaria feminista. Desde la narración no-lineal y atemporal que sigue el “tiempo de las mujeres” de Julia Kristeva, hasta el intento de crear una lengua del cuerpo a lo Hélène Cixous; desde el vínculo madre-hija teorizado por Luisa Muraro, hasta la escritura femenina como auto-descubrimiento de Elaine Showalter, esta novela representa uno de los mejores ejemplos, dentro de la narrativa contemporánea española, de lo que llamaría un texto conscientemente feminista.

  3. La validez del pensamiento de Ignacio Martín-Baró

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Nelly Patricia

    2011-01-01

    El presente artículo explora las reflexiones del psicólogo social Ignacio Martín-Baró, a los veinte años de su asesinato, lo cual, lejos de borrar su pensamiento, resaltó la importancia y aplicabilidad de su método en la praxis psicosocial de latinoamericana. A través de sus textos, se observa una personalidad impregnada de fe y compromiso, manifestados en su proyecto transformador y liberador, basado en la utopía de la igualdad y la justicia social, que no son irreales, sino que evidencian l...

  4. Basilio Martín Patiño. Memoria, disidencia y realidad

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Borox, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Esta investigación va a abordar de una forma pionera, el universo tanto profesional como personal del director salmantino Basilio Martín Patino. Por medio de un documento audiovisual en el que se incluyen diversos testimonios y entrevistas del propio Patino, así como de estudiosos, críticos, directores o actores, hemos configurado una visión innovadora de las relaciones que se establecen entre su cine y las realidades propias del contexto social, cultural y político del propio director. Obse...

  5. Entrevista a Rafael Martínez Raymonda, sobre la figura de Lisandro de la Torre

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Raymonda, Rafael; Toschi, Damián; Martínez Raymonda, Rafael; Toschi, Damián

    2010-01-01

    Rafael Martínez Raymonda, secretario general del partido Demócrata Progresista, es entrevistado por Damián Toschi para el programa "Derecho de autor" con motivo de los 142 años del nacimiento de Lisandro de la Torre, fundador del partido y político fundamental del siglo XX. Lisandro de la Torre: Nació el 6 de diciembre de 1868 en Santa Fe y se suicidó el 5 de enero de 1939 en Buenos Aires.

  6. Food habits of the stone marten (Martes foina) in the upper Aveto Valley (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano Martinoli; Damiano Preatoni

    1995-01-01

    Abstract The diet of the stone marten (Martes foina) was studied analysing 63 faeces collected from February 1990 to December 1991. The results were expressed as relative percentage of frequency (Fr%) and as percentage of mean bulk (Vm%). Mammals, mainly rodents, were the staple in the diet (annual Vm% = 62.9) and reached a maximum peak in winter (Vm% = 79.4). Vegetables were mostly represented by Rosaceae fruits (annual Vm% = 22.3) and were ...

  7. Eesti Vabariigi avaldus [13. 07.1994] / Lennart Meri, Ülo Nugis, Mart Laar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meri, Lennart, 1929-2006

    1994-01-01

    Avaldus seoses Vene vägede väljaviimisega. Ilmunud ka: The Monthly Survey of Baltic and Post-Soviet Politics (1994) juuli, lk. 46, pealkiri: Statement of the Republic of Estonia ; Eesti Sõnumid, 14. juuli, lk. 1, Postimees, 14. juuli, lk. 1, pealkiri: Eesti Vabariigi avaldus ; Эстония, 14. juuli, lk. 1, pealk.: Заявление Эстонской Республики. - Allkiri: Lennart Meri, Ülo Nugis, Mart Laar

  8. Realidad y ficción en la obra de Carmen Martín Gaite

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo Romero, María Coronada

    2013-01-01

    La tesis estudia uno de los aspectos fundamentales de la obra de Carmen Martín Gaite, así como su tratamiento a lo largo de toda su trayectoria literaria: la fusión de la realidad y la ficción, del mundo real y de la imaginación, el sueño, el recuerdo y la literatura. Está estructurada en dos partes: teniendo en cuenta la afinidad que la autora sentía hacia determinados escritores cuya influencia en su obra declaró abiertamente en numerosas ocasiones, la primera parte está dedicada a est...

  9. Rupturas político-ideológicas en la revista Martín Fierro 1924-1927

    OpenAIRE

    Quesada, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    La revista Martín Fierro (segunda época), fundada en 1924 por Evar Méndez resultó ser uno de los más importantes hitos culturales de la primera mitad del siglo XX. Una nueva lectura de Martín Fierro, además de corroborar la hipótesis anterior, permite encontrar significativas relaciones entre la revista y el proceso social y político que se desarrolla en el país, como también destacados paralelismos entre los campos literario, periodístico y p...

  10. Paulo Prado e Martínez Estrada: A tristeza como elemento definidor da brasilidade e da argentinidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Zeidan Araújo

    2011-09-01

    Assim, apesar dos objetivos e metodologias diferentes, acreditamos que possam ser estabelecidos tanto contrapontos como semelhanças nas interpretações de Paulo Prado e de Ezequiel Martínez Estrada sobre o Brasil e os brasileiros e sobre a Argentina e os argentinos, respectivamente. Para tanto, tentaremos expor brevemente alguns dos argumentos dos autores sobre os principais temas contidos nas obras citadas que se relacionem ao tema da tristeza, que acreditamos dominar as reflexões de Paulo Prado e de Martínez Estrada no que diz respeito à psique coletiva nacional.

  11. Wal-Mart, caballo de Troya de la globalización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Paul Desse

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Creada en 1962 por Sam Walton, una pequeña empresa de distribución norteamericana se convertirá rápidamente en la primera empresa mundial. Desde Bentonville, Arkansas, hasta el interior de China, Wal-Mart muestra un camino bastante clásico que va desde la sede principal de la empresa hacia una proliferación de sus tiendas en una quincena de países. Con una facturación de 405 mil millones de dólares en 2008, la empresa de distribución número uno en el mundo fue sobrepasada en abril de 2009 por la empresa petrolera Exxon Mobil en la clasificación de las quinientas empresas mundiales más importantes. Pero a diferencia de otras grandes transnacionales como Exxon Mobil o Microsoft, Wal-Mart, la primera empresa mundial de distribución, tiene que adaptarse al medio ambiente local con el fin de atraer a un máximo de consumidores. El artículo propone una aproximación a escala múltiple de las estrategias de desarrollo de esta firma internacional. Así, la aplicación de un análisis espacial es apropiada para esclarecer los vínculos existentes entre los territorios y las estrategias de los actores a diferentes escalas geográficas.

  12. Analysis of bioactivities and chemical composition of Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. using HPLC-DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Sharlene M O; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Talvani, Andre; Coronel, Cathia; Barbosa, Andreza G R; Vega, Celeste; Figueredo, Fernando G; Tintino, Saulo R; Lima, Luciene F; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Menezes, Irwin R A

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical profile and antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities of the hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. (HELZJ). The antioxidant DPPH and FRAP assays and chemical profile were determined by colorimetric methods and HPLC/DAD. The antiparasitic, antibiotic and antibiotic-modifying activity were evaluated by microdilution assays. The HPLC-DAD assay showed the presence of mostly tannins and flavonoids, such as caffeic acid and quercetin. The levels of polyphenols and flavonoids were 183.136 mg/g extract and 7.37 mg/g extract, respectively. DPPH and FRAP showed low antioxidant activity for the extract. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were not of clinical relevance, showing MIC>1024 μg/mL. However, synergism was observed between HELZJ and the antibiotics amikacin and gentamicin, which resulted in decreased bacterial drug resistance. EHFZJ showed low toxicity in fibroblasts in vitro, while antiparasitic results against Trypnosoma cruzi, Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania infantum were not clinically relevant. Thus, our results indicate that Z. joazeiro Mart. (HELZJ) could be a source of plant-derived natural products that could lead to the development of promising new antibiotic compounds for infectious diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Una finestra sul passato: Irse de casa di Carmen Martín Gaite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Tosolini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Beyond historical and social implications, migration represents the possibility of crossing a threshold and opening oneself up to new empirical and emotional spaces. Amparo, the main character of Carmen Martín Gaite’s Irse de casa (1998, is the perfect personification of the gaitian feminine canon. After leaving Spain and settling in New York, she became a successful fashion designer, and seemed happy and easy-going. The bond with memory and the past is the main topic of this novel, as it is in most of Martín Gaite’s production. The window on the past that Amparo closed moving to the US suddenly reappears when she needs to discover herself and her origins. This inconvenience in an anonymous life brings huge changes that will condition her and her loved ones. Travelling to Spain and interacting with places and people connected with her childhood, Amparo goes through the window she had closed forty years before, restoring the order. The window connects the present and the past, symbolizes the emigrant’s transience, personified in the novel by Amparo, who can definitely find the lost serenity and heart’s-ease.

  14. SigReannot-mart: a query environment for expression microarray probe re-annotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreews, François; Rauffet, Gaelle; Dehais, Patrice; Klopp, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Expression microarrays are commonly used to study transcriptomes. Most of the arrays are now based on oligo-nucleotide probes. Probe design being a tedious task, it often takes place once at the beginning of the project. The oligo set is then used for several years. During this time period, the knowledge gathered by the community on the genome and the transcriptome increases and gets more precise. Therefore re-annotating the set is essential to supply the biologists with up-to-date annotations. SigReannot-mart is a query environment populated with regularly updated annotations for different oligo sets. It stores the results of the SigReannot pipeline that has mainly been used on farm and aquaculture species. It permits easy extraction in different formats using filters. It is used to compare probe sets on different criteria, to choose the set for a given experiment to mix probe sets in order to create a new one. Database URL: http://sigreannot-mart.toulouse.inra.fr/ PMID:21930501

  15. Carmen Martín Gaite: la escritura terapéutica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escartín Gual, Montserrat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the therapeutic power of the written and oral communication, as well as the benefit of reading literary texts proposed by the narrative of Carmen Martín Gaite. If the author prioritized spoken communication in her first novels, with the passing of time, defended her narrative writing versus orality, making it the vehicle of choice for characters to communicate and ultimately for herself, to find the healing through the word.En este artículo se analiza el poder terapéutico de la comunicación oral y escrita, así como el beneficio de la lectura de textos literarios que propone la narrativa de Carmen Martín Gaite. Si la autora priorizó la comunicación hablada en su primeras novelas, con el paso del tiempo, su discurso narrativo defendió la escritura frente a la oralidad, convirtiéndola en el vehículo elegido por sus personajes para comunicarse y, en definitiva por ella misma, para buscar la curación a través de la palabra.

  16. Characterization of chemical and mineral composition of marolo (Annona crassiflora Mart during physiological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Pablo da SILVA

    Full Text Available Abstract Maroleiro (Annona crassiflora Mart, belonging to the family of Annonaceae is a typical specie of the Cerrado and has occurred in most states. For fruit characteristics “sui generis”, with significant nutritional value. This study aimed to characterize the marolo (Anonna crasiflora Mart during fruit development, through the evaluation of its proximal and mineral composition. The fruits 2012/2013 season, were picked to 12Km from the city of Itumirim, southern Minas Gerais, in intervals of 20 days from anthesis to maturity, and the first fruits were harvested 60 days after anthesis. The flowering marolo began in late September 2012, with fruiting initially observed at the end of October, with peak production at the end of February and beginning of March 2013 The fruits were harvested in the morning and carried to the laboratory, where followed up the moisture, ether extract, protein, ash, fiber and high sugar fraction beyond mineral quantification of them. During development reductions in moisture content and protein increments of ether extract, crude fiber and high sugar fraction and an oscillation in the mineral along the developmental stages was observed.

  17. MART-type CT algorithms for the reconstruction of multidirectional interferometric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Dean D.

    1992-01-01

    There has been much recent interest in the application of optical tomography to the study of transport phenomena and chemical reactions in transparent fluid flows. An example is the use of multidirectional holographic interferometry and computed tomography for the study of crystal growth from solution under microgravity conditions. A critical part of any such measurement system is the computed tomography program used to convert the measured interferometric data to refractive index distributions in the object under study. Several of the most promising CT algorithms for this application are presented and compared here. Because of the practical difficulty of making multidirectional interferometric measurements, these measurements generally provide only limited amounts of data. Recent studies have indicated that of the several classes of reconstruction algorithms applicable in the limited-data situation, those based on the Multiplicative Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (MART) are the fastest, most flexible, and most accurate. Several MART-type algorithms have been proposed in the literature. In this paper we compare the performance of state-of-the-art implementations of four such algorithms under conditions of interest to those reconstructing multidirectional interferometric data. The algorithms are tested using numerically-generated data from two phantom objects, with two levels of added noise and with two different imaging geometries. A reconstruction of real data from a multidirectional holographic interferometer using the best of the algorithms is shown.

  18. Literatura y filosofía: Sartre, Martín-Santos y Bartleby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santamaría Pargada, Antonio

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Luis Martín Santos has been, after his soon death, one of the most unfairly forgotten Spanish intellectuals. This situation happens to be even more unjust considering the success of his novel “Time of Silence” and his unfinished “Time of Destruction”. The works of this psychiatrist, philosophically formed in the existentialism tradition, tackle from psychiatric and medical studies to interpretations of Dilthey, Jaspers and Heidegger. Maybe the most important achievement made by Dr. Martín-Santos was the fact of pooling in his novels all the different fields he worked in, namely: existential philosophy, psychiatry and literature. This mutual influence leads to a clearly existential interpretation of the narrative subject and to a nihilist conception of freedom: the nothingness completely understood as Sartre did. And, consequently, the attractiveness of approaching the Spanish author through literary theories that are close to the French contemporary philosophy and the primacy, not only of the existential analysis in literature, but also of the influence of the literary character as a fiction that is able to create possible realities. That is why it is interesting to study “Bartleby the Scrivener” as a paradoxical example of the existential nothingness made flesh. To put it in a nutshell, the existential triviality, a sign of modern times, has been indeed very successfully portrayed by Martín-Santos.Luis Martín-Santos ha sido, tras su temprana muerte, uno de los grandes olvidados entre los intelectuales españoles del franquismo. Olvido especialmente injusto, teniendo en cuenta el éxito de su novela Tiempo de Silencio y su interesante proyecto inacabado Tiempo de Destrucción. La obra de este psiquiatra formado filosóficamente en el existencialismo abarca desde trabajos psiquiátricos relativos a la medicina hasta interpretaciones de Dilthey, Jaspers y Heidegger. Tal vez el mayor logro de Martín- Santos fuera el de aunar en sus

  19. A comparative immunohistochemical study of MART-1 expression in Spitz nevi, ordinary melanocytic nevi, and malignant melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, R; Azzam, H; Sprecher, E; Manov, L; Munichor, M; Friedman-Birnbaum, R; Ben-Itzhak, O

    2000-03-01

    The histopathologic differential diagnosis of Spitz nevus (SN) from malignant melanoma (MM) may be difficult. We attempted to elucidate the pattern of expression of a newly recognized melanocyte-specific melanosomal protein MART-1 in routinely processed specimens of SNs, MMs, and ordinary melanocytic nevi (MNs) and to see whether it can help to differentiate between them. Twenty SN, 22 MM, and 27 ordinary MN were immunostained with anti-MART-1 monoclonal antibody (clone A103). All SNs, MNs, and MMs demonstrated cytoplasmic staining for MART-1 in some of their tumor cells, of which 17 of 20 (85%) and 24 of 27 (89%) of SN and MN, respectively, demonstrated positive stainings in more than half of their tumor cells, as compared with only 10 of 22 (45%) of the MM (P <.05). The majority of lesions in all 3 types of tumors showed a homogeneous mode of staining, although MM tended to show a more heterogeneous pattern. A consistent pattern of stratification of staining with progressive descent into the dermis was not demonstrated in these tumors. MART-1 does not differentiate between SN, MM, and ordinary MN in a consistent pattern, but it may be used as a marker for these tumors.

  20. Crónicas marcianas: de la conquista de América a la conquista de Marte

    OpenAIRE

    Durán Luzio, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Comparación entre la conquista de América y lo que sería la conquista de Marte, basada en la obra de Ray Bradbury Crónicas Marcianas que pronto se empezó a contar entre los clásicos de la ciencia ficción. 

  1. Simulating the effects of climate change on population connectivity of American marten (Martes americana) in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. N. Wasserman; S. A. Cushman; A. S. Shirk; E. L. Landguth; J. S. Littell

    2012-01-01

    We utilize empirically derived estimates of landscape resistance to assess current landscape connectivity of American marten (Martes americana) in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA, and project how a warming climate may affect landscape resistance and population connectivity in the future. We evaluate the influences of five potential future temperature scenarios...

  2. Martín Gaspar, La condición traductora. Sobre los nuevos protagonistas de la literatura latinoamericana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Lorraine Cresci

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Reseña bibliográfica del libro Martín Gaspar, La condición traductora. Sobre los nuevos protagonistas de la literatura latinoamericana, Rosario, Beatriz Viterbo, 2014, 256 pp.

  3. A historical approach to information management at “José Martí” College of Education

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    Carvajal, Bárbara María

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a historical approach to information management in teachers training at “José Martí” College of Education. A theoretical framework is constructed as a way of completing the information gather in interviews to professors and graduates. The results include the identification and description of five periods of development.

  4. Development of 22 new microsatellite loci for fishers (Martes pennanti) with variability results from across their range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordan, Mark J.; Higley, Mark; Matthews, Sean M.; Rhodes, Olin E.; Schwartz, Michael K.; Barrett, Reginald H.; Palsboll, Per J.

    We developed 22 new microsatellite loci for the fisher (Martes pennanti), a North American mesocarnivore. The loci were developed with samples from the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains in California, and were screened with samples from this population and four other populations. We observed a range

  5. Morfometria das fibras das folhas de Astrocaryum murumuru var. murumuru Mart. (ARECACEAE Leaf fibers morphometry of Astrocaryum murumuru var. murumuru Mart. (ARECACEAE

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    Clarisse Beltrão Rosas Rocha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A análise morfométrica das fibras das folhas de Astrocaryum murumuru var. murumuru Mart. revelou que as fibras do pecíolo apresentaram comprimento e espessura da parede superiores às regiões da ráquis e folíolo, com médias variando de 1.266,09 µm a 3.270,56 µm e 5,56 µm a 10,67 µm, respectivamente. Em relação ao índice de Runckel e coeficiente de flexibilidade, as regiões pecíolo e ráquis obtiveram valores considerados favoráveis para sua utilização na indústria papeleira e, o índice de enfeltramento demonstrou que provavelmente as fibras dessas regiões apresentarão uma boa resistência ao rasgo quando submetidas às avaliações físico-mecânicas. Diante dos resultados, a espécie se revela promissora como fonte alternativa de matéria-prima para a produção de papel, sendo necessários, entretanto, estudos de resistências físico-mecânicas a consolidação deste pré-diagnóstico.The analysis morphometric of the leaf fibers of Astrocaryum murumuru var. murumuru Mart. demonstrated that the petiole's fibers had presented length and wall thickness superiors than the rachis and leaflets, with yours means varying of 1.266,09 µm to 3.270,56 µm and 5,56 µm to 10,67 µm, respectively. In relation the index of Runckel and flexibility's coefficient the petiole and rachis had gotten values considered favorable for its use in the paper industry and, the felting index it probably demonstrated that the fibers of these regions will present good crash resistance when submitted to the evaluations physical-mechanical. therefore, the results show the species is a alternative source of raw material to produce paper, but its necessary to do physical-mechanical resistance studies to consolidate this pre diagnostic.

  6. Superação de dormência em sementes de Zeyheria montana Mart. Dormancy break in Zeyheria montana Mart. seeds

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    Sara Dousseau

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Zeyheria montana Mart. (Bignoniaceae é uma espécie medicinal conhecida como bolsa de pastor que se encontra com risco de extinção, sendo fundamental o desenvolvimento de metodologias para sua propagação e preservação. Neste estudo, avaliou-se a porcentagem de germinação e o índice de velocidade de germinação de sementes de bolsa de pastor submetidas à diferentes métodos de superação de dormência: lavagem por diferentes períodos, retirada total e parcial da expansão alada, combinação de lavagem com retirada parcial da expansão alada e imersão em ácido clorídrico e sulfúrico, em diferentes concentrações. Como testemunha, utilizaram-se sementes intactas. O experimento foi conduzido em câmara de germinação do tipo BOD, temperatura de 25°C, fotoperíodo de 12 horas e 100% de UR. Sementes submetidas à lavagem em água corrente por 6 horas, com a retirada parcial da expansão alada, tiveram vigor e porcentagens de germinação superiores aos outros tratamentos. Os resultados demonstram que a causa de dormência em sementes dessa espécie é complexa, sendo causada por interferência no alongamento embrionário e possível presença de inibidores.Zeyheria montana Mart. (Bignoniaceae is a medicinal species known as "bolsa de pastor" which found itself in of extinction, being essential the development of methodologies for its propagation and preservation. In this study, one evaluated the percentage of germination and speed germination index from "bolsa de pastor" seeds submitted to different methods of scarification: washing for different periods, partial and total removal of ala expansion, combination of washing with partial and total removal of ala expansion and, immersion in cloridric and sulfuric acid in different concentrations. The intact seeds were used as control. The experiment was conducted in germination chamber, BOD model, regulated at 25°C, 12 hours photoperiod and RH at 100%. Seeds submitted to washing in

  7. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae

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    V.L Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A realização de estudos farmacológicos é fundamental para comprovar a eficácia do uso de plantas medicinais pela população para o tratamento de doenças e descobrir novos fitoterápicos. Esse estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial antimicrobiano do extrato etanólico e fase acetato de etila do bom nome (Maytenus rigida Mart. sobre Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, 3 amostras de Staphylococcus aureus multirresistentes isoladas de pacientes com infecções nosocomiais, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 e Salmonella sp. (228-R-Tet, 118-R-Sut e 01-S isoladas de ambiente aquático, utilizando o método de difusão em agar. Os testes revelaram que o extrato e fase de M. rigida apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana in vitro frente a todas as cepas de S. aureus testadas, apresentando concentração inibitória mínima (MIC de 400 mg mL-1. Entretanto, estes produtos não apresentaram atividade frente às linhagens de bactérias Gram-negativas testadas, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Salmonella sp.Ppharmacological studies are essential to prove the effectiveness of using medicinal plants to treat diseases and discover new phytotherapics. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of "bom-nome" (Maytenus rigida Mart. against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, three samples of multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from patients with nosocomial infections, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Salmonella sp. (228-R-Tet, 118-R-Sut and 01-S isolated from water environment, using the agar diffusion test. Both extracts showed in vitro antimicrobial activity against all S. aureus strains, presenting 400 mg mL-1 minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. However, these products did not show activity against strains of the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella sp.

  8. Estabilidade da polpa do bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart. congelada por 12 meses Stability of the bacuri pulp (Platonia insignis Mart. frozen for 12 months

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    Virlane Kelly Lima da Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de realizar o processamento e avaliar a estabilidade da polpa de bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart. submetida ao congelamento durante 12 meses. Durante o período de armazenamento não ocorreram alterações significativas nas características físico-químicas da polpa quanto aos teores de sólidos solúveis, pH, atividade de água, açúcares totais e redutores, vitamina C, compostos fenólicos poliméricos e oligoméricos, pectina total e solúvel e cor L, a* , b*, enquanto que a acidez total e relação SST/AT variaram com o tempo de armazenamento. Os compostos fenólicos dímeros apresentaram aumento em função do tempo. Pelos resultados obtidos, a polpa de bacuri não pode ser considerada uma boa fonte de vitamina C. Por outro lado, apresenta baixos teores de compostos fenólicos caracterizando a polpa como, potencialmente pouco adstringente e com potencial para o processamento. A qualidade microbiológica não foi alterada durante o período de armazenamento. Os resultados apontam a eficiência do congelamento na manutenção das características físico-químicas e microbiológicas da polpa de bacuri.The objective of this work was to process and evaluate the stability of the bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart. pulp submitted to freezing for 12 months. During the storage period there were significant changes in the physiochemical characteristics of the pulp as for the content of total soluble solids, pH, water activity, total and reducing sugars, vitamin C, polimer and oligomeric phenolic compounds , total and soluble pectin and color L, the a*, b *,while total acidity and soluble solids varied with the storange period. The dimers phenolic compounds incresead with the time. According to the results, the bacuri pulp cannot be considered a good source of vitamin C, but it presents low contents of phenolic compounds characterizing the pulp as little astringent, thus showing potential for the processing

  9. Antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory activity of an ethanolic extract from the stem bark of Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae): In vitro and in vivo evidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiodun, Oyindamola O; Rodríguez-Nogales, Alba; Algieri, Francesca; Gomez-Caravaca, Ana Maria; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Utrilla, M Pilar; Rodriguez-Cabezas, M Elena; Galvez, Julio

    2016-11-04

    Terminalia catappa Linn (Combretaceae) is a medicinal plant with anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrhoeal and antioxidant properties, frequently found in tropical regions. Considering its characteristics, it could be useful for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, which is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress and an immune dysfunction. Thus this study evaluates the immunomodulatory properties and the intestinal anti-inflammatory effect of an ethanolic extract of the stem bark of T. catappa (ETCB) both in vitro (in RAW 264.7 macrophages) and in vivo, in the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis. The phenolic compounds in ETCB were identified and quantified using HPLC-DAD-qTOF-MS. The immunomodulatory activity ETCB was tested in vitro by determining the macrophage production of IL-1β and nitrites. In vivo studies were performed in the TNBS model of rat colitis. ETCB was given (25, 50 and 100mg/kg/day) orally for two days prior to colitis induction and thereafter for 7 days. Response to treatment was assessed by scoring the gross appearance of the colon, and determining myeloperoxidase activity, gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNF-α, IL-23 and IL-6, chemokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase and proteins crucial in the maintenance of the intestinal mucosal barrier integrity like mucins (MUC-2, MUC-3) and villin. ETCB was able to inhibit IL-1β and nitrite production in vitro in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Moreover, treatment of TNBS colitic rats with ETCB resulted in a decreased colonic damage score and weight/length ratio. It also reduced the colonic neutrophil infiltration indicated by a lower myeloperoxidase activity and prevented the depletion of colonic glutathione levels in colitic rats. In addition, treatment with ETCB down-regulated the gene expression of pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-23, IL-6 and CINC-1) and iNOS in colitic rats. Moreover, the gene expression of mucosal barrier proteins like MUC-2, MUC

  10. A controlled study to investigate anti-diarrhoeal effect of the stem-bark fractions of Terminalia avicennioides in laboratory animal models

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    Mohammed M. Suleiman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the shortcomings associated with modern synthetic antidiarrhoeal drugs, it is important to find newer, safer and cheaper antidiarrhoeal agents from natural sources. The study was conducted to evaluate the anti-diarrhoeal activity of the fractions of the stem-bark of Terminalia avicennioides in laboratory animal models. The effect of different concentrations (1.0 × 10−3, 2.0 × 10−3, 4.0 × 10−3 and 8.0 × 10−3 mg/mL of the aqueous methanol (AMF, ethyl acetate (EAF and hexane (HXF fractions of T. avicennioides were tested against spontaneous and acetylcholine-induced contractions of rabbit jejunum as well as on histamine-induced contraction of guinea pig ileum. Similarly, the effects of the AMF on gastro-intestinal transit time, castor oil-induced diarrhoea and castor oil-induced enteropooling were evaluated. The AMF, EAF and HXF at concentrations of 1.0 × 10−3, 2.0 × 10−3, 4.0 × 10−3 and 8.0 × 10−3 mg/mL attenuated the contractile effects of both the spontaneous and acetylcholine-induced contractions of rabbit jejunum and that of histamine-induced contraction of guinea pig ileum in a concentration-dependent manner. The AMF at doses of 200, 300 and 500 mg/kg produced significant (p < 0.05 reductions in gastrointestinal transit time of charcoal and incidence of castor oil-induced diarrhoea in mice relative to the untreated control. Similarly, at doses of 300 and 500 mg/kg, AMF significantly (p < 0.05 reduced the weight and volume of intestinal fluid in the treated mice when compared to the untreated animals. The results of this study showed that the stem-bark of T. avicennioides possesses spasmolytic effect and could be a potential antidiarrhoeal agent. However, detailed pharmacological trials are required to justify the clinical use of the plant for treating diarrhoea.

  11. LC-MS/MS Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Phenolic Compounds and Pentacyclic Triterpenes in Antifungal Extracts of Terminalia brownii (Fresen

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    Enass Y. A. Salih

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Decoctions and macerations of the stem bark and wood of Terminalia brownii Fresen. are used in traditional medicine for fungal infections and as fungicides on field crops and in traditional granaries in Sudan. In addition, T. brownii water extracts are commonly used as sprays for protecting wooden houses and furniture. Therefore, using agar disc diffusion and macrodilution methods, eight extracts of various polarities from the stem wood and bark were screened for their growth-inhibitory effects against filamentous fungi commonly causing fruit, vegetable, grain and wood decay, as well as infections in the immunocompromised host. Ethyl acetate extracts of the stem wood and bark gave the best antifungal activities, with MIC values of 250 µg/mL against Nattrassia mangiferae and Fusarium verticillioides, and 500 µg/mL against Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. Aqueous extracts gave almost as potent effects as the ethyl acetate extracts against the Aspergillus and Fusarium strains, and were slightly more active than the ethyl acetate extracts against Nattrassia mangiferae. Thin layer chromatography, RP-HPLC-DAD and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, were employed to identify the chemical constituents in the ethyl acetate fractions of the stem bark and wood. The stem bark and wood were found to have a similar qualitative composition of polyphenols and triterpenoids, but differed quantitatively from each other. The stilbene derivatives, cis- (3 and trans- resveratrol-3-O-β-galloylglucoside (4, were identified for the first time in T. brownii. Moreover, methyl-(S-flavogallonate (5, quercetin-7-β-O-di-glucoside (8, quercetin-7-O-galloyl-glucoside (10, naringenin-4′-methoxy-7-pyranoside (7, 5,6-dihydroxy-3′,4′,7-tri-methoxy flavone (12, gallagic acid dilactone (terminalin (6, a corilagin derivative (9 and two oleanane type triterpenoids (1 and (2 were characterized. The flavonoids, a corilagin derivative and terminalin, have not been

  12. LC-MS/MS Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Phenolic Compounds and Pentacyclic Triterpenes in Antifungal Extracts of Terminalia brownii (Fresen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Enass Y A; Fyhrquist, Pia; Abdalla, Ashraf M A; Abdelgadir, Abdelazim Y; Kanninen, Markku; Sipi, Marketta; Luukkanen, Olavi; Fahmi, Mustafa K M; Elamin, Mai H; Ali, Hiba A

    2017-12-13

    Decoctions and macerations of the stem bark and wood of Terminalia brownii Fresen. are used in traditional medicine for fungal infections and as fungicides on field crops and in traditional granaries in Sudan. In addition, T. brownii water extracts are commonly used as sprays for protecting wooden houses and furniture. Therefore, using agar disc diffusion and macrodilution methods, eight extracts of various polarities from the stem wood and bark were screened for their growth-inhibitory effects against filamentous fungi commonly causing fruit, vegetable, grain and wood decay, as well as infections in the immunocompromised host. Ethyl acetate extracts of the stem wood and bark gave the best antifungal activities, with MIC values of 250 µg/mL against Nattrassia mangiferae and Fusarium verticillioides, and 500 µg/mL against Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. Aqueous extracts gave almost as potent effects as the ethyl acetate extracts against the Aspergillus and Fusarium strains, and were slightly more active than the ethyl acetate extracts against Nattrassiamangiferae. Thin layer chromatography, RP-HPLC-DAD and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), were employed to identify the chemical constituents in the ethyl acetate fractions of the stem bark and wood. The stem bark and wood were found to have a similar qualitative composition of polyphenols and triterpenoids, but differed quantitatively from each other. The stilbene derivatives, cis- (3) and trans- resveratrol-3-O-β-galloylglucoside (4), were identified for the first time in T. brownii. Moreover, methyl-(S)-flavogallonate (5), quercetin-7-β-O-di-glucoside (8), quercetin-7-O-galloyl-glucoside (10), naringenin-4'-methoxy-7-pyranoside (7), 5,6-dihydroxy-3',4',7-tri-methoxy flavone (12), gallagic acid dilactone (terminalin) (6), a corilagin derivative (9) and two oleanane type triterpenoids (1) and (2) were characterized. The flavonoids, a corilagin derivative and terminalin, have not been identified before

  13. "Nuestra América": José Martí ante la Razón Moderna

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    Pedro Pablo Rodríguez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es un acercamiento al difícil y singular diálogo con el pensamiento moderno y sus procedimientos del escritor, pensador y político cubano José Martí. La tesis es que el ideario de Martí expresó los intereses y la perspectiva de los pueblos de Hispanoamérica, a la que llamó Nuestra América, por oposición, según escribió “a la otra América, que no es nuestra”. Plenamente consciente de que la identidad de la región se sustentaba en una cultura nueva, mestiza de lo aborigen y lo español, el cubano dedicó su ensayo “Nuestra América” a explicar los factores internos que mantenían las estructuras sociales, políticas y de pensamiento de la época colonial, así como el peligro que representaba el creciente poderío de Estados Unidos.   This article aims to approach Cuban writer, thinker and politician José Martí's harsh, singular dialogue with modern thinking and its procedures. It argues that Martí's set of ideas expressed the interests and viewpoint of the peoples of Hispanic America, which he called Our America, as opposed to, according to his own texts, "the other America, the one that is not ours". Fully conscious of the fact that the region's identity was based on a new culture, resulting from a mix of the indigenous and the Spanish, Martí used his essay "Our America" (originally, "Nuestra América" to explain the internal factors that maintained the colonial social, political and ideological structures, in addition to expressing the threat the growing power of the United States represented.

  14. Aplicações taxonômicas da anatomia foliar de espécies amazônicas de Oenocarpus Mart. (Arecaceae Leaf anatomy applied to the taxonomy of Amazonian species of Oenocarpus Mart. (Arecaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Junior Ferreira Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estudar a anatomia foliar de Oenocarpus bacaba Mart., O. distichus Mart., O. mapora H. Karst. e O. minor Mart., visando verificar se existem entre as espécies diferenças anatômicas qualitativas úteis a sua delimitação taxonômica. Observou-se que as pinas de todos os representantes são anfiestomáticas e apresentam tecido epidérmico heteromórfico revestido por cutícula lisa, sobre a qual há depósitos de cera epicuticular nas formas filamentosas de extremidade gancheiforme e em placas retangulares; possuem estômatos tetracíticos e tricomas tectores bifilamentosos. O mesofilo é dorsiventral com braquiesclereídes, estruturas secretoras de mucilagem e feixes vasculares colaterais secundários e terciários, para os secundários diagnosticou-se quatro tipos, sendo o tipo III, com três vasos metaxilemáticos, o único comum às espécies. Características como: estômatos ciclocíticos; número de estratos do tecido de expansão; formas da nervura central e margem das pinas, mostraram-se peculiares a determinados taxa. Para o axis foliar, constatou-se que a forma e organização celulares do tecido parenquimático, nas regiões central e mediana, difere entre as espécies. Elaborou-se uma chave de identificação anatômica para as espécies de Oenocarpus Mart. analisadas, demonstrando que há entre estas diferenças estruturais significativas a nível qualitativo.Our aim was to study the leaf anatomy of Oenocarpus bacaba Mart., O. distichus Mart., O. mapora H. Karst. and O. minor Mart. in order to verify if there are qualitative anatomical features useful in taxonomy. Common features of the four species' leaflets are amphistomatic lamina; heteromorphic epidermal tissue; smooth cuticle; epicuticular wax in the form of hooked filaments and rectangular plates; tetracytic stomata; non-glandular, two-filamented trichomes; dorsiventral mesophyll with brachysclereids, mucilage secretory structures, type III

  15. Mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of Salacia crassifolia (mart. Ex. Schult.) G. Don. evaluated by Ames test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, C C; Véras, J Holanda; Góes, B R Lima; Pérez, C N; Chen-Chen, L

    2017-09-21

    Salacia crassifolia (Mart. Ex. Schult.) G. Don. is a bush which belongs to Celastraceae family and occurs specially in Brazilian Cerrado. Its leaves, stem, seeds and fruits are popularly used for several medicinal purposes, such as antitumoral, antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial. In this study, the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of S. crassifolia stem bark fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate and hydroalcoholic) were evaluated by the Ames mutagenicity assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains. By the obtained results, all S. crassifolia fractions did not significantly increase the number of prototrophic revertants for histidine (His+) in both S. typhimurium strains tested (p > 0.05), suggesting absence of mutagenicity. Regarding antimutagenicity, the fractions ethyl acetate and hydroalcoholic significantly decreased the number of His+ revertants colonies induced by positive control for strain TA98 (p tested in this study could be used in chemoprevention.

  16. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of 'acai' (Euterpe precatoria Mart.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galotta, Ana Lucia Q.A. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica; Boaventura, Maria Amelia D.; Lima, Luciana A. R.S. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Decoction of roots of the Amazonian palm acai (Euterpe precatoria Mart.) is widely used by Brazilian and Peruvian people as an anti-inflammatory, to heal kidney and liver diseases and against snake bites. In this study, the antioxidant activity of extracts and flavonoids (quercetin, catechin, epicatechin, rutin and astilbin) isolated from roots and leaf stalks of E. precatoria was investigated using {beta}-carotene in TLC plates and DPPH radical scavenging in a spectrophotometric bioassay. All extracts and flavonoids showed activity. Also, the cytotoxic activity of these extracts was evaluated by the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvicide bioassay and was lower than that of lapachol, used as control. The presence of flavonoids and sitosterol-3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside in the extracts can justify the use of the plant in traditional medicine. (author)

  17. Wal-Mart, caballo de Troya de la globalización

    OpenAIRE

    Desse, René Paul

    2009-01-01

    Creada en 1962 por Sam Walton, una pequeña empresa de distribución norteamericana se convertirá rápidamente en la primera empresa mundial. Desde Bentonville, Arkansas, hasta el interior de China, Wal-Mart muestra un camino bastante clásico que va desde la sede principal de la empresa hacia una proliferación de sus tiendas en una quincena de países. Con una facturación de 405 mil millones de dólares en 2008, la empresa de distribución número uno en el mundo fue sobrepasada en abril de 2009 por...

  18. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Aeolanthus suaveolens Mart. ex Spreng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simionatto, Euclesio [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Hidraulica e Transportes]. E-mail: eusimionatto@yahoo.com.br; Porto, Carla; Stueker, Caroline Z.; Dalcol, Ionara I.; Silva, Ubiratan F. da [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2007-07-01

    The essential oils from leaves (sample A) and flowers (sample B) of Aeolanthus suaveolens Mart. ex Spreng were obtained by hydro distillation and analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and chiral phase gas chromatography (CPGC). Six compounds have been identified from the essential oils, representing ca 94.3 and 93% of the oils corresponding to samples A and B, respectively. The major constituents of samples A and B essential oils were respectively, linalool (34.2%/34.9%), (-)-massoialactone (25.9%/17.0%) and (E)-beta-farnesene (25.4%/29.1%). The enantiomeric distribution of the monoterpene linalool was established by analysis on heptakis-(6-O-methyl-2,3-di-O-pentyl)-beta-cyclodextrin capillary column. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from leaves and isolated compounds was also evaluated. (author)

  19. Peltomexicanin, a Peltogynoid Quinone Methide from Peltogyne Mexicana Martínez Purple Heartwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Gutiérrez-Macías

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Peltomexicanin (7,10-dihydroxy-6,12-dioxa-5H-tetraphen-3-one is a new peltogynoid quinone methide isolated from Palo Morado (Peltogyne mexicana Martínez heartwood by column chromatography. Its chemical structure was elucidated by IR, NMR (1H, 13C, 2D NMR experiments (COSY, NOESY, HMQC, and HSQC, ESI-MS, and UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis. According to HPLC quantification, this compound is the main pigment and accounts for 1.21% of Palo Morado heartwood material. The antioxidant activity of peltomexicanin and dried methanolic extract (DEx of purple heartwood was evaluated using the radical of 2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS assay, and the corresponding values expressed as Trolox equivalents (µmol TE/mg sample were 4.25 and 4.57, respectively.

  20. Islands in Between: Martín García and other Geopolitical Flashpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The ‘in betweenity’ of islands is an ongoing problematic in contemporary politics. Given their geographic definition and boundedness, islands tend to be unitary jurisdictions - that means that they are unlikely to be shared by more than one power. In fact, there are just 11 islands in the world whose territory is ‘shared’ between more than one national jurisdiction. Meanwhile, there are still various small islands and other bounded territories whose status is contested amongst different (usually larger states, including Kinmen (Taiwan, Falklands/Malvinas and Gibraltar. In this context, this essay reviews the River Plate area (between Uruguay and Argentina: historically a point of tension between two major powers in Latin America; and some of that tension has been centered on the islands in the region – particularly Martín García.

  1. Francisco Ibarra Martínez: renovador de la pedagogía cubana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Osmar Oliva-Crespo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article entitled Francisco Ibarra Martínez: reformer of Cuban Pedagogy, is first of all a well deserved homage to one of the most important pedagogues of the republican period. His thought and his work are approached, from his initial stage of academic formation to his contributions to the educational cuban thought. Stands out his social dimension of his pedagogic work, his integration to the civic life of the city, his reforming vision of the practice of sports and study of the history of his country. Likewise, we refer to his contributions to the historiography as a science, the journalism and his concern for the social and political destination of the country. For this reason this work has among its contributions the treatment to the local history from the specific fild of pedagogy and education, modestly contributing to the rescue of historic memory.

  2. Isolation and chromatographic analysis of bioactive triterpenoids from the bark extract of Cariniana domestica (Mart) Miers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janovik, Vanessa; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Frohlich, Janaína Kieling; Schwanz, Thiago Guilherme; Pozzebon, Tarciele Venturini; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Athayde, Margareth Linde

    2012-01-01

    The Lecythidaceae family is composed of 25 genera and 400 species that occur in the form of trees with a pantropical distribution. The genera Cariniana belongs to the family Lecythidaceae, and there are few reports considering these species. In this work, fractionation of the dichloromethane fraction obtained from the aqueous extract of the stem bark of Cariniana domestica (Mart) Miers, popularly known as Jequitibá-roxo, led to the isolation of two mixtures of triterpenoids: lupeol and β-amyrin and β-sitosterol and stigmasterol. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic (NMR) and chromatographic (GC-MS) techniques as well as literature data comparisons. β-Sitosterol, stigmasterol, lupeol and β-amyrin were quantified in dichloromethane fraction by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/DAD). The dichloromethane fraction was also investigated for antioxidant and antifungal activities. The isolated compounds and their biological activities are reported for the first time for the species C. domestica.

  3. Impact of collection on bark regeneration from Stryphnodendron rotundifolium Mart. in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Ivanilda Soares; Sobral, André; Monteiro, Júlio Marcelino; Araújo, Elcida Lima; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2017-05-01

    The growing commercial demand for products with medicinal use has caused overexploitation of several plant species worldwide. To prevent the decline of these populations, the collection of these resources should be done in a sustainable way considering the time of its replacement in natural stocks. This study was designed to identify the relationship between different intensities of extraction of bark from the trunk of Stryphnodendron rotundifolium Mart. and its regeneration speed. For this, we selected two areas of Cerrado in the Northeast of Brazil, where a monitoring experiment with duration of 24 months was performed. This experiment consisted in simulating different extractive damage to assess the regeneration of bark. In each area, we selected 20 individuals, among which four treatments with five repetitions were implemented. The data showed that in both study areas, the trees regenerated their shells faster when subjected to higher collection intensities. However, this regeneration was not related to variations in rainfall in the environment.

  4. MART-10, a newly synthesized vitamin D analog, represses metastatic potential of head and neck squamous carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang SW

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Shih-Wei Yang,1,* Chi-Ying Tsai,2,* Yi-Chun Pan,3 Chun-Nan Yeh,4 Jong-Hwei S Pang,5 Masashi Takano,6 Atsushi Kittaka,6 Horng-Heng Juang,7 Tai C Chen,8 Kun-Chun Chiang4,9 1Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, 3Department of General Dentistry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Keelung, 4General Surgery Department, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, 5Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 6Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Teikyo University, Tokyo, Japan; 7Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 8Endocrine Core Laboratory, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 9Zebrafish Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Even with multidisciplinary treatment, the prognosis and quality of life of patients diagnosed with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC are still not satisfactory. Previously, 19-Nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl-1α,25(OH2D3 (MART-10, the new brand 1α,25(OH2D3 analog, has been demonstrated to be an effective drug to inhibit HNSCC growth in vitro. Since most cancer patients die of metastasis, in this study, the antimetastatic effect of MART-10 on HNSCC was investigated. Our results reveal that both 1α,25(OH2D3 and MART-10 effectively repressed the migration and invasion of HNSCC cells, with MART-10 being much more potent than 1α,25(OH2D3. The antimetastatic effect of 1α,25(OH2D3 and MART-10 was mediated by attenuation of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT, which was supported by the finding that the expression of EMT-inducing transcriptional factors, Sail and Twist, was inhibited by 1α,25(OH2D3 and MART

  5. ASPECTOS LABORATORIAIS DA INTOXICAÇÃO EXPERIMENTAL DE BO-VINOS PELOS FRUTOS DE Stryphnodendron Fissuratum MART.(“ROSQUINHA”)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Victor de Queiroz Ferreira; Anúzia Cristina Barini; Bruno Rodrigues Trindade; Adilson Donizeti Damasceno; Nilo Sérgio Troncoso Chaves; Ary da Silva Rodrigues; Carlos Eduardo de Moraes Souto Pantoja

    2006-01-01

    ... sangüínea de quinze bovinos, machos mestiços, com idade entre dez e quatorze meses, pesando entre 96 e 214 kg, intoxicados experimentalmente pelos frutos de Stryphnodendron fissuratum Mart. (“rosquinha”) em doses...

  6. Mis on läbilöömiseks elutähtis? / Siret Liivamägi, Ando Rehemaa, Mart Proos ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad Villa Benita juhatuse esimees Siret Liivamägi, registrite ja infosüsteemide keskuse direktor Ando Rehemaa, AS Favor juhatuse esimees Mart Proos, Swedbanki grupi finantsjuht Erkki Raasuke, Euroopa Komisjoni asepresident Siim Kallas

  7. Mites associated to Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in urban and rural fragments of semidecidual forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe M. Nuvoloni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mites associated to Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in urban and rural fragments of semidecidual forest. Native plants can shelter a great diversity of mites. Notwithstanding, the conservation of the forest fragments where the plants are located can influence the structure of the mites community. Generally, in homogenous environments the diversity is lower due to the dominance of one or a few species. In this work, we studied the mite community on Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in two fragments of semidecidual forest: one on rural and other on urban area. Seven individuals of X. aromatica were monthly sampled from April 2007 to March 2008, in each of these fragments. Descriptive indexes of diversity, dominance and evenness were applied to verify the ecological patterns of the mite community, besides the Student's t-test to compare the abundance between the fragments. We collected 27,365 mites of 37 species belonging to 11 families. Calacarus sp. (Eriophyidae was the most abundant species, representing 73% of the total sampled. The abundance was greater in the urban fragment (67.7%, with the diversity index reaching only 25% of the theoretical maximum expected. Probably, these values might have been influenced by the location of this fragment in the urban area, being more homogeneous and submitted directly to the presence of atmospheric pollution. In this manner, X. aromatica is able to shelter a higher diversity of mites when inserted in preserved ecosystems, since the highest diversity of available resources allows the establishment of richer and most diverse mite community.

  8. The immunodominant HLA-A2-restricted MART-1 epitope is not presented on the surface of many melanoma cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke Baek; Junker, Niels; Kirkin, Alexei

    2009-01-01

    of the melanoma cells with the MART-1 epitope. Thus, the very frequently used MART-1 epitope was not expressed on the surface of many melanoma cell lines. Our data emphasize that the selected tumor antigens and/or epitopes are critical for the outcome of anti-cancer immunotherapy.......Among the relatively large number of known tumor-associated antigens (TAA) which are recognized by human CD8 T-cells, Melan-A/MART-1 is one of the most-if not the most-frequently used target for anti-cancer vaccines in HLA-A2 + melanoma patients. In this study, we analyzed the killing of a large...... panel of melanoma cells by a high avidity, MART-1-specific T-cell clone or a MART-1-specific, polyclonal T-cell culture. Strikingly, we observed that the MART-1-specific T-cells only killed around half of the analyzed melanoma cell lines. In contrast a Bcl-2-specific T-cell clone killed all melanoma...

  9. Espécies de formigas que interagem com as sementes de Mabea fistulifera Mart. (Euphorbiaceae Interaction between ant species and seeds of Mabea fistulifera Mart. (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethel Fernandes de Oliveira Peternelli

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available As formigas, quando atraídas por um apêndice nutritivo, produzido na semente de certas plantas, podem exercer o papel de agente predador ou dispersor das sementes. No processo de dispersão, grande número desses insetos pode interagir com sementes de determinada planta. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar as espécies de formigas em contato com sementes de Mabea fistulifera Mart. - uma espécie arbórea e colonizadora em áreas antrópicas no Brasil - e o tipo de interação desses insetos com as sementes, bem como determinar as espécies dispersoras. Foram realizadas coletas manuais de formigas em fragmentos de vegetação com alta densidade de M. fistulifera, no município de Viçosa, MG, no momento de sua visitação às sementes. As formigas capturadas foram triadas e identificadas por espécie. Além disso, durante as coletas foram feitas observações quanto ao tipo de comportamento das formigas que se associaram às sementes e ao cálculo da taxa de remoção destas, verificando-se que 16 espécies tiveram contato com estas. Acromyrmex subterraneus subterraneus, Atta sexdens rubropilosa, Ectatomma edentatum, Pachycondyla sp.1 e Pheidole sp. 2 foram, de fato, dispersoras, já que transportaram efetivamente as sementes. Ac. subterraneus subterraneus, Camponotus rufipes, Ectatomma permagnum, Megalomyrmex sp.1, Pachycondyla sp. 1, Pachycondyla sp. 2, Pheidole sp. 4, Pheidole sp. 5 e Pogonomyrmex sp. são, pela primeira vez, relatadas interagindo com sementes. A taxa de remoção das sementes de M. fistulifera pelas formigas foi de 85 a 97%.Ants, when attracted by nutritious corpuscles produced by seeds of certain plant species, can act as predators or dispersing agents. During seed dispersal, a great number of ant species can interact with seeds of a particular plant species. The purpose of this study was to identify the ant species that interact with seeds of Mabea fistulifera Mart., a pioneer tree species in anthropic disturbed

  10. Biologia floral e polinização de Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae Floral and pollination biology of Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Célia Rodrigues Correia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho aborda a biologia floral, a atividade forrageira dos visitantes florais (polinizadores e pilhadores, os eventos fenológicos e o sistema de reprodução de Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae, em área de vegetação de restinga, município de Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, no período 1997 a 2000. A espécie estudada tem flores com antese diurna, lilases, tubulosas, hermafroditas, odoríferas e oferecem néctar como recurso floral. O néctar é secretado por um disco localizado na base do gineceu e é acumulado em câmara nectarífera. Os grãos de pólen são liberados gradativamente, prolongando-se a fase de doação de pólen. As abelhas Euglossa cordata Linnaeus, Centris analis Fabricius e C. tarsata Smith são os polinizadores da espécie. Destaca-se pilhagem primária de néctar, por abelhas, e secundária, por borboletas e beija-flor. A espécie é auto-incompatível, apresentando baixos índices de formação de frutos em condições naturais (Frutos/Flores = 12,2%. Foi registrado padrão de floração "cornucópia", entre os meses de dezembro a março (estação quente/chuvosa, com pico em janeiro. As sementes são anemocóricas e liberadas gradativamente na estação fria e seca.This work deals with the floral biology, the foraging activities of floral visitors (pollinators and robbers, phenology and reproductive system of Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae in the "restinga" of Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1997 to 2000. The flowers display daytime anthesis and last only one day. These attractive pink flowers are tubular, hermaphroditic, odoriferous and produce nectar as the floral reward. The nectar is secreted by a nectariferous disk concealed within a chamber. The pollen grains are gradually released throughout anthesis, extending the pollen presentation phase. The bees Euglossa cordata Linnaeus, Centris analis Fabricius and C. tarsata Smith are the pollinator species. Primary and secondary

  11. Ponerse a cantar. Modos de autorrepresentación del poeta cantor en El gaucho Martín Fierro y en El guacho Martín Fierro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ramallo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se busca relevar y analizar de forma comparada los modos en que la figura del poeta cantor es representada en El gaucho Martín Fierro de José Hernández (publicado en 1872 y en El guacho Martín Fierro de Oscar Fariña (2011. Prestamos especial atención al modo en que se formula e intenta contestar la pregunta acerca de quién puede hablar desde la posición de cantor, es decir, desde un saber autorizado por la experiencia y especializado técnica y estéticamente. De este modo, exploramos las maneras en que en ambos textos se producen relaciones complejas con la otredad que permiten un productivo uso del lenguaje.

  12. Estudio preliminar de la biología reproductiva Terminalia oblonga (Surá en la región Huetar Norte, Costa Ria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Arnáez

    Full Text Available Para el proceso de domesticación de especies, es necesario la determinación de los ciclos reproductivos de las especies forestales, especialmente de aquellas que se encuentran en peligro de extinción y que se desean utilizar en proyectos de reforestación. El objetivo fue conocer algunos aspectos del comportamiento fenológico y el desarrollo ontogénico de Terminalia oblonga (surá en la Región Huetar Norte. El trabajo de campo se llevó a cabo de enero de 1996 a diciembre de 1998, en la Región Huetar Norte de Costa Rica, en 4 zonas bioclimáticas diferentes de la Región. En cada sitio se seleccionaron 10 árboles, para un total de 40 individuos observados. Los árboles seleccionados se visitaron cada mes, con el fin de determinar épocas de floración (salida de brotes florales, apertura de la flor, salida del fruto, maduración y la caída de este,dispersión de frutos y semillas, brotadura vegetativa y hojas. Mensualmente, se recopiló información climática, donde se tomó en cuenta: precipitación, temperatura, humedad relativa y brillo solar. Estos datos se emplearon para hacer las correlaciones con los resultados de las diferentes expresiones fenológicas. Se hizo una descripción de las piezas reproductivas y vegetativas, con base en material en fresco y con el apoyode microscopía electrónica de barrido. Además, se hicieron estudios químicos y estructurales del suelo en cada uno de los sitios de estudio. Se observó que la brotadura de las hojas de esta especie se mantiene durante todo el año, siendo mayor en julio y diciembre en la mayoría de las zonas y en algunas ocasiones puede llegar a estar casi ausente. El follaje se mantiene relativamente constante casi todo el año, con muy poca defoliación. La brotadura floral generalmente se observa de octubre a enero, e incluso febrero en algunas zonas. La floración se nota de noviembre a febrero y la maduración de los frutos de diciembre a marzo y hasta en abril en algunas

  13. Era Sanctorum: la beatificación inconclusa del padre Diego Martínez, SJ (1627-1634

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coello de la Rosa, Alexandre

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the politics of sanctity of the Society of Jesus in Viceregal Peru (17th Century through the process of beatification of the Spanish Father Diego Martínez (1627-34. An unfinished process that has been filed in the Jesuit archives for centuries and was never introduced in the Sacred Congregation of Rites, in the Vatican.Este ensayo analiza las políticas de santidad de la Compañía de Jesús en el Perú virreinal (siglo XVII a través del proceso de beatificación del padre extremeño Diego Martínez (1627-34. Un proceso inconcluso que ha permanecido en los archivos jesuitas durante siglos y que nunca se introdujo en la Sagrada Congregación de Ritos, en el Vaticano.

  14. Feeding and defecation times of nymphs of Triatoma melanosoma Martínez, Olmedo & Carcavallo (Hemiptera, Reduviidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cleber Galvão; Dayse da Silva Rocha; Vanda Cunha; José Jurberg; Rodolfo Carcavallo

    2001-01-01

    The authors observed the feeding and defecation times of the nymphs of T. melanosoma Martínez, Olmedo & Carcavallo, 1987. Two groups were studied, one maintained under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity, and the other under ambient conditions. There was no significant difference in the number of bloodmeals accomplished by the nymphs of the two groups. Until the fourth instar the nymphs needed less than two bloodmeals to reach the subsequent instar, and only in the fifth instar ...

  15. Adoptive transfer of MART-1 T cell receptor transgenic lymphocytes and dendritic cell vaccination in patients with metastatic melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodon, Thinle; Comin-Anduix, Begonya; Chmielowski, Bartosz; Koya, Richard C; Wu, Zhongqi; Auerbach, Martin; Ng, Charles; Avramis, Earl; Seja, Elizabeth; Villanueva, Arturo; McCannel, Tara A.; Ishiyama, Akira; Czernin, Johannes; Radu, Caius G.; Wang, Xiaoyan; Gjertson, David W.; Cochran, Alistair J.; Cornetta, Kenneth; Wong, Deborah J.L.; Kaplan-lefko, Paula; Hamid, Omid; Samlowski, Wolfram; Cohen, Peter A.; Daniels, Gregory A.; Mukherji, Bijay; Yang, Lili; Zack, Jerome A.; Kohn, Donald B.; Heath, James R.; Glaspy, John A.; Witte, Owen N.; Baltimore, David; Economou, James S.; Ribas, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Purpose It has been demonstrated that large numbers of tumor-specific T cells for adoptive cell transfer (ACT) can be manufactured by retroviral genetic engineering of autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes and expanding them over several weeks. In mouse models, this therapy is optimized when administered with dendritic cell (DC) vaccination. We developed a short one-week manufacture protocol to determine the feasibility, safety and antitumor efficacy of this double cell therapy. Experimnetal Design A clinical trial (NCT00910650) adoptively transferring MART-1 T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic lymphocytes together with MART-1 peptide pulsed DC vaccination in HLA-A2.1 patients with metastatic melanoma. Autologous TCR transgenic cells were manufactured in 6 to 7 days using retroviral vector gene transfer, and re-infused with (n = 10) or without (n = 3) prior cryopreservation. Results 14 patients with metastatic melanoma were enrolled and nine out of 13 treated patients (69%) showed evidence of tumor regression. Peripheral blood reconstitution with MART-1-specific T cells peaked within two weeks of ACT indicating rapid in vivo expansion. Administration of freshly manufactured TCR transgenic T cells resulted in a higher persistence of MART-1-specific T cells in the blood as compared to cryopreserved. Evidence that DC vaccination could cause further in vivo expansion was only observed with ACT using non-cryopreserved T cells. Conclusion Double cell therapy with ACT of TCR engineered T cells with a very short ex vivo manipulation and DC vaccines is feasible and results in antitumor activity, but improvements are needed to maintain tumor responses. PMID:24634374

  16. El proyecto cultural liberador de José Martí para su tiempo y para el siglo XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmys Escribano Hervis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se sostiene la validez y significación del proyecto cultural liberador de José Martí para América Latina. Se analiza desde el momento en que fue concebido a fines del siglo xix y para la actualidad. La determinación y defensa de los puntos de vista que se presentan han sido posibles mediante el análisis de la obra completa de José Martí recogida en los 28 tomos editados en 1963, por la Editorial Nacional de Cuba. El análisis textual de dichas fuentes lo completa su contrastación con el contexto con - dicionante de las últimas décadas del siglo xix , especialmente en Cuba, México, Guatemala, Venezuela y Estados Unidos, sus con - tradicciones y tendencias de desarrollo. La exposición del con te - nido del artículo se ha estructurado en tres apartados: el primero es titulado “América Latina hasta fines del siglo XIX”; el segun - do, “José Martí, su conocimiento y vocación latinoamericana”; y el tercero, “El proyecto cultural liberador martiano para América Latina en todos los tiempos”. Se sostiene la idea de la libertad en José Martí como centro vital del proyecto de cambio y desarrollo para América Latina, en la que vertebró coherentemente su dis - curso cultural al que se integra la educación, la ciencia, la prensa y el arte, en distintas manifestaciones.

  17. Mart Viljus : insener Garin ja moodne häkker = Engineer Garin and modern hacker / Peeter Linnap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linnap, Peeter, 1960-

    2012-01-01

    Füüsik Mart Viljus on kunstnik, kes armastab allikmaterjalina kasutada olmes ringlevaid märke, valmisesemeid, mis on talle emblemaatilise tähendusega. Ta võtab need osadeks lahti ja paigutab seejärel nihestatult uuteks tervikuteks. Nõnda tekivad uued tähendused ja avaldub kunstniku isiklik suhtumine ühiskonda, mida vürtsitab paras annus huumorit, absurdi ja irooniat. Analüüsitakse põhiliselt 1990-ndate aastate loomingut

  18. Genetic diversity, mating system, and conservation of a Mexican subalpine relict, Picea mexicana Martínez

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Thomas Ledig; Paul D. Hodgskiss; Virginia Jacob-Cervantes

    2002-01-01

    Mexican spruce (Picea mexicana Martínez), an endangered species of the highest sky islands in México’s Sierra Madre Oriental and Sierra Madre Occidental, is threatened by fire, grazing, and global warming. Its conservation depends on whether it also is threatened by inbreeding and loss of genic diversity. We used 18 isozyme markers in 12 enzyme...

  19. Fertilidad de los suelos de la explotación Cal Martí de Gàver

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Zeymer, Martín

    2015-01-01

    The study on soil fertility of the farm Cal Martí was performed to obtain objective results on the management of soil fertility. It also was tested the hypothesis that fertility in relation to soil organic matter increases in soil covered with permanent forage crops. There were executed different type of balances (humus, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) of the farm and there were analysed different parameters (texture, pH, EC, organic matter, macronutrients and micronutrients) of pieces of...

  20. Human macrophages and dendritic cells can equally present MART-1 antigen to CD8(+ T cells after phagocytosis of gamma-irradiated melanoma cells.

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    María Marcela Barrio

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC can achieve cross-presentation of naturally-occurring tumor-associated antigens after phagocytosis and processing of dying tumor cells. They have been used in different clinical settings to vaccinate cancer patients. We have previously used gamma-irradiated MART-1 expressing melanoma cells as a source of antigens to vaccinate melanoma patients by injecting irradiated cells with BCG and GM-CSF or to load immature DC and use them as a vaccine. Other clinical trials have used IFN-gamma activated macrophage killer cells (MAK to treat cancer patients. However, the clinical use of MAK has been based on their direct tumoricidal activity rather than on their ability to act as antigen-presenting cells to stimulate an adaptive antitumor response. Thus, in the present work, we compared the fate of MART-1 after phagocytosis of gamma-irradiated cells by clinical grade DC or MAK as well as the ability of these cells to cross present MART-1 to CD8(+ T cells. Using a high affinity antibody against MART-1, 2A9, which specifically stains melanoma tumors, melanoma cell lines and normal melanocytes, the expression level of MART-1 in melanoma cell lines could be related to their ability to stimulate IFN-gamma production by a MART-1 specific HLA-A*0201-restricted CD8(+ T cell clone. Confocal microscopy with Alexa Fluor®(647-labelled 2A9 also showed that MART-1 could be detected in tumor cells attached and/or fused to phagocytes and even inside these cells as early as 1 h and up to 24 h or 48 h after initiation of co-cultures between gamma-irradiated melanoma cells and MAK or DC, respectively. Interestingly, MART-1 was cross-presented to MART-1 specific T cells by both MAK and DC co-cultured with melanoma gamma-irradiated cells for different time-points. Thus, naturally occurring MART-1 melanoma antigen can be taken-up from dying melanoma cells into DC or MAK and both cell types can induce specific CD8(+ T cell cross-presentation thereafter.

  1. Defensa de lo local en Nuestra América y Coney Island de José Martí: el ensayo como un espacio para la ideología dentro de las raíces hispanoamericanas

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    José Martí proposes that for the proper development of the Republic in America it is essential to secure a government that has as the premises of its administration the natural categories of its origin. To evaluate the local characteristics Martí was thinking of I will carry out an analysis of two of his essays: Nuestra América (Martí, 1977) and Coney Island (Martí, 1881), in an attempt to unravel the polarisation strategy which supports his argument. Indeed, through a semantic axis the autho...

  2. Martín Sarmiento, el benedictino gallego que en repetidas ocasiones rechazó las ofertas del rey

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    Santos Puerto, José

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we review some activities and appointments of Martín Sarmiento, Benedictine monk of the Saint Martin´s Abbey in Madrid. We will know details on his election in 1748 for the abbey of the monastery. We will investigate the reasons that led him not to accept the inherent salaries in the title of Cronista General de Indias, who was granted to him by Fernando VI in 1750. And also we will verify how it was designated by the king abbot of Ripoll in 1755 and why he resigned on the following year.En este artículo se recuerdan algunas actividades y nombramientos del benedictino Martín Sarmiento. Conoceremos detalles sobre su elección en 1748 para la abadía del monasterio de San Martín de Madrid, su casa de profesión. Indagaremos las razones que le llevaron a no querer cobrar los sueldos inherentes al título de cronista general de Indias, que le fue concedido por Fernando VI en 1750. Y averiguaremos cómo fue designado por el Rey abad de Ripoll en 1755 y por qué renunció al año siguiente.

  3. Differences in healthy food supply and stocking practices between small grocery stores, gas-marts, pharmacies and dollar stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin Eicher; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Harnack, Lisa; Erickson, Darin J; Laska, Melissa N

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the practices for stocking and procuring healthy food in non-traditional food retailers (e.g., gas-marts, pharmacies). The present study aimed to: (i) compare availability of healthy food items across small food store types; and (ii) examine owner/manager perceptions and stocking practices for healthy food across store types. Descriptive analyses were conducted among corner/small grocery stores, gas-marts, pharmacies and dollar stores. Data from store inventories were used to examine availability of twelve healthy food types and an overall healthy food supply score. Interviews with managers assessed stocking practices and profitability. Small stores in Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN, USA, not participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. One hundred and nineteen small food retailers and seventy-one store managers. Availability of specific items varied across store type. Only corner/small grocery stores commonly sold fresh vegetables (63% v. 8% of gas-marts, 0% of dollar stores and 23% of pharmacies). More than half of managers stocking produce relied on cash-and-carry practices to stock fresh fruit (53%) and vegetables (55%), instead of direct store delivery. Most healthy foods were perceived by managers to have at least average profitability. Interventions to improve healthy food offerings in small stores should consider the diverse environments, stocking practices and supply mechanisms of small stores, particularly non-traditional food retailers. Improvements may require technical support, customer engagement and innovative distribution practices.

  4. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of the hydroalcoholic fractions from the leaves of Annona crassiflora Mart. in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Oliveira, Cristina; de Matos, Natália Alves; de Carvalho Veloso, Clarice; Lage, Gisele Avelar; Pimenta, Lúcia Pinheiro Santos; Duarte, Igor Dimitri Gama; Romero, Thiago Roberto Lima; Klein, André; de Castro Perez, Andrea

    2018-01-25

    Annona crassiflora Mart., popularly known as "Araticum", is a native tree of the Brazilian Cerrado used in folk medicine for treatment of pain and inflammatory diseases. We proposed to analyze analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of the filtrate (F1) and the precipitate (F2) of the hydroalcoholic fraction from the leaves of Annona crassiflora Mart. in mice. Swiss mice were submitted to formalin-induced nociception test and tail-flick reflex test, to assess antinociceptive properties, and to the rota-rod test, for motor performance analyses. To evaluate anti-inflammatory properties, F1 and F2 were orally administered 1 h prior to the intrathoracic injection of carrageenan, zymosan, LPS, CXCL8, or vehicle in Balb/c mice and neutrophil infiltration was evaluated 4 h after injection. F1 and F2 reduced the licking time in the second phase of formalin-induced nociception test, but only F2 showed a dose-dependent response. Neither F1 nor F2 reduced the latency time in the tail-flick reflex test. In addition, motor performance alteration was not observed in F1- or F2-treated mice. F2 treatment significantly inhibited the neutrophilia induced by carrageenan, LPS, or CXCL8, but not zymosan. The experimental data demonstrated that hydroalcoholic fractions of Annona crassiflora Mart. leaves have remarkable anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities.

  5. Subsurface Organics in Aseptic Cores From the MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment: Ground truth and Contamination Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorsi, R.; Stoker, C. R.

    2006-12-01

    The subsurface is the key environment for searching for life on planets lacking surface life. This includes the search for past/present life on Mars where possible subsurface life could exist [1]. The Mars-Analog-Rio-Tinto-Experiment (MARTE) performed a simulation of a Mars robotic drilling at the RT Borehole#7 Site ~6.07m, atop a massive-pyrite deposit from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. The RT site is considered an important analog of Sinus Meridiani on Mars, an ideal model analog for a subsurface Martian setting [2], and a relevant example of deep subsurface microbial community including aerobic and anaerobic chemoautotrophs [4-5]. Searching for microbes or bulk organics of biological origin in a subsurface sample from a planet is a key scientific objective of Robotic drilling missions. During the 2005 Field experiment 28 minicores were robotically handled and subsampled for life detection experiments under anti-contamination protocols. Ground truth included visual observation of cores and lab based Elemental and Isotope Ratios Mass Spectrometry analysis (EA-IRMS) of bulk organics in Hematite and Gohetite-rich gossanized tuffs, gossan and clay layers within 0-6m-depth. C-org and N-tot vary up to four orders of magnitude among the litter (~11Wt%, 0-1cm) and the mineralized (~3Wt%, 1-3cm) layers, and the first 6 m-depth (C-org=0.02-0.38Wt%). Overall, the distribution/ preservation of plant and soil-derived organics (d13C-org = 26 per mil to 24 per mil) is ten times higher (C-org=0.33Wt%) that in hematite-poor clays, or where rootlets are present, than in hematite- rich samples (C-org=handling and environmental dust loadings on cleaned/sterilized control surfaces (e.g., 6,782-36,243RLU/cm2). Cleanliness/sterility can be maintained by applying a simple sterile protocol under field conditions. Science results from this research will support future Astrobiology driven drilling mission planned on Mars. Specifically, ground truth offers relevant insights to assess strengths

  6. Chemical constituents of Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart. J.F. Macbr (pau jacaré

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    Mário G. de Carvalho

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart. J.F. Macbr. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae, commonly known as "pau jacaré" (alligator stick, afforded sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, the N-benzoylphenylalanine-2-benzoylamide-3-phenylpropyl ester, known as asperphenamate, sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, besides three flavonoids, apigenin, 5-O-methylapigenin and 7,4'-dihydroxy-3',5-dimethoxyflavone from its branches. From its leaves, the methyl gallate and two flavonoids, vitexin and isovitexin, were isolated. From its bark, a mixture of sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol, besides a mixture of cycloartenone, cycloartan-25-en-3-one, and 24-methylene-cycloartenone, and the pure triterpenes 24-methylenecycloartanol, friedelin, lupeol and lupenone, were isolated. Their structures were established on the basis of spectral analysis, comparison with literature data and GC-MS analysis of the mixtures. The ester, flavonoids and the cycloartanes are been identified for first time in the genus Piptadenia.O estudo fitoquímico de galhos de Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart. J.F. Macbr. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae, comumente conhecida como "pau jacaré", forneceu sitosterol, estigmasterol, o éster N-benzoilfenilalaninato de 2-N-benzoil-3-fenilpropila, conhecido como asperfenamato, 3-O-β-D-glicopiranosil-sitosterol, além de três flavonóides, apigenina (5,7,4'-triidroxiflavona, apigenina-5-O-metil éter e 7,4'-dihidroxi-3' , 5-dimetoxiflavona. Das folhas isolaram-se galato de metila e dois flavonóides, 8-C-glicopiranosil-5,7,4' -trihidroxiflavona e 6-C-glicopiranosil-5,7,4'-trihidroxiflavona, conhecidas como vitexina e isovitexina. Das cascas desta planta isolaram-se uma mistura de sitosterol, campesterol e estigmasterol; mistura de cicloartenona, cicloartan-25,26-en-3-ona e 24-metileno-cicloartanona, além dos triterpenos, 24-metilenocicloartenol, fridelina, lupeol e lupenona. As estruturas foram estabelecidas através de análise de

  7. Atividade alelopática do extrato de folhas Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. – Rhamnaceae

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    Francisco Esio Porto Diógenes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. é uma das espécies endêmicas da caatinga de grande importância econômica e ecológica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial alelopático do extrato de folhas de juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. em sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa L.. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com 4 repetições e cinco tratamentos (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% e 100% de concentração do extrato bruto. O extrato bruto foi obtido por infusão (água fervida a 100°C sobre as folhas de Z. joazeiro. As características avaliadas foram percentagem de germinação, percentagem de plântulas normais e anormais, comprimento da parte aérea e radicular das plântulas de alface. Os resultados mostraram efeito alelopático do extrato dependendo da concentração. As maiores concentrações do extrato (100%, 75% e 50% reduziram a velocidade de germinação, o comprimento da raiz e aumentaram a percentagem de plântulas anormais de L. sativa. Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;}

  8. O DESAFIO DO BABAÇU (ORBIGNYA SPECIOSA MART. EX SPRENG NO PIAUÍ

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    Antonio Joaquim da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A situação pela qual passam as populações agroextrativistas babaçueiras no Estado do Piauí merece reflexão. A dinâmica econômica atribuída pela atividade produtiva do coco babaçu (Orbignya speciosa Mart. ex Spreng, recentemente denominado de Attalea speciosa Mart. ex Spreng à sociedade piauiense se enfatiza aos períodos pujantes da comercialização da amêndoa no mercado internacional. Em anos recentes, o desafio atribuído à cadeia produtiva do coco babaçu é superar o imobilismo das políticas públicas à atividade, principalmente nos espaços rurais. Nesse sentido, esta análise se funde sobre a realidade encontrada em 13 comunidades rurais do município de Miguel Alves (PI, a qual está alicerçada no modelo de observação não participante, cuja construção dos dados foi realizada a partir da aplicação de formulários e entrevistas semiestruturadas com 75 mulheres quebradeiras de coco, possibilitando levantar informações do perfil socioeconômico das famílias; o padrão tecnológico empregado no manejo e no processamento dos produtos gerados; a diversidade dos mercados de consumo; o manejo dos estoques naturais dos babaçuais; a participação das instituições sociais no sistema produtivo do babaçu; a importância cultural do babaçu nas comunidades e as condições geoambientais para a ocorrência do babaçu no município. Os resultados demonstram que os caminhos para a manutenção da atividade babaçueira no Estado partem da potencialização e irradiação de um integrado programa de desenvolvimento local sustentável nas comunidades.

  9. Alelopatia em extratos de frutos de juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. - Rhamnaceae Allelopathy caused by fruit extract of juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. - Rhamnaceae

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    Andreya Kalyana de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial alelopático do extrato de frutos de juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. sobre as sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com 4 repetições e cinco tratamentos (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% e 100% de concentração do extrato bruto. O extrato bruto foi obtido após a extração manual da polpa do fruto e agitação com água em liquidificador utilizando-se 50g de polpa para 500ml de água, e o mesmo foi feito com a casca do fruto. Os resultados mostraram efeito do extrato dependendo da concentração. As maiores concentrações do extrato (100%, 75% e 50% da polpa dos frutos Z. joazeiro apresentaram efeito alelopático desfavorável sobre a germinação de alface, reduzindo-a em 100%, 98,75% e 82,5% respectivamente. O extrato das cascas dos frutos nas concentrações de 75% e 100% reduziu a germinação da alface em 28,75% e 78,75%.This study aimed to identify the allelopathic activity of extracts obtained from Ziziphus joazeiro fruits on the germination of Lactuca sativa L. A randomized design was used with four replications and five treatments (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% concentration of the crude extract. The crude extract was obtained after manual extration of the fruit pulp and agitation with water in a blender using 50g of pulp in 500ml of water. The same was done with the fruit rind. The results showed the effect of the extract depending on concentration. The greatest extract concentrations (100%, 75% and 50% of Z. joazeiro fruit pulp had an unfavorable allelopathic effect on lettuce germination, having reduced it by 100%, 98.75% and 82.5% respectively. The extract of the fruits rinds in concentrations of 75% and 100% reduced lettuce germination by 28.75% and 78.75%.

  10. Resposta cronotrópica ao teste anaeróbio máximo de corrida - MART

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    Flávio Areal Lemos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A frequência cardíaca (FC no teste anaeróbio máximo de corrida (MART expressa o comportamento autonômico cardíaco em exercício. Ainda não foi investigado se tais respostas cronotrópicas apresentam associação com o desempenho aeróbio e anaeróbio. OBJETIVOS: Descrever a resposta cronotrópica cardíaca durante o MART nos segundos iniciais de estímulo (FC ON e de recuperação (FC OFF e estabelecer a associação entre as variáveis cronotrópicas com o desempenho aeróbio e anaeróbio. MÉTODOS: Foram voluntários 13 homens assintomáticos e fisicamente ativos, com 25,1 ± 4,9 anos, 76,8 ± 12,5 kg, 178,4 ± 9,0 cm e 50,6 ± 4,1 mL×kg‑1×min‑1. Na primeira visita, após a anamnese e medidas antropométricas, foi realizado um teste cardiopulmonar de exercício (TCPE com monitoração direta dos gases expirados. Na segunda visita, foi feita uma familiarização ao MART e na terceira, o teste de MART conduzido até a exaustão. RESULTADOS: A FC de recuperação (58 ± 20 bpm comparada à FC de pico alcançada no primeiro e no último estágio de MART (39 ± 14 bpm apresentou maior inclinação, resultando em maior amplitude de variação ao longo do teste, caracterizando diferenças significativas (P = 0,0017. A FC ON apresentou entre o momento inicial, meio e final do MART diferenças significativas (inicial versus final, p = 0,007. Para FC OFF foram encontradas diferenças significativas do início com o meio (p = 0,035 e do início com o final (p = 0,005 do teste. As correlações entre as variáveis cronotrópicas e de desempenho não apresentaram significância estatística (P < 0,05, assim como com as variáveis de desempenho. CONCLUSÃO: O MART parece ser um modelo de sobrecargas fisiológicas adequado para investigação da modulação autonômica cardíaca. Observou-se atuação do sistema parassimpático mesmo em cargas supramáximas até o final do teste.

  11. Eduardo Martínez Alonso (1903-72): gallant surgeon who undertook special operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coni, Nicholas

    2010-02-01

    Eduardo Martínez Alonso was of Spanish and Uruguyan extraction and was born in Vigo in Galicia in 1903. Due to his father's occupation, he was educated in the UK and qualified from the University of Liverpool. He returned to Madrid to practise and during the Civil War he found himself in the Republican zone where his connections with the Royal Family brought him under suspicion. Threatened with execution, he escaped to serve as a surgeon in the Nationalist Army. Being bilingual, he was medical adviser to the British Embassy during World War II; because of his allegiance to this country and acting from humanitarian motives, he became a ringleader in a plot to smuggle fugitives from Nazi-occupied Europe across a pro-Axis Spain to safety. When the Gestapo was closing in on him, he was smuggled to the UK via Portugal. He underwent training as a potential undercover agent should Franco take Spain into the war but, when hostilities ceased, he returned to Madrid and became a leading thoracic surgeon.

  12. Chemical Constituents and Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. & Zucc. Essential Oils

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    Carla de M. Martins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many essential oils (EOs of different plant species possess interesting antimicrobial effects on buccal microorganisms and cytotoxic properties. EOs of Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. & Zucc. were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The EO from leaves is rich in sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The three major compounds identified were germacrene-D (24.2%, (E-caryophyllene (15.5%, and bicyclogermacrene (11.6%. The inner bark EO is composed mainly of sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons and the major components are alpha-copaene (14.9% and alpha-(E-bergamotene (13.0%. The outer bark EO is composed mainly of oxygenated sesquiterpenes and long-chain alkanes, and the major components are alpha-eudesmol (4.2% and nonacosane (5.8%. The wood EO is mainly composed of long-chain alkanes and fatty acids, and the major components are nonacosane (9.7% and palmitic acid (16.2%. The inner bark EO showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against the anaerobic bacteria Prevotella nigrescens (minimum inhibitory concentration-MIC of 50 µg mL−1. The outer bark and wood EOs showed MICs of 100 µg mL−1 for all aerobic microorganisms tested. The EOs presented low toxicity to Vero cells. These results suggest that K. coriacea, a Brazilian plant, provide initial evidence of a new and alternative source of substances with medicinal interest.

  13. Eugenia dysenterica Mart. Ex DC. (cagaita: planta brasileira com potencial terapêutico

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    Sandra Márcia MAZUTI SILVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil possui uma das maiores diversidades florísticas do mundo, com vários biomas de características diversas. Esses biomas são uma rica fonte de espécies vegetais utilizadas pelos habitantes locais como alimento e/ou para fins medicinais. Em 2006 foi publicada a Politica Nacional de Plantas Medicinais e Fitoterápicos (PNPMF que estabeleceu diretrizes de atuação do Governo Federal na área, com o objetivo de fomentar o desenvolvimento industrial e tecnológico e estimular o uso sustentável da biodiversidade nacional. O Programa Nacional de Plantas Medicinais e Fitoterápicos, por sua vez, estabeleceu as ações dos diversos parceiros, para garantir o acesso, o desenvolvimento tecnológio e o uso de plantas medicinais e fitoterápicos de forma segura, eficaz e com qualidade. Eugenia dysenterica Mart ex DC é uma espécie brasileira encontrada no bioma Cerrado e utilizada como alimento e para fins medicinais. Assim, no sentido de contribuir para a PNPMF, foi elaborada uma monografia mostrando os avanços nos estudos sobre essa espécie, potencialmente útil para no desenvolvimento de fitoterápico genuinamente nacional.

  14. Impact of solar dehydration on composition and antioxidant properties of acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangronis, Elba; Sanabria, Neida

    2011-03-01

    Commercial products derived from the acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) are available in Brazil, but in Venezuela, it is only known by ethnic indigenous groups of the Amazon. In this study, acai flour was made by solar dehydration and the effect of processing on the composition, microbiological quality, and antioxidant properties of such flour were evaluated. The fruit was purchased in Puerto Ayacucho, Venezuela, and a portion was manually pulped. Microbiological quality, proximal composition, minerals, polyphenols, tannins, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. The remaining portion of fruit was blanched in a solution of ascorbic acid and citric acid at 98 degrees C for 1 min in the same manner, manually pulped, dried by solar dehydration and the acai flour was also analysed. From the composition of the acai flour, its high content of fat (22.9%), protein (13.7%), dietary fibre (20.5%), total polyphenols (1.60 g/kg) and antioxidant capacity (79.97%) stood out. The blanching of the fruit and the solar dehydrating of the acai pulp did not modify the composition, but they improved its microbiological quality and reduced phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. The flour obtained is stable and innocuous and could be used to diversify the diet of the indigenous people of the Amazon region.

  15. PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND LIPID COMPOSITION OF JUÇARA (EUTERPE EDULIS MART. PULP

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    Paula Porrelli Moreira da SILVA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juçara palm (Euterpe edulis Martius is native to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and is an endangered species due to intensive exploration to produce hearts of palm. In the last few years, juçara plantation has been implemented for fruit production and pulp extraction, similar to açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.. The objective of this study was to assess the physical, chemical, and lipid composition of juçara pulp, in order to establish the exact measures of its quality aiming to demonstrate the product potential for commercialization. Our results revealed high content of essential minerals, such as magnesium, copper, zinc, iron, and manganese, antioxidant compounds (anthocyanins, and high quality fatty acids (palmitic, oleic and linoleic, indicating the importance and functionality of the product for human consumption. Due to the high content of dark pigments found in juçara pulp, this product can also be used as a natural food dye, not only producing an attractive appearance, but also adding beneficial compounds for human health.

  16. [Characterization of the acai or manaca (Euterpe oleracea Mart.): a fruit of the Amazon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neida, Sanabria; Elba, Sangronis

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the proximal composition, the fatty acid profile, the content of minerals, tannins, polyphenols, anthocyanins, the antioxidant capacity and the color of the acai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart) collected in the Venezuelan Amazon from 2 harvests of the year 2005. For the proximal analysis, the official methods were used and the minerals were analyzed by the induced plasma technique. Polyphenols, tannins and anthocyanins were determined by spectrophotometric methods and the antioxidant capacity was analyzed by DPPH method. Results in dry basis indicated that acai has a high lipids content (49.4% and 33.1%), proteins (13.8% and 9.3%), ash (5.2% and 2.2%) and total dietary fiber (27.3% and 18.0%). It stands out that 71% of the acai fat is oleic acid and that the Fe content of the first and second harvest was 0.023 and 0.015 mg/100g, respectively; polyphenols 5.02 and 2.20 g/100 g; tannins 0.70 and 1.37 g/100g; anthocyanins 0.73 and 1.60 g/100g and the antioxidant capacity 88.03 and 87.87%, respectively. It is concluded that the acai or manaca collected in the Venezuelan Amazon has a high nutritional value and contains antioxidant compounds which suggests the need to industrialize it to take advantage to the maximum of its properties.

  17. EFFECT OF CONCENTRATION AND EXPOSURE TIME ON COPPER ACCUMULATION IN EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES (MART. SOLMS. (PONTEDERIACEAE

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    S. Lunardi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Different factors can influence the absorption and storage of substances in plant biomass. In this study, we evaluated the effect of copper concentration in growth medium and plant exposure time on copper accumulation in Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms. (Pontederiaceae roots and leaves under controlled conditions. Plants were subjected to four treatments of copper concentrations of 1, 3 and 5 μg.mL-1, with a control treatment of 0 μg.mL-1, and evaluated at seven-day intervals over 21 days. Copper concentration in biomass was analysed by atomic absorption spectroscopy with flame atomisation. The results showed that copper concentration in the growth medium and time of exposure had a significant effect on the amount of copper accumulated by E. crassipes roots and leaves, with roots more efficient compared to leaves. It is likely that E. crassipes has mechanisms for the translocation of metal from the root system to the leaves. Symptoms of copper toxicity were observed in the vegetative parts of the plants at the end of the experiments. This study demonstrates that E. crassipes presents great potential in the absorption and accumulation of copper under laboratory conditions, indicating its effectiveness for applications in phytoremediation processes.

  18. Importancia agroecológica del coyul (Acrocomia mexicana Karw. ex Mart.

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    Blanca C. Ramírez Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acrocomia mexicana Karw. ex Mart. es una especie que se extiende desde el Pacífico mexicano hasta Centro y Sudamérica. El fruto (coyul es apreciado desde la época prehispánica, sin embargo, su consumo ha disminuido frente a otros frutos nativos y así como de los introducidos con mayor aceptación en el mercado. Se realizó un estudio en San Blas, Nayarit, México, en el que se llevó a cabo la caracterización de un agroecosistema típico donde se explotan poblaciones silvestres y cultivadas de coyul de forma tradicional y se resaltó la importancia económica, ecológica y cultural de la especie. Asimismo, se realizó la caracterización fisicoquímica del fruto; la pulpa y la semilla son fuente principalmente de grasas. De esta especie se pueden obtener subproductos tales como aceites comestibles, alimento para ganado, artesanías, entre otros; igualmente se exponen alternativas de uso llevadas a cabo por otras regiones y países que puedan conducir a conservar espacios ecológicos y culturales.

  19. Geographic characteristics of sable (Martes zibellina) distribution over time in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Yang, Li; Ai, Lin; Yang, Qiuyuan; Chen, Minhao; Li, Jingxi; Yang, Lei; Luan, Xiaofeng

    2017-06-01

    Understanding historical context can help clarify the ecological and biogeographic characteristics of species population changes. The sable (Martes zibellina) population has decreased dramatically in Northeast China since the l950s, and understanding the changes in its distribution over time is necessary to support conservation efforts. To achieve this goal, we integrated ecological niche modeling and historical records of sables to estimate the magnitude of change in their distribution over time. Our results revealed a 51.71% reduction in their distribution in 2000-2016 compared with the potential distribution in the 1950s. This reduction was related to climate change (Pearson's correlation: Bio1, -.962, p areas due to climate change: In the Greater Khingan Mountains, they moved northward and to lower elevations; in the Lesser Khingan Mountains, they moved northward; and in the Changbai Mountains, they move southward and to higher elevations. Active conservation strategies should be considered in locations where sable populations have migrated or may migrate to.

  20. Genetic differentiation of Euterpe edulis Mart. populations estimated by AFLP analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, S R; Eloy, N B; Provan, J; Cardoso, M A; Ferreira, P C

    2000-11-01

    Heart-of-palm (Euterpe edulis Mart.) is a wild palm with a wide distribution throughout the Atlantic Rainforest. Populations of E. edulis represent important renewable natural resources but are currently under threat from predatory exploitation. Furthermore, because the species is indigenous to the Atlantic Rainforest, which is located in the most economically developed and populated region of Brazil, social and economic pressures have devastated heart-of-palm forests. In order to estimate the partitioning of genetic variation of endangered E. edulis populations, 429 AFLP markers were used to analyse 150 plants representing 11 populations of the species distribution range. Analysis of the genetic structure of populations carried out using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed moderate genetic variation within populations (57. 4%). Genetic differentiation between populations (FST = 0.426) was positively correlated with geographical distance. These results could be explained by the historical fragmentation of the Atlantic coastal region, together with the life cycle and mating system. The data obtained in this work should have important implications for conservation and future breeding programmes of E. edulis.

  1. METHODS FOR OVERCOMING SEED DORMANCY AND THE INITIAL GROWTH OF Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. IN DIFFERENT SOILS

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    JOSENARA DAIANE DE SOUZA COSTA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the potential and importance of biodiversity of the Caatinga biome, studies on endemic species are relevant to conservation of its natural resources. The objectives of this work was to evaluate seed viability and physical methods for overcoming seed dormancy in juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. and assess the influence of different types of soil on the initial growth of juazeiro plants. The experiments were conducted in three stages. In the first stage, the viability of seeds from different lots was evaluated using the tetrazolium test. The second stage was conducted in a plant nursery, evaluating the application of physical processes (scarification with sandpaper and hammer in overcoming seed dormancy, and the initial growth of the plants. In the third step, the chlorophyll a and b contents, gas exchange and dry matter accumulation were evaluated in young juazeiro plants in three types of soil (Oxisol, Entisol and Vertisol. The results indicate that the viability of juazeiro seeds is greatly influenced by differences between the progenitor plants and by storage conditions, which enable a longevity of two years when stored at 22°C and 16% of relative humidity. The scarification methods with sandpaper and hammer are not efficient to reduce the time and uniform seed germination. The juazeiro plants have high growth potential in different edaphic environments, adapting well to soils of different textures and chemical compositions.

  2. Modelo para estimar a área foliar de Combretum leprosum Mart.

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    Willame dos Santos Candido

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Combretum leprosum Mart. -Combretaceae es un arbusto utilizado en la medicina popular del noreste de Brasil como antiulceroso, antihemorrágica y antinociceptiva. En este estudio se desarrolló un modelo para el cálculo de área foliar de Combretum leprosum usando mediciones lineales de longitud (C y ancho máximo (L de la hoja. Se recolectaron 200 láminas de hojas de una población de C. leprosum nativo en un área de conservación de la Caatinga en el campus de la Universidad Federal Rural de la Semi árido en Mossoro, Rio Grande do Norte. Las hojas se obtuvieron de árboles adultos y el área foliar se midió utilizando un integrador (LI-3100, LI-COR. El análisis de regresión se hizo con el programa SAEG. Para estimar el área foliar de C. leprosum se puede utilizar la ecuación lineal simple de regresión A = 0.7103 x (C x L, que es equivalente a tomar 71.03% de los productos de la longitud a lo largo de la nervadura central y el ancho máximo, con un coeficiente de determinación de 0.952617.

  3. Mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of Salacia crassifolia (mart. Ex. Schult. G. Don. evaluated by Ames test

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    C. C. Carneiro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Salacia crassifolia (Mart. Ex. Schult. G. Don. is a bush which belongs to Celastraceae family and occurs specially in Brazilian Cerrado. Its leaves, stem, seeds and fruits are popularly used for several medicinal purposes, such as antitumoral, antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial. In this study, the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of S. crassifolia stem bark fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate and hydroalcoholic were evaluated by the Ames mutagenicity assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains. By the obtained results, all S. crassifolia fractions did not significantly increase the number of prototrophic revertants for histidine (His+ in both S. typhimurium strains tested (p > 0.05, suggesting absence of mutagenicity. Regarding antimutagenicity, the fractions ethyl acetate and hydroalcoholic significantly decreased the number of His+ revertants colonies induced by positive control for strain TA98 (p < 0.05, demonstrating protection against mutagenicity induced by 4-nitroquinolile1-oxide, whereas the hexane fraction did not show antimutagenic effect in this strain. In the TA100 strain, all fractions of S. crassifolia protected DNA against the harmful action of sodium azide, and the hexane fraction exhibited the greatest protection in this work. Thus, it’s possible conclude that the fractions of S. crassifolia tested in this study could be used in chemoprevention.

  4. Pharmacological studies of ethanolic extracts of Maytenus rigida Mart (Celastraceae in animal models

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    Vanda Lucia dos Santos

    Full Text Available The crude ethanol extract (EEOH of the bark of Maytenus rigida Mart (Celastraceae a plant used in Brazil herbal traditional medicine, was tested for anti-inflammatory, antiulcer and antidiarrhoeal activities in animal models. No acute toxicological sign was observed in animals treated with the highest dose (5000 mg/kg, p.o. or 2000 mg/kg i.p. of EEOH. The extract doses of 250, 500 or 750 mg/kg revealed a significant inhibitory effect (P < 0,01 in carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema and exhibited ulcer-protective properties against ethanol-induced ulceration in rats. An anti-diarrhoeal activity (P < 0.01 was also observed in castor-oil-induced diarrhoeal in mice. The intestinal transit was significantly (P < 0.01 reduced, however the pretreatment did not reduce the weight of intestinal contents. These results support the popular applications of Maytenus rigida for the treatment of inflammation, ulcer and diarrhoea in Brazil herbal traditional medicine.

  5. Proteccionismo, filibusterismo, libre comercio: José Martí y los tratados comerciales

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    José Luis Díaz Naranjo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aun cuando los tratados de libre comercio se han constituido en los principales instrumentos de regulación en lo comercial, entre países, en los últimos 25 años, estos han sido un referente constante en los procesos bilaterales y multilaterales de negociación en esta materia. Como práctica se remonta al siglo XIX. En este sentido José Martí, héroe cubano, desarrolla un análisis del acuerdo comercial entre México y los Estados Unidos, propuesto en 1883, que mantiene vigencia, sobre la base de los preceptos en los que se fundamenta, el tráficode mercancías y uso de recursos de todo tipo. Los acuerdos de esta naturaleza responden a estrategias propias del proceso de acumulación de capital, dentro del marco de la realización de la ganancia. Este artículo hace referencia al análisis martiano y su expresión en el proceso de globalización del signo actual, el referido a los tratados de libre comercio como medios de expansión y dominio político y económico.

  6. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of jatobá-do-cerrado (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. flour

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    Cintia Pereira Da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Savannah, known as "Cerrado," has an extensive biodiversity, but it is under explored. Among the native vegetables is the jatobá-do-cerrado (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart., a legume with great potential for exploration for its content of dietary fiber. Legumes are an important source of nutrient compounds, such as phenolic compounds and vitamins that have antioxidant properties. This study aimed at determining the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the jatobá flour. The jatobá flour showed high fiber content (insoluble and soluble fiber 47.8 and 12.8 g.100 g- 1, respectively, significant amounts of carotenoids such as beta-carotene and lutein, and some minerals such as calcium: 145 mg.100 g- 1, magnesium: 125 mg.100 g- 1, and potassium: 1352 mg.100 g- 1. The jatobá flour extracted with different solvents (water, methanol, and acetone exhibited antioxidant activity by the DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC methods. The solvent used in the extraction affected the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Acetone extraction produced the best results. Therefore, the jatobá flour is an ingredient that can be used to develop new products with properties that promote health.

  7. Antitumor effect of laticifer proteins of Himatanthus drasticus (Mart.) Plumel - Apocynaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousinho, Kristiana C; Oliveira, Cecília de C; Ferreira, José Roberto de O; Carvalho, Adriana A; Magalhães, Hemerson Iury F; Bezerra, Daniel P; Alves, Ana Paula N N; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V; Pessoa, Claúdia; de Matos, Mayara Patrícia V; Ramos, Márcio V; Moraes, Manoel O

    2011-09-01

    Himatanthus drasticus (Mart.) Plumel - Apocynaceae is a medicinal plant popularly known as Janaguba. Its bark and latex have been used by the public for cancer treatment, among other medicinal uses. However, there is almost no scientific research report on its medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumor effects of Himatanthus drasticus latex proteins (HdLP) in experimental models. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the HdLP was determined on cultured tumor cells. HdLP was also tested for its ability to induce lysis of mouse erythrocytes. In vivo antitumor activity was assessed in two experimental models, Sarcoma 180 and Walker 256 carcinosarcoma. Additionally, its effects on the immunological system were also investigated. HdLP did not show any significant in vitro cytotoxic effect at experimental exposure levels. When intraperitoneally administered, HdLP was active against both in vivo experimental tumors. However, it was inactive by oral administration. The histopathological analysis indicates that the liver and kidney were only weakly affected by HdLP treatment. It was also demonstrated that HdLP acts as an immunomodulatory agent, increasing the production of OVA-specific antibodies. Additionally, it increased relative spleen weight and the incidence of megakaryocyte colonies. In summary, HdLP has some interesting anticancer activity that could be associated with its immunostimulating properties. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Orofacial antinociceptive effect of the ethanolic extract of Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Juliane C; Macedo, Larissa A R O; Souza, Grasielly R; Oliveira-Junior, Raimundo G; Lima-Saraiva, Sarah R G; Lavor, Érica M; Silva, Mariana G; Souza, Marilia T S; Bonjardim, Leonardo R; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J; Mendes, Rosemairy L; Almeida, Jackson R G S

    Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae) is a species popularly known in Brazil as "araticum" and "pinha da Caatinga". We have evaluated the antinociceptive effects of A. vepretorum in formalin-, capsaicin-, and glutamate-induced orofacial nociception in mice. Male Swiss mice were pretreated with either saline (p.o.), A. vepretorum ethanol extract (Av-EtOH 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.), or morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p.), before formalin, capsaicin, or glutamate was injected into the right upper lip. Pre-treatment with Av-EtOH at all doses produced a reduction in face-rubbing behavior induced by formalin in both phases, and these pre-treatments also produced a significant antinociceptive effect in the capsaicin and glutamate tests. Pre-treatment with naloxone (1.5 mg/kg, i.p.) did not reverse the antinociceptive activity of the extract at the dose of 100 mg/kg in the first phase of this test. Our results suggest that Av-EtOH might be useful in the treatment of orofacial pain.

  9. Absence of antimutagenicity of Cochlospermum regium (Mart. and Schr. Pilger 1924 by micronucleus test in mice

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    LS. Andrade

    Full Text Available Cochlospermum regium (Mart. and Schr. Pilger, popularly known as "algodãozinho do campo", is a medicinal plant that grows in the Cerrado of Brazil. This plant has been used in traditional medicine against various diseases such as leucorrhoea, gastritis and ulcers. It has also been effective in treating skin problems like pimples, boils and blotches. In the present study, the in vivo antimutagenicity of aqueous extract of C. regium was evaluated. The Micronucleus Test was performed in polychromatic erythrocytes from Swiss male mice treated with one of the four doses of extract of the plant (19, 38, 76 and 114 mg.kg-1 body weight, administered by intraperitonial injection (i.p. simultaneously with cyclophosphamide (24 mg.kg-1 b.w. or mitomycin C (4 mg.kg-1 b.w.. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by polychromatic and normochromatic erythrocytes ratio (PCE/NCE. The results showed no significant reduction of the micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes frequency (P > 0.05. In conclusion, the data indicate that C. regium roots aqueous extract, for the conditions used, did not exhibit the antimutagenic effect.

  10. Design-phase prediction of potential cancer clinical trial accrual success using a research data mart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Jack W; Balestrucci, Luanne; Chatterjee, Devjani; Zhan, Tingting

    2013-12-01

    Many cancer interventional clinical trials are not completed because the required number of eligible patients are not enrolled. To assess the value of using a research data mart (RDM) during the design of cancer clinical trials as a predictor of potential patient accrual, so that less trials fail to meet enrollment requirements. The eligibility criteria for 90 interventional cancer trials were translated into i2b2 RDM queries and cohort sizes obtained for the 2 years prior to the trial initiation. These RDM cohort numbers were compared to the trial accrual requirements, generating predictions of accrual success. These predictions were then compared to the actual accrual performance to evaluate the ability of this methodology to predict the trials' likelihood of enrolling sufficient patients. Our methodology predicted successful accrual (specificity) with 0.969 (=31/32 trials) accuracy (95% CI 0.908 to 1) and predicted failed accrual (sensitivity) with 0.397 (=23/58 trials) accuracy (95% CI 0.271 to 0.522). The positive predictive value, or precision rate, is 0.958 (=23/24) (95% CI 0.878 to 1). A prediction of 'failed accrual' by this methodology is very reliable, whereas a prediction of accrual success is less so, as causes of accrual failure other than an insufficient eligible patient pool are not considered. The application of this methodology to cancer clinical design would significantly improve cancer clinical research by reducing the costly efforts expended initiating trials that predictably will fail to meet accrual requirements.

  11. Differentiating neurotized melanocytic nevi from neurofibromas using Melan-A (MART-1) immunohistochemical stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yumei; Klonowski, Paul W; Lind, Anne C; Lu, Dongsi

    2012-07-01

    Neurotized melanocytic nevi and neurofibromas are common, benign cutaneous neoplasms. Usually they are histologically distinct from each other; however, neurotized melanocytic nevi and neurofibromas can be clinically and histologically similar. To determine whether Melan-A (MART-1) immunohistochemical stain is sufficient to differentiate neurotized melanocytic nevi from neurofibromas. Forty-nine consecutive specimens of melanocytic nevi with neurotization and 49 specimens of neurofibromas were selected. We used antibodies against Melan-A, S100, and neurofilament protein. All of the melanocytic nevi showed Melan-A staining within the neurotized areas, with most of the areas staining strongly positive, whereas all the neurofibromas were completely absent of Melan-A stain. All of the nevi, including the neurotized areas, stained strongly and diffusely for S100, whereas all the neurofibromas showed a distinctive, sharp, wavy pattern of S100 staining. Neurofilament protein showed scattered staining of both melanocytic nevi and neurofibromas. Our data indicate that Melan-A immunohistochemical staining is helpful in differentiating neurotized melanocytic nevi from neurofibromas when distinction on histomorphology alone is difficult.

  12. Qualea parviflora Mart.: an integrative study to validate the gastroprotective, antidiarrheal, antihemorragic and mutagenic action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzolin, Lucilene Patrícia; Nasser, Ana Lúcia Martiniano; Moraes, Thiago Mello; Santos, Raquel Cássia; Nishijima, Catarine Massucato; Santos, Fábio Vieira; Varanda, Eliana Aparecida; Bauab, Taís Maria; da Rocha, Lúcia Regina Machado; Di Stasi, Luis Cláudio; Vilegas, Wagner; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko

    2010-02-03

    Qualea parviflora Mart. is a medicinal species commonly found in the Brazilian Cerrado biome. Based on ethnopharmacological data, methanolic extract from Qualea parviflora (QP) bark was evaluated for its antiulcer, analgesic, anti-hemorrhagic, mutagenic and anti-Helicobacter pylori activities. The gastroprotective action of the extract was evaluated in rodent experimental models (HCl/ethanol, ethanol or NSAID). We also evaluated mutagenic effect (Ames assay), anti-Helicobacter pylori, anti-hemorrhagic action, analgesic and inflammatory effects (hot-plate test and carrageenin-induced hind paw edema) of methanolic extract from Qualea parviflora. QP (500 mg/kg, p.o.) was able to protect gastric mucosa against HCl/ethanol solution (77%), absolute ethanol (97%), and also against injurious effect of NSAID (36%). When QP was challenged with sulfhydryl depletor compound, the gastroprotective action of extract was abolished. QP treatment was able to maintain the GSH level and show a concentration-dependent inhibition effect on the lipid peroxidation. QP present anti-Helicobacter pylori effect (MIC=75 microg/mL), anti-hemorrhagic and antidiarrheal action but not present analgesic or anti-inflammatory effect. methanolic extract from Qualea parviflora had gastroprotective effect related to the increase of gastric mucosa defensive factors such PGE(2) levels and maintain the basal gastric glutathione levels. The methanolic extract also showed anti-Helicobacter pylori activity, anti-hemorrhagic effect and antioxidant action, but absence of analgesic, mutagenic and toxic effects, a profile that adds safety to its use. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. K. M. Glenn e L. Rolón Collazo (eds., «Carmen Martín Gaite: Cuento de nunca acabar», Society of Spanish and Spanish-American Studies, 2003, 262 pp. e J. Jurado Morales, «La trayectoria narrativa de Carmen Martín Gaite», Madrid, Gredos, 2003, 543 pp.

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    Maria Vittoria Calvi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available K. M. Glenn e L. Rolón Collazo (eds., «Carmen Martín Gaite: Cuento de nunca acabar / Never-ending story», Society of Spanish and Spanish-American Studies, 2003, 262 pp. e J. Jurado Morales, «La trayectoria narrativa de Carmen Martín Gaite (1925-2000», Madrid, Gredos, 2003, 543 pp.

  14. Exposure to Melan-A/MART-126-35 tumor epitope specific CD8(+)T cells reveals immune escape by affecting the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebstein, Frédéric; Keller, Martin; Paschen, Annette; Walden, Peter; Seeger, Michael; Bürger, Elke; Krüger, Elke; Schadendorf, Dirk; Kloetzel, Peter-M; Seifert, Ulrike

    2016-05-04

    Efficient processing of target antigens by the ubiquitin-proteasome-system (UPS) is essential for treatment of cancers by T cell therapies. However, immune escape due to altered expression of IFN-γ-inducible components of the antigen presentation machinery and consequent inefficient processing of HLA-dependent tumor epitopes can be one important reason for failure of such therapies. Here, we show that short-term co-culture of Melan-A/MART-1 tumor antigen-expressing melanoma cells with Melan-A/MART-126-35-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) led to resistance against CTL-induced lysis because of impaired Melan-A/MART-126-35 epitope processing. Interestingly, deregulation of p97/VCP expression, which is an IFN-γ-independent component of the UPS and part of the ER-dependent protein degradation pathway (ERAD), was found to be essentially involved in the observed immune escape. In support, our data demonstrate that re-expression of p97/VCP in Melan-A/MART-126-35 CTL-resistant melanoma cells completely restored immune recognition by Melan-A/MART-126-35 CTL. In conclusion, our experiments show that impaired expression of IFN-γ-independent components of the UPS can exert rapid immune evasion of tumor cells and suggest that tumor antigens processed by distinct UPS degradation pathways should be simultaneously targeted in T cell therapies to restrict the likelihood of immune evasion due to impaired antigen processing.

  15. Exposure to Melan-A/MART-126-35 tumor epitope specific CD8+T cells reveals immune escape by affecting the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebstein, Frédéric; Keller, Martin; Paschen, Annette; Walden, Peter; Seeger, Michael; Bürger, Elke; Krüger, Elke; Schadendorf, Dirk; Kloetzel, Peter-M.; Seifert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Efficient processing of target antigens by the ubiquitin-proteasome-system (UPS) is essential for treatment of cancers by T cell therapies. However, immune escape due to altered expression of IFN-γ-inducible components of the antigen presentation machinery and consequent inefficient processing of HLA-dependent tumor epitopes can be one important reason for failure of such therapies. Here, we show that short-term co-culture of Melan-A/MART-1 tumor antigen-expressing melanoma cells with Melan-A/MART-126-35-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) led to resistance against CTL-induced lysis because of impaired Melan-A/MART-126-35 epitope processing. Interestingly, deregulation of p97/VCP expression, which is an IFN-γ-independent component of the UPS and part of the ER-dependent protein degradation pathway (ERAD), was found to be essentially involved in the observed immune escape. In support, our data demonstrate that re-expression of p97/VCP in Melan-A/MART-126-35 CTL-resistant melanoma cells completely restored immune recognition by Melan-A/MART-126-35 CTL. In conclusion, our experiments show that impaired expression of IFN-γ-independent components of the UPS can exert rapid immune evasion of tumor cells and suggest that tumor antigens processed by distinct UPS degradation pathways should be simultaneously targeted in T cell therapies to restrict the likelihood of immune evasion due to impaired antigen processing. PMID:27143649

  16. Tiny moments of great importance: the Marte Meo method applied in the context of early mother-infant interaction and postnatal depression. Utilizing Daniel Stern's theory of 'schemas of being with' in understanding empirical findings and developing a stringent Marte Meo methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vik, Kari; Rohde, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of basic Marte Meo video interaction guidance concepts and describes the therapeutic performance of the method applied in the context of early mother-infant interaction and postnatal depression. Weight is put upon the importance of the therapeutic relationship. Further Marte Meo therapy is understood in the light of Daniel Stern's theory of 'schemas of being with' and accompanied by clinical vignettes from therapy sessions. The empirical basis for the paper is a study of postnatal depression, mother-infant interaction and video guidance, carried out in Southern Norway. The study examined Marte Meo from a phenomenological perspective. Marte Meo was offered to mothers with either postnatal depression or depressive symptoms. In in-depth interviews the participants reported that the Marte Meo method, 'from the outside looking in', increased their reflections about their infants and their own mental states as well as their sensitive interaction with their newborn. Their mothering was improved and they reported feeling less depressed. We argue that Marte Meo methodology can guide new mothers with depressive symptoms, and contribute to the creation of new schemas of being together.

  17. Atividade alelopática de extratos de diferentes partes de juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. - Rhamnaceae Allelopathic activity of different parts of juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. - Rhamnaceae

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    Andreya Kalyana de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial alelopático do extrato de cascas e de folhas juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. sobre as sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa L.. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, em ambos foi usado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado. No primeiro foram realizadas quatro repetições e cinco tratamentos (EF - extrato de folhas a 100 ºC, EF - extrato de folhas a 25 ºC, EC - extrato de cascas a 100 ºC, EC - extrato de cascas a 25 ºC, e água destilada. No segundo foram realizados cinco tratamentos (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% e 100% de concentração do extrato bruto e quatro repetições com 20 sementes de alface. O extrato bruto foi obtido após a agitação das cascas e das folhas com água em liquidificador utilizando-se 50 g de material para 500 ml de água. Os resultados mostraram efeito do extrato dependendo da concentração. Os extratos brutos e diluídos de Z. joazeiro não afetaram a germinação, mas nas maiores concentrações causaram elevada porcentagem de plântulas anormais e o extrato de folhas e de cascas extraído a 100 ºC reduziram o crescimento da raiz e parte aérea. Extratos aquosos de cascas e de folhas de Z. juazeiro apresentam efeito fitotóxico na germinação de sementes de L. sativa.This study aimed to identify the allelopathic activity of extracts from Ziziphus joazeiro bark and leaves on the seeds of lettuce (Lactuca sativa. Two experiments were conducted, which both used a randomized design. The first four replicates were the following treatments (EF-extract of leaves at 100ºC, EF-extract of leaves at 25ºC, EC-extract of bark at 100ºC, EC-extract of bark at 25ºC, and distilled water. The next five treatments used 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% concentrations of the crude extract and four replicates of 20 seeds. The crude extract was obtained after the bark and leaves were blended with water (50 g of material for 500 ml of water. The results showed that the effect of the extract

  18. The philologist Pedro Martínez López: an imaginative liberal lampoonist | El filólogo Pedro Martínez López: un libelista liberal imaginativo

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Vauchelle-Haquet

    2006-01-01

    In 1830, the philologist Pedro Martínez López was forced to go into exile in France for political reasons. In 1832, he published Representación a Fernando VII, rey de España, a lampoon in which he made a whole string of accusations against the tyrant. At the end of the following year, he published España en 1833, al expirar Fernando VII, another lampoon in which he blamed the king's despotic reign for the country's disastrous situation and asserted that such abuses and injustices could only b...

  19. Fungos conidiais em Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaizeiro) na Ilha do Combu, Pará-Brasil Conidial Fungi on Euterpe oleracea Mart. on Combu Island, Pará, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Corrêa de Castro; Antonio Hernández Gutiérrez; Helen Maria Pontes Sotão

    2012-01-01

    O trabalho teve como objetivo investigar a ocorrência de fungos conidiais (hyphomycetes) associados à decomposição de material vegetal morto de Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaizeiro) na Área de Proteção Ambiental da ilha do Combu, município de Belém, Pará. Entre agosto de 2008 e abril de 2009, foram coletadas partes em decomposição de palmeiras de E. oleracea e mantidas em câmara-úmida durante sete dias. As estruturas reprodutivas dos fungos foram retiradas e montadas em lâminas semipermanentes p...

  20. Substâncias ergásticas foliares de espécies amazônicas de Oenocarpus Mart. (Arecaceae: caracterização histoquímica e ultra-estrutural Leaf ergastic substances of Amazonian species of Oenocarpus Mart. (Arecaceae: histochemical and ultrastructural characterization

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    Rolf Junior Ferreira Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo diagnosticar e caracterizar as substâncias ergásticas foliares de Oenocarpus bacaba Mart., O. distichus Mart., O. mapora H. Karst. e O. minor Mart. através de microscopias óptica e eletrônica de varredura, análises histoquímicas e microanálises físicas. Secções transversais e longitudinais, assim como maceração foram realizadas em material botânico fixado. As análises histoquímicas foram empregadas em material botânico in natura, seguindo-se protocolos específicos para mucilagem, amido e sílica. Microanálises físicas foram feitas com Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS detector. Nas espécies estudadas de Oenocarpus Mart., as substâncias ergásticas foliares correspondem a mucilagem amorfa; grãos de amido poliédricos do tipo simples e sílica opalina sob a forma de corpos elípticos e esféricos-globosos de superfície espiculada, ambos com elevado teor de dióxido de silício. As observações microscópicas, os testes histoquímicos e as microanálises físicas permitiram diagnosticar, caracterizar e elucidar a estrutura e ultra-estrutura das substâncias ergásticas ocorrentes nas folhas dos táxons analisados de Oenocarpus Mart.The purpose of this study was to diagnose and characterize the leaf ergastic substance of Oenocarpus bacaba Mart., O. distichus Mart., O. mapora H. Karst. and O. minor Mart. by light and scanning electron microscopy, histochemical analyses and physical microanalyses. Transverse and longitudinal sections as well as maceration were made in fixed botanical material. The histochemical analyses were made in non-fixed botanical material, using specific tests for mucilage, starch and silica. An Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS detector was used for the physical microanalyses. In the Oenocarpus Mart. species studied, the leaf ergastic substances corresponded to amorphous mucilage, simple-type polyhedrical starch grain and opaline silica in the shape of elliptical

  1. Lovastatin inhibits T-cell proliferation while preserving the cytolytic function of EBV, CMV, and MART-1-specific CTLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Li, Yufeng; Hernandez, Jessica A; Patenia, Rebecca; Kim, Tae Kon; Khalili, Jahan; Dougherty, Mark C; Hanley, Patrick J; Bollard, Catherine M; Komanduri, Krishna V; Hwu, Patrick; Champlin, Richard E; Radvanyi, Laszlo G; Molldrem, Jeffrey J; Ma, Qing

    2010-01-01

    Statin treatment has been shown to reduce graft-versus-host disease while preserving graft-versus-tumor effect in allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Herein, we investigated whether lovastatin treatment affects the function of human cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Upon T-cell receptor stimulation, lovastatin significantly inhibited the proliferation of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from healthy donors whereas their intracellular cytokine production including interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α remained the same with a slight decrease of interleukin-2. Moreover, the specific lysis of target cells by CTL lines derived from patients and normal donors specific for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded antigen latent membrane protein-2 or cytomegalovirus-encoded antigen pp65 was uncompromised in the presence of lovastatin. In addition, we evaluated the effect of lovastatin on the proliferation and effector function of the CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) derived from melanoma patients specific for MART-1 antigen. Lovastatin significantly reduced the expansion of antigen-specific TILs upon MART-1 stimulation. However, the effector function of TILs, including the specific lysis of target cells and secretion of cytokine interferon-γ, remained intact with lovastatin treatment. Taken together, these data demonstrated that lovastatin inhibits the proliferation of Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and MART-1-specific CTLs without affecting cytolytic capacity. The differential effect of lovastatin on the proliferation versus cytotoxicity of CTLs might shed some light on elucidating the possible mechanisms of graft-versus-host disease and graft-versus-tumor effect elicited by alloimmune responses.

  2. Catolé palm (Syagrus oleracea Mart fruits: fatty and amino acids composition

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    Moreira, Rosalynd V. R.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Catolé Palm (Syagrus oleracea Mart Fruits were analysed for their chemical composition. The pulp and kernel portions contained 0.7 and 40.0% lipids. Freshly extracted kernel oil showed a small concentration (0.4 meq/kg of peroxides but did not contain free fatty acids. The iodine and saponification values were 27.4 and 226, respectively. A large qualitative as well as quantitative difference in the fatty acid composition between the catolé pulp and kernel oil was observed. Fifteen and 19 fatty acids were identified in the pulp and kernel oil, respectively. These oils contained 48.9 and 73.2 % saturated fatty acids. The principal saturated fatty acids of the pulp oil was palmitic (C16 acid, while that of kernel oil was lauric (C12 acid. Oleic acid was the main monounsaturated fatty acid in both oils. In pulp oil, linoleic (C18:2 and linolenic (C18:3 were present at 23.5 and 11,3% concentrations, while kernel oil contained only linoleic acid (3.59%. In relation to amino acid composition of proteins, pulp proteins presented better amino acid profile than kernel proteins. In pulp proteins, the essential amino acids were present at concentrations higher than recommended by FAO except for methionine and lysine, while kernel proteins were deficient in all essential amino acids except phenylalanine, isoleucine and threonine.Los frutos de la Palmera catolé (Syagrus oleracea Mart fueron analizados para determinar su composición química. Las fracciones de la pulpa y almendra contenían 0,7 y 40.0 % de lípidos. El aceite de almendra fresca mostró una pequeña concentración de peróxidos pero no presentó ácidos grasos libres. El índice de iodo y de saponificación fueron 27,4 y 226, respectivamente. Fue observada una gran diferencia cualitativa como también cuantitativa en la composición de ácidos grasos entre el aceite de la pulpa y de la almendra. 15 y 19 ácidos grasos fueron identificados en el aceite de la pulpa y de la almendra

  3. Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae from Martín García Island, Argentina

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    María M Ronderos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 230 species of biting midges have been recorded or described from Argentina; 38 of them are known from the Buenos Aires province and only one is cited from Martín García Island. This paper presents the results raised from six collecting trips which took place on the island during spring 2005, summer 2006 and autumn 2009. Diverse sampling sites including permanent and temporary aquatic environments were chosen, most of the ten sampling sites were ponds of diverse origin, some of these environments were covered with floating vegetation as Lemna gibba, Lemna minuscule, Salvinia biloba, Salvinia minima, Azolla filiculoides, Limnobium laevigatum, Pistia stratiotes, Spirodela intermedia, Wolffiella oblonga and Wolffia columbiana. Other sites were placed in urban and suburban areas. Adults were collected with sweep nets at sunrise and sunset and with light traps at intervals of four to five hours at night, depending on electricity availability on the island. Larvae and pupae were collected with different implements depending on characteristics of each surveyed aquatic habitat. In free standing water, they were captured with small sieves or hand pipettes and micropipettes, flotation techniques were utilized for sampling vegetated areas, free and rooted floating hydrophytes were extracted for removing insects among them. Thirteen species of Ceratopogonidae were collected, three of Atrichopogon Kieffer, three of Forcipomyia Meigen, two of Dasyhelea Kieffer, four of Culicoides Latreille, and one of Bezzia Kieffer, all representing new records from the island. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1183-1194. Epub 2011 September 01.Alrededor de 230 especies de ceratopogónidos han sido registradas o descritas en Argentina, 38 de ellas son conocidas para la provincia de Buenos Aires y sólo una ha sido previamente citada para la Isla Martín García. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados obtenidos a partir de muestreos realizados en seis viajes a la isla

  4. El origen glaciar de la aureola del volcán Arsia Mons, Marte

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    Anguita Virella, F.

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Huge lobate deposits called aureoles are covering the base of the giant Martian volcanic constructs of Tharsis dome. The origin of these structures has been a matter of debate between two competing hypotheses: volcanic landslides or mountain glaciers. Here we consider the most important of the aureoles, near Arsia Mons, concluding that the glacier model explains best the deposit features, such as the layering, the ridges (interpreted as glaciotectonic ones, and the lobated terrain. We then discuss the fit of these proposed glacier deposits in the present paleoclimatic Martian models. The aureoles could be key elements in the confirmation of the «Baker cycle» model of repeated episodes of temperate, humid, sea-dominated climates coincident in time with the outflow channels activity.Al pie de los grandes volcanes marcianos del domo de Tharsis aparecen unas formas lobuladas que han recibido el nombre de aureolas. El origen de estas estructuras ha sido objeto de un largo debate entre dos hipótesis principales que las interpretan como deslizamientos de ladera o como glaciares de montaña. En este trabajo se estudia la mejor desarrollada de estas aureolas, la de Arsia Mons, llegándose a la conclusión de que la hipótesis glaciar explica mejor las características del depósito, y en concreto la existencia de estratificación, las crestas (que se interpretan como glaciotectónicas y los terrenos lobulados. Por último se discute la conexión de estos depósitos con los modelos paleoclimáticos actuales sobre Marte, lo que lleva a la conclusión de que las aureolas deben ser depósitos glaciares recientes relacionados con repetidos episodios de clima cálido (ciclos de Baker, provocados por la acción de los canales de desbordamiento.

  5. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Euterpe oleracea Mart., Arecaceae, oil

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    Hugo A. S. Favacho

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The oil of the fruits of Euterpe oleracea Mart., Arecaceae (OEO, was evaluated in models of inflammation and hyperalgesia in vivo to study its effects on these conditions. The experimental models contained the writhing test in mice, rat paw edema, granuloma test in rats, vascular permeability in rats, cell migration to the peritoneal cavity in rats and ear erythema induced by croton oil in mice. Doses of 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg of OEO were administered orally. The observed number of writhes was inhibited by 33.67, 45.88 and 55.58%, respectively. OEO produced a dose-dependent effect, with linear correlation coefficient R=0.99 (y=0.0219x+23.133, and the median effective dose found was 1226.8 mg/kg. The oral administration of 1226.8 mg/kg of OEO inhibited carrageenan-induced edema by 29.18% (p<0.05 when compared to the control group. The daily administration of OEO for six days inhibited the formation of granulomatous tissue by 36.66% (p<0.01. In ear erythema induced by croton oil, OEO presented a significant inhibition (37.9%. In the vascular permeability test, treatment with OEO decreased the response to histamine, inhibiting vascular permeability by 54.16%. In carrageenan-induced peritonitis, OEO reduced the number of neutrophils migrating compared to the control group by 80.14%. These results suggested that OEO has anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, probably of peripheral origin and linked to prostaglandin biosynthesis inhibition.

  6. Effect of Euterpe oleracea Mart. Seeds Extract on Chronic Ischemic Renal Injury in Renovascular Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Cristiane Aguiar; Ognibene, Dayane Teixeira; Cordeiro, Viviane Silva Cristino; de Bem, Graziele Freitas; Santos, Izabelle Barcellos; Soares, Ricardo Andrade; de Melo Cunha, Letícia L; Carvalho, Lenize C R M; de Moura, Roberto Soares; Resende, Angela Castro

    2017-10-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated that the seeds of Euterpe oleracia Mart. (açaí) are rich in polyphenols with antihypertensive and antioxidant properties. This study evaluated the renal protective effects of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the seeds of açaí (ASE) fruits in two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) renovascular hypertension. Young male Wistar rats were used to obtain 2K1C and sham groups. Animals received ASE (200 mg/(kg·day) in drinking water) or vehicle for 40 days. We evaluated serum and urinary parameters, renal structural changes, and oxidative status. The increase in systolic blood pressure of the 2K1C group was accompanied by a decrease in left kidney volume and number of glomeruli, as well as an increase in glomerular volume and collagen deposition. ASE prevented the alterations of these parameters, except the reduced kidney volume. Serum levels of urea and creatinine and urinary protein excretion were increased in the 2K1C group and treatment with ASE improved all these functional parameters. The increased oxidative damage in the 2K1C group, assessed by lipid and protein oxidation, was prevented by ASE. The nitrite content and both expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase-1, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) were lower in the 2K1C group and restored by ASE. ASE substantially reduced renal injury and prevented renal dysfunction in 2K1C rats probably through its antihypertensive and antioxidant effects, providing a natural resource for treatment and prevention of renovascular hypertension-related abnormalities.

  7. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Euterpe oleracea Mart., Arecaceae, oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. S. Favacho

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The oil of the fruits of Euterpe oleracea Mart., Arecaceae (OEO, was evaluated in models of inflammation and hyperalgesia in vivo to study its effects on these conditions. The experimental models contained the writhing test in mice, rat paw edema, granuloma test in rats, vascular permeability in rats, cell migration to the peritoneal cavity in rats and ear erythema induced by croton oil in mice. Doses of 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg of OEO were administered orally. The observed number of writhes was inhibited by 33.67, 45.88 and 55.58%, respectively. OEO produced a dose-dependent effect, with linear correlation coefficient R=0.99 (y=0.0219x+23.133, and the median effective dose found was 1226.8 mg/kg. The oral administration of 1226.8 mg/kg of OEO inhibited carrageenan-induced edema by 29.18% (p<0.05 when compared to the control group. The daily administration of OEO for six days inhibited the formation of granulomatous tissue by 36.66% (p<0.01. In ear erythema induced by croton oil, OEO presented a significant inhibition (37.9%. In the vascular permeability test, treatment with OEO decreased the response to histamine, inhibiting vascular permeability by 54.16%. In carrageenan-induced peritonitis, OEO reduced the number of neutrophils migrating compared to the control group by 80.14%. These results suggested that OEO has anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, probably of peripheral origin and linked to prostaglandin biosynthesis inhibition.

  8. Food and beverage purchases in corner stores, gas-marts, pharmacies and dollar stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin E; Lenk, Kathleen; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Barnes, Timothy L; Harnack, Lisa; Erickson, Darin J; Laska, Melissa N

    2017-10-01

    Little is known about customer purchases of foods and beverages from small and non-traditional food retailers (i.e. corner stores, gas-marts, dollar stores and pharmacies). The present study aimed to: (i) describe customer characteristics, shopping frequency and reasons for shopping at small and non-traditional food retailers; and (ii) describe food/beverage purchases and their nutritional quality, including differences across store type. Data were collected through customer intercept interviews. Nutritional quality of food/beverage purchases was analysed; a Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) score for purchases was created by aggregating participant purchases at each store. Small and non-traditional food stores that were not WIC-authorized in Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN, USA. Customers (n 661) from 105 food retailers. Among participants, 29 % shopped at the store at least once daily; an additional 44 % shopped there at least once weekly. Most participants (74 %) cited convenient location as the primary draw to the store. Customers purchased a median of 2262 kJ (540 kcal), which varied by store type (P=0·04). The amount of added sugar far surpassed national dietary recommendations. At dollar stores, participants purchased a median of 5302 kJ (1266 kcal) for a median value of $US 2·89. Sugar-sweetened beverages were the most common purchase. The mean HEI-2010 score across all stores was 36·4. Small and non-traditional food stores contribute to the urban food environment. Given the poor nutritional quality of purchases, findings support the need for interventions that address customer decision making in these stores.

  9. ESTABLISHMENT AND IN VITRO MULTIPLICATION OF Luehea divaricata MART. et ZUCC.

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    Andressa Vasconcelos Flôres

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Luehea divaricata Mart. et  Zucc. (acoita-cavalo of the Malvaceae family, is a forest-tree species that has suffered great anthropic disturbance during the last decades. This fact has contributed to the reduction of natural populations and, consequently, of its genetic variability. This justifies studies related to the propagation of the species. As a means of vegetative propagation, micropropagation is an alternative for the regeneration of plants with difficult natural regeneration and a strategy for species conservation. The objectives of this study were to determine the most efficient type of explant and growth medium for in vitro establishment and verify the influence of different concentrations of BAP cytokinin in the multiplication of nodal segments of Luehea divaricata. The seeds used were collected and stored by the Fundação Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária – FEPAGRO/Florestas (Agriculture and Cattle Research State Foundation – FEPAGRO/Forests, in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, and the seedlings obtained in vitro were used as sources of the explants. In the selection of the explants and growth medium, the tips of stems and nodal segments grown in the MS and WMP nutritive media were tested. Different concentrations of BAP (0, 5, 10 and 15 mg L-1 were evaluated in the in vitro multiplication of the species. In the in vitro establishment of Luehea divaricata, both tips of stems and nodal segments can be used and also both growth media. To maximize the growth of the species, the WPM growth medium should be used due to its reduced cost. In the in vitro multiplication of the species, cytokinin BAP should not be added because, besides reducing the costs in the in vitro cultivation of Luehea divaricata, the best response for the majority of the characteristics evaluated was observed in the absence of this regulator,.

  10. De mitos y realidades (respuesta a Luciano Martínez

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    José Luis Coraggio

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo constituye la respuesta del autor al comentario crítico realizado, en esta misma sección, por Luciano Martínez, en la pasada edición. El autor sostiene que la economía social y solidaria como un ámbito en construcción, que alberga a diversas vertientes que intentan avanzar hacia otra economía. Este carácter si bien puede albergar dudas, no debe transformase en un fatalismo inmovilizador, que permite la actualización constante del libre mercado como institución hegemónica. Antes que una utopía a denunciar desde una visión “realista”, se trata de construir una economía que combine mecanismos de mercado regulados socio-políticamente y relaciones de reciprocidad y redistribución. El texto explora, en pos de la argumentación, algunos de los elementos que conforman la economía social y solidaria.This article represents the author's response to critical commentary made in this section in the last edition by Luciano Martinez. The author maintains that the social and solidarity economy is a sphere under construction, in which several strands can be found. All of these approaches aim to move towards a different type of economy. This character as a developing realm can prompt doubts; this, however, should not lead to a paralyzing fatalism which allows the constant updating of the free market as a hegemonic institution. Far from a utopia to be denounced from a “realistic” viewpoint of economy, its concerns the construction of an economy that combines socio-politically regulated market mechanisms as well as relations of reciprocity and redistribution. The text also explores some of the elements that make up the solidarity and social economy.

  11. Martí, su presencia en la Universidad Médica

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    Yoandry Martínez Guevara

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hace más de una década el Ministerio de Educación Superior puso como meta para la Universidad Cubana, la formación de profesionales más integrales, humanistas y capaces de cumplir conscientemente su función social. A primera vista el desafío parecía solucionable desde nuestras aulas en algunos años, el tesón y la calidad de nuestros profesores se convertía entonces en el arma protagónica de aquella lucha. La verdad fue que cada aula se convirtió en un campo de batalla. Las Universidades de Ciencias Médicas tuvieron el reto particular de que la formación de sus educandos debía responder no solo a las necesidades de nuestra sociedad, sino también a las sociedades latinoamericanas, africanas y luego, a los de cualquier parte del mundo donde fueran necesarios sus empeños. Ese médico que hoy viste celosamente su bata, es el resultado de miles de horas hombre entre docentes y personal asistencial de la salud para formar a un profesional capaz y responsable, pero sobre todo embajador de lo mejor de nuestras costumbres y nuestra identidad. No es solo un profesional bien preparado en su especialidad. Es digno representante de lo que Martí llamó “hombres de luz”, capaces de poner esperanza y seguridad allí donde otros sólo habían dejado lágrimas. Durante los últimos cinco años, nuestra salud pública enfrenta la peor fuga de cerebros de las últimas cuatro décadas; lo que pudiera representar una crisis en cualquier sociedad occidental que pondría en jaque la estabilidad sistémica, en nuestro país se enfrenta con inteligencia. No dejan de ser cubanos aquellos que por mejores condiciones de vida abandonan a los suyos, o los que por perseguir el sueño estrellado terminan puliendo pisos o de jardineros en las grandes capitales del mundo. La solución está en nuestras aulas, en poner en manos de los estudiantes las herramientas que le permitan ponerse del lado de los que menos tienen y aprendan a amar su profesión por

  12. Gamma radiation influence in physical and chemical characteristics of Bacaba Oil (Oenocarpus bacaba Mart.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Hugo Maia; Santos, Camila Oliveira dos; Cruz, Luis Paulo Adami, E-mail: hmaiaf@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT), Palmas, TO (Brazil); Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia; Souza, Adriana Regia Marques de, E-mail: adriana.souza@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFGO), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Escola de Agronomia

    2015-07-01

    The bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba Mart.) is a fruit originating from the Amazon forest, and its oil has similarity to the fatty acid composition of olive oil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of bacaba oil submitted to gamma radiation in the of 5, 10 and 15 kGy. The extracted oil was irradiated at doses of 5, 10 and 15 kGy, and then the physical and chemical analysis were carried out: acid value, peroxide value, iodine value, refractive index, specific gravity, saponification value, coefficient specific extinction at 232 and 270 nm and color. Was possible to evidence that radiation promoted decrease in acidity of the oil 26.67%, 27.27% and 9.09%, respectively, at the doses of 5, 10 and 15 kGy, in relation to oil which has not gone through the process (standard). The values of specific gravity, refractive index and saponification value, have not changed, but the result of peroxides were significantly affected, increasing by 51.99%, 100.44% and 89.40% values relative to the standard. It was also observed a significant increase in K232 and K270 values, suggesting increased oxidation products, conjugated dienes and trienes. The oil color has been affected by the doses, generating a product with a more yellowish color and increased brightness. That way, from the analysis, it concluded that the use of gamma radiation at the doses used were not sufficient to make it, in the short term, unsafe for consumption, but changed substantially oil color. (author)

  13. Las Obras de Albeyteria de Martín Arredondo

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    Teixidó Gómez, Francisco

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we analyze the book Obras de Albeyteria by Martin Arredondo, probably the most important «veterinarian» in Spain in the 17th century and a manificent example of Galen’s medical applied to animals. The book is unbalanced in many aspects: classic and modern authors are quoted, philosophers, historians, physicians, veterinaians, there are passages of great scientific, philosophical, erudite interest which are explained in an easy or troublesome way, accurately or with out of place digressions, with or without scientific precision. In his work, biology and equine pathology, the history of veterinary and a great amount of cultural aspects of that time they are mixed with fantasies, mythology, superstitions, etc.

    En este trabajo analizamos las Obras de Albeyteria de Martín Arredondo, probablemente el albéitar más importante del siglo XVII español y auténtico exponente del galenismo aplicado a la medicina animal. El texto estudiado es desigual en muchos aspectos, se dan cita autores clásicos y modernos ya sean filósofos, historiadores, médicos, albéitares, y hay pasajes de gran interés científico, filosófico, de erudición, etc., explicados de manera sencilla o engorrosa, con precisión o con digresiones que no hacen al caso, con rigurosidad científica o sin ella. En su obra, la biología y patología equinas, la historia de la albeitería y un gran número de facetas de la cultura de la época se entremezclan con fantasías, mitología, supersticiones, etc.

  14. Investigation of biological activities of dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions of Platonia insignis Mart. seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Júnior, Joaquim S; Ferraz, Alexandre B F; Sousa, Taciana O; Silva, Romézio A C; De Lima, Sidney G; Feitosa, Chistiane M; Citó, Antônia M G L; Melo Cavalcante, Ana A C; Freitas, Rivelilson M; Moura Sperotto, Angelo R; Péres, Valéria F; Moura, Dinara J; Saffi, Jenifer

    2013-01-01

    Platonia insignis Mart., a native species of the Brazilian Amazon more commonly known as bacuri, is a member of the Clusiaceae family. In this study, we evaluated the chemical composition and the antioxidant and toxicity activities of the dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions from P. insignis seed ethanolic extract using different experimental models. Our results demonstrate in vitro antioxidant effects, by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl assays, as well as in vivo effects in antioxidant-defective Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to both fractions. Toxicity was evaluated against the micro-crustaceous Artemia salina Leach. and promastigote Leishmania amazonensis. The dichloromethane fraction was the most active fraction evaluated on A. salina and promastigote L. amazonensis (IC(50)  = 24.89 μg/mL and 2.84 μg/mL, respectively). In addition, a slight cytotoxicity was observed in mammalian V79 cells using ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions with MTT assays. Both fractions displayed genotoxicity up to 25 μg/mL (dichloromethane) and 10 μg/mL (ethyl acetate) in V79 cells, as evaluated by the alkaline comet assay. Thus, in this study, we demonstrate for the first time that ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions from P. insignis seeds display antioxidant effects, a toxic effect against A. salina and L. amazonensis and induce genotoxicity in V79 mammalian cells. The observed activities can be attributed to the phenolic compounds present in these fractions and to the presence of xanthones (alpha- and gamma-mangostin). © 2012 The Authors Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2012 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  15. Fenologia reprodutiva e qualidade das sementes de Cabralea canjerana (Vell. Mart

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    Marciele Felippi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A madeira de Cabralea canjerana (Vell. Mart. (canjerana é de elevada qualidade, sendo indicada para confecção de móveis e construção civil, além de possuir importância paisagística. O objetivo no presente estudo foi caracterizar a fenologia reprodutiva de canjerana, além de verificar os aspectos físicos e fisiológicos das sementes de diferentes árvores matrizes localizadas em remanescentes, no Município de Frederico Westphalen, RS. Durante três anos foram realizadas observações fenológicas mensais, em 20 indivíduos arbóreos, e após a coleta dos frutos maduros, as sementes foram analisadas no Laboratório de Silvicultura da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS, comparando-se matrizes por meio do peso de mil sementes, teor de água, porcentagem e velocidade de germinação e emergência. A floração de C. canjerana é anual, persistindo de agosto a dezembro, sendo possível encontrar botões florais, concomitantemente com frutos em desenvolvimento e maduros. Os frutos iniciam a dispersão no mês de setembro, podendo ser coletados em amplo período (setembro a março e frutos aparentemente maduros, em diferentes árvores matrizes, não garantem elevado poder germinativo às sementes de C. canjerana.

  16. Development of Clinical Data Mart of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor for Varied Clinical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hun Sung; Kim, Hyunah; Jeong, Yoo Jin; Kim, Tong Min; Yang, So Jung; Baik, Sun Jung; Lee, Seung Hwan; Cho, Jae Hyoung; Choi, In Young; Yoon, Kun Ho

    2017-03-01

    The increasing use of electronic medical record (EMR) systems for documenting clinical medical data has led to EMR data being increasingly accessed for clinical trials. In this study, a database of patients who were prescribed statins for the first time was developed using EMR data. A clinical data mart (CDM) was developed for cohort study researchers. Seoul St. Mary's Hospital implemented a clinical data warehouse (CDW) of data for ~2.8 million patients, 47 million prescription events, and laboratory results for 150 million cases. We developed a research database from a subset of the data on the basis of a study protocol. Data for patients who were prescribed a statin for the first time (between the period from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2015), including personal data, laboratory data, diagnoses, and medications, were extracted. We extracted initial clinical data of statin from a CDW that was established to support clinical studies; the data was refined through a data quality management process. Data for 21,368 patients who were prescribed statins for the first time were extracted. We extracted data every 3 months for a period of 1 year. A total of 17 different statins were extracted. It was found that statins were first prescribed by the endocrinology department in most cases (69%, 14,865/21,368). Study researchers can use our CDM for statins. Our EMR data for statins is useful for investigating the effectiveness of treatments and exploring new information on statins. Using EMR is advantageous for compiling an adequate study cohort in a short period.

  17. El Juicio Final de la Capilla de San Martín en la Catedral Vieja de Salamanca

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Bustamante, Juan Pablo

    2017-01-01

    [ES]Se estudian las pinturas murales del lienzo norte de la Capilla de San Martín en la Catedral Vieja de Salamanca, que se corresponden con un Juicio Final en donde convergen por lo menos cuatro niveles iconográficos. La complejidad del contenido con rémoras bizantinas e italianas permite múltiples lecturas y posibilidades de enfoque para reconstruir el contexto original de la obra. Se estructura a modo de tapiz pintado en uno de los espacios más enigmáticos de la seo salmantina. Las relacio...

  18. Fungos conidiais em Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaizeiro) na Ilha do Combu, Pará-Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Carla Corrêa de; Gutiérrez, Antonio Hernández; Sotão,Helen Maria Pontes

    2012-01-01

    O trabalho teve como objetivo investigar a ocorrência de fungos conidiais (hyphomycetes) associados à decomposição de material vegetal morto de Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaizeiro) na Área de Proteção Ambiental da ilha do Combu, município de Belém, Pará. Entre agosto de 2008 e abril de 2009, foram coletadas partes em decomposição de palmeiras de E. oleracea e mantidas em câmara-úmida durante sete dias. As estruturas reprodutivas dos fungos foram retiradas e montadas em lâminas semipermanentes p...

  19. Neovanguardia chilena y poética del margen en la obra de Juan Luis Martínez

    OpenAIRE

    Vesely Avaria, Carola

    2016-01-01

    [ES]Esta tesis propone una lectura de la obra La nueva novela (1977), del poeta chileno Juan Luis Martínez (1942-1993), desde la óptica de una poética del margen a partir de la cual se reformulan los lenguajes poéticos tradicionales para dar origen a un discurso de corte altamente experimental y, al mismo tiempo, de sustrato sumamente político. Tomando como punto de partida dos metáforas centrales presentes en este libro-objeto, a saber, la casa y el silencio, se analizará un corpus de textos...

  20. Atividade antimicrobiana do extrato bruto de Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) em isolados clínicos

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Maria José; Pimentel, Maria Helena; Baía, Lilia; Soares, Rafaela; Santos, Claudia; Wiliam C. B. Regis; Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana do extrato de açaí (Euterpe Oleracea Mart.) em isolados clínicos com elevados perfis de resistência a diferentes antimicrobianos provenientes do Centro Hospitalar de Trás – os – Montes e Alto Douro – Unidade de Vila Real. A concentração mínima inibitória (CMI) foi determinada utilizando o ensaio colorimétrico rápido que utiliza o corante cloreto de p-iodonitrotetrazólio (INT) após já ter sido efetuado ...

  1. José Martí and Paulo Freire: Approaches for a Reading of the Critical pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alvarado Arias

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The research establishes moments of approximation between the pedagogic ideas of José Martí and Paulo Freire, considering the lecture of the critic pedagogy.  Initially the sense of this focus is explained.  Subsequently, with texts from both authors, an integrative proposal on its philosophical-pedagogical thought is built.  The current thinking of the authors are valued and confronted with some post-modern statements, which discredits the production of speeches that, with critical look, they reflect on the asymmetric relations and the consequences of the globalization among uneven worlds.

  2. Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. - Rhamnaceae: características biogeoquímicas e importância no bioma Caatinga

    OpenAIRE

    Francisca Clenilda Pereira Dantas; Maria Lucine Rocha Tavares; Micaela da Silva Targino; André Pereira da Costa; Francisco Odair Dantas

    2014-01-01

    Este artigo pretende discutir sobre o bioma Caatinga, tendo como foco principal a espécie Ziziphus joazeiroMart. - Rhamnaceae, popularmente conhecida como juazeiro, estabelecendo uma articulação entre suascaracterísticas biogeográficas, sua função ecológica e seu potencial de bioconcentração, considerando comoparâmetro o ciclo biogeoquímico. Para tanto, optamos por realizar uma pesquisa bibliográfica sobre o temaora discutido. Assim, observamos que o juazeiro é uma das plantas endêmicas da Ca...

  3. José Martí in Actioning of Nationalist Intellectuals of Santiago de Cuba in the 1920 Decade

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    Yamil Sánchez-Castellanos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During the first half of the decade of 1920 a group of advanced of the intellectuality of Santiago from Cuba appealed to the ideario and José's personality Martí to argue its position antinjerencista and to prosecute in a critical way the main problems of happening political national. Presently work the author studies the main addresses of the activity deployed by the nationalist intellectuals associated to the periodic publications, the creation of civic organizations and, the creation of a political party; and inside them it analyzes the meaning attributed to the Apostle like relating ideological in their political civic projections. 

  4. Alas de libélula “El pastel del diablo”, de Carmen Martín Gaite

    OpenAIRE

    González Couso, David

    2009-01-01

    La literatura de Carmen Martín Gaite presenta numerosas elaboraciones de lo fantástico que parten de sus vivencias de infancia y se unen a elementos autobiográficos posteriores. La escritura de cuadernos revela muchas de las claves que contribuyen a conformar su poética. El pastel del diablo, situado en un momento crucial de la trayectoria literaria de la escritora es un claro ejemplo por técnica de escritura y por la importancia que adquieren elementos maravillosos en su obra posterior. P...

  5. La memoria imposible. La representación de la Guerra Civil en "Madrid" (Martín Patino, 1987)

    OpenAIRE

    García-Martínez, A.N. (Alberto Nahum)

    2008-01-01

    "Con Madrid (1987), Basilio Martín Patino se propuso indagar en la construcción de la memoria española en torno a la Guerra Civil. Se trata de una ficción ensayística que confunde los niveles del relato al insertar a sus personajes de ficción en la realidad factual del Madrid de 1986. Asimismo, nos presenta los dispositivos de construcción de un documental histórico imposible de concluir, plagado de referencias transtextuales que realzan su condición de mundo posible. La vertiente ensayística...

  6. Debate en torno al problema de la intersubjetividad: Martín Buber y la epistemología integral

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    Roberto Andrés González

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente esfuerzo se encuentra animado por el fenómeno de la relación intersubjetiva que prevalece con eminente presencia tanto en la filosofía de Martín Buber, como en la propuesta de la epistemología integral. Cabe reconocer, sin embargo, que si bien el fenómeno de la intersubjetividad representa una preocupación común, no obstante, el tratamiento que cada una de estas posturas le da es un tanto diferente.

  7. Trypanocidal activity of oxoaporphine and pyrimidine-β-carboline alkaloids from the branches of Annona foetida Mart. (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Emmanoel Vilaça; Pinheiro, Maria Lúcia Belém; de Souza, Afonso Duarte Leão; Barison, Andersson; Campos, Francinete Ramos; Valdez, Rodrigo Hinojosa; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2011-11-23

    Phytochemical investigation of the branches of Annona foetida Mart. led to isolation from the CH(2)Cl(2) extract of four alkaloids: Atherospermidine (1), described for the first time in this species, liriodenine (2), O-methylmoschatoline (3), and annomontine (4). Their chemical structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data from IR, MS, NMR (1D and 2D), and comparison with the literature. Compounds 2-4 showed potent trypanocidal effect when evaluated against epimastigote and trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. © 2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  8. From Minotaur to Buterfly: approach to the pre-Hispanic symbols in the poetry of José Martí

    OpenAIRE

    Moris, Judtih

    2011-01-01

    On April 8, 1895, on his wat to the way to Cabo Hatiano, Martí wrote in his diary: "I read about Indians." Later he would require that the reading was about the heroic resistance of the Aztecs against the troops of Hernán Cortés. These short and concise notes, were made ​​just six weeks before his death in combat, and give an idea of the importance of always granted Cuban poet to the topic of the American Indian. Martí was aware of the archaeological discoveries of the time, as evidenced by h...

  9. “Todo lo que sigue es sencillamente estupendo”. Escritoras en las cartas de Ezequiel Martínez Estrada a Victoria Ocampo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Diz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available While Ezequiel Martínez Estrada writes Marta Riquelme, between his fiction and essays, and Victoria Ocampo begins to write her memories; it arises from both an emotional and intellectual relationship through letters along more than 15 years since the late '40s and until the death of Martinez Estrada in 1964. This article will discuss much of those letters with the intended to show that one of the central axes of the epistolary is the construction by Martínez Estrada, his interlocutor in a character: writer women who acquire multiple identities including Marta Riquelme looks.

  10. Mateo López y la planta de la iglesia monástica de San Martín Pinario de Santiago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente López, Simón

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An in depth study of the plan of the church of San Martín Pinario in Santiago de Compostela, attributed to the Portuguese architect Mateo López, according to the Catholic Reformation doctrines concerning the Eucharist.Se profundiza en la lectura de la planta de la iglesia monástica San Martín Pinario de Santiago, atribuida al arquitecto portugués Mateo López, de acuerdo con las consignas de la Reforma Católica en torno a la Eucaristía.

  11. Respuesta cardiorrespiratoria en futbolistas profesionales del Club Deportivo Universidad San Martín de Porres, al ser sometidos a ejercicio físico: estudio comparativo

    OpenAIRE

    Zavaleta Caja, Cecilia E.; Luis Véliz, José; Zavaleta Caja, Wilson; Garay Calderón, César; Belzusarri Padilla, Odórico Iván

    2005-01-01

    ResumenEste estudio fue realizado en la Villa Deportiva del Club Deportivo Universidad San Martín de Porres, Facultad de Medicina Humana de la Universidad San Martín de Po­rres - Laboratorio de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Febrero­ Marzo 2005. El tipo de estudio fue de intervención, com­parativo, longitudinal y prospectivo, y responde a un dise­ño de investigación pre y post test. El objetivo de este es­tudio fue evaluar la respuesta cardiorespiratoria en futbo­listas profesionales y no profesiona...

  12. Inventario de atractivos para el desarrollo turístico local del municipio Martí. Inventory of attractions for local tourist development of the Marti municipality.

    OpenAIRE

    Mabel Font Aranda; Leonardo Cuétara Sánchez; Yoleidy Castanedo Aneiro; Mavis Acosta Peñate; Daylis Delgado Fajardo; Dubier Caña Pereira; Orestes Morales; Yuri La Rosa Martínez

    2013-01-01

    El deterioro del sector agropecuario en el municipio Martí, exige la necesidad de ejecución de un grupo de proyectos de desarrollo local, que permitan revertir los procesos en el ámbito social, económico y ambiental a partir de los recursos naturales y socioculturales propios. Sobre la base anterior, se realizó el inventario de recursos/atractivos del municipio Martí como parte del diseño de productos turísticos a ofrecer  en la búsqueda de alternativas para el desarrollo local. Se registró y...

  13. Efeito antimicrobiano in vitro do extrato de jabuticaba [Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart.O.Berg.] sobre Streptococcus da cavidade oral In vitro antimicrobial effect of jabuticaba [Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart.O.Berg] extract on Streptococcus from the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a ação do extrato etanólico das folhas de Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart.O.Berg. sobre três culturas de Streptococcus formadoras do biofilme dental. A atividade antimicrobiana foi determinada pelo método de difusão em meio sólido. Os dados obtidos foram satisfatórios para todas as espécies ensaiadas (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Streptococcus sobrinus ATCC 27609 e Streptococcus sanguis ATCC 10557 gerando halos de inibição quando utilizado o extrato puro e diluições 1:2 e 1:4. Os resultados incentivam a realização de novas pesquisas que viabilizem a produção de compostos com finalidade terapêutica que possam ser utilizados clinicamente na odontologia.This study evaluated the action of ethanolic extract of Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart.O.Berg leaves on three Streptococcus cultures from dental plaque. Antimicrobial activity was assessed by agar-well diffusion method. The obtained data were satisfactory for all assayed species (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Streptococcus sobrinus ATCC 27609 and Streptococcus sanguis ATCC 10557 yielding inhibition halos when the pure extract and 1:2 and 1:4 dilutions were used. These results encourage new studies for the production of therapeutic compounds to be used in clinical dentistry.

  14. Synergistic antibiofilm efficacy of a gallotannin 1,2,6-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose from Terminalia chebula fruit in combination with gentamicin and trimethoprim against multidrug resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, Anwesa; Chattopadhyay, Rabi Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    In recent years the emergence of multiple drug resistance microbes has become a global public health problem. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate possible antibiofilm efficacy of a gallotannin 1,2,6-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose from Terminalia chebula fruits alone and in combination with gentamicin and trimethoprim against preformed biofilms of multidrug-resistant (MDR) uropathogenic E. coli isolates using microbroth dilution, checkerboard titration and kill kinetics methods. Test gallotannin showed > 50% antibiofilm efficacy after 24 h when administered alone whereas gentamicin and trimethoprim failed to do so. But in combination, test gallotannin/gentamicin and test gallotannin/trimethoprim showed 71.24±6.75% and 93.4±8.46% antibiofilm activity respectively. On the basis of FICI values, test gallotannin/gentamicin showed synergistic interactions against 71.42% and test gallotannin/trimethoprim against 85.71% biofilm forming test bacterial isolates. Kill-kinetics study confirmed their synergistic interactions. Thus, gentamicin and trimethoprim in combination with test gallotannin may have potential for treatment of urinary tract infections caused by biofilm forming MDR uropathogenic E. coli.

  15. In vitro modulatory effects of Terminalia arjuna, arjunic acid, arjunetin and arjungenin on CYP3A4, CYP2D6 and CYP2C9 enzyme activity in human liver microsomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Varghese

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminalia arjuna is a tree having an extensive medicinal potential in cardiovascular disorders. Triterpenoids are mainly responsible for cardiovascular properties. Alcoholic and aqueous bark extracts of T. arjuna, arjunic acid, arjunetin and arjungenin were evaluated for their potential to inhibit CYP3A4, CYP2D6 and CYP2C9 enzymes in human liver microsomes. We have demonstrated that alcoholic and aqueous bark extract of T. arjuna showed potent inhibition of all three enzymes in human liver microsomes with IC50 values less than 50 μg/mL. Arjunic acid, arjunetin and arjungenin did not show significant inhibition of CYP enzymes in human liver microsomes. Enzyme kinetics studies suggested that the extracts of arjuna showed reversible non-competitive inhibition of all the three enzymes in human liver microsomes. Our findings suggest strongly that arjuna extracts significantly inhibit the activity of CYP3A4, CYP2D6 and CYP2C9 enzymes, which is likely to cause clinically significant drug–drug interactions mediated via inhibition of the major CYP isozymes.

  16. Synergistic antibiofilm efficacy of a gallotannin 1,2,6-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose from Terminalia chebula fruit in combination with gentamicin and trimethoprim against multidrug resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwesa Bag

    Full Text Available In recent years the emergence of multiple drug resistance microbes has become a global public health problem. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate possible antibiofilm efficacy of a gallotannin 1,2,6-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose from Terminalia chebula fruits alone and in combination with gentamicin and trimethoprim against preformed biofilms of multidrug-resistant (MDR uropathogenic E. coli isolates using microbroth dilution, checkerboard titration and kill kinetics methods. Test gallotannin showed > 50% antibiofilm efficacy after 24 h when administered alone whereas gentamicin and trimethoprim failed to do so. But in combination, test gallotannin/gentamicin and test gallotannin/trimethoprim showed 71.24±6.75% and 93.4±8.46% antibiofilm activity respectively. On the basis of FICI values, test gallotannin/gentamicin showed synergistic interactions against 71.42% and test gallotannin/trimethoprim against 85.71% biofilm forming test bacterial isolates. Kill-kinetics study confirmed their synergistic interactions. Thus, gentamicin and trimethoprim in combination with test gallotannin may have potential for treatment of urinary tract infections caused by biofilm forming MDR uropathogenic E. coli.

  17. SOLID2: an antibody array-based life-detector instrument in a Mars Drilling Simulation Experiment (MARTE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parro, Víctor; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Rodríguez Manfredi, José A; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; Rivas, Luis A; García-Villadangos, Miriam; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; González-Pastor, José Eduardo; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Schuerger, Andrew C; Davidson, Mark; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    A field prototype of an antibody array-based life-detector instrument, Signs Of LIfe Detector (SOLID2), has been tested in a Mars drilling mission simulation called MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment). As one of the analytical instruments on the MARTE robotic drilling rig, SOLID2 performed automatic sample processing and analysis of ground core samples (0.5 g) with protein microarrays that contained 157 different antibodies. Core samples from different depths (down to 5.5 m) were analyzed, and positive reactions were obtained in antibodies raised against the Gram-negative bacterium Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, a species of the genus Acidithiobacillus (both common microorganisms in the Río Tinto area), and extracts from biofilms and other natural samples from the Río Tinto area. These positive reactions were absent when the samples were previously subjected to a high-temperature treatment, which indicates the biological origin and structural dependency of the antibody-antigen reactions. We conclude that an antibody array-based life-detector instrument like SOLID2 can detect complex biological material, and it should be considered as a potential analytical instrument for future planetary missions that search for life.

  18. Densidade de plantio de palmiteiro em regime de sombreamento permanente Planting density of Euterpe edulis mart. under shading conditions

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    Marilene Leão Alves Bovi

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o comportamento do palmiteiro (Euterpe edulis Mart. plantado sob mata nativa raleada, em diferentes densidades de plantio, nas condições do Vale do Ribeira, SP. Avaliou-se o crescimento vegetativo das plantas pelos seguintes parâmetros: circunferência da planta a diferentes alturas, número de folhas funcionais, comprimento da quarta folha e altura da planta. Avaliou-se também a produção, através do peso, diâmetro e comprimento do palmito obtido. A maior produção de palmito por área foi alcançada nos espaçamentos 1,5 x 1,0 e 1,0 x 1,0m.A spacing experiment with the species Euterpe edulis Mart. was carried out in the rain forest of the Vale do Ribeira region in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. In order to evaluate growth, several parameters were used: plant height, number of green leaves, length of the fourth leaf and girth at 130cm high. Maximum heart of palm yield was obtained in the 1.5 x 1.0 and 1.0 x 1.0m planting density.

  19. TCRs Used in Cancer Gene Therapy Cross-React with MART-1/Melan-A Tumor Antigens via Distinct Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borbulevych, Oleg Y.; Santhanagopolan, Sujatha M.; Hossain, Moushumi; Baker, Brian M. (Notre)

    2013-09-18

    T cells engineered to express TCRs specific for tumor Ags can drive cancer regression. The first TCRs used in cancer gene therapy, DMF4 and DMF5, recognize two structurally distinct peptide epitopes of the melanoma-associated MART-1/Melan-A protein, both presented by the class I MHC protein HLA-A*0201. To help understand the mechanisms of TCR cross-reactivity and provide a foundation for the further development of immunotherapy, we determined the crystallographic structures of DMF4 and DMF5 in complex with both of the MART-1/Melan-A epitopes. The two TCRs use different mechanisms to accommodate the two ligands. Although DMF4 binds the two with a different orientation, altering its position over the peptide/MHC, DMF5 binds them both identically. The simpler mode of cross-reactivity by DMF5 is associated with higher affinity toward both ligands, consistent with the superior functional avidity of DMF5. More generally, the observation of two diverging mechanisms of cross-reactivity with the same Ags and the finding that TCR-binding orientation can be determined by peptide alone extend our understanding of the mechanisms underlying TCR cross-reactivity.

  20. María Martínez Sierra: hacia una lectura de su vida y obra

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    Blanco, Alda

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Maria Martinez Sierra’s vital and literary career is studied. The author is studied as writer, thinker, businesswoman, feminist activist, socialist militant and deputy. The authorship of the works signed Gregorio Martinez Sierra is analysed through some autobiographic texts like Una mujer por los caminos de España (A woman through Spanish routes (1952 and Gregorio y yo: medio siglo de colaboración (Gregorio and me: a fifty-year collaboration (1953. Her career as theatre writer and essayist is described along with her significance in the struggle for women self-determination and modernization.Se estudia la trayectoria vital y literaria de María Martínez Sierra como escritora, pensadora, empresaria, activista feminista, militante socialista y diputada. La autoría de las obras firmadas como “Gregorio Martínez Sierra” se analiza a través de sus textos autobiográficos: Una mujer por caminos de España (1952 y Gregorio y yo: medio siglo de colaboración (1953. Se describe su trayectoria teatral, ensayística y su significación en la lucha por la autodeterminación y modernización de las mujeres.